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Sample records for air stripping technique

  1. Air stripping. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the application of air stripping techniques to water treatment, including groundwater decontamination and wastewater purification. The advantages and disadvantages of air stripping over other water treatment processes are discussed. Cleanup of the organic emissions generated by air stripping is also considered. The primary applications of air stripping are in groundwater and soil cleanup. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  2. Distillation and Air Stripping Designs for the Lunar Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boul, Peter J.; Lange, Kevin E.; Conger, Bruce; Anderson, Molly

    2009-01-01

    Air stripping and distillation are two different gravity-based methods, which may be applied to the purification of wastewater on the lunar base. These gravity-based solutions to water processing are robust physical separation techniques, which may be advantageous to many other techniques for their simplicity in design and operation. The two techniques can be used in conjunction with each other to obtain high purity water. The components and feed compositions for modeling waste water streams are presented in conjunction with the Aspen property system for traditional stage distillation models and air stripping models. While the individual components for each of the waste streams will vary naturally within certain bounds, an analog model for waste water processing is suggested based on typical concentration ranges for these components. Target purity levels for the for recycled water are determined for each individual component based on NASA s required maximum contaminant levels for potable water Distillation processes are modeled separately and in tandem with air stripping to demonstrate the potential effectiveness and utility of these methods in recycling wastewater on the Moon. Optimum parameters such as reflux ratio, feed stage location, and processing rates are determined with respect to the power consumption of the process. Multistage distillation is evaluated for components in wastewater to determine the minimum number of stages necessary for each of 65 components in humidity condensate and urine wastewater mixed streams. Components of the wastewater streams are ranked by Henry s Law Constant and the suitability of air stripping in the purification of wastewater in terms of component removal is evaluated. Scaling factors for distillation and air stripping columns are presented to account for the difference in the lunar gravitation environment. Commercially available distillation and air stripping units which are considered suitable for Exploration Life Support

  3. New continuous air pumping technique to improve clinical outcomes of descemet-stripping automated endothelial keratoplasty in asian patients with previous ahmed glaucoma valve implantation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-Min Liang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: To evaluate the outcomes of Descemet-stripping automated endothelial keratoplasty (DSAEK with the use of continuous air pumping technique in Asian eyes with previous Ahmed glaucoma valve implantation. METHODS: The DSAEK procedure was modified in that complete air retention of the anterior chamber was maintained for 10 min using continuous air pumping at 30 mm Hg. The primary outcome measurement was graft survival, and postoperative clinical features including, rate of graft detachment, endothelial cell count, intraocular pressure (IOP, surgical time and cup/disc ratio were also recorded. RESULTS: A total of 13 eyes of 13 patients which underwent modified DSAEK and 6 eyes of 6 patients which underwent conventional DSAEK were included. There was a significant difference in graft survival curves between two groups (P = 0.029; the 1-year graft survival rates were estimated as 100% and 66.7% for patients with modified DSAEK and those with traditional DSAEK, respectively. The rate of graft detachment were 0% and 33.3% for the modified DSAEK and conventional DSAEK groups, respectively (P = 0.088. The significantly lowered surgical time for air tamponade was noted in the modified DSAEK group compared to that in the conventional DSAEK group [median (IQR: 10.0 (10.0, 10.0 min vs. 24.5 (22.0, 27.0 min; P<0.001] Postoperatively, patients in the modified DSAEK group had significantly lower IOP as compared to the conventional DSAEK group [12.0 (11.0, 15.0 mm Hg vs. 16.0 (15.0, 18.0 mm Hg; P = 0.047]. Modified DSAEK patients had higher endothelial cell counts as compared to conventional DSAEK patients [2148.0 (1964.0, 2218.0 vs. 1529.0 (713.0, 2014.0], but the difference did not reach statistical significance (P = 0.072. CONCLUSIONS: New continuous air pumping technique in DSAEK can be performed safely and effectively in patients with prior GDDs placement who have corneal failure.

  4. Depletive stripping chronopotentiometry : a major step forward in electrochemical stripping techniques for metal ion speciation analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Town, R.M.; Leeuwen, van H.P.

    2004-01-01

    A comparative evaluation of the utility of the various modes of stripping chronopotentiometry (SCP) for trace metal speciation analysis is presented in the broad context of stripping voltammetric techniques. The remarkable fundamental advantages of depletive SCP at scanned deposition potential (SSCP

  5. INSECTICIDE CONCENTRATIONS IN AIR AFTER APPLICATION OF PEST CONTROL STRIPS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contamination of air in homes due to spraying of pesticides is of concern to the public. A pest control strip which kills creeping and crawling insects by contact is one method of reducing the amount of insecticide in the air. Several different insecticides are now available in t...

  6. Photomask technique for fabricating high purity germanium strip detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new technology for germanium strip detectors has been developed. This technique uses a photomask process which needs no growing and etching and allows all kinds of segmented electrodes. Typically we have obtained 1.2 keV FWHM on the 122 keV line of 57Co and a X-Y detector having 20 strips in each side. (orig.)

  7. Ammonia removal from landfill leachate by air stripping and absorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraz, Fernanda M; Povinelli, Jurandyr; Vieira, Eny Maria

    2013-01-01

    An old landfill leachate was pre-treated in a pilot-scale aerated packed tower operated in batch mode for total ammoniacal nitrogen (TAN) removal. The stripped ammonia was recovered with a 0.4 mol L(-1) H2SO4 solution, deionized water and tap water. Ca(OH)2 (95% purity) or commercial hydrated lime was added to the raw leachate to adjust its pH to 11, causing removal of colour (82%) and heavy metals (70-90% for Zn, Fe and Mn). The 0.4 molL(-1) H2SO4 solution was able to neutralize 80% of the stripped ammonia removed from 12 L of leachate. The effectiveness of the neutralization of ammonia with deionized water was 75%. Treating 100 L of leachate, the air stripping tower removed 88% of TAN after 72 h of aeration, and 87% of the stripped ammonia was recovered in two 31 L pilot-scale absorption units filled with 20 L of tap water. PMID:24350487

  8. Application of Adaptive Threading Technique to Hot Strip Mill

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DING Jing-guo; HU Xian-lei; JIAO Jing-min; SHE Guang-fu; LIU Xiang-hua

    2008-01-01

    Thickness deviation of hot strip rolling needs to be strictly controlled in the computer system.An adaptive threading technique was researched,in which the measured data from threaded stands were used to predict thickness and material hardness errors,to modify the setup for the remaining unthreaded stands.After the adaptive threading model was used online on the hot strip mill of the Panzhihua Iron and Steel Group Co Ltd,the thickness deviation was decreased obviously.The hit rate of thickness control of different steel grades increases.

  9. Comparative evaluation of scanned stripping techniques: SSCP vs. SSV

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Town, R.M.; Leeuwen, van H.P.

    2006-01-01

    The characteristic features of scanned deposition potential curves constructed from stripping chronopotentiometry (SSCP) and various modes of stripping voltammetry (SSV) are critically evaluated. The strengths and weaknesses of each method for identification of metal ion speciation features and susc

  10. Air Stripping Designs and Reactive Water Purification Processes for the Lunar Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boul, Peter J.; Lange, Kevin; Conger, Bruce; Anderson, Molly

    2010-01-01

    Air stripping designs are considered to reduce the presence of volatile organic compounds in the purified water. Components of the wastewater streams are ranked by Henry's Law Constant and the suitability of air stripping in the purification of wastewater in terms of component removal is evaluated. Distillation processes are modeled in tandem with air stripping to demonstrate the potential effectiveness and utility of these methods in recycling wastewater on the Moon. Scaling factors for distillation and air stripping columns are presented to account for the difference in the lunar gravitation environment. Commercially available distillation and air stripping units which are considered suitable for Exploration Life Support are presented. The advantages to the various designs are summarized with respect to water purity levels, power consumption, and processing rates. An evaluation of reactive distillation and air stripping is presented with regards to the reduction of volatile organic compounds in the contaminated water and air. Among the methods presented, an architecture is presented for the evaluation of the simultaneous oxidation of organics in air and water. These and other designs are presented in light of potential improvements in power consumptions and air and water purities for architectures which include catalytic activity integrated into the water processor. In particular, catalytic oxidation of organics may be useful as a tool to remove contaminants that more traditional distillation and/or air stripping columns may not remove. A review of the current leading edge at the commercial level and at the research frontier in catalytically active materials is presented. Themes and directions from the engineering developments in catalyst design are presented conceptually in light of developments in the nanoscale chemistry of a variety of catalyst materials.

  11. Development Of Chemical Reduction And Air Stripping Processes To Remove Mercury From Wastewater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study evaluates the removal of mercury from wastewater using chemical reduction and air stripping using a full-scale treatment system at the Savannah River Site. The existing water treatment system utilizes air stripping as the unit operation to remove organic compounds from groundwater that also contains mercury (C ~ 250 ng/L). The baseline air stripping process was ineffective in removing mercury and the water exceeded a proposed limit of 51 ng/L. To test an enhancement to the existing treatment modality a continuous dose of reducing agent was injected for 6-hours at the inlet of the air stripper. This action resulted in the chemical reduction of mercury to Hg(0), a species that is removable with the existing unit operation. During the injection period a 94% decrease in concentration was observed and the effluent satisfied proposed limits. The process was optimized over a 2-day period by sequentially evaluating dose rates ranging from 0.64X to 297X stoichiometry. A minimum dose of 16X stoichiometry was necessary to initiate the reduction reaction that facilitated the mercury removal. Competing electron acceptors likely inhibited the reaction at the lower 1 doses, which prevented removal by air stripping. These results indicate that chemical reduction coupled with air stripping can effectively treat large-volumes of water to emerging part per trillion regulatory standards for mercury

  12. Development Of Chemical Reduction And Air Stripping Processes To Remove Mercury From Wastewater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jackson, Dennis G.; Looney, Brian B.; Craig, Robert R.; Thompson, Martha C.; Kmetz, Thomas F.

    2013-07-10

    This study evaluates the removal of mercury from wastewater using chemical reduction and air stripping using a full-scale treatment system at the Savannah River Site. The existing water treatment system utilizes air stripping as the unit operation to remove organic compounds from groundwater that also contains mercury (C ~ 250 ng/L). The baseline air stripping process was ineffective in removing mercury and the water exceeded a proposed limit of 51 ng/L. To test an enhancement to the existing treatment modality a continuous dose of reducing agent was injected for 6-hours at the inlet of the air stripper. This action resulted in the chemical reduction of mercury to Hg(0), a species that is removable with the existing unit operation. During the injection period a 94% decrease in concentration was observed and the effluent satisfied proposed limits. The process was optimized over a 2-day period by sequentially evaluating dose rates ranging from 0.64X to 297X stoichiometry. A minimum dose of 16X stoichiometry was necessary to initiate the reduction reaction that facilitated the mercury removal. Competing electron acceptors likely inhibited the reaction at the lower 1 doses, which prevented removal by air stripping. These results indicate that chemical reduction coupled with air stripping can effectively treat large-volumes of water to emerging part per trillion regulatory standards for mercury.

  13. New Technique of Casting-rolling Strips for Semi-solid Magnesium Alloys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shuisheng XIE; Maopeng GENG; Xinmin ZHOU; Ying ZHANG; Songyang ZHANG; Yanchun WANG; Guojie HUANG

    2005-01-01

    The conjugation of semi-solid process technique and casting-rolling technique applied to produce the magnesium strips was studied. The semi-solid slurry hasbeen prepared continuously by the mechanical method and its temperature was controlled strictly at the same time. AZ91D and AZ31 casting magnesium alloys were applied to the experiment.The casting-rolling strips with non-dendritic structure were obtained and its main mechanical property is better. The process ability of the casting-rolling strips was studied. It is significative to link the semi-solid process techniques and casting-rolling techniques, through which we can get high quality magnesium alloy strips with non- dendritic structure and improve the overall properties of the products.

  14. Key techniques of automatic gauge control and profile control for aluminium strip and foil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Mou-wei; LIU Hong-fei; WANG Xiang-li; TONG Chao-nan; YIN Feng-fu; BIAN Xin-xiao; ZHANG Lei

    2006-01-01

    Such characteristics of aluminium strip and foil as soft and thin gauge make tension control one of the key techniques for automation gauge control(AGC). To avoid the disadvantage of traditional mathematical control method which is unfitful for nonlinear hysteresis, the technique for tension AGC fuzzy control was developed and thickness deviation more than 3% of product thickness was achieved consequently in 1 350 mm cold rolling mill of aluminium strip and foil. Additionally, because the gauge of aluminium strip and foil is thin, stage-cooling roll method becomes a key technique for profile control. So stage-cooling roll intelligent control method is developed and pre-coated aluminum foil with good profile less than 10 I (the relative differences in elongation of 0.01% ) is produced using the profile control system in 1 400 mm cold rolling mill of aluminium strip and foil.

  15. Deep percolation in greenhouse-cultivated celery using the technique of subsurface film strips placement

    OpenAIRE

    Zhida Du; Longtan Shao; Mingchao Ma

    2014-01-01

    To reduce the deep percolation during greenhouse vegetable cultivation, the technique of subsurface film strips placement was tested. Four treatments with two kinds of cross-sections (flat and U-shaped) and two different spacings (10 cm and 40 cm) of subsurface film strips were arranged in a greenhouse before planting celery. At the same time, a non-film treatment was arranged for comparison. Soil water content was measured and irrigation time was adjusted according to the soil water content....

  16. Use of a Radon Stripping Algorithm for Retrospective Assessment of Air Filter Samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert Hayes

    2009-01-23

    An evaluation of a large number of air sample filters was undertaken using a commercial alpha and beta spectroscopy system employing a passive implanted planar silicon (PIPS) detector. Samples were only measured after air flow through the filters had ceased. Use of a commercial radon stripping algorithm was implemented to discriminate anthropogenic alpha and beta activity on the filters from the radon progeny. When uncontaminated air filters were evaluated, the results showed that there was a time-dependent bias in both average estimates and measurement dispersion with the relative bias being small compared to the dispersion. By also measuring environmental air sample filters simultaneously with electroplated alpha and beta sources, use of the radon stripping algorithm demonstrated a number of substantial unexpected deviations. Use of the current algorithm is therefore not recommended for assay applications and so use of the PIPS detector should only be utilized for gross counting without appropriate modifications to the curve fitting algorithm. As a screening method, the radon stripping algorithm might be expected to see elevated alpha and beta activities on air sample filters (not due to radon progeny) around the 200 dpm level.

  17. Problems Found Using a Radon Stripping Algorithm for Retrospective Assessment of Air Filter Samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert Hayes

    2008-04-01

    An evaluation of a large number of air sample filters was undertaken using a commercial alpha and beta spectroscopy system employing a passive implanted planar silicon (PIPS) detector. Samples were only measured after air flow through the filters had ceased. Use of a commercial radon stripping algorithm was implemented to discriminate anthropogenic alpha activity on the filters from the radon progeny. When uncontaminated air filters were evaluated, the results showed that there was a time-dependent bias in both average estimates and measurement dispersion of anthropogenic activity estimates with the relative bias being small compared to the dispersion, indicating that the system would not give false positive indications for an appropriately set decision level. By also measuring environmental air sample filters simultaneously with electroplated alpha filters, use of the radon stripping algorithm demonstrated a number of substantial unexpected deviations from calibrated values indicating that the system would give false negative indications. Use of the current algorithm is, therefore, not recommended for general assay applications. Use of the PIPS detector should only be utilized for gross counting without appropriate modifications to the curve-fitting algorithm. As a screening method, the radon stripping algorithm might be expected to see elevated alpha activities on air sample filters (not due to radon progeny) around the 200 disintegrations per minute level.

  18. Effect of CO{sub 2} air mixtures on the pH of air-stripped water at Treatment Facility D

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krauter, P.W.; Harrar, J.E.; Orloff, S.P.

    1998-01-01

    A small-scale model of the air stripping tanks at TFD was constructed and tested to determine the effect of carbon dioxide additions, to the stripper air, on system water pH. The objective was to determine whether this technique could be used to control and minimize CaCO{sub 3} scale formation. It was found that a concentration of 0.7 vol. % CO{sub 2} is required to maintain the water at its original, influent pH value of 7.4, but lower concentrations may be effective in controlling scale. There is also a possibility of reducing CO{sub 2} consumption by recycling the CO{sub 2}-rich air. The use of CO{sub 2} injection at Site 300 water treatment is reviewed.

  19. Air stripping of volatile organic chlorocarbons: System development, performance, and lessons learned (U)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Savannah River Site, which has been in operation since the 1950's, is a 780-square kilometer reservation that produces tritium for the national defense program. As a result of past waste handling practices, the ground water at several locations on the Site has become contaminated with solvents, metals, and radionuclides. In 1981, the ground water located under the Site's fuel and target rod fabrication area (M-Area) was found to be contaminated with degreasing solvents, specifically trichloroethylene (TCE) and tetrachloroethylene (PCE). In 1983, a program was started to evaluate air stripping and determine its applicability to cleanup of M-Area contamination. Lessons learned regarding the efficiency and effectiveness of air stripping technology are presented

  20. Impact of spherical diffusion on labile trace metal speciation by electrochemical stripping techniques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pinheiro, J.P.; Domingos, R.F.

    2005-01-01

    The impact of the spherical diffusion contribution in labile trace metal speciation by stripping techniques was studied. It was shown that the relative error in the calculation of the stability constants caused by assuming linear diffusion varies with the efficiency of stirring, the diffusion coeffi

  1. Reactive Distillation and Air Stripping Processes for Water Recycling and Trace Contaminant Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boul, Peter J.; Lange, Kevin E.; Conger, Bruce; Anderson, Molly

    2009-01-01

    Reactive distillation designs are considered to reduce the presence of volatile organic compounds in the purified water. Reactive distillation integrates a reactor with a distillation column. A review of the literature in this field has revealed a variety of functional reactive columns in industry. Wastewater may be purified by a combination of a reactor and a distiller (e.g., the EWRS or VPCAR concepts) or, in principle, through a design which integrates the reactor with the distiller. A review of the literature in reactive distillation has identified some different designs in such combinations of reactor and distiller. An evaluation of reactive distillation and reactive air stripping is presented with regards to the reduction of volatile organic compounds in the contaminated water and air. Among the methods presented, an architecture is presented for the evaluation of the simultaneous oxidation of organics in air and water. These and other designs are presented in light of potential improvements in power consumptions and air and water purities for architectures which include catalytic activity integrated into the water processor. In particular, catalytic oxidation of organics may be useful as a tool to remove contaminants that more traditional distillation and/or air stripping columns may not remove. A review of the current leading edge at the commercial level and at the research frontier in catalytically active materials is presented. Themes and directions from the engineering developments in catalyst design are presented conceptually in light of developments in the nanoscale chemistry of a variety of catalyst materials.

  2. Ultralow Level Mercury Treatment Using Chemical Reduction and Air Stripping: Scoping Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Data collected during the first stage of a Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) Strategic Research and Development Project confirmed the efficacy of chemical reduction and air stripping/sparging as an ultralow level mercury treatment concept for waters containing Hg(II). The process consists of dosing the water with low levels of stannous chloride to convert the mercury to Hg. This form of mercury can easily be removed from the water by air stripping or sparging. Samples of Savannah River Site (SRS) groundwater containing approximately 130 ng/L of total mercury (as Hg(II)) were used for the study. In undosed samples, sparging removed 0 percent of the initial mercury. In the dosed samples, all of the removals were greater than 94 percent, except in one water type at one dose. This sample, which was saturated with dissolved oxygen, showed a 63 percent reduction in mercury following treatment at the lowest dose. Following dosing at minimally effective levels and sparging, treated water contained less than 10 ng/L total mercury. In general, the data indicate that the reduction of mercury is highly favored and that stannous chloride reagent efficiently targets the Hg(II) contaminant in the presence of competing reactions. Based on the results, the authors estimated that the costs of implementing and operating an ultralow level mercury treatment process based on chemical reduction and stripping/sparging are 10 percent to 20 percent of traditional treatment technologies

  3. Application of Project Time Management Tools and Techniques to the Construction Industry in the Gaza Strip

    OpenAIRE

    Nabil Sawalhi; Adnan Enshassi

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to investigate the level of applying theproject time management tools and techniques by public ownersand construction contractors in the Gaza Strip. This study hasbeen conducted by means of a survey questionnaire. Seventythreequestionnaires were distributed to target constructioncontractors and twenty-five questionnaires to public owners. Sixtycompleted questionnaires from contractors and twenty-threequestionnaires from public owners were received and analysed.T...

  4. Removal of Chloroform (CHCl3 from Tehran Drinking Water by GAC and Air Stripping Columns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M T Samadi, S Nasseri, A Mesdaghinia, M R Alizadefard

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available The harmful substances, defined as trihalomethanes (THMs, were found to be formed during the disinfection of drinking water when chlorine was used as the disinfectant. In this research, the effectiveness of granular activated carbon (GAC and air stripping (AS packed column for the removal of chloroform (CHCl3 (as THMs basic indicator compound in many resources in range of 50 to300µg/L, from drinking water was studied. Pilots of GAC and air stripping columns were designed and set up. The study was carried out for the two cases of deionized and chlorinated Tehran tap water. Also the effects of flow rate, chloroform and TDS concentrations were considered in both treatment systems. Gas chromatography (GC with electron capture detector (ECD was used for determination of chloroform concentration in inlet and outlet samples. The obtained data were analyzed by SPSS and non-parametric Kruskal–Wallis method. Results showed a positive correlation between the flow rate and chloroform concentration, and removal efficiencies. The average of variations of removal efficiencies for AS and GAC columns with deionized water samples were, 89.9%, 71.2% and for chlorinated Tehran tap water were 91.2% and 76.4%, respectively. The removal of feed residual chlorine in these columns with 0.5, 0.8 ppm was 100%, respectively and re-chlorination for finishing water was recommended. Results showed AS to be considered more effective in chloroform removal for conventional water treatment plants as a finishing process.

  5. Air Quality Assessment Using Interpolation Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Awkash Kumar

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Air pollution is increasing rapidly in almost all cities around the world due to increase in population. Mumbai city in India is one of the mega cities where air quality is deteriorating at a very rapid rate. Air quality monitoring stations have been installed in the city to regulate air pollution control strategies to reduce the air pollution level. In this paper, air quality assessment has been carried out over the sample region using interpolation techniques. The technique Inverse Distance Weighting (IDW of Geographical Information System (GIS has been used to perform interpolation with the help of concentration data on air quality at three locations of Mumbai for the year 2008. The classification was done for the spatial and temporal variation in air quality levels for Mumbai region. The seasonal and annual variations of air quality levels for SO2, NOx and SPM (Suspended Particulate Matter have been focused in this study. Results show that SPM concentration always exceeded the permissible limit of National Ambient Air Quality Standard. Also, seasonal trends of pollutant SPM was low in monsoon due rain fall. The finding of this study will help to formulate control strategies for rational management of air pollution and can be used for many other regions.

  6. Research review: Indoor air quality control techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Techniques for controlling the concentration of radon, formaldehyde, and combustion products in the indoor air are reviewed. The most effective techniques, which are generally based on limiting or reducing indoor pollutant source strengths, can decrease indoor pollutant concentrations by a factor of 3 to 10. Unless the initial ventilation rate is unusually low, it is difficult to reduce indoor pollutant concentrations more than approximately 50% by increasing the ventilation rate of an entire building. However, the efficiency of indoor pollutant control by ventilation can be enhanced through the use of local exhaust ventilation near concentrated sources of pollutants, by minimizing short circuiting of air from supply to exhaust when pollutant sources are dispersed and, in some situations, by promoting a displacement flow of air and pollutants toward the exhaust. Active air cleaning is also examined briefly. Filtration and electrostatic air cleaning for removal of particles from the indoor air are the most practical and effective currently available techniques of air cleaning. 49 refs., 7 figs

  7. METHANOL REMOVAL FROM METHANOL-WATER MIXTURE USING ACTIVATED SLUDGE, AIR STRIPPING AND ADSORPTION PROCESS: COMPARATIVE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SALAM K. AL-DAWERY

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available An experimental research has been carried out in order to examine the removal of methanol from methanol-water mixtures using three different methods; activated sludge; activated carbon and air stripping. The results showed that the methanol was totally consumed by the bacteria as quickly as the feed entered the activated sludge vessel. Air stripping process has a limited ability for removing of methanol due to strong intermolecular forces between methanol and water; however, the results showed that the percentage of methanol removed using air pressure at 0.5 bar was higher than that of using air pressure of 0.25 bar. Removal of methanol from the mixture with a methanol content of 5% using activated carbon was not successful due to the limited capacity of the of the activated carbon. Thus, the activated sludge process can be considered as the most suitable process for the treatment of methanol-water mixtures.

  8. Compressed Air/Vacuum Transportation Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guha, Shyamal

    2011-03-01

    General theory of compressed air/vacuum transportation will be presented. In this transportation, a vehicle (such as an automobile or a rail car) is powered either by compressed air or by air at near vacuum pressure. Four version of such transportation is feasible. In all versions, a ``c-shaped'' plastic or ceramic pipe lies buried a few inches under the ground surface. This pipe carries compressed air or air at near vacuum pressure. In type I transportation, a vehicle draws compressed air (or vacuum) from this buried pipe. Using turbine or reciprocating air cylinder, mechanical power is generated from compressed air (or from vacuum). This mechanical power transferred to the wheels of an automobile (or a rail car) drives the vehicle. In type II-IV transportation techniques, a horizontal force is generated inside the plastic (or ceramic) pipe. A set of vertical and horizontal steel bars is used to transmit this force to the automobile on the road (or to a rail car on rail track). The proposed transportation system has following merits: virtually accident free; highly energy efficient; pollution free and it will not contribute to carbon dioxide emission. Some developmental work on this transportation will be needed before it can be used by the traveling public. The entire transportation system could be computer controlled.

  9. Review of air flow measurement techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McWilliams, Jennifer

    2002-12-01

    Airflow measurement techniques are necessary to determine the most basic of indoor air quality questions: ''Is there enough fresh air to provide a healthy environment for the occupants of the building?'' This paper outlines airflow measurement techniques, but it does not make recommendations for techniques that should be used. The airflows that will be discussed are those within a room or zone, those between rooms or zones, such as through doorways (open or closed) or passive vents, those between the building and outdoors, and those through mechanical air distribution systems. Techniques that are highlighted include particle streak velocimetry, hot wire anemometry, fan pressurization (measuring flow at a given pressure), tracer gas, acoustic methods for leak size determination, the Delta Q test to determine duct leakage flows, and flow hood measurements. Because tracer gas techniques are widely used to measure airflow, this topic is broken down into sections as follows: decay, pulse injection, constant injection, constant concentration, passive sampling, and single and multiple gas measurements for multiple zones.

  10. Resin composite restoration in primary anterior teeth using short-post technique and strip crowns: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes, Fausto Medeiros; De Benedetto, Monique Saveriano; del Conte Zardetto, Cristina Giovannetti; Wanderley, Marcia Turolla; Correa, Maria Salete Nahás Pires

    2004-10-01

    A case report describing a technique for the restoration of endodontically treated primary maxillary incisors with resin composite short posts and celluloid strip crowns in a 3-year-old boy is presented. The technique offers the advantages of using one restorative material, improving esthetics, and reducing chairtime and costs. PMID:15470991

  11. Flow Alteration and Chemical Reduction: Air Stripping to Lessen Subsurface Discharges of Mercury to Surface Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, S. C.; Bogle, M.; Liang, L.; Miller, C. L.; Peterson, M.; Southworth, G. R.; Spalding, B. P.

    2009-12-01

    process water. Greater than 90% of the mercury in that discharge was converted to the highly volatile dissolved Hg(0) by dechlorinating the streamflow with ascorbic acid and then treating it with a near stoichiometric concentration of the chemical reductant stannous chloride. Preliminary engineering evaluations indicate that once converted to Hg(0), mercury in the stream discharge could be removed by in-situ air stripping at the discharge point or perhaps within the enclosed stormdrain network upstream. If chemical reduction:air stripping was eventualy able to remove 80% or more of Hg from water, input to the stream from that source could be lowered from 6 - 8 g/d to 1 - 2 g/d. Together, these two strategies have the potential to eliminate much of the remaining dissolved Hg input to the creek.

  12. Application of ultrasound and air stripping for the removal of aromatic hydrocarbons from spent sulfidic caustic for use in autotrophic denitrification as an electron donor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jae-Ho; Park, Jeung-Jin; Choi, Gi-Choong; Byun, Im-Gyu; Park, Tae-Joo; Lee, Tae-Ho

    2013-01-01

    Spent sulfidic caustic (SSC) produced from petroleum industry can be reused to denitrify nitrate-nitrogen via a biological nitrogen removal process as an electron donor for sulfur-based autotrophic denitrification, because it has a large amount of dissolved sulfur. However, SSC has to be refined because it also contains some aromatic hydrocarbons, typically benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylene (BTEX) and phenol that are recalcitrant organic compounds. In this study, laboratory-scale ultrasound irradiation and air stripping treatment were applied in order to remove these aromatic hydrocarbons. In the ultrasound system, both BTEX and phenol were exponentially removed by ultrasound irradiation during 60 min of reaction time to give the greatest removal efficiency of about 80%. Whereas, about 95% removal efficiency of BTEX was achieved, but not any significant phenol removal, within 30 min in the air stripping system, indicating that air stripping was a more efficient method than ultrasound irradiation. However, since air stripping did not remove any significant phenol, an additional process for degrading phenol was required. Accordingly, we applied a combined ultrasound and air stripping process. In these experiments, the removal efficiencies of BTEX and phenol were improved compared to the application of ultrasound and air stripping alone. Thus, the combined ultrasound and air stripping treatment is appropriate for refining SSC.

  13. Optimization of the integrated citric acid-methane fermentation process by air stripping and glucoamylase addition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jian; Chen, Yang-Qiu; Zhang, Hong-Jian; Wang, Ke; Tang, Lei; Zhang, Jian-Hua; Chen, Xu-Sheng; Mao, Zhong-Gui

    2015-03-01

    To solve the problem of extraction wastewater in citric acid industry, an integrated citric acid-methane fermentation process was proposed. In the integrated process, extraction wastewater was treated by mesophilic anaerobic digestion and then reused to make mash for the next batch of citric acid fermentation. In this study, an Aspergillus niger mutant strain exhibiting resistance to high metal ions concentration was used to eliminate the inhibition of 200 mg/L Na(+) and 300 mg/L K(+) in anaerobic digestion effluent (ADE) and citric acid production increased by 25.0 %. Air stripping was used to remove ammonium, alkalinity, and part of metal ions in ADE before making mash. In consequence, citric acid production was significantly improved but still lower by 6.1 % than the control. Results indicated that metal ions in ADE synergistically inhibited the activity of glucoamylase, thus reducing citric acid production. When 130 U/g glucoamylase was added before fermentation, citric acid production was 141.5 g/L, which was even higher than the control (140.4 g/L). This process could completely eliminate extraction wastewater discharge and reduce water resource consumption.

  14. “Sisebutas” en Buenos Aires. Family strips de los años veinte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Gené

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available El artículo trata sobre una de las más exitosas  family strips que circularon en la prensa en Buenos Aires en la década del veinte: Pequeñas delicias de la vida conyugal,  (Bringin´up father creada por George Macmanus en 1912 para el emporio periodístico de W.R.Hearst. El argumento apunta a las vicisitudes cotidianas de un matrimonio integrado por una mujer “autoritaria” y un marido “dominado”, un  topos humorístico que cuenta con una larga tradición en la cultura occidental. Nuestro propósito es analizar, desde la perspectiva de la historia cultural y los estudios warburguianos, su trayectoria histórica en producciones de diversos géneros artísticos, así como indagar en las proyecciones de este topos en las historietas surgidas contemporáneamente y en otras esferas artísticas, como la literatura, el teatro y el cine.

  15. Vertical Strip Gingival Graft: A New Technique for Gingival Augmentation A pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AA. Khoshkhoonejad

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Statement of Problem: Although no minimum width of attached gingiva has been established as a standard for gingival health; gingival augmentation has been carried out because of many reasons. There are numerous methods for widening keratinized attached gingiva.Purpose: This study is to present "Vertical Strip Gingival Graft Technique" as an attempt to improve methods of gingival augmentation.Materials and Methods: In a before-after clinical trial 12 systematically healthy patients with no attached gingiva more than 0.5mm in at least 3 adjacent teeth were entered the study. After recipient bed preparation and harvesting free gingival graft (FGG, the graft was divided in two pieces and each part was fixed in one end of the bed. In this method an area with mean width of 6mm of recipient area, between two grafts, was remained uncovered. In order to determine the efficiency of this technique to augment attachedgingiva the distance between stent to mucogingival line (MGL and widths of attached gingival were used as indicator parameters. Clinical Parameters were measured using Wilcoxon sign rank test before surgery, 6 and 12 weeks after operation.Results: The mean value of stent to MGL in the middle part (between FGGs at the baseline, 6 and 12 weeks after operation were: 7.82±2.61mm, 11.53±1.4mm, 11.23±1.1mm respectively. The mean width of attached gingiva in those sites at the same intervals was asfollows: 0.3±0.2mm, 3.72±1.31mm, and 3.41±1.06mm. Results showed significant increase in the width of attached gingiva (P<0.01. The mean distance of stent to MGL between baseline and 6 week's data; and baseline and 12 week's also showed significant changes(P=0.001.Conclusion: With respect to the limitation of this study, by application of "vertical strip gingival graft technique" wider recipient site with less donor tissue can gain keratinizedcoverage. And as a result of producing smaller wound in the donor site (palate, patients would have less post

  16. Numerical analysis of the in-well vapor-stripping system demonstration at Edwards Air Force Base

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, M.D.; Gilmore, T.J.

    1996-10-01

    Numerical simulations, with the Subsurface Transport Over Multiple Phases (STOMP) simulator, were applied to the field demonstration of an in-well vapor-stripping system at Edwards Air Force Base (AFB), near Mojave, California. The demonstration field site on the Edwards AFB was previously contaminated from traversing groundwater that was contained a varied composition of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), which primarily includes trichloroethylene (TCE). Contaminant TCE originated from surface basin that had been used to collect runoff during the cleaning of experimental rocket powered planes in the 1960s and 1970s. This report documents those simulations and associated numerical analyses. A companion report documents the in- well vapor-stripping demonstration from a field perspective.

  17. Square wave cathodic stripping voltammetric technique for determination of Aflatoxin B1 in ground nut sample

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An electro analytical method has been developed for the detection and determination of 2,3,6a,9a-tetrahydro-4-methoxy cyclo penta[c] furo[3, 2:4,5] furo [2,3-h][l] benzopyrane-1,11-dione (aflatoxin B1, AFB1) by a square wave cathodic stripping voltammetric (SWSV) technique on a hanging mercury drop electrode (HMDE) in aqueous solution with Britton-Robinson Buffer (BRB) at pH 9.0 as the supporting electrolyte. Effect of instrumental parameters such as accumulation potential (Eacc), accumulation time (tacc), scan rate (v), square wave frequency, step potential and pulse amplitude were examined. The best condition were found to be Eacc of -0.8 V, tacc of 100 s, v of 3750 mVs-1, frequency of 125 Hz, voltage step of 30 mV and pulse amplitude of 50 mV. Calibration curve was linear in the range of 0.01 to 0.15 μM with a detection limit of 0.125 x 10-8 M. Relative standard deviation for a replicate measurement of AFB1 (n = 5) with a concentration of 0.01 μM was 0.83 % with a peak potential of -1.30 V (against Ag/ AgCl). The recovery values obtained in spiked ground nut elute sample were 94.00 ± 0.67 % for 3.0 ppb, 91.22 ± 1.56 % for 9 ppb and 92.56 ± 2.00 % for 15.0 ppb of AFB1. The method was applied for the determination of the AFB1 in ground nut samples after extraction and clean-up steps. The results were compared with that obtained by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) technique. (author)

  18. Air Conditioning Compressor Air Leak Detection by Image Processing Techniques for Industrial Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Pookongchai Kritsada; Nakornrat Prasit; Sookananta Bongkoj; Buasri Panhathai

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents method to detect air leakage of an air conditioning compressor using image processing techniques. Quality of air conditioning compressor should not have air leakage. To test an air conditioning compressor leak, air is pumped into a compressor and then submerged into the water tank. If air bubble occurs at surface of the air conditioning compressor, that leakage compressor must be returned for maintenance. In this work a new method to detect leakage and search leakage point...

  19. Bandwidth Enrichment for Micro-strip Patch Antenna Using Pendant Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Bhattacharya, R. Prasanna

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In rapidly expanding market for wireless communication and applications, Micro strip antenna has become widely popular as it is low profile, comfortable to the hosting surfaces, light weight and can be easily integrated with the electronic circuits. Microstrip antenna is widely used in military, mobile communication, global positioning system (GPS, remote sensing etc.

  20. Preliminary assessment of hazardous-waste pretreatment as an air-pollution-control technique. Final report, 25 July 1983-31 July 1984

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spivey, J.J.; Allen, C.C.; Green, D.A.; Wood, J.P.; Stallings, R.L.

    1986-03-01

    The report evaluates twelve commercially available treatment techniques for their use in removing volatile constituents from hazardous and potentially hazardous waste streams. A case study of the cost of waste treatment is also provided for each technique. The results show that air stripping or evaporation coupled with carbon adsorption of the off gases; steam stripping; and batch distillation are the most widely applicable pretreatment techniques. The cost-effectiveness of pretreatment varies widely with waste-stream characteristics and type of pretreatment, with typical values being between $55 and $1,800 per megagram of volatile removed.

  1. Air-Decking Technique in Bench Blasting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Hong-bing; LU Wen-bo; WU Liang

    2006-01-01

    The mechanism and the design parameters of blasting with air-decking are studied. The theory of detonation waves is used to investigate the processes of the one-dimensional plane detonation wave within a borehole. The interaction of the rarefaction wave with an interface and reflection on a rigid wall is also analyzed. The same courses of the shock wave are also investigated. This decides the distribution of the pressure of the explosion products changing with time along the borehole. Based on the above theoretical analysis, two conditions should be met for a reasonable range of values of the air-decking ratio in blasting rock. First, the rarefaction wave from the contact interface between detonation products and air reaches the bottom earlier than that of the reflected shock wave from the end of the stemming. Second,the reflected shock wave reaches the contact interface between the detonation products and air earlier than that of the reflected rarefaction wave from the bottom of the borehole. Finally, the reasonable value of the air-decking ratio must be decided theoretically in air-decking blasting. For different explosives, the reasonable range of air-decking ratio varies from 0.15 to 0.4. This result is well consistent with what was obtained by previous researchers.

  2. Characterization of dissolved organic matter in landfill leachate during the combined treatment process of air stripping, Fenton, SBR and coagulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, ZhiPing, E-mail: liulqs@163.com [Key Laboratory of Three Gorges Reservoir Region’s Eco-Environment, Ministry of Education, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400045 (China); Faculty of Urban Construction and Environmental Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400020 (China); Wu, WenHui; Shi, Ping [Faculty of Urban Construction and Environmental Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400020 (China); Guo, JinSong [Chongqing Institute of Green and Intelligent Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chongqing 400045 (China); Cheng, Jin [Faculty of Urban Construction and Environmental Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400020 (China)

    2015-07-15

    Highlights: • DOM fractions spectra analysis during the whole treatment process. • Efficient method was achieved to remove organic matters in landfill leachate. • Molecular weight distribution and fractions were discussed. - Abstract: A combined treatment process of air stripping + Fenton + sequencing batch reactor (SBR)+ coagulation was performed to remove the pollutants in landfill leachate. Molecular weight (MW) distribution and fractions of dissolved organic matter (DOM) were discussed to study the characteristics. The experiment showed that the removal rate of chemical oxygen demand (COD), five day biological oxygen demand (BOD{sub 5}) and ammonia nitrogen (NH{sub 3}−N) by the combined process were 92.8%, 87.8% and 98.0%, respectively. Humic acid (HA) and fulvic acid (FA) were the main fractions in raw leachate with 81.8% of the total COD concentration, while hydrophilic organic matter (HyI) was the dominant fraction in the final effluent of the combined process with 63.5% of the total COD concentration. After the combined treatment process, the removal rate of DOM and fractions HA, FA, HyI were 91.9%, 97.1%, 95.8% and 71.7%, respectively. Organic matters of MW < 2 k and MW > 100 k were removed with 90.5% and 97.9% COD concentration after the treatment. The ultraviolet–visible spectra (UV–vis), Fourier transform infrared spectra (FTIR) and three-dimensional excitation-emission matrices spectra (EEMs) indicated that benzene materials and phenol compounds were preferentially removed in air stripping. High MW matters, aromatic rings, conjugated moieties and some functional groups were mainly removed by Fenton. While small MW fractions, carboxylic acids, alcohols and protein-like materials were preferentially biodegraded via SBR. Fulvic-like and humic-like materials were mainly destroyed via Fenton oxidation and coagulation.

  3. Multilayer Strip Dipole Antenna Using Stacking Technique and Its Application for Curved Surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charinsak Saetiaw

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the design of multilayer strip dipole antenna by stacking a flexible copper-clad laminate utilized for curved surface on the cylindrical objects. The designed antenna will reduce the effects of curving based on relative lengths that are changed in each stacking flexible copper-clad laminate layer. Curving is different from each layer of the antenna, so the resonance frequency that resulted from an extended antenna provides better frequency response stability compared to modern antenna when it is curved or attached to cylindrical objects. The frequency of multilayer antenna is designed at 920 MHz for UHF RFID applications.

  4. Contrast cancellation technique applied to digital x-ray imaging using silicon strip detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dual-energy mammographic imaging experimental tests have been performed using a compact dichromatic imaging system based on a conventional x-ray tube, a mosaic crystal, and a 384-strip silicon detector equipped with full-custom electronics with single photon counting capability. For simulating mammal tissue, a three-component phantom, made of Plexiglass, polyethylene, and water, has been used. Images have been collected with three different pairs of x-ray energies: 16-32 keV, 18-36 keV, and 20-40 keV. A Monte Carlo simulation of the experiment has also been carried out using the MCNP-4C transport code. The Alvarez-Macovski algorithm has been applied both to experimental and simulated data to remove the contrast between two of the phantom materials so as to enhance the visibility of the third one

  5. Air Conditioning Compressor Air Leak Detection by Image Processing Techniques for Industrial Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pookongchai Kritsada

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents method to detect air leakage of an air conditioning compressor using image processing techniques. Quality of air conditioning compressor should not have air leakage. To test an air conditioning compressor leak, air is pumped into a compressor and then submerged into the water tank. If air bubble occurs at surface of the air conditioning compressor, that leakage compressor must be returned for maintenance. In this work a new method to detect leakage and search leakage point with high accuracy, fast, and precise processes was proposed. In a preprocessing procedure to detect the air bubbles, threshold and median filter techniques have been used. Connected component labeling technique is used to detect the air bubbles while blob analysis is searching technique to analyze group of the air bubbles in sequential images. The experiments are tested with proposed algorithm to determine the leakage point of an air conditioning compressor. The location of the leakage point was presented as coordinated point. The results demonstrated that leakage point during process could be accurately detected. The estimation point had error less than 5% compared to the real leakage point.

  6. Determination of free Zn2+ concentration in synthetic and natural samples with AGNES (Absence of Gradients and Nernstian Equilibrium Stripping) and DMT (Donnan Membrane Techniques)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chito, D.; Weng, L.P.; Galceran, J.; Companys, E.; Puy, J.; Riemsdijk, van W.H.; Leeuwen, van H.P.

    2012-01-01

    The determination of free Zn2+ ion concentration is a key in the study of environmental systems like river water and soils, due to its impact on bioavailability and toxicity. AGNES (Absence of Gradients and Nernstian Equilibrium Stripping) and DMT (Donnan Membrane Technique) are emerging techniques

  7. Simultaneous determination of lead, cadmium and zinc in Metro Manila air particulates by anodic stripping voltammetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Air particulate samples were collected from two monitoring stations in Metro Manila using a 'Gent' type dichotomous sampler for pollutant source apportionment studies. Samples were collected in two fractions: a fine fraction with aerodynamic diameter, dpp3: HCL: HF, 4: 1: 1) for at least 20 minutes with subsequent heating at lower power settings for a total of 20 minutes more, effectively decomposed the sample with complete recovery of the elements. The digests were evaporated to near dryness to eliminate the troublesome effect of HF and HNO3 and to decrease acidity of the electrolytic solution to pH ≥ 2. At pH 2, the addition of at least 0.01 M KCl was needed to improve sensitivity. The formation of Zn-Cu intermetallic compounds which interfered in the accurate quantitation of zinc was eliminated by addition of gallium as a 'third' element. The amount of gallium needed varied from sample to sample and was affected by the pH of the solution. The DPASV parameters found to be optimum for the analysis of the air particulate samples are as follows: pulse amplitude, 50 mV; scan rate, 10 mV/sec; Edep, - 1.30 V; tdep, 2 min; and RDE rotation rate, 1500 rpm. Detection limits of 0.2 ppb for zinc, 0.6 ppb for lead, and 0.05 ppb for cadmium in the sample matrix were obtained. The standard addition method was found to be reliable for the quantitative determination of the analytes in the sample. All R2 values obtained were > 0.9900 at 95% confidence level. Validation of the established analytical methodology by analyzing certified reference standards and performing parallel analysis by GF-AAS and flame AAS showed acceptable accuracy of the DPASV measurements. (Author)

  8. Predictive Techniques for Spacecraft Cabin Air Quality Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, J. L.; Cromes, Scott D. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    As assembly of the International Space Station (ISS) proceeds, predictive techniques are used to determine the best approach for handling a variety of cabin air quality challenges. These techniques use equipment offgassing data collected from each ISS module before flight to characterize the trace chemical contaminant load. Combined with crew metabolic loads, these data serve as input to a predictive model for assessing the capability of the onboard atmosphere revitalization systems to handle the overall trace contaminant load as station assembly progresses. The techniques for predicting in-flight air quality are summarized along with results from early ISS mission analyses. Results from groundbased analyses of in-flight air quality samples are compared to the predictions to demonstrate the technique's relative conservatism.

  9. ALICE silicon strip module

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2006-01-01

    This small silicon detector strip will be inserted into the inner tracking system (ITS) on the ALICE detector at CERN. This detector relies on state-of-the-art particle tracking techniques. These double-sided silicon strip modules have been designed to be as lightweight and delicate as possible as the ITS will eventually contain five square metres of these devices.

  10. Pseudo-emulsion based hollow fibre strip dispersion (PEHFSD) technique for permeation of Cr(VI) using Cyanex-923 as carrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonawane, Jagannath V; Pabby, Anil K; Sastre, Ana M

    2010-02-15

    Pseudo-emulsion based hollow fibre strip dispersion (PEHFSD) technique is investigated for the permeation-separation of chromium from hydrochloric acid media. The permeation of Cr(VI) is investigated in relation to various experimental variables: hydrodynamic conditions, the concentration of Cr(VI) and HCl in the feed phase, Cyanex-923 concentration, hydrazine sulphate as the stripping agent in the pseudo-emulsion phase. The performance of the PEHFSD was analyzed and optimum conditions are suggested for chromium separation from simulated industrial waste in a hydrochloric acid media.

  11. Air Quality Forecasting through Different Statistical and Artificial Intelligence Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, D.; Goyal, P.

    2014-12-01

    Urban air pollution forecasting has emerged as an acute problem in recent years because there are sever environmental degradation due to increase in harmful air pollutants in the ambient atmosphere. In this study, there are different types of statistical as well as artificial intelligence techniques are used for forecasting and analysis of air pollution over Delhi urban area. These techniques are principle component analysis (PCA), multiple linear regression (MLR) and artificial neural network (ANN) and the forecasting are observed in good agreement with the observed concentrations through Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB) at different locations in Delhi. But such methods suffers from disadvantages like they provide limited accuracy as they are unable to predict the extreme points i.e. the pollution maximum and minimum cut-offs cannot be determined using such approach. Also, such methods are inefficient approach for better output forecasting. But with the advancement in technology and research, an alternative to the above traditional methods has been proposed i.e. the coupling of statistical techniques with artificial Intelligence (AI) can be used for forecasting purposes. The coupling of PCA, ANN and fuzzy logic is used for forecasting of air pollutant over Delhi urban area. The statistical measures e.g., correlation coefficient (R), normalized mean square error (NMSE), fractional bias (FB) and index of agreement (IOA) of the proposed model are observed in better agreement with the all other models. Hence, the coupling of statistical and artificial intelligence can be use for the forecasting of air pollutant over urban area.

  12. Air pollution control techniques and a case study of industrial air emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Air pollutants are the most dangerous type of pollution and they effect our environment the worst. The main air pollutants are CO/sub 2/, CO, NOx, SOx and particulate matter. These pollutants are causing some major environmental and health concerns. There are number of techniques to control these emissions to the atmosphere. The flue gas data of boilers and generators from ICI polyester industry is also included in this paper. The techniques in use to control the pollutants are discussed. One of the most common techniques is the switching of the fuel. The Natural gas emits almost 30 percent less carbon dioxide than oil, and just under 45 percent less carbon dioxide than coal. Emissions of particulates from natural gas combustion are 90 percent lower than from the combustion of oil, and 99 percent lower than burning coal. Natural gas emits virtually no sulfur dioxide, and upto 80 percent less nitrogen oxides than the combustion of coal. Similarly, use of compressed natural gas in vehicle reduces the amount of these emissions considerably. The other methods for the control and reduction of these emissions are combustion control techniques, Flue gas treatment and Fuel re-burning. NOx can be reduced considerably by combustion control techniques like Low excess air, staged air combustion, staged fuel combustion, external flue gas recirculation, Fuel induced recirculation and steam/water injection. The flue gas treatments like selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR) and selective catalytic reduction (SCR) are also used for reduction of NOx. (author)

  13. Air pollution in Thailand using nuclear-related analytical techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The methods of neutron activation, both instrumental and radiochemical, and atomic absorption spectrophotometry are used in a study of the concentrations of Al, As, Br, Cd, Cl, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mn, Sb, Sc, Se, Si, V, Zn and Pb in airborne particulate matter collected from 7 permanent and 9 temporary air quality monitoring stations. The location of the stations are urban residential, suburban residential, mixed (commercial and residential), commercial and industrial areas and near major roads in Bangkok Metropolitan areas. Air sampling is performed once a month for 24 hours continuously using the high volume air sampler (GMW 2000 H) and for 5, 10, and 15 days continuously using an Anderson Air Sampler (SIBATA AN-200). The elements As, Cd and Cu are determined destructively using ion exchange chromatography while Hg and Se are determined by the dry combustion technique. The determination of Pb was done by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The results of Pb concentrations in airborne particulate matters, collected during 1987 to 1991, were reported by the Office of the National Environment Board. Levels of Pb content were found to be lower than the National Ambient Air Quality Standards. (author). 3 refs, 4 tabs

  14. Uncertainty in mapping urban air quality using crowdsourcing techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Philipp; Castell, Nuria; Lahoz, William; Bartonova, Alena

    2016-04-01

    Small and low-cost sensors measuring various air pollutants have become available in recent years owing to advances in sensor technology. Such sensors have significant potential for improving high-resolution mapping of air quality in the urban environment as they can be deployed in comparatively large numbers and therefore are able to provide information at unprecedented spatial detail. However, such sensor devices are subject to significant and currently little understood uncertainties that affect their usability. Not only do these devices exhibit random errors and biases of occasionally substantial magnitudes, but these errors may also shift over time. In addition, there often tends to be significant inter-sensor variability even when supposedly identical sensors from the same manufacturer are used. We need to quantify accurately these uncertainties to make proper use of the information they provide. Furthermore, when making use of the data and producing derived products such as maps, the measurement uncertainties that propagate throughout the analysis need to be clearly communicated to the scientific and non-scientific users of the map products. Based on recent experiences within the EU-funded projects CITI-SENSE and hackAIR we discuss the uncertainties along the entire processing chain when using crowdsourcing techniques for mapping urban air quality. Starting with the uncertainties exhibited by the sensors themselves, we present ways of quantifying the error characteristics of a network of low-cost microsensors and show suitable statistical metrics for summarizing them. Subsequently, we briefly present a data-fusion-based method for mapping air quality in the urban environment and illustrate how we propagate the uncertainties of the individual sensors throughout the mapping system, resulting in detailed maps that document the pixel-level uncertainty for each concentration field. Finally, we present methods for communicating the resulting spatial uncertainty

  15. Implementation of Satellite Techniques in the Air Transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fellner, Andrzej; Jafernik, Henryk

    2016-06-01

    The article shows process of the implementation satellite systems in Polish aviation which contributed to accomplishment Performance-Based Navigation (PBN) concept. Since 1991 authors have introduced Satellite Navigation Equipment in Polish Air Forces. The studies and researches provide to the Polish Air Force alternative approaches, modernize their navigation and landing systems and achieve compatibility with systems of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) and International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO). Acquired experience, conducted military tests and obtained results enabled to take up work scientifically - research in the environment of the civil aviation. Therefore in 2008 there has been launched cooperation with Polish Air Navigation Services Agency (PANSA). Thanks to cooperation, there have been compiled and fulfilled three fundamental international projects: EGNOS APV MIELEC (EGNOS Introduction in European Eastern Region - APV Mielec), HEDGE (Helicopters Deploy GNSS in Europe), SHERPA (Support ad-Hoc to Eastern Region Pre-operational in GNSS). The successful completion of these projects enabled implementation 21 procedures of the RNAV GNSS final approach at Polish airports, contributing to the implementation of PBN in Poland as well as ICAO resolution A37-11. Results of conducted research which served for the implementation of satellite techniques in the air transport constitute the meaning of this material.

  16. Determination of free Zn2+ concentration in synthetic and natural samples with AGNES (Absence of Gradients and Nernstian Equilibrium Stripping) and DMT (Donnan Membrane Technique).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chito, Diana; Weng, Liping; Galceran, Josep; Companys, Encarnació; Puy, Jaume; van Riemsdijk, Willem H; van Leeuwen, Herman P

    2012-04-01

    The determination of free Zn(2+) ion concentration is a key in the study of environmental systems like river water and soils, due to its impact on bioavailability and toxicity. AGNES (Absence of Gradients and Nernstian Equilibrium Stripping) and DMT (Donnan Membrane Technique) are emerging techniques suited for the determination of free heavy metal concentrations, especially in the case of Zn(2+), given that there is no commercial Ion Selective Electrode. In this work, both techniques have been applied to synthetic samples (containing Zn and NTA) and natural samples (Rhine river water and soils), showing good agreement. pH fluctuations in DMT and N(2)/CO(2) purging system used in AGNES did not affect considerably the measurements done in Rhine river water and soil samples. Results of DMT in situ of Rhine river water are comparable to those of AGNES in the lab. The comparison of this work provides a cross-validation for both techniques.

  17. Determination Of The Aflatoxin B1 In Ground Nut By Differential Pulse Cathodic Stripping Voltammetry (Dpcsv) Technique

    OpenAIRE

    Yaacob, Mohammad Hadzri; Yusoff, Abdull Rahim Hj. Mohd.; Ahamad, Rahmalan

    2009-01-01

    An electro analytical method has been developed for the detection and determination of the 2,3,6a,9a-tetrahydro- 4-methoxycyclo penta[c] furo[3’,2’:4,5] furo [2,3-h][l] benzopyran-1,11-dione (aflatoxin B1, AFB1) by a differential pulse cathodic stripping voltammetry on a hanging mercury drop electrode (HMDE) in aqueous solution with Britton-Robinson buffer (BRb) as supporting electrolyte. Effect of instrumental parameters such as accumulation potential (Eacc), accumulation time (tacc) and ...

  18. Control Techniques in Heating, Ventilating and Air Conditioning Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Mirinejad

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Heating, Ventilating and Air Conditioning (HVAC systems are among the main installations in residential, commercial and industrial buildings. The purpose of the HVAC systems is normally to provide a comfortable environment in terms of temperature, humidity and other environmental parameters for the occupants as well as to save energy. Achieving these objectives requires a suitable control system design. Approach: In this overview, thermal comfort level and ISO comfort field is introduced, followed by a review and comparison of the main existing control techniques used in HVAC systems to date. Results: The present overview shows that intelligent controllers which are based on the human sensation of thermal comfort have a better performance in providing thermal comfort as well as energy saving than the traditional controllers and those based on a model of the HVAC system. Conclusion: Such an overview provides an insight into current control methods in HVAC systems and can help scholars and HVAC learners to have the comprehensive information about a variety of control techniques in the field of HVAC and therefore to better design a proper controller for their work

  19. Analysis of Solid-Liquid Interface Behavior during Continuous Strip-Casting Process Using Sharp-Interface Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changbum Lee

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Continuous strip casting (CSC has been developed to fabricate thin metal plates while simultaneously controlling the microstructure of the product. A numerical analysis to understand the solid-liquid interface behaviors during CSC was carried out and used to identify the solidification morphologies of the plate, which were then used to obtain the optimum process conditions. In this study, we used a modified level contour reconstruction method and the sharp-interface method to modify the interface tracking, and we performed a simulation analysis to identify the differences in the material properties that affect the interface behavior. The effects of the process parameters such as the heat transfer coefficient and extrusion velocity on the behavior of the solid-liquid interface are estimated and also used to improve the CSC process.

  20. Experimental technique of calibration of symmetrical air pollution models

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    P Kumar

    2005-10-01

    Based on the inherent property of symmetry of air pollution models,a Symmetrical Air Pollution Model Index (SAPMI)has been developed to calibrate the accuracy of predictions made by such models,where the initial quantity of release at the source is not known.For exact prediction the value of SAPMI should be equal to 1.If the predicted values are overestimating then SAPMI is > 1and if it is underestimating then SAPMI is < 1.Specific design for the layout of receptors has been suggested as a requirement for the calibration experiments.SAPMI is applicable for all variations of symmetrical air pollution dispersion models.

  1. Air pollution inside a small bronze foundry plant, measured by the energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this paper was to evaluate the chemical concentration of some elements in Suspended Particulate Matter (SPM) inside a small bronze (copper and zinc alloy) foundry plant. Using a rotating streaker air-particulate sampler, it was possible to collect fine (aerodynamic diameters between 2.5 to 10 μm) and coarse particulates (aerodynamic diameters larger than 10 μm) in strips deposited on membranes, during eight hours, with a twenty minutes step. This first fraction is particularly important, because it can reach the lung alveoli and, depending on their chemical composition and concentration, cause serious damage to the health. Each sample strip, containing the deposited SPM was analyzed by energy dispersive X-ray Fluorescence (EDXRF) technique, using in the excitation a collimated the X-ray beam coming from a Mo target tube (30 kV, 20 ma, Zr filter). For collimating it was used a bronze collimator with 72 mm long, 10 mm at entrance diameter and 5 x 0.5 mm rectangular slit at exit. The characteristic X-ray detection was carried out using a Si(Li) semiconductor detector coupled to a multi-channel analyzer, and the X-ray spectra were fitted with the AXIL software. The temporal profiles for twelve chemical elements are evaluated. The critical moment to the worker health in that industrial activity was during the molding process, when high concentration peaks for toxic chemical elements were measured: Zn, Pb, Cu e Ni in the fine and coarse fractions, and Cr in the coarse fraction. The Pb concentration found in the suspended particulate was shown very superior to the maximum level established by WHO, suggesting a constant monitoring of the atmosphere in these work places.(Author)

  2. Shallow Inferior Conjunctival Fornix in Contracted Socket and Anophthalmic Socket Syndrome: A Novel Technique to Deepen the Fornix Using Fascia Lata Strips

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed F. K. Ibrahiem

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To evaluate a new surgical technique using fascia lata to deepen the shallow inferior conjunctival fornix in contracted socket and anophthalmic socket syndrome. Methods. A prospective controlled study in which 24 sockets of 24 patients who were unable to wear and retain their ocular prosthesis due to shallow inferior fornix were enrolled and categorized into anophthalmic socket syndromes (9 patients and contracted sockets (15 patients. Another 24 patients who underwent evisceration or enucleation with healthy sockets and can wear and retain their prosthesis comfortably were chosen as a control group. Deepening of the fornix was performed using fascia lata strips under general anesthesia. Central depth of the inferior fornix was measured preoperatively and postoperatively. Results. A statistically significant improvement of the postoperative central inferior fornix depth was reported which was marked in anophthalmic subgroup. 100% of anophthalmic sockets and 93.3% of contracted sockets achieved satisfactory results during the follow-up period with no postoperative lower eyelid malposition or obvious skin scar. Conclusion. Fascia lata technique is a new alternative and effective procedure to deepen the shallow inferior fornix that can be used in moderate to severe contracted sockets or anophthalmic socket syndrome with minimal lower eyelid or socket complications.

  3. A Zooming Technique for Wind Transport of Air Pollution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berkvens, P.J.F.; Botchev, M.A.; Lioen, W.; Verwer, J.G.

    1999-01-01

    In air pollution dispersion models, typically systems of millions of equations that describe wind transport, chemistry and vertical mixing have to be integrated in time. To have more accurate results over specific fixed areas of interest---usually highly polluted areas with intensive emissions---a l

  4. Evaluation of Urban Air Quality By Passive Sampling Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, T. V.; Miranda, A. I.; Duarte, S.; Lima, M. J.

    Aveiro is a flat small city in the centre of Portugal, close to the Atlantic coast. In the last two decades an intensive development of demographic, traffic and industry growth in the region was observed which was reflected on the air quality degrada- tion. In order to evaluate the urban air quality in Aveiro, a field-monitoring network by passive sampling with high space resolution was implemented. Twenty-four field places were distributed in a area of 3x3 Km2 and ozone and NO2 concentrations were measured. The site distribution density was higher in the centre, 250x250 m2 than in periphery where a 500x500 m2 grid was used. The selection of field places took into consideration the choice criteria recommendation by United Kingdom environmental authorities, and three tubes and a blank tube for each pollutant were used at each site. The sampling system was mounted at 3m from the ground usually profiting the street lampposts. Concerning NO2 acrylic tubes were used with 85 mm of length and an in- ternal diameter of 12mm, where in one of the extremities three steel grids impregnated with a solution of TEA were placed and fixed with a polyethylene end cup (Heal et al., 1999); PFA Teflon tube with 53 mm of length and 9 mm of internal diameter and three impregnated glass filters impregnated with DPE solution fixed by a teflon end cup was used for ozone sampling (Monn and Hargartner, 1990). The passive sampling method for ozone and nitrogen dioxide was compared with continuous measurements, but the amount of measurements wasnSt enough for an accurate calibration and validation of the method. Although this constraint the field observations (June to August 2001) for these two pollutants assign interesting information about the air quality in the urban area. A krigger method of interpolation (Surfer- Golden Software-2000) was applied to field data to obtain isolines distribution of NO2 and ozone concentration for the studied area. Even the used passive sampling method has many

  5. Evaluation of the usefulness for air gap technique in digital magnification mammography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Mi Young [Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, Dankook University Hospital, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-06-15

    The purpose of this study was investigated optimal exposure condition in digital magnification mammography to decrease radiation dose and increase image quality of the examine. Auto mode, the average glandular dose is higher than the manual mode. Average glandular dose and image quality were many differences on between grid and air gap technique in auto mode. However, Average glandular dose and signal-to-noise ratio were not different on between grid and air gap technique in manual mode. The signal-to-noise ratio was increased when using the air-gap technique in both mode. According to result, air gap technique may reduce average glandular dose and increase signal-to-noise ratio in digital magnification mammography.

  6. Determination of metals in air samples using X-Ray fluorescence associated the APDC preconcentration technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nardes, Raysa C.; Santos, Ramon S.; Sanches, Francis A.C.R.A.; Gama Filho, Hamilton S.; Oliveira, Davi F.; Anjos, Marcelino J., E-mail: rc.nardes@gmail.com, E-mail: ramonziosp@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: francissanches@gmail.com, E-mail: hamiltongamafilho@hotmail.com, E-mail: davi.oliveira@uerj.br, E-mail: marcelin@uerj.br [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Instituto de Fisica. Departamento de Fisica Aplicada e Termodinamica

    2015-07-01

    Air pollution has become one of the leading quality degradation factors of life for people in large urban centers. Studies indicate that the suspended particulate matter in the atmosphere is directly associated with risks to public health, in addition, it can cause damage to fauna, flora and public / cultural patrimonies. The inhalable particulate materials can cause the emergence and / or worsening of chronic diseases related to respiratory system and other diseases, such as reduced physical strength. In this study, we propose a new method to measure the concentration of total suspended particulate matter (TSP) in the air using an impinger as an air cleaning apparatus, preconcentration with APDC and Total Reflection X-ray Fluorescence technique (TXRF) to analyze the heavy metals present in the air. The samples were collected from five random points in the city of Rio de Janeiro/Brazil. Analyses of TXRF were performed at the Brazilian Synchrotron Light Laboratory (LNLS). The technique proved viable because it was able to detect five important metallic elements to environmental studies: Cr, Fe, Ni, Cu and Zn. This technique presented substantial efficiency in determining the elementary concentration of air pollutants, in addition to low cost. It can be concluded that the metals analysis technique in air samples using an impinger as sample collection instrument associated with a complexing agent (APDC) was viable because it is a low-cost technique, moreover, it was possible the detection of five important metal elements in environmental studies associated with industrial emissions and urban traffic. (author)

  7. Determination of metals in air samples using X-Ray fluorescence associated the APDC preconcentration technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Air pollution has become one of the leading quality degradation factors of life for people in large urban centers. Studies indicate that the suspended particulate matter in the atmosphere is directly associated with risks to public health, in addition, it can cause damage to fauna, flora and public / cultural patrimonies. The inhalable particulate materials can cause the emergence and / or worsening of chronic diseases related to respiratory system and other diseases, such as reduced physical strength. In this study, we propose a new method to measure the concentration of total suspended particulate matter (TSP) in the air using an impinger as an air cleaning apparatus, preconcentration with APDC and Total Reflection X-ray Fluorescence technique (TXRF) to analyze the heavy metals present in the air. The samples were collected from five random points in the city of Rio de Janeiro/Brazil. Analyses of TXRF were performed at the Brazilian Synchrotron Light Laboratory (LNLS). The technique proved viable because it was able to detect five important metallic elements to environmental studies: Cr, Fe, Ni, Cu and Zn. This technique presented substantial efficiency in determining the elementary concentration of air pollutants, in addition to low cost. It can be concluded that the metals analysis technique in air samples using an impinger as sample collection instrument associated with a complexing agent (APDC) was viable because it is a low-cost technique, moreover, it was possible the detection of five important metal elements in environmental studies associated with industrial emissions and urban traffic. (author)

  8. Applied research on air pollution using nuclear-related analytical techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A co-ordinated research programme (CRP) on applied research on air pollution using nuclear-related techniques is a global CRP which will run from 1992-1996, and will build upon the experience gained by the Agency from the laboratory support that it has been providing for several years to BAPMoN - the Background Air Pollution Monitoring Network programme organized under the auspices of the World Meterological Organization. The purpose of this CRP is to promote the use of nuclear analytical techniques in air pollution studies, e.g. NAA, XFR, and PIXE for the analysis of toxic and other trace elements in suspended particulate matter (including air filter samples), rainwater and fog-water samples, and in biological indicators of air pollution (e.g. lichens and mosses). The main purposes of the core programme are i) to support the use of nuclear and nuclear-related analytical techniques for practically-oriented research and monitoring studies on air pollution ii) to identify major sources of air pollution affecting each of the participating countries with particular reference to toxic heavy metals, and iii) to obtain comparative data on pollution levels in areas of high pollution (e.g. a city centre or a populated area downwind of a large pollution source) and low pollution (e.g. rural areas). This document reports the discussions held during the first Research Co-ordination Meeting (RCM) for the CRP which took place at the IAEA Headquarters in Vienna. Refs, figs and tabs

  9. Main Disposal Influencing Factors of High Concentration Ammonia Nitrogen in Landfill Leachate by Air Stripping Method%吹脱法处理垃圾渗滤液中高浓度氨氮的主要影响因素

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈建

    2012-01-01

    本试验用吹脱塔对西安市江村沟垃圾填埋场的高浓度氨氮的垃圾渗滤液进行了吹脱试验研究。通过不同的温度、风量、pH值、气水比、水力负荷及分别用NaOH和Ca(OH)2调pH对氨氮去除效率的影响,得出了该渗滤液中高浓度氨氮的吹脱工艺条件。在水温高于20℃、风量为960 m3/h、pH值为10.5,气水比在4 000的条件下,氨氮的去除效率可达到94.0%。经吹脱处理后的垃圾渗滤液中的氨氮浓度满足后续生物处理的营养比例要求,是垃圾渗滤液处理中可行的预处理工艺。%This study conducted air stripping experiment on high concentration ammonia nitrogen landfill leachate from Xi'an Jiangcungou Refuse Landfill by air stripping tower.The best stripping process conditions of removing high concentration ammonia nitrogen in the leachate were obtained by comparing different temperature,air volume,pH value,gas-water ratio,the hydraulic loading and ammonia removal efficiency when the pH value was adjusted with NaOH and Ca(OH)2 respectively.When water temperature is above 20℃,air flow 960 m3/h,pH 10.5,gas-water ratio 4 000,the ammonia nitrogen removal efficiency reached 94.0%.After the treatment,ammonia concentration in the stripping treatment of landfill leachate can meet the nutrition proportion requirements of subsequent biological treatment.It is a feasible landfill leachate pretreatment process.

  10. Air-gap Limitations and Bypass Techniques: “Command and Control” using Smart Electromagnetic Interferences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaouki Kasmi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Air gaps are generally considered to be a very efficient information security protection. However, this technique also showed limitations, involving finding covert channels for bridging the air gap. Interestingly, recent publications have pointed out that a smart use of the intentional electromagnetic interferences introduced new threats for information security. In this paper, an innovative way for remotely communicating with a malware already installed on a computer by involving the induced perturbations is discussed leading to the design of a new air gap bridging covert channel.

  11. Experimental Study on Indoor Air Cleaning Technique of Nano-Titania Catalysis Under Plasma Discharge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Deli; YANG Xuechang; ZHOU Fei; WU Yuhuang

    2008-01-01

    In this study, a new technique of air cleaning by plasma combined with catalyst was proposed, which consisted of electrostatic precipitation, volatile organic compounds (VOCs) decomposition and sterilization. A novel indoor air purifier based on this technique was adopted. The experimental results showed that formaldehyde decomposition by the plasma-catalyst hybrid system was more efficient than that by plasma only. Positive discharge was better than negative discharge in formaldehyde removal. Meanwhile, the outlet concentration of ozone byproduct was effectively reduced by the nano-titania catalyst.

  12. Spray Rolling Aluminum Strip

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lavernia, E.J.; Delplanque, J-P; McHugh, K.M.

    2006-05-10

    Spray forming is a competitive low-cost alternative to ingot metallurgy for manufacturing ferrous and non-ferrous alloy shapes. It produces materials with a reduced number of processing steps, while maintaining materials properties, with the possibility of near-net-shape manufacturing. However, there are several hurdles to large-scale commercial adoption of spray forming: 1) ensuring strip is consistently flat, 2) eliminating porosity, particularly at the deposit/substrate interface, and 3) improving material yield. Through this program, a new strip/sheet casting process, termed spray rolling, has been developed, which is an innovative manufacturing technique to produce aluminum net-shape products. Spray rolling combines the benefits of twin-roll casting and conventional spray forming, showing a promising potential to overcome the above hurdles associated with spray forming. Spray rolling requires less energy and generates less scrap than conventional processes and, consequently, enables the development of materials with lower environmental impacts in both processing and final products. Spray Rolling was developed as a collaborative project between the University of California-Davis, the Colorado School of Mines, the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, and an industry team. The following objectives of this project were achieved: (1) Demonstration of the feasibility of the spray rolling process at the bench-scale level and evaluation of the materials properties of spray rolled aluminum strip alloys; and (2) Demonstration of 2X scalability of the process and documentation of technical hurdles to further scale up and initiate technology transfer to industry for eventual commercialization of the process.

  13. Improving flow and spillage characteristics of range hoods by using an inclined air-curtain technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Rong Fung; Nian, You-Cyun; Chen, Jia-Kun; Peng, Kuan-Lin

    2011-03-01

    The current study developed a new type of range hood, which was termed an 'inclined air-curtain range hood', in order to improve the flow and performance of the conventionally used wall-mounted range hood. The flow characteristics and oil mist spillages of air-curtain and conventional range hoods under the influences of both a mannequin presence and a simulated walk-by motion were experimentally examined. The study examined flow patterns by using a laser-light-sheet-assisted smoke-flow visualization technique and diagnosed spillages by using the tracer gas concentration test method. A mannequin presented in front of the conventional hood induced turbulent dispersion of oil mists toward the chest and nose of the mannequin owing to the complex interaction among the suction, wake, and wall effect, while the inclined air-curtain hood presented excellent hood performance by isolating the oil mists from the mannequin with an air curtain and therefore could reduce spillages out into the atmosphere and the mannequin's breathing zone. Both flow visualization and the tracer gas test indicated that the air-curtain hood had excellent 'robustness' over the conventional hood in resisting the influence of walk-by motion. The air-curtain technique could drastically improve the flow characteristics and performance of the range hood by consuming less energy.

  14. Characterisation of air particulate matter in Klang Valley by neutron activation analysis technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Air particulate matter is known to affect human health, impairs visibility and can cause climate change. Study on air particulate matter in term of particle size and chemical contents is very important to indicate the quality of air in a sampling area. Information on concentration of important constituents in air particles can be used to identify some of emission sources which contribute to the pollution problem. The data collected may also be, used as a basis to design a strategy in order to overcome the air pollution problem in the area. The study involved sampling of air dust at two stations, one in Bangi and the other in Kuala Lumpur using Gent Stack Sampler units. Each sampler capable of collecting air particle sizes smaller than 2.5 micron (PM 2.5) and between 2.5 - O micron on two different filters simultaneously. The filters were measured for their mass, elemental carbon and elemental concentrations using analytical equipment or techniques including reflectometer and Neutron Activation Analysis. The results of analysis on samples collected in 1997-1998 are discussed. (author)

  15. Spatial and temporal air quality pattern recognition using environmetric techniques: a case study in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syed Abdul Mutalib, Sharifah Norsukhairin; Juahir, Hafizan; Azid, Azman; Mohd Sharif, Sharifah; Latif, Mohd Talib; Aris, Ahmad Zaharin; Zain, Sharifuddin M; Dominick, Doreena

    2013-09-01

    The objective of this study is to identify spatial and temporal patterns in the air quality at three selected Malaysian air monitoring stations based on an eleven-year database (January 2000-December 2010). Four statistical methods, Discriminant Analysis (DA), Hierarchical Agglomerative Cluster Analysis (HACA), Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs), were selected to analyze the datasets of five air quality parameters, namely: SO2, NO2, O3, CO and particulate matter with a diameter size of below 10 μm (PM10). The three selected air monitoring stations share the characteristic of being located in highly urbanized areas and are surrounded by a number of industries. The DA results show that spatial characterizations allow successful discrimination between the three stations, while HACA shows the temporal pattern from the monthly and yearly factor analysis which correlates with severe haze episodes that have happened in this country at certain periods of time. The PCA results show that the major source of air pollution is mostly due to the combustion of fossil fuel in motor vehicles and industrial activities. The spatial pattern recognition (S-ANN) results show a better prediction performance in discriminating between the regions, with an excellent percentage of correct classification compared to DA. This study presents the necessity and usefulness of environmetric techniques for the interpretation of large datasets aiming to obtain better information about air quality patterns based on spatial and temporal characterizations at the selected air monitoring stations.

  16. Lateral flow strip assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, Robin R.; Benett, William J.; Coleman, Matthew A.; Pearson, Francesca S.; Nasarabadi, Shanavaz L.

    2011-03-08

    A lateral flow strip assay apparatus comprising a housing; a lateral flow strip in the housing, the lateral flow strip having a receiving portion; a sample collection unit; and a reagent reservoir. Saliva and/or buccal cells are collected from an individual using the sample collection unit. The sample collection unit is immersed in the reagent reservoir. The tip of the lateral flow strip is immersed in the reservoir and the reagent/sample mixture wicks up into the lateral flow strip to perform the assay.

  17. Area specific stripping factors for AGS. A method for extracting stripping factors from survey data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aage, H.K.; Korsbech, U. [Technical Univ. of Denmark (Denmark)

    2006-04-15

    In order to use Airborne Gamma-ray Spectrometry (AGS) for contamination mapping, for source search etc. one must to be able to eliminate the contribution to the spectra from natural radioactivity. This in general is done by a stripping technique. The parameters for performing a stripping have until recently been measured by recording gamma spectra at special calibration sites (pads). This may be cumbersome and the parameters may not be correct when used at low gamma energies for environmental spectra. During 2000-2001 DTU tested with success a new technique for Carborne Gamma-ray Spectrometry (CGS) where the spectra from the surveyed area (or from a similar area) were used for calculating the stripping parameters. It was possible to calculate usable stripping ratios for a number of low energy windows - and weak source signals not detectable by other means were discovered with the ASS technique. In this report it is shown that the ASS technique also works for AGS data, and it has been used for recent Danish AGS tests with point sources. (Check of calibration of AGS parameters.) By using the ASS technique with the Boden data (Barents Rescue) an exercise source was detected that has not been detected by any of the teams during the exercise. The ASS technique therefore seems to be better for search for radiation anomalies than any other method known presently. The experiences also tell that although the stripping can be performed correctly at any altitude there is a variation of the stripping parameters with altitude that has not yet been quite understood. However, even with the oddly variations the stripping worked as expected. It was also observed that one might calculate a single common set of usable stripping factors for all altitudes from the entire data set i.e. some average a, b and c values. When those stripping factors were used the stripping technique still worked well. (au)

  18. Optimization of the Starting by compressed air techniques; Optimizacion del Arranque en el sutiraje mediante tecnicas de aire comprimido

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    High-pressure compressed air shots have been begun to use for coal stop caving in horizontal sublevel caving workings, as alternative to explosives, since they do not condition the winning cycles and they produce a smaller deterioration in the vein walls. In spite of those advantages, different parameters influence on shot result is not known. For this reason, a research project has been carried out in order to improve the high-pressure compressed air technique to extend the system implementation and to reduce the winning costs in the sublevel caving workings. The research works have consisted of a numerical model development and reduced scale and real scale tests. The model describes fragile material fragmentation under dynamical loadings and it has been implemented in a code. The tests allow to study the different parameter influence and to validate the numerical model. The main research results are, on the one hand, a numerical model that allows to define the best shot plan for user's working conditions and, on the other hand, the great influence of the air volume on the disruptive strength has been proven. (Author)

  19. Air Pollution with Heavy Metals and Radionuclides in Slovakia Studied by the Moss Biomonitoring Technique

    CERN Document Server

    Florek, M; Mankovska, B; Oprea, K; Pavlov, S S; Steinnes, E; Sykora, I

    2001-01-01

    Applying the moss biomonitoring technique to air pollution studies in Slovakia, heavy metals, rare-earth elements, actinides (U and Th) were determined in 86 moss samples from the European moss survey 2000 by means of epithermal neutron activation analysis at the IBR-2 reactor (Dubna). Such elements as In, Cu, Cd, Hg and Pb were determined by AAS in the Forest Research Institute, Zvolen (Slovakia). The results of measurement of the natural radionuclides ^{210}Pb, ^{7}Be, ^{137}Cs and ^{40}K in 11 samples of moss are also reported. A comparison with the results from moss surveys 1991 and 1995 revealed previously unknown tendencies of air pollution in the examined areas.

  20. Comparison of three techniques to measure unsaturated-zone air permeability at Picatinny Arsenal, NJ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Mira Stone; Tillman, Fred D.; Choi, Jee-Won; Smith, James A.

    2001-12-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare three techniques to measure the air permeability of the unsaturated zone at Picatinny Arsenal, NJ and to examine the effects of moisture content and soil heterogeneity on air permeability. Air permeability was measured in three ways: laboratory experiments on intact soil cores, field-scale air pump tests and calibration of air permeability to air pressures measured in the field under natural air pressure conditions using a numerical airflow model. The results obtained from these three methods were compared and found to be similar. Laboratory experiments performed on intact cores measured air permeability values on the order of 10 -14 to 10 -9 m 2. Low-permeability cores were found between land surface and a depth of 0.6 m. The soil core data were divided into two layers with composite vertical permeability values of 1.3×10 -13 m 2 from land surface to a 0.6-m depth and 3.8×10 -10 m 2 for the lower layer. Analyses of the field-scale pump tests were performed for two scenarios: one in which the entire unsaturated zone was open to the atmosphere and one assuming a cap of low permeability extending 0.6 m below land surface. The vertical air permeability values obtained for the open scenario ranged from 1.2×10 -9 to 1.5×10 -9 m 2, and ranged from 3.6×10 -9 to 6.8×10 -9 m 2 in the lower layer, assuming an upper cap permeability of 6.0×10 -14 m 2. The results from the open scenario are much higher than expected and the possible reasons for this ambiguity are discussed. The results from the capped scenario matched closely with those from the other methods and indicated that it is important to have background information on the study site to correctly analyze the pump test data. The optimized fit of the natural subsurface air pressure was achieved with an intrinsic permeability value of 3.3×10 -14 m 2. When the data were refitted to the model assuming two distinct layers of the unsaturated zone, the optimized fit was achieved

  1. Currents trends in the application of IBA techniques to air pollution source fingerprinting and source apportionment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: IBA techniques have been used for many years to characterise fine particle air pollution. This is not new the techniques are well established. Typically 2-3 MeV protons are used to bombard thin filter papers and up to four simultaneous techniques like PIXE, PIGE, RBS and ERDA will be applied to obtain (μg/g) concentrations for elements from hydrogen to lead. Generally low volume samplers are used to sample between 20-30 m3 of air over a 24 hour period, this together with IBA's sensitivity means that concentrations down to 1 ng/m3 of air sampled can be readily achieved with only a few minutes of proton irradiation. With these short irradiation times and low sensitivities for a broad range of elements in the periodic table, large numbers of samples can be obtained and analysed very quickly and easily. At ANSTO we have used IBA methods to acquire a database of over 50,000 filters from 85 different sites through Australia and Asia, each filter has been analysed for more than 21 different chemical species. Large databases extending over many years means that modern statistical techniques like positive matrix factorisation (PMF) can be used to define well characterised source fingerprints and source contributions for a range of different fine particle air pollutants. In this paper we will discuss these PMF techniques and show how they identify both natural sources like sea spray and windblown soils as well as anthropogenic sources like automobiles, biomass burning, coal-fired power stations and industrial emissions. These data are particularly useful for Governments, EPA's and managers of pollution to better understanding pollution sources and their relative contributions and hence to better manage air pollution. Current trends are to take these IBA and PMF techniques a step further and to combine them with wind speed and back trajectory data to better pin point and identify emission sources. We show how this is now being applied on both a local

  2. Unmanned air/ground vehicles heterogeneous cooperative techniques:Current status and prospects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Multiple unmanned air/ground vehicles heterogeneous cooperation is a novel and challenging filed.Heterogeneous cooperative techniques can widen the application fields of unmanned air or ground vehicles,and enhance the effectiveness of implementing detection,search and rescue tasks.This paper mainly focused on the key issues in multiple unmanned air/ground vehicles heterogeneous cooperation,including heterogeneous flocking,formation control,formation stability,network control,and actual applications.The main problems and future directions in this field were also analyzed in detail.These innovative technologies can significantly enhance the effectiveness of implementing complicated tasks,which definitely provide a series of novel breakthroughs for the intelligence,integration and advancement of future robot systems.

  3. Anatomy comic strips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jin Seo; Kim, Dae Hyun; Chung, Min Suk

    2011-01-01

    Comics are powerful visual messages that convey immediate visceral meaning in ways that conventional texts often cannot. This article's authors created comic strips to teach anatomy more interestingly and effectively. Four-frame comic strips were conceptualized from a set of anatomy-related humorous stories gathered from the authors' collective imagination. The comics were drawn on paper and then recreated with digital graphics software. More than 500 comic strips have been drawn and labeled in Korean language, and some of them have been translated into English. All comic strips can be viewed on the Department of Anatomy homepage at the Ajou University School of Medicine, Suwon, Republic of Korea. The comic strips were written and drawn by experienced anatomists, and responses from viewers have generally been favorable. These anatomy comic strips, designed to help students learn the complexities of anatomy in a straightforward and humorous way, are expected to be improved further by the authors and other interested anatomists. PMID:21634024

  4. Investigation of the quality of the surface of wood lamellas using air – coupled ultrasonic technique

    OpenAIRE

    Žukauskas, E.; Raišutis, R.; Voleišis, A.; Vladišauskas, A.; Kairiūkštis, L.

    2008-01-01

    The investigation of roughness and presence of surface defects in wooden lamellas, which are used in manufacturing of glued wood panels, is an important industrial problem. Well prepared and defect free surfaces guarantee qualitative jointing of the panels. Air – coupled ultrasonic is a very attractive technique for investigation of surfaces of wooden products, because it allows to perform measurements without liquid or semi liquid coupling material. Experimental investigations of wooden lame...

  5. Nuclear Microscopy for Air-Pollutant Characterization and Its Advantages over Traditional Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ram, S. S.; Kumar, R. V.; Chaudhuri, P.; Chanda, S.; Santra, S. C.; Deary, M.; Sudarshan, M.; Chakraborty, A.

    2014-03-01

    In the present study we establish the use of the proton induced X-ray emission (PIXE) technique coupled with Rutherford backscattering as a sensitive technique for air-pollution monitoring. Several elements such as Al, Si, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, and As were detected in the ppm level of concentration. Comparisons show the advantages of micro-PIXE over scanning microscope-based energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry (SEM-EDX) and energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (EDXRF).

  6. The noise analysis and optimum filtering techniques for a two-dimensional position sensitive orthogonal strip gamma ray detector employing resistive charge division

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The analysis of an orthogonal strip, two-dimensional position sensitive high purity germanium gamma ray detector is discussed. Position sensitivity is obtained by connecting each electrode strip on the detector to a resistor network. Charge, entering the network, divides in relation to the resistance between its entry point and the virtual earth points of the charge sensitive preamplifiers located at the end of each resistor network. The difference of the voltage pulses at the output of each preamplifier is proportional to the position at which the charge entered the resistor network and the sum of the pulse is proportional to the energy of the detected gamma ray. The analysis and spatial noise resolution is presented for this type of position sensitive detector. The results of the analysis show that the position resolution is proportional to the square root of the filter amplifier's output pulse time constant and that for energy measurement the resolution is maximized at the filter amplifier's noise corner time constant. The design of the electronic noise filtering system for the prototype gamma ray camera was based on the mathematical energy and spatial resolution equations. For the spatial channel a Gaussian trapezoidal filtering system was developed. Gaussian filtering was used for the energy channel. The detector noise model was verified by taking rms noise measurements of the filtered energy and spatial pulses from resistive readout charge dividing detectors. These measurements were within 10% of theory. (Auth.)

  7. An adaptive dual-optimal path-planning technique for unmanned air vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Whitfield Clifford A.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A multi-objective technique for unmanned air vehicle path-planning generation through task allocation has been developed. The dual-optimal path-planning technique generates real-time adaptive flight paths based on available flight windows and environmental influenced objectives. The environmentally-influenced flight condition determines the aircraft optimal orientation within a downstream virtual window of possible vehicle destinations that is based on the vehicle’s kinematics. The intermittent results are then pursued by a dynamic optimization technique to determine the flight path. This path-planning technique is a multi-objective optimization procedure consisting of two goals that do not require additional information to combine the conflicting objectives into a single-objective. The technique was applied to solar-regenerative high altitude long endurance flight which can benefit significantly from an adaptive real-time path-planning technique. The objectives were to determine the minimum power required flight paths while maintaining maximum solar power for continual surveillance over an area of interest (AOI. The simulated path generation technique prolonged the flight duration over a sustained turn loiter flight path by approximately 2 months for a year of flight. The potential for prolonged solar powered flight was consistent for all latitude locations, including 2 months of available flight at 60° latitude, where sustained turn flight was no longer capable.

  8. Anatomy Comic Strips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jin Seo; Kim, Dae Hyun; Chung, Min Suk

    2011-01-01

    Comics are powerful visual messages that convey immediate visceral meaning in ways that conventional texts often cannot. This article's authors created comic strips to teach anatomy more interestingly and effectively. Four-frame comic strips were conceptualized from a set of anatomy-related humorous stories gathered from the authors' collective…

  9. Science Comic Strips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dae Hyun; Jang, Hae Gwon; Shin, Dong Sun; Kim, Sun-Ja; Yoo, Chang Young; Chung, Min Suk

    2012-01-01

    Science comic strips entitled Dr. Scifun were planned to promote science jobs and studies among professionals (scientists, graduate and undergraduate students) and children. To this end, the authors collected intriguing science stories as the basis of scenarios, and drew four-cut comic strips, first on paper and subsequently as computer files.…

  10. Experimental studies of active and passive flow control techniques applied in a twin air-intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Akshoy Ranjan; Joshi, Shrey; Jindal, Aman; Maurya, Shivam P; Jain, Anuj

    2013-01-01

    The flow control in twin air-intakes is necessary to improve the performance characteristics, since the flow traveling through curved and diffused paths becomes complex, especially after merging. The paper presents a comparison between two well-known techniques of flow control: active and passive. It presents an effective design of a vortex generator jet (VGJ) and a vane-type passive vortex generator (VG) and uses them in twin air-intake duct in different combinations to establish their effectiveness in improving the performance characteristics. The VGJ is designed to insert flow from side wall at pitch angle of 90 degrees and 45 degrees. Corotating (parallel) and counterrotating (V-shape) are the configuration of vane type VG. It is observed that VGJ has the potential to change the flow pattern drastically as compared to vane-type VG. While the VGJ is directed perpendicular to the side walls of the air-intake at a pitch angle of 90 degree, static pressure recovery is increased by 7.8% and total pressure loss is reduced by 40.7%, which is the best among all other cases tested for VGJ. For bigger-sized VG attached to the side walls of the air-intake, static pressure recovery is increased by 5.3%, but total pressure loss is reduced by only 4.5% as compared to all other cases of VG.

  11. Dynamic Underground Stripping Demonstration Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LLNL is collaborating with the UC Berkeley College of Engineering to develop and demonstrate a system of thermal remediation and underground imaging techniques for use in rapid cleanup of localized underground spills. Called ''Dynamic Stripping'' to reflect the rapid and controllable nature of the process, it will combine steam injection, direct electrical heating, and tomographic geophysical imaging in a cleanup of the LLNL gasoline spill. In the first 8 months of the project, a Clean Site engineering test was conducted to prove the field application of the techniques before moving to the contaminated site in FY 92

  12. Trace element air pollution monitoring studies in Slovenia using nuclear analytical techniques. Appendix 15

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Up to now, only a few investigations have been performed in Slovenia involving comprehensive studies of trace elements, toxic elements, heavy metals and radionuclides in the atmosphere. The aim of the project is development and application of nuclear and nuclear-related analytical techniques for air pollution studies, leading to formation of a database concerning the trace element air pollution of Slovenia. In this report, the emphasis is on the methodology and analytical development (neutron activation analysis and X-ray spectrometry), and to a lesser extent on the results obtained up to now. Analytical results for several certified reference materials of similar matrix as the real samples investigated are presented and discussed. (author)

  13. Characterization of Air Plane Soot Surrogates using Raman spectroscopy and laser ablation techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chazallon, Bertrand; Ortega, Ismael Kenneth; Ikhenazene, Raouf; Pirim, Claire; Carpentier, Yvain; Irimiea, Cornelia; Focsa, Cristian; Ouf, François-Xavier

    2016-04-01

    Aviation alters the composition of the atmosphere globally and can thus drive climate change and ozone depletion [1]. Aircraft exhaust plumes contain species (gases and soot particles) produced by the combustion of kerosene with ambient air in the combustion chamber of the engine. Soot particles emitted by air-planes produce persistent contrails in the upper troposphere in ice-supersaturated air masses that contribute to cloudiness and impact the radiative properties of the atmosphere. These aerosol-cloud interactions represent one of the largest sources of uncertainty in global climate models [2]. Though the formation of atmospheric ice particles has been studied for many years [3], there are still numerous opened questions on nucleation properties of soot particles [4], as the ice nucleation experiments showed a large spread in results depending on the nucleation mode chosen and origin of the soot produced. The reasons behind these discrepancies reside in the different physico-chemical properties (composition, structure) of soot particles produced in different conditions, e.g., with respect to fuel or combustion techniques. In this work, we use Raman microscopy (514 and 785 nm excitation wavelengths) and ablation techniques (Secondary Ions Mass Spectrometry, and Laser Desorption Mass Spectrometry) to characterize soot particle surrogates produced from a CAST generator (propane fuel, four different global equivalence ratios). They are produced as analogues of air-plane soot collected at different engine regimes (PowerJet SaM-146 turbofan) simulating a landing and take-off (LTO) cycle (MERMOSE project (http://mermose.onera.fr/)) [6]. The spectral parameters of the first-order Raman bands of these soot samples are analyzed using a de-convolution approach described by Sadezky et al. (2005) [5]. A systematic Raman analysis is carried out to select a number of parameters (laser wavelength, irradiance at sample, exposure time) that will alter the sample and the

  14. Pollution of atmospheric air with toxic and radioactive particulate matter investigated by means of nuclear techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The application of spectrometric methods of nuclear techniques to the investigations of atmospheric air pollution by toxic and radioactive elements and results of these investigations conducted in the highly industrialized and urbanized regions of Poland have been presented. The method of precipitation of the samples, the measurements and analysis of radiation spectra of alpha and gamma radiation emitted by isotopes present in the samples have been described. The concentrations of toxic metal dust in the air have been evaluated by neutron activation and X-ray fluorescence analysis. Appropriate methods of measurement, calibration of instrument and the discussion of results have been presented. The work presents the results of investigations performed in Siersza within the years 1973-1974 and in Warsaw in the period of 1975-1977, which have permitted to estimate the mean monthly values of concentration in the atmospheric air of the following radioisotopes: 7Be, 54Mn, 95Zr, 103Ru, 106Ru, 125Sb, 131I, 137Cs, 140Ba, 141Ce, 144Ce, 226Ra, Th-nat, U-nat and the following stable elements: Sc, Cr, Fe, Co, Zn, As, Se, Sb, W, Pb. The analysis of changes in concentration of each particular artificial radioisotope in the air for the region of Poland in connection with Chinese nuclear explosions have been given. On the basis of the performed environmental investigations the method of analysis of relations between the concentrations of particular elements present in the dust has been discussed. The applications of this method have been presented. The hazard to the population and the environment caused by the radioactive and toxic dust present in the atmospheric air has been estimated. (author)

  15. Air pollution emission reduction techniques in combustion plants; Technique de reduction des emissions de polluants atmospheriques dans les installations de combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouscaren, R. [CITEPA, Centre Interprofessionnel Technique d`Etudes de la Pollution Atmospherique, 75 - Paris (France)

    1996-12-31

    Separating techniques offer a large choice between various procedures for air pollution reduction in combustion plants: mechanical, electrical, filtering, hydraulic, chemical, physical, catalytic, thermal and biological processes. Many environment-friendly equipment use such separating techniques, particularly for dust cleaning and fume desulfurizing and more recently for the abatement of volatile organic pollutants or dioxins and furans. These processes are briefly described

  16. Nanoscratch technique for aligning multiwalled carbon nanotubes synthesized by the arc discharge method in open air

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A Joseph Berkmans; M Jagannatham; Prathap Haridoss

    2015-08-01

    Horizontally aligned and densely packed multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) were synthesized in an open air, without the need for a controlled atmosphere, using a rotating cathode arc discharge method with the help of a metal scraper. The physical force exerted by the scraper results in in-situ alignment of MWCNTs along the direction of scrape marks. This strategy, which enables the alignment of nanotubes in a controlled fashion to any length and direction of interest, was examined to determine the force required to align a nanotube. A model is developed to understand the alignment process. Using the nanoscratch technique to mimic this strategy, and incorporating the data obtained from the nanoscratch technique into the model developed, the minimum force required to align a MWCNT, as well as the energy required to align a gram of nanotubes, has been estimated. The method demonstrated represents an economical approach for large-scale synthesis of aligned MWCNTs at low costs.

  17. INTEGRATED USE OF RAPID PROTOTYPING AND METAL PLATING TECHNIQUES FOR DEVELOPMENT OF MICRO AIR VEHICLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. K. ELANGOVAN,

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the synergistic application of rapid prototyping and metal plating technologies for development of micro air vehicles (MAV with high strength-to-weight characteristic. Stereolithography and fused deposition techniques are employed to fabricate complex thermoplastic MAV prototypes with significant time-compression in production cycle. Electroless and electrolytic deposition processes are custom developed to deposit thin metallic foils of nickel and chromium over thermoplastic MAV prototypes. Plating plant with inherent provision for variation of process parameters is established and proof-of-concept studies are carried on plating of MAV prototypes. Experiments are conducted on metal plated thermoplastic test specimens for evaluating the mechanical behaviour and structural integrity properties. Present study is a conclusive demonstration of the use of layered manufacturing techniques in quick realisation of flight-worthy MAV systems.

  18. The MIDAS Experiment: A New Technique for the Detection of Extensive Air Showers

    CERN Document Server

    Williams, C; Berlin, A; Bohacova, M; Facal, P; Genat, J F; Mills, E; Monasor, M; Privitera, P; Reyes, L C; d'Orfeuil, B Rouille; Wayne, S; Alekotte, I; Bertou, X; Bonifazi, C; Neto, J R T de Mello; Santos, E M; Alvarez-Muñiz, J; Carvalho, W; Zas, E

    2010-01-01

    Recent measurements suggest free electrons created in ultra-high energy cosmic ray extensive air showers (EAS) can interact with neutral air molecules producing Bremsstrahlung radiation in the microwave regime. The microwave radiation produced is expected to scale with the number of free electrons in the shower, which itself is a function of the energy of the primary particle and atmospheric depth. Using these properties a calorimetric measurement of the EAS is possible. This technique is analogous to fluorescence detection with the added benefit of a nearly 100% duty cycle and practically no atmospheric attenuation. The Microwave Detection of Air Showers (MIDAS) prototype is currently being developed at the University of Chicago. MIDAS consists of a 53 feed receiver operating in the 3.4 to 4.2 GHz band. The camera is deployed on a 4.5 meter parabolic reflector and is instrumented with high speed power detectors and autonomous FPGA trigger electronics. We present the current status of the MIDAS instrument and...

  19. Development, enhancement, and evaluation of aircraft measurement techniques for national ambient air quality standard criteria pollutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brent, Lacey Cluff

    The atmospheric contaminants most harmful to human health are designated Criteria Pollutants. To help Maryland attain the national ambient air quality standards (NAAQS) for Criteria Pollutants, and to improve our fundamental understanding of atmospheric chemistry, I conducted aircraft measurements in the Regional Atmospheric Measurement Modeling Prediction Program (RAMMPP). These data are used to evaluate model simulations and satellite observations. I developed techniques for improving airborne observation of two NAAQS pollutants, particulate matter (PM) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2). While structure and composition of organic aerosol are important for understanding PM formation, the molecular speciation of organic ambient aerosol remains largely unknown. The spatial distribution of reactive nitrogen is likewise poorly constrained. To examine water-soluble organic aerosol (WSOA) during an air pollution episode, I designed and implemented a shrouded aerosol inlet system to collect PM onto quartz fiber filters from a Cessna 402 research aircraft. Inlet evaluation conducted during a side-by-side flight with the NASA P3 demonstrated agreement to within 30%. An ion chromatographic mass spectrometric method developed using the NIST Standard Reference Material (SRM) 1649b Urban Dust, as a surrogate material resulted in acidic class separation and resolution of at least 34 organic acids; detection limits approach pg/g concentrations. Analysis of aircraft filter samples resulted in detection of 8 inorganic species and 16 organic acids of which 12 were quantified. Aged, re-circulated metropolitan air showed a greater number of dicarboxylic acids compared to air recently transported from the west. While the NAAQS for NO2 is rarely exceeded, it is a precursor molecule for ozone, America's most recalcitrant pollutant. Using cavity ringdown spectroscopy employing a light emitting diode (LED), I measured vertical profiles of NO2 (surface to 2.5 km) west (upwind) of the Baltimore

  20. Acoustic impedance rhinometry (AIR): a technique for monitoring dynamic changes in nasal congestion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We describe a simple and inexpensive method for monitoring nasal air flow resistance using measurement of the small-signal acoustic input impedance of the nasal passage, similar to the audiological measurement of ear drum compliance with acoustic tympanometry. The method requires generation of a fixed sinusoidal volume–velocity stimulus using ear-bud speakers, and an electret microphone to monitor the resultant pressure fluctuation in the nasal passage. Both are coupled to the nose via high impedance silastic tubing and a small plastic nose insert. The acoustic impedance is monitored in real-time using a laptop soundcard and custom-written software developed in LabView 7.0 (National Instruments). The compact, lightweight equipment and fast time resolution lends the technique to research into the small and rapid reflexive changes in nasal resistance caused by environmental and local neurological influences. The acoustic impedance rhinometry technique has the potential to be developed for use in a clinical setting, where the need exists for a simple and inexpensive objective nasal resistance measurement technique. (paper)

  1. COMPUTER PROCESSING OF MULTISPECTRAL SCANNER DATA OVER COAL STRIP MINES

    Science.gov (United States)

    There is little doubt that remote sensing techniques can be effectively applied to the task of monitoring coal strip mine progress and reclamation work. Aircraft multispectral scanner data acquired over six coal strip mines in the states of Wyoming, Montana, Colorado, and Arizona...

  2. Mapping air pollution using Earth observation techniques for cultural heritage sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agapiou, Athos; Nisantzi, Argyro; Lysandrou, Vasiliki; Mamouri, Rodanthi; Alexakis, Dimitrios D.; Themistocleous, Kyriacos; Sarris, Apostolos; Hadjimitsis, Diofantos G.

    2013-08-01

    Air pollutants, together with climatic parameters, are of major importance for the deterioration of cultural heritage monuments. Atmospheric pollution is widely recognized as one of the major anthropogenic threats to architectural cultural heritage, in particular when associated with water absorption phenomena. Atmospheric particle deposition on surfaces of Monuments (of cultural heritage interest) may cause an aesthetic impact induced by a series of chemical reactions. Therefore there is a need for systematic monitoring and mapping of air pollution for areas where important archaeological sites and monuments are found. observation techniques, such as the use of satellite image for the retrieval of Aerosol Optical Thickness (AOT), are ideal for this purpose. In this paper, all important monuments of the Paphos District, listed by the Department of Antiquities of Cyprus, have been mapped using Geographical Information Systems. Several recent (2012) MODIS satellite images (both Aqua and Terra) have been used to extract the AOT values in this area. Multi-temporal analysis was performed to identify areas of high risk where AOT values are considered to be high. In situ observations have been also carried out to verify the results.

  3. Stripping voltammetry of flavonoids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The electrochemical behavior of the flavonoids hesperidin, quercetin, naringin, rutin, catechin, epicatechin and caffeic acid at the mercury electrode (HMDE, DME) and at a glassy carbon electrode has been studied by differential pulse polarography. Determination of flavonoids can be achieved either by direct reduction of the carbonyl group in the gamma-pyron ring, indirectly by cathodic stripping voltammetry via the formation of different flavonoid-mercury complexes at the mercury electrode surface and by adsorptive stripping voltammetry via the direct oxidation of aromatic o-dihydroxy groups. The advantage of stripping voltammetry is higher sensitivity and due to the possibility of higher sample dilution less influence of matrix effects. The application by cathodic stripping voltammetry to the determination of hesperidin in orange juice, hesperidin and rutin in helopyrin(R) tablets, a phytopharmaceutical preparation, naringin in grapefruit juice is demonstrated. Also the application by adsorptive stripping voltammetry at a glassy carbon electrode to the determination of quercetin in blood and sinupret, a phytopharmaceutical preparation and catechin in beer is demonstrated. Both methods are suitable for the determination of low flavonoid concentrations down to the ppb concentration range. (author)

  4. Basic Principles of Anodic Stripping Voltammetry (ASV)

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    In this interactive exercise, the basic principles of Anodic Stripping Voltammetry are shown. Each step of the voltammetric process is described using simulated animations. This activity illustrates what takes place in the voltammetric cell when this technique is applied to the determination of cadmium as well as to the simultaneous determination of copper and cadmium.

  5. Nudging technique for scale bridging in air quality/climate atmospheric composition modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Maurizi

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The interaction between air quality and climate involves dynamical scales that cover an immensely wide range. Bridging these scales in numerical simulations is fundamental in studies devoted to megacity/hot-spot impacts on climate. The nudging technique is proposed as a bridging method that can couple different models at different scales.

    Here, nudging is used to force low resolution chemical composition models using a high resolution run on critical areas. A one-year numerical experiment focused on the Po Valley hot spot is performed using the BOLCHEM model to asses the method.

    The results show that the model response is stable to perturbation induced by the nudging and that, if a high resolution run is taken as a reference, there is an increase in model skills of low resolution run when the technique is applied. This improvement depends on the species and the season. The effect spreads outside the forcing area and remains noticeable over an extension about 9 times larger.

  6. micro strip gas chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    1998-01-01

    About 16 000 Micro Strip Gas Chambers like this one will be used in the CMS tracking detector. They will measure the tracks of charged particles to a hundredth of a millimetre precision in the region near the collision point where the density of particles is very high. Each chamber is filled with a gas mixture of argon and dimethyl ether. Charged particles passing through ionise the gas, knocking out electrons which are collected on the aluminium strips visible under the microscope. Such detectors are being used in radiography. They give higher resolution imaging and reduce the required dose of radiation.

  7. Technical assessment of air quality measuring analyzers; Evaluation technique des analyseurs de mesure de la qualite de l`air

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tatry, V. [Laboratoire de mesures a l`air ambiant, Dept. Mesures et Analyses, INERIS, (France)

    1996-12-31

    Air quality measuring analyzers are assessed in order to verify their measuring performance and to examine their aptitude to field measurements. For ensuring such assessment, the INERIS institute (France) disposes of three climatic enclosures, gas mixture emission systems and data acquisition systems. The assessment methodology is presented together with the various possible results: response time, linearity and limits determination, calibration studies, thresholds, drifts, hysteresis, physical detrimental effects, etc. Applications such as analyzers for one or more pollutants in ambient air and at the emission source (portable multi-gas analyzers) are presented, together with their results

  8. MICROBIOLOGICAL SURVEILLANCE OF AIR QUALITY IN OPE RATION THEATRES - COMPARISON OF THE CONVENTIONAL SETTLE PL ATE TECHNIQUES VS USE OF AN AIR SAMPLING DEVICE.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prathab

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Air as a means of nosocomial transmission has alw ays remained as a cause of concern for health care providers and especially personnel involved in infection control activities. Although there are no uniform c onsensus on either the standards for surveillance, methodology for monitoring or the lev els of acceptable contamination, it still remains a fact that we need to have some criteria t o monitor air quality in atleast the critical care areas like the operation theatres. METHODOLOGY: Air quality surveillance in the operation theatres was performed simultaneously usin g the settle plate technique and an air sampling device. A total of 9 operation theatres were subjected to 4 surveillance cycles with a minimum of 2 recordings in each theatre following standard protocols and accepted method used to calculate bioburden. RESULTS: A comparison was made between the two methods using the data available with 72 recordings . In th e settle plate technique, the mean cfu /mm3 was found to be 17.11 and 22cfu/mm3 at less than 30 cm and at a point more than 30cms of the operating table where as the corresponding means usi ng the air sampler was137.83 and 164.11cfu/mm3 respectively which showed considerable statistical significance . CONCLUSION : The use of an air sampler would be more appropriate in monitoring the air quality in critical care areas ensuring a more stringent method of qual ity check without compromising on the the standard accepted norms and addressing the issue of patient safety with reference to infection prevention

  9. Ram pressure stripping of tilted galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Jachym, P; Palous, J; Combes, F

    2009-01-01

    Ram pressure stripping of galaxies in clusters can yield gas deficient disks. Previous numerical simulations based on various approaches suggested that, except for near edge-on disk orientations, the amount of stripping depends very little on the inclination angle. Following our previous study of face-on stripping, we extend the set of parameters with the disk tilt angle and explore in detail the effects of the ram pressure on the interstellar content (ISM) of tilted galaxies that orbit in various environments of clusters, with compact or extended distributions of the intra-cluster medium (ICM). We further study how results of numerical simulations could be estimated analytically. A grid of numerical simulations with varying parameters is produced using the tree/SPH code GADGET with a modified method for calculating the ISM-ICM interaction. These SPH calculations extend the set of existing results obtained from different codes using various numerical techniques. The simulations confirm the general trend of le...

  10. Hot Strip Laminar Cooling Control Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Jun; WANG Guo-dong; LIU Xiang-hua

    2004-01-01

    The control model of laminar cooling system for hot strip, including air-cooling model, water-cooling model, temperature distribution model along thickness direction, feedforward control model, feedback control model and self-learning model, was introduced. PID arithmetic and Smith predictor controller were applied to feedback control. The sample of model parameter classification was given. The calculation process was shown by flow chart. The model has been proved to be simple, effective and of high precision.

  11. ALICE Silicon Strip Detector

    CERN Multimedia

    Nooren, G

    2013-01-01

    The Silicon Strip Detector (SSD) constitutes the two outermost layers of the Inner Tracking System (ITS) of the ALICE Experiment. The SSD plays a crucial role in the tracking of the particles produced in the collisions connecting the tracks from the external detectors (Time Projection Chamber) to the ITS. The SSD also contributes to the particle identification through the measurement of their energy loss.

  12. Development of Silicon Multi-strip Detector

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TanJilian; JinGenming; WangHongwei; YuanXiaohua; DuanLiming; LiSonglin; LuZiwei; XuHushan; NingBaojun; TianDayu; WangWei; ZhangLu

    2003-01-01

    Position sensitive detector is very important for nuclear physics experiment. There several techniques can be used to fabricate position sensitive detector, for example, Si-surface barrier method, diffusion method, ion implantation and planar process etc. Among all the techniques mentioned above planar process is the best one. We have developed batch of position sensitive detector -- silicon multi-strip detector by using planar process.

  13. Electroplating and stripping copper on molybdenum and niobium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power, J. L.

    1978-01-01

    Molybdenum and niobium are often electroplated and subsequently stripped of copper. Since general standard plating techniques produce poor quality coatings, general procedures have been optimized and specified to give good results.

  14. Air Pollution Studies in Central Russia (Tula Region) Using Moss Biomonitoring Technique, NAA and AAS

    CERN Document Server

    Ermakova, E V; Steinnes, E

    2002-01-01

    For the first time the moss biomonitoring technique has been applied to air pollution monitoring in Central Russia (Tula Region). Moss samples were collected from 83 sites in accordance with the sampling strategy of European projects on biomonitoring of atmospheric deposition. Neutron activation analysis (NAA) at the IBR-2 reactor has made it possible to determine the concentration of 33 elements (Na, Mg, Al, Cl, K, Ca, Sc, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Zn, As, Br, Rb, Sr, Mo, Sb, I, Cs, Ba, La, Ce, Sm, Tb, Yb, Hf, Ta, W, Th, U) over a large concentration range (from 10000 mg/kg for K to 0.001 mg/kg for Tb and Ta). In addition to NAA, flame AAS (atomic absorption spectrometry) was applied to determine the concentration of Cd, Cu and Pb. Factor analysis was applied to determine possible sources of elements detected in the investigated mosses. Eight factors were identified. The geographical distribution of factor scores is presented. The interpretation of the factor analysis findings points to natural as well as anthr...

  15. Nudging technique for scale bridging in air quality/climate atmospheric composition modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Maurizi

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The interaction between air quality and climate involves dynamical scales that cover a very wide range. Bridging these scales in numerical simulations is fundamental in studies devoted to megacity/hot-spot impacts on larger scales. A technique based on nudging is proposed as a bridging method that can couple different models at different scales.

    Here, nudging is used to force low resolution chemical composition models with a run of a high resolution model on a critical area. A one-year numerical experiment focused on the Po Valley hot spot is performed using the BOLCHEM model to asses the method.

    The results show that the model response is stable to perturbation induced by the nudging and that, taking the high resolution run as a reference, performances of the nudged run increase with respect to the non-forced run. The effect outside the forcing area depends on transport and is significant in a relevant number of events although it becomes weak on seasonal or yearly basis.

  16. Detecting discontinuities in time series of upper air data: Demonstration of an adaptive filter technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zurbenko, I.; Chen, J.; Rao, S.T. [State Univ. of New York, Albany, NY (United States)] [and others

    1997-11-01

    The issue of global climate change due to increased anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere has gained considerable attention and importance. Climate change studies require the interpretation of weather data collected in numerous locations and/or over the span of several decades. Unfortunately, these data contain biases caused by changes in instruments and data acquisition procedures. It is essential that biases are identified and/or removed before these data can be used confidently in the context of climate change research. The purpose of this paper is to illustrate the use of an adaptive moving average filter and compare it with traditional parametric methods. The advantage of the adaptive filter over traditional parametric methods is that it is less effected by seasonal patterns and trends. The filter has been applied to upper air relative humidity and temperature data. Applied to generated data, the filter has a root mean squared error accuracy of about 600 days when locating changes of 0.1 standard deviations and about 20 days for changes of 0.5 standard deviations. In some circumstances, the accuracy of location estimation can be improved through parametric techniques used in conjunction with the adaptive filter.

  17. Applied research on air pollution using nuclear-related analytical techniques. Report on the second research co-ordination meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A co-ordinated research programme (CRP) on applied research on air pollution using nuclear-related techniques is a global CRP which started in 1992, and is scheduled to run until early 1997. The purpose of this CRP is to promote the use of nuclear analytical techniques in air pollution studies, e.g. NAA, XRF, and PIXE for the analysis of toxic and other trace elements in air particulate matter. The main purposes of the core programme are i) to support the use of nuclear and nuclear-related analytical techniques for research and monitoring studies on air pollution, ii) to identify major sources of air pollution affecting each of the participating countries with particular reference to toxic heavy metals, and iii) to obtain comparative data on pollution levels in areas of high pollution (e.g. a city centre or a populated area downwind of a large pollution source) and low pollution (e.g. rural area). This document reports the discussions held during the second Research Co-ordination Meeting (RCM) for the CRP which took place at ANSTO in Menai, Australia. (author)

  18. Fluorocarbon stripping of low beta heavy ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Equilibrium charge state distributions were measured for Kr, Xe, Ho and Pb ions at energies from 25 to 160 keV/amu passing through a high molecular weight fluorocarbon vapor, as well as air and carbon foil strippers. Measured charge state distributions are given which show that the fluorocarbon distributions are intermediate between those of air and foil strippers, becoming closer to foil values as velocity is decreased. At all energies substantial asymmetry in the fluorocarbon distributions towards higher charge states were observed. These favorable distributions, coupled with very high beam handling capability, low maintenance and indefinite lifetime clearly indicate the value of fluorocarbon stripping for many accelerator applications. 5 refs

  19. Measurement of carbon dioxide fluxes in a free-air carbon dioxide enrichment experiment using the closed flux chamber technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Selsted, M.B.; Ambus, P.; Michelsen, A.;

    2011-01-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO(2)) fluxes, composing net ecosystem exchange (NEE), ecosystem respiration (ER), and soil respiration (SR) were measured in a temperate heathland exposed to elevated CO2 by the FACE (free-air carbon enrichment) technique, raising the atmospheric CO(2) concentration from c. 380 mu...

  20. Measurement of carbon dioxide fluxes in a free-air carbon dioxide enrichment experiment using the closed flux chamber technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Selsted, Merete Bang; Ambus, Per; Michelsen, Anders;

    2011-01-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) fluxes, composing net ecosystem exchange (NEE), ecosystem respiration (ER), and soil respiration (SR) were measured in a temperate heathland exposed to elevated CO2 by the FACE (free-air carbon enrichment) technique, raising the atmospheric CO2 concentration from c. 380 μmol...

  1. Air

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... house) Industrial emissions (like smoke and chemicals from factories) Household cleaners (spray cleaners, air fresheners) Car emissions (like carbon monoxide) *All of these things make up “particle pollution.” They mostly come from cars, trucks, buses, and ...

  2. Electrochemical metal speciation analysis of chemically heterogeneous samples: the outstanding features of stripping chronopotentiometry at scanned deposition potential

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeuwen, van H.P.; Town, R.M.

    2003-01-01

    The application of depletive stripping chronopotentiometry at scanned deposition potential (SSCP) to metal ion speciation analysis of chemically heterogeneous complex systems is described. In this electroanalytical stripping technique, metal which is accumulated in the electrode during the depositio

  3. Air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In recent years several regulations and standards for air quality and limits for air pollution were issued or are in preparation by the European Union, which have severe influence on the environmental monitoring and legislation in Austria. This chapter of the environmental control report of Austria gives an overview about the legal situation of air pollution control in the European Union and in specific the legal situation in Austria. It gives a comprehensive inventory of air pollution measurements for the whole area of Austria of total suspended particulates, ozone, volatile organic compounds, nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxide, carbon monoxide, heavy metals, benzene, dioxin, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and eutrophication. For each of these pollutants the measured emission values throughout Austria are given in tables and geographical charts, the environmental impact is discussed, statistical data and time series of the emission sources are given and legal regulations and measures for an effective environmental pollution control are discussed. In particular the impact of fossil-fuel power plants on the air pollution is analyzed. (a.n.)

  4. An air flow sensor for neonatal mechanical ventilation applications based on a novel fiber-optic sensing technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work, a simple and low-cost air flow sensor, based on a novel fiber-optic sensing technique has been developed for monitoring air flows rates supplied by a neonatal ventilator to support infants in intensive care units. The device is based on a fiber optic sensing technique allowing (a) the immunity to light intensity variations independent by measurand and (b) the reduction of typical shortcomings affecting all biomedical fields (electromagnetic interference and patient electrical safety). The sensing principle is based on the measurement of transversal displacement of an emitting fiber-optic cantilever due to action of air flow acting on it; the fiber tip displacement is measured by means of a photodiode linear array, placed in front of the entrance face of the emitting optical fiber in order to detect its light intensity profile. As the measurement system is based on a detection of the illumination pattern, and not on an intensity modulation technique, it results less sensitive to light intensity fluctuation independent by measurand than intensity-based sensors. The considered technique is here adopted in order to develop two different configurations for an air flow sensor suitable for the measurement of air flow rates typically occurring during mechanical ventilation of newborns: a mono-directional and a bi-directional transducer have been proposed. A mathematical model for the air flow sensor is here proposed and a static calibration of two different arrangements has been performed: a measurement range up to 3.00 × 10−4 m3/s (18.0 l/min) for the mono-directional sensor and a measurement range of ±3.00 × 10−4 m3/s (±18.0 l/min) for the bi-directional sensor are experimentally evaluated, according to the air flow rates normally encountered during tidal breathing of infants with a mass lower than 10 kg. Experimental data of static calibration result in accordance with the proposed theoretical model: for the mono-directional configuration, the

  5. An air flow sensor for neonatal mechanical ventilation applications based on a novel fiber-optic sensing technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battista, L.; Sciuto, S. A.; Scorza, A.

    2013-03-01

    In this work, a simple and low-cost air flow sensor, based on a novel fiber-optic sensing technique has been developed for monitoring air flows rates supplied by a neonatal ventilator to support infants in intensive care units. The device is based on a fiber optic sensing technique allowing (a) the immunity to light intensity variations independent by measurand and (b) the reduction of typical shortcomings affecting all biomedical fields (electromagnetic interference and patient electrical safety). The sensing principle is based on the measurement of transversal displacement of an emitting fiber-optic cantilever due to action of air flow acting on it; the fiber tip displacement is measured by means of a photodiode linear array, placed in front of the entrance face of the emitting optical fiber in order to detect its light intensity profile. As the measurement system is based on a detection of the illumination pattern, and not on an intensity modulation technique, it results less sensitive to light intensity fluctuation independent by measurand than intensity-based sensors. The considered technique is here adopted in order to develop two different configurations for an air flow sensor suitable for the measurement of air flow rates typically occurring during mechanical ventilation of newborns: a mono-directional and a bi-directional transducer have been proposed. A mathematical model for the air flow sensor is here proposed and a static calibration of two different arrangements has been performed: a measurement range up to 3.00 × 10-4 m3/s (18.0 l/min) for the mono-directional sensor and a measurement range of ±3.00 × 10-4 m3/s (±18.0 l/min) for the bi-directional sensor are experimentally evaluated, according to the air flow rates normally encountered during tidal breathing of infants with a mass lower than 10 kg. Experimental data of static calibration result in accordance with the proposed theoretical model: for the mono-directional configuration, the

  6. An air flow sensor for neonatal mechanical ventilation applications based on a novel fiber-optic sensing technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Battista, L.; Sciuto, S. A.; Scorza, A. [Department of Engineering, ROMA TRE University, via della Vasca Navale 79/81, Rome (Italy)

    2013-03-15

    In this work, a simple and low-cost air flow sensor, based on a novel fiber-optic sensing technique has been developed for monitoring air flows rates supplied by a neonatal ventilator to support infants in intensive care units. The device is based on a fiber optic sensing technique allowing (a) the immunity to light intensity variations independent by measurand and (b) the reduction of typical shortcomings affecting all biomedical fields (electromagnetic interference and patient electrical safety). The sensing principle is based on the measurement of transversal displacement of an emitting fiber-optic cantilever due to action of air flow acting on it; the fiber tip displacement is measured by means of a photodiode linear array, placed in front of the entrance face of the emitting optical fiber in order to detect its light intensity profile. As the measurement system is based on a detection of the illumination pattern, and not on an intensity modulation technique, it results less sensitive to light intensity fluctuation independent by measurand than intensity-based sensors. The considered technique is here adopted in order to develop two different configurations for an air flow sensor suitable for the measurement of air flow rates typically occurring during mechanical ventilation of newborns: a mono-directional and a bi-directional transducer have been proposed. A mathematical model for the air flow sensor is here proposed and a static calibration of two different arrangements has been performed: a measurement range up to 3.00 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -4} m{sup 3}/s (18.0 l/min) for the mono-directional sensor and a measurement range of {+-}3.00 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -4} m{sup 3}/s ({+-}18.0 l/min) for the bi-directional sensor are experimentally evaluated, according to the air flow rates normally encountered during tidal breathing of infants with a mass lower than 10 kg. Experimental data of static calibration result in accordance with the proposed

  7. An air flow sensor for neonatal mechanical ventilation applications based on a novel fiber-optic sensing technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battista, L; Sciuto, S A; Scorza, A

    2013-03-01

    In this work, a simple and low-cost air flow sensor, based on a novel fiber-optic sensing technique has been developed for monitoring air flows rates supplied by a neonatal ventilator to support infants in intensive care units. The device is based on a fiber optic sensing technique allowing (a) the immunity to light intensity variations independent by measurand and (b) the reduction of typical shortcomings affecting all biomedical fields (electromagnetic interference and patient electrical safety). The sensing principle is based on the measurement of transversal displacement of an emitting fiber-optic cantilever due to action of air flow acting on it; the fiber tip displacement is measured by means of a photodiode linear array, placed in front of the entrance face of the emitting optical fiber in order to detect its light intensity profile. As the measurement system is based on a detection of the illumination pattern, and not on an intensity modulation technique, it results less sensitive to light intensity fluctuation independent by measurand than intensity-based sensors. The considered technique is here adopted in order to develop two different configurations for an air flow sensor suitable for the measurement of air flow rates typically occurring during mechanical ventilation of newborns: a mono-directional and a bi-directional transducer have been proposed. A mathematical model for the air flow sensor is here proposed and a static calibration of two different arrangements has been performed: a measurement range up to 3.00 × 10(-4) m(3)∕s (18.0 l∕min) for the mono-directional sensor and a measurement range of ±3.00 × 10(-4) m(3)∕s (±18.0 l∕min) for the bi-directional sensor are experimentally evaluated, according to the air flow rates normally encountered during tidal breathing of infants with a mass lower than 10 kg. Experimental data of static calibration result in accordance with the proposed theoretical model: for the mono

  8. An air flow sensor for neonatal mechanical ventilation applications based on a novel fiber-optic sensing technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battista, L; Sciuto, S A; Scorza, A

    2013-03-01

    In this work, a simple and low-cost air flow sensor, based on a novel fiber-optic sensing technique has been developed for monitoring air flows rates supplied by a neonatal ventilator to support infants in intensive care units. The device is based on a fiber optic sensing technique allowing (a) the immunity to light intensity variations independent by measurand and (b) the reduction of typical shortcomings affecting all biomedical fields (electromagnetic interference and patient electrical safety). The sensing principle is based on the measurement of transversal displacement of an emitting fiber-optic cantilever due to action of air flow acting on it; the fiber tip displacement is measured by means of a photodiode linear array, placed in front of the entrance face of the emitting optical fiber in order to detect its light intensity profile. As the measurement system is based on a detection of the illumination pattern, and not on an intensity modulation technique, it results less sensitive to light intensity fluctuation independent by measurand than intensity-based sensors. The considered technique is here adopted in order to develop two different configurations for an air flow sensor suitable for the measurement of air flow rates typically occurring during mechanical ventilation of newborns: a mono-directional and a bi-directional transducer have been proposed. A mathematical model for the air flow sensor is here proposed and a static calibration of two different arrangements has been performed: a measurement range up to 3.00 × 10(-4) m(3)∕s (18.0 l∕min) for the mono-directional sensor and a measurement range of ±3.00 × 10(-4) m(3)∕s (±18.0 l∕min) for the bi-directional sensor are experimentally evaluated, according to the air flow rates normally encountered during tidal breathing of infants with a mass lower than 10 kg. Experimental data of static calibration result in accordance with the proposed theoretical model: for the mono

  9. Modified Virtual Air Guitar: A Concept Realized using Image Processing Techniques

    OpenAIRE

    J. R. Santiago; S. J. Samuel; R. Sawn

    2015-01-01

    Even amidst the hustle and bustle of busy lives, numerous people dream of playing a musical instrument. Unfortunately, many may never get a chance to touch one. But this doesn’t stop them from ‘air drumming’ or playing ‘air guitar’ passionately while listening to their favorite tunes. To encourage this passion for music, especially in the absence of a real instrument, we introduce to you the Virtual Air Guitar. This application allows one to showcase their guitar skills, regardless of their k...

  10. Flow and heat transfer in compact offset strip fin surfaces

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Junqi DONG; Jiangping CHEN; Zhijiu CHEN

    2008-01-01

    Experimental studies of air-side heat transfer and pressure drop characteristics of offset strip fins and flat tube heat exchangers were performed. A series of tests were conducted for 9 heat exchangers with different fin space, fin height, fin strip length and flow length, at a constant tube-side water flow rate of 2.5 m3/h. The char-acteristics of the heat transfer and pressure drop of differ-ent fin space, fin height and fin length were analyzed and compared. The curves of the heat transfer coefficients vs. The pumping power per unit frontal area were then plot-ted. Moreover, the enhanced heat transfer mechanism of offset strip fins was analyzed using field synergy theory. The results showed that fin length and flow length have more obviously effect on the thermal hydraulic character-istics of offset strip fins.

  11. Dynamic underground stripping demonstration project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LLNL is collaborating with the UC Berkeley College of Engineering to develop and demonstrate a system of thermal remediation techniques for rapid cleanup of localized underground spills. Called dynamic stripping to reflect the rapid and controllable nature of the process, it will combine steam injection, direct electrical heating, and tomographic geophysical imaging in a cleanup of the LLNL gasoline spill. In the first eight months of the project, a Clean Site engineering test was conducted to prove the field application of the techniques. Tests then began on the contaminated site in FY 1992. This report describes the work at the Clean Site, including design and performance criteria, test results, interpretations, and conclusions. We fielded 'a wide range of new designs and techniques, some successful and some not. In this document, we focus on results and performance, lessons learned, and design and operational changes recommended for work at the contaminated site. Each section focuses on a different aspect of the work and can be considered a self-contained contribution

  12. Effect of boron on hot strips of low carbon steel produced by compact strip production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hao Yu; Yonglin Kang

    2008-01-01

    The effect of boron on hot strips of low carbon steel produced by compact strip production (CSP) to reduce the strength to a certain degree was investigated, which is quite different from that of high-strength low alloy steel. The mechanical properties and microstructural evolution of the hot strip were studied using optical microscopy and tensile tests. By means of an electrolytic disso- lution technique and Thermo-Cal calculation, the precipitates containing boron were analyzed and detected. From the electron back- scattered diffraction analysis, it can be deciphered whether the microstructure has recrystallized or not. Furthermore, the effect of boron segregation on the recrystallization or non-recrystallization conditions can be distinguished. The segregation behavior of boron was investigated in boron-containing steel. The nonequilibrium segregation of boron during processing was discussed on the basis of the forming complexes with vacancies that migrate to the boundaries prior to annihilation, which was confirmed by the subsequent cold rolling with annealing experiments.

  13. Evaluation of data assimilation techniques for a mesoscale meteorological model and their effects on air quality model results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Data assimilation techniques are methods to limit the growth of errors in a dynamical model by allowing observations distributed in space and time to force (nudge) model solutions. They have become common for meteorological model applications in recent years, especially to enhance weather forecast and to support air-quality studies. In order to investigate the influence of different data assimilation techniques on the meteorological fields produced by RAMS model, and to evaluate their effects on the ozone and PM10 concentrations predicted by FARM model, several numeric experiments were conducted over the urban area of Rome, Italy, during a summer episode

  14. Evaluation of data assimilation techniques for a mesoscale meteorological model and their effects on air quality model results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amicarelli, A; Pelliccioni, A [ISPESL - Dipartimento Insediamenti Produttivi e Interazione con l' Ambiente, Via Fontana Candida, 1 00040 Monteporzio Catone (RM) Italy (Italy); Finardi, S; Silibello, C [ARIANET, via Gilino 9, 20128 Milano (Italy); Gariazzo, C

    2008-05-01

    Data assimilation techniques are methods to limit the growth of errors in a dynamical model by allowing observations distributed in space and time to force (nudge) model solutions. They have become common for meteorological model applications in recent years, especially to enhance weather forecast and to support air-quality studies. In order to investigate the influence of different data assimilation techniques on the meteorological fields produced by RAMS model, and to evaluate their effects on the ozone and PM{sub 10} concentrations predicted by FARM model, several numeric experiments were conducted over the urban area of Rome, Italy, during a summer episode.

  15. Feasibility studies of air placed techniques as emplacement means of different backfilling materials in underground radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Air placed techniques are likely to be used as emplacement means of different backfilling materials in underground waste repositories. A literature survey of the air placed techniques and equipments leads to the choice of the dry process taking into account the emplacement constraints (distance: 300 m, flow: 10 m3/h) and the large variety of materials to be placed. Tests performed in the case of cement-based materials (with and without addition of silica fumes), for different types of cement and as a function of the incidence of the jet, show that it is possible to put in place mortars of good quality. However heterogeneity in the material composition is found when the jet is stopped. This problem may be partly solved by a better automation of the process. Complementary tests, carried out with the preselected clay of Fourges Cahaignes, clearly demonstrate the ability of the air placed technique to put in place pure clay: a dry density of 1.50kg/m3 is reached in the case of coarse material and for a final water content of 30% (in weight). Feasibility tests performed on clay-sand mixtures are not conclusive due to an unappropriate granulometry distribution of the sand. 11 figs., 9 tabs

  16. Strip shape control capability of hot wide strip rolling mills

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Renzhong Wang; Quan Yang; Anrui He; Jian Shao; Haitao Bian

    2008-01-01

    The elasticity deformation of rolls was analyzed by means of two-dimensional f'mite element method (FEM) with vari-able thickness. Three typical mills were used as objects for analysis. A thorough study was done on the control capabilities of these mills on the strip shape. Then the strip shape control capabilities of the three mills was compared synthetically.

  17. Lateral decubitus HRCT: a simple technique to replace expiratory CT in children with air trapping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Soo-Jung; Choi, Byeong-Kyoo; Kim, Hyeon Joo; Lee, Soo Hyun; Choi, Seong Hoon; Park, Sang Joon; Goo, Hyun Woo; Lee, Jin Seong; Yoon, Chong Hyun [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Asan Medical Centre, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea)

    2002-03-01

    Objective: To evaluate the effectiveness of lateral decubitus high-resolution CT (HRCT) in detecting air trapping in children. Materials and methods: HRCT scans of 21 children with heterogeneous lung attenuation caused by air trapping (n=10) or with infiltrative lung disease (n=11) were reviewed retrospectively. The air-trapping disease included bronchiolitis obliterans (n=7), bronchial obstruction due to mediastinal lymphoma (n=1), endobronchial haemangioma (n=1) and foreign body aspiration (n=1). HRCT was performed in both lateral decubitus positions as well as the supine position. The attenuation (Hounsfield units; HU) was measured in both the hypo- and adjacent hyper-attenuating areas of the heterogeneous lung portion, and the difference of attenuation between these two areas was calculated in the supine and both lateral decubitus scans, respectively. The attenuation differences of the three scans were compared in each group. Results: The attenuation difference was larger in the ipsilateral decubitus (207.95{+-}105.24 HU) scans than in the contralateral (121.25{+-}90.05 HU) or supine (162{+-}94.01 HU) scans in the air-trapping group (P<0.05). There were no significant differences among the three scans in the infiltrative lung disease group (P>0.05). Conclusions: Lateral decubitus HRCT is an effective adjunct to standard HRCT in the evaluation of air trapping as a cause of mosaic lung attenuation in uncooperative paediatric patients. (orig.)

  18. Modified Virtual Air Guitar: A Concept Realized using Image Processing Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. R. Santiago

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Even amidst the hustle and bustle of busy lives, numerous people dream of playing a musical instrument. Unfortunately, many may never get a chance to touch one. But this doesn’t stop them from ‘air drumming’ or playing ‘air guitar’ passionately while listening to their favorite tunes. To encourage this passion for music, especially in the absence of a real instrument, we introduce to you the Virtual Air Guitar. This application allows one to showcase their guitar skills, regardless of their knowledge of playing a real guitar. It uses color tracking to detect inputs and a sound module incorporating the Karplus Strong algorithm to generate musical notes as an output. As a result, a simple webcam and brightly colored gloves are required to use the application. This application has enormous potential as a base for interactive guitar games, teaching music, and of course, to compose guitar based songs.

  19. Air pollution in Thailand using nuclear-related analytical techniques. Appendix 16

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since 1993, the samples of air particulate matter have been collected from many permanent air quality monitoring stations in Bangkok city including one in another major city, Cholburi, and also from various temporary sites near major roads of Bangkok. The sampling devices used are High volume (HV) and PM-10 samplers while a Gent stacked filter unit collector is used at a regional site represented residential area where the meteorological information is kept for reference. The instrumental neutron activation analysis for the determination of trace elements in air particulate samples has been performed. The result data of those analyzed samples are reported in the paper with the calculated enrichment factors by use of Wedepohl's table of crustal abundances and Sc as the reference element. (author)

  20. Two-phase air-water stratified flow measurement using ultrasonic techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Shiwei; Yan, Tinghu; Yeung, Hoi

    2014-04-01

    In this paper, a time resolved ultrasound system was developed for investigating two-phase air-water stratified flow. The hardware of the system includes a pulsed wave transducer, a pulser/receiver, and a digital oscilloscope. The time domain cross correlation method is used to calculate the velocity profile along ultrasonic beam. The system is able to provide velocities with spatial resolution of around 1mm and the temporal resolution of 200μs. Experiments were carried out on single phase water flow and two-phase air-water stratified flow. For single phase water flow, the flow rates from ultrasound system were compared with those from electromagnetic flow (EM) meter, which showed good agreement. Then, the experiments were conducted on two-phase air-water stratified flow and the results were given. Compared with liquid height measurement from conductance probe, it indicated that the measured velocities were explainable.

  1. Techniques for controlling air pollution from the operation of nuclear facilities. Report of a panel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This manual is provided for the guidance of those persons or authorities who are responsible for the organization, control and operation of ventilation systems and air-cleaning installations in nuclear establishments. It is intended to generalize about existing experience in the operation of such systems at nuclear facilities including reactors and laboratories for production, use and handling of radionuclides and other toxic materials. This manual will provide designers and operators of nuclear facilities in which ventilation and air-cleaning systems are used with the factors which have to be considered to create safe working conditions inside facilities and without polluting the atmosphere or the environment to a hazardous level.

  2. The Refuelable Zinc-air Battery: Alternative Techniques for Zinc and Electrolyte Regeneration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooper, J F; Krueger, R

    2006-01-19

    An investigation was conducted into alternative techniques for zinc and electrolyte regeneration and reuse in the refuelable zinc/air battery that was developed by LLNL and previously tested on a moving electric bus using cut wire. Mossy zinc was electrodeposited onto a bipolar array of inclined Ni plates with an energy consumption of 1.8 kWh/kg. Using a H{sub 2}-depolarized anode, zinc was deposited at 0.6 V (0.8 kA/m{sup 2}); the open circuit voltage was 0.45 V. Three types of fuel pellets were tested and compared with results for 0.75 mm cut wire: spheres produced in a spouted bed (UCB); coarse powder produced by gas-atomization (Noranda); and irregular pellets produced by chopping 1-mm plates of compacted zinc fines (Eagle-Picher, Inc.). All three types transported within the cell. The coarse powder fed continuously from hopper to cell, as did the compacted pellets (< 0.83 mm). Large particles (> 0.83 mm; Eagle-Picher and UCB) failed to feed from hopper into cell, being held up in the 2.5 mm wide channel connecting hopper to cell. Increasing channel width to {approx}3.5 mm should allow all three types to be used. Energy losses were determined for shorting of cells during refueling. The shorting currents between adjacent hoppers through zinc particle bridges were determined using both coarse powder and chopped compressed zinc plates. A physical model was developed allowing scaling our results for electrode polarization and bed resistance Shorting was found to consume < 0.02% of the capacity of the cell and to dissipate {approx}0.2 W/cell of heat. Corrosion rates were determined for cut wire in contact with current collector materials and battery-produced ZnO-saturated electrolyte. The rates were 1.7% of cell capacity per month at ambient temperatures; and 0.08% of capacity for 12 hours at 57 C. The total energy conversion efficiency for zinc recovery using the hydrogen was estimated at 34% (natural gas to battery terminals)--comparable to fuel cells. Producing

  3. Complex zero strip decreasing operators

    OpenAIRE

    Cardon, David A.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we study the effect of linear differential operators coming from the Laguerre-Polya class that act on functions in the extended Laguerre-Polya class with zeros in a horizontal strip in the complex plane. These operator decrease the size of the strip containing the zeros.

  4. Building America Best Practices Series, Volume 10: Retrofit Techniques and Technologies: Air Sealing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baechler, Michael C.; Gilbride, Theresa L.; Hefty, Marye G.; Cole, Pamala C.; Williamson, Jennifer L.; Love, Pat M.

    2010-04-12

    This report was prepared by PNNL for the U.S. Department of Energy Building America Program. The report provides information to home owners who want to make their existing homes more energy efficient by sealing leaks in the building envelope (ceiling, walls, and floors) that let in drafts and let conditioned air escape. The report provides descriptions of 19 key areas of the home where air sealing can improve home performance and energy efficiency. The report includes suggestions on how to find a qualified weatherization or home performance contractor, what to expect in a home energy audit, opportune times for performing air sealing, and what safety and health concerns to be aware of. The report describes some basic building science concepts and topics related to air sealing including ventilation, diagnostic tools, and code requirements. The report will be available for free download from the DOE Building America website. It is a suitable consumer education tool for home performance and weatherization contractors to share with customers to describe the process and value of home energy retrofits.

  5. Underground mine air quality laboratory for studying ventilation, vehicle and diesel engine pollutant control techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keski-Hynnila, D.E.; Reinbold, E.O.; Johnson, J.H.

    1981-11-01

    A field laboratory for use in monitoring underground mine air quality has been developed and proven in underground service. The laboratory includes two separate monitoring systems and data analysis computer programs. One is the Mine Air Monitoring Laboratory (MAML). This is an enclosed trailer-mounted laboratory capable of monitoring CO/sub 2/, CO, NO, NO/sub 2/, particulate matter, SO/sub 2/, NH/sub 3/, temperature and air velocity in the mine drift. The MAML can be up to 1000 feet away from the area being monitored. The second system is the vehicle data system, mounted on the load-haul-dump (LHD) vehicle, which monitors engine speed, engine fuel rack position, exhaust gas temperature, ambient temperature, vehicle speed, CO/sub 2/ concentration near the operator's breathing zone and the mode of operation of the vehicle. The two computer data analysis programs and the two field instrument systems comprise a complete Mine Air Quality Laboratory (MAQL) for underground pollutant studies. Data from the systems have been used for studying vehicle duty cycles, ventilation systems, exhaust after-treatment devices, vehicle exhaust system design and portable instrumentation. Descriptions of the laboratory are presented along with a summary of some of the experiments performed. The capabilities of the lab are discussed, along with future potential uses.

  6. Application of Dry Air Drying Techniques on West-East Gas Pipeline Project

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GaoJianguo; XieLigong; DaiZongyu

    2004-01-01

    Based on the pre-eommissioning requirements of gas pipeline, the basic principles and influential factors of dry air drying adopted in long distance gas pipelines, and states in detail the technological flow and the equipment required, etc. are introduced, which will have practical significance in drying operation on gas pipeline.

  7. Techniques and Products for Air Purification%室内空气净化技术及产品综述

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石芳芳; 邱利民; 于川; 张林; 宋佳; 严仁远

    2014-01-01

    Principles and characteristics of the indoor air purification techniques are introduced in this paper. The main challenges of cur-rent techniques are outlined. The combination principles of the air purification techniques are proposed by summarizing and analyzing the techniques applied in sorts of air purifiershe combination principles are: choosing the purification methods mainly based on the types of pollutants indoor and exploiting the synergistic effect between indoor air purification techniques to get the optimal and comprehensive puri-fication. his paper points out that studies on integrated purification technology exploiting synergistic effect purification techniques will be one of the most important researches in future.%如何在加快治理大气环境的同时,营造洁净健康的室内空气环境,是当前乃至今后相当长的一段时期国内外相关领域的持续热点。本文系统介绍了目前室内空气净化主要技术的原理及特点,指出现有技术存在的主要问题。通过对当前主流室内空气净化产品中应用的净化技术进行梳理,总结了空气净化技术的组合原则,即主要根据室内污染物类型进行针对性地选择,并利用净化技术间的协同效应,以使室内空气得到全面净化。本文还对未来的研发方向进行了展望,指出利用净化技术间的协同效应,研究更为有效的综合净化技术将成为未来重要的研究方向之一。

  8. The STAR Silicon Strip Detector (SSD)

    CERN Document Server

    Arnold, L; Bonnet, D; Boucham, A; Bouvier, S; Castillo, J; Coffin, J P; Drancourt, C; Erazmus, B; Gaudichet, L; Germain, M; Gojak, C; Grabski, J; Guilloux, G; Guedon, M; Hippolyte, B; Janik, M; Kisiel, A; Kuhn, C; Lakehal-Ayat, L; Lefèvre, F; Le Moal, C; Leszczynski, P; Lutz, Jean Robert; Maliszewski, A; Martin, L; Milletto, T; Pawlak, T; Peryt, W; Pluta, J; Przewlocki, M; Radomski, S; Ravel, O; Renard, C; Renault, G; Rigalleau, L M; Roy, C; Roy, D; Suire, C; Szarwas, P; Tarchini, A

    2003-01-01

    The STAR Silicon Strip Detector (SSD) completes the three layers of the Silicon Vertex Tracker (SVT) to make an inner tracking system located inside the Time Projection Chamber (TPC). This additional fourth layer provides two dimensional hit position and energy loss measurements for charged particles, improving the extrapolation of TPC tracks through SVT hits. To match the high multiplicity of central Au+Au collisions at RHIC the double sided silicon strip technology was chosen which makes the SSD a half million channels detector. Dedicated electronics have been designed for both readout and control. Also a novel technique of bonding, the Tape Automated Bonding (TAB), was used to fullfill the large number of bounds to be done. All aspects of the SSD are shortly described here and test performances of produced detection modules as well as simulated results on hit reconstruction are given.

  9. Electron capture by highly stripped ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This review describes theories of electron capture suitable for the description of rearrangement collisions between atomic hydrogen and completely stripped projectiles with charge greater than unity. The region of impact velocity considered lies between 0.05 and 3 au, which is of technological importance in fusion power devices. The semiclassical, impact parameter formalism is discussed and the use of atomic expansions at medium impact velocity is described. Experimental results for both completely and partially stripped projectiles are reviewed. The use of a molecular basis at low energy, and the role of pseudocrossings peculiar to the two centre Coulomb interaction are described. Finally, purely classical techniques, in which the electron wavefunction is represented by an ensemble of Kepler orbits are considered. The review was completed in February 1981. (author)

  10. Modified strip saturation model for a cracked piezoelectric strip

    OpenAIRE

    R.R. Bhargava; A. Setia

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The investigations aim to propose a model for arresting an electrical opening of a crack which weakensa narrow, poled and infinite piezoelectric strip. The edges of the strip are subjected to uniform, constant anti-planestresses and in-plane electrical displacements.Design/methodology/approach: The loads applied at the edges of the strip open the crack in a self-similar fashion.Consequently at each tip of the crack a saturation zone protrudes. To stop the crack from further opening t...

  11. Long-range transboundary air pollution studied by nuclear and related analytical techniques in europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Since 1995 sector of Neutron Activation Analysis and Applied Research of JINR contributes to the UNECE International Cooperative Program - Atmospheric Heavy Metal Deposition in Europe : estimations based on moss analysis. The data from these surveys allow both spatial and temporal trends in trace metal deposition to be examined and the areas where deposition of heavy metals from long-range trans-boundary air pollution is high to be identified

  12. Digital simulation of anodic stripping voltammetry from thin film electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The anodic stripping voltammetry (ASV) is routinely applied to control of Cu(II) in heavy water in the primary cooling loop of the Nuclear Power Reactor. The anodic stripping voltammetry (ASV) is a very well-known technique in electroanalytical chemistry. However, due to the complexity of the phenomena, it is practised with the fundamentals of empiric considerations. A geometric model for the anodic stripping voltammetry (ASV) from thin film electrodes which can be calculated by explicit digital simulation method is proposed as a possibility of solving the electrochemically reversible, cuasi-reversible and irreversible reactions under linear potential scan and multiple potential scans. (Until now the analytical mathematical method was applied to reversible reactions). All the results are compared with analytical solutions and experimental results and it permits to conclude that the anodic stripping voltammetry (ASV) can be studied with the simplicity and potentialities of explicit digital simulation methods. (M.E.L.)

  13. New technology for volatile components stripping in process fluids; Nova tecnologia para estripagem de componentes volateis em fluidos de processo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshida, Roberto Massao [White Martins Gases Industriais, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    1992-12-31

    Stripping is a process used in order to remove volatile contaminants during the purification step by bubbling inert gas in a contaminated liquid. This work defines the stripping process and its process parameters, describes some stripping techniques and introduces the supersonic stripper, that works at supersonic velocity. Dissolved oxygen reduction and stripping time reduction results are shown. The conclusion is that the supersonic stripper is superior to the in-line conventional systems. (author) 6 refs., 2 figs.

  14. Characterization of Airborne Particles Collected from Car Engine Air Filters Using SEM and EDX Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heredia Rivera, Birmania; Gerardo Rodriguez, Martín

    2016-01-01

    Particulate matter accumulated on car engine air-filters (CAFs) was examined in order to investigate the potential use of these devices as efficient samplers for collecting street level air that people are exposed to. The morphology, microstructure, and chemical composition of a variety of particles were studied using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX). The particulate matter accumulated by the CAFs was studied in two categories; the first was of removed particles by friction, and the second consisted of particles retained on the filters. Larger particles with a diameter of 74–10 µm were observed in the first category. In the second one, the detected particles had a diameter between 16 and 0.7 µm. These particles exhibited different morphologies and composition, indicating mostly a soil origin. The elemental composition revealed the presence of three groups: mineral (clay and asphalt), metallic (mainly Fe), and biological particles (vegetal and animal debris). The palynological analysis showed the presence of pollen grains associated with urban plants. These results suggest that CAFs capture a mixture of atmospheric particles, which can be analyzed in order to monitor urban air. Thus, the continuous availability of large numbers of filters and the retroactivity associated to the car routes suggest that these CAFs are very useful for studying the high traffic zones within a city. PMID:27706087

  15. Characterization of Airborne Particles Collected from Car Engine Air Filters Using SEM and EDX Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birmania Heredia Rivera

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Particulate matter accumulated on car engine air-filters (CAFs was examined in order to investigate the potential use of these devices as efficient samplers for collecting street level air that people are exposed to. The morphology, microstructure, and chemical composition of a variety of particles were studied using scanning electron microscopy (SEM and energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX. The particulate matter accumulated by the CAFs was studied in two categories; the first was of removed particles by friction, and the second consisted of particles retained on the filters. Larger particles with a diameter of 74–10 µm were observed in the first category. In the second one, the detected particles had a diameter between 16 and 0.7 µm. These particles exhibited different morphologies and composition, indicating mostly a soil origin. The elemental composition revealed the presence of three groups: mineral (clay and asphalt, metallic (mainly Fe, and biological particles (vegetal and animal debris. The palynological analysis showed the presence of pollen grains associated with urban plants. These results suggest that CAFs capture a mixture of atmospheric particles, which can be analyzed in order to monitor urban air. Thus, the continuous availability of large numbers of filters and the retroactivity associated to the car routes suggest that these CAFs are very useful for studying the high traffic zones within a city.

  16. Role of SSNTD technique in three-step method for total assay of alpha activity in air effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the present work, low levels of alpha activity in air effluents were estimated. Currently this essay involves collection of effluent samples and assaying them for the release using ZnS(Ag) based scintillation counter (background=1 cpm). Any activity below 1 cpm (net) therefore goes unreported. Air samples showing activity -6 Bq/m3 (3.73x10-17 Ci/m3) to 36.41x10-6 Bq/m3 (9.84x10-16 Ci/m3) for samples studied over twelve months period. The three step procedure helps to measure total activity without significant burden on SSNTD technique thereby improving the acceptability of the methodology. (author)

  17. Making sense of crowdsourced observations: Data fusion techniques for real-time mapping of urban air quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Philipp; Castell, Nuria; Vogt, Matthias; Lahoz, William; Bartonova, Alena

    2015-04-01

    With an ever-increasing amount of environmental observations available through crowdsourcing, one of the major emerging challenges is how to best make sense of the vast amount of collected observations and how to provide citizens and other end-users with a relevant value-added product. Regarding air quality, a high-density network of low-cost sensors provided by crowdsourcing has significant potential for improving spatial mapping in general and in urban areas in particular. However, most datasets of observations made within a crowdsourcing framework contain substantial data gaps and the observations are generally point measurements, which are only representative of a relatively small area. This poses a significant challenge for mapping applications. One way to overcome these issues is to combine the crowdsourced data with spatially continuous data from a model. We present a novel data fusion-based technique for combining real-time crowdsourced observations with model output that allows to provide highly detailed, up-to-date maps of urban air quality. The EU-funded CITI-SENSE project is deploying a dense network of low-cost sensors measuring air quality in eight cities around Europe. These crowdsourced observations are used for mapping urban quality in real-time by fusing them with data obtained from statistical or deterministic air quality models. Data fusion techniques allow for combining observations with model data in a mathematically objective way and therefore provide a means of adding value to both the observations and the model. The observations are improved by filling spatio-temporal gaps in the data and the model is improved by constraining it with observations. The model further provides detailed spatial patterns in areas where no observations are available. As such, data fusion of observations from high-density low-cost sensor networks together with models can contribute to significantly improving urban-scale air quality mapping. The data fusion

  18. Pellet coating by air suspension technique using a mini-model coating unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganesan, M; Pal, T K; Jayakumar, M

    2003-09-01

    Air suspension coating is widely used in the pharmaceutical industry, as an attractive alternative to pan coating in that it can successfully coat small particles, pellets and tablets irrespective of size or shape with a wide variety of coating materials. The commercially available air suspension coating equipments require at least one kilogram of material for optimum efficiency of their working. Therefore, it is felt that there is a potential need for a small, compact air suspension coating instrument, which can work with gram quantities of material. The main objective of the present work is to design and evaluate a laboratory model top spray air suspension coating instrument. The performance of the instrument was evaluated for both, drug loading on to non-pareil pellets and coating of drug-loaded pellets. Terbutaline sulphate was selected as model drug, while Surelease (aqueous polymeric dispersion of ethyl cellulose) as representative coating material. The drug loading efficiency of the instrument was found to be around 82% with a pellet load of 10 g. The drug loading efficiency was found to be satisfactory and reproducible. Scanning electron micrographs of coated pellets indicated that coating was homogenous and uniform around the pellets. The maximum deviations observed in the in vitro drug release studies were +/- 2.7397% of the mean percent quantity of drug released, which is low enough for the coating to be considered uniform and reproducible. Reproducibility of the coating process was further confirmed by determining the 95% confidence interval for average difference in cumulative percentage drug release between two runs of each batch, which was found to be less than 5% set as the maximum allowable difference. The release data obtained were found to show best fit with first order kinetic model. A significant influence of coating thickness on the drug release rate was observed. From the results and observations of this work, it may be concluded that the

  19. 77 FR 58953 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Delaware; Control Technique...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-25

    ... emissions from plastic parts, metal furniture, large appliances, and miscellaneous metal parts. This SIP... Technique Guidelines for Plastic Parts, Metal Furniture, Large Appliances, and Miscellaneous Metal Parts... Guidelines (CTG) standards for the following categories: Plastic Parts, Metal Furniture, Large...

  20. Lanthanide-labeled immunochromatographic strips for the rapid detection of Pantoea stewartii subsp. stewartii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fan; Zou, Mingqiang; Chen, Yan; Li, Jinfeng; Wang, Yanfei; Qi, Xiaohua; Xue, Qiang

    2014-01-15

    The lateral flow immunoassay is used in commercial pregnancy detection, and is an accepted point-of-care testing technique. The most widely used format for lateral flow immunochromatographic strips uses gold nanoparticles for colorimetric detection. However, this method often suffers from poor quantitative discrimination and low analytical sensitivity. To address these limitations, lanthanide chelate-loaded silica nanoparticles have been used as fluorescent labels. The fluorescent nanoparticles can easily bind to antibodies, with dextran as a linker. The strip reader described here was based on a sandwich immunoreaction performed on a strip, using lanthanide-labeled antibodies that served as signal vehicles for the fluorescent readout. The strip reader was used as a quantitative test system. In this work, Pantoea stewartii subsp. stewartii (Pss) was used as a model analyte to demonstrate the use of the strip reader. Under optimal conditions, the detection limit was determined as 10(3)cfu/mL. The quantification limit was calculated to be 10(4)cfu/mL. The detection limit for Pss was 100 times lower than those displayed by colloidal gold-labeled strips or ELISAs. No cross-reactions were observed with the other nine strains, indicating the good specificity of the Pss strip. This strip showed good stability in repeated tests. The tests using the fluorescence immunochromatographic strip were easy to perform, rapid, and sensitive. Methods using fluorescence strips and a strip reader have the potential to be a powerful tool for the quantification of bacteria. PMID:23928093

  1. Analysis of indoor air pollutants checklist using environmetric technique for health risk assessment of sick building complaint in nonindustrial workplace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syazwan, AI; Rafee, B Mohd; Juahir, Hafizan; Azman, AZF; Nizar, AM; Izwyn, Z; Syahidatussyakirah, K; Muhaimin, AA; Yunos, MA Syafiq; Anita, AR; Hanafiah, J Muhamad; Shaharuddin, MS; Ibthisham, A Mohd; Hasmadi, I Mohd; Azhar, MN Mohamad; Azizan, HS; Zulfadhli, I; Othman, J; Rozalini, M; Kamarul, FT

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To analyze and characterize a multidisciplinary, integrated indoor air quality checklist for evaluating the health risk of building occupants in a nonindustrial workplace setting. Design A cross-sectional study based on a participatory occupational health program conducted by the National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health (Malaysia) and Universiti Putra Malaysia. Method A modified version of the indoor environmental checklist published by the Department of Occupational Health and Safety, based on the literature and discussion with occupational health and safety professionals, was used in the evaluation process. Summated scores were given according to the cluster analysis and principal component analysis in the characterization of risk. Environmetric techniques was used to classify the risk of variables in the checklist. Identification of the possible source of item pollutants was also evaluated from a semiquantitative approach. Result Hierarchical agglomerative cluster analysis resulted in the grouping of factorial components into three clusters (high complaint, moderate-high complaint, moderate complaint), which were further analyzed by discriminant analysis. From this, 15 major variables that influence indoor air quality were determined. Principal component analysis of each cluster revealed that the main factors influencing the high complaint group were fungal-related problems, chemical indoor dispersion, detergent, renovation, thermal comfort, and location of fresh air intake. The moderate-high complaint group showed significant high loading on ventilation, air filters, and smoking-related activities. The moderate complaint group showed high loading on dampness, odor, and thermal comfort. Conclusion This semiquantitative assessment, which graded risk from low to high based on the intensity of the problem, shows promising and reliable results. It should be used as an important tool in the preliminary assessment of indoor air quality and as a

  2. Use of nuclear and related analytical techniques in environmental research as exemplified by selected air pollution studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Among nuclear and nuclear related analytical techniques, neutron activation analysis and X-ray fluorescence spectrometry proved to be particularly useful for environmental studies owing to their nondestructive character and multi element capability. This paper emphasizes their importance among other multielement analytical methods by discussing their specific role due to specific physics basis, quite different to other destructive non-nuclear methods, and by summarizing results obtained in several studies related to air pollution research, including analyses of airborne particulate matter, water samples, lichens and mosses. (author)

  3. Bioaerosol DNA Extraction Technique from Air Filters Collected from Marine and Freshwater Locations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckwith, M.; Crandall, S. G.; Barnes, A.; Paytan, A.

    2015-12-01

    Bioaerosols are composed of microorganisms suspended in air. Among these organisms include bacteria, fungi, virus, and protists. Microbes introduced into the atmosphere can drift, primarily by wind, into natural environments different from their point of origin. Although bioaerosols can impact atmospheric dynamics as well as the ecology and biogeochemistry of terrestrial systems, very little is known about the composition of bioaerosols collected from marine and freshwater environments. The first step to determine composition of airborne microbes is to successfully extract environmental DNA from air filters. We asked 1) can DNA be extracted from quartz (SiO2) air filters? and 2) how can we optimize the DNA yield for downstream metagenomic sequencing? Aerosol filters were collected and archived on a weekly basis from aquatic sites (USA, Bermuda, Israel) over the course of 10 years. We successfully extracted DNA from a subsample of ~ 20 filters. We modified a DNA extraction protocol (Qiagen) by adding a beadbeating step to mechanically shear cell walls in order to optimize our DNA product. We quantified our DNA yield using a spectrophotometer (Nanodrop 1000). Results indicate that DNA can indeed be extracted from quartz filters. The additional beadbeating step helped increase our yield - up to twice as much DNA product was obtained compared to when this step was omitted. Moreover, bioaerosol DNA content does vary across time. For instance, the DNA extracted from filters from Lake Tahoe, USA collected near the end of June decreased from 9.9 ng/μL in 2007 to 3.8 ng/μL in 2008. Further next-generation sequencing analysis of our extracted DNA will be performed to determine the composition of these microbes. We will also model the meteorological and chemical factors that are good predictors for microbial composition for our samples over time and space.

  4. Gas-phase advanced oxidation as an integrated air pollution control technique

    OpenAIRE

    Getachew A. Adnew; Carl Meusinger; Nicolai Bork; Michael Gallus; Mildrid Kyte; Thomas Rosenørn; Johnson, Matthew S.; Vitalijs Rodins

    2016-01-01

    Gas-phase advanced oxidation (GPAO) is an emerging air cleaning technology based on the natural self-cleaning processes that occur in the Earth’s atmosphere. The technology uses ozone, UV-C lamps and water vapor to generate gas-phase hydroxyl radicals that initiate oxidation of a wide range of pollutants. In this study four types of GPAO systems are presented: a laboratory scale prototype, a shipping container prototype, a modular prototype, and commercial scale GPAO installations. The GPAO s...

  5. Hair follicle targeting, penetration enhancement and Langerhans cell activation make cyanoacrylate skin surface stripping a promising delivery technique for transcutaneous immunization with large molecules and particle-based vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogt, Annika; Hadam, Sabrina; Deckert, Iliane; Schmidt, Julia; Stroux, Andrea; Afraz, Zahra; Rancan, Fiorenza; Lademann, Jürgen; Combadiere, Behazine; Blume-Peytavi, Ulrike

    2015-01-01

    Transcutaneous immunization (TCI) requires targeting of a maximum number of skin antigen-presenting cells as non-invasive as possible on small skin areas. In two clinical trials, we introduced cyanoacrylate skin surface stripping (CSSS) as a safe method for TCI. Here, using ex vivo human skin, we demonstrate that one CSSS procedure removed only 30% of stratum corneum, but significantly increased the penetration of 200 nm polystyrene particles deep into vellus and intermediate hair follicles from where they could not been retrieved by conventional tape stripping. Two subsequent CSSS had no striking additional effect. CSSS increased particle penetration in superficial stratum corneum and induced Langerhans cell activation. Formulation in amphiphilic ointment or massage did not substantially influences the interfollicular penetration profiles. Hair follicle (HF) targeting by CSSS could become a highly effective tool for TCI when combined with carrier-based delivery and is gaining new attention as our understanding on the HF immune system increases.

  6. Hair follicle targeting, penetration enhancement and Langerhans cell activation make cyanoacrylate skin surface stripping a promising delivery technique for transcutaneous immunization with large molecules and particle-based vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogt, Annika; Hadam, Sabrina; Deckert, Iliane; Schmidt, Julia; Stroux, Andrea; Afraz, Zahra; Rancan, Fiorenza; Lademann, Jürgen; Combadiere, Behazine; Blume-Peytavi, Ulrike

    2015-01-01

    Transcutaneous immunization (TCI) requires targeting of a maximum number of skin antigen-presenting cells as non-invasive as possible on small skin areas. In two clinical trials, we introduced cyanoacrylate skin surface stripping (CSSS) as a safe method for TCI. Here, using ex vivo human skin, we demonstrate that one CSSS procedure removed only 30% of stratum corneum, but significantly increased the penetration of 200 nm polystyrene particles deep into vellus and intermediate hair follicles from where they could not been retrieved by conventional tape stripping. Two subsequent CSSS had no striking additional effect. CSSS increased particle penetration in superficial stratum corneum and induced Langerhans cell activation. Formulation in amphiphilic ointment or massage did not substantially influences the interfollicular penetration profiles. Hair follicle (HF) targeting by CSSS could become a highly effective tool for TCI when combined with carrier-based delivery and is gaining new attention as our understanding on the HF immune system increases. PMID:25382068

  7. Gas-phase advanced oxidation as an integrated air pollution control technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Getachew A. Adnew

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Gas-phase advanced oxidation (GPAO is an emerging air cleaning technology based on the natural self-cleaning processes that occur in the Earth’s atmosphere. The technology uses ozone, UV-C lamps and water vapor to generate gas-phase hydroxyl radicals that initiate oxidation of a wide range of pollutants. In this study four types of GPAO systems are presented: a laboratory scale prototype, a shipping container prototype, a modular prototype, and commercial scale GPAO installations. The GPAO systems treat volatile organic compounds, reduced sulfur compounds, amines, ozone, nitrogen oxides, particles and odor. While the method covers a wide range of pollutants, effective treatment becomes difficult when temperature is outside the range of 0 to 80 °C, for anoxic gas streams and for pollution loads exceeding ca. 1000 ppm. Air residence time in the system and the rate of reaction of a given pollutant with hydroxyl radicals determine the removal efficiency of GPAO. For gas phase compounds and odors including VOCs (e.g. C6H6 and C3H8 and reduced sulfur compounds (e.g. H2S and CH3SH, removal efficiencies exceed 80%. The method is energy efficient relative to many established technologies and is applicable to pollutants emitted from diverse sources including food processing, foundries, water treatment, biofuel generation, and petrochemical industries.

  8. AN AIR POLLUTION PREDICTION TECHNIQUE FOR URBAN DISTRICTS BASED ON MESO-SCALE NUMERICAL MODEL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Jing-hua; XU Jian-ping

    2005-01-01

    Taking Shenzhen city as an example, the statistical and physical relationship between the density of pollutants and various atmospheric parameters are analyzed in detail, and a space-partitioned city air pollution potential prediction scheme is established based on it. The scheme considers quantitatively more than ten factors at the surface and planetary boundary layer (PBL), especially the effects of anisotropy of geographical environment, and treats wind direction as an independent impact factor. While the scheme treats the prediction equation respectively for different pollutants according to their differences in dilute properties, it considers as well the possible differences in dilute properties at different districts of the city under the same atmospheric condition, treating predictions respectively for different districts. Finally, the temporally and spatially high resolution predictions for the atmospheric factors are made with a high resolution numerical model, and further the space-partitioned and time-variational city pollution potential predictions are made. The scheme is objective and quantitative, and with clear physical meaning, so it is suitable to use in making high resolution air pollution predictions.

  9. Trace element air pollution monitoring studies in Slovenia using nuclear analytical techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the past, only a few investigations have been performed in Slovenia concerning trace elements, toxic elements, heavy metals and radionuclides in the atmosphere. During recent years, several projects were initiated, involving health-related studies connected to air pollution in highly exposed areas, mapping the status of air pollution in the whole country using biomonitors, as well as some specific research, i.e. involving studies of mercury speciation in the atmosphere around a mercury mine or concentration levels of radionuclides in biomonitors around a uranium mine. Since all these projects were or are of a preliminary nature, in this report, the emphasis is mainly on the methodology and analytical development (neutron activation analysis and X-ray spectrometry), and to a lesser extent on the results obtained up to now. Efforts are being put into co-ordination of all the presently running projects in order to complement the results and to make a unified database for their later evaluation and statistical interpretation. (author). 22 refs, 1 fig., 1 tab

  10. ATLAS Strip Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Bernabeu, J; The ATLAS collaboration

    2012-01-01

    A phased upgrade of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN is planned. The last upgrade phase (HL-LHC) is currently foreseen in 2022-2023. It aims to increase the integrated luminosity to about ten times the original LHC design luminosity. To cope with the harsh conditions in terms of particle rates and radiation dose expected during HL-LHC operation, the ATLAS collaboration is developing technologies for a complete tracker replacement. This new detector will need to provide extreme radiation hardness and a high granularity, within the tight constraints imposed by the existing detectors and their services. An all-silicon high granularity tracking detector is proposed. An international R&D collaboration is working on the strip layers for this new tracker. A number of large area prototype planar detectors produced on p-type wafers have been designed and fabricated for use at HL-LHC. These prototype detectors and miniature test detectors have been irradiated to a set of fluences matched to HL-LHC expectatio...

  11. ATLAS Strip Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Bernabeu, J; The ATLAS collaboration

    2012-01-01

    A phased upgrade of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN is planned. The last upgrade phase (HL-LHC) is currently foreseen in 2022-2023. It aims to increase the integrated luminosity to about ten times the original LHC design luminosity. To cope with the harsh conditions in terms of particle rates and radiation dose expected during HL-LHC operation, the ATLAS collaboration is developing technologies for a complete tracker replacement. This new detector will need to provide extreme radiation hardness and a high granularity, within the tight constraints imposed by the existing detectors and their services. An all-silicon high-granularity tracking detector is proposed. An international R&D collaboration is working on the strip layers for this new tracker. A number of large area prototype planar detectors produced on p-type wafers have been designed and fabricated for use at HL-LHC. These prototype detectors and miniature test detectors have been irradiated to a set of fluences matched to HL-LHC expectatio...

  12. In-well vapor stripping drilling and characterization work plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work plan provides the information necessary for drilling, sampling, and hydrologic testing of wells to be completed in support of a demonstration of the in-well vapor stripping system. The in-well vapor stripping system is a remediation technology designed to preferentially extract volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from contaminated groundwater by converting them to a vapor phase. Air-lift pumping is used to lift and aerate groundwater within the well. The volatiles escaping the aerated water are drawn off by a slight vacuum and treated at the surface while the water is allowed to infiltrate the vadose zone back to the watertable

  13. Chemical Stripping of ceramic films of titanium aluminum nitride from hard metal substrates

    OpenAIRE

    U. Bardi; D. Bonacchi; Rizzi, G.; Scrivani, A.

    2003-01-01

    We report here the result of a study of different chemical stripping methodologies for ceramic coatings deposited by PVD on hard metal substrates. We show that an approach based on the study of the system by surface science techniques leads to the possibility of developing effective stripping methods as well as guidelines for improving the process. We will report about two methods tested for the stripping of layers of titanium aluminum nitride (TINALOX) deposited by Physical Vapor De...

  14. A Centrifuge-Based Technique for Dry Extraction of Air for Ice Core Studies of Carbon Dioxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grachev, A. M.; Brook, E. J.

    2008-12-01

    High resolution CO2 data from the Law Dome ice core document an abrupt ~10 ppm drop in CO2 at about 1600 AD (MacFarling Meure et al., Geophys. Res Lett., v. 33, L14810), which has been attributed to changes in human activities. CO2 measurements in ice cores are difficult, however, making verification of this feature an important task. We are undertaking a high-resolution study of CO2 between 1400 and 1800 AD in the WAIS Divide (Antarctica) ice core with a new dry extraction technique. The need for a dry extraction technique as opposed to a melt-refreeze technique in studies of CO2 from ice cores arises because of the well-documented artifacts in CO2 imposed by the presence of liquid water. Three dry-extraction methods have been employed by previous workers to measure CO2: needle-crushing method, ball-bearings method, and cheese-grater method (B. Stauffer, in: Encyclopedia of Quaternary Science, p. 1181, Elsevier 2007). Each has limitations, and we propose a simpler dry extraction technique, based on a large-capacity refrigerated centrifuge (the "centrifuge technique"), which eliminates the need to employ cryogenic temperatures to collect extracted gas and is more compatible with high sample throughput. The technique is now being tested on ~25-gram WAIS Divide samples in conjunction with CO2 measurements with a gas chromatograph. The technique employs a Beckman J- 6B centrifuge, in which evacuated stainless steel flask is placed: the flask has a weight inside positioned directly over a tall-standing piece of ice whose cross-section is small compared to that of the flask. Upon acceleration to 3000 rpm the weight moves down and presses the ice sample into a thin tablet covering flask's bottom, yielding the air extraction efficiency of ~80%. Preliminary tests suggest that precision and accuracy can be achieved at the level of ~1 ppm once the system is fine-tuned.

  15. Investigation on pretreatment of centrifugal mother liquid produced in the production of polyvinyl chloride by air-Fenton technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yingying; Hua, Xiuyi; Ge, Rui; Guo, Aitong; Guo, Zhiyong; Dong, Deming; Sun, Wentian

    2013-08-01

    Centrifugal mother liquid (CML) is one of the main sources of wastewater produced during the production of polyvinyl chloride in chlor-alkali industry. CML is a typical poorly biodegradable organic wastewater, containing many kinds of refractory pollutants. Specifically, it contains dissolved refractory polymers, especially polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), which can pass though the biotreatment processes and clog the membranes used for further treatment. In this study, to ensure the CML applicable to biotreatment and membrane treatment, a novel efficient and mild technique, air-Fenton treatment, was employed as a pretreatment technique to improve biodegradability of the CML and to break down the polymers in the CML. Firstly, the technique was optimized for the CML treatment by optimizing the main parameters, including the dosage of ferrous sulfate, initial pH of the wastewater, [H2O2]/[Fe(2+)], aeration rate, reaction time, and temperature, based on removal efficiency of COD and PVA from the CML. Then, the optimized technique was tested and evaluated. The results indicated that under the optimized conditions, the air-Fenton treatment could remove 66, 98, and 55 % of the COD, PVA, and TOC, respectively, from the CML. After the treatment, biodegradability of the wastewater increased significantly (BOD/COD increased from 0.31 to 0.68), and almost all of the PVA polymers were removed or broken down. Meanwhile, concentration of the remaining iron ions, which were added during the treatment, was also quite low (only 2.9 mg/L). Furthermore, most of the suspended materials and ammonia nitrogen, and some of the phosphorus in the wastewater were removed simultaneously.

  16. Novel sample preparation technique with needle-type micro-extraction device for volatile organic compounds in indoor air samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueta, Ikuo; Mizuguchi, Ayako; Fujimura, Koji; Kawakubo, Susumu; Saito, Yoshihiro

    2012-10-01

    A novel needle-type sample preparation device was developed for the effective preconcentration of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in indoor air before gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis. To develop a device for extracting a wide range of VOCs typically found in indoor air, several types of particulate sorbents were tested as the extraction medium in the needle-type extraction device. To determine the content of these VOCs, air samples were collected for 30min with the packed sorbent(s) in the extraction needle, and the extracted VOCs were thermally desorbed in a GC injection port by the direct insertion of the needle. A double-bed sorbent consisting of a needle packed with divinylbenzene and activated carbon particles exhibited excellent extraction and desorption performance and adequate extraction capacity for all the investigated VOCs. The results also clearly demonstrated that the proposed sample preparation method is a more rapid, simpler extraction/desorption technique than traditional sample preparation methods. PMID:22975183

  17. Research survey of propagation technique by air layering%高空压条繁殖技术研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈佳琳; 陈翠湖; 张帅

    2014-01-01

    Materials, procedure and in vitro transplantation for air layering propagation technique were summarized. The results will provide theoretical reference for developing propagation technique by air layering.%总结高空压条繁殖技术压条材料、压条程序和离体移栽的研究进展,可为该技术的改善和研发提供理论借鉴。

  18. A novel Fast Gas Chromatography based technique for higher time resolution measurements of speciated monoterpenes in air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, C. E.; Kato, S.; Nakashima, Y.; Kajii, Y.

    2013-12-01

    Biogenic emissions supply the largest fraction of non-methane volatile organic compounds (VOC) from the biosphere to the atmospheric boundary layer, and typically comprise a complex mixture of reactive terpenes. Due to this chemical complexity, achieving comprehensive measurements of biogenic VOC (BVOC) in air within a satisfactory time resolution is analytically challenging. To address this, we have developed a novel, fully automated Fast Gas Chromatography (Fast-GC) based technique to provide higher time resolution monitoring of monoterpenes (and selected other C9-C15 terpenes) during plant emission studies and in ambient air. To our knowledge, this is the first study to apply a Fast-GC based separation technique to achieve quantification of terpenes in air. Three chromatography methods have been developed for atmospheric terpene analysis under different sampling scenarios. Each method facilitates chromatographic separation of selected BVOC within a significantly reduced analysis time compared to conventional GC methods, whilst maintaining the ability to quantify individual monoterpene structural isomers. Using this approach, the C10-C15 BVOC composition of single plant emissions may be characterised within a ~ 14 min analysis time. Moreover, in situ quantification of 12 monoterpenes in unpolluted ambient air may be achieved within an ~ 11 min chromatographic separation time (increasing to ~ 19 min when simultaneous quantification of multiple oxygenated C9-C10 terpenoids is required, and/or when concentrations of anthropogenic VOC are significant). This corresponds to a two- to fivefold increase in measurement frequency compared to conventional GC methods. Here we outline the technical details and analytical capability of this chromatographic approach, and present the first in situ Fast-GC observations of 6 monoterpenes and the oxygenated BVOC linalool in ambient air. During this field deployment within a suburban forest ~ 30 km west of central Tokyo, Japan, the

  19. Strip casting of stainless steels

    OpenAIRE

    Raabe, D.

    1997-01-01

    FLAT PRODUCTS OF STAINLESS STEELS ARE CONVENTIONALLY MANUFACTURED BY CONTINUOUS CASTING, HOT ROLLING, HOT BAND ANNEALING, PICKLING, COLD ROLLING AND RECRYSTALLISATION. IN THE LAST YEARS STRIP CASTING HAS INCREASINGLY ATTRACTED ATTENTION. IT OFFERS THREE IMPROVEMENTS IN COMPARISON TO THE CONVENTIONAL METHOD.1.) IT ALLOWS TO CAST STEEL SHEETS WITH THE SAME THICKNESS AND WIDTH AS THOSE PRODUCED BY HOT ROLLING. THIS MEANS THAT THE HOT ROLLING PROCESSIS BYPASSED. 2.) THE STRIP CAST STEEL REVEALS A...

  20. Testing an advanced satellite technique for dust detection as a decision support system for the air quality assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falconieri, Alfredo; Filizzola, Carolina; Femiano, Rossella; Marchese, Francesco; Sannazzaro, Filomena; Pergola, Nicola; Tramutoli, Valerio; Di Muro, Ersilia; Divietri, Mariella; Crisci, Anna Maria; Lovallo, Michele; Mangiamele, Lucia; Vaccaro, Maria Pia; Palma, Achille

    2014-05-01

    In order to correctly apply the European directive for air quality (2008/50/CE), local Authorities are often requested to discriminate the possible origin (natural/anthropic) of anomalous concentration of pollutants in the air (art.20 Directive 2008/50/CE). In this framework, it's been focused on PM10 and PM2,5 concentrations and sources. In fact, depending on their origin, appropriate counter-measures can be taken devoted to prevent their production (e.g. by traffic restriction) or simply to reduce their impact on citizen health (e.g. information campaigns). In this context suitable satellite techniques can be used in order to identify natural sources (particularly Saharan dust, but also volcanic ash or forest fire smoke) that can be responsible of over-threshold concentration of PM10/2,5 in populated areas. In the framework of the NIBS (Networking and Internationalization of Basilicata Space Technologies) project, funded by the Basilicata Region within the ERDF 2007-2013 program, the School of Engineering of University of Basilicata, the Institute of Methodologies for Environmental Analysis of National Research Council (IMAA-CNR) and the Regional Agency for the Protection of the Environment of Basilicata Region (ARPAB) have started a collaboration devoted to assess the potential of the use of advanced satellite techniques for Saharan dust events identification to support ARPAB activities related to the application of the European directive for air quality (2008/50/CE) in Basilicata region. In such a joint activity, the Robust Satellite Technique (RST) approach has been assessed and tested as a decision support system for monitoring and evaluating air quality at local and regional level. In particular, RST-DUST products, derived by processing high temporal resolution data provided by SEVIRI (Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager) sensor on board Meteosat Second Generation platforms, have been analysed together with PM10 measurements performed by the ground

  1. Experimental and numerical analysis of the air inflow technique for dust removal from the vacuum vessel of a tokamak machine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paci, S. [Pisa University, via Diotisalvi 2, I-56100 Pisa (Italy)], E-mail: sandro.paci@ing.unipi.it; Porfiri, M.T. [ENEA Nuclear Fusion Technologies, via E. Fermi 45, I-00044 Frascati, Rome (Italy)

    2008-01-15

    In fusion facilities, the dust production inside the plasma chamber is a concern from the viewpoint of both machine performance and safety. To the purpose of a correct handling of the experimental devices the problem of its removal must be properly solved. This work deals with the experiments carried out in the STARDUST facility by using as dust removal technique an air inflow into the volume representing the vacuum vessel. The goal was to evaluate the effectiveness of such an approach, less invasive as compared to all the others so far. These experiments, performed by using characterized carbon, tungsten and stainless steel dusts, show that the mobilization capability of the air inflow is between few percent and 100%, mainly depending on dust type of and deposit shape. The capture efficiency in a filter reached a maximum of about 7.5% in the STARDUST geometrical configuration. In conclusion, this simple and clean (from the radioactive point of view) removing technique needs particular care to be more effective and is not the perfect solution due to its low efficiency in the collection of removed powder in proper surfaces (i.e., filters). Nevertheless improvements are possible and worthwhile.

  2. The application of remote sensing techniques for air pollution analysis and climate change on Indian subcontinent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palve, S. N.; Nemade, P. D., Dr.; Ghude, S. D., Dr.

    2016-06-01

    India is home to an extraordinary variety of climatic regions, ranging from tropical in the south to temperate and alpine in the Himalayan north, where elevated regions receive sustained winter snowfall. The subcontinent is characterized by high levels of air pollution due to intensively developing industries and mass fuel consumption for domestic purposes. The main tropospheric pollutants (O3, NO2, CO, formaldehyde (HCHO) and SO2) and two major greenhouse gases (tropospheric O3 and methane (CH4)) and important parameters of aerosols, which play a key role in climate change and affecting on the overall well-being of subcontinent residents. In light of considering these facts this paper aims to investigate possible impact of air pollutants over the climate change on Indian subcontinent. Satellite derived column aerosol optical depth (AOD) is a cost effective way to monitor and study aerosols distribution and effects over a long time period. AOD is found to be increasing rapidly since 2000 in summer season that may cause adverse effect to the agricultural crops and also to the human health. Increased aerosol loading may likely affect the rainfall which is responsible for the observed drought conditions over the Indian subcontinent. Carbon monoxide is emitted into the atmosphere by biomass burning activities and India is the second largest contributor of CO emissions in Asia. The MOPITT CO retrievals at 850 hPa show large CO emission from the IG region. The development of convective activity associated with the ASM leads to large scale vertical transport of the boundary layer CO from the Indian region into the upper troposphere. TCO over the Indian subcontinent during 2007 has a systematic and gradual variation, spatial as well as temporal. Higher amount of TCO in the northern latitudes and simultaneous lower TCO at near equatorial latitudes indicates depletion of ozone near the equator and accumulation at higher latitudes within the subcontinent. In addition, changes

  3. Determination of contamination in the air of reactor containment. Sampling and measuring techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the purposes of radiological safety work, the most important elements emerging from the primary circuit and responsible for contamination of the containment are noble gases due to fission or activation, iodine in different physico-chemical forms, and tritium. Sampling and measuring techniques used in studies conducted on in-service reactors (pressurized-water and fast reactor plants) are described, together with the results obtained. The method used for measuring the activity of iodine in its different forms (penetrating or non-penetrating) is to trap the iodine by means of a selective sampling device. The measurements are then made by gamma spectrometry. The technique used for measuring the noble gases is to enrich the carrier gas by means of cold traps, and then to make measurements with an ionization chamber or by gamma spectrometry. Tritium is trapped by bubbling through water and its activity measured with a liquid scintillation detector or proportional counter. (author)

  4. Treatment of malodorants in air by the UV/ozone technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laboratory work has shown that a gas scrubber using uv/ozone as the oxidant was effective in destroying model compounds, and that the UV radiation was better applied in the sump liquor rather than in the spray section. A field trial on a plant making selective weed killers has demonstrated that the technique was able to reduce the concentration of malodorants (mainly chlorophenols) by two to three orders of magnitude in a single pass

  5. A study of air and water pollution by means of nuclear techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The atmospheric aerosols and water pollution in Shanghai were studied by the nuclear microprobe, then the pattern recognition technique was applied to trace the emitter source of aerosol particles. Three iron-containing atmospheric aerosols collected from different area zone were analyzed by Moessbauer spectroscopy, their chemical composition, size of particles and concentration were determined. The intensities of α, β radioactivity were determined by a low background detector

  6. Techniques for noise removal from EEG, EOG and air flow signals in sleep patients

    CERN Document Server

    Berryman, M J; Allison, A; Abbott, D; Berryman, Matthew J.; Messer, Sheila; Allison, Andrew; Abbott, Derek

    2004-01-01

    Noise is present in the wide variety of signals obtained from sleep patients. This noise comes from a number of sources, from presence of extraneous signals to adjustments in signal amplification and shot noise in the circuits used for data collection. The noise needs to be removed in order to maximize the information gained about the patient using both manual and automatic analysis of the signals. Here we evaluate a number of new techniques for removal of that noise, and the associated problem of separating the original signal sources.

  7. Adaptive critic learning techniques for engine torque and air-fuel ratio control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Derong; Javaherian, Hossein; Kovalenko, Olesia; Huang, Ting

    2008-08-01

    A new approach for engine calibration and control is proposed. In this paper, we present our research results on the implementation of adaptive critic designs for self-learning control of automotive engines. A class of adaptive critic designs that can be classified as (model-free) action-dependent heuristic dynamic programming is used in this research project. The goals of the present learning control design for automotive engines include improved performance, reduced emissions, and maintained optimum performance under various operating conditions. Using the data from a test vehicle with a V8 engine, we developed a neural network model of the engine and neural network controllers based on the idea of approximate dynamic programming to achieve optimal control. We have developed and simulated self-learning neural network controllers for both engine torque (TRQ) and exhaust air-fuel ratio (AFR) control. The goal of TRQ control and AFR control is to track the commanded values. For both control problems, excellent neural network controller transient performance has been achieved.

  8. Immunological techniques as tools to characterize the subsurface microbial community at a trichloroethylene contaminated site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fliermans, C.B.; Dougherty, J.M.; Franck, M.M.; McKinzey, P.C.; Hazen, T.C.

    1992-01-01

    Effective in situ bioremediation strategies require an understanding of the effects pollutants and remediation techniques have on subsurface microbial communities. Therefore, detailed characterization of a site's microbial communities is important. Subsurface sediment borings and water samples were collected from a trichloroethylene (TCE) contaminated site, before and after horizontal well in situ air stripping and bioventing, as well as during methane injection for stimulation of methane-utilizing microorganisms. Subsamples were processed for heterotrophic plate counts, acridine orange direct counts (AODC), community diversity, direct fluorescent antibodies (DFA) enumeration for several nitrogen-transforming bacteria, and Biolog [reg sign] evaluation of enzyme activity in collected water samples. Plate counts were higher in near-surface depths than in the vadose zone sediment samples. During the in situ air stripping and bioventing, counts increased at or near the saturated zone, remained elevated throughout the aquifer, but did not change significantly after the air stripping. Sporadic increases in plate counts at different depths as well as increased diversity appeared to be linked to differing lithologies. AODCs were orders of magnitude higher than plate counts and remained relatively constant with depth except for slight increases near the surface depths and the capillary fringe. Nitrogen-transforming bacteria, as measured by serospecific DFA, were greatly affected both by the in situ air stripping and the methane injection. Biolog[reg sign] activity appeared to increase with subsurface stimulation both by air and methane. The complexity of subsurface systems makes the use of selective monitoring tools imperative.

  9. Immunological techniques as tools to characterize the subsurface microbial community at a trichloroethylene contaminated site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fliermans, C.B.; Dougherty, J.M.; Franck, M.M.; McKinzey, P.C.; Hazen, T.C.

    1992-12-31

    Effective in situ bioremediation strategies require an understanding of the effects pollutants and remediation techniques have on subsurface microbial communities. Therefore, detailed characterization of a site`s microbial communities is important. Subsurface sediment borings and water samples were collected from a trichloroethylene (TCE) contaminated site, before and after horizontal well in situ air stripping and bioventing, as well as during methane injection for stimulation of methane-utilizing microorganisms. Subsamples were processed for heterotrophic plate counts, acridine orange direct counts (AODC), community diversity, direct fluorescent antibodies (DFA) enumeration for several nitrogen-transforming bacteria, and Biolog {reg_sign} evaluation of enzyme activity in collected water samples. Plate counts were higher in near-surface depths than in the vadose zone sediment samples. During the in situ air stripping and bioventing, counts increased at or near the saturated zone, remained elevated throughout the aquifer, but did not change significantly after the air stripping. Sporadic increases in plate counts at different depths as well as increased diversity appeared to be linked to differing lithologies. AODCs were orders of magnitude higher than plate counts and remained relatively constant with depth except for slight increases near the surface depths and the capillary fringe. Nitrogen-transforming bacteria, as measured by serospecific DFA, were greatly affected both by the in situ air stripping and the methane injection. Biolog{reg_sign} activity appeared to increase with subsurface stimulation both by air and methane. The complexity of subsurface systems makes the use of selective monitoring tools imperative.

  10. Analysis of indoor air pollutants checklist using environmetric technique for health risk assessment of sick building complaint in nonindustrial workplace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syazwan AI

    2012-09-01

    workplace setting.Design: A cross-sectional study based on a participatory occupational health program conducted by the National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health (Malaysia and Universiti Putra Malaysia.Method: A modified version of the indoor environmental checklist published by the Department of Occupational Health and Safety, based on the literature and discussion with occupational health and safety professionals, was used in the evaluation process. Summated scores were given according to the cluster analysis and principal component analysis in the characterization of risk. Environmetric techniques was used to classify the risk of variables in the checklist. Identification of the possible source of item pollutants was also evaluated from a semiquantitative approach.Result: Hierarchical agglomerative cluster analysis resulted in the grouping of factorial components into three clusters (high complaint, moderate-high complaint, moderate complaint, which were further analyzed by discriminant analysis. From this, 15 major variables that influence indoor air quality were determined. Principal component analysis of each cluster revealed that the main factors influencing the high complaint group were fungal-related problems, chemical indoor dispersion, detergent, renovation, thermal comfort, and location of fresh air intake. The moderate-high complaint group showed significant high loading on ventilation, air filters, and smoking-related activities. The moderate complaint group showed high loading on dampness, odor, and thermal comfort.Conclusion: This semiquantitative assessment, which graded risk from low to high based on the intensity of the problem, shows promising and reliable results. It should be used as an important tool in the preliminary assessment of indoor air quality and as a categorizing method for further IAQ investigations and complaints procedures.Keywords: office, indoor environment quality, indoor air quality assessor, Industry Code of Practice on

  11. Accurate measurements of carbon monoxide in humid air using the cavity ring-down spectroscopy (CRDS technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Chen

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Accurate measurements of carbon monoxide (CO in humid air have been made using the cavity ring-down spectroscopy (CRDS technique. The measurements of CO mole fractions are determined from the strength of its spectral absorption in the near infrared region (∼1.57 μm after removing interferences from adjacent carbon dioxide (CO2 and water vapor (H2O absorption lines. Water correction functions that account for the dilution and pressure-broadening effects as well as absorption line interferences from adjacent CO2 and H2O lines have been derived for CO2 mole fractions between 360–390 ppm. The line interference corrections are independent of CO mole fractions. The dependence of the line interference correction on CO2 abundance is estimated to be approximately −0.3 ppb/100 ppm CO2 for dry mole fractions of CO. Comparisons of water correction functions from different analyzers of the same type show significant differences, making it necessary to perform instrument-specific water tests for each individual analyzer. The CRDS analyzer was flown on an aircraft in Alaska from April to November in 2011, and the accuracy of the CO measurements by the CRDS analyzer has been validated against discrete NOAA/ESRL flask sample measurements made on board the same aircraft, with a mean difference between integrated in situ and flask measurements of −0.6 ppb and a standard deviation of 2.8 ppb. Preliminary testing of CRDS instrumentation that employs new spectroscopic analysis (available since the beginning of 2012 indicates a smaller water vapor dependence than the models discussed here, but more work is necessary to fully validate the performance. The CRDS technique provides an accurate and low-maintenance method of monitoring the atmospheric dry mole fractions of CO in humid air streams.

  12. Investigation of magnetic property of GdFeO3 single crystal grown in air by optical floating zone technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • GdFeO3 single crystals have been grown by OFZ technique in air. • Sample exhibits one order lower coercive field than crystal grown in oxygen. • Bloch 3/2-law holds good for GdFeO3 (B-parameter as 2.69 × 10−5 K−3/2). • The coercivity exhibited sharp dip at 200 and 550 K. • At 550 K pinning of the direction of weak ferromagnetism by AFM ordering vanishes. - Abstract: Single phase Gadolinium orthoferrite (GdFeO3) with orthorhombic perovskite structure was synthesized without any garnet impurities by solid state reaction and subsequently GdFeO3 single crystals were grown by the optical floating zone technique. The temperature dependent magnetization measurement revealed the magnetic phase transition from anti-ferromagnetic ordering to paramagnetic ordering at 670 K. The overlapping of the magnetization measured under zero-field and field cooling condition in the range of 300–20 K signifies that there is no magnetic transition in this temperature range. The hysteresis loop measurements revealed that in comparison to the values reported for the crystal grown in oxygen, the air grown sample exhibits one order lower coercive field (∼75 Oe). The Bloch 3/2-law was found to hold good for GdFeO3 with the value of B-parameter as 2.69 × 10−5 K−3/2. The coercivity exhibited sharp dip at 200 and 550 K. At and above 550 K the ability of the antiferromagnetic ordering to pin the direction of magnetization related to the weak ferromagnetism present in the material vanishes leading to the lowering in the coercivity

  13. Restoration of decayed primary incisors using strip crowns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollard, M A; Curzon, J A; Fenlon, W L

    1991-05-01

    Caries of the primary incisors is a common problem that can be arrested if recognized early enough. However, the arrested decay is unsightly. Celluloid 'strip' crown forms, used with composite resin, now allow the restoration of even the most badly decayed primary incisors. The authors describe this quick and efficient technique. PMID:1884866

  14. Intrabeam stripping in H- Linacs

    CERN Document Server

    Lebedev, V; Ostigy, J -F; Alexandrov, A; Shishlo, A

    2012-01-01

    A beam loss in the superconducting part of the SNS linac has been observed during its commissioning and operation. Although the loss does not prevent the SNS high power operation, it results in an almost uniform irradiation of linac components and increased radiation levels in the tunnel. Multi-particle tracking could neither account for the magnitude of the observed loss nor its dependence on machine parameters. It was recently found that the loss is consistent with the intrabeam particle collisions resulting in stripping of H- ions. The paper describes experimental observations and corresponding analytical estimates of the intrabeam stripping.

  15. An accurate air temperature measurement system based on an envelope pulsed ultrasonic time-of-flight technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Y S; Huang, Y P; Huang, K N; Young, M S

    2007-11-01

    A new microcomputer based air temperature measurement system is presented. An accurate temperature measurement is derived from the measurement of sound velocity by using an ultrasonic time-of-flight (TOF) technique. The study proposes a novel algorithm that combines both amplitude modulation (AM) and phase modulation (PM) to get the TOF measurement. The proposed system uses the AM and PM envelope square waveform (APESW) to reduce the error caused by inertia delay. The APESW ultrasonic driving waveform causes an envelope zero and phase inversion phenomenon in the relative waveform of the receiver. To accurately achieve a TOF measurement, the phase inversion phenomenon was used to sufficiently identify the measurement pulse in the received waveform. Additionally, a counter clock technique was combined to compute the phase shifts of the last incomplete cycle for TOF. The presented system can obtain 0.1% TOF resolution for the period corresponding to the 40 kHz frequency ultrasonic wave. Consequently, with the integration of a humidity compensation algorithm, a highly accurate and high resolution temperature measurement can be achieved using the accurate TOF measurement. Experimental results indicate that the combined standard uncertainty of the temperature measurement is approximately 0.39 degrees C. The main advantages of this system are high resolution measurements, narrow bandwidth requirements, and ease of implementation.

  16. Modified strip saturation model for a cracked piezoelectric strip

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.R. Bhargava

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The investigations aim to propose a model for arresting an electrical opening of a crack which weakensa narrow, poled and infinite piezoelectric strip. The edges of the strip are subjected to uniform, constant anti-planestresses and in-plane electrical displacements.Design/methodology/approach: The loads applied at the edges of the strip open the crack in a self-similar fashion.Consequently at each tip of the crack a saturation zone protrudes. To stop the crack from further opening the rims ofdeveloped saturation zones are subjected to normal, cohesive linearly varying saturation limit electric displacement. Theedges of the strip are subjected to anti-plane deformation and in-plane electrical displacement. Fourier integral transformmethod employed reduces the problem to the solution of a Fredholm integral equation of second kind.Findings: The electrical displacement, stress intensity factor, the saturation zone length, crack opening displacementand crack growth rate have been calculated. The results obtained presented graphically, analysed and concluded.Research limitations/implications: The ceramic used for strip is being assumed to be electrically morebrittle. The investigations are carried at this level in the present paper. Also the small scale electrical yielding isconsidered. Consequently the developed saturation zone is proposed to lie in a line segment ahead of crack.Practical implications: Piezoelectric ceramics being widely used as transducers. Their wide utility hasprompted to study many attires of such ceramic and one such attire is fracture mechanics of these ceramics.Originality/value: The paper gives an assessment of the electrical load necessary to arrest the electrical crack opening.The investigations are useful to smart material design technology where sensors and actuators are manufactured.

  17. Prospective comparison between two different magnetic resonance defecography techniques for evaluating pelvic floor disorders: air-balloon versus gel for rectal filling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Francesca, Maccioni; Najwa, Al Ansari; Valeria, Buonocore; Fabrizio, Mazzamurro; Carlo, Catalano [Sapienza University of Rome, Department of Radiological Sciences, Oncology and Pathology, Policlinico Umberto I Hospital, Rome (Italy); Marileda, Indinnimeo; Massimo, Mongardini [Sapienza University of Rome, Department of Surgical Sciences, Policlinico Umberto I Hospital, Rome (Italy)

    2016-06-15

    to prospectively compare two rectal filling techniques for dynamic MRI of pelvic floor disorders (PFD). Twenty-six patients with PFD underwent the two techniques during the same procedure, one based on rectal placement of a balloon-catheter filled with saline and air insufflation (air-balloon technique or AB); another based on rectal filling with 180 cc of gel (gel-filling technique or GF). The examinations were compared for assessment and staging of PFD, including rectal-descent, rectocele, cystocele, colpocele, enterocele, rectal invagination. Surgery and clinical examinations were the gold standard. AB showed sensitivity of 96 % for rectal descent, 100 % for both rectocele and colpocele, 86 % for rectal invagination and 100 % for enterocele; understaged 11 % of rectal descents and 19 % of rectoceles. GF showed sensitivity of 100 % for rectal descent, 91 % for rectocele, 83 % for colpocele, 100 % for rectal invagination and 73 % for enterocele; understaged 3.8 % of rectal descent and 11.5 % of rectoceles. Both techniques showed 100 % of specificity. Agreement between air-balloon and gel filling was 84 % for rectal descent, 69 % for rectocele, 88 % for rectal invagination, 84 % for enterocele, 88 % for cystocele and 92 % for colpocele. Both techniques allowed a satisfactory evaluation of PFD. The gel filling was superior for rectal invagination, the air-balloon for rectocele and anterior/middle compartment disorders. (orig.)

  18. Teflon strip pneumostasis for excision of giant emphysematous bullae.

    OpenAIRE

    Parmar, J M; Hubbard, W G; Matthews, H. R.

    1987-01-01

    Excision of giant emphysematous bullae commonly results in a persistent air leak that requires prolonged intercostal drainage and delays recovery. To minimise this we have used Teflon (polytetrafluoroethylene) strips to buttress the suture line and secure pneumostasis. During 1976-84 eight bullae were excised in seven patients. One patient had bilateral staged thoracotomies. All chest drains were removed within eight days (mean 4.5 days) and no patient developed pulmonary complications. At lo...

  19. Electrodynamics on the Moebius Strip

    OpenAIRE

    Pauschenwein, Gernot,

    2004-01-01

    In this diploma work electrostatics and -dynamics of two dimensional structures are examined. Mathematica is used for visualisation and packages for Mathematica have been programmed which use subroutines written in C to improve numerical calculations. The well known Moebius Strip is used as an example structure throughout the work.

  20. Riparian strip efficiency assessment in agricultural landscapes using stereoscopic very high spatial resolution satellite imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chokmani, Karem; Novoa, Julio

    2015-04-01

    Riparian strips are used worldwide to protect riverbanks and water quality in agricultural zones because of their several environmental benefits. A metric called the Riparian Strip Quality Index, which is based on the percentage area of riverine vegetation found on the riparian strip, is used to evaluate their ecological condition. This index could be considered an indicator of the potential capacity of riparian strips to filter sediments, retain pollutants, and provide shelter to terrestrial and aquatic species. Thus, in order to know if a riparian strip is truly efficient in agricultural lands, which means that it is fulfilling those ecological functions, it is necessary to understand their ability to intercept surface runoff. The latter is the major cause of water pollution and erosion in these productive areas. Besides vegetation coverage, topographic and hydrologic parameters must be included to model the intensity and spatial distribution of runoff streamflow at local scales. The geospatial information used to assess the ecological efficiency of riparian strips was extracted from very-high-spatial-resolution WorldView-2 satellite imagery. This information was then processed using current geospatial techniques such as object-based image analysis and was used to develop a Riparian Strip Efficiency Index. The results show that this index might be used to assess the efficiency of riparian strips, which will enable land managers to monitor changes occurring over time, identify priority areas for restoration activities. This, in turn, might ensure optimal allocation of private or public funds towards the most inefficient and threatened riparian strips.

  1. Pretreatment of anaerobic digestion effluent with ammonia stripping and biogas purification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Xiaohui; Sugiura, Norio; Feng, Chuanping; Maekawa, Takaaki

    2007-07-16

    In this study, ammonia stripping was optimized for pretreating anaerobic digestion effluent from an anaerobic digestion plant, and the possibility of using CO(2) stripping and biogas injection for adjusting the pH of the effluent before and after the ammonia stripping process was also investigated. For ammonia stripping, the results showed that an overdose of calcium hydroxide, i.e., 27.5g/L wastewater, achieved higher ammonia, phosphorus, chemical oxygen demand, suspended solids, and turbidity removal efficiency. An air flow rate of 5L/min for 1L of wastewater was thought as suitable for engineering application. The pH of the anaerobic digestion effluent can be increased from about 7 to about 9 by CO(2) stripping, however which is insufficient for ammonia stripping. For 1L of wastewater treated after ammonia stripping, the pH can be neutralized to about 7 from greater than 11 through biogas injection at 1L/min for less than 30min, and continuous injection does not decrease the pH. It was roughly estimated that 43m(3) of biogas (CH(4):CO(2) approximately 60%:40%) produced daily could be purified to CH(4):CO(2) approximately 74%:26% by neutralizing the pH of the 5m(3) anaerobic digestion effluent pretreated by ammonia stripping. PMID:17178436

  2. New Concept of Cultivation Using Limited Strip-Tillage with Strip Shallow Irrigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yazid Ismi Intara

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false IN X-NONE X-NONE Dry land is one of land resources which potentially used for food crop cultivation, especially in the areas which have light to medium technical obstacles. The development of technology to improve soil quality in marginal lands to be productive lands is still widely open for agricultural development in Indonesia. Rooting medium quality can be improved by changing soil tillage method and observing the proper crop irrigation technology. It can be the solution for crop cultivation in clay loam soil. This study aimed to obtain water movement model in a minimally-tilled clay soil with strip shallow irrigation. The concept is limited soil-tillage with strip shallow irrigation method, water supply technique, and crop water requirement. Method used in this study includes developing water movement model (software development in a minimally-tilled clay soil with subsurface irrigation. In the final stages, research also conducted water movement analysis testing apparatus in the laboratory, field validation of the subsurface irrigation performance, and cultivation technique testing to chili pepper growth (Capsicum annuumL.. The development of water movement simulation on a limited strip-tillage with subsurface irrigation uses the concept to quantify the amount of water in the soil. The analysis of movement pattern was demonstrated on contour patterns. It showed that the wetting process can reach depth zone – 5 cm to the rooting zone. It was an important discovery on the development of minimum stripe tillage soil with subsurface irrigation. Specifically, it can be concluded that: the result of fitting by eyes to diffusivity graphic and water content obtained the required parameter values for soil physical properties. It was then simulated on horizontal water movement model on a minimum strip-tillage with strip shallow irrigation /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso

  3. Using Comic Strips in Language Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csabay, Noémi

    2006-01-01

    The author believes that using comic strips in language-learning classes has three main benefits. First, comic strips motivate younger learners. Second, they provide a context and logically connected sentences to help language learning. Third, their visual information is helpful for comprehension. The author argues that comic strips can be used in…

  4. A layer stripping approach for monitoring resistivity variations using surface magnetotelluric responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogaya, Xènia; Ledo, Juanjo; Queralt, Pilar; Jones, Alan G.; Marcuello, Álex

    2016-09-01

    The resolution of surface-acquired magnetotelluric data is typically not sufficiently high enough in monitoring surveys to detect and quantify small resistivity variations produced within an anomalous structure at a given depth within the subsurface. To address this deficiency we present an approach, called "layer stripping", based on the analytical solution of the one-dimensional magnetotelluric problem to enhance the sensitivity of surface magnetotelluric responses to such subtle subsurface temporal variations in resistivity within e.g. reservoirs. Given a well-known geoelectrical baseline model of a reservoir site, the layer stripping approach aims to remove the effect of the upper, unchanging structures in order to simulate the time-varying magnetotelluric responses at depth. This methodology is suggested for monitoring all kinds of reservoirs, e.g. hydrocarbons, gas, geothermal, compress air storage, etc., but here we focus on CO2 geological storage. We study one-dimensional and three-dimensional resistivity variations in the reservoir layer and the feasibility of the method is appraised by evaluating the error of the approach and defining different detectability parameters. The geoelectrical baseline model of the Hontomín site (Spain) for CO2 geological storage in a deep saline aquifer is taken as our exemplar for studying the validity of the 1D assumption in a real scenario. We conclude that layer stripping could help detect resistivity variations and locate them in the space, showing potential to also sense unforeseen resistivity variations at all depths. The proposed approach constitutes an innovative contribution to take greater advantage of surface magnetotelluric data and to use the method as a cost-effective permanent monitoring technique in suitable geoelectrical scenarios.

  5. Accurate measurements of carbon monoxide in humid air using the cavity ring-down spectroscopy (CRDS technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Chen

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Accurate measurements of carbon monoxide (CO in humid air have been made using the cavity ring-down spectroscopy (CRDS technique. The measurements of CO mole fractions are determined from the strength of its spectral absorption in the near-infrared region (~1.57 μm after removing interferences from adjacent carbon dioxide (CO2 and water vapor (H2O absorption lines. Water correction functions that account for the dilution and pressure-broadening effects as well as absorption line interferences from adjacent CO2 and H2O lines have been derived for CO2 mole fractions between 360–390 ppm and for reported H2O mole fractions between 0–4%. The line interference corrections are independent of CO mole fractions. The dependence of the line interference correction on CO2 abundance is estimated to be approximately −0.3 ppb/100 ppm CO2 for dry mole fractions of CO. Comparisons of water correction functions from different analyzers of the same type show significant differences, making it necessary to perform instrument-specific water tests for each individual analyzer. The CRDS analyzer was flown on an aircraft in Alaska from April to November in 2011, and the accuracy of the CO measurements by the CRDS analyzer has been validated against discrete NOAA/ESRL flask sample measurements made on board the same aircraft, with a mean difference between integrated in situ and flask measurements of −0.6 ppb and a standard deviation of 2.8 ppb. Preliminary testing of CRDS instrumentation that employs improved spectroscopic model functions for CO2, H2O, and CO to fit the raw spectral data (available since the beginning of 2012 indicates a smaller water vapor dependence than the models discussed here, but more work is necessary to fully validate the performance. The CRDS technique provides an accurate and low-maintenance method of monitoring the atmospheric dry mole fractions of CO in humid air streams.

  6. A Discussion on Evolution of Microstructures and Influence Factors during Continuous Rolling of Compact Strip Production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hongbo DONG; Yonglin KANG; Hao YU

    2004-01-01

    The evolution of microsturctures and influence factors of ultrathin hot strips of low carbon steel produced by compact strip production (CSP) techniques were investigated. The steel blocking samples of CSP six-passes were obtained, and microstructures at the different positions of workpiece for each pass were studied. At the same time, an explicit finite element technique was used to reveal the continuous rolling process. By combining experiment results with simulation analysis, the effects of plastic strain, temperature, precipitation and interval time on evolution and refinement of crystal grains have been investigated. The results are useful for the development of high strength hot strips.

  7. Are marketed topical metronidazole creams bioequivalent? Evaluation by in vivo microdialysis sampling and tape stripping methodology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garcia Ortiz, Patricia Elodia; Hansen, S H; Shah, Surendra P.;

    2011-01-01

    To evaluate the bioequivalence of 3 marketed topical metronidazole formulations by simultaneous dermal microdialysis and stratum corneum sampling by the tape stripping methodology, and to compare the techniques as tools for the determination of bioequivalence.......To evaluate the bioequivalence of 3 marketed topical metronidazole formulations by simultaneous dermal microdialysis and stratum corneum sampling by the tape stripping methodology, and to compare the techniques as tools for the determination of bioequivalence....

  8. Calibration of cathode strip gains in multiwire drift chambers of the GlueX experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berdnikov, V. V.; Somov, S. V.; Pentchev, L.; Somov, A.

    2016-07-01

    A technique for calibrating cathode strip gains in multiwire drift chambers of the GlueX experiment is described. The accuracy of the technique is estimated based on Monte Carlo generated data with known gain coefficients in the strip signal channels. One of the four detector sections has been calibrated using cosmic rays. Results of drift chamber calibration on the accelerator beam upon inclusion in the GlueX experimental setup are presented.

  9. Tracer-based laser-induced fluorescence measurement technique for quantitative fuel/air-ratio measurements in a hydrogen internal combustion engine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blotevogel, Thomas; Hartmann, Matthias; Rottengruber, Hermann; Leipertz, Alfred

    2008-12-10

    A measurement technique for the quantitative investigation of mixture formation processes in hydrogen internal combustion engines (ICEs) has been developed using tracer-based laser-induced fluorescence (TLIF). This technique can be employed to fired and motored engine operation. The quantitative TLIF fuel/air-ratio results have been verified by means of linear Raman scattering measurements. Exemplary results of the simultaneous investigation of mixture formation and combustion obtained at an optical accessible hydrogen ICE are shown.

  10. Tracer-based laser-induced fluorescence measurement technique for quantitative fuel/air-ratio measurements in a hydrogen internal combustion engine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blotevogel, Thomas; Hartmann, Matthias; Rottengruber, Hermann; Leipertz, Alfred

    2008-12-10

    A measurement technique for the quantitative investigation of mixture formation processes in hydrogen internal combustion engines (ICEs) has been developed using tracer-based laser-induced fluorescence (TLIF). This technique can be employed to fired and motored engine operation. The quantitative TLIF fuel/air-ratio results have been verified by means of linear Raman scattering measurements. Exemplary results of the simultaneous investigation of mixture formation and combustion obtained at an optical accessible hydrogen ICE are shown. PMID:19079454

  11. Fast variation method for elastic strip calculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biryukov, Sergey V

    2002-05-01

    A new, fast, variation method (FVM) for determining an elastic strip response to stresses arbitrarily distributed on the flat side of the strip is proposed. The remaining surface of the strip may have an arbitrary form, and it is free of stresses. The FVM, as well as the well-known finite element method (FEM), starts with the variational principle. However, it does not use the meshing of the strip. A comparison of FVM results with the exact analytical solution in the special case of shear stresses and a rectangular strip demonstrates an excellent agreement.

  12. Triangular buckling patterns of twisted inextensible strips

    CERN Document Server

    Korte, A P; van der Heijden, G H M

    2010-01-01

    When twisting a strip of paper or acetate under high longitudinal tension, one observes, at some critical load, a buckling of the strip into a regular triangular pattern. Very similar triangular facets have recently been observed in solutions to a new set of geometrically-exact equations describing the equilibrium shape of thin inextensible elastic strips. Here we formulate a modified boundary-value problem for these equations and construct post-buckling solutions in good agreement with the observed pattern in twisted strips. We also study the force-extension and moment-twist behaviour of these strips by varying the mode number n of triangular facets.

  13. Antenna structure with distributed strip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodenbeck, Christopher T.

    2008-03-18

    An antenna comprises electrical conductors arranged to form a radiating element including a folded line configuration and a distributed strip configuration, where the radiating element is in proximity to a ground conductor. The folded line and the distributed strip can be electrically interconnected and substantially coplanar. The ground conductor can be spaced from, and coplanar to, the radiating element, or can alternatively lie in a plane set at an angle to the radiating element. Embodiments of the antenna include conductor patterns formed on a printed wiring board, having a ground plane, spacedly adjacent to and coplanar with the radiating element. Other embodiments of the antenna comprise a ground plane and radiating element on opposed sides of a printed wiring board. Other embodiments of the antenna comprise conductors that can be arranged as free standing "foils". Other embodiments include antennas that are encapsulated into a package containing the antenna.

  14. An application of SPIV technique to experimental validation of the turbulence model for the air flow in the intersection of the mining face with the ventilation gallery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaszczur, Marek; Nowak, Remigiusz; Szmyd, Janusz [Faculty of Energy and Fuels, AGH University of Science and Technology (Poland); Branny, Marian; Karch, Michal; Wodziak, Waldemar, E-mail: marek.jaszczur@agh.edu.pl [Faculty of Mining and Geoengineering, AGH University of Science and Technology (Poland)

    2011-12-22

    This paper presents a comparison between results obtained using SPIV experimental technique and numerical simulations approach. An analysis has been performed to validate the turbulent models used in mining ventilation systems. The flow of air across the intersection of the mining face with the ventilation gallery has been examined.

  15. Bismuth electrodes, an alternative in stripping voltammetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The heavy metals are known as highly toxic contaminants, the processes carried out in industry contribute that finally they remain dispersed in effluents and sewage, doing part of the food chain. The importance of controlling the levels of these heavy metals has become an international policy, so it has generated interest in developing new analytical methodologies for its determination [1, 2, 3, 4]. The stripping voltammetry has been considered as a family of electro-sensitive analytical techniques useful for the determination of trace levels of many metals in environmental, clinical and industrial samples [3, 4]. This work presents an overview of these bismuth-based electrodes which were introduced around 2000, which have interesting characteristics for detection of heavy metals and which represent an alternative to mercury electrodes

  16. Digital autoradiography using silicon strip detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Overdick, M.

    1998-05-01

    Spatially resolving radiation detection systems operating in real time can be used to acquire autoradiographic images. An overview over alternatives to traditional autoradiography is given and the special features of these filmless methods are discussed. On this basis the design of a system for digital autoradiography using silicon strip detectors is presented. Special emphasis is put on the physical background of the detection process in the semiconductor and on the self-triggering read-out technique. The practical performance of the system is analyzed with respect to energy and spatial resolution. This analysis is complemented by case studies from cell biology (especially electrophoresis), botany and mineralogy. Also the results from a time-resolved autoradiographic experiment are presented. (orig.) 80 refs.

  17. Bismuth electrodes, an alternative in stripping voltammetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barón-Jaimez, J.; Joya, M. R.; Barba-Ortega, J.

    2013-11-01

    The heavy metals are known as highly toxic contaminants, the processes carried out in industry contribute that finally they remain dispersed in effluents and sewage, doing part of the food chain. The importance of controlling the levels of these heavy metals has become an international policy, so it has generated interest in developing new analytical methodologies for its determination [1, 2, 3, 4]. The stripping voltammetry has been considered as a family of electro-sensitive analytical techniques useful for the determination of trace levels of many metals in environmental, clinical and industrial samples [3, 4]. This work presents an overview of these bismuth-based electrodes which were introduced around 2000, which have interesting characteristics for detection of heavy metals and which represent an alternative to mercury electrodes.

  18. Characterization of plutonium isotopes in air samples retrospectives techniques ultrasensitive; Caracterizacion de isotopos de plutonio en muestras de aire mediante tecnicas restrospectiva ultrasensibles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    This paper presents preliminary results for the determination of plutonium isotope ratios that characterize the natural background for later comparison with that obtained during the dismantling operations. In this manner can be performed retrospective analysis of radiation from the air quality.

  19. Application of nuclear techniques for the assessment of air pollution in the metropolitan area of Belo Horizonte City, MG

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toxic metals, such as Ni, V, Zn, Cu, Cr, Mn and metalloids as As and Se and their compounds are mainly associated with the smaller diameter particulates present in the atmospheric aerosols. This fact is important, principally, when it concerns public health, because this is considered the breathable fraction of particles that can penetrate deeply into the lungs and cause damage to the alveoli. Once in the atmosphere the concentrations of trace metals, in general, show very low levels, thus the determination of the elementary composition of those particles requires the use of appropriate analytical techniques such as Particle Induced X-Ray Emission (PIXE), Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) and X-Rays Fluorescence spectrometry (XRF), among others. The main objective of this study was the identification of the generating sources of gross (PM10) and fine (PM2.5) particles present in the atmospheric aerosols of the metropolitan region of Belo Horizonte. Neutron Activation Analyses by k0-method (k0NAA) combined with energy dispersed by X-ray fluorescence was used to measurement of the concentration of trace elements present in each sample. High levels of particulate concentrations, especially PM2.5, were measured during the sampling period. In general, the air quality varied from Reasonable to Inadequate. The receptor model used to assist in the identification of the main emission sources was the Principal Components Analysis. The results showed that the main elements presents in particulate inhalable matter (PM2.5 and PM10) were Ag, Al, As, Au, Ba, Br, Ca, Cl, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Mn, Na, S, Sb, Sc, Si, Ti, W and Zn. The results for multi-variable analyses shown clearly four pollutant sources, these being: vehicular emissions; resuspended soil/asphalt powder; secondary aerosols associated with emission of SO2 and industrial emissions associated with fossil oil burning. (author)

  20. Parallel strip waveguide for ultrasonic flow measurement in harsh environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laws, Michael; Ramadas, Sivaram N; Lynnworth, Lawrence C; Dixon, Steve

    2015-04-01

    Wetted ultrasonic transit time flow meters typically consist of one or more pairs of transducers, containing piezoelectric elements, which alternate between transmitting and detecting an ultrasonic pulse. Typical piezoelectric materials and the adhesives used to attach the piezoelectric element in such devices can be damaged by hostile environments, such as extreme temperature, potentially limiting possible applications of ultrasonic flow measurement techniques. We have investigated a design for a flow meter with an integrated thermal buffer waveguide consisting of five parallel stainless steel strips. These, in addition to thermal protection, may function as a transducer array, with the possibility of steering the emitted field. Because the buffer strips used in the transducer assembly are thin, one might expect Lamb-like guided waves to propagate along it. However, the finite width of the strips has a significant effect on the propagation characteristics of the guided waves. In this work, the effect of the waveguide's small rectangular cross-section has been studied. Additionally, we have examined the effect of thermal gradients on the average sound speed and dispersion characteristics of such strip waveguides. We also suggest modifications to the plate geometry, which can alter both the frequency content and the shape of the transmitted pulse, potentially giving a better signal to use in flow measurement. PMID:25881347

  1. Controlling Air Traffic (Simulated) in the Presence of Automation (CATS PAu) 1995: A Study of Measurement Techniques for Situation Awareness in Air Traffic Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Jennifer R.

    1995-01-01

    As automated systems proliferate in aviation systems, human operators are taking on less and less of an active role in the jobs they once performed, often reducing what should be important jobs to tasks barely more complex than monitoring machines. When operators are forced into these roles, they risk slipping into hazardous states of awareness, which can lead to reduced skills, lack of vigilance, and the inability to react quickly and competently when there is a machine failure. Using Air Traffic Control (ATC) as a model, the present study developed tools for conducting tests focusing on levels of automation as they relate to situation awareness. Subjects participated in a two-and-a-half hour experiment that consisted of a training period followed by a simulation of air traffic control similar to the system presently used by the FAA, then an additional simulation employing automated assistance. Through an iterative design process utilizing numerous revisions and three experimental sessions, several measures for situational awareness in a simulated Air Traffic Control System were developed and are prepared for use in future experiments.

  2. Chemically modified flexible strips as electrochemical biosensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thota, Raju; Ganesh, V

    2014-09-21

    A flexible and disposable strip sensor for non-enzymatic glucose detection is demonstrated in this work. The strips are prepared by using chemical modification processes followed by a simple electroless deposition of copper. Essentially, polyester overhead projector (OHP) transparent films are modified with a monolayer of 3-aminopropyltrimethoxysilane (APTMS) and polyaniline (PANI) conducting polymer. Later, nanostructured copper is deposited onto this modified film. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies are used for the structural, morphological and crystallinity characterization of the modified films. Electrochemical techniques, namely cyclic voltammetry (CV) and chronoamperometry (CA), are employed for the non-enzymatic detection of glucose. These studies clearly reveal the formation of homogeneous, close-packed spherical Cu particles converged into uniform film that exhibits a good catalytic activity towards the oxidation of glucose. The Cu/PANI/APTMS/OHP sensor displays a remarkable enhancement in the oxidation current density, a very high sensitivity value of 2.8456 mA cm(-2) per mM, and a linear concentration range from 100 μM to 6.5 mM associated with glucose detection. Detection limit is estimated to be 5 μM and the response time of the sensor is determined to be less than 5 s. For comparison, similar studies are performed without PANI, namely Cu/APTMS/OHP films for glucose detection. In this case, a sensitivity value of 2.4457 mA cm(-2) per mM and a linear concentration range of 100 μM-3 mM are estimated. The higher performance characteristics observed in the case of Cu/PANI/APTMS/OHP are attributed to the synergistic effects of the conducting polymer acting as an electron facilitator and the nanostructured Cu films. These disposable, flexible and low-cost strip sensors have also been applied to the detection of glucose in clinical blood serum samples and the results obtained agree very well with the actual glucose

  3. Performance of the first prototype of the CALICE scintillator strip electromagnetic calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Francis, K; Schlereth, J; Smith, J; Xia, L; Baldolemar, E; Li, J; Park, S T; Sosebee, M; White, A P; Yu, J; Eigen, G; Mikami, Y; Watson, N K; Thomson, M A; Ward, D R; Benchekroun, D; Hoummada, A; Khoulaki, Y; Apostolakis, J; Dotti, A; Folger, G; Ivantchenko, V; Ribon, A; Uzhinskiy, V; Carloganu, C; Gay, P; Manen, S; Royer, L; Tytgat, M; Zaganidis, N; Blazey, G C; Dyshkant, A; Lima, J G R; Zutshi, V; Hostachy, J -Y; Morin, L; Cornett, U; David, D; Ebrahimi, A; Falley, G; Gadow, K; Goettlicher, P; Guenter, C; Hartbrich, O; Hermberg, B; Karstensen, S; Krivan, F; Krueger, K; Lutz, B; Morozov, S; Morgunov, V; Neubueser, C; Reinecke, M; Sefkow, F; Smirnov, P; Terwort, M; Garutti, E; Laurien, S; Lu, S; Marchesini, I; Matysek, M; Ramilli, M; Briggl, K; Eckert, P; Harion, T; Schultz-Coulon, H -Ch; Shen, W; Stamen, R; Bilki, B; Norbeck, E; Northacker, D; Onel, Y; Wilson, G W; Kawagoe, K; Sudo, Y; Yoshioka, T; Dauncey, P D; Wing, M; Salvatore, F; Gil, E Cortina; Mannai, S; Baulieu, G; Calabria, P; Caponetto, L; Combaret, C; Della Negra, R; Grenier, G; Han, R; Ianigro, J-C; Kieffer, R; Laktineh, I; Lumb, N; Mathez, H; Mirabito, L; Petrukhin, A; Steen, A; Tromeur, W; Donckt, M Vander; Zoccarato, Y; Alamillo, E Calvo; Fouz, M -C; Puerta-Pelayo, J; Corriveau, F; Bobchenko, B; Chadeeva, M; Danilov, M; Epifantsev, A; Markin, O; Mizuk, R; Novikov, E; Popov, V; Rusinov, V; Tarkovsky, E; Besson, D; Buzhan, P; Ilyin, A; Kantserov, V; Kaplin, V; Karakash, A; Popova, E; Tikhomirov, V; Kiesling, C; Seidel, K; Simon, F; Soldner, C; Weuste, L; Amjad, M S; Bonis, J; Callier, S; di Lorenzo, S Conforti; Cornebise, P; Doublet, Ph; Dulucq, F; Fleury, J; Frisson, T; van der Kolk, N; Li, H; Martin-Chassard, G; Richard, F; de la Taille, Ch; Poeschl, R; Raux, L; Rouene, J; Seguin-Moreau, N; Anduze, M; Balagura, V; Boudry, V; Brient, J-C; Cornat, R; Frotin, M; Gastaldi, F; Guliyev, E; Haddad, Y; Magniette, F; Musat, G; Ruan, M; Tran, T H; Videau, H; Bulanek, B; Zacek, J; Cvach, J; Gallus, P; Havranek, M; Janata, M; Kvasnicka, J; Lednicky, D; Marcisovsky, M; Polak, I; Popule, J; Tomasek, L; Tomasek, M; Ruzicka, P; Sicho, P; Smolik, J; Vrba, V; Zalesak, J; Belhorma, B; Ghazlane, H; Kotera, K; Ono, H; Takeshita, T; Uozumi, S; Jeans, D; Chang, S; Khan, A; Kim, D H; Kong, D J; Oh, Y D; Goetze, M; Sauer, J; Weber, S; Zeitnitz, C

    2014-01-01

    A first prototype of a scintillator strip-based electromagnetic calorimeter was built, consisting of 26 layers of tungsten absorber plates interleaved with planes of 45x10x3 mm3 plastic scintillator strips. Data were collected using a positron test beam at DESY with momenta between 1 and 6 GeV/c. The prototype's performance is presented in terms of the linearity and resolution of the energy measurement. These results represent an important milestone in the development of highly granular calorimeters using scintillator strip technology. This technology is being developed for a future linear collider experiment, aiming at the precise measurement of jet energies using particle flow techniques.

  4. Online application of automatic surface quality inspection system to finishing line of cold rolled strips

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hao Sun; Ke Xu; Jinwu Xu

    2003-01-01

    An autonatic surface quality inspection system installed on a finishing line of cold rolled strips is introduced. The system is able to detect surface defects on cold rolled strips, such as scratches, coil breaks, rusts, roll imprints, and so on. Multiple CCD area scan canteras were equipped to capture images of strip surface simultaneously. Defects were detected through "Dark-field illumination' which is generated by LED illuminators. Parallel computation technique and fast processing algorithms were developed for real-time data processing. The application to the production line shows that the system is able to detect defects effectively.

  5. Method of stripping metals from organic solvents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, Terry A.; Law, Jack D.; Herbst, R. Scott; Romanovskiy, Valeriy N.; Smirnov, Igor V.; Babain, Vasily A.; Esimantovski, Vyatcheslav M.

    2009-02-24

    A new method to strip metals from organic solvents in a manner that allows for the recycle of the stripping agent. The method utilizes carbonate solutions of organic amines with complexants, in low concentrations, to strip metals from organic solvents. The method allows for the distillation and reuse of organic amines. The concentrated metal/complexant fraction from distillation is more amenable to immobilization than solutions resulting from current practice.

  6. Quantifiable Lateral Flow Assay Test Strips

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    As easy to read as a home pregnancy test, three Quantifiable Lateral Flow Assay (QLFA) strips used to test water for E. coli show different results. The brightly glowing control line on the far right of each strip indicates that all three tests ran successfully. But the glowing test line on the middle left and bottom strips reveal their samples were contaminated with E. coli bacteria at two different concentrations. The color intensity correlates with concentration of contamination.

  7. SU-E-P-15: Technique Factor Modulation and Reference Plane Air Kerma Rates in Response to Simulated Patient Thickness Variations for a Sample of Current Generation Fluoroscopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To evaluate and compare approaches to technique factor modulation and air kerma rates in response to simulated patient thickness variations for four state-of-the-art and one previous-generation interventional fluoroscopes. Methods: A polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) phantom was used as a tissue surrogate for the purposes of determining fluoroscopic reference plane air kerma rates, kVp, mA, and spectral filtration over a wide range of simulated tissue thicknesses. Data were acquired for each fluoroscopic and acquisition dose curve within a default abdomen or body imaging protocol. Results: The data obtained indicated vendor- and model-specific variations in the approach to technique factor modulation and reference plane air kerma rates across a range of tissue thicknesses. Some vendors have made hardware advances increasing the radiation output capabilities of their fluoroscopes; this was evident in the acquisition air kerma rates. However, in the imaging protocol evaluated, all of the state-of-the-art systems had relatively low air kerma rates in the fluoroscopic low-dose imaging mode as compared to the previous-generation unit. Each of the newest-generation systems also employ copper filtration in the selected protocol in the acquisition mode of imaging; this is a substantial benefit, reducing the skin entrance dose to the patient in the highest dose-rate mode of fluoroscope operation. Conclusion: Understanding how fluoroscopic technique factors are modulated provides insight into the vendor-specific image acquisition approach and provides opportunities to optimize the imaging protocols for clinical practice. The enhanced radiation output capabilities of some of the fluoroscopes may, under specific conditions, may be beneficial; however, these higher output capabilities also have the potential to lead to unnecessarily high dose rates. Therefore, all parties involved in imaging, including the clinical team, medical physicists, and imaging vendors, must work

  8. SU-E-P-15: Technique Factor Modulation and Reference Plane Air Kerma Rates in Response to Simulated Patient Thickness Variations for a Sample of Current Generation Fluoroscopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wunderle, K [Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, OH& Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI (United States); Rakowski, J [Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI (United States); Dong, F [Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, OH (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To evaluate and compare approaches to technique factor modulation and air kerma rates in response to simulated patient thickness variations for four state-of-the-art and one previous-generation interventional fluoroscopes. Methods: A polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) phantom was used as a tissue surrogate for the purposes of determining fluoroscopic reference plane air kerma rates, kVp, mA, and spectral filtration over a wide range of simulated tissue thicknesses. Data were acquired for each fluoroscopic and acquisition dose curve within a default abdomen or body imaging protocol. Results: The data obtained indicated vendor- and model-specific variations in the approach to technique factor modulation and reference plane air kerma rates across a range of tissue thicknesses. Some vendors have made hardware advances increasing the radiation output capabilities of their fluoroscopes; this was evident in the acquisition air kerma rates. However, in the imaging protocol evaluated, all of the state-of-the-art systems had relatively low air kerma rates in the fluoroscopic low-dose imaging mode as compared to the previous-generation unit. Each of the newest-generation systems also employ copper filtration in the selected protocol in the acquisition mode of imaging; this is a substantial benefit, reducing the skin entrance dose to the patient in the highest dose-rate mode of fluoroscope operation. Conclusion: Understanding how fluoroscopic technique factors are modulated provides insight into the vendor-specific image acquisition approach and provides opportunities to optimize the imaging protocols for clinical practice. The enhanced radiation output capabilities of some of the fluoroscopes may, under specific conditions, may be beneficial; however, these higher output capabilities also have the potential to lead to unnecessarily high dose rates. Therefore, all parties involved in imaging, including the clinical team, medical physicists, and imaging vendors, must work

  9. Solidification Structure of Low Carbon Steel Strips with Different Phosphorus Contents Produced by Strip Casting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Na LI; Zhenyu LIU; Yiqing QIU; Zhaosen LIN; Xianghua LIU; Guodong WANG

    2006-01-01

    In the present paper, low carbon steel strips with different phosphorus contents were produced using a twin roll strip casting process. The solidification structure was studied and its features were analyzed in detail. It was found that the strips possessed a fine microstructure compared with the mould cast steels. With increasing phosphorus content more ferrite has been formed with finer grains.

  10. Numerical simulation of overburden and surface movements for Wongawilli strip pillar mining

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo Wenbing; Xu Feiya

    2016-01-01

    The Wongawilli strip pillar mining technique, which combines the strip pillar mining layout and Wongawilli mining technology, is a new high efficient mining technology for mining under surface struc-tures. The Wongawilli strip pillar mining technique was studied in this paper using theoretical analysis and numerical simulation. As an example, the geological and mining conditions of a coal mine were used to design the Wongawilli strip pillar plans, including the support parameters of the entries and the mining technology. In order to control the surrounding rocks and manage the roof effectively during coal mining, the stress fields, displacement fields and plastic zones were studied by numerical simulation. The stress fields, displacement fields, and plastic zones generated by Wongawilli strip pillar mining were obtained. And the surface movement and deformation were also determined after mining was completed and its effects on surface structures were analyzed and evaluated. The results demonstrate that it is feasible to mine under surface structures with the Wongawilli strip pillar mining technique. This mining method can protect the surface structures from damages.

  11. Anodic stripping voltammetry of technetium alkaline media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method of direct determination of technetium in 0.1 M NaOH by anodic stripping voltametry at glassy carbon electrode has been elaborated. The peak height of anodic TcO2(OH)2 dissolution was found to be linearly dependent on preconcentration time, and the concentration of technetium in the range 5.0 * 10-8 -6 M. The detection limit for the Tc determination by ASV technique under study was found to be 5.0 * 10-8 M with standard deviation 5-7% (p2(OH)2 anodic dissolution peak current. Addition of 1.0* 10-6 M U(UI) to the sample solution was found to shift the peak of the TcO2(OH)2 100 mV towards negative direction and disturb the linearity of the calibration curve. Therefore; for a successful application of the developed ASV technique for Tc determination in the alkaline media, uranium should be removed from the analyte before determination

  12. Semiautomatic reconstruction of strip-shredded documents

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Smet, Patrick; De Bock, Johan; Philips, Wilfried

    2005-03-01

    Until recently, the forensic or investigative reconstruction of shredded documents has always been dismissed as an important but unsolvable problem. Manual reassembly of the physical remnants can always be considered, but for large amounts of shreds this problem can quickly become an intangible task that requires vast amounts of time and/or personnel. In this paper we propose and discuss several image processing techniques that can be used to enable the reconstruction of strip-shredded documents stored within a database of digital images. The technical content of this paper mainly revolves around the use of feature based matching and grouping methods for classifying the initial database of shreds, and the subsequent procedure for computing more accurate pairing results for the obtained classes of shreds. Additionally, we discuss the actual reassembly of the different shreds on top of a common image canvas. We illustrate our algorithms with example matching and reconstruction results obtained for a real shred database containing various types of shredded document pages. Finally, we briefly discuss the impact of our findings on secure document management strategies and the possibilities for applying the proposed techniques within the context of forensic investigation.

  13. La catastrophe nucléaire de Tchernobyl entre erreurs humaines et défauts techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Perrineau, Aude

    2015-01-01

    Découvrez enfin tout ce qu'il faut savoir sur la catastrophe nucléaire de Tchernobyl en moins d'une heure ! Le 26 avril 1986 à 1 h 23, une catastrophe d'un nouveau genre ébranle le monde : un réacteur de la centrale nucléaire de Tchernobyl explose. Alors que les autorités soviétiques camouflent l'accident, puis en minimisent l'importance, un nuage radioactif se forme et se propage sur toute l'Europe…Ce livre vous permettra d'en savoir plus sur : Le contexte de l'époque Les acteurs majeurs qui ont participé à l'événement La catastrophe nucléaire de Tchernobyl Les répercussions du drameLe mot

  14. Hardy inequalities in strips on ruled surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider the Dirichlet Laplacian in infinite two-dimensional strips defined as uniform tubular neighbourhoods of curves on ruled surfaces. We show that the negative Gauss curvature of the ambient surface gives rise to a Hardy inequality and we use this to prove certain stability of spectrum in the case of asymptotically straight strips about mildly perturbed geodesics.

  15. 33 CFR 157.128 - Stripping system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Stripping system. 157.128 Section... Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels Design, Equipment, and Installation § 157.128 Stripping system. (a) Each tank vessel having a COW system under § 157.10(e), § 157.10a(a)(2), or §...

  16. Water problems in Gaza Strip,Palestine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ismail ALGHALBAN

    2001-01-01

    The only source for water in Gaza strip, southern Palestine, is the groundwater aquifer. The Pliocene - Pleistocene aquifer has two serious problems: quantity and quality. This study is an attempt to identify the problems and to suggest solutions for water problems in Gaza strip. In addition, some rules for rehabilitation of the aquifers were suggested.

  17. Fourier phase-demodulation applied to strip-light 360-degrees profilometry of 3D solids; theoretical principles

    CERN Document Server

    Servin, Manuel; Garnica, Guillermo

    2015-01-01

    360-degrees digitalization of three-dimensional (3D) solids using a projected light-strip is a well established technique. These profilometers project a light-strip over the solid under analysis while the solid is rotated a full revolution. Then a computer program typically extracts the centroid of this light-strip, and by triangulation one obtains the shape of the solid. Here instead of using intensity-based strip centroid estimation, we propose to use Fourier phase-demodulation. This 360-degrees profilometer first constructs a carrier-frequency fringe-pattern by closely adding individual light-strip images. Secondly this high-density fringe-pattern is phase-demodulated using the standard Fourier technique.

  18. Smooth muscle strips for intestinal tissue engineering.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher M Walthers

    Full Text Available Functionally contracting smooth muscle is an essential part of the engineered intestine that has not been replicated in vitro. The purpose of this study is to produce contracting smooth muscle in culture by maintaining the native smooth muscle organization. We employed intact smooth muscle strips and compared them to dissociated smooth muscle cells in culture for 14 days. Cells isolated by enzymatic digestion quickly lost maturity markers for smooth muscle cells and contained few enteric neural and glial cells. Cultured smooth muscle strips exhibited periodic contraction and maintained neural and glial markers. Smooth muscle strips cultured for 14 days also exhibited regular fluctuation of intracellular calcium, whereas cultured smooth muscle cells did not. After implantation in omentum for 14 days on polycaprolactone scaffolds, smooth muscle strip constructs expressed high levels of smooth muscle maturity markers as well as enteric neural and glial cells. Intact smooth muscle strips may be a useful component for engineered intestinal smooth muscle.

  19. Ultrasonic examination of JBK-75 strip material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An ultrasonic inspection system was assembled to inspect the JBK-75 stainless steel sheath material (for the Large Coil Project) for the Westinghouse-Airco superconducting magnet program. The mechanical system provided for handling the 180-kg (400-lb) coils of strip material [1.6 mm thick by 78 mm wide by 90 to 120 m long (0.064 by 3.07 in. by 300 to 400 ft)], feeding the strip through the ultrasonic inspection and cleaning stations, and respooling the coils. We inspected 54 coils of strip for both longitudinal and laminar flaws. Simulated flaws were used to calibrate both inspections. Saw-cut notches [0.28 mm deep (0.011 in., about 17% of the strip thickness)] were used to calibrate the longitudinal flaw inspections; 1.59-mm-diam (0.063-in.) flat-bottom holes drilled halfway through a calibration strip were used to calibrate the laminar flaw tests

  20. The development of land use regression technique. Use in public health effects of air pollution; Land use regression techniek in opkomst. Toepassing bij gezondheidseffecten door luchtverontreiniging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, P.; Marra, M. [Centrum voor Milieu-Gezondheid Onderzoek, Sector Milieu en Veiligheid, Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieuhygiene RIVM, Bilthoven (Netherlands); Hoek, G.; Beelen, R. [Institute for Risk Assesment Sciences, Utrecht University, Utrecht (Netherlands); Briggs, D.; De Hoogh, K. [Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, Imperial College, London (United Kingdom)

    2009-07-01

    Epidemiological research of the relations between air pollution and health and the municipal practice both feel the need for valid and detailed information on spatial variation of open air pollution. Existing technologies such as interpolation of measurements and distribution models have their limitations, resulting in increasing international deployment of the 'land use regression' technique. This technique combines spatially distributed measurements and geographical information in a statistical model and has several advantages compared to distribution models; less input data is required and there is a direct link with measurements. By means of several examples this article illustrates that the technique can be a useful alternative for existing techniques [mk]. [Dutch] Zowel vanuit epidemiologisch onderzoek naar relaties tussen luchtverontreiniging en gezondheid als vanuit de gemeentelijke praktijk is behoefte aan valide en gedetailleerde informatie over ruimtelijke variatie van buitenluchtverontreiniging. Bestaande technieken zoals interpolatie van metingen en verspreidingsmodellen hebben beperkingen, waardoor er internationaal steeds meer gebruik gemaakt wordt van de 'land use regressie' techniek. De techniek combineert ruimtelijk verspreide metingen en geografische informatie in een statistisch model en heeft een aantal voordelen ten opzichte van verspreidingsmodellen: er zijn minder invoergegevens nodig en er is een directe link met metingen. Dit artikel illustreert aan de hand van een aantal voorbeelden dat de techniek een nuttig alternatief voor bestaande technieken kan zijn.

  1. Thermal Grease Evaluation for ATLAS Upgrade Micro-Strip Detector.

    CERN Document Server

    Barbier, G; The ATLAS collaboration; Clark, A; Ferrère, D; Pernecker, S; Perrin, E; Streit, KP; Weber, M

    2010-01-01

    The ATLAS upgrade detector foreseen at the phase 2 upgrade of LHC requires a complete new inner detector using silicon pixel and strip detectors. For both technologies, a specific mechanical and thermal design is required. Such a design may use soft thermal interfaces such as grease between the various parts. One foreseeable use would be between the cooling pipe and the thermal block allowing the strip modules to be decoupled from the mechanical and cooling structure. This note describes the technique used and the results obtained when characterizing a few grease samples. The results have been compared with thermal FEA simulations. A thermal conductivity measurement for each sample could be extracted from the measurements, with a systematic uncertainty of less than 6%. Some samples were irradiated to the expected fluence at sLHC and their resulting thermal conductivity compared with the non-irradiated samples.

  2. A MOVING CRACK IN A NONHOMOGENEOUS MATERIAL STRIP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Baolin; Han Jiecai

    2006-01-01

    This paper considers an anti-plane moving crack in a nonhomogencous material strip of finite thickness. The shear modulus and the mass density of the strip are considered for a class of functional forms for which the equilibrium equation has analytical solutions. The problem is solved by means of the singular integral equation technique. The stress field near the crack tip is obtained. The results are plotted to show the effect of the material non-homogeneity and crack moving velocity on the crack tip field. Crack bifurcation behaviour is also discussed. The paper points out that use of an appropriate fracture criterion is essential for studying the stability of a moving crack in nonhomogeneous materials. The prediction whether the unstable crack growth will be enhanced or retarded is strongly dependent on the type of the fracture criterion used. is a suitable failure criterion for moving cracks in nonhomogeneous materials.

  3. Very low mass microcables for the ALICE silicon strip detector

    CERN Document Server

    De Haas, A P; Van den Brink, A; Kuijer, P G; Borshchov, V N; Kiprich, S K; Ruzhitsky, V M

    1999-01-01

    Proposal of abstract for LEB99, Snowmass, Colorado, 20-24 September 1999The ALICE Inner Tracker (ITS) silicon strip layers will use kapton/aluminium microcables (12/14 um thickness) exclusively for all interconnections to and from the front-end chips and hybrids, completely eliminating traditional wirebonding. Benefits are increased robustness and an extra degree of dimensional freedom. Utilising a low-power, low temperature and low-force (10-15 grams) single-point TAB bonding process, aluminium traces are directly bonded through bonding windows in the kapton foil to bond pads on the chips and the hybrid. The same technique is also used to interconnect these microcables to create multi-layer bus structures with "bonded via's". A double-sided strip detector using prototype cables has been installed in the NA57 experiment in 1998.

  4. Comparison of Air Fluorescence and Ionization Measurements of E.M. Shower Depth Profiles: Test of a UHECR Detector Technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belz, J.; Cao, Z.; Huentemeyer, P.; Jui, C.C.H.; Martens, K.; Matthews, J.; Maestas, M.; Smith, J.; Sokolsky, P.; Springer, R.W.; Thomas, J.; Thomas, S.; /Utah U.; Chen,; Field, Clive; Hast, C.; Iverson, R.; Ng, J.S.T.; Odian, A.; Reil, K.; Vincke, H.; Walz, D.; /SLAC /Montana U. /Rutgers U., Piscataway /Taiwan, Natl. Taiwan U.

    2005-10-07

    Measurements are reported on the fluorescence of air as a function of depth in electromagnetic showers initiated by bunches of 28.5 GeV electrons. The light yield is compared with the expected and observed depth profiles of ionization in the showers. It validates the use of atmospheric fluorescence profiles in measuring ultra high energy cosmic rays.

  5. Advanced air staging techniques to improve fuel flexibility, reliability and emissions in fluidized bed co-combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aamand, Lars-Erik; Leckner, Bo [Chalmers Technical Univ., Goeteborg (Sweden); Luecke, Karsten; Werther, Joachim [Technical Univ. of Hamburg-Harburg (Germany)

    2001-12-01

    A joint research project between the Technical University of Hamburg-Harburg and Chalmers Technical University. For operation under co-combustion the following results should be considered: The high ash content of the sewage sludge results in significantly increased ash flows. Although high alkali metal concentrations are found in the sewage sludge ash, no critical concentrations were reached and tendencies to fouling were not observed. The trace metal input rises with increased sludge fraction. However, emissions of metal compounds were well below legal limits. The trace metals tend to accumulate on the fly ash. In general, very low fuel nitrogen conversions to NO and N{sub 2}O of 2 - 4 % are achievable. With coal as a base fuel alternative air staging with secondary air supply after solids separation attains even lower NO emissions than normal staging without strongly affecting CO and SO{sub 2} emissions. Alternative staging also reduces N{sub 2}O emissions. An optimum for the excess air ratio in the riser of 1.05 was found for a total excess air ratio of 1.2. The higher the volatile content of the fuel is, the less effective the NO reduction due to air staging becomes. The measurements suggest that the optimum gas residence time regarding the emissions in CFB combustors is around 6 to 7 s. These times are achieved in commercial scale plants due to their large cyclones that perhaps partly can replace a large afterburner chamber. The circulating fluidized bed boiler can be operated in a very flexible way with various fuel mixtures up to an energy fraction of sludge of 25% without exceeding legal emission limits.

  6. Influence of Air Abrasion and Sonic Technique on Microtensile Bond Strength of One-Step Self-Etch Adhesive on Human Dentin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baraba Anja

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate the microtensile bond strength of one-step self-etch adhesive to human dentin surface modified with air abrasion and sonic technique and to assess the morphological characteristics of the pretreated dentin surface. The occlusal enamel was removed to obtain a flat dentin surface for thirty-six human molar teeth. The teeth were randomly divided into three experimental groups (n = 12 per group, according to the pretreatment of the dentin: (1 control group, (2 air abrasion group, and (3 sonic preparation group. Microtensile bond strength test was performed on a universal testing machine. Two specimens from each experimental group were subjected to SEM examination. There was no statistically significant difference in bond strength between the three experimental groups (P > 0.05. Mean microtensile bond strength (MPa values were 35.3 ± 12.8 for control group, 35.8 ± 13.5 for air abrasion group, and 37.7 ± 12.0 for sonic preparation group. The use of air abrasion and sonic preparation with one-step self-etch adhesive does not appear to enhance or impair microtensile bond strength in dentin.

  7. Identifying the Drivers and Occurrence of Historical and Future Extreme Air-quality Events in the United States Using Advanced Statistical Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, W. C.; Heald, C. L.; Cooley, D. S.; Russell, B. T.

    2013-12-01

    Episodes of air-quality extremes are known to be heavily influenced by meteorological conditions, but traditional statistical analysis techniques focused on means and standard deviations may not capture important relationships at the tails of these two respective distributions. Using quantile regression (QR) and extreme value theory (EVT), methodologies specifically developed to examine the behavior of heavy-tailed phenomena, we analyze extremes in the multi-decadal record of ozone (O3) and fine particulate matter (PM2.5) in the United States. We investigate observations from the Air Quality System (AQS) and Interagency Monitoring of Protected Visual Environments (IMPROVE) networks for connections to meteorological drivers, as provided by the National Center for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) North American Regional Reanalysis (NARR) product. Through regional characterization by quantile behavior and EVT modeling of the meteorological covariates most responsible for extreme levels of O3 and PM2.5, we estimate pollutant exceedance frequencies and uncertainties in the United States under current and projected future climates, highlighting those meteorological covariates and interactions whose influence on air-quality extremes differs most significantly from the behavior of the bulk of the distribution. As current policy may be influenced by air-quality projections, we then compare these estimated frequencies to those produced by NCAR's Community Earth System Model (CESM) identifying regions, covariates, and species whose extreme behavior may not be adequately captured by current models.

  8. Comparison of gravimetric and spectroscopic approaches to quantify stratum corneum removed by tape-stripping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, D; Yang, Q; Guy, R H; Matts, P J; Hadgraft, J; Lane, M E

    2012-09-01

    Skin surface tape-stripping is an extensively used technique to examine the distribution profile, penetration and safety of various active compounds. It is also a widely accepted method to probe skin barrier properties and more specifically, those of the stratum corneum (SC). The amount of SC removed by tape-stripping is generally determined either gravimetrically or by extraction and measurement of SC proteins. A novel infra-red densitometry (IRD) technique has recently been introduced to measure SC protein content. In the present study, IRD was investigated as an alternative method to measure the mass of SC removed by tape-stripping. Tape-stripping experiments were conducted on human volunteers. The weight of the stratum corneum removed was assessed by the gravimetric approach and by IRD. Transepidermal water loss (TEWL) was also measured before and after each tape-strip. A linear correlation coefficient was obtained for the data from the gravimetric and IRD measurements (r(2)=0.65; n=240). IRD is therefore proposed as a rapid, non-destructive alternative to the gravimetric approach to estimate the amount of SC removed by tape-stripping in vivo.

  9. Comparison of gravimetric and spectroscopic approaches to quantify stratum corneum removed by tape-stripping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, D; Yang, Q; Guy, R H; Matts, P J; Hadgraft, J; Lane, M E

    2012-09-01

    Skin surface tape-stripping is an extensively used technique to examine the distribution profile, penetration and safety of various active compounds. It is also a widely accepted method to probe skin barrier properties and more specifically, those of the stratum corneum (SC). The amount of SC removed by tape-stripping is generally determined either gravimetrically or by extraction and measurement of SC proteins. A novel infra-red densitometry (IRD) technique has recently been introduced to measure SC protein content. In the present study, IRD was investigated as an alternative method to measure the mass of SC removed by tape-stripping. Tape-stripping experiments were conducted on human volunteers. The weight of the stratum corneum removed was assessed by the gravimetric approach and by IRD. Transepidermal water loss (TEWL) was also measured before and after each tape-strip. A linear correlation coefficient was obtained for the data from the gravimetric and IRD measurements (r(2)=0.65; n=240). IRD is therefore proposed as a rapid, non-destructive alternative to the gravimetric approach to estimate the amount of SC removed by tape-stripping in vivo. PMID:22713518

  10. A Strip Cell in Pyroelectric Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siao, An-Shen; Chao, Ching-Kong; Hsiao, Chun-Ching

    2016-01-01

    The pyroelectric effect affords the opportunity to convert temporal temperature fluctuations into usable electrical energy in order to develop abundantly available waste heat. A strip pyroelectric cell, used to enhance temperature variation rates by lateral temperature gradients and to reduce cell capacitance to further promote the induced voltage, is described as a means of improving pyroelectric energy transformation. A precision dicing saw was successfully applied in fabricating the pyroelectric cell with a strip form. The strip pyroelectric cell with a high-narrow cross section is able to greatly absorb thermal energy via the side walls of the strips, thereby inducing lateral temperature gradients and increasing temperature variation rates in a thicker pyroelectric cell. Both simulation and experimentation show that the strip pyroelectric cell improves the electrical outputs of pyroelectric cells and enhances the efficiency of pyroelectric harvesters. The strip-type pyroelectric cell has a larger temperature variation when compared to the trenched electrode and the original type, by about 1.9 and 2.4 times, respectively. The measured electrical output of the strip type demonstrates a conspicuous increase in stored energy as compared to the trenched electrode and the original type, by of about 15.6 and 19.8 times, respectively. PMID:26999134

  11. Transfusion and blood donation in comic strips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefrère, Jean-Jacques; Danic, Bruno

    2013-07-01

    The representation of blood transfusion and donation of blood in the comic strip has never been studied. The comic strip, which is a relatively recent art, emerged in the 19th century before becoming a mass medium during the 20th century. We have sought, by calling on collectors and using the resources of Internet, comic strips devoted, wholly or in part, to the themes of transfusion and blood donation. We present some of them here in chronologic order, indicating the title, country of origin, year of publication, and names of authors. The theme of the superhero using transfusion to transmit his virtues or his powers is repeated throughout the 20th century in North American comic strips. More recently, comic strips have been conceived from the outset with a promotional aim. They perpetuate positive images and are directed toward a young readership, wielding humor to reduce the fear of venipuncture. Few comic strips denounce the abuse of the commercialization of products derived from the human body. The image of transfusion and blood donation given by the comic strips is not to be underestimated because their readership is primarily children, some of whom will become blood donors. Furthermore, if some readers are transfused during their lives, the impact of a memory more or less conscious of these childhood readings may resurface, both in hopes and in fears.

  12. Estimating individual exposure to 131I for radiation workers at radioisotope production using air sampling and smartphone techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Indoor individual exposure at radioisotope production depends strongly on temporal concentration variation, contacting time and working location of radiation workers. To estimate personal exposure to indoor air polluted with 131I for the workers at radioisotope production, we had employed a low cost indoor model appropriate for their specific situation. In this model, time-microenvironment occupied by the workers was recorded by a smartphone sensitive motion software. Simultaneously, on the work days, indoor air in the three iodine production rooms was sampled by a portable air sampler coupled with activated carbon cartridges impregnated by TEDA. Then the low background gamma spectrometer was used to measure activity of the cartridges and the concentration of 131I in these rooms was calculated with the temporal resolution of one hour. By combining the hourly concentration with the high temporal resolution of activity patterns, we estimated the actual exposures for the group of workers producing radioisotopes in Nuclear Research Institute (Dalat) for the first four months of 2015. The highest daily average exposure was 410.2 Bq/m3 while the highest average exposure of the group was 147.2 Bq/m3. It showed an useful value for minimizing risks and estimating internal doses as well. This feasibility study may be applied for assessing personal exposure at radioisotope production, but also for many other indoor environments. (author)

  13. AIR Tools - A MATLAB Package of Algebraic Iterative Reconstruction Techniques:Version 1.0 for Matlab 7.8

    OpenAIRE

    Hansen, Per Christian; Saxild-Hansen, Maria

    2010-01-01

    This collection of MATLAB software contains implementations of several Algebraic Iterative Reconstruction methods for discretizations of inverse problems. These so-called row action methods rely on semi-convergence for achieving the necessary regularization of the problem. Two classes of methods are implemented: Algebraic Reconstruction Techniques (ART) and Simultaneous Iterative Reconstruction Techniques (SIRT). In addition we provide a few simplified test problems from medical and seismic t...

  14. Saving Energy Through Advanced Power Strips (Poster)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christensen, D.

    2013-10-01

    Advanced Power Strips (APS) look just like ordinary power strips, except that they have built-in features that are designed to reduce the amount of energy used by many consumer electronics. There are several different types of APSs on the market, but they all operate on the same basic principle of shutting off the supply power to devices that are not in use. By replacing your standard power strip with an APS, you can signifcantly cut the amount of electricity used by your home office and entertainment center devices, and save money on your electric bill. This illustration summarizes the different options.

  15. Instabilities and Solitons in Minimal Strips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machon, Thomas; Alexander, Gareth P; Goldstein, Raymond E; Pesci, Adriana I

    2016-07-01

    We show that highly twisted minimal strips can undergo a nonsingular transition, unlike the singular transitions seen in the Möbius strip and the catenoid. If the strip is nonorientable, this transition is topologically frustrated, and the resulting surface contains a helicoidal defect. Through a controlled analytic approximation, the system can be mapped onto a scalar ϕ^{4} theory on a nonorientable line bundle over the circle, where the defect becomes a topologically protected kink soliton or domain wall, thus establishing their existence in minimal surfaces. Demonstrations with soap films confirm these results and show how the position of the defect can be controlled through boundary deformation. PMID:27419593

  16. THE DEVELOPMENT OF FCC STRIPPING TECHNOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANGZhen-qian

    2003-01-01

    This article briefly describes the major patents domestic and the abroad,and the current situation and achievements of FCC stripping technology in China.The develping trend of FCC stripping technology is presented,including further developments of FCC stripper to improve unit performance,combination of the stripper and pre-stripper within disengager to from a complete high-efficiency FCC stripping system.In addition to high efficiency,simple structure and easiness of installation and maintenance for a new FCC stripper are all of consideration.

  17. Enraizamento de jabuticabeira (Plinia trunciflora por mergulhia aérea Taking roots of 'jabuticaba' fruit tree (Plinia trunciflora by air layering technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moeses Andrigo Danner

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve por objetivo testar a técnica de mergulhia aérea (alporquia na produção de mudas de jabuticabeira utilizando diferentes concentrações de ácido indolbutírico - AIB (0; 4.000 e 6.000 mg.L-1, em quatro épocas e dois locais: agosto, outubro, dezembro e maio de 2004-2005, em Vitorino-PR (Sítio 1; e agosto, setembro, outubro e novembro de 2004, em Chopinzinho - PR (Sítio 2. Foi avaliado o percentual de enraizamento, através da observação de raízes visíveis externamente ao substrato, aos 180 dias após a realização da alporquia. Com base nestes resultados, é possível afirmar que: a alporquia é um método eficiente para a propagação assexuada da jabuticabeira; a concentração de 4.000 mg.L-1 de AIB foi eficiente na indução de enraizamento em todas as épocas estudadas, exceto quando se realiza a alporquia no mês de dezembro, que dispensa o uso de AIB.The aim of this work was to test the air layering technique in the production of cuttings of 'jabuticaba' fruit tree using different concentrations of Indolbutiric Acid - IBA (0, 4000 and 6000mg.L-1, in different times and in two places: August, October, December and May of 2004/2005 in Vitorino, Paraná, Brazil; and August, September, October and November of 2004 in Chopinzinho, Paraná, Brazil. The percentage of rooting was evaluated, through the observation of externally visible roots to the substrate, a hundred and eighty days after the execution of air layering technique. Based on these results it is possible conclude that: the air layering technique was an efficient assexuated method to propagate "Jabuticaba" fruit trees (Plinia sp.; the concentration of 4000 mg.L-1 was efficient in the induction rooting, exception when the air layering technique is executed in December, dismissing use of IBA.

  18. Inapproximability of maximal strip recovery

    CERN Document Server

    Jiang, Minghui

    2009-01-01

    In comparative genomic, the first step of sequence analysis is usually to decompose two or more genomes into syntenic blocks that are segments of homologous chromosomes. For the reliable recovery of syntenic blocks, noise and ambiguities in the genomic maps need to be removed first. Maximal Strip Recovery (MSR) is an optimization problem proposed by Zheng, Zhu, and Sankoff for reliably recovering syntenic blocks from genomic maps in the midst of noise and ambiguities. Given $d$ genomic maps as sequences of gene markers, the objective of \\msr{d} is to find $d$ subsequences, one subsequence of each genomic map, such that the total length of syntenic blocks in these subsequences is maximized. For any constant $d \\ge 2$, a polynomial-time 2d-approximation for \\msr{d} was previously known. In this paper, we show that for any $d \\ge 2$, \\msr{d} is APX-hard, even for the most basic version of the problem in which all gene markers are distinct and appear in positive orientation in each genomic map. Moreover, we provi...

  19. A video strip chart program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A strip chart recorder has been utilized for trend analysis of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory EN tandem since 1987. At the EN, the author could not afford the nice eight channel thermal pen recorder that was used at the 25 URC. He had to suffice with two channel fiber tip or capillary pen type recorders retrieved from salvage and maintained with parts from other salvaged recorders. After cycling through several machines that eventually became completely unserviceable, a search for a new thermal recorder was begun. As much as he hates to write computer code, he decided to try his hand at getting an old data acquisition unit, that had been retrieved several years ago from salvage, to meet his needs. A BASIC language compiler was used because time was not available to learn a more advanced language. While attempting to increase acquisition and scroll speed on the 6 MHz 80286 that the code was first developed on, it became apparent that scrolling only the first small portion of the screen at high speed and then averaging that region and histogramming the average provided both the speed necessary for capturing fairly short duration events, and a trend record without use of back scrolling and disk storage routines. This turned out to be quite sufficient

  20. Kinematic GPS survey as validation of LIDAR strips accuracy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Gordini

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available As a result of the catastrophic hydrogeological events which occurred in May 1998 in Campania, in the south of Italy, the distinctive features of airborne laser scanning mounted on a helicopter were used to survey the landslides at Sarno and Quindici. In order to survey the entire zone of interest, approximately 21 km2, it was necessary to scan 12 laser strips. Many problems arose during the survey: difficulties in receiving the GPS signal, complex terrain features and unfavorable atmospheric conditions. These problems were investigated and it emerged that one of the most influential factors is the quality of GPS signals. By analysing the original GPS data, the traces obtained by fixing phase ambiguity with an On The Fly (OTF algorithm were isolated from those with smoothed differential GPS solution (DGPS. Processing and analysis of laser data showed that not all the overlapping laser strips were congruent with each other. Since an external survey to verify the laser data accuracy was necessary, it was decided to utilize the kinematic GPS technique. The laser strips were subsequently adjusted, using the kinematic GPS data as reference points. Bearing in mind that in mountainous areas like the one studied here it is not possible to obtain nominal precision and accuracy, a good result was nevertheless obtained with a Digital Terrain Model (DTM of all the zones of interest.

  1. Characterization of the occupational exposure and air transported particles using the techniques of PIXE 252Cf PMDS and alpha spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The risk for human health due to exposure to aerosols depends on the intake pattern, the mass concentration and the speciation of the elements present in airborne particles. In this work PDMS (Plasma Desorption Mass Spectrometry) was used as complementary technique to the PIXE (Particle Induced X ray Emission) technique to characterize aerosols samples collected in the environment. The PIXE technique allows the identification of the elements present in the sample and to determine their mass concentrations. The mass spectrometry (PDMS) was used to identify the speciation of these elements present in the samples. The aerosol samples were collected using a six stage cascade impactor in three sites. The Mass Median Aerodynamic Diameter (MMAD) measured indicated that the airborne particulate were in the fine fraction of the aerosols. The theoretical uranium concentration in urine samples using ICRP lung model parameters suggest that the elemental mass concentration in respirable fraction of aerosol and the chemical speciation are important factors to determine the uranium concentration in urine and that the determination of specific solubility parameters for each compound is the most important factor to calculate the uranium concentration in urine. PIXE allows to identify and quantify the elements heavier than Na (Z=11) while PDMS allows to identify the organic and inorganic compounds present in the samples. As these techniques are used as complementary techniques they provide important information about the aerosols characterization. (author)

  2. Deflection of high energy protons by multiple volume reflections in a modified multi-strip silicon deflector

    CERN Document Server

    Scandale, W; Butcher, M.; Cerutti, F.; Gilardoni, S.; Lari, L.; Lechner, A.; Losito, R.; Masi, A.; Mereghetti, A.; Metral, E.; Mirarchi, D.; Montesano, S.; Redaelli, S.; Schoofs, P.; Smirnov, G.; Bagli, E.; Bandiera, L.; Baricordi, S.; Dalpiaz, P.; Guidi, V.; Mazzolari, A.; Vincenzi, D.; Claps, G.; Dabagov, S.; Hampai, D.; Murtas, F.; Cavoto, G.; Garattini, M.; Iacoangeli, F.; Ludovici, L.; Santacesaria, R.; Valente, P.; Galluccio, F.; Afonin, A.G.; Chesnokov, Yu.A.; Maisheev, V.A.; Sandomirskiy, Yu.E.; Yanovich, A.A.; Yazynin, I.A.; Kovalenko, A.D.; Taratin, A.M.; Gavrikov, Yu.A.; Ivanov, Yu.M.; Lapina, L.P.; Ferguson, W.; Fulcher, J.; Hall, G.; Pesaresi, M.; Raymond, M.; Previtali, V.

    2014-01-01

    The effect of multiple volume reflections in one crystal was observed in each of several bent silicon strips for 400 GeV/c protons. This considerably increased the particle deflections. Some particles were also deflected due to channeling in one of the subsequent strips. As a result, the incident beam was strongly spread because of opposite directions of the deflections. A modified multi-strip deflector produced by periodic grooves on the surface of a thick silicon plate was used for these measurements. This technique provides perfect mutual alignment between crystal strips. Such multi-strip deflector may be effective for collider beam halo collimation and a study is planned at the CERN SPS circulating beam.

  3. Fabrication of MMC Strip by CRB Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamaati, Roohollah; Toroghinejad, Mohammad Reza

    2012-06-01

    In this study, Al/Al2O3 composite strips were produced by the cold roll bonding (CRB) process. Microhardness, tensile strength, and elongation of composite strips were investigated as a result of changes in thickness reduction, quantity of alumina particles, and the production method used. It was found that higher values of reduction and quantities of alumina improved microhardness and tensile strength but decreased elongation. Furthermore, as-received strips exhibited the highest values for microhardness and tensile strength but the lowest for elongation. In contrast, post-rolling annealed strips recorded the lowest values for microhardness and tensile strength but the highest for elongation. Finally, it was found that pre-rolling annealing was the best method for producing this composite via the CRB process.

  4. Ram Pressure Stripping: The Long Goodbye

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonnesen, Stephanie; Lu, Yu; Benson, Andrew; Peter, Annika; Boylan-Kolchin, Michael; Wetzel, Andrew R.; Weisz, Daniel R.

    2016-01-01

    What turns off star formation in satellite galaxies? Ram pressure stripping, the removal of a galaxy's gas through direct interaction with the gas halo in which it orbits, is an attractive quenching mechanism, particularly in the Milky Way halo where the radial distribution of quenching is dramatic. However, many implementations of this process in semi-analytic models result in overly-rapid gas removal when compared with observations. We use high resolution hydrodynamical simulations run with Enzo to parameterize the stripping of disk and halo gas from an orbiting satellite galaxy for use in the semi-analytic modeling code Galacticus. We find that using the instantaneous ram pressure overestimates the amount of gas that is stripped, and present a physically-motivated module for including ram pressure stripping in semi-analytic models that uses the integral of the ram pressure experienced by a satellite galaxy. We will compare our results to observations of the Milky Way satellites.

  5. Potential profile in a conducting polymer strip

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bay, Lasse; West, Keld; Vlachopoulos, Nikolaos;

    2002-01-01

    Many conjugated polymers show an appreciable difference in volume between their oxidized and reduced forms. This property can be utilized in soft electrochemically driven actuators, "artificial muscles". Several geometries have been proposed for the conversion of the volume expansion into useful...... mechanical work. In a particularly simple geometry, the length change of polymer strips is exploited. The polymer strips are connected to the driving circuit at the end of the strip that is attached to the support of the device. The other end of the strip is connected to the load. The advantage of this set......-up is simplicity and that the maximum force generated in the polymer can be transferred directly to the load. There is, however, an inherent problem in this design that will be examined in this paper. If the potential of the reduced state is below that for oxygen reduction, only a finite length of the free...

  6. Ultralow Level Mercury Treatment Using Chemical Reduction and Air Stripping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Looney, B.B.

    2001-02-23

    The overall objective of this work is to develop a reasonable and cost-effective approach to meet the emerging mercury standards, especially for high volume outfalls with concentrations below the drinking water standard.

  7. Investigations of Techniques to Improve Continuous Air Monitors Under Conditions of High Dust Loading in Environmental Settings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A number of DOE facilities, such as the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), use alpha-particle environmental continuous air monitors (ECAMs) to monitor air for unwanted releases of radioactive aerosols containing such materials as plutonium and uranium. High sensitivity, ease of operation, and lack of false alarms are all important for ECAMs. The object of the project was to conduct investigations to improve operation of ECAMs, particularly under conditions where a lot of nonradioactive dust may be deposited on the filters (conditions of high dust loading). The presence of such dust may increase the frequency with which filters must be changed and can lead to an increased incidence of false alarms due to deteriorated energy resolution and response specificity to the radionuclides of interest. A major finding of the investigation, not previously documented, was that under many conditions thick layers of underlying nonradioactive dust do not decrease energy resolution and specificity for target radionuclides if the radioactive aerosol arrives as a sudden thin burst deposit, as commonly occurs in the early-warning alarm mode. As a result, operators of ECAMs may not need to change filters as often as previously thought and have data upon which to base more reliable operating procedures

  8. Project Increase of infrastructure: 'Establishment of a laboratory for studies of pollutants in air, water and soil through atomic and nuclear techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this report there are the guidelines of this project as well as the goals, activities and costs. The general objectives were: 1. A laboratory that allows to analyze with efficiency samples of air, water and soil pollutants using atomic and nuclear origin techniques as PIXE (Proton Induced X-ray Emission, NRA (Nuclear Reaction Analysis) and RBS (Rutherford Backscattering) as well as auxiliary and/or complementary techniques. 2. To obtain indicators of the influence of the pollution of the Valley of Mexico about the ecology and the health of the inhabitants of Mexico City with perspectives of carrying out studies in other cities. 3. To develop an appropriate technology for the realization of those studies and to generate human resources in this area. (Author)

  9. Si strip detector with integrated coupling capacitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caccia, M.; Evensen, L.; Hansen, T.E.; Horisberger, R.; Hubbeling, L.; Peisert, A.; Tuuva, T.; Weilhammer, P.; Zalewska, A.

    1987-10-01

    A silicon microstrip detector with capacitive coupling of the diode strips to the metallization and with individual polysilicon resistors to each diode has been developed. The detector was tested in a minimum ionizing particle beam showing a performance similar to conventional strip detectors and a spatial resolution of 3.5 ..mu..m. Capacitive coupling allows the decoupling of the leakage current from the input to the charge sensitive preamplifier especially in the case of LSI electronics.

  10. Speed Control and Coiling Temperature Control of Strip

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAI Xiao-hui; ZHANG Dian-hua; WANG Guo-dong; LIU Xiang-hua; FAN Lei

    2004-01-01

    Considering the strip speed during controlled laminar cooling on Baosteel 1580 hot strip mill in China, the influence of strip speed fluctuation on coiling temperature control for the tail and "neck" of the strip was analyzed. The optimization strategies were put forward and proved effective in operation.

  11. Excess Production Capacity Squeezes Profits of Brass Strip Enterprises

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    <正>Between 2003 and 2006,under the backdrop of rapid growth of domestic demand for brass strip and soaring copper price,brass strip manufacturers made a fortune.And brass strip manufacturers mushroomed in Zhejiang,Anhui and Jiangsu.Large brass strip manufacturers

  12. Process development of thin strip steel casting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sussman, R.C.; Williams, R.S.

    1990-12-01

    An important new frontier is being opened in steel processing with the emergence of thin strip casting. Casting steel directly to thin strip has enormous benefits in energy savings by potentially eliminating the need for hot reduction in a hot strip mill. This has been the driving force for numerous current research efforts into the direct strip casting of steel. The US Department of Energy initiated a program to evaluate the development of thin strip casting in the steel industry. In earlier phases of this program, planar flow casting on an experimental caster was studied by a team of engineers from Westinghouse Electric corporation and Armco Inc. A subsequent research program was designed as a fundamental and developmental study of both planar and melt overflow casting processes. This study was arranged as several separate and distinct tasks which were often completed by different teams of researchers. An early task was to design and build a water model to study fluid flow through different designs of planar flow casting nozzles. Another important task was mathematically modeling of melt overflow casting process. A mathematical solidification model for the formation of the strip in the melt overflow process was written. A study of the material and conditioning of casting substrates was made on the small wheel caster using the melt overflow casting process. This report discusses work on the development of thin steel casting.

  13. Entrainment Heat Flux Computed with Lidar and Wavelet Technique in Buenos Aires During Last Chaitén Volcano Eruption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pawelko Ezequiel Eduardo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available At Lidar Division of CEILAP (CITEDEF-CONICET a multiwavelength Raman-Rayleigh lidar optimized to measure the atmospheric boundary layer is being operated. This instrument is used for monitoring important aerosol intrusion events in Buenos Aires, such as the arrival of volcanic ashes from the Chaitén volcano eruption on May 2008. That was the first monitoring of volcanic ash with lidar in Argentina. In this event several volcanic ash plumes with high aerosol optical thickness were detected in the free atmosphere, affecting the visibility, surface radiation and therefore, the ABL evolution. In this work, the impact of ashes in entrainment flux ratio is studied. This parameter is obtained from the atmospheric boundary layer height and entrainment zone thickness using algorithms based on covariance wavelet transform.

  14. Entrainment Heat Flux Computed with Lidar and Wavelet Technique in Buenos Aires During Last Chaitén Volcano Eruption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawelko, Ezequiel Eduardo; Salvador, Jacobo Omar; Ristori, Pablo Roberto; Pallotta, Juan Vicente; Otero, Lidia Ana; Quel, Eduardo Jaime

    2016-06-01

    At Lidar Division of CEILAP (CITEDEF-CONICET) a multiwavelength Raman-Rayleigh lidar optimized to measure the atmospheric boundary layer is being operated. This instrument is used for monitoring important aerosol intrusion events in Buenos Aires, such as the arrival of volcanic ashes from the Chaitén volcano eruption on May 2008. That was the first monitoring of volcanic ash with lidar in Argentina. In this event several volcanic ash plumes with high aerosol optical thickness were detected in the free atmosphere, affecting the visibility, surface radiation and therefore, the ABL evolution. In this work, the impact of ashes in entrainment flux ratio is studied. This parameter is obtained from the atmospheric boundary layer height and entrainment zone thickness using algorithms based on covariance wavelet transform.

  15. Techniques of low technology sampling of air pollution by metals: a comparison of concentrations and map patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, O L; Gailey, F A

    1987-07-01

    During a 17 month survey of air pollution in the town of Armadale, central Scotland, the concentrations of some metals (iron, manganese, zinc, lead, copper, chrome, nickel, cadmium, and cobalt) were measured in seven types of low technology sampler--four indigenous and three transplanted--at 47 sites. The geographical patterns of the concentrations in the samplers were compared on two types of map. For most metals, sites with high concentrations were present close to the foundry and also in the north of the town. The differences between the patterns of pollution shown by the various types of sampler probably reflected differing mechanisms for collection and different affinities for various sizes and types of metal particle.

  16. A technique for automatic tubing occlusion in response to air bubble detection when using a centrifugal pump.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulsen, A W; Hargadine, W L; Lambert, G S; Long, A C

    1990-01-01

    A double acting pneumatically powered cylinder, energized by an electrically activated solenoid valve, is used to occlude the outflow line from a Bio-Medicus (a) constrained vortex pump. The cylinder is mounted on a tubing guide that is fastened to a pole clamp. A Sarns (b) air bubble detector, placed on the pump inflow line is used to provide the signal to activate the solenoid valve. The outflow occluder is capable of 100% occlusion of 3/8 x 3/32 inch Tygon tubing up to pressures of 2586 mmHg. The occluder system is able to work with many types of bubble detectors and is applicable to any form of non-occlusive pump.

  17. Feasibility study for joint retrieval of air density and ozone concentration profiles in the mesosphere using an ultraviolet limb-scan technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Xia; LU Yao; Lü Daren

    2004-01-01

    For joint retrieval of vertical distributions of both air density and ozone concentration in the mesosphere which are two of the most important atmospheric parameters in this region, a retrieval scheme is suggested by using satellite limb scan observation at two UV wavelengths, i.e. 255 nm and 296 nm. The retrieval scheme is the modification of the direct method by Aruga and Heath with two UV wavelengths and two atmospheric parameters. Feasibility study was made based on simulated limb scan radiances computed with a single scattering radiative transfer algorithms of spherical geometry developed by the present authors and the inversion technique. Results of the simulations show that it is feasible to retrieve air density and ozone concentration vertical distributions on a global basis from satellite UV limb scan over the altitude range of 50 km~ 100 km with a vertical resolution of 1 km. The errors of the inferred profiles by using the joint inversion algorithm are greatly deduced, especially in the upper-mesosphere heights, compared with those by using the single inversion technique with a single wavelength.

  18. Top-down estimate of methane emissions in California using a mesoscale inverse modeling technique: The South Coast Air Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Yu Yan; Brioude, Jerome; McKeen, Stuart A.; Angevine, Wayne M.; Kim, Si-Wan; Frost, Gregory J.; Ahmadov, Ravan; Peischl, Jeff; Bousserez, Nicolas; Liu, Zhen; Ryerson, Thomas B.; Wofsy, Steve C.; Santoni, Gregory W.; Kort, Eric A.; Fischer, Marc L.; Trainer, Michael

    2015-07-01

    Methane (CH4) is the primary component of natural gas and has a larger global warming potential than CO2. Recent top-down studies based on observations showed CH4 emissions in California's South Coast Air Basin (SoCAB) were greater than those expected from population-apportioned bottom-up state inventories. In this study, we quantify CH4 emissions with an advanced mesoscale inverse modeling system at a resolution of 8 km × 8 km, using aircraft measurements in the SoCAB during the 2010 Nexus of Air Quality and Climate Change campaign to constrain the inversion. To simulate atmospheric transport, we use the FLEXible PARTicle-Weather Research and Forecasting (FLEXPART-WRF) Lagrangian particle dispersion model driven by three configurations of the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) mesoscale model. We determine surface fluxes of CH4 using a Bayesian least squares method in a four-dimensional inversion. Simulated CH4 concentrations with the posterior emission inventory achieve much better correlations with the measurements (R2 = 0.7) than using the prior inventory (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's National Emission Inventory 2005, R2 = 0.5). The emission estimates for CH4 in the posterior, 46.3 ± 9.2 Mg CH4/h, are consistent with published observation-based estimates. Changes in the spatial distribution of CH4 emissions in the SoCAB between the prior and posterior inventories are discussed. Missing or underestimated emissions from dairies, the oil/gas system, and landfills in the SoCAB seem to explain the differences between the prior and posterior inventories. We estimate that dairies contributed 5.9 ± 1.7 Mg CH4/h and the two sectors of oil and gas industries (production and downstream) and landfills together contributed 39.6 ± 8.1 Mg CH4/h in the SoCAB.

  19. The use of flight progress strips while working live traffic: frequencies, importance, and perceived benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durso, Francis T; Batsakes, Peter J; Crutchfield, Jerry M; Braden, Justin B; Manning, Carol A

    2004-01-01

    The Federal Aviation Administration's effort to automate air traffic control (ATC) requires that the functionality provided today be captured in future systems. We report the first quantitative naturalistic observation of paper flight progress strip interactions during operational use. Strip use was similar in a variety of situations, but some uses varied as a function of altitude, staffing, or the cooperative style used by controller teams. Design of automation should proceed by prioritizing changes based on frequency of use and importance and should ensure that an effective method of interacting with flight information is incorporated. In addition to applied relevance to the ATC domain, the results touch on several theoretical concerns relevant to dynamic environments. Actual and potential applications of this research include the establishment of a database of strip activity and an arsenal of information valuable to system designers. PMID:15151154

  20. Novel photoresist stripping technology using steam-water mixture*

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Lei; Hui Yu; Gao Chaoqun; Jing Yupeng

    2011-01-01

    A novel wet vapor photoresist stripping technology is developed as an alternative to dry plasma ashing and wet stripping. Experiments using this technology to strip hard baked SU-8 photoresist, aurum and chromium film are carried out. Then the images of stripping results are shown and the mechanism is analyzed and discussed.The most striking result of this experiment is that the spraying mixture of steam and water droplets can strip photoresist and even metal film with ease.

  1. AEGIS20: a radio survey of the Extended Groth Strip

    CERN Document Server

    Ivison, R J; Faber, S M; Smail, I; Biggs, A D; Conselice, C J; Wilson, G; Salim, S; Huang, J S; Wilner, S P; Smail, Ian

    2006-01-01

    We describe AEGIS20 - a radio survey of the Extended Groth Strip (EGS) conducted with the Very Large Array (VLA) at 1.4GHz. The resulting catalog contains 1,123 emitters and is sensitive to ultraluminous starbursts to z1 where correcting for contamination by radio-loud active galactic nuclei (AGN) comes at the price of rejecting luminous starbursts. Whilst stacking radio images is a useful technique, accurate radio-based SFRs for z>>1 galaxies require precise redshifts and extraordinarily high-fidelity radio data to identify and remove accretion-related emission.

  2. Air filtration and indoor air quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bekö, Gabriel

    2006-01-01

    Demands for better indoor air quality are increasing, since we spend most of our time indoors and we are more and more aware of indoor air pollution. Field studies in different parts of the world have documented that high percentage of occupants in many offices and buildings find the indoor air...... decent ventilation and air cleaning/air filtration, high indoor air quality cannot be accomplished. The need for effective air filtration has increased with increasing evidence on the hazardous effects of fine particles. Moreover, the air contains gaseous pollutants, removal of which requires various air...... cleaning techniques. Supply air filter is one of the key components in the ventilation system. Studies have shown that used ventilation filters themselves can be a significant source of indoor air pollution with consequent impact on perceived air quality, sick building syndrome symptoms and performance...

  3. Modeling of experimental treatment of acetaldehyde-laden air and phenol-containing water using corona discharge technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faungnawakij, Kajornsak; Sano, Noriaki; Charinpanitkul, Tawatchai; Tanthapanichakoon, Wiwut

    2006-03-01

    Acetaldehyde-laden air and phenol-contaminated water were experimentally treated using corona discharge reactions and gas absorption in a single water-film column. Mathematical modeling of the combined treatment was developed in this work. Efficient removal of the gaseous acetaldehyde was achieved while the corona discharge reactions produced short-lived species such as O and O- as well as ozone. Direct contact of the radicals and ions with water was known to produce aqueous OH radical, which contributes to the decomposition of organic contaminants: phenol, absorbed acetaldehyde, and intermediate byproducts in the water. The influence of initial phenol concentration ranging from 15 to 50 mg L(-1) and that of influent acetaldehyde ranging from 0 to 200 ppm were experimentally investigated and used to build the math model. The maximum energetic efficiency of TOC, phenol, and acetaldehyde were obtained at 25.6 x 10(-9) mol carbon J(-1), 25.0 x 10(-9) mol phenol J(-1), and 2.0 x 10(-9) mol acetaldehyde J(-1), respectively. The predictions for the decomposition of acetaldehyde, phenol, and their intermediates were found to be in good agreement with the experimental results. PMID:16568779

  4. Surface modification on a glass surface with a combination technique of sol–gel and air brushing processes

    KAUST Repository

    Tsai, Meng-Yu

    2011-08-01

    This study fabricated the large area and optically transparent superhydrophobic silica based films on glass surface with optimized hardness. A silane coupling agent, tetraethoxysilane (TEOS), effectively bonds silica particles onto the glass substrate. Desired surface roughness was obtained by adjusting nano silica particles concentration of the precursors prepared by the sol-gel process. Silica suspension was coated onto the glass substrate by the air brushing methods. This method can deposit a uniform, transparent coating on the glass substrate efficiently. Diluting the precursor by adding ethanol or a mixture of D.I. water and ethanol further improved the transmittance and superhydrophobicity efficiency. The results showed that as the silica particle concentration and the thickness of the coating were increased, the surface roughness was enhanced. Rougher surface displayed a higher superhydrophobicity and lower transmittance. Therefore, the concentration of silica particle, volume of coatings, and the ratio of ethanol and D.I. water are of great importance to deposit a transparent, superhydrophobic coating on glass. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Dynamic observation of repigmentation in vitiligo lesions after narrow-band ultraviolet B phototherapy by using an adhesive tape stripping technique%胶带粘贴法观察窄谱中波紫外线治疗后白癜风皮损的复色

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪凯凡; 汪宇; 陆洪光

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨窄谱中波紫外线(NB-UVB)治疗前后照射区浅表角质层细胞中黑素颗粒的变化.方法 使用胶带粘贴法对接受NB-UVB治疗的白癜风皮损进行浅表角质层细胞取样,银氨染色后观察细胞中黑素颗粒形态、分布、颜色的变化,使用Image-Pro Plus6.0显微图像分析软件计算细胞内黑素颗粒面积百分比,使用SPSS11.5对数据进行统计分析.结果 治疗前白斑区仍残存少量含黑素颗粒的浅表角质层细胞.治疗前黑素颗粒面积百分比为(5.31±4.12)%,治疗10次后为(6.24±2.65)%,治疗20次后为(10.14±5.73)%,治疗30次后为(13.05±6.17)%,方差分析显示,治疗前、治疗10次、治疗20次、治疗30次后黑素颗粒面积百分比差异有统计学意义(F=4.334,P< 0.05),经两两比较分析,治疗30次后细胞内黑素颗粒面积百分比相对治疗前及治疗10次后均增高(P值均< 0.01).皮损复色区新生黑素颗粒染色后形态、颜色与治疗前周边正常肤色区有所不同.结论 用浅表角质层细胞胶带粘贴法可以客观评估NBUVB治疗白癜风的复色过程.%Objective To observe the changes of melanin granules in superficial corneocytes in vitiligo lesions after irradiation with narrow-band ultraviolet B (NB-UVB) by using an adhesive tape stripping technique.Methods Vitiligo lesions were selected from 6 patients and irradiated with NB-UVB every other day for 31 sessions.Superficial corneocytes were obtained by an adhesive tape stripping technique from the vitiligo lesions and perilesional normal skin before every treatment.The morphology,distribution and color of melanin granules were observed after Masson-Fontana silver staining.The percentage of area occupied by melanin granules in superficial corneocytes were calculated by using the Image-Pro Plus 6.0 software.Statistical analysis was conducted by the SPSS11.5 software.Results There were still a few superficial corneocytes containing melanin granules

  6. Effect of Load Distribution on Strip Crown in Hot Strip Rolling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hongshuang DI; Jianzhong XU; Dianyao GONG; Xianghua LIU; Guodong WANG; Xiaoming HE; Liying BA

    2004-01-01

    In order to establish precision model, a software to calculate the strip crown of four-high hot rolling mill was developed by using affecting function method according to the strip crown calculation theory. The effect of work roll diameter, unit width rolling load, roll bending force, work roll crown, initial strip crown and reduction, etc, on load distribution effect rate was simulated by using the software. The results show that the load distribution effect rate increases with the increase of strip width, work roll diameter, unit width rolling load, roll bending force, work roll crown, initial strip crown and reduction. Based on the simulation results, base value of load distribution effect rate and fitting coefficients of six power polynomial of load distribution effect rate modification coefficient were determined considering all of the above parameters. A simplified mathematical model for calculating load distribution effect rate was established.

  7. P-stop isolation study of irradiated n-in-p type silicon strip sensors for harsh radiation environment

    CERN Document Server

    Printz, Martin

    2015-01-01

    This technology is more radiation hard but also the manufacturing is more challenging compared to p-in-n type sensors due to additional process steps in order to suppress the accumulation of electrons between the readout strips. One possible isolation technique of adjacent strips is the p-stop structure which is a p-type material implantation with a certain pattern for each individual strip. However, electrical breakdown and charge collection studies indicate that the process parameters of the p-stop structure have to be carefully calibrated in order to achieve a suff...

  8. Studies of Heterogeneous Hydrothermal Stripping from Iron-loaded Naphthenic Acid-Alcohol-Kerosen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王兴尧; 康晓红; 谢慧琴; 卢立柱

    2003-01-01

    The technique of hydrothermal stripping from mixed aqueous-organic systems is a promising method for synthesizing oxide ceramic powders for high-performance applications. Some factors influencing heterogeneous hydrothermal stripping with water from iron-loaded organic phase of naphthenic acid-isooctyl alcohol-kerosene, such as initial concentrations of iron and naphthenic acid, concentration of Fe2O3 "seed", temperature and time, were investigated. Based on the experimental results, the rate equation was established. Nano-ferric oxide powders were obtained by the technique of hydrothermal stripping from the iron-loaded organic phase. The results suggest that the heterogeneous hydrothermal stripping proceeds in 3 steps: adsorption of naphthenic acid dimers and naphthenic complex of iron onto the surface of "seed", hydrolysis of adsorbed complex of iron, and condensation of hydrolyzed complex. The process activation energy is 115 kJ/mol and the heterogeneous hydrothermal stripping is controlled by a chemical reaction(the hydrolysis of naphthenic complex of iron).

  9. Flexural Strengthening of RC Slabs with Prestressed CFRP Strips Using Different Anchorage Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Sena-Cruz

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Externally Bonded Reinforcement (EBR technique has been widely used for flexural strengthening of concrete structures by using carbon fiber-reinforced polymers (CFRP. EBR technique offers several structural advantages when the CFRP material is prestressed. This paper presents an experimental and numerical study on reinforced (RC slabs strengthened in flexure with prestressed CFRP strips as a structural strengthening system. The strips are applied as an externally bonded reinforcement (EBR and anchored with either a mechanical or a gradient anchorage. The former foresees metallic anchorage plates fixed to the concrete substrate, while the latter is based on an accelerated epoxy resin curing followed by a segment-wise prestress force decrease at the strip ends. Both anchorage systems, in combination with different CFRP strip geometries, were subjected to static loading tests. It could be demonstrated that the composite strip’s performance is better exploited when prestressing is used, with slightly higher overall load carrying capacities for mechanical anchorages than for the gradient anchorage. The performed investigations by means of a cross-section analysis supported the experimental observation that in case a mechanical anchorage is used, progressive strip debonding changes the fully bonded configuration to an unbonded end-anchored system. The inclusion of defined debonding criteria for both the anchorage zones and free length between the anchorage regions allowed to precisely capture the ultimate loading forces.

  10. Development of floating strip micromegas detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bortfeldt, Jonathan

    2014-04-28

    Micromegas are high-rate capable, high-resolution micro-pattern gaseous detectors. Square meter sized resistive strip Micromegas are foreseen as replacement of the currently used precision tracking detectors in the Small Wheel, which is part of the forward region of the ATLAS muon spectrometer. The replacement is necessary to ensure tracking and triggering performance of the muon spectrometer after the luminosity increase of the Large Hadron Collider beyond its design value of 10{sup 34} cm{sup -2}s{sup -1} around 2020. In this thesis a novel discharge tolerant floating strip Micromegas detector is presented and described. By individually powering copper anode strips, the effects of a discharge are confined to a small region of the detector. This reduces the impact of discharges on the efficiency by three orders of magnitude, compared to a standard Micromegas. The physics of the detector is studied and discussed in detail. Several detectors are developed: A 6.4 x 6.4 cm{sup 2} floating strip Micromegas with exchangeable SMD capacitors and resistors allows for an optimization of the floating strip principle. The discharge behavior is investigated on this device in depth. The microscopic structure of discharges is quantitatively explained by a detailed detector simulation. A 48 x 50 cm{sup 2} floating strip Micromegas is studied in high energy pion beams. Its homogeneity with respect to pulse height, efficiency and spatial resolution is investigated. The good performance in high-rate background environments is demonstrated in cosmic muon tracking measurements with a 6.4 x 6.4 cm{sup 2} floating strip Micromegas under lateral irradiation with 550 kHz 20 MeV proton beams. A floating strip Micromegas doublet with low material budget is developed for ion tracking without limitations from multiple scattering in imaging applications during medical ion therapy. Highly efficient tracking of 20 MeV protons at particle rates of 550 kHz is possible. The reconstruction of the

  11. Superconducting nano-strip particle detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cristiano, R.; Ejrnaes, M.; Casaburi, A.; Zen, N.; Ohkubo, M.

    2015-12-01

    We review progress in the development and applications of superconducting nano-strip particle detectors. Particle detectors based on superconducting nano-strips stem from the parent devices developed for single photon detection (SSPD) and share with them ultra-fast response times (sub-nanosecond) and the ability to operate at a relatively high temperature (2-5 K) compared with other cryogenic detectors. SSPDs have been used in the detection of electrons, neutral and charged ions, and biological macromolecules; nevertheless, the development of superconducting nano-strip particle detectors has mainly been driven by their use in time-of-flight mass spectrometers (TOF-MSs) where the goal of 100% efficiency at large mass values can be achieved. Special emphasis will be given to this case, reporting on the great progress which has been achieved and which permits us to overcome the limitations of existing mass spectrometers represented by low detection efficiency at large masses and charge/mass ambiguity. Furthermore, such progress could represent a breakthrough in the field. In this review article we will introduce the device concept and detection principle, stressing the peculiarities of the nano-strip particle detector as well as its similarities with photon detectors. The development of parallel strip configuration is introduced and extensively discussed, since it has contributed to the significant progress of TOF-MS applications.

  12. Beam stripping extraction from the VINCY cyclotron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ristić-Đurović Jasna L.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The extraction system of a cyclotron guides an ion beam from a spiral acceleration orbit, through an extraction trajectory, into a high energy transport line. The two methods commonly used to direct an ion into the extraction path are deflection, by the electric field of an electrostatic deflector, and ion stripping, by a thin carbon foil. Compared to the electrostatic deflector system, the stripping extraction provides a fast and easy change of the extracted ion energy and is easier to manufacture operate, and maintain. However, the extraction trajectory and dynamics of an ion beam after stripping are highly dependant on the ion energy and specific charge. Thus, when a multipurpose machine such as the VINCY Cyclotron is concerned, it is far from easy to deliver a variety of ion beams into the same high energy transport line and at the same time preserve a reasonable compactness of the extraction system. The front side stripping extraction system of the VINCY Cyclotron provides high (~70 MeV and mid (~30 MeV energy protons, as well as a number of heavy ions in broad energy ranges. The back side stripping extraction system extracts low energy protons (~18 MeV and enables their simultaneous use with high energy protons at the front side of the machine.

  13. Tests of Cathode Strip Chamber Prototypes

    CERN Document Server

    Bonushkin, Yuri; Chrisman, David; Durkin, S; Ferguson, Thomas; Giacomelli, Paolo; Gorn, William; Hauser, Jay; Hirschfelder, J; Hoftiezer, John; Hoorani, Hafeez R; Kisselev, Oleg; Klem, Daniel; Korytov, Andrey; Layter, John G; Lennous, Paul; Ling, Ta-Yung; Matthey, Christina; Medved, Serguei; Minor, C; Mitselmakher, Guenakh; Müller, Thomas; Otwinowski, Stanislaw; Preston, L; Prokofiev, O E; Rush, Chuck J; Schenk, P; Sedykh, Yu; Smirnov, Igor; Soulimov, V; Vaniachine, A; Vercelli, T; Wuest, Craig R; Zeng, Ji-Yang; von Goeler, Eberhard

    1997-01-01

    We report on the results of testing two six-layer 0.6 x 0.6 cm^2 cathode strip chamber ( CSC) prototypes in a muon beam at CERN. The prototypes were designed to simulate sections of the end-cap muon system of the Compact Muon Solenoid ( CMS) detector which will be installed at the Large Hadron Collider ( LHC). We measured the spatial and time resolutions of each chamber for different gains, different orientations with respect to the beam direction and different strength magnetic fields. The single-layer spatial resolution of a prototype with a strip pitch of 15.88 mm ranged from 78 micron to 468 micron, depending on whether the particle passed between two cathode strips or through the center of a strip; its six-layer resolution was found to be 44 micron. The single-layer spatial resolution of a prototype with a strip pitch of 6.35 mm ranged from 54 to 66 micron; its six-layer resolution w as found to be 23 micron. The efficiency for collecting an anode wire signal from one of six layers within a 20 ns time wi...

  14. Supercapacitor electrode based on mixtures of graphene/graphite and carbon nanotubes fabricated using a new dynamic air-brush deposition technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bondavalli, P.; Delfaure, C.; Pribat, D.; Legagneux, P.

    2013-09-01

    This contribution deals with the fabrication of electrode and supercapacitor cell using a new dynamic air-brush deposition technique. This method allows to achieve extremely (ou highly) uniform mats with finely tuned thickness and weight in a completely reproducible way. Using this deposition technique, we have analyzed the effect of mixture of CNTs and graphene/graphite on the electrode and cell properties (energy, power and capacitance). using a mixture of 75% of graphene/graphite and 25% of CNTs we increased the power by a factor 2.5 compared to bare CNTs based electrodes. We also analyzed the effect of the weight firstly on the capacitance and specific energy and then on the specific power. We were able to reach a specific power of 200kW/Kg and a specific energy of 9.1Wh/Kg with an electrode having a surface of 2cm2 and a weight of 0.25mg composed by 50% of CNTs and graphene/graphite (using a common aqueous electrolyte). using our deposition technique we are able to achieve supercapacitors with ad-hoc characteristics simply modulating the weight and the concentration of the mixture in a completely reproducible way.

  15. Effect of Initial Crown on Shape of Hot Rolled Strip

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Yu; GONG Dian-yao; JIANG Zheng-yi; XU Jian-zhong; ZHANG Dian-hua; LIU Xiang-hua

    2009-01-01

    Based on the influence coefficient method, the effect of entry strip crown on the shape of hot rolled strip was analyzed using the software of roll elastic deformation simulation. According to the practical condition of a domestic hot roiled strip plant, the unit strip crown change from the first stand to the last stand was calculated when the entry crown of hot strip varies. The calculated result shows that the entry strip crown does not significantly affect the target strip crown at the exit of the last finishing stand in respect to a fixed strip shape control reference (such as bending force). The calculation was analyzed, and the research is helpful in modeling strip shape setup and shape control.

  16. Analysis of 'Coma strip' galaxy redshift catalog

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present results of the analysis of a galaxy redshift catalog made at the 6-m telescope by Karachentsev and Kopylov (1990. Mon. Not. R. astr. Soc., 243, 390). The catalog covers a long narrow strip on the sky (10 arcmin by 630) and lists 283 galaxies up to limiting blue magnitude mB = 17.6. The strip goes through the core of Coma cluster and this is called the 'Coma strip' catalog. The catalog is almost two times deeper than the CfA redshift survey and creates the possibility of studying the galaxy distribution on scales of 100-250 Mpc. Due to the small number of galaxies in the catalog, we were able to estimate only very general and stable parameters of the distribution. (author)

  17. Validation and application of the methodology for analysis of radon concentration in the air through the technique of solid state nuclear track detectors (SSNTD)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvalho, Caroline de [Pontificia Universidade Catolica de Minas Gerais (PUC-Pocos), Pocos de Caldas, MG (Brazil); Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (LAPOC/CNEN), Pocos de Caldas, MG (Brazil). Lab. de Pocos de Caldas; Silva, Nivaldo Carlos da, E-mail: ncsilva@cnen.gov.b [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (LAPOC/CNEN), Pocos de Caldas, MG (Brazil). Lab. de Pocos de Caldas

    2011-07-01

    Radon is a radioactive noble gas that occurs naturally in soil and could enter into residential. The decay products of radon are radioactive metals which, when inhaled, can be retained in the respiratory system, leading to an internal dose of radiation. The monitoring of radon levels in residences and workplaces is extremely important, since high concentrations of this gas can cause serious public health problems. This study analyzed the concentration of radon in the air in 94 work environments at the Laboratory of Pocos de Caldas - LAPOC/CNEN, including laboratories, administrative rooms, workshop, warehouse and guardhouse. The method employed in the monitoring was the technique of solid state nuclear track detectors, known as SSNTD. For calibration and validation of this method, controlled experiments were conducted in laboratory with specific instrumentation. The monitoring results indicated that most environments present radon concentrations above 100 Bq m{sup -3}, which is the reference level recommended by the World Health Organization. (author)

  18. Conceptual design of air sparge/soil vent systems for in situ remediation of petroleum hydrocarbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A conceptual design for a sparge and vent system is presented. A sparge and vent system consists of air sparging or in situ aeration in combination with soil vapor extraction. With air sparging, a compressed air source provides sparging of the ground water through aeration points, volatizes dissolved hydrocarbons, and elevates dissolved oxygen (DO) levels in the ground water. Volatile hydrocarbon vapors migrate more readily than liquid in soil, and are extracted to atmosphere with the vapor extraction system. Increased oxygen levels in the ground water and unsaturated soil promotes natural, aerobic biodegradation of the hydrocarbons without nutrient addition. Design considerations for sparge systems include spacing and depth of installation of the sparging points, air injection rates and pressures and the air source. The design techniques for the soil vapor extraction system have been discussed extensively in the literature but generally involve spacing of the extraction wells to capture all the hydrocarbons stripped from the ground water. The soil vapor extraction system can also be modified to enhance oxygen (air) delivery to the unsaturated zone and thus promote natural biodegradation of the petroleum hydrocarbons in the soil. Techniques for monitoring the progress of remediation include measurement of oxygen and carbon dioxide levels in the soil, DO levels in the ground water, subsurface air pressures and petroleum hydrocarbon levels in the discharged air, soil and ground water

  19. Investigation of magnetic property of GdFeO{sub 3} single crystal grown in air by optical floating zone technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramesh Babu, P. [Centre for Crystal Growth, School Advance Sciences, VIT University, Vellore, Tamil Nadu (India); Bhaumik, Indranil [Crystal Growth Laboratory, Laser Materials Development and Devices Division, Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology, Indore (India); Ganesamoorthy, S. [X-ray Scattering and Crystal Growth Section, CMPD, Material Science Group, IGCAR, Kalpakkam, Tamil Nadu (India); Kalainathan, S., E-mail: kalainathan@yahoo.com [Centre for Crystal Growth, School Advance Sciences, VIT University, Vellore, Tamil Nadu (India); Bhatt, R.; Karnal, A.K.; Gupta, P.K. [Crystal Growth Laboratory, Laser Materials Development and Devices Division, Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology, Indore (India)

    2015-05-15

    Highlights: • GdFeO{sub 3} single crystals have been grown by OFZ technique in air. • Sample exhibits one order lower coercive field than crystal grown in oxygen. • Bloch 3/2-law holds good for GdFeO{sub 3} (B-parameter as 2.69 × 10{sup −5} K{sup −3/2}). • The coercivity exhibited sharp dip at 200 and 550 K. • At 550 K pinning of the direction of weak ferromagnetism by AFM ordering vanishes. - Abstract: Single phase Gadolinium orthoferrite (GdFeO{sub 3}) with orthorhombic perovskite structure was synthesized without any garnet impurities by solid state reaction and subsequently GdFeO{sub 3} single crystals were grown by the optical floating zone technique. The temperature dependent magnetization measurement revealed the magnetic phase transition from anti-ferromagnetic ordering to paramagnetic ordering at 670 K. The overlapping of the magnetization measured under zero-field and field cooling condition in the range of 300–20 K signifies that there is no magnetic transition in this temperature range. The hysteresis loop measurements revealed that in comparison to the values reported for the crystal grown in oxygen, the air grown sample exhibits one order lower coercive field (∼75 Oe). The Bloch 3/2-law was found to hold good for GdFeO{sub 3} with the value of B-parameter as 2.69 × 10{sup −5} K{sup −3/2}. The coercivity exhibited sharp dip at 200 and 550 K. At and above 550 K the ability of the antiferromagnetic ordering to pin the direction of magnetization related to the weak ferromagnetism present in the material vanishes leading to the lowering in the coercivity.

  20. Lead-Testing Service to Elementary and Secondary Schools Using Anodic Stripping Voltammetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goebel, Amanda; Vos, Tracy; Louwagie, Anne; Lundbohm, Laura; Brown, Jay H.

    2004-01-01

    The undergraduate chemistry club of the Southwest Minnesota State University offers assistance in lead-testing through the anodic stripping voltammetry (ASV) technique to elementary and secondary schools. Emphasis is given to this community service activity, which has increased club membership, and promoted discussion of water quality problems in…

  1. Spray forming lead strip. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McHugh, K.

    1996-04-10

    A cooperative research project was conducted between the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) and Johnson Controls, Inc. (JCI) to adapt the INEL spray forming process to produce near-net-shape lead alloy strip. The emphasis of the work was to spray form lead strip samples at INEL, using a variety of spray conditions, for characterization at JCI. An existing glove box apparatus was modified at INEL to spray form lead. The main spray forming components were housed inside the glove box. They included a spray nozzle, tundish (crucible), substrate assembly, gas heater and furnaces to heat the nozzle and tundish. To spray form metal strip, liquid metal was pressure-fed at a controlled rate through a series of circular orifices that span the width of the nozzle. There the metal contacted high velocity, high temperature inert gas (nitrogen) which atomized the molten material into fine droplets, entrained the droplets in a directed flow, and deposited them onto glass plates that were swept through the spray plume to form strip samples. In-flight convection cooling of the droplets followed by conduction and convection cooling at the substrate resulted in rapid solidification of the deposit. During operation, the inside of the glove box was purged with an inert gas to limit the effects of in-flight oxidation of the particles and spray-formed strips, as well as to protect personnel from exposure to airborne lead particulate. Remote controls were used to start/stop the spray and control the speed and position of the substrate. In addition, substrate samples were loaded into the substrate translator manually using the gloved side ports of the box. In this way, the glove box remained closed during a series of spray trials, and was opened only when loading the crucible with a lead charge or when removing lead strip samples for shipment to JCI.

  2. Spray Rolling Aluminum Strip for Transportation Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kevin M. McHugh; Y. Lin; Y. Zhou; E. J. Lavernia; J.-P. Delplanque; S. B. Johnson

    2005-02-01

    Spray rolling is a novel strip casting technology in which molten aluminum alloy is atomized and deposited into the roll gap of mill rolls to produce aluminum strip. A combined experimental/modeling approach has been followed in developing this technology with active participation from industry. The feasibility of this technology has been demonstrated at the laboratory scale and it is currently being scaled-up. This paper provides an overview of the process and compares the microstructure and properties of spray-rolled 2124 aluminum alloy with commercial ingot-processed material

  3. Lubrication in strip cold rolling process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jianlin Sun; Yonglin Kang; Tianguo Xiao; Jianze Wang

    2004-01-01

    A lubrication model was developed for explaining how to form an oil film in the deformation zone, predicting the film thickness and determining the characteristics of lubrication in the strip rolling process, combined with the knowledge of hydrodythicknesses in the strip cold rolling. Results from the experiment and calculation show that the oil film forming in hydrodynamic lubrication is up to the bit angle and a higher rolling speed or a higher rolling oil viscosity. The mechanism of mechanical entrainment always affects the film thickness that increases with the rolling oil viscosity increasing or the reduction rate decreasing in rolling.

  4. Test strip and method for its use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A test strip device is described which is useful in performing binding assays involving antigens, antibodies, hormones, vitamins, metabolites or pharmacological agents. The device is capable of application to analytical methods in which a set of sequential test reactions is involved and in which a minute sample size may be used. This test strip is particularly useful in radioimmunoassays. The use of the device is illustrated in radioimmunoassays for 1) thyroxine in serum, 2) the triiodothyronine binding capacity of serum and 3) folic acid and its analogues in serum. (U.K.)

  5. slice of LEP beamtube with getter strip

    CERN Multimedia

    1989-01-01

    A section of the LEP beam pipe. This is the chamber in which LEP's counter-rotating electron and positron beams travel. It is made of lead-clad aluminium. The beams circulate in the oval cross-section part of the chamber. In the rectangular cross-section part, LEP's innovative getter-strip vacuum pump is installed. After heating to purify the surface of the getter, the strip acts like molecular sticky tape, trapping any stray molecules left behind after the accelerator's traditional vacuum pumps have done their job.

  6. Multi-twist optical Mobius strips

    CERN Document Server

    Freund, Isaac

    2009-01-01

    Circularly polarized Gauss-Laguerre GL(0,0) and GL(0,1) laser beams that cross at their waists at a small angle are shown to generate a quasi-paraxial field that contains an axial line of circular polarization, a C line, surrounded by polarization ellipses whose major and minor axes generate multi-twist Mobius strips with twist numbers that increase with distance from the C point. These Mobius strips are interpreted in terms of Berry's phase for parallel transport of the ellipse axes around the C point.

  7. Asset Stripping in a Mature Market Economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klarskov Jeppesen, Kim; Møller, Ulrik Gorm

    2011-01-01

    indicates that asset stripping may take place in mature market economies to the extent that perpetrators are able to circumvent the corporate governance system by giving lawyers, public accountants and banks incentives to act less critically towards dubious business transactions. Research limitations...... is to analyse why the asset-stripping schemes occurred in a mature market economy with a strong corporate governance system and a low level of corruption. Design/methodology/approach – The research is conducted as a longitudinal single case study based on documentary research. Findings – The Danish case...

  8. Thermal Insulation Strips Conserve Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Launching the space shuttle involves an interesting paradox: While the temperatures inside the shuttle s main engines climb higher than 6,000 F hot enough to boil iron for fuel, the engines use liquid hydrogen, the second coldest liquid on Earth after liquid helium. Maintained below 20 K (-423 F), the liquid hydrogen is contained in the shuttle s rust-colored external tank. The external tank also contains liquid oxygen (kept below a somewhat less chilly 90 K or -297 F) that combines with the hydrogen to create an explosive mixture that along with the shuttle s two, powdered aluminum-fueled solid rocket boosters allows the shuttle to escape Earth s gravity. The cryogenic temperatures of the main engines liquid fuel can cause ice, frost, or liquefied air to build up on the external tank and other parts of the numerous launch fueling systems, posing a possible debris risk when the ice breaks off during launch and causing difficulties in the transfer and control of these cryogenic liquid propellants. Keeping the fuel at the necessary ultra-cold temperatures while minimizing ice buildup and other safety hazards, as well as reducing the operational maintenance costs, has required NASA to explore innovative ways for providing superior thermal insulation systems. To address the challenge, the Agency turned to an insulating technology so effective that, even though it is mostly air, a thin sheet can prevent a blowtorch from igniting a match. Aerogels were invented in 1931 and demonstrate properties that make them the most extraordinary insulating materials known; a 1-inch-thick piece of aerogel provides the same insulation as layering 15 panes of glass with air pockets in between. Derived from silica, aluminum oxide, or carbon gels using a supercritical drying process - resulting in a composition of almost 99-percent air - aerogels are the world s lightest solid (among 15 other titles they hold in the Guinness World Records), can float indefinitely on water if treated to be

  9. Charge-trap correction and radiation damage in orthogonal-strip planar germanium detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hull, E.L. [PHDS Corporation, 3011 Amherst Road, Knoxville, TN 37921 (United States); Jackson, E.G.; Lister, C.J. [Physics Department, University of Massachusetts Lowell, Lowell, MA 01854 (United States); Pehl, R.H. [PHDS Corporation, 3011 Amherst Road, Knoxville, TN 37921 (United States)

    2014-10-21

    A charge-carrier trap correction technique was developed for orthogonal strip planar germanium gamma-ray detectors. The trap corrector significantly improves the gamma-ray energy resolution of detectors with charge-carrier trapping from crystal-growth defects and radiation damage. Two orthogonal-strip planar germanium detectors were radiation damaged with 2-MeV neutron fluences of ∼8×10{sup 9} n/cm{sup 2}. The radiation-damaged detectors were studied in the 60–80 K temperature range.

  10. The results descemet-stripping automated endothelial keratoplasty at bullous keratopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Trufanov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to evaluate outcomes of the descemet-stripping automated endothelial keratoplasty using eye drops Kombinil-Duo dur- ing postoperative period.Methods: 26 patients suffered from bullous keratopathy underwent descemet-stripping automated endothelial keratoplasty using our own technique. We applied eye drops Kombinil-Duo during postoperative period.Results: 25 patients had clear corneas whole period of observation. Graft rejection occurred in 1 eye. Mean BSCVA was 0.47±0.21.Conclusion: Kombinil-Duo has been allowed to avoid infectious complication and to increase efficiency of the operative interven-tion during postoperative period.

  11. Optimal Cluster Mill Pass Scheduling With an Accurate and Rapid New Strip Crown Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Arif S.; Grandhi, Ramana V.; Zipf, Mark E.

    2007-05-01

    and predict the strip crown, a new customized semi-analytical modeling technique that couples the Finite Element Method (FEM) with classical solid mechanics was developed to model the deflection of the rolls and strip while under load. The technique employed offers several important advantages over traditional methods to calculate strip crown, including continuity of elastic foundations, non-iterative solution when using predetermined foundation moduli, continuous third-order displacement fields, simple stress-field determination, and a comparatively faster solution time.

  12. Technique for microswitch manufacture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitamura, T.; Kiyoyama, S.

    1983-01-01

    A five-step technique for microswitch manufacture is described: (1) A clad board is inlaid with a precious metal and the board is pressed. (2) One end of the fixed contact containing a precious metal inlay section is curved, and this edge of the precious metal inlay section becomes a fixed contact. (3) Inserts are formed in the unit body and terminal strips are placed through the top and bottom of the base and held. (4) The unit body is held by the base and the sequential contact strips are cut off. (5) Movable stripes are attached to the support of the terminal strips on the movable side and movable contacts are placed opposite the fixed contacts.

  13. Scaling of ammonia stripping towers in the treatment of groundwater polluted by municipal solid waste landfill leachate: study of the causes of scaling and its effects on stripping performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Viotti

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper documents the causes of the scaling of stripping towers used for the treatment of groundwater polluted by the leachate from an old municipal solid waste (MSW landfill in northern Italy. The effects of the scaling on the stripping performance are also reported. The whole process consists of a coagulation-flocculation pre-treatment at pH > 11, followed by an ammonia stripping stage, after heating the water to 38°C in order to improve removal efficiency. The stripped ammonia is recovered by absorption with sulfuric acid, producing a 30% solution of ammonium sulfate (reused as a base fertilizer. The effluent air stream is recirculated to the stripping towers (closed loop systems in order to avoid an excessive temperature drop inside the packings, mainly in winter, with consequent loss of efficiency and risk of icing. The progressive scaling of the packing has resulted in a loss of ammonia removal efficiency from an initial value of 98% (clean packing down to 80% after six months of continuous operation, necessitating a chemical cleaning. Optimum conditions for design and operation of the stripping process are also documented.

  14. A new model for the prediction of the steepness profile across the strip in flat rolling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jinseok; Hwang, Sangmoo

    2010-06-01

    In flat rolling, wavy surfaces are easily formed in the strip, causing the problem of poor flatness. The wavy surfaces may not only reduce the commercial value of the product but also lead to the breakage of the strip while passing through the roll gap. Therefore, it is necessary to strictly control the wave formation. In this paper, we present a new approach to the prediction of the wavy shape of the strip. The approach is based on minimization of the potential energy and adopts Ritz method as a solution technique. The approach is described in detail, with emphasis on the procedure to treat the effect of the total tension on the shape of the formed waves. The prediction accuracy of the proposed model is examined through comparison with predictions from the finite element method. Then, demonstrated is the model's capability of reproducing various wavy surfaces that may be observed in the flat rolling mill.

  15. Model test on sand retaining wall reinforced with denti-strip inclusions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG MengXi; ZHOU Huai

    2008-01-01

    In conventional reinforced soil structures, the reinforcements are often laid hori-zontally in the soil. In this paper, a new concept of soil reinforced with denti-strip inclusions was proposed and a series of laboratory model tests were carried out on sand retaining wall reinforced with denti-strip inclusions. Besides the horizontal displacements of the facing, the lateral earth pressures acting on vertical elements were measured. A microscopic measurement was performed to investigate the deformation and progressive failure of the sand within model retaining wall. Based on the image analytical technique, the bearing capability and interaction mecha-nism of reinforced sand retaining wall were analyzed. The model of the initial shear failure and potential failure surface were also put forward. From the ex-perimental results, it is shown that denti-strip inclusions can increase the bearing capability of retaining wall significantly and restrict the facing displacements effi-ciently, as compared with conventional horizontal reinforcement.

  16. Surgical techniques in type A dissection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Syed T; Svensson, Lars G

    2016-05-01

    Acute aortic dissection is a surgical emergency that must be urgently managed, with the primary goal of restoring flow to the dominant true lumen in the downstream aorta. Our preference at the Cleveland Clinic is for an open distal anastomosis technique without aortic clamping, as it permits more accurate approximation of dissected layers and more homeostatically secure anastomosis. During this procedure we employ right axillary end-to-side graft perfusion, followed by deep hypothermic circulatory arrest and antegrade brain perfusion. The distal anastomosis is performed without felt strips or glue. Critical to achieving a successful outcome is meticulous de-airing of the arch, diligent myocardial protection, and a water-tight anastomosis prior to discontinuing cardiopulmonary bypass. PMID:27386412

  17. Phase constitution and microstructure of Ce—Fe—B strip-casting alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The strip-casting technique plays an important role in fabricating high coercivity sintered magnet. In this paper, we investigate the phase constitution and the microstructure of rapidly solidified Ce—Fe—B alloy fabricated by strip-casting. We find that the Ce2Fe14B phase coexists with Fe, Fe2B, and CeFe2 phases in the Ce—Fe—B strips. The eutectic structure consisting of Fe and Fe2B is encased in Ce2Fe14B grains, which is blocked by the CeFe2 grains at triple junctions, indicating that the microstructure of Ce—Fe—B strip is characteristic of a peritectic solidification. Thermal analysis indicates that the large supercooling of Ce2Fe14B results in the residual Fe and Fe2B. The microstructural optimization in Ce—Fe—B strips without Fe and Fe2B could be achieved by a heat treatment of 1000 °C. (condensed matter: electronic structure, electrical, magnetic, and optical properties)

  18. An Interagency Study of Depainting Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, B.

    1997-01-01

    Many popular and widely used paint stripping products now contain methylene chloride as their active ingredient. However, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) will critically curb the use of methylene chloride under an aerospace national emission standard for hazardous air pollutants (NESHAP) within the next 2-1/2 years. An effort is underway to identify and evaluate alternative depainting technologies emphasizing those believed to be both effective and environmentally benign. On behalf of the EPA and in cooperation with the U. S. Air Force (USAF), the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is conducting a technical assessment of nine alternative technologies (i.e.: chemical stripping, two CO2 blasting processes, FLASHJET(TM) coating removal, laser stripping, plastic media blasting, sodium bicarbonate wet stripping, high-pressure water stripping, and wheat starch blasting). These depainting processes represent five removal method categories, namely abrasive, impact, cryogenic, thermal, and/or molecular bonding dissociation. This paper discusses the test plan and parameters for this interagency study. Several thicknesses of clad and non-clad aluminum substrates were used to prepare test specimens, which have been cut, cleaned, painted, and environmentally aged. Each depainting process has been assigned a specimen lot, which is now undergoing an initial strip cycle. Metallurgical impacts will be determined after these specimens complete five cycles of preparation and stripping.

  19. The CMS silicon strip tracker modules production

    CERN Document Server

    Giorgi, M

    2006-01-01

    To complete the construction of the CMS silicon strip tracker, about 16,000 silicon microstrip detector modules will be required. In order to guarantee the uniform quality of the produced modules and to be able to match the deadlines requested by the CMS collaboration, a semi-industrialized organization has been developed, and the different components are being presented here.

  20. Anodic Stripping Voltammetry: An Instrumental Analysis Experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Joseph

    1983-01-01

    Describes an experiment designed to acquaint students with the theory and applications of anodic stripping voltammetry (ASV) as well as such ASV problems as contamination associated with trace analysis. The experimental procedure, instrumentation, and materials discussed are designed to minimize cost and keep procedures as simple as possible. (JM)

  1. Improved lower bound for online strip packing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harren, Rolf; Kern, Walter

    2015-01-01

    We study the online strip packing problem and derive an improved lower bound of ρ ≥ 2.589... for the competitive ratio of this problem. The construction is based on modified “Brown-Baker-Katseff sequences” (Brown et al. in Acta Inform. 18:207–225, 1982) using only two types of rectangles. In additio

  2. Nonlinear optical model for strip plasmonic waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lysenko, Oleg; Bache, Morten; Lavrinenko, Andrei

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a theoretical model of nonlinear optical properties for strip plasmonic waveguides. The particular waveguides geometry that we investigate contains a gold core, adhesion layers, and silicon dioxide cladding. It is shown that the third-order susceptibility of the gold core sign...

  3. Nanoscale Test Strips for Multiplexed Blood Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Eugene

    2015-01-01

    A critical component of the DNA Medicine Institute's Reusable Handheld Electrolyte and Lab Technology for Humans (rHEALTH) sensor are nanoscale test strips, or nanostrips, that enable multiplexed blood analysis. Nanostrips are conceptually similar to the standard urinalysis test strip, but the strips are shrunk down a billionfold to the microscale. Each nanostrip can have several sensor pads that fluoresce in response to different targets in a sample. The strips carry identification tags that permit differentiation of a specific panel from hundreds of other nanostrip panels during a single measurement session. In Phase I of the project, the company fabricated, tested, and demonstrated functional parathyroid hormone and vitamin D nanostrips for bone metabolism, and thrombin aptamer and immunoglobulin G antibody nanostrips. In Phase II, numerous nanostrips were developed to address key space flight-based medical needs: assessment of bone metabolism, immune response, cardiac status, liver metabolism, and lipid profiles. This unique approach holds genuine promise for space-based portable biodiagnostics and for point-of-care (POC) health monitoring and diagnostics here on Earth.

  4. Topics in Chemical Instrumentation: CII. Automated Anodic Stripping Voltammetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stock, John T.; Ewing, Galen W., Ed.

    1980-01-01

    Presents details of anodic stripping analysis (ASV) in college chemistry laboratory experiments. Provides block diagrams of the analyzer system, circuitry and power supplies of the automated stripping analyzer, and instructions for implementing microcomputer control of the ASV. (CS)

  5. Refuges, flower strips, biodiversity and agronomic interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Grégory; Wateau, Karine; Legrand, Mickaël; Oste, Sandrine

    2008-01-01

    Several arthropods are natural predators of pests, and they are able to reduce and control their population development. FREDON Nord Pas-de-Calais (Federation Regionate de Defense contre les Organismes Nuisibles = Regional Federation for Pest Control) has begun for a long time to form farmers to the recognition of beneficial arthropods and to show them their usefulness. These beneficial insects or arachnids are present everywhere, in orchards and even in fields which are areas relatively poor in biodiversity. Adults feed in the flower strips instead larvae and some adults feed on preys such as aphids or caterpillars. Most of the time, beneficial insects can regulate pest but sometimes, in agricultural area, they can't make it early enough and efficiently. Their action begin too late and there biodiversity and number are too low. It's possible to enhance their action by manipulating the ecological infrastructures, like sewing flower strips or installing refuges. Flower strips increase the density of natural enemies and make them be present earlier in the field in order to control pests. Refuges permit beneficial's to spend winter on the spot. So they're able to be active and to grow in number earlier. From 2004 to 2007, on the one hand, FREDON Nord Pas-de-Calais has developed a research program. Its purpose was to inventory practices and also tools and means available and to judge the advisability of using such or such beneficial refuge in orchards. On the second hand, it studied the impact in orchard of refuges on population of beneficial's and the difference there were between manufactured refuges and homemade refuges. Interesting prospects were obtained with some of them. Otherwise, since 2003, FREDON has studied flower strips influence on beneficial population and their impact on pest control. In cabbage fields, results of trials have shown that flower strips lead to a reduction of aphid number under acceptable economic level, up to 50 meters from flower strips

  6. Dual Strip-Excited Dielectric Resonator Antenna with Parasitic Strips for Radiation Pattern Reconfigurability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Kamran Saleem

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel pattern reconfigurable antenna concept utilizing rectangular dielectric resonator antenna (DRA placed over dielectric substrate backed by a ground plane is presented. A dual strip excitation scheme is utilized and both excitation strips are connected together by means of a 50 Ω microstrip feed network placed over the substrate. The four vertical metallic parasitic strips are placed at corner of DRA each having a corresponding ground pad to provide a short/open circuit between the parasitic strip and antenna ground plane, through which a shift of 90° in antenna radiation pattern in elevation plane is achieved. A fractional bandwidth of approximately 40% at center frequency of 1.6 GHz is achieved. The DRA peak realized gain in whole frequency band of operation is found to be above 4 dB. The antenna configuration along with simulation and measured results are presented.

  7. Calculation and Analysis of Temperature Distribution in Hot Rolling Strip

    OpenAIRE

    Kaixiang Peng

    2013-01-01

    Modern steel grades require constant and reproducible production conditions both in the hot strip mill and in the cooling section to achieve constant material properties along the entire strip length and from strip to strip. Calculation of the temperature in final rolling process always utilizes factors such as the work piece's inner organizational structure, plastic deformation, and it's variations of properties and so on, also as well as the physical parameters such as gauge, shape, etc. In...

  8. Modified Descemet's Stripping Automated Endothelial Keratoplasty for Congenital Hereditary Endothelial Dystrophy

    OpenAIRE

    Mahmoodreza Panahi-Bazaz; Farideh Sharifipour; Mohammad Malekahmadi

    2014-01-01

    A 19-year-old male with congenital hereditary endothelial dystrophy (CHED) presented with severe bilateral corneal clouding precluding any view of the intraocular structures. He underwent modified Descemet′s stripping automated endothelial keratoplasty (DSAEK) technique including a suture pull-through technique to prevent lens damage. Surgery resulted in progressive clearing of the cornea and decreased corneal thickness. Visual acuity increased from hand motions preoperatively to counting fin...

  9. Resolution Studies on Silicon Strip Sensors with fine Pitch

    CERN Document Server

    Haensel, S; Dolezal, Z; Dragicevic, M; Drasal, Z; Friedl, M; Hrubec, Josef; Irmler, C; Kiesenhofer, W; Krammer, M; Kvasnicka, P

    2009-01-01

    In June 2008 single-sided silicon strip sensors with 50~$\\mu$m readout pitch were tested in a pion beam at the SPS at CERN. The purpose of the test was to evaluate characteristic detector properties by varying the strip width and the number of intermediate strips. The experimental setup and first results for the spatial resolution are described.

  10. 21 CFR 880.2200 - Liquid crystal forehead temperature strip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Liquid crystal forehead temperature strip. 880... Personal Use Monitoring Devices § 880.2200 Liquid crystal forehead temperature strip. (a) Identification. A liquid crystal forehead temperature strip is a device applied to the forehead that is used to...

  11. Investigations of the air flow velocity field structure above the wavy surface under severe wind conditions by particle image velosimetry technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troitskaya, Yuliya; Kandaurov, Alexander; Sergeev, Daniil; Ermakova, Olga

    2013-04-01

    Preliminary experiments devoted to measuring characteristics of the air flow above the waved water surface for the wide range of wind speeds were performed with the application of modified Particle Image Velosimetry (PIV) technique. Experiments were carried out at the Wind - wave stratified flume of IAP RAS (length 10 °, cross section of air channel 0.4×0.4 m) for four different axial wind speeds: 8.7, 13.5, 19 and 24 m/s, corresponding to the equivalent 10-m wind speeds 15, 20, 30 40 m/s correspondingly. Intensive wave breaking with forming foam crest and droplets generations was occurred for two last wind conditions. The modified PIV-method based on the use of continuous-wave (CW) laser illumination of the airflow seeded by tiny particles and with highspeed video. Spherical 20 μm polyamide particles with density 1.02 g/sm3 and inertial time 7•10-3 s were used for seeding airflow with special injecting device. Green (532 nm) CW laser with 4 Wt output power was used as a source for light sheet. High speed digital camera Videosprint was used for taking visualized air flow images with the frame rate 2000 Hz s and exposure time 10 ms Combination including iteration Canny method [1] for obtaining curvilinear surface from the images in the laser sheet view and contact measurements of surface elevation by wire wave gauge installed near the border of working area for the surface wave profile was used. Then velocity air flow field was retrieved by PIV images processing with adaptive cross-correlation method on the curvilinear grid following surface wave profile. The mean wind velocity profiles were retrieved by averaging over obtained ensembles of wind velocity field realizations and over a wave period even for the cases of intensive wave breaking and droplets generation. To verify the PIV method additional measurements of mean velocity profiles over were carried out by the contact method using the Pitot tube. In the area of overlap, wind velocity profiles measured by

  12. ANALYSIS ON THE BEHAVIOR OF PRECIPITATES IN ULTRA-THIN HOT STRIP OF PLAIN LOW CARBON STEEL PRODUCED BY COMPACT STRIP PRODUCTION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    H. Yu; Y.L. Kang; H.B. Dong; D.L. Liu; J. Fu

    2002-01-01

    This paper investigated the mechanism of precipitation and its influence upon prop-erties of ultra-thin hot strips of low carbon steel produced by CSP techniques usingexperiment and thermodynamics theory. The experimental results show that thereare lots of fine and dispersive precipitates in microstructures. By analysis, most ofaluminum nitrides are in grains, while coexisted precipitates of MnS are along grainboundaries. Coexisted precipitates compose cation-vacancy type oxides such as Al2O3in the core, while MnS is at the fringe of surface. The precipitation behavior of AlNand MnS in the hot strip is studied by thermodynamic calculation. At last, implica-tions between strengthening effect and techniques are analyzed using obtained solubilityproducts.

  13. Flatness Control Based on Dynamic Effective Matrix for Cold Strip Mills

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Hongmin; HE Haitao; SHAN Xiuying; JIANG Guangbiao

    2009-01-01

    Steel strips are the main of steel products and flatness is an important quality indicator of steel strips. FLatness control is the key and highly difficult technique of strip mills. The boule-neck restricting the improvement of flatness control techniques is that the research on flatness theories and control mathematic models is not in accordance with the requirement of technique developments. To build a simple, rapid and accurate explicit formulation control model has become an urgent need for the development of flatness control technique. This paper puts forward the conception of dynamic effective matrix based on the effective matrix method for flatness control proposed by the authors under the consideration of the influence of the change of parameters in rolling processes on the effective matrix, and the concept is validated by industrial productions. Three methods of the effective matrix generation are induced: the calculation method based on the flatness prediction model; the calcuLation method based on the data excavation in rolling processes and the direct calculation method based on the network model. A fuzzy neural network effective matrix model is built based on the clusters, and then the network structure is optimized and the high-speed-calculation problem of the dynamic effective matrix is solved. The flatness control scheme for cold strip mills is proposed based on the dynamic effective matrix. On stand 5 of the 1 220 mm five-stand 4-high cold strip tandem miU, the industrial experiment with the control methods of tilting roll and bending roll is done by the control scheme of the static effective matrix and the dynamic effective matrix, respectively. The experiment result proves that the control effect of the dynamic effective matrix is much better than that of the static effective matrix. This paper proposes a new idea and method for the dynamic flatness control in the rolling processes of cold snip mills and develops the theory and model of the

  14. Rapid analytical technique to identify alpha emitting isotopes in water, air-filters, urine, and solid matrices using a Frisch Grid detector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarpitta, Salvatore C; Miltenberger, Robert P; Gaschott, Robert; Carte, Nina

    2003-04-01

    A 5-inch-diameter Frisch Grid gas-proportional ionization chamber was utilized at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) to rapidly characterize and quantify alpha-emitting actinides in unprocessed water, soil, air-filter, urine, and solid matrices. Instrument calibrations for the various matrices were performed by spiking representative samples with National Institute of Standards and Technology traceable isotopes of 230Th, 232U, 236Pu, and 243Am. Detection efficiencies were typically 15-20% for solid matrices (soil, concrete, filters, dry urine) and 45% for mass-less water samples. Instrument background over a 512-channel alpha-energy range of 3-8 MeV is very low at 0.01 cps. At optimum efficiency, minimum detectable levels of 0.56 mBq Kg(-1), 74 mBq L(-1) and 14.8 mBq filter(-1) were achievable for 40 x 10(-6) Kg soil, 1 x 10(-3) L tap water (or urine), and 4.5 cm diameter air-filter samples, respectively, each counted for 60 min. Data and spectra are presented showing the quality of results obtained using untreated samples obtained from the BNL Graphite Research Reactor Decommissioning Project. These samples contained Bq to MBq per gram amounts of (239,240)Pu, 241Am, and/or (234,235/238)U (as well as other beta/gamma emitters). Data and spectra are also presented for a very finely pulverized and homogeneous U.S. DOE/RESL soil reference standard (spiked with 239Pu, 241Am, and 233U) that was used to assess precision, accuracy, and reproducibility. Although this technique has its limitations, the advantages are (1) minimal sample preparation, (2) no separation chemistry required, (3) no chemical or hazardous waste generated, and (4) ability to immediately characterize and quantify alpha-emitting nuclides in most matrices. The benefits of this technique to the BNL/DOE Project Managers were rapid (1-2 d) turn-around times coupled with significant cost savings, as compared to commercial off-site analyses. PMID:12705448

  15. Improving Settling Characteristics of Pure Oxygen Activated Sludge by Stripping of Carbon Dioxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kundral, Somshekhar; Mudragada, Ratnaji; Coro, Ernesto; Moncholi, Manny; Mora, Nelson; Laha, Shonali; Tansel, Berrin

    2015-06-01

    Increased microbial activity at high ambient temperatures can be problematic for secondary clarifiers and gravity concentrators due to carbon dioxide (CO2) production. Production of CO2 in gravity concentrators leads to septic conditions and poor solids separation. The CO2 production can also be corrosive for the concrete surfaces. Effectiveness of CO2 stripping to improve solids settling was investigated using the sludge volume index (SVI) as the indicator parameter. Carbon dioxide was stripped by aeration from the sludge samples. Results from the study show that aeration also increased the pH values in the mixed liquor while removing CO2 and improving sludge settling. After 10 minutes of aeration at a rate of 0.37 m3 air/m3 water/min, 90% CO2 stripping was achieved. Based on the 30 min settling tests, the SVI increased by 26±1% after CO2 stripping while the pH increased by 0.8±0.1 pH units. PMID:26459818

  16. Microflora cultivable from minocycline strips placed in persisting periodontal pockets

    OpenAIRE

    Leung, WK; Jin, L; Yau, JYY; Q. Sun; Corbet, EF

    2005-01-01

    The microflora that develops on minocycline strips, used as an adjunct in non-surgical periodontal therapy was studied. Minocycline (1.4 mg in polycaprolactone vehicle) and control strips were applied into all residual pockets (PD ≥ 5 mm, ≥2 pockets/subject) of patients with chronic periodontitis 1 month after a course of non-surgical periodontal therapy. Strips were inserted and retained for 3 days, changed to new strips for 3 more days and then removed. Strips were recovered from 14 (eight ...

  17. Shape Setup System for 1700 Hot Strip Mill

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Zhong-feng; XU Jian-zhong; LI Chang-sheng; LIU Xiang-hua

    2007-01-01

    Shape setup (SSU) system is the core technology for hot strip mill (HSM). A precise SSU system was used to improve the strip quality for HSM. The function of SSU, setup, and feedback was introduced. The main mathematical models of roll gap profile and longitudinal strain difference are set up. Strip profile allocation strategy was researched according to the SSU system of a domestic 1 700 mm HSM. The SSU system was put into practical use and the measurement results showed that strip flatness variation and strip profile variation could be controlled in target scope.

  18. Fast dissolving strips: A novel approach for the delivery of verapamil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Kunte

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Fast dissolving drug delivery system offers a solution for those patients having difficulty in swallowing tablets/capsules etc. Verapamil is a calcium channel blocker used as an antianginal, antiarrhythmic, and antihypertensive agent with extensive first pass metabolism which results in less bioavailability. This work investigated the possibility of developing verapamil fast dissolving strips allowing fast, reproducible drug dissolution in the oral cavity; thus bypassing first pass metabolism. Materials and methods: The fast dissolving strips were prepared by solvent casting technique with the help of HPMC E6 and maltodextrin. The strips were evaluated for drug content uniformity, film thickness, folding endurance, in vitro disintegration time, in vitro dissolution studies, surface pH study, and palatability study. Results: Official criteria for evaluation parameters were fulfilled by all formulations. Disintegration time showed by formulations was found to be in range of 20.4-28.6 sec. Based on the evaluation parameters, the formulation containing 2% HPMC E6 and 3.5% maltodextrin showed optimum performance against other formulations. Conclusion: It was concluded that the fast dissolving strips of verapamil can be made by solvent casting technique with enhanced dissolution rate, taste masking, and hence better patient compliance and effective therapy

  19. Mechanics of Thin Strip Steering in Hot Rolling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Zhengyi; Tieu, Kiet A.

    2004-06-01

    The hot rolling of thin strip can result in several problems in hot rolling, for instance, the control of strip steering, strip shape and flatness and surface roughness etc. Therefore, the hot rolling of thin strip brings out a requirement of innovative technologies such as the extended control of shape and flatness, steering control and reduction of load by roll gap lubrication. In this paper, the authors focus on the analysis of thin strip snaking movement, as well as solve the related problems such as the shape and flatness due to a larger reduction applied when the strip is thinner. A finite element method was used to simulate this nonsymmetricity rolling considering the non-uniform reduction along the strip width. The calculated spread is compared with the measured values obtained from the rolling mill in laboratory and the friction effect is also discussed.

  20. Antenna with distributed strip and integrated electronic components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodenbeck, Christopher T.; Payne, Jason A.; Ottesen, Cory W.

    2008-08-05

    An antenna comprises electrical conductors arranged to form a radiating element including a folded line configuration and a distributed strip configuration, where the radiating element can be in proximity to a ground conductor and/or arranged as a dipole. Embodiments of the antenna include conductor patterns formed on a printed wiring board, having a ground plane, spacedly adjacent to and coplanar with the radiating element. An antenna can comprise a distributed strip patterned on a printed wiring board, integrated with electronic components mounted on top of or below the distributed strip, and substantially within the extents of the distributed strip. Mounting of electronic components on top of or below the distributed strip has little effect on the performance of the antenna, and allows for realizing the combination of the antenna and integrated components in a compact form. An embodiment of the invention comprises an antenna including a distributed strip, integrated with a battery mounted on the distributed strip.

  1. The extent of the stop coannihilation strip

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellis, John [King' s College London, Theoretical Particle Physics and Cosmology Group, Department of Physics, London (United Kingdom); CERN, Theory Division, Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Olive, Keith A. [University of Minnesota, School of Physics and Astronomy, Minneapolis, MN (United States); University of Minnesota, William I. Fine Theoretical Physics Institute, School of Physics and Astronomy, Minneapolis, MN (United States); Zheng, Jiaming [University of Minnesota, School of Physics and Astronomy, Minneapolis, MN (United States)

    2014-07-15

    Many supersymmetric models such as the constrained minimal supersymmetric extension of the Standard Model (CMSSM) feature a strip in parameter space where the lightest neutralino χ is identified as the lightest supersymmetric particle, the lighter stop squark t{sub 1} is the next-to-lightest supersymmetric particle (NLSP), and the relic χ cold darkmatter density is brought into the range allowed by astrophysics and cosmology by coannihilation with the lighter stop squark t{sub 1} NLSP. We calculate the stop coannihilation strip in the CMSSM, incorporating Sommerfeld enhancement effects, and we explore the relevant phenomenological constraints and phenomenological signatures. In particular, we show that the t{sub 1} may weigh several TeV, and its lifetime may be in the nanosecond range, features that are more general than the specific CMSSM scenarios that we study in this paper. (orig.)

  2. Operation of a Batch Stripping Distillation Column

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    A stripping batch distillation column is preferred when the amount of the light component in the feed is small and the products are to be recovered at high purity. The operation modes of a batch stripping are believed to be the same as those of a rectifier. However, the control system of a stripper is different. In this paper, we explore three different control methods with Hysys (Hyprotech Ltd. 1997) for a batch stripper. The main difference is the control scheme for reboiler liquid level: (a) controlled by reflux flow; (b) controlled by reboiler heat duty; (c) controlled by bottom product flow. The main characteristics of operating a batch stripper with different control scheme are presented in this paper. Guidelines are provided for the startup of a batch stripper, the effects of somecontrol tuning parameters on the column performance are discussed.

  3. Frequency dependent magnetization of superconductor strip

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thakur, Kailash Prasad [Landcare Research, Palmerston North (New Zealand); Raj, Ashish [Computer Science in Radiology, Weill Medical College, Cornell University, NY (United States); Brandt, Ernst Helmut [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Metallforschung, POB 800665, D-70506 Stuttgart (Germany); Sastry, Pamidi V P S S, E-mail: thakurk@landcareresearch.co.nz, E-mail: asr2004@med.cornell.edu, E-mail: ehb@mf.mpg.de, E-mail: pamidi@caps.fsu.edu [Center for Advanced Power Systems, Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL 32310 (United States)

    2011-04-15

    The frequency dependence of magnetic ac loss of thin superconductor strip subjected to an ac magnetic field perpendicular to the surface of the strip is investigated by incorporating a flux creep model into the critical state model of Brandt and Indenbom. It is found that the reduced ac loss exhibits a maximum value at a frequency f{sub m}, which is a rapidly varying function of the applied ac magnetic field. At low magnetic field, f{sub m} becomes zero, and ac loss decreases with frequency as a power law ({approx}f{sup -2/n}). Whereas at high magnetic field f{sub m} becomes infinite and ac loss increases with frequency, still following the power law ({approx}f{sup 1/n}). The analytical results are substantiated with experimental data and the results of a 2D finite element simulation.

  4. Stage- vs. Channel-strip Metaphor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gelineck, Steven; Korsgaard, Dannie Michael; Büchert, Morten

    2015-01-01

    This study compares the stage metaphor and the channel strip metaphor in terms of performance. Traditionally, music mixing consoles employ a channels strip control metaphor for adjusting parameters such as volume and panning of each track. An alternative control metaphor, the so-called stage...... metaphor lets the user adjust volume and panning by positioning tracks relative to a virtual listening position. In this study test participants are given the task to adjust volume and panning of one channel (in mixes consisting of three channels) in order to replicate a series of simple pre-rendered mixes....... They do this using (1) a small physical mixing controller and (2) using an iPad app, which implements a simple stage metaphor interface. We measure how accurately they are able to replicate mixes in terms of volume and panning and how fast they are at doing so. Results reveal that performance...

  5. PRESUPPOSITIONS AND IMPLICATURES IN COMIC STRIPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ienneke Indra Dewi

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Article aimed to find out the role of presuppositions, implicatures, as well as to see the maxims violated or flouted in the comic strips i.e. to whether there is a miscommunication among the characters in the comic strips. Data were taken from the three comics, those are Peanuts, Andy, and Tintin, and were analysed based on the pattern that the sender made a presupposition before transferring information and the receiver would try to get the implied message. The results show that presuppositions and implicatures are much influenced by the background knowledge. The more the speaker and hearer know each other’s background, the better presuppositions and implicatures they make and finally, the less miscommunication occurred.

  6. Strip-till seeder for sugar beets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Schulze Lammers

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Strip-till save costs by reducing tillage on the area of sugar beet rows only. The seeding system is characterized by a deep loosening of soil with a tine combined with a share and by following tools generating fine-grained soil as seed bed. In cooperation with the Kverneland company group Soest/Germany a strip tiller combined with precision seeder was designed and tested in field experiments. Tilling and seeding was performed in one path on fields with straw and mustard mulch. Even the plant development was slower as compared to conventional sawn sugar beets the yield was on equivalent level. Further field experiments are planned to attest constant yield, cost and energy efficiency of the seeding system.

  7. Coiling Temperature Control in Hot Strip Mill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imanari, Hiroyuki; Fujiyama, Hiroaki

    Coiling temperature is one of the most significant factors in products of hot strip mill to determine material properties such as strength, toughness of steel, so it is very important to achieve accurate coiling temperature control (CTC). Usually there are a few pyrometers on the run out table in hot strip mill, therefore temperature model and its adapting system have large influences on the accuracy of CTC. Also unscheduled change of rolling speed has a bad effect to keep coiling temperature as its target. Newly developed CTC system is able to get very accurate coiling temperature against uncertain factors and disturbances by adopting easily identified temperature model, learning method and dynamic set up function. The features of the CTC system are discussed with actual data, and the effectiveness of the system is shown by actual control results.

  8. Study of air pollution in Buenos Aires city. Appendix 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The work performed since 1993 on the study of the elemental profile of Buenos Aires atmosphere is presented. Both aerosol direct sampling and biomonitors have been used and the samples have been analyzed mainly by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA). Due to problems with XRF, Anodic Stripping Voltammetry has been chosen for lead determination and Ion Chromatography for soluble anions. For aerosol direct sampling, analytical and sampling methods are described, as well as the sampling campaigns. Experiments have been performed for studying differences between day/night elemental concentrations along the week and a possible seasonal dependence. Some results of mass concentrations and others from INAA are presented. Sampling with the 'Gent sampler' began during August 1994 at an urban residential area of the city. The results of mass concentrations for the first 28 pairs of samples are shown together with some INAA results, as this is the only technique used for the analysis. Lichens and tree bark were the chosen biomonitors. Sampling and analytical methods by INAA are exposed, presenting some of the results that have been obtained. The participation in the aerosol analysis for the Ushuaia Global Atmospheric Watch Station is also commented. (author)

  9. Transparent Helium in Stripped Envelope Supernovae

    OpenAIRE

    Piro, Anthony L.; Morozova, Viktoriya S.

    2014-01-01

    Using simple arguments based on photometric light curves and velocity evolution, we propose that some stripped envelope supernovae (SNe) show signs that a significant fraction of their helium is effectively transparent. The main pieces of evidence are the relatively low velocities with little velocity evolution, as are expected deep inside an exploding star, along with temperatures that are too low to ionize helium. This means that the helium should not contribute to the shaping of the main S...

  10. Mastering Interproximal Stripping: With Innovations in Slenderization

    OpenAIRE

    Sharma, Narendra Shriram; Shrivastav, Sunita S; Hazarey, Pushpa V

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT Crowding and irregularity remain a consistent problem for children. Management of space problems continues to play an important role in a dental practice. It also represents an area of major interaction between the primary provider and the specialists. Proximal stripping is routinely carried out to avoid extraction in borderline cases where space discrepancy is less and in cases where there is a discrepancy between the mesio- distal width of maxillary and mandibular teeth to satisfy ...

  11. Multitwist optical Möbius strips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freund, Isaac

    2010-01-15

    Circularly polarized Gauss-Laguerre GL00 and GL01 laser beams that cross at their waists at a small angle are shown to generate a quasi-paraxial field that contains a line of circular polarization, a C line, surrounded by polarization ellipses whose major and minor axes generate multitwist Möbius strips with twist numbers that increase with the distance from the C point.

  12. Process Simulation Analysis of HF Stripping

    OpenAIRE

    Thaer A. Abdulla

    2013-01-01

       HYSYS process simulator is used for the analysis of existing HF stripping column in LAB plant (Arab Detergent Company, Baiji-Iraq). Simulated column performance and profiles curves are constructed. The variables considered are the thermodynamic model option, bottom temperature, feed temperature, and column profiles for the temperature, vapor flow rate, liquid flow rate and composition. The five thermodynamic models options used (Margules, UNIQUAC, van laar, Antoine, and Zudkevitch-Joffee),...

  13. Noise studies of n-strip on n-bulk silicon microstrip detectors using fast binary readout electronics after irradiation to 3x10 sup 1 sup 4 p cm sup - sup 2

    CERN Document Server

    Robinson, D; Bizzell, J; Buttar, C; Carter, A A; Carter, J R; Goodrick, M; Greenall, A; Hill, J C; Morgan, D; Munday, D J; Ohsugi, T; Phillips, P W; Riedler, P; Smith, N A; Terada, S; Turner, P R; Unno, Y

    1999-01-01

    N-strip on n-bulk silicon microstrip detectors were irradiated at the CERN PS to 3x10 sup 1 sup 4 p cm sup - sup 2 and their post-irradiation performance evaluated using fast binary readout electronics. Strip noise measurements demonstrate that detectors using conventional p-stop strip isolation are vulnerable to microdischarge at high bias voltages after irradiation. However, a novel isolation technique is shown to suppress microdischarge and lead to excellent post-irradiation characteristics.

  14. Measurement of 181 MeV H- ions stripping cross-sections by carbon stripper foil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, P. K.; Yoshimoto, M.; Yamazaki, Y.; Hotchi, H.; Harada, H.; Okabe, K.; Kinsho, M.; Irie, Y.

    2015-03-01

    The stripping cross-sections of 181 MeV H- (negative hydrogen) ions by the carbon stripper foil are measured with good accuracy. The present experiment was carried out at the 3-GeV RCS (Rapid Cycling Synchrotron) of J-PARC (Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex). The stripping cross-sections for different charge states, also known as electron loss cross-sections of H- ion, are denoted as σ-11, σ-10 and σ01, for both electrons stripping (H- →H+), one-electron stripping (H- →H0) and the 2nd-electron stripping (H0 →H+) proceeding σ-10, respectively. We have established very unique and precise techniques for such measurements so as also to determine a foil stripping efficiency very accurately. The cross-sections σ-11, σ-10 and σ01 are obtained to be (0.002 ± 0.001) ×10-18cm2, (1.580 ± 0.034) ×10-18cm2 and (0.648 ± 0.014) ×10-18cm2, respectively. The presently given cross-sections are newly available experimental results for an incident H- energy below 200 MeV and they are also shown to be consistent with recently proposed energy (1 /β2) scaled cross-sections calculated from the previously measured data at 200 and 800 MeV. The present results have a great importance not only at J-PARC for the upgraded H- beam energy of 400 MeV but also for many new and upgrading similar accelerators, where H- beam energies in most cases are considered to be lower than 200 MeV.

  15. Self-recovering superconducting strip detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using a 1.8 μm wide superconducting strip made of granular tungsten, we have observed self-recovering pulses when the detector is irradiated with a 55Fe 6 keV X-rays source. For low values of the bias current (i.e. Ibb=1.5K) the superconducting state is recovered in 10--50 ns giving voltage pulses across the strip of few hundred μv in amplitude. At high bias currents the detector did not self-recover and a constant counting efficiency has measured at different operating temperatures. There are good indications that this high counting rate can be extended to all the reduced bias currents where the detector is able to reset itself after every switch. The current threshold between collapsing and propagating switches and the time evolution of the voltage pulses can be described using a thermal propagation model developed in previous works. The ability of detectors to automatically recover the superconducting state in a short period of time after sensing a particle is encouraging in the feasibility study of fast superconducting microvertex detectors and also confirm the potential application of superconducting strips as high fast resolution X-rays detectors

  16. Multiple Electron Stripping of Heavy Ion Beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One approach being explored as a route to practical fusion energy uses heavy ion beams focused on an indirect drive target. Such beams will lose electrons while passing through background gas in the target chamber, and therefore it is necessary to assess the rate at which the charge state of the incident beam evolves on the way to the target. Accelerators designed primarily for nuclear physics or high energy physics experiments utilize ion sources that generate highly stripped ions in order to achieve high energies economically. As a result, accelerators capable of producing heavy ion beams of 10 to 40 Mev/amu with charge state 1 currently do not exist. Hence, the stripping cross-sections used to model the performance of heavy ion fusion driver beams have, up to now, been based upon theoretical calculations. We have investigated experimentally the stripping of 3.4 Mev/amu Kr 7+ and Xe +11 in N2; 10.2 MeV/amu Ar +6 in He, N2, Ar and Xe; 19 MeV/amu Ar +8 in He, N2, Ar and Xe; 30 MeV He 1 + in He, N2, Ar and Xe; and 38 MeV/amu N +6 in He, N2, Ar and Xe. The results of these measurements are compared with the theoretical calculations to assess their applicability over a wide range of parameters

  17. High-Rate Capable Floating Strip Micromegas

    CERN Document Server

    Bortfeldt, Jonathan; Biebel, Otmar; Danger, Helge; Flierl, Bernhard; Hertenberger, Ralf; Lösel, Philipp; Moll, Samuel; Parodi, Katia; Rinaldi, Ilaria; Ruschke, Alexander; Zibell, André

    2015-01-01

    We report on the optimization of discharge insensitive floating strip Micromegas (MICRO-MEsh GASeous) detectors, fit for use in high-energy muon spectrometers. The suitability of these detectors for particle tracking is shown in high-background environments and at very high particle fluxes up to 60MHz/cm$^2$. Measurement and simulation of the microscopic discharge behavior have demonstrated the excellent discharge tolerance. A floating strip Micromegas with an active area of 48cm$\\times$50cm with 1920 copper anode strips exhibits in 120GeV pion beams a spatial resolution of 50$\\mu$m at detection efficiencies above 95%. Pulse height, spatial resolution and detection efficiency are homogeneous over the detector. Reconstruction of particle track inclination in a single detector plane is discussed, optimum angular resolutions below $5^\\circ$ are observed. Systematic deviations of this $\\mu$TPC-method are fully understood. The reconstruction capabilities for minimum ionizing muons are investigated in a 6.4cm$\\time...

  18. Numerical and Experimental Investigation into Plane Charge Explosion Technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Yadong; LIU Ou; FANG Qin; XIANG Hengbo

    2006-01-01

    Plane charge explosion technique (PCET) is one of the major techniques frequently used in large-scale blast-resistant structure tests.An FEM model was established,which can simulate the process of air releasing from the blast cavity.The effects of the charge density,the interval of the charge strip,the distance of the charges from the structure,and the mass of backfill soil on the overpressures applied on the tested structures were analyzed by the FEM model.The quantitative relationships between the peak value and the duration of the overpressure and the above-mentioned affecting parameters were established.Agreement between numerical results and the test data was obtained.

  19. Nonmetallic inclusions in SUS304 strip produced by twin-roll strip casting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fuxiang Huang; Jiongming Zhang; Xinhua Wang; Yuan Fang; Yan Yu

    2008-01-01

    The shape, type, content, and dimension of nonmetallic inclusions in SUS304 strip produced by twin-roll strip casting were studied using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results show that the inclusions are mainly spherical Al2O3 and com- plex oxides composed of MnO, Al2O3., and SiO2. The percentage of fine oxides smaller than 3 μm reaches up to 51.8%. The theoreti- cal calculations show that fine oxides have precipitated during solidification. Therefore, it is concluded that during twin-roll strip casting, because of high cooling rate, the size of inclusions precipitated during solidification decreases, and the amount increases.

  20. Study on the Feasibility of High-Temperature Immersion Ultrasonic Sensor with a Strip Waveguide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Exertion has been made to develop high-temperature (about 250∼650 .deg. C) immersion ultrasonic sensor for the visualization of objects, temperature measurement, dimensional check, or nondestructive testing of welds under liquid sodium. In this study, the feasibility of the ultrasonic sensor taking advantage of a strip waveguide was confirmed by water-experiment. The lowest order of antisymmetric Lamb wave was used in the frequency range with negligible dispersion. This plate wave was excited in the stainless steel strip waveguide of 1.0mm thickness and 13mm width by the comb-structure transducer of 2.3MHz frequency. Its attenuation coefficient was 1.2dB/m in air and 380dB/m in water. The signal to noise ratio of 25dB was obtained from a planar reflector 270mm away from the beam aperture of 13mmx39mm size

  1. Study on the feasibility of high-tempera immersion ultrasonic sensor with a strip waveguide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Exertion has been made to develop high-temperature (about 250 - 650 degrees C) immersion ultrasonic sensor for the visualization of objects, temperature measurement, dimensional check, or nondestructive testing of welds under liquid sodium. In this study, the feasibility of the ultrasonic sensor taking advantage of a strip waveguide was confirmed by water-experiment. The lowest order of antisymmetric Lamb wave was used in the frequency range with negligible dispersion. This plate wave was excited in the stainless steel strip waveguide of 1.0 mm thickness and 13 mm width by the comb-structure transducer of 2.3 MHz frequency. Its attenuation coefficient was 1.2 dB/m in air and 3.8 dB/cm in water. The signal to noise ratio of 25 dB was obtained from a planar reflector 270 mm away from the beam aperture of 13 mm x 39 mm size.

  2. General description of automatic variable-load control technique for air separation plant%空分设备自动变负荷控制技术综述

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈秋霞; 周芬芳

    2011-01-01

    综述国内外大型空分设备的自动变负荷控制技术的发展状况,分析自动变负荷控制技术的难点,着重对空分设备先进控制系统结构和操作流程、模型预测控制基本原理及其在空分领域的研究成果等进行了较全面的阐述,最后对空分设备自动变负荷技术的发展进行了展望。%The development situation of home and abroad automatic variable-load control technique for large-sized air separation plant is briefed, the difficult problems of automatic variable load control technique are analyzed, the structure and operation process of advanced control system for air separation plant, the fundamental principle, model prediction control and its research achievements in air separation field are overall described, and finally the development of automatic load variation technique for air separation plant is prospected.

  3. Complications and management in Descemet′s stripping endothelial keratoplasty: Analysis of consecutive 430 cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samar K Basak

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To analyze the complications and their managements in Descemet′s stripping endothelial keratoplasty (DSEK in consecutive 430 cases by single surgeon in a tertiary eye hospital. Materials and Methods: 430 eyes of 366 patients with endothelial dysfunctions scheduled for DSEK, were analyzed retrospectively. In all cases donor dissection was performed manually, and ′Taco′ insertion and unfolding technique was used. Intra-operative and postoperative complications with their managements and outcomes were reviewed retrospectively. Periodic endothelial cell density was analyzed for each patient till the last visit. Follow-up period was between 3 to 60 months (mean 18.7 months. Results: 13 (3.0% eyes had operative complications during donor dissection and 16 (3.7% had during recipient procedure. In 7 (1.6% eyes, donor lenticule was replaced with a new one during the surgery. In early postoperative period, 21 (4.9% eyes had donor dislocation and 12 (2.8% eyes had air-induced pupillary block; and they were managed immediately. 2 cases had primary graft failure and in 1 case had postoperative bacterial endophthalmitis requiring evisceration. In late postoperative period, 48 (11.3% eyes had secondary glaucoma and 14 (3.3% eyes had late secondary graft failure. Endothelial rejection occurred in 5 (1.2% cases. Mean endothelial cell loss was 19.7% after 3 months and 54.2% after 5 years. Total graft failure in this series was 31 (7.2% and in 17 cases re-DSEK was performed successfully. Conclusions: Both operative and postoperative complications do occur in DSEK. Most of these complications can be managed by medical or appropriate surgical means. Some of the complications can be avoided and reduced with experience.

  4. Uranium stripping from tributyl phosphate by urea solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skripchenko, S. Yu.; Titova, S. M.; Smirnov, A. L.; Rychkov, V. N.

    2016-09-01

    The process of uranium stripping from tri-n-butyl phosphate in kerosene by urea solutions was investigated at the volume ratio of the organic and aqueous phases of (1-10) : 1 in the temperature range of 20-60 °C. The stripping of uranium from a loaded organic phase increased with increasing urea content in the solution and with increasing temperature. Maximum recovery of uranium from tributyl phosphate was obtained using a solution that contained 8-12 mol/l of urea. The application of a urea solution for uranium stripping resulted in the strip product solution containing 200-240 g/L of uranium. The process of uranium stripping by dilute nitric acid was also investigated. Results of uranium stripping by the two methods are compared and discussed.

  5. Development of a cathode strip chamber for minimum ionizing particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A cathode strip chamber (CSC) capable of measuring position information for minimum ionizing particles (MIPS) has been developed. The chamber operates in the proportional or limited proportional region, where the avalanche on the anode wire is localised to a small region around the anode wire. The position of the avalanche can be obtained by the pulse heights induced on the cathode strips which run perpendicular to direction of the anode wire. The pulse height induced on the cathode strips is proportional directly to the strip width and inversely to the distance between the strip centre to the avalanche location. Thus by measuring the pulse heights on at least three cathode strips for every event, one can reconstruct the centroid that would give the location of the avalanche on the anode

  6. Intelligent Control on Hot Strip Coiling Temperature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    A new intelligent control scheme for hot strip coiling temperature is presented. In this scheme, the prediction model of finishing temperature and the presetting model of main cooling zone are establish based on BP neural network, the feed-forward open-loop control model of main cooling zone is constructed based on T-S fuzzy neural network, a new improved structure of T-S fuzzy neural network is developed, and the feedback close-loop control model of precision cooling zone is obtained based on fuzzy control. The effectiveness of the proposed scheme has been demonstrated by computer simulation with a satisfactory result.

  7. Power and control in gay strip clubs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeMarco, Joseph R G

    2007-01-01

    The gay strip club is a place in which more than displays of male beauty take place. The mix of customers, performers, liquor, and nudity results in fascinating dynamics. Of interest in this article are the power relationships and issues of control played out both among and between strippers and customers. Based on extensive participant observation conducted in eight cities and numerous bars/clubs and including more than 150 in-depth interviews, this article concerns just one aspect of the world of male strippers who perform for men. PMID:18019071

  8. Tritium stripping by a catalytic exchange stripper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A catalytic exchange process for stripping elemental tritium from gas streams has been demonstrated. The process uses a catalyzed isotopic exchange reaction between tritium in the gas phase and protium or deuterium in the solid phase on alumina. The reaction is catalyzed by platinum deposited on the alumina. The process has been tested with both tritium and deuterium. Decontamination factors (ration of inlet and outlet tritium concentrations) as high as 1000 have been achieved, depending on inlet concentration. The test results and some demonstrated applications are presented

  9. Collision physics with highly stripped slow ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A review about recent studies with highly stripped heavy ions is given. Its scope is limited to mainly inner shell processes and slow collisions compared to the Bohr velocity of electrons in these shells. The processes discussed are: population of excited states by electron capture in asymmetric collision systems; electron capture and excitation in symmetric collisions with an emphasis on the impact parameter dependence of K- to L-shell and K- to K-shell vacancy transfer; the interference structure in the quasimolecular X-rays from slow hydrogen-like ion-atom collisions which is used for direct spectroscopy of quasimolecular energies. (Auth.)

  10. Time domain non linear strip theory for ship motions

    OpenAIRE

    Fan, Y.T.; Wilson, P. A.

    2004-01-01

    A new implementation of strip theory is proposed based on the strip theory by Salvesen, et al. [1] and early work by Westlake and Wilson [2]. Compared with traditional strip theory, the main difference is that the calculation is carried out in the time domain. This makes it possible to cope with relatively large-amplitude motions and non-constant forward speed problems. At each time step, the exact underwater sections are extracted; the velocity potential is required to satisfyt...

  11. Bond and flexural behavior of concrete elements strengthened with NSM CFRP laminate strips under fatigue loading

    OpenAIRE

    Fernandes, Pedro Miguel Gomes; Silva, Patrícia; Sena-Cruz, José

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the results of an experimental research on bond and flexural behavior of concrete elements strengthened with carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) laminate strips under fatigue loading conditions, applied according to the near-surface mounted (NSM) strengthening technique. Long-term performance of the NSM system could be compromised by fatigue loading, which may result in deterioration and weakening of individual components (steel, FRP, concrete), or loss of b...

  12. Performance of the CAMEX64 silicon strip readout chip

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The CAMEX64 is a 64 channel full custom CMOS chip designed specifically for the readout of silicon strip detectors. CAMEX which stands for CMOS Multichannel Analog MultiplEXer for Silicon Strip Detectors was designed by members of the Franhofer Institute for Microelectronic Circuits and Systems and the Max Planck Institute for Physics and Astrophysics. Each CAMEX channel has a switched capacitor charge sensitive amplifier with 4 sampling capacitors and a multiplexing scheme for reading out each of the channels on an analog bus. The device uses multiple sampling capacitors to filter and reduce input noise. Filtering is controlled through sampling techniques using external clocks. The device operates in a double correlated sampling mode and therefore cannot separate detector leakage current from a charge input. Normal operation of this device is similar to all other silicon readout chips designed and built thus far in that there is a data acquisition cycle during which charge is simultaneously accepted on all channels for a short period of time from a detector array, followed by a readout cycle where that charge or hit information is read out. This device works especially well for colliding beam experiments where the time of charge arrival is accurately known. However it can be used in fixed target or asynchronous mode where the time of charge arrival is not well known. In the asynchronous mode it appears that gain is somewhat dependent on the time interval required to decide whether or not to accept charge input information and thus the maximum signal to noise performance found with the synchronous mode may not be achieved in the asynchronous mode. 18 figs., 5 tabs

  13. Cloud Point Extraction for Electroanalysis: Anodic Stripping Voltammetry of Cadmium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusinek, Cory A; Bange, Adam; Papautsky, Ian; Heineman, William R

    2015-06-16

    Cloud point extraction (CPE) is a well-established technique for the preconcentration of hydrophobic species from water without the use of organic solvents. Subsequent analysis is then typically performed via atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS), UV-vis spectroscopy, or high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). However, the suitability of CPE for electroanalytical methods such as stripping voltammetry has not been reported. We demonstrate the use of CPE for electroanalysis using the determination of cadmium (Cd(2+)) by anodic stripping voltammetry (ASV). Rather than using the chelating agents which are commonly used in CPE to form a hydrophobic, extractable metal complex, we used iodide and sulfuric acid to neutralize the charge on Cd(2+) to form an extractable ion pair. This offers good selectivity for Cd(2+) as no interferences were observed from other heavy metal ions. Triton X-114 was chosen as the surfactant for the extraction because its cloud point temperature is near room temperature (22-25 °C). Bare glassy carbon (GC), bismuth-coated glassy carbon (Bi-GC), and mercury-coated glassy carbon (Hg-GC) electrodes were compared for the CPE-ASV. A detection limit for Cd(2+) of 1.7 nM (0.2 ppb) was obtained with the Hg-GC electrode. ASV with CPE gave a 20x decrease (4.0 ppb) in the detection limit compared to ASV without CPE. The suitability of this procedure for the analysis of tap and river water samples was demonstrated. This simple, versatile, environmentally friendly, and cost-effective extraction method is potentially applicable to a wide variety of transition metals and organic compounds that are amenable to detection by electroanalytical methods.

  14. Strip type radiation detector and method of making same

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An improved strip detector and a method for making such a detector are described. A high resistivity N conduction semiconductor body has electrode strips formed thereon by diffusion. The strips are formed so as to be covered by an oxide layer at the surface point of the PN junction and in which the opposite side of the semiconductor body then has a substantial amount of material etched away to form a thin semiconductor upon which strip electrodes which are perpendicular to the electrodes on the first side are then placed

  15. Strip type radiation detector and method of making same

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An improved strip detector and a method for making such a detector in which a high resistivity N conduction semiconductor body has electrode strips formed thereon by diffusion is described. The strips are formed so as to be covered by an oxide layer at the surface point of the PN junction and in which the opposite side of the semiconductor body then has a substantial amount of material etched away to form a thin semiconductor upon which strip electrodes which are perpendicular to the electrodes on the first side are then placed

  16. Three-Dimensional Model for Strip Hot Rolling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Guo-min; XIAO Hong; WANG Chun-hua

    2006-01-01

    A three-dimensional model for strip hot rolling was developed, in which the plastic deformation of strip, the thermal crown of rolls, roll deflection and flattening were calculated by rigid-plastic finite element method, finite difference method, influential function method and elastic finite element method respectively. The roll wear was taken into consideration. The model can provide detailed information such as rolling pressure distribution, contact pressure distribution between backup rolls and work rolls, deflection and flattening of work rolls, lateral distribution of strip thickness, and lateral distribution of front and back tensions. The finish rolling on a 1 450 mm hot strip mill was simulated.

  17. Stripped elliptical galaxies as probes of ICM physics: I. Tails, wakes, and flow patterns in and around stripped ellipticals

    CERN Document Server

    Roediger, E; Nulsen, P E J; Forman, W R; Machacek, M; Randall, S; Jones, C; Churazov, E; Kokotanekova, R

    2014-01-01

    (abridged) Elliptical cluster galaxies are successively stripped of their gaseous atmospheres due to their motion through the ICM. The stripped galactic gas forms a 'tail' in the galaxy's wake. Deep X-ray observations reveal the fine-structure of the gas tail and of the interface between galactic gas and ICM. This fine-structure depends on dynamic conditions (galaxy potential, initial gas contents, orbit in the host cluster), stripping stage (early infall, pre-/post-pericenter passage), and on the still ill-constrained ICM plasma properties (thermal conductivity, viscosity, magnetic field structure). In a series of papers, we aim at disentangling dynamic and plasma effects in order to use observed stripped ellipticals as probes of the ICM plasma properties. This first paper determines flow phases and flow patterns of successive gas stripping by means of hydrodynamical simulations. During quasi-steady stripping, the flow of ICM around the remnant atmosphere is similar to the flow around solid bodies, including...

  18. Detection limits of the strip test and PCR for genetically modified corn in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nascimento, V E; Von Pinho, É V R; Von Pinho, R G; do Nascimento, A D

    2012-08-16

    Brazilian legislation establishes a labeling limit for products that contain more than 1% material from genetically modified organisms (GMOs). We assessed the sensitivity of the lateral flow strip test in detection of the GMO corn varieties Bt11 and MON810 and the specificity and sensitivity of PCR techniques for their detection. For the strip test, the GMO seeds were mixed with conventional seeds at levels of 0.2, 0.4 and 0.8% for Bt11, and 0.4, 0.8 and 1.6% for MON810. Three different methodologies were assessed and whole seeds, their endosperm and embryonic axis were used. For the PCR technique, the GMO seeds of each of the two varieties were mixed with conventional seeds at levels of 20, 10, 5, 2, 1, and 0.5%. The seeds were ground and the DNA extracted. For detection of the GMO material, specific primers were used for MON810 and Bt11 and maize zein as an endogenous control. The sensitivity of the strip test varied for both maize varieties and methodologies. The test was positive for Bt11 only at 0.8%, in contrast with the detection limit of 0.4% indicated by the manufacturer. In the multiplex PCR, the primers proved to be specific for the different varieties. These varieties were detected in samples with one GMO seed in 100. Thus, this technique proved to be efficient in detecting contaminations equal to or greater than 1%.

  19. Detection limits of the strip test and PCR for genetically modified corn in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nascimento, V E; Von Pinho, É V R; Von Pinho, R G; do Nascimento, A D

    2012-01-01

    Brazilian legislation establishes a labeling limit for products that contain more than 1% material from genetically modified organisms (GMOs). We assessed the sensitivity of the lateral flow strip test in detection of the GMO corn varieties Bt11 and MON810 and the specificity and sensitivity of PCR techniques for their detection. For the strip test, the GMO seeds were mixed with conventional seeds at levels of 0.2, 0.4 and 0.8% for Bt11, and 0.4, 0.8 and 1.6% for MON810. Three different methodologies were assessed and whole seeds, their endosperm and embryonic axis were used. For the PCR technique, the GMO seeds of each of the two varieties were mixed with conventional seeds at levels of 20, 10, 5, 2, 1, and 0.5%. The seeds were ground and the DNA extracted. For detection of the GMO material, specific primers were used for MON810 and Bt11 and maize zein as an endogenous control. The sensitivity of the strip test varied for both maize varieties and methodologies. The test was positive for Bt11 only at 0.8%, in contrast with the detection limit of 0.4% indicated by the manufacturer. In the multiplex PCR, the primers proved to be specific for the different varieties. These varieties were detected in samples with one GMO seed in 100. Thus, this technique proved to be efficient in detecting contaminations equal to or greater than 1%. PMID:22843069

  20. Plastic media blasting activities at Hill Air Force Base

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, J. D.

    1993-03-01

    Hill Air Force Base in Utah developed plastic media blasting (PMB) paint removal process for removing paint from Air Force aircraft. The development of the process involved extensive testing of various abrasives and subsequent parameters to end up with an approved production process. Hill AFB has been using PMB in a production mode since 1985, and completely discontinued chemical stripping of airframes in 1989. We have recently installed and began operating a fully automated PMB facility that utilizes two nine-axis robots to strip an aircraft. This system has enabled us to further reduce the manhours required to strip an aircraft, and also allowed us to remove the employee from the blasting atmosphere into a control room. We have, and will continue to realize, significant environmental and economic savings by using PMB. Hill is also actively involved with the development of future paint stripping technologies.

  1. Liquid crystal elastomer strips as soft crawlers

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeSimone, Antonio; Gidoni, Paolo; Noselli, Giovanni

    2015-11-01

    In this paper, we speculate on a possible application of Liquid Crystal Elastomers to the field of soft robotics. In particular, we study a concept for limbless locomotion that is amenable to miniaturisation. For this purpose, we formulate and solve the evolution equations for a strip of nematic elastomer, subject to directional frictional interactions with a flat solid substrate, and cyclically actuated by a spatially uniform, time-periodic stimulus (e.g., temperature change). The presence of frictional forces that are sensitive to the direction of sliding transforms reciprocal, 'breathing-like' deformations into directed forward motion. We derive formulas quantifying this motion in the case of distributed friction, by solving a differential inclusion for the displacement field. The simpler case of concentrated frictional interactions at the two ends of the strip is also solved, in order to provide a benchmark to compare the continuously distributed case with a finite-dimensional benchmark. We also provide explicit formulas for the axial force along the crawler body.

  2. TRANSPARENT HELIUM IN STRIPPED ENVELOPE SUPERNOVAE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using simple arguments based on photometric light curves and velocity evolution, we propose that some stripped envelope supernovae (SNe) show signs that a significant fraction of their helium is effectively transparent. The main pieces of evidence are the relatively low velocities with little velocity evolution, as are expected deep inside an exploding star, along with temperatures that are too low to ionize helium. This means that the helium should not contribute to the shaping of the main SN light curve, and thus the total helium mass may be difficult to measure from simple light curve modeling. Conversely, such modeling may be more useful for constraining the mass of the carbon/oxygen core of the SN progenitor. Other stripped envelope SNe show higher velocities and larger velocity gradients, which require an additional opacity source (perhaps the mixing of heavier elements or radioactive nickel) to prevent the helium from being transparent. We discuss ways in which similar analysis can provide insights into the differences and similarities between SNe Ib and Ic, which will lead to a better understanding of their respective formation mechanisms

  3. Transparent Helium in Stripped Envelope Supernovae

    CERN Document Server

    Piro, Anthony L

    2014-01-01

    The light curves and velocity evolution of core-collapse supernovae (SNe) provide important clues to help constrain their progenitors. This may be especially important for stripped envelope SNe (Type Ib, Ic, and IIb), which have been elusive in providing direct connections with the massive stars that give rise to these explosions. Using simple arguments based on photometric light curves, we propose that many of these stripped envelope SNe show evidence that a significant fraction their helium is effectively transparent during the majority of their light curve evolution. This means that the helium should not contribute to the shaping of the main SN light curve and thus the total helium mass may be difficult to constrain from simple light curve modeling. Conversely, such modeling may be more useful for constraining the mass of the carbon/oxygen core of the SN progenitor. We discuss ways in which similar analysis can provide insights into the differences and similarities between SNe Ib and Ic, which will help le...

  4. Therapeutic surfactant-stripped frozen micelles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yumiao; Song, Wentao; Geng, Jumin; Chitgupi, Upendra; Unsal, Hande; Federizon, Jasmin; Rzayev, Javid; Sukumaran, Dinesh K.; Alexandridis, Paschalis; Lovell, Jonathan F.

    2016-05-01

    Injectable hydrophobic drugs are typically dissolved in surfactants and non-aqueous solvents which can induce negative side-effects. Alternatives like `top-down' fine milling of excipient-free injectable drug suspensions are not yet clinically viable and `bottom-up' self-assembled delivery systems usually substitute one solubilizing excipient for another, bringing new issues to consider. Here, we show that Pluronic (Poloxamer) block copolymers are amenable to low-temperature processing to strip away all free and loosely bound surfactant, leaving behind concentrated, kinetically frozen drug micelles containing minimal solubilizing excipient. This approach was validated for phylloquinone, cyclosporine, testosterone undecanoate, cabazitaxel and seven other bioactive molecules, achieving sizes between 45 and 160 nm and drug to solubilizer molar ratios 2-3 orders of magnitude higher than current formulations. Hypertonic saline or co-loaded cargo was found to prevent aggregation in some cases. Use of surfactant-stripped micelles avoided potential risks associated with other injectable formulations. Mechanistic insights are elucidated and therapeutic dose responses are demonstrated.

  5. Influenceable and Avoidable Risk Factors for Systemic Air Embolism due to Percutaneous CT-Guided Lung Biopsy: Patient Positioning and Coaxial Biopsy Technique-Case Report, Systematic Literature Review, and a Technical Note.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rott, Gernot; Boecker, Frieder

    2014-01-01

    Following the first case of a systemic air embolism due to percutaneous CT-guided lung biopsy in our clinic we analysed the literature regarding this matter in view of influenceable or avoidable risk factors. A systematic review of literature reporting cases of systemic air embolism due to CT-guided lung biopsy was performed to find out whether prone positioning might be a risk factor regarding this issue. In addition, a technical note concerning coaxial biopsy practice is presented. Prone position seems to have relevance for the development and/or clinical manifestation of air embolism due to CT-guided lung biopsy and should be considered a risk factor, at least as far as lesions in the lower parts of the lung are concerned. Biopsies of small or cavitary lesions in coaxial technique should be performed using a hemostatic valve. PMID:25431666

  6. Stream Surface Strip Element Method and Simulation of Three-Dimensional Deformation of Continuous Hot Rolled Strip

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Hong-min; WANG Ying-rui

    2004-01-01

    A new method, the stream surface strip element method, for simulating the three-dimensional deformation of plate and strip rolling process was proposed. The rolling deformation zone was divided into a number of stream surface (curved surface) strip elements along metal flow traces, and the stream surface strip elements were mapped into the corresponding plane strip elements for analysis and computation. The longitudinal distributions of the lateral displacement and the altitudinal displacement of metal were respectively constructed to be a quartic curve and a quadratic curve, of which the lateral distributions were expressed as the third-power spline function, and the altitudinal distributions were fitted in the quadratic curve. From the flow theory of plastic mechanics, the mathematical models of the three-dimensional deformations and stresses of the deformation zone were constructed. Compared with the streamline strip element method proposed by the first author of this paper, the stream surface strip element method takes into account the uneven distributions of stresses and deformations along altitudinal direction, and realizes the precise three-dimensional analysis and computation. The simulation example of continuous hot rolled strip indicates that the method and the model accord with facts and provide a new reliable engineering-computation method for the three-dimensional mechanics simulation of plate and strip rolling process.

  7. DETERMINATION OF BACKGROUND LEVELS OF LEAD AND CADMIUM IN RAW AGRICULTURAL CROPS BY USING DIFFERENTIAL PULSE ANODIC STRIPPING VOLTAMMETRY

    Science.gov (United States)

    A method is described for the simultaneous determination of ultratrace levels of lead and cadmium in selected agricultural crop samples by differential pulse anodic stripping voltametry. Samples are dry ashed at high temperature with H2SO4 as an ashing aid. Techniques are describ...

  8. Siting of a federal prison facility on a reclaimed strip mine in eastern Kentucky - a case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hintz, D.; Pinnix, J.; Ragozzino, L. [Dominion-Virginia Power, Richmond, VA (United States)

    2001-07-01

    The US Department of Justice, Federal Bureau of Prisons (FBOP) assessed the feasibility of developing a United States Penitentiary (USP) over a narrow reclaimed ridge-top coal strip mine in Martin County Kentucky which had also been mined by underground methods. The assessment addressed the potential for ground subsidence, thickness and character of fill placed over the former strip mine and within adjacent valleys, development of alternatives for placement of the USP, and an assessment of fill compaction techniques. 12 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Use of Mini-Sprinklers to Strip Trichloroethylene and Tetrachloroethylene from Contaminated Ground Water.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brerisford, Yvette, C.; Bush, Parshall, B.; Blake, John, I.; Bayer, Cassandra L.

    2003-01-01

    Berisford, Y.C., P.B. Bush, J.I. Blake, and C.L. Bayer. 2003. Use of mini-sprinklers to strip trichloroethylene and tetrachloroethylene from contaminated ground water. J. Env. Qual. 32:801-815. Three low-volume mini-sprinklers were tested for their efficacy to strip trichloroethylene (TCE) and tetrachloroethylene (PCE) from water. Deionized water spiked with TCE and PCE was pumped through a mini-sprinkler supported on top of a 1.8-m-tall. Water was collected in collection vessels at 0.61 and 1.22 m above the ground on support columns that were spaced at 0.61-m intervals from the riser base, and samples were composited per height and distance from the riser. Overall, air-stripping reduced dissolved concentrations of TCE and PCE by 99.1 to 100 and 96.9 to 100%, respectively. Mini-sprinklers offer the advantages of (i) easy setup in series that can be used on practically any terrain; (ii) operation over a long period of time that does not threaten aquifer depletion; (iii) use in small or confined aquifers in which the capacity is too low to support large irrigation or pumping systems; and (iv) use in forests in which the small, low-impact droplets of the mini-sprinklers do not damage bark and in which trees can help manage (via evapotransporation) excess waste water.

  10. Status Quo of China’s Aluminum Sheet & Strip Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    <正>Aluminum sheet & strip products are one of the major product varieties in the aluminum processing industry, they also provide indis-pensable basic materials for the development of national economy. In recent years, driven by rapid economic growth, China’s investment in aluminum sheet & strip industry continued to

  11. Micro-strip sensors based on CVD Diamond

    CERN Document Server

    Adam, W; Bergonzo, P; Bertuccio, G; Bogani, F; Borchi, E; Brambilla, A; Bruzzi, Mara; Colledani, C; Conway, J; D'Angelo, P; Dabrowski, W; Delpierre, P A; Deneuville, A; Dulinski, W; van Eijk, B; Fallou, A; Fizzotti, F; Foulon, F; Friedl, M; Gan, K K; Gheeraert, E; Hallewell, G D; Han, S; Hartjes, F G; Hrubec, Josef; Husson, D; Kagan, H; Kania, D R; Kaplon, J; Kass, R; Koeth, T W; Krammer, Manfred; Lo Giudice, A; Lü, R; MacLynne, L; Manfredotti, C; Meier, D; Mishina, M; Moroni, L; Oh, A; Pan, L S; Pernicka, Manfred; Peitz, A; Perera, L P; Pirollo, S; Procario, M; Riester, J L; Roe, S; Rousseau, L; Rudge, A; Russ, J; Sala, S; Sampietro, M; Schnetzer, S R; Sciortino, S; Stelzer, H; Stone, R; Suter, B; Tapper, R J; Tesarek, R J; Trischuk, W; Tromson, D; Vittone, E; Walsh, A M; Wedenig, R; Weilhammer, Peter; Wetstein, M; White, C; Zeuner, W; Zoeller, M M

    2000-01-01

    In this article we present the performance of recent chemical vapour deposition (CVD) diamond micro-strip sensors in beam tests. In addition we present the first comparison of a CVD diamond micro-strip sensor before and after proton irradiation.

  12. Micro-strip sensors based on CVD diamond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adam, W.; Berdermann, E.; Bergonzo, P.; Bertuccio, G.; Bogani, F.; Borchi, E.; Brambilla, A.; Bruzzi, M.; Colledani, C.; Conway, J.; D' Angelo, P.; Dabrowski, W.; Delpierre, P.; Deneuville, A.; Dulinski, W.; Eijk, B. van; Fallou, A.; Fizzotti, F.; Foulon, F.; Friedl, M.; Gan, K.K.; Gheeraert, E.; Hallewell, G.; Han, S.; Hartjes, F.; Hrubec, J.; Husson, D.; Kagan, H.; Kania, D.; Kaplon, J.; Kass, R.; Koeth, T.; Krammer, M.; Logiudice, A.; Lu, R.; Mac Lynne, L.; Manfredotti, C.; Meier, D. E-mail: dirk.meier@cern.ch; Mishina, M.; Moroni, L.; Oh, A.; Pan, L.S.; Pernicka, M.; Peitz, A.; Perera, L.; Pirollo, S.; Procario, M.; Riester, J.L.; Roe, S.; Rousseau, L.; Rudge, A.; Russ, J.; Sala, S.; Sampietro, M.; Schnetzer, S.; Sciortino, S.; Stelzer, H.; Stone, R.; Suter, B.; Tapper, R.J.; Tesarek, R.; Trischuk, W.; Tromson, D.; Vittone, E.; Walsh, A.M.; Wedenig, R.; Weilhammer, P.; Wetstein, M.; White, C.; Zeuner, W.; Zoeller, M

    2000-10-11

    In this article we present the performance of recent chemical vapour deposition (CVD) diamond micro-strip sensors in beam tests. In addition, we present the first comparison of a CVD diamond micro-strip sensor before and after proton irradiation.

  13. Micro-strip sensors based on CVD diamond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this article we present the performance of recent chemical vapour deposition (CVD) diamond micro-strip sensors in beam tests. In addition, we present the first comparison of a CVD diamond micro-strip sensor before and after proton irradiation

  14. Fabrication of chitosan-magnetite nanocomposite strip for chromium removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sureshkumar, Vaishnavi; Kiruba Daniel, S. C. G.; Ruckmani, K.; Sivakumar, M.

    2016-02-01

    Environmental pollution caused by heavy metals is a serious threat. In the present work, removal of chromium was carried out using chitosan-magnetite nanocomposite strip. Magnetite nanoparticles (Fe3O4) were synthesized using chemical co-precipitation method at 80 °C. The nanoparticles were characterized using UV-visible spectroscopy, fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction spectrometer, atomic force microscope, dynamic light scattering and vibrating sample magnetometer, which confirm the size, shape, crystalline nature and magnetic behaviour of nanoparticles. Atomic force microscope revealed that the particle size was 15-30 nm and spherical in shape. The magnetite nanoparticles were mixed with chitosan solution to form hybrid nanocomposite. Chitosan strip was casted with and without nanoparticle. The affinity of hybrid nanocomposite for chromium was studied using K2Cr2O7 (potassium dichromate) solution as the heavy metal solution containing Cr(VI) ions. Adsorption tests were carried out using chitosan strip and hybrid nanocomposite strip at different time intervals. Amount of chromium adsorbed by chitosan strip and chitosan-magnetite nanocomposite strip from aqueous solution was evaluated using UV-visible spectroscopy. The results confirm that the heavy metal removal efficiency of chitosan-magnetite nanocomposite strip is 92.33 %, which is higher when compared to chitosan strip, which is 29.39 %.

  15. Magnetic domain-wall dynamics in wide permalloy strips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estévez, Virginia; Laurson, Lasse

    2016-02-01

    Domain walls in soft permalloy strips may exhibit various equilibrium micromagnetic structures depending on the width and thickness of the strip, ranging from the well-known transverse and vortex walls in narrow and thin strips to double and triple vortex walls recently reported in wider strips [V. Estévez and L. Laurson, Phys. Rev. B 91, 054407 (2015), 10.1103/PhysRevB.91.054407]. Here, we analyze the field driven dynamics of such domain walls in permalloy strips of widths from 240 nm up to 6 μ m , using the known equilibrium domain wall structures as initial configurations. Our micromagnetic simulations show that the domain wall dynamics in wide strips is very complex, and depends strongly on the geometry of the system, as well as on the magnitude of the driving field. We discuss in detail the rich variety of the dynamical behaviors found, including dynamic transitions between different domain wall structures, periodic dynamics of a vortex core close to the strip edge, transitions towards simpler domain wall structures of the multi-vortex domain walls controlled by vortex polarity, and the fact that for some combinations of the strip geometry and the driving field the system cannot support a compact domain wall.

  16. Using Comic Strips as a Book Report Alternative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reading Teacher, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Comic strips are great to share with parents, younger students, and peers. This article presents an activity where students use a six-paneled comic strip to summarize a story. This activity allows for multiple interpretations and enhances comprehension by drawing attention to story elements.

  17. Young tourists visiting strip clubs and paying for sex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hesse, Morten; Tutenges, Sébastien

    2011-01-01

    Little is known about young adults’ use of strip clubs and prostitution during their holidays abroad. This study examined this issue with a sample of 1125 Danish tourists between the ages of 16 and 34, and sought data about the frequency with which they paid for sex and attended strip clubs while...

  18. Emission reduction by multipurpose buffer strips on arable fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloots, K; van der Vlies, A W

    2007-01-01

    In the area managed by Hollandse Delta, agriculture is under great pressure and the social awareness of the agricultural sector is increasing steadily. In recent years, a stand-still has been observed in water quality, in terms of agrochemicals, and concentrations even exceed the standard. To improve the waterquality a multi-purpose Field Margin Regulation was drafted for the Hoeksche Waard island in 2005. The regulation prescribes a crop-free strip, 3.5 m wide, alongside wet drainage ditches. The strip must be sown with mixtures of grasses, flowers or herbs. No crop protection chemicals or fertilizer may be used on the strips. A total length of approximately 200 km of buffer strip has now been laid. Besides reducing emissions, the buffer strips also stimulate natural pest control methods and encourage local tourism. Finally, the strips should lead to an improvement in the farmers' image. The regulation has proved to be successful. The buffer strips boosted both local tourism and the image of the agricultural sector. Above all, the strips provided a natural shield for emission to surface water, which will lead to an improvement of the water quality and raise the farmers' awareness of water quality and the environment. PMID:17711002

  19. Evaluation of anatomy comic strips for further production and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Dong Sun; Kim, Dae Hyun; Park, Jin Seo; Jang, Hae Gwon; Chung, Min Suk

    2013-09-01

    The corresponding author of the study has been sketching comic strips to explain anatomy in a humorous manner. All the anatomy comic strips, including those in Korean (650 episodes) and English (451 episodes), can be viewed on the homepage (http://anatomy.co.kr). Such comic strips were created with the aim of assisting medical students. However, their impact was unknown, and therefore, we surveyed the students' responses. We noted that anatomy grades were better in the students who read the comic strips. The comics helped the trainees chat with individuals with and without a medical background. The authors also considered comments on the problems with the comic strips and attempted to find solutions. The episodes are being currently used and further produced for educational purposes. To support this effort, the readers' valuable opinions will be continuously collected and assessed.

  20. Re-reddening on Strip Surface After Water Cooling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHI Ying; LIU Xiang-hua; WANG Guo-dong

    2007-01-01

    After water cooling, there is a big temperature difference between the center and the surface of strip,which leads to the heat transfer from the center to the surface, and the surface temperature can rise in a short time. The finite element method was used to simulate the phenomena of re-reddening on the surface of strip and to analyze the temperature field of hot rolled strip during laminar cooling, and the periodical variation curve of the cooling rate was obtained during water cooling and subsequent re-reddening. The results show that the critical line of the cooling rate is at 1/3 of the half-thickness from the strip surface. The regression model of the relation of rereddening temperature, time, and distance from the surface was obtained in the re-reddening region. Re-reddening regularity on the surface of strip under the condition of different thickness and cooling rate was also studied.

  1. Nonattacking Queens in a Rectangular Strip

    CERN Document Server

    Chaiken, Seth; Zaslavsky, Thomas; 10.1007/s00026-011-0068-7

    2011-01-01

    The function that counts the number of ways to place nonattacking identical chess or fairy chess pieces in a rectangular strip of fixed height and variable width, as a function of the width, is a piecewise polynomial which is eventually a polynomial and whose behavior can be described in some detail. We deduce this by converting the problem to one of counting lattice points outside an affinographic hyperplane arrangement, which Forge and Zaslavsky solved by means of weighted integral gain graphs. We extend their work by developing both generating functions and a detailed analysis of deletion and contraction for weighted integral gain graphs. For chess pieces we find the asymptotic probability that a random configuration is nonattacking, and we obtain exact counts of nonattacking configurations of small numbers of queens, bishops, knights, and nightriders.

  2. Cataract surgery after Descemet stripping endothelial keratoplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunita Chaurasia

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Management of endothelial dysfunction in phakic patients is sometimes a dilemma for corneal surgeons. Phakic patients with visually significant cataract and endothelial dysfunction are preferably managed by performing combined cataract surgery with endothelial keratoplasty. However, combined surgery may be deferred in eyes with early incipient cataract, younger age and where anterior chamber is poorly visualized. As cataract formation may be accelerated after endothelial keratoplasty, these eyes may need cataract surgery subsequently. Surgical intervention in eyes with endothelial keratoplasty is of concern as this may affect the graft adversely and threaten graft survival. In this report, we describe the intraoperative surgical details and postoperative clinical course of a patient who underwent phacoemulsification with intraocular lens implantation after Descemet stripping automated endothelial keratoplasty (DSAEK.

  3. [Obstetrical handbook in comic strip form].

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-04-01

    An obstetric handbook was created in comic strip form in cooperation with the Ministry of Health in the region of Segou, Mali, for training of traditional midwives living far from community health centers. The drawings illustrate pregnancies at risk that the midwife should be able to identify in order to advise women to stay near the health facility before onset of labor. Drawings indicate pregnancies that are at risk because of the following: small stature, limping as a result of polio or sciatic paralysis, high parity, prior cesarean delivery, heart disease, overly large uterus, or prior stillbirth. Serious complications requiring referral to a health service are also illustrated and include severe anemia, genital bleeding, and signs of toxemia and edema. The midwife should accompany the woman during transport.

  4. Streptococcus pneumoniae carriage in the Gaza strip.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gili Regev-Yochay

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Pneumococcal infections cause major morbidity and mortality in developing countries. We report the epidemiology of S. pneumoniae carriage in a developing region, the Gaza strip, and evaluate the theoretical coverage of carriage strains by pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs. METHODOLOGY: In 2009 we conducted a cross-sectional survey of S. pneumoniae carriage in healthy children and their parents, living throughout the Gaza strip. Data were collected and nasopharyngeal swabs were obtained. Antibiotic susceptibilities were determined by Vitek-2 and serotypes by the Quellung reaction. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: S. pneumoniae carriage was detected in 189/379 (50% of children and 30/376 (8% of parents. Carriage prevalence was highest in children <6 months of age (63%. Significant predictors for child carriage were number of household members and DCC attendance. The proportion of pediatric and adults isolates with serotypes included in PCV7 were 32% and 20% respectively, and 46% and 33% in PCV13 respectively. The most prominent non-vaccine serotypes (NVT were 35B, 15B/C and 23B. Penicillin-nonsusceptible strains were carried by 70% of carriers, penicillin-resistant strains (PRSP by 13% and Multi-drug-resistant (MDR by 30%. Of all PRSP isolates 54% belonged to serotypes included in PCV7 and 71% in the PCV13. Similarly, 59% and 73% of MDR-SP isolates, would theoretically be covered by PCV7 and PCV13, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates that, PCV13-included strains were carried by 46% and 33% of pediatric and adult subjects respectively. In the absence of definitive data regarding the virulence of the NVT strains, it is difficult to predict the effect of PCVs on IPD in this region.

  5. Production of furfural from pentosan-rich biomass: analysis of process parameters during simultaneous furfural stripping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agirrezabal-Telleria, I; Gandarias, I; Arias, P L

    2013-09-01

    Among the furan-based compounds, furfural (FUR) shows interesting properties as building-block or industrial solvent. It is produced from pentosan-rich biomass via xylose cyclodehydration. The current FUR production makes use of homogeneous catalysts and excessive amounts of steam. The development of greener furfural production and separation techniques implies the use of heterogeneous catalysts and innovative separation processes. This work deals with the conversion of corncobs as xylose source to be dehydrated to furfural. The results reveal differences between the use of direct corncob hydrolysis and dehydration to furfural and the prehydrolysis and dehydration procedures. Moreover, this work focuses on an economical analysis of the main process parameters during N2-stripping and its economical comparison to the current steam-stripping process. The results show a considerable reduction of the annual utility costs due to use of recyclable nitrogen and the reduction of the furfural purification stages.

  6. Automated motion correction using parallel-strip registration for wide-field en face OCT angiogram

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zang, Pengxiao; Liu, Gangjun; Zhang, Miao; Dongye, Changlei; Wang, Jie; Pechauer, Alex D.; Hwang, Thomas S.; Wilson, David J.; Huang, David; Li, Dengwang

    2016-01-01

    We propose an innovative registration method to correct motion artifacts for wide-field optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) acquired by ultrahigh-speed swept-source OCT (>200 kHz A-scan rate). Considering that the number of A-scans along the fast axis is much higher than the number of positions along slow axis in the wide-field OCTA scan, a non-orthogonal scheme is introduced. Two en face angiograms in the vertical priority (2 y-fast) are divided into microsaccade-free parallel strips. A gross registration based on large vessels and a fine registration based on small vessels are sequentially applied to register parallel strips into a composite image. This technique is extended to automatically montage individual registered, motion-free angiograms into an ultrawide-field view. PMID:27446709

  7. Developing silicon strip detectors with a large-scale commercial foundry

    Science.gov (United States)

    König, A.; Bartl, U.; Bergauer, T.; Dragicevic, M.; Hacker, J.; Treberspurg, W.

    2016-07-01

    Since 2009 the Institute of High Energy Physics (HEPHY) in Vienna is developing a production process for planar silicon strip sensors on 6-in. wafers together with the semiconductor manufacturer Infineon Technologies. Four runs with several batches of wafers, each comprising six different sensors, were manufactured and characterized. A brief summary of the recently completed 6-in. campaign is given. Milestones in sensor development as well as techniques to improve the sensor quality are discussed. Particular emphasis is placed on a failure causing areas of defective strips which accompanied the whole campaign. Beam tests at different irradiation facilities were conducted to validate the key capability of particle detection. Another major aspect is to prove the radiation hardness of sensors produced by Infineon. Therefore, neutron irradiation studies were performed.

  8. Production of furfural from pentosan-rich biomass: analysis of process parameters during simultaneous furfural stripping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agirrezabal-Telleria, I; Gandarias, I; Arias, P L

    2013-09-01

    Among the furan-based compounds, furfural (FUR) shows interesting properties as building-block or industrial solvent. It is produced from pentosan-rich biomass via xylose cyclodehydration. The current FUR production makes use of homogeneous catalysts and excessive amounts of steam. The development of greener furfural production and separation techniques implies the use of heterogeneous catalysts and innovative separation processes. This work deals with the conversion of corncobs as xylose source to be dehydrated to furfural. The results reveal differences between the use of direct corncob hydrolysis and dehydration to furfural and the prehydrolysis and dehydration procedures. Moreover, this work focuses on an economical analysis of the main process parameters during N2-stripping and its economical comparison to the current steam-stripping process. The results show a considerable reduction of the annual utility costs due to use of recyclable nitrogen and the reduction of the furfural purification stages. PMID:23810948

  9. Application of WLS strips for position determination in Strip PET tomograph based on plastic scintillators

    CERN Document Server

    Smyrski, J; Bednarski, T; Białas, P; Czerwiński, E; Kapłon, Ł; Kochanowski, A; Korcyl, G; Kowal, J; Kowalski, P; Kozik, T; Krzemień, W; Molenda, M; Niedźwiecki, Sz; Pałka, M; Pawlik, M; Raczyński, L; Rudy, Z; Salabura, P; Sharma, N G; Silarski, M; Słomski, A; Strzelecki, A; Wiślicki, W; Zieliński, M; Zoń, N

    2013-01-01

    A method of determination of a gamma quantum absorption point in a plastic scintillator block using a matrix of wavelength-shifting (WLS) strips is proposed. Application of this method for improvement of position resolution in newly proposed PET detectors based on plastic scintillators is presented. The method enables to reduce parallax errors in reconstruction of images which occurs in the presently used Positron Emission Tomography scanners.

  10. Enhancing soluble phosphorus removal within buffer strips using industrial by-products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habibiandehkordi, Reza; Quinton, John N; Surridge, Ben W J

    2014-11-01

    Using industrial by-products (IBPs) in conjunction with buffer strips provides a potentially new strategy for enhancing soluble phosphorus (P) removal from agricultural runoff. Here, we investigate the feasibility of this approach by assessing the P sorption properties of IBPs at different solution-IBPs contact time (1-120 min) and solution pH (3, 5.5, 7.5), as well as possible adverse environmental effects including P desorption or heavy metal mobilisation from IBPs. Batch experiments were carried out on two widely available IBPs in the UK that demonstrated high P sorption capacity but different physicochemical characteristics, specifically ochre and Aluminium (Al) based water treatment residuals (Al-WTR). A series of kinetic sorption-desorption experiments alongside kinetic modelling were used to understand the rate and the mechanisms of P removal across a range of reaction times. The results of the kinetic experiments indicated that P was initially sorbed rapidly to both ochre and Al-WTR, followed by a second phase characterised by a slower sorption rate. The excellent fits of kinetic sorption data to a pseudo-second order model for both materials suggested surface chemisorption as the rate-controlling mechanism. Neither ochre nor Al-WTR released substantial quantities of either P or heavy metals into solution, suggesting that they could be applied to buffer strip soils at recommended rates (≤30 g kg(-1) soil) without adverse environmental impact. Although the rate of P sorption by freshly-generated Al-WTR applied to buffer strips reduced following air-drying, this would not limit its practical application to buffer strips in the field if adequate contact time with runoff was provided. PMID:24928382

  11. Self-assessment test on concepts related to Anodic Stripping Voltammetry (ASV)

    OpenAIRE

    Milla González, Miguel; Espada Bellido, Estrella

    2014-01-01

    This exercise is intended to reinforce and assess knowledge on Anodic Stripping Voltammetry (ASV) as an electroanalytical technique. It is designed as a multiple entry test in which several options for a concept related to this analysis technique is proposed. The exercise can be resolved page to page (answers are ticked and the truth or falsity of the chosen option is obtained) or globally. In the latter, the user ticks the "correct" answers and obtains a grade at the end of the test. Going ...

  12. Modified descemet′s stripping automated endothelial keratoplasty for congenital hereditary endothelial dystrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoodreza Panahi-Bazaz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A 19-year-old male with congenital hereditary endothelial dystrophy (CHED presented with severe bilateral corneal clouding precluding any view of the intraocular structures. He underwent modified Descemet′s stripping automated endothelial keratoplasty (DSAEK technique including a suture pull-through technique to prevent lens damage. Surgery resulted in progressive clearing of the cornea and decreased corneal thickness. Visual acuity increased from hand motions preoperatively to counting fingers at 4 m after 4 months. DSAEK can be successfully performed in phakic eyes with CHED as an alternative to penetrating keratoplasty. It has the advantage of less wound problems and better preservation of globe integrity especially in children.

  13. Multiarray on a test strip (MATS): rapid multiplex immunodetection of priority potato pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safenkova, Irina V; Pankratova, Galina K; Zaitsev, Ilya A; Varitsev, Yuri A; Vengerov, Yuri Y; Zherdev, Anatoly V; Dzantiev, Boris B

    2016-09-01

    Multiarray on a test strip (MATS) was developed for the detection of eight important potato pathogens. The proposed assay combines the rapidity of immunochromatography with the high throughput of array techniques. The test zone of the immunochromatographic strip comprises ordered rows of spots containing antibodies specific for different potato pathogens. The assay benefits from the simplicity of immunochromatography; colored immune complexes form at the corresponding spots within the test zone. The presence and intensity of the coloration are used for identification of the target pathogens. The MATS was applied to the simultaneous detection of eight priority potato pathogens, characterized by the following limits of detection: 1 ng/mL for potato virus X and the ordinary type of potato virus Y, 10 ng/mL for potato virus M, 20 ng/mL for potato leaf roll virus, 40 ng/mL for necrotic-type potato virus Y, 100 ng/mL for potato virus S, 300 ng/mL for potato virus A, and 10(4) cells/mL for Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. sepedonicus. Analysis time was 15 min. The observed sensitivity of the MATS was comparable to the traditional enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The developed technique was tested on potato leaf extracts, and its efficiency for on-site control of the pathogens was confirmed in 100 % by commercial LFIA test strips. Graphical abstract Location of binding zones in the developed multiarray on a test strip (MATS) for simultaneous detection of eight pathogens. PMID:27007732

  14. Decision document on the revision of the VERA protocol on air cleaning technologies. Measuring techniques for the determination of the removal efficiency for ammonia

    OpenAIRE

    Mosquera Losada, J.; Edouard, N.; Guiziou, F.; Melse, R.W.; Riis, A.L.; Sommer, S.; Brusselman, E.

    2014-01-01

    In the project “ICT-AGRI: Development of harmonized sampling and measurement methods for odour, ammonia and dust emissions” different subgroups have been formed focusing on either ammonia, odour or dust. In this report, the conclusions of the ammonia subgroup regarding harmonization of measurement methods for the estimation of the ammonia removal from air cleaning technologies are summarized.

  15. Experimental study of an air-source heat pump for simultaneous heating and cooling - Part 2: Dynamic behaviour and two-phase thermosiphon defrosting technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: → Experimental study of an air-source heat pump for simultaneous heating and cooling. → Operating sequences alternating between heating, cooling and simultaneous modes. → Validation of the high pressure control system. → Validation of the non-penalizing two-phase thermosiphon defrosting sequence. - Abstract: This article presents the concepts of an air-source heat pump for simultaneous heating and cooling (HPS) designed for hotels and smaller residential, commercial and office buildings in which simultaneous needs in heating and cooling are frequent. The main advantage of the HPS is to carry out simultaneously space heating and space cooling with the same energy input. Ambient air is used as a balancing source to run a heating or a cooling mode. The second advantage is that, during winter, energy recovered by the subcooling of the refrigerant is stored at first in a water tank and used subsequently as a cold source at the water evaporator to improve the average performance and to carry out defrosting of the air evaporator using a two-phase thermosiphon. Unlike conventional air-source heat pumps, defrosting is carried out without stopping the heat production. A R407C HPS prototype was built and tested. The basic concepts of the HPS are detailed in part1 of this article . Its performance on defined operating conditions corresponds to the data given by the selection software of the compressor manufacturer. In the present part of this article, the operation of the high pressure control system, the transitions between heating, cooling and simultaneous modes and the defrosting sequence are analysed and validated experimentally.

  16. Water Vapor, Temperature and Wind Profiles within Maize Canopy under in-Field Rainwater Harvesting with Wide and Narrow Runoff Strips

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weldemichael A. Tesfuhuney

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Micrometeorological measurements were used to evaluate heat and water vapor to describe the transpiration (Ev and soil evaporation (Es processes for wide and narrow runoff strips under in-field rainwater harvesting (IRWH system. The resulting sigmoid-shaped water vapor (ea in wide and narrow runoff strips varied in lower and upper parts of the maize canopy. In wide runoff strips, lapse conditions of ea extended from lowest measurement level (LP to the upper middle section (MU and inversion was apparent at the top of the canopy. The virtual potential temperature (θv profile showed no difference in middle section, but the lower and upper portion (UP had lower  in narrow, compared to wide, strips, and LP-UP changes of 0.6 K and 1.2 K were observed, respectively. The Ev and Es within the canopy increased the ea concentration as determined by the wind order of magnitude. The ea concentration reached peak at about 1.6 kPa at a range of wind speed value of 1.4–1.8 m∙s−1 and 2.0–2.4 m∙s−1 for wide and narrow treatments, respectively. The sparse maize canopy of the wide strips could supply more drying power of the air in response to atmospheric evaporative demand compared to narrow strips. This is due to the variation in air flow in wide and narrow runoff strips that change gradients in ea for evapotranspiration processes.

  17. A Technique for Determining Relaxation Times by Free-Flight Tests of Low-Fineness-Ratio Cones; with Experimental Results for Air at Equilibrium Temperatures up to 3440 K

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, Jack D.

    1960-01-01

    This report describes a technique which combines theory and experiments for determining relaxation times in gases. The technique is based on the measurement of shapes of the bow shock waves of low-fineness-ratio cones fired from high-velocity guns. The theory presented in the report provides a means by which shadowgraph data showing the bow waves can be analyzed so as to furnish effective relaxation times. Relaxation times in air were obtained by this technique and the results have been compared with values estimated from shock tube measurements in pure oxygen and nitrogen. The tests were made at velocities ranging from 4600 to 12,000 feet per second corresponding to equilibrium temperatures from 35900 R (19900 K) to 6200 R (34400 K), under which conditions, at all but the highest temperatures, the effective relaxation times were determined primarily by the relaxation time for oxygen and nitrogen vibrations.

  18. Air Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Air pollution is a mixture of solid particles and gases in the air. Car emissions, chemicals from factories, dust, pollen and ... Ozone, a gas, is a major part of air pollution in cities. When ozone forms air pollution, ...

  19. Thickness dependence of fracture behaviour in a superconducting strip

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    When subjected to a magnetic field, a superconducting strip will undergo an electromagnetic body force induced by flux pinning. The magnitude of the body force is dependent on the critical current density. It is well known that the critical current density in the strip will decrease with increasing thickness. In addition, the mechanical behaviour of the strip will also be affected by the thickness of the strip. Thus, the strip thickness has an influence on both the electromagnetic and mechanical behaviours. In this paper, we analyse the fracture behaviour by considering the competition of electromagnetic and mechanical behaviours. In order to study the central crack problem of a superconducting strip with different thicknesses, we replace the electromagnetic body force with the total surface force. Using a Fourier transform method, the boundary value problem is reduced to a singular integral equation. By solving the singular integral equation, we obtain the stress intensity factors for two different crack lengths during field descent. The results show that the stress intensity factor is not a monotonic function of the thickness and that two competing factors dominate in different field regions. It is necessary to obtain the optimized thickness by considering both the superconductivity and mechanical behaviour in the superconducting strip. (paper)

  20. The water crisis in the gaza strip: prospects for resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinthal, E; Vengosh, A; Marei, A; Kloppmann, W

    2005-01-01

    Israel and the Palestinian Authority share the southern Mediterranean coastal aquifer. Long-term overexploitation in the Gaza Strip has resulted in a decreasing water table, accompanied by the degradation of its water quality. Due to high levels of salinity and nitrate and boron pollution, most of the ground water is inadequate for both domestic and agricultural consumption. The rapid rate of population growth in the Gaza Strip and dependence upon ground water as a single water source present a serious challenge for future political stability and economic development. Here, we integrate the results of geochemical studies and numerical modeling to postulate different management scenarios for joint management between Israel and the Palestinian Authority. The chemical and isotopic data show that most of the salinity phenomena in the Gaza Strip are derived from the natural flow of saline ground water from Israel toward the Gaza Strip. As a result, the southern coastal aquifer does not resemble a classic "upstream-downstream" dispute because Israel's pumping of the saline ground water reduces the salinization rates of ground water in the Gaza Strip. Simulation of different pumping scenarios using a monolayer, hydrodynamic, two-dimensional model (MARTHE) confirms the hypothesis that increasing pumping along the Gaza Strip border combined with a moderate reduction of pumping within the Gaza Strip would improve ground water quality within the Gaza Strip. We find that pumping the saline ground water for a source of reverse-osmosis desalination and then supplying the desalinated water to the Gaza Strip should be an essential component of a future joint management strategy between Israel and the Palestinian Authority.

  1. The readout chain for the bar PANDA MVD strip detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnell, R.; Brinkmann, K.-Th.; Di Pietro, V.; Kleines, H.; Goerres, A.; Riccardi, A.; Rivetti, A.; Rolo, M. D.; Sohlbach, H.; Zaunick, H.-G.

    2015-02-01

    The bar PANDA (antiProton ANnihilation at DArmstadt) experiment will study the strong interaction in annihilation reactions between an antiproton beam and a stationary gas jet target. The detector will comprise different sub-detectors for tracking, particle identification and calorimetry. The Micro-Vertex Detector (MVD) as the innermost part of the tracking system will allow precise tracking and detection of secondary vertices. For the readout of the double-sided silicon strip sensors a custom-made ASIC is being developed, employing the Time-over-Threshold (ToT) technique for digitization and utilize time-to-digital converters (TDC) to provide a high-precision time stamp of the hit. A custom-made Module Data Concentrator ASIC (MDC) will multiplex the data of all front-ends of one sensor towards the CERN-developed GBT chip set (GigaBit Transceiver). The MicroTCA-based MVD Multiplexer Board (MMB) at the off-detector site will receive and concentrate the data from the GBT links and transfer it to FPGA-based compute nodes for global event building.

  2. Software design of the ATLAS Muon Cathode Strip Chamber ROD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murillo, R.; Huffer, M.; Claus, R.; Herbst, R.; Lankford, A.; Schernau, M.; Panetta, J.; Sapozhnikov, L.; Eschrich, I.; Deng, J.

    2012-12-01

    The ATLAS Cathode Strip Chamber system consists of two end-caps with 16 chambers each. The CSC Readout Drivers (RODs) are purpose-built boards encapsulating 13 DSPs and around 40 FPGAs. The principal responsibility of each ROD is for the extraction of data from two chambers at a maximum trigger rate of 75 KHz. In addition, each ROD is in charge of the setup, control and monitoring of the on-detector electronics. This paper introduces the design of the CSC ROD software. The main features of this design include an event flow schema that decentralizes the different dataflow streams, which can thus operate asynchronously at its own natural rate; an event building mechanism that associates data transferred by the asynchronous streams belonging to the same event; and a sparcification algorithm that discards uninteresting events and thus reduces the data occupancy volume. The time constraints imposed by the trigger rate have made paramount the use of optimization techniques such as the curiously recurrent template pattern and the programming of critical code in assembly language. The behaviour of the CSC RODs has been characterized in order to validate its performance.

  3. A state-of-the-art review of transportation systems evaluation techniques relevant to air transportation, volume 1. [urban planning and urban transportation using decision theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haefner, L. E.

    1975-01-01

    Mathematical and philosophical approaches are presented for evaluation and implementation of ground and air transportation systems. Basic decision processes are examined that are used for cost analyses and planning (i.e, statistical decision theory, linear and dynamic programming, optimization, game theory). The effects on the environment and the community that a transportation system may have are discussed and modelled. Algorithmic structures are examined and selected bibliographic annotations are included. Transportation dynamic models were developed. Citizen participation in transportation projects (i.e, in Maryland and Massachusetts) is discussed. The relevance of the modelling and evaluation approaches to air transportation (i.e, airport planning) is examined in a case study in St. Louis, Missouri.

  4. Improvement of Prediction Method for Strip Coiling Temperature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Qing-bo; WANG Zhao-dong; WANG Zhe-ying; LIU Xiang-hua; WANG Guo-dong

    2003-01-01

    In order to improve the control precision of strip coiling temperature for hot strip mill, the BP neural network was combined with mathematical model to calculate convective heat-transfer coefficient of laminar flow cooling. The off-line calculated results indicate that the standard deviation of coiling temperature prediction is reduced by 22.84 % with the convective heat-transfer coefficient calculated by BP neural network. The prospects of this method for on-line application are bright. This method is more helpful to increasing the control precision of coiling temperature for hot strip steel.

  5. New technology for the production of magnesium strips and sheets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Kawalla

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available A new production technology for magnesium strip, based on twin-roll-casting and strip rolling was developed in Freiberg Germany. By means of this economic method it is possible to produce strips in deep drawing quality with good forming properties in order to satisfy the request for low cost Mg sheets in the automotive and electronic industry. Both, coils as single sheets, were manufactured and rolled to a thickness of 1mm(0,5 mm. The technology of the new process and the properties of the twin-roll-casted material and the final sheets are presented.

  6. Water Modeling of Twin-Roll Strip Casting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Bo; ZHANG Jie-yu; FAN Jun-fei; ZHAO Shun-li; FANG Yuan; AN Sheng-li

    2006-01-01

    Twin-roll strip casting is regarded as a prospective technology of near net shape continuous casting. The fluid flow field and level fluctuation in the pool have a strong influence not only on composition and temperature homogeneity of pool, but also on the strip quality. A 1∶1 water model of a twin-roll strip caster was set up based on the criteria of Froude number and Reynold number similarity. The level fluctuation was measured. The influence of pool depth, casting speed and feeding system configuration on level fluctuation in the pool was studied. The experimental results provided a basis for the optimization of feeding system and process parameters.

  7. Element Tracking Strategies for Hot Strip Laminar Cooling Control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAN Bin; ZHANG Zhong-ping; LIU Xiang-hua; WANG Guo-dong

    2005-01-01

    Feedforward control is the core to control function in the cooling process of hot strip. One of the most important tasks in feedforward control is to determine the arrival time of the strip at various locations on the runout table for effective control. Based on the principles of element tracking and tracking strategies for variable rolling speed and constant rolling speed, a simple diagonal tracking method for an existing hot strip mill was proposed and tested. The test results show that the proposed strategies are effective for improving tracking control.

  8. Study on the air-lift circulation technique for water-well drilling in karst leaking stratum%岩溶漏失层气助正循环水井钻探新技术的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋志彬; 张金昌; 许刘万

    2012-01-01

    气助正循环水井钻探新技术主要适用于以岩溶地层为特征的严重漏失地层.该技术通过在双壁钻具的内外管之间泵入压缩空气,举升在钻具与孔壁之间的“环空”形成的空气泥浆.“环空”的气举加速作用阻碍了钻井循环液在地层方向的漏失,并且加速了钻屑的上返速度.该技术的优点在北京房山区岩溶漏失地层的600m水井钻探生产试验中得到了证实.试验结果表明,利用该技术可使泥浆正循环中因严重漏失造成的循环液中断得以恢复,“环空气举作用”大幅度提高了上返的泥浆流量.经对比试验证明,气助正循环工艺在岩溶漏失层的钻进速度高于气举反循环和泥浆正循环,是解决岩溶漏失层钻井液循环中断、钻头烧钻、埋钻等钻探事故的有效方法.%This technique is mainly concerned with a new study of water-well drilling method, which is well applied in severe leakage stratum, especially in karst stratum. Unlike other drilling method, air-lift drilling technique applies the compressed air through the dual wall drilling pipe, lifting the air-mud in annular space between the outer pipe and the wall of hole. The accelerated air-mud speeds up the circulating mud to reduce the leakage capacity and lift cuttings rapidly. Several advantages of this drilling technique were found in the fieldwork research which undertook in the 600 m water well drilling in Fangshan, Beijing. The fieldwork research mainly carried out by the experiment of air-lift drilling tools revealed that the broken circulation of drilling mud had been recovered and the flow of the return mud had been largely improved. The drilling speed of this technique is quicker than the air-lift reverse circulation or the mud drilling method. In severe-leakage stratum, this technique has been proved to be efficient in solve drilling problems, such as broken circulation and burned drill bit. Further study of air-lift drilling method

  9. Effects of thermo-mechanical treatment and microalloying with Cr, Nb and Ti on phase transformation in C-Mn steel strips produced by compact strip production process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Y.Z., E-mail: tozyz1@163.com [Key Laboratory for Ferrous Metallurgy and Resources Utilization of Ministry of Education, Wuhan University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430081 (China) and School of Materials and Metallurgy, Wuhan University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430081 (China); Liang, D.M.; Li, J.C. [School of Materials and Metallurgy, Wuhan University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430081 (China); Xu, J.P.; Xue, Z.L. [Key Laboratory for Ferrous Metallurgy and Resources Utilization of Ministry of Education, Wuhan University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430081 (China)

    2011-11-15

    Highlights: {yields} The order of solid solution of carbides influences phase transformation of C-Mn steel in cooling. {yields} Evidences of early stage of solid solution of carbides were provides in the paper. {yields} Transitional state evidences such as carbon enriched regions were observed in this study. - Abstract: The C-Mn steel strips microalloyed with Cr, Nb, Ti was produced by compact strip production process and then heat-treated under different conditions. Optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy were used to investigate phase transformations in the steel after different treatments. It was revealed that the phase transformations upon quenching were greatly affected by the austenization temperature and time. When the steel was annealed at 950 deg. C, carbides of Cr, Mn and Fe were dissolved dramatically, while carbides of Nb and Ti are relatively stable at this temperature. When the temperature increases to 1100 deg. C, the carbides of Nb were dissolved rapidly, while the carbides of Ti still show somewhat stable (partial dissolution). Annealing time influences both the amount and the shapes of carbides in the steel, which leads to different phase transformations in the following air cooling processes. Grain growth in the steel in annealing process strongly depends on the dissolution of carbides on grain boundaries. Additionally, a subsequent rolling after annealing treatment at 950 deg. C lead to obvious precipitation of carbides of Ti and Nb in the steel.

  10. Simultaneous Co-deposition of Zn-Mg Alloy Layers on Steel Strip by PVD Process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Tae Yeob [POSCO Technical Research Laboratories, Gwangyang (Korea, Republic of); Goodenough, Mark [Strategic Marketing, Tata Steel, Warwickshire (United Kingdom)

    2011-12-15

    This is the first release of an interim report on the development of coating technology of Zn-Mg alloy layers on steel strip by EML-PVD (electromagnetic levitation - physical vapor deposition) process in an air-to-air type continuous PVD pilot plant. It intends to introduce a basic principle of the EML-PVD process together with the high speed PVD pilot plant built in Posco. Due to the agitation effect provided by the high frequency induction coil, simultaneous evaporation of Zn and Mg from a droplet could produce alloy coating layers with Mg content of 6% to 12% depending on the composition of the droplet inside the coil. For its superior corrosion resistance, Zn-Mg alloy coated steel would be a very promising material for automotive, electrical appliances, and construction applications.

  11. Application of continuous seismic-reflection techniques to delineate paleochannels beneath the Neuse River at US Marine Corps Air Station, Cherry Point, North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardinell, Alex P.

    1999-01-01

    A continuous seismic-reflection profiling survey was conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey on the Neuse River near the Cherry Point Marine Corps Air Station during July 7-24, 1998. Approximately 52 miles of profiling data were collected during the survey from areas northwest of the Air Station to Flanner Beach and southeast to Cherry Point. Positioning of the seismic lines was done by using an integrated navigational system. Data from the survey were used to define and delineate paleochannel alignments under the Neuse River near the Air Station. These data also were correlated with existing surface and borehole geophysical data, including vertical seismic-profiling velocity data collected in 1995. Sediments believed to be Quaternary in age were identified at varying depths on the seismic sections as undifferentiated reflectors and lack the lateral continuity of underlying reflectors believed to represent older sediments of Tertiary age. The sediments of possible Quaternary age thicken to the southeast. Paleochannels of Quaternary age and varying depths were identified beneath the Neuse River estuary. These paleochannels range in width from 870 feet to about 6,900 feet. Two zones of buried paleochannels were identified in the continuous seismic-reflection profiling data. The eastern paleochannel zone includes two large superimposed channel features identified during this study and in re-interpreted 1995 land seismic-reflection data. The second paleochannel zone, located west of the first paleochannel zone, contains several small paleochannels near the central and south shore of the Neuse River estuary between Slocum Creek and Flanner Beach. This second zone of channel features may be continuous with those mapped by the U.S. Geological Survey in 1995 using land seismic-reflection data on the southern end of the Air Station. Most of the channels were mapped at the Quaternary-Tertiary sediment boundary. These channels appear to have been cut into the older sediments

  12. Profile of a science comic strip author

    CERN Multimedia

    Anaïs Schaeffer

    2014-01-01

    After studying visual arts, Lison Bernet worked as a lock keeper, waitress, grape picker, farm labourer and chef before finally returning to her first love: drawing. Today a scientific illustrator, Lison is the author of the cartoon strip "La BD du LHC", which she draws every month for LHC France (by CNRS/IN2P3 and CEA/Irfu, see here).   © Lison Bernet. Lison’s career path might seem somewhat chaotic, but it is a reflection of the artist herself: original and passionate. “I never do anything by half measures. When I got into cooking for example [Lison took a chef training course for adults], I became completely wrapped up in it. I even went as far as cooking roasts during my lunch hour, just for practice…” says Lison. On completing the course, Lison got a job as a chef on a canal boat. And it was then that she got the drawing bug again. “I started keeping an illustrated travel diary,” she says. &ldquo...

  13. An improved rolled strip pulse forming line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Song; Qian, Bao-Liang; Yang, Han-Wu; Gao, Jing-Ming; Liu, Zhao-Xi

    2013-06-01

    The rolled strip pulse forming line (RSPFL) has advantages of compactness, portability, and long pulse achievability which could well meet the requirements of industrial application of the pulse power technology. In this paper, an improved RSPFL with an additional insulator between the grounded conductors is investigated numerically and experimentally. Results demonstrate that the jitter on the flat-top of the output voltage waveform is reduced to 3.8% due to the improved structure. Theoretical analysis shows that the electromagnetic coupling between the conductors of the RSPFL strongly influences the output voltage waveform. Therefore, the new structure was designed to minimize the detrimental effect of the electromagnetic coupling. Simulation results show that the electromagnetic coupling can be efficiently reduced in the improved RSPFL. Experimental results illustrate that the improved RSPFL, with dimensions and weight of Φ 290 × 250 mm and 16 kg, when used as a simple pulse forming line, could generate a well shaped quasi-square pulse with output power of hundreds of MW and pulse duration of 250 ns. Importantly, the improved RSPFL was successfully used as a Blumlein pulse forming line, and a 10.8 kV, 260 ns quasi-square pulse was obtained on a 2 Ω dummy load. Experiments show reasonable agreement with numerical analysis.

  14. Study of highly stripped ionic spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The soft X-ray emission spectra from very highly stripped ions of the medium-Z elements of 22T, 26Fe, 28Ni, 29Cu, 30Zn and 32Ge, and the high-Z elements of 72Hf, 73Ta, 74W and 75Re have been observed in laser-produced plasmas generated by focusing a Nd-glass laser beam onto the surface of the plane solid targets at the 'Xing Guang' laser facility. The spectra in the range of 3.6∼300 angstrom were recorded by using four flat crystal spectrographs with different 2d spacing and a 1-m grazing incidence grating spectrometer, respectively. Several hundred lines from Na-like through H-like ions of six medium-Z elements and from Co-like and Ni-like ions of four high-Z elements were identified and classified on the basis of a comparison between the measured wavelengths and intensities with the predicted values which were calculated by Hartree-Fock-Relativistic method with configuration interaction and the multiconfiguration Dirac-Fock-Relativistic method with configuration interaction and the multiconfiguration Dirac-Fock method. The quasi-continuum bands in Cu-like through Ge-like ions of Hf, Ta, W and Re were analyzed by unresolved spin-orbit-split array model

  15. Surface-integral formalism of deuteron stripping

    CERN Document Server

    Mukhamedzhanov, A M; Bertulani, C A; Kadyrov, A S

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to develop an alternative theory of deuteron stripping to resonance states based on the surface integral formalism of Kadyrov et al. [Ann. Phys. 324, 1516 (2009)] and continuum-discretized coupled channels (CDCC). First we demonstrate how the surface integral formalism works in the three-body model and then we consider a more realistic problem in which a composite structure of target nuclei is taken via optical potentials. We explore different choices of channel wave functions and transition operators and show that a conventional CDCC volume matrix element can be written in terms of a surface-integral matrix element, which is peripheral, and an auxiliary matrix element, which determines the contribution of the nuclear interior over the variable $r_{nA}$. This auxiliary matrix element appears due to the inconsistency in treating of the $n-A$ potential: this potential should be real in the final state to support bound states or resonance scattering and complex in the initial state t...

  16. The progenitors of stripped-envelope supernovae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elias-Rosa, N.

    2013-05-01

    The type Ib/c SNe are those explosions which come from massive star populations, but lack hydrogen and helium. These have been proposed to originate in the explosions of massive Wolf-Rayet stars, and we should easily be able to detect the very luminous, young progenitors if they exist. However, there has not been any detection of progenitors so far. I present the study of two extinguished Type Ic SNe 2003jg and 2004cc. In both cases there is no clear evidence of a direct detection of their progenitors in deep pre-explosion images. Upper limits derived by inserting artificial stars of known brightness at random positions around the progenitor positions (M_v>-8.8 and M_v>-9 magnitudes for the progenitors of SN 2003jg and SN 2004cc, respectively) are brighter than those expected for a massive WC (Wolf-Rayet, carbon-rich) or WO (Wolf-Rayet, oxygen-rich) (e.g., approximately between -3 and -6 in the LMC). Therefore, this is perhaps further evidence that the most massive stars may give rise to black-holes forming SNe, or it is an undetected, compact massive star hidden by a thick dust lane. However the extinction toward these SNe is currently one of the largest known. Even if these results do not directly reveal the nature of the type Ic SN progenitors, they can help to characterize the dusty environment which surrounded the progenitor of the stripped-envelope CC-SNe.

  17. The ALICE silicon strip detector system

    CERN Document Server

    Kuijer, P

    2000-01-01

    ALICE (A Large Ion Collider Experiment) is an experiment at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) optimized for the study of heavy-ion collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of 5.5 TeV per nucleon. The detector consists essentially of two main components: the central part, composed of detectors mainly devoted to the study of hadronic signals and dielectrons, and the forward muon spectrometer devoted to the study of quarkonia behaviour in dense matter. The central part, which covers +-45 deg. (|eta|<0.9) over the full azimuth, is embedded in a large magnet with a weak solenoidal field. Outside of the Inner Tracking System (ITS), there are a cylindrical TPC and a large area PID array of time-of-flight (TOF) counters. In addition, there are two small-area single-arm detectors: an electromagnetic calorimeter (Photon Spectrometer, PHOS) and an array of RICH counters optimized for high-momentum inclusive particle identification (HMPID). This article describes the silicon strip detector system used in the outer layers o...

  18. Real-Time Plasmonic Monitoring of Single Gold Amalgam Nanoalloy Electrochemical Formation and Stripping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun-Gang; Fossey, John S; Li, Meng; Xie, Tao; Long, Yi-Tao

    2016-03-01

    Direct electrodeposition of mercury onto gold nanorods on an ITO substrate, without reducing agents, is reported. The growth of single gold amalgam nanoalloy particles and subsequent stripping was monitored in real-time monitoring by plasmonic effects and single-nanoparticle dark-field spectroelectrochemistry techniques. Time-dependent scattering spectral information conferred insight into the growth and stripping mechanism of a single nanoalloy particle. Four critical stages were observed: First, rapid deposition of Hg atoms onto Au nanorods; second, slow diffusion of Hg atoms into Au nanorods; third, prompt stripping of Hg atoms from Au nanorods; fourth, moderate diffusion from the inner core of Au nanorods. Under high Hg(2+) concentrations, homogeneous spherical gold amalgam nanoalloys were obtained. These results demonstrate that the morphology and composition of individual gold amalgam nanoalloys can be precisely regulated electrochemically. Moreover, gold amalgam nanoalloys with intriguing optical properties, such as modulated plasmonic lifetimes and quality factor Q, could be obtained. This may offer opportunities to extend applications in photovoltaic energy conversion and chemical sensing. PMID:26942394

  19. Determination of water in room temperature ionic liquids by cathodic stripping voltammetry at a gold electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Chuan; Bond, Alan M; Lu, Xunyu

    2012-03-20

    An electrochemical method based on cathodic stripping voltammetry at a gold electrode has been developed for the determination of water in ionic liquids. The technique has been applied to two aprotic ionic liquids, (1-butyl-3-ethylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate and 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate), and two protic ionic liquids, (bis(2-hydroxyethyl)ammonium acetate and triethylammonium acetate). When water is present in an ionic liquid, electrooxidation of a gold electrode forms gold oxides. Thus, application of an anodic potential scan or holding the potential of the electrode at a very positive value leads to accumulation of an oxide film. On applying a cathodic potential scan, a sensitive stripping peak is produced as a result of the reduction of gold oxide back to gold. The magnitude of the peak current generated from the stripping process is a function of the water concentration in an ionic liquid. The method requires no addition of reagents and can be used for the sensitive and in situ determination of water present in small volumes of ionic liquids. Importantly, the method allows the determination of water in the carboxylic acid-based ionic liquids, such as acetate-based protic ionic liquids, where the widely used Karl Fischer titration method suffering from an esterification side reaction which generates water as a side product.

  20. Model test on sand retaining wall reinforced with denti-strip inclusions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    In conventional reinforced soil structures,the reinforcements are often laid hori-zontally in the soil.In this paper,a new concept of soil reinforced with denti-strip inclusions was proposed and a series of laboratory model tests were carried out on sand retaining wall reinforced with denti-strip inclusions.Besides the horizontal displacements of the facing,the lateral earth pressures acting on vertical elements were measured.A microscopic measurement was performed to investigate the deformation and progressive failure of the sand within model retaining wall.Based on the image analytical technique,the bearing capability and interaction mechanism of reinforced sand retaining wall were analyzed.The model of the initial shear failure and potential failure surface were also put forward.From the experimental results,it is shown that denti-strip inclusions can increase the bearing capability of retaining wall significantly and restrict the facing displacements efficiently,as compared with conventional horizontal reinforcement.

  1. Non-Oriented Fe-Si Thin Strip Produced from Grain Oriented Fe-Si Strip by CSR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YE He-zhou; QI Ke-min; GAO Xiu-hua; QIU Chun-lin; LIU En

    2004-01-01

    The grain oriented silicon strip was rolled by cross shear rolling (CSR) and then annealed to manufacture non-oriented thin silicon strip of high quality. The recrystallization of rolled grain-oriented silicon steel into non-oriented silicon steel was studied. For this purpose, CSR is better than conventional rolling, and the higher the mismatched speed rate is, the better the properties of the non-oriented thin silicon strip are. The optimum annealing schedule is heating at 1 000 ℃ for 1 h in pure hydrogen atmosphere added with H2S of 0.001 0 %.

  2. Measurement of labile copper in wine by medium exchange stripping potentiometry utilising screen printed carbon electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Andrew C; Kontoudakis, Nikolaos; Barril, Celia; Schmidtke, Leigh M; Scollary, Geoffrey R

    2016-07-01

    The presence of copper in wine is known to impact the reductive, oxidative and colloidal stability of wine, and techniques enabling measurement of different forms of copper in wine are of particular interest in understanding these spoilage processes. Electrochemical stripping techniques developed to date require significant pretreatment of wine, potentially disturbing the copper binding equilibria. A thin mercury film on a screen printed carbon electrode was utilised in a flow system for the direct analysis of labile copper in red and white wine by constant current stripping potentiometry with medium exchange. Under the optimised conditions, including an enrichment time of 500s and constant current of 1.0μA, the response range was linear from 0.015 to 0.200mg/L. The analysis of 52 red and white wines showed that this technique generally provided lower labile copper concentrations than reported for batch measurement by related techniques. Studies in a model system and in finished wines showed that the copper sulfide was not measured as labile copper, and that loss of hydrogen sulfide via volatilisation induced an increase in labile copper within the model wine system.

  3. Acrylamide content and color development in fried potato strips

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedreschi, F.; Kaack, K.; Granby, Kit

    2006-01-01

    and 45 min; 90 degrees C for 3 and 10 min); (iii) immersed in a citric acid solution of 10 g/L for an hour; (iv) immersed in a sodium pyrophosphate solution of 10 g/L for an hour. Acrylamide content and color was determined in the potato strips after frying. Immersed strips in water for 120 min showed...... (13 5, 327 and 564 mu m acrylamide/kg for 150, 170 and 190 degrees C, respectively). Potato strip immersion in citric acid solution of 10 g/L reduced much more the acrylamide formation after frying than the strip immersion in sodium pyrophosphate solution of 10 g/L (53% vs. 17%, respectively, average...

  4. Results of Laboratory Testing of Advanced Power Strips: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Earle, L.; Sparn, B.

    2012-08-01

    This paper describes the results of a laboratory investigation to evaluate the technical performance of advanced power strip (APS) devices when subjected to a range of home entertainment center and home office usage scenarios.

  5. SIMULATION OF THE TWIN ROLL STAINLESS STRIP CASTING PROCESS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Y.C. Miao; X.M. Zhang; G.D. Wang; H.S. Di; X.H. Liu

    2001-01-01

    The position of the solidification completed temperature of twin roll stainless strip casting process is very important to the quality of the casting strip. In order to control this position, the solidification completed temperature should be known at first.The present paper first simulated dendritic microsegregation under conditions of twin roll stainless strip casting, and got the relationship between the temperature and solid fraction of the mush zone. The temperatures such as ZDT (equal to the solidification completed temperature) and LIT (liquid impenetrable temperature), et al., also were obtained. Then by using the turbulent model, the flow and thermal fields of the pool of the twin roll stainless strip casting, and the speed and temperature fields of different casting speeds were given and also explained. The results are coincident with the experimental result. Combined with the results of these two simulations. the appropriated casting speed was found.

  6. Slow-plasmon resonant nano-strip antennas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Thomas; Beermann, Jonas; Boltasseva, Alexandra;

    2008-01-01

    Resonant scattering by gold nanostrip antennas due to constructive interference of counterpropagating slow surface plasmon polaritons SPPs is analyzed, including the quasistatic limit of ultrasmall antennas, and experimentally demonstrated. The phase of slow SPP reflection by strip ends is found...

  7. Data acquisition software for the CMS strip tracker

    CERN Document Server

    Bainbridge, R; Bel, S; Cole, J; Cripps, N; Delaere, C; Jesus, A C A; Drouhin, F; Fulcher, J; Giassi, A; Gill, K; Giordano, D; Gross, L; Hahn, K; Mersi, S; Mirabito, L; Nikolic, M; Radicci, V; Tkaczyk, S; Wingham, M

    2008-01-01

    The CMS silicon strip tracker, providing a sensitive area of approximately 200 m2 and comprising 10 million readout channels, has recently been completed at the tracker integration facility at CERN. The strip tracker community is currently working to develop and integrate the online and offline software frameworks, known as XDAQ and CMSSW respectively, for the purposes of data acquisition and detector commissioning and monitoring. Recent developments have seen the integration of many new services and tools within the online data acquisition system, such as event building, online distributed analysis, an online monitoring framework, and data storage management. We review the various software components that comprise the strip tracker data acquisition system, the software architectures used for stand-alone and global data-taking modes. Our experiences in commissioning and operating one of the largest ever silicon micro-strip tracking systems are also reviewed.

  8. Method for measuring the heavy stripped ion abundances of plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A description is given of a system which uses a velocity filter and an energy filter in tandem to analyze the abundances and energy spreads of highly stripped ions. The system can also serve as a plasma diagnostic. (Auth.)

  9. Nanoscale Test Strips for Multiplexed Blood Analysis Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The goal of our nanoscale test strips, or nanostrips, is to provide rapid, low-cost, powerful multiplexed analyses in a diminutive form so that whole body health...

  10. It is easier with CAD/CAM. Designing flow machines for air conditioning technique with computer-aided methods; Mit CAD/CAM geht`s besser. Stroemungsmaschinen fuer die Klimatechnik anwendungsspezifisch auslegen mit Hilfe computerunterstuetzter Methoden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carolus, T. [Universitaet-Gesamthochschule Siegen (Germany). Inst. fuer Fluid- und Thermodynamik; Homrighausen, B. [Universitaet-Gesamthochschule Siegen (Germany). Inst. fuer Fluid- und Thermodynamik; Beiler, M. [Universitaet-Gesamthochschule Siegen (Germany). Inst. fuer Fluid- und Thermodynamik

    1994-08-08

    One requires many flow machines for circulation and delivery in air conditioning and ventilation technique. Computer-aided design and manufacture (CAD/CAM) and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) are now important aids for queck and reliable development of advanced flow machines. Conventional design processes supply the raw data of the generally very complicated geometry. (orig.) [Deutsch] In der Klima- und Lueftungstechnik benoetigt man zahlreiche Stroemungsmaschinen zum Umwaelzen und Foerdern. CAD/CAM (Computer aided design und manufacture) und CFD (Computational fluid dynamics) sind heute wichtige Hilfsmittel zur schnellen und zuverlaessigen Entwicklung fortschrittlicher Stroemungsmaschinen. Klassische Auslegeverfahren liefern die Rohdaten der allgemein sehr komplizierten Geometrie. (orig.)

  11. Ram Pressure Stripping in Groups: Comparing Theory and Observations

    OpenAIRE

    Hester, J. A.

    2006-01-01

    Ram pressure stripping may be the dominant mechanisms driving the evolution of galaxy colors in groups and clusters. In this paper, an analytic model of ram pressure stripping is confronted with observations of galaxy colors and star formation rates in groups using a group catalog drawn from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. An observed increase in the fraction of galaxies residing on the red sequence, the red fraction, with both increasing group mass, $M_{gr}$, and decreasing satellite luminosit...

  12. Rigorous LiDAR Strip Adjustment with Triangulated Aerial Imagery

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Y. J.; Xiong, X. D.; Hu, X Y

    2013-01-01

    This paper proposes a POS aided LiDAR strip adjustment method. Firstly, aero-triangulation of the simultaneously obtained aerial images is conducted with a few photogrammetry-specific ground control points. Secondly, LiDAR intensity images are generated from the reflectance signals of laser foot points, and conjugate points are automatically matched between the LiDAR intensity image and the aero-triangulated aerial image. Control points used in LiDAR strip adjustment are derived from...

  13. Continuous extrusion and rolling forming technology of copper strip manufacture

    OpenAIRE

    Yun Xinbing; Zhou Mo; Tian Tian; Zhao Ying

    2015-01-01

    Continuous extrusion and rolling technology was proposed as a new strip production technology. It finished hot rolling process using the waste heat of the continuous extrusion forming. The continuous extrusion and rolling forming process was simulated by DEFORM-3DT software. The influence of extrusion wheel velocity and strip size on the continuous extrusion and rolling forming process was analyzed. The experiment was carried out according to optimized results of numerical simulation, the mic...

  14. The diagonal strip system in the Macro experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devicenzi, M.; Lipari, P.; Martellotti, G.; Pellizzoni, G.

    1988-11-01

    The Macro scintillation counter modular system with streamer tubes and track-etch detectors is presented, and the characteristics, manufacturing, and assembling of its pick-up strips are described. The strips are composed of thin conducting plates 31 mm long, spaced 2.6 mm apart, and bonded on a 1 mm polyvinyl chloride (PVC) ribbon with a grounded metal surface on the other side of the ribbon. The manufacturing is done by bonding the aluminum elements on the PVC ribbon.

  15. PECULIAR FEATURES PERTAINING TO STRIP FORMATION FROM BAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. N. Zdor

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes results of calculations and presents experimental substantiation of the dependence of a strip width being rolled out of a 10-mm diameter bar on its final thickness. It has been shown that the formation technology of thin steel strips out of a round bar makes it possible without any difficulties to obtain rolled products with the given cross-section dimensions due to proper selection of single drafting.

  16. PECULIAR FEATURES PERTAINING TO STRIP FORMATION FROM BAR

    OpenAIRE

    G. N. Zdor; L. A. Isaevich; S. V. Ivanitsky

    2010-01-01

    The paper describes results of calculations and presents experimental substantiation of the dependence of a strip width being rolled out of a 10-mm diameter bar on its final thickness. It has been shown that the formation technology of thin steel strips out of a round bar makes it possible without any difficulties to obtain rolled products with the given cross-section dimensions due to proper selection of single drafting.

  17. Quality assessment of Izaña's upper-air water vapour measurement techniques: FTIR, Cimel, MFRSR, GPS, and Vaisala RS92

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Schneider

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available At the Izaña Atmospheric Research Centre water vapour amounts are measured routinely by different techniques since many years. We intercompare the total precipitable water vapour amounts measured between 2005 and 2009 by a Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR spectrometer, a Multifilter rotating shadow-band radiometer (MFRSR, a Cimel sunphotometer, a Global Positioning System (GPS receiver, and daily radiosondes (Vaisala RS92. In addition we intercompare the water vapor profiles measured by the FTIR and the radiosondes. The long-term intercomparison assures that our study well represents the large water vapour variabilities that occur in the troposphere and allows a reliable empirical quality assessment for the different water vapour dataset. We examine how the data quality of the different techniques depends on atmospheric conditions and estimate the dry bias of the techniques which are restricted to clear sky observations.

  18. Development of a thin steel strip casting process. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, R.S.

    1994-04-01

    This is a comprehensive effort to develop direct strip casting to the point where a pilot scale program for casting carbon steel strip could be initiated. All important aspects of the technology were being investigated, however the program was terminated early due to a change in the business strategy of the primary contractor, Armco Inc. (focus to be directed at specialty steels, not low carbon steel). At termination, the project was on target on all milestones and under budget. Major part was casting of strip at the experiment casting facility. A new caster, capable of producing direct cast strip of up to 12 in. wide in heats of 1000 and 3000 lb, was used. A total of 81 1000-1200 lb heats were cast as well as one test heat of 3000 lb. Most produced strip of from 0.016 to 0.085 in. thick. Process reliability was excellent for short casting times; quality was generally poor from modern hot strip mill standards, but the practices necessary for good surface quality were identified.

  19. Research on Simulation Technique of Air Combat Based on HLA%基于HLA的空战仿真技术研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴礼广

    2011-01-01

    Air combat is one of the main features of the future wars, and has important research value.The paper briefly describes the composition and principle of HLA.According to hypothetical air combat scenarios, aircraft model was decomposed into radar, command control and missile three modules.Respectively analysis the probability of finding the target on the radar, warplane select target in multiwarplane and the missile hit in the electronic interference modeling.Combined with data exchange and declaration in warplane federate, propose feasible proposals.It can be used to study the tactics of multiplane combat and performance analysis.%空战是未来战争的主要特征之一,有着重要研究价值.简述HLA组成及原理,根据假设的空战情景,将战机模型分解为雷达、指挥控制和导弹3个模块.分别对雷达发现目标概率,战机在多机空战下攻击目标的选择,导弹在电子干扰下命中情况进行建模分析.并结合战机联邦成员内部的数据交换和对外声明情况,提出可行方案.有助于多机空战战法研究和效能分析.

  20. Nuclear and atomic techniques in air pollution studies by transplant lichen exposure, bulk deposition and airborne particulate matter collection after 6 month exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work presents the preliminary results obtained in the study 'Air pollution monitoring by sampling airborne particulate matter combined with lichen bioaccumulator exposure', in progress at IDRANAP Center of Excellence EU Project, ICA1-CT-2000-70023, WP2. Transplants of Evernia prunastri and Pseudevernia furfuracea lichen species from the Italian Prealps were exposed for 6 and 12 months at six locations with different degrees and types of industrial activity, as well as on a background site with relatively clean air (Fundata). At each investigated location, bulk deposition was collected for the same periods, while airborne particulate matter was sequentially collected during 2 months, in parallel with those at a reference station (Afumati). Pollution in the investigated areas is mainly due to the following industrial activities: steel manufacturing (Galati); non-ferrous ore processing (Baia Mare); chemicals and non-ferrous industry (Copsa Mica); coal-fired power plant and cement factory (Deva); traffic, coal-fired power plants, inorganic dyes and galvanic treatment factories (Oradea); agriculture, mixed industry and traffic (Afumati). The lichen material was analyzed by INAA, XRFA, and ICP-MS, while the aerosol filters were analyzed by INAA and XRFA. The bulk deposition was analyzed only by INAA. XRFA was carried out at Stuttgart, ICP-MS at Trondheim, while INAA at Bucharest (long lifetime radionuclides) and Delft (short lifetime radionuclides, and, in the case of bulk deposition, short and long lifetime radionuclides). The investigated elements having relevant role in environmental studies were: As, Br, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Mn, Ni, Pb, S, Sb, Sc, Se, V, and Zn. Cd, Co, Sb, and Sc could only be determined by INAA and ICP-MS, while Pb and S only by XRFA and ICP-MS. After 6-month exposure, both lichen species showed significant enrichment factors (relative to 'zero level', before exposure) for all the measured elements, except Br, Ca, K, and Mn. Small lichen

  1. Excised segments of rat small intestine in Ussing chamber studies: A comparison of native and stripped tissue viability and permeability to drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjögren, Erik; Eriksson, Johanna; Vedin, Charlotta; Breitholtz, Katarina; Hilgendorf, Constanze

    2016-05-30

    Excised rat intestinal tissue mounted in an Ussing chamber can be used for intestinal permeability assessments in drug development. The outer layer of the intestine, the serosa and part of the muscle layer, is traditionally removed since it is considered a barrier to the diffusion of nutrients and oxygen as well as to that of pharmaceutical substances. However, the procedure for removing the serosal-muscle layer, i.e. stripping, is a technically challenging process in the pre-experimental preparation of the tissue which may result in tissue damage and reduced viability of the segment. In this study, the viability of stripped and native (non-stripped) rat small intestine tissue segments mounted in Ussing chambers was monitored and the apparent permeability of the tissue to a set of test compounds across both tissue preparations was determined. Electrical measurements, in particular the potential difference (PD) across the intestinal membrane, were used to evaluate the viability. In this study, there were no differences in initial PD (health status of the tissue) or PD over time (viability throughout the experiment) between native and stripped rat jejunum segments. Overall, there were also no significant differences in permeability between stripped and native rat intestinal tissue for the compounds in this study. Based on these results, we propose that stripping can be excluded from the preparation procedures for rat jejunal tissue for permeability studies when using the Ussing chamber technique. PMID:27073083

  2. Microstructure and Eutectic Carbide Morphology of the High Speed Steel Strips Produced by Twin Roll Strip Casting Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hongshuang DI; Xiaoming ZHANG; Guodong WANG; Xianghua LIU

    2003-01-01

    The M2 high-speed steel strip was produced by using the laboratory scale twin roll strip caster. The microstructureand eutectic carbide morphology of thus produced products were observed and analyzed, and the comparison ofthose with conventional products was carried out. The effects of the processing parameters such as the meltingtemperature, the pouring temperature, rolling speed and separating force on the microstructure and eutectic carbidemorphology and their distribution were analyzed. The spheroidizing process of the strips in the annealing process wasinvestigated. The relations between the growth and spheroidizing of the eutectic carbide and the annealing technologywere obtained, and the mechanism of the twin roll strip casting process improving the eutectic carbide spheroidizingwas discussed. The theoretical instruction for determining the subsequent treatment process was provided.

  3. Modification of pure oxygen absorption equipment for concurrent stripping of carbon dioxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watten, B.J.; Sibrell, P.L.; Montgomery, G.A.; Tsukuda, S.M.

    2004-01-01

    The high solubility of carbon dioxide precludes significant desorption within commercial oxygen absorption equipment. This operating characteristic of the equipment limits its application in recirculating water culture systems despite its ability to significantly increase allowable fish loading rates (kg/(L min)). Carbon dioxide (DC) is typically removed by air stripping. This process requires a significant energy input for forced air movement, air heating in cold climates and water pumping. We developed a modification for a spray tower that provides for carbon dioxide desorption as well as oxygen absorption. Elimination of the air-stripping step reduces pumping costs while allowing dissolved nitrogen to drop below saturation concentrations. This latter response provides for an improvement in oxygen absorption efficiency within the spray tower. DC desorption is achieved by directing head-space gases from the spray tower (O2, N2, CO2) through a sealed packed tower scrubber receiving a 2 N NaOH solution. Carbon dioxide is selectively removed from the gas stream, by chemical reaction, forming the product Na 2CO3. Scrubber off-gas, lean with regard to carbon dioxide but still rich with oxygen, is redirected through the spray tower for further stripping of DC and absorption of oxygen. Make-up NaOH is metered into the scrubbing solution sump on an as needed basis as directed by a feedback control loop programmed to maintain a scrubbing solution pH of 11.4-11.8. The spent NaOH solution is collected, then regenerated for reuse, in a batch process that requires relatively inexpensive hydrated lime (Ca(OH)2). A by-product of the regeneration step is an alkaline filter cake, which may have use in bio-solids stabilization. Given the enhanced gas transfer rates possible with chemical reaction, the required NaOH solution flow rate through the scrubber represents a fraction of the spray tower water flow rate. Further, isolation of the water being treated from the atmosphere (1

  4. A study on the atmospheric concentrations of primary and secondary air pollutants in the Athens basin performed by DOAS and DIAL measuring techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalabokas, P D; Papayannis, A D; Tsaknakis, G; Ziomas, I

    2012-01-01

    In this work an analysis of continuous Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (DOAS) measurements of primary and secondary air pollutants (SO(2), NO(2) and O(3)) in the Athens basin is performed combined with Differential Absorption Lidar (DIAL) vertical ozone measurements obtained inside the Planetary Boundary Layer (PBL) and the lower free troposphere. The measurements took place during the period May 2005-February 2007, at the National Technical University of Athens Campus (200 m above sea level (asl.), 37.96 °N, 23.78 °E). The SO(2) and NO(2) DOAS measurements showed maximum 1-hour mean values (around 20 μg/m(3) and 74 μg/m(3), respectively) in winter and did not exceed the current European Union (EU) air quality standards (European Council Directive 2008/50/EC), in contrast to ozone, which shows its maximum (around 128 μg/m(3)) in summer and frequently exceeds the EU standard for human health protection (120 μg/m(3)). If the measurements are classified according to the two most frequent flow-patterns of the air masses in the Athens basin (northern-southern circulation), it is observed that in general the atmospheric concentrations of all measured pollutants including ozone are higher when the southern circulation occurs, in comparison to the corresponding values under the northern circulation. The vertical ozone profiles obtained by DIAL were also higher under the southern circulation. During the summer months a mean difference (between the southern-northern circulations) of the order of 15-20 μg/m(3), maximized at the 0.9-1.1 km and 1.7-1.8 km height, was observed within the PBL. It was also observed that the summer surface ozone levels remained relatively high (around 80-110 μg/m(3)) even during strong northerly winds, verifying the high levels of rural surface ozone in the surrounding area reported by previous studies. PMID:22153607

  5. Magnetic Microstructure of Sintered Nd-Fe-B Magnets Made from Casting Strips

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FANG Yi-Kun; ZHU Ming-Gang; GUO Yong-Quan; LI Wei; HAN Bao-Shan

    2004-01-01

    @@ The magnetic microstructures of two Dy-Al substituted sintered Nd-FeB magnets with the different nominal compositions of Nd12.2Dy0.6Fes0.4Al0. 7B6 (at. %) (composition-A, C-A) and Nd13.7Dy0.6Fe78.8Al0.7B6.2 (at. %)(composition-B, C-B) prepared by strip casting technique have been revealed by using a magnetic force microscope.

  6. GREEN'S FUNCTIONS FOR 2D PROBLEMS OF ANISOTROPIC PIEZOELECTRIC MATERIAL WITH A STRIP REGION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hu Yiantai; Huang Yuying; Chen Chuanyao; Zhong Weifang

    2000-01-01

    By using Stroh's formalism and the conformal mapping technique, we derive the simple ex plicit elastic fields of a generalized line dislocation and a generalized line force in a general anisotropic piezo electric strip with fixed surfaces, which are two fixed conductor electrodes. The solutions obtained are usually considered as Green's functions which play important roles in the boundary element methods. The Coulomb forces of the distributed charges along the region boundaries on the line charge q at z0 are analysed in detail. The results are valid not only for plane and antiplane problems but also for the coupled problems between in plane and outplane deformations.

  7. Hemispherical Shell Nanostructures from Metal-Stripped Embossed Alumina on Aluminum Templates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter; Albrektsen, Ole; Simonsen, Adam Cohen;

    2011-01-01

    aluminum/ alumina (Al/Al2O3) templates as a novel and versatile nanofabrication procedure, and we demonstrate explicitly how to exploit the technique for developing large-area hexagonally close-packed hemispherical shell nanostructures by stripping noble metal layers from embossed templates fabricated from...... anodized Al. Utilizing for this process the linear relationship between anodization voltage and the resulting interpore distance in the formed oxide, it is possible to tune the radius of curvature of the resulting hemispherical shells continuously, which in turn results in tunable optical properties...

  8. EXACT SOLUTION FOR A TWO-DIMENSIONAL LAMB'S PROBLEM DUE TO A STRIP IMPULSE LOADING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    By applying the integral transform method and the inverse transformation technique based upon the two types of integration, the present paper has successfully obtained an exact algebraic solution for a two-dimensional Lamb's problem due to a strip impulse loading for the first time. With the algebraic result, the excitation and propagation processes of stress waves,including the longitudinal wave, the transverse wave, and Rayleigh-wave, are discussed in detail.A few new conclusions have been drawn from currently available integral results or computational results.

  9. Polarimetric sulfacrilate epidermal strippings analysis as a method of optical biopsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Utz S.R.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The study aims the development and evaluation of the effectiveness of tissues polarization probe in vitro conditions. The method is based on local estimation of polarization parameters of forward scattered radiation. Matherials and methods. Widely accepted technique of skin surface stripping with adhesive materials was used in this work. We used stereomicroscope "MC-2 ZOOM", ОСТ "The OCS1300SS" and polarimeter "THORLABS TXP 5004" to receive information about stratum corneum of normal and diseased skin (psoriasis, lichen planus, discoid lupus erythematosus, alopecia, scabies, demodex

  10. Automatic flatness control strategy with a Smith predictor for steel strip rolling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ruicheng; Zheng, Xin

    2011-10-01

    The simplified transfer function diagram block for a automatic flatness control (AFC) system of strip steel rolling process was investigated. For the problem of automatic flatness control (AFC) in cold tandem mills this paper proposes control techniques based on Smith predictor to compensate for the numerous delays present in the mill. After a Smith predictor was used to the AFC system, the control laws were deduced for both proportional and integral regulators. Control algorithms are tested in simulation considering a tandem mill with four stands as a benchmark, and results are shown to demonstrate the performance of the proposed schemes.

  11. QGS2020 type piano-wire probability screen - an important matching equipment in the coal dry beneficiation technique with air-dense medium fluidized bed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Y.; Chen, Q.; Fan, M.; Hong, J. [China University of Mining and Technology, Xuzhou (China)

    1996-12-31

    The efficient screening of raw coal at mesh sizes of 6 mm is a prerequisite to coal dry beneficiation with air-dense medium fluidized bed. Integrating the probability screen with the piano-wire screen, the authors developed the QGS2020 type piano-wire Probability Screen (PWPS), a new screen which has a large capacity, high efficiency, and no blinding. The results of the industrial tests show that this screen is able to meet the technical requirements of the coal dry beneficiation. This paper describes the operation principles, the structure features and the mechanical model of the QGS2020 type PWPS, and also includes data from industrial tests. 1 ref., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  12. Microstructure evolution of eutectic Al-Cu strips by high-speed twin-roll strip casting process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahoo, Seshadev; Ghosh, Sudipto

    2015-10-01

    In the present investigation, microstructural evolutions of functionally graded eutectic Al-Cu strips prepared by high-speed twin-roll strip caster at different casting speeds and liquid melt superheats were studied. The as-cast sample was subjected to scanning electron microscope to study the evolution of microstructure of the strip at different casting speeds and liquid melt superheats. At different casting speeds, non-equilibrium eutectic structure observed on the Al-Cu eutectic strip consists of lamellar as well as wavy structure with a distinct boundary. The lamellar microstructure consists of alternating layers of well-bonded α-Al phase and θ-Al2Cu phase. The globular flowery structure within the eutectic matrix was observed on the strip at different liquid melt superheats. The microhardness of the as-cast strip was studied by Vickers hardness tester, and it was found that hardness value increases with increasing casting speed and decreases with increasing liquid melt superheat.

  13. Control Strategies of Asymmetric Strip Shape in Six-High Cold Rolling Mill%Control Strategies of Asymmetric Strip Shape in Six-High Cold Rolling Mill

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Yun; YANG Quan; WANG Xiao-chen

    2011-01-01

    It is a complicated problem for cold-rolled strip to improve asymmetric strip shape in strip production. A roll system and strip coupled model of six-high cold rolling mill was established with finite element method to estimate the effect of intermediate roll shifting, tilting, symmetric and asymmetric bending technologies on strip profile. To reduce asymmetric defects of strip shape as much as possible, some control strategies were proposed, including tilting and asymmetric bending of intermediate roll and work roll. The combinations of these three control strategies can effectively eliminate asymmetric strip shape defects. Finally, the closed-loop control model of asymmetric flat- ness at the last stand was given, and the flatness control system with the function of asymmetric strip shape control was also designed for cold tandem mill.

  14. 脱碳方式对沼气发酵甲烷原位富集的影响%Influence of techniques for desorption of carbon dioxide on in situ methane enrichment during biogas fermentation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨世关; 李继红; 赵圆方; 肖婷; 董长青

    2014-01-01

    important step in this process is CO2 desorption. In this study we evaluated the effects of different CO2 desorption techniques. Three CO2 desorption methods including air stripping, vacuum extraction and ultrasonic-auxiliary air stripping were studied through experiments. The experiments were conducted under mesophilic (38℃) anaerobic digestion by using synthetic wastewater with glucose and supplemental nutrients. The experimental apparatus included one anaerobic digester with volume of 1 500 mL and two CO2-desorption bottles with volume of 500 mL used for air stripping and vacuum extraction respectively. The results showed that the average volume fraction of methane in biogas reached 76.4%and 78.3%for the air stripping groups (aeration fluxes of 205 mL/min and daily stripping time of 30min), and increased by 17%and 20%compared to the control (65.4%) with the daily recycle rates of liquid stream (DRR) at 0.2 L/(L·d) and 0.4 L/(L·d), respectively. The cumulative methane production is similar to controlled one for the group with DRR of 0.2 L/(L·d). But the cumulative methane production decreased by 15%compared with control one for the group with DRR of 0.4 L/(L·d). In situ methane enrichment effect of the group of CO2 vacuum extraction with 0.1 MPa vacuum maintaining 5 min was slightly lower than that of the air stripping group with aeration flux at 205 mL/min, daily stripping time 20min and DDR 0.2 L/(L·d). The methane volume fraction of biogas in the first group was decreased by 4.6% compared to that of the second group. However, the difference is not significant (P>0.05). The results of experiment of ultrasonic-auxiliary air stripping, with aeration flux of 100 mL/min, daily stripping time of 21 min and ultrasonic frequency of 40 kHz, show that ultrasonic wave can accelerate CO2 air stripping, especially when the concentration of CO2 in the liquid was high. During the initial 3 min of stripping the CO2 removing rate of ultrasonic-auxiliary air stripping group was

  15. Air Abrasion

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... delivered directly to your desktop! more... What Is Air Abrasion? Article Chapters What Is Air Abrasion? What Happens? The Pros and Cons Will I Feel Anything? Is Air Abrasion for Everyone? print full article print this ...

  16. Dynamic Response of Cable-Supported Façades Subjected to High-Level Air Blast Loads: Numerical Simulations and Mitigation Techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Claudio Amadio; Chiara Bedon

    2012-01-01

    A glazing façade subjected to blast loads has a structural behaviour that strongly differs from the typical response of a glazing system subjected to ordinary loads. Consequently, sophisticated modelling techniques are required to identify correctly its criticalities. The paper investigates the behaviour of a cable-supported façade subjected to high-level blast loading. Nonlinear dynamic analyses are performed in ABAQUS/Explicit using a sophisticated FE-model (M01), calibrated to dynamic expe...

  17. Measurement of H zero excited states produced by foil stripping of 800-MeV H- ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foil stripping of H- directly to H+ is being considered for proton injection in the next generation of high-current proton storage rings. This technique can result in significant losses because excited states of HO, which are also produced in the foil, are field stripped in the downstream bending magnets. Without due care in the injection system design, many of the resulting protons will be outside the acceptance of the storage ring and will be quickly lost. We measured the production of such H0 excited states at the LAMPF High Resolution Atomic Beam Facility. An 800-MeV H- beam was passed through carbon foils of thicknesses 70, 100, 200, and 300 μg/cm2, and the excited states were analyzed by a special magnet downstream of the foil. The magnet had a linear field gradient so that the trajectories of the outgoing protons could be used to reconstruct the field values at which the various H0 stripped. We found that about 1% of the H0 emerge in excited states which can be stripped to protons by ring-bending magnets

  18. Wavelength calculation of highly stripped ions S10+→S13+, Br23+, Br24+, Ge20+, Ge21+

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wavelengths of highly stripped ions S10+ →S13+ , Br23+ , Br24+ , Ge20+ , Ge21+ are calculated by means of GRASP code. The calculations are performed based on multiconfiguration Dirac-Fock technique. Corrections to the energy levels due to the retarded Coulomb interaction (Breit interaction) and the polarization of the vacuum by the nuclear distribution and electron self-energy are included in a perturbation approximation. Comparisons with the new experimental data by CIAE group are presented

  19. Experimental Investigation on Shear Resistance Behaviour of RC Precracked and Non-Precracked T-Beams using Discrete CFRP Strips

    OpenAIRE

    J. Jayaprakash; Abdul Samad, A. A.; A.A. Ashrabov; K.K. Choong

    2009-01-01

    The exploitation of Fibre Reinforced Polymer (FRP) composites as external reinforcement is an evergreen technique for improving the structural performance of the existing Reinforced Concrete (RC) structures. This paper presents a experimental investigation on shear strengthening capacity and modes of failure of precracked and non-precracked RC beams bonded externally with bi-directional Carbon Fibre Reinforced Polymer (CFRP) fabric strips. Twelve RC T- beams were fabricated with different int...

  20. [Detection of anti-Brucella spp. antibodies in swine by agglutination techniques and indirect ELISA in the Buenos Aires and La Pampa provinces, Argentina].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, H A; González, S R; Prat, M I; Baldi, P C

    2006-01-01

    Porcine brucellosis is one of the most important zoonoses in this country. Currently, there is no control program for porcine brucellosis in Argentina and the epidemiological situation is still unknown. The purpose of our study was to detect anti-Brucella spp. antibodies in swine in the southwest of the Buenos Aires province and the east of the La Pampa province. Blood samples were obtained when animals were slaughtered. The presence of anti-brucella antibodies was studied by the buffered plate agglutination test (BPA), the tube agglutination test (SAT), the 2-mercaptoethanol (2-ME) agglutination test and indirect ELISA tests, using the cytosolic fraction from Brucella abortus S19 (CYT), and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-free cytosolic proteins (CP). Out of a total of 325 samples analyzed, 17.8% reacted positively to BPA, 13.8% to SAT, 8.0% to 2-ME, 21.0% to ELISA-CYT and 10.0% to ELISA-CP. These results agree with the few data available in our country and suggest that brucellosis screening should be extended to other regions. PMID:17037254

  1. Stripped Elliptical Galaxies as Probes of ICM Physics: I. Tails, Wakes, and Flow Patterns in and Around Stripped Ellipticals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roediger, E.; Kraft, R. P.; Nulsen, P. E. J.; Forman, W. R.; Machacek, M.; Randall, S.; Jones, C.; Churazov, E.; Kokotanekova, R.

    2015-06-01

    Elliptical cluster galaxies are progressively stripped of their atmospheres due to their motion through the intracluster medium (ICM). Deep X-ray observations reveal the fine-structure of the galaxy’s remnant atmosphere and its gas tail and wake. This fine-structure depends on dynamic conditions (galaxy potential, initial gas contents, orbit through the host cluster), orbital stage (early infall, pre-/post-pericenter passage), and ICM plasma properties (thermal conductivity, viscosity, magnetic field structure). We aim to disentangle dynamic and plasma effects in order to use stripped ellipticals as probes of ICM plasma properties. This first paper of a series investigates the hydrodynamics of progressive gas stripping by means of inviscid hydrodynamical simulations. We distinguish a long-lasting initial relaxation phase and a quasi-steady stripping phase. During quasi-steady stripping, the ICM flow around the remnant atmosphere resembles the flow around solid bodies, including a “deadwater” region in the near wake. Gas is stripped from the remnant atmosphere predominantly at its sides via Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities. The downstream atmosphere is largely shielded from the ICM wind and thus shaped into a tail. Observationally, both this “remnant tail” and the stripped gas in the wake can appear as a “tail”, but only in the wake can galactic gas mix with the ambient ICM. While the qualitative results are generic, the simulations presented here are tailored to the Virgo elliptical galaxy M89 (NGC 4552) for the most direct comparison to observations. Papers II and III of this series describe the effect of viscosity and compare to Chandra and XMM-Newton observations, respectively.

  2. Characterization and Calibration of Large Area Resistive Strip Micromegas Detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Losel, Philipp Jonathan; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    Resisitve strip Micromegas detectors behave discharge tolerant. They have been tested extensively as smaller detectors of about 10 x 10 cm$^2$ in size and they work reliably at high rates of 100\\,kHz/cm$^2$ and above. Tracking resolutions well below 100\\,$\\mu$m have been observed for 100 GeV muons and pions. Micromegas detectors are meanwhile proposed as large area muon precision trackers of 2-3\\,m$^2$ in size. To investigate possible differences between small and large detectors, a 1\\,m$^2$ detector with 2048 resistive strips at a pitch of 450 $\\mu$m was studied in the LMU Cosmic Ray Facility (CRF) using two 4 $\\times$ 2.2 m$^2$ large Monitored Drift Tube (MDT) chambers for cosmic muon reference tracking. Segmentation of the resistive strip anode plane in 57.6\\,mm x 95\\,mm large areas has been realized by the readout of 128 strips with one APV25 chip each and by 11 95\\,mm broad trigger scintillators placed along the readout strips.\\\\ This allows for mapping of homogenity in pulse height and efficiency, deter...

  3. Characterization and Calibration of Large Area Resistive Strip Micromegas Detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Losel, Philipp Jonathan; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    Resistive strip Micromegas detectors are discharge tolerant. They have been tested extensively as small detectors of about 10 x 10 cm$^2$ in size and they work reliably at high rates of 100 kHz/cm$^2$ and above. Tracking resolution well below 100 $\\mu$m has been observed for 100 GeV muons and pions. Micromegas detectors are meanwhile proposed as large area muon precision trackers of 2-3 m$^2$ in size. To investigate possible differences between small and large detectors, a 1 m$^2$ detector with 2048 resistive strips at a pitch of 450 $\\mu$m was studied in the LMU Cosmic Ray Measurement Facility (CRMF) using two 4 $\\times$ 2.2 m$^2$ large Monitored Drift Tube (MDT) chambers for cosmic muon reference tracking. A segmentation of the resistive strip anode plane in 57.6 mm x 93 mm large areas has been realized by the readout of 128 strips with one APV25 chip each and by eleven 93 mm broad trigger scintillators placed along the readout strips. This allows for mapping of homogeneity in pulse height and efficiency, d...

  4. Prototype indicator strip for tank ammunition. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bates, B.; Griest, W.

    1993-10-31

    Combustible nitrocellulose ordnance casings offer advantages of: light weight, low cost, low detectability, and quick cycling of rounds by immediate disposal. However, mechanical strength is degraded with time by the action of humidity and nitroester diffusion through the casing to adhesives. The primary development effort of this study is a means to detect nitroester migration to the crucial skive joint which binds an assortment of warhead choices to propellant casings. This work has developed a prototype colorimetric indicator strip which, when applied in a field environment, produces a purple tint proportional to casing nitroester concentration, and inversely proportional to remaining adhesive joint strength. This work addressed the three steps in indicator strip use: (1) A suggested protocol for indicator strip preparation was developed. Various coatings, support reagents, and backings were examined resulting in a choice of polyethylene tape coating over separate AB- and C-impregnated cellulose punches. Various methods of punch creation and impregnation were tried resulting in stirred aqueous solutions and suspensions of AB and C, respectively. (2) Suggested protocols for indicator strip application to lab backings and field casings were developed. After chemical stripper was applied to the alumina-polyurethane paint on casings, C and AB punches were stacked and double-tape sealed. (3) A means for indicator strip monitoring was developed. From known time of indicator reaction, casing humidity, and indicator color, a means for field concentration determination was determined. Lab time-lapse photography was used to calibrate the indicator at a single level of humidity.

  5. VTT's micron-scale silicon rib+strip waveguide platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aalto, Timo; Harjanne, Mikko; Cherchi, Matteo

    2016-05-01

    Silicon rib waveguides enable single-mode (SM) operation even with the combination of multi-micron core dimensions and high refractive index contrast. In such large waveguides the optical mode field is almost completely confined inside the Si core, which leads to small propagation losses and small polarization dependency. The unique SM condition of the rib waveguide also enables the use of an ultra-wide wavelength range, for example from 1.2 to <1.7 μm, without sacrificing either SM operation or low propagation loss. This makes micron-scale Si waveguides particularly well-suited for spectroscopy and extensive wavelength division multiplexing. However, rib waveguides require large bending radii, which lead to large circuit sizes. There are two solutions for this. So-called Euler bends in Si strip waveguides enable low-loss bends down to 1 μm bending radius with less than 0.1 dB/90° loss for both polarizations. Another alternative is a total-internal reflection mirror that can have loss as low as 0.1 dB for both polarizations in either strip or rib waveguides. The excitation of higher order modes in large strip waveguides is avoided by using adiabatic rib-strip converters and low-loss components. With rib and strip waveguides it is possible to reach a unique combination of low loss, extremely small footprint, small polarization dependency, ultra-wide bandwidth and tolerance to high optical powers.

  6. Calculation and Analysis of Temperature Distribution in Hot Rolling Strip

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaixiang Peng

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Modern steel grades require constant and reproducible production conditions both in the hot strip mill and in the cooling section to achieve constant material properties along the entire strip length and from strip to strip. Calculation of the temperature in final rolling process always utilizes factors such as the work piece's inner organizational structure, plastic deformation, and it's variations of properties and so on, also as well as the physical parameters such as gauge, shape, etc. In this paper, a finite element model is constructed for the temperature field in a rolling process. The temperature field of strip steel is modeled with a 3-D finite element analysis (FEA structure, simultaneously considering the distribution of the work roll temperature. Then the distribution of field is simulated numerically. From the model, the temperature contours can be obtained by analysis of the temperature distribution of contact area. At the same time, the distribution of temperature in any position at any time can be acquired. These efforts provide the reliable parameters for the later finishing temperature and shape control.  

  7. Study on Hexagon-enveloping Leaf-stripping Mechanism for Corn Stalk

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Li-qiao; Li Chao; Li Dong-hong; Wang Mo; Yu Ke-qiang; Yang Xing; Zhang Quan-chao; Wang De-fu; He Yuan

    2015-01-01

    In order to deeply study the leaf-stripping principle for corn stalk, the hexagon-enveloping leaf-stripping experimental device was designed. To achieve higher leaf-stripping percent and provide important references for the separation equipment for corn stalk, it is necessary to find out the laws of leaf-stripping of such mechanism and to select the main influencing factors of separation performance from a number of factors. Through the study on hexagon-enveloping leaf-stripping mechanism for corn stalks, the leaf-stripping principle of such mechanism was more clear, and the optimization of structural and kinematic parameters achieved by the experiment whose influencing factors were the four selected ones (feeding speed, rotary speed of leaf-stripping roll, clearance and included angle between two leaf-stripping plates) could be directly applied to the development of efficient rind-pith or leaf-stripping separation for corn stalks.

  8. Bubble Stripping as a Tool To Reduce High Dissolved CO2 in Coastal Marine Ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koweek, David A; Mucciarone, David A; Dunbar, Robert B

    2016-04-01

    High dissolved CO2 concentrations in coastal ecosystems are a common occurrence due to a combination of large ecosystem metabolism, shallow water, and long residence times. Many important coastal species may have adapted to this natural variability over time, but eutrophication and ocean acidification may be perturbing the water chemistry beyond the bounds of tolerance for these organisms. We are currently limited in our ability to deal with the geochemical changes unfolding in our coastal ocean. This study helps to address this deficit of solutions by introducing bubble stripping as a novel geochemical engineering approach to reducing high CO2 in coastal marine ecosystems. We use a process-based model to find that air/sea gas exchange rates within a bubbled system are 1-2 orders of magnitude higher than within a nonbubbled system. By coupling bubbling-enhanced ventilation to a coastal ecosystem metabolism model, we demonstrate that strategically timed bubble plumes can mitigate exposure to high CO2 under present-day conditions and that exposure mitigation is enhanced in the more acidic conditions predicted by the end of the century. We argue that shallow water CO2 bubble stripping should be considered among the growing list of engineering approaches intended to increase coastal resilience in a changing ocean.

  9. 机载LiDAR数据逐航带平差与航带区域网平差对比%A comparative study between individual strip adjustment and strip block adjustment of airborne LiDAR data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王丽英; 宋伟东

    2013-01-01

    After preprocessing point cloud data obtained by airborne LiDAR measurement technique, the output point cloud data may still have some remnants of systematic errors between strips. Therefore, the errors must be checked and corrected prior to the utilization of DEM and other related digital products obtained from airborne LiDAR data. This paper studied individual strip adjustment and strip block adjustment of airborne LiDAR data, compared the accuracy of both to complete the block adjustment Experimental results showed that; the airborne LiDAR strip block adjustment compared to LZD algorithm could effectively reduce the error accumulation caused by individual strip adjustment with higher adjustment accuracy.%机载LiDAR系统获取的点云数据在经过预处理解算后仍会残余部分系统误差,因此,在利用点云数据生成DEM等相关数字产品之前,必须检查并改正这部分系统误差.以此为主要目标,本文对机载LiDAR数据的逐航带平差与航带区域网平差展开研究,并以Microsoft Visual Studio 2008 C++为开发平台、基于实测数据对比了两者在完成多航带构成的测区平差时的精度,结果表明:机载LiDAR数据的航带区域网平差方法相较于LZD算法可有效降低逐航带平差导致的误差累积,精度更高.

  10. Project Increase of infrastructure: 'Establishment of a laboratory for studies of pollutants in air, water and soil through atomic and nuclear techniques; Proyecto Incremento de infraestructura: 'Establecimiento de un laboratorio para estudios de contaminantes en aire, agua y suelo mediante tecnicas atomicas y nucleares'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aldape U, F. [ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    1993-10-15

    In this report there are the guidelines of this project as well as the goals, activities and costs. The general objectives were: 1. A laboratory that allows to analyze with efficiency samples of air, water and soil pollutants using atomic and nuclear origin techniques as PIXE (Proton Induced X-ray Emission, NRA (Nuclear Reaction Analysis) and RBS (Rutherford Backscattering) as well as auxiliary and/or complementary techniques. 2. To obtain indicators of the influence of the pollution of the Valley of Mexico about the ecology and the health of the inhabitants of Mexico City with perspectives of carrying out studies in other cities. 3. To develop an appropriate technology for the realization of those studies and to generate human resources in this area. (Author)

  11. Analytical possibilities of microelectrode use for stripping voltammetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matysik, F.M. (Leipzig Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Chemistry); Glaeser, P. (Leipzig Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Chemistry); Werner, G. (Leipzig Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Chemistry)

    1994-07-01

    The analytical utility of microelectrodes for stripping voltammetry is discussed from several points of view. The application of microelectrodes for microanalysis is demonstrated using a novel capillary flow injection system. Heavy metals at [mu]g l[sup -1] concentrations have been determined in [mu]l-samples. The influence of electrode size and convection during the deposition period of anodic stripping voltammetry on the reproducibility of trace metal determination was studied for various types of electrodes. In the case of mercury film microelectrodes, the precision can be improved if the accumulation of the analyte is performed under quiescent conditions. Practical examples of stripping voltammetry with microelectrodes such as copper determination in whisky and trace metal measurements in drinking water are given. (orig.)

  12. Development, prototyping and characterization of double sided silicon strip detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topkar, Anita; Singh, Arvind; Aggarwal, Bharti; Kumar, Amit; Kumar, Arvind; Murali Krishna, L. V.; Das, D.

    2016-10-01

    Double sided DC-coupled silicon strip detectors with geometry of 65 mm×65 mm have been developed in India for nuclear physics experiments. The detectors have 64 P+ strips on the front side and 64 N+ strips on the backside with a pitch of 0.9 mm. These detectors were fabricated using a twelve mask layer process involving double sided wafer processing technology. Semiconductor process and device simulations were carried out in order to theoretically estimate the impact of important design and process parameters on the breakdown voltage of detectors. The performance of the first lot of prototype detectors has been studied using static characterization tests and using an alpha source. The characterization results demonstrate that the detectors have low leakage currents and good uniformity over the detector area of about 40 cm2. Overview of the detector design, fabrication process, simulation results and initial characterization results of the detectors are presented in this paper.

  13. Fast image retargeting based on strip dividing and resizing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shungang Hua; Honglei Wei; Tieming Su

    2014-01-01

    Based on image strip dividing, an effective and fast image retargeting algorithm is proposed for resizing images. First, we construct the image energy map using gradient magnitude of the pixels and calculate the accumulated energy of each column, dividing the image into several strips by integrating similar energy columns. The reduced amount of dimension is decided in inverse proportion to the average energy for each strip. Then we retar-get the image combining scaling with cropping in terms of each strip’s reduced ratio. Experiment results show that the proposed algorithm is capable of implementing fast image retargeting and preserving both the local structures and the global visual effect of the image.

  14. Performance studies of the CMS Strip Tracker before installation

    CERN Document Server

    Adam, Wolfgang; Dragicevic, Marko; Friedl, Markus; Fruhwirth, R; Hansel, S; Hrubec, Josef; Krammer, Manfred; Oberegger, Margit; Pernicka, Manfred; Schmid, Siegfried; Stark, Roland; Steininger, Helmut; Uhl, Dieter; Waltenberger, Wolfgang; Widl, Edmund; Van Mechelen, Pierre; Cardaci, Marco; Beaumont, Willem; de Langhe, Eric; de Wolf, Eddi A; Delmeire, Evelyne; Hashemi, Majid; Bouhali, Othmane; Charaf, Otman; Clerbaux, Barbara; Dewulf, Jean-Paul; Elgammal, Sherif; Hammad, Gregory Habib; de Lentdecker, Gilles; Marage, Pierre Edouard; Vander Velde, Catherine; Vanlaer, Pascal; Wickens, John; Adler, Volker; Devroede, Olivier; De Weirdt, Stijn; D'Hondt, Jorgen; Goorens, Robert; Heyninck, Jan; Maes, Joris; Mozer, Matthias Ulrich; Tavernier, Stefaan; Van Lancker, Luc; Van Mulders, Petra; Villella, Ilaria; Wastiels, C; Bonnet, Jean-Luc; Bruno, Giacomo; De Callatay, Bernard; Florins, Benoit; Giammanco, Andrea; Gregoire, Ghislain; Keutgen, Thomas; Kcira, Dorian; Lemaitre, Vincent; Michotte, Daniel; Militaru, Otilia; Piotrzkowski, Krzysztof; Quertermont, L; Roberfroid, Vincent; Rouby, Xavier; Teyssier, Daniel; Daubie, Evelyne; Anttila, Erkki; Czellar, Sandor; Engstrom, Pauli; Harkonen, J; Karimaki, V; Kostesmaa, J; Kuronen, Auli; Lampen, Tapio; Linden, Tomas; Luukka, Panja-Riina; Maenpaa, T; Michal, Sebastien; Tuominen, Eija; Tuominiemi, Jorma; Ageron, Michel; Baulieu, Guillaume; Bonnevaux, Alain; Boudoul, Gaelle; Chabanat, Eric; Chabert, Eric Christian; Chierici, Roberto; Contardo, Didier; Della Negra, Rodolphe; Dupasquier, Thierry; Gelin, Georges; Giraud, Noël; Guillot, Gérard; Estre, Nicolas; Haroutunian, Roger; Lumb, Nicholas; Perries, Stephane; Schirra, Florent; Trocme, Benjamin; Vanzetto, Sylvain; Agram, Jean-Laurent; Blaes, Reiner; Drouhin, Frédéric; Ernenwein, Jean-Pierre; Fontaine, Jean-Charles; Berst, Jean-Daniel; Brom, Jean-Marie; Didierjean, Francois; Goerlach, Ulrich; Graehling, Philippe; Gross, Laurent; Hosselet, J; Juillot, Pierre; Lounis, Abdenour; Maazouzi, Chaker; Olivetto, Christian; Strub, Roger; Van Hove, Pierre; Anagnostou, Georgios; Brauer, Richard; Esser, Hans; Feld, Lutz; Karpinski, Waclaw; Klein, Katja; Kukulies, Christoph; Olzem, Jan; Ostapchuk, Andrey; Pandoulas, Demetrios; Pierschel, Gerhard; Raupach, Frank; Schael, Stefan; Schwering, Georg; Sprenger, Daniel; Thomas, Maarten; Weber, Markus; Wittmer, Bruno; Wlochal, Michael; Beissel, Franz; Bock, E; Flugge, G; Gillissen, C; Hermanns, Thomas; Heydhausen, Dirk; Jahn, Dieter; Kaussen, Gordon; Linn, Alexander; Perchalla, Lars; Poettgens, Michael; Pooth, Oliver; Stahl, Achim; Zoeller, Marc Henning; Buhmann, Peter; Butz, Erik; Flucke, Gero; Hamdorf, Richard Helmut; Hauk, Johannes; Klanner, Robert; Pein, Uwe; Schleper, Peter; Steinbruck, G; Blum, P; De Boer, Wim; Dierlamm, Alexander; Dirkes, Guido; Fahrer, Manuel; Frey, Martin; Furgeri, Alexander; Hartmann, Frank; Heier, Stefan; Hoffmann, Karl-Heinz; Kaminski, Jochen; Ledermann, Bernhard; Liamsuwan, Thiansin; Muller, S; Muller, Th; Schilling, Frank-Peter; Simonis, Hans-Jürgen; Steck, Pia; Zhukov, Valery; Cariola, P; De Robertis, Giuseppe; Ferorelli, Raffaele; Fiore, Luigi; Preda, M; Sala, Giuliano; Silvestris, Lucia; Tempesta, Paolo; Zito, Giuseppe; Creanza, Donato; De Filippis, Nicola; De Palma, Mauro; Giordano, Domenico; Maggi, Giorgio; Manna, Norman; My, Salvatore; Selvaggi, Giovanna; Albergo, Sebastiano; Chiorboli, Massimiliano; Costa, Salvatore; Galanti, Mario; Giudice, Nunzio; Guardone, Nunzio; Noto, Francesco; Potenza, Renato; Saizu, Mirela Angela; Sparti, V; Sutera, Concetta; Tricomi, Alessia; Tuve, Cristina; Brianzi, Mirko; Civinini, Carlo; Maletta, Fernando; Manolescu, Florentina; Meschini, Marco; Paoletti, Simone; Sguazzoni, Giacomo; Broccolo, B; Ciulli, Vitaliano; D'Alessandro, Raffaello; Focardi, Ettore; Frosali, Simone; Genta, Chiara; Landi, Gregorio; Lenzi, Piergiulio; Macchiolo, Anna; Magini, Nicolo; Parrini, Giuliano; Scarlini, Enrico; Cerati, Giuseppe Benedetto; Azzi, Patrizia; Bacchetta, Nicola; Candelori, Andrea; Dorigo, Tommaso; Kaminsky, A; Karaevski, S; Khomenkov, Volodymyr; Reznikov, Sergey; Tessaro, Mario; Bisello, Dario; De Mattia, Marco; Giubilato, Piero; Loreti, Maurizio; Mattiazzo, Serena; Nigro, Massimo; Paccagnella, Alessandro; Pantano, Devis; Pozzobon, Nicola; Tosi, Mia; Bilei, Gian Mario; Checcucci, Bruno; Fano, Livio; Servoli, Leonello; Ambroglini, Filippo; Babucci, Ezio; Benedetti, Daniele; Biasini, Maurizio; Caponeri, Benedetta; Covarelli, Roberto; Giorgi, Marco; Lariccia, Paolo; Mantovani, Giancarlo; Marcantonini, Marta; Postolache, Vasile; Santocchia, Attilio; Spiga, Daniele; Bagliesi, Giuseppe; Balestri, Gabriele; Berretta, Luca; Bianucci, S; Boccali, Tommaso; Bosi, Filippo; Bracci, Fabrizio; Castaldi, Rino; Ceccanti, Marco; Cecchi, Roberto; Cerri, Claudio; Cucoanes, Andi Sebastian; Dell'Orso, Roberto; Dobur, Didar; Dutta, Suchandra; Giassi, Alessandro; Giusti, Simone; Kartashov, Dmitry; Kraan, Aafke; Lomtadze, Teimuraz; Lungu, George-Adrian; Magazzu, Guido; Mammini, Paolo; Mariani, Filippo; Martinelli, Giovanni; Moggi, Andrea; Palla, Fabrizio; Palmonari, Francesco; Petragnani, Giulio; Profeti, Alessandro; Raffaelli, Fabrizio; Rizzi, Domenico; Sanguinetti, Giulio; Sarkar, Subir; Sentenac, Daniel; Serban, Alin Titus; Slav, Adrian; Soldani, A; Spagnolo, Paolo; Tenchini, Roberto; Tolaini, Sergio; Venturi, Andrea; Verdini, Piero Giorgio; Vos, Marcel; Zaccarelli, Luciano; Avanzini, Carlo; Basti, Andrea; Benucci, Leonardo; Bocci, Andrea; Cazzola, Ugo; Fiori, Francesco; Linari, Stefano; Massa, Maurizio; Messineo, Alberto; Segneri, Gabriele; Tonelli, Guido; Azzurri, Paolo; Bernardini, Jacopo; Borrello, Laura; Calzolari, Federico; Foa, Lorenzo; Gennai, Simone; Ligabue, Franco; Petrucciani, Giovanni; Rizzi, Andrea; Yang, Zong-Chang; Benotto, Franco; Demaria, Natale; Dumitrache, Floarea; Farano, R; Borgia, Maria Assunta; Castello, Roberto; Costa, Marco; Migliore, Ernesto; Romero, Alessandra; Abbaneo, Duccio; Abbas, M; Ahmed, Ijaz; Akhtar, I; Albert, Eric; Bloch, Christoph; Breuker, Horst; Butt, Shahid Aleem; Buchmuller, Oliver; Cattai, Ariella; Delaere, Christophe; Delattre, Michel; Edera, Laura Maria; Engstrom, Pauli; Eppard, Michael; Gateau, Maryline; Gill, Karl; Giolo-Nicollerat, Anne-Sylvie; Grabit, Robert; Honma, Alan; Huhtinen, Mika; Kloukinas, Kostas; Kortesmaa, Jarmo; Kottelat, Luc-Joseph; Kuronen, Auli; Leonardo, Nuno; Ljuslin, Christer; Mannelli, Marcello; Masetti, Lorenzo; Marchioro, Alessandro; Mersi, Stefano; Michal, Sebastien; Mirabito, Laurent; Muffat-Joly, Jeannine; Onnela, Antti; Paillard, Christian; Pal, Imre; Pernot, Jean-Francois; Petagna, Paolo; Petit, Patrick; Piccut, C; Pioppi, Michele; Postema, Hans; Ranieri, Riccardo; Ricci, Daniel; Rolandi, Gigi; Ronga, Frederic Jean; Sigaud, Christophe; Syed, A; Siegrist, Patrice; Tropea, Paola; Troska, Jan; Tsirou, Andromachi; Vander Donckt, Muriel; Vasey, François; Alagoz, Enver; Amsler, Claude; Chiochia, Vincenzo; Regenfus, Christian; Robmann, Peter; Rochet, Jacky; Rommerskirchen, Tanja; Schmidt, Alexander; Steiner, Stefan; Wilke, Lotte; Church, Ivan; Cole, Joanne; Coughlan, John A; Gay, Arnaud; Taghavi, S; Tomalin, Ian R; Bainbridge, Robert; Cripps, Nicholas; Fulcher, Jonathan; Hall, Geoffrey; Noy, Matthew; Pesaresi, Mark; Radicci, Valeria; Raymond, David Mark; Sharp, Peter; Stoye, Markus; Wingham, Matthew; Zorba, Osman; Goitom, Israel; Hobson, Peter R; Reid, Ivan; Teodorescu, Liliana; Hanson, Gail; Jeng, Geng-Yuan; Liu, Haidong; Pasztor, Gabriella; Satpathy, Asish; Stringer, Robert; Mangano, Boris; Affolder, K; Affolder, T; Allen, Andrea; Barge, Derek; Burke, Samuel; Callahan, D; Campagnari, Claudio; Crook, A; D'Alfonso, Mariarosaria; Dietch, J; Garberson, Jeffrey; Hale, David; Incandela, H; Incandela, Joe; Jaditz, Stephen; Kalavase, Puneeth; Kreyer, Steven Lawrence; Kyre, Susanne; Lamb, James; Mc Guinness, C; Mills, C; Nguyen, Harold; Nikolic, Milan; Lowette, Steven; Rebassoo, Finn; Ribnik, Jacob; Richman, Jeffrey; Rubinstein, Noah; Sanhueza, S; Shah, Yousaf Syed; Simms, L; Staszak, D; Stoner, J; Stuart, David; Swain, Sanjay Kumar; Vlimant, Jean-Roch; White, Dean; Ulmer, Keith; Wagner, Stephen Robert; Bagby, Linda; Bhat, Pushpalatha C; Burkett, Kevin; Cihangir, Selcuk; Gutsche, Oliver; Jensen, Hans; Johnson, Mark; Luzhetskiy, Nikolay; Mason, David; Miao, Ting; Moccia, Stefano; Noeding, Carsten; Ronzhin, Anatoly; Skup, Ewa; Spalding, William J; Spiegel, Leonard; Tkaczyk, Slawek; Yumiceva, Francisco; Zatserklyaniy, Andriy; Zerev, E; Anghel, Ioana Maria; Bazterra, Victor Eduardo; Gerber, Cecilia Elena; Khalatian, S; Shabalina, Elizaveta; Baringer, Philip; Bean, Alice; Chen, Jie; Hinchey, Carl Louis; Martin, Christophe; Moulik, Tania; Robinson, Richard; Gritsan, Andrei; Lae, Chung Khim; Tran, Nhan Viet; Everaerts, Pieter; Hahn, Kristan Allan; Harris, Philip; Nahn, Steve; Rudolph, Matthew; Sung, Kevin; Betchart, Burton; Demina, Regina; Gotra, Yury; Korjenevski, Sergey; Miner, Daniel Carl; Orbaker, Douglas; Christofek, Leonard; Hooper, Ryan; Landsberg, Greg; Nguyen, Duong; Narain, Meenakshi; Speer, Thomas; Tsang, Ka Vang

    2009-01-01

    In March 2007 the assembly of the Silicon Strip Tracker was completed at the Tracker Integration Facility at CERN. Nearly 15% of the detector was instrumented using cables, fiber optics, power supplies, and electronics intended for the operation at the LHC. A local chiller was used to circulate the coolant for low temperature operation. In order to understand the efficiency and alignment of the strip tracker modules, a cosmic ray trigger was implemented. From March through July 4.5 million triggers were recorded. This period, referred to as the Sector Test, provided practical experience with the operation of the Tracker, especially safety, data acquisition, power, and cooling systems. This paper describes the performance of the strip system during the Sector Test, which consisted of five distinct periods defined by the coolant temperature. Significant emphasis is placed on comparisons between the data and results from Monte Carlo studies.

  15. Performance studies of the CMS Strip Tracker before installation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adam, W.; et al.

    2009-06-01

    In March 2007 the assembly of the Silicon Strip Tracker was completed at the Tracker Integration Facility at CERN. Nearly 15% of the detector was instrumented using cables, fiber optics, power supplies, and electronics intended for the operation at the LHC. A local chiller was used to circulate the coolant for low temperature operation. In order to understand the efficiency and alignment of the strip tracker modules, a cosmic ray trigger was implemented. From March through July 4.5 million triggers were recorded. This period, referred to as the Sector Test, provided practical experience with the operation of the Tracker, especially safety, data acquisition, power, and cooling systems. This paper describes the performance of the strip system during the Sector Test, which consisted of five distinct periods defined by the coolant temperature. Significant emphasis is placed on comparisons between the data and results from Monte Carlo studies.

  16. Nonlinear Vibration Analysis of Moving Strip with Inertial Boundary Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chong-yi Gao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available According to the movement mechanism of strip and rollers in tandem mill, the strip between two stands was simplified to axially moving Euler beam and the rollers were simplified to the inertial component on the fixed axis rotation, namely, inertial boundary. Nonlinear vibration mechanical model of Euler beam with inertial boundary conditions was established. The transverse and longitudinal motion equations were derived based on Hamilton’s principle. Kantorovich averaging method was employed to discretize the motion equations and the inertial boundary equations, and the solutions were obtained using the modified iteration method. Depending on numerical calculation, the amplitude-frequency responses of Euler beam were determined. The axial velocity, tension, and rotational inertia have strong influences on the vibration characteristics. The results would provide an important theoretical reference to control and analyze the vertical vibration of moving strip in continuous rolling process.

  17. Silicon strip detector qualification for the CMS experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To provide the best spatial resolution for the particle trajectory reconstruction and a very fast readout, the inner tracking system of CMS is build up of silicon detectors with a pixel tracker in the center surrounded by a strip tracker. The silicon strip tracker consists of so-called modules representing the smallest detection unit of the tracking device. These modules are mounted on higher-level structures called shells in the tracker inner barrel (TIB), rods in the tracker outer barrel (TOB), disks in the tracker inner disks (TID) and petals in the tracker end caps (TEC). The performance of the participating two shells of the TIB, four rods of the TOB and two petals of the TEC (representing about 1% of the final strip tracker) could be studied in different magnetic fields over a period of approximately two month using cosmic muon signals. The last test before inserting the tracker in the CMS experiment was the Tracker Slice Test performed in spring/summer 2007 at the Tracker Integration Facility (TIF) at CERN after installing all subdetectors in the tracker support tube. Approximately 25% of the strip tracker +z side was powered and read out using a cosmic ray trigger built up of scintillation counters. In total, about 5 million muon events were recorded under various operating conditions. These events together with results from commissioning runs were used to study the detector response like cluster charges, signal-to-noise ratios and single strip noise behaviour as well as to identify faulty channels which turned out to be in the order of a few per mille. The performance of the silicon strip tracker during these different construction stages is discussed in this thesis with a special emphasis on the tracker end caps. (orig.)

  18. A visual strip sensor for determination of iron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • A visual strip sensor for on-site detection of iron has been developed and made. • The sensor is easy to synthesize, portable and recyclable with shelf life >1 year. • Visual detection limit for iron using the present sensor is 50 ng mL−1. • Visual strip sensor was applied to ground water and fruit juices. - Abstract: A visual strip has been developed for sensing iron in different aqueous samples like natural water and fruit juices. The sensor has been synthesized by UV-radiation induced graft polymerization of acrylamide monomer in microporous poly(propylene) base. For physical immobilization of iron selective reagent, the in situ polymerization of acrylamide has been carried out in the presence of 1,10-phenanthroline. The loaded strip on interaction with Fe(II) in aqueous solution turned into orange red color and the intensity of the color was found to be directly proportional to the amount of Fe(II) in the aqueous sample. The minimal sensor response with naked eye was found for 50 ng mL−1 of Fe in 15 min of interaction. However, as low as 20 ng mL−1 Fe could be quantified using a spectrophotometer. The detection limit calculated using the 3s/S criteria, where ‘s’ is the standard deviation of the absorbance of blank reagent loaded strip and ‘S’ is the slope of the linear calibration plot, was 1.0 ng mL−1. The strip was applied to measure Fe in a variety of samples such as ground water and fruit juices

  19. A visual strip sensor for determination of iron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Sanjukta A., E-mail: sanjuktaak301@gmail.com [Analytical Chemistry Division, BARC, Trombay, Mumbai 400085 (India); Thakur, Neha; Parab, Harshala J.; Pandey, Shailaja P. [Analytical Chemistry Division, BARC, Trombay, Mumbai 400085 (India); Shinde, Rakesh N.; Pandey, Ashok K. [Radiochemistry Division, BARC, Trombay, Mumbai 400085 (India); Kumar, Sangita D.; Reddy, A.V.R. [Analytical Chemistry Division, BARC, Trombay, Mumbai 400085 (India)

    2014-12-03

    Highlights: • A visual strip sensor for on-site detection of iron has been developed and made. • The sensor is easy to synthesize, portable and recyclable with shelf life >1 year. • Visual detection limit for iron using the present sensor is 50 ng mL{sup −1}. • Visual strip sensor was applied to ground water and fruit juices. - Abstract: A visual strip has been developed for sensing iron in different aqueous samples like natural water and fruit juices. The sensor has been synthesized by UV-radiation induced graft polymerization of acrylamide monomer in microporous poly(propylene) base. For physical immobilization of iron selective reagent, the in situ polymerization of acrylamide has been carried out in the presence of 1,10-phenanthroline. The loaded strip on interaction with Fe(II) in aqueous solution turned into orange red color and the intensity of the color was found to be directly proportional to the amount of Fe(II) in the aqueous sample. The minimal sensor response with naked eye was found for 50 ng mL{sup −1} of Fe in 15 min of interaction. However, as low as 20 ng mL{sup −1} Fe could be quantified using a spectrophotometer. The detection limit calculated using the 3s/S criteria, where ‘s’ is the standard deviation of the absorbance of blank reagent loaded strip and ‘S’ is the slope of the linear calibration plot, was 1.0 ng mL{sup −1}. The strip was applied to measure Fe in a variety of samples such as ground water and fruit juices.

  20. Experimental evidence that wildflower strips increase pollinator visits to crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feltham, Hannah; Park, Kirsty; Minderman, Jeroen; Goulson, Dave

    2015-08-01

    Wild bees provide a free and potentially diverse ecosystem service to farmers growing pollination-dependent crops. While many crops benefit from insect pollination, soft fruit crops, including strawberries are highly dependent on this ecosystem service to produce viable fruit. However, as a result of intensive farming practices and declining pollinator populations, farmers are increasingly turning to commercially reared bees to ensure that crops are adequately pollinated throughout the season. Wildflower strips are a commonly used measure aimed at the conservation of wild pollinators. It has been suggested that commercial crops may also benefit from the presence of noncrop flowers; however, the efficacy and economic benefits of sowing flower strips for crops remain relatively unstudied. In a study system that utilizes both wild and commercial pollinators, we test whether wildflower strips increase the number of visits to adjacent commercial strawberry crops by pollinating insects. We quantified this by experimentally sowing wildflower strips approximately 20 meters away from the crop and recording the number of pollinator visits to crops with, and without, flower strips. Between June and August 2013, we walked 292 crop transects at six farms in Scotland, recording a total of 2826 pollinators. On average, the frequency of pollinator visits was 25% higher for crops with adjacent flower strips compared to those without, with a combination of wild and commercial bumblebees (Bombus spp.) accounting for 67% of all pollinators observed. This effect was independent of other confounding effects, such as the number of flowers on the crop, date, and temperature. Synthesis and applications. This study provides evidence that soft fruit farmers can increase the number of pollinators that visit their crops by sowing inexpensive flower seed mixes nearby. By investing in this management option, farmers have the potential to increase and sustain pollinator populations over time