WorldWideScience

Sample records for air stripping technique

  1. Distillation and Air Stripping Designs for the Lunar Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boul, Peter J.; Lange, Kevin E.; Conger, Bruce; Anderson, Molly

    2009-01-01

    Air stripping and distillation are two different gravity-based methods, which may be applied to the purification of wastewater on the lunar base. These gravity-based solutions to water processing are robust physical separation techniques, which may be advantageous to many other techniques for their simplicity in design and operation. The two techniques can be used in conjunction with each other to obtain high purity water. The components and feed compositions for modeling waste water streams are presented in conjunction with the Aspen property system for traditional stage distillation models and air stripping models. While the individual components for each of the waste streams will vary naturally within certain bounds, an analog model for waste water processing is suggested based on typical concentration ranges for these components. Target purity levels for the for recycled water are determined for each individual component based on NASA s required maximum contaminant levels for potable water Distillation processes are modeled separately and in tandem with air stripping to demonstrate the potential effectiveness and utility of these methods in recycling wastewater on the Moon. Optimum parameters such as reflux ratio, feed stage location, and processing rates are determined with respect to the power consumption of the process. Multistage distillation is evaluated for components in wastewater to determine the minimum number of stages necessary for each of 65 components in humidity condensate and urine wastewater mixed streams. Components of the wastewater streams are ranked by Henry s Law Constant and the suitability of air stripping in the purification of wastewater in terms of component removal is evaluated. Scaling factors for distillation and air stripping columns are presented to account for the difference in the lunar gravitation environment. Commercially available distillation and air stripping units which are considered suitable for Exploration Life Support

  2. New continuous air pumping technique to improve clinical outcomes of descemet-stripping automated endothelial keratoplasty in asian patients with previous ahmed glaucoma valve implantation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-Min Liang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: To evaluate the outcomes of Descemet-stripping automated endothelial keratoplasty (DSAEK with the use of continuous air pumping technique in Asian eyes with previous Ahmed glaucoma valve implantation. METHODS: The DSAEK procedure was modified in that complete air retention of the anterior chamber was maintained for 10 min using continuous air pumping at 30 mm Hg. The primary outcome measurement was graft survival, and postoperative clinical features including, rate of graft detachment, endothelial cell count, intraocular pressure (IOP, surgical time and cup/disc ratio were also recorded. RESULTS: A total of 13 eyes of 13 patients which underwent modified DSAEK and 6 eyes of 6 patients which underwent conventional DSAEK were included. There was a significant difference in graft survival curves between two groups (P = 0.029; the 1-year graft survival rates were estimated as 100% and 66.7% for patients with modified DSAEK and those with traditional DSAEK, respectively. The rate of graft detachment were 0% and 33.3% for the modified DSAEK and conventional DSAEK groups, respectively (P = 0.088. The significantly lowered surgical time for air tamponade was noted in the modified DSAEK group compared to that in the conventional DSAEK group [median (IQR: 10.0 (10.0, 10.0 min vs. 24.5 (22.0, 27.0 min; P<0.001] Postoperatively, patients in the modified DSAEK group had significantly lower IOP as compared to the conventional DSAEK group [12.0 (11.0, 15.0 mm Hg vs. 16.0 (15.0, 18.0 mm Hg; P = 0.047]. Modified DSAEK patients had higher endothelial cell counts as compared to conventional DSAEK patients [2148.0 (1964.0, 2218.0 vs. 1529.0 (713.0, 2014.0], but the difference did not reach statistical significance (P = 0.072. CONCLUSIONS: New continuous air pumping technique in DSAEK can be performed safely and effectively in patients with prior GDDs placement who have corneal failure.

  3. INSECTICIDE CONCENTRATIONS IN AIR AFTER APPLICATION OF PEST CONTROL STRIPS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contamination of air in homes due to spraying of pesticides is of concern to the public. A pest control strip which kills creeping and crawling insects by contact is one method of reducing the amount of insecticide in the air. Several different insecticides are now available in t...

  4. Photomask technique for fabricating high purity germanium strip detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new technology for germanium strip detectors has been developed. This technique uses a photomask process which needs no growing and etching and allows all kinds of segmented electrodes. Typically we have obtained 1.2 keV FWHM on the 122 keV line of 57Co and a X-Y detector having 20 strips in each side. (orig.)

  5. Tape Stripping Technique for Stratum Corneum Protein Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Maja-Lisa Clausen; H.-C. Slotved; Krogfelt, Karen A.; Tove Agner

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the amount of protein in stratum corneum in atopic dermatitis (AD) patients and healthy controls, using tape stripping technique. Furthermore, to compare two different methods for protein assessment. Tape stripping was performed in AD patients and healthy controls to collect stratum corneum samples and subsequently analysed with two different methods: Squame Scan, which gives an estimate of total protein (soluble and insoluble) and Micro BCA protein de...

  6. Ammonia removal from landfill leachate by air stripping and absorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraz, Fernanda M; Povinelli, Jurandyr; Vieira, Eny Maria

    2013-01-01

    An old landfill leachate was pre-treated in a pilot-scale aerated packed tower operated in batch mode for total ammoniacal nitrogen (TAN) removal. The stripped ammonia was recovered with a 0.4 mol L(-1) H2SO4 solution, deionized water and tap water. Ca(OH)2 (95% purity) or commercial hydrated lime was added to the raw leachate to adjust its pH to 11, causing removal of colour (82%) and heavy metals (70-90% for Zn, Fe and Mn). The 0.4 molL(-1) H2SO4 solution was able to neutralize 80% of the stripped ammonia removed from 12 L of leachate. The effectiveness of the neutralization of ammonia with deionized water was 75%. Treating 100 L of leachate, the air stripping tower removed 88% of TAN after 72 h of aeration, and 87% of the stripped ammonia was recovered in two 31 L pilot-scale absorption units filled with 20 L of tap water. PMID:24350487

  7. Air Stripping Designs and Reactive Water Purification Processes for the Lunar Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boul, Peter J.; Lange, Kevin; Conger, Bruce; Anderson, Molly

    2010-01-01

    Air stripping designs are considered to reduce the presence of volatile organic compounds in the purified water. Components of the wastewater streams are ranked by Henry's Law Constant and the suitability of air stripping in the purification of wastewater in terms of component removal is evaluated. Distillation processes are modeled in tandem with air stripping to demonstrate the potential effectiveness and utility of these methods in recycling wastewater on the Moon. Scaling factors for distillation and air stripping columns are presented to account for the difference in the lunar gravitation environment. Commercially available distillation and air stripping units which are considered suitable for Exploration Life Support are presented. The advantages to the various designs are summarized with respect to water purity levels, power consumption, and processing rates. An evaluation of reactive distillation and air stripping is presented with regards to the reduction of volatile organic compounds in the contaminated water and air. Among the methods presented, an architecture is presented for the evaluation of the simultaneous oxidation of organics in air and water. These and other designs are presented in light of potential improvements in power consumptions and air and water purities for architectures which include catalytic activity integrated into the water processor. In particular, catalytic oxidation of organics may be useful as a tool to remove contaminants that more traditional distillation and/or air stripping columns may not remove. A review of the current leading edge at the commercial level and at the research frontier in catalytically active materials is presented. Themes and directions from the engineering developments in catalyst design are presented conceptually in light of developments in the nanoscale chemistry of a variety of catalyst materials.

  8. Development Of Chemical Reduction And Air Stripping Processes To Remove Mercury From Wastewater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study evaluates the removal of mercury from wastewater using chemical reduction and air stripping using a full-scale treatment system at the Savannah River Site. The existing water treatment system utilizes air stripping as the unit operation to remove organic compounds from groundwater that also contains mercury (C ~ 250 ng/L). The baseline air stripping process was ineffective in removing mercury and the water exceeded a proposed limit of 51 ng/L. To test an enhancement to the existing treatment modality a continuous dose of reducing agent was injected for 6-hours at the inlet of the air stripper. This action resulted in the chemical reduction of mercury to Hg(0), a species that is removable with the existing unit operation. During the injection period a 94% decrease in concentration was observed and the effluent satisfied proposed limits. The process was optimized over a 2-day period by sequentially evaluating dose rates ranging from 0.64X to 297X stoichiometry. A minimum dose of 16X stoichiometry was necessary to initiate the reduction reaction that facilitated the mercury removal. Competing electron acceptors likely inhibited the reaction at the lower 1 doses, which prevented removal by air stripping. These results indicate that chemical reduction coupled with air stripping can effectively treat large-volumes of water to emerging part per trillion regulatory standards for mercury

  9. Development Of Chemical Reduction And Air Stripping Processes To Remove Mercury From Wastewater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jackson, Dennis G.; Looney, Brian B.; Craig, Robert R.; Thompson, Martha C.; Kmetz, Thomas F.

    2013-07-10

    This study evaluates the removal of mercury from wastewater using chemical reduction and air stripping using a full-scale treatment system at the Savannah River Site. The existing water treatment system utilizes air stripping as the unit operation to remove organic compounds from groundwater that also contains mercury (C ~ 250 ng/L). The baseline air stripping process was ineffective in removing mercury and the water exceeded a proposed limit of 51 ng/L. To test an enhancement to the existing treatment modality a continuous dose of reducing agent was injected for 6-hours at the inlet of the air stripper. This action resulted in the chemical reduction of mercury to Hg(0), a species that is removable with the existing unit operation. During the injection period a 94% decrease in concentration was observed and the effluent satisfied proposed limits. The process was optimized over a 2-day period by sequentially evaluating dose rates ranging from 0.64X to 297X stoichiometry. A minimum dose of 16X stoichiometry was necessary to initiate the reduction reaction that facilitated the mercury removal. Competing electron acceptors likely inhibited the reaction at the lower 1 doses, which prevented removal by air stripping. These results indicate that chemical reduction coupled with air stripping can effectively treat large-volumes of water to emerging part per trillion regulatory standards for mercury.

  10. In situ air stripping using horizontal wells. Innovative technology summary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In-situ air stripping employs horizontal wells to inject or sparge air into the ground water and vacuum extract VOC'S from vadose zone soils. The horizontal wells provide better access to the subsurface contamination, and the air sparging eliminates the need for surface ground water treatment systems and treats the subsurface in-situ. A full-scale demonstration was conducted at the Savannah River Plant in an area polluted with trichloroethylene and tetrachloroethylene. Results are described

  11. New Technique of Casting-rolling Strips for Semi-solid Magnesium Alloys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shuisheng XIE; Maopeng GENG; Xinmin ZHOU; Ying ZHANG; Songyang ZHANG; Yanchun WANG; Guojie HUANG

    2005-01-01

    The conjugation of semi-solid process technique and casting-rolling technique applied to produce the magnesium strips was studied. The semi-solid slurry hasbeen prepared continuously by the mechanical method and its temperature was controlled strictly at the same time. AZ91D and AZ31 casting magnesium alloys were applied to the experiment.The casting-rolling strips with non-dendritic structure were obtained and its main mechanical property is better. The process ability of the casting-rolling strips was studied. It is significative to link the semi-solid process techniques and casting-rolling techniques, through which we can get high quality magnesium alloy strips with non- dendritic structure and improve the overall properties of the products.

  12. Deep percolation in greenhouse-cultivated celery using the technique of subsurface film strips placement

    OpenAIRE

    Zhida Du; Longtan Shao; Mingchao Ma

    2014-01-01

    To reduce the deep percolation during greenhouse vegetable cultivation, the technique of subsurface film strips placement was tested. Four treatments with two kinds of cross-sections (flat and U-shaped) and two different spacings (10 cm and 40 cm) of subsurface film strips were arranged in a greenhouse before planting celery. At the same time, a non-film treatment was arranged for comparison. Soil water content was measured and irrigation time was adjusted according to the soil water content....

  13. Air stripping of volatile organic chlorocarbons: System development, performance, and lessons learned (U)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Savannah River Site, which has been in operation since the 1950's, is a 780-square kilometer reservation that produces tritium for the national defense program. As a result of past waste handling practices, the ground water at several locations on the Site has become contaminated with solvents, metals, and radionuclides. In 1981, the ground water located under the Site's fuel and target rod fabrication area (M-Area) was found to be contaminated with degreasing solvents, specifically trichloroethylene (TCE) and tetrachloroethylene (PCE). In 1983, a program was started to evaluate air stripping and determine its applicability to cleanup of M-Area contamination. Lessons learned regarding the efficiency and effectiveness of air stripping technology are presented

  14. Reactive Distillation and Air Stripping Processes for Water Recycling and Trace Contaminant Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boul, Peter J.; Lange, Kevin E.; Conger, Bruce; Anderson, Molly

    2009-01-01

    Reactive distillation designs are considered to reduce the presence of volatile organic compounds in the purified water. Reactive distillation integrates a reactor with a distillation column. A review of the literature in this field has revealed a variety of functional reactive columns in industry. Wastewater may be purified by a combination of a reactor and a distiller (e.g., the EWRS or VPCAR concepts) or, in principle, through a design which integrates the reactor with the distiller. A review of the literature in reactive distillation has identified some different designs in such combinations of reactor and distiller. An evaluation of reactive distillation and reactive air stripping is presented with regards to the reduction of volatile organic compounds in the contaminated water and air. Among the methods presented, an architecture is presented for the evaluation of the simultaneous oxidation of organics in air and water. These and other designs are presented in light of potential improvements in power consumptions and air and water purities for architectures which include catalytic activity integrated into the water processor. In particular, catalytic oxidation of organics may be useful as a tool to remove contaminants that more traditional distillation and/or air stripping columns may not remove. A review of the current leading edge at the commercial level and at the research frontier in catalytically active materials is presented. Themes and directions from the engineering developments in catalyst design are presented conceptually in light of developments in the nanoscale chemistry of a variety of catalyst materials.

  15. Ultralow Level Mercury Treatment Using Chemical Reduction and Air Stripping: Scoping Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Data collected during the first stage of a Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) Strategic Research and Development Project confirmed the efficacy of chemical reduction and air stripping/sparging as an ultralow level mercury treatment concept for waters containing Hg(II). The process consists of dosing the water with low levels of stannous chloride to convert the mercury to Hg. This form of mercury can easily be removed from the water by air stripping or sparging. Samples of Savannah River Site (SRS) groundwater containing approximately 130 ng/L of total mercury (as Hg(II)) were used for the study. In undosed samples, sparging removed 0 percent of the initial mercury. In the dosed samples, all of the removals were greater than 94 percent, except in one water type at one dose. This sample, which was saturated with dissolved oxygen, showed a 63 percent reduction in mercury following treatment at the lowest dose. Following dosing at minimally effective levels and sparging, treated water contained less than 10 ng/L total mercury. In general, the data indicate that the reduction of mercury is highly favored and that stannous chloride reagent efficiently targets the Hg(II) contaminant in the presence of competing reactions. Based on the results, the authors estimated that the costs of implementing and operating an ultralow level mercury treatment process based on chemical reduction and stripping/sparging are 10 percent to 20 percent of traditional treatment technologies

  16. Application of Project Time Management Tools and Techniques to the Construction Industry in the Gaza Strip

    OpenAIRE

    Nabil Sawalhi; Adnan Enshassi

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to investigate the level of applying theproject time management tools and techniques by public ownersand construction contractors in the Gaza Strip. This study hasbeen conducted by means of a survey questionnaire. Seventythreequestionnaires were distributed to target constructioncontractors and twenty-five questionnaires to public owners. Sixtycompleted questionnaires from contractors and twenty-threequestionnaires from public owners were received and analysed.T...

  17. Removal of Chloroform (CHCl3 from Tehran Drinking Water by GAC and Air Stripping Columns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M T Samadi, S Nasseri, A Mesdaghinia, M R Alizadefard

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available The harmful substances, defined as trihalomethanes (THMs, were found to be formed during the disinfection of drinking water when chlorine was used as the disinfectant. In this research, the effectiveness of granular activated carbon (GAC and air stripping (AS packed column for the removal of chloroform (CHCl3 (as THMs basic indicator compound in many resources in range of 50 to300µg/L, from drinking water was studied. Pilots of GAC and air stripping columns were designed and set up. The study was carried out for the two cases of deionized and chlorinated Tehran tap water. Also the effects of flow rate, chloroform and TDS concentrations were considered in both treatment systems. Gas chromatography (GC with electron capture detector (ECD was used for determination of chloroform concentration in inlet and outlet samples. The obtained data were analyzed by SPSS and non-parametric Kruskal–Wallis method. Results showed a positive correlation between the flow rate and chloroform concentration, and removal efficiencies. The average of variations of removal efficiencies for AS and GAC columns with deionized water samples were, 89.9%, 71.2% and for chlorinated Tehran tap water were 91.2% and 76.4%, respectively. The removal of feed residual chlorine in these columns with 0.5, 0.8 ppm was 100%, respectively and re-chlorination for finishing water was recommended. Results showed AS to be considered more effective in chloroform removal for conventional water treatment plants as a finishing process.

  18. Air Quality Assessment Using Interpolation Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Awkash Kumar

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Air pollution is increasing rapidly in almost all cities around the world due to increase in population. Mumbai city in India is one of the mega cities where air quality is deteriorating at a very rapid rate. Air quality monitoring stations have been installed in the city to regulate air pollution control strategies to reduce the air pollution level. In this paper, air quality assessment has been carried out over the sample region using interpolation techniques. The technique Inverse Distance Weighting (IDW of Geographical Information System (GIS has been used to perform interpolation with the help of concentration data on air quality at three locations of Mumbai for the year 2008. The classification was done for the spatial and temporal variation in air quality levels for Mumbai region. The seasonal and annual variations of air quality levels for SO2, NOx and SPM (Suspended Particulate Matter have been focused in this study. Results show that SPM concentration always exceeded the permissible limit of National Ambient Air Quality Standard. Also, seasonal trends of pollutant SPM was low in monsoon due rain fall. The finding of this study will help to formulate control strategies for rational management of air pollution and can be used for many other regions.

  19. Immunoblotting of Antigens: Whole, Strip, and New-Line Nitrocellulose Membrane Immunoblotting Using the Chemiluminescence Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorri, Yaser

    2015-01-01

    Antigen detection is a well-known tool in the scientific world that is used by clinicians and researchers to detect specific antigens in diagnosing diseases or for other medical/environmental discoveries. Antigen detection is introduced in various forms over the past decades. These techniques are often evaluated by their sensitivity, accuracy, and ease of use. One technique that has provided many advantages over typical immunochemical staining is the use of chemiluminescence. This technique has been used in various scientific fields, anywhere from clinical diagnosis to environmental research. The emission of visible radiation by compounds once exposed to sunlight has been known for centuries and currently is the main principle for chemiluminescence. Here, we introduce three different chemiluminescence techniques that are widely used in immunodetection of antigens: (a) whole membrane chemiluminescence detection, (b) strip membrane chemiluminescence detection, and PMID:26139257

  20. Research review: Indoor air quality control techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Techniques for controlling the concentration of radon, formaldehyde, and combustion products in the indoor air are reviewed. The most effective techniques, which are generally based on limiting or reducing indoor pollutant source strengths, can decrease indoor pollutant concentrations by a factor of 3 to 10. Unless the initial ventilation rate is unusually low, it is difficult to reduce indoor pollutant concentrations more than approximately 50% by increasing the ventilation rate of an entire building. However, the efficiency of indoor pollutant control by ventilation can be enhanced through the use of local exhaust ventilation near concentrated sources of pollutants, by minimizing short circuiting of air from supply to exhaust when pollutant sources are dispersed and, in some situations, by promoting a displacement flow of air and pollutants toward the exhaust. Active air cleaning is also examined briefly. Filtration and electrostatic air cleaning for removal of particles from the indoor air are the most practical and effective currently available techniques of air cleaning. 49 refs., 7 figs

  1. METHANOL REMOVAL FROM METHANOL-WATER MIXTURE USING ACTIVATED SLUDGE, AIR STRIPPING AND ADSORPTION PROCESS: COMPARATIVE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SALAM K. AL-DAWERY

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available An experimental research has been carried out in order to examine the removal of methanol from methanol-water mixtures using three different methods; activated sludge; activated carbon and air stripping. The results showed that the methanol was totally consumed by the bacteria as quickly as the feed entered the activated sludge vessel. Air stripping process has a limited ability for removing of methanol due to strong intermolecular forces between methanol and water; however, the results showed that the percentage of methanol removed using air pressure at 0.5 bar was higher than that of using air pressure of 0.25 bar. Removal of methanol from the mixture with a methanol content of 5% using activated carbon was not successful due to the limited capacity of the of the activated carbon. Thus, the activated sludge process can be considered as the most suitable process for the treatment of methanol-water mixtures.

  2. Compressed Air/Vacuum Transportation Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guha, Shyamal

    2011-03-01

    General theory of compressed air/vacuum transportation will be presented. In this transportation, a vehicle (such as an automobile or a rail car) is powered either by compressed air or by air at near vacuum pressure. Four version of such transportation is feasible. In all versions, a ``c-shaped'' plastic or ceramic pipe lies buried a few inches under the ground surface. This pipe carries compressed air or air at near vacuum pressure. In type I transportation, a vehicle draws compressed air (or vacuum) from this buried pipe. Using turbine or reciprocating air cylinder, mechanical power is generated from compressed air (or from vacuum). This mechanical power transferred to the wheels of an automobile (or a rail car) drives the vehicle. In type II-IV transportation techniques, a horizontal force is generated inside the plastic (or ceramic) pipe. A set of vertical and horizontal steel bars is used to transmit this force to the automobile on the road (or to a rail car on rail track). The proposed transportation system has following merits: virtually accident free; highly energy efficient; pollution free and it will not contribute to carbon dioxide emission. Some developmental work on this transportation will be needed before it can be used by the traveling public. The entire transportation system could be computer controlled.

  3. Resin composite restoration in primary anterior teeth using short-post technique and strip crowns: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes, Fausto Medeiros; De Benedetto, Monique Saveriano; del Conte Zardetto, Cristina Giovannetti; Wanderley, Marcia Turolla; Correa, Maria Salete Nahás Pires

    2004-10-01

    A case report describing a technique for the restoration of endodontically treated primary maxillary incisors with resin composite short posts and celluloid strip crowns in a 3-year-old boy is presented. The technique offers the advantages of using one restorative material, improving esthetics, and reducing chairtime and costs. PMID:15470991

  4. Review of air flow measurement techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McWilliams, Jennifer

    2002-12-01

    Airflow measurement techniques are necessary to determine the most basic of indoor air quality questions: ''Is there enough fresh air to provide a healthy environment for the occupants of the building?'' This paper outlines airflow measurement techniques, but it does not make recommendations for techniques that should be used. The airflows that will be discussed are those within a room or zone, those between rooms or zones, such as through doorways (open or closed) or passive vents, those between the building and outdoors, and those through mechanical air distribution systems. Techniques that are highlighted include particle streak velocimetry, hot wire anemometry, fan pressurization (measuring flow at a given pressure), tracer gas, acoustic methods for leak size determination, the Delta Q test to determine duct leakage flows, and flow hood measurements. Because tracer gas techniques are widely used to measure airflow, this topic is broken down into sections as follows: decay, pulse injection, constant injection, constant concentration, passive sampling, and single and multiple gas measurements for multiple zones.

  5. “Sisebutas” en Buenos Aires. Family strips de los años veinte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Gené

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available El artículo trata sobre una de las más exitosas  family strips que circularon en la prensa en Buenos Aires en la década del veinte: Pequeñas delicias de la vida conyugal,  (Bringin´up father creada por George Macmanus en 1912 para el emporio periodístico de W.R.Hearst. El argumento apunta a las vicisitudes cotidianas de un matrimonio integrado por una mujer “autoritaria” y un marido “dominado”, un  topos humorístico que cuenta con una larga tradición en la cultura occidental. Nuestro propósito es analizar, desde la perspectiva de la historia cultural y los estudios warburguianos, su trayectoria histórica en producciones de diversos géneros artísticos, así como indagar en las proyecciones de este topos en las historietas surgidas contemporáneamente y en otras esferas artísticas, como la literatura, el teatro y el cine.

  6. Field demonstration of in-situ air stripping using horizontal wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Looney, B.B.; Kaback, D.S.

    1991-12-31

    Under sponsorship from the US Department of Energy, technical personnel from the Savannah River Laboratory and other DOE laboratories, universities and private industry have completed a full scale demonstration of environmental remediation using horizontal wells. The 139 day long test was designed to remove volatile chlorinated solvents from the subsurface using two horizontal wells. One well, approximately 90m long and 45m deep drilled below a contaminant plume in the groundwater, was used to inject air and strip the contaminants from the groundwater. A second horizontal well, approximately 50m long and 20m deep in the vadose zone, was used to extract residual contamination in the vadose zone along with the material purged from the groundwater. The test successfully removed approximately 7250 kg of contaminants. A large amount of characterization and monitoring data was collected to aid in interpretation of the test and to provide the information needed for future environmental restorations that employ directionally drilled wells as extraction or delivery systems.

  7. Field demonstration of in-situ air stripping using horizontal wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Looney, B.B.; Kaback, D.S.

    1991-01-01

    Under sponsorship from the US Department of Energy, technical personnel from the Savannah River Laboratory and other DOE laboratories, universities and private industry have completed a full scale demonstration of environmental remediation using horizontal wells. The 139 day long test was designed to remove volatile chlorinated solvents from the subsurface using two horizontal wells. One well, approximately 90m long and 45m deep drilled below a contaminant plume in the groundwater, was used to inject air and strip the contaminants from the groundwater. A second horizontal well, approximately 50m long and 20m deep in the vadose zone, was used to extract residual contamination in the vadose zone along with the material purged from the groundwater. The test successfully removed approximately 7250 kg of contaminants. A large amount of characterization and monitoring data was collected to aid in interpretation of the test and to provide the information needed for future environmental restorations that employ directionally drilled wells as extraction or delivery systems.

  8. Application of Project Time Management Tools and Techniques to the Construction Industry in the Gaza Strip

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nabil Sawalhi

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to investigate the level of applying theproject time management tools and techniques by public ownersand construction contractors in the Gaza Strip. This study hasbeen conducted by means of a survey questionnaire. Seventythreequestionnaires were distributed to target constructioncontractors and twenty-five questionnaires to public owners. Sixtycompleted questionnaires from contractors and twenty-threequestionnaires from public owners were received and analysed.The survey results indicated that contemporary project timemanagement tools and techniques are not widely used amonglocal contractors and owners. Lack of subcontractor’s knowledgeand awareness of the importance of project time managementtools and techniques are still major obstacles toward the efficientutilisation of such tools. This study recommended that there is anurgent need to establish a professional industry body such as anInstitute of Building to review and evaluate existing local projectmanagement practices. This professional body may be establishedby the government through the Ministry of Housing and PublicWorks or by the local university in cooperation with a similarinternational professional industry body. Current training effortshould be tailored to encourage owners and contractors to usework breakdown structures, resource optimisation, and networkscheduling.

  9. Pseudo-emulsion based hollow fiber strip dispersion technique modeling and application for Pu (IV) recovery from oxalate supernatant waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The extraction - recovery of Pu(IV) from nitric acidic medium has been examined by PEHFSD (Pseudo-emulsion based hollow fiber strip dispersion) in a microporous hydrophobic polypropylene hollow fiber membrane contactor. The technology of supported liquid membranes with strip dispersion has advantages over the conventional supported liquid membranes solving the inherent stability problems of the membrane. Mathematical models for extraction in hollow-fiber contactor were also developed. The mass transfer coefficients were calculated from the experimental results and models are presented. The applicability of PEHFSD technique was demonstrated for recovery of Pu(IV) from oxalate supernatant waste generated during plutonium precipitation by oxalic acid. (author)

  10. A demonstration of ERTS-1 analog and digital techniques applied to strip mining in Maryland and West Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, A. T.; Schubert, J.

    1974-01-01

    The largest contour strip mining operations in western Maryland and West Virginia are located within the Georges Creek and the Upper Potomac Basins. These two coal basins lie within the Georges Creek (Wellersburg) syncline. The disturbed strip mine areas were delineated with the surrounding geological and vegetation features using ERTS-1 data in both analog (imagery) and digital form. The two digital systems used were: (1) the ERTS-Analysis system, a point-by-point digital analysis of spectral signatures based on known spectral values, and (2) the LARS Automatic Data Processing System. The digital techniques being developed will later be incorporated into a data base for land use planning. These two systems aided in efforts to determine the extent and state of strip mining in this region. Aircraft data, ground verification information, and geological field studies also aided in the application of ERTS-1 imagery to perform an integrated analysis that assessed the adverse effects of strip mining. The results indicated that ERTS can both monitor and map the extent of strip mining to determine immediately the acreage affected and indicate where future reclamation and revegetation may be necessary.

  11. Numerical analysis of the in-well vapor-stripping system demonstration at Edwards Air Force Base

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, M.D.; Gilmore, T.J.

    1996-10-01

    Numerical simulations, with the Subsurface Transport Over Multiple Phases (STOMP) simulator, were applied to the field demonstration of an in-well vapor-stripping system at Edwards Air Force Base (AFB), near Mojave, California. The demonstration field site on the Edwards AFB was previously contaminated from traversing groundwater that was contained a varied composition of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), which primarily includes trichloroethylene (TCE). Contaminant TCE originated from surface basin that had been used to collect runoff during the cleaning of experimental rocket powered planes in the 1960s and 1970s. This report documents those simulations and associated numerical analyses. A companion report documents the in- well vapor-stripping demonstration from a field perspective.

  12. Numerical analysis of the in-well vapor-stripping system demonstration at Edwards Air Force Base

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Numerical simulations, with the Subsurface Transport Over Multiple Phases (STOMP) simulator, were applied to the field demonstration of an in-well vapor-stripping system at Edwards Air Force Base (AFB), near Mojave, California. The demonstration field site on the Edwards AFB was previously contaminated from traversing groundwater that was contained a varied composition of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), which primarily includes trichloroethylene (TCE). Contaminant TCE originated from surface basin that had been used to collect runoff during the cleaning of experimental rocket powered planes in the 1960s and 1970s. This report documents those simulations and associated numerical analyses. A companion report documents the in- well vapor-stripping demonstration from a field perspective

  13. Square wave cathodic stripping voltammetric technique for determination of Aflatoxin B1 in ground nut sample

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An electro analytical method has been developed for the detection and determination of 2,3,6a,9a-tetrahydro-4-methoxy cyclo penta[c] furo[3, 2:4,5] furo [2,3-h][l] benzopyrane-1,11-dione (aflatoxin B1, AFB1) by a square wave cathodic stripping voltammetric (SWSV) technique on a hanging mercury drop electrode (HMDE) in aqueous solution with Britton-Robinson Buffer (BRB) at pH 9.0 as the supporting electrolyte. Effect of instrumental parameters such as accumulation potential (Eacc), accumulation time (tacc), scan rate (v), square wave frequency, step potential and pulse amplitude were examined. The best condition were found to be Eacc of -0.8 V, tacc of 100 s, v of 3750 mVs-1, frequency of 125 Hz, voltage step of 30 mV and pulse amplitude of 50 mV. Calibration curve was linear in the range of 0.01 to 0.15 μM with a detection limit of 0.125 x 10-8 M. Relative standard deviation for a replicate measurement of AFB1 (n = 5) with a concentration of 0.01 μM was 0.83 % with a peak potential of -1.30 V (against Ag/ AgCl). The recovery values obtained in spiked ground nut elute sample were 94.00 ± 0.67 % for 3.0 ppb, 91.22 ± 1.56 % for 9 ppb and 92.56 ± 2.00 % for 15.0 ppb of AFB1. The method was applied for the determination of the AFB1 in ground nut samples after extraction and clean-up steps. The results were compared with that obtained by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) technique. (author)

  14. The Awareness of Health Professionals in Diagnostic Techniques for Intestinal Parasites in Gaza Strip, Palestine

    OpenAIRE

    Hindi, AI

    2014-01-01

    Background: Diagnosis of intestinal parasites still depends on conventional methods in Gaza strip hospitals and private laboratories. Aim: This study aimed to evaluate the opinion and the practice of physicians and medical laboratories technologists towards the diagnosis of intestinal parasites in Gaza strip. Subjects and Methods: The study was carried out during the period from August 2006 to December 2006. All the subjects during this period were eligible for the interview. The sample size ...

  15. Air Conditioning Compressor Air Leak Detection by Image Processing Techniques for Industrial Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Pookongchai Kritsada; Nakornrat Prasit; Sookananta Bongkoj; Buasri Panhathai

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents method to detect air leakage of an air conditioning compressor using image processing techniques. Quality of air conditioning compressor should not have air leakage. To test an air conditioning compressor leak, air is pumped into a compressor and then submerged into the water tank. If air bubble occurs at surface of the air conditioning compressor, that leakage compressor must be returned for maintenance. In this work a new method to detect leakage and search leakage point...

  16. Whole and strip nitrocellulose membrane as well as a new-line-immunoblotting of antigen using the chemiluminescence technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorri, Yaser; Khalili, Ali W; Scofield, R Hal

    2009-01-01

    There are a number of techniques in the scientific world that researchers use to detect specific antigens. One such technique that has provided many advantages over typical immunochemical staining is chemiluminescence. The emission of visible radiation by compounds once exposed to sunlight has been known for centuries and currently is the main principle for chemiluminescence. Here, we introduce three different chemiluminescence techniques that are widely used in immunodetection of antigens: (a) whole membrane chemiluminescence detection, (b) strip membrane chemiluminescence detection, and (c) new line blotting chemiluminescence. PMID:19378079

  17. Bandwidth Enrichment for Micro-strip Patch Antenna Using Pendant Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Bhattacharya, R. Prasanna

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In rapidly expanding market for wireless communication and applications, Micro strip antenna has become widely popular as it is low profile, comfortable to the hosting surfaces, light weight and can be easily integrated with the electronic circuits. Microstrip antenna is widely used in military, mobile communication, global positioning system (GPS, remote sensing etc.

  18. Post-test evaluation of the geology, geochemistry, microbiology, and hydrology of the in situ air stripping demonstration site at the Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eddy Dilek, C.A.; Looney, B.B.; Hazen, T.C.; Nichols, R.L.; Fliermans, C.B.; Parker, W.H.; Dougherty, J.M.; Kaback, D.S.; Simmons, J.L.

    1993-07-01

    A full-scale demonstration of the use of horizontal wells for in situ air stripping for environment restoration was completed as part of the Savannah River Integrated Demonstration Program. The demonstration of in situ air stripping was the first in a series of demonstrations of innovative remediation technologies for the cleanup of sites contaminated with volatile organic contaminants. The in situ air stripping system consisted of two directionally drilled wells that delivered gases to and extract contamination from the subsurface. The demonstration was designed to remediate soils and sediments in the unsaturated and saturated zones as well as groundwater contaminated with volatile organic compounds. The demonstration successfully removed significant quantities of solvent from the subsurface. The field site and horizontal wells were subsequently used for an in situ bioremediation demonstration during which methane was added to the injected air. The field conditions documented herein represent the baseline status of the site for evaluating the in situ bioremediation as well as the post-test conditions for the in situ air stripping demonstration. Characterization activities focused on documenting the nature and distribution of contamination in the subsurface. The post-test characterization activities discussed herein include results from the analysis of sediment samples, three-dimensional images of the pretest and post-test data, contaminant inventories estimated from pretest and post-test models, a detailed lithologic cross sections of the site, results of aquifer testing, and measurements of geotechnical parameters of undisturbed core sediments.

  19. Air-Decking Technique in Bench Blasting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Hong-bing; LU Wen-bo; WU Liang

    2006-01-01

    The mechanism and the design parameters of blasting with air-decking are studied. The theory of detonation waves is used to investigate the processes of the one-dimensional plane detonation wave within a borehole. The interaction of the rarefaction wave with an interface and reflection on a rigid wall is also analyzed. The same courses of the shock wave are also investigated. This decides the distribution of the pressure of the explosion products changing with time along the borehole. Based on the above theoretical analysis, two conditions should be met for a reasonable range of values of the air-decking ratio in blasting rock. First, the rarefaction wave from the contact interface between detonation products and air reaches the bottom earlier than that of the reflected shock wave from the end of the stemming. Second,the reflected shock wave reaches the contact interface between the detonation products and air earlier than that of the reflected rarefaction wave from the bottom of the borehole. Finally, the reasonable value of the air-decking ratio must be decided theoretically in air-decking blasting. For different explosives, the reasonable range of air-decking ratio varies from 0.15 to 0.4. This result is well consistent with what was obtained by previous researchers.

  20. Characterization of dissolved organic matter in landfill leachate during the combined treatment process of air stripping, Fenton, SBR and coagulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • DOM fractions spectra analysis during the whole treatment process. • Efficient method was achieved to remove organic matters in landfill leachate. • Molecular weight distribution and fractions were discussed. - Abstract: A combined treatment process of air stripping + Fenton + sequencing batch reactor (SBR)+ coagulation was performed to remove the pollutants in landfill leachate. Molecular weight (MW) distribution and fractions of dissolved organic matter (DOM) were discussed to study the characteristics. The experiment showed that the removal rate of chemical oxygen demand (COD), five day biological oxygen demand (BOD5) and ammonia nitrogen (NH3−N) by the combined process were 92.8%, 87.8% and 98.0%, respectively. Humic acid (HA) and fulvic acid (FA) were the main fractions in raw leachate with 81.8% of the total COD concentration, while hydrophilic organic matter (HyI) was the dominant fraction in the final effluent of the combined process with 63.5% of the total COD concentration. After the combined treatment process, the removal rate of DOM and fractions HA, FA, HyI were 91.9%, 97.1%, 95.8% and 71.7%, respectively. Organic matters of MW < 2 k and MW > 100 k were removed with 90.5% and 97.9% COD concentration after the treatment. The ultraviolet–visible spectra (UV–vis), Fourier transform infrared spectra (FTIR) and three-dimensional excitation-emission matrices spectra (EEMs) indicated that benzene materials and phenol compounds were preferentially removed in air stripping. High MW matters, aromatic rings, conjugated moieties and some functional groups were mainly removed by Fenton. While small MW fractions, carboxylic acids, alcohols and protein-like materials were preferentially biodegraded via SBR. Fulvic-like and humic-like materials were mainly destroyed via Fenton oxidation and coagulation

  1. Characterization of dissolved organic matter in landfill leachate during the combined treatment process of air stripping, Fenton, SBR and coagulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, ZhiPing, E-mail: liulqs@163.com [Key Laboratory of Three Gorges Reservoir Region’s Eco-Environment, Ministry of Education, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400045 (China); Faculty of Urban Construction and Environmental Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400020 (China); Wu, WenHui; Shi, Ping [Faculty of Urban Construction and Environmental Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400020 (China); Guo, JinSong [Chongqing Institute of Green and Intelligent Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chongqing 400045 (China); Cheng, Jin [Faculty of Urban Construction and Environmental Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400020 (China)

    2015-07-15

    Highlights: • DOM fractions spectra analysis during the whole treatment process. • Efficient method was achieved to remove organic matters in landfill leachate. • Molecular weight distribution and fractions were discussed. - Abstract: A combined treatment process of air stripping + Fenton + sequencing batch reactor (SBR)+ coagulation was performed to remove the pollutants in landfill leachate. Molecular weight (MW) distribution and fractions of dissolved organic matter (DOM) were discussed to study the characteristics. The experiment showed that the removal rate of chemical oxygen demand (COD), five day biological oxygen demand (BOD{sub 5}) and ammonia nitrogen (NH{sub 3}−N) by the combined process were 92.8%, 87.8% and 98.0%, respectively. Humic acid (HA) and fulvic acid (FA) were the main fractions in raw leachate with 81.8% of the total COD concentration, while hydrophilic organic matter (HyI) was the dominant fraction in the final effluent of the combined process with 63.5% of the total COD concentration. After the combined treatment process, the removal rate of DOM and fractions HA, FA, HyI were 91.9%, 97.1%, 95.8% and 71.7%, respectively. Organic matters of MW < 2 k and MW > 100 k were removed with 90.5% and 97.9% COD concentration after the treatment. The ultraviolet–visible spectra (UV–vis), Fourier transform infrared spectra (FTIR) and three-dimensional excitation-emission matrices spectra (EEMs) indicated that benzene materials and phenol compounds were preferentially removed in air stripping. High MW matters, aromatic rings, conjugated moieties and some functional groups were mainly removed by Fenton. While small MW fractions, carboxylic acids, alcohols and protein-like materials were preferentially biodegraded via SBR. Fulvic-like and humic-like materials were mainly destroyed via Fenton oxidation and coagulation.

  2. Indoor air quality control techniques. Radon, formaldehyde, combustion products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book reviews and evaluates existing indoor air quality control techniques. The indoor air pollutants of most concern are radon, formaldehyde, and certain combustion products-nitrogen dioxide, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, and various respirable particles. Many techniques exist to control the concentration of these pollutants and other indoor pollutants that are only now being recognized as significant. The purpose of the book is to provide a current review and evaluation of these control techniques

  3. Contrast cancellation technique applied to digital x-ray imaging using silicon strip detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dual-energy mammographic imaging experimental tests have been performed using a compact dichromatic imaging system based on a conventional x-ray tube, a mosaic crystal, and a 384-strip silicon detector equipped with full-custom electronics with single photon counting capability. For simulating mammal tissue, a three-component phantom, made of Plexiglass, polyethylene, and water, has been used. Images have been collected with three different pairs of x-ray energies: 16-32 keV, 18-36 keV, and 20-40 keV. A Monte Carlo simulation of the experiment has also been carried out using the MCNP-4C transport code. The Alvarez-Macovski algorithm has been applied both to experimental and simulated data to remove the contrast between two of the phantom materials so as to enhance the visibility of the third one

  4. Air Conditioning Compressor Air Leak Detection by Image Processing Techniques for Industrial Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pookongchai Kritsada

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents method to detect air leakage of an air conditioning compressor using image processing techniques. Quality of air conditioning compressor should not have air leakage. To test an air conditioning compressor leak, air is pumped into a compressor and then submerged into the water tank. If air bubble occurs at surface of the air conditioning compressor, that leakage compressor must be returned for maintenance. In this work a new method to detect leakage and search leakage point with high accuracy, fast, and precise processes was proposed. In a preprocessing procedure to detect the air bubbles, threshold and median filter techniques have been used. Connected component labeling technique is used to detect the air bubbles while blob analysis is searching technique to analyze group of the air bubbles in sequential images. The experiments are tested with proposed algorithm to determine the leakage point of an air conditioning compressor. The location of the leakage point was presented as coordinated point. The results demonstrated that leakage point during process could be accurately detected. The estimation point had error less than 5% compared to the real leakage point.

  5. Determination of free Zn2+ concentration in synthetic and natural samples with AGNES (Absence of Gradients and Nernstian Equilibrium Stripping) and DMT (Donnan Membrane Techniques)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chito, D.; Weng, L.P.; Galceran, J.; Companys, E.; Puy, J.; Riemsdijk, van W.H.; Leeuwen, van H.P.

    2012-01-01

    The determination of free Zn2+ ion concentration is a key in the study of environmental systems like river water and soils, due to its impact on bioavailability and toxicity. AGNES (Absence of Gradients and Nernstian Equilibrium Stripping) and DMT (Donnan Membrane Technique) are emerging techniques

  6. Mathematical model of strip specimens for application of pulse-heating technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Peng; Wang, Qingwei; Dai, Jingmin

    2008-10-01

    The dynamic measurement of selected thermophysical properties of electrically conducting solids in the temperature range of 1100 K to the melting point was conducted using strip specimens, for simultaneous measurement of the normal spectral emissivity by using integrating sphere reflectometry. The method is based on rapid resistive self-heating of the specimen from room temperature to any desired high temperature in less than several seconds by the passage of an electical current pulse through it to measure the pertinent quantities, as current, voltage, and randiance temperature, with sub-millisecond resolution. The estimation of heat capacity and hemispherical total emissivity is based on various computational methods derived by assuming that the temperature was uniform in the central part of the specimen. The validity of this approach was verified when specimens with large cross sections and when the temperature on the specimen surface was measured. A numerical model was established with the temperature variations across the specimen was taken into consideration. The mathematical model established can be used in the simulation experiments to access the magnitude of specific phenomena due to the temperature gradient inside the specimen, in relation to the specimen geometry and to the specific thermophysical properties of different materials.

  7. Air purification techniques for radon daughters in uranium mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A modified air purifier to filter air was built to reduce radon daughter concentrations in uranium mines, and thus reduce exposure of miners. The main experimental results for the purifiers are presented for several levels: individual purification; secondary ventilation; purification; and primary ventilation purification. The study concentrates on secondary ventilation purification. For this case the electrostatic technique is preferred

  8. Solar-Powered Air Stripping at the Rocky Flats Site, Colorado - 12361

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    . Initially, several alternatives such as commercial air strippers and cascade aerators were evaluated; resulting cost estimates exceeded $100,000. After several simpler alternatives were considered and prototype testing was conducted, the existing effluent metering manhole was converted to house a spray-nozzle based, solar-powered air stripper, at a cost of approximately $20,000. About two-thirds of this cost was for the solar power system, which was initially designed to only provide power for 12 hours per day. Performance data are being collected and adjustments made to optimize the design, determine maintenance requirements, and establish power needs for continuous operation. Analytical data confirm the air stripper is sharply reducing concentrations of residual contaminants. (authors)

  9. Simultaneous determination of lead, cadmium and zinc in Metro Manila air particulates by anodic stripping voltammetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Air particulate samples were collected from two monitoring stations in Metro Manila using a 'Gent' type dichotomous sampler for pollutant source apportionment studies. Samples were collected in two fractions: a fine fraction with aerodynamic diameter, dpp3: HCL: HF, 4: 1: 1) for at least 20 minutes with subsequent heating at lower power settings for a total of 20 minutes more, effectively decomposed the sample with complete recovery of the elements. The digests were evaporated to near dryness to eliminate the troublesome effect of HF and HNO3 and to decrease acidity of the electrolytic solution to pH ≥ 2. At pH 2, the addition of at least 0.01 M KCl was needed to improve sensitivity. The formation of Zn-Cu intermetallic compounds which interfered in the accurate quantitation of zinc was eliminated by addition of gallium as a 'third' element. The amount of gallium needed varied from sample to sample and was affected by the pH of the solution. The DPASV parameters found to be optimum for the analysis of the air particulate samples are as follows: pulse amplitude, 50 mV; scan rate, 10 mV/sec; Edep, - 1.30 V; tdep, 2 min; and RDE rotation rate, 1500 rpm. Detection limits of 0.2 ppb for zinc, 0.6 ppb for lead, and 0.05 ppb for cadmium in the sample matrix were obtained. The standard addition method was found to be reliable for the quantitative determination of the analytes in the sample. All R2 values obtained were > 0.9900 at 95% confidence level. Validation of the established analytical methodology by analyzing certified reference standards and performing parallel analysis by GF-AAS and flame AAS showed acceptable accuracy of the DPASV measurements. (Author)

  10. ALICE silicon strip module

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2006-01-01

    This small silicon detector strip will be inserted into the inner tracking system (ITS) on the ALICE detector at CERN. This detector relies on state-of-the-art particle tracking techniques. These double-sided silicon strip modules have been designed to be as lightweight and delicate as possible as the ITS will eventually contain five square metres of these devices.

  11. Predictive Techniques for Spacecraft Cabin Air Quality Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, J. L.; Cromes, Scott D. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    As assembly of the International Space Station (ISS) proceeds, predictive techniques are used to determine the best approach for handling a variety of cabin air quality challenges. These techniques use equipment offgassing data collected from each ISS module before flight to characterize the trace chemical contaminant load. Combined with crew metabolic loads, these data serve as input to a predictive model for assessing the capability of the onboard atmosphere revitalization systems to handle the overall trace contaminant load as station assembly progresses. The techniques for predicting in-flight air quality are summarized along with results from early ISS mission analyses. Results from groundbased analyses of in-flight air quality samples are compared to the predictions to demonstrate the technique's relative conservatism.

  12. A sliding technique to load thin endothelial donor lamella onto Busin glide for Descemet-stripping automated endothelial keratoplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kobayashi A

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Akira Kobayashi, Hideaki Yokogawa, Kazuhisa SugiyamaDepartment of Ophthalmology, Kanazawa University Graduate School of Medical Science, Kanazawa, JapanAbstract: We describe a modified technique for loading donor corneal endothelial lamella onto a Busin glide® without causing wrinkles, as part of the procedure of Descemet-stripping automated endothelial keratoplasty. Briefly, after punching out a composite of the donor-endothelial lamella and a microkeratome-dissected cap, several drops of dispersive ophthalmic viscosurgical device are placed onto the endothelial surface. The Busin glide surface is then wetted with several drops of balanced salt solution. After the composite is transferred onto the Busin glide, hydrodissection of the potential space between the donor-endothelial lamella and the microkeratome-dissected cap is carefully performed to enable smooth detachment of these two lamellae. Whereas simply dragging the donor-endothelial lamella directly onto the glide can cause wrinkling or folding of the donor lamella, this technique enables smooth detachment of the composite without wrinkle or fold formation, and results in less endothelial cell damage.Keywords: DSAEK, Busin glide, endothelial keratoplasty

  13. Air Quality Forecasting through Different Statistical and Artificial Intelligence Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, D.; Goyal, P.

    2014-12-01

    Urban air pollution forecasting has emerged as an acute problem in recent years because there are sever environmental degradation due to increase in harmful air pollutants in the ambient atmosphere. In this study, there are different types of statistical as well as artificial intelligence techniques are used for forecasting and analysis of air pollution over Delhi urban area. These techniques are principle component analysis (PCA), multiple linear regression (MLR) and artificial neural network (ANN) and the forecasting are observed in good agreement with the observed concentrations through Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB) at different locations in Delhi. But such methods suffers from disadvantages like they provide limited accuracy as they are unable to predict the extreme points i.e. the pollution maximum and minimum cut-offs cannot be determined using such approach. Also, such methods are inefficient approach for better output forecasting. But with the advancement in technology and research, an alternative to the above traditional methods has been proposed i.e. the coupling of statistical techniques with artificial Intelligence (AI) can be used for forecasting purposes. The coupling of PCA, ANN and fuzzy logic is used for forecasting of air pollutant over Delhi urban area. The statistical measures e.g., correlation coefficient (R), normalized mean square error (NMSE), fractional bias (FB) and index of agreement (IOA) of the proposed model are observed in better agreement with the all other models. Hence, the coupling of statistical and artificial intelligence can be use for the forecasting of air pollutant over urban area.

  14. An Air-Stripping Packed Bed Combined with a Biofilm-Type Biological Process for Treating BTEX and Total Petroleum Hydrocarbon Contaminated Groudwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, U.; Park, S.; Lim, J.; Lee, W.; Kwon, S.; Kim, Y.

    2009-12-01

    In this study, we examined the removal efficiency of a volatile compound (e.g. toluene) and a less volatile compound [e.g. total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH)] using an air stripping packed bed combined with a biofilm-type biological process. We hypothesized that this system might be effective and economical to simultaneously remove both volatile and less volatile compounds. The gas-tight reactor has 5.9-inch-diameter and 48.8-inch-height. A spray nozzle was installed at the top cover to distribute the liquid evenly through reactor. The reactor was filled with polypropylene packing media for the increase of volatilization surface area and the growth of TPH degrading facultative aerobic bacteria on the surface of the packing media. In air stripping experiments, 45.6%, 71.7%, 72.0%, and 75.4% of toluene was removed at air injection rates of 0 L/min, 2.5 L/min, 4 L/min, and 6 L/min, respectively. Through the result, we confirmed that toluene removal efficiency increased by injecting higher amounts of air. TPH removal by stripping was minimal. To remove a less volatile TPH by commercial TPH degrading culture (BIO-ZYME B-52), 15-times diluted culture was circulated through the reactor for 2-3 days to build up a biofilm on the surface of packing media with 1 mg-soluble nitrogen source /L-water per 1 ppm of TPH. Experiments evaluating the degree of TPH biodegradation in this system are carrying out.

  15. Simultaneous removal of ammonia, P and COD from anaerobically digested piggery wastewater using an integrated process of chemical precipitation and air stripping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper presented an efficient integrated physicochemical process, which consists of chemical precipitation and air stripping, for the simultaneous removal of NH3-N, total P and COD from anaerobically digested piggery wastewater. In the integrated process, Ca(OH) 2 was used as the precipitant for NH4+, PO43- and organic phosphorous compounds, and as the pH adjuster for the air stripping of residual ammonia. The possibility of the suggested process and the related mechanisms were first investigated through a series of equilibrium tests. Laboratory scale tests were carried out to validate the application possibility of the integrated process using a new-patented water sparged aerocyclone reactor (WSA). The WSA could be effectively used for the simultaneous removal of NH3-N, total P and COD. 3 g/L of Ca(OH) 2 is a proper dosage for the simultaneous removal. The simultaneous removal of NH3-N, total P and COD in the WSA reactor could be easily optimized by selecting a proper air inlet velocity and a proper jet velocity of the liquid phase. In all the cases, the removal efficiencies of the NH3-N, total P and COD were over 91%, 99.2% and 52% for NH3-N, total P and COD, respectively. The formed precipitates in the process could be easily settled down from the suspension system. Therefore, the integrated process provided an efficient alternative for the simultaneous removal of NH3-N, total P and COD from the wastewater.

  16. Air pollution control techniques and a case study of industrial air emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Air pollutants are the most dangerous type of pollution and they effect our environment the worst. The main air pollutants are CO/sub 2/, CO, NOx, SOx and particulate matter. These pollutants are causing some major environmental and health concerns. There are number of techniques to control these emissions to the atmosphere. The flue gas data of boilers and generators from ICI polyester industry is also included in this paper. The techniques in use to control the pollutants are discussed. One of the most common techniques is the switching of the fuel. The Natural gas emits almost 30 percent less carbon dioxide than oil, and just under 45 percent less carbon dioxide than coal. Emissions of particulates from natural gas combustion are 90 percent lower than from the combustion of oil, and 99 percent lower than burning coal. Natural gas emits virtually no sulfur dioxide, and upto 80 percent less nitrogen oxides than the combustion of coal. Similarly, use of compressed natural gas in vehicle reduces the amount of these emissions considerably. The other methods for the control and reduction of these emissions are combustion control techniques, Flue gas treatment and Fuel re-burning. NOx can be reduced considerably by combustion control techniques like Low excess air, staged air combustion, staged fuel combustion, external flue gas recirculation, Fuel induced recirculation and steam/water injection. The flue gas treatments like selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR) and selective catalytic reduction (SCR) are also used for reduction of NOx. (author)

  17. Air pollution in Thailand using nuclear-related analytical techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The methods of neutron activation, both instrumental and radiochemical, and atomic absorption spectrophotometry are used in a study of the concentrations of Al, As, Br, Cd, Cl, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mn, Sb, Sc, Se, Si, V, Zn and Pb in airborne particulate matter collected from 7 permanent and 9 temporary air quality monitoring stations. The location of the stations are urban residential, suburban residential, mixed (commercial and residential), commercial and industrial areas and near major roads in Bangkok Metropolitan areas. Air sampling is performed once a month for 24 hours continuously using the high volume air sampler (GMW 2000 H) and for 5, 10, and 15 days continuously using an Anderson Air Sampler (SIBATA AN-200). The elements As, Cd and Cu are determined destructively using ion exchange chromatography while Hg and Se are determined by the dry combustion technique. The determination of Pb was done by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The results of Pb concentrations in airborne particulate matters, collected during 1987 to 1991, were reported by the Office of the National Environment Board. Levels of Pb content were found to be lower than the National Ambient Air Quality Standards. (author). 3 refs, 4 tabs

  18. Removal of organic pollutants from 2,2',5,5'-tetrachlorobenzidine (TCB) industrial wastewater by micro-electrochemical oxidation and air-stripping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A feasible method for treatment of the wastewater from the two-staged neutralization in 2,2',5,5'-tetrachlorobenzidine (TCB) manufacturing processes, a refractory dye intermediate effluents, based on combined micro-electrochemical oxidation or iron-chipping filtration (ICF) and air-stripping reactor (ASR), was developed. On conditions of HRT 1 h, pH 3.0 in ICF and HRT 38 h, gas-liquid ratio 15, pH 6.0-8.65, temperature 26 deg. C in ASR, the overall COD, color, TCB and NH4+-N removal were 96.8%, 91%, 87.61% and 62%, respectively, during the treatment of TCB wastewater from the two-staged neutralization dissolved by methanol. The averaged 18.3%, 81.7% of the total degraded COD, 35.2%, 64.8% of TCB were carried out in ICF and ASR, respectively. NH4+-N removal was finished mainly in ASR. The experimental results indicated that the combined micro-electrochemical oxidation and air-stripping process performed good treatment of COD, color, TCB and NH4+-N removal in TCB wastewater from the two-staged neutralization dissolved by ethanol or acetone, came up the discharge standard in China. But the TCB wastewater from the two-staged neutralization dissolved by methanol should be deeply treated before discharged

  19. Uncertainty in mapping urban air quality using crowdsourcing techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Philipp; Castell, Nuria; Lahoz, William; Bartonova, Alena

    2016-04-01

    Small and low-cost sensors measuring various air pollutants have become available in recent years owing to advances in sensor technology. Such sensors have significant potential for improving high-resolution mapping of air quality in the urban environment as they can be deployed in comparatively large numbers and therefore are able to provide information at unprecedented spatial detail. However, such sensor devices are subject to significant and currently little understood uncertainties that affect their usability. Not only do these devices exhibit random errors and biases of occasionally substantial magnitudes, but these errors may also shift over time. In addition, there often tends to be significant inter-sensor variability even when supposedly identical sensors from the same manufacturer are used. We need to quantify accurately these uncertainties to make proper use of the information they provide. Furthermore, when making use of the data and producing derived products such as maps, the measurement uncertainties that propagate throughout the analysis need to be clearly communicated to the scientific and non-scientific users of the map products. Based on recent experiences within the EU-funded projects CITI-SENSE and hackAIR we discuss the uncertainties along the entire processing chain when using crowdsourcing techniques for mapping urban air quality. Starting with the uncertainties exhibited by the sensors themselves, we present ways of quantifying the error characteristics of a network of low-cost microsensors and show suitable statistical metrics for summarizing them. Subsequently, we briefly present a data-fusion-based method for mapping air quality in the urban environment and illustrate how we propagate the uncertainties of the individual sensors throughout the mapping system, resulting in detailed maps that document the pixel-level uncertainty for each concentration field. Finally, we present methods for communicating the resulting spatial uncertainty

  20. A flight investigation of oscillating air forces: Equipment and technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, W. H., III

    1975-01-01

    The equipment and techniques are described which are to be used in a project aimed at measuring oscillating air forces and dynamic aeroelastic response of a swept wing airplane at high subsonic speeds. Electro-hydraulic inertia type shakers installed in the wing tips will excite various elastic airplane modes while the related oscillating chordwise pressures at two spanwise wing stations and the wing mode shapes are recorded on magnetic tape. The data reduction technique, following the principle of a wattmeter harmonic analyzer employed by Bratt, Wight, and Tilly, utilizes magnetic tape and high speed electronic multipliers to record directly the real and imaginary components of oscillatory data signals relative to a simple harmonic reference signal. Through an extension of this technique an automatic flight-flutter-test data analyzer is suggested in which vector plots of mechanical admittance or impedance would be plotted during the flight test.

  1. Implementation of Satellite Techniques in the Air Transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fellner, Andrzej; Jafernik, Henryk

    2016-06-01

    The article shows process of the implementation satellite systems in Polish aviation which contributed to accomplishment Performance-Based Navigation (PBN) concept. Since 1991 authors have introduced Satellite Navigation Equipment in Polish Air Forces. The studies and researches provide to the Polish Air Force alternative approaches, modernize their navigation and landing systems and achieve compatibility with systems of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) and International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO). Acquired experience, conducted military tests and obtained results enabled to take up work scientifically - research in the environment of the civil aviation. Therefore in 2008 there has been launched cooperation with Polish Air Navigation Services Agency (PANSA). Thanks to cooperation, there have been compiled and fulfilled three fundamental international projects: EGNOS APV MIELEC (EGNOS Introduction in European Eastern Region - APV Mielec), HEDGE (Helicopters Deploy GNSS in Europe), SHERPA (Support ad-Hoc to Eastern Region Pre-operational in GNSS). The successful completion of these projects enabled implementation 21 procedures of the RNAV GNSS final approach at Polish airports, contributing to the implementation of PBN in Poland as well as ICAO resolution A37-11. Results of conducted research which served for the implementation of satellite techniques in the air transport constitute the meaning of this material.

  2. Study of cadmium-humic interactions and determination of stability constants of cadmium-humate complexes from their diffusion coefficients obtained by scanned stripping voltammetry and dynamic light scattering techniques

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chakraborty, P.

    and toxicity of Cd species in environmental systems. Determination of diffusion coefficients of Cd-HA systems by Scanned stripping voltammetry and dynamic light scattering techniques can provide a better understanding of the systems and can be very useful...

  3. Determination Of The Aflatoxin B1 In Ground Nut By Differential Pulse Cathodic Stripping Voltammetry (Dpcsv) Technique

    OpenAIRE

    Yaacob, Mohammad Hadzri; Yusoff, Abdull Rahim Hj. Mohd.; Ahamad, Rahmalan

    2009-01-01

    An electro analytical method has been developed for the detection and determination of the 2,3,6a,9a-tetrahydro- 4-methoxycyclo penta[c] furo[3’,2’:4,5] furo [2,3-h][l] benzopyran-1,11-dione (aflatoxin B1, AFB1) by a differential pulse cathodic stripping voltammetry on a hanging mercury drop electrode (HMDE) in aqueous solution with Britton-Robinson buffer (BRb) as supporting electrolyte. Effect of instrumental parameters such as accumulation potential (Eacc), accumulation time (tacc) and ...

  4. Control Techniques in Heating, Ventilating and Air Conditioning Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Mirinejad

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Heating, Ventilating and Air Conditioning (HVAC systems are among the main installations in residential, commercial and industrial buildings. The purpose of the HVAC systems is normally to provide a comfortable environment in terms of temperature, humidity and other environmental parameters for the occupants as well as to save energy. Achieving these objectives requires a suitable control system design. Approach: In this overview, thermal comfort level and ISO comfort field is introduced, followed by a review and comparison of the main existing control techniques used in HVAC systems to date. Results: The present overview shows that intelligent controllers which are based on the human sensation of thermal comfort have a better performance in providing thermal comfort as well as energy saving than the traditional controllers and those based on a model of the HVAC system. Conclusion: Such an overview provides an insight into current control methods in HVAC systems and can help scholars and HVAC learners to have the comprehensive information about a variety of control techniques in the field of HVAC and therefore to better design a proper controller for their work

  5. Integration of photocatalytic oxidation with air stripping of contaminated aquifers. Report for 1 October 1993--30 June 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Changrani, R.; Raupp, G.B.; Turchi, C.

    1998-12-01

    The global objective of this work was to evaluate the integration of gas-solid ultraviolet (UV) photocatalytic oxidation (PCO) downstream of an air stripper as a technology for cost-effectively treating water pumped from an aquifer contaminated with chlorinated volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Experimental work was performed at the bench-scale in the laboratory during the first phase of the project, and at the pilot-scale in a simulated field-test situation during the second phase.

  6. Passive focusing techniques for piezoelectric air-coupled ultrasonic transducers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez Álvarez-Arenas, Tomás E; Camacho, Jorge; Fritsch, Carlos

    2016-04-01

    This paper proposes a novel passive focusing system for Air-Coupled Ultrasonic (ACU) piezoelectric transducers which is inspired by the Newtonian-Cassegrain (NC) telescope concept. It consist of a primary spherical mirror with an output hole and a flat secondary mirror, normal to the propagation axis, that is the transducer surface itself. The device is modeled and acoustic field is calculated showing a collimated beam with a symmetrical focus. A prototype according to this design is built and tested with an ACU piezoelectric transducer with center frequency at 400kHz, high-sensitivity, wideband and 25mm diameter flat aperture. The acoustic field is measured and compared with calculations. The presented prototype exhibit a 1.5mm focus width and a collimated beam up to 15mm off the output hole. In addition, the performance of this novel design is compared, both theoretically and experimentally, with two techniques used before for electrostatic transducers: the Fresnel Zone Plate - FZP and the off-axis parabolic or spherical mirror. The proposed NC arrangement has a coaxial design, which eases the transducers positioning and use in many applications, and is less bulky than off-axis mirrors. Unlike in off-axis mirrors, it is now possible to use a spherical primary mirror with minimum aberrations. FZP provides a more compact solution and is easy to build, but presents some background noise due to interference of waves diffracted at out of focus regions. By contrast, off-axis parabolic mirrors provide a well defined focus and are free from background noise, although they are bulky and more difficult to build. Spherical mirrors are more easily built, but this yields a non symmetric beam and a poorly defined focus. PMID:26799129

  7. Pulse Stripping Analysis: A Technique for Determination of Some Metals in Aerosols and Other Limited Size Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parry, Edward P.; Hern, Don H.

    1971-01-01

    A technique for determining lead with a detection limit down to a nanogram on limited size samples is described. The technique is an electrochemical one and involves pre-concentration of the metal species in a mercury drop. Although the emphasis in this paper is on the determination of lead, many metal ion species which are reducible to the metal at an electrode are equally determinable. A technique called pulse polarography is proposed to determine the metals in the drop and this technique is discussed and is compared with other techniques. Other approaches for determination of lead are also compared. Some data are also reported for the lead content of Ventura County particulates. The characterization of lead species by solubility parameters is discussed.

  8. A cost-effectiveness analysis of the in situ air stripping technology at the Savannah River Integrated Demonstration site. Part 1 and Part 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study reports on an evaluation of a proposed new technology for remediating existing groundwater contamination. Two tasks are undertaken in this report. The first is a conventional cost-effectiveness analysis of the new technology versus existing technologies. In this evaluation several issues are addressed such as the choice of the metric used in the cost-effectiveness analysis, the time period of the evaluation, the appropriate discount rate, and the assumptions used for extrapolation of the field data. The second task is the extension of the conventional cost-effectiveness analysis to incorporate a decision analysis framework. This extension revolves many issues raised in conducting cost-effectiveness analysis of complex technologies. It allows inclusion of physical modeling, in this case groundwater modeling, to augment the limited field data and to analyzed different implementations of the technology. This study evaluates the performance of the new technology, in situ air stripping (ISAS), as compared with a conventional technology that involves the joint use of pump and treat with soil vapor extraction (PT-SVE) using vertical wells

  9. Experimental technique of calibration of symmetrical air pollution models

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    P Kumar

    2005-10-01

    Based on the inherent property of symmetry of air pollution models,a Symmetrical Air Pollution Model Index (SAPMI)has been developed to calibrate the accuracy of predictions made by such models,where the initial quantity of release at the source is not known.For exact prediction the value of SAPMI should be equal to 1.If the predicted values are overestimating then SAPMI is > 1and if it is underestimating then SAPMI is < 1.Specific design for the layout of receptors has been suggested as a requirement for the calibration experiments.SAPMI is applicable for all variations of symmetrical air pollution dispersion models.

  10. 75 FR 59180 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Maryland; Control Technique...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-27

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Maryland; Control... and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Maryland; Control Technique Guidelines for Paper... adopting the requirements of EPA's Control Technique Guidelines (CTG) for paper, film, and foil...

  11. AIR Tools - A MATLAB Package of Algebraic Iterative Reconstruction Techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Per Christian; Saxild-Hansen, Maria

    are implemented: Algebraic Reconstruction Techniques (ART) and Simultaneous Iterative Reconstruction Techniques (SIRT). In addition we provide a few simplified test problems from medical and seismic tomography. For each iterative method, a number of strategies are available for choosing the relaxation...

  12. Air pollution inside a small bronze foundry plant, measured by the energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this paper was to evaluate the chemical concentration of some elements in Suspended Particulate Matter (SPM) inside a small bronze (copper and zinc alloy) foundry plant. Using a rotating streaker air-particulate sampler, it was possible to collect fine (aerodynamic diameters between 2.5 to 10 μm) and coarse particulates (aerodynamic diameters larger than 10 μm) in strips deposited on membranes, during eight hours, with a twenty minutes step. This first fraction is particularly important, because it can reach the lung alveoli and, depending on their chemical composition and concentration, cause serious damage to the health. Each sample strip, containing the deposited SPM was analyzed by energy dispersive X-ray Fluorescence (EDXRF) technique, using in the excitation a collimated the X-ray beam coming from a Mo target tube (30 kV, 20 ma, Zr filter). For collimating it was used a bronze collimator with 72 mm long, 10 mm at entrance diameter and 5 x 0.5 mm rectangular slit at exit. The characteristic X-ray detection was carried out using a Si(Li) semiconductor detector coupled to a multi-channel analyzer, and the X-ray spectra were fitted with the AXIL software. The temporal profiles for twelve chemical elements are evaluated. The critical moment to the worker health in that industrial activity was during the molding process, when high concentration peaks for toxic chemical elements were measured: Zn, Pb, Cu e Ni in the fine and coarse fractions, and Cr in the coarse fraction. The Pb concentration found in the suspended particulate was shown very superior to the maximum level established by WHO, suggesting a constant monitoring of the atmosphere in these work places.(Author)

  13. A Zooming Technique for Wind Transport of Air Pollution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berkvens, P.J.F.; Botchev, M.A.; Lioen, W.; Verwer, J.G.

    1999-01-01

    In air pollution dispersion models, typically systems of millions of equations that describe wind transport, chemistry and vertical mixing have to be integrated in time. To have more accurate results over specific fixed areas of interest---usually highly polluted areas with intensive emissions---a l

  14. Dynamic Underground Stripping Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LLNL is collaborating with the UC Berkeley College of Engineering to develop and demonstrate a system of thermal remediation and underground imaging techniques for use in rapid cleanup of localized underground spills. Called ''Dynamic Stripping'' to reflect the rapid and controllable nature of the process, it will combine steam injection, direct electrical heating, and tomographic geophysical imaging in a cleanup of the LLNL gasoline spill. In the first 8 months of the project, a Clean Site engineering test was conducted to prove the field application of the techniques before moving the contaminated site in FY 92

  15. Survey of statistical techniques used in validation studies of air pollution prediction models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bornstein, R D; Anderson, S F

    1979-03-01

    Statistical techniques used by meteorologists to validate predictions made by air pollution models are surveyed. Techniques are divided into the following three groups: graphical, tabular, and summary statistics. Some of the practical problems associated with verification are also discussed. Characteristics desired in any validation program are listed and a suggested combination of techniques that possesses many of these characteristics is presented.

  16. Air pollution studies in Tianjing city using neutron activation analysis techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two sites of airborne sampling from industrial and residential areas were made in Tianjing city during February and June using PM-10 sampler and analyzed by NAA techniques; Comparison of air pollution between urban and rural area in Tianjing city was made using neutron activation analysis techniques and some other data analyzing techniques. (author)

  17. Evaluation of the usefulness for air gap technique in digital magnification mammography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Mi Young [Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, Dankook University Hospital, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-06-15

    The purpose of this study was investigated optimal exposure condition in digital magnification mammography to decrease radiation dose and increase image quality of the examine. Auto mode, the average glandular dose is higher than the manual mode. Average glandular dose and image quality were many differences on between grid and air gap technique in auto mode. However, Average glandular dose and signal-to-noise ratio were not different on between grid and air gap technique in manual mode. The signal-to-noise ratio was increased when using the air-gap technique in both mode. According to result, air gap technique may reduce average glandular dose and increase signal-to-noise ratio in digital magnification mammography.

  18. Air Pollution in Shanghai Studied by Nuclear Analysis Techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper PIXE, μ-PIXE, XAFS, Moessbauer effect and radioisotope labelling method are briefly introduced. Those methods were used to study the pollution of atmospheric particulate matter (PM) in Shanghai. The speciation of Cr, Mn, Cu, and Zn in the PM10 and PM2.5 and different character of vehicle exhausted particles from other emission sources were studied. Source apportionment of the atmospheric lead was calculated with a combined method of lead isotope ratios and lead mass balance, along with μ-PIXE analysis of single particles and pattern recognition of the spectra. The fabricated ultrafine particles to simulate aerosol particle was used to study the translocation from alveolus into circulation across the air blood barrier

  19. Radon measurements technique in air using a track plastic detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A difusion chamber is used to measure the radon concentration in air through alpha particles tracks in Makrofol E, 300μm thick. This system was developed by Karlsruhe Nuclear Research Centre, Germany, and is already used by the Occupational Radiological Protection Department of IRD/CNEN, for premilimar measurements in Pocos de Caldas and Rio de Janeiro. In the chamber, the plastic detector is set at the lower end and a filter is placed at the upper end. In this way, a known volume is defined in the detector system. To amplify the tracks produced by the alpha particles due to radon and short-lived dadon-daughter products, an electrochemical system is employed. Some theoretical questions about the treeing produced by the electrochemical etching, the detector characteristics, as well as the adapted statistics model are also discussed. (Author)

  20. Application of an Optimisation Technique to an Air Force Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.K. Sahiar

    1977-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with an optimisation technique for determining the relative effectiveness of different types of bombs being dropped over a certain target area. The measure of effectiveness is the total effort required for each type of bomb to lethalise a given fraction of the total target area and the one with the least total effort is taken to be the most cost-effective solution. The total effort takes into account the number of bombs dropped, their costs and also the costs of the sorties performed to carry out the mission. A mathematical model has been formulated and discussed in detail.

  1. Determination of metals in air samples using X-Ray fluorescence associated the APDC preconcentration technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Air pollution has become one of the leading quality degradation factors of life for people in large urban centers. Studies indicate that the suspended particulate matter in the atmosphere is directly associated with risks to public health, in addition, it can cause damage to fauna, flora and public / cultural patrimonies. The inhalable particulate materials can cause the emergence and / or worsening of chronic diseases related to respiratory system and other diseases, such as reduced physical strength. In this study, we propose a new method to measure the concentration of total suspended particulate matter (TSP) in the air using an impinger as an air cleaning apparatus, preconcentration with APDC and Total Reflection X-ray Fluorescence technique (TXRF) to analyze the heavy metals present in the air. The samples were collected from five random points in the city of Rio de Janeiro/Brazil. Analyses of TXRF were performed at the Brazilian Synchrotron Light Laboratory (LNLS). The technique proved viable because it was able to detect five important metallic elements to environmental studies: Cr, Fe, Ni, Cu and Zn. This technique presented substantial efficiency in determining the elementary concentration of air pollutants, in addition to low cost. It can be concluded that the metals analysis technique in air samples using an impinger as sample collection instrument associated with a complexing agent (APDC) was viable because it is a low-cost technique, moreover, it was possible the detection of five important metal elements in environmental studies associated with industrial emissions and urban traffic. (author)

  2. Determination of metals in air samples using X-Ray fluorescence associated the APDC preconcentration technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nardes, Raysa C.; Santos, Ramon S.; Sanches, Francis A.C.R.A.; Gama Filho, Hamilton S.; Oliveira, Davi F.; Anjos, Marcelino J., E-mail: rc.nardes@gmail.com, E-mail: ramonziosp@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: francissanches@gmail.com, E-mail: hamiltongamafilho@hotmail.com, E-mail: davi.oliveira@uerj.br, E-mail: marcelin@uerj.br [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Instituto de Fisica. Departamento de Fisica Aplicada e Termodinamica

    2015-07-01

    Air pollution has become one of the leading quality degradation factors of life for people in large urban centers. Studies indicate that the suspended particulate matter in the atmosphere is directly associated with risks to public health, in addition, it can cause damage to fauna, flora and public / cultural patrimonies. The inhalable particulate materials can cause the emergence and / or worsening of chronic diseases related to respiratory system and other diseases, such as reduced physical strength. In this study, we propose a new method to measure the concentration of total suspended particulate matter (TSP) in the air using an impinger as an air cleaning apparatus, preconcentration with APDC and Total Reflection X-ray Fluorescence technique (TXRF) to analyze the heavy metals present in the air. The samples were collected from five random points in the city of Rio de Janeiro/Brazil. Analyses of TXRF were performed at the Brazilian Synchrotron Light Laboratory (LNLS). The technique proved viable because it was able to detect five important metallic elements to environmental studies: Cr, Fe, Ni, Cu and Zn. This technique presented substantial efficiency in determining the elementary concentration of air pollutants, in addition to low cost. It can be concluded that the metals analysis technique in air samples using an impinger as sample collection instrument associated with a complexing agent (APDC) was viable because it is a low-cost technique, moreover, it was possible the detection of five important metal elements in environmental studies associated with industrial emissions and urban traffic. (author)

  3. Applied research on air pollution using nuclear-related analytical techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A co-ordinated research programme (CRP) on applied research on air pollution using nuclear-related techniques is a global CRP which will run from 1992-1996, and will build upon the experience gained by the Agency from the laboratory support that it has been providing for several years to BAPMoN - the Background Air Pollution Monitoring Network programme organized under the auspices of the World Meterological Organization. The purpose of this CRP is to promote the use of nuclear analytical techniques in air pollution studies, e.g. NAA, XFR, and PIXE for the analysis of toxic and other trace elements in suspended particulate matter (including air filter samples), rainwater and fog-water samples, and in biological indicators of air pollution (e.g. lichens and mosses). The main purposes of the core programme are i) to support the use of nuclear and nuclear-related analytical techniques for practically-oriented research and monitoring studies on air pollution ii) to identify major sources of air pollution affecting each of the participating countries with particular reference to toxic heavy metals, and iii) to obtain comparative data on pollution levels in areas of high pollution (e.g. a city centre or a populated area downwind of a large pollution source) and low pollution (e.g. rural areas). This document reports the discussions held during the first Research Co-ordination Meeting (RCM) for the CRP which took place at the IAEA Headquarters in Vienna. Refs, figs and tabs

  4. The integration of FAO-CropWat Model and GIS Techniques for Estimating Irrigation Water Requirement and Its Application in the Gaza Strip

    OpenAIRE

    Husam Al-Najar

    2011-01-01

    In the Gaza Strip irrigation practices are only based on the farmer’s own experience, they determine when and how to irrigate crops based on the appearance of the soil and the climatic conditions. Even though FAO-CropWat model is used for many countries to estimate irrigation water requirements, it is rarely used for Gaza Strip. In the current re-search, it is the first attempt to model the historical available meteorological data to estimate the irrigation water requirements for the most com...

  5. Techniques for the measurement of the contamination of air; Technique de mesure de la contamination de l'air

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Labeyrie, J. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1960-07-01

    This lecture has been given at the International Symposium of Riso 1959. Methods for measuring radioactive content of the atmosphere are described, and main results found at Saclay are given, for the following contaminants: Rn, Tn and their daughter, H-3, C-14, A-41, Kr-85, I-131, and fission products as a whole. (author) [French] Ce texte est celui d'une conference-rapport prononcee au Colloque International de Riso en 1959. On indique les techniques de mesures de la contamination radioactive de l'atmosphere et les principaux resultats obtenus jusqu'ici au CEA pour: Rn et Tn et leurs derives, H-3, C-14, A-41, Kr-85, I-131, et l'ensemble des produits de fission. (auteur)

  6. CMS Silicon Strip Tracker Monitoring

    CERN Document Server

    Mersi, Stefano

    2010-01-01

    The CMS Silicon Strip Tracker is the largest detector of its kind ever operated, with a silicon surface area of about 200 m$^2$ of silicon surface. The Silicon Strip Tracker it is the sub-detector with the highest number of detector modules within the CMS experiment. Given the complexity of the device, a variety of tools were developed and are used to determine the status of the detector in real time and allow for data qualification and corrective actions when needed. In this paper we describe the monitoring techniques that are used to safely operate the detector and assess the state of its calibration.

  7. Spray Rolling Aluminum Strip

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lavernia, E.J.; Delplanque, J-P; McHugh, K.M.

    2006-05-10

    Spray forming is a competitive low-cost alternative to ingot metallurgy for manufacturing ferrous and non-ferrous alloy shapes. It produces materials with a reduced number of processing steps, while maintaining materials properties, with the possibility of near-net-shape manufacturing. However, there are several hurdles to large-scale commercial adoption of spray forming: 1) ensuring strip is consistently flat, 2) eliminating porosity, particularly at the deposit/substrate interface, and 3) improving material yield. Through this program, a new strip/sheet casting process, termed spray rolling, has been developed, which is an innovative manufacturing technique to produce aluminum net-shape products. Spray rolling combines the benefits of twin-roll casting and conventional spray forming, showing a promising potential to overcome the above hurdles associated with spray forming. Spray rolling requires less energy and generates less scrap than conventional processes and, consequently, enables the development of materials with lower environmental impacts in both processing and final products. Spray Rolling was developed as a collaborative project between the University of California-Davis, the Colorado School of Mines, the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, and an industry team. The following objectives of this project were achieved: (1) Demonstration of the feasibility of the spray rolling process at the bench-scale level and evaluation of the materials properties of spray rolled aluminum strip alloys; and (2) Demonstration of 2X scalability of the process and documentation of technical hurdles to further scale up and initiate technology transfer to industry for eventual commercialization of the process.

  8. Electrochemical Performances of Diamond Like Carbon Films for Pb(II) Detection in Tap Water Using Differential Pulse Anodic Stripping Voltammetry Technique

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sbartai, A.; Namour, F.; Barbier, F.; Krejčí, J.; Kučerová, R.; Krejčí, T.; Neděla, Vilém; Sobota, Jaroslav; Jaffrezic-Renault, N.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 11, č. 8 (2013), s. 1524-1529. ISSN 1546-198X Institutional support: RVO:68081731 Keywords : Diamond Like Carbon DLC * Lead Detection * Differential Pulse Anodic Stripping * Voltammetry * Tap Water Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering Impact factor: 0.558, year: 2013

  9. Stripping of volatile organic compounds; Stripping a la vapeur de composes organiques volatils (COV)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooper, A. [APV Anhydro, Copenhagen (Denmark); Plante, J.L. [APV Anhydro, 27 - Evreux (France)

    1997-12-31

    The pollution of aqueous effluents by volatile organic compounds (VOC) is a real problem for the chemical industry. Steam stripping of such compounds can, when the procedure is well designed, result in extremely low residual levels. This article describes the stripping technique, taking as an example an APV Anhydro installation which carries out the stripping of the methyl-chloride contained in an effluent containing other volatile compounds. This installation was built in 1990 for the Upjohn company in Kalamazoo, Michigan. (authors)

  10. Air-gap Limitations and Bypass Techniques: “Command and Control” using Smart Electromagnetic Interferences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaouki Kasmi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Air gaps are generally considered to be a very efficient information security protection. However, this technique also showed limitations, involving finding covert channels for bridging the air gap. Interestingly, recent publications have pointed out that a smart use of the intentional electromagnetic interferences introduced new threats for information security. In this paper, an innovative way for remotely communicating with a malware already installed on a computer by involving the induced perturbations is discussed leading to the design of a new air gap bridging covert channel.

  11. Lateral flow strip assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, Robin R.; Benett, William J.; Coleman, Matthew A.; Pearson, Francesca S.; Nasarabadi, Shanavaz L.

    2011-03-08

    A lateral flow strip assay apparatus comprising a housing; a lateral flow strip in the housing, the lateral flow strip having a receiving portion; a sample collection unit; and a reagent reservoir. Saliva and/or buccal cells are collected from an individual using the sample collection unit. The sample collection unit is immersed in the reagent reservoir. The tip of the lateral flow strip is immersed in the reservoir and the reagent/sample mixture wicks up into the lateral flow strip to perform the assay.

  12. Area specific stripping factors for AGS. A method for extracting stripping factors from survey data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to use Airborne Gamma-ray Spectrometry (AGS) for contamination mapping, for source search etc. one must to be able to eliminate the contribution to the spectra from natural radioactivity. This in general is done by a stripping technique. The parameters for performing a stripping have until recently been measured by recording gamma spectra at special calibration sites (pads). This may be cumbersome and the parameters may not be correct when used at low gamma energies for environmental spectra. During 2000-2001 DTU tested with success a new technique for Carborne Gamma-ray Spectrometry (CGS) where the spectra from the surveyed area (or from a similar area) were used for calculating the stripping parameters. It was possible to calculate usable stripping ratios for a number of low energy windows - and weak source signals not detectable by other means were discovered with the ASS technique. In this report it is shown that the ASS technique also works for AGS data, and it has been used for recent Danish AGS tests with point sources. (Check of calibration of AGS parameters.) By using the ASS technique with the Boden data (Barents Rescue) an exercise source was detected that has not been detected by any of the teams during the exercise. The ASS technique therefore seems to be better for search for radiation anomalies than any other method known presently. The experiences also tell that although the stripping can be performed correctly at any altitude there is a variation of the stripping parameters with altitude that has not yet been quite understood. However, even with the oddly variations the stripping worked as expected. It was also observed that one might calculate a single common set of usable stripping factors for all altitudes from the entire data set i.e. some average a, b and c values. When those stripping factors were used the stripping technique still worked well. (au)

  13. Characterisation of air particulate matter in Klang Valley by neutron activation analysis technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Air particulate matter is known to affect human health, impairs visibility and can cause climate change. Study on air particulate matter in term of particle size and chemical contents is very important to indicate the quality of air in a sampling area. Information on concentration of important constituents in air particles can be used to identify some of emission sources which contribute to the pollution problem. The data collected may also be, used as a basis to design a strategy in order to overcome the air pollution problem in the area. The study involved sampling of air dust at two stations, one in Bangi and the other in Kuala Lumpur using Gent Stack Sampler units. Each sampler capable of collecting air particle sizes smaller than 2.5 micron (PM 2.5) and between 2.5 - O micron on two different filters simultaneously. The filters were measured for their mass, elemental carbon and elemental concentrations using analytical equipment or techniques including reflectometer and Neutron Activation Analysis. The results of analysis on samples collected in 1997-1998 are discussed. (author)

  14. Optimization of the Starting by compressed air techniques; Optimizacion del Arranque en el sutiraje mediante tecnicas de aire comprimido

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    High-pressure compressed air shots have been begun to use for coal stop caving in horizontal sublevel caving workings, as alternative to explosives, since they do not condition the winning cycles and they produce a smaller deterioration in the vein walls. In spite of those advantages, different parameters influence on shot result is not known. For this reason, a research project has been carried out in order to improve the high-pressure compressed air technique to extend the system implementation and to reduce the winning costs in the sublevel caving workings. The research works have consisted of a numerical model development and reduced scale and real scale tests. The model describes fragile material fragmentation under dynamical loadings and it has been implemented in a code. The tests allow to study the different parameter influence and to validate the numerical model. The main research results are, on the one hand, a numerical model that allows to define the best shot plan for user's working conditions and, on the other hand, the great influence of the air volume on the disruptive strength has been proven. (Author)

  15. Anatomy comic strips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jin Seo; Kim, Dae Hyun; Chung, Min Suk

    2011-01-01

    Comics are powerful visual messages that convey immediate visceral meaning in ways that conventional texts often cannot. This article's authors created comic strips to teach anatomy more interestingly and effectively. Four-frame comic strips were conceptualized from a set of anatomy-related humorous stories gathered from the authors' collective imagination. The comics were drawn on paper and then recreated with digital graphics software. More than 500 comic strips have been drawn and labeled in Korean language, and some of them have been translated into English. All comic strips can be viewed on the Department of Anatomy homepage at the Ajou University School of Medicine, Suwon, Republic of Korea. The comic strips were written and drawn by experienced anatomists, and responses from viewers have generally been favorable. These anatomy comic strips, designed to help students learn the complexities of anatomy in a straightforward and humorous way, are expected to be improved further by the authors and other interested anatomists. PMID:21634024

  16. Air Pollution with Heavy Metals and Radionuclides in Slovakia Studied by the Moss Biomonitoring Technique

    CERN Document Server

    Florek, M; Mankovska, B; Oprea, K; Pavlov, S S; Steinnes, E; Sykora, I

    2001-01-01

    Applying the moss biomonitoring technique to air pollution studies in Slovakia, heavy metals, rare-earth elements, actinides (U and Th) were determined in 86 moss samples from the European moss survey 2000 by means of epithermal neutron activation analysis at the IBR-2 reactor (Dubna). Such elements as In, Cu, Cd, Hg and Pb were determined by AAS in the Forest Research Institute, Zvolen (Slovakia). The results of measurement of the natural radionuclides ^{210}Pb, ^{7}Be, ^{137}Cs and ^{40}K in 11 samples of moss are also reported. A comparison with the results from moss surveys 1991 and 1995 revealed previously unknown tendencies of air pollution in the examined areas.

  17. Air-coupled ultrasound: a novel technique for monitoring the curing of thermosetting matrices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lionetto, Francesca; Tarzia, Antonella; Maffezzoli, Alfonso

    2007-07-01

    A custom-made, air-coupled ultrasonic device was applied to cure monitoring of thick samples (7-10 mm) of unsaturated polyester resin at room temperature. A key point was the optimization of the experimental setup in order to propagate compression waves during the overall curing reaction by suitable placement of the noncontact transducers, placed on the same side of the test material, in the so-called pitch-catch configuration. The progress of polymerization was monitored through the variation of the time of flight of the propagating longitudinal waves. The exothermic character of the polymerization was taken into account by correcting the measured value of time of flight with that one in air, obtained by sampling the air velocity during the experiment. The air-coupled ultrasonic results were compared with those obtained from conventional contact ultrasonic measurements. The good agreement between the air-coupled ultrasonic results and those obtained by the rheological analysis demonstrated the reliability of air-coupled ultrasound in monitoring the changes of viscoelastic properties at gelation and vitrification. The position of the transducers on the same side of the sample makes this technique suitable for on-line cure monitoring during several composite manufacturing technologies. PMID:17718333

  18. Comparison of three techniques to measure unsaturated-zone air permeability at Picatinny Arsenal, NJ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Mira Stone; Tillman, Fred D.; Choi, Jee-Won; Smith, James A.

    2001-12-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare three techniques to measure the air permeability of the unsaturated zone at Picatinny Arsenal, NJ and to examine the effects of moisture content and soil heterogeneity on air permeability. Air permeability was measured in three ways: laboratory experiments on intact soil cores, field-scale air pump tests and calibration of air permeability to air pressures measured in the field under natural air pressure conditions using a numerical airflow model. The results obtained from these three methods were compared and found to be similar. Laboratory experiments performed on intact cores measured air permeability values on the order of 10 -14 to 10 -9 m 2. Low-permeability cores were found between land surface and a depth of 0.6 m. The soil core data were divided into two layers with composite vertical permeability values of 1.3×10 -13 m 2 from land surface to a 0.6-m depth and 3.8×10 -10 m 2 for the lower layer. Analyses of the field-scale pump tests were performed for two scenarios: one in which the entire unsaturated zone was open to the atmosphere and one assuming a cap of low permeability extending 0.6 m below land surface. The vertical air permeability values obtained for the open scenario ranged from 1.2×10 -9 to 1.5×10 -9 m 2, and ranged from 3.6×10 -9 to 6.8×10 -9 m 2 in the lower layer, assuming an upper cap permeability of 6.0×10 -14 m 2. The results from the open scenario are much higher than expected and the possible reasons for this ambiguity are discussed. The results from the capped scenario matched closely with those from the other methods and indicated that it is important to have background information on the study site to correctly analyze the pump test data. The optimized fit of the natural subsurface air pressure was achieved with an intrinsic permeability value of 3.3×10 -14 m 2. When the data were refitted to the model assuming two distinct layers of the unsaturated zone, the optimized fit was achieved

  19. Strip profile gauge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An improved radiation gauge is described for measuring the thickness profile of strip. The system is such that the measurement is made more nearly across the width of the strip substantially at right angles to the direction of motion of the strip than is usual in such gauges. The system consists of an X-ray source on the side of the strip which produces a fan shaped beam, a number of detectors placed on the other side and data transmission and display devices. (UK)

  20. Currents trends in the application of IBA techniques to air pollution source fingerprinting and source apportionment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: IBA techniques have been used for many years to characterise fine particle air pollution. This is not new the techniques are well established. Typically 2-3 MeV protons are used to bombard thin filter papers and up to four simultaneous techniques like PIXE, PIGE, RBS and ERDA will be applied to obtain (μg/g) concentrations for elements from hydrogen to lead. Generally low volume samplers are used to sample between 20-30 m3 of air over a 24 hour period, this together with IBA's sensitivity means that concentrations down to 1 ng/m3 of air sampled can be readily achieved with only a few minutes of proton irradiation. With these short irradiation times and low sensitivities for a broad range of elements in the periodic table, large numbers of samples can be obtained and analysed very quickly and easily. At ANSTO we have used IBA methods to acquire a database of over 50,000 filters from 85 different sites through Australia and Asia, each filter has been analysed for more than 21 different chemical species. Large databases extending over many years means that modern statistical techniques like positive matrix factorisation (PMF) can be used to define well characterised source fingerprints and source contributions for a range of different fine particle air pollutants. In this paper we will discuss these PMF techniques and show how they identify both natural sources like sea spray and windblown soils as well as anthropogenic sources like automobiles, biomass burning, coal-fired power stations and industrial emissions. These data are particularly useful for Governments, EPA's and managers of pollution to better understanding pollution sources and their relative contributions and hence to better manage air pollution. Current trends are to take these IBA and PMF techniques a step further and to combine them with wind speed and back trajectory data to better pin point and identify emission sources. We show how this is now being applied on both a local

  1. Nuclear and atomic techniques in air pollution studies by transplant lichens and air dust collection on filters in Romania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lichen transplants from relatively unpolluted sites are successfully used as heavy metal bioaccumulators for air pollution monitoring, significant element accumulations being generally revealed after 6 to 12 months of exposure. The simultaneous collection of bulk (wet and dry) deposition and airborne particulate matter on filters supplies information on the atmospheric availability of trace elements. The potential of the lichen transplant technique and the high effectiveness of nuclear and atomic methods (INAA, XRFA and ICP-MS) applied to air pollution studies in Romania are presented. The paper is mainly based on the study entitled 'Air pollution monitoring by sampling airborne particulate matter combined with lichen bioaccumulator exposure', which is in progress at IDRANAP (Inter-Disciplinary Research and Applications based on Nuclear and Atomic Physics) Center of Excellence of IFIN-HH as part of the EU project ICA1-CT-2000-70023. In this study, Evernia prunastri and Pseudevernia furfuracea lichen species from the Prealps, northeastern Italy, were exposed during 6 and 12 months at six locations with different degrees and types of industrial activity, as well as on a background site with relatively clean air. Bulk deposition was collected for the same periods, while airborne particulate matter was collected for 2 months at each investigated location. The accumulating capacity of Evernia prunastri and Pseudevernia furfuracea corresponding to these specific environmental conditions was compared with those of Cetraria islandica, Evernia prunastri, and Ramalina farinacea used in a previous comparative air pollution study involving exposure sites in Germany, Italy, and Romania (Project No. RUM-020-96, partly supported by the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research). The lichen material was analyzed by INAA, XRFA, and ICP-MS, while the aerosol filters were analyzed by INAA and XRFA, and the bulk deposition by INAA. The main elements determined were: As, Br, Ca

  2. Unmanned air/ground vehicles heterogeneous cooperative techniques:Current status and prospects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Multiple unmanned air/ground vehicles heterogeneous cooperation is a novel and challenging filed.Heterogeneous cooperative techniques can widen the application fields of unmanned air or ground vehicles,and enhance the effectiveness of implementing detection,search and rescue tasks.This paper mainly focused on the key issues in multiple unmanned air/ground vehicles heterogeneous cooperation,including heterogeneous flocking,formation control,formation stability,network control,and actual applications.The main problems and future directions in this field were also analyzed in detail.These innovative technologies can significantly enhance the effectiveness of implementing complicated tasks,which definitely provide a series of novel breakthroughs for the intelligence,integration and advancement of future robot systems.

  3. The noise analysis and optimum filtering techniques for a two-dimensional position sensitive orthogonal strip gamma ray detector employing resistive charge division

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The analysis of an orthogonal strip, two-dimensional position sensitive high purity germanium gamma ray detector is discussed. Position sensitivity is obtained by connecting each electrode strip on the detector to a resistor network. Charge, entering the network, divides in relation to the resistance between its entry point and the virtual earth points of the charge sensitive preamplifiers located at the end of each resistor network. The difference of the voltage pulses at the output of each preamplifier is proportional to the position at which the charge entered the resistor network and the sum of the pulse is proportional to the energy of the detected gamma ray. The analysis and spatial noise resolution is presented for this type of position sensitive detector. The results of the analysis show that the position resolution is proportional to the square root of the filter amplifier's output pulse time constant and that for energy measurement the resolution is maximized at the filter amplifier's noise corner time constant. The design of the electronic noise filtering system for the prototype gamma ray camera was based on the mathematical energy and spatial resolution equations. For the spatial channel a Gaussian trapezoidal filtering system was developed. Gaussian filtering was used for the energy channel. The detector noise model was verified by taking rms noise measurements of the filtered energy and spatial pulses from resistive readout charge dividing detectors. These measurements were within 10% of theory. (Auth.)

  4. Development of two-dimensional mapping technique by in-air-PIXE with metal capillary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujita, N., E-mail: ean.fujita@cc.nara-wu.ac.j [Graduate School of Humanities and Sciences, Nara Women' s University, Nara 630-8506 (Japan); Ishii, K.; Ogawa, H. [Department of Physics, Nara Women' s University, Nara 630-8506 (Japan)

    2011-05-01

    We have developed the two-dimensional mapping technique with in-air-PIXE (2D-PIXE) using a metal capillary as a guide to extract ion beam to air. The metal capillary is the conventional injection needle with a 200 {mu}m inside diameter. For the target which is the character made of the copper wires on aluminum basement, 2D-PIXE measurements were performed by irradiating 3 MeV proton beam. As a result, the character was tend to be restored clearly by this method. We discuss about the result of the two-dimensional map from a viewpoint of the signal-to-noise ratio and the resolution. This technique is expected to be applicable to various fields such as biology, nano-technology, archeology and so on.

  5. Investigation of the quality of the surface of wood lamellas using air – coupled ultrasonic technique

    OpenAIRE

    Žukauskas, E.; Raišutis, R.; Voleišis, A.; Vladišauskas, A.; Kairiūkštis, L.

    2008-01-01

    The investigation of roughness and presence of surface defects in wooden lamellas, which are used in manufacturing of glued wood panels, is an important industrial problem. Well prepared and defect free surfaces guarantee qualitative jointing of the panels. Air – coupled ultrasonic is a very attractive technique for investigation of surfaces of wooden products, because it allows to perform measurements without liquid or semi liquid coupling material. Experimental investigations of wooden lame...

  6. Nuclear Microscopy for Air-Pollutant Characterization and Its Advantages over Traditional Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ram, S. S.; Kumar, R. V.; Chaudhuri, P.; Chanda, S.; Santra, S. C.; Deary, M.; Sudarshan, M.; Chakraborty, A.

    2014-03-01

    In the present study we establish the use of the proton induced X-ray emission (PIXE) technique coupled with Rutherford backscattering as a sensitive technique for air-pollution monitoring. Several elements such as Al, Si, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, and As were detected in the ppm level of concentration. Comparisons show the advantages of micro-PIXE over scanning microscope-based energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry (SEM-EDX) and energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (EDXRF).

  7. The Strip Module

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Tommy

    1996-01-01

    When the behaviour of a ship in waves is to be predicted it is convenient to have a tool which includes different approaches to the problem.The aim of this project is to develop such a tool named the strip theory module. The strip theory module will consist of submodules dependent on the I-ship c...

  8. Dynamic Underground Stripping Demonstration Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LLNL is collaborating with the UC Berkeley College of Engineering to develop and demonstrate a system of thermal remediation and underground imaging techniques for use in rapid cleanup of localized underground spills. Called ''Dynamic Stripping'' to reflect the rapid and controllable nature of the process, it will combine steam injection, direct electrical heating, and tomographic geophysical imaging in a cleanup of the LLNL gasoline spill. In the first 8 months of the project, a Clean Site engineering test was conducted to prove the field application of the techniques before moving to the contaminated site in FY 92

  9. Thermodynamic assessment of impact of inlet air cooling techniques on gas turbine and combined cycle performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The article is focused on the comparison of impact of two different methods of inlet air cooling (vapor compression and vapor absorption cooling) integrated to a cooled gas turbine based combined cycle plant. Air-film cooling has been adopted as the cooling technique for gas turbine blades. A parametric study of the effect of compressor pressure ratio, compressor inlet temperature (Ti,C), turbine inlet temperature (Ti,T), ambient relative humidity and ambient temperature on performance parameters of plant has been carried out. Optimum Ti,T corresponding to maximum plant efficiency of combined cycle increases by 100 °C due to the integration of inlet air cooling. It has been observed that vapor compression cooling improves the efficiency of gas turbine cycle by 4.88% and work output by 14.77%. In case of vapor absorption cooling an improvement of 17.2% in gas cycle work output and 9.47% in gas cycle efficiency has been observed. For combined cycle configuration, however, vapor compression cooling should be preferred over absorption cooling in terms of higher plant performance. The optimum value of compressor inlet temperature has been observed to be 20 °C for the chosen set of conditions for both the inlet air cooling schemes. - Highlights: • Inlet air cooling improves performance of cooled gas turbine based combined cycle. • Vapor compression inlet air cooling is superior to vapor absorption inlet cooling. • For every turbine inlet temperature, there exists an optimum pressure ratio. • The optimum compressor inlet temperature is found to be 293 K

  10. Excimer laser photoresist stripping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genut, Menachem; Tehar-Zahav, Ofer; Iskevitch, Eli; Livshits, Boris

    1996-06-01

    A new method for stripping the most challenging photoresists on deep sub-micron technology semiconductor wafers has been developed. The method uses a combination of UV excimer laser ablation and reactive chemistry to strip the photoresist in a single dry process, eliminating the wet acids or solvents often used following ashing of high dose implantation (HDI) and reactive ion etching (RIE). The stripping process combines new removal mechanisms: chemical assisted UV excimer laser ablation/etching, laser induced chemical etching of side walls and residues, and enhanced combustion. During the laser pulses photolysis of the process gas occurs, UV laser radiation breaks the photoresist polymer chain bonds, and the photoresist (including foreign materials imbedded in it) is ablated. The combustion is ignited by the ablative impact of laser radiation and enhanced by the radicals formed during photo-thermal decomposition of the process gases. Following this process, the volatilized products and gases are evacuated. The optimum laser stripping conditions were developed to provide a wide process window for the most challenging stripping conditions, such as after HDI and RIE (metal, polysilicon), without causing damage to the wafer devices. A photoresist stripping system based on the described technology was designed and built. The system has been designated as the L-StripperTM and provides stripping time of 0.15 s/(micrometer cm2).

  11. High-speed sterilization technique using dielectric barrier discharge plasmas in atmospheric humid air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyamae, M.; Kikuchi, Y.; Fukumoto, N.; Nagata, M.

    2010-11-01

    The inactivation of Bacillus atrophaeus spores by a dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma produced by an ac voltage application of 1 kHz in atmospheric humid air was investigated in order to develop low-temperature, low-cost and high-speed plasma sterilization technique. The biological indicators covered with a Tyvek sheet were set just outside the DBD plasma region, where the air temperature and humidity as a discharge gas were precisely controlled by an environmental test chamber. The results show that the inactivation of Bacillus atrophaeus spores was found to be dependent strongly on the humidity, and was completed within 15 min at a relative humidity of 90 % and a temperature of 30 C. The treatment time for sterilization is shorter than those of conventional sterilization methods using ethylene oxide gas and dry heat treatment. It is considered that reactive species such as hydroxyl radicals that are effective for the inactivation of Bacillus atrophaeus spores could be produced by the DBD plasma in the humid air. Repetitive micro-pulsed discharge plasmas in the humid air will be applied for the sterilization experiment to enhance the sterilization efficiency.

  12. Trace element air pollution monitoring studies in Slovenia using nuclear analytical techniques. Appendix 15

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Up to now, only a few investigations have been performed in Slovenia involving comprehensive studies of trace elements, toxic elements, heavy metals and radionuclides in the atmosphere. The aim of the project is development and application of nuclear and nuclear-related analytical techniques for air pollution studies, leading to formation of a database concerning the trace element air pollution of Slovenia. In this report, the emphasis is on the methodology and analytical development (neutron activation analysis and X-ray spectrometry), and to a lesser extent on the results obtained up to now. Analytical results for several certified reference materials of similar matrix as the real samples investigated are presented and discussed. (author)

  13. Pollution of atmospheric air with toxic and radioactive particulate matter investigated by means of nuclear techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The application of spectrometric methods of nuclear techniques to the investigations of atmospheric air pollution by toxic and radioactive elements and results of these investigations conducted in the highly industrialized and urbanized regions of Poland have been presented. The method of precipitation of the samples, the measurements and analysis of radiation spectra of alpha and gamma radiation emitted by isotopes present in the samples have been described. The concentrations of toxic metal dust in the air have been evaluated by neutron activation and X-ray fluorescence analysis. Appropriate methods of measurement, calibration of instrument and the discussion of results have been presented. The work presents the results of investigations performed in Siersza within the years 1973-1974 and in Warsaw in the period of 1975-1977, which have permitted to estimate the mean monthly values of concentration in the atmospheric air of the following radioisotopes: 7Be, 54Mn, 95Zr, 103Ru, 106Ru, 125Sb, 131I, 137Cs, 140Ba, 141Ce, 144Ce, 226Ra, Th-nat, U-nat and the following stable elements: Sc, Cr, Fe, Co, Zn, As, Se, Sb, W, Pb. The analysis of changes in concentration of each particular artificial radioisotope in the air for the region of Poland in connection with Chinese nuclear explosions have been given. On the basis of the performed environmental investigations the method of analysis of relations between the concentrations of particular elements present in the dust has been discussed. The applications of this method have been presented. The hazard to the population and the environment caused by the radioactive and toxic dust present in the atmospheric air has been estimated. (author)

  14. Air pollution emission reduction techniques in combustion plants; Technique de reduction des emissions de polluants atmospheriques dans les installations de combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouscaren, R. [CITEPA, Centre Interprofessionnel Technique d`Etudes de la Pollution Atmospherique, 75 - Paris (France)

    1996-12-31

    Separating techniques offer a large choice between various procedures for air pollution reduction in combustion plants: mechanical, electrical, filtering, hydraulic, chemical, physical, catalytic, thermal and biological processes. Many environment-friendly equipment use such separating techniques, particularly for dust cleaning and fume desulfurizing and more recently for the abatement of volatile organic pollutants or dioxins and furans. These processes are briefly described

  15. Detection of fissile materials in smeared or air filter samples by fission track registration technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The fission track registration technique was investigated for the detection of fissile materials in smeared and air filter samples. The filters taken directly from the nuclear facilities were applied onto the surface of Lexan plate for neutron irradiation in the HANARO research reactor. The fission tracks in the Lexan plate were observed under optical microscope. The optimal conditions for the neutron irradiation and chemical etching were established, where the total neutron irradiation dose was 300x1013n/cm2 and the chemical etching was done in 6.25 M-NaOH solution for 10 min., respectively

  16. Nanoscratch technique for aligning multiwalled carbon nanotubes synthesized by the arc discharge method in open air

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A Joseph Berkmans; M Jagannatham; Prathap Haridoss

    2015-08-01

    Horizontally aligned and densely packed multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) were synthesized in an open air, without the need for a controlled atmosphere, using a rotating cathode arc discharge method with the help of a metal scraper. The physical force exerted by the scraper results in in-situ alignment of MWCNTs along the direction of scrape marks. This strategy, which enables the alignment of nanotubes in a controlled fashion to any length and direction of interest, was examined to determine the force required to align a nanotube. A model is developed to understand the alignment process. Using the nanoscratch technique to mimic this strategy, and incorporating the data obtained from the nanoscratch technique into the model developed, the minimum force required to align a MWCNT, as well as the energy required to align a gram of nanotubes, has been estimated. The method demonstrated represents an economical approach for large-scale synthesis of aligned MWCNTs at low costs.

  17. INTEGRATED USE OF RAPID PROTOTYPING AND METAL PLATING TECHNIQUES FOR DEVELOPMENT OF MICRO AIR VEHICLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. K. ELANGOVAN,

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the synergistic application of rapid prototyping and metal plating technologies for development of micro air vehicles (MAV with high strength-to-weight characteristic. Stereolithography and fused deposition techniques are employed to fabricate complex thermoplastic MAV prototypes with significant time-compression in production cycle. Electroless and electrolytic deposition processes are custom developed to deposit thin metallic foils of nickel and chromium over thermoplastic MAV prototypes. Plating plant with inherent provision for variation of process parameters is established and proof-of-concept studies are carried on plating of MAV prototypes. Experiments are conducted on metal plated thermoplastic test specimens for evaluating the mechanical behaviour and structural integrity properties. Present study is a conclusive demonstration of the use of layered manufacturing techniques in quick realisation of flight-worthy MAV systems.

  18. The MIDAS Experiment: A New Technique for the Detection of Extensive Air Showers

    CERN Document Server

    Williams, C; Berlin, A; Bohacova, M; Facal, P; Genat, J F; Mills, E; Monasor, M; Privitera, P; Reyes, L C; d'Orfeuil, B Rouille; Wayne, S; Alekotte, I; Bertou, X; Bonifazi, C; Neto, J R T de Mello; Santos, E M; Alvarez-Muñiz, J; Carvalho, W; Zas, E

    2010-01-01

    Recent measurements suggest free electrons created in ultra-high energy cosmic ray extensive air showers (EAS) can interact with neutral air molecules producing Bremsstrahlung radiation in the microwave regime. The microwave radiation produced is expected to scale with the number of free electrons in the shower, which itself is a function of the energy of the primary particle and atmospheric depth. Using these properties a calorimetric measurement of the EAS is possible. This technique is analogous to fluorescence detection with the added benefit of a nearly 100% duty cycle and practically no atmospheric attenuation. The Microwave Detection of Air Showers (MIDAS) prototype is currently being developed at the University of Chicago. MIDAS consists of a 53 feed receiver operating in the 3.4 to 4.2 GHz band. The camera is deployed on a 4.5 meter parabolic reflector and is instrumented with high speed power detectors and autonomous FPGA trigger electronics. We present the current status of the MIDAS instrument and...

  19. Studies of lead pollution in the air of Shanghai by multiple techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lead pollution in atmosphere has been one of the worrisome environmental problems since the tetraethyl lead was used as an antiknock agent in combustion engines. The presence of lead in urban air, even at low doses, may cause neurological impairments of fetuses and young children. Studies also show that lead may be a factor in high blood pressure and subsequent heart disease. Atmospheric lead has various origins, such as gasoline, industrial emissions and coal burning etc. The present work reports the lead levels in air particulate matter samples of PM10 collected in recent years to evaluate the effect of the use of unleaded gasoline in Shanghai since 1997. The chemical species of lead in PM10 and their origins were also studied. To our knowledge it is a first time to give an estimation of lead contribution to air in a city from different emission sources quantitatively. Proton-induced X-ray emission analysis (PIXE), proton microprobe (μ-PIXE), inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) techniques were used to study the concentration, the chemical species and the source assignment of Pb in the atmospheric aerosol particles of PM10. Average values of 369±74. ng/m3 and 237±45 ng/m3 of Pb concentration were obtained from the 19 monitor sites in Shanghai in the winter of 2002 and 2003, respectively. Comparing with the earlier data of 466 ng/m3 in 1997 and 515 ng/m3 in 2001, it can be observed that the yearly mean lead levels in PM10 decline significantly. However, it is also found that rather high levels of lead still remain. in the air of Shanghai after the use of unleaded gasoline. The results of XAFS showed that PbCl2, PbSO4 and PbO were probably the main chemical forms of Pb in atmospheric particulate matter. Based on the lead isotope ratios technique and chemical mass balance analysis, the calculation showed that the main emission sources of Pb in the atmosphere of Shanghai were coal combustors, iron and

  20. Stripping voltammetry of flavonoids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The electrochemical behavior of the flavonoids hesperidin, quercetin, naringin, rutin, catechin, epicatechin and caffeic acid at the mercury electrode (HMDE, DME) and at a glassy carbon electrode has been studied by differential pulse polarography. Determination of flavonoids can be achieved either by direct reduction of the carbonyl group in the gamma-pyron ring, indirectly by cathodic stripping voltammetry via the formation of different flavonoid-mercury complexes at the mercury electrode surface and by adsorptive stripping voltammetry via the direct oxidation of aromatic o-dihydroxy groups. The advantage of stripping voltammetry is higher sensitivity and due to the possibility of higher sample dilution less influence of matrix effects. The application by cathodic stripping voltammetry to the determination of hesperidin in orange juice, hesperidin and rutin in helopyrin(R) tablets, a phytopharmaceutical preparation, naringin in grapefruit juice is demonstrated. Also the application by adsorptive stripping voltammetry at a glassy carbon electrode to the determination of quercetin in blood and sinupret, a phytopharmaceutical preparation and catechin in beer is demonstrated. Both methods are suitable for the determination of low flavonoid concentrations down to the ppb concentration range. (author)

  1. COMPUTER PROCESSING OF MULTISPECTRAL SCANNER DATA OVER COAL STRIP MINES

    Science.gov (United States)

    There is little doubt that remote sensing techniques can be effectively applied to the task of monitoring coal strip mine progress and reclamation work. Aircraft multispectral scanner data acquired over six coal strip mines in the states of Wyoming, Montana, Colorado, and Arizona...

  2. Development, enhancement, and evaluation of aircraft measurement techniques for national ambient air quality standard criteria pollutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brent, Lacey Cluff

    The atmospheric contaminants most harmful to human health are designated Criteria Pollutants. To help Maryland attain the national ambient air quality standards (NAAQS) for Criteria Pollutants, and to improve our fundamental understanding of atmospheric chemistry, I conducted aircraft measurements in the Regional Atmospheric Measurement Modeling Prediction Program (RAMMPP). These data are used to evaluate model simulations and satellite observations. I developed techniques for improving airborne observation of two NAAQS pollutants, particulate matter (PM) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2). While structure and composition of organic aerosol are important for understanding PM formation, the molecular speciation of organic ambient aerosol remains largely unknown. The spatial distribution of reactive nitrogen is likewise poorly constrained. To examine water-soluble organic aerosol (WSOA) during an air pollution episode, I designed and implemented a shrouded aerosol inlet system to collect PM onto quartz fiber filters from a Cessna 402 research aircraft. Inlet evaluation conducted during a side-by-side flight with the NASA P3 demonstrated agreement to within 30%. An ion chromatographic mass spectrometric method developed using the NIST Standard Reference Material (SRM) 1649b Urban Dust, as a surrogate material resulted in acidic class separation and resolution of at least 34 organic acids; detection limits approach pg/g concentrations. Analysis of aircraft filter samples resulted in detection of 8 inorganic species and 16 organic acids of which 12 were quantified. Aged, re-circulated metropolitan air showed a greater number of dicarboxylic acids compared to air recently transported from the west. While the NAAQS for NO2 is rarely exceeded, it is a precursor molecule for ozone, America's most recalcitrant pollutant. Using cavity ringdown spectroscopy employing a light emitting diode (LED), I measured vertical profiles of NO2 (surface to 2.5 km) west (upwind) of the Baltimore

  3. From air to rubber: New techniques for measuring and replicating mouthpieces, bocals, and bores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuks, Leonardo

    2002-11-01

    The history of musical instruments comprises a long genealogy of models and prototypes that results from a combination of copying existing specimens with the change in constructive parameters, and the addition of new devices. In making wind instruments, several techniques have been traditionally employed for extracting the external and internal dimensions of toneholes, air columns, bells, and mouthpieces. In the twentieth century, methods such as pulse reflectometry, x-ray, magnetic resonance, and ultrasound imaging have been made available for bore measurement. Advantages and drawbacks of the existing methods are discussed and a new method is presented that makes use of the injection and coating of silicon rubber, for accurate molding of the instrument. This technique is harmless to all traditional materials, being indicated also for measurements of historical instruments. The paper presents dimensional data obtained from clarinet and saxophone mouthpieces. A set of replicas of top quality clarinet and saxophone mouthpieces, trombone bocals, and flute headjoints is shown, with comparative acoustical and performance analyses. The application of such techniques for historical and modern instrument analysis, restoration, and manufacturing is proposed.

  4. Acoustic impedance rhinometry (AIR): a technique for monitoring dynamic changes in nasal congestion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We describe a simple and inexpensive method for monitoring nasal air flow resistance using measurement of the small-signal acoustic input impedance of the nasal passage, similar to the audiological measurement of ear drum compliance with acoustic tympanometry. The method requires generation of a fixed sinusoidal volume–velocity stimulus using ear-bud speakers, and an electret microphone to monitor the resultant pressure fluctuation in the nasal passage. Both are coupled to the nose via high impedance silastic tubing and a small plastic nose insert. The acoustic impedance is monitored in real-time using a laptop soundcard and custom-written software developed in LabView 7.0 (National Instruments). The compact, lightweight equipment and fast time resolution lends the technique to research into the small and rapid reflexive changes in nasal resistance caused by environmental and local neurological influences. The acoustic impedance rhinometry technique has the potential to be developed for use in a clinical setting, where the need exists for a simple and inexpensive objective nasal resistance measurement technique. (paper)

  5. Air pollution studies in Macedonia using the moss biomonitoring technique, NAA, AAS and GIS technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the first time the moss biomonitoring technique was applied to air pollution studies in the Republic of Macedonia, in the central part of the Balkan Peninsula. Samples of the terrestrial mosses Hypnum cupressiforme, Campothecium lutescens, and Homolothecium sericium were collected in September-October 2002 in accordance with the sampling strategy of the European moss survey programme. The sampling network included 73 sites evenly distributed over the territory of the country. A total of 43 elements (Na, Mg, Al, Cl, K, Ca, Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Br, Rb, Sr, Zr, Mo, Ag, Cd, In, Sb, I, Cs, Ba, La, Ce, Sm, Eu, Tb, Hf, Ta, W, Au, Hg, Pb, Th, and U) were determined by instrumental epithermal neutron activation analysis and flame

  6. Mapping air pollution using Earth observation techniques for cultural heritage sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agapiou, Athos; Nisantzi, Argyro; Lysandrou, Vasiliki; Mamouri, Rodanthi; Alexakis, Dimitrios D.; Themistocleous, Kyriacos; Sarris, Apostolos; Hadjimitsis, Diofantos G.

    2013-08-01

    Air pollutants, together with climatic parameters, are of major importance for the deterioration of cultural heritage monuments. Atmospheric pollution is widely recognized as one of the major anthropogenic threats to architectural cultural heritage, in particular when associated with water absorption phenomena. Atmospheric particle deposition on surfaces of Monuments (of cultural heritage interest) may cause an aesthetic impact induced by a series of chemical reactions. Therefore there is a need for systematic monitoring and mapping of air pollution for areas where important archaeological sites and monuments are found. observation techniques, such as the use of satellite image for the retrieval of Aerosol Optical Thickness (AOT), are ideal for this purpose. In this paper, all important monuments of the Paphos District, listed by the Department of Antiquities of Cyprus, have been mapped using Geographical Information Systems. Several recent (2012) MODIS satellite images (both Aqua and Terra) have been used to extract the AOT values in this area. Multi-temporal analysis was performed to identify areas of high risk where AOT values are considered to be high. In situ observations have been also carried out to verify the results.

  7. Basic Principles of Anodic Stripping Voltammetry (ASV)

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    In this interactive exercise, the basic principles of Anodic Stripping Voltammetry are shown. Each step of the voltammetric process is described using simulated animations. This activity illustrates what takes place in the voltammetric cell when this technique is applied to the determination of cadmium as well as to the simultaneous determination of copper and cadmium.

  8. Helical currents in metallic Rashba strips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamad, Ignacio J.; Gazza, Claudio J.; Riera, José A.

    2016-05-01

    We study the texture of helical currents in metallic planar strips in the presence of Rashba spin-orbit coupling (RSOC) on the lattice at zero temperature. In the noninteracting case and in the absence of external electromagnetic sources, we determine, by exact numerical diagonalization of the single-particle Hamiltonian, the distribution across the strip section of these Rashba helical currents (RHC) as well as their sign oscillation, as a function of the RSOC strength, strip width, electron filling, and strip boundary conditions. Then, we study the effects of charge currents introduced into the system by an Aharonov-Bohm flux for the case of rings or by a voltage bias in the case of open strips. The former setup is studied by variational Monte Carlo, and the latter by the time-dependent density-matrix renormalization-group technique. Particularly for strips formed by two, three, and four coupled chains, we show how these RHC vary in the presence of such induced charge current, and how their differences between spin-up and spin-down electron currents on each chain help to explain the distribution across the strip of charge currents, both of the spin-conserving and the spin-flipping types. We also predict the appearance of polarized charge currents on each chain. Finally, we show that these Rashba helical currents and their derived features remain in the presence of an on-site Hubbard repulsion as long as the system remains metallic, at quarter filling, and even at half filling where a Mott-Hubbard metal-insulator transition occurs for large Hubbard repulsion.

  9. Study of cadmium-humic interactions and determination of stability constants of cadmium-humate complexes from their diffusion coefficients obtained by scanned stripping voltammetry and dynamic light scattering techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diffusion coefficients of Cd-humate complexes are dependent on pH and [Cd]/[Humic] Acid (HA)] ratio in a Cd-HA system. These two factors mainly control the mass transport and complexation kinetics of Cd that may influence bioavailability and toxicity of Cd species in environmental systems. Determination of diffusion coefficients of Cd-HA systems by Scanned stripping voltammetry and dynamic light scattering techniques can provide a better understanding of the systems and can be very useful for extracting other speciation parameters of the systems. This study revealed that Cd2+ ion along with small dynamic Cd complexes was predominantly present in a Cd-HA system at pH 5 with high diffusion coefficients. HA molecules were in aggregated form at pH 5. However, HA molecules were in disaggregated form at pH 6 and concentrations of Cd2+ ion and small Cd-dynamic complexes decreased with a decrease in diffusion coefficients of Cd complexes at this pH due to formation of Cd-humate complexes. No further decrease in the hydrodynamic radii of HA was observed with the increase of pH from 6 to 7. The Cd-humate system partially lost its lability at pH 7. Conditional stability constants were calculated for Cd-humate complexes by combining the diffusion coefficient data obtained by two techniques. The log K values calculated in this study are in good agreement with the data available from the literature.

  10. ALICE Silicon Strip Detector

    CERN Multimedia

    Nooren, G

    2013-01-01

    The Silicon Strip Detector (SSD) constitutes the two outermost layers of the Inner Tracking System (ITS) of the ALICE Experiment. The SSD plays a crucial role in the tracking of the particles produced in the collisions connecting the tracks from the external detectors (Time Projection Chamber) to the ITS. The SSD also contributes to the particle identification through the measurement of their energy loss.

  11. Nudging technique for scale bridging in air quality/climate atmospheric composition modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Maurizi

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The interaction between air quality and climate involves dynamical scales that cover an immensely wide range. Bridging these scales in numerical simulations is fundamental in studies devoted to megacity/hot-spot impacts on climate. The nudging technique is proposed as a bridging method that can couple different models at different scales.

    Here, nudging is used to force low resolution chemical composition models using a high resolution run on critical areas. A one-year numerical experiment focused on the Po Valley hot spot is performed using the BOLCHEM model to asses the method.

    The results show that the model response is stable to perturbation induced by the nudging and that, if a high resolution run is taken as a reference, there is an increase in model skills of low resolution run when the technique is applied. This improvement depends on the species and the season. The effect spreads outside the forcing area and remains noticeable over an extension about 9 times larger.

  12. Hot Strip Laminar Cooling Control Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Jun; WANG Guo-dong; LIU Xiang-hua

    2004-01-01

    The control model of laminar cooling system for hot strip, including air-cooling model, water-cooling model, temperature distribution model along thickness direction, feedforward control model, feedback control model and self-learning model, was introduced. PID arithmetic and Smith predictor controller were applied to feedback control. The sample of model parameter classification was given. The calculation process was shown by flow chart. The model has been proved to be simple, effective and of high precision.

  13. Technical assessment of air quality measuring analyzers; Evaluation technique des analyseurs de mesure de la qualite de l`air

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tatry, V. [Laboratoire de mesures a l`air ambiant, Dept. Mesures et Analyses, INERIS, (France)

    1996-12-31

    Air quality measuring analyzers are assessed in order to verify their measuring performance and to examine their aptitude to field measurements. For ensuring such assessment, the INERIS institute (France) disposes of three climatic enclosures, gas mixture emission systems and data acquisition systems. The assessment methodology is presented together with the various possible results: response time, linearity and limits determination, calibration studies, thresholds, drifts, hysteresis, physical detrimental effects, etc. Applications such as analyzers for one or more pollutants in ambient air and at the emission source (portable multi-gas analyzers) are presented, together with their results

  14. MICROBIOLOGICAL SURVEILLANCE OF AIR QUALITY IN OPE RATION THEATRES - COMPARISON OF THE CONVENTIONAL SETTLE PL ATE TECHNIQUES VS USE OF AN AIR SAMPLING DEVICE.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prathab

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Air as a means of nosocomial transmission has alw ays remained as a cause of concern for health care providers and especially personnel involved in infection control activities. Although there are no uniform c onsensus on either the standards for surveillance, methodology for monitoring or the lev els of acceptable contamination, it still remains a fact that we need to have some criteria t o monitor air quality in atleast the critical care areas like the operation theatres. METHODOLOGY: Air quality surveillance in the operation theatres was performed simultaneously usin g the settle plate technique and an air sampling device. A total of 9 operation theatres were subjected to 4 surveillance cycles with a minimum of 2 recordings in each theatre following standard protocols and accepted method used to calculate bioburden. RESULTS: A comparison was made between the two methods using the data available with 72 recordings . In th e settle plate technique, the mean cfu /mm3 was found to be 17.11 and 22cfu/mm3 at less than 30 cm and at a point more than 30cms of the operating table where as the corresponding means usi ng the air sampler was137.83 and 164.11cfu/mm3 respectively which showed considerable statistical significance . CONCLUSION : The use of an air sampler would be more appropriate in monitoring the air quality in critical care areas ensuring a more stringent method of qual ity check without compromising on the the standard accepted norms and addressing the issue of patient safety with reference to infection prevention

  15. Development of Silicon Multi-strip Detector

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TanJilian; JinGenming; WangHongwei; YuanXiaohua; DuanLiming; LiSonglin; LuZiwei; XuHushan; NingBaojun; TianDayu; WangWei; ZhangLu

    2003-01-01

    Position sensitive detector is very important for nuclear physics experiment. There several techniques can be used to fabricate position sensitive detector, for example, Si-surface barrier method, diffusion method, ion implantation and planar process etc. Among all the techniques mentioned above planar process is the best one. We have developed batch of position sensitive detector -- silicon multi-strip detector by using planar process.

  16. Electroplating and stripping copper on molybdenum and niobium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power, J. L.

    1978-01-01

    Molybdenum and niobium are often electroplated and subsequently stripped of copper. Since general standard plating techniques produce poor quality coatings, general procedures have been optimized and specified to give good results.

  17. Fluorocarbon stripping of low beta heavy ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Equilibrium charge state distributions were measured for Kr, Xe, Ho and Pb ions at energies from 25 to 160 keV/amu passing through a high molecular weight fluorocarbon vapor, as well as air and carbon foil strippers. Measured charge state distributions are given which show that the fluorocarbon distributions are intermediate between those of air and foil strippers, becoming closer to foil values as velocity is decreased. At all energies substantial asymmetry in the fluorocarbon distributions towards higher charge states were observed. These favorable distributions, coupled with very high beam handling capability, low maintenance and indefinite lifetime clearly indicate the value of fluorocarbon stripping for many accelerator applications. 5 refs

  18. Biomonitoring of air pollution in Jamaica through trace-element analysis of epiphytic plants using nuclear and related analytical techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Air quality has been monitored at selected areas in Jamaica using high volume samplers. The results obtained, showed elevated levels of aluminium in bauxitic areas and very high lead concentrations in urban areas, from 5 to 35 times greater than in rural areas. The lower throughput of the conventional air particulate samplers however, restricts the air quality and health assessment on a nation-wide scale. Biomonitoring offers a cost-effective alternative to air-quality assessment if appropriate indicator species are chosen. The epiphytic lower plants such as lichens and mosses have been used as indicators of regional air quality in several European countries and USA. However, there is not enough studies on lichens and mosses in tropical countries, probably due to the lower occurrence of these species, which cover only 8% of the world's land surface. In Jamaica the epiphytic higher plants, represented by the genus Tillandsia are widely distributed, which make them along with the lichens and mosses potential site-specific bioindicators of air quality. The IAEA Co-ordinated Research Project entitled 'Biomonitoring of Air Pollution in Jamaica Through Trace-Element Analysis of Epiphytic Plants Using Nuclear And Related Analytical Techniques' will address these needs of the country. The primary purpose of the present study was to develop specific bioindicators of atmospheric air pollution in Jamaica, which will provide baseline information for health hazards assessment

  19. Alcohol Saliva Strip Test

    OpenAIRE

    Thokala, Madhusudhana Rao; Dorankula, Shyam Prasad Reddy; Muddana, Keertrthi; Velidandla, Surekha Reddy

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol is a factor in many categories of injury. Alcohol intoxication is frequently associated with injuries from falls, fires, drowning, overdoses, physical and sexual abusements, occupational accidents, traffic accidents and domestic violence. In many instances, for forensic purpose, it may be necessary to establish whether the patients have consumed alcohol that would have been the reason for the injury/accidents. Combining rapidity and reliability, alcohol saliva strip test (AST) has bee...

  20. Environmental applications of nuclear techniques: Inter-hemispheric exchange of tropospheric air masses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since the coming of the nuclear era a large variety of radionuclides were introduced to the environment, which could be used as tracers of different transport processes. Actually, also natural radioisotopes are used for tracing atmospheric, oceanic or biological mechanisms. In particular, the experimental study of the atmospheric dynamics can be aided by the high-sensitive detection of radionuclides such as 3H, 7Be, 14C, 36Cl, 90Sr, 129I, and 137Cs. Several techniques and methods have been applied in order to detect and follow these radionuclides, like accelerator mass spectrometry, gamma detection, neutron activation, etc. In this contribution we analyze the transport of radionuclides released into the environment due to atmospheric nuclear weapon tests, power plant accidents and nuclear fuel reprocessing plants. We focus our study on the information that can be obtained about the exchange of tropospheric air masses between the northern and southern hemisphere and on the constrains that the sensitive measurements of these radionuclides can pose on well-accepted atmospheric models

  1. Nudging technique for scale bridging in air quality/climate atmospheric composition modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Maurizi

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The interaction between air quality and climate involves dynamical scales that cover a very wide range. Bridging these scales in numerical simulations is fundamental in studies devoted to megacity/hot-spot impacts on larger scales. A technique based on nudging is proposed as a bridging method that can couple different models at different scales.

    Here, nudging is used to force low resolution chemical composition models with a run of a high resolution model on a critical area. A one-year numerical experiment focused on the Po Valley hot spot is performed using the BOLCHEM model to asses the method.

    The results show that the model response is stable to perturbation induced by the nudging and that, taking the high resolution run as a reference, performances of the nudged run increase with respect to the non-forced run. The effect outside the forcing area depends on transport and is significant in a relevant number of events although it becomes weak on seasonal or yearly basis.

  2. Air Pollution Studies in Central Russia (Tula Region) Using Moss Biomonitoring Technique, NAA and AAS

    CERN Document Server

    Ermakova, E V; Steinnes, E

    2002-01-01

    For the first time the moss biomonitoring technique has been applied to air pollution monitoring in Central Russia (Tula Region). Moss samples were collected from 83 sites in accordance with the sampling strategy of European projects on biomonitoring of atmospheric deposition. Neutron activation analysis (NAA) at the IBR-2 reactor has made it possible to determine the concentration of 33 elements (Na, Mg, Al, Cl, K, Ca, Sc, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Zn, As, Br, Rb, Sr, Mo, Sb, I, Cs, Ba, La, Ce, Sm, Tb, Yb, Hf, Ta, W, Th, U) over a large concentration range (from 10000 mg/kg for K to 0.001 mg/kg for Tb and Ta). In addition to NAA, flame AAS (atomic absorption spectrometry) was applied to determine the concentration of Cd, Cu and Pb. Factor analysis was applied to determine possible sources of elements detected in the investigated mosses. Eight factors were identified. The geographical distribution of factor scores is presented. The interpretation of the factor analysis findings points to natural as well as anthr...

  3. Applied research on air pollution using nuclear-related analytical techniques. Report on the second research co-ordination meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A co-ordinated research programme (CRP) on applied research on air pollution using nuclear-related techniques is a global CRP which started in 1992, and is scheduled to run until early 1997. The purpose of this CRP is to promote the use of nuclear analytical techniques in air pollution studies, e.g. NAA, XRF, and PIXE for the analysis of toxic and other trace elements in air particulate matter. The main purposes of the core programme are i) to support the use of nuclear and nuclear-related analytical techniques for research and monitoring studies on air pollution, ii) to identify major sources of air pollution affecting each of the participating countries with particular reference to toxic heavy metals, and iii) to obtain comparative data on pollution levels in areas of high pollution (e.g. a city centre or a populated area downwind of a large pollution source) and low pollution (e.g. rural area). This document reports the discussions held during the second Research Co-ordination Meeting (RCM) for the CRP which took place at ANSTO in Menai, Australia. (author)

  4. Air

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... house) Industrial emissions (like smoke and chemicals from factories) Household cleaners (spray cleaners, air fresheners) Car emissions (like carbon monoxide) *All of these things make up “particle pollution.” They mostly come from cars, trucks, buses, and ...

  5. Measurement of carbon dioxide fluxes in a free-air carbon dioxide enrichment experiment using the closed flux chamber technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Selsted, Merete Bang; Ambus, Per; Michelsen, Anders;

    2011-01-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) fluxes, composing net ecosystem exchange (NEE), ecosystem respiration (ER), and soil respiration (SR) were measured in a temperate heathland exposed to elevated CO2 by the FACE (free-air carbon enrichment) technique, raising the atmospheric CO2 concentration from c. 380 μmol...

  6. Measurement of carbon dioxide fluxes in a free-air carbon dioxide enrichment experiment using the closed flux chamber technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Selsted, M.B.; Ambus, P.; Michelsen, A.;

    2011-01-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO(2)) fluxes, composing net ecosystem exchange (NEE), ecosystem respiration (ER), and soil respiration (SR) were measured in a temperate heathland exposed to elevated CO2 by the FACE (free-air carbon enrichment) technique, raising the atmospheric CO(2) concentration from c. 380 mu...

  7. Air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In recent years several regulations and standards for air quality and limits for air pollution were issued or are in preparation by the European Union, which have severe influence on the environmental monitoring and legislation in Austria. This chapter of the environmental control report of Austria gives an overview about the legal situation of air pollution control in the European Union and in specific the legal situation in Austria. It gives a comprehensive inventory of air pollution measurements for the whole area of Austria of total suspended particulates, ozone, volatile organic compounds, nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxide, carbon monoxide, heavy metals, benzene, dioxin, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and eutrophication. For each of these pollutants the measured emission values throughout Austria are given in tables and geographical charts, the environmental impact is discussed, statistical data and time series of the emission sources are given and legal regulations and measures for an effective environmental pollution control are discussed. In particular the impact of fossil-fuel power plants on the air pollution is analyzed. (a.n.)

  8. Air pollution studies in Slovakia using the moss technique, NAA and AAS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The combination of epithermal and conventional activation analysis on IBR-2 reactor, supplemented by atomic absorption spectrometry was determined 40 elements (Al, Ag, As, Au, Ba, Br, Ca, Cd, Ce, Cl, Co, Cr, Cs, Cu, Fe, Hf, Hg, 1, K, La, Lu, Mg, Mn, Mo, Na, Ni, Pb, Sb, Sc, Se, Sm, Ta, Tb, Th, U, V, W, Yb, Zn and Zr ,) of the periodic table in 86 sampling of mosses. To the best of our knowledge, such large associations of elements have never been studied before in environmental samples from Slovakia. The results of these investigations will be presented in the form of tables, diagrams, graphs and, using GIS (geographical information systems) technology, in the form of coloured contour maps for each element. Collected samples contained 3-year-old segments of mosses and it represented a deposition of heavy metals for the years 1998, 1999 and 2000. In this time an annually in Slovakia were totally emitted 47 t of arsenic, 11 t of cadmium, 9 t of chromium, 64 t of copper, 3,4 t of mercury, 35 t of nickel, 84 t of lead and 73 t of zinc. The region near the border between Slovakia, Poland and the Czech Republic is considered as the second 'black triangle' of Central Europe with substantially higher concentrations of heavy metals than the first 'black triangle' near the borders of the Czech Republic, Poland and Germany. Information about the air pollution status in different parts of the Slovakia is essential for a better understanding of environmental stresses. Bio-monitoring technique allows monitoring of atmospheric deposition of heavy metals with a very high spatial resolution. (authors)

  9. 77 FR 41337 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Delaware; Control Technique...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-13

    ... quality standard (NAAQS) for ozone. This action is being taken under the Clean Air Act (CAA). DATES... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Delaware; Control..., office, institutional, laboratory, hospital, public building, restaurant, barber and beauty shop,...

  10. 77 FR 45307 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans: Georgia; Control Techniques...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-31

    ... ambient air quality standards (NAAQS). See 69 FR 23858. The Atlanta Area includes the following 20... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans: Georgia; Control..., Paulding and Rockdale. See 56 FR 56694 (November 6, 1991). As such, major sources in the 13-county...

  11. Paresev on Taxi Strip

    Science.gov (United States)

    1962-01-01

    Test pilot Milton Thompson sitting in NASA Flight Research Center-built Paresev 1 (Paraglider Research Vehicle) on the taxi strip in front of the NASA Flight Research Center in 1962. In this photo the control stick can be seen coming from overhead and hanging in front of the pilot. The control system was a direct link with the wing membrane made of doped Irish linen. By maintaining simplicity during construction, it was possible to make control and configuration changes overnight and, in many instances, in minutes.

  12. Dynamic underground stripping demonstration project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LLNL is collaborating with the UC Berkeley College of Engineering to develop and demonstrate a system of thermal remediation techniques for rapid cleanup of localized underground spills. Called dynamic stripping to reflect the rapid and controllable nature of the process, it will combine steam injection, direct electrical heating, and tomographic geophysical imaging in a cleanup of the LLNL gasoline spill. In the first eight months of the project, a Clean Site engineering test was conducted to prove the field application of the techniques. Tests then began on the contaminated site in FY 1992. This report describes the work at the Clean Site, including design and performance criteria, test results, interpretations, and conclusions. We fielded 'a wide range of new designs and techniques, some successful and some not. In this document, we focus on results and performance, lessons learned, and design and operational changes recommended for work at the contaminated site. Each section focuses on a different aspect of the work and can be considered a self-contained contribution

  13. Part I. Application of pulse polarography and pulse anodic stripping to the determination of selected heavy metals in natural waters. Part II. Application of controlled potential coulometric techniques to the determination of uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of a thin mercury film wax-impregnated graphite electrode for the simultaneous determination of cadmium, lead and zinc in an acetate buffer by differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetry is described. Optimal instrumental parameters for maximum resolution and sensitivity for simultaneous analysis of these three elements in natural waters are discussed. The interference of copper with the determination of zinc is investigated in detail. An optimal mercury film thickness for this electrode is suggested. A method utilizing differential pulse polarography for the determination of chromium (VI) in natural water is described. Additions of 0.62 μg Cu(II) ml-1 and 0.55 μg Fe(III) ml-1 did not interfere with the determination of 0.050 μg Cr(VI) ml-1. The natural water samples containing Cr(VI) were buffered to approximately pH 7 with 0.1 M ammonium acetate and 0.005 M ethylenediamine and analyzed. Natural water samples of chromium from 0.035 μg to 2.0 μg.ml-1 may be analyzed directly without further preparation. The detection limit is 0.010 μg.ml-1. A novel, highly efficient cell with integral stirrer for controlled potential coulometry is described. This cell was used to demonstrate the feasibility of determining uranium (VI) by predictive coulometry. A PDP 8/I minicomputer was used to predict the coulometric endpoint with high accuracy within 2.5 minutes in a titration which normally takes about 10 minutes. This technique was shown to yield acceptable results even in the presence of an interfering phosphate matrix

  14. An air flow sensor for neonatal mechanical ventilation applications based on a novel fiber-optic sensing technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battista, L; Sciuto, S A; Scorza, A

    2013-03-01

    In this work, a simple and low-cost air flow sensor, based on a novel fiber-optic sensing technique has been developed for monitoring air flows rates supplied by a neonatal ventilator to support infants in intensive care units. The device is based on a fiber optic sensing technique allowing (a) the immunity to light intensity variations independent by measurand and (b) the reduction of typical shortcomings affecting all biomedical fields (electromagnetic interference and patient electrical safety). The sensing principle is based on the measurement of transversal displacement of an emitting fiber-optic cantilever due to action of air flow acting on it; the fiber tip displacement is measured by means of a photodiode linear array, placed in front of the entrance face of the emitting optical fiber in order to detect its light intensity profile. As the measurement system is based on a detection of the illumination pattern, and not on an intensity modulation technique, it results less sensitive to light intensity fluctuation independent by measurand than intensity-based sensors. The considered technique is here adopted in order to develop two different configurations for an air flow sensor suitable for the measurement of air flow rates typically occurring during mechanical ventilation of newborns: a mono-directional and a bi-directional transducer have been proposed. A mathematical model for the air flow sensor is here proposed and a static calibration of two different arrangements has been performed: a measurement range up to 3.00 × 10(-4) m(3)∕s (18.0 l∕min) for the mono-directional sensor and a measurement range of ±3.00 × 10(-4) m(3)∕s (±18.0 l∕min) for the bi-directional sensor are experimentally evaluated, according to the air flow rates normally encountered during tidal breathing of infants with a mass lower than 10 kg. Experimental data of static calibration result in accordance with the proposed theoretical model: for the mono

  15. An air flow sensor for neonatal mechanical ventilation applications based on a novel fiber-optic sensing technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work, a simple and low-cost air flow sensor, based on a novel fiber-optic sensing technique has been developed for monitoring air flows rates supplied by a neonatal ventilator to support infants in intensive care units. The device is based on a fiber optic sensing technique allowing (a) the immunity to light intensity variations independent by measurand and (b) the reduction of typical shortcomings affecting all biomedical fields (electromagnetic interference and patient electrical safety). The sensing principle is based on the measurement of transversal displacement of an emitting fiber-optic cantilever due to action of air flow acting on it; the fiber tip displacement is measured by means of a photodiode linear array, placed in front of the entrance face of the emitting optical fiber in order to detect its light intensity profile. As the measurement system is based on a detection of the illumination pattern, and not on an intensity modulation technique, it results less sensitive to light intensity fluctuation independent by measurand than intensity-based sensors. The considered technique is here adopted in order to develop two different configurations for an air flow sensor suitable for the measurement of air flow rates typically occurring during mechanical ventilation of newborns: a mono-directional and a bi-directional transducer have been proposed. A mathematical model for the air flow sensor is here proposed and a static calibration of two different arrangements has been performed: a measurement range up to 3.00 × 10−4 m3/s (18.0 l/min) for the mono-directional sensor and a measurement range of ±3.00 × 10−4 m3/s (±18.0 l/min) for the bi-directional sensor are experimentally evaluated, according to the air flow rates normally encountered during tidal breathing of infants with a mass lower than 10 kg. Experimental data of static calibration result in accordance with the proposed theoretical model: for the mono-directional configuration, the

  16. An air flow sensor for neonatal mechanical ventilation applications based on a novel fiber-optic sensing technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battista, L.; Sciuto, S. A.; Scorza, A.

    2013-03-01

    In this work, a simple and low-cost air flow sensor, based on a novel fiber-optic sensing technique has been developed for monitoring air flows rates supplied by a neonatal ventilator to support infants in intensive care units. The device is based on a fiber optic sensing technique allowing (a) the immunity to light intensity variations independent by measurand and (b) the reduction of typical shortcomings affecting all biomedical fields (electromagnetic interference and patient electrical safety). The sensing principle is based on the measurement of transversal displacement of an emitting fiber-optic cantilever due to action of air flow acting on it; the fiber tip displacement is measured by means of a photodiode linear array, placed in front of the entrance face of the emitting optical fiber in order to detect its light intensity profile. As the measurement system is based on a detection of the illumination pattern, and not on an intensity modulation technique, it results less sensitive to light intensity fluctuation independent by measurand than intensity-based sensors. The considered technique is here adopted in order to develop two different configurations for an air flow sensor suitable for the measurement of air flow rates typically occurring during mechanical ventilation of newborns: a mono-directional and a bi-directional transducer have been proposed. A mathematical model for the air flow sensor is here proposed and a static calibration of two different arrangements has been performed: a measurement range up to 3.00 × 10-4 m3/s (18.0 l/min) for the mono-directional sensor and a measurement range of ±3.00 × 10-4 m3/s (±18.0 l/min) for the bi-directional sensor are experimentally evaluated, according to the air flow rates normally encountered during tidal breathing of infants with a mass lower than 10 kg. Experimental data of static calibration result in accordance with the proposed theoretical model: for the mono-directional configuration, the

  17. Effect of boron on hot strips of low carbon steel produced by compact strip production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hao Yu; Yonglin Kang

    2008-01-01

    The effect of boron on hot strips of low carbon steel produced by compact strip production (CSP) to reduce the strength to a certain degree was investigated, which is quite different from that of high-strength low alloy steel. The mechanical properties and microstructural evolution of the hot strip were studied using optical microscopy and tensile tests. By means of an electrolytic disso- lution technique and Thermo-Cal calculation, the precipitates containing boron were analyzed and detected. From the electron back- scattered diffraction analysis, it can be deciphered whether the microstructure has recrystallized or not. Furthermore, the effect of boron segregation on the recrystallization or non-recrystallization conditions can be distinguished. The segregation behavior of boron was investigated in boron-containing steel. The nonequilibrium segregation of boron during processing was discussed on the basis of the forming complexes with vacancies that migrate to the boundaries prior to annihilation, which was confirmed by the subsequent cold rolling with annealing experiments.

  18. Modified Virtual Air Guitar: A Concept Realized using Image Processing Techniques

    OpenAIRE

    J. R. Santiago; S. J. Samuel; R. Sawn

    2015-01-01

    Even amidst the hustle and bustle of busy lives, numerous people dream of playing a musical instrument. Unfortunately, many may never get a chance to touch one. But this doesn’t stop them from ‘air drumming’ or playing ‘air guitar’ passionately while listening to their favorite tunes. To encourage this passion for music, especially in the absence of a real instrument, we introduce to you the Virtual Air Guitar. This application allows one to showcase their guitar skills, regardless of their k...

  19. Structural strengthening with prestressed CFRP strips with gradient anchorage

    OpenAIRE

    Michels, Julien; Sena-Cruz, José; Czaderski, Christoph; Motavalli, Masoud

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the principle and the application of an innovative anchorage technique for prestressed carbon fiber–reinforced polymer (CFRP) strips in structural strengthening. Additionally, large-scale static loading tests of retrofitted concrete beams are shown. The gradient anchorage, based on the adhesive’s ability to undergo accelerated curing at high temperatures, consists of a purely concrete-adhesive strip connection without any mechanical devices, such as bolts or plates. In a f...

  20. Pico 2 Monitoring of Transferred Jejunum Perfusion Using an Air Tonometry Technique After Hypopharyngeal Cancer Surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Ozawa, Hiroyuki; Imanishi, Yorihisa; Ito, Fumihiro; Watanabe, Yoshihiro; Kato, Takashi; Nameki, Hideo; Isobe, Kiyoshi; Ogawa, Kaoru

    2015-01-01

    Abstract This study aimed to investigate the usefulness of intraluminal Pco 2 (Pico 2) monitoring by air tonometry for the assessment of the vascular condition of the transferred jejunum after surgery for hypopharyngeal cancer. Pico 2 in the transplanted jejunum of 24 patients was monitored using air tonometry after radical surgery for hypopharyngeal cancer from 2003 to 2010. All but 1 patient, who removed the catheter before monitoring began, were monitored safely. Pico 2 in the transferred ...

  1. Complex zero strip decreasing operators

    OpenAIRE

    Cardon, David A.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we study the effect of linear differential operators coming from the Laguerre-Polya class that act on functions in the extended Laguerre-Polya class with zeros in a horizontal strip in the complex plane. These operator decrease the size of the strip containing the zeros.

  2. Evaluation of data assimilation techniques for a mesoscale meteorological model and their effects on air quality model results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Data assimilation techniques are methods to limit the growth of errors in a dynamical model by allowing observations distributed in space and time to force (nudge) model solutions. They have become common for meteorological model applications in recent years, especially to enhance weather forecast and to support air-quality studies. In order to investigate the influence of different data assimilation techniques on the meteorological fields produced by RAMS model, and to evaluate their effects on the ozone and PM10 concentrations predicted by FARM model, several numeric experiments were conducted over the urban area of Rome, Italy, during a summer episode

  3. Evaluation of data assimilation techniques for a mesoscale meteorological model and their effects on air quality model results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amicarelli, A.; Gariazzo, C.; Finardi, S.; Pelliccioni, A.; Silibello, C.

    2008-05-01

    Data assimilation techniques are methods to limit the growth of errors in a dynamical model by allowing observations distributed in space and time to force (nudge) model solutions. They have become common for meteorological model applications in recent years, especially to enhance weather forecast and to support air-quality studies. In order to investigate the influence of different data assimilation techniques on the meteorological fields produced by RAMS model, and to evaluate their effects on the ozone and PM10 concentrations predicted by FARM model, several numeric experiments were conducted over the urban area of Rome, Italy, during a summer episode.

  4. Evaluation of data assimilation techniques for a mesoscale meteorological model and their effects on air quality model results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amicarelli, A; Pelliccioni, A [ISPESL - Dipartimento Insediamenti Produttivi e Interazione con l' Ambiente, Via Fontana Candida, 1 00040 Monteporzio Catone (RM) Italy (Italy); Finardi, S; Silibello, C [ARIANET, via Gilino 9, 20128 Milano (Italy); Gariazzo, C

    2008-05-01

    Data assimilation techniques are methods to limit the growth of errors in a dynamical model by allowing observations distributed in space and time to force (nudge) model solutions. They have become common for meteorological model applications in recent years, especially to enhance weather forecast and to support air-quality studies. In order to investigate the influence of different data assimilation techniques on the meteorological fields produced by RAMS model, and to evaluate their effects on the ozone and PM{sub 10} concentrations predicted by FARM model, several numeric experiments were conducted over the urban area of Rome, Italy, during a summer episode.

  5. Feasibility studies of air placed techniques as emplacement means of different backfilling materials in underground radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Air placed techniques are likely to be used as emplacement means of different backfilling materials in underground waste repositories. A literature survey of the air placed techniques and equipments leads to the choice of the dry process taking into account the emplacement constraints (distance: 300 m, flow: 10 m3/h) and the large variety of materials to be placed. Tests performed in the case of cement-based materials (with and without addition of silica fumes), for different types of cement and as a function of the incidence of the jet, show that it is possible to put in place mortars of good quality. However heterogeneity in the material composition is found when the jet is stopped. This problem may be partly solved by a better automation of the process. Complementary tests, carried out with the preselected clay of Fourges Cahaignes, clearly demonstrate the ability of the air placed technique to put in place pure clay: a dry density of 1.50kg/m3 is reached in the case of coarse material and for a final water content of 30% (in weight). Feasibility tests performed on clay-sand mixtures are not conclusive due to an unappropriate granulometry distribution of the sand. 11 figs., 9 tabs

  6. Modified Virtual Air Guitar: A Concept Realized using Image Processing Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. R. Santiago

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Even amidst the hustle and bustle of busy lives, numerous people dream of playing a musical instrument. Unfortunately, many may never get a chance to touch one. But this doesn’t stop them from ‘air drumming’ or playing ‘air guitar’ passionately while listening to their favorite tunes. To encourage this passion for music, especially in the absence of a real instrument, we introduce to you the Virtual Air Guitar. This application allows one to showcase their guitar skills, regardless of their knowledge of playing a real guitar. It uses color tracking to detect inputs and a sound module incorporating the Karplus Strong algorithm to generate musical notes as an output. As a result, a simple webcam and brightly colored gloves are required to use the application. This application has enormous potential as a base for interactive guitar games, teaching music, and of course, to compose guitar based songs.

  7. Air pollution in Thailand using nuclear-related analytical techniques. Appendix 16

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since 1993, the samples of air particulate matter have been collected from many permanent air quality monitoring stations in Bangkok city including one in another major city, Cholburi, and also from various temporary sites near major roads of Bangkok. The sampling devices used are High volume (HV) and PM-10 samplers while a Gent stacked filter unit collector is used at a regional site represented residential area where the meteorological information is kept for reference. The instrumental neutron activation analysis for the determination of trace elements in air particulate samples has been performed. The result data of those analyzed samples are reported in the paper with the calculated enrichment factors by use of Wedepohl's table of crustal abundances and Sc as the reference element. (author)

  8. Two-phase air-water stratified flow measurement using ultrasonic techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Shiwei; Yan, Tinghu; Yeung, Hoi

    2014-04-01

    In this paper, a time resolved ultrasound system was developed for investigating two-phase air-water stratified flow. The hardware of the system includes a pulsed wave transducer, a pulser/receiver, and a digital oscilloscope. The time domain cross correlation method is used to calculate the velocity profile along ultrasonic beam. The system is able to provide velocities with spatial resolution of around 1mm and the temporal resolution of 200μs. Experiments were carried out on single phase water flow and two-phase air-water stratified flow. For single phase water flow, the flow rates from ultrasound system were compared with those from electromagnetic flow (EM) meter, which showed good agreement. Then, the experiments were conducted on two-phase air-water stratified flow and the results were given. Compared with liquid height measurement from conductance probe, it indicated that the measured velocities were explainable.

  9. Electron capture by highly stripped ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This review describes theories of electron capture suitable for the description of rearrangement collisions between atomic hydrogen and completely stripped projectiles with charge greater than unity. The region of impact velocity considered lies between 0.05 and 3 au, which is of technological importance in fusion power devices. The semiclassical, impact parameter formalism is discussed and the use of atomic expansions at medium impact velocity is described. Experimental results for both completely and partially stripped projectiles are reviewed. The use of a molecular basis at low energy, and the role of pseudocrossings peculiar to the two centre Coulomb interaction are described. Finally, purely classical techniques, in which the electron wavefunction is represented by an ensemble of Kepler orbits are considered. The review was completed in February 1981. (author)

  10. The STAR Silicon Strip Detector (SSD)

    CERN Document Server

    Arnold, L; Bonnet, D; Boucham, A; Bouvier, S; Castillo, J; Coffin, J P; Drancourt, C; Erazmus, B; Gaudichet, L; Germain, M; Gojak, C; Grabski, J; Guilloux, G; Guedon, M; Hippolyte, B; Janik, M; Kisiel, A; Kuhn, C; Lakehal-Ayat, L; Lefèvre, F; Le Moal, C; Leszczynski, P; Lutz, Jean Robert; Maliszewski, A; Martin, L; Milletto, T; Pawlak, T; Peryt, W; Pluta, J; Przewlocki, M; Radomski, S; Ravel, O; Renard, C; Renault, G; Rigalleau, L M; Roy, C; Roy, D; Suire, C; Szarwas, P; Tarchini, A

    2003-01-01

    The STAR Silicon Strip Detector (SSD) completes the three layers of the Silicon Vertex Tracker (SVT) to make an inner tracking system located inside the Time Projection Chamber (TPC). This additional fourth layer provides two dimensional hit position and energy loss measurements for charged particles, improving the extrapolation of TPC tracks through SVT hits. To match the high multiplicity of central Au+Au collisions at RHIC the double sided silicon strip technology was chosen which makes the SSD a half million channels detector. Dedicated electronics have been designed for both readout and control. Also a novel technique of bonding, the Tape Automated Bonding (TAB), was used to fullfill the large number of bounds to be done. All aspects of the SSD are shortly described here and test performances of produced detection modules as well as simulated results on hit reconstruction are given.

  11. Techniques for controlling air pollution from the operation of nuclear facilities. Report of a panel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This manual is provided for the guidance of those persons or authorities who are responsible for the organization, control and operation of ventilation systems and air-cleaning installations in nuclear establishments. It is intended to generalize about existing experience in the operation of such systems at nuclear facilities including reactors and laboratories for production, use and handling of radionuclides and other toxic materials. This manual will provide designers and operators of nuclear facilities in which ventilation and air-cleaning systems are used with the factors which have to be considered to create safe working conditions inside facilities and without polluting the atmosphere or the environment to a hazardous level.

  12. The Refuelable Zinc-air Battery: Alternative Techniques for Zinc and Electrolyte Regeneration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooper, J F; Krueger, R

    2006-01-19

    An investigation was conducted into alternative techniques for zinc and electrolyte regeneration and reuse in the refuelable zinc/air battery that was developed by LLNL and previously tested on a moving electric bus using cut wire. Mossy zinc was electrodeposited onto a bipolar array of inclined Ni plates with an energy consumption of 1.8 kWh/kg. Using a H{sub 2}-depolarized anode, zinc was deposited at 0.6 V (0.8 kA/m{sup 2}); the open circuit voltage was 0.45 V. Three types of fuel pellets were tested and compared with results for 0.75 mm cut wire: spheres produced in a spouted bed (UCB); coarse powder produced by gas-atomization (Noranda); and irregular pellets produced by chopping 1-mm plates of compacted zinc fines (Eagle-Picher, Inc.). All three types transported within the cell. The coarse powder fed continuously from hopper to cell, as did the compacted pellets (< 0.83 mm). Large particles (> 0.83 mm; Eagle-Picher and UCB) failed to feed from hopper into cell, being held up in the 2.5 mm wide channel connecting hopper to cell. Increasing channel width to {approx}3.5 mm should allow all three types to be used. Energy losses were determined for shorting of cells during refueling. The shorting currents between adjacent hoppers through zinc particle bridges were determined using both coarse powder and chopped compressed zinc plates. A physical model was developed allowing scaling our results for electrode polarization and bed resistance Shorting was found to consume < 0.02% of the capacity of the cell and to dissipate {approx}0.2 W/cell of heat. Corrosion rates were determined for cut wire in contact with current collector materials and battery-produced ZnO-saturated electrolyte. The rates were 1.7% of cell capacity per month at ambient temperatures; and 0.08% of capacity for 12 hours at 57 C. The total energy conversion efficiency for zinc recovery using the hydrogen was estimated at 34% (natural gas to battery terminals)--comparable to fuel cells. Producing

  13. Modified strip saturation model for a cracked piezoelectric strip

    OpenAIRE

    R.R. Bhargava; A. Setia

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The investigations aim to propose a model for arresting an electrical opening of a crack which weakensa narrow, poled and infinite piezoelectric strip. The edges of the strip are subjected to uniform, constant anti-planestresses and in-plane electrical displacements.Design/methodology/approach: The loads applied at the edges of the strip open the crack in a self-similar fashion.Consequently at each tip of the crack a saturation zone protrudes. To stop the crack from further opening t...

  14. Building America Best Practices Series, Volume 10: Retrofit Techniques and Technologies: Air Sealing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baechler, Michael C.; Gilbride, Theresa L.; Hefty, Marye G.; Cole, Pamala C.; Williamson, Jennifer L.; Love, Pat M.

    2010-04-12

    This report was prepared by PNNL for the U.S. Department of Energy Building America Program. The report provides information to home owners who want to make their existing homes more energy efficient by sealing leaks in the building envelope (ceiling, walls, and floors) that let in drafts and let conditioned air escape. The report provides descriptions of 19 key areas of the home where air sealing can improve home performance and energy efficiency. The report includes suggestions on how to find a qualified weatherization or home performance contractor, what to expect in a home energy audit, opportune times for performing air sealing, and what safety and health concerns to be aware of. The report describes some basic building science concepts and topics related to air sealing including ventilation, diagnostic tools, and code requirements. The report will be available for free download from the DOE Building America website. It is a suitable consumer education tool for home performance and weatherization contractors to share with customers to describe the process and value of home energy retrofits.

  15. 78 FR 34306 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans: North Carolina; Control Techniques...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-07

    ... national ambient air quality standards (NAAQS). See 69 FR 23858. The bi-state Charlotte Area includes six... Area on November 28, 2011, at 76 FR 72844. Section 182(b)(2) of the CAA requires states to adopt RACT... their SIPs, RACT rules for stationary sources of VOC that are covered by the CTG. See 78 FR 15895....

  16. 75 FR 59084 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Maryland; Control Technique...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-27

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Maryland; Control... reasonably available considering technological and economic feasibility'' (44 FR 53761, September 17, 1979... and Budget under Executive Order 12866 (58 FR 51735, October 4, 1993); Does not impose an...

  17. Application of Dry Air Drying Techniques on West-East Gas Pipeline Project

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GaoJianguo; XieLigong; DaiZongyu

    2004-01-01

    Based on the pre-eommissioning requirements of gas pipeline, the basic principles and influential factors of dry air drying adopted in long distance gas pipelines, and states in detail the technological flow and the equipment required, etc. are introduced, which will have practical significance in drying operation on gas pipeline.

  18. Techniques and Products for Air Purification%室内空气净化技术及产品综述

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石芳芳; 邱利民; 于川; 张林; 宋佳; 严仁远

    2014-01-01

    Principles and characteristics of the indoor air purification techniques are introduced in this paper. The main challenges of cur-rent techniques are outlined. The combination principles of the air purification techniques are proposed by summarizing and analyzing the techniques applied in sorts of air purifiershe combination principles are: choosing the purification methods mainly based on the types of pollutants indoor and exploiting the synergistic effect between indoor air purification techniques to get the optimal and comprehensive puri-fication. his paper points out that studies on integrated purification technology exploiting synergistic effect purification techniques will be one of the most important researches in future.%如何在加快治理大气环境的同时,营造洁净健康的室内空气环境,是当前乃至今后相当长的一段时期国内外相关领域的持续热点。本文系统介绍了目前室内空气净化主要技术的原理及特点,指出现有技术存在的主要问题。通过对当前主流室内空气净化产品中应用的净化技术进行梳理,总结了空气净化技术的组合原则,即主要根据室内污染物类型进行针对性地选择,并利用净化技术间的协同效应,以使室内空气得到全面净化。本文还对未来的研发方向进行了展望,指出利用净化技术间的协同效应,研究更为有效的综合净化技术将成为未来重要的研究方向之一。

  19. Digital simulation of anodic stripping voltammetry from thin film electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The anodic stripping voltammetry (ASV) is routinely applied to control of Cu(II) in heavy water in the primary cooling loop of the Nuclear Power Reactor. The anodic stripping voltammetry (ASV) is a very well-known technique in electroanalytical chemistry. However, due to the complexity of the phenomena, it is practised with the fundamentals of empiric considerations. A geometric model for the anodic stripping voltammetry (ASV) from thin film electrodes which can be calculated by explicit digital simulation method is proposed as a possibility of solving the electrochemically reversible, cuasi-reversible and irreversible reactions under linear potential scan and multiple potential scans. (Until now the analytical mathematical method was applied to reversible reactions). All the results are compared with analytical solutions and experimental results and it permits to conclude that the anodic stripping voltammetry (ASV) can be studied with the simplicity and potentialities of explicit digital simulation methods. (M.E.L.)

  20. Analysis/design of strip reinforced random composites /strip hybrids/

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamis, C. C.; Sinclair, J. H.

    1978-01-01

    Results are described which were obtained by applying advanced analysis methods and composite mechanics to a strip-reinforced random composite square panel with fixed ends. This was done in order to illustrate the use of these methods for the apriori assessment of the composite panel when subjected to complex loading conditions. The panel was assumed to be of E-Glass/Random Composite. The strips were assumed to be of three advanced unidirectional composites to cover a range of low, intermediate, and high modulus stiffness. The panels were assumed to be subjected to complex loadings to assess their adequacy as load-carrying members in auto body, aircraft engine nacelle, and windmill blade applications. The results show that strip hybrid panels can be several times more structurally efficient than the random composite base materials. Some of the results are presented in graphical form and procedures are described for use of these graphs as guides for preliminary design of strip hybrids.

  1. In-die ultrasonic and off-line air-coupled monitoring and characterization techniques for drug tablets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, J. D.; Kowalczyk, B. R.; Hancock, B. C.; Kaul, G.; Akseli, I.; Cetinkaya, C.

    2012-05-01

    Mechanical integrity and properties of drug tablets may adversely affect their therapeutic and structural functions. An embedded ultrasound monitoring system for tablet mechanical property monitoring during compaction and a non-contact/non-destructive off-line air-coupled technique for determining the mechanical properties of coated drug tablets are presented. In the compaction monitoring system, the change of ToF and the reflection coefficient for the upper-punch surface interface as a function of compaction pressure has been studied. In the air-coupled measurement approach, air-coupled excitation and laser interferometric detection are utilized and their effectiveness in characterizing the mechanical properties of a drug tablet by examining its vibrational resonance frequencies is demonstrated. An iterative computational procedure based on the finite element method and Newton's method is developed to extract the mechanical properties of the coated tablet from a subset of its measured resonance frequencies. The mechanical properties characterized by this technique are compared to those obtained by a contact ultrasonic method.

  2. Effect of inhaled beclomethasone dipropionate on isocapnic hyperventilation with cold air in asthmatics, measured with forced oscillation technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennings, H J; Wouters, E F

    1997-03-01

    Isocapnic hyperventilation with cold air (IHCA) is a reliable technique for assessing indirect bronchial hyperresponsiveness in patients with asthma. Impedance measurement of the respiratory system by the forced pseudorandom noise oscillation technique is a sensitive technique to assess changes in bronchial tone after IHCA. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of 6 weeks of treatment with beclomethasone dipropionate, 1,000 microg x day-1, on IHCA in asthmatic patients, measured with both forced oscillation technique and flow-volume recordings. Forty patients with mild asthma were included in this double-blind, placebo-controlled parallel-group study. Stratification on the basis of sex was performed to overcome differences in airway diameter. At entry and every 2 weeks during the treatment period, IHCA was performed and patient diaries were evaluated. Characteristic changes in forced oscillation parameters after IHCA were observed in all patients. After 6 weeks of treatment, BDP-treated patients showed statistically significant differences in impedance measurements after IHCA, manifested by significant attenuation of resistance at 8 Hz (preactance at 8 Hz (p=0.01), and resonant frequency (f0) (pFlow-volume recordings showed only a statistically significant change in the decrease of inspiratory vital capacity (IVC) (p=0.01). Furthermore, a significant correlation was observed between serum immunoglobulin E (IgE) levels and the effect of BDP on IHCA, measured with forced oscillation technique. In this study, beclomethasone dipropionate, 1,000 microg x day(-1) for 6 weeks, decreased indirect bronchial hyperresponsiveness as assessed by cold air bronchoprovocation in asthmatic patients. The forced oscillation technique proved a more sensitive method of detecting changes in bronchial tone than flow-volume recordings. PMID:9073002

  3. Lanthanide-labeled immunochromatographic strips for the rapid detection of Pantoea stewartii subsp. stewartii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fan; Zou, Mingqiang; Chen, Yan; Li, Jinfeng; Wang, Yanfei; Qi, Xiaohua; Xue, Qiang

    2014-01-15

    The lateral flow immunoassay is used in commercial pregnancy detection, and is an accepted point-of-care testing technique. The most widely used format for lateral flow immunochromatographic strips uses gold nanoparticles for colorimetric detection. However, this method often suffers from poor quantitative discrimination and low analytical sensitivity. To address these limitations, lanthanide chelate-loaded silica nanoparticles have been used as fluorescent labels. The fluorescent nanoparticles can easily bind to antibodies, with dextran as a linker. The strip reader described here was based on a sandwich immunoreaction performed on a strip, using lanthanide-labeled antibodies that served as signal vehicles for the fluorescent readout. The strip reader was used as a quantitative test system. In this work, Pantoea stewartii subsp. stewartii (Pss) was used as a model analyte to demonstrate the use of the strip reader. Under optimal conditions, the detection limit was determined as 10(3)cfu/mL. The quantification limit was calculated to be 10(4)cfu/mL. The detection limit for Pss was 100 times lower than those displayed by colloidal gold-labeled strips or ELISAs. No cross-reactions were observed with the other nine strains, indicating the good specificity of the Pss strip. This strip showed good stability in repeated tests. The tests using the fluorescence immunochromatographic strip were easy to perform, rapid, and sensitive. Methods using fluorescence strips and a strip reader have the potential to be a powerful tool for the quantification of bacteria. PMID:23928093

  4. Dry Flowing Abrasive Decontamination Technique for Pipe Systems with Swirling Air Flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A dry abrasive decontamination method was developed for removing radioactive corrosion products from surfaces of coolant pipe systems in decommissioning of a nuclear power plant. Erosion behavior of inside surfaces of stainless and carbon steel pipes by a swirling air flow containing alumina or cast-iron grit abrasive was studied. Erosion depths of the test pipes were approximately proportional to an abrasive concentration in air and an exponent of flow rate of airstream. The experimental results indicated that the present method could keep satisfactory erosion ability of abrasives even for a large-size pipe. The present method was successfully applied to 60Co-contaminated specimens sampled from a pipe of the water cleanup system of the Japan Power Demonstration Reactor

  5. Wet effluent diffusion technique and determination of C1-C5 alcohols in air

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sklenská, Jana; Pařízek, Petr; Večeřa, Zbyněk

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 1 (2001), s. 121-127. ISSN 1231-7098 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/98/0943 Grant ostatní: COPERNICUS(BE) SUB-AERO EVK2-1999-000327 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4031919 Keywords : wet effluent difussion denuder * determination * air Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation

  6. Long-range transboundary air pollution studied by nuclear and related analytical techniques in europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Since 1995 sector of Neutron Activation Analysis and Applied Research of JINR contributes to the UNECE International Cooperative Program - Atmospheric Heavy Metal Deposition in Europe : estimations based on moss analysis. The data from these surveys allow both spatial and temporal trends in trace metal deposition to be examined and the areas where deposition of heavy metals from long-range trans-boundary air pollution is high to be identified

  7. Characterization of galvannealed strip

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the aim of enhancing coating quality control during galvannealing process, an online microscopic image acquisition sensor has been developed at CRM. In galvannealing process, the ζ phase surface density is a coating quality characteristic, and the on-line microscope, equipped with optics placed at 20 mm from the surface, grabs 250 μm x 190 μm images on which ζ crystals (approximate dimensions: 1 μm x 10 μm) can be clearly identified. On-line, the sensor is mounted in front of a roll where the strip has a stable position. The coating surface to sensor optics distance is continuously measured by an accurate triangulation sensor (1 μm repeatability) and is adjusted in such a way that, due to roll eccentricity, the image is focused at least twice per revolution. When focused, image of moving product is frozen by a short (10 ns) laser light pulse and is grabbed. The obtained image is then processed to extract ζ phase percentage and allows adjustment of process parameters to reach the desired coating characteristics. (author)

  8. ATLAS Strip Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Bernabeu, J; The ATLAS collaboration

    2012-01-01

    A phased upgrade of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN is planned. The last upgrade phase (HL-LHC) is currently foreseen in 2022-2023. It aims to increase the integrated luminosity to about ten times the original LHC design luminosity. To cope with the harsh conditions in terms of particle rates and radiation dose expected during HL-LHC operation, the ATLAS collaboration is developing technologies for a complete tracker replacement. This new detector will need to provide extreme radiation hardness and a high granularity, within the tight constraints imposed by the existing detectors and their services. An all-silicon high granularity tracking detector is proposed. An international R&D collaboration is working on the strip layers for this new tracker. A number of large area prototype planar detectors produced on p-type wafers have been designed and fabricated for use at HL-LHC. These prototype detectors and miniature test detectors have been irradiated to a set of fluences matched to HL-LHC expectatio...

  9. ATLAS Strip Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Bernabeu, J; The ATLAS collaboration

    2012-01-01

    A phased upgrade of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN is planned. The last upgrade phase (HL-LHC) is currently foreseen in 2022-2023. It aims to increase the integrated luminosity to about ten times the original LHC design luminosity. To cope with the harsh conditions in terms of particle rates and radiation dose expected during HL-LHC operation, the ATLAS collaboration is developing technologies for a complete tracker replacement. This new detector will need to provide extreme radiation hardness and a high granularity, within the tight constraints imposed by the existing detectors and their services. An all-silicon high-granularity tracking detector is proposed. An international R&D collaboration is working on the strip layers for this new tracker. A number of large area prototype planar detectors produced on p-type wafers have been designed and fabricated for use at HL-LHC. These prototype detectors and miniature test detectors have been irradiated to a set of fluences matched to HL-LHC expectatio...

  10. Role of SSNTD technique in three-step method for total assay of alpha activity in air effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the present work, low levels of alpha activity in air effluents were estimated. Currently this essay involves collection of effluent samples and assaying them for the release using ZnS(Ag) based scintillation counter (background=1 cpm). Any activity below 1 cpm (net) therefore goes unreported. Air samples showing activity -6 Bq/m3 (3.73x10-17 Ci/m3) to 36.41x10-6 Bq/m3 (9.84x10-16 Ci/m3) for samples studied over twelve months period. The three step procedure helps to measure total activity without significant burden on SSNTD technique thereby improving the acceptability of the methodology. (author)

  11. Pellet coating by air suspension technique using a mini-model coating unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganesan, M; Pal, T K; Jayakumar, M

    2003-09-01

    Air suspension coating is widely used in the pharmaceutical industry, as an attractive alternative to pan coating in that it can successfully coat small particles, pellets and tablets irrespective of size or shape with a wide variety of coating materials. The commercially available air suspension coating equipments require at least one kilogram of material for optimum efficiency of their working. Therefore, it is felt that there is a potential need for a small, compact air suspension coating instrument, which can work with gram quantities of material. The main objective of the present work is to design and evaluate a laboratory model top spray air suspension coating instrument. The performance of the instrument was evaluated for both, drug loading on to non-pareil pellets and coating of drug-loaded pellets. Terbutaline sulphate was selected as model drug, while Surelease (aqueous polymeric dispersion of ethyl cellulose) as representative coating material. The drug loading efficiency of the instrument was found to be around 82% with a pellet load of 10 g. The drug loading efficiency was found to be satisfactory and reproducible. Scanning electron micrographs of coated pellets indicated that coating was homogenous and uniform around the pellets. The maximum deviations observed in the in vitro drug release studies were +/- 2.7397% of the mean percent quantity of drug released, which is low enough for the coating to be considered uniform and reproducible. Reproducibility of the coating process was further confirmed by determining the 95% confidence interval for average difference in cumulative percentage drug release between two runs of each batch, which was found to be less than 5% set as the maximum allowable difference. The release data obtained were found to show best fit with first order kinetic model. A significant influence of coating thickness on the drug release rate was observed. From the results and observations of this work, it may be concluded that the

  12. Hair follicle targeting, penetration enhancement and Langerhans cell activation make cyanoacrylate skin surface stripping a promising delivery technique for transcutaneous immunization with large molecules and particle-based vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogt, Annika; Hadam, Sabrina; Deckert, Iliane; Schmidt, Julia; Stroux, Andrea; Afraz, Zahra; Rancan, Fiorenza; Lademann, Jürgen; Combadiere, Behazine; Blume-Peytavi, Ulrike

    2015-01-01

    Transcutaneous immunization (TCI) requires targeting of a maximum number of skin antigen-presenting cells as non-invasive as possible on small skin areas. In two clinical trials, we introduced cyanoacrylate skin surface stripping (CSSS) as a safe method for TCI. Here, using ex vivo human skin, we demonstrate that one CSSS procedure removed only 30% of stratum corneum, but significantly increased the penetration of 200 nm polystyrene particles deep into vellus and intermediate hair follicles from where they could not been retrieved by conventional tape stripping. Two subsequent CSSS had no striking additional effect. CSSS increased particle penetration in superficial stratum corneum and induced Langerhans cell activation. Formulation in amphiphilic ointment or massage did not substantially influences the interfollicular penetration profiles. Hair follicle (HF) targeting by CSSS could become a highly effective tool for TCI when combined with carrier-based delivery and is gaining new attention as our understanding on the HF immune system increases. PMID:25382068

  13. Nano-strip Metal Detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper we consider a design of a Nano-strip Metal Detector (NMD) for applications based on micro-beams of charged particles or synchrotron radiation (microbiology, radiation therapy, new construction materials etc

  14. In-well vapor stripping drilling and characterization work plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work plan provides the information necessary for drilling, sampling, and hydrologic testing of wells to be completed in support of a demonstration of the in-well vapor stripping system. The in-well vapor stripping system is a remediation technology designed to preferentially extract volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from contaminated groundwater by converting them to a vapor phase. Air-lift pumping is used to lift and aerate groundwater within the well. The volatiles escaping the aerated water are drawn off by a slight vacuum and treated at the surface while the water is allowed to infiltrate the vadose zone back to the watertable

  15. Strip casting of stainless steels

    OpenAIRE

    Raabe, D.

    1997-01-01

    FLAT PRODUCTS OF STAINLESS STEELS ARE CONVENTIONALLY MANUFACTURED BY CONTINUOUS CASTING, HOT ROLLING, HOT BAND ANNEALING, PICKLING, COLD ROLLING AND RECRYSTALLISATION. IN THE LAST YEARS STRIP CASTING HAS INCREASINGLY ATTRACTED ATTENTION. IT OFFERS THREE IMPROVEMENTS IN COMPARISON TO THE CONVENTIONAL METHOD.1.) IT ALLOWS TO CAST STEEL SHEETS WITH THE SAME THICKNESS AND WIDTH AS THOSE PRODUCED BY HOT ROLLING. THIS MEANS THAT THE HOT ROLLING PROCESSIS BYPASSED. 2.) THE STRIP CAST STEEL REVEALS A...

  16. Bioaerosol DNA Extraction Technique from Air Filters Collected from Marine and Freshwater Locations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckwith, M.; Crandall, S. G.; Barnes, A.; Paytan, A.

    2015-12-01

    Bioaerosols are composed of microorganisms suspended in air. Among these organisms include bacteria, fungi, virus, and protists. Microbes introduced into the atmosphere can drift, primarily by wind, into natural environments different from their point of origin. Although bioaerosols can impact atmospheric dynamics as well as the ecology and biogeochemistry of terrestrial systems, very little is known about the composition of bioaerosols collected from marine and freshwater environments. The first step to determine composition of airborne microbes is to successfully extract environmental DNA from air filters. We asked 1) can DNA be extracted from quartz (SiO2) air filters? and 2) how can we optimize the DNA yield for downstream metagenomic sequencing? Aerosol filters were collected and archived on a weekly basis from aquatic sites (USA, Bermuda, Israel) over the course of 10 years. We successfully extracted DNA from a subsample of ~ 20 filters. We modified a DNA extraction protocol (Qiagen) by adding a beadbeating step to mechanically shear cell walls in order to optimize our DNA product. We quantified our DNA yield using a spectrophotometer (Nanodrop 1000). Results indicate that DNA can indeed be extracted from quartz filters. The additional beadbeating step helped increase our yield - up to twice as much DNA product was obtained compared to when this step was omitted. Moreover, bioaerosol DNA content does vary across time. For instance, the DNA extracted from filters from Lake Tahoe, USA collected near the end of June decreased from 9.9 ng/μL in 2007 to 3.8 ng/μL in 2008. Further next-generation sequencing analysis of our extracted DNA will be performed to determine the composition of these microbes. We will also model the meteorological and chemical factors that are good predictors for microbial composition for our samples over time and space.

  17. Chemical Stripping of ceramic films of titanium aluminum nitride from hard metal substrates

    OpenAIRE

    U. Bardi; D. Bonacchi; Rizzi, G.; Scrivani, A.

    2003-01-01

    We report here the result of a study of different chemical stripping methodologies for ceramic coatings deposited by PVD on hard metal substrates. We show that an approach based on the study of the system by surface science techniques leads to the possibility of developing effective stripping methods as well as guidelines for improving the process. We will report about two methods tested for the stripping of layers of titanium aluminum nitride (TINALOX) deposited by Physical Vapor De...

  18. Gas-phase advanced oxidation as an integrated air pollution control technique

    OpenAIRE

    Getachew A. Adnew; Carl Meusinger; Nicolai Bork; Michael Gallus; Mildrid Kyte; Thomas Rosenørn; Johnson, Matthew S.; Vitalijs Rodins

    2016-01-01

    Gas-phase advanced oxidation (GPAO) is an emerging air cleaning technology based on the natural self-cleaning processes that occur in the Earth’s atmosphere. The technology uses ozone, UV-C lamps and water vapor to generate gas-phase hydroxyl radicals that initiate oxidation of a wide range of pollutants. In this study four types of GPAO systems are presented: a laboratory scale prototype, a shipping container prototype, a modular prototype, and commercial scale GPAO installations. The GPAO s...

  19. Use of nuclear and related analytical techniques in environmental research as exemplified by selected air pollution studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Among nuclear and nuclear related analytical techniques, neutron activation analysis and X-ray fluorescence spectrometry proved to be particularly useful for environmental studies owing to their nondestructive character and multi element capability. This paper emphasizes their importance among other multielement analytical methods by discussing their specific role due to specific physics basis, quite different to other destructive non-nuclear methods, and by summarizing results obtained in several studies related to air pollution research, including analyses of airborne particulate matter, water samples, lichens and mosses. (author)

  20. Combination of multielement technique (INAA and ICP-MS) for a French air pollution bio-monitoring survey using mosses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work presents the use of two trace analysis techniques through the data obtained for a significant part of the 557 mosses sampled in France. Sampling were made within the framework of European survey carried out in 1995-1996 and proposed by the Nordic Council. The analyses were produced with a combination of two multielement analysis techniques: INAA (Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis) and ICP-MS (Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry). Theses two techniques were suitable for trace analyses in mosses. They were clearly complementary and provided for 36 elements including the heavy metals of key interest in air pollution studies. The choice of the technique for a given element depended on the feasibility (e g. Pb is not attainable by INAA), the detection limit, the analytical variability, the preparation procedures and the concentration ranges (5-100 μg/g for Pb, 0.5-5 μg/g for As). INAA measured the total content in the sample, while ICP-MS demanded a mineralization procedure resulting in losses/contamination hazards. Thus, INAA results were preferred, although this technique was time consuming. However the ICP-MS results for Cd, Cu, Ni and Pb were retained, for different reasons: detection limits (Cd, Cu), no convenient INAA conditions (Ni), and feasibility (Pb). (authors)

  1. Indirect air cooling techniques for control rod drives in the high temperature engineering test reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The high temperature engineering test reactor (HTTR) is the first high-temperature gas-cooled reactor in Japan with reactor outlet gas temperature of 950 deg. C and thermal power of 30 MW. Sixteen pairs of control rods are employed for controlling the reactivity change of the HTTR. Each standpipe for a pair of the control rods, which is placed on the top head dome of the reactor pressure vessel, contains one control rod drive mechanism. The control rod drive mechanism may malfunction because of reduction of the electrical insulation of the electromagnetic clutch when the temperature exceeds 180 deg. C. Because 31 standpipes stand close together in the standpipe room, 16 standpipes for the control rods, which are located at the center, should be cooled effectively. Therefore, the control rod drives are cooled indirectly by forced air circulation through a pair of ring-ducts with proper air outlet nozzles and inlets. Based on analytical results, a pair of the ring-ducts was installed as one of structures in the standpipe room. Evaluation results through the rise-to-power test of the HTTR showed that temperatures of the electromagnetic clutch and the ambient helium gas inside the control rod standpipe should be below the limits of 180 and 75 deg. C, respectively, at full power operation and at the scram from the operation.

  2. Trace element air pollution monitoring studies in Slovenia using nuclear analytical techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the past, only a few investigations have been performed in Slovenia concerning trace elements, toxic elements, heavy metals and radionuclides in the atmosphere. During recent years, several projects were initiated, involving health-related studies connected to air pollution in highly exposed areas, mapping the status of air pollution in the whole country using biomonitors, as well as some specific research, i.e. involving studies of mercury speciation in the atmosphere around a mercury mine or concentration levels of radionuclides in biomonitors around a uranium mine. Since all these projects were or are of a preliminary nature, in this report, the emphasis is mainly on the methodology and analytical development (neutron activation analysis and X-ray spectrometry), and to a lesser extent on the results obtained up to now. Efforts are being put into co-ordination of all the presently running projects in order to complement the results and to make a unified database for their later evaluation and statistical interpretation. (author). 22 refs, 1 fig., 1 tab

  3. AN AIR POLLUTION PREDICTION TECHNIQUE FOR URBAN DISTRICTS BASED ON MESO-SCALE NUMERICAL MODEL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Jing-hua; XU Jian-ping

    2005-01-01

    Taking Shenzhen city as an example, the statistical and physical relationship between the density of pollutants and various atmospheric parameters are analyzed in detail, and a space-partitioned city air pollution potential prediction scheme is established based on it. The scheme considers quantitatively more than ten factors at the surface and planetary boundary layer (PBL), especially the effects of anisotropy of geographical environment, and treats wind direction as an independent impact factor. While the scheme treats the prediction equation respectively for different pollutants according to their differences in dilute properties, it considers as well the possible differences in dilute properties at different districts of the city under the same atmospheric condition, treating predictions respectively for different districts. Finally, the temporally and spatially high resolution predictions for the atmospheric factors are made with a high resolution numerical model, and further the space-partitioned and time-variational city pollution potential predictions are made. The scheme is objective and quantitative, and with clear physical meaning, so it is suitable to use in making high resolution air pollution predictions.

  4. Gas-phase advanced oxidation as an integrated air pollution control technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Getachew A. Adnew

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Gas-phase advanced oxidation (GPAO is an emerging air cleaning technology based on the natural self-cleaning processes that occur in the Earth’s atmosphere. The technology uses ozone, UV-C lamps and water vapor to generate gas-phase hydroxyl radicals that initiate oxidation of a wide range of pollutants. In this study four types of GPAO systems are presented: a laboratory scale prototype, a shipping container prototype, a modular prototype, and commercial scale GPAO installations. The GPAO systems treat volatile organic compounds, reduced sulfur compounds, amines, ozone, nitrogen oxides, particles and odor. While the method covers a wide range of pollutants, effective treatment becomes difficult when temperature is outside the range of 0 to 80 °C, for anoxic gas streams and for pollution loads exceeding ca. 1000 ppm. Air residence time in the system and the rate of reaction of a given pollutant with hydroxyl radicals determine the removal efficiency of GPAO. For gas phase compounds and odors including VOCs (e.g. C6H6 and C3H8 and reduced sulfur compounds (e.g. H2S and CH3SH, removal efficiencies exceed 80%. The method is energy efficient relative to many established technologies and is applicable to pollutants emitted from diverse sources including food processing, foundries, water treatment, biofuel generation, and petrochemical industries.

  5. Air pollution in Santiago (Chile) as studied by nuclear and other techniques. Appendix 6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The elemental characterization of the urban aerosol in Santiago and of a rural area using different non-destructive analytical techniques such as PIXE, NAA and XRF was performed. In addition, AAS was used for selected samples and intercomparison purposes. The distribution of selected elements on membrane filters was studied using XRF. To assure adequate quality of the analytical data, an analytical quality control exercise was planned and carried out. Furthermore, different analytical techniques were used for the determination of the same elements in the same sample as further quality control procedure. (author)

  6. Biomonitoring of air pollution in Jamaica through trace-element analysis of epiphytic plants using nuclear and related analytical techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main goal of the Coordinated Research Project (No:9937/R0), entitled 'Biomonitoring of Air Pollution in Jamaica Through Trace-Element Analysis of Epiphytic Plants Using Nuclear and Related Analytical Techniques', is to identify and validate site specific epiphytic plants for biomonitoring the atmospheric pollution in Jamaica using nuclear analytical techniques at the International Centre for Environmental and Nuclear Sciences (ICENS). The specific objectives for the second year of the project were: Development of HOP for sampling epiphytic plants in Jamaica; Sampling design and sample collection; Sample preparation and analysis; Development of an in-house SRM and participation in the NAT-5 inter-laboratory study; Data analysis and interpretation of the results; Development of a work plan of the third year of the project

  7. An experimental technique for the modelling of air flow movements in nuclear plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes an experimental technique developed at Harwell to model ventilation flows in plant at 1/5th scale. The technique achieves dynamic similarity not only for forced convection imposed by the plant ventilation system, but also for the interaction between natural convection (from heated objects) and forced convection. The use of a scale model to study flow of fluids is a well established technique, relying upon various criteria, expressed in terms of dimensionless numbers, to achieve dynamic similarity. For forced convective flows, simulation of Reynolds number is sufficient, but to model natural convection and its interaction with forced convection, the Rayleigh, Grashof and Prandtl numbers must be simulated at the same time. This paper describes such a technique, used in experiments on a hypothetical glove box cell to study the interaction between forced and natural convection. The model contained features typically present in a cell, such as a man, motor, stairs, glove box, etc. The aim of the experiment was to study the overall flow patterns, especially around the model man 'working' at the glove box. The cell ventilation was theoretically designed to produce a downward flow over the face of the man working at the glove box. However, the results have shown that the flow velocities produced an upwards flow over the face of the man. The work has indicated the viability of modelling simultaneously the forced and natural convection processes in a cell. It has also demonstrated that simplistic assumptions cannot be made about ventilation flow patterns. (author)

  8. Study on air pollution around China's largest oil refinery complex using multielements in biomonitors and neutron activation analysis techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three different kinds of plant leaves, Chinese white poplar, arborvitae and pine needle have been sampled from different places, Yanshan Oil refinery complex, Capital Iron and Steel Factory and Badachu, a control place in Beijing, as bio-monitors for air pollution studies. Each sample was divided into two parts, washed and unwashed, 31 trace elements, As, Au, Br, Ca, Cd, K, La, Lu, Mo, Na, Sb, Sm, U, W, Yb, Ba, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Eu, Fe, Hf, Hg, Rb, Sc, Se, Sr, Ta, Tb, Th and Zn have been determined by using KO method of instrument neutron activation analysis techniques with a long irradiation in the 15MW Heave Water Research Reactor, China Institute of Atomic Energy. The results indicated that: 1) the concentration of trace elements in unwashed samples are much higher than that in washed samples; 2) the area of capital iron and steel factory is polluted heavily, and Yanshan oil refinery complex area is polluted moderately, 3) All the three kinds of plant leaves can be used as air pollution biomonitors, because they can absorb some trace elements from the air pollutants. Aspen is good for monitoring in particular seasons and Pine needle is better than arborvitae for yearly monitoring; 4) Elements of As, Cd, Hg, Co, Rb, Sb, W and Zn are highly absorbed by Chinese white poplar. Pine needle is sensitive to absorb the elements of Br, Cr, Cd, Fe, Sc, Cs and rear earth elements, but arborvitae is very sensitive for the absorption of Sr. (author)

  9. A novel Fast Gas Chromatography based technique for higher time resolution measurements of speciated monoterpenes in air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, C. E.; Kato, S.; Nakashima, Y.; Kajii, Y.

    2013-12-01

    Biogenic emissions supply the largest fraction of non-methane volatile organic compounds (VOC) from the biosphere to the atmospheric boundary layer, and typically comprise a complex mixture of reactive terpenes. Due to this chemical complexity, achieving comprehensive measurements of biogenic VOC (BVOC) in air within a satisfactory time resolution is analytically challenging. To address this, we have developed a novel, fully automated Fast Gas Chromatography (Fast-GC) based technique to provide higher time resolution monitoring of monoterpenes (and selected other C9-C15 terpenes) during plant emission studies and in ambient air. To our knowledge, this is the first study to apply a Fast-GC based separation technique to achieve quantification of terpenes in air. Three chromatography methods have been developed for atmospheric terpene analysis under different sampling scenarios. Each method facilitates chromatographic separation of selected BVOC within a significantly reduced analysis time compared to conventional GC methods, whilst maintaining the ability to quantify individual monoterpene structural isomers. Using this approach, the C10-C15 BVOC composition of single plant emissions may be characterised within a ~ 14 min analysis time. Moreover, in situ quantification of 12 monoterpenes in unpolluted ambient air may be achieved within an ~ 11 min chromatographic separation time (increasing to ~ 19 min when simultaneous quantification of multiple oxygenated C9-C10 terpenoids is required, and/or when concentrations of anthropogenic VOC are significant). This corresponds to a two- to fivefold increase in measurement frequency compared to conventional GC methods. Here we outline the technical details and analytical capability of this chromatographic approach, and present the first in situ Fast-GC observations of 6 monoterpenes and the oxygenated BVOC linalool in ambient air. During this field deployment within a suburban forest ~ 30 km west of central Tokyo, Japan, the

  10. Air pollution in Santiago (Chile) as a studied by nuclear and other techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santiago, the capital of Chile is becoming one of the most polluted cities in the world as regards its atmospheric environment. The present project aims at comparing the composition of airborne particulate matter collected in Santiago with other collected in a clear area and to optimize the analytical methodology, based on NAA, XRF and PIXE, for this type of samples. The possibility of using total reflection XRF (TRXRF) for quantitative determination of air particulate matter will be evaluated. Analysis of wet deposition by ion chromatography and TRXRF will also be performed. The feasibility of using biomonitors for environmental pollution purposes will also be studied. The project foresees the evaluation of the analytical data as regards its analytical quality and its statistical interpretation. The identification of emission sources will be attempted. (author). 7 refs, 1 fig., 3 tabs

  11. Surface modification of air plasma spraying WC-12%Co cermet coating by laser melting technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afzal, M.; Ajmal, M.; Nusair Khan, A.; Hussain, A.; Akhter, R.

    2014-03-01

    Tungsten carbide cermet powder with 12%Co was deposited on stainless steel substrate by air plasma spraying method. Two types of coatings were produced i.e. thick (430 µm) and thin (260 µm) with varying porosity and splat morphology. The coated samples were treated with CO2 laser under the shroud of inert atmosphere. A series of experimentation was done in this regard, to optimize the laser parameters. The plasma sprayed coated surfaces were then laser treated on the same parameters. After laser melting the treated surfaces were characterized and compared with as-sprayed surfaces. It was observed that the thickness of the sprayed coatings affected the melt depth and the achieved microstructures. It was noted that phases like Co3W3C, Co3W9C4 and W were formed during the laser melting in both samples. The increase in hardness was attributed to the formation of these phases.

  12. Research survey of propagation technique by air layering%高空压条繁殖技术研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈佳琳; 陈翠湖; 张帅

    2014-01-01

    Materials, procedure and in vitro transplantation for air layering propagation technique were summarized. The results will provide theoretical reference for developing propagation technique by air layering.%总结高空压条繁殖技术压条材料、压条程序和离体移栽的研究进展,可为该技术的改善和研发提供理论借鉴。

  13. The application of remote sensing techniques for air pollution analysis and climate change on Indian subcontinent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palve, S. N.; Nemade, P. D., Dr.; Ghude, S. D., Dr.

    2016-06-01

    India is home to an extraordinary variety of climatic regions, ranging from tropical in the south to temperate and alpine in the Himalayan north, where elevated regions receive sustained winter snowfall. The subcontinent is characterized by high levels of air pollution due to intensively developing industries and mass fuel consumption for domestic purposes. The main tropospheric pollutants (O3, NO2, CO, formaldehyde (HCHO) and SO2) and two major greenhouse gases (tropospheric O3 and methane (CH4)) and important parameters of aerosols, which play a key role in climate change and affecting on the overall well-being of subcontinent residents. In light of considering these facts this paper aims to investigate possible impact of air pollutants over the climate change on Indian subcontinent. Satellite derived column aerosol optical depth (AOD) is a cost effective way to monitor and study aerosols distribution and effects over a long time period. AOD is found to be increasing rapidly since 2000 in summer season that may cause adverse effect to the agricultural crops and also to the human health. Increased aerosol loading may likely affect the rainfall which is responsible for the observed drought conditions over the Indian subcontinent. Carbon monoxide is emitted into the atmosphere by biomass burning activities and India is the second largest contributor of CO emissions in Asia. The MOPITT CO retrievals at 850 hPa show large CO emission from the IG region. The development of convective activity associated with the ASM leads to large scale vertical transport of the boundary layer CO from the Indian region into the upper troposphere. TCO over the Indian subcontinent during 2007 has a systematic and gradual variation, spatial as well as temporal. Higher amount of TCO in the northern latitudes and simultaneous lower TCO at near equatorial latitudes indicates depletion of ozone near the equator and accumulation at higher latitudes within the subcontinent. In addition, changes

  14. Determination of contamination in the air of reactor containment. Sampling and measuring techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the purposes of radiological safety work, the most important elements emerging from the primary circuit and responsible for contamination of the containment are noble gases due to fission or activation, iodine in different physico-chemical forms, and tritium. Sampling and measuring techniques used in studies conducted on in-service reactors (pressurized-water and fast reactor plants) are described, together with the results obtained. The method used for measuring the activity of iodine in its different forms (penetrating or non-penetrating) is to trap the iodine by means of a selective sampling device. The measurements are then made by gamma spectrometry. The technique used for measuring the noble gases is to enrich the carrier gas by means of cold traps, and then to make measurements with an ionization chamber or by gamma spectrometry. Tritium is trapped by bubbling through water and its activity measured with a liquid scintillation detector or proportional counter. (author)

  15. Treatment of malodorants in air by the UV/ozone technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laboratory work has shown that a gas scrubber using uv/ozone as the oxidant was effective in destroying model compounds, and that the UV radiation was better applied in the sump liquor rather than in the spray section. A field trial on a plant making selective weed killers has demonstrated that the technique was able to reduce the concentration of malodorants (mainly chlorophenols) by two to three orders of magnitude in a single pass

  16. A study of air and water pollution by means of nuclear techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The atmospheric aerosols and water pollution in Shanghai were studied by the nuclear microprobe, then the pattern recognition technique was applied to trace the emitter source of aerosol particles. Three iron-containing atmospheric aerosols collected from different area zone were analyzed by Moessbauer spectroscopy, their chemical composition, size of particles and concentration were determined. The intensities of α, β radioactivity were determined by a low background detector

  17. Technique used for the unplugging of combustion gas and air ducts of coke oven regenerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bovi, R.; Giraud, A.

    1996-01-01

    After an overheating, gas ducts of two heating walls have been plugged by silica bricks melting. The ovens concerned have a bad distribution of temperature and operate with an increased coking time. Nowadays, the only repairing technique is demolishing the wall and operating a new cold rebuilding: but this is a very expensive operation. The Sollac Fos coke plant has done a hot repair, without demolishing, with a remote control sandblasting device associated with a video system. (authors). 4 figs., 1 photo.

  18. Wet effluent diffusion denuder technique and the determination of volatile organic compounds in air. II. Monoterpenes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sklenská, Jana; Broškovičová, Anna; Večeřa, Zbyněk

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 973, 1-2 (2002), s. 211-216. ISSN 0021-9673 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/98/0943 Grant ostatní: SPSDII(XE) EV/02/11 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4031919 Keywords : wet effluent denuder technique * volatile organic compounds * monoterpenes Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 3.098, year: 2002

  19. Adaptive critic learning techniques for engine torque and air-fuel ratio control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Derong; Javaherian, Hossein; Kovalenko, Olesia; Huang, Ting

    2008-08-01

    A new approach for engine calibration and control is proposed. In this paper, we present our research results on the implementation of adaptive critic designs for self-learning control of automotive engines. A class of adaptive critic designs that can be classified as (model-free) action-dependent heuristic dynamic programming is used in this research project. The goals of the present learning control design for automotive engines include improved performance, reduced emissions, and maintained optimum performance under various operating conditions. Using the data from a test vehicle with a V8 engine, we developed a neural network model of the engine and neural network controllers based on the idea of approximate dynamic programming to achieve optimal control. We have developed and simulated self-learning neural network controllers for both engine torque (TRQ) and exhaust air-fuel ratio (AFR) control. The goal of TRQ control and AFR control is to track the commanded values. For both control problems, excellent neural network controller transient performance has been achieved. PMID:18632389

  20. Techniques for noise removal from EEG, EOG and air flow signals in sleep patients

    CERN Document Server

    Berryman, M J; Allison, A; Abbott, D; Berryman, Matthew J.; Messer, Sheila; Allison, Andrew; Abbott, Derek

    2004-01-01

    Noise is present in the wide variety of signals obtained from sleep patients. This noise comes from a number of sources, from presence of extraneous signals to adjustments in signal amplification and shot noise in the circuits used for data collection. The noise needs to be removed in order to maximize the information gained about the patient using both manual and automatic analysis of the signals. Here we evaluate a number of new techniques for removal of that noise, and the associated problem of separating the original signal sources.

  1. Immunological techniques as tools to characterize the subsurface microbial community at a trichloroethylene contaminated site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fliermans, C.B.; Dougherty, J.M.; Franck, M.M.; McKinzey, P.C.; Hazen, T.C.

    1992-01-01

    Effective in situ bioremediation strategies require an understanding of the effects pollutants and remediation techniques have on subsurface microbial communities. Therefore, detailed characterization of a site's microbial communities is important. Subsurface sediment borings and water samples were collected from a trichloroethylene (TCE) contaminated site, before and after horizontal well in situ air stripping and bioventing, as well as during methane injection for stimulation of methane-utilizing microorganisms. Subsamples were processed for heterotrophic plate counts, acridine orange direct counts (AODC), community diversity, direct fluorescent antibodies (DFA) enumeration for several nitrogen-transforming bacteria, and Biolog [reg sign] evaluation of enzyme activity in collected water samples. Plate counts were higher in near-surface depths than in the vadose zone sediment samples. During the in situ air stripping and bioventing, counts increased at or near the saturated zone, remained elevated throughout the aquifer, but did not change significantly after the air stripping. Sporadic increases in plate counts at different depths as well as increased diversity appeared to be linked to differing lithologies. AODCs were orders of magnitude higher than plate counts and remained relatively constant with depth except for slight increases near the surface depths and the capillary fringe. Nitrogen-transforming bacteria, as measured by serospecific DFA, were greatly affected both by the in situ air stripping and the methane injection. Biolog[reg sign] activity appeared to increase with subsurface stimulation both by air and methane. The complexity of subsurface systems makes the use of selective monitoring tools imperative.

  2. Immunological techniques as tools to characterize the subsurface microbial community at a trichloroethylene contaminated site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fliermans, C.B.; Dougherty, J.M.; Franck, M.M.; McKinzey, P.C.; Hazen, T.C.

    1992-12-31

    Effective in situ bioremediation strategies require an understanding of the effects pollutants and remediation techniques have on subsurface microbial communities. Therefore, detailed characterization of a site`s microbial communities is important. Subsurface sediment borings and water samples were collected from a trichloroethylene (TCE) contaminated site, before and after horizontal well in situ air stripping and bioventing, as well as during methane injection for stimulation of methane-utilizing microorganisms. Subsamples were processed for heterotrophic plate counts, acridine orange direct counts (AODC), community diversity, direct fluorescent antibodies (DFA) enumeration for several nitrogen-transforming bacteria, and Biolog {reg_sign} evaluation of enzyme activity in collected water samples. Plate counts were higher in near-surface depths than in the vadose zone sediment samples. During the in situ air stripping and bioventing, counts increased at or near the saturated zone, remained elevated throughout the aquifer, but did not change significantly after the air stripping. Sporadic increases in plate counts at different depths as well as increased diversity appeared to be linked to differing lithologies. AODCs were orders of magnitude higher than plate counts and remained relatively constant with depth except for slight increases near the surface depths and the capillary fringe. Nitrogen-transforming bacteria, as measured by serospecific DFA, were greatly affected both by the in situ air stripping and the methane injection. Biolog{reg_sign} activity appeared to increase with subsurface stimulation both by air and methane. The complexity of subsurface systems makes the use of selective monitoring tools imperative.

  3. Intrabeam stripping in H- Linacs

    CERN Document Server

    Lebedev, V; Ostigy, J -F; Alexandrov, A; Shishlo, A

    2012-01-01

    A beam loss in the superconducting part of the SNS linac has been observed during its commissioning and operation. Although the loss does not prevent the SNS high power operation, it results in an almost uniform irradiation of linac components and increased radiation levels in the tunnel. Multi-particle tracking could neither account for the magnitude of the observed loss nor its dependence on machine parameters. It was recently found that the loss is consistent with the intrabeam particle collisions resulting in stripping of H- ions. The paper describes experimental observations and corresponding analytical estimates of the intrabeam stripping.

  4. Restoration of decayed primary incisors using strip crowns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollard, M A; Curzon, J A; Fenlon, W L

    1991-05-01

    Caries of the primary incisors is a common problem that can be arrested if recognized early enough. However, the arrested decay is unsightly. Celluloid 'strip' crown forms, used with composite resin, now allow the restoration of even the most badly decayed primary incisors. The authors describe this quick and efficient technique. PMID:1884866

  5. Modified strip saturation model for a cracked piezoelectric strip

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.R. Bhargava

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The investigations aim to propose a model for arresting an electrical opening of a crack which weakensa narrow, poled and infinite piezoelectric strip. The edges of the strip are subjected to uniform, constant anti-planestresses and in-plane electrical displacements.Design/methodology/approach: The loads applied at the edges of the strip open the crack in a self-similar fashion.Consequently at each tip of the crack a saturation zone protrudes. To stop the crack from further opening the rims ofdeveloped saturation zones are subjected to normal, cohesive linearly varying saturation limit electric displacement. Theedges of the strip are subjected to anti-plane deformation and in-plane electrical displacement. Fourier integral transformmethod employed reduces the problem to the solution of a Fredholm integral equation of second kind.Findings: The electrical displacement, stress intensity factor, the saturation zone length, crack opening displacementand crack growth rate have been calculated. The results obtained presented graphically, analysed and concluded.Research limitations/implications: The ceramic used for strip is being assumed to be electrically morebrittle. The investigations are carried at this level in the present paper. Also the small scale electrical yielding isconsidered. Consequently the developed saturation zone is proposed to lie in a line segment ahead of crack.Practical implications: Piezoelectric ceramics being widely used as transducers. Their wide utility hasprompted to study many attires of such ceramic and one such attire is fracture mechanics of these ceramics.Originality/value: The paper gives an assessment of the electrical load necessary to arrest the electrical crack opening.The investigations are useful to smart material design technology where sensors and actuators are manufactured.

  6. Analysis of indoor air pollutants checklist using environmetric technique for health risk assessment of sick building complaint in nonindustrial workplace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syazwan AI

    2012-09-01

    workplace setting.Design: A cross-sectional study based on a participatory occupational health program conducted by the National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health (Malaysia and Universiti Putra Malaysia.Method: A modified version of the indoor environmental checklist published by the Department of Occupational Health and Safety, based on the literature and discussion with occupational health and safety professionals, was used in the evaluation process. Summated scores were given according to the cluster analysis and principal component analysis in the characterization of risk. Environmetric techniques was used to classify the risk of variables in the checklist. Identification of the possible source of item pollutants was also evaluated from a semiquantitative approach.Result: Hierarchical agglomerative cluster analysis resulted in the grouping of factorial components into three clusters (high complaint, moderate-high complaint, moderate complaint, which were further analyzed by discriminant analysis. From this, 15 major variables that influence indoor air quality were determined. Principal component analysis of each cluster revealed that the main factors influencing the high complaint group were fungal-related problems, chemical indoor dispersion, detergent, renovation, thermal comfort, and location of fresh air intake. The moderate-high complaint group showed significant high loading on ventilation, air filters, and smoking-related activities. The moderate complaint group showed high loading on dampness, odor, and thermal comfort.Conclusion: This semiquantitative assessment, which graded risk from low to high based on the intensity of the problem, shows promising and reliable results. It should be used as an important tool in the preliminary assessment of indoor air quality and as a categorizing method for further IAQ investigations and complaints procedures.Keywords: office, indoor environment quality, indoor air quality assessor, Industry Code of Practice on

  7. Investigation of magnetic property of GdFeO3 single crystal grown in air by optical floating zone technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • GdFeO3 single crystals have been grown by OFZ technique in air. • Sample exhibits one order lower coercive field than crystal grown in oxygen. • Bloch 3/2-law holds good for GdFeO3 (B-parameter as 2.69 × 10−5 K−3/2). • The coercivity exhibited sharp dip at 200 and 550 K. • At 550 K pinning of the direction of weak ferromagnetism by AFM ordering vanishes. - Abstract: Single phase Gadolinium orthoferrite (GdFeO3) with orthorhombic perovskite structure was synthesized without any garnet impurities by solid state reaction and subsequently GdFeO3 single crystals were grown by the optical floating zone technique. The temperature dependent magnetization measurement revealed the magnetic phase transition from anti-ferromagnetic ordering to paramagnetic ordering at 670 K. The overlapping of the magnetization measured under zero-field and field cooling condition in the range of 300–20 K signifies that there is no magnetic transition in this temperature range. The hysteresis loop measurements revealed that in comparison to the values reported for the crystal grown in oxygen, the air grown sample exhibits one order lower coercive field (∼75 Oe). The Bloch 3/2-law was found to hold good for GdFeO3 with the value of B-parameter as 2.69 × 10−5 K−3/2. The coercivity exhibited sharp dip at 200 and 550 K. At and above 550 K the ability of the antiferromagnetic ordering to pin the direction of magnetization related to the weak ferromagnetism present in the material vanishes leading to the lowering in the coercivity

  8. Accurate measurements of carbon monoxide in humid air using the cavity ring-down spectroscopy (CRDS technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Chen

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Accurate measurements of carbon monoxide (CO in humid air have been made using the cavity ring-down spectroscopy (CRDS technique. The measurements of CO mole fractions are determined from the strength of its spectral absorption in the near infrared region (∼1.57 μm after removing interferences from adjacent carbon dioxide (CO2 and water vapor (H2O absorption lines. Water correction functions that account for the dilution and pressure-broadening effects as well as absorption line interferences from adjacent CO2 and H2O lines have been derived for CO2 mole fractions between 360–390 ppm. The line interference corrections are independent of CO mole fractions. The dependence of the line interference correction on CO2 abundance is estimated to be approximately −0.3 ppb/100 ppm CO2 for dry mole fractions of CO. Comparisons of water correction functions from different analyzers of the same type show significant differences, making it necessary to perform instrument-specific water tests for each individual analyzer. The CRDS analyzer was flown on an aircraft in Alaska from April to November in 2011, and the accuracy of the CO measurements by the CRDS analyzer has been validated against discrete NOAA/ESRL flask sample measurements made on board the same aircraft, with a mean difference between integrated in situ and flask measurements of −0.6 ppb and a standard deviation of 2.8 ppb. Preliminary testing of CRDS instrumentation that employs new spectroscopic analysis (available since the beginning of 2012 indicates a smaller water vapor dependence than the models discussed here, but more work is necessary to fully validate the performance. The CRDS technique provides an accurate and low-maintenance method of monitoring the atmospheric dry mole fractions of CO in humid air streams.

  9. A glance of air pollution of Beijing city by using poplar leaves and NAA techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forty-six Chinese White Poplar (CWP) leave samples were taken from different districts of Beijing proper and outskirt. 32 trace elements, As, Au, Ba, Br, Ca, Cd, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Eu, Fe, Hf, Hg, K La, Lu, Mo, Na, Rb, Sb, Sc, Se, Sm, Sr, Ta, Tb, Th, U, W, Yb and Zn have been determined by using relative and K0 method of instrumental neutron activation analysis (AAA) techniques. Each element was normalized by the average. Values of two times of average are considered as notable or suspected pollution. Three times of average are considered as very notable or polluted. In this case, the results indicated: 1) Clues of prominent suspected element pollution: Br is prominent in the area of heavy traffic, sites 4, 13, 27 and 38; Four sites (6, 7, 8, 9) at south of downtown indicate the very notable level for Ni and Sb; Ca is relatively higher in the constructing area, sites 27 and 29; Sites 34 to 36 and sites 43 to 45 indicate the high concentration of Rb, both group sites are located west of Beijing; At northwest, sites 25 to 28 show the notable level of Co. 2) Very notable pollution sites: In site 6, close to a railway station, concentration of 12 elements are more than two times higher than the average, especially Hf, Ni and Sb; In site 26, a high technical special zone, the concentrations of rare earth elements (REE) are more than 4 times the average; Hf and Ta are extraordinary high. It might be some source from high technical zone. In site 38, the place close to the Iron and Steel Factory, a extremely high concentration of Fe and Br, 8 and 5 times higher than the average, respectively. Co, Cr, Hf, K, Na, Ni, Rb and Se are also at notable level; In sampling site 42, located between downtown and outskirts, REE and As, Ba, Cr, Fe, Hf, Hg, Sc, Se, Ta, Th and Zn are shown in the notable level. (author)

  10. BUFFERS AND VEGETATIVE FILTER STRIPS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buffers and filter strips are areas of permanent vegetation located within and between agricultural fields and the water courses to which they drain. These buffers are intended to intercept and slow runoff thereby providing water quality benefits. In addition, in many settings they are intended to...

  11. Electrodynamics on the Moebius Strip

    OpenAIRE

    Pauschenwein, Gernot,

    2004-01-01

    In this diploma work electrostatics and -dynamics of two dimensional structures are examined. Mathematica is used for visualisation and packages for Mathematica have been programmed which use subroutines written in C to improve numerical calculations. The well known Moebius Strip is used as an example structure throughout the work.

  12. Teflon strip pneumostasis for excision of giant emphysematous bullae.

    OpenAIRE

    Parmar, J M; Hubbard, W G; Matthews, H. R.

    1987-01-01

    Excision of giant emphysematous bullae commonly results in a persistent air leak that requires prolonged intercostal drainage and delays recovery. To minimise this we have used Teflon (polytetrafluoroethylene) strips to buttress the suture line and secure pneumostasis. During 1976-84 eight bullae were excised in seven patients. One patient had bilateral staged thoracotomies. All chest drains were removed within eight days (mean 4.5 days) and no patient developed pulmonary complications. At lo...

  13. Riparian strip efficiency assessment in agricultural landscapes using stereoscopic very high spatial resolution satellite imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chokmani, Karem; Novoa, Julio

    2015-04-01

    Riparian strips are used worldwide to protect riverbanks and water quality in agricultural zones because of their several environmental benefits. A metric called the Riparian Strip Quality Index, which is based on the percentage area of riverine vegetation found on the riparian strip, is used to evaluate their ecological condition. This index could be considered an indicator of the potential capacity of riparian strips to filter sediments, retain pollutants, and provide shelter to terrestrial and aquatic species. Thus, in order to know if a riparian strip is truly efficient in agricultural lands, which means that it is fulfilling those ecological functions, it is necessary to understand their ability to intercept surface runoff. The latter is the major cause of water pollution and erosion in these productive areas. Besides vegetation coverage, topographic and hydrologic parameters must be included to model the intensity and spatial distribution of runoff streamflow at local scales. The geospatial information used to assess the ecological efficiency of riparian strips was extracted from very-high-spatial-resolution WorldView-2 satellite imagery. This information was then processed using current geospatial techniques such as object-based image analysis and was used to develop a Riparian Strip Efficiency Index. The results show that this index might be used to assess the efficiency of riparian strips, which will enable land managers to monitor changes occurring over time, identify priority areas for restoration activities. This, in turn, might ensure optimal allocation of private or public funds towards the most inefficient and threatened riparian strips.

  14. New Concept of Cultivation Using Limited Strip-Tillage with Strip Shallow Irrigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yazid Ismi Intara

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false IN X-NONE X-NONE Dry land is one of land resources which potentially used for food crop cultivation, especially in the areas which have light to medium technical obstacles. The development of technology to improve soil quality in marginal lands to be productive lands is still widely open for agricultural development in Indonesia. Rooting medium quality can be improved by changing soil tillage method and observing the proper crop irrigation technology. It can be the solution for crop cultivation in clay loam soil. This study aimed to obtain water movement model in a minimally-tilled clay soil with strip shallow irrigation. The concept is limited soil-tillage with strip shallow irrigation method, water supply technique, and crop water requirement. Method used in this study includes developing water movement model (software development in a minimally-tilled clay soil with subsurface irrigation. In the final stages, research also conducted water movement analysis testing apparatus in the laboratory, field validation of the subsurface irrigation performance, and cultivation technique testing to chili pepper growth (Capsicum annuumL.. The development of water movement simulation on a limited strip-tillage with subsurface irrigation uses the concept to quantify the amount of water in the soil. The analysis of movement pattern was demonstrated on contour patterns. It showed that the wetting process can reach depth zone – 5 cm to the rooting zone. It was an important discovery on the development of minimum stripe tillage soil with subsurface irrigation. Specifically, it can be concluded that: the result of fitting by eyes to diffusivity graphic and water content obtained the required parameter values for soil physical properties. It was then simulated on horizontal water movement model on a minimum strip-tillage with strip shallow irrigation /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso

  15. Pretreatment of anaerobic digestion effluent with ammonia stripping and biogas purification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Xiaohui; Sugiura, Norio; Feng, Chuanping; Maekawa, Takaaki

    2007-07-16

    In this study, ammonia stripping was optimized for pretreating anaerobic digestion effluent from an anaerobic digestion plant, and the possibility of using CO(2) stripping and biogas injection for adjusting the pH of the effluent before and after the ammonia stripping process was also investigated. For ammonia stripping, the results showed that an overdose of calcium hydroxide, i.e., 27.5g/L wastewater, achieved higher ammonia, phosphorus, chemical oxygen demand, suspended solids, and turbidity removal efficiency. An air flow rate of 5L/min for 1L of wastewater was thought as suitable for engineering application. The pH of the anaerobic digestion effluent can be increased from about 7 to about 9 by CO(2) stripping, however which is insufficient for ammonia stripping. For 1L of wastewater treated after ammonia stripping, the pH can be neutralized to about 7 from greater than 11 through biogas injection at 1L/min for less than 30min, and continuous injection does not decrease the pH. It was roughly estimated that 43m(3) of biogas (CH(4):CO(2) approximately 60%:40%) produced daily could be purified to CH(4):CO(2) approximately 74%:26% by neutralizing the pH of the 5m(3) anaerobic digestion effluent pretreated by ammonia stripping. PMID:17178436

  16. Prospective comparison between two different magnetic resonance defecography techniques for evaluating pelvic floor disorders: air-balloon versus gel for rectal filling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Francesca, Maccioni; Najwa, Al Ansari; Valeria, Buonocore; Fabrizio, Mazzamurro; Carlo, Catalano [Sapienza University of Rome, Department of Radiological Sciences, Oncology and Pathology, Policlinico Umberto I Hospital, Rome (Italy); Marileda, Indinnimeo; Massimo, Mongardini [Sapienza University of Rome, Department of Surgical Sciences, Policlinico Umberto I Hospital, Rome (Italy)

    2016-06-15

    to prospectively compare two rectal filling techniques for dynamic MRI of pelvic floor disorders (PFD). Twenty-six patients with PFD underwent the two techniques during the same procedure, one based on rectal placement of a balloon-catheter filled with saline and air insufflation (air-balloon technique or AB); another based on rectal filling with 180 cc of gel (gel-filling technique or GF). The examinations were compared for assessment and staging of PFD, including rectal-descent, rectocele, cystocele, colpocele, enterocele, rectal invagination. Surgery and clinical examinations were the gold standard. AB showed sensitivity of 96 % for rectal descent, 100 % for both rectocele and colpocele, 86 % for rectal invagination and 100 % for enterocele; understaged 11 % of rectal descents and 19 % of rectoceles. GF showed sensitivity of 100 % for rectal descent, 91 % for rectocele, 83 % for colpocele, 100 % for rectal invagination and 73 % for enterocele; understaged 3.8 % of rectal descent and 11.5 % of rectoceles. Both techniques showed 100 % of specificity. Agreement between air-balloon and gel filling was 84 % for rectal descent, 69 % for rectocele, 88 % for rectal invagination, 84 % for enterocele, 88 % for cystocele and 92 % for colpocele. Both techniques allowed a satisfactory evaluation of PFD. The gel filling was superior for rectal invagination, the air-balloon for rectocele and anterior/middle compartment disorders. (orig.)

  17. Are marketed topical metronidazole creams bioequivalent? Evaluation by in vivo microdialysis sampling and tape stripping methodology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garcia Ortiz, Patricia Elodia; Hansen, S H; Shah, Surendra P.;

    2011-01-01

    To evaluate the bioequivalence of 3 marketed topical metronidazole formulations by simultaneous dermal microdialysis and stratum corneum sampling by the tape stripping methodology, and to compare the techniques as tools for the determination of bioequivalence....

  18. A Discussion on Evolution of Microstructures and Influence Factors during Continuous Rolling of Compact Strip Production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hongbo DONG; Yonglin KANG; Hao YU

    2004-01-01

    The evolution of microsturctures and influence factors of ultrathin hot strips of low carbon steel produced by compact strip production (CSP) techniques were investigated. The steel blocking samples of CSP six-passes were obtained, and microstructures at the different positions of workpiece for each pass were studied. At the same time, an explicit finite element technique was used to reveal the continuous rolling process. By combining experiment results with simulation analysis, the effects of plastic strain, temperature, precipitation and interval time on evolution and refinement of crystal grains have been investigated. The results are useful for the development of high strength hot strips.

  19. Accurate measurements of carbon monoxide in humid air using the cavity ring-down spectroscopy (CRDS technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Chen

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Accurate measurements of carbon monoxide (CO in humid air have been made using the cavity ring-down spectroscopy (CRDS technique. The measurements of CO mole fractions are determined from the strength of its spectral absorption in the near-infrared region (~1.57 μm after removing interferences from adjacent carbon dioxide (CO2 and water vapor (H2O absorption lines. Water correction functions that account for the dilution and pressure-broadening effects as well as absorption line interferences from adjacent CO2 and H2O lines have been derived for CO2 mole fractions between 360–390 ppm and for reported H2O mole fractions between 0–4%. The line interference corrections are independent of CO mole fractions. The dependence of the line interference correction on CO2 abundance is estimated to be approximately −0.3 ppb/100 ppm CO2 for dry mole fractions of CO. Comparisons of water correction functions from different analyzers of the same type show significant differences, making it necessary to perform instrument-specific water tests for each individual analyzer. The CRDS analyzer was flown on an aircraft in Alaska from April to November in 2011, and the accuracy of the CO measurements by the CRDS analyzer has been validated against discrete NOAA/ESRL flask sample measurements made on board the same aircraft, with a mean difference between integrated in situ and flask measurements of −0.6 ppb and a standard deviation of 2.8 ppb. Preliminary testing of CRDS instrumentation that employs improved spectroscopic model functions for CO2, H2O, and CO to fit the raw spectral data (available since the beginning of 2012 indicates a smaller water vapor dependence than the models discussed here, but more work is necessary to fully validate the performance. The CRDS technique provides an accurate and low-maintenance method of monitoring the atmospheric dry mole fractions of CO in humid air streams.

  20. Are marketed topical metronidazole creamas bioequivalent ? Evaluation by in vivo microdialysis sampling and tape stripping methodology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ortiz, P. Garcia; Hansen, Steen Honore'; Shah, V. P.;

    2011-01-01

    To evaluate the bioequivalence of 3 marketed topical metronidazole formulations by simultaneous dermal microdialysis and stratum corneum sampling by the tape stripping methodology, and to compare the techniques as tools for the determination of bioequivalence.......To evaluate the bioequivalence of 3 marketed topical metronidazole formulations by simultaneous dermal microdialysis and stratum corneum sampling by the tape stripping methodology, and to compare the techniques as tools for the determination of bioequivalence....

  1. Antenna structure with distributed strip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodenbeck, Christopher T.

    2008-03-18

    An antenna comprises electrical conductors arranged to form a radiating element including a folded line configuration and a distributed strip configuration, where the radiating element is in proximity to a ground conductor. The folded line and the distributed strip can be electrically interconnected and substantially coplanar. The ground conductor can be spaced from, and coplanar to, the radiating element, or can alternatively lie in a plane set at an angle to the radiating element. Embodiments of the antenna include conductor patterns formed on a printed wiring board, having a ground plane, spacedly adjacent to and coplanar with the radiating element. Other embodiments of the antenna comprise a ground plane and radiating element on opposed sides of a printed wiring board. Other embodiments of the antenna comprise conductors that can be arranged as free standing "foils". Other embodiments include antennas that are encapsulated into a package containing the antenna.

  2. Nonlinear torque and air-to-fuel ratio control of spark ignition engines using neuro-sliding mode techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ting; Javaherian, Hossein; Liu, Derong

    2011-06-01

    This paper presents a new approach for the calibration and control of spark ignition engines using a combination of neural networks and sliding mode control technique. Two parallel neural networks are utilized to realize a neuro-sliding mode control (NSLMC) for self-learning control of automotive engines. The equivalent control and the corrective control terms are the outputs of the neural networks. Instead of using error backpropagation algorithm, the network weights of equivalent control are updated using the Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm. Moreover, a new approach is utilized to update the gain of corrective control. Both modifications of the NSLMC are aimed at improving the transient performance and speed of convergence. Using the data from a test vehicle with a V8 engine, we built neural network models for the engine torque (TRQ) and the air-to-fuel ratio (AFR) dynamics and developed NSLMC controllers to achieve tracking control. The goal of TRQ control and AFR control is to track the commanded values under various operating conditions. From simulation studies, the feasibility and efficiency of the approach are illustrated. For both control problems, excellent tracking performance has been achieved. PMID:21656924

  3. A comparison of population air pollution exposure estimation techniques with personal exposure estimates in a pregnant cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannam, Kimberly; McNamee, Roseanne; De Vocht, Frank; Baker, Philip; Sibley, Colin; Agius, Raymond

    2013-08-01

    There is increasing evidence of the harmful effects for mother and fetus of maternal exposure to air pollutants. Most studies use large retrospective birth outcome datasets and make a best estimate of personal exposure (PE) during pregnancy periods. We compared estimates of personal NOx and NO2 exposure of pregnant women in the North West of England with exposure estimates derived using different modelling techniques. A cohort of 85 pregnant women was recruited from Manchester and Blackpool. Participants completed a time-activity log and questionnaire at 13-22 weeks gestation and were provided with personal Ogawa samplers to measure their NOx/NO2 exposure. PE was compared to monthly averages, the nearest stationary monitor to the participants' home, weighted average of the closest monitor to home and work location, proximity to major roads, as well as to background modelled concentrations (DEFRA), inverse distance weighting (IDW), ordinary kriging (OK), and a land use regression model with and without temporal adjustment. PE was most strongly correlated with monthly adjusted DEFRA (NO2r = 0.61, NOxr = 0.60), OK and IDW (NO2r = 0.60; NOxr = 0.62) concentrations. Correlations were stronger in Blackpool than in Manchester. Where there is evidence for high temporal variability in exposure, methods of exposure estimation which focus solely on spatial methods should be adjusted temporally, with an improvement in estimation expected to be better with increased temporal variability. PMID:23800727

  4. Bismuth electrodes, an alternative in stripping voltammetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The heavy metals are known as highly toxic contaminants, the processes carried out in industry contribute that finally they remain dispersed in effluents and sewage, doing part of the food chain. The importance of controlling the levels of these heavy metals has become an international policy, so it has generated interest in developing new analytical methodologies for its determination [1, 2, 3, 4]. The stripping voltammetry has been considered as a family of electro-sensitive analytical techniques useful for the determination of trace levels of many metals in environmental, clinical and industrial samples [3, 4]. This work presents an overview of these bismuth-based electrodes which were introduced around 2000, which have interesting characteristics for detection of heavy metals and which represent an alternative to mercury electrodes

  5. Digital autoradiography using silicon strip detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Overdick, M.

    1998-05-01

    Spatially resolving radiation detection systems operating in real time can be used to acquire autoradiographic images. An overview over alternatives to traditional autoradiography is given and the special features of these filmless methods are discussed. On this basis the design of a system for digital autoradiography using silicon strip detectors is presented. Special emphasis is put on the physical background of the detection process in the semiconductor and on the self-triggering read-out technique. The practical performance of the system is analyzed with respect to energy and spatial resolution. This analysis is complemented by case studies from cell biology (especially electrophoresis), botany and mineralogy. Also the results from a time-resolved autoradiographic experiment are presented. (orig.) 80 refs.

  6. Bismuth electrodes, an alternative in stripping voltammetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barón-Jaimez, J.; Joya, M. R.; Barba-Ortega, J.

    2013-11-01

    The heavy metals are known as highly toxic contaminants, the processes carried out in industry contribute that finally they remain dispersed in effluents and sewage, doing part of the food chain. The importance of controlling the levels of these heavy metals has become an international policy, so it has generated interest in developing new analytical methodologies for its determination [1, 2, 3, 4]. The stripping voltammetry has been considered as a family of electro-sensitive analytical techniques useful for the determination of trace levels of many metals in environmental, clinical and industrial samples [3, 4]. This work presents an overview of these bismuth-based electrodes which were introduced around 2000, which have interesting characteristics for detection of heavy metals and which represent an alternative to mercury electrodes.

  7. Spatial Resolution Attainable with Cathode Strip Chambers at the Trigger Level

    CERN Document Server

    Baarmand, M M; Chrisman, D; Durkin, S; Ferguson, T; Fitch,J; Giacomelli, P; Gorn, L; Gorn, W; Hauser, J; Hirschfelder, J; Hoftiezer, J H; Hoorani, H; Kisselev, O A; Klem, D E; Korytov, A; Layter, J G; Lennous, P; Ling, T Y; Matthey, C; Medved, S; Minor, C; Mitselmakher, G; Müller, T; Otwinowski, S; Preston, L; Rush, C J; Santiard, Jean-Claude; Schenk,P; Smirnov, I; Soulimov, V; Vaniachine, A; Vercelli, T; Wuest, C R; Zeng, J; von Goeler, E

    1999-01-01

    A simple network of comparators applied to the strip signals of a cathode strip chamber allows quick hit localization to within a halfstrip width, or +/- a quarter-strip. A six-plane chamber with 6.4 mm wide strips was tested in a high-energy muon beam. The chamber was placed behind a 30 cm thick iron block. We show that patterns of hits localized to within a halfstrip allowed us to identify 300 GeV/c muon tracks with 99% probability and 0.7 mm spatial resolution in the presence of muon bremsstrahlung radiation. This technique of finding muon tracks will be used in the cathode strip chambers of the CMS Endcap Muon System.

  8. Tracer-based laser-induced fluorescence measurement technique for quantitative fuel/air-ratio measurements in a hydrogen internal combustion engine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blotevogel, Thomas; Hartmann, Matthias; Rottengruber, Hermann; Leipertz, Alfred

    2008-12-10

    A measurement technique for the quantitative investigation of mixture formation processes in hydrogen internal combustion engines (ICEs) has been developed using tracer-based laser-induced fluorescence (TLIF). This technique can be employed to fired and motored engine operation. The quantitative TLIF fuel/air-ratio results have been verified by means of linear Raman scattering measurements. Exemplary results of the simultaneous investigation of mixture formation and combustion obtained at an optical accessible hydrogen ICE are shown. PMID:19079454

  9. Control of aromatic-waste air streams by soil bioreactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Contamination of groundwater resources is a serious environmental problem which is continuing to increase in occurrence in the United States. It has been reported that leaking underground gasoline storage tanks may pose the most serious threat of all sources of groundwater contamination. Gasolines are comprised of a variety of aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons. The aromatic portion consists primarily of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes (BTEX compounds). BTEX compounds are also among the most frequency identified substances at Superfund sites. Pump and treat well systems are the most common and frequently used technique for aquifer restoration. Treatment is often in the form of air stripping to remove the volatile components from the contaminated water. Additionally, soil ventilation processes have been used to remove volatile components from the vadose zone. Both air stripping and soil ventilation produce a waste gas stream containing volatile compounds which is normally treated by carbon adsorption or incineration. Both treatment processes require a substantial capital investment and continual operation and maintenance expenditures. The objective of the study was to examine the potential of using soil bioreactors to treat a waste gas stream produced by air stripping or soil ventilation process. Previous studies have shown that various hydrocarbons can be successfully treated with soils. The study examined the removal of BTEX compounds within soil columns and the influence of soil type, inlet concentration, and inlet flow rate on the removal efficiency

  10. An application of SPIV technique to experimental validation of the turbulence model for the air flow in the intersection of the mining face with the ventilation gallery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaszczur, Marek; Nowak, Remigiusz; Szmyd, Janusz [Faculty of Energy and Fuels, AGH University of Science and Technology (Poland); Branny, Marian; Karch, Michal; Wodziak, Waldemar, E-mail: marek.jaszczur@agh.edu.pl [Faculty of Mining and Geoengineering, AGH University of Science and Technology (Poland)

    2011-12-22

    This paper presents a comparison between results obtained using SPIV experimental technique and numerical simulations approach. An analysis has been performed to validate the turbulent models used in mining ventilation systems. The flow of air across the intersection of the mining face with the ventilation gallery has been examined.

  11. Characterization of plutonium isotopes in air samples retrospectives techniques ultrasensitive; Caracterizacion de isotopos de plutonio en muestras de aire mediante tecnicas restrospectiva ultrasensibles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    This paper presents preliminary results for the determination of plutonium isotope ratios that characterize the natural background for later comparison with that obtained during the dismantling operations. In this manner can be performed retrospective analysis of radiation from the air quality.

  12. Application of nuclear techniques for the assessment of air pollution in the metropolitan area of Belo Horizonte City, MG

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toxic metals, such as Ni, V, Zn, Cu, Cr, Mn and metalloids as As and Se and their compounds are mainly associated with the smaller diameter particulates present in the atmospheric aerosols. This fact is important, principally, when it concerns public health, because this is considered the breathable fraction of particles that can penetrate deeply into the lungs and cause damage to the alveoli. Once in the atmosphere the concentrations of trace metals, in general, show very low levels, thus the determination of the elementary composition of those particles requires the use of appropriate analytical techniques such as Particle Induced X-Ray Emission (PIXE), Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) and X-Rays Fluorescence spectrometry (XRF), among others. The main objective of this study was the identification of the generating sources of gross (PM10) and fine (PM2.5) particles present in the atmospheric aerosols of the metropolitan region of Belo Horizonte. Neutron Activation Analyses by k0-method (k0NAA) combined with energy dispersed by X-ray fluorescence was used to measurement of the concentration of trace elements present in each sample. High levels of particulate concentrations, especially PM2.5, were measured during the sampling period. In general, the air quality varied from Reasonable to Inadequate. The receptor model used to assist in the identification of the main emission sources was the Principal Components Analysis. The results showed that the main elements presents in particulate inhalable matter (PM2.5 and PM10) were Ag, Al, As, Au, Ba, Br, Ca, Cl, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Mn, Na, S, Sb, Sc, Si, Ti, W and Zn. The results for multi-variable analyses shown clearly four pollutant sources, these being: vehicular emissions; resuspended soil/asphalt powder; secondary aerosols associated with emission of SO2 and industrial emissions associated with fossil oil burning. (author)

  13. Stripping, sex, and popular culture

    OpenAIRE

    Roach, Catherine M.

    2007-01-01

    At the heart of Stripping, Sex, and Popular Culture lies a very personal story, of author Catherine Roach's response to the decision of her life-long best friend to become an exotic dancer. Catherine and Marie grew up together in Canada and moved to the USA to enroll in PhD programs at prestigious universities. For various reasons, Marie left her program and instead chose to work as a stripper. The author, at first troubled and yet fascinated by her friend's decision, follows Marie's journey ...

  14. Evolution of short laser pulse in partially stripped plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Intense laser pulses while propagating through neutral gases ionize them. If the intensity of the laser is not sufficiently high, the gases may not be completely ionized, hence giving rise to partially stripped plasma. The propagation medium for a laser beam in partially stripped plasma consists of a linear and a nonlinear plasma current due to free electrons as well as linear and nonlinear polarization field due to bound atomic electrons. Polarization fields can arise from a number of processes, the dominant process being electronic polarization arising due to modification of the atomic electron distribution by the optical field. The polarization field due to atoms in partially striped plasma can be expressed as a power series of the electric field of the laser. The present paper deals with the effect of nonlinear polarization field and plasma current density on the evolution characteristics of a laser pulse propagating in partially stripped plasma. The wave equation describing the laser field amplitude driven by plasma current density as well as polarization field of the bound atomic electrons is set up. Using a variational technique the equations governing the simultaneous evolution of the spot-size and length of a laser pulse propagating in partially stripped plasma are obtained and solved numerically. (author)

  15. Parallel strip waveguide for ultrasonic flow measurement in harsh environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laws, Michael; Ramadas, Sivaram N; Lynnworth, Lawrence C; Dixon, Steve

    2015-04-01

    Wetted ultrasonic transit time flow meters typically consist of one or more pairs of transducers, containing piezoelectric elements, which alternate between transmitting and detecting an ultrasonic pulse. Typical piezoelectric materials and the adhesives used to attach the piezoelectric element in such devices can be damaged by hostile environments, such as extreme temperature, potentially limiting possible applications of ultrasonic flow measurement techniques. We have investigated a design for a flow meter with an integrated thermal buffer waveguide consisting of five parallel stainless steel strips. These, in addition to thermal protection, may function as a transducer array, with the possibility of steering the emitted field. Because the buffer strips used in the transducer assembly are thin, one might expect Lamb-like guided waves to propagate along it. However, the finite width of the strips has a significant effect on the propagation characteristics of the guided waves. In this work, the effect of the waveguide's small rectangular cross-section has been studied. Additionally, we have examined the effect of thermal gradients on the average sound speed and dispersion characteristics of such strip waveguides. We also suggest modifications to the plate geometry, which can alter both the frequency content and the shape of the transmitted pulse, potentially giving a better signal to use in flow measurement. PMID:25881347

  16. Chemically modified flexible strips as electrochemical biosensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thota, Raju; Ganesh, V

    2014-09-21

    A flexible and disposable strip sensor for non-enzymatic glucose detection is demonstrated in this work. The strips are prepared by using chemical modification processes followed by a simple electroless deposition of copper. Essentially, polyester overhead projector (OHP) transparent films are modified with a monolayer of 3-aminopropyltrimethoxysilane (APTMS) and polyaniline (PANI) conducting polymer. Later, nanostructured copper is deposited onto this modified film. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies are used for the structural, morphological and crystallinity characterization of the modified films. Electrochemical techniques, namely cyclic voltammetry (CV) and chronoamperometry (CA), are employed for the non-enzymatic detection of glucose. These studies clearly reveal the formation of homogeneous, close-packed spherical Cu particles converged into uniform film that exhibits a good catalytic activity towards the oxidation of glucose. The Cu/PANI/APTMS/OHP sensor displays a remarkable enhancement in the oxidation current density, a very high sensitivity value of 2.8456 mA cm(-2) per mM, and a linear concentration range from 100 μM to 6.5 mM associated with glucose detection. Detection limit is estimated to be 5 μM and the response time of the sensor is determined to be less than 5 s. For comparison, similar studies are performed without PANI, namely Cu/APTMS/OHP films for glucose detection. In this case, a sensitivity value of 2.4457 mA cm(-2) per mM and a linear concentration range of 100 μM-3 mM are estimated. The higher performance characteristics observed in the case of Cu/PANI/APTMS/OHP are attributed to the synergistic effects of the conducting polymer acting as an electron facilitator and the nanostructured Cu films. These disposable, flexible and low-cost strip sensors have also been applied to the detection of glucose in clinical blood serum samples and the results obtained agree very well with the actual glucose

  17. Fabrication of silicon strip detectors using a step-and-repeat lithography system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work we describe the use of a step-and-repeat lithography system (stepper) for the fabrication of silicon strip detectors. Although the field size of the stepper is only 20 mm in diameter, we have fabricated much larger detectors by printing a repetitive strip detector pattern in a step-and-repeat fashion. The basic unit cell is 7 mm in length. The stepper employs a laser interferometer for stage placement, and the resulting high precision allows one to accurately place the repetitive patterns on the wafer. A small overlap between the patterns ensures a continuous strip. A detector consisting of 512 strips on a 50 μm pitch has been fabricated using this technique. The dimensions of the detector are 6.3 cm by 2.56 cm. Yields of over 99% have been achieved, where yield is defined as the percentage of strips with reverse leakage current below 1 nA. In addition to the inherent advantages of a step-and-repeat system, this technique offers great flexibility in the fabrication of large-area strip detectors since the length and width of the detector can be changed by simply reprogramming the stepper computer. Hence various geometry strip detectors can be fabricated with only one set of masks, as opposed to a separate set of masks for each geometry as would be required with a contact or proximity aligner

  18. Pengontrolan Mesin Laser CNC Untuk Paint Stripping

    OpenAIRE

    Sari, Desi Permata

    2016-01-01

    Paint stripping has been performed on specimen Aluminium (Al) and Ferro (Fe) using a machine laser CNC (Computer Numerical Control). Laser Nd:YAG pulse is used as an energy source for the paint stripping, which Fundamental Harmonic (1064 nm) and Second Harmonic (532 nm). Paint stripping process begins with the manufacture of laser line pattern design according to size of the specimen with Notepad++ software, then the design is up and running with USB CNC software. CNC USB software will giv...

  19. Method of stripping metals from organic solvents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, Terry A.; Law, Jack D.; Herbst, R. Scott; Romanovskiy, Valeriy N.; Smirnov, Igor V.; Babain, Vasily A.; Esimantovski, Vyatcheslav M.

    2009-02-24

    A new method to strip metals from organic solvents in a manner that allows for the recycle of the stripping agent. The method utilizes carbonate solutions of organic amines with complexants, in low concentrations, to strip metals from organic solvents. The method allows for the distillation and reuse of organic amines. The concentrated metal/complexant fraction from distillation is more amenable to immobilization than solutions resulting from current practice.

  20. The natural gas air-conditioning; La climatisation au gaz naturel. Un avenir prometteur, une technique confirmee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    The natural gas air-conditioning market is in growth (it will cover 10% of the market in 2002).To illustrate the possibilities of this energy source, this paper presents three examples of the natural gas air-conditioning in France. The technical aspects, the cost and the advantages of such systems are discussed. (A.L.B.)

  1. Online application of automatic surface quality inspection system to finishing line of cold rolled strips

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hao Sun; Ke Xu; Jinwu Xu

    2003-01-01

    An autonatic surface quality inspection system installed on a finishing line of cold rolled strips is introduced. The system is able to detect surface defects on cold rolled strips, such as scratches, coil breaks, rusts, roll imprints, and so on. Multiple CCD area scan canteras were equipped to capture images of strip surface simultaneously. Defects were detected through "Dark-field illumination' which is generated by LED illuminators. Parallel computation technique and fast processing algorithms were developed for real-time data processing. The application to the production line shows that the system is able to detect defects effectively.

  2. Performance of the first prototype of the CALICE scintillator strip electromagnetic calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Francis, K; Schlereth, J; Smith, J; Xia, L; Baldolemar, E; Li, J; Park, S T; Sosebee, M; White, A P; Yu, J; Eigen, G; Mikami, Y; Watson, N K; Thomson, M A; Ward, D R; Benchekroun, D; Hoummada, A; Khoulaki, Y; Apostolakis, J; Dotti, A; Folger, G; Ivantchenko, V; Ribon, A; Uzhinskiy, V; Carloganu, C; Gay, P; Manen, S; Royer, L; Tytgat, M; Zaganidis, N; Blazey, G C; Dyshkant, A; Lima, J G R; Zutshi, V; Hostachy, J -Y; Morin, L; Cornett, U; David, D; Ebrahimi, A; Falley, G; Gadow, K; Goettlicher, P; Guenter, C; Hartbrich, O; Hermberg, B; Karstensen, S; Krivan, F; Krueger, K; Lutz, B; Morozov, S; Morgunov, V; Neubueser, C; Reinecke, M; Sefkow, F; Smirnov, P; Terwort, M; Garutti, E; Laurien, S; Lu, S; Marchesini, I; Matysek, M; Ramilli, M; Briggl, K; Eckert, P; Harion, T; Schultz-Coulon, H -Ch; Shen, W; Stamen, R; Bilki, B; Norbeck, E; Northacker, D; Onel, Y; Wilson, G W; Kawagoe, K; Sudo, Y; Yoshioka, T; Dauncey, P D; Wing, M; Salvatore, F; Gil, E Cortina; Mannai, S; Baulieu, G; Calabria, P; Caponetto, L; Combaret, C; Della Negra, R; Grenier, G; Han, R; Ianigro, J-C; Kieffer, R; Laktineh, I; Lumb, N; Mathez, H; Mirabito, L; Petrukhin, A; Steen, A; Tromeur, W; Donckt, M Vander; Zoccarato, Y; Alamillo, E Calvo; Fouz, M -C; Puerta-Pelayo, J; Corriveau, F; Bobchenko, B; Chadeeva, M; Danilov, M; Epifantsev, A; Markin, O; Mizuk, R; Novikov, E; Popov, V; Rusinov, V; Tarkovsky, E; Besson, D; Buzhan, P; Ilyin, A; Kantserov, V; Kaplin, V; Karakash, A; Popova, E; Tikhomirov, V; Kiesling, C; Seidel, K; Simon, F; Soldner, C; Weuste, L; Amjad, M S; Bonis, J; Callier, S; di Lorenzo, S Conforti; Cornebise, P; Doublet, Ph; Dulucq, F; Fleury, J; Frisson, T; van der Kolk, N; Li, H; Martin-Chassard, G; Richard, F; de la Taille, Ch; Poeschl, R; Raux, L; Rouene, J; Seguin-Moreau, N; Anduze, M; Balagura, V; Boudry, V; Brient, J-C; Cornat, R; Frotin, M; Gastaldi, F; Guliyev, E; Haddad, Y; Magniette, F; Musat, G; Ruan, M; Tran, T H; Videau, H; Bulanek, B; Zacek, J; Cvach, J; Gallus, P; Havranek, M; Janata, M; Kvasnicka, J; Lednicky, D; Marcisovsky, M; Polak, I; Popule, J; Tomasek, L; Tomasek, M; Ruzicka, P; Sicho, P; Smolik, J; Vrba, V; Zalesak, J; Belhorma, B; Ghazlane, H; Kotera, K; Ono, H; Takeshita, T; Uozumi, S; Jeans, D; Chang, S; Khan, A; Kim, D H; Kong, D J; Oh, Y D; Goetze, M; Sauer, J; Weber, S; Zeitnitz, C

    2014-01-01

    A first prototype of a scintillator strip-based electromagnetic calorimeter was built, consisting of 26 layers of tungsten absorber plates interleaved with planes of 45x10x3 mm3 plastic scintillator strips. Data were collected using a positron test beam at DESY with momenta between 1 and 6 GeV/c. The prototype's performance is presented in terms of the linearity and resolution of the energy measurement. These results represent an important milestone in the development of highly granular calorimeters using scintillator strip technology. This technology is being developed for a future linear collider experiment, aiming at the precise measurement of jet energies using particle flow techniques.

  3. Use ion beam techniques to study the coupling between air and its relative humidity on iron corrosion under irradiation

    OpenAIRE

    Lapuerta, S.; Moncoffre, N.; Bérerd, N.; Jaffrézic, H.; Millard-Pinard, N.; Crusset, D.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, the role of air humidity on the iron corrosion under irradiation is studied in the context of geological disposal of nuclear wastes. The irradiation experiments are performed at room temperature using a 3 MeV extracted proton beam with a 10 nA intensity. Different atmospheres are studied: Humid air with a relative humidity (RH) fixed at 45 %, dry air and a $^{15}N\\_2$ atmosphere (45% RH). The hydrogen and oxygen distribution profiles at the iron surface in contact with atmosphe...

  4. The 'KATOD-1' strip readout ASIC for cathode strip chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 'KATOD-1', a 16-channels readout ASIC, has been designed to perform tests of P3 and P4 full-scale prototypes of the cathode strip chamber for the ME1/1 forward muon station of the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experiment. The ASIC channel consists of two charge-sensitive preamplifiers, a three-stage shaper with cancellation, and an output driver. The ASIC is instrumented with control of gain, in the range of (-4.2 : +5.0) mV/fC, and control of output pulse-shape. The equivalent input noise is equal to 2400 e with the slope of 12 e/pF for detector capacity up to 200 pF. The peaking time is 100 ns for the chamber signal. The ASIC has been produced by a microwave Bi-jFET technology

  5. Use ion beam techniques to study the coupling between air and its relative humidity on iron corrosion under irradiation

    CERN Document Server

    Lapuerta, S; Bérerd, N; Jaffrezic, H; Millard-Pinard, N; Crusset, D

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, the role of air humidity on the iron corrosion under irradiation is studied in the context of geological disposal of nuclear wastes. The irradiation experiments are performed at room temperature using a 3 MeV extracted proton beam with a 10 nA intensity. Different atmospheres are studied: Humid air with a relative humidity (RH) fixed at 45 %, dry air and a $^{15}N\\_2$ atmosphere (45% RH). The hydrogen and oxygen distribution profiles at the iron surface in contact with atmosphere are measured by using respectively ERDA (Elastic Recoil Detection Analysis) and RBS (Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry) analysis. From these experiments it is clearly demonstrated that the coupling of O$\\_2$+H$\\_2$O enhances iron oxidation whereas for iron hydrogenation, humidity is sufficient whatever the atmosphere. An interpretation is given, which is based on the reaction mechanisms and the species formed by air ionisation.

  6. Anodic stripping voltammetry of technetium alkaline media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method of direct determination of technetium in 0.1 M NaOH by anodic stripping voltametry at glassy carbon electrode has been elaborated. The peak height of anodic TcO2(OH)2 dissolution was found to be linearly dependent on preconcentration time, and the concentration of technetium in the range 5.0 * 10-8 -6 M. The detection limit for the Tc determination by ASV technique under study was found to be 5.0 * 10-8 M with standard deviation 5-7% (p2(OH)2 anodic dissolution peak current. Addition of 1.0* 10-6 M U(UI) to the sample solution was found to shift the peak of the TcO2(OH)2 100 mV towards negative direction and disturb the linearity of the calibration curve. Therefore; for a successful application of the developed ASV technique for Tc determination in the alkaline media, uranium should be removed from the analyte before determination

  7. SU-E-P-15: Technique Factor Modulation and Reference Plane Air Kerma Rates in Response to Simulated Patient Thickness Variations for a Sample of Current Generation Fluoroscopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wunderle, K [Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, OH& Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI (United States); Rakowski, J [Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI (United States); Dong, F [Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, OH (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To evaluate and compare approaches to technique factor modulation and air kerma rates in response to simulated patient thickness variations for four state-of-the-art and one previous-generation interventional fluoroscopes. Methods: A polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) phantom was used as a tissue surrogate for the purposes of determining fluoroscopic reference plane air kerma rates, kVp, mA, and spectral filtration over a wide range of simulated tissue thicknesses. Data were acquired for each fluoroscopic and acquisition dose curve within a default abdomen or body imaging protocol. Results: The data obtained indicated vendor- and model-specific variations in the approach to technique factor modulation and reference plane air kerma rates across a range of tissue thicknesses. Some vendors have made hardware advances increasing the radiation output capabilities of their fluoroscopes; this was evident in the acquisition air kerma rates. However, in the imaging protocol evaluated, all of the state-of-the-art systems had relatively low air kerma rates in the fluoroscopic low-dose imaging mode as compared to the previous-generation unit. Each of the newest-generation systems also employ copper filtration in the selected protocol in the acquisition mode of imaging; this is a substantial benefit, reducing the skin entrance dose to the patient in the highest dose-rate mode of fluoroscope operation. Conclusion: Understanding how fluoroscopic technique factors are modulated provides insight into the vendor-specific image acquisition approach and provides opportunities to optimize the imaging protocols for clinical practice. The enhanced radiation output capabilities of some of the fluoroscopes may, under specific conditions, may be beneficial; however, these higher output capabilities also have the potential to lead to unnecessarily high dose rates. Therefore, all parties involved in imaging, including the clinical team, medical physicists, and imaging vendors, must work

  8. SU-E-P-15: Technique Factor Modulation and Reference Plane Air Kerma Rates in Response to Simulated Patient Thickness Variations for a Sample of Current Generation Fluoroscopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To evaluate and compare approaches to technique factor modulation and air kerma rates in response to simulated patient thickness variations for four state-of-the-art and one previous-generation interventional fluoroscopes. Methods: A polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) phantom was used as a tissue surrogate for the purposes of determining fluoroscopic reference plane air kerma rates, kVp, mA, and spectral filtration over a wide range of simulated tissue thicknesses. Data were acquired for each fluoroscopic and acquisition dose curve within a default abdomen or body imaging protocol. Results: The data obtained indicated vendor- and model-specific variations in the approach to technique factor modulation and reference plane air kerma rates across a range of tissue thicknesses. Some vendors have made hardware advances increasing the radiation output capabilities of their fluoroscopes; this was evident in the acquisition air kerma rates. However, in the imaging protocol evaluated, all of the state-of-the-art systems had relatively low air kerma rates in the fluoroscopic low-dose imaging mode as compared to the previous-generation unit. Each of the newest-generation systems also employ copper filtration in the selected protocol in the acquisition mode of imaging; this is a substantial benefit, reducing the skin entrance dose to the patient in the highest dose-rate mode of fluoroscope operation. Conclusion: Understanding how fluoroscopic technique factors are modulated provides insight into the vendor-specific image acquisition approach and provides opportunities to optimize the imaging protocols for clinical practice. The enhanced radiation output capabilities of some of the fluoroscopes may, under specific conditions, may be beneficial; however, these higher output capabilities also have the potential to lead to unnecessarily high dose rates. Therefore, all parties involved in imaging, including the clinical team, medical physicists, and imaging vendors, must work

  9. Impact of metal overhang and guard ring techniques on breakdown voltage of Si strip sensors - 2003 IEEE nuclear science symposium, medical imaging conference, and workshop of room-temperature semiconductor detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Ranjan, K; Namrata, S; Chatterji, S; Srivastava-Ajay, K; Kumar, A; Jha, Manoj Kumar; Shivpuri, R K

    2004-01-01

    The importance of Si sensors in high-energy physics (HEP) experiments can hardly be overemphasized. However, the high luminosity and the high radiation level in the future HEP experiments, like Large Hadron Collider (LHC), has posed a serious challenge to the fabrication of Si detectors. For the safe operation over the full LHC lifetime, detectors are required to sustain very high voltage operation, well exceeding the bias voltage needed to full deplete the heavily irradiated Si sensors. Thus, the main effort in the development of Si sensors is concentrated on a design that avoids p-n junction breakdown at operational biases. Among various proposed techniques, Field-limiting Ring (FLR) (or guard ring) and Metal-Overhang (MO) are technologically simple and are suitable for vertical devices. Since high-voltage planar Si junctions are of great importance in the HEP experiments, it is very interesting to compare these two aforementioned techniques for achieving the maximum breakdown voltage under optimal conditio...

  10. 33 CFR 157.128 - Stripping system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Stripping system. 157.128 Section... Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels Design, Equipment, and Installation § 157.128 Stripping system. (a) Each tank vessel having a COW system under § 157.10(e), § 157.10a(a)(2), or §...

  11. Water problems in Gaza Strip,Palestine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ismail ALGHALBAN

    2001-01-01

    The only source for water in Gaza strip, southern Palestine, is the groundwater aquifer. The Pliocene - Pleistocene aquifer has two serious problems: quantity and quality. This study is an attempt to identify the problems and to suggest solutions for water problems in Gaza strip. In addition, some rules for rehabilitation of the aquifers were suggested.

  12. In-situ conditioning of a strip casting roll

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Robert S.; Campbell, Steven L.

    1997-01-01

    A strip caster (10) for producing a continuous strip (24) has a tundish (12) for containing a melt (14) and a pair of horizontally disposed water cooled casting rolls (22). The casting rolls are juxtaposed relative to one another for forming a pouring basin (18) for receiving the melt through a teeming tube (16) thereby establishing a meniscus (20) between the rolls for forming a strip (24). The melt is protected from the outside air by a non-oxidizing gas passed through a supply line (28) to a sealing chamber (26). Devices (29) for conditioning the outer peripheral chill surfaces of the casting rolls includes grit blasting nozzles (30A, 30B, 30C, 30D), a collection trough (32) for gathering the grit, a line (34) for recycling the grit to a bag house (36), a feeder (38) and a pressurized distributor (40) for delivering the grit to the nozzles. The conditioning nozzles remove dirt, metal oxides and surface imperfections providing a clean surface readily wetted by the melt.

  13. The CMS silicon strip tracker

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Silicon Strip Tracker (SST) is the intermediate part of the CMS Central Tracker System. SST is based on microstrip silicon devices and in combination with pixel detectors and the Microstrip Gas Chambers aims at performing pattern recognition, track reconstruction and momentum measurements for all tracks with pT≥2 GeV/c originating from high luminosity interactions at √s=14 TeV at LHC. We aim at exploiting the advantages and the physics potential of the precise tracking performance provided by the microstrip silicon detectors on a large scale apparatus and in a much more difficult environment than ever. In this paper we describe the actual SST layout and the readout system. (author)

  14. Smooth muscle strips for intestinal tissue engineering.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher M Walthers

    Full Text Available Functionally contracting smooth muscle is an essential part of the engineered intestine that has not been replicated in vitro. The purpose of this study is to produce contracting smooth muscle in culture by maintaining the native smooth muscle organization. We employed intact smooth muscle strips and compared them to dissociated smooth muscle cells in culture for 14 days. Cells isolated by enzymatic digestion quickly lost maturity markers for smooth muscle cells and contained few enteric neural and glial cells. Cultured smooth muscle strips exhibited periodic contraction and maintained neural and glial markers. Smooth muscle strips cultured for 14 days also exhibited regular fluctuation of intracellular calcium, whereas cultured smooth muscle cells did not. After implantation in omentum for 14 days on polycaprolactone scaffolds, smooth muscle strip constructs expressed high levels of smooth muscle maturity markers as well as enteric neural and glial cells. Intact smooth muscle strips may be a useful component for engineered intestinal smooth muscle.

  15. Ultrasonic examination of JBK-75 strip material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An ultrasonic inspection system was assembled to inspect the JBK-75 stainless steel sheath material (for the Large Coil Project) for the Westinghouse-Airco superconducting magnet program. The mechanical system provided for handling the 180-kg (400-lb) coils of strip material [1.6 mm thick by 78 mm wide by 90 to 120 m long (0.064 by 3.07 in. by 300 to 400 ft)], feeding the strip through the ultrasonic inspection and cleaning stations, and respooling the coils. We inspected 54 coils of strip for both longitudinal and laminar flaws. Simulated flaws were used to calibrate both inspections. Saw-cut notches [0.28 mm deep (0.011 in., about 17% of the strip thickness)] were used to calibrate the longitudinal flaw inspections; 1.59-mm-diam (0.063-in.) flat-bottom holes drilled halfway through a calibration strip were used to calibrate the laminar flaw tests

  16. A MOVING CRACK IN A NONHOMOGENEOUS MATERIAL STRIP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Baolin; Han Jiecai

    2006-01-01

    This paper considers an anti-plane moving crack in a nonhomogencous material strip of finite thickness. The shear modulus and the mass density of the strip are considered for a class of functional forms for which the equilibrium equation has analytical solutions. The problem is solved by means of the singular integral equation technique. The stress field near the crack tip is obtained. The results are plotted to show the effect of the material non-homogeneity and crack moving velocity on the crack tip field. Crack bifurcation behaviour is also discussed. The paper points out that use of an appropriate fracture criterion is essential for studying the stability of a moving crack in nonhomogeneous materials. The prediction whether the unstable crack growth will be enhanced or retarded is strongly dependent on the type of the fracture criterion used. is a suitable failure criterion for moving cracks in nonhomogeneous materials.

  17. La catastrophe nucléaire de Tchernobyl entre erreurs humaines et défauts techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Perrineau, Aude

    2015-01-01

    Découvrez enfin tout ce qu'il faut savoir sur la catastrophe nucléaire de Tchernobyl en moins d'une heure ! Le 26 avril 1986 à 1 h 23, une catastrophe d'un nouveau genre ébranle le monde : un réacteur de la centrale nucléaire de Tchernobyl explose. Alors que les autorités soviétiques camouflent l'accident, puis en minimisent l'importance, un nuage radioactif se forme et se propage sur toute l'Europe…Ce livre vous permettra d'en savoir plus sur : Le contexte de l'époque Les acteurs majeurs qui ont participé à l'événement La catastrophe nucléaire de Tchernobyl Les répercussions du drameLe mot

  18. Development of a Mobile Tracer Correlation Techniques for Assessment of Air Emissions from Landfills and Other Area Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Improved understanding of air emissions from large area sources such as landfills, waste water ponds, open-source processing, and agricultural operations is a topic of increasing environmental importance. In many cases, the size of the area source, coupled with spatial-heteroge...

  19. Wet effluent diffusion denuder technique and determination of volatile organic compounds in air. I. Oxo compounds (alcohols and ketones)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sklenská, Jana; Pařízek, Petr; Večeřa, Zbyněk

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 918, č. 1 (2001), s. 153-158. ISSN 0021-9673 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/98/0943 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4031919 Keywords : diffusion denuders * alcohols * air analysis Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 2.793, year: 2001

  20. The development of land use regression technique. Use in public health effects of air pollution; Land use regression techniek in opkomst. Toepassing bij gezondheidseffecten door luchtverontreiniging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, P.; Marra, M. [Centrum voor Milieu-Gezondheid Onderzoek, Sector Milieu en Veiligheid, Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieuhygiene RIVM, Bilthoven (Netherlands); Hoek, G.; Beelen, R. [Institute for Risk Assesment Sciences, Utrecht University, Utrecht (Netherlands); Briggs, D.; De Hoogh, K. [Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, Imperial College, London (United Kingdom)

    2009-07-01

    Epidemiological research of the relations between air pollution and health and the municipal practice both feel the need for valid and detailed information on spatial variation of open air pollution. Existing technologies such as interpolation of measurements and distribution models have their limitations, resulting in increasing international deployment of the 'land use regression' technique. This technique combines spatially distributed measurements and geographical information in a statistical model and has several advantages compared to distribution models; less input data is required and there is a direct link with measurements. By means of several examples this article illustrates that the technique can be a useful alternative for existing techniques [mk]. [Dutch] Zowel vanuit epidemiologisch onderzoek naar relaties tussen luchtverontreiniging en gezondheid als vanuit de gemeentelijke praktijk is behoefte aan valide en gedetailleerde informatie over ruimtelijke variatie van buitenluchtverontreiniging. Bestaande technieken zoals interpolatie van metingen en verspreidingsmodellen hebben beperkingen, waardoor er internationaal steeds meer gebruik gemaakt wordt van de 'land use regressie' techniek. De techniek combineert ruimtelijk verspreide metingen en geografische informatie in een statistisch model en heeft een aantal voordelen ten opzichte van verspreidingsmodellen: er zijn minder invoergegevens nodig en er is een directe link met metingen. Dit artikel illustreert aan de hand van een aantal voorbeelden dat de techniek een nuttig alternatief voor bestaande technieken kan zijn.

  1. Comparison of gravimetric and spectroscopic approaches to quantify stratum corneum removed by tape-stripping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, D; Yang, Q; Guy, R H; Matts, P J; Hadgraft, J; Lane, M E

    2012-09-01

    Skin surface tape-stripping is an extensively used technique to examine the distribution profile, penetration and safety of various active compounds. It is also a widely accepted method to probe skin barrier properties and more specifically, those of the stratum corneum (SC). The amount of SC removed by tape-stripping is generally determined either gravimetrically or by extraction and measurement of SC proteins. A novel infra-red densitometry (IRD) technique has recently been introduced to measure SC protein content. In the present study, IRD was investigated as an alternative method to measure the mass of SC removed by tape-stripping. Tape-stripping experiments were conducted on human volunteers. The weight of the stratum corneum removed was assessed by the gravimetric approach and by IRD. Transepidermal water loss (TEWL) was also measured before and after each tape-strip. A linear correlation coefficient was obtained for the data from the gravimetric and IRD measurements (r(2)=0.65; n=240). IRD is therefore proposed as a rapid, non-destructive alternative to the gravimetric approach to estimate the amount of SC removed by tape-stripping in vivo. PMID:22713518

  2. A Strip Cell in Pyroelectric Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siao, An-Shen; Chao, Ching-Kong; Hsiao, Chun-Ching

    2016-01-01

    The pyroelectric effect affords the opportunity to convert temporal temperature fluctuations into usable electrical energy in order to develop abundantly available waste heat. A strip pyroelectric cell, used to enhance temperature variation rates by lateral temperature gradients and to reduce cell capacitance to further promote the induced voltage, is described as a means of improving pyroelectric energy transformation. A precision dicing saw was successfully applied in fabricating the pyroelectric cell with a strip form. The strip pyroelectric cell with a high-narrow cross section is able to greatly absorb thermal energy via the side walls of the strips, thereby inducing lateral temperature gradients and increasing temperature variation rates in a thicker pyroelectric cell. Both simulation and experimentation show that the strip pyroelectric cell improves the electrical outputs of pyroelectric cells and enhances the efficiency of pyroelectric harvesters. The strip-type pyroelectric cell has a larger temperature variation when compared to the trenched electrode and the original type, by about 1.9 and 2.4 times, respectively. The measured electrical output of the strip type demonstrates a conspicuous increase in stored energy as compared to the trenched electrode and the original type, by of about 15.6 and 19.8 times, respectively. PMID:26999134

  3. A Strip Cell in Pyroelectric Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    An-Shen Siao

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The pyroelectric effect affords the opportunity to convert temporal temperature fluctuations into usable electrical energy in order to develop abundantly available waste heat. A strip pyroelectric cell, used to enhance temperature variation rates by lateral temperature gradients and to reduce cell capacitance to further promote the induced voltage, is described as a means of improving pyroelectric energy transformation. A precision dicing saw was successfully applied in fabricating the pyroelectric cell with a strip form. The strip pyroelectric cell with a high-narrow cross section is able to greatly absorb thermal energy via the side walls of the strips, thereby inducing lateral temperature gradients and increasing temperature variation rates in a thicker pyroelectric cell. Both simulation and experimentation show that the strip pyroelectric cell improves the electrical outputs of pyroelectric cells and enhances the efficiency of pyroelectric harvesters. The strip-type pyroelectric cell has a larger temperature variation when compared to the trenched electrode and the original type, by about 1.9 and 2.4 times, respectively. The measured electrical output of the strip type demonstrates a conspicuous increase in stored energy as compared to the trenched electrode and the original type, by of about 15.6 and 19.8 times, respectively.

  4. Advanced air staging techniques to improve fuel flexibility, reliability and emissions in fluidized bed co-combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aamand, Lars-Erik; Leckner, Bo [Chalmers Technical Univ., Goeteborg (Sweden); Luecke, Karsten; Werther, Joachim [Technical Univ. of Hamburg-Harburg (Germany)

    2001-12-01

    A joint research project between the Technical University of Hamburg-Harburg and Chalmers Technical University. For operation under co-combustion the following results should be considered: The high ash content of the sewage sludge results in significantly increased ash flows. Although high alkali metal concentrations are found in the sewage sludge ash, no critical concentrations were reached and tendencies to fouling were not observed. The trace metal input rises with increased sludge fraction. However, emissions of metal compounds were well below legal limits. The trace metals tend to accumulate on the fly ash. In general, very low fuel nitrogen conversions to NO and N{sub 2}O of 2 - 4 % are achievable. With coal as a base fuel alternative air staging with secondary air supply after solids separation attains even lower NO emissions than normal staging without strongly affecting CO and SO{sub 2} emissions. Alternative staging also reduces N{sub 2}O emissions. An optimum for the excess air ratio in the riser of 1.05 was found for a total excess air ratio of 1.2. The higher the volatile content of the fuel is, the less effective the NO reduction due to air staging becomes. The measurements suggest that the optimum gas residence time regarding the emissions in CFB combustors is around 6 to 7 s. These times are achieved in commercial scale plants due to their large cyclones that perhaps partly can replace a large afterburner chamber. The circulating fluidized bed boiler can be operated in a very flexible way with various fuel mixtures up to an energy fraction of sludge of 25% without exceeding legal emission limits.

  5. Instabilities and Solitons in Minimal Strips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machon, Thomas; Alexander, Gareth P; Goldstein, Raymond E; Pesci, Adriana I

    2016-07-01

    We show that highly twisted minimal strips can undergo a nonsingular transition, unlike the singular transitions seen in the Möbius strip and the catenoid. If the strip is nonorientable, this transition is topologically frustrated, and the resulting surface contains a helicoidal defect. Through a controlled analytic approximation, the system can be mapped onto a scalar ϕ^{4} theory on a nonorientable line bundle over the circle, where the defect becomes a topologically protected kink soliton or domain wall, thus establishing their existence in minimal surfaces. Demonstrations with soap films confirm these results and show how the position of the defect can be controlled through boundary deformation. PMID:27419593

  6. Saving Energy Through Advanced Power Strips (Poster)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christensen, D.

    2013-10-01

    Advanced Power Strips (APS) look just like ordinary power strips, except that they have built-in features that are designed to reduce the amount of energy used by many consumer electronics. There are several different types of APSs on the market, but they all operate on the same basic principle of shutting off the supply power to devices that are not in use. By replacing your standard power strip with an APS, you can signifcantly cut the amount of electricity used by your home office and entertainment center devices, and save money on your electric bill. This illustration summarizes the different options.

  7. Identifying the Drivers and Occurrence of Historical and Future Extreme Air-quality Events in the United States Using Advanced Statistical Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, W. C.; Heald, C. L.; Cooley, D. S.; Russell, B. T.

    2013-12-01

    Episodes of air-quality extremes are known to be heavily influenced by meteorological conditions, but traditional statistical analysis techniques focused on means and standard deviations may not capture important relationships at the tails of these two respective distributions. Using quantile regression (QR) and extreme value theory (EVT), methodologies specifically developed to examine the behavior of heavy-tailed phenomena, we analyze extremes in the multi-decadal record of ozone (O3) and fine particulate matter (PM2.5) in the United States. We investigate observations from the Air Quality System (AQS) and Interagency Monitoring of Protected Visual Environments (IMPROVE) networks for connections to meteorological drivers, as provided by the National Center for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) North American Regional Reanalysis (NARR) product. Through regional characterization by quantile behavior and EVT modeling of the meteorological covariates most responsible for extreme levels of O3 and PM2.5, we estimate pollutant exceedance frequencies and uncertainties in the United States under current and projected future climates, highlighting those meteorological covariates and interactions whose influence on air-quality extremes differs most significantly from the behavior of the bulk of the distribution. As current policy may be influenced by air-quality projections, we then compare these estimated frequencies to those produced by NCAR's Community Earth System Model (CESM) identifying regions, covariates, and species whose extreme behavior may not be adequately captured by current models.

  8. Influence of Air Abrasion and Sonic Technique on Microtensile Bond Strength of One-Step Self-Etch Adhesive on Human Dentin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baraba Anja

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate the microtensile bond strength of one-step self-etch adhesive to human dentin surface modified with air abrasion and sonic technique and to assess the morphological characteristics of the pretreated dentin surface. The occlusal enamel was removed to obtain a flat dentin surface for thirty-six human molar teeth. The teeth were randomly divided into three experimental groups (n = 12 per group, according to the pretreatment of the dentin: (1 control group, (2 air abrasion group, and (3 sonic preparation group. Microtensile bond strength test was performed on a universal testing machine. Two specimens from each experimental group were subjected to SEM examination. There was no statistically significant difference in bond strength between the three experimental groups (P > 0.05. Mean microtensile bond strength (MPa values were 35.3 ± 12.8 for control group, 35.8 ± 13.5 for air abrasion group, and 37.7 ± 12.0 for sonic preparation group. The use of air abrasion and sonic preparation with one-step self-etch adhesive does not appear to enhance or impair microtensile bond strength in dentin.

  9. CMS Silicon Strip Tracker Operation

    CERN Document Server

    Gotra, Yuri

    2010-01-01

    The CMS Silicon Strip Tracker (SST), comprising 9.6 million readout channels from 15148 modules covering an area of about 200 square meters, needs to be precisely calibrated in order to correctly interpret and reconstruct the events recorded from the detector, ensuring that the SST performance fully meets the physics research program of the CMS experiment. Calibration constants may be derived from promptly reconstructed events as well as from pedestal runs gathered just before the acquisition of physics runs. These calibration procedures were exercised in summer and winter 2009, when the CMS detector was commissioned using cosmic muons and proton-proton collisions at a center-of-mass energies of 900 GeV and 2.36 TeV. During these data taking periods the performance of the SST was carefully studied: the noise of the detector, the data integrity, the signal-to-noise ratio, the hit reconstruction efficiency, the calibration workflows have been all checked for stability and for different conditions, at the module...

  10. A video strip chart program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A strip chart recorder has been utilized for trend analysis of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory EN tandem since 1987. At the EN, the author could not afford the nice eight channel thermal pen recorder that was used at the 25 URC. He had to suffice with two channel fiber tip or capillary pen type recorders retrieved from salvage and maintained with parts from other salvaged recorders. After cycling through several machines that eventually became completely unserviceable, a search for a new thermal recorder was begun. As much as he hates to write computer code, he decided to try his hand at getting an old data acquisition unit, that had been retrieved several years ago from salvage, to meet his needs. A BASIC language compiler was used because time was not available to learn a more advanced language. While attempting to increase acquisition and scroll speed on the 6 MHz 80286 that the code was first developed on, it became apparent that scrolling only the first small portion of the screen at high speed and then averaging that region and histogramming the average provided both the speed necessary for capturing fairly short duration events, and a trend record without use of back scrolling and disk storage routines. This turned out to be quite sufficient

  11. Air/surface exchange processes of mercury species and their linkage to atmospheric pools studied by nuclear techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conservative estimates of global natural mercury fluxes into the atmosphere suggest a total of 500 t/a originating from the mercuriferous belt and about 200 t/a degassing from background soils. Recent flux measurements at different terrestrial sites suggest that mercury emissions and re-emissions from terrestrial sites have been significantly underestimated. This could result in an inaccurate ratio between natural and anthropogenic sources in global emission inventories. However, all this estimates are based on a fairly raw database, and considering that, it becomes clear that an accurate assessment of air/surface exchange processes will be critical to refine the global mercury cycle. For upscaling mercury fluxes derived from field experiments to regional or global scales a detailed process understanding of the driving forces behind air/surface exchange is imperative.We studied the influence of environmental parameters on mercury fluxes for 8 different soils

  12. Techniques of low technology sampling of air pollution by metals: a comparison of concentrations and map patterns.

    OpenAIRE

    Lloyd, O L; Gailey, F A

    1987-01-01

    During a 17 month survey of air pollution in the town of Armadale, central Scotland, the concentrations of some metals (iron, manganese, zinc, lead, copper, chrome, nickel, cadmium, and cobalt) were measured in seven types of low technology sampler--four indigenous and three transplanted--at 47 sites. The geographical patterns of the concentrations in the samplers were compared on two types of map. For most metals, sites with high concentrations were present close to the foundry and also in t...

  13. Background air pollution studies in urban and rural areas of Bangladesh using nuclear-related analytical techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The trace element constituents of aerosols such as Hg, Pb, Cd, Se, As, Cu, Zn, Cr, V, etc. are permanent pollutants affecting the biosphere and the general ecosystem. The measurements of these elements collected on air filters, in rainwater, and also in some bioindicators such as moss and lichen, can yield very significant information on the origin, transport, removal and deposition of these pollutants. A set of sensitive and precise nuclear-related and chemical methods such as PIXE, EDXRF, FAAS and DPASV have, therefore, been developed and applied to analyze a number of trace and minor elements in air particulates, coal fly ash, plant materials, moss and water. Further analytical developments would include INAA and TRXRF. Some of the results from air particulates (integral), coal fly ash and moss analyses are presented to illustrate the experience level of the Laboratory. A core programme of study on the trace element composition of aerosols from urban and rural atmosphere in Bangladesh has been planned for implementation within the framework of this CRP. 10 refs, 1 fig., 5 tabs

  14. Estimating individual exposure to 131I for radiation workers at radioisotope production using air sampling and smartphone techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Indoor individual exposure at radioisotope production depends strongly on temporal concentration variation, contacting time and working location of radiation workers. To estimate personal exposure to indoor air polluted with 131I for the workers at radioisotope production, we had employed a low cost indoor model appropriate for their specific situation. In this model, time-microenvironment occupied by the workers was recorded by a smartphone sensitive motion software. Simultaneously, on the work days, indoor air in the three iodine production rooms was sampled by a portable air sampler coupled with activated carbon cartridges impregnated by TEDA. Then the low background gamma spectrometer was used to measure activity of the cartridges and the concentration of 131I in these rooms was calculated with the temporal resolution of one hour. By combining the hourly concentration with the high temporal resolution of activity patterns, we estimated the actual exposures for the group of workers producing radioisotopes in Nuclear Research Institute (Dalat) for the first four months of 2015. The highest daily average exposure was 410.2 Bq/m3 while the highest average exposure of the group was 147.2 Bq/m3. It showed an useful value for minimizing risks and estimating internal doses as well. This feasibility study may be applied for assessing personal exposure at radioisotope production, but also for many other indoor environments. (author)

  15. Kinematic GPS survey as validation of LIDAR strips accuracy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Gordini

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available As a result of the catastrophic hydrogeological events which occurred in May 1998 in Campania, in the south of Italy, the distinctive features of airborne laser scanning mounted on a helicopter were used to survey the landslides at Sarno and Quindici. In order to survey the entire zone of interest, approximately 21 km2, it was necessary to scan 12 laser strips. Many problems arose during the survey: difficulties in receiving the GPS signal, complex terrain features and unfavorable atmospheric conditions. These problems were investigated and it emerged that one of the most influential factors is the quality of GPS signals. By analysing the original GPS data, the traces obtained by fixing phase ambiguity with an On The Fly (OTF algorithm were isolated from those with smoothed differential GPS solution (DGPS. Processing and analysis of laser data showed that not all the overlapping laser strips were congruent with each other. Since an external survey to verify the laser data accuracy was necessary, it was decided to utilize the kinematic GPS technique. The laser strips were subsequently adjusted, using the kinematic GPS data as reference points. Bearing in mind that in mountainous areas like the one studied here it is not possible to obtain nominal precision and accuracy, a good result was nevertheless obtained with a Digital Terrain Model (DTM of all the zones of interest.

  16. Ram Pressure Stripping: The Long Goodbye

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonnesen, Stephanie; Lu, Yu; Benson, Andrew; Peter, Annika; Boylan-Kolchin, Michael; Wetzel, Andrew R.; Weisz, Daniel R.

    2016-01-01

    What turns off star formation in satellite galaxies? Ram pressure stripping, the removal of a galaxy's gas through direct interaction with the gas halo in which it orbits, is an attractive quenching mechanism, particularly in the Milky Way halo where the radial distribution of quenching is dramatic. However, many implementations of this process in semi-analytic models result in overly-rapid gas removal when compared with observations. We use high resolution hydrodynamical simulations run with Enzo to parameterize the stripping of disk and halo gas from an orbiting satellite galaxy for use in the semi-analytic modeling code Galacticus. We find that using the instantaneous ram pressure overestimates the amount of gas that is stripped, and present a physically-motivated module for including ram pressure stripping in semi-analytic models that uses the integral of the ram pressure experienced by a satellite galaxy. We will compare our results to observations of the Milky Way satellites.

  17. Potential profile in a conducting polymer strip

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bay, Lasse; West, Keld; Vlachopoulos, Nikolaos;

    2002-01-01

    Many conjugated polymers show an appreciable difference in volume between their oxidized and reduced forms. This property can be utilized in soft electrochemically driven actuators, "artificial muscles". Several geometries have been proposed for the conversion of the volume expansion into useful...... mechanical work. In a particularly simple geometry, the length change of polymer strips is exploited. The polymer strips are connected to the driving circuit at the end of the strip that is attached to the support of the device. The other end of the strip is connected to the load. The advantage of this set......-up is simplicity and that the maximum force generated in the polymer can be transferred directly to the load. There is, however, an inherent problem in this design that will be examined in this paper. If the potential of the reduced state is below that for oxygen reduction, only a finite length of the...

  18. AIR Tools - A MATLAB Package of Algebraic Iterative Reconstruction Techniques:Version 1.0 for Matlab 7.8

    OpenAIRE

    Hansen, Per Christian; Saxild-Hansen, Maria

    2010-01-01

    This collection of MATLAB software contains implementations of several Algebraic Iterative Reconstruction methods for discretizations of inverse problems. These so-called row action methods rely on semi-convergence for achieving the necessary regularization of the problem. Two classes of methods are implemented: Algebraic Reconstruction Techniques (ART) and Simultaneous Iterative Reconstruction Techniques (SIRT). In addition we provide a few simplified test problems from medical and seismic t...

  19. Si strip detector with integrated coupling capacitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caccia, M.; Evensen, L.; Hansen, T.E.; Horisberger, R.; Hubbeling, L.; Peisert, A.; Tuuva, T.; Weilhammer, P.; Zalewska, A.

    1987-10-01

    A silicon microstrip detector with capacitive coupling of the diode strips to the metallization and with individual polysilicon resistors to each diode has been developed. The detector was tested in a minimum ionizing particle beam showing a performance similar to conventional strip detectors and a spatial resolution of 3.5 ..mu..m. Capacitive coupling allows the decoupling of the leakage current from the input to the charge sensitive preamplifier especially in the case of LSI electronics.

  20. Process development of thin strip steel casting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sussman, R.C.; Williams, R.S.

    1990-12-01

    An important new frontier is being opened in steel processing with the emergence of thin strip casting. Casting steel directly to thin strip has enormous benefits in energy savings by potentially eliminating the need for hot reduction in a hot strip mill. This has been the driving force for numerous current research efforts into the direct strip casting of steel. The US Department of Energy initiated a program to evaluate the development of thin strip casting in the steel industry. In earlier phases of this program, planar flow casting on an experimental caster was studied by a team of engineers from Westinghouse Electric corporation and Armco Inc. A subsequent research program was designed as a fundamental and developmental study of both planar and melt overflow casting processes. This study was arranged as several separate and distinct tasks which were often completed by different teams of researchers. An early task was to design and build a water model to study fluid flow through different designs of planar flow casting nozzles. Another important task was mathematically modeling of melt overflow casting process. A mathematical solidification model for the formation of the strip in the melt overflow process was written. A study of the material and conditioning of casting substrates was made on the small wheel caster using the melt overflow casting process. This report discusses work on the development of thin steel casting.

  1. 25 CFR 170.445 - What is a strip map?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What is a strip map? 170.445 Section 170.445 Indians... What is a strip map? A strip map is a graphic representation of a section of road or other transportation facility being added to or modified in the IRR Inventory. Each strip map submitted with an...

  2. Excess Production Capacity Squeezes Profits of Brass Strip Enterprises

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    <正>Between 2003 and 2006,under the backdrop of rapid growth of domestic demand for brass strip and soaring copper price,brass strip manufacturers made a fortune.And brass strip manufacturers mushroomed in Zhejiang,Anhui and Jiangsu.Large brass strip manufacturers

  3. Enraizamento de jabuticabeira (Plinia trunciflora por mergulhia aérea Taking roots of 'jabuticaba' fruit tree (Plinia trunciflora by air layering technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moeses Andrigo Danner

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve por objetivo testar a técnica de mergulhia aérea (alporquia na produção de mudas de jabuticabeira utilizando diferentes concentrações de ácido indolbutírico - AIB (0; 4.000 e 6.000 mg.L-1, em quatro épocas e dois locais: agosto, outubro, dezembro e maio de 2004-2005, em Vitorino-PR (Sítio 1; e agosto, setembro, outubro e novembro de 2004, em Chopinzinho - PR (Sítio 2. Foi avaliado o percentual de enraizamento, através da observação de raízes visíveis externamente ao substrato, aos 180 dias após a realização da alporquia. Com base nestes resultados, é possível afirmar que: a alporquia é um método eficiente para a propagação assexuada da jabuticabeira; a concentração de 4.000 mg.L-1 de AIB foi eficiente na indução de enraizamento em todas as épocas estudadas, exceto quando se realiza a alporquia no mês de dezembro, que dispensa o uso de AIB.The aim of this work was to test the air layering technique in the production of cuttings of 'jabuticaba' fruit tree using different concentrations of Indolbutiric Acid - IBA (0, 4000 and 6000mg.L-1, in different times and in two places: August, October, December and May of 2004/2005 in Vitorino, Paraná, Brazil; and August, September, October and November of 2004 in Chopinzinho, Paraná, Brazil. The percentage of rooting was evaluated, through the observation of externally visible roots to the substrate, a hundred and eighty days after the execution of air layering technique. Based on these results it is possible conclude that: the air layering technique was an efficient assexuated method to propagate "Jabuticaba" fruit trees (Plinia sp.; the concentration of 4000 mg.L-1 was efficient in the induction rooting, exception when the air layering technique is executed in December, dismissing use of IBA.

  4. Characterization of the occupational exposure and air transported particles using the techniques of PIXE 252Cf PMDS and alpha spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The risk for human health due to exposure to aerosols depends on the intake pattern, the mass concentration and the speciation of the elements present in airborne particles. In this work PDMS (Plasma Desorption Mass Spectrometry) was used as complementary technique to the PIXE (Particle Induced X ray Emission) technique to characterize aerosols samples collected in the environment. The PIXE technique allows the identification of the elements present in the sample and to determine their mass concentrations. The mass spectrometry (PDMS) was used to identify the speciation of these elements present in the samples. The aerosol samples were collected using a six stage cascade impactor in three sites. The Mass Median Aerodynamic Diameter (MMAD) measured indicated that the airborne particulate were in the fine fraction of the aerosols. The theoretical uranium concentration in urine samples using ICRP lung model parameters suggest that the elemental mass concentration in respirable fraction of aerosol and the chemical speciation are important factors to determine the uranium concentration in urine and that the determination of specific solubility parameters for each compound is the most important factor to calculate the uranium concentration in urine. PIXE allows to identify and quantify the elements heavier than Na (Z=11) while PDMS allows to identify the organic and inorganic compounds present in the samples. As these techniques are used as complementary techniques they provide important information about the aerosols characterization. (author)

  5. The History of Ground-Based Very High Energy Gamma-Ray Astrophysics with the Atmospheric Air Cherenkov Telescope Technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the recent two decades the ground-based technique of imaging atmosphericescopes has established itself as a powerful new discipline in science. As of today some ∼ 150 sources of gamma rays of very different types, of both galactic and extragalactic origin, have been discovered due to this technique. The study of these sources is providing clues to many basic questions in astrophysics, astro-particle physics, physics of cosmic rays and cosmology. The current generation of telescopes, despite the young age of the technique, offers a solid performance. The technique is still maturing, leading to the next generation large instrument known under the name Cherenkov Telescope Array. The latter's sensitivity will be an order of magnitude higher than that of the currently best instruments VERITAS, H.E.S.S. and MAGIC. This article is devoted to outlining the milestones in a long history that step-by-step have given shape to this technique and have brought about today's successful source marathon

  6. The History of Ground-Based Very High Energy Gamma-Ray Astrophysics with the Atmospheric Air Cherenkov Telescope Technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mirzoyan, Razmik

    2013-06-15

    In the recent two decades the ground-based technique of imaging atmosphericescopes has established itself as a powerful new discipline in science. As of today some ∼ 150 sources of gamma rays of very different types, of both galactic and extragalactic origin, have been discovered due to this technique. The study of these sources is providing clues to many basic questions in astrophysics, astro-particle physics, physics of cosmic rays and cosmology. The current generation of telescopes, despite the young age of the technique, offers a solid performance. The technique is still maturing, leading to the next generation large instrument known under the name Cherenkov Telescope Array. The latter's sensitivity will be an order of magnitude higher than that of the currently best instruments VERITAS, H.E.S.S. and MAGIC. This article is devoted to outlining the milestones in a long history that step-by-step have given shape to this technique and have brought about today's successful source marathon.

  7. Tritium-in-air monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A system for continuously monitoring air for the presence of tritiated water vapor is described comprising contacting a predetermined mass flow of an air sample with a predetermined flow of a liquid miscible with tritiated water to transfer any tritiated water vapor in the air sample to the liquid; stripping radioactive noble gases from the liquid with a stream of gas; and analyzing the liquid for beta radiation to determine the presence of tritium. In the preferred embodiment of the apparatus an air-liquid contactor, a gas-liquid separator and a stripper are combined into a single unit with a common outlet for the contacted air and stripping gas. 6 claims, 2 figures

  8. Instrumentation and techniques for monitoring the air emissions during in-situ oil/fuel burning operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Data was presented from the testing of a portable real-time aerosol monitor during a meso-scale in-situ diesel fuel fire. The monitors tested were MIE Inc's., RAM-1 and DataRAM monitors which are commonly used in the occupational health and safety industry. They allow for the continuous measurement of aerosol levels. In-situ burning has evolved substantially in recent years and is considered to be a viable oil spill countermeasure. However, research continues regarding the environmental impact of in-situ burning. For this continuous monitoring study, three RAM-1 and two or three DataRAM monitors were placed in a cluster close to each other; data was recorded using an external data logger. The multiple values from the RAM-1 were averaged over a period of one minute. Results showed that the reproducibility of the average readings recorded during the trials were not at levels expected for scientific research. The results of the instruments clustered together was influenced by the location of the monitors relative to the particulates in the air. This would be of concern when comparing individual results to air quality standards. 8 refs., 5 tabs., 20 figs

  9. Investigations of Techniques to Improve Continuous Air Monitors Under Conditions of High Dust Loading in Environmental Settings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A number of DOE facilities, such as the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), use alpha-particle environmental continuous air monitors (ECAMs) to monitor air for unwanted releases of radioactive aerosols containing such materials as plutonium and uranium. High sensitivity, ease of operation, and lack of false alarms are all important for ECAMs. The object of the project was to conduct investigations to improve operation of ECAMs, particularly under conditions where a lot of nonradioactive dust may be deposited on the filters (conditions of high dust loading). The presence of such dust may increase the frequency with which filters must be changed and can lead to an increased incidence of false alarms due to deteriorated energy resolution and response specificity to the radionuclides of interest. A major finding of the investigation, not previously documented, was that under many conditions thick layers of underlying nonradioactive dust do not decrease energy resolution and specificity for target radionuclides if the radioactive aerosol arrives as a sudden thin burst deposit, as commonly occurs in the early-warning alarm mode. As a result, operators of ECAMs may not need to change filters as often as previously thought and have data upon which to base more reliable operating procedures

  10. Validation of Edible Taste Strips for Assessing PROP Taste Perception

    OpenAIRE

    Smutzer, Gregory; Desai, Hetvi; Coldwell, Susan E.; Griffith, James W.

    2013-01-01

    A novel delivery method is described that incorporates taste stimuli into edible strips for determining n-propylthiouracil (PROP) taster status. Edible strips that contained 400 or 600nanomoles of PROP were prepared for psychophysical studies. Using these strips, we measured taste intensity, taste hedonics, and taste quality responses in a sample of healthy volunteers (n = 118). Participants were also asked to assess a single NaCl strip, a quinine strip, 3 NaCl solutions, and 3 PROP solutions...

  11. Novel photoresist stripping technology using steam-water mixture*

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Lei; Hui Yu; Gao Chaoqun; Jing Yupeng

    2011-01-01

    A novel wet vapor photoresist stripping technology is developed as an alternative to dry plasma ashing and wet stripping. Experiments using this technology to strip hard baked SU-8 photoresist, aurum and chromium film are carried out. Then the images of stripping results are shown and the mechanism is analyzed and discussed.The most striking result of this experiment is that the spraying mixture of steam and water droplets can strip photoresist and even metal film with ease.

  12. Project Increase of infrastructure: 'Establishment of a laboratory for studies of pollutants in air, water and soil through atomic and nuclear techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this report there are the guidelines of this project as well as the goals, activities and costs. The general objectives were: 1. A laboratory that allows to analyze with efficiency samples of air, water and soil pollutants using atomic and nuclear origin techniques as PIXE (Proton Induced X-ray Emission, NRA (Nuclear Reaction Analysis) and RBS (Rutherford Backscattering) as well as auxiliary and/or complementary techniques. 2. To obtain indicators of the influence of the pollution of the Valley of Mexico about the ecology and the health of the inhabitants of Mexico City with perspectives of carrying out studies in other cities. 3. To develop an appropriate technology for the realization of those studies and to generate human resources in this area. (Author)

  13. The use of flight progress strips while working live traffic: frequencies, importance, and perceived benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durso, Francis T; Batsakes, Peter J; Crutchfield, Jerry M; Braden, Justin B; Manning, Carol A

    2004-01-01

    The Federal Aviation Administration's effort to automate air traffic control (ATC) requires that the functionality provided today be captured in future systems. We report the first quantitative naturalistic observation of paper flight progress strip interactions during operational use. Strip use was similar in a variety of situations, but some uses varied as a function of altitude, staffing, or the cooperative style used by controller teams. Design of automation should proceed by prioritizing changes based on frequency of use and importance and should ensure that an effective method of interacting with flight information is incorporated. In addition to applied relevance to the ATC domain, the results touch on several theoretical concerns relevant to dynamic environments. Actual and potential applications of this research include the establishment of a database of strip activity and an arsenal of information valuable to system designers. PMID:15151154

  14. AEGIS20: a radio survey of the Extended Groth Strip

    CERN Document Server

    Ivison, R J; Faber, S M; Smail, I; Biggs, A D; Conselice, C J; Wilson, G; Salim, S; Huang, J S; Wilner, S P; Smail, Ian

    2006-01-01

    We describe AEGIS20 - a radio survey of the Extended Groth Strip (EGS) conducted with the Very Large Array (VLA) at 1.4GHz. The resulting catalog contains 1,123 emitters and is sensitive to ultraluminous starbursts to z1 where correcting for contamination by radio-loud active galactic nuclei (AGN) comes at the price of rejecting luminous starbursts. Whilst stacking radio images is a useful technique, accurate radio-based SFRs for z>>1 galaxies require precise redshifts and extraordinarily high-fidelity radio data to identify and remove accretion-related emission.

  15. Entrainment Heat Flux Computed with Lidar and Wavelet Technique in Buenos Aires During Last Chaitén Volcano Eruption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawelko, Ezequiel Eduardo; Salvador, Jacobo Omar; Ristori, Pablo Roberto; Pallotta, Juan Vicente; Otero, Lidia Ana; Quel, Eduardo Jaime

    2016-06-01

    At Lidar Division of CEILAP (CITEDEF-CONICET) a multiwavelength Raman-Rayleigh lidar optimized to measure the atmospheric boundary layer is being operated. This instrument is used for monitoring important aerosol intrusion events in Buenos Aires, such as the arrival of volcanic ashes from the Chaitén volcano eruption on May 2008. That was the first monitoring of volcanic ash with lidar in Argentina. In this event several volcanic ash plumes with high aerosol optical thickness were detected in the free atmosphere, affecting the visibility, surface radiation and therefore, the ABL evolution. In this work, the impact of ashes in entrainment flux ratio is studied. This parameter is obtained from the atmospheric boundary layer height and entrainment zone thickness using algorithms based on covariance wavelet transform.

  16. Studies using nuclear and complementary non-nuclear analytical techniques for bio-monitoring of air pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A set of lower and higher plants have been analysed for their trace element contents. The plants are, a moss (Funaria sp.), a bryophyte (Cyathodium sp.), a weed (Parthenium hysterophorus L.) and a common bushy shrub (Lantana Camera L.). The trace element concentrations have been determined using INAA, PIGE and ICP-OES. The data are examined with a view to assess the use of these plants as bio-indicators of toxic trace metal pollutants in ambient air. The moss and the bryophyte samples show much higher accumulation levels for many elements, but are seasonal. The other two plants, due to their perennial nature, can be used for bio-monitoring purposes, almost throughout the year. (author)

  17. Feasibility study for joint retrieval of air density and ozone concentration profiles in the mesosphere using an ultraviolet limb-scan technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Xia; LU Yao; Lü Daren

    2004-01-01

    For joint retrieval of vertical distributions of both air density and ozone concentration in the mesosphere which are two of the most important atmospheric parameters in this region, a retrieval scheme is suggested by using satellite limb scan observation at two UV wavelengths, i.e. 255 nm and 296 nm. The retrieval scheme is the modification of the direct method by Aruga and Heath with two UV wavelengths and two atmospheric parameters. Feasibility study was made based on simulated limb scan radiances computed with a single scattering radiative transfer algorithms of spherical geometry developed by the present authors and the inversion technique. Results of the simulations show that it is feasible to retrieve air density and ozone concentration vertical distributions on a global basis from satellite UV limb scan over the altitude range of 50 km~ 100 km with a vertical resolution of 1 km. The errors of the inferred profiles by using the joint inversion algorithm are greatly deduced, especially in the upper-mesosphere heights, compared with those by using the single inversion technique with a single wavelength.

  18. High speed roll casting of Mg alloy strip by a vertical type twin roll caster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Watari

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The possibility of high speed roll casting of AZ31, AM60 and AZ91 was investigated. Warm deep drawing of roll cast magnesium alloy was operated. and formability of roll cast magnesium strip was cleared.Design/methodology/approach: A vertical type high speed twin roll caster was used. The roll casting was operated in the air atmosphere. The casting speed was from 60 m/min up to 180 m/min. Low temperature casting was adopted to realize high speed casting.Findings: Strip thinner 3 mm with 100 width could be cast continuously. The casting ability became better with increasing content of Al. Roll cast Mg alloy strips could be hot-rolled down to 0.5 mm. AZ31 as-cast strip could be thinner down to 0.5 mm only by three times of hot rolling. Deep drawing was operated with three kinds of Mg alloy at 250°C, and LDR value was larger than 2.0. It was shown that deep drawing of AZ91 alloy for casting was possible.Research limitations/implications: There was tendency that cracks occurred at the center in the thickness direction as Al content increased.Practical implications: Sheet metal forming of magnesium alloy with high content Al can be realized.Originality/value: It was shown that possibility of high speed roll casting of magnesium alloy, and warm deep drawing of roll cast AZ91 strip.

  19. Beam stripping extraction from the VINCY cyclotron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ristić-Đurović Jasna L.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The extraction system of a cyclotron guides an ion beam from a spiral acceleration orbit, through an extraction trajectory, into a high energy transport line. The two methods commonly used to direct an ion into the extraction path are deflection, by the electric field of an electrostatic deflector, and ion stripping, by a thin carbon foil. Compared to the electrostatic deflector system, the stripping extraction provides a fast and easy change of the extracted ion energy and is easier to manufacture operate, and maintain. However, the extraction trajectory and dynamics of an ion beam after stripping are highly dependant on the ion energy and specific charge. Thus, when a multipurpose machine such as the VINCY Cyclotron is concerned, it is far from easy to deliver a variety of ion beams into the same high energy transport line and at the same time preserve a reasonable compactness of the extraction system. The front side stripping extraction system of the VINCY Cyclotron provides high (~70 MeV and mid (~30 MeV energy protons, as well as a number of heavy ions in broad energy ranges. The back side stripping extraction system extracts low energy protons (~18 MeV and enables their simultaneous use with high energy protons at the front side of the machine.

  20. Superconducting nano-strip particle detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cristiano, R.; Ejrnaes, M.; Casaburi, A.; Zen, N.; Ohkubo, M.

    2015-12-01

    We review progress in the development and applications of superconducting nano-strip particle detectors. Particle detectors based on superconducting nano-strips stem from the parent devices developed for single photon detection (SSPD) and share with them ultra-fast response times (sub-nanosecond) and the ability to operate at a relatively high temperature (2-5 K) compared with other cryogenic detectors. SSPDs have been used in the detection of electrons, neutral and charged ions, and biological macromolecules; nevertheless, the development of superconducting nano-strip particle detectors has mainly been driven by their use in time-of-flight mass spectrometers (TOF-MSs) where the goal of 100% efficiency at large mass values can be achieved. Special emphasis will be given to this case, reporting on the great progress which has been achieved and which permits us to overcome the limitations of existing mass spectrometers represented by low detection efficiency at large masses and charge/mass ambiguity. Furthermore, such progress could represent a breakthrough in the field. In this review article we will introduce the device concept and detection principle, stressing the peculiarities of the nano-strip particle detector as well as its similarities with photon detectors. The development of parallel strip configuration is introduced and extensively discussed, since it has contributed to the significant progress of TOF-MS applications.

  1. Dynamic observation of repigmentation in vitiligo lesions after narrow-band ultraviolet B phototherapy by using an adhesive tape stripping technique%胶带粘贴法观察窄谱中波紫外线治疗后白癜风皮损的复色

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪凯凡; 汪宇; 陆洪光

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨窄谱中波紫外线(NB-UVB)治疗前后照射区浅表角质层细胞中黑素颗粒的变化.方法 使用胶带粘贴法对接受NB-UVB治疗的白癜风皮损进行浅表角质层细胞取样,银氨染色后观察细胞中黑素颗粒形态、分布、颜色的变化,使用Image-Pro Plus6.0显微图像分析软件计算细胞内黑素颗粒面积百分比,使用SPSS11.5对数据进行统计分析.结果 治疗前白斑区仍残存少量含黑素颗粒的浅表角质层细胞.治疗前黑素颗粒面积百分比为(5.31±4.12)%,治疗10次后为(6.24±2.65)%,治疗20次后为(10.14±5.73)%,治疗30次后为(13.05±6.17)%,方差分析显示,治疗前、治疗10次、治疗20次、治疗30次后黑素颗粒面积百分比差异有统计学意义(F=4.334,P< 0.05),经两两比较分析,治疗30次后细胞内黑素颗粒面积百分比相对治疗前及治疗10次后均增高(P值均< 0.01).皮损复色区新生黑素颗粒染色后形态、颜色与治疗前周边正常肤色区有所不同.结论 用浅表角质层细胞胶带粘贴法可以客观评估NBUVB治疗白癜风的复色过程.%Objective To observe the changes of melanin granules in superficial corneocytes in vitiligo lesions after irradiation with narrow-band ultraviolet B (NB-UVB) by using an adhesive tape stripping technique.Methods Vitiligo lesions were selected from 6 patients and irradiated with NB-UVB every other day for 31 sessions.Superficial corneocytes were obtained by an adhesive tape stripping technique from the vitiligo lesions and perilesional normal skin before every treatment.The morphology,distribution and color of melanin granules were observed after Masson-Fontana silver staining.The percentage of area occupied by melanin granules in superficial corneocytes were calculated by using the Image-Pro Plus 6.0 software.Statistical analysis was conducted by the SPSS11.5 software.Results There were still a few superficial corneocytes containing melanin granules

  2. Air filtration and indoor air quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bekö, Gabriel

    2006-01-01

    Demands for better indoor air quality are increasing, since we spend most of our time indoors and we are more and more aware of indoor air pollution. Field studies in different parts of the world have documented that high percentage of occupants in many offices and buildings find the indoor air...... decent ventilation and air cleaning/air filtration, high indoor air quality cannot be accomplished. The need for effective air filtration has increased with increasing evidence on the hazardous effects of fine particles. Moreover, the air contains gaseous pollutants, removal of which requires various air...... cleaning techniques. Supply air filter is one of the key components in the ventilation system. Studies have shown that used ventilation filters themselves can be a significant source of indoor air pollution with consequent impact on perceived air quality, sick building syndrome symptoms and performance...

  3. Flexural Strengthening of RC Slabs with Prestressed CFRP Strips Using Different Anchorage Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Sena-Cruz

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Externally Bonded Reinforcement (EBR technique has been widely used for flexural strengthening of concrete structures by using carbon fiber-reinforced polymers (CFRP. EBR technique offers several structural advantages when the CFRP material is prestressed. This paper presents an experimental and numerical study on reinforced (RC slabs strengthened in flexure with prestressed CFRP strips as a structural strengthening system. The strips are applied as an externally bonded reinforcement (EBR and anchored with either a mechanical or a gradient anchorage. The former foresees metallic anchorage plates fixed to the concrete substrate, while the latter is based on an accelerated epoxy resin curing followed by a segment-wise prestress force decrease at the strip ends. Both anchorage systems, in combination with different CFRP strip geometries, were subjected to static loading tests. It could be demonstrated that the composite strip’s performance is better exploited when prestressing is used, with slightly higher overall load carrying capacities for mechanical anchorages than for the gradient anchorage. The performed investigations by means of a cross-section analysis supported the experimental observation that in case a mechanical anchorage is used, progressive strip debonding changes the fully bonded configuration to an unbonded end-anchored system. The inclusion of defined debonding criteria for both the anchorage zones and free length between the anchorage regions allowed to precisely capture the ultimate loading forces.

  4. P-stop isolation study of irradiated n-in-p type silicon strip sensors for harsh radiation environment

    CERN Document Server

    Printz, Martin

    2015-01-01

    This technology is more radiation hard but also the manufacturing is more challenging compared to p-in-n type sensors due to additional process steps in order to suppress the accumulation of electrons between the readout strips. One possible isolation technique of adjacent strips is the p-stop structure which is a p-type material implantation with a certain pattern for each individual strip. However, electrical breakdown and charge collection studies indicate that the process parameters of the p-stop structure have to be carefully calibrated in order to achieve a suff...

  5. Modeling of experimental treatment of acetaldehyde-laden air and phenol-containing water using corona discharge technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faungnawakij, Kajornsak; Sano, Noriaki; Charinpanitkul, Tawatchai; Tanthapanichakoon, Wiwut

    2006-03-01

    Acetaldehyde-laden air and phenol-contaminated water were experimentally treated using corona discharge reactions and gas absorption in a single water-film column. Mathematical modeling of the combined treatment was developed in this work. Efficient removal of the gaseous acetaldehyde was achieved while the corona discharge reactions produced short-lived species such as O and O- as well as ozone. Direct contact of the radicals and ions with water was known to produce aqueous OH radical, which contributes to the decomposition of organic contaminants: phenol, absorbed acetaldehyde, and intermediate byproducts in the water. The influence of initial phenol concentration ranging from 15 to 50 mg L(-1) and that of influent acetaldehyde ranging from 0 to 200 ppm were experimentally investigated and used to build the math model. The maximum energetic efficiency of TOC, phenol, and acetaldehyde were obtained at 25.6 x 10(-9) mol carbon J(-1), 25.0 x 10(-9) mol phenol J(-1), and 2.0 x 10(-9) mol acetaldehyde J(-1), respectively. The predictions for the decomposition of acetaldehyde, phenol, and their intermediates were found to be in good agreement with the experimental results. PMID:16568779

  6. Surface modification on a glass surface with a combination technique of sol–gel and air brushing processes

    KAUST Repository

    Tsai, Meng-Yu

    2011-08-01

    This study fabricated the large area and optically transparent superhydrophobic silica based films on glass surface with optimized hardness. A silane coupling agent, tetraethoxysilane (TEOS), effectively bonds silica particles onto the glass substrate. Desired surface roughness was obtained by adjusting nano silica particles concentration of the precursors prepared by the sol-gel process. Silica suspension was coated onto the glass substrate by the air brushing methods. This method can deposit a uniform, transparent coating on the glass substrate efficiently. Diluting the precursor by adding ethanol or a mixture of D.I. water and ethanol further improved the transmittance and superhydrophobicity efficiency. The results showed that as the silica particle concentration and the thickness of the coating were increased, the surface roughness was enhanced. Rougher surface displayed a higher superhydrophobicity and lower transmittance. Therefore, the concentration of silica particle, volume of coatings, and the ratio of ethanol and D.I. water are of great importance to deposit a transparent, superhydrophobic coating on glass. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Analysis of 'Coma strip' galaxy redshift catalog

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present results of the analysis of a galaxy redshift catalog made at the 6-m telescope by Karachentsev and Kopylov (1990. Mon. Not. R. astr. Soc., 243, 390). The catalog covers a long narrow strip on the sky (10 arcmin by 630) and lists 283 galaxies up to limiting blue magnitude mB = 17.6. The strip goes through the core of Coma cluster and this is called the 'Coma strip' catalog. The catalog is almost two times deeper than the CfA redshift survey and creates the possibility of studying the galaxy distribution on scales of 100-250 Mpc. Due to the small number of galaxies in the catalog, we were able to estimate only very general and stable parameters of the distribution. (author)

  8. Air filtration and indoor air quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bekö, Gabriel

    decent ventilation and air cleaning/air filtration, high indoor air quality cannot be accomplished. The need for effective air filtration has increased with increasing evidence on the hazardous effects of fine particles. Moreover, the air contains gaseous pollutants, removal of which requires various air...... contradictions should motivate manufacturers and researchers to develop new efficient filtration techniques and/or improve the existing ones. Development of low polluting filtration techniques, which are at the same time easy and inexpensive to maintain is the way forward in the future....

  9. Spray forming lead strip. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McHugh, K.

    1996-04-10

    A cooperative research project was conducted between the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) and Johnson Controls, Inc. (JCI) to adapt the INEL spray forming process to produce near-net-shape lead alloy strip. The emphasis of the work was to spray form lead strip samples at INEL, using a variety of spray conditions, for characterization at JCI. An existing glove box apparatus was modified at INEL to spray form lead. The main spray forming components were housed inside the glove box. They included a spray nozzle, tundish (crucible), substrate assembly, gas heater and furnaces to heat the nozzle and tundish. To spray form metal strip, liquid metal was pressure-fed at a controlled rate through a series of circular orifices that span the width of the nozzle. There the metal contacted high velocity, high temperature inert gas (nitrogen) which atomized the molten material into fine droplets, entrained the droplets in a directed flow, and deposited them onto glass plates that were swept through the spray plume to form strip samples. In-flight convection cooling of the droplets followed by conduction and convection cooling at the substrate resulted in rapid solidification of the deposit. During operation, the inside of the glove box was purged with an inert gas to limit the effects of in-flight oxidation of the particles and spray-formed strips, as well as to protect personnel from exposure to airborne lead particulate. Remote controls were used to start/stop the spray and control the speed and position of the substrate. In addition, substrate samples were loaded into the substrate translator manually using the gloved side ports of the box. In this way, the glove box remained closed during a series of spray trials, and was opened only when loading the crucible with a lead charge or when removing lead strip samples for shipment to JCI.

  10. Analytical Electrochemistry: Methodology and Applications of Dynamic Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heineman, William R.; Kissinger, Peter T.

    1980-01-01

    Reports developments involving the experimental aspects of finite and current analytical electrochemistry including electrode materials (97 cited references), hydrodynamic techniques (56), spectroelectrochemistry (62), stripping voltammetry (70), voltammetric techniques (27), polarographic techniques (59), and miscellany (12). (CS)

  11. Spray Rolling Aluminum Strip for Transportation Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kevin M. McHugh; Y. Lin; Y. Zhou; E. J. Lavernia; J.-P. Delplanque; S. B. Johnson

    2005-02-01

    Spray rolling is a novel strip casting technology in which molten aluminum alloy is atomized and deposited into the roll gap of mill rolls to produce aluminum strip. A combined experimental/modeling approach has been followed in developing this technology with active participation from industry. The feasibility of this technology has been demonstrated at the laboratory scale and it is currently being scaled-up. This paper provides an overview of the process and compares the microstructure and properties of spray-rolled 2124 aluminum alloy with commercial ingot-processed material

  12. slice of LEP beamtube with getter strip

    CERN Multimedia

    1989-01-01

    A section of the LEP beam pipe. This is the chamber in which LEP's counter-rotating electron and positron beams travel. It is made of lead-clad aluminium. The beams circulate in the oval cross-section part of the chamber. In the rectangular cross-section part, LEP's innovative getter-strip vacuum pump is installed. After heating to purify the surface of the getter, the strip acts like molecular sticky tape, trapping any stray molecules left behind after the accelerator's traditional vacuum pumps have done their job.

  13. Comparative characteristics of polystyrene scintillation strips

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results are provided for a study of the main characteristics of polystyrene scintillation strips with a cross-section of 200 x 10 mm with two different scintillation-additive compositions: 1.5% p-terphenyl + 0.01% POPOP and 1.5% p-terphenyl + 0.01% DBP. The mean light-attenuation lengths are 180 cm and 260 cm, respectively, for strips with POPOP and DBP. The emittances of the polystyrene scintillators with DBP and POPOP additives have a ratio of 0.8:1.0 as recorded by an FEU-110 photomultiplier. 2 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs

  14. Test strip and method for its use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A test strip device is described which is useful in performing binding assays involving antigens, antibodies, hormones, vitamins, metabolites or pharmacological agents. The device is capable of application to analytical methods in which a set of sequential test reactions is involved and in which a minute sample size may be used. This test strip is particularly useful in radioimmunoassays. The use of the device is illustrated in radioimmunoassays for 1) thyroxine in serum, 2) the triiodothyronine binding capacity of serum and 3) folic acid and its analogues in serum. (U.K.)

  15. Asset Stripping in a Mature Market Economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klarskov Jeppesen, Kim; Møller, Ulrik Gorm

    2011-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to document a Danish fraud scheme, in which a large number of limited companies were stripped of their assets leaving them with nothing but tax debt, eventually causing the Danish Tax and Customs Administration to lose large sums. Furthermore, the purpose...... indicates that asset stripping may take place in mature market economies to the extent that perpetrators are able to circumvent the corporate governance system by giving lawyers, public accountants and banks incentives to act less critically towards dubious business transactions. Research limitations...

  16. Thermal Insulation Strips Conserve Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Launching the space shuttle involves an interesting paradox: While the temperatures inside the shuttle s main engines climb higher than 6,000 F hot enough to boil iron for fuel, the engines use liquid hydrogen, the second coldest liquid on Earth after liquid helium. Maintained below 20 K (-423 F), the liquid hydrogen is contained in the shuttle s rust-colored external tank. The external tank also contains liquid oxygen (kept below a somewhat less chilly 90 K or -297 F) that combines with the hydrogen to create an explosive mixture that along with the shuttle s two, powdered aluminum-fueled solid rocket boosters allows the shuttle to escape Earth s gravity. The cryogenic temperatures of the main engines liquid fuel can cause ice, frost, or liquefied air to build up on the external tank and other parts of the numerous launch fueling systems, posing a possible debris risk when the ice breaks off during launch and causing difficulties in the transfer and control of these cryogenic liquid propellants. Keeping the fuel at the necessary ultra-cold temperatures while minimizing ice buildup and other safety hazards, as well as reducing the operational maintenance costs, has required NASA to explore innovative ways for providing superior thermal insulation systems. To address the challenge, the Agency turned to an insulating technology so effective that, even though it is mostly air, a thin sheet can prevent a blowtorch from igniting a match. Aerogels were invented in 1931 and demonstrate properties that make them the most extraordinary insulating materials known; a 1-inch-thick piece of aerogel provides the same insulation as layering 15 panes of glass with air pockets in between. Derived from silica, aluminum oxide, or carbon gels using a supercritical drying process - resulting in a composition of almost 99-percent air - aerogels are the world s lightest solid (among 15 other titles they hold in the Guinness World Records), can float indefinitely on water if treated to be

  17. Lead-Testing Service to Elementary and Secondary Schools Using Anodic Stripping Voltammetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goebel, Amanda; Vos, Tracy; Louwagie, Anne; Lundbohm, Laura; Brown, Jay H.

    2004-01-01

    The undergraduate chemistry club of the Southwest Minnesota State University offers assistance in lead-testing through the anodic stripping voltammetry (ASV) technique to elementary and secondary schools. Emphasis is given to this community service activity, which has increased club membership, and promoted discussion of water quality problems in…

  18. Hemispherical Shell Nanostructures from Metal-Stripped Embossed Alumina on Aluminum Templates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter; Albrektsen, Ole; Simonsen, Adam Cohen;

    2011-01-01

    aluminum/ alumina (Al/Al2O3) templates as a novel and versatile nanofabrication procedure, and we demonstrate explicitly how to exploit the technique for developing large-area hexagonally close-packed hemispherical shell nanostructures by stripping noble metal layers from embossed templates fabricated from...

  19. Implementation of radon remedial techniques in dwellings of Baita uranium mining area in order to improve indoor air quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The lung cancer continues to be the most common causes of cancer death. Global statistics estimate that between 10% and 25% of all lung cancer worldwide is not attributable to smoking. A pilot study about radon exposure in dwellings located nearby Avram Iancu uranium mine (classified as 'radon-prone area'), Transylvania, is presented in order to provide efficient mitigation strategies for public protection against indoor radon. Our preliminary studies shows that 25% of lung cancer deaths per year were estimated to be attributable to exposure to indoor radon. Health is significantly affected by environmental pollution, confirmed by measurable indicators, so that the mortality rate is higher than in other regions, lung cancer incidence rate is also higher, and life expectancy is reduced by a number of years. The critical situation requires remedial actions to be applied, in the context in which until now in Romania a regional programme or a national strategy regarding Radon mitigation was not implemented so far. The present study will not only help establish an optimal strategy for managing the major radon problems in high radon areas, but will also provide the necessary groundwork essential for the determination of the radon measurements techniques used for building materials. (authors)

  20. Analyses of air samples for ascospores of Leptosphaeria maculans and L.biglobosa by light microscopy and molecular techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaczmarek, J; Jedryczka, M; Fitt, B D L; Lucas, J A; Latunde-Dada, A O

    2009-01-01

    Spores of many fungal pathogens are dispersed by wind. Detection of these airborne inocula is important in forecasting both the onset and the risk of epiphytotics. Species-specific primers targeted at the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of Leptosphaeria maculans and L. biglobosa - the causal organisms of phoma stem canker and stem lesions of Brassica spp., including oilseed rape - were used to detect DNA extracted from particles deposited on tapes obtained from a spore trap operated in Rarwino (northwest Poland) from September to November in 2004 and 2006. The quantities of DNA assessed by traditional end-point PCR and quantitative real-time PCR were compared to microscopic counts of airborne ascospores. Results of this study showed that fluctuations in timing of ascospore release corresponded to the dynamics of combined concentrations of DNA from L. maculans and L. biglobosa, with significant positive correlations between ascospore number and DNA yield. Thus the utilization of PCR-based molecular diagnostic techniques enabled the detection, identification, and accurate quantification of airborne inoculum at the species level. Moreover, real-time PCR was more sensitive than traditional PCR, especially in years with low ascospore numbers. PMID:19875894

  1. The results descemet-stripping automated endothelial keratoplasty at bullous keratopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Trufanov

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to evaluate outcomes of the descemet-stripping automated endothelial keratoplasty using eye drops Kombinil-Duo dur- ing postoperative period.Methods: 26 patients suffered from bullous keratopathy underwent descemet-stripping automated endothelial keratoplasty using our own technique. We applied eye drops Kombinil-Duo during postoperative period.Results: 25 patients had clear corneas whole period of observation. Graft rejection occurred in 1 eye. Mean BSCVA was 0.47±0.21.Conclusion: Kombinil-Duo has been allowed to avoid infectious complication and to increase efficiency of the operative interven-tion during postoperative period.

  2. Experiences With Area Specific Spectrum Stripping of Nai(Tl) Gamma Spectra

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aage, Helle Karina; Korsbech, Uffe C C; Bargholz, Kim;

    2006-01-01

    laboratory or field measurements with known sources of natural radioactivity. Stripping parameters may, however, often be calculated from the actual survey data or from data from a similar area. Both post processing and real time processing is possible. The technique is useful for gamma source search, for......Abstract Processing of airborne and carborne gamma-ray spectra (AGS and CGS) often includes the stripping (elimination) of the signals from natural radioactivity. Hereby the net result becomes the signals from manmade radioactivity or other radiation anomalies. The parameters needed for spectrum...

  3. Conceptual design of air sparge/soil vent systems for in situ remediation of petroleum hydrocarbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A conceptual design for a sparge and vent system is presented. A sparge and vent system consists of air sparging or in situ aeration in combination with soil vapor extraction. With air sparging, a compressed air source provides sparging of the ground water through aeration points, volatizes dissolved hydrocarbons, and elevates dissolved oxygen (DO) levels in the ground water. Volatile hydrocarbon vapors migrate more readily than liquid in soil, and are extracted to atmosphere with the vapor extraction system. Increased oxygen levels in the ground water and unsaturated soil promotes natural, aerobic biodegradation of the hydrocarbons without nutrient addition. Design considerations for sparge systems include spacing and depth of installation of the sparging points, air injection rates and pressures and the air source. The design techniques for the soil vapor extraction system have been discussed extensively in the literature but generally involve spacing of the extraction wells to capture all the hydrocarbons stripped from the ground water. The soil vapor extraction system can also be modified to enhance oxygen (air) delivery to the unsaturated zone and thus promote natural biodegradation of the petroleum hydrocarbons in the soil. Techniques for monitoring the progress of remediation include measurement of oxygen and carbon dioxide levels in the soil, DO levels in the ground water, subsurface air pressures and petroleum hydrocarbon levels in the discharged air, soil and ground water

  4. Investigation of magnetic property of GdFeO{sub 3} single crystal grown in air by optical floating zone technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramesh Babu, P. [Centre for Crystal Growth, School Advance Sciences, VIT University, Vellore, Tamil Nadu (India); Bhaumik, Indranil [Crystal Growth Laboratory, Laser Materials Development and Devices Division, Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology, Indore (India); Ganesamoorthy, S. [X-ray Scattering and Crystal Growth Section, CMPD, Material Science Group, IGCAR, Kalpakkam, Tamil Nadu (India); Kalainathan, S., E-mail: kalainathan@yahoo.com [Centre for Crystal Growth, School Advance Sciences, VIT University, Vellore, Tamil Nadu (India); Bhatt, R.; Karnal, A.K.; Gupta, P.K. [Crystal Growth Laboratory, Laser Materials Development and Devices Division, Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology, Indore (India)

    2015-05-15

    Highlights: • GdFeO{sub 3} single crystals have been grown by OFZ technique in air. • Sample exhibits one order lower coercive field than crystal grown in oxygen. • Bloch 3/2-law holds good for GdFeO{sub 3} (B-parameter as 2.69 × 10{sup −5} K{sup −3/2}). • The coercivity exhibited sharp dip at 200 and 550 K. • At 550 K pinning of the direction of weak ferromagnetism by AFM ordering vanishes. - Abstract: Single phase Gadolinium orthoferrite (GdFeO{sub 3}) with orthorhombic perovskite structure was synthesized without any garnet impurities by solid state reaction and subsequently GdFeO{sub 3} single crystals were grown by the optical floating zone technique. The temperature dependent magnetization measurement revealed the magnetic phase transition from anti-ferromagnetic ordering to paramagnetic ordering at 670 K. The overlapping of the magnetization measured under zero-field and field cooling condition in the range of 300–20 K signifies that there is no magnetic transition in this temperature range. The hysteresis loop measurements revealed that in comparison to the values reported for the crystal grown in oxygen, the air grown sample exhibits one order lower coercive field (∼75 Oe). The Bloch 3/2-law was found to hold good for GdFeO{sub 3} with the value of B-parameter as 2.69 × 10{sup −5} K{sup −3/2}. The coercivity exhibited sharp dip at 200 and 550 K. At and above 550 K the ability of the antiferromagnetic ordering to pin the direction of magnetization related to the weak ferromagnetism present in the material vanishes leading to the lowering in the coercivity.

  5. Nuclear reactor spring strip grid spacer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An improved and novel grid spacer for maintaining the fuel rods of a nuclear reactor fuel assembly in substantially parallel array is described. The invention provides for spring strips to maintain the fuel elements in their desired orientation which have more positive alignment than previous types while allowing greater flexibility to counterbalance the effects of differential thermal expansion. (UK)

  6. Anodic Stripping Voltammetry: An Instrumental Analysis Experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Joseph

    1983-01-01

    Describes an experiment designed to acquaint students with the theory and applications of anodic stripping voltammetry (ASV) as well as such ASV problems as contamination associated with trace analysis. The experimental procedure, instrumentation, and materials discussed are designed to minimize cost and keep procedures as simple as possible. (JM)

  7. The CMS silicon strip tracker modules production

    CERN Document Server

    Giorgi, M

    2006-01-01

    To complete the construction of the CMS silicon strip tracker, about 16,000 silicon microstrip detector modules will be required. In order to guarantee the uniform quality of the produced modules and to be able to match the deadlines requested by the CMS collaboration, a semi-industrialized organization has been developed, and the different components are being presented here.

  8. Refuges, flower strips, biodiversity and agronomic interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Grégory; Wateau, Karine; Legrand, Mickaël; Oste, Sandrine

    2008-01-01

    Several arthropods are natural predators of pests, and they are able to reduce and control their population development. FREDON Nord Pas-de-Calais (Federation Regionate de Defense contre les Organismes Nuisibles = Regional Federation for Pest Control) has begun for a long time to form farmers to the recognition of beneficial arthropods and to show them their usefulness. These beneficial insects or arachnids are present everywhere, in orchards and even in fields which are areas relatively poor in biodiversity. Adults feed in the flower strips instead larvae and some adults feed on preys such as aphids or caterpillars. Most of the time, beneficial insects can regulate pest but sometimes, in agricultural area, they can't make it early enough and efficiently. Their action begin too late and there biodiversity and number are too low. It's possible to enhance their action by manipulating the ecological infrastructures, like sewing flower strips or installing refuges. Flower strips increase the density of natural enemies and make them be present earlier in the field in order to control pests. Refuges permit beneficial's to spend winter on the spot. So they're able to be active and to grow in number earlier. From 2004 to 2007, on the one hand, FREDON Nord Pas-de-Calais has developed a research program. Its purpose was to inventory practices and also tools and means available and to judge the advisability of using such or such beneficial refuge in orchards. On the second hand, it studied the impact in orchard of refuges on population of beneficial's and the difference there were between manufactured refuges and homemade refuges. Interesting prospects were obtained with some of them. Otherwise, since 2003, FREDON has studied flower strips influence on beneficial population and their impact on pest control. In cabbage fields, results of trials have shown that flower strips lead to a reduction of aphid number under acceptable economic level, up to 50 meters from flower strips

  9. Topics in Chemical Instrumentation: CII. Automated Anodic Stripping Voltammetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stock, John T.; Ewing, Galen W., Ed.

    1980-01-01

    Presents details of anodic stripping analysis (ASV) in college chemistry laboratory experiments. Provides block diagrams of the analyzer system, circuitry and power supplies of the automated stripping analyzer, and instructions for implementing microcomputer control of the ASV. (CS)

  10. Methods on Skull Stripping of MRI Head Scan Images-a Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalavathi, P; Prasath, V B Surya

    2016-06-01

    The high resolution magnetic resonance (MR) brain images contain some non-brain tissues such as skin, fat, muscle, neck, and eye balls compared to the functional images namely positron emission tomography (PET), single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) which usually contain relatively less non-brain tissues. The presence of these non-brain tissues is considered as a major obstacle for automatic brain image segmentation and analysis techniques. Therefore, quantitative morphometric studies of MR brain images often require a preliminary processing to isolate the brain from extra-cranial or non-brain tissues, commonly referred to as skull stripping. This paper describes the available methods on skull stripping and an exploratory review of recent literature on the existing skull stripping methods. PMID:26628083

  11. Model test on sand retaining wall reinforced with denti-strip inclusions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG MengXi; ZHOU Huai

    2008-01-01

    In conventional reinforced soil structures, the reinforcements are often laid hori-zontally in the soil. In this paper, a new concept of soil reinforced with denti-strip inclusions was proposed and a series of laboratory model tests were carried out on sand retaining wall reinforced with denti-strip inclusions. Besides the horizontal displacements of the facing, the lateral earth pressures acting on vertical elements were measured. A microscopic measurement was performed to investigate the deformation and progressive failure of the sand within model retaining wall. Based on the image analytical technique, the bearing capability and interaction mecha-nism of reinforced sand retaining wall were analyzed. The model of the initial shear failure and potential failure surface were also put forward. From the ex-perimental results, it is shown that denti-strip inclusions can increase the bearing capability of retaining wall significantly and restrict the facing displacements effi-ciently, as compared with conventional horizontal reinforcement.

  12. Genotyping Rotavirus RNA from Archived Rotavirus-Positive Rapid Test Strips

    OpenAIRE

    Shulman, Lester M.; Silberstein, Ilana; Alfandari, Jacqueline; Mendelson, Ella

    2011-01-01

    Genotyping circulating rotaviruses before and after introduction of rotavirus vaccine is useful for evaluating vaccine-associated changes in genotype distribution. We determined frequency of rotavirus genotypes among 61 rotavirus-positive children hospitalized in Israel during the 2005–06 rotavirus season. Accurate molecular epidemiologic data were recovered from affinity-concentrated rotavirus immobilized in rotavirus-positive bands from air-dried, diagnostic rotavirus rapid test strips (dip...

  13. Phase constitution and microstructure of Ce—Fe—B strip-casting alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The strip-casting technique plays an important role in fabricating high coercivity sintered magnet. In this paper, we investigate the phase constitution and the microstructure of rapidly solidified Ce—Fe—B alloy fabricated by strip-casting. We find that the Ce2Fe14B phase coexists with Fe, Fe2B, and CeFe2 phases in the Ce—Fe—B strips. The eutectic structure consisting of Fe and Fe2B is encased in Ce2Fe14B grains, which is blocked by the CeFe2 grains at triple junctions, indicating that the microstructure of Ce—Fe—B strip is characteristic of a peritectic solidification. Thermal analysis indicates that the large supercooling of Ce2Fe14B results in the residual Fe and Fe2B. The microstructural optimization in Ce—Fe—B strips without Fe and Fe2B could be achieved by a heat treatment of 1000 °C. (condensed matter: electronic structure, electrical, magnetic, and optical properties)

  14. Ammonia removal from raw manure digestate by means of a turbulent mixing stripping process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limoli, Alice; Langone, Michela; Andreottola, Gianni

    2016-07-01

    In this study, ammonia stripping by means of a turbulent mixing process followed by pH neutralization was investigated as a simple and cost-effective ammonia removal technique to treat raw manure digestate. Batch tests conducted using CaO, NaOH and H2O2 to control pH and temperature and combinations thereof showed that sodium hydroxide was the most suitable chemical, as it is easy to handle, minimizes treatment time and costs, does not increase the solid content of the sludge and allows to easily control the stripping process. NaOH dosage mainly depended on buffering capacity rather than on total solid content. The analysis of the ammonia stripping process indicated that ammonia removal was strongly dependent on pH, and ammonia removal rate followed the pseudo-first-order kinetics. Total solid content slightly influenced TAN removal efficiency. When NaOH was applied to treat raw digestate at pH 10 and mean temperature of 23 ± 2 °C, TAN removal efficiency reached 88.7% after 24 h of turbulent mixing stripping, without reaching inhibitory salinity levels. Moreover, pH neutralization with sulfuric acid following the stripping process improved raw digestate dewaterability. PMID:27031295

  15. Dual Strip-Excited Dielectric Resonator Antenna with Parasitic Strips for Radiation Pattern Reconfigurability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Kamran Saleem

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel pattern reconfigurable antenna concept utilizing rectangular dielectric resonator antenna (DRA placed over dielectric substrate backed by a ground plane is presented. A dual strip excitation scheme is utilized and both excitation strips are connected together by means of a 50 Ω microstrip feed network placed over the substrate. The four vertical metallic parasitic strips are placed at corner of DRA each having a corresponding ground pad to provide a short/open circuit between the parasitic strip and antenna ground plane, through which a shift of 90° in antenna radiation pattern in elevation plane is achieved. A fractional bandwidth of approximately 40% at center frequency of 1.6 GHz is achieved. The DRA peak realized gain in whole frequency band of operation is found to be above 4 dB. The antenna configuration along with simulation and measured results are presented.

  16. Calculation and Analysis of Temperature Distribution in Hot Rolling Strip

    OpenAIRE

    Kaixiang Peng

    2013-01-01

    Modern steel grades require constant and reproducible production conditions both in the hot strip mill and in the cooling section to achieve constant material properties along the entire strip length and from strip to strip. Calculation of the temperature in final rolling process always utilizes factors such as the work piece's inner organizational structure, plastic deformation, and it's variations of properties and so on, also as well as the physical parameters such as gauge, shape, etc. In...

  17. Stress-induced martensitic transformation in nanometric NiTi shape memory alloy strips: An in situ TEM study of the thickness/size effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: •An in situ deformation technique in TEM was designed. •The martensitic transformation shows strong size effect. •The size effect is attributed to the effect of damaged surfaces. •The “size effect” is not an intrinsic but of extrinsic influences. -- Abstract: Ultrathin NiTi miniature strips of 40–83 nm in thickness were fabricated by means of focused ion beam milling from a polycrystalline NiTi shape memory alloy. The NiTi strips were subjected to tensile deformation inside a transmission electron microscope using a self-designed tension apparatus for in situ examination of the effect of thickness on the stress induced martensitic transformation behavior in the strips. The study revealed that the transformation was completely suppressed in a strip of 40 nm in thickness whereas it was possible in thicker strips. In these strips, the stress induced martensitic transformation was found to commence sequentially in thicker strips first and then in thinner strips at higher strain (stress) levels, demonstrating the size effect. This size effect is attributed to the effect of damaged surfaces, including a Ga+-impregnated amorphous layer on one side of the strip caused by sample fabrication using FIB and oxidation affected layers on both sides. This means that the observed “size effect” is not an intrinsic behavior of the martensitic transformation in NiTi but of extrinsic influences

  18. Technique for microswitch manufacture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitamura, T.; Kiyoyama, S.

    1983-01-01

    A five-step technique for microswitch manufacture is described: (1) A clad board is inlaid with a precious metal and the board is pressed. (2) One end of the fixed contact containing a precious metal inlay section is curved, and this edge of the precious metal inlay section becomes a fixed contact. (3) Inserts are formed in the unit body and terminal strips are placed through the top and bottom of the base and held. (4) The unit body is held by the base and the sequential contact strips are cut off. (5) Movable stripes are attached to the support of the terminal strips on the movable side and movable contacts are placed opposite the fixed contacts.

  19. Conveyorized Photoresist Stripping Replacement for Flex Circuit Fabrication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Megan Donahue

    2009-02-24

    A replacement conveyorized photoresist stripping system was characterized to replace the ASI photoresist stripping system. This system uses the qualified ADF-25c chemistry for the fabrication of flex circuits, while the ASI uses the qualified potassium hydroxide chemistry. The stripping process removes photoresist, which is used to protect the copper traces being formed during the etch process.

  20. Resolution Studies on Silicon Strip Sensors with fine Pitch

    CERN Document Server

    Haensel, S; Dolezal, Z; Dragicevic, M; Drasal, Z; Friedl, M; Hrubec, Josef; Irmler, C; Kiesenhofer, W; Krammer, M; Kvasnicka, P

    2009-01-01

    In June 2008 single-sided silicon strip sensors with 50~$\\mu$m readout pitch were tested in a pion beam at the SPS at CERN. The purpose of the test was to evaluate characteristic detector properties by varying the strip width and the number of intermediate strips. The experimental setup and first results for the spatial resolution are described.

  1. 21 CFR 880.2200 - Liquid crystal forehead temperature strip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Liquid crystal forehead temperature strip. 880... Personal Use Monitoring Devices § 880.2200 Liquid crystal forehead temperature strip. (a) Identification. A liquid crystal forehead temperature strip is a device applied to the forehead that is used to...

  2. A Fast Stripping Continuous Cyclic Voltammetry Method for Determination of Ultra Trace Amounts of Nalidixic Acid

    OpenAIRE

    Norouzi, Parviz; Ganjali, Mohammad Reza; Bagher LARIJANI; Karamdoust, Sanaz

    2008-01-01

    In recent years, modern electroanalytical techniques, especially cyclic voltammetry, are becoming increasingly important in the determination of pharmaceutical products. This study presents a novel method for the determination of nalidixic acid (NA) in flow-injection systems, called fast stripping continuous cyclic voltammetry. This technique is simple, precise, accurate and time saving compared to similar methods. Initially, the effects of several method parameters on sensitiv...

  3. Differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetric study of Cadmium, Lead, Copper and Mercury in natural water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The concern about environmental pollution has increased the need for accurate, precise and simple techniques for the analysis of trace constitiuents in natural water. In this regard differntial pullse anodic stripping voltametry (DPASV) has proved to be a remarkably sensitive technique for the determination of heavy metals at trace and ultratrace concentrations. The present report describes the application of DPASV for the determination of Cd, Pb, Cu and Hg in river water (Diyala and Tigris rivers)

  4. Modified Descemet's Stripping Automated Endothelial Keratoplasty for Congenital Hereditary Endothelial Dystrophy

    OpenAIRE

    Mahmoodreza Panahi-Bazaz; Farideh Sharifipour; Mohammad Malekahmadi

    2014-01-01

    A 19-year-old male with congenital hereditary endothelial dystrophy (CHED) presented with severe bilateral corneal clouding precluding any view of the intraocular structures. He underwent modified Descemet′s stripping automated endothelial keratoplasty (DSAEK) technique including a suture pull-through technique to prevent lens damage. Surgery resulted in progressive clearing of the cornea and decreased corneal thickness. Visual acuity increased from hand motions preoperatively to counting fin...

  5. Material Analysis and Production Process verification of Silicon Strip Detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: At large particle accelerators, for example the LHC at CERN, the collision of high energetic particles gives fundamental insights of the structure of matter. To understand such events it's essential to build sophisticated detector experiments, like the CMS experiment. The high number of short lived particles close to the interaction point makes very fast, radiation hard detectors with a good spatial resolution necessary. Silicon strip sensors are the natural choice to address all these issues. Semiconductor technology is a very high developed field of research, due to commercial interests of the chip industry. Thus lot of existing know-how can be used to fabricate and design sensors. Therefore the production of silicon strip sensors usually consists of two steps. First the design and definition of specification is carried out by the scientific community, while in a second step the production is performed by commercial vendors. As one design concept allows a variety of process related parameters - like the choice of material or the thickness of layer - it is evident to investigate the comparison of the different solutions. A detailed material analysis of samples coming from different producers was made for quality assurance and to reach a better understanding of the microscopic effects inside the sensors. To gain some insight in the different process steps we used electrical measurements, electron microscopy and x-ray methods. The talk will conclude with a comparison of different production techniques, including their advantages and disadvantages. (author)

  6. Flatness Control Based on Dynamic Effective Matrix for Cold Strip Mills

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Hongmin; HE Haitao; SHAN Xiuying; JIANG Guangbiao

    2009-01-01

    Steel strips are the main of steel products and flatness is an important quality indicator of steel strips. FLatness control is the key and highly difficult technique of strip mills. The boule-neck restricting the improvement of flatness control techniques is that the research on flatness theories and control mathematic models is not in accordance with the requirement of technique developments. To build a simple, rapid and accurate explicit formulation control model has become an urgent need for the development of flatness control technique. This paper puts forward the conception of dynamic effective matrix based on the effective matrix method for flatness control proposed by the authors under the consideration of the influence of the change of parameters in rolling processes on the effective matrix, and the concept is validated by industrial productions. Three methods of the effective matrix generation are induced: the calculation method based on the flatness prediction model; the calcuLation method based on the data excavation in rolling processes and the direct calculation method based on the network model. A fuzzy neural network effective matrix model is built based on the clusters, and then the network structure is optimized and the high-speed-calculation problem of the dynamic effective matrix is solved. The flatness control scheme for cold strip mills is proposed based on the dynamic effective matrix. On stand 5 of the 1 220 mm five-stand 4-high cold strip tandem miU, the industrial experiment with the control methods of tilting roll and bending roll is done by the control scheme of the static effective matrix and the dynamic effective matrix, respectively. The experiment result proves that the control effect of the dynamic effective matrix is much better than that of the static effective matrix. This paper proposes a new idea and method for the dynamic flatness control in the rolling processes of cold snip mills and develops the theory and model of the

  7. Investigations of the air flow velocity field structure above the wavy surface under severe wind conditions by particle image velosimetry technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troitskaya, Yuliya; Kandaurov, Alexander; Sergeev, Daniil; Ermakova, Olga

    2013-04-01

    Preliminary experiments devoted to measuring characteristics of the air flow above the waved water surface for the wide range of wind speeds were performed with the application of modified Particle Image Velosimetry (PIV) technique. Experiments were carried out at the Wind - wave stratified flume of IAP RAS (length 10 °, cross section of air channel 0.4×0.4 m) for four different axial wind speeds: 8.7, 13.5, 19 and 24 m/s, corresponding to the equivalent 10-m wind speeds 15, 20, 30 40 m/s correspondingly. Intensive wave breaking with forming foam crest and droplets generations was occurred for two last wind conditions. The modified PIV-method based on the use of continuous-wave (CW) laser illumination of the airflow seeded by tiny particles and with highspeed video. Spherical 20 μm polyamide particles with density 1.02 g/sm3 and inertial time 7•10-3 s were used for seeding airflow with special injecting device. Green (532 nm) CW laser with 4 Wt output power was used as a source for light sheet. High speed digital camera Videosprint was used for taking visualized air flow images with the frame rate 2000 Hz s and exposure time 10 ms Combination including iteration Canny method [1] for obtaining curvilinear surface from the images in the laser sheet view and contact measurements of surface elevation by wire wave gauge installed near the border of working area for the surface wave profile was used. Then velocity air flow field was retrieved by PIV images processing with adaptive cross-correlation method on the curvilinear grid following surface wave profile. The mean wind velocity profiles were retrieved by averaging over obtained ensembles of wind velocity field realizations and over a wave period even for the cases of intensive wave breaking and droplets generation. To verify the PIV method additional measurements of mean velocity profiles over were carried out by the contact method using the Pitot tube. In the area of overlap, wind velocity profiles measured by

  8. Microflora cultivable from minocycline strips placed in persisting periodontal pockets

    OpenAIRE

    Leung, WK; Jin, L; Yau, JYY; Q. Sun; Corbet, EF

    2005-01-01

    The microflora that develops on minocycline strips, used as an adjunct in non-surgical periodontal therapy was studied. Minocycline (1.4 mg in polycaprolactone vehicle) and control strips were applied into all residual pockets (PD ≥ 5 mm, ≥2 pockets/subject) of patients with chronic periodontitis 1 month after a course of non-surgical periodontal therapy. Strips were inserted and retained for 3 days, changed to new strips for 3 more days and then removed. Strips were recovered from 14 (eight ...

  9. Improving Settling Characteristics of Pure Oxygen Activated Sludge by Stripping of Carbon Dioxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kundral, Somshekhar; Mudragada, Ratnaji; Coro, Ernesto; Moncholi, Manny; Mora, Nelson; Laha, Shonali; Tansel, Berrin

    2015-06-01

    Increased microbial activity at high ambient temperatures can be problematic for secondary clarifiers and gravity concentrators due to carbon dioxide (CO2) production. Production of CO2 in gravity concentrators leads to septic conditions and poor solids separation. The CO2 production can also be corrosive for the concrete surfaces. Effectiveness of CO2 stripping to improve solids settling was investigated using the sludge volume index (SVI) as the indicator parameter. Carbon dioxide was stripped by aeration from the sludge samples. Results from the study show that aeration also increased the pH values in the mixed liquor while removing CO2 and improving sludge settling. After 10 minutes of aeration at a rate of 0.37 m3 air/m3 water/min, 90% CO2 stripping was achieved. Based on the 30 min settling tests, the SVI increased by 26±1% after CO2 stripping while the pH increased by 0.8±0.1 pH units. PMID:26459818

  10. Strip-till seeder for sugar beets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Schulze Lammers

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Strip-till save costs by reducing tillage on the area of sugar beet rows only. The seeding system is characterized by a deep loosening of soil with a tine combined with a share and by following tools generating fine-grained soil as seed bed. In cooperation with the Kverneland company group Soest/Germany a strip tiller combined with precision seeder was designed and tested in field experiments. Tilling and seeding was performed in one path on fields with straw and mustard mulch. Even the plant development was slower as compared to conventional sawn sugar beets the yield was on equivalent level. Further field experiments are planned to attest constant yield, cost and energy efficiency of the seeding system.

  11. The extent of the stop coannihilation strip

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellis, John [King' s College London, Theoretical Particle Physics and Cosmology Group, Department of Physics, London (United Kingdom); CERN, Theory Division, Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Olive, Keith A. [University of Minnesota, School of Physics and Astronomy, Minneapolis, MN (United States); University of Minnesota, William I. Fine Theoretical Physics Institute, School of Physics and Astronomy, Minneapolis, MN (United States); Zheng, Jiaming [University of Minnesota, School of Physics and Astronomy, Minneapolis, MN (United States)

    2014-07-15

    Many supersymmetric models such as the constrained minimal supersymmetric extension of the Standard Model (CMSSM) feature a strip in parameter space where the lightest neutralino χ is identified as the lightest supersymmetric particle, the lighter stop squark t{sub 1} is the next-to-lightest supersymmetric particle (NLSP), and the relic χ cold darkmatter density is brought into the range allowed by astrophysics and cosmology by coannihilation with the lighter stop squark t{sub 1} NLSP. We calculate the stop coannihilation strip in the CMSSM, incorporating Sommerfeld enhancement effects, and we explore the relevant phenomenological constraints and phenomenological signatures. In particular, we show that the t{sub 1} may weigh several TeV, and its lifetime may be in the nanosecond range, features that are more general than the specific CMSSM scenarios that we study in this paper. (orig.)

  12. Operation of a Batch Stripping Distillation Column

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    A stripping batch distillation column is preferred when the amount of the light component in the feed is small and the products are to be recovered at high purity. The operation modes of a batch stripping are believed to be the same as those of a rectifier. However, the control system of a stripper is different. In this paper, we explore three different control methods with Hysys (Hyprotech Ltd. 1997) for a batch stripper. The main difference is the control scheme for reboiler liquid level: (a) controlled by reflux flow; (b) controlled by reboiler heat duty; (c) controlled by bottom product flow. The main characteristics of operating a batch stripper with different control scheme are presented in this paper. Guidelines are provided for the startup of a batch stripper, the effects of somecontrol tuning parameters on the column performance are discussed.

  13. Stage- vs. Channel-strip Metaphor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gelineck, Steven; Korsgaard, Dannie Michael; Büchert, Morten

    2015-01-01

    This study compares the stage metaphor and the channel strip metaphor in terms of performance. Traditionally, music mixing consoles employ a channels strip control metaphor for adjusting parameters such as volume and panning of each track. An alternative control metaphor, the so-called stage...... metaphor lets the user adjust volume and panning by positioning tracks relative to a virtual listening position. In this study test participants are given the task to adjust volume and panning of one channel (in mixes consisting of three channels) in order to replicate a series of simple pre-rendered mixes....... They do this using (1) a small physical mixing controller and (2) using an iPad app, which implements a simple stage metaphor interface. We measure how accurately they are able to replicate mixes in terms of volume and panning and how fast they are at doing so. Results reveal that performance is...

  14. Rapid analytical technique to identify alpha emitting isotopes in water, air-filters, urine, and solid matrices using a Frisch Grid detector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarpitta, Salvatore C; Miltenberger, Robert P; Gaschott, Robert; Carte, Nina

    2003-04-01

    A 5-inch-diameter Frisch Grid gas-proportional ionization chamber was utilized at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) to rapidly characterize and quantify alpha-emitting actinides in unprocessed water, soil, air-filter, urine, and solid matrices. Instrument calibrations for the various matrices were performed by spiking representative samples with National Institute of Standards and Technology traceable isotopes of 230Th, 232U, 236Pu, and 243Am. Detection efficiencies were typically 15-20% for solid matrices (soil, concrete, filters, dry urine) and 45% for mass-less water samples. Instrument background over a 512-channel alpha-energy range of 3-8 MeV is very low at 0.01 cps. At optimum efficiency, minimum detectable levels of 0.56 mBq Kg(-1), 74 mBq L(-1) and 14.8 mBq filter(-1) were achievable for 40 x 10(-6) Kg soil, 1 x 10(-3) L tap water (or urine), and 4.5 cm diameter air-filter samples, respectively, each counted for 60 min. Data and spectra are presented showing the quality of results obtained using untreated samples obtained from the BNL Graphite Research Reactor Decommissioning Project. These samples contained Bq to MBq per gram amounts of (239,240)Pu, 241Am, and/or (234,235/238)U (as well as other beta/gamma emitters). Data and spectra are also presented for a very finely pulverized and homogeneous U.S. DOE/RESL soil reference standard (spiked with 239Pu, 241Am, and 233U) that was used to assess precision, accuracy, and reproducibility. Although this technique has its limitations, the advantages are (1) minimal sample preparation, (2) no separation chemistry required, (3) no chemical or hazardous waste generated, and (4) ability to immediately characterize and quantify alpha-emitting nuclides in most matrices. The benefits of this technique to the BNL/DOE Project Managers were rapid (1-2 d) turn-around times coupled with significant cost savings, as compared to commercial off-site analyses. PMID:12705448

  15. Antenna with distributed strip and integrated electronic components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodenbeck, Christopher T.; Payne, Jason A.; Ottesen, Cory W.

    2008-08-05

    An antenna comprises electrical conductors arranged to form a radiating element including a folded line configuration and a distributed strip configuration, where the radiating element can be in proximity to a ground conductor and/or arranged as a dipole. Embodiments of the antenna include conductor patterns formed on a printed wiring board, having a ground plane, spacedly adjacent to and coplanar with the radiating element. An antenna can comprise a distributed strip patterned on a printed wiring board, integrated with electronic components mounted on top of or below the distributed strip, and substantially within the extents of the distributed strip. Mounting of electronic components on top of or below the distributed strip has little effect on the performance of the antenna, and allows for realizing the combination of the antenna and integrated components in a compact form. An embodiment of the invention comprises an antenna including a distributed strip, integrated with a battery mounted on the distributed strip.

  16. Deuteron Stripping on Nuclei at Intermediate Energies

    CERN Document Server

    Kovalchuk, V I

    2016-01-01

    A general analytical expression for the double differential cross section of inclusive deuteron stripping reaction on nuclei at intermediate energies of incident particles was obtained in the diffraction approximation. Nucleon-nucleus phases were calculated in the framework of Glauber formalism and making use of the double-folding potential. The exact wave function of deuteron with correct asymptotics at short and long distances between nucleons was used. The calculated angular dependencies of cross sections are in good agreement with corresponding experimental data.

  17. Transparent Helium in Stripped Envelope Supernovae

    OpenAIRE

    Piro, Anthony L.; Morozova, Viktoriya S.

    2014-01-01

    Using simple arguments based on photometric light curves and velocity evolution, we propose that some stripped envelope supernovae (SNe) show signs that a significant fraction of their helium is effectively transparent. The main pieces of evidence are the relatively low velocities with little velocity evolution, as are expected deep inside an exploding star, along with temperatures that are too low to ionize helium. This means that the helium should not contribute to the shaping of the main S...

  18. Mastering Interproximal Stripping: With Innovations in Slenderization

    OpenAIRE

    Sharma, Narendra Shriram; Shrivastav, Sunita S; Hazarey, Pushpa V

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT Crowding and irregularity remain a consistent problem for children. Management of space problems continues to play an important role in a dental practice. It also represents an area of major interaction between the primary provider and the specialists. Proximal stripping is routinely carried out to avoid extraction in borderline cases where space discrepancy is less and in cases where there is a discrepancy between the mesio- distal width of maxillary and mandibular teeth to satisfy ...

  19. Process Simulation Analysis of HF Stripping

    OpenAIRE

    Thaer A. Abdulla

    2013-01-01

       HYSYS process simulator is used for the analysis of existing HF stripping column in LAB plant (Arab Detergent Company, Baiji-Iraq). Simulated column performance and profiles curves are constructed. The variables considered are the thermodynamic model option, bottom temperature, feed temperature, and column profiles for the temperature, vapor flow rate, liquid flow rate and composition. The five thermodynamic models options used (Margules, UNIQUAC, van laar, Antoine, and Zudkevitch-Joffee),...

  20. Fast dissolving strips: A novel approach for the delivery of verapamil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunte, S.; Tandale, P.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Fast dissolving drug delivery system offers a solution for those patients having difficulty in swallowing tablets/capsules etc. Verapamil is a calcium channel blocker used as an antianginal, antiarrhythmic, and antihypertensive agent with extensive first pass metabolism which results in less bioavailability. This work investigated the possibility of developing verapamil fast dissolving strips allowing fast, reproducible drug dissolution in the oral cavity; thus bypassing first pass metabolism. Materials and methods: The fast dissolving strips were prepared by solvent casting technique with the help of HPMC E6 and maltodextrin. The strips were evaluated for drug content uniformity, film thickness, folding endurance, in vitro disintegration time, in vitro dissolution studies, surface pH study, and palatability study. Results: Official criteria for evaluation parameters were fulfilled by all formulations. Disintegration time showed by formulations was found to be in range of 20.4–28.6 sec. Based on the evaluation parameters, the formulation containing 2% HPMC E6 and 3.5% maltodextrin showed optimum performance against other formulations. Conclusion: It was concluded that the fast dissolving strips of verapamil can be made by solvent casting technique with enhanced dissolution rate, taste masking, and hence better patient compliance and effective therapy PMID:21180465

  1. Fast dissolving strips: A novel approach for the delivery of verapamil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Kunte

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Fast dissolving drug delivery system offers a solution for those patients having difficulty in swallowing tablets/capsules etc. Verapamil is a calcium channel blocker used as an antianginal, antiarrhythmic, and antihypertensive agent with extensive first pass metabolism which results in less bioavailability. This work investigated the possibility of developing verapamil fast dissolving strips allowing fast, reproducible drug dissolution in the oral cavity; thus bypassing first pass metabolism. Materials and methods: The fast dissolving strips were prepared by solvent casting technique with the help of HPMC E6 and maltodextrin. The strips were evaluated for drug content uniformity, film thickness, folding endurance, in vitro disintegration time, in vitro dissolution studies, surface pH study, and palatability study. Results: Official criteria for evaluation parameters were fulfilled by all formulations. Disintegration time showed by formulations was found to be in range of 20.4-28.6 sec. Based on the evaluation parameters, the formulation containing 2% HPMC E6 and 3.5% maltodextrin showed optimum performance against other formulations. Conclusion: It was concluded that the fast dissolving strips of verapamil can be made by solvent casting technique with enhanced dissolution rate, taste masking, and hence better patient compliance and effective therapy

  2. Self-recovering superconducting strip detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using a 1.8 μm wide superconducting strip made of granular tungsten, we have observed self-recovering pulses when the detector is irradiated with a 55Fe 6 keV X-rays source. For low values of the bias current (i.e. Ibb=1.5K) the superconducting state is recovered in 10--50 ns giving voltage pulses across the strip of few hundred μv in amplitude. At high bias currents the detector did not self-recover and a constant counting efficiency has measured at different operating temperatures. There are good indications that this high counting rate can be extended to all the reduced bias currents where the detector is able to reset itself after every switch. The current threshold between collapsing and propagating switches and the time evolution of the voltage pulses can be described using a thermal propagation model developed in previous works. The ability of detectors to automatically recover the superconducting state in a short period of time after sensing a particle is encouraging in the feasibility study of fast superconducting microvertex detectors and also confirm the potential application of superconducting strips as high fast resolution X-rays detectors

  3. Multiple Electron Stripping of Heavy Ion Beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One approach being explored as a route to practical fusion energy uses heavy ion beams focused on an indirect drive target. Such beams will lose electrons while passing through background gas in the target chamber, and therefore it is necessary to assess the rate at which the charge state of the incident beam evolves on the way to the target. Accelerators designed primarily for nuclear physics or high energy physics experiments utilize ion sources that generate highly stripped ions in order to achieve high energies economically. As a result, accelerators capable of producing heavy ion beams of 10 to 40 Mev/amu with charge state 1 currently do not exist. Hence, the stripping cross-sections used to model the performance of heavy ion fusion driver beams have, up to now, been based upon theoretical calculations. We have investigated experimentally the stripping of 3.4 Mev/amu Kr 7+ and Xe +11 in N2; 10.2 MeV/amu Ar +6 in He, N2, Ar and Xe; 19 MeV/amu Ar +8 in He, N2, Ar and Xe; 30 MeV He 1 + in He, N2, Ar and Xe; and 38 MeV/amu N +6 in He, N2, Ar and Xe. The results of these measurements are compared with the theoretical calculations to assess their applicability over a wide range of parameters

  4. Self-recovering superconducting strip detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gabutti, A.; Gray, K.E.

    1991-09-01

    Using a 1.8 {mu}m wide superconducting strip made of granular tungsten, we have observed self-recovering pulses when the detector is irradiated with a {sup 55}Fe 6 keV X-rays source. For low values of the bias current (i.e. I{sub b}<30{mu}A at T{sub b}=1.5K) the superconducting state is recovered in 10--50 ns giving voltage pulses across the strip of few hundred {mu}v in amplitude. At high bias currents the detector did not self-recover and a constant counting efficiency has measured at different operating temperatures. There are good indications that this high counting rate can be extended to all the reduced bias currents where the detector is able to reset itself after every switch. The current threshold between collapsing and propagating switches and the time evolution of the voltage pulses can be described using a thermal propagation model developed in previous works. The ability of detectors to automatically recover the superconducting state in a short period of time after sensing a particle is encouraging in the feasibility study of fast superconducting microvertex detectors and also confirm the potential application of superconducting strips as high fast resolution X-rays detectors.

  5. High-Rate Capable Floating Strip Micromegas

    CERN Document Server

    Bortfeldt, Jonathan; Biebel, Otmar; Danger, Helge; Flierl, Bernhard; Hertenberger, Ralf; Lösel, Philipp; Moll, Samuel; Parodi, Katia; Rinaldi, Ilaria; Ruschke, Alexander; Zibell, André

    2015-01-01

    We report on the optimization of discharge insensitive floating strip Micromegas (MICRO-MEsh GASeous) detectors, fit for use in high-energy muon spectrometers. The suitability of these detectors for particle tracking is shown in high-background environments and at very high particle fluxes up to 60MHz/cm$^2$. Measurement and simulation of the microscopic discharge behavior have demonstrated the excellent discharge tolerance. A floating strip Micromegas with an active area of 48cm$\\times$50cm with 1920 copper anode strips exhibits in 120GeV pion beams a spatial resolution of 50$\\mu$m at detection efficiencies above 95%. Pulse height, spatial resolution and detection efficiency are homogeneous over the detector. Reconstruction of particle track inclination in a single detector plane is discussed, optimum angular resolutions below $5^\\circ$ are observed. Systematic deviations of this $\\mu$TPC-method are fully understood. The reconstruction capabilities for minimum ionizing muons are investigated in a 6.4cm$\\time...

  6. Study of air pollution in Buenos Aires city. Appendix 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The work performed since 1993 on the study of the elemental profile of Buenos Aires atmosphere is presented. Both aerosol direct sampling and biomonitors have been used and the samples have been analyzed mainly by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA). Due to problems with XRF, Anodic Stripping Voltammetry has been chosen for lead determination and Ion Chromatography for soluble anions. For aerosol direct sampling, analytical and sampling methods are described, as well as the sampling campaigns. Experiments have been performed for studying differences between day/night elemental concentrations along the week and a possible seasonal dependence. Some results of mass concentrations and others from INAA are presented. Sampling with the 'Gent sampler' began during August 1994 at an urban residential area of the city. The results of mass concentrations for the first 28 pairs of samples are shown together with some INAA results, as this is the only technique used for the analysis. Lichens and tree bark were the chosen biomonitors. Sampling and analytical methods by INAA are exposed, presenting some of the results that have been obtained. The participation in the aerosol analysis for the Ushuaia Global Atmospheric Watch Station is also commented. (author)

  7. Nonmetallic inclusions in SUS304 strip produced by twin-roll strip casting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fuxiang Huang; Jiongming Zhang; Xinhua Wang; Yuan Fang; Yan Yu

    2008-01-01

    The shape, type, content, and dimension of nonmetallic inclusions in SUS304 strip produced by twin-roll strip casting were studied using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results show that the inclusions are mainly spherical Al2O3 and com- plex oxides composed of MnO, Al2O3., and SiO2. The percentage of fine oxides smaller than 3 μm reaches up to 51.8%. The theoreti- cal calculations show that fine oxides have precipitated during solidification. Therefore, it is concluded that during twin-roll strip casting, because of high cooling rate, the size of inclusions precipitated during solidification decreases, and the amount increases.

  8. Techniques utilisées pour l'étude du zooplancton sur les sites des centrales nucléaires des cotes françaises de manche et atlantique

    OpenAIRE

    Le Fevre-lehoerff, Geneviève

    1985-01-01

    Les techniques et méthodologies décrites ici ne concernent que celles utilisées dans les études de sites de centrales nucléaires (Gravelines, Penly, Paluel, Englesqueville, Flamanville et Plogoff) choisies en fonction des caractéristiques de la zone étudiée et des conditions de travail.

  9. Study on the Feasibility of High-Temperature Immersion Ultrasonic Sensor with a Strip Waveguide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Exertion has been made to develop high-temperature (about 250∼650 .deg. C) immersion ultrasonic sensor for the visualization of objects, temperature measurement, dimensional check, or nondestructive testing of welds under liquid sodium. In this study, the feasibility of the ultrasonic sensor taking advantage of a strip waveguide was confirmed by water-experiment. The lowest order of antisymmetric Lamb wave was used in the frequency range with negligible dispersion. This plate wave was excited in the stainless steel strip waveguide of 1.0mm thickness and 13mm width by the comb-structure transducer of 2.3MHz frequency. Its attenuation coefficient was 1.2dB/m in air and 380dB/m in water. The signal to noise ratio of 25dB was obtained from a planar reflector 270mm away from the beam aperture of 13mmx39mm size

  10. Study on the feasibility of high-tempera immersion ultrasonic sensor with a strip waveguide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Exertion has been made to develop high-temperature (about 250 - 650 degrees C) immersion ultrasonic sensor for the visualization of objects, temperature measurement, dimensional check, or nondestructive testing of welds under liquid sodium. In this study, the feasibility of the ultrasonic sensor taking advantage of a strip waveguide was confirmed by water-experiment. The lowest order of antisymmetric Lamb wave was used in the frequency range with negligible dispersion. This plate wave was excited in the stainless steel strip waveguide of 1.0 mm thickness and 13 mm width by the comb-structure transducer of 2.3 MHz frequency. Its attenuation coefficient was 1.2 dB/m in air and 3.8 dB/cm in water. The signal to noise ratio of 25 dB was obtained from a planar reflector 270 mm away from the beam aperture of 13 mm x 39 mm size.

  11. Carbon stripping - a critical process step in chemical looping combustion of solid fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kramp, M.; Thon, A.; Hartge, E.U.; Heinrich, S.; Werther, J. [Hamburg University of Technology, Institute of Solids Process Engineering and Particle Technology, Hamburg (Germany)

    2012-03-15

    In chemical looping combustion of solid fuels the well-mixed solids flow from the fuel reactor consisting of char, ash, and oxygen carrier particles cannot be completely separated into its constituents before it enters the air reactor. The slip of carbon will thus lead to char oxidation in the wrong reactor. Process simulation was applied to investigate the carbon stripping process in chemical looping combustion of solid fuels. Depending on the fuel choice, without carbon stripping CO{sub 2} capture rates below 50 % are calculated for 4 min of solids residence time in the fuel reactor. In a process with carbon stripper, however, CO{sub 2} capture rates exceeding 90 % can be achieved for both fuels investigated in this work. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  12. Setting of technical rules by the Clean Air Commission (KRdL) of VDI and DIN in the sector of measuring techniques - a glance backward and outlook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The precursors of the Clean Air Commission were the VDI expert groups on particulates (1928-1972) and clean air (1957-1990) as well as the DIN norms commitee (NLuft - 1971-1990), whose activities are briefly described. But since 1990, it is the Clean Air Commission (''Kommission Reinhaltung der Luft -KRdL'') that takes care of the harmonization of technical rules, also with a view to the realization of the internal European market. (DG)

  13. Development of a cathode strip chamber for minimum ionizing particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A cathode strip chamber (CSC) capable of measuring position information for minimum ionizing particles (MIPS) has been developed. The chamber operates in the proportional or limited proportional region, where the avalanche on the anode wire is localised to a small region around the anode wire. The position of the avalanche can be obtained by the pulse heights induced on the cathode strips which run perpendicular to direction of the anode wire. The pulse height induced on the cathode strips is proportional directly to the strip width and inversely to the distance between the strip centre to the avalanche location. Thus by measuring the pulse heights on at least three cathode strips for every event, one can reconstruct the centroid that would give the location of the avalanche on the anode

  14. Tritium stripping by a catalytic exchange stripper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A catalytic exchange process for stripping elemental tritium from gas streams has been demonstrated. The process uses a catalyzed isotopic exchange reaction between tritium in the gas phase and protium or deuterium in the solid phase on alumina. The reaction is catalyzed by platinum deposited on the alumina. The process has been tested with both tritium and deuterium. Decontamination factors (ration of inlet and outlet tritium concentrations) as high as 1000 have been achieved, depending on inlet concentration. The test results and some demonstrated applications are presented

  15. Power and control in gay strip clubs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeMarco, Joseph R G

    2007-01-01

    The gay strip club is a place in which more than displays of male beauty take place. The mix of customers, performers, liquor, and nudity results in fascinating dynamics. Of interest in this article are the power relationships and issues of control played out both among and between strippers and customers. Based on extensive participant observation conducted in eight cities and numerous bars/clubs and including more than 150 in-depth interviews, this article concerns just one aspect of the world of male strippers who perform for men. PMID:18019071

  16. Collision physics with highly stripped slow ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A review about recent studies with highly stripped heavy ions is given. Its scope is limited to mainly inner shell processes and slow collisions compared to the Bohr velocity of electrons in these shells. The processes discussed are: population of excited states by electron capture in asymmetric collision systems; electron capture and excitation in symmetric collisions with an emphasis on the impact parameter dependence of K- to L-shell and K- to K-shell vacancy transfer; the interference structure in the quasimolecular X-rays from slow hydrogen-like ion-atom collisions which is used for direct spectroscopy of quasimolecular energies. (Auth.)

  17. Stripping potentiometric analysis: application to determination of metallic cations in presence of uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potentiometric stripping analysis consists of a potentiostatic deposition step of trace elements and a subsequent stripping step. The trace metals are simultaneously reduced at a rotating electrode, the working electrode being a mercury film coated glassy carbon electrode; the amalgamated metals are then re-oxidized with an oxidizing agent. The analytical signal of this method is the time required for complete re-oxidation. Influence of different parameters on the analytical signal is studied by using mercury (II) ions as oxidizing agent in 5.10-4 M H2SO4 aqueous solution. Here, we point out the main characteristics of the potentiometric stripping analysis under the same experimental conditions. The reproductibility ranges are comprised between 0.5% to 1.5% and the detection limit for cadmium (II) is estimated to be 2.10-10 M with a plating time of 300 seconds. Small quantities, as 10-7 M Cd2+, Pb2+ and Zn2+ are simultaneously determined in presence of U (VI) ions (UO22+) with an accuracy of 0.5% for Cd2+ and Zn2+, and 4.5% for Pb2+. Compared to well-known electrochemical techniques, potentiometric stripping analysis appears to be a performing method for trace analysis in a wide range of media: this method permits the analysis of elements in presence of species more concentrated and being able to oxidize the trace elements

  18. Modulation instabilities and group velocity dispersion in partially stripped magnetoplasma channels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The nonlinear theory of propagation of an intense laser beam in a partially stripped magnetized plasma channel is investigated. An external magnetic field is considered, along the direction of propagation of the laser pulse. A three-dimensional envelope equation for the evolution of the laser field is derived. Using the source dependent expansion technique, an expression for the laser spot evolution is derived. The effect of the external magnetic field on the transverse oscillation of the laser spot is analyzed analytically and numerically. A formulation for the amplitude modulation instability is derived and the results are compared against the fully stripped plasma case. The excitation condition and the growth rate of the modulation instability are discussed. It is observed that increased positive chirp in the laser frequency enhances the modulation instability significantly. The group velocity dispersion is also calculated and the results are compared with those for the case of a fully stripped magnetized plasma channel. The presence of an external magnetic field and that of bound electrons have a significant effect on the dephasing length, as compared to that for a fully stripped plasma. The separability of the plasma frequency and laser frequency (ωp and ω0 respectively) is considered, such that it satisfies the criterion ωp/ω0 < 1. (paper)

  19. Equine tracheal epithelial membrane strips - An alternate method for examining epithelial cell arachidonic acid metabolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arachidonic acid metabolism by tracheal epithelium can be studied using enzymatically dispersed cell suspensions or cell cultures. Both techniques require considerable tissue disruption and manipulation and may not accurately represent in vivo activity. The authors have developed an alternate method for obtaining strips of equine tracheal epithelium without enzymatic digestion. In the horse, a prominent elastic lamina supports the tracheal epithelium. By physical splitting this lamina, they obtained strips (≤12 x 1.5 cm) of pseudostratified columnar epithelium attached to a layer of elastic tissue 30-100 μm thick. Epithelial strips (1.2 x 0.5 cm) were attached to plexiglass rods and incubated with [3H]arachidonic acid in M199 medium (0.5 μCi/ml) for 24 hours at 37C. The strips incorporated 36±4% (mean ± SEM) of the total radioactivity and released 8.0±1.2% of incorporated radioactivity when stimulated by 5.0 μM calcium ionophore A23187. The extracted supernatant was processed using HPLC, resulting in peaks of radioactivity that co-eluted with authentic PGE2, PGF2α, and 12-HETE standards. The greatest activity corresponded to the PGE2 and PGF2α standards, which is a similar pattern to that reported for cultured human tracheal epithelium

  20. Complications and management in Descemet′s stripping endothelial keratoplasty: Analysis of consecutive 430 cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samar K Basak

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To analyze the complications and their managements in Descemet′s stripping endothelial keratoplasty (DSEK in consecutive 430 cases by single surgeon in a tertiary eye hospital. Materials and Methods: 430 eyes of 366 patients with endothelial dysfunctions scheduled for DSEK, were analyzed retrospectively. In all cases donor dissection was performed manually, and ′Taco′ insertion and unfolding technique was used. Intra-operative and postoperative complications with their managements and outcomes were reviewed retrospectively. Periodic endothelial cell density was analyzed for each patient till the last visit. Follow-up period was between 3 to 60 months (mean 18.7 months. Results: 13 (3.0% eyes had operative complications during donor dissection and 16 (3.7% had during recipient procedure. In 7 (1.6% eyes, donor lenticule was replaced with a new one during the surgery. In early postoperative period, 21 (4.9% eyes had donor dislocation and 12 (2.8% eyes had air-induced pupillary block; and they were managed immediately. 2 cases had primary graft failure and in 1 case had postoperative bacterial endophthalmitis requiring evisceration. In late postoperative period, 48 (11.3% eyes had secondary glaucoma and 14 (3.3% eyes had late secondary graft failure. Endothelial rejection occurred in 5 (1.2% cases. Mean endothelial cell loss was 19.7% after 3 months and 54.2% after 5 years. Total graft failure in this series was 31 (7.2% and in 17 cases re-DSEK was performed successfully. Conclusions: Both operative and postoperative complications do occur in DSEK. Most of these complications can be managed by medical or appropriate surgical means. Some of the complications can be avoided and reduced with experience.

  1. Performance of the CAMEX64 silicon strip readout chip

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The CAMEX64 is a 64 channel full custom CMOS chip designed specifically for the readout of silicon strip detectors. CAMEX which stands for CMOS Multichannel Analog MultiplEXer for Silicon Strip Detectors was designed by members of the Franhofer Institute for Microelectronic Circuits and Systems and the Max Planck Institute for Physics and Astrophysics. Each CAMEX channel has a switched capacitor charge sensitive amplifier with 4 sampling capacitors and a multiplexing scheme for reading out each of the channels on an analog bus. The device uses multiple sampling capacitors to filter and reduce input noise. Filtering is controlled through sampling techniques using external clocks. The device operates in a double correlated sampling mode and therefore cannot separate detector leakage current from a charge input. Normal operation of this device is similar to all other silicon readout chips designed and built thus far in that there is a data acquisition cycle during which charge is simultaneously accepted on all channels for a short period of time from a detector array, followed by a readout cycle where that charge or hit information is read out. This device works especially well for colliding beam experiments where the time of charge arrival is accurately known. However it can be used in fixed target or asynchronous mode where the time of charge arrival is not well known. In the asynchronous mode it appears that gain is somewhat dependent on the time interval required to decide whether or not to accept charge input information and thus the maximum signal to noise performance found with the synchronous mode may not be achieved in the asynchronous mode. 18 figs., 5 tabs

  2. The DEEP Groth Strip Survey VI. Spectroscopic, Variability, and X-ray Detection of AGN

    OpenAIRE

    Sarajedini, Vicki L.; Koo, David C.; Phillips, Andrew C.; Kobulnicky, Henry. A.; Gebhardt, Karl; Willmer, Christopher N. A.; Nicole P. Vogt(Department of Astronomy, MSC 4500, New Mexico State University, P.O. Box 30001, Las Cruces, NM 88003, USA); Laird, Elise; Im, Myungshin; Iverson, Sarah; Mattos, Wanessa

    2006-01-01

    We identify active galactic nuclei (AGN) in the Groth-Westphal Survey Strip (GSS) using the independent and complementary selection techniques of optical spectroscopy and photometric variability. We discuss the X-ray properties of these AGN using Chandra/XMM data for this region. From a sample of 576 galaxies with high quality spectra we identify 31 galaxies with AGN signatures. Seven of these have broad emission lines (Type 1 AGNs). We also identify 26 galaxies displaying nuclear variability...

  3. Bond and flexural behavior of concrete elements strengthened with NSM CFRP laminate strips under fatigue loading

    OpenAIRE

    Fernandes, Pedro Miguel Gomes; Silva, Patrícia; Sena-Cruz, José

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the results of an experimental research on bond and flexural behavior of concrete elements strengthened with carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) laminate strips under fatigue loading conditions, applied according to the near-surface mounted (NSM) strengthening technique. Long-term performance of the NSM system could be compromised by fatigue loading, which may result in deterioration and weakening of individual components (steel, FRP, concrete), or loss of b...

  4. Strip type radiation detector and method of making same

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An improved strip detector and a method for making such a detector are described. A high resistivity N conduction semiconductor body has electrode strips formed thereon by diffusion. The strips are formed so as to be covered by an oxide layer at the surface point of the PN junction and in which the opposite side of the semiconductor body then has a substantial amount of material etched away to form a thin semiconductor upon which strip electrodes which are perpendicular to the electrodes on the first side are then placed

  5. Strip type radiation detector and method of making same

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An improved strip detector and a method for making such a detector in which a high resistivity N conduction semiconductor body has electrode strips formed thereon by diffusion is described. The strips are formed so as to be covered by an oxide layer at the surface point of the PN junction and in which the opposite side of the semiconductor body then has a substantial amount of material etched away to form a thin semiconductor upon which strip electrodes which are perpendicular to the electrodes on the first side are then placed

  6. Three-Dimensional Model for Strip Hot Rolling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Guo-min; XIAO Hong; WANG Chun-hua

    2006-01-01

    A three-dimensional model for strip hot rolling was developed, in which the plastic deformation of strip, the thermal crown of rolls, roll deflection and flattening were calculated by rigid-plastic finite element method, finite difference method, influential function method and elastic finite element method respectively. The roll wear was taken into consideration. The model can provide detailed information such as rolling pressure distribution, contact pressure distribution between backup rolls and work rolls, deflection and flattening of work rolls, lateral distribution of strip thickness, and lateral distribution of front and back tensions. The finish rolling on a 1 450 mm hot strip mill was simulated.

  7. Apparatus for measuring profile thickness of strip material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apparatus for measuring the thickness profile of steel strip comprises a radiation source reciprocally movable in a stepwise fashion (by a belt) across the strip width on one side thereof and a single elongated detector on the other side of the strip aligned with the scanning source. This detector may be a fluorescent scintillator detector or an ionisation chamber. Means are provided for sensing the degree of excitation in the detector in synchronism with the scanning source whereby to provide an output representative of the thickness profile of the strip. (author)

  8. Stripped elliptical galaxies as probes of ICM physics: I. Tails, wakes, and flow patterns in and around stripped ellipticals

    CERN Document Server

    Roediger, E; Nulsen, P E J; Forman, W R; Machacek, M; Randall, S; Jones, C; Churazov, E; Kokotanekova, R

    2014-01-01

    (abridged) Elliptical cluster galaxies are successively stripped of their gaseous atmospheres due to their motion through the ICM. The stripped galactic gas forms a 'tail' in the galaxy's wake. Deep X-ray observations reveal the fine-structure of the gas tail and of the interface between galactic gas and ICM. This fine-structure depends on dynamic conditions (galaxy potential, initial gas contents, orbit in the host cluster), stripping stage (early infall, pre-/post-pericenter passage), and on the still ill-constrained ICM plasma properties (thermal conductivity, viscosity, magnetic field structure). In a series of papers, we aim at disentangling dynamic and plasma effects in order to use observed stripped ellipticals as probes of the ICM plasma properties. This first paper determines flow phases and flow patterns of successive gas stripping by means of hydrodynamical simulations. During quasi-steady stripping, the flow of ICM around the remnant atmosphere is similar to the flow around solid bodies, including...

  9. Monitoring the CMS strip tracker readout system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The CMS Silicon Strip Tracker at the LHC comprises a sensitive area of approximately 200 m2 and 10 million readout channels. Its data acquisition system is based around a custom analogue front-end chip. Both the control and the readout of the front-end electronics are performed by off-detector VME boards in the counting room, which digitise the raw event data and perform zero-suppression and formatting. The data acquisition system uses the CMS online software framework to configure, control and monitor the hardware components and steer the data acquisition. The first data analysis is performed online within the official CMS reconstruction framework, which provides many services, such as distributed analysis, access to geometry and conditions data, and a Data Quality Monitoring tool based on the online physics reconstruction. The data acquisition monitoring of the Strip Tracker uses both the data acquisition and the reconstruction software frameworks in order to provide real-time feedback to shifters on the operational state of the detector, archiving for later analysis and possibly trigger automatic recovery actions in case of errors. Here we review the proposed architecture of the monitoring system and we describe its software components, which are already in place, the various monitoring streams available, and our experiences of operating and monitoring a large-scale system

  10. Liquid crystal elastomer strips as soft crawlers

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeSimone, Antonio; Gidoni, Paolo; Noselli, Giovanni

    2015-11-01

    In this paper, we speculate on a possible application of Liquid Crystal Elastomers to the field of soft robotics. In particular, we study a concept for limbless locomotion that is amenable to miniaturisation. For this purpose, we formulate and solve the evolution equations for a strip of nematic elastomer, subject to directional frictional interactions with a flat solid substrate, and cyclically actuated by a spatially uniform, time-periodic stimulus (e.g., temperature change). The presence of frictional forces that are sensitive to the direction of sliding transforms reciprocal, 'breathing-like' deformations into directed forward motion. We derive formulas quantifying this motion in the case of distributed friction, by solving a differential inclusion for the displacement field. The simpler case of concentrated frictional interactions at the two ends of the strip is also solved, in order to provide a benchmark to compare the continuously distributed case with a finite-dimensional benchmark. We also provide explicit formulas for the axial force along the crawler body.

  11. TRANSPARENT HELIUM IN STRIPPED ENVELOPE SUPERNOVAE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using simple arguments based on photometric light curves and velocity evolution, we propose that some stripped envelope supernovae (SNe) show signs that a significant fraction of their helium is effectively transparent. The main pieces of evidence are the relatively low velocities with little velocity evolution, as are expected deep inside an exploding star, along with temperatures that are too low to ionize helium. This means that the helium should not contribute to the shaping of the main SN light curve, and thus the total helium mass may be difficult to measure from simple light curve modeling. Conversely, such modeling may be more useful for constraining the mass of the carbon/oxygen core of the SN progenitor. Other stripped envelope SNe show higher velocities and larger velocity gradients, which require an additional opacity source (perhaps the mixing of heavier elements or radioactive nickel) to prevent the helium from being transparent. We discuss ways in which similar analysis can provide insights into the differences and similarities between SNe Ib and Ic, which will lead to a better understanding of their respective formation mechanisms

  12. Transparent Helium in Stripped Envelope Supernovae

    CERN Document Server

    Piro, Anthony L

    2014-01-01

    The light curves and velocity evolution of core-collapse supernovae (SNe) provide important clues to help constrain their progenitors. This may be especially important for stripped envelope SNe (Type Ib, Ic, and IIb), which have been elusive in providing direct connections with the massive stars that give rise to these explosions. Using simple arguments based on photometric light curves, we propose that many of these stripped envelope SNe show evidence that a significant fraction their helium is effectively transparent during the majority of their light curve evolution. This means that the helium should not contribute to the shaping of the main SN light curve and thus the total helium mass may be difficult to constrain from simple light curve modeling. Conversely, such modeling may be more useful for constraining the mass of the carbon/oxygen core of the SN progenitor. We discuss ways in which similar analysis can provide insights into the differences and similarities between SNe Ib and Ic, which will help le...

  13. Therapeutic surfactant-stripped frozen micelles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yumiao; Song, Wentao; Geng, Jumin; Chitgupi, Upendra; Unsal, Hande; Federizon, Jasmin; Rzayev, Javid; Sukumaran, Dinesh K.; Alexandridis, Paschalis; Lovell, Jonathan F.

    2016-05-01

    Injectable hydrophobic drugs are typically dissolved in surfactants and non-aqueous solvents which can induce negative side-effects. Alternatives like `top-down' fine milling of excipient-free injectable drug suspensions are not yet clinically viable and `bottom-up' self-assembled delivery systems usually substitute one solubilizing excipient for another, bringing new issues to consider. Here, we show that Pluronic (Poloxamer) block copolymers are amenable to low-temperature processing to strip away all free and loosely bound surfactant, leaving behind concentrated, kinetically frozen drug micelles containing minimal solubilizing excipient. This approach was validated for phylloquinone, cyclosporine, testosterone undecanoate, cabazitaxel and seven other bioactive molecules, achieving sizes between 45 and 160 nm and drug to solubilizer molar ratios 2-3 orders of magnitude higher than current formulations. Hypertonic saline or co-loaded cargo was found to prevent aggregation in some cases. Use of surfactant-stripped micelles avoided potential risks associated with other injectable formulations. Mechanistic insights are elucidated and therapeutic dose responses are demonstrated.

  14. Multi-strip MRPCs for FOPI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the last years FOPI has developed a new ToF system as an upgrade of the existing detector based on Multi-strip Multi-gap Resistive Plate Chambers (MMRPCs). The intention is to increase the charged Kaon identification up to a laboratory momentum of 1GeV/c and to enhance the azimuthal detector granularity. The new ToF barrel has an active area of 5m2 with 2400 individual strips (900x1.6mm2) [A. Schuettauf, et al., Nucl. Phys. B 158 (2006) 52] which are read out on both sides by a custom designed electronics [M. Ciobanu, et al., IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. NS-54 (4) (2007) 1201; K. Koch, et al., IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. NS-52(3) (2005) 745]. To reach the envisaged goal a time resolution of 100 ps is needed, at a flight path of 1-1.3 m. Due to the rare production of the K- at SIS energies the efficiency of the MMRPCs has to be above 95%. We report on measurements with the detectors and electronics from the mass production line. For this purpose we used a proton beam at 2.0 and 1.25 GeV, at rates between 0.1 and 5 kHz/cm2 to determine the timing, efficiency and rate capability of the MMRPCs.

  15. Rare wildcat drilling in remote Arizona strip

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports on a recent application by United Gas Search Inc., Tulsa, for a permit to drill in extreme northwestern Arizona that has sparked interest in that area, largely unknown in the oil business. The area is known locally as the Arizona strip. It lies north and northwest of the Grand Canyon. There is not even a road to the strip from the rest of Arizona. Access is by road from Utah or Nevada. Just what is there to cause a company to go to the trouble of drilling an 11,000 ft well so far from production and from sources of equipment and supply? With oil and gas prices as low as they are, do potential reserves economically justify stepping out so far? At a recent U.S. Bureau of Land Management lease sale, one that saw the first competitive bidding on federal land in Arizona United Gas Search bid successfully on three tracts totaling 5,122.32 acres. The company paid $7/acre for the largest tract of 2,082 acres and an average of $3.26/acre for the remaining 3,040 acres

  16. Air quality status in Kinshasa as determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis, atomic absorption spectrometry and ion-exchange chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three independent analytical techniques - instrumental neutron activation analysis. Atomic absorption spectrometry and ion-exchange chromatography - were applied to airborne particulate collected on filters and to atmospheric acid gases collected in carbonate buffer solutions. 20 trace elements and 7 acid gases and acid aerosols were determined. Results were compared with those observed elsewhere and showed that air pollution is low in Kinshasa and does not give rise to anxieties. The main known sources of pollutants are: vehicle exhaust and aeolian process on stripped soils. (author). 13 refs, 2 figs, 6 tabs

  17. Detection limits of the strip test and PCR for genetically modified corn in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nascimento, V E; Von Pinho, É V R; Von Pinho, R G; do Nascimento, A D

    2012-01-01

    Brazilian legislation establishes a labeling limit for products that contain more than 1% material from genetically modified organisms (GMOs). We assessed the sensitivity of the lateral flow strip test in detection of the GMO corn varieties Bt11 and MON810 and the specificity and sensitivity of PCR techniques for their detection. For the strip test, the GMO seeds were mixed with conventional seeds at levels of 0.2, 0.4 and 0.8% for Bt11, and 0.4, 0.8 and 1.6% for MON810. Three different methodologies were assessed and whole seeds, their endosperm and embryonic axis were used. For the PCR technique, the GMO seeds of each of the two varieties were mixed with conventional seeds at levels of 20, 10, 5, 2, 1, and 0.5%. The seeds were ground and the DNA extracted. For detection of the GMO material, specific primers were used for MON810 and Bt11 and maize zein as an endogenous control. The sensitivity of the strip test varied for both maize varieties and methodologies. The test was positive for Bt11 only at 0.8%, in contrast with the detection limit of 0.4% indicated by the manufacturer. In the multiplex PCR, the primers proved to be specific for the different varieties. These varieties were detected in samples with one GMO seed in 100. Thus, this technique proved to be efficient in detecting contaminations equal to or greater than 1%. PMID:22843069

  18. Stream Surface Strip Element Method and Simulation of Three-Dimensional Deformation of Continuous Hot Rolled Strip

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Hong-min; WANG Ying-rui

    2004-01-01

    A new method, the stream surface strip element method, for simulating the three-dimensional deformation of plate and strip rolling process was proposed. The rolling deformation zone was divided into a number of stream surface (curved surface) strip elements along metal flow traces, and the stream surface strip elements were mapped into the corresponding plane strip elements for analysis and computation. The longitudinal distributions of the lateral displacement and the altitudinal displacement of metal were respectively constructed to be a quartic curve and a quadratic curve, of which the lateral distributions were expressed as the third-power spline function, and the altitudinal distributions were fitted in the quadratic curve. From the flow theory of plastic mechanics, the mathematical models of the three-dimensional deformations and stresses of the deformation zone were constructed. Compared with the streamline strip element method proposed by the first author of this paper, the stream surface strip element method takes into account the uneven distributions of stresses and deformations along altitudinal direction, and realizes the precise three-dimensional analysis and computation. The simulation example of continuous hot rolled strip indicates that the method and the model accord with facts and provide a new reliable engineering-computation method for the three-dimensional mechanics simulation of plate and strip rolling process.

  19. Evaluation of silicon micro strip detectors with large read-out pitch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the development of the silicon micro-strip detector with the pitch of the readout strips as large as 250 μm on the ohmic side, we made samples with different structures. Charge collection was evaluated to optimize the width of implant strips, aluminum read-out strips, and/or the read-out scheme among strips. (orig.)

  20. Plastic media blasting activities at Hill Air Force Base

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, J. D.

    1993-03-01

    Hill Air Force Base in Utah developed plastic media blasting (PMB) paint removal process for removing paint from Air Force aircraft. The development of the process involved extensive testing of various abrasives and subsequent parameters to end up with an approved production process. Hill AFB has been using PMB in a production mode since 1985, and completely discontinued chemical stripping of airframes in 1989. We have recently installed and began operating a fully automated PMB facility that utilizes two nine-axis robots to strip an aircraft. This system has enabled us to further reduce the manhours required to strip an aircraft, and also allowed us to remove the employee from the blasting atmosphere into a control room. We have, and will continue to realize, significant environmental and economic savings by using PMB. Hill is also actively involved with the development of future paint stripping technologies.

  1. DETERMINATION OF BACKGROUND LEVELS OF LEAD AND CADMIUM IN RAW AGRICULTURAL CROPS BY USING DIFFERENTIAL PULSE ANODIC STRIPPING VOLTAMMETRY

    Science.gov (United States)

    A method is described for the simultaneous determination of ultratrace levels of lead and cadmium in selected agricultural crop samples by differential pulse anodic stripping voltametry. Samples are dry ashed at high temperature with H2SO4 as an ashing aid. Techniques are describ...

  2. Experimental and analytical behavior of strengthened reinforced concrete columns with steel angles and strips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalifa, Essam S.; Al-Tersawy, Sherif H.

    2014-06-01

    The need of strengthening reinforced concrete columns, due to loss of strength and/or stiffness, is an essential requirement due to variation of the loads and environmental conditions applied on these columns. Steel jackets around the reinforced concrete (RC) columns are usually made by means of steel plates covering all over the column surface area. For the value of engineering purposes, another technique was developed using steel angles at the corners of the RC columns connected with discrete steel strips. In this paper, an experimental program is designed to evaluate the improvement in load-carrying capacity, stiffness and ductility of strengthened RC columns, concomitant with steel angles and strips. Despite of prevailing a substantially increased loading capacity and strength a pronounced enhancement in ductility and stiffness has been reported. A need for experimental test results with low value of concrete strength to mimic the local old-age structures condition that required strengthening in local countries. Seven columns specimens are tested to evaluate the strength improvement provided by steel strengthening of columns. The method of strengthened steel angles with strips is compared with another strengthening technique. This technique includes connected and unconnected steel-casing specimens. The observed experimental results describe load-shortening curves, horizontal strains in stirrups and steel strips, as well as description of failure mode. The extra-confinement pressure, due to existence of steel cage, of the strengthened RC column can be also observed from experimental results. The code provisions that predict the load-carrying capacity of the strengthened RC composite column has a discrepancy in the results. For this reason, an analytical model is developed in this paper to compare the code limit with experimental observed results. The proposed model accounts for the composite action for concrete confinement and enhancement of the local buckling

  3. Influence able and Avoidable Risk Factors for Systemic Air Embolism due to Percutaneous CT-Guided Lung Biopsy: Patient Positioning and Coaxial Biopsy Technique-Case Report, Systematic Literature Review, and a Technical Note

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Following the first case of a systemic air embolism due to percutaneous CT-guided lung biopsy in our clinic we analysed the literature regarding this matter in view of influence able or avoidable risk factors. A systematic review of literature reporting cases of systemic air embolism due to CT-guided lung biopsy was performed to find out whether prone positioning might be a risk factor regarding this issue. In addition, a technical note concerning coaxial biopsy practice is presented. Prone position seems to have relevance for the development and/or clinical manifestation of air embolism due to CT-guided lung biopsy and should be considered a risk factor, at least as far as lesions in the lower parts of the lung are concerned. Biopsies of small or cavitary lesions in coaxial technique should be performed using a hemo static valve.

  4. Spatial resolution of plastic streamer tubes with wide strip readout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The achievable spatial resolution of a plastic streamer tube with pickup strips perpendicular to the anode wire have been studied. This value is comparable with the best results (350-450 μm) obtained with usual -1 cm wide strips. 17 refs.; 8 figs.; 1 tabs

  5. Status Quo of China’s Aluminum Sheet & Strip Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    <正>Aluminum sheet & strip products are one of the major product varieties in the aluminum processing industry, they also provide indis-pensable basic materials for the development of national economy. In recent years, driven by rapid economic growth, China’s investment in aluminum sheet & strip industry continued to

  6. Magnetic domain-wall dynamics in wide permalloy strips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estévez, Virginia; Laurson, Lasse

    2016-02-01

    Domain walls in soft permalloy strips may exhibit various equilibrium micromagnetic structures depending on the width and thickness of the strip, ranging from the well-known transverse and vortex walls in narrow and thin strips to double and triple vortex walls recently reported in wider strips [V. Estévez and L. Laurson, Phys. Rev. B 91, 054407 (2015), 10.1103/PhysRevB.91.054407]. Here, we analyze the field driven dynamics of such domain walls in permalloy strips of widths from 240 nm up to 6 μ m , using the known equilibrium domain wall structures as initial configurations. Our micromagnetic simulations show that the domain wall dynamics in wide strips is very complex, and depends strongly on the geometry of the system, as well as on the magnitude of the driving field. We discuss in detail the rich variety of the dynamical behaviors found, including dynamic transitions between different domain wall structures, periodic dynamics of a vortex core close to the strip edge, transitions towards simpler domain wall structures of the multi-vortex domain walls controlled by vortex polarity, and the fact that for some combinations of the strip geometry and the driving field the system cannot support a compact domain wall.

  7. Fabrication of chitosan-magnetite nanocomposite strip for chromium removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sureshkumar, Vaishnavi; Kiruba Daniel, S. C. G.; Ruckmani, K.; Sivakumar, M.

    2016-02-01

    Environmental pollution caused by heavy metals is a serious threat. In the present work, removal of chromium was carried out using chitosan-magnetite nanocomposite strip. Magnetite nanoparticles (Fe3O4) were synthesized using chemical co-precipitation method at 80 °C. The nanoparticles were characterized using UV-visible spectroscopy, fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction spectrometer, atomic force microscope, dynamic light scattering and vibrating sample magnetometer, which confirm the size, shape, crystalline nature and magnetic behaviour of nanoparticles. Atomic force microscope revealed that the particle size was 15-30 nm and spherical in shape. The magnetite nanoparticles were mixed with chitosan solution to form hybrid nanocomposite. Chitosan strip was casted with and without nanoparticle. The affinity of hybrid nanocomposite for chromium was studied using K2Cr2O7 (potassium dichromate) solution as the heavy metal solution containing Cr(VI) ions. Adsorption tests were carried out using chitosan strip and hybrid nanocomposite strip at different time intervals. Amount of chromium adsorbed by chitosan strip and chitosan-magnetite nanocomposite strip from aqueous solution was evaluated using UV-visible spectroscopy. The results confirm that the heavy metal removal efficiency of chitosan-magnetite nanocomposite strip is 92.33 %, which is higher when compared to chitosan strip, which is 29.39 %.

  8. Micro-strip sensors based on CVD Diamond

    CERN Document Server

    Adam, W; Bergonzo, P; Bertuccio, G; Bogani, F; Borchi, E; Brambilla, A; Bruzzi, Mara; Colledani, C; Conway, J; D'Angelo, P; Dabrowski, W; Delpierre, P A; Deneuville, A; Dulinski, W; van Eijk, B; Fallou, A; Fizzotti, F; Foulon, F; Friedl, M; Gan, K K; Gheeraert, E; Hallewell, G D; Han, S; Hartjes, F G; Hrubec, Josef; Husson, D; Kagan, H; Kania, D R; Kaplon, J; Kass, R; Koeth, T W; Krammer, Manfred; Lo Giudice, A; Lü, R; MacLynne, L; Manfredotti, C; Meier, D; Mishina, M; Moroni, L; Oh, A; Pan, L S; Pernicka, Manfred; Peitz, A; Perera, L P; Pirollo, S; Procario, M; Riester, J L; Roe, S; Rousseau, L; Rudge, A; Russ, J; Sala, S; Sampietro, M; Schnetzer, S R; Sciortino, S; Stelzer, H; Stone, R; Suter, B; Tapper, R J; Tesarek, R J; Trischuk, W; Tromson, D; Vittone, E; Walsh, A M; Wedenig, R; Weilhammer, Peter; Wetstein, M; White, C; Zeuner, W; Zoeller, M M

    2000-01-01

    In this article we present the performance of recent chemical vapour deposition (CVD) diamond micro-strip sensors in beam tests. In addition we present the first comparison of a CVD diamond micro-strip sensor before and after proton irradiation.

  9. Micro-strip sensors based on CVD diamond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adam, W.; Berdermann, E.; Bergonzo, P.; Bertuccio, G.; Bogani, F.; Borchi, E.; Brambilla, A.; Bruzzi, M.; Colledani, C.; Conway, J.; D' Angelo, P.; Dabrowski, W.; Delpierre, P.; Deneuville, A.; Dulinski, W.; Eijk, B. van; Fallou, A.; Fizzotti, F.; Foulon, F.; Friedl, M.; Gan, K.K.; Gheeraert, E.; Hallewell, G.; Han, S.; Hartjes, F.; Hrubec, J.; Husson, D.; Kagan, H.; Kania, D.; Kaplon, J.; Kass, R.; Koeth, T.; Krammer, M.; Logiudice, A.; Lu, R.; Mac Lynne, L.; Manfredotti, C.; Meier, D. E-mail: dirk.meier@cern.ch; Mishina, M.; Moroni, L.; Oh, A.; Pan, L.S.; Pernicka, M.; Peitz, A.; Perera, L.; Pirollo, S.; Procario, M.; Riester, J.L.; Roe, S.; Rousseau, L.; Rudge, A.; Russ, J.; Sala, S.; Sampietro, M.; Schnetzer, S.; Sciortino, S.; Stelzer, H.; Stone, R.; Suter, B.; Tapper, R.J.; Tesarek, R.; Trischuk, W.; Tromson, D.; Vittone, E.; Walsh, A.M.; Wedenig, R.; Weilhammer, P.; Wetstein, M.; White, C.; Zeuner, W.; Zoeller, M

    2000-10-11

    In this article we present the performance of recent chemical vapour deposition (CVD) diamond micro-strip sensors in beam tests. In addition, we present the first comparison of a CVD diamond micro-strip sensor before and after proton irradiation.

  10. Micro-strip sensors based on CVD diamond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this article we present the performance of recent chemical vapour deposition (CVD) diamond micro-strip sensors in beam tests. In addition, we present the first comparison of a CVD diamond micro-strip sensor before and after proton irradiation

  11. Emission reduction by multipurpose buffer strips on arable fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloots, K; van der Vlies, A W

    2007-01-01

    In the area managed by Hollandse Delta, agriculture is under great pressure and the social awareness of the agricultural sector is increasing steadily. In recent years, a stand-still has been observed in water quality, in terms of agrochemicals, and concentrations even exceed the standard. To improve the waterquality a multi-purpose Field Margin Regulation was drafted for the Hoeksche Waard island in 2005. The regulation prescribes a crop-free strip, 3.5 m wide, alongside wet drainage ditches. The strip must be sown with mixtures of grasses, flowers or herbs. No crop protection chemicals or fertilizer may be used on the strips. A total length of approximately 200 km of buffer strip has now been laid. Besides reducing emissions, the buffer strips also stimulate natural pest control methods and encourage local tourism. Finally, the strips should lead to an improvement in the farmers' image. The regulation has proved to be successful. The buffer strips boosted both local tourism and the image of the agricultural sector. Above all, the strips provided a natural shield for emission to surface water, which will lead to an improvement of the water quality and raise the farmers' awareness of water quality and the environment. PMID:17711002

  12. Use of Mini-Sprinklers to Strip Trichloroethylene and Tetrachloroethylene from Contaminated Ground Water.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brerisford, Yvette, C.; Bush, Parshall, B.; Blake, John, I.; Bayer, Cassandra L.

    2003-01-01

    Berisford, Y.C., P.B. Bush, J.I. Blake, and C.L. Bayer. 2003. Use of mini-sprinklers to strip trichloroethylene and tetrachloroethylene from contaminated ground water. J. Env. Qual. 32:801-815. Three low-volume mini-sprinklers were tested for their efficacy to strip trichloroethylene (TCE) and tetrachloroethylene (PCE) from water. Deionized water spiked with TCE and PCE was pumped through a mini-sprinkler supported on top of a 1.8-m-tall. Water was collected in collection vessels at 0.61 and 1.22 m above the ground on support columns that were spaced at 0.61-m intervals from the riser base, and samples were composited per height and distance from the riser. Overall, air-stripping reduced dissolved concentrations of TCE and PCE by 99.1 to 100 and 96.9 to 100%, respectively. Mini-sprinklers offer the advantages of (i) easy setup in series that can be used on practically any terrain; (ii) operation over a long period of time that does not threaten aquifer depletion; (iii) use in small or confined aquifers in which the capacity is too low to support large irrigation or pumping systems; and (iv) use in forests in which the small, low-impact droplets of the mini-sprinklers do not damage bark and in which trees can help manage (via evapotransporation) excess waste water.

  13. Nonattacking Queens in a Rectangular Strip

    CERN Document Server

    Chaiken, Seth; Zaslavsky, Thomas; 10.1007/s00026-011-0068-7

    2011-01-01

    The function that counts the number of ways to place nonattacking identical chess or fairy chess pieces in a rectangular strip of fixed height and variable width, as a function of the width, is a piecewise polynomial which is eventually a polynomial and whose behavior can be described in some detail. We deduce this by converting the problem to one of counting lattice points outside an affinographic hyperplane arrangement, which Forge and Zaslavsky solved by means of weighted integral gain graphs. We extend their work by developing both generating functions and a detailed analysis of deletion and contraction for weighted integral gain graphs. For chess pieces we find the asymptotic probability that a random configuration is nonattacking, and we obtain exact counts of nonattacking configurations of small numbers of queens, bishops, knights, and nightriders.

  14. Construction of the CMS silicon strip tracker

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the last year the CMS experiment has constructed and integrated the largest ever build full Silicon Strip Tracker. The CMS Tracker collaboration set up a unique scheme of quality control to ensure the necessary high quality of all of the 15,148 modules and their super structures. The applied scheme of quality control revealed several problems, which escaped the initial R and D phase, ranging from corrosion effects on the silicon, capton and via problems on the front end hybrids up to aging conductive glue connections. An overview of the construction and qualification experience is given, discussing the major steps which result in the unique experimental device, which the CMS Tracker is currently commissioning

  15. Cataract surgery after Descemet stripping endothelial keratoplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunita Chaurasia

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Management of endothelial dysfunction in phakic patients is sometimes a dilemma for corneal surgeons. Phakic patients with visually significant cataract and endothelial dysfunction are preferably managed by performing combined cataract surgery with endothelial keratoplasty. However, combined surgery may be deferred in eyes with early incipient cataract, younger age and where anterior chamber is poorly visualized. As cataract formation may be accelerated after endothelial keratoplasty, these eyes may need cataract surgery subsequently. Surgical intervention in eyes with endothelial keratoplasty is of concern as this may affect the graft adversely and threaten graft survival. In this report, we describe the intraoperative surgical details and postoperative clinical course of a patient who underwent phacoemulsification with intraocular lens implantation after Descemet stripping automated endothelial keratoplasty (DSAEK.

  16. Microdischarges of AC-coupled silicon strip sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Microdischarge at the edges of strips in AC-coupled silicon strip sensors has been investigated. A steep increase in the leakage current (breakdown) and a sudden onset of burst noise were observed at a low reverse-bias voltage when the bias potential was across the AC-coupling capacitor. This can be explained by the occurrence of microdischarges along the edges of strips. These discharges have been confirmed by observing IR light emission. A calculation of the field strength at the strip edge suggests that a fringe field of the external electrode generates the microdischarge at the strip edge when the bias voltage is 50-80 V. This is consistent with our observations. We discuss a design for AC-coupled sensors that eliminates this discharge problem. (orig.)

  17. Superconducting strip detectors as position sensitive particle detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The feasibility of using of current-biased superconducting strips for radiation detection is investigated. Narrow Ta strips are exposed to 5.5 MeV α-particle radiation and the rise-time of the induced voltage pulses is measured as function of temperature and bias current. The rise-time of the voltage signal strongly depends on the site on the strip which is hit by the α-particle. In order to determine the spatial resolution of a superconducting strip detector, position-sensitive measurements were performed. The maximum lateral resolution estimated so far is 25μm in a 7μm wide, 340 nm thick and 0.6 mm long Ta-strip. (orig.)

  18. Streptococcus pneumoniae carriage in the Gaza strip.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gili Regev-Yochay

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Pneumococcal infections cause major morbidity and mortality in developing countries. We report the epidemiology of S. pneumoniae carriage in a developing region, the Gaza strip, and evaluate the theoretical coverage of carriage strains by pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs. METHODOLOGY: In 2009 we conducted a cross-sectional survey of S. pneumoniae carriage in healthy children and their parents, living throughout the Gaza strip. Data were collected and nasopharyngeal swabs were obtained. Antibiotic susceptibilities were determined by Vitek-2 and serotypes by the Quellung reaction. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: S. pneumoniae carriage was detected in 189/379 (50% of children and 30/376 (8% of parents. Carriage prevalence was highest in children <6 months of age (63%. Significant predictors for child carriage were number of household members and DCC attendance. The proportion of pediatric and adults isolates with serotypes included in PCV7 were 32% and 20% respectively, and 46% and 33% in PCV13 respectively. The most prominent non-vaccine serotypes (NVT were 35B, 15B/C and 23B. Penicillin-nonsusceptible strains were carried by 70% of carriers, penicillin-resistant strains (PRSP by 13% and Multi-drug-resistant (MDR by 30%. Of all PRSP isolates 54% belonged to serotypes included in PCV7 and 71% in the PCV13. Similarly, 59% and 73% of MDR-SP isolates, would theoretically be covered by PCV7 and PCV13, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates that, PCV13-included strains were carried by 46% and 33% of pediatric and adult subjects respectively. In the absence of definitive data regarding the virulence of the NVT strains, it is difficult to predict the effect of PCVs on IPD in this region.

  19. High speed twin roll casting of 6016 strip

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Haga

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: of this paper is to clear the possibility of high speed roll casting of thin aluminum alloy strip. 6016aluminum alloy is used for sheet metal of the automobile. Therefore, casting of 6016 was tried in this study.Castability and characteristics of roll cast 6016 strip were investigated.Design/methodology/approach: was a high speed twin roll caster. The high speed twin roll caster was designedto overcome the low castability of the twin roll caster.Findings: are as below. The 6016 could be cast at speed of 60 m/min. The thickness of the 6016 was 3 mm.The microstructure at as-cast and after T6 heat treatment was shown. The microstructure was very fine by theeffect of the rapid solidification. The mechanical properties were investigated by the tension test and 180 degreesbending test. The as-cast strip could be cold rolled down to 1 mm without homogenization. The result of tensiontest (gage length 50mm of T4 strip was as below, tensile stress was 242 MPa, proof stress was 123 MPa andelongation was 26%. There was no crack at the outer surface of 180-degree-bent strip until contact. This showsthe strip endure the hem forming.Research limitations/implications: is the width of the strip was 100 mm. The test using a large scale twin rollcaster must be operated.Practical implications: are as below. The mechanical properties of the roll-cast 6016 were enough for the sheetmetal for the automobile. The low productivity of the twin roll caster could be improved, and economy 6016strip was able to produce.Originality/value: is that 6016 strip could be cast at speed 60 m/min and this strip had good mechanicalproperties.

  20. Developing silicon strip detectors with a large-scale commercial foundry

    Science.gov (United States)

    König, A.; Bartl, U.; Bergauer, T.; Dragicevic, M.; Hacker, J.; Treberspurg, W.

    2016-07-01

    Since 2009 the Institute of High Energy Physics (HEPHY) in Vienna is developing a production process for planar silicon strip sensors on 6-in. wafers together with the semiconductor manufacturer Infineon Technologies. Four runs with several batches of wafers, each comprising six different sensors, were manufactured and characterized. A brief summary of the recently completed 6-in. campaign is given. Milestones in sensor development as well as techniques to improve the sensor quality are discussed. Particular emphasis is placed on a failure causing areas of defective strips which accompanied the whole campaign. Beam tests at different irradiation facilities were conducted to validate the key capability of particle detection. Another major aspect is to prove the radiation hardness of sensors produced by Infineon. Therefore, neutron irradiation studies were performed.

  1. Automated motion correction using parallel-strip registration for wide-field en face OCT angiogram

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zang, Pengxiao; Liu, Gangjun; Zhang, Miao; Dongye, Changlei; Wang, Jie; Pechauer, Alex D.; Hwang, Thomas S.; Wilson, David J.; Huang, David; Li, Dengwang

    2016-01-01

    We propose an innovative registration method to correct motion artifacts for wide-field optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) acquired by ultrahigh-speed swept-source OCT (>200 kHz A-scan rate). Considering that the number of A-scans along the fast axis is much higher than the number of positions along slow axis in the wide-field OCTA scan, a non-orthogonal scheme is introduced. Two en face angiograms in the vertical priority (2 y-fast) are divided into microsaccade-free parallel strips. A gross registration based on large vessels and a fine registration based on small vessels are sequentially applied to register parallel strips into a composite image. This technique is extended to automatically montage individual registered, motion-free angiograms into an ultrawide-field view. PMID:27446709

  2. Size-Reduction Template Stripping of Smooth Curved Metallic Tips for Adiabatic Nanofocusing of Surface Plasmons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Timothy W; Klemme, Daniel J; Oh, Sang-Hyun

    2016-06-01

    We present a new technique to engineer metallic interfaces to produce sharp tips with smooth curved surfaces and variable tip angles, as well as ridges with arbitrary contour shapes, all of which can be integrated with grating couplers for applications in plasmonics and nanophotonics. We combine template stripping, a nanofabrication scheme, with atomic layer deposition (ALD) to produce the ultrasharp nanoscale tips and wedges using only conventional photolithography. Conformal ALD coating of insulators over silicon trench molds of various shapes reduces their widths to make nanoscale features without high-resolution lithography. Along with a metal deposition and template stripping, this size-reduction scheme can mass-produce narrow and ultrasharp (optical spectroscopy, plasmonic waveguides, particle trapping, hot-electron plasmonics, and nonlinear optics. PMID:27156522

  3. Mechanical and microstructural characterization of 6061 aluminum alloy strips severely deformed by Dissimilar Channel Angular Pressing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dissimilar Channel Angular Pressing (DCAP) is a severe plastic deformation technique to improve the mechanical properties of flat products by producing ultrafine grains. In this study, the changes in the microstructure and mechanical properties of 6061 Al-alloy strips deformed by various numbers of DCAP passes were investigated. Some DCAPed samples were also held at 200 deg. C and 350 deg. C to investigate the effect of post-annealing. Mechanical properties were determined by hardness and tension tests; and microstructural changes were investigated by TEM analysis. Up to a critical level of plastic strain, remarkable improvements have been observed in the strength and hardness of the severely deformed strips; and the improvements have been explained by variations in grain size, dislocation structure, and formation of subgrains. - Research Highlights: →Dissimilar Channel Angular Pressing (DCAP). →Severe plastic deformation (SPD). →Transmission Electron Microscopy of the 6061 Al alloy. →Mechanical Properties of 6061 Al alloy.

  4. Self-assessment test on concepts related to Anodic Stripping Voltammetry (ASV)

    OpenAIRE

    Milla González, Miguel; Espada Bellido, Estrella

    2014-01-01

    This exercise is intended to reinforce and assess knowledge on Anodic Stripping Voltammetry (ASV) as an electroanalytical technique. It is designed as a multiple entry test in which several options for a concept related to this analysis technique is proposed. The exercise can be resolved page to page (answers are ticked and the truth or falsity of the chosen option is obtained) or globally. In the latter, the user ticks the "correct" answers and obtains a grade at the end of the test. Going ...

  5. Modified descemet′s stripping automated endothelial keratoplasty for congenital hereditary endothelial dystrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoodreza Panahi-Bazaz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A 19-year-old male with congenital hereditary endothelial dystrophy (CHED presented with severe bilateral corneal clouding precluding any view of the intraocular structures. He underwent modified Descemet′s stripping automated endothelial keratoplasty (DSAEK technique including a suture pull-through technique to prevent lens damage. Surgery resulted in progressive clearing of the cornea and decreased corneal thickness. Visual acuity increased from hand motions preoperatively to counting fingers at 4 m after 4 months. DSAEK can be successfully performed in phakic eyes with CHED as an alternative to penetrating keratoplasty. It has the advantage of less wound problems and better preservation of globe integrity especially in children.

  6. Optimization of dose distributions in moving-strip therapy using a minicomputer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Optimized 60Co dose distributions for the moving-strip technique were calculated for three patients using a PC-12 minicomputer program which corrects for field obliquity and changes in patient thickness. Beam profiles were measured using an ionization chamber in a water phantom. A Masonite phantom was constructed to simulate a patient and used to measure optimized and unoptimized midplane dose distributions by thermoluminescent dosimetry. Measured midplane doses agreed with computer-calculated doses within experimental error. The computer optimization technique improved dose uniformly, reducing the midplane dose variation from +-12 to 13 percent to +-3 to 4 percent. (U.S.)

  7. Multiarray on a test strip (MATS): rapid multiplex immunodetection of priority potato pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safenkova, Irina V; Pankratova, Galina K; Zaitsev, Ilya A; Varitsev, Yuri A; Vengerov, Yuri Y; Zherdev, Anatoly V; Dzantiev, Boris B

    2016-09-01

    Multiarray on a test strip (MATS) was developed for the detection of eight important potato pathogens. The proposed assay combines the rapidity of immunochromatography with the high throughput of array techniques. The test zone of the immunochromatographic strip comprises ordered rows of spots containing antibodies specific for different potato pathogens. The assay benefits from the simplicity of immunochromatography; colored immune complexes form at the corresponding spots within the test zone. The presence and intensity of the coloration are used for identification of the target pathogens. The MATS was applied to the simultaneous detection of eight priority potato pathogens, characterized by the following limits of detection: 1 ng/mL for potato virus X and the ordinary type of potato virus Y, 10 ng/mL for potato virus M, 20 ng/mL for potato leaf roll virus, 40 ng/mL for necrotic-type potato virus Y, 100 ng/mL for potato virus S, 300 ng/mL for potato virus A, and 10(4) cells/mL for Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. sepedonicus. Analysis time was 15 min. The observed sensitivity of the MATS was comparable to the traditional enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The developed technique was tested on potato leaf extracts, and its efficiency for on-site control of the pathogens was confirmed in 100 % by commercial LFIA test strips. Graphical abstract Location of binding zones in the developed multiarray on a test strip (MATS) for simultaneous detection of eight pathogens. PMID:27007732

  8. Technique for reducing surface wave at an air/left-handed medium (LHM) interface or excitation of the forward wave in an LHM

    OpenAIRE

    Boutayeb, Halim; Wu, Ke; Mahdjoubi, Kouroch

    2009-01-01

    In this article, we analyze the illumination by an electromagnetic wave of an air/left-handed medium (LHM) interface. It is shown that by placing a periodic structure of resistors near the LHM it is possible to suppress or to reduce the surface wave that is present at the interface. For our demonstration, we consider a semi-infinite lossless left-handed medium having the same constitutive parameters as those of air but with opposite signs. Numerical results, obtained by using a full-wave time...

  9. Thickness dependence of fracture behaviour in a superconducting strip

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    When subjected to a magnetic field, a superconducting strip will undergo an electromagnetic body force induced by flux pinning. The magnitude of the body force is dependent on the critical current density. It is well known that the critical current density in the strip will decrease with increasing thickness. In addition, the mechanical behaviour of the strip will also be affected by the thickness of the strip. Thus, the strip thickness has an influence on both the electromagnetic and mechanical behaviours. In this paper, we analyse the fracture behaviour by considering the competition of electromagnetic and mechanical behaviours. In order to study the central crack problem of a superconducting strip with different thicknesses, we replace the electromagnetic body force with the total surface force. Using a Fourier transform method, the boundary value problem is reduced to a singular integral equation. By solving the singular integral equation, we obtain the stress intensity factors for two different crack lengths during field descent. The results show that the stress intensity factor is not a monotonic function of the thickness and that two competing factors dominate in different field regions. It is necessary to obtain the optimized thickness by considering both the superconductivity and mechanical behaviour in the superconducting strip. (paper)

  10. Do repeated rumble strip hits improve driver alertness?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watling, Christopher N; Åkerstedt, Torbjörn; Kecklund, Göran; Anund, Anna

    2016-04-01

    Driving while sleepy is associated with increased crash risk. Rumble strips are designed to alert a sleepy or inattentive driver when they deviate outside their driving lane. The current study sought to examine the effects of repeated rumble strip hits on levels of physiological and subjective sleepiness as well as simulated driving performance. In total, 36 regular shift workers drove a high-fidelity moving base simulator on a simulated road with rumble strips installed at the shoulder and centre line after a working a full night shift. The results show that, on average, the first rumble strip occurred after 20 min of driving, with subsequent hits occurring 10 min later, with the last three occurring approximately every 5 min thereafter. Specifically, it was found that the first rumble strip hit reduced physiological sleepiness; however, subsequent hits did not increase alertness. Moreover, the results also demonstrate that increased subjective sleepiness levels, via the Karolinska Sleepiness Scale, were associated with a greater probability of hitting a rumble strip. The present results suggest that sleepiness is very resilient to even strongly arousing stimuli, with physiological and subjective sleepiness increasing over the duration of the drive, despite the interference caused by rumble strips. PMID:26486849

  11. Water Vapor, Temperature and Wind Profiles within Maize Canopy under in-Field Rainwater Harvesting with Wide and Narrow Runoff Strips

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weldemichael A. Tesfuhuney

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Micrometeorological measurements were used to evaluate heat and water vapor to describe the transpiration (Ev and soil evaporation (Es processes for wide and narrow runoff strips under in-field rainwater harvesting (IRWH system. The resulting sigmoid-shaped water vapor (ea in wide and narrow runoff strips varied in lower and upper parts of the maize canopy. In wide runoff strips, lapse conditions of ea extended from lowest measurement level (LP to the upper middle section (MU and inversion was apparent at the top of the canopy. The virtual potential temperature (θv profile showed no difference in middle section, but the lower and upper portion (UP had lower  in narrow, compared to wide, strips, and LP-UP changes of 0.6 K and 1.2 K were observed, respectively. The Ev and Es within the canopy increased the ea concentration as determined by the wind order of magnitude. The ea concentration reached peak at about 1.6 kPa at a range of wind speed value of 1.4–1.8 m∙s−1 and 2.0–2.4 m∙s−1 for wide and narrow treatments, respectively. The sparse maize canopy of the wide strips could supply more drying power of the air in response to atmospheric evaporative demand compared to narrow strips. This is due to the variation in air flow in wide and narrow runoff strips that change gradients in ea for evapotranspiration processes.

  12. The application of in situ air sparging as an innovative soils and ground water remediation technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vapor extraction (soil venting) has been demonstrated to be a successful and cost-effective remediation technology for removing VOCs from the vadose (unsaturated) zone. However, in many cases, seasonal water table fluctuations, drawdown associated with pump-and-treat remediation techniques, and spills involving dense, non-aqueous phase liquids (DNAPLS) create contaminated soil below the water table. Vapor extraction alone is not considered to be an optimal remediation technology to address this type of contamination. An innovative approach to saturated zone remediation is the use of sparging (injection) wells to inject a hydrocarbon-free gaseous medium (typically air) into the saturated zone below the areas of contamination. The contaminants dissolved in the ground water and sorbed onto soil particles partition into the advective air phase, effectively simulating an in situ air-stripping system. The stripped contaminants are transported in the gas phase to the vadose zone, within the radius of influence of a vapor extraction and vapor treatment system. In situ air sparging is a complex multifluid phase process, which has been applied successfully in Europe since the mid-1980s. To date, site-specific pilot tests have been used to design air-sparging systems. Research is currently underway to develop better engineering design methodologies for the process. Major design parameters to be considered include contaminant type, gas injection pressures and flow rates, site geology, bubble size, injection interval (areal and vertical) and the equipment specifications. Correct design and operation of this technology has been demonstrated to achieve ground water cleanup of VOC contamination to low part-per-billion levels

  13. Costic's technical day: thermodynamical heating and air conditioning in accommodations (heat pumps and heating/cooling floors). Air systems and their application in collective installations; Journee technique Costic: chauffage thermodynamique et climatisation dans l'habitat (les pompes a chaleur, les planchers chauffants-rafraichissants). Les systemes a air les applications en collectif

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lenotte, J.J.

    2002-07-01

    Direct expansion air systems are now currently used in individual residential houses. Some of these systems are used also in collective residential buildings where they allow to take into account the individualization of consumptions, as wished by some property developers. Some other centralized air-conditioning systems can be used. They require a distribution water loop for the supply of terminal units of ventilation-convection type. This document presents successively: the direct expansion air systems (direct emission air/air heat pumps, aeraulic distribution air/air heat pumps, production dimensioning, implementation, regulation, systems with variable flow rate of refrigerant); the centralized air/water systems with ventilation-convection systems (production dimensioning, implementation, regulation); the air distribution and diffusion. (J.S.)

  14. Decision document on the revision of the VERA protocol on air cleaning technologies. Measuring techniques for the determination of the removal efficiency for ammonia

    OpenAIRE

    Mosquera Losada, J.; Edouard, N.; Guiziou, F.; Melse, R.W.; Riis, A.L.; Sommer, S.; Brusselman, E.

    2014-01-01

    In the project “ICT-AGRI: Development of harmonized sampling and measurement methods for odour, ammonia and dust emissions” different subgroups have been formed focusing on either ammonia, odour or dust. In this report, the conclusions of the ammonia subgroup regarding harmonization of measurement methods for the estimation of the ammonia removal from air cleaning technologies are summarized.

  15. Application of two analytic techniques of sampling for the determination of aldehydes in air and in rain water in three areas of Costa Rica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aldehydes are of supreme interest in the quality of the air of Costa Rica; reason why it is very important to determine them qualitative and quantitatively. This study has as objectives the identification and quantification of aldehydes in samples of air and of rain water in three areas of Costa Rica, to compare two methods of taking of samples of air and to correlate the concentration of the aldehydes in the different points of taking of samples. The sampling one carries out in three located stations, in the Hill of the Piroclasticos (3 km. To the Northeast of the active crater of the Volcano Irazu), Escazu (it plants potabilizadora of water) and in Turrucares (facilities of the Rural Watch). The used sampling devices, denuders and cartridges, they were recovered with a breakup of 2,4-dinitrofenilhidrazina o'clock like absorbent reagent, which I form the corresponding hidrazonas in presence of the aldehydes. The identification and quantification of the aldehydes, one carries out by means of chromatography it liquidates of high resolution. The comparison among the concentrations of the aldehydes in air gathered by the two used sampling methods indicates that a significant difference exists among them, at a level of trust of 95%

  16. Experimental study of an air-source heat pump for simultaneous heating and cooling - Part 2: Dynamic behaviour and two-phase thermosiphon defrosting technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: → Experimental study of an air-source heat pump for simultaneous heating and cooling. → Operating sequences alternating between heating, cooling and simultaneous modes. → Validation of the high pressure control system. → Validation of the non-penalizing two-phase thermosiphon defrosting sequence. - Abstract: This article presents the concepts of an air-source heat pump for simultaneous heating and cooling (HPS) designed for hotels and smaller residential, commercial and office buildings in which simultaneous needs in heating and cooling are frequent. The main advantage of the HPS is to carry out simultaneously space heating and space cooling with the same energy input. Ambient air is used as a balancing source to run a heating or a cooling mode. The second advantage is that, during winter, energy recovered by the subcooling of the refrigerant is stored at first in a water tank and used subsequently as a cold source at the water evaporator to improve the average performance and to carry out defrosting of the air evaporator using a two-phase thermosiphon. Unlike conventional air-source heat pumps, defrosting is carried out without stopping the heat production. A R407C HPS prototype was built and tested. The basic concepts of the HPS are detailed in part1 of this article . Its performance on defined operating conditions corresponds to the data given by the selection software of the compressor manufacturer. In the present part of this article, the operation of the high pressure control system, the transitions between heating, cooling and simultaneous modes and the defrosting sequence are analysed and validated experimentally.

  17. The readout chain for the bar PANDA MVD strip detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnell, R.; Brinkmann, K.-Th.; Di Pietro, V.; Kleines, H.; Goerres, A.; Riccardi, A.; Rivetti, A.; Rolo, M. D.; Sohlbach, H.; Zaunick, H.-G.

    2015-02-01

    The bar PANDA (antiProton ANnihilation at DArmstadt) experiment will study the strong interaction in annihilation reactions between an antiproton beam and a stationary gas jet target. The detector will comprise different sub-detectors for tracking, particle identification and calorimetry. The Micro-Vertex Detector (MVD) as the innermost part of the tracking system will allow precise tracking and detection of secondary vertices. For the readout of the double-sided silicon strip sensors a custom-made ASIC is being developed, employing the Time-over-Threshold (ToT) technique for digitization and utilize time-to-digital converters (TDC) to provide a high-precision time stamp of the hit. A custom-made Module Data Concentrator ASIC (MDC) will multiplex the data of all front-ends of one sensor towards the CERN-developed GBT chip set (GigaBit Transceiver). The MicroTCA-based MVD Multiplexer Board (MMB) at the off-detector site will receive and concentrate the data from the GBT links and transfer it to FPGA-based compute nodes for global event building.

  18. Water Modeling of Twin-Roll Strip Casting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Bo; ZHANG Jie-yu; FAN Jun-fei; ZHAO Shun-li; FANG Yuan; AN Sheng-li

    2006-01-01

    Twin-roll strip casting is regarded as a prospective technology of near net shape continuous casting. The fluid flow field and level fluctuation in the pool have a strong influence not only on composition and temperature homogeneity of pool, but also on the strip quality. A 1∶1 water model of a twin-roll strip caster was set up based on the criteria of Froude number and Reynold number similarity. The level fluctuation was measured. The influence of pool depth, casting speed and feeding system configuration on level fluctuation in the pool was studied. The experimental results provided a basis for the optimization of feeding system and process parameters.

  19. Young tourists visiting strip clubs and paying for sex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hesse, Morten; Tutenges, Sébastien

    2011-01-01

    Little is known about young adults’ use of strip clubs and prostitution during their holidays abroad. This study examined this issue with a sample of 1125 Danish tourists between the ages of 16 and 34, and sought data about the frequency with which they paid for sex and attended strip clubs while...... they were on holiday. The tourists were surveyed at a Bulgarian airport before their return trip home. The incidence of strip-club patronage during holiday was 48% for men and 8% for women. Of the men, 12.5% reported paying for sex during their holiday. Among the men paying for sex, 47% reported having...

  20. New technology for the production of magnesium strips and sheets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Kawalla

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available A new production technology for magnesium strip, based on twin-roll-casting and strip rolling was developed in Freiberg Germany. By means of this economic method it is possible to produce strips in deep drawing quality with good forming properties in order to satisfy the request for low cost Mg sheets in the automotive and electronic industry. Both, coils as single sheets, were manufactured and rolled to a thickness of 1mm(0,5 mm. The technology of the new process and the properties of the twin-roll-casted material and the final sheets are presented.

  1. Modelling of americium stripping in the EXAm process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The EXAm process aims at recovering americium alone contained in the PUREX raffinate. The americium stripping model has been revised to take into account a change of stripping aqueous phase and up-to-date experimental results conducted within DRCP to improve knowledge about complexes. This work represents a first approximation at modelling americium stripping. The modelling work has led to synthesize the knowledge on chemical phenomenology and adopt assumptions that best reflect experimental results. The modelling has been implemented in PAREX code in order to simulate this step to prepare and understand tests to be carried out in mixer settlers. (authors)

  2. Air Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Air pollution is a mixture of solid particles and gases in the air. Car emissions, chemicals from factories, dust, ... a gas, is a major part of air pollution in cities. When ozone forms air pollution, it's ...

  3. Air Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Air pollution is a mixture of solid particles and gases in the air. Car emissions, chemicals from factories, dust, pollen and ... Ozone, a gas, is a major part of air pollution in cities. When ozone forms air pollution, ...

  4. Treatment of landfill leachate using a combined stripping, Fenton, SBR, and coagulation process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The leachate from Changshengqiao landfill (Chongqing, China) was characterized and submitted to a combined process of air stripping, Fenton, sequencing batch reactor (SBR), and coagulation. Optimum operating conditions for each process were identified. The performance of the treatment was assessed by monitoring the removal of organic matter (COD and BOD5) and ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N). It has been confirmed that air stripping (at pH 11.0 and aeration time 18 h) effectively removed 96.6% of the ammonia. The Fenton process was investigated under optimum conditions (pH 3.0, FeSO4.7H2O of 20 g l-1 and H2O2 of 20 ml l-1), COD removal of up to 60.8% was achieved. Biodegradability (BOD5/COD ratio) increased from 0.18 to 0.38. Thereafter the Fenton effluent was mixed with sewage at dilutions to a ratio of 1:3 before it was subjected to the SBR reactor; under the optimum aeration time of 20 h, up to 82.8% BOD5 removal and 83.1% COD removal were achieved. The optimum coagulant (Fe2(SO4)3) was a dosage of 800 mg l-1 at pH of 5.0, which reduced COD to an amount of 280 mg l-1. These combined processes were successfully employed and very effectively decreased pollutant loading.

  5. The GLAST silicon-strip tracking system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The GLAST instrument concept is a gamma-ray pair conversion telescope that uses silicon microstrip detector technology to track the electron-positron pairs resulting from gamma-ray conversions in thin lead foils. A cesium iodide calorimeter following the tracker is used to measure the gamma-ray energy. Silicon strip technology is mature and robust, with an excellent heritage in space science and particle physics. It has many characteristics important for optimal performance of a pair conversion telescope, including high efficiency in thin detector planes, low noise, and excellent resolution and two-track separation. The large size of GLAST and high channel count in the tracker puts demands on the readout technology to operate at very low power, yet with sufficiently low noise occupancy to allow self triggering. A prototype system employing custom-designed ASIC's has been built and tested that meets the design goal of approximately 200W per channel power consumption with a noise occupancy of less than one hit per trigger per 10,000 channels. Detailed design of the full-scale tracker is well advanced, with non-flight prototypes built for all components, and a complete 50,000 channel engineering demonstration tower module is currently under construction and will be tested in particle beams in late 1999. The flight-instrument conceptual design is for a 4x4 array of tower modules with an aperture of 2.9 m2 and an effective area of greater than 8000 cm2

  6. The progenitors of stripped-envelope supernovae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elias-Rosa, N.

    2013-05-01

    The type Ib/c SNe are those explosions which come from massive star populations, but lack hydrogen and helium. These have been proposed to originate in the explosions of massive Wolf-Rayet stars, and we should easily be able to detect the very luminous, young progenitors if they exist. However, there has not been any detection of progenitors so far. I present the study of two extinguished Type Ic SNe 2003jg and 2004cc. In both cases there is no clear evidence of a direct detection of their progenitors in deep pre-explosion images. Upper limits derived by inserting artificial stars of known brightness at random positions around the progenitor positions (M_v>-8.8 and M_v>-9 magnitudes for the progenitors of SN 2003jg and SN 2004cc, respectively) are brighter than those expected for a massive WC (Wolf-Rayet, carbon-rich) or WO (Wolf-Rayet, oxygen-rich) (e.g., approximately between -3 and -6 in the LMC). Therefore, this is perhaps further evidence that the most massive stars may give rise to black-holes forming SNe, or it is an undetected, compact massive star hidden by a thick dust lane. However the extinction toward these SNe is currently one of the largest known. Even if these results do not directly reveal the nature of the type Ic SN progenitors, they can help to characterize the dusty environment which surrounded the progenitor of the stripped-envelope CC-SNe.

  7. Profile of a science comic strip author

    CERN Document Server

    Anaïs Schaeffer

    2014-01-01

    After studying visual arts, Lison Bernet worked as a lock keeper, waitress, grape picker, farm labourer and chef before finally returning to her first love: drawing. Today a scientific illustrator, Lison is the author of the cartoon strip "La BD du LHC", which she draws every month for LHC France (by CNRS/IN2P3 and CEA/Irfu, see here).   © Lison Bernet. Lison’s career path might seem somewhat chaotic, but it is a reflection of the artist herself: original and passionate. “I never do anything by half measures. When I got into cooking for example [Lison took a chef training course for adults], I became completely wrapped up in it. I even went as far as cooking roasts during my lunch hour, just for practice…” says Lison. On completing the course, Lison got a job as a chef on a canal boat. And it was then that she got the drawing bug again. “I started keeping an illustrated travel diary,” she says. &ldquo...

  8. Study of highly stripped ionic spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The soft X-ray emission spectra from very highly stripped ions of the medium-Z elements of 22T, 26Fe, 28Ni, 29Cu, 30Zn and 32Ge, and the high-Z elements of 72Hf, 73Ta, 74W and 75Re have been observed in laser-produced plasmas generated by focusing a Nd-glass laser beam onto the surface of the plane solid targets at the 'Xing Guang' laser facility. The spectra in the range of 3.6∼300 angstrom were recorded by using four flat crystal spectrographs with different 2d spacing and a 1-m grazing incidence grating spectrometer, respectively. Several hundred lines from Na-like through H-like ions of six medium-Z elements and from Co-like and Ni-like ions of four high-Z elements were identified and classified on the basis of a comparison between the measured wavelengths and intensities with the predicted values which were calculated by Hartree-Fock-Relativistic method with configuration interaction and the multiconfiguration Dirac-Fock-Relativistic method with configuration interaction and the multiconfiguration Dirac-Fock method. The quasi-continuum bands in Cu-like through Ge-like ions of Hf, Ta, W and Re were analyzed by unresolved spin-orbit-split array model

  9. The GLAST Silicon-Strip Tracking System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The GLAST instrument concept is a gamma-ray pair conversion telescope that uses silicon microstrip detector technology to track the electron-positron pairs resulting from gamma ray conversions in thin lead foils. A cesium iodide calorimeter following the tracker is used to measure the gamma-ray energy. Silicon strip technology is mature and robust, with an excellent heritage in space science and particle physics. It has many characteristics important for optimal performance of a pair conversion telescope, including high efficiency in thin detector planes, low noise, and excellent resolution and two-track separation. The large size of GLAST and high channel count in the tracker puts demands on the readout technology to operate at very low power, yet with sufficiently low noise occupancy to allow self triggering. A prototype system employing custom-designed ASIC's has been built and tested that meets the design goal of approximately 200 (micro)W per channel power consumption with a noise occupancy of less than one hit per trigger per 10,000 channels. Detailed design of the full-scale tracker is well advanced, with non-flight prototypes built for all components, and a complete 50,000 channel engineering demonstration tower module is currently under construction and will be tested in particle beams in late 1999. The flight-instrument conceptual design is for a 4 x 4 array of tower modules with an aperture of 2.9 m2 and an effective area of greater than 8000 cm2

  10. The ALICE silicon strip detector system

    CERN Document Server

    Kuijer, P

    2000-01-01

    ALICE (A Large Ion Collider Experiment) is an experiment at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) optimized for the study of heavy-ion collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of 5.5 TeV per nucleon. The detector consists essentially of two main components: the central part, composed of detectors mainly devoted to the study of hadronic signals and dielectrons, and the forward muon spectrometer devoted to the study of quarkonia behaviour in dense matter. The central part, which covers +-45 deg. (|eta|<0.9) over the full azimuth, is embedded in a large magnet with a weak solenoidal field. Outside of the Inner Tracking System (ITS), there are a cylindrical TPC and a large area PID array of time-of-flight (TOF) counters. In addition, there are two small-area single-arm detectors: an electromagnetic calorimeter (Photon Spectrometer, PHOS) and an array of RICH counters optimized for high-momentum inclusive particle identification (HMPID). This article describes the silicon strip detector system used in the outer layers o...

  11. Simultaneous Co-deposition of Zn-Mg Alloy Layers on Steel Strip by PVD Process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Tae Yeob [POSCO Technical Research Laboratories, Gwangyang (Korea, Republic of); Goodenough, Mark [Strategic Marketing, Tata Steel, Warwickshire (United Kingdom)

    2011-12-15

    This is the first release of an interim report on the development of coating technology of Zn-Mg alloy layers on steel strip by EML-PVD (electromagnetic levitation - physical vapor deposition) process in an air-to-air type continuous PVD pilot plant. It intends to introduce a basic principle of the EML-PVD process together with the high speed PVD pilot plant built in Posco. Due to the agitation effect provided by the high frequency induction coil, simultaneous evaporation of Zn and Mg from a droplet could produce alloy coating layers with Mg content of 6% to 12% depending on the composition of the droplet inside the coil. For its superior corrosion resistance, Zn-Mg alloy coated steel would be a very promising material for automotive, electrical appliances, and construction applications.

  12. Application of powder metallurgy and hot rolling processes for manufacturing aluminum/alumina composite strips

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, aluminum matrix composites (AMC) with 2, 4, 6 and 10 wt% alumina were produced using powder metallurgy (PM), mechanical milling (MM) and vacuum hot pressing (VHP) techniques; then, this was followed by the hot-rolling process. During hot rolling, AMCs with 6 and 10 wt% Al2O3 were fractured whereas strip composites with 2 and 4 wt% Al2O3 were produced successfully. Microstructure and mechanical properties of the samples were investigated by optical and scanning electron microscopes and tensile and hardness tests, respectively. Microscopic evaluations of the hot-rolled composites showed a uniform distribution of alumina particles in the aluminum matrix. It was found that with increasing alumina content in the matrix, tensile strength (TS) and hardness increased and the percentage of elongation also decreased. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) was used to investigate aluminum/alumina interfaces and fracture surfaces of the hot rolled specimens after tensile test. SEM observations demonstrated that the failure mode in the hot-rolled Al-2 wt% Al2O3 composite strips is a typical ductile fracture, while the failure mode was shear ductile fracture with more flat surfaces in Al-4 wt% Al2O3 strips.

  13. Real-Time Plasmonic Monitoring of Single Gold Amalgam Nanoalloy Electrochemical Formation and Stripping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun-Gang; Fossey, John S; Li, Meng; Xie, Tao; Long, Yi-Tao

    2016-03-01

    Direct electrodeposition of mercury onto gold nanorods on an ITO substrate, without reducing agents, is reported. The growth of single gold amalgam nanoalloy particles and subsequent stripping was monitored in real-time monitoring by plasmonic effects and single-nanoparticle dark-field spectroelectrochemistry techniques. Time-dependent scattering spectral information conferred insight into the growth and stripping mechanism of a single nanoalloy particle. Four critical stages were observed: First, rapid deposition of Hg atoms onto Au nanorods; second, slow diffusion of Hg atoms into Au nanorods; third, prompt stripping of Hg atoms from Au nanorods; fourth, moderate diffusion from the inner core of Au nanorods. Under high Hg(2+) concentrations, homogeneous spherical gold amalgam nanoalloys were obtained. These results demonstrate that the morphology and composition of individual gold amalgam nanoalloys can be precisely regulated electrochemically. Moreover, gold amalgam nanoalloys with intriguing optical properties, such as modulated plasmonic lifetimes and quality factor Q, could be obtained. This may offer opportunities to extend applications in photovoltaic energy conversion and chemical sensing. PMID:26942394

  14. Plutonium and neptunium stripping in single cycle solvent extraction flowsheets: recent progress in flowsheet testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of single cycle solvent extraction flowsheets and centrifugal contactors are key objectives in the development of advanced processes for spent fuel and waste processing in future closed fuel cycles. These advances lead to intensified processes, reducing the costs of plants and the volumes of wastes arising. By adopting other flowsheet changes, such as reduced fission product decontamination factors, U/Pu co-processing and Pu/Np co-stripping, further improvements can be made addressing issues such as proliferation resistance and minor actinide burning, without adverse effects on the products. The cost-effective development of such flowsheets benefits from an understanding of the underlying process chemistry coupled with powerful modelling and simulation techniques. These can then be combined with a limited number of miniature scale solvent extraction trials to develop, optimise and ultimately define flowsheet envelopes for larger scale and/or fully active testing, if required. This paper reports recent progress made in the development of flowsheets for the co-stripping of Pu and Np from U in so-called advanced Purex processes using centrifugal contactors. In particular, the use of simple hydroxamic acids to strip both Pu and Np using complexation and reduction is considered with reference to solvent extraction trials in a miniature centrifugal contactor rig. These data are suitable for evaluation using process models with identification of significant parameters including distribution data, mass transfer rates and chemical kinetics. (authors)

  15. An Analysis of Finite Difference and Galerkin Techniques Applied to the Simulation of Advection and Diffusion of Air Pollutants from a Line Source

    OpenAIRE

    Runca, E.; Melli, P.; Sardei, F.

    1981-01-01

    A finite difference and a Galerkin type scheme are compared with reference to a very accurate solution describing time dependent advection and diffusion of air pollutants from a line source in an atmosphere vertically stratified and limited by an inversion layer. The accurate solution was achieved by applying the finite difference scheme on a very refined grid with a very small time step. Grid size and time step were defined according to stability and accuracy criteria discussed in the t...

  16. Results of Laboratory Testing of Advanced Power Strips: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Earle, L.; Sparn, B.

    2012-08-01

    This paper describes the results of a laboratory investigation to evaluate the technical performance of advanced power strip (APS) devices when subjected to a range of home entertainment center and home office usage scenarios.

  17. Nanoscale Test Strips for Multiplexed Blood Analysis Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The goal of our nanoscale test strips, or nanostrips, is to provide rapid, low-cost, powerful multiplexed analyses in a diminutive form so that whole body health...

  18. Slow-plasmon resonant nano-strip antennas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Thomas; Beermann, Jonas; Boltasseva, Alexandra;

    2008-01-01

    Resonant scattering by gold nanostrip antennas due to constructive interference of counterpropagating slow surface plasmon polaritons SPPs is analyzed, including the quasistatic limit of ultrasmall antennas, and experimentally demonstrated. The phase of slow SPP reflection by strip ends is found ...

  19. The role of sealing strips in tubular heat exchangers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tubular-type heat exchangers contain both baffle plates and sealing strips. The baffles force the flow to pass normal to the axes of the tubes and they serve to support the tubes. In order to facilitate assembly of the heat exchanger, a space exists between the tube bundle and the retaining shell. This space offers a hydraulic short circuit to the fluid, thus reducing the effectiveness of the device to exchange heat. Sealing strips, which are metal strips mounted on the shell and running parallel to the tubes, are introduced to partially block this leakage flow, thereby increasing the effectiveness of the device. The objectives of the research reported here are to experimentally determine the effectiveness of sealing strips, and to investigate the effects of their shape and location. Such results not only supply design information, but they serve to establish the accuracy of computer codes which have been developed for such heat exchangers. (author)

  20. Data acquisition software for the CMS strip tracker

    CERN Document Server

    Bainbridge, R; Bel, S; Cole, J; Cripps, N; Delaere, C; Jesus, A C A; Drouhin, F; Fulcher, J; Giassi, A; Gill, K; Giordano, D; Gross, L; Hahn, K; Mersi, S; Mirabito, L; Nikolic, M; Radicci, V; Tkaczyk, S; Wingham, M

    2008-01-01

    The CMS silicon strip tracker, providing a sensitive area of approximately 200 m2 and comprising 10 million readout channels, has recently been completed at the tracker integration facility at CERN. The strip tracker community is currently working to develop and integrate the online and offline software frameworks, known as XDAQ and CMSSW respectively, for the purposes of data acquisition and detector commissioning and monitoring. Recent developments have seen the integration of many new services and tools within the online data acquisition system, such as event building, online distributed analysis, an online monitoring framework, and data storage management. We review the various software components that comprise the strip tracker data acquisition system, the software architectures used for stand-alone and global data-taking modes. Our experiences in commissioning and operating one of the largest ever silicon micro-strip tracking systems are also reviewed.

  1. Method for measuring the heavy stripped ion abundances of plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A description is given of a system which uses a velocity filter and an energy filter in tandem to analyze the abundances and energy spreads of highly stripped ions. The system can also serve as a plasma diagnostic. (Auth.)

  2. Measurement of labile copper in wine by medium exchange stripping potentiometry utilising screen printed carbon electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Andrew C; Kontoudakis, Nikolaos; Barril, Celia; Schmidtke, Leigh M; Scollary, Geoffrey R

    2016-07-01

    The presence of copper in wine is known to impact the reductive, oxidative and colloidal stability of wine, and techniques enabling measurement of different forms of copper in wine are of particular interest in understanding these spoilage processes. Electrochemical stripping techniques developed to date require significant pretreatment of wine, potentially disturbing the copper binding equilibria. A thin mercury film on a screen printed carbon electrode was utilised in a flow system for the direct analysis of labile copper in red and white wine by constant current stripping potentiometry with medium exchange. Under the optimised conditions, including an enrichment time of 500s and constant current of 1.0μA, the response range was linear from 0.015 to 0.200mg/L. The analysis of 52 red and white wines showed that this technique generally provided lower labile copper concentrations than reported for batch measurement by related techniques. Studies in a model system and in finished wines showed that the copper sulfide was not measured as labile copper, and that loss of hydrogen sulfide via volatilisation induced an increase in labile copper within the model wine system. PMID:27154696

  3. Application of continuous seismic-reflection techniques to delineate paleochannels beneath the Neuse River at US Marine Corps Air Station, Cherry Point, North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardinell, Alex P.

    1999-01-01

    A continuous seismic-reflection profiling survey was conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey on the Neuse River near the Cherry Point Marine Corps Air Station during July 7-24, 1998. Approximately 52 miles of profiling data were collected during the survey from areas northwest of the Air Station to Flanner Beach and southeast to Cherry Point. Positioning of the seismic lines was done by using an integrated navigational system. Data from the survey were used to define and delineate paleochannel alignments under the Neuse River near the Air Station. These data also were correlated with existing surface and borehole geophysical data, including vertical seismic-profiling velocity data collected in 1995. Sediments believed to be Quaternary in age were identified at varying depths on the seismic sections as undifferentiated reflectors and lack the lateral continuity of underlying reflectors believed to represent older sediments of Tertiary age. The sediments of possible Quaternary age thicken to the southeast. Paleochannels of Quaternary age and varying depths were identified beneath the Neuse River estuary. These paleochannels range in width from 870 feet to about 6,900 feet. Two zones of buried paleochannels were identified in the continuous seismic-reflection profiling data. The eastern paleochannel zone includes two large superimposed channel features identified during this study and in re-interpreted 1995 land seismic-reflection data. The second paleochannel zone, located west of the first paleochannel zone, contains several small paleochannels near the central and south shore of the Neuse River estuary between Slocum Creek and Flanner Beach. This second zone of channel features may be continuous with those mapped by the U.S. Geological Survey in 1995 using land seismic-reflection data on the southern end of the Air Station. Most of the channels were mapped at the Quaternary-Tertiary sediment boundary. These channels appear to have been cut into the older sediments

  4. The Strip: Las Vegas and the Symbolic Destruction of Spectacle

    OpenAIRE

    Al, Stefan Johannes

    2010-01-01

    Over the past 70 years, various actors have dramatically reconfigured the Las Vegas Strip in many forms. I claim that behind the Strip's "reinventions" lies a process of symbolic destruction. Since resorts distinguish themselves symbolically, each new round of capital accumulation relies on the destruction of symbolic capital of existing resorts. A new resort either ups the language within a paradigm, or causes a paradigm shift, which devalues the previous resorts even further. This is why, i...

  5. Ram Pressure Stripping in Groups: Comparing Theory and Observations

    OpenAIRE

    Hester, J. A.

    2006-01-01

    Ram pressure stripping may be the dominant mechanisms driving the evolution of galaxy colors in groups and clusters. In this paper, an analytic model of ram pressure stripping is confronted with observations of galaxy colors and star formation rates in groups using a group catalog drawn from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. An observed increase in the fraction of galaxies residing on the red sequence, the red fraction, with both increasing group mass, $M_{gr}$, and decreasing satellite luminosit...

  6. Salvaging the Pullout Strength of Stripped Screws in Osteoporotic Bone

    OpenAIRE

    Pechon, Pierre H. M.; Mears, Simon C.; Langdale, Evan R.; Belkoff, Stephen M.

    2013-01-01

    Our goal was to determine whether the pullout strength of stripped screw holes in osteoporotic bone could be increased with readily available materials from the operating room. We inserted 3.5-mm stainless steel nonlocking self-tapping cortical screws bicortically into 5 osteoporotic humeri. Each screw was first stripped by rotating it 1 full turn past maximum torque. In the control group, the screw was pulled out using an MTS machine (858; MTS Inc, Eden Prairie, Minnesota). In the treatment ...

  7. Performance studies of the CMS strip tracker before installation

    OpenAIRE

    Adam, W.; Anttila, E.; Czellar, S.; Engström, P.; HÀrkönen, J.; KarimÀki, V.; Kortesmaa, J; Kuronen, A.; Lampén, T.; Lindén, T.; Luukka, P. -R.; MÀenpÀÀ, T.; Michal, S.; Tuominen, E.; Tuominiemi, J.

    2009-01-01

    In March 2007 the assembly of the Silicon Strip Tracker was completed at the Tracker Integration Facility at CERN. Nearly 15% of the detector was instrumented using cables, fiber optics, power supplies, and electronics intended for the operation at the LHC. A local chiller was used to circulate the coolant for low temperature operation. In order to understand the efficiency and alignment of the strip tracker modules, a cosmic ray trigger was implemented. From March through July 4.5 million tr...

  8. Continuous extrusion and rolling forming technology of copper strip manufacture

    OpenAIRE

    Yun Xinbing; Zhou Mo; Tian Tian; Zhao Ying

    2015-01-01

    Continuous extrusion and rolling technology was proposed as a new strip production technology. It finished hot rolling process using the waste heat of the continuous extrusion forming. The continuous extrusion and rolling forming process was simulated by DEFORM-3DT software. The influence of extrusion wheel velocity and strip size on the continuous extrusion and rolling forming process was analyzed. The experiment was carried out according to optimized results of numerical simulation, the mic...

  9. Rigorous LiDAR Strip Adjustment with Triangulated Aerial Imagery

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Y. J.; Xiong, X. D.; X. Y. Hu

    2013-01-01

    This paper proposes a POS aided LiDAR strip adjustment method. Firstly, aero-triangulation of the simultaneously obtained aerial images is conducted with a few photogrammetry-specific ground control points. Secondly, LiDAR intensity images are generated from the reflectance signals of laser foot points, and conjugate points are automatically matched between the LiDAR intensity image and the aero-triangulated aerial image. Control points used in LiDAR strip adjustment are derived from...

  10. High speed twin roll casting of 6061 alloy strips

    OpenAIRE

    T. Haga; H. Sakaguchi; Watari, H; S. Kumai

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: of this paper is to clear the possibility of high speed roll casting of thin strips of two aluminum alloys:6061 and recycled 6061. Mechanical properties of the roll cast 6061 and recycled 6061 strips were investigated inthe frame of this purpose.Design/methodology/approach: Methods used in the present study were high speed twin roll caster and lowtemperature casting. These methods were used to realize rapid solidification and increase the casting speed.Findings: are that 6061 and rec...

  11. Structural investigations of HSS rolls for hot strip mill

    OpenAIRE

    Lecomte-Beckers, Jacqueline; Tchuindjang, Jérôme Tchoufack; Ernst, R.; Breyer, J.-P.

    2004-01-01

    High Speed Steel (HSS) cast rolls are used in front finishing stands of hot strip mills (HSM). Good wear resistance and hardness at high temperatures, are defining features of HSS. Previous experience has shown that HSS rolls containing mainly hard MC carbides have a high friction coefficient, which is detrimental for the rolling power consumption and for the strip surface quality. On the other hand, HSS rolls containing eutectic rod shaped carbides are brittle and more susc...

  12. Study on the air-lift circulation technique for water-well drilling in karst leaking stratum%岩溶漏失层气助正循环水井钻探新技术的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋志彬; 张金昌; 许刘万

    2012-01-01

    气助正循环水井钻探新技术主要适用于以岩溶地层为特征的严重漏失地层.该技术通过在双壁钻具的内外管之间泵入压缩空气,举升在钻具与孔壁之间的“环空”形成的空气泥浆.“环空”的气举加速作用阻碍了钻井循环液在地层方向的漏失,并且加速了钻屑的上返速度.该技术的优点在北京房山区岩溶漏失地层的600m水井钻探生产试验中得到了证实.试验结果表明,利用该技术可使泥浆正循环中因严重漏失造成的循环液中断得以恢复,“环空气举作用”大幅度提高了上返的泥浆流量.经对比试验证明,气助正循环工艺在岩溶漏失层的钻进速度高于气举反循环和泥浆正循环,是解决岩溶漏失层钻井液循环中断、钻头烧钻、埋钻等钻探事故的有效方法.%This technique is mainly concerned with a new study of water-well drilling method, which is well applied in severe leakage stratum, especially in karst stratum. Unlike other drilling method, air-lift drilling technique applies the compressed air through the dual wall drilling pipe, lifting the air-mud in annular space between the outer pipe and the wall of hole. The accelerated air-mud speeds up the circulating mud to reduce the leakage capacity and lift cuttings rapidly. Several advantages of this drilling technique were found in the fieldwork research which undertook in the 600 m water well drilling in Fangshan, Beijing. The fieldwork research mainly carried out by the experiment of air-lift drilling tools revealed that the broken circulation of drilling mud had been recovered and the flow of the return mud had been largely improved. The drilling speed of this technique is quicker than the air-lift reverse circulation or the mud drilling method. In severe-leakage stratum, this technique has been proved to be efficient in solve drilling problems, such as broken circulation and burned drill bit. Further study of air-lift drilling method

  13. Technical trends and future prospectives of welding technology for transportation, land, sea, air and space; Orientation technique et perspectives de la technologie du soudage pour les transports

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2005-02-01

    The first part of this conference deals more particularly with the analyses of the articles whose subjects are the welding techniques used in the transportation industries. The friction stir welding is particularly described but the traditional techniques are not forgotten. The volume containing all the papers presented at this conference is available from the secretary's office of the IIW. (O.M.)

  14. Development of a thin steel strip casting process. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, R.S.

    1994-04-01

    This is a comprehensive effort to develop direct strip casting to the point where a pilot scale program for casting carbon steel strip could be initiated. All important aspects of the technology were being investigated, however the program was terminated early due to a change in the business strategy of the primary contractor, Armco Inc. (focus to be directed at specialty steels, not low carbon steel). At termination, the project was on target on all milestones and under budget. Major part was casting of strip at the experiment casting facility. A new caster, capable of producing direct cast strip of up to 12 in. wide in heats of 1000 and 3000 lb, was used. A total of 81 1000-1200 lb heats were cast as well as one test heat of 3000 lb. Most produced strip of from 0.016 to 0.085 in. thick. Process reliability was excellent for short casting times; quality was generally poor from modern hot strip mill standards, but the practices necessary for good surface quality were identified.

  15. Induction heating in in-line strip production process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ISP (In-line Strip Production), a continuous process for steel strip production, has recently been set in an italian innovative plant, where ecological impact and power requirements are lighter than usual. This report describes the studies performed by ENEA (Italian Agency for New Technologies, Energy and the Environment), while a prototype reheating facility was arranged by Acciaieria ISP in Cremona (Italy). The authors, after a study of the prototype electromagnetic field, calculate the heating rate, with the thermal network method. Then they detect, with a 1-D-FEM, the heat diffusion through the strip cross section. Afterward, since the heat distribution depends on the eddy current density one, which is given by the magnetic field distribution, the authors, with a 3-D-FEM, carry out a coupled, electromagnetic and thermal, analysis in time domain. The strip temperature map is established by the balance between skin depth heating and surface cooling: a thermal analysis, performed with a moving 2-D-FEM, take into account the effects of the different heating and cooling situations, originated by the strip moving at a speed of 6m/min through four consecutive reheating facilities. The temperatures of a strip sample heated by the prototype have been monitored, acquired by a computer and related with the simulation results. The little difference between experiment and simulation assessed the qualitative and quantitative validity of this analysis, that has come out to be a tool, useful to evaluate the effects of possible improvements to the ISP process

  16. Modification of pure oxygen absorption equipment for concurrent stripping of carbon dioxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watten, B.J.; Sibrell, P.L.; Montgomery, G.A.; Tsukuda, S.M.

    2004-01-01

    The high solubility of carbon dioxide precludes significant desorption within commercial oxygen absorption equipment. This operating characteristic of the equipment limits its application in recirculating water culture systems despite its ability to significantly increase allowable fish loading rates (kg/(L min)). Carbon dioxide (DC) is typically removed by air stripping. This process requires a significant energy input for forced air movement, air heating in cold climates and water pumping. We developed a modification for a spray tower that provides for carbon dioxide desorption as well as oxygen absorption. Elimination of the air-stripping step reduces pumping costs while allowing dissolved nitrogen to drop below saturation concentrations. This latter response provides for an improvement in oxygen absorption efficiency within the spray tower. DC desorption is achieved by directing head-space gases from the spray tower (O2, N2, CO2) through a sealed packed tower scrubber receiving a 2 N NaOH solution. Carbon dioxide is selectively removed from the gas stream, by chemical reaction, forming the product Na 2CO3. Scrubber off-gas, lean with regard to carbon dioxide but still rich with oxygen, is redirected through the spray tower for further stripping of DC and absorption of oxygen. Make-up NaOH is metered into the scrubbing solution sump on an as needed basis as directed by a feedback control loop programmed to maintain a scrubbing solution pH of 11.4-11.8. The spent NaOH solution is collected, then regenerated for reuse, in a batch process that requires relatively inexpensive hydrated lime (Ca(OH)2). A by-product of the regeneration step is an alkaline filter cake, which may have use in bio-solids stabilization. Given the enhanced gas transfer rates possible with chemical reaction, the required NaOH solution flow rate through the scrubber represents a fraction of the spray tower water flow rate. Further, isolation of the water being treated from the atmosphere (1

  17. Excised segments of rat small intestine in Ussing chamber studies: A comparison of native and stripped tissue viability and permeability to drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjögren, Erik; Eriksson, Johanna; Vedin, Charlotta; Breitholtz, Katarina; Hilgendorf, Constanze

    2016-05-30

    Excised rat intestinal tissue mounted in an Ussing chamber can be used for intestinal permeability assessments in drug development. The outer layer of the intestine, the serosa and part of the muscle layer, is traditionally removed since it is considered a barrier to the diffusion of nutrients and oxygen as well as to that of pharmaceutical substances. However, the procedure for removing the serosal-muscle layer, i.e. stripping, is a technically challenging process in the pre-experimental preparation of the tissue which may result in tissue damage and reduced viability of the segment. In this study, the viability of stripped and native (non-stripped) rat small intestine tissue segments mounted in Ussing chambers was monitored and the apparent permeability of the tissue to a set of test compounds across both tissue preparations was determined. Electrical measurements, in particular the potential difference (PD) across the intestinal membrane, were used to evaluate the viability. In this study, there were no differences in initial PD (health status of the tissue) or PD over time (viability throughout the experiment) between native and stripped rat jejunum segments. Overall, there were also no significant differences in permeability between stripped and native rat intestinal tissue for the compounds in this study. Based on these results, we propose that stripping can be excluded from the preparation procedures for rat jejunal tissue for permeability studies when using the Ussing chamber technique. PMID:27073083

  18. It is easier with CAD/CAM. Designing flow machines for air conditioning technique with computer-aided methods; Mit CAD/CAM geht`s besser. Stroemungsmaschinen fuer die Klimatechnik anwendungsspezifisch auslegen mit Hilfe computerunterstuetzter Methoden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carolus, T. [Universitaet-Gesamthochschule Siegen (Germany). Inst. fuer Fluid- und Thermodynamik; Homrighausen, B. [Universitaet-Gesamthochschule Siegen (Germany). Inst. fuer Fluid- und Thermodynamik; Beiler, M. [Universitaet-Gesamthochschule Siegen (Germany). Inst. fuer Fluid- und Thermodynamik

    1994-08-08

    One requires many flow machines for circulation and delivery in air conditioning and ventilation technique. Computer-aided design and manufacture (CAD/CAM) and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) are now important aids for queck and reliable development of advanced flow machines. Conventional design processes supply the raw data of the generally very complicated geometry. (orig.) [Deutsch] In der Klima- und Lueftungstechnik benoetigt man zahlreiche Stroemungsmaschinen zum Umwaelzen und Foerdern. CAD/CAM (Computer aided design und manufacture) und CFD (Computational fluid dynamics) sind heute wichtige Hilfsmittel zur schnellen und zuverlaessigen Entwicklung fortschrittlicher Stroemungsmaschinen. Klassische Auslegeverfahren liefern die Rohdaten der allgemein sehr komplizierten Geometrie. (orig.)

  19. Flattening of narrow and thin stainless steel strips

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Przondziono

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the influence of technological parameters of flattening in theball rolling mill on spread and geometrical properties of strips made of stainless steel of 1.4310 type and to obtainmathematical models of flattening process.Design/methodology/approach: Flattening was performed in ball rolling mill in which cylindrical rollershave been replaced with balls of ~ 15mm diameter. Due to small dimensions to be measured we suggested themethod of vector measurement of digital image. In order to evaluate the influence of technological parameters offlattening process, experimental planning method was used. The adoption of fractional experiment plan of 35-1 typeenabled to reduce the number of experiments to 81, despite 5 variables.Findings: The results of performed tests have shown that strip spread is dependent on ball roughness, used draft,relation of wire diameter to ball diameter, back tension stress. The influence of tension stress has not been proved.Strip flatness depends on used draft. Observations have proved good quality of strip edges. No fractures have beendetected, even in the case of flattening by means of big draft. Strip surface was of good quality.Research limitations/implications: Test results we have obtained indicate usefulness of research methodthat has been used as far as determination of influence of flattening process technological parameters on spreadand strip geometrical properties are concerned. It has also been proved that it is purposeful to replace cylindricalrollers with balls in rolling mills.Practical implications: Flattening process mathematical models enable to assess rational procedure of flatteningprocess parameters selection in a ball rolling mill, that determines obtaining of the required geometrical characteristicsof strips. The results can be used directly when manufacturing strips for springs made of stainless steel 1.4310.Originality/value: Uniform thickness throughout

  20. Microstructure evolution of eutectic Al-Cu strips by high-speed twin-roll strip casting process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahoo, Seshadev; Ghosh, Sudipto

    2015-10-01

    In the present investigation, microstructural evolutions of functionally graded eutectic Al-Cu strips prepared by high-speed twin-roll strip caster at different casting speeds and liquid melt superheats were studied. The as-cast sample was subjected to scanning electron microscope to study the evolution of microstructure of the strip at different casting speeds and liquid melt superheats. At different casting speeds, non-equilibrium eutectic structure observed on the Al-Cu eutectic strip consists of lamellar as well as wavy structure with a distinct boundary. The lamellar microstructure consists of alternating layers of well-bonded α-Al phase and θ-Al2Cu phase. The globular flowery structure within the eutectic matrix was observed on the strip at different liquid melt superheats. The microhardness of the as-cast strip was studied by Vickers hardness tester, and it was found that hardness value increases with increasing casting speed and decreases with increasing liquid melt superheat.