WorldWideScience

Sample records for air station usa

  1. Comparison of MODIS Land Surface Temperature and Air Temperature over the Continental USA Meteorological Stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ping; Bounoua, Lahouari; Imhoff, Marc L.; Wolfe, Robert E.; Thome, Kurtis

    2014-01-01

    The National Land Cover Database (NLCD) Impervious Surface Area (ISA) and MODIS Land Surface Temperature (LST) are used in a spatial analysis to assess the surface-temperature-based urban heat island's (UHIS) signature on LST amplitude over the continental USA and to make comparisons to local air temperatures. Air-temperature-based UHIs (UHIA), calculated using the Global Historical Climatology Network (GHCN) daily air temperatures, are compared with UHIS for urban areas in different biomes during different seasons. NLCD ISA is used to define urban and rural temperatures and to stratify the sampling for LST and air temperatures. We find that the MODIS LST agrees well with observed air temperature during the nighttime, but tends to overestimate it during the daytime, especially during summer and in nonforested areas. The minimum air temperature analyses show that UHIs in forests have an average UHIA of 1 C during the summer. The UHIS, calculated from nighttime LST, has similar magnitude of 1-2 C. By contrast, the LSTs show a midday summer UHIS of 3-4 C for cities in forests, whereas the average summer UHIA calculated from maximum air temperature is close to 0 C. In addition, the LSTs and air temperatures difference between 2006 and 2011 are in agreement, albeit with different magnitude.

  2. Microbial monitoring and performance evaluation for H2S biological air emissions control at a wastewater lift station in South Texas, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Kim D; Yadavalli, Naga; Karre, Anand K; Paca, Jan

    2012-01-01

    A pilot-scale biological sequential treatment system consisting of a biotrickling filter and two biofilters was installed at Waste Water Lift Station # 64 in Brownsville, Texas, USA to evaluate the performance of the system being loaded with variable concentrations of wastewater hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S) emissions. In this study, the effectiveness of sulfur oxidizing bacteria along with the distribution of various sulfur species and their correlation with the performance of the biofilters was evaluated. The biofilters were packed with engineered media consisting of plastic cylinders with compacted organic material which was supplied by Met-Pro Environmental Air Solutions (formerly Bio·Reaction Industries). The overall performance of the pilot-scale biological sequential treatment system with an Empty Bed Residence Time (EBRT) of 60s and the overall performance of the biofilter unit with an EBRT of 35s developed a removal efficiency of > 99% at H(2)S levels up to 500 ppm. A decrease in performance over time was observed in the first and second sections of the first biofilter unit with the third section of the biofilter unit ultimately becoming the most robust unit removing most of the pollutant. The second biofilter unit was not needed and subsequently removed from the system. The number of CFUs in sulfur oxidizing T.thioparus selective media grew significantly in all four sections of the biofilter over the two months of pilot operation of the biological unit. The sulfur oxidizer growth rates appeared to be highest at low total sulfur content and at slightly acidic pH levels. This study has implications for improving the understanding of the distribution of sulfur oxidizing bacteria throughout the length of the biofilter columns, which can be used to further optimize performance and estimate breakthrough at these very high H(2)S input loadings. PMID:22486664

  3. Speciation and fate of trace metals in estuarine sediments under reduced and oxidized conditions, Seaplane Lagoon, Alameda Naval Air Station (USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esser Brad

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available We have identified important chemical reactions that control the fate of metal-contaminated estuarine sediments if they are left undisturbed (in situ or if they are dredged. We combined information on the molecular bonding of metals in solids from X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS with thermodynamic and kinetic driving forces obtained from dissolved metal concentrations to deduce the dominant reactions under reduced and oxidized conditions. We evaluated the in situ geochemistry of metals (cadmium, chromium, iron, lead, manganese and zinc as a function of sediment depth (to 100 cm from a 60 year record of contamination at the Alameda Naval Air Station, California. Results from XAS and thermodynamic modeling of porewaters show that cadmium and most of the zinc form stable sulfide phases, and that lead and chromium are associated with stable carbonate, phosphate, phyllosilicate, or oxide minerals. Therefore, there is minimal risk associated with the release of these trace metals from the deeper sediments contaminated prior to the Clean Water Act (1975 as long as reducing conditions are maintained. Increased concentrations of dissolved metals with depth were indicative of the formation of metal HS- complexes. The sediments also contain zinc, chromium, and manganese associated with detrital iron-rich phyllosilicates and/or oxides. These phases are recalcitrant at near-neutral pH and do not undergo reductive dissolution within the 60 year depositional history of sediments at this site. The fate of these metals during dredging was evaluated by comparing in situ geochemistry with that of sediments oxidized by seawater in laboratory experiments. Cadmium and zinc pose the greatest hazard from dredging because their sulfides were highly reactive in seawater. However, their dissolved concentrations under oxic conditions were limited eventually by sorption to or co-precipitation with an iron (oxyhydroxide. About 50% of the reacted CdS and 80% of the reacted

  4. Air and radiation monitoring stations

    CERN Multimedia

    AUTHOR|(SzGeCERN)582709

    2015-01-01

    CERN has around 100 monitoring stations on and around its sites. New radiation measuring stations, capable of detecting even lower levels of radiation, were installed in 2014. Two members of HE-SEE group (Safety Engineering and Environment group) in front of one of the new monitoring stations.

  5. Future Expansion of the Lightning Surveillance System at the Kennedy Space Center and the Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Florida, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mata, C. T.; Wilson, J. G.

    2012-01-01

    The NASA Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and the Air Force Eastern Range (ER) use data from two cloud-to-ground (CG) lightning detection networks, the Cloud-to-Ground Lightning Surveillance System (CGLSS) and the U.S. National Lightning Detection Network (NLDN), and a volumetric mapping array, the lightning detection and ranging II (LDAR II) system: These systems are used to monitor and characterize lightning that is potentially hazardous to launch or ground operations and hardware. These systems are not perfect and both have documented missed lightning events when compared to the existing lightning surveillance system at Launch Complex 39B (LC39B). Because of this finding it is NASA's plan to install a lightning surveillance system around each of the active launch pads sharing site locations and triggering capabilities when possible. This paper shows how the existing lightning surveillance system at LC39B has performed in 2011 as well as the plan for the expansion around all active pads.

  6. Reevaluation of air surveillance station siting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abbott, K. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Jannik, T. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-07-06

    DOE Technical Standard HDBK-1216-2015 (DOE 2015) recommends evaluating air-monitoring station placement using the analytical method developed by Waite (Waite, 1973). The technique utilizes wind rose and population distribution data in order to determine a weighting factor for each directional sector surrounding a nuclear facility. Based on the available resources (number of stations) and a scaling factor, this weighting factor is used to determine the number of stations recommended to be placed in each sector considered. An assessment utilizing this method was performed in 2003 to evaluate the effectiveness of the existing SRS air-monitoring program. The resulting recommended distribution of air-monitoring stations was then compared to that of the existing site perimeter surveillance program (Fledderman 2003). The assessment demonstrated that the distribution of air-monitoring stations at the time generally agreed with the results obtained using the Waite method; however at the time new stations were established in Barnwell and in Williston in order to meet requirements of DOE guidance document EH-0173T.

  7. Solar Powered Radioactive Air Monitoring Stations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnett, J. Matthew; Bisping, Lynn E.; Gervais, Todd L.

    2013-10-30

    Environmental monitoring of ambient air for radioactive material is required as stipulated in the PNNL Site radioactive air license. Sampling ambient air at identified preferred locations could not be initially accomplished because utilities were not readily available. Therefore, solar powered environmental monitoring systems were considered as a possible option. PNNL purchased two 24-V DC solar powered environmental monitoring systems which consisted of solar panels, battery banks, and sampling units. During an approximate four month performance evaluation period, the solar stations operated satisfactorily at an on-site test location. They were subsequently relocated to their preferred locations in June 2012 where they continue to function adequately under the conditions found in Richland, Washington.

  8. RadNet Air Quality (Fixed Station) Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — RadNet is a national network of monitoring stations that regularly collect air for analysis of radioactivity. The RadNet network, which has stations in each State,...

  9. Nuclear air cleaning programs in USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper describes air cleaning research activities in the United States nuclear program other than those described in the various papers presented at the conference. First described are those related to aerosol and particulate cleaning generic programs. Discussed next are air cleaning regulations and standards. Specific activities underway in developing air cleaning information and processes for specific areas are discussed beginning with the support of nuclear reactors, e.g., the Electric Power Research Institute programs on reactor accident phenomena and the Savannah River Site program related to aerosol and adsorber research. Finally, the limited research activities in support of air cleaning systems for nuclear fuel reprocessing are described

  10. Exploring Air-Climate-Energy Impacts with GCAM-USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Global Climate Assessment Model (GCAM) is a global integrated assessment model used for exploring future scenarios and examining strategies that address air pollution, climate change and energy (ACE) goals. My research focuseson integration of impact factors in GCAM-USA and a...

  11. NCERA-101 Station Report from Kennedy Space Center, FL, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massa, Gioia D.; Wheeler, Raymond M.

    2014-01-01

    This is our annual report to the North Central Extension Research Activity, which is affiliated with the USDA and Land Grant University Agricultural Experiment Stations. I have been a member of this committee for 25 years. The presentation will be given by Dr. Gioia Massa, Kennedy Space Center

  12. Air quality evaluation of London Paddington train station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enclosed railway stations hosting diesel trains are at risk of reduced air quality as a result of exhaust emissions that may endanger passengers and workers. Air quality measurements were conducted inside London Paddington Station, a semi-enclosed railway station where 70% of trains are powered by diesel engines. Particulate matter (PM2.5) mass was measured at five station locations. PM size, PM number, oxides of nitrogen (NOx), and sulphur dioxide (SO2) were measured at two station locations. Paddington Station’s hourly mean PM2.5 mass concentrations averaged 16 μg m−3 [min 2, max 68]. Paddington Station’s hourly mean NO2 concentrations averaged 73 ppb [49, 120] and SO2 concentrations averaged 25 ppb [15, 37]. While UK train stations are not required to comply with air quality standards, there were five instances where the hourly mean NO2 concentrations exceeded the EU hourly mean limits (106 ppb) for outdoor air quality. PM2.5, SO2, and NO2 concentrations were compared against Marylebone, a busy London roadside 1.2 km from the station. The comparisons indicated that train station air quality was more polluted than the nearby roadside. PM2.5 for at least one measurement location within Paddington Station was shown to be statistically higher (P-value <0.05) than Marylebone on 3 out of 4 days. Measured NO2 within Paddington Station was statistically higher than Marylebone on 3 out of 5 days, while measured SO2 within Paddington Station was statistically higher than Marylebone on all 3 days. (letter)

  13. Air pollution assessment in the Slovak Republic in 2005. Measurement stations of air quality monitoring network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this Appendix to the report 'Air pollution assessment in the Slovak Republic in 2005' the main characteristics of measurement stations of air quality monitoring network of the Slovak Republic are presented

  14. Optimization of air ducts for nuclear reactor power generation station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the optimization study on the heating, ventilating and air conditions system in Nuclear Reactor Power Generation Station, proper arrangement of air ducts has been studied using the experimental and analytical investigation from a viewpoint of duct arrangement optimization. This study consists of two parts. Part I is optimization of air ducts in the corridors and Part II is optimization of air duct in each room. In part I, from viewpoints of confinement of radioactive materials in facilities having possible radioactive contamination and improvement of thermal environment for workers, the authors have studied air ducts system in which fresh air is supplied to corridors and heat removal and ventilation for each room are performed by transferring air from the corridors, instead of current ducts system with supply duct to each room. In part II, the condenser room with complex configuration and large space, and the electrical equipment room with simple space are selected for model areas. Based on these studies, experimental and analytical investigation (using a three-dimensional thermal hydraulic analysis) technique has been established, and the effective design method for duct arrangement of HVAC design has been verified for Boiling Water Reactor Power Station. The air-duct arrangements optimized in this study are applied to an Advanced Boiling Water Reactor Power Station in trial and reduction of the air-duct quantity is confirmed

  15. Cabin Air Quality Dynamics On Board the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, J. L.; Peterson, B. V.

    2003-01-01

    Spacecraft cabin air quality is influenced by a variety of factors. Beyond normal equipment offgassing and crew metabolic loads, the vehicle s operational configuration contributes significantly to overall air quality. Leaks from system equipment and payload facilities, operational status of the atmospheric scrubbing systems, and the introduction of new equipment and modules to the vehicle all influence air quality. The dynamics associated with changes in the International Space Station's (ISS) configuration since the launch of the U.S. Segment s laboratory module, Destiny, is summarized. Key classes of trace chemical contaminants that are important to crew health and equipment performance are emphasized. The temporary effects associated with attaching each multi-purpose logistics module (MPLM) to the ISS and influence of in-flight air quality on the post-flight ground processing of the MPLM are explored.

  16. Navajo Generating Station and Air Visibility Regulations: Alternatives and Impacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hurlbut, D. J.; Haase, S.; Brinkman, G.; Funk, K.; Gelman, R.; Lantz, E.; Larney, C.; Peterson, D.; Worley, C.; Liebsch, E.

    2012-01-01

    Pursuant to the Clean Air Act, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) announced in 2009 its intent to issue rules for controlling emissions from Navajo Generating Station that could affect visibility at the Grand Canyon and at several other national parks and wilderness areas. The final rule will conform to what EPA determines is the best available retrofit technology (BART) for the control of haze-causing air pollutants, especially nitrogen oxides. While EPA is ultimately responsible for setting Navajo Generating Station's BART standards in its final rule, it will be the U.S. Department of the Interior's responsibility to manage compliance and the related impacts. This study aims to assist both Interior and EPA by providing an objective assessment of issues relating to the power sector.

  17. USA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nedergaard, Peter

    http://www.systime.dk/ungdomsuddannelser/almen-studieforberedelse/usa-en-grundbog-i-politik-og-okonomi.html......http://www.systime.dk/ungdomsuddannelser/almen-studieforberedelse/usa-en-grundbog-i-politik-og-okonomi.html...

  18. On registration of previously unannounced USA underground nuclear tests by seismic stations of the former Soviet Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Materials, related to registration by the former USSR seismic stations of 61 out of 204 newly-announced low-capacity underground nuclear tests at the USA Nevada test site are presented. The explosions seismograms are also given. Attention is paid to the efficiency of identification and accuracy of determination of the parameters of underground nuclear explosions

  19. Report of Findings: Cold Bay Air Force Station (Grant Point) military contaminants: Fiscal year 1988 collections

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes our contaminants investigation at the abandoned Cold Bay Air Force Station Station, located on the Izembek National Wildlife Refuge at Grant...

  20. <span class="hlt">Air</span> Pollution Distribution under an Elevated Train <span class="hlt">Station</span>

    Air Pollution Distribution under an Elevated Train Station

    (A Case Study Downtown Bangkok, Silom Station)

    OpenAIRE

    Charusombat, Umarporn

    1998-01-01

    To solve traffic congestion in Bangkok, the Bangkok Mass Transit system (BTS) constructed an overhead rail system with 24 stations. The BTS train station, S2, in this study area covers Silom road and obstructs the air pollutant dispersion in a congestion area. The 1: 200 physical model of the buildings along Silom road with the train station, S2, was simulated in this research to determine the air pollutant dispersion in the train station area. A tracer gas (CO2) was emit...

  1. Geochemical characterization of seaplane lagoon sediments, Alameda Naval Air Station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bono, A; Carroll, S; Esser, B; Luther, G W; O' Day, P; Randall, S

    1999-08-16

    Our objective in the characterization of sediments from Seaplane Lagoon at the Alameda Naval Air Station (NAS) was to determine the geochemical interactions that control the partitioning of cadmium, chromium, cobalt, copper, lead, mercury, nickel, and zinc between the sediments and the porewaters. Our approach was to collect several cores at the east outfall location of the Seaplane Lagoon. We determined the porewater chemistry by (1) making in situ micro-electrode measurements, (2) extracting porewaters, and (3) modeling geochemical reactions. We determined the sediment chemistry by measuring (1) elemental abundance, (2) mineralogy, and (3) trace-element speciation. This information should help the US Navy determine the long-term hazard of the sediments if they are left in place and the short-term hazard if they are dredged. We did not fully examine the geochemistry of sediments from the West Beach Landfill Wetlands site, because these sediments were distinct from the Seaplane Lagoon sediments. Our initial motivation for studying the Landfill Wetlands site was to determine the trace-element geochemistry in Seaplane Lagoon sediments that had been dredged and then disposed in the Landfill Wetlands. Unfortunately, the location of these dredged sediments is unknown. The cores we sampled were not from the Seaplane Lagoon.

  2. Type of equipment in an air monitoring station; Equipement type d'une station de controle atmospherique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levy, F. [Cogema Marcoule, 30 - Bagnols sur Ceze (France)

    1999-07-01

    This poster communication presents a general view of the station, the different materials used for the air and precipitations monitoring. The methods for gas measurements (tritium, krypton, iodine) are given. The collecting of dusts, dust and tritium mixed together, or rainwater and pluviometry are reviewed and the measurement of ambient radioactivity is made by beacon. (N.C.)

  3. Illumination of the Air Environment Using Radiation of HF Broadcast Stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutsenko, V. I.; Lutsenko, I. V.; Popov, I. V.

    2015-06-01

    We consider the possibility of using illumination of the HF broadcast stations for location of air objects. The relationships for estimation of the detection range are obtained and requirements for the degree of suppression of a direct signal from the broadcast station are determined. Spectral characteristics of the signals from HF broadcast stations are studied experimentally for different polarizations of the received radiation. The possibility of air object detection using the Doppler effect is shown. Theoretical estimates of the radar cross section of air objects for different polarizations of the incident radiation are given. It is found experimentally that the radar cross section is about the same for the vertical and horizontal polarizations.

  4. Technical memorandum - Aamjiwnaang First Nation community air monitoring station - results for September 2008 to August 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-01-15

    In 2008, the provincial and federal governments, working with the Aamjiwnaang First Nation, established the Aamjiwnaang First Nation community air monitoring station. The station's purpose was to monitor a series of contaminants produced by local industry. In addition, through the collection and analysis of air quality information, the station provided useful input to air quality studies and community health assessments. This report presents the results from analysis of air quality information between September 1, 2008 and August 31, 2009. Overall the report finds that the local air quality is similar to that in surrounding communities during this period and there were no exceedances of any ministry standard or guideline recorded concerning the expectations for particulate matter and ozone. It will be possible in the future to use this air quality information for comparison and correlation with known point sources or modeled results.

  5. Environmental contaminants in fish from Mere Brook - U.S. Naval Air Station, Brunswick, Maine

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Mere Brook bisects three former landfills at the U.S. Naval Air Station in Brunswick, Maine (NASB). Leachate, soil, and sediment analyzed during Superfund remedial...

  6. Environmental Assessment for the management of the Greenbelt Area at Naval Air Station (NAS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Approximately 3,595 acres of land around Naval Air Station (NAS) Fallon, known as the greenbelt, are out leased to local farmers for agricultural production. In...

  7. Exergy and Thermoeconomic Analysis for an Underground Train Station Air-Conditioning Cooling System

    OpenAIRE

    Ke Yang Liao; Yew Khoy Chuah

    2016-01-01

    The necessity of air-conditioning causes the enormous energy use of underground train stations. Exergy and thermoeconomic analysis is applied to the annual operation of the air-conditioning system of a large underground train station in Taiwan. The current installation and the monitored data are taken to be the base case, which is then compared to three different optimized designs. The total revenue requirement levelized cost rate and the total exergy destruction rate are used to evaluate the...

  8. Chlorinated contaminants in chorio-allantoic membranes from great blue heron eggs at Whidbey Island Naval Air Station.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobb, G P; Norman, D M; Miller, M W; Brewer, L W; Johnston, R K

    1995-01-01

    Chorio-allantoic membranes (CAMs) were collected and analyzed for chlorinated hydrocarbons as part of a wildlife toxicology demonstration project at Naval Air Station (NAS) Whidbey Island, Washington, USA. Concentrations of DDT, DDE, DDD, Aroclor 1254, and Aroclor 1260 were found at concentrations below 0.4 ppm for 13 of 14 samples. The low correlations among DDT and its metabolites in CAMs suggest herons are not being exposed to a consistent source of these compounds. Comparison of chlorinated hydrocarbon data for CAMs from three Puget Sound heron colonies, NAS Whidbey, Samish Island and Dumas Bay, indicates contaminant burdens in herons from NAS Whidbey and Samish Island are significantly lower than burdens in herons from Dumas Bay. PMID:7874465

  9. Creating markets for air pollution control in Europe and the USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper surveys recent efforts to relax the rigid regulatory frameworks for air pollution control in Europe and the USA. European policies have mainly taken the form of bubbles and compensation or offset schemes. Emission trading has been limited to intra-firm solutions for various reasons: industry structure, absence of real scarcity, and too restrictive trading rules. Bubbles have been granted to homogenous sectors only and can be characterized as direct regulation for a group rather than tradeable permit systems. By contrast, the sulphur allowance program in the USA has laid down the foundation for a pollution permit market with few formal restrictions. Problems that arise arc mainly related to local environmental and public utility controls. Europe can learn from the USA that regular national permit markets could be installed, preferably for homogenous sectors. In designing the permit system, the differences between the USA and Europe in terms of ecosystem sensitively, stringency of regulation and differentiation of regional environmental policy have to be taken into account. 1 fig., 2 tabs., 54 refs

  10. Benzothiazoles in indoor air from Albany, New York, USA, and its implications for inhalation exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Yanjian; Xue, Jingchuan; Kannan, Kurunthachalam

    2016-07-01

    Benzothiazole and its derivatives (collectively referred to BTHs) are used widely in many consumer (e.g., textiles) and industrial (e.g., rubber) products. Very little is known about the occurrence of BTHs in indoor air and the inhalation exposure of humans to these substances. In this study, 81 indoor air samples collected from various locations in Albany, New York, USA, in 2014 were analyzed for BTHs by high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS). BTHs were found in all indoor air samples, and the overall concentrations in bulk air (vapor plus particulate phases) were in the range of 4.36-2229ng/m(3) (geometric mean: 32.7ng/m(3)). The highest concentrations (geometric mean: 148ng/m(3)) were found in automobiles, followed by homes (49.5)>automobile garages (46.0)>public places, e.g., shopping malls (24.2)>barbershops (18.9) >offices (18.8)>laboratories (15.1). The estimated geometric mean daily intake (EDI) of BTHs for infants, toddlers, children, teenagers, and adults through indoor air inhalation from homes was 27.7, 26.3, 17.9, 10.5, and 7.77ng/kg-bw/day, respectively. The estimated contribution of indoor air to total BTHs intake was approximately 10%. This is the first study on the occurrence of BTHs in indoor air. PMID:26954474

  11. Maryland air toxics regulation applicable to a natural gas compressor station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Columbia Gas Transmission Corporation submitted an air permit application to the Maryland Department of the Environment to construct a natural gas compressor station near Rutledge, Maryland. The station consists of three natural gas-fueled internal combustion reciprocating engines, each rated at 3200 horsepower. Maximum potential pollutant emissions associated with the station operation did not trigger Prevention of Significant Deterioration review or nonattainment area New Source review. However, a minor source air permit cannot be issued without addressing Maryland's toxic air regulations. Columbia initiated a detailed investigation of toxic air pollutants, including a stack test of an identical engine. Based on this information, the proposed station was subject to the toxic air regulation for acetaldehyde, acrolein, benzene, crotonaldehyde, and formaldehyde. Compliance with the toxic air regulation for crotonaldehyde was demonstrated by having an emission rate less than the threshold emission rate, specified in the regulation. The ambient air quality impact of the other four pollutants was determined using the Industrial Source Complex dispersion model and resulted in predicted concentrations below the pollutant-specific acceptable ambient level. A carcinogenic impact analysis was performed for acetaldehyde, benzene, and formaldehyde to demonstrate compliance with the accepted risk of one in one hundred thousand

  12. Relationship of Racial Composition and Cancer Risks from Air Toxics Exposure in Memphis, Tennessee, U.S.A.

    OpenAIRE

    Chunrong Jia; Wesley James; Satish Kedia

    2014-01-01

    African Americans in the U.S. often live in poverty and segregated urban neighborhoods, many of which have dense industrial facilities resulting in high exposure to harmful air toxics. This study aims to explore the relationship between racial composition and cancer risks from air toxics exposure in Memphis/Shelby County, Tennessee, U.S.A. Air toxics data were obtained from 2005 National Air Toxics Assessment (NATA), and the demographic data, including racial composition, were extracted from ...

  13. Long term assessment of air quality from a background station on the Malaysian Peninsula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latif, Mohd Talib; Dominick, Doreena; Ahamad, Fatimah; Khan, Md Firoz; Juneng, Liew; Hamzah, Firdaus Mohamad; Nadzir, Mohd Shahrul Mohd

    2014-06-01

    Rural background stations provide insight into seasonal variations in pollutant concentrations and allow for comparisons to be made with stations closer to anthropogenic emissions. In Malaysia, the designated background station is located in Jerantut, Pahang. A fifteen-year data set focusing on ten major air pollutants and four meteorological variables from this station were analysed. Diurnal, monthly and yearly pollutant concentrations were derived from hourly continuous monitoring data. Statistical methods employed included principal component regression (PCR) and sensitivity analysis. Although only one of the yearly concentrations of the pollutants studied exceeded national and World Health Organisation (WHO) guideline standards, namely PM10, seven of the pollutants (NO, NO2, NOx, O3, PM10, THC and CH4) showed a positive upward trend over the 15-year period. High concentrations of PM10 were recorded during severe haze episodes in this region. Whilst, monthly concentrations of most air pollutants, such as: PM10, O3, NOx, NO2, CO and NmHC were recorded at higher concentrations between June and September, during the southwest monsoon. Such results correspond with the mid-range transport of pollutants from more urbanised and industrial areas. Diurnal patterns, rationed between major air pollutants and sensitivity analysis, indicate the influence of local traffic emissions on air quality at the Jerantut background station. Although the pollutant concentrations have not shown a rapid increase, an alternative background station will need to be assigned within the next decade if development projects in the surrounding area are not halted. PMID:24662202

  14. Genotoxic and histotoxic effects of air pollutants at a benzene station on albino rats

    OpenAIRE

    Mohamed Abousalem; Amer Elgerwi; Abdel Baset El-Mashad

    2014-01-01

    Background: This study was designed to explore the hazardous effects of occupational exposure to air pollutants arising from benzene stations. Methods: A total of 48 albino rats were divided into three groups each of sixteen animals. Groups-I and II were kept at a benzene station for 60 and 120 days, respectively; while group-III was kept as a control under normal laboratory conditions. At the end of the experiment, animals were sacrificed and bone marrow samples were taken to investigate ...

  15. Effects of air vessel on water hammer in high-head pumping station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Effects of air vessel on water hammer process in a pumping station with high-head were analyzed by using the characteristics method. The results show that the air vessel volume is the key parameter that determines the protective effect on water hammer pressure. The maximum pressure in the system declines with increasing air vessel volume. For a fixed volume of air vessel, the shape of air vessel and mounting style, such as horizontal or vertical mounting, have little effect on the water hammer. In order to obtain good protection effects, the position of air vessel should be close to the outlet of the pump. Generally, once the volume of air vessel is guaranteed, the water hammer of a entire pipeline is effectively controlled

  16. Students design, build reception desk for Patuxent River Naval Air Station

    OpenAIRE

    Micale, Barbara L.

    2006-01-01

    A dedicated team of students from Virginia Tech's Washington-Alexandria Architecture Center in Old Town Alexandria designed, constructed, and recently installed the reception desk located inside the new, nearly completed Presidential helicopter support building at Patuxent River Naval Air Station, Maryland.

  17. PILOT STUDY FOR REMOVAL OF ARSENIC FROM DRINKING WATER AT THE FALLON, NEVADA NAVAL AIR STATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report presents the results of pilot plant testing of two treatment methods capable of removing arsenic from drinking water; activated alumina and ion exchange. Using the Naval Air Station (NAS) drinking water (raw water arsenic concentration = 0.080 - 0.116 mg/l) for evaluat...

  18. Accounting for representativity of ground-level air pollution monitoring stations in data assimilation systems

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Eben, Kryštof; Resler, Jaroslav; Juruš, Pavel

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 8, - (2006), s. 10015-10015. ISSN 1029-7006. [General Asembly of the European Geophysical Society. 02.04.2006-07.04.2006, Vienna] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : air pollution * monitoring * representativeness of stations * data assimilation

  19. Environmental contaminants in golden shiners from Picnic Pond, U.S. Naval Air Station, Brunswick, Maine

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — On July 25, 1995, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service conducted a contaminant survey of fish from Picnic Pond on the U.S. Naval Air Station in Brunswick, Maine...

  20. Automated station for the measurement of the total beta radioactivity in the air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An automatic station for measuring the beta total radioactivity of air has been designed. The station consists in an intake section with a capacity of 384 cubic metres of air a day and a glass fibre ribbon filter and in a detection section with three shielded Geiger counters, a plastic beta detector and a NaI (Tl) crystal detector. This stage is linked to the counting section that processes the data and outputs the values of the radioactivity minimum, mean and maximum. The minimum radioactivity measurable is almost 0.015 pC; for such a radioactivity the relative error is 45%. For the mean values the relative error amounts to almost 10%. This station is therefore particularly reliable for its high sensitivity and for the little relative error

  1. 33 CFR 334.775 - Naval Air Station Pensacola, Pensacola Bay, Pensacola and Gulf Breeze, Fla.; naval restricted area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Naval Air Station Pensacola, Pensacola Bay, Pensacola and Gulf Breeze, Fla.; naval restricted area. 334.775 Section 334.775 Navigation... RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.775 Naval Air Station Pensacola, Pensacola Bay, Pensacola and Gulf...

  2. Research on frequency conversion technology of metro station's ventilation and air-conditioning system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ventilation and air-conditioning system (VAC) is the most energy-saving potential system in the metro. This paper analyzes the passenger traffic, air-conditioning load and station air supply on the initial, recent and long-term phase of metro station. And it proposes that it is necessary to run chilled-water pumps, air handing unit (AHU) fans and back/exhaust fans with frequency conversion technology (FCT). Then it uses the thermodynamic method to analyze the impact of running chilled-water pumps with FCT. The results show that running chilled-water pumps with FCT can reduce the total power consumption of system, although increases chiller energy consumption. Then the temperature and velocity fields of the platform and station hall are simulated by CFD software according to the variable air volume. And the results show that under the condition of running the VAC system with FCT, temperature and velocity fields distribution are both in the comfortable range. Finally, by taking a typical summer day for example, this paper analyzes the energy savings of chilled-water pumps, AHU fans and back/exhaust fans on the initial, recent and long-term phase, and the calculation results show that the respective total energy savings are 1103.4 kWh, 1064.3 kWh and 926.2 kWh, and the respective total power saving ratio is 73.4%, 71.2% and 59.5%. - Highlights: •Use the FCT to reduce energy consumption of metro VAC is necessary and possible. •Analyze the influence of running the chilled-water pumps with FCT. •Results show that variable air volume of station public area is feasible. •Calculations indicate that energy-saving effect of using the FCT is considerable

  3. Simulation of Air flow, Smoke Dispersion and Evacuation of the Monument Metro Station based on Subway Climatology

    OpenAIRE

    Qian, Zi; Agnew, Brian; Thompson, Emine Mine

    2014-01-01

    This research is creating a working laboratory in Newcastle Monument metro station to understand the details of how the over ground climate influences the internal airflow and the impact this has on evacuation strategies. It is intended to link weather data with the background air flow in the station and identify the main driving forces for the dispersion of smoke or toxic agents throughout the station. The subway air flow will be evaluated and then interfaced with a VR simulation of the stat...

  4. Spatial variations in the associations of term birth weight with ambient air pollution in Georgia, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Jun; Tu, Wei; Tedders, Stuart H

    2016-01-01

    Birth weight is an important indicator of overall infant health and a strong predictor of infant morbidity and mortality, and low birth weight (LBW) is a leading cause of infant mortality in the United States. Numerous studies have examined the associations of birth weight with ambient air pollution, but the results were inconsistent. In this study, a spatial statistical technique, geographically weighted regression (GWR) is applied to explore the spatial variations in the associations of birth weight with concentrations of ozone (O3) and fine particulate matter (PM2.5) in the State of Georgia, USA adjusted for gestational age, parity, and six other socioeconomic, behavioral, and land use factors. The results show considerable spatial variations in the associations of birth weight with both pollutants. Significant positive, non-significant, and significant negative relationships between birth weight and concentrations of each air pollutant are all found in different parts of the study area, and the different types of the relationships are affected by the socioeconomic and urban characteristics of the communities where the births are located. The significant negative relationships between birth weight and O3 indicate that O3 is a significant risk factor of LBW and these associations are primarily located in less-urbanized communities. On the other hand, PM2.5 is a significant risk factor of LBW in the more-urbanized communities with higher family income and education attainment. These findings suggest that environmental and health policies should be adjusted to address the different effects of air pollutants on birth outcomes across different types of communities to more effectively and efficiently improve birth outcomes. PMID:27104672

  5. Air Pollution Monitoring and Control System for Subway Stations Using Environmental Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gyu-Sik Kim

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The metropolitan city of Seoul uses more energy than any other area in South Korea due to its high population density. It also has high emissions of air pollutants. Since an individual usually spends most of his/her working hours indoors, the ambient air quality refers to indoor air quality. In particular, PM10 concentration in the underground areas should be monitored to preserve the health of commuters in the subway system. Seoul Metro and Seoul Metropolitan Rapid Transit Corporation measure several air pollutants regularly. In this study, the accuracy of an instrument for PM measurement using the light scattering method was improved with the help of a linear regression analysis technique to continuously measure the PM10 concentrations in subway stations. In addition, an air quality monitoring system based on environmental sensors was implemented to display and record the data of PM10, CO2, temperature, and humidity. Through experimental studies, we found that ventilation fans could improve air quality and decrease PM10 concentrations in the tunnels effectively by increasing the air flow rate.

  6. FY 1994 ambient air monitoring report for McMurdo Station, Antarctica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents the results of ambient air monitoring performed during the 1994 fiscal year (FY 1994) in the vicinity of McMurdo Station, Antarctica. Routine monitoring was performed during the 1993-1994 austral summer at three locations for airborne particulate matter less than 10 micrometers (PM-10) and at two locations for carbon monoxide (CO), sulfur dioxide (SO2), and nitrogen oxides (NO, NO2, and NOx). Selected PM-10 filters were analyzed for arsenic, beryllium, cadmium, chromium, lead, mercury, and nickel. Additional air samples were collected at three McMurdo area locations and at Black Island for determination of the airborne concentration of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs). Sampling site selection, sampling procedures, and quality assurance procedures used were consistent with US Environmental Protection Agency guidance for local ambient air quality networks

  7. Open hardware, low cost, air quality stations for monitoring ozone in coastal area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Marco; Donzella, Davide; Pintus, Fabio; Fedi, Adriano; Ferrari, Daniele; Massabò, Marco

    2014-05-01

    Ozone concentrations in urban and coastal area are a great concern for citizens and, consequently regulator. In the last 20 years the Ozone concentration is almost doubled and it has attracted the public attention because of the well know harmful impacts on human health and biosphere in general. Official monitoring networks usually comprise high precision, high accuracy observation stations, usually managed by public administrations and environmental agency; unfortunately due to their high costs of installation and maintenance, the monitoring stations are relatively sparse. This kind of monitoring networks have been recognized to be unsuitable to effectively characterize the high variability of air quality, especially in areas where pollution sources are various and often not static. We present a prototype of a low cost station for air quality monitoring, specifically developed for complementing the official monitoring stations improving the representation of air quality spatial distribution. We focused on a semi-professional product that could guarantee the highest reliability at the lowest possible cost, supported by a consistent infrastructure for data management. We test two type of Ozone sensor electrochemical and metal oxide. This work is integrated in the ACRONET Paradigm ® project: an open-hardware platform strongly oriented on environmental monitoring. All software and hardware sources will be available on the web. Thus, a computer and a small amount of work tools will be sufficient to create new monitoring networks, with the only constraint to share all the data obtained. It will so possible to create a real "sensing community". The prototype is currently able to measure ozone level, temperature and relative humidity, but soon, with the upcoming changes, it will be able also to monitor dust, carbon monoxide and nitrogen dioxide, always through the use of commercial sensors. The sensors are grouped in a compact board that interfaces with a data

  8. Validation of AIRS V6 Surface Temperature over Greenland with GCN and NOAA Stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jae N.; Hearty, Thomas; Cullather, Richard; Nowicki, Sophie; Susskind, Joel

    2016-01-01

    This work compares the temporal and spatial characteristics of the AIRSAMSU (Atmospheric Infrared Sounder Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit A) Version 6 and MODIS (Moderate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) Collection 5 derived surface temperatures over Greenland. To estimate uncertainties in space-based surface temperature measurements, we re-projected the MODIS Ice Surface Temperature (IST) to 0.5 by 0.5 degree spatial resolution. We also re-gridded AIRS Skin Temperature (Ts) into the same grid but classified with different cloud conditions and surface types. These co-located data sets make intercomparison between the two instruments relatively straightforward. Using this approach, the spatial comparison between the monthly mean AIRS Ts and MODIS IST is in good agreement with RMS 2K for May 2012. This approach also allows the detection of any long-term calibration drift and the careful examination of calibration consistency in the MODIS and AIRS temperature data record. The temporal correlations between temperature data are also compared with those from in-situ measurements from GC-Net (GCN) and NOAA stations. The coherent time series of surface temperature evident in the correlation between AIRS Ts and GCN temperatures suggest that at monthly time scales both observations capture the same climate signal over Greenland. It is also suggested that AIRS surface air temperature (Ta) can be used to estimate the boundary layer inversion.

  9. Final Report Recommended Actions to Reduce Electrical Peak Loads at the Marine Corps Air Station at Camp Pendleton, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hail, John C.; Brown, Daryl R.; McCullough, Jeffrey J.; Underhill, Ronald M.

    2001-05-08

    PNNL conducted a walk-through audit of Marine Corps Air Station at Camp Pendleton. The audit inspected a significant portion of the site and identified a large number of similar energy saving opportunities across all building types.

  10. Toxicity tests and sediment chemistry at Site 9 (Neptune Drive Disposal Site) - U.S. Naval Air Station, Brunswick, Maine

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — During a remedial investigation of the U.S. Naval Air Station Superfund Site in Brunswick, Maine (NASB), elevated concentrations of total polycyclic aromatic...

  11. Cape Canaveral Air Force Station integrated resource assessment. Volume 2, Baseline detail

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wahlstrom, R.R.; McMordie, K.L.; Parker, S.A.; King, D.A.; Sandusky, W.F.

    1993-12-01

    The US Air Force (USAF) has tasked the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), in support of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP), to assess energy use at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (AFS). The information obtained from this assessment will be used in identifying energy resource opportunities to reduce overall energy consumption by the station. The primary focus of this report is to assess the current baseline energy consumption at Cape Canaveral AFS. It is A companion report to Volume 1, the Executive Summary, and Volume 3, the Resource Assessment. This assessment requires that information be obtained and characterized for buildings, utilities, energy sources, energy uses, and load profiles to be used to improve the current energy system on the station. The characteristics of electricity, diesel fuel, No. 2 fuel oil, and motor vehicle gasoline (MOGAS) are analyzed for on-base facilities. The assessment examines basic regional information used to determine energy-use intensity (EUI) values for Cape Canaveral AFS facilities by building, fuel type, and energy end use. It also provides a summary of electricity consumption from Florida Power and Light Company (FPL) metered data for 1985--1991. Load profile information obtained from FPL data is presented for the North, South, and Titan Substations for the four seasons of the year, including weekdays and weekends.

  12. A Numerical Treatment of Air Flow Model in the Area Under the Station Platform of Thailand BTS Sky Train

    OpenAIRE

    Nopparat Pochai

    2010-01-01

    Problem statement: The area under Phayathai station platform of sky train in Bangkok, Thailand, has a problem of air pollution control. Approach:The Bangkok Mass Transit System Company tries to set up the electric fans inside the area for air flow improvement. Results: The flow of the air is still not smooth and the air quality is still lower than standard. The assumption of the research that is the flow obstructs by the platform structures. Conclusion: In this research, a mathematical model ...

  13. Analysis and design of a local area network information support system for the Marine Corps Air Station, Yuma, Arizona

    OpenAIRE

    Jordan, Samuel L.

    1988-01-01

    This thesis provides an analysis of the organizational information system of the Marine Corps Air Station, Yuma, Arizona. A discussion of academic theory concerning structured systems analysis and design, local area network communications standards, and the characteristics of a local area network provide the theoretical foundation for the analysis and design of a local area network information support system for the Air Station. A survey was conducted to identify the problems and the function...

  14. Cabin Air Quality On Board Mir and the International Space Station: A Comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macatangay, Ariel; Perry, Jay L.

    2007-01-01

    The maintenance of the cabin atmosphere aboard spacecraft is critical not only to its habitability but also to its function. Ideally, air quality can be maintained by striking a proper balance between the generation and removal of contaminants. Both very dynamic processes, the balance between generation and removal can be difficult to maintain and control because the state of the cabin atmosphere is in constant evolution responding to different perturbations. Typically, maintaining a clean cabin environment on board crewed spacecraft and space habitats is the central function of the environmental control and life support (ECLS) system. While active air quality control equipment is deployed on board every vehicle to remove carbon dioxide, water vapor, and trace chemical components from the cabin atmosphere, perturbations associated with logistics, vehicle construction and maintenance, and ECLS system configuration influence the resulting cabin atmospheric quality. The air-quality data obtained from the International Space Station (ISS) and NASA-Mir programs provides a wealth of information regarding the maintenance of the cabin atmosphere aboard long-lived space habitats. A comparison of the composition of the trace chemical contaminant load is presented. Correlations between ground-based and in-flight operations that influence cabin atmospheric quality are identified and discussed, and observations on cabin atmospheric quality during the NASA-Mir expeditions and the International Space Station are explored.

  15. Asthma in the vicinity of power stations: II. Outdoor air quality and symptoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To assess longitudinally the effect of living in the vicinity of coal-fired power stations on children with asthma, 99 schoolchildren with a history of wheezing in the previous 12 months were studied for 1 year, using daily diaries and measurements of air quality. The children had been identified in a cross-sectional survey of two coastal areas: Lake Munmorah (LM), within 5 km of two power stations, and Nelson Bay (NB), free from major industry. Daily air quality [sulphur dioxide (SO2) and nitrogen oxides (NOx)], respiratory symptoms, and treatment for asthma were recorded throughout the year. Measurements of SO2 and NOx at LM were well within recommended guidelines although they were several times higher than at NB: maximum daily levels in SO2 (micrograms/m3) were 26 at LM, 11 at NB (standard, 365); yearly average SO2 was 2 at LM, 0.3 at NB (standard, 60); yearly average NOx (micrograms/m3) was 2 at LM, 0.4 at NB (standard, 94). Marked weekly fluctuations occurred in the prevalence of cough, wheezing, and breathlessness, without any substantial differences between LM and NB. Overall, the prevalence of symptoms was low (10% for wheezing, 20% for any symptom). Whether the daily SO2 and NOx levels affected the occurrence of respiratory symptoms was investigated in children at LM using a logistic regression (Korn and Whittemore technique). For these children as a group, air quality measurements were not associated with the occurrence of symptoms

  16. Regional CO2 fluxes inferred from mixing ratio measurements: estimates from flask air samples in central Kansas, USA

    OpenAIRE

    Lai, Chun-Ta; Schauer, Andrew J.; Owensby, Clenton; Ham, Hay M.; Helliker, Brent; Tans, Pieter P.; Ehleringer, James R

    2011-01-01

    We estimated regional fluxes of carbon dioxide (CO2) using mixing ratios measured in a tallgrass prairie in central Kansas, USA over 3 yr (2002–2004). Glass flasks were used to collect whole air samples in the midafternoon for determining CO2 mixing ratios and their carbon isotopic composition. Regional CO2 fluxes were calculated assuming atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) approaches an equilibrium state on a monthly basis. CO2 mixing ratios derived from the marine boundary layer data were used...

  17. Management Of Competition And Besting Among Crew Members: A Study At The Mars Desert Research Station (MDRS) In Utah, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allner, Matthew; Bishop, Sheryl; Gushin, Vadim; McKay, Chris; Rygalov, Vadim; Allner, Matthew

    Introduction: Psychosocial group functioning has become an increased international focus of many space faring nations due to the recent shift in focus of colonizing the Moon and then preparing to travel to Mars and beyond. Purpose: This study investigates the effects of competition and besting among crewmembers in isolated and confined extreme (ICE) environments. Furthermore, the study investigates the effects associated with both preand intra-mission management efforts, which included crewmember assessments at various mission phases (pre-, intra-, and end-mission). Suggestions on how to manage competition and besting within a crew were investigated by implementing preand intra-mission awareness strategies as well as group participation in the development and implementation of countermeasures to manage crewmember tendency towards competition and besting to promote the development of positive group functioning. Methods: A six person heterogeneous American crew conducted a Mars simulation mission at the Mars Society's Mars Desert Research Station in Utah, USA in 2006 as part of a new NASA training program called Spaceward Bound. Participants were administered assessments of personality, personal and group identity/functioning, subjective stress, and subjective motivation. All participants were also provided information (pre-mission) regarding past research findings and tendencies of group functioning, stressors, cognitive functioning, and competition and besting. Results: Anecdotal data obtained from personal interviews with crewmembers strongly showed that pre-mission discussions regarding competition and besting provided awareness that allowed crewmembers to continually self-assess to prevent this tendency from surfacing during the mission. The assessment data results showed support for recorded diary materials which indicated crewmembers felt strongly that continual reminders of the besting concept, along with being allowed to participate in the development and

  18. Cruise and Data Report of USA-PRC Joint Air-Sea Interaction Studies in the Western Pacific Ocean (NODC Accession 8700374)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The USA-PRC Joint Program on Air-Sea Interaction Studies in the Tropical Western Pacific is a component of the Protocol on Cooperation in the Field of Marine and...

  19. Results of measurements of ground-level atmospheric air radioactivity conducted in ASS-500 stations network in 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report describes the network of aerosol sampling stations type ASS-500. Results of monitoring ground-level air in Poland in 1997 are published. The changes of radionuclide concentrations in 1992-1997 are summarized. Effective doses absorbed by humans are assessed. Authors conclude that exposure of Polish population for air radioactive contamination did not change between 1992 and 1997

  20. Characterization of positive air ions in boreal forest air at the Hyytiälä SMEAR station

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Hõrrak

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available The behavior of the concentration of positive small (or cluster air ions and naturally charged nanometer aerosol particles (aerosol ions has been studied on the basis of measurements carried out in a boreal forest at the Hyytiälä SMEAR station, Finland, during the BIOFOR III campaign in spring 1999. Statistical characteristics of the concentrations of cluster ions, two classes of aerosol ions of the sizes of 2.5–8 nm and 8–ca. 20 nm and the quantities that determine the balance of small ions in the atmosphere have been given for the nucleation event days and non-event days. The dependence of small ion concentration on the ion loss (sink due to aerosol particles was investigated applying a model of bipolar diffusion charging of particles by small ions. The small ion concentration and the ion sink were closely correlated (correlation coefficient –87% when the fog events and the hours of high relative humidity (above 95%, as well as nocturnal calms and weak wind (wind speed <0.6 m s−1 had been excluded. However, an extra ion loss term presumably due to small ion deposition on coniferous forest with a magnitude equal to the average ion loss to pre-existing particles is needed to explain the observations. Also the hygroscopic growth correction of measured aerosol particle size distributions was found to be necessary for proper estimation of the ion sink. In the case of nucleation burst events, variations in the concentration of small positive ions were in accordance with the changes caused by the ion sink due to aerosols; no clear indication of positive ion depletion by ion-induced nucleation was found. The estimated average ionization rate of the air at the Hyytiälä station in early spring, when the ground was partly covered with snow, was about 6 ion pairs cm−3 s−1. The study of the charging state of nanometer aerosol particles (2.5–8 nm revealed a strong correlation (correlation coefficient 88

  1. Characterization of positive air ions in boreal forest air at the Hyytiälä SMEAR station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hõrrak, U.; Aalto, P. P.; Salm, J.; Komsaare, K.; Tammet, H.; Mäkelä, J. M.; Laakso, L.; Kulmala, M.

    2007-07-01

    The behavior of the concentration of positive small (or cluster) air ions and naturally charged nanometer aerosol particles (aerosol ions) has been studied on the basis of measurements carried out in a boreal forest at the Hyytiälä SMEAR station, Finland, during the BIOFOR III campaign in spring 1999. Statistical characteristics of the concentrations of cluster ions, two classes of aerosol ions of the sizes of 2.5-8 nm and 8-ca. 20 nm and the quantities that determine the balance of small ions in the atmosphere have been given for the nucleation event days and non-event days. The dependence of small ion concentration on the ion loss (sink) due to aerosol particles was investigated applying a model of bipolar diffusion charging of particles by small ions. The small ion concentration and the ion sink were closely correlated (correlation coefficient -87%) when the fog events and the hours of high relative humidity (above 95%), as well as nocturnal calms and weak wind (wind speed <0.6 m s-1) had been excluded. However, an extra ion loss term presumably due to small ion deposition on coniferous forest with a magnitude equal to the average ion loss to pre-existing particles is needed to explain the observations. Also the hygroscopic growth correction of measured aerosol particle size distributions was found to be necessary for proper estimation of the ion sink. In the case of nucleation burst events, variations in the concentration of small positive ions were in accordance with the changes caused by the ion sink due to aerosols; no clear indication of positive ion depletion by ion-induced nucleation was found. The estimated average ionization rate of the air at the Hyytiälä station in early spring, when the ground was partly covered with snow, was about 6 ion pairs cm-3 s-1. The study of the charging state of nanometer aerosol particles (2.5-8 nm) revealed a strong correlation (correlation coefficient 88%) between the concentrations of particles and positively

  2. Atmospheric Station Kresin u Pacova, Czech Republic - a central European research infrastructure for studying greenhouse gases, aerosols and air quality

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dvorská, Alice; Fusek, M.; Hanuš, Vlastimil; Hošková, K.; Michálek, J.; Prošek, P.; Schwarz, Jaroslav; Sedlák, Pavel; Váňa, Milan; Veselik, P.; Vodička, Petr; Ždímal, Vladimír; Zíková, Naděžda

    Berlín: European Meteorological Society, 2014. "192-1". [EMS Annual Meeting, 14th & European Conference on Applications of Meteorology (ECAM), 10th. 06.10.2014-10.10.2014, Prague] Institutional support: RVO:67179843 ; RVO:67985858 Keywords : atmospheric station Křešín * Czech Republic * greenhouse gases * Aerosol-climate model * air quality Subject RIV: DI - Air Pollution ; Quality; DI - Air Pollution ; Quality (UCHP-M)

  3. Trends in Concentrations of Atmospheric Gaseous and Particulate Species at the Look Rock, TN NCORE Air Quality Station and Their Relation to Primary Emissions Reductions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanner, R. L.; Mueller, S. F.; Bairai, S. T.

    2013-12-01

    Air quality parameters, measured at Look Rock, TN, since 1980, were expanded by National Park Service (NPS) as an IMPROVE network station and again in 1999-2007 by Tennessee Valley Authority as part of efforts to determine the effects of reductions in EGU emissions of sulfur and nitrogen oxides on air quality at the site. Designated as a non-urban, NCORE-equivalent station in 2010, routine continuous monitoring of aerosol mass, sulfate, and black carbon, and primary and secondary gases at the site as well as additional measurements during a series of intensive research studies at the site have produced an extensive body to air quality data on background levels of species relevant to air quality standards (NAAQS) for ozone and fine particulate matter which is unique comprehensive for a high-altitude site in the southeastern U.S.A. Analysis of the temporal trends in these data (1999-present)is being conducted in conjunction with and support of 2013 Southern Atmosphere Studies at Look Rock and other southeastern U.S. locations. Key findings from analysis of temporal trends at Look Rock include the observation that primary pollutant levels have consistently tracked the emissions reductions from EGUs and other primary sources in the region, but reductions in secondary pollutants such as particulate sulfate and ozone have been less than proportional. Organic carbonaceous material (OM) remains a major contributor to fine particulate mass at the site, and a large portion (65-85%) of OM derives from modern carbon, based on 14C measurements. Important parameters affecting fine mass and ozone levels also include the specific diurnal meteorology at this ridge-top site, its location in a largely mixed-deciduous forest, and the presence of primary sources of precursors at distances of 50-500 km from the site in all directions.

  4. International Space Station Common Cabin Air Assembly Condensing Heat Exchanger Hydrophilic Coating Failures and Lessons Learned

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balistreri, Steven F.; Shaw, Laura A.; Laliberte, Yvon

    2010-01-01

    The ability to control the temperature and humidity of an environment or habitat is critical for human survival. These factors are important to maintaining human health and comfort, as well as maintaining mechanical and electrical equipment in good working order to support the human and to accomplish mission objectives. The temperature and humidity of the International Space Station (ISS) United States On-orbit Segment (USOS) cabin air is controlled by the Common Cabin Air Assembly (CCAA). The CCAA consists of a fan, a condensing heat exchanger (CHX), an air/water separator, temperature and liquid sensors, and electrical controlling hardware and software. The CHX is the primary component responsible for control of temperature and humidity. The CCAA CHX contains a chemical coating that was developed to be hydrophilic and thus attract water from the humid influent air. This attraction forms the basis for water removal and therefore cabin humidity control. However, there have been several instances of CHX coatings becoming hydrophobic and repelling water. When this behavior is observed in an operational CHX, the unit s ability to remove moisture from the air is compromised and the result is liquid water carryover into downstream ducting and systems. This water carryover can have detrimental effects on the cabin atmosphere quality and on the health of downstream hardware. If the water carryover is severe and widespread, this behavior can result in an inability to maintain humidity levels in the USOS. This paper will describe the operation of the five CCAAs within in the USOS, the potential causes of the hydrophobic condition, and the impacts of the resulting water carryover to downstream systems. It will describe the history of this behavior and the actual observed impacts to the ISS USOS. Information on mitigation steps to protect the health of future CHX hydrophilic coatings and potential remediation techniques will also be discussed.

  5. International Space Station Common Cabin Air Assembly Water Separator On-Orbit Operation, Failure, and Redesign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balistreri, Steven F., Jr.; Shaw, Laura A.; Laliberte, Yvon

    2010-01-01

    The ability to control the temperature and humidity of an environment or habitat is critical for human survival. These factors are important to maintaining human health and comfort, as well as maintaining mechanical and electrical equipment in good working order to support the human and to accomplish mission objectives. The temperature and humidity of the International Space Station (ISS) United States On-orbit Segment (USOS) cabin air is controlled by the Common Cabin Air Assembly (CCAA). The CCAA consists of a fan, a condensing heat exchanger (CHX), an air/water separator, temperature and liquid sensors, and electrical controlling hardware and software. The Water Separator (WS) pulls in air and water from the CHX, and centrifugally separates the mixture, sending the water to the condensate bus and the air back into the CHX outlet airstream. Two distinct early failures of the CCAA Water Separator in the Quest Airlock forced operational changes and brought about the re-design of the Water Separator to improve the useful life via modification kits. The on-orbit operational environment of the Airlock presented challenges that were not foreseen with the original design of the Water Separator. Operational changes were instituted to prolong the life of the third installed WS, while waiting for newly designed Water Separators to be delivered on-orbit. The modification kit design involved several different components of the Water Separator, including the innovative use of a fabrication technique to build the impellers used in Water Separators out of titanium instead of aluminum. The technique allowed for the cost effective production of the low quantity build. This paper will describe the failures of the Water Separators in the Quest Airlock, the operational constraints that were implemented to prolong the life of the installed Water Separators throughout the USOS, and the innovative re-design of the CCAA Water Separator.

  6. Evaluation of the Air Quality Monitor's Performance on the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limero, Thomas; Reese, Eric; Ballard, Ken; Durham, Tamara

    2010-01-01

    The Air Quality Monitor (AQM) was flown to the International Space Station (ISS) as an experiment to evaluate its potential to replace the aging Volatile Organic Analyzer (VOA), which ceased operations in August 2009. The AQM (Figure 1) is a small gas chromatography/differential mobility spectrometer (GC/DMS) manufactured by Sionex. Data was presented at last year s ISIMS conference that detailed the preparation of the AQM for flight, including instrument calibration. Furthermore, initial AQM data was compared to VOA results from simultaneous runs of the two instruments. Although comparison with VOA data provided a measure of confidence in the AQM performance, it is the comparison with results from simultaneously acquired air samples (grab sample containers-GSCs) that will define the success (or failure) of the AQM performance. This paper will update the progress in the AQM investigation by comparing AQM data to results from the analyses of GSC samples, returned from ISS. Additionally, a couple of example will illustrate the AQM s ability to detect disruptions in the spacecraft s air quality. Discussion will also focus upon a few unexpected issues that have arisen and how these will be a addressed in the final operational unit now being built.

  7. Orbital debris detection program highlights from the Air Force Maui Optical Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houchard, Jeff E.; Kervin, Paul W.; Africano, John L.; Kuo, Shiao D.; Medrano, Robert S.; Lambert, John V.

    1994-06-01

    The Air Force Maui Optical Station (AMOS) conducted searches, measurements, and analyses of the orbital debris environment for the Air Force Space Command and the Phillips Laboratory since May 1991 in support of the Air Force Orbital Debris Measurements Program. The objective of this program was to detect orbiting low earth objects not currently in the United States Space Command Space Surveillance Center catalog. Once objects were detected, further objectives were to track, catalog, and maintain those objects locally, to determine statistics on detected objects, and perform relevant analyses. AMOS has developed a prototype surveillance system for the detection and tracking of orbital debris. In addition to this surveillance activity, AMOS has also automated the post-processing videotape streak detection process and is automating the analysis process. Both the optical tracking of orbital debris and the automatic streak detection process were thought to be virtually impossible only a few years ago. The AMOS program employed wide field of view optical telescopes using the Maui Groundbased Electro-Optical Deep Space Surveillance site and AMOS narrow field of view tracking telescopes, both located at the Maui Space Surveillance Site.

  8. Mercury in the Air, Water and Biota at the Great Salt Lake (Utah, USA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, C.; Gustin, M. S.

    2008-12-01

    The Great Salt Lake, Utah (USA), is the fourth largest terminal lake on Earth and a stop-over location for 35 million birds on the Pacific Flyway. Recently, the Utah Department of Health and Utah Division of Wildlife Resources issued tissue mercury (Hg) consumption advisories for several species of birds that consume the lake's brine shrimp. Sources of Hg to the lake are the watershed and the atmosphere, and we hypothesized that the chemistry of the air above the Great Salt Lake would facilitate atmospheric deposition of Hg to the water. Because little information was available on Hg at the Great Salt Lake, and to begin to test this hypothesis, we measured atmospheric elemental (Hg0) and reactive gaseous mercury (RGM) concentrations as well as Hg concentrations in water and brine shrimp five times over a year. Surrogate surfaces and a dry deposition model were applied to estimate the amount of Hg that could be input to the lake surface. We found that atmospheric Hg0 and RGM concentrations were comparable to global ambient background values and those measured in rural areas (respectively). Both Hg0 and RGM exhibited regular diel variability, and no consistent seasonal periods of depleted or elevated values were observed. Based on these findings, local factors are thought to be important in generating elevated RGM concentrations that could be deposited to the lake. Model estimated deposition velocities for RGM to the lake ranged from 0.9 to 3.0 cm sec-1, with an estimated 19 kg of Hg deposited annually. Total Hg and methyl Hg concentrations in surface waters of the lake were consistent throughout the year (3.8 ± 0.8 ng L- 1 and 0.93 ± 0.59 ng L-1, respectively) and not significantly elevated relative to natural waters; however, the percent methyl Hg to total Hg was high (25 to 50%). Brine shrimp Hg concentrations were 384 ppb and had a statistically significant increase from early summer to fall. Based on modeled dry deposition and estimated wet deposition, the

  9. Assessment of Fleet Inventory for Naval Air Station Whidbey Island. Task 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schey, Stephen [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Francfort, Jim [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-06-01

    Task 1includes a survey of the inventory of non-tactical fleet vehicles at Naval Air Station Whidbey Island (NASWI) to characterize the fleet. This information and characterization are used to select vehicles for monitoring that takes place during Task 2. This monitoring involves data logging of vehicle operation in order to identify the vehicle’s mission and travel requirements. Individual observations of these selected vehicles provide the basis for recommendations related to PEV adoption. It also identifies whether a battery electric vehicle or plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (collectively referred to as PEVs) can fulfill the mission requirements and provide observations related to placement of PEV charging infrastructure. This report provides the results of the assessments and observations of the current non-tactical fleet, fulfilling the Task 1 requirements.

  10. La station moustérienne de plein air de Neufechingen-« Auf Wappe

    OpenAIRE

    Brun-Ricalens, Foni Le; Rick, Susanne; Haag, Hans-Peter; Vogelgesang, Utto

    2013-01-01

    Présentation d’une série lithique relevée en prospection de surface à Neufechingen-« Auf Wappenhöh » près de Sarrebruck (D) sur une moyenne terrasse de la vallée de la Sarre. Par les caractères techno-typologiques rencontrés (débitage Levallois et Discoïde, retouche Quina), cette industrie en silex est attribuable au Paléolithique moyen. Il est à souligner que cette station de plein air moustérienne se développe à proximité de gîtes de matières premières siliceuses, en l’occurrence diverses v...

  11. Determination of On-Orbit Cabin Air Loss from the International Space Station (ISS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, David E.; Leonard, Daniel J.; Smith, Patrick J.

    2004-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) loses cabin atmosphere mass at some rate. Due to oxygen partial pressures fluctuations from metabolic usage, the total pressure is not a good data source for tracking total pressure loss. Using the nitrogen partial pressure is a good data source to determine the total on-orbit cabin atmosphere loss from the ISS, due to no nitrogen addition or losses. There are several important reasons to know the daily average cabin air loss of the ISS including logistics planning for nitrogen and oxygen. The total average daily cabin atmosphere loss was estimated from January 14 to April 9 of 2003. The total average daily cabin atmosphere loss includes structural leakages, Vozdukh losses, Carbon Dioxide Removal Assembly (CDRA) losses, and other component losses. The total average daily cabin atmosphere loss does not include mass lost during Extra-Vehicular Activities (EVAs), Progress dockings, Space Shuttle dockings, calibrations, or other specific one-time events.

  12. Statistical Variability and Persistence Change in Daily Air Temperature Time Series from High Latitude Arctic Stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suteanu, Cristian

    2015-07-01

    In the last decades, Arctic communities have been reporting that weather conditions are becoming less predictable. Most scientific studies have not been able to consistently confirm such a trend. The question regarding the possible increase in weather variability was addressed here based on daily minimum and maximum surface air temperature time series from 15 high latitude Arctic stations from Canada, Norway, and the Russian Federation. A range of analysis methods were applied, distinguished mainly by the way in which they treat time scale. Statistical L-moments were determined for temporal windows of different lengths. While the picture provided by L-scale and L-kurtosis is not consistent with an increasing variability, L-skewness was found to change towards more positive values, reflecting an enhancement of warm spells. Haar wavelet analysis was applied both to the entire time series and to running windows. Persistence diagrams were generated based on running windows advancing through time and on local slopes of Haar analysis graphs; they offer a more nuanced view on variability by reflecting its change over time on a range of temporal scales. Local increases in variability could be identified in some cases, but no consistent change was detected in any of the stations over the studied temporal scales. The possibility for other intervals of temporal scale (e.g., days, hours, minutes) to potentially reveal a different situation cannot be ruled out. However, in the light of the results presented here, explanations for the discrepancy between variability perception and results of pattern analysis might have to be explored using an integrative approach to weather variables such as air temperature, cloud cover, precipitation, wind, etc.

  13. A Numerical Treatment of Air Flow Model in the Area Under the Station Platform of Thailand BTS Sky Train

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nopparat Pochai

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The area under Phayathai station platform of sky train in Bangkok, Thailand, has a problem of air pollution control. Approach:The Bangkok Mass Transit System Company tries to set up the electric fans inside the area for air flow improvement. Results: The flow of the air is still not smooth and the air quality is still lower than standard. The assumption of the research that is the flow obstructs by the platform structures. Conclusion: In this research, a mathematical model can be simulating the causes of the flow obstacle. The numerical solution of the model is obtained by using a finite element technique.

  14. Analysis of television food advertising on children's programming on "free-to-air" broadcast stations in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Suzane Mota Marques Costa; Paula Martins Horta; Luana Caroline dos Santos

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To analyze the content of television food advertising on Brazilian 'free-to-air' broadcast stations during children's programming. METHODS: This is a descriptive study which evaluated the content of food advertising between 08:00 a.m. and 06:00 p.m. on three Brazilian 'free-to-air' broadcast stations (A, B and C). Data collection was performed during 10 week days and weekends. Food advertising was organized according to the food group classification from the Food Guide for the Braz...

  15. Performance and evaluation of gas engine driven rooftop air conditioning equipment at the Willow Grove (PA) Naval Air Station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armstrong, P.R.; Conover, D.R.

    1993-05-01

    In a field evaluation conducted for the US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP), the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) examined the performance of a new US energy-related technology under the FEMP Test Bed Demonstration Program. The technology was a 15-ton natural gas engine driven roof top air conditioning unit. Two such units were installed on a naval retail building to provide space conditioning to the building. Under the Test Bed Demonstration Program, private and public sector interests are focused to support the installation and evaluation of new US technologies in the federal sector. Participating in this effort under a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) with DOE were the American Gas Cooling Center, Philadelphia Electric Company, Thermo King Corporation, and the US Naval Air Station at Willow Grove, Pennsylvania. Equipment operating and service data as well as building interior and exterior conditions were secured for the 1992 cooling season. Based on a computer assessment of the building using standard weather data, a comparison was made with the energy and operating costs associated with the previous space conditioning system. Based on performance during the 1992 cooling season and adjusted to a normal weather year, the technology will save the site $6,000/yr in purchased energy costs. An additional $9,000 in savings due to electricity demand ratchet charge reductions will also be realized. Detailed information on the technology, the installation, and the results of the technology test are provided to illustrate the advantages to the federal sector of using this technology. A history of the CRADA development process is also reported.

  16. The JPL Electronic Nose: Monitoring Air in the US Lab on the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, M. A.; Manatt, K. S.; Gluck, S.; Shevade, A. V.; Kisor, A. K.; Zhou, H.; Lara, L. M.; Homer, M. L.

    2010-01-01

    An electronic nose with a sensor array of 32 conductometric sensors has been developed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) to monitor breathing air in spacecraft habitat. The Third Generation ENose is designed to operate in the environment of the US Lab on the International Space Station (ISS). It detects a selected group of analytes at target concentrations in the ppm regime at an environmental temperature range of 18 - 30 oC, relative humidity from 25 - 75% and pressure from 530 to 760 torr. The monitoring targets are anomalous events such as leaks and spills of solvents, coolants or other fluids. The JPL ENose operated as a technology demonstration for seven months in the U.S. Laboratory Destiny during 2008-2009. Analysis of ENose monitoring data shows that there was regular, periodic rise and fall of humidity and occasional releases of Freon 218 (perfluoropropane), formaldehyde, methanol and ethanol. There were also several events of unknown origin, half of them from the same source. Each event lasted from 20 to 100 minutes, consistent with the air replacement time in the US Lab.

  17. Characterization of air flow patterns at the Atmospheric Station Křešín u Pacova

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Komínková, K.; Sedlák, Pavel; Dvorská, Alice; Prošek, P.

    Helsinky: University of Helsinky, 2014, s. 71. [ICOS International Conference on Greenhouse Gases and Biogeochemical Cycles /1./. Brusels (BE), 23.09.2014-25.09.2014] R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0073; GA MŠk(CZ) LM2010007 Keywords : air flow * atmospheric station Křešín Subject RIV: DI - Air Pollution ; Quality

  18. 33 CFR 334.1125 - Pacific Ocean Naval Air Weapons Station, Point Mugu, Small Arms Range, Ventura County, California...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pacific Ocean Naval Air Weapons Station, Point Mugu, Small Arms Range, Ventura County, California; danger zone. 334.1125 Section 334.1125 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS...

  19. Nanosecond-level time synchronization of autonomous radio detector stations for extensive air showers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To exploit the full potential of radio measurements of cosmic-ray air showers at MHz frequencies, a detector timing synchronization within 1 ns is needed. Large distributed radio detector arrays such as the Auger Engineering Radio Array (AERA) rely on timing via the Global Positioning System (GPS) for the synchronization of individual detector station clocks. Unfortunately, GPS timing is expected to have an accuracy no better than about 5 ns. In practice, in particular in AERA, the GPS clocks exhibit drifts on the order of tens of ns. We developed a technique to correct for the GPS drifts, and an independent method is used to cross-check that indeed we reach a nanosecond-scale timing accuracy by this correction. First, we operate a ''beacon transmitter'' which emits defined sine waves detected by AERA antennas recorded within the physics data. The relative phasing of these sine waves can be used to correct for GPS clock drifts. In addition to this, we observe radio pulses emitted by commercial airplanes, the position of which we determine in real time from Automatic Dependent Surveillance Broadcasts intercepted with a software-defined radio. From the known source location and the measured arrival times of the pulses we determine relative timing offsets between radio detector stations. We demonstrate with a combined analysis that the two methods give a consistent timing calibration with an accuracy of 2 ns or better. Consequently, the beacon method alone can be used in the future to continuously determine and correct for GPS clock drifts in each individual event measured by AERA

  20. Nanosecond-level time synchronization of autonomous radio detector stations for extensive air showers

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Pierre Auger Collaboration

    2016-01-01

    To exploit the full potential of radio measurements of cosmic-ray air showers at MHz frequencies, a detector timing synchronization within 1 ns is needed. Large distributed radio detector arrays such as the Auger Engineering Radio Array (AERA) rely on timing via the Global Positioning System (GPS) for the synchronization of individual detector station clocks. Unfortunately, GPS timing is expected to have an accuracy no better than about 5 ns. In practice, in particular in AERA, the GPS clocks exhibit drifts on the order of tens of ns. We developed a technique to correct for the GPS drifts, and an independent method is used to cross-check that indeed we reach a nanosecond-scale timing accuracy by this correction. First, we operate a ``beacon transmitter'' which emits defined sine waves detected by AERA antennas recorded within the physics data. The relative phasing of these sine waves can be used to correct for GPS clock drifts. In addition to this, we observe radio pulses emitted by commercial airplanes, the position of which we determine in real time from Automatic Dependent Surveillance Broadcasts intercepted with a software-defined radio. From the known source location and the measured arrival times of the pulses we determine relative timing offsets between radio detector stations. We demonstrate with a combined analysis that the two methods give a consistent timing calibration with an accuracy of 2 ns or better. Consequently, the beacon method alone can be used in the future to continuously determine and correct for GPS clock drifts in each individual event measured by AERA.

  1. Quantifying influence of local air pollution on measurements in Ny-Ålesund and at the Zeppelin station

    OpenAIRE

    Dekhtyareva, Alena

    2014-01-01

    In order to keep the scientific significance of the Ny-Ålesund station on Svalbard as the key place for the monitoring of background air it is needed to assess the influence from local human activities on the air quality. Whether research and tourist activity continues to grow or restrictions to be implied the change of impact may affect air chemistry data quality. Therefore the identification of the present sources of local, regional and long-range transport of pollution and estimation of th...

  2. Association between Ambient Air Pollution and Asthma Prevalence in Different Population Groups Residing in Eastern Texas, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Kr. Gorai

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Air pollution has been an on-going research focus due to its detrimental impact on human health. However, its specific effects on asthma prevalence in different age groups, genders and races are not well understood. Thus, the present study was designed to examine the association between selected air pollutants and asthma prevalence in different population groups during 2010 in the eastern part of Texas, USA.The pollutants considered were particulate matter (PM2.5 with an aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 micrometers and surface ozone. The population groups were categorized based on age, gender, and race. County-wise asthma hospital discharge data for different age, gender, and racial groups were obtained from Texas Asthma Control Program, Office of Surveillance, Evaluation and Research, Texas Department of State Health Services. The annual means of the air pollutants were obtained from the United States Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA’s air quality system data mart program. Pearson correlation analyzes were conducted to examine the relationship between the annual mean concentrations of pollutants and asthma discharge rates (ADR for different age groups, genders, and races. The results reveal that there is no significant association or relationship between ADR and exposure of air pollutants (PM2.5, and O3. The study results showed a positive correlation between PM2.5 and ADR and a negative correlation between ADR and ozone in most of the cases. These correlations were not statistically significant, and can be better explained by considering the local weather conditions. The research findings facilitate identification of hotspots for controlling the most affected populations from further environmental exposure to air pollution, and for preventing or reducing the health impacts.

  3. Association between Ambient Air Pollution and Asthma Prevalence in Different Population Groups Residing in Eastern Texas, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorai, Amit Kr; Tchounwou, Paul B; Tuluri, Francis

    2016-01-01

    Air pollution has been an on-going research focus due to its detrimental impact on human health. However, its specific effects on asthma prevalence in different age groups, genders and races are not well understood. Thus, the present study was designed to examine the association between selected air pollutants and asthma prevalence in different population groups during 2010 in the eastern part of Texas, USA.The pollutants considered were particulate matter (PM2.5 with an aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 micrometers) and surface ozone. The population groups were categorized based on age, gender, and race. County-wise asthma hospital discharge data for different age, gender, and racial groups were obtained from Texas Asthma Control Program, Office of Surveillance, Evaluation and Research, Texas Department of State Health Services. The annual means of the air pollutants were obtained from the United States Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA)'s air quality system data mart program. Pearson correlation analyzes were conducted to examine the relationship between the annual mean concentrations of pollutants and asthma discharge rates (ADR) for different age groups, genders, and races. The results reveal that there is no significant association or relationship between ADR and exposure of air pollutants (PM2.5, and O₃). The study results showed a positive correlation between PM2.5 and ADR and a negative correlation between ADR and ozone in most of the cases. These correlations were not statistically significant, and can be better explained by considering the local weather conditions. The research findings facilitate identification of hotspots for controlling the most affected populations from further environmental exposure to air pollution, and for preventing or reducing the health impacts. PMID:27043587

  4. Association between Ambient Air Pollution and Asthma Prevalence in Different Population Groups Residing in Eastern Texas, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorai, Amit Kr.; Tchounwou, Paul B.; Tuluri, Francis

    2016-01-01

    Air pollution has been an on-going research focus due to its detrimental impact on human health. However, its specific effects on asthma prevalence in different age groups, genders and races are not well understood. Thus, the present study was designed to examine the association between selected air pollutants and asthma prevalence in different population groups during 2010 in the eastern part of Texas, USA.The pollutants considered were particulate matter (PM2.5 with an aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 micrometers) and surface ozone. The population groups were categorized based on age, gender, and race. County-wise asthma hospital discharge data for different age, gender, and racial groups were obtained from Texas Asthma Control Program, Office of Surveillance, Evaluation and Research, Texas Department of State Health Services. The annual means of the air pollutants were obtained from the United States Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA)’s air quality system data mart program. Pearson correlation analyzes were conducted to examine the relationship between the annual mean concentrations of pollutants and asthma discharge rates (ADR) for different age groups, genders, and races. The results reveal that there is no significant association or relationship between ADR and exposure of air pollutants (PM2.5, and O3). The study results showed a positive correlation between PM2.5 and ADR and a negative correlation between ADR and ozone in most of the cases. These correlations were not statistically significant, and can be better explained by considering the local weather conditions. The research findings facilitate identification of hotspots for controlling the most affected populations from further environmental exposure to air pollution, and for preventing or reducing the health impacts. PMID:27043587

  5. Cape Canaveral Air Force Station integrated resource assessment. Volume 1: Executive summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandusky, W.F.; Wahlstrom, R.R.

    1994-08-01

    Some of the most difficult problems encountered at federal sites in reducing energy consumption in a cost-effective manner revolve around understanding where the energy is being used and what technologies can be employed to decrease energy use. The US Air Force (USAF) Space Command (SPACECOM) has tasked the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to develop a model program that provides a systematic approach to evaluating energy opportunities. The program (1) identifies the building groups and end uses using the most energy (not just having the greatest energy-use intensity) and (2) evaluates the numerous options for retrofit or installation of new technology that will result in the selection of the most cost-effective technologies. In essence, this model program provides the federal energy managers with a road map to significantly reduce energy use in a planned, rational, cost-effective fashion that is not biased by the constraints of the typical funding sources available to federal sites. The results from this assessment process can easily be turned into a 5- to 10-year energy management plan that identifies where to start and how to proceed to reach the mandated energy consumption targets. This report provides the results of the fossil fuel and electric energy resource opportunity (ERO) assessments performed by PNL at one of Florida Power and Light`s (FPL`s) primary federal facilities--the USAF SPACECOM facility, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (AFS)--located near Cocoa Beach, Florida. This is a companion report to Volume 2: Baseline Detail and Volume 3: Resource Assessment.

  6. Field investigation source area ST58 old Quartermaster service station, Eielson Air Force Base, Alaska

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liikala, T.L.; Evans, J.C.

    1995-01-01

    Source area ST58 is the site of the old Quartermaster service station at Eielson Air Force Base, Alaska. The source area is one of several Source Evaluation Report sites being investigated by Pacific Northwest Laboratory for the US Air Force as candidates for no further remedial action, interim removal action, or a remedial investigation/feasibility study under a Federal Facilities Agreement. The purpose of this work was to characterize source area ST58 and excavate the most contaminated soils for use in composting treatability studies. A field investigation was conducted to determine the nature and extent of soil contamination. The field investigation entailed a records search; grid node location, surface geophysical, and soil gas surveys; and test pit soil sampling. Soil excavation followed based on the results of the field investigation. The site was backfilled with clean soil. Results from this work indicate close spatial correlation between screening instruments, used during the field investigation and soil excavation, and laboratory analyses. Gasoline was identified as the main subsurface contaminant based on the soil gas surveys and test pit soil sampling. A center of contamination was located near the northcentral portion of the source area, and a center was located in the northwestern comer. The contamination typically occurred near or below a former soil horizon probably as a result of surface spills and leaks from discontinuities and/or breaks in the underground piping. Piping locations were delineated during the surface geophysical surveys and corresponded very well to unscaled drawings of the site. The high subsurface concentrations of gasoline detected in the northwestern comer of the source area probably reflect ground-water contamination and/or possibly floating product.

  7. Cape Canaveral Air Force Station integrated resource assessment. Volume 3, Resource assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandusky, W.F.; Eichman, C.J.; King, D.A.; McMordie, K.L.; Parker, S.A.; Shankle, S.A.; Wahlstrom, R.R.

    1994-03-01

    The U.S. Air Force (USAF) has tasked the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) in support of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP), to identify, evaluate, and assist in acquiring all cost-effective energy projects at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (AFS). Projects considered can be either in the form of energy management or energy conservation. The overall efforts of this task are based on a model program PNL is designing to support energy-use decisions in the federal sector. This report provides the results of the fossil fuel and electric energy resource opportunity (ERO) assessments performed by PNL at Cape Canaveral AFS, which is located approximately 10 miles north of Cocoa Beach, Florida. It is a companion report to Volume 1: Executive Summary and Volume 2: Baseline Detail. The results of the analyses of EROs are presented in 11 common energy end-use categories (e.g., boilers and furnaces, service hot water, and building lighting). A narrative description of each ERO is provided, including information on the installed cost, energy and dollar savings, impacts on operations and maintenance (O&M), and, when applicable, a discussion of energy supply and demand, energy security, and environmental issues. Descriptions of the evaluation methodologies and technical and cost assumptions are also provided for each ERO. Summary tables present the cost- effectiveness of energy end-use equipment before and after the implementation of each ERO and present the results of the life-cycle cost (LCC) analysis, indicating the net present value (NPV) and savings-to-investment ratio (SIR) of each ERO.

  8. Nanosecond-level time synchronization of autonomous radio detector stations for extensive air showers

    CERN Document Server

    Aab, A; Aglietta, M; Ahn, E J; Samarai, I Al; Albuquerque, I F M; Allekotte, I; Allison, P; Almela, A; Castillo, J Alvarez; Alvarez-Muñiz, J; Batista, R Alves; Ambrosio, M; Aminaei, A; Anastasi, G A; Anchordoqui, L; Andringa, S; Aramo, C; Arqueros, F; Arsene, N; Asorey, H; Assis, P; Aublin, J; Avila, G; Awal, N; Badescu, A M; Baus, C; Beatty, J J; Becker, K H; Bellido, J A; Berat, C; Bertaina, M E; Bertou, X; Biermann, P L; Billoir, P; Blaess, S G; Blanco, A; Blanco, M; Blazek, J; Bleve, C; Blümer, H; Boháčová, M; Boncioli, D; Bonifazi, C; Borodai, N; Brack, J; Brancus, I; Bretz, T; Bridgeman, A; Brogueira, P; Buchholz, P; Bueno, A; Buitink, S; Buscemi, M; Caballero-Mora, K S; Caccianiga, B; Caccianiga, L; Candusso, M; Caramete, L; Caruso, R; Castellina, A; Cataldi, G; Cazon, L; Cester, R; Chavez, A G; Chiavassa, A; Chinellato, J A; Chudoba, J; Cilmo, M; Clay, R W; Cocciolo, G; Colalillo, R; Coleman, A; Collica, L; Coluccia, M R; Conceição, R; Contreras, F; Cooper, M J; Cordier, A; Coutu, S; Covault, C E; Cronin, J; Dallier, R; Daniel, B; Dasso, S; Daumiller, K; Dawson, B R; de Almeida, R M; de Jong, S J; De Mauro, G; Neto, J R T de Mello; De Mitri, I; de Oliveira, J; de Souza, V; del Peral, L; Deligny, O; Dhital, N; Di Giulio, C; Di Matteo, A; Diaz, J C; Castro, M L Díaz; Diogo, F; Dobrigkeit, C; Docters, W; D'Olivo, J C; Dorofeev, A; Hasankiadeh, Q Dorosti; Anjos, R C dos; Dova, M T; Ebr, J; Engel, R; Erdmann, M; Erfani, M; Escobar, C O; Eser, J; Espadanal, J; Etchegoyen, A; Falcke, H; Fang, K; Farrar, G; Fauth, A C; Fazzini, N; Ferguson, A P; Fick, B; Figueira, J M; Filevich, A; Filipčič, A; Fratu, O; Freire, M M; Fujii, T; García, B; García-Gámez, D; Garcia-Pinto, D; Gate, F; Gemmeke, H; Gherghel-Lascu, A; Ghia, P L; Giaccari, U; Giammarchi, M; Giller, M; Głas, D; Glaser, C; Glass, H; Golup, G; Berisso, M Gómez; Vitale, P F Gómez; González, N; Gookin, B; Gordon, J; Gorgi, A; Gorham, P; Gouffon, P; Griffith, N; Grillo, A F; Grubb, T D; Guarino, F; Guedes, G P; Hampel, M R; Hansen, P; Harari, D; Harrison, T A; Hartmann, S; Harton, J L; Haungs, A; Hebbeker, T; Heck, D; Heimann, P; Hervé, A E; Hill, G C; Hojvat, C; Hollon, N; Holt, E; Homola, P; Hörandel, J R; Horvath, P; Hrabovský, M; Huber, D; Huege, T; Insolia, A; Isar, P G; Jandt, I; Jansen, S; Jarne, C; Johnsen, J A; Josebachuili, M; Kääpä, A; Kambeitz, O; Kampert, K H; Kasper, P; Katkov, I; Keilhauer, B; Kemp, E; Kieckhafer, R M; Klages, H O; Kleifges, M; Kleinfeller, J; Krause, R; Krohm, N; Kuempel, D; Mezek, G Kukec; Kunka, N; Awad, A W Kuotb; LaHurd, D; Lang, A; Latronico, L; Lauer, R; Lauscher, M; Lautridou, P; Coz, S Le; Lebrun, D; Lebrun, P; de Oliveira, M A Leigui; Letessier-Selvon, A; Lhenry-Yvon, I; Link, K; Lopes, L; López, R; Casado, A López; Louedec, K; Lucero, A; Malacari, M; Mallamaci, M; Maller, J; Mandat, D; Mantsch, P; Mariazzi, A G; Marin, V; Mariş, I C; Marsella, G; Martello, D; Martinez, H; Bravo, O Martínez; Martraire, D; Meza, J J Masías; Mathes, H J; Mathys, S; Matthews, J; Matthews, J A J; Matthiae, G; Maurizio, D; Mayotte, E; Mazur, P O; Medina, C; Medina-Tanco, G; Meissner, R; Mello, V B B; Melo, D; Menshikov, A; Messina, S; Micheletti, M I; Middendorf, L; Minaya, I A; Miramonti, L; Mitrica, B; Molina-Bueno, L; Mollerach, S; Montanet, F; Morello, C; Mostafá, M; Moura, C A; Müller, G; Muller, M A; Müller, S; Navas, S; Necesal, P; Nellen, L; Nelles, A; Neuser, J; Nguyen, P H; Niculescu-Oglinzanu, M; Niechciol, M; Niemietz, L; Niggemann, T; Nitz, D; Nosek, D; Novotny, V; Nožka, L; Núñez, L A; Ochilo, L; Oikonomou, F; Olinto, A; Pacheco, N; Selmi-Dei, D Pakk; Palatka, M; Pallotta, J; Papenbreer, P; Parente, G; Parra, A; Paul, T; Pech, M; Pękala, J; Pelayo, R; Pepe, I M; Perrone, L; Petermann, E; Peters, C; Petrera, S; Petrov, Y; Phuntsok, J; Piegaia, R; Pierog, T; Pieroni, P; Pimenta, M; Pirronello, V; Platino, M; Plum, M; Porcelli, A; Porowski, C; Prado, R R; Privitera, P; Prouza, M; Quel, E J; Querchfeld, S; Quinn, S; Rautenberg, J; Ravel, O; Ravignani, D; Reinert, D; Revenu, B; Ridky, J; Risse, M; Ristori, P; Rizi, V; de Carvalho, W Rodrigues; Rojo, J Rodriguez; Rodríguez-Frías, M D; Rogozin, D; Rosado, J; Roth, M; Roulet, E; Rovero, A C; Saffi, S J; Saftoiu, A; Salazar, H; Saleh, A; Greus, F Salesa; Salina, G; Gomez, J D Sanabria; Sánchez, F; Sanchez-Lucas, P; Santos, E M; Santos, E; Sarazin, F; Sarkar, B; Sarmento, R; Sarmiento-Cano, C; Sato, R; Scarso, C; Schauer, M; Scherini, V; Schieler, H; Schmidt, D; Scholten, O; Schoorlemmer, H; Schovánek, P; Schröder, F G; Schulz, A; Schulz, J; Schumacher, J; Sciutto, S J; Segreto, A; Settimo, M; Shadkam, A; Shellard, R C; Sigl, G; Sima, O; Śmiałkowski, A; Šmída, R; Snow, G R; Sommers, P; Sonntag, S; Sorokin, J; Squartini, R; Srivastava, Y N; Stanca, D; Stanič, S; Stapleton, J; Stasielak, J

    2015-01-01

    To exploit the full potential of radio measurements of cosmic-ray air showers at MHz frequencies, a detector timing synchronization within 1 ns is needed. Large distributed radio detector arrays such as the Auger Engineering Radio Array (AERA) rely on timing via the Global Positioning System (GPS) for the synchronization of individual detector station clocks. Unfortunately, GPS timing is expected to have an accuracy no better than about 5 ns. In practice, in particular in AERA, the GPS clocks exhibit drifts on the order of tens of ns. We developed a technique to correct for the GPS drifts, and an independent method used for cross-checks that indeed we reach nanosecond-scale timing accuracy by this correction. First, we operate a "beacon transmitter" which emits defined sine waves detected by AERA antennas recorded within the physics data. The relative phasing of these sine waves can be used to correct for GPS clock drifts. In addition to this, we observe radio pulses emitted by commercial airplanes, the posit...

  9. A Peak Wind Probability Forecast Tool for Kennedy Space Center and Cape Canaveral Air Force Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Winifred; Roeder, William

    2008-01-01

    This conference abstract describes the development of a peak wind forecast tool to assist forecasters in determining the probability of violating launch commit criteria (LCC) at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (CCAFS) in east-central Florida. The peak winds are an important forecast element for both the Space Shuttle and Expendable Launch Vehicle (ELV) programs. The LCC define specific peak wind thresholds for each launch operation that cannot be exceeded in order to ensure the safety of the vehicle. The 45th Weather Squadron (45 WS) has found that peak winds are a challenging parameter to forecast, particularly in the cool season months of October through April. Based on the importance of forecasting peak winds, the 45 WS tasked the Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) to develop a short-range peak-wind forecast tool to assist in forecasting LCC violatioas.The tool will include climatologies of the 5-minute mean end peak winds by month, hour, and direction, and probability distributions of the peak winds as a function of the 5-minute mean wind speeds.

  10. Bird Activity Analysis Using Avian Radar Information in Naval Air Station airport, WA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J.; Herricks, E.

    2010-12-01

    The number of bird strikes on aircraft has increased sharply over recent years and airport bird hazard management has gained increasing attention in wildlife management and control. Evaluation of bird activity near airport is very critical to analyze the hazard of bird strikes. Traditional methods for bird activity analysis using visual counting provide a direct approach to bird hazard assessment. However this approach is limited to daylight and good visual conditions. Radar has been proven to be a useful and effective tool for bird detection and movement analysis. Radar eliminates observation bias and supports consistent data collection for bird activity analysis and hazard management. In this study bird activity data from the Naval Air Station Whidbey Island was collected by Accipiter Avian Radar System. Radar data was pre-processed by filtering out non-bird noises, including traffic vehicle, aircraft, insects, wind, rainfall, ocean waves and so on. Filtered data is then statistically analyzed using MATLAB programs. The results indicated bird movement dynamics in target areas near the airport, which includes (1) the daily activity varied at dawn and dusk; (2) bird activity varied by target area due to the habitat difference; and (3) both temporal and spatial movement patterns varied by bird species. This bird activity analysis supports bird hazard evaluation and related analysis and modeling to provide very useful information in airport bird hazard management planning.

  11. Targeting Net Zero Energy at Marine Corps Air Station Miramar: Assessment and Recommendations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Booth, S.; Barnett, J.; Burman, K.; Hambrick, J.; Helwig, M.; Westby, R.

    2010-12-01

    The U.S. Department of Defense (DoD) is the largest energy consumer in the U.S. government. Present energy use impacts DoD global operations by constraining freedom of action and self-sufficiency, demanding enormous economic resources, and putting many lives at risk in logistics support for deployed environments. There are many opportunities for DoD to more effectively meet energy requirements through a combination of human actions, energy efficiency technologies, and renewable energy resources. In 2008, a joint initiative was formed between DoD and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to address military energy use. This initiative created a task force comprised of representatives from each branch of the military, the Office of the Secretary of Defense (OSD), the Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP), and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to examine the potential for ultra high efficiency military installations. This report presents an assessment of Marine Corps Air Station (MCAS) Miramar, selected by the task force as the initial prototype installation based on its strong history of energy advocacy and extensive track record of successful energy projects.

  12. Electric Vehicle Preparedness - Implementation Approach for Electric Vehicles at Naval Air Station Whidbey Island. Task 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schey, Stephen [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Francfort, Jim [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-06-01

    Several U.S. Department of Defense base studies have been conducted to identify potential U.S. Department of Defense transportation systems that are strong candidates for introduction or expansion of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs). This study is focused on the Naval Air Station Whidbey Island (NASWI) located in Washington State. Task 1 consisted of a survey of the non-tactical fleet of vehicles at NASWI to begin the review of vehicle mission assignments and types of vehicles in service. In Task 2, daily operational characteristics of vehicles were identified to select vehicles for further monitoring and attachment of data loggers. Task 3 recorded vehicle movements in order to characterize the vehicles’ missions. The results of the data analysis and observations were provided. Individual observations of the selected vehicles provided the basis for recommendations related to PEV adoption, i.e., whether a battery electric vehicle (BEV) or plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) (collectively PEVs) can fulfill the mission requirements. It also provided the basis for recommendations related to placement of PEV charging infrastructure. This report focuses on an implementation plan for the near-term adoption of PEVs into the NASWI fleet.

  13. Impact of Emissions from Power Stations on the Ambient Air Quality of Selected Urban Areas in Kuwait

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bader N.A. Azmi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In Kuwait, two main power stations, one comprising of seven-300MW steam generators at Doha and other with eight-300MW steam generators at Subyia cover the major power requirement of Kuwait city. These stations used different types of fuel oil as the prime source of energy that has different sulpher contents (S%. Comprehensive emission inventories for year the 2001 were used to execute Source Complex model for Short-term Dispersion (ISCST4.5 to predict ambient ground level concentrations of sulphur dioxide (SO2 and nitrogen oxide (NOx at selected receptors. A yearlong meteorological data were used in conjunction with the dispersion model to compute SO2 and NOx levels in and around the power stations. For validation of the model, computed results were compared with the measured daily average values at a fixed Kuwait EPA air quality monitoring station located at the roof of polyclinic in Rabia residential area. Contributions of each power station to the highest predicted values were assessed. Significance of the fifty highest hourly, daily and annual ground level concentration values under existing meteorological conditions was analyzed. The results for year 2001 revealed that daily and annual mean predicted SO2 concentrations had exceedance about 5.7% and 0.16% respectively of the total area under investigation. Based on these results, mitigation strategies would be proposed to abate high pollution levels caused by these power stations.

  14. Forecasting Cool Season Daily Peak Winds at Kennedy Space Center and Cape Canaveral Air Force Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Joe, III; Short, David; Roeder, William

    2008-01-01

    The expected peak wind speed for the day is an important element in the daily 24-Hour and Weekly Planning Forecasts issued by the 45th Weather Squadron (45 WS) for planning operations at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (CCAFS). The morning outlook for peak speeds also begins the warning decision process for gusts ^ 35 kt, ^ 50 kt, and ^ 60 kt from the surface to 300 ft. The 45 WS forecasters have indicated that peak wind speeds are a challenging parameter to forecast during the cool season (October-April). The 45 WS requested that the Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) develop a tool to help them forecast the speed and timing of the daily peak and average wind, from the surface to 300 ft on KSC/CCAFS during the cool season. The tool must only use data available by 1200 UTC to support the issue time of the Planning Forecasts. Based on observations from the KSC/CCAFS wind tower network, surface observations from the Shuttle Landing Facility (SLF), and CCAFS upper-air soundings from the cool season months of October 2002 to February 2007, the AMU created multiple linear regression equations to predict the timing and speed of the daily peak wind speed, as well as the background average wind speed. Several possible predictors were evaluated, including persistence, the temperature inversion depth, strength, and wind speed at the top of the inversion, wind gust factor (ratio of peak wind speed to average wind speed), synoptic weather pattern, occurrence of precipitation at the SLF, and strongest wind in the lowest 3000 ft, 4000 ft, or 5000 ft. Six synoptic patterns were identified: 1) surface high near or over FL, 2) surface high north or east of FL, 3) surface high south or west of FL, 4) surface front approaching FL, 5) surface front across central FL, and 6) surface front across south FL. The following six predictors were selected: 1) inversion depth, 2) inversion strength, 3) wind gust factor, 4) synoptic weather pattern, 5) occurrence of

  15. Dust collection from flue gas at coal-fired power stations revamping of electrostatic precipitators and air preheaters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandt, J. [Apparatebau Rothemuehle, Brandt & Kritzler GmbH, Wenden-Rothemuehle (Germany)

    1997-12-31

    While it is currently fashionable to talk only about reduction of SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x}, dust removal is also a vital part of air pollution control. Many stations have pre-existing electrostatic precipitators but many of those are inadequate by modern standards. The old electrostatic precipitators need not be abandoned as most can be upgraded by readjustment and retrofitting new components. Examples of precipitator upgrading in Eastern Germany are described. Regenerating air heaters with sealings can reduce leakages and improve performance at low cost. This may even rebate the need for a precipitator upgrade.

  16. Study on the stability of waterpower-speed control system for hydropower station with air cushion surge chamber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, W. C.; Yang, J. D.; Chen, J. P.; Teng, Y.

    2014-03-01

    According to the fact that the effects of penstock, unit and governor on stability of water level fluctuation for hydropower station with air cushion surge chamber are neglected in previous researches, in this paper, Thoma assumption is broken through, the complete mathematical model of waterpower-speed control system for hydropower station with air cushion surge chamber is established, and the comprehensive transfer function and linear homogeneous differential equation that characterize the dynamic characteristics of system are derived. The stability domain that characterizes the good or bad of stability quantitatively is drawn by using the stability conditions. The effects of the fluid inertia in water diversion system, the air cushion surge chamber parameters, hydraulic turbine characteristics, generator characteristics, and regulation modes of governor on the stability of waterpower-speed control system are analyzed through stability domain. The main conclusions are as follows: The fluid inertia in water diversion system and hydraulic turbine characteristics have unfavorable effects on the system while generator characteristics have favorable effect. The stability keeps getting better with the increase of chamber height and basal area and the decrease of air pressure and air polytropic exponent. The stability of power regulation mode is obviously better than that of frequency regulation mode.

  17. Study on the stability of waterpower-speed control system for hydropower station with air cushion surge chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    According to the fact that the effects of penstock, unit and governor on stability of water level fluctuation for hydropower station with air cushion surge chamber are neglected in previous researches, in this paper, Thoma assumption is broken through, the complete mathematical model of waterpower-speed control system for hydropower station with air cushion surge chamber is established, and the comprehensive transfer function and linear homogeneous differential equation that characterize the dynamic characteristics of system are derived. The stability domain that characterizes the good or bad of stability quantitatively is drawn by using the stability conditions. The effects of the fluid inertia in water diversion system, the air cushion surge chamber parameters, hydraulic turbine characteristics, generator characteristics, and regulation modes of governor on the stability of waterpower-speed control system are analyzed through stability domain. The main conclusions are as follows: The fluid inertia in water diversion system and hydraulic turbine characteristics have unfavorable effects on the system while generator characteristics have favorable effect. The stability keeps getting better with the increase of chamber height and basal area and the decrease of air pressure and air polytropic exponent. The stability of power regulation mode is obviously better than that of frequency regulation mode

  18. Analysis of ambient air quality trends at selected West Central Airshed Society stations : Tomahawk and Carrot Creek

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ambient air trends were evaluated using data collected over a 10 year period from two West Central Airshed Society monitoring stations in rural Alberta. The pollutants studied included ozone (O3), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), sulfur dioxide (SO2), and particulate matter (PM2.5). Two approaches were used to evaluate the trends. The first approach used various percentiles of hourly concentration distributions from each year, while the second approach used frequencies of the number of hours in which various benchmark concentrations were exceeded each year. These statistics were assumed to be linear over the period of study. Hypothesis tests were conducted on the best-fit lines to check whether slope of the lines was zero in order to indicate change. Results from both approaches were found to be in good agreement. At the Tomahawk Station, no statistically dominant change was detected in air quality with respect to O3 and PM2.5. However, SO2 and NO2 showed statistically significant decreasing trends. At the Carrot Creek Station, a pronounced decreasing trend in SO2 was observed, but there was no change in O3 and NO2. The decreasing trends observed with SO2 at both stations is consistent with the province's efforts to reduced natural gas flaring and venting. It was cautioned that since the period of study over which trends were examined was short, the changes or lack of changes observed do not necessarily indicate long term trends

  19. Monitoring of air radioactivity at the Jungfraujoch research station: Test of a new high volume aerosol sampler

    OpenAIRE

    Flury, Thomas; Völkle, Hansruedi

    2008-01-01

    The Swiss Federal Office of Public Health (SFOPH) is responsible for the surveillance of environmental radioactivity in Switzerland and for the protection of the public from ionizing and non-ionizing radiation. In order to improve the Swiss radioactivity monitoring network, a new high volume air sampler (DIGITEL DHA-80) was tested in Fribourg and at the Jungfraujoch High Altitude Research Station at 3454 m. The filters are analyzed in the laboratory by a high purity coaxial germanium detector...

  20. Geology and hydrogeology of Naval Air Station Chase Field and Naval Auxiliary Landing Field Goliad, Bee and Goliad counties, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, G.L.

    1995-01-01

    The geologic formations that crop out near Naval Air Station Chase Field and Naval Auxiliary Landing Field Goliad military bases consist of fluvial to fluvial-deltaic sediments of Tertiary and Quaternary age. These formations include the Fleming and Goliad Formations of Miocene age, Lissie Formation of Pleistocene age, fluvial terrace deposits of Pleistocene to Holocene age, and alluvium of Holocene age. The lithology of these formations consists of sand, sandstone, silt, and clay, with lesser amounts of gravel and caliche in the outcrops. The freshwater aquifers underlying the study area are the unconfined Evangeline (watertable) aquifer, comprising the upper sandy parts of the Fleming Formation and Goliad Formation, and confined Fleming aquifers, comprising the thick sandstone beds of the Fleming Formation. Both military bases withdraw potable water from one of the confined aquifers. At Naval Air Station Chase Field, the transmissivity and storativity of the confined aquifer where the base withdraws its public water supply are 1,060 feet squared per day and 1.2xlO4, respectively, as computed from the results of a 74-hour constant-discharge aquifer test. Selected water-quality field measurements of specific conductance, pH, and temperature indicate that each of the three aquifers at Naval Air Station Chase Field are somewhat insulated from one another by the intervening confining units. Large vertical hydraulic-head gradients are present between the unconfined Evangeline aquifer and confined Fleming aquifers at Naval Air Station Chase Field and Naval Auxiliary Landing Field Goliad. These gradients, together with the results of the aquifer test at Naval Air Station Chase Field and assumed characteristics of the confining units, indicate that downward flow of ground water probably occurs from the water-table aquifer to the underlying aquifers. The rate of downward flow between the two confined Fleming aquifers (from A-sand to B-sand) can be approximated using an

  1. CLIMATE CHANGE FUEL CELL PROGRAM UNITED STATES COAST GUARD AIR STATION CAPE COD BOURNE, MASSACHUSETTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John K. Steckel Jr

    2004-06-30

    This report covers the first year of operation of a fuel cell power plant, installed by PPL Spectrum, Inc. (PPL) under contract with the United States Coast Guard (USCG), Research and Development Center (RDC). The fuel cell was installed at Air Station Cape Cod in Bourne, MA. The project had the support of the Massachusetts Technology Collaborative (MTC), the Department of Energy (DOE), and Keyspan Energy. PPL selected FuelCell Energy, Inc. (FCE) and its fuel cell model DFC{reg_sign}300 for the contract. Grant contributions were finalized and a contract between PPL and the USCG for the manufacture, installation, and first year's maintenance of the fuel cell was executed on September 24, 2001. As the prime contractor, PPL was responsible for all facets of the project. All the work was completed by PPL through various subcontracts, including the primary subcontract with FCE for the manufacture, delivery, and installation of the fuel cell. The manufacturing and design phases proceeded in a relatively timely manner for the first half of the project. However, during latter stages of manufacture and fuel cell testing, a variety of issues were encountered that ultimately resulted in several delivery delays, and a number of contract modifications. Final installation and field testing was completed in April and May 2003. Final acceptance of the fuel cell was completed on May 16, 2003. The fuel cell has operated successfully for more than one year. The unit achieved an availability rate of 96%, which exceeded expectations. The capacity factor was limited because the unit was set at 155 kW (versus a nameplate of 250 kW) due to the interconnection with the electric utility. There were 18 shutdowns during the first year and most were brief. The ability of this plant to operate in the island mode improved availability by 3 to 4%. Events that would normally be shutdowns were simply island mode events. The mean time between failure was calculated at 239 hours, or slightly

  2. Microclimatic performance of a free-air warming and CO2 enrichment experiment in windy Wyoming, USA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel LeCain

    Full Text Available In order to plan for global changing climate experiments are being conducted in many countries, but few have monitored the effects of the climate change treatments (warming, elevated CO2 on the experimental plot microclimate. During three years of an eight year study with year-round feedback-controlled infra-red heater warming (1.5/3.0°C day/night and growing season free-air CO2 enrichment (600 ppm in the mixed-grass prairie of Wyoming, USA, we monitored soil, leaf, canopy-air, above-canopy-air temperatures and relative humidity of control and treated experimental plots and evaluated ecologically important temperature differentials. Leaves were warmed somewhat less than the target settings (1.1 & 1.5°C day/night but soil was warmed more creating an average that matched the target settings extremely well both during the day and night plus the summer and winter. The site typically has about 50% bare or litter covered soil, therefore soil heat transfer is more critical than in dense canopy ecosystems. The Wyoming site commonly has strong winds (5 ms(-1 average and significant daily and seasonal temperature fluctuations (as much as 30°C daily but the warming system was nearly always able to maintain the set temperatures regardless of abiotic variation. The within canopy-air was only slightly warmed and above canopy-air was not warmed by the system, therefore convective warming was minor. Elevated CO2 had no direct effect nor interaction with the warming treatment on microclimate. Relative humidity within the plant canopy was only slightly reduced by warming. Soil water content was reduced by warming but increased by elevated CO2. This study demonstrates the importance of monitoring the microclimate in manipulative field global change experiments so that critical physiological and ecological conclusions can be determined. Highly variable energy demand fluctuations showed that passive IR heater warming systems will not maintain desired warming for

  3. International Air Travel to Ohio, USA, and the Impact on Malaria, Influenza, and Hepatitis A

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald E. Brannen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The State of Ohio led the United States in measles in 2014, ostensibly related to international air travel (IAT, and ranked lower than 43 other states in infectious disease outbreak preparedness. We conducted a retrospective cohort study using surveillance data of the total Ohio population of 11 million from 2010 through 2014 with a nested case control of air travelers to determine the risk of malaria, seasonal influenza hospitalizations (IH, and hepatitis A (HA disease related to international travel and to estimate the association with domestic enplanement. IAT appeared protective for HA and IH with a risk of 0.031 (.02–.04 but for malaria was 2.7 (2.07–3.62. Enplanement increased the risk for nonendemic M 3.5 (2.5–4.9 and for HA and IH 1.39 (1.34–1.44. IAT’s ratio of relative risk (RRR of malaria to HA and IH was 87.1 (55.8–136 greater than 219 times versus domestic enplanement which was protective for malaria at 0.397 (0.282–0.559. Malaria is correlated with IAT with cases increasing by 6.9 for every 10,000 passports issued.

  4. International Air Travel to Ohio, USA, and the Impact on Malaria, Influenza, and Hepatitis A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brannen, Donald E; Alhammad, Ali; Branum, Melissa; Schmitt, Amy

    2016-01-01

    The State of Ohio led the United States in measles in 2014, ostensibly related to international air travel (IAT), and ranked lower than 43 other states in infectious disease outbreak preparedness. We conducted a retrospective cohort study using surveillance data of the total Ohio population of 11 million from 2010 through 2014 with a nested case control of air travelers to determine the risk of malaria, seasonal influenza hospitalizations (IH), and hepatitis A (HA) disease related to international travel and to estimate the association with domestic enplanement. IAT appeared protective for HA and IH with a risk of 0.031 (.02-.04) but for malaria was 2.7 (2.07-3.62). Enplanement increased the risk for nonendemic M 3.5 (2.5-4.9) and for HA and IH 1.39 (1.34-1.44). IAT's ratio of relative risk (RRR) of malaria to HA and IH was 87.1 (55.8-136) greater than 219 times versus domestic enplanement which was protective for malaria at 0.397 (0.282-0.559). Malaria is correlated with IAT with cases increasing by 6.9 for every 10,000 passports issued. PMID:27123365

  5. Air pollution in eastern Lapland : challenge for an environmental measurement station.

    OpenAIRE

    Hari, Pertti; Kulmala, Markku; Pohja, Toivo; Lahti, Tapani.; Siivola, Erkki; Palva, Lauri; Aalto, Pasi; HÀmeri, Kaarle; Vesala, Timo; Luoma, Sari.; Pulliainen, Erkki

    1994-01-01

    The VÀrriö environmental measurement station has been designed and constructed during 1991 and 1992. The measurement system consists of measurement units for gases (sulphur dioxide, ozone, carbon dioxide), particles, photosynthesis and irradiation. A meteorological station is also included. The preliminary measurement period was started on August, 1991. During the first year (1991–1992) some parts of the system were redeveloped and rebuilt. Full, continuous measurements started in August ...

  6. Characteristics of California Least Tern Nesting Sites Associated With Breeding Success or Failure, With Special Reference to the Site at the Naval Air Station, Alameda

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Naval Air Station, Alameda, is being closed under the requirements of the Defense Base Realignment and Closure Act of 1990. The purpose of this report is to...

  7. Validation of road traffic urban emission inventories by means of concentration data measured at air quality monitoring stations in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellios, Giorgos; Van Aalst, Roel; Samaras, Zissis

    A method has been developed to validate inventories of urban emissions from road transport using air quality measurements. To this aim atmospheric concentration data for CO, NO x and PM 10 measured at urban traffic stations in five European countries, retrieved from the European Air Quality Information System AirBase, have been analysed. Traffic emission ratios as derived from this analysis were compared to estimates of emission ratios as provided by a suitable emissions model (TRENDS). The comparison shows a fair agreement for the CO over NO x ratio on a country level, suggesting that the measured concentrations indeed dominantly originate from traffic-related emissions. On the other hand, the NO x over PM 10 and PM 10 over CO emission ratios estimated by TRENDS are over- and underestimated, respectively, as compared to the respective average measured ratio. These discrepancies may be attributed to the fact that modelled PM 10 emissions do not account for particles originating from non-exhaust sources. Modelled ratios have confirmed the observed weekday and year dependence of the ratios. A sensitivity analysis on the CO over NO x ratio has shown that small changes in the share of mileage allocated to urban driving by different vehicle categories result in significant changes in the emission ratio. Appropriate re-allocations of the urban shares, especially for diesel vehicles, enabled the calibration of the TRENDS model against air quality data collected at various monitoring sites in different countries. In order to further improve the consistency of the method, more information on ambient air PM 2.5 mass concentrations needs to be collected from the monitoring stations and PM 10 emission factors from primary non-exhaust sources (including gasoline-fuelled vehicles) need to be incorporated into TRENDS.

  8. Temporal variation analysis of radon progeny ratio behavior in outdoor air at two radiometeorological stations in Barcelona and Madrid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: This work studies the concentration ratio of radon progeny (218Po, 214Pb and 214Bi) in outdoor air at two radiometeorological stations. Radon daughter concentrations were measured continuously every hour using our own detector unit based on alpha spectroscopy of radon progeny activity deposited on a filter. The flow rate was approximately 5 m3h-1. The sampled air was drawn through a 5-mm slit between a 2000 - mm2 alpha CAM PIPS detector and a 1.2-μm pore nitrate cellulose membrane filter. An electronic circuit and a microcontroller processes the detector signal in order to discriminate the energy from the alpha particles. Measurements were done at the ESMERALDA station in the Research Centre for Energy, Environment and Technology (CIEMAT) premises in Madrid for a period of one week, and in the Institute of Energy Technologies (INTE) premises at the Technical University of Catalonia (UPC) in Barcelona, where is usually located. At both stations the ratios vary with meteorological conditions basically depending on atmospheric turbulence, however their behavior is quite different due to non-uniform radon exhalation rate from soil. In Madrid, spurious high disequilibriums are observed because a radon source is located near the station. When the wind blows from the source, the 218Po concentrations increase significantly while 214Pb and 214Bi do not increase as much. In Barcelona often ratios greater than one are observed and are still under investigation. Finally, one of the applications of the study is that it can explain the background signal in the artificial radioactivity aerosol monitors used in the Spanish radiological surveillance networks (BAI 9850 from the Berthold Company). (author)

  9. Prevalence of the amphibian chytrid fungus (Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis) at Buenos Aires National Wildlife Refuge, Arizona, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigafus, Brent H.; Hossack, Blake R.; Muths, Erin L.; Schwalbe, Cecil R.

    2014-01-01

    Information on disease presence can be of use to natural resource managers, especially in areas supporting threatened and endangered species that occur coincidentally with species that are suspected vectors for disease. Ad hoc reports may be of limited utility (Muths et al. 2009), but a general sense of pathogen presence (or absence) can inform management directed at T&E species, especially in regions where disease is suspected to have caused population declines (Bradley et al. 2002). The Chiricahua Leopard Frog (Lithobates chiricahuensis), a species susceptible to infection by the amphibian chytrid fungus (Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, Bd) (Bradley et al. 2002), and the non-native, invasive American Bullfrog (L. catesbeianus), a suspected vector for chytridiomycosis (Schloegel et al. 2012, Gervasi et al. 2013), both occur at Buenos Aires National Wildlife Refuge (BANWR) and surrounding lands in southern Arizona. Efforts to eradicate the bullfrog from BANWR began in 1997 (Suhre, 2010). Eradication from the southern portion of BANWR was successful by 2008 but the bullfrog remains present at the Arivaca Cienega and in areas immediately adjacent to the refuge (Fig. 1). Curtailing the re-invasion of the bullfrog into BANWR will require vigilance as to ensure the health of Chiricahua Leopard Frog populations.

  10. Effect of low air velocities on thermal homeostasis and comfort during exercise at space station operational temperature and humidity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beumer, Ronald J.

    1989-01-01

    The effectiveness of different low air velocities in maintaining thermal comfort and homeostasis during exercise at space station operational temperature and humidity was investigated. Five male subjects exercised on a treadmill for successive ten minute periods at 60, 71, and 83 percent of maximum oxygen consumption at each of four air velocities, 30, 50, 80, and 120 ft/min, at 22 C and 62 percent relative humidity. No consistent trends or statistically significant differences between air velocities were found in body weight loss, sweat accumulation, or changes in rectal, skin, and body temperatures. Occurrence of the smallest body weight loss at 120 ft/min, the largest sweat accumulation at 30 ft/min, and the smallest rise in rectal temperature and the greatest drop in skin temperature at 120 ft/min all suggested more efficient evaporative cooling at the highest velocity. Heat storage at all velocities was evidenced by increased rectal and body temperatures; skin temperatures declined or increased only slightly. Body and rectal temperature increases corresponded with increased perception of warmth and slight thermal discomfort as exercise progressed. At all air velocities, mean thermal perception never exceeded warm and mean discomfort, greatest at 30 ft/min, was categorized at worst as uncomfortable; sensation of thermal neutrality and comfort returned rapidly after cessation of exercise. Suggestions for further elucidation of the effects of low air velocities on thermal comfort and homeostasis include larger numbers of subjects, more extensive skin temperature measurements and more rigorous analysis of the data from this study.

  11. Video-Puff of Air Hits Ball of Water in Space Onboard the International Space Station (ISS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    Saturday Morning Science, the science of opportunity series of applied experiments and demonstrations, performed aboard the International Space Station (ISS) by Expedition 6 astronaut Dr. Don Pettit, revealed some remarkable findings. In this video clip, Dr. Pettit demonstrates the phenomenon of a puff of air hitting a ball of water that is free floating in space. Watch the video to see why Dr. Pettit remarks 'I'd hate think that our planet would go through these kinds of gyrations if it got whacked by a big asteroid'.

  12. Working records of air dispersion modelling and environmental assessments for acid gas emissions from power stations and oil refineries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The article assessed (i) the contributions of petroleum refineries and fossil-fuelled power plant on local air quality and acid deposition; (ii) the contribution of nitrogen oxides to acid deposition and (iii) the application of dynamic critical load modelling in assessment of the impact of acid deposition. The study includes a case study of the local impact of emissions of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides from the Lindsey and Conoco refineries on the Humber and critical loading modelling for emissions from Uskmouth power station

  13. Performance and evaluation of gas-engine-driven split-system cooling equipment at the Willow Grove Naval Air Station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armstrong, P.R.; Schmelzer, J.R.

    1997-01-01

    DOE`s Federal Energy Management Program supports efforts to reduce energy use and associated expenditures within the federal sector; one such effort, the New Technology Demonstration Program (NTDP)(formerly the Test Bed Demonstration program), seeks to evaluate new energy saving US technologies and secure their more timely adoption by the federal government. This report describes the field evaluation conducted to examine the performance of a 15-ton natural-gas-engine- driven, split-system, air-conditioning unit. The unit was installed at a multiple-use building at Willow Grove Naval Air Station, a regular and reserve training facility north of Philadelphia, and its performance was monitored under the NTDP.

  14. Comparison of monitored natural attenuation with other alternatives for remediation of contaminated groundwater at Naval Air Station (NAS) Fallon, USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monitored natural attenuation (MNA) and several other potential alternatives were evaluated for remediation of dissolved-phase groundwater contamination at Site 1, the former crash crew training area at NAS Fallon. The contaminants of concern at the site are petroleum hydrocarbon constituents and chlorinated ethenes. Remedial action objectives were developed using a conceptual model for the site, applicable regulatory action levels, site contaminants, and a point-of-compliance. A field evaluation of MNA was conducted at Site 1. Monitored natural attenuation was compared to other potential remedial alternatives for achieving the RAOs including: plume containment using pumping wells, interceptor drain, or slurry wall; and active restoration with enhanced in situ bioremediation, pump and treat using wells, or pump and treat using an interceptor drain. Alternatives were comparatively evaluated using three criteria, effectiveness, ability to implement and cost. The evaluation indicates that MNA is a viable and cost-effective remedial alternative for Site 1

  15. Performance Evaluation of a Lower-Cost, Real-Time Community Air Monitoring Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    These slides describe the Village Green Project prototype and how the measurements compare wtih nearby FEMs, including the OAQPS data collected at the AIRS site on the EPA-RTP campus and the NCDENR FEMs in the Triangle area.

  16. European experience on air and water pollution control: monitoring network and warning station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aflalo, Sergio S. [Groupe Environnement S.A., Poissy (France)

    1993-12-31

    After a review of the energy consumption and pollutants emitted in the European Community, especially those concerning the `green house effect`, the author proceeded a summary of the actual legislation and Europeans directives, and also, the Best Available Technology for reducing air pollution is discussed. Original Air Quality monitoring networks performed by Environnement SA are described including measurements obtained around Paris and other areas of France. 7 refs., 11 figs.

  17. Study variation of PM-10 air pollution at Lang Meteorological Station, Hanoi Coded: CS/02/04-06

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    577 air dust samples have been collected with two kinds of air samplers (2-SFU, 1-ASP) on every Wednesday and Sunday for 24 hours at both of monitoring stations (Lang - Hanoi and Lucnam - Bacgiang). PM(2.5), PM(2.5-10), PM(10) and BC concentrations in 452 air dust samples have been determined. 9032 data have been analyzed with many of different multi-elements analytical techniques (IC: 264 samples x 9 ions, PIXE: 388 samples x 15 elements, XRF: 48 samples x 8 elements, LR: 452 samples x 1 element). Over 6000 of meteorological parameters (T, Rain, WS, WD, RH...) have been collected and processed.Variations and levels of air dust concentrations and BC in Hanoi from 1998 to 2002 have been studied. PM(2.5), PM(2.5-10), PM(10) and BC concentrations and BC obviously periodically vary. They reach maximum in the winter season, especially in December and January, sometimes they reached 300-400 μg.m-3, They reach minimum in the summer season, sometimes they went down 10 μg.m-3 on rainy days. These variations were affected by meteorological parameters. PM(2.5), PM(10) daily average concentrations in Hanoi are greater than the American air standards (PM(2.5): 65 μg.m-3, PM(10): 150 μg.m-3) in many days and their yearly average concentrations are also far exceeded. Air dust pollution levels in Hanoi are higher than in developed countries and even countries in the region. BC (5.9 μg.m-3) concentration and Pb (0.11 μg.m-3) are also higher than in many countries. (VTB)

  18. Experience in simulating radioactive air pollution around nuclear power stations in complex terrain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the licencing procedure of power stations the analytical Gauss-solution to the advection-diffusion-equation is still required. But for simulating the atmospheric dispersion of radionuclides over complex terrain advanced numerical methods are need. Of course, any influence of the local orography to the atmospheric dispersion process is of highest priority for preparing emergency plans. Likewise the site-specific features should be known to place the remote radiological control system around nuclear plants effectively. Starting from detailed observations of the wind field e.g. by Doppler SODAR measurements the application of the mass consistent model is the first choice for simulating three-dimensional wind fields. We summarize our experience gained in treating the complex local sites of the nuclear power stations GKN (Neckarwestheim) and KWO (Obrigheim). We implemented the code system SPEEDI of JAERI on our CRAY-2 and developed a special procedure to couple mesoscale calculations with imbedded local fine mesh calculations around the power stations. The topographical data as well as the surface roughness could be represented by pixel sizes of 100 m x 100 m needed to simulate the local details of the Neckar valley. In such inhomogeneous wind fields the dispersion and deposition of the pollutants can best be described by a Monte Carlo procedure as applied in SPEEDI. Finally the dose rate of the external gamma-radiation from the contamination in the atmosphere and on the ground is calculated by two- and three-dimensional SN-programmes as used for radiation transport problems

  19. Spatial downscaling and mapping of daily precipitation and air temperature using daily station data and monthly mean maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flint, A. L.; Flint, L. E.; Stern, M. A.

    2013-12-01

    Accurate maps of daily weather variables are an essential component of hydrologic and ecologic modeling. Here we present a four-step method that uses daily station data and transient monthly maps of precipitation and air temperature. This method uses the monthly maps to help interpolate between stations for more accurate production of daily maps at any spatial resolution. The first step analyzes the quality of the each station's data using a discrepancy analysis that compares statistics derived from a statistical jack-knifing approach with a time-series evaluation of discrepancies generated for each station. Although several methods could be used for the second step of producing initial maps, such as kriging, splines, etc., we used a gradient plus inverse distance squared method that was developed to produce accurate climate maps for sparse data regions with widely separated and few climate stations, far fewer than would be needed for techniques such as kriging. The gradient plus inverse distance squared method uses local gradients in the climate parameters, easting, northing, and elevation, to adjust the inverse distance squared estimates for local gradients such as lapse rates, inversions, or rain shadows at scales of 10's of meters to kilometers. The third step is to downscale World Wide Web (web) based transient monthly data, such as Precipitation-Elevation Regression on Independent Slope Method (PRISM) for the US (4 km or 800 m maps) or Climate Research Unit (CRU 3.1) data sets (40 km for global applications) to the scale of the daily data's digital elevation model. In the final step the downscaled transient monthly maps are used to adjust the daily time-series mapped data (~30 maps/month) for each month. These adjustments are used to scale daily maps so that summing them for precipitation or averaging them for temperature would more accurately reproduce the variability in selected monthly maps. This method allows for individual days to have maxima or minima

  20. Numerical Analysis on Ventilating and Air Conditioning Scheme of Shenyang Subway Station

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Wei; NA Yanling

    2007-01-01

    Different cities have different climate conditions and outdoor temperature and humidity, so the scheme of an environment control in subway should be analyzed by considering objective conditions, project cost and operating status. In this paper, a physical and mathematical model is built according to the design of Shenyang subway (line 1), the boundary conditions of the model are defined by the design and experiments, the numerical analysis of ventilating scheme and air conditioning scheme is introduced individually, and the temperature field and air flow field of the two schemes are compared, so that the feasibility of using a ventilating scheme in subway of northeast cities is discussed. Considering comfort and economy, it can be concluded that mechanical ventilation is feasible in subway of northeast cities because the air temperature there is not very high in summer.

  1. International Space Station Common Cabin Air Assembly Condensing Heat Exchanger Hydrophilic Coating Operation, Recovery, and Lessons Learned

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balistreri, Steven F.; Steele, John W.; Caron, Mark E.; Laliberte, Yvon J.; Shaw, Laura A.

    2013-01-01

    The ability to control the temperature and humidity of an environment or habitat is critical for human survival. These factors are important to maintaining human health and comfort, as well as maintaining mechanical and electrical equipment in good working order to support the human and to accomplish mission objectives. The temperature and humidity of the International Space Station (ISS) United States On-orbit Segment (USOS) cabin air is controlled by the Common Cabin Air Assembly (CCAA). The CCAA consists of a fan, a condensing heat exchanger (CHX), an air/water separator, temperature and liquid sensors, and electrical controlling hardware and software. The CHX is the primary component responsible for control of temperature and humidity. The CCAA CHX contains a chemical coating that was developed to be hydrophilic and thus attract water from the humid influent air. This attraction forms the basis for water removal and therefore cabin humidity control. However, there have been several instances of CHX coatings becoming hydrophobic and repelling water. When this behavior is observed in an operational CHX in the ISS segments, the unit s ability to remove moisture from the air is compromised and the result is liquid water carryover into downstream ducting and systems. This water carryover can have detrimental effects on the ISS cabin atmosphere quality and on the health of downstream hardware. If the water carryover is severe and widespread, this behavior can result in an inability to maintain humidity levels in the USOS. This paper will describe the operation of the five CCAAs within the USOS, the potential causes of the hydrophobic condition, and the impacts of the resulting water carryover to downstream systems. It will describe the history of this behavior and the actual observed impacts to the ISS USOS. Information on mitigation steps to protect the health of future CHX hydrophilic coatings as well as remediation and recovery of the full heat exchanger will be

  2. Air pollution control for coal-fired power stations in eastern Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this article emission reduction is considered as an option for air pollution control for coal-fired power generation. The few projects selected in this article have shown that detailed site-specific assessments are necessary to find the most cost-effective solution

  3. Pre-Mission Communication And Awareness Stratgies For Positive Group Functioning And Development: Analysis Of A Crew At The Mars Desert Research Station (MDRS) In Utah, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allner, Matthew; Bishop, Sheryl; Gushin, Vadim; McKay, Chris; Rygalov, Vadim; Allner, Matthew

    Introduction: Psychosocial group functioning has become an increased international focus of many space faring nations due to the recent shift in focus of colonizing the Moon and then preparing to travel to Mars and beyond. Purpose: This study investigates the effects of pre-mission communication and awareness strategies for positive group functioning in extreme environments as well as suggestive countermeasures to maintain positive group dynamic development in isolated and confined extreme (ICE) environments. The study is supported by both preand intra-mission management efforts, which included crewmember assessments at various mission phases (pre-, intra-, and end-mission). Methods: A six person heterogeneous American crew conducted a Mars simulation mission at the Mars Society's Mars Desert Research Station in Utah, USA in 2006 as part of a new NASA training program called Spaceward Bound. Participants were administered assessments of personality, personal and group identity/functioning, subjective stress, coping, and subjective motivation. All participants were also provided information (pre-mission) regarding past research and tendencies of group functioning, stressors, cognitive functioning, and mission mistakes from a mission phase analysis approach, to see if this would be a factor in positive group dynamic development. Results: Data collected and obtained by both assessment and journaling methods were both consistent and indicative of positive personalities desirable of expedition crews. Assessment data further indicated positive group cohesion and group interactions, along with supportive and strong leadership, all which led to positive personal and group experiences for crewmembers. Crewmembers all displayed low levels of competition while still reporting high motivation and satisfaction for the group dynamic development and the mission objectives that were completed. Journals kept by the crew psychologist indicated that crewmembers all felt that the pre

  4. Pelayanan Tiket Domestik Dan Fasilitas Kemudahan Pada PT.Indonesia Air Asia Station Medan

    OpenAIRE

    Ridha Hafny S.

    2011-01-01

    Dengan di dukukung potensi sumber daya alam di Sumatera Utara banyak kita temukan objek – objek wisata. Wisatawan dari dalam maupun luar negeri dapat menikmati indahnya corak kebudayaan. Wisatawan dari dalam maupun luar negeri umumnya mengambil jarur singkat dengan menggunakan alat angkutan udara. Sebagai pelopor Low Cost Carrier, Indonesia AirAsia menjadi pilihan semua kalangan yang akan bepergian menggunakan transportasi udara. Walaupun beberapa pelayanan dikurangi akan tetapi tergant...

  5. Regional CO{sub 2} fluxes inferred from mixing ratio measurements: estimates from flask air samples in central Kansas, USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lai, Chun-Ta; Schauer, Andrew J.; Ehleringer, James R. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States). Dept. of Biology; Owensby, Clenton; Ham, Jay M. [Kansas State Univ., Manhattan, KS (United States). Dept. of Agronomy; Helliker, Brent [Univ. of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States). Dept. of Biology; Tans, Pieter P. [National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Boulder, CO (United States). Climate Monitoring and Diagnostics Laboratory

    2006-11-15

    We estimated regional fluxes of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) using mixing ratios measured in a tallgrass prairie in central Kansas, USA over 3 yr (2002-2004). Glass flasks were used to collect whole air samples in the mid afternoon for determining CO{sub 2} mixing ratios and their carbon isotopic composition. Regional CO{sub 2} fluxes were calculated assuming atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) approaches an equilibrium state on a monthly basis. CO{sub 2} mixing ratios derived from the marine boundary layer data were used as a proxy to represent those in the free troposphere, which allowed for determining a boundary layer CO{sub 2} gradient primarily resulting from surface exchange. We estimated temporal changes in the ABL height for this region on a monthly basis (600-1700 m asl for a 5-yr average between 1997 and 2001) from European Center for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) model data. Accordingly, we estimated the rate of entrainment (flux density) by interpolating NCAR/NCEP reanalysis data to the estimated ABL height. Our study differentiates from previous studies in several aspects: (1) we used flask-based mixing ratio measurements; (2) only discrete midday CO{sub 2} mixing ratio data were used to construct weekly CO{sub 2} gradients between free troposphere and the ABL and (3) we propose a new means for estimating monthly values of vertical transport. Modelled regional CO{sub 2} fluxes were compared to net ecosystem exchange (NEE) of CO{sub 2} fluxes measured by eddy covariance method. Assuming negligible vertical CO{sub 2} gradients between mid-ABL and the surface layer and with no correction applied, calculated NEE showed a general agreement with measured NEE fluxes throughout the growing season. Using CO mixing ratio data, we show that fossil fuel burning contributed negligible CO{sub 2} fluxes in summer but partially explained the discrepancy between modelled regional CO{sub 2} fluxes and measured NEE in winter. This wintertime fossil fuel input was

  6. Regional CO{sub 2} fluxes inferred from mixing ratio measurements: estimates from flask air samples in central Kansas, USA.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lai, Chun-Ta; Schauer, Andrew J.; Ehleringer, James R. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States). Dept. of Biology; Owensby, Clenton; Ham, Jay M. [Kansas State Univ., Manhattan, KS (United States). Dept. of Agronomy; Helliker, Brent [Univ. of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States). Dept. of Biology; Tans, Pieter P. [National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Boulder, CO (United States). Climate Monitoring and Diagnostics Laboratory

    2006-11-15

    We estimated regional fluxes of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) using mixing ratios measured in a tallgrass prairie in central Kansas, USA over 3 yr (2002-2004). Glass flasks were used to collect whole air samples in the mid afternoon for determining CO{sub 2} mixing ratios and their carbon isotopic composition. Regional CO{sub 2} fluxes were calculated assuming atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) approaches an equilibrium state on a monthly basis. CO{sub 2} mixing ratios derived from the marine boundary layer data were used as a proxy to represent those in the free troposphere, which allowed for determining a boundary layer CO{sub 2} gradient primarily resulting from surface exchange. We estimated temporal changes in the ABL height for this region on a monthly basis (600-1700 m asl for a 5-yr average between 1997 and 2001) from European Center for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) model data. Accordingly, we estimated the rate of entrainment (flux density) by interpolating NCAR/NCEP reanalysis data to the estimated ABL height. Our study differentiates from previous studies in several aspects: (1) we used flask-based mixing ratio measurements; (2) only discrete midday CO{sub 2} mixing ratio data were used to construct weekly CO{sub 2} gradients between free troposphere and the ABL and (3) we propose a new means for estimating monthly values of vertical transport. Modelled regional CO{sub 2} fluxes were compared to net ecosystem exchange (NEE) of CO{sub 2} fluxes measured by eddy covariance method. Assuming negligible vertical CO{sub 2} gradients between mid-ABL and the surface layer and with no correction applied, calculated NEE showed a general agreement with measured NEE fluxes throughout the growing season. Using CO mixing ratio data, we show that fossil fuel burning contributed negligible CO{sub 2} fluxes in summer but partially explained the discrepancy between modelled regional CO{sub 2} fluxes and measured NEE in winter. This wintertime fossil fuel input was

  7. Update to the Objective Lightning Probability Forecast Tool in Use at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Winifred; Roeder, William

    2008-01-01

    This conference presentation describes the improvement of a set of lightning probability forecast equations that are used by the 45th Weather Squadron forecasters for their daily 1100 UTC (0700 EDT) weather briefing during the warm season months of May-September. This information is used for general scheduling of operations at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station and Kennedy Space Center. Forecasters at the Spaceflight Meteorology Group also make thunderstorm forecasts during Shuttle flight operations. Five modifications were made by the Applied Meteorology Unit: increased the period of record from 15 to 17 years, changed the method of calculating the flow regime of the day, calculated a new optimal layer relative humidity, used a new smoothing technique for the daily climatology, and used a new valid area. The test results indicated that the modified equaitions showed and increase in skill over the current equations, good reliability, and an ability to distinguish between lightning and non-lightning days.

  8. Update to the Objective Lightning Probability Forecast Tool in use at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Winifred; Roeder, William

    2013-01-01

    This conference poster describes the improvement of a set of lightning probability forecast equations that are used by the 45th Weather Squadron forecasters for their daily 1100 UTC (0700 EDT) weather briefing during the warm season months of May-September. This information is used for general scheduling of operations at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station and Kennedy Space Center. Forecasters at the Spaceflight Meteorology Group also make thunderstorm forecasts during Shuttle flight operations. Five modifications were made by the Applied Meteorology Unit: increased the period of record from 15 to 17 years, changed the method of calculating the flow regime of the day, calculated a new optimal layer relative humidity, used a new smoothing technique for the daily climatology, and used a new valid area. The test results indicated that the modified equations showed and increase in skill over the current equations, good reliability and an ability to distinguish between lightning and non-lightning days.

  9. Update to the Lightning Probability Forecast Equations at Kennedy Space Center/Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Winifred; Roeder, William

    2007-01-01

    This conference presentation describes the improvement of a set of lightning probability forecast equations that are used by the 45th Weather Squadron forecasters for their daily 1100 UTC (0700 EDT) weather briefing during the warm season months of May- September. This information is used for general scheduling of operations at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station and Kennedy Space Center. Forecasters at the Spaceflight Meteorology Group also make thunderstorm forecasts during Shuttle flight operations. Five modifications were made by the Applied Meteorology Unit: increased the period of record from 15 to 17 years, changed the method of calculating the flow regime of the day, calculated a new optimal layer relative humidity, used a new smoothing technique for the daily climatology, and used a new valid area. The test results indicated that the modified equations showed and increase in skill over the current equations, good reliability, and an ability to distinguish between lightning and non-lightning days.

  10. Modifications to the Objective Lightning Probability Forecast Tool at Kennedy Space Center/Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Winifred; Roeder, William

    2010-01-01

    The 45th Weather Squadron (45 WS) at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (CCAFS) includes the probability of lightning occurrence in their 24-Hour and Weekly Planning Forecasts, briefed at 0700 EDT for daily operations planning on Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and CCAFS. This forecast is based on subjective analyses of model and observational data and output from an objective tool developed by the Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU). This tool was developed over two phases (Lambert and Wheeler 2005, Lambert 2007). It consists of five equations, one for each warm season month (May-Sep), that calculate the probability of lightning occurrence for the day and a graphical user interface (GUI) to display the output. The Phase I and II equations outperformed previous operational tools by a total of 56%. Based on this success, the 45 WS tasked the AMU with Phase III to improve the tool further.

  11. Development of remedial process options: Phase II, Feasibility study: Installation Restoration Program, Naval Air Station Fallon, Fallon, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cronk, T.A.; Smuin, D.R. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)); Schlosser, R.M. (Oak Ridge Associated Universities, Inc., TN (United States))

    1991-11-01

    This technical memorandum develops process options which are appropriate for environmental restoration activities at Naval Air Station Fallon (NAS Fallon), Nevada. Introduction of contaminants to the environment has resulted from deliberate disposal activities (both through dumping and landfilling) and accidental spills and leaks associated with normal activities at NAS Fallon over its lifetime of operation. Environmental sampling results indicate that the vast majority of contaminants of concern are petroleum hydrocarbon related. These contaminants include JP-4, JP-5, leaded and unleaded gasoline, waste oils and lubricants, hydraulic fluids, and numerous solvents and cleaners. The principal exposure pathways of concern associated with NAS Fallon contaminants appear to be the surface flows and shallow drainage systems to which the base contributes. Available data indicate NAS Fallon IR Program sites are not contributing excessive contamination to surface flows emanating from the base. Contaminants appear to be contained in a relatively immobile state in the shallow subsurface with little or no contaminant migration off site.

  12. Regular variations of air pollution on selected stations during 2003-2007

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Střeštík, Jaroslav

    Stará Lesná : Geophysical Institute of the Slovak Academy of Sciences and Slovak Bioclimatological Society of the Slovak Academy of Sciences, 2009 - (Pribullová, A.; Bičárová, S.), s. 219-220 ISBN 978-80-900450-1-9. [ Sustainable development and bioclimate. Stará Lesná (SK), 05.10.2009-08.10.2009] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30120515 Keywords : air pollution * variations of concentration * biometeorological prediction Subject RIV: DE - Earth Magnetism, Geodesy, Geography

  13. Performance Evaluation of the Operational Air Quality Monitor for Water Testing Aboard the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, William T.; Limero, Thomas F.; Gazda, Daniel B.; Minton, John M.; Macatangay, Ariel V.; Dwivedi, Prabha; Fernandez, Facundo M.

    2014-01-01

    Real-time environmental monitoring on ISS is necessary to provide data in a timely fashion and to help ensure astronaut health. Current real-time water TOC monitoring provides high-quality trending information, but compound-specific data is needed. The combination of ETV with the AQM showed that compounds of interest could be liberated from water and analyzed in the same manner as air sampling. Calibration of the AQM using water samples allowed for the quantitative analysis of ISS archival samples. Some calibration issues remain, but the excellent accuracy of DMSD indicates that ETV holds promise for as a sample introduction method for water analysis in spaceflight.

  14. Activity concentration of the inhaled air of the personnel of a radioiodine therapy station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The mean activity concentration of 131I during inhalation by the nuclear medicine personnel was measured at therapeutic activity applications of 22 GBq (600 mCi) per week. The activity concentration reached its maximum in the exhaled air of the patients 2.5 to 4 hours after oral application. The normalized maximum was between 2x10-5 and 2x10-3 Bq.m-3 per administered Bq. The mean activity concentration of 131I inhaled by the personnel was 28 to 1300 Bq.m-3 (0.8 to 35 nCi.m-3). From this the 131I uptake per year was estimated to be 30 to 400 kBq/a (anti x = 250, SD = 50%). The maximum permitted uptake from air per year is, according to the German and Austrian radiation protection ordinances 22/21 μCi/a(= 8x105 Bq/a). At maximum 50% and, on the average, 30% of this threshold value are reached. The length of stay of the personnel in the patient rooms is already now limited to such an extent that 10% of the maximum permissible whole-body dose for external radiation is not exceeded. Therefore, increased attention should be paid also to radiation exposure by inhalation. (orig.)

  15. District Heating Mode Analysis Based on an Air-cooled Combined Heat and Power Station

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei Feng Li

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available As an important research subject, district heating with combined heat and power (CHP has significant potential for energy conservation. This paper utilised a 200 MW air-cooled unit as an actual case and presented a design scheme and energy consumption analysis of three typical CHP modes, including the low vacuum mode (LVM, the extraction condensing mode (ECM, and the absorbing heat pump mode (AHPM. The advantages and disadvantages of each mode (including their practical problems were analysed, and suggestions for the best mode were proposed. The energy consumption of the three heating modes changed with the heating load. When the heating load was increased, the net power of the entire system decreased to different degrees. In this paper, the energy conservation effect of the LVM was the most ideal, followed by the ECM and the AHPM. Besides, the LVM and AHPM were able to supply larger heat loads than the ECM, which was limited by the minimum cooling flow of the low pressure cylinder. Furthermore, in order to get a more general conclusion, a similar case with an air-cooled 300 MW unit is studied, showing that the fuel consumption levels of ECM and AHPM have changed.

  16. Dependence of air masses type on PBL vertical structure retrieved at the Mace Head station during EUCAARI campaign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milroy, Conor; Martucci, Giovanni; O'Dowd, Colin

    2010-05-01

    During the EUCAARI Intensive Observing Period held at the Mace Head GAW station from mid-May to mid-June, 2008, the PBL depth has been continuously measured by two ceilometers (Vaisala CL31 and Jenoptik CHM15K) and a microwave radiometer (RPG-HATPRO). The Lidar-Ceilometer, through the gradients in aerosol backscatter profiles, and the microwave profiler, through gradients in the specific humidity profiles, were used to remotely-sense the boundary layer structure. An automatic, newly developed Temporal Height-Tracking (THT) algorithm (Martucci et al., 2010) have been applied to both type of instruments data to retrieve the 2-layered structure of the local marine boundary layer. The two layers are defined as a lower, well mixed layer, i.e. the surface mixed layer, and the layer occupying the region below the free Troposphere inversion, i.e. the decoupled residual or convective layer. A categorization of the incoming air masses has been performed based on their origins and been used to asses the correlation with the PBL depths. The study confirmed the dependence of PBL vertical structure on different air masses and different type of advected aerosol.

  17. Performance and evaluation of gas engine driven rooftop air conditioning equipment at the Willow Grove (PA) Naval Air Station. Interim report, 1992 cooling season

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armstrong, P.R.; Conover, D.R.

    1993-05-01

    In a field evaluation conducted for the US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP), the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) examined the performance of a new US energy-related technology under the FEMP Test Bed Demonstration Program. The technology was a 15-ton natural gas engine driven roof top air conditioning unit. Two such units were installed on a naval retail building to provide space conditioning to the building. Under the Test Bed Demonstration Program, private and public sector interests are focused to support the installation and evaluation of new US technologies in the federal sector. Participating in this effort under a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) with DOE were the American Gas Cooling Center, Philadelphia Electric Company, Thermo King Corporation, and the US Naval Air Station at Willow Grove, Pennsylvania. Equipment operating and service data as well as building interior and exterior conditions were secured for the 1992 cooling season. Based on a computer assessment of the building using standard weather data, a comparison was made with the energy and operating costs associated with the previous space conditioning system. Based on performance during the 1992 cooling season and adjusted to a normal weather year, the technology will save the site $6,000/yr in purchased energy costs. An additional $9,000 in savings due to electricity demand ratchet charge reductions will also be realized. Detailed information on the technology, the installation, and the results of the technology test are provided to illustrate the advantages to the federal sector of using this technology. A history of the CRADA development process is also reported.

  18. Distribution of VOCs between air and snow at the Jungfraujoch high alpine research station, Switzerland, during CLACE 5 (winter 2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Starokozhev

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Volatile organic compounds (VOCs were analyzed in air and snow samples at the Jungfraujoch high alpine research station in Switzerland as part of CLACE 5 (CLoud and Aerosol Characterization Experiment during February/March 2006. The fluxes of individual compounds in ambient air were calculated from gas phase concentrations and wind speed. The highest concentrations and flux values were observed for the aromatic hydrocarbons benzene (14.3 μg.m−2 s−1, 1,3,5-trimethylbenzene (5.27 μg.m−2 s−1, toluene (4.40 μg.m−2 −1, and the aliphatic hydrocarbons i-butane (7.87 μg.m−2 s−1, i-pentane (3.61 μg.m−2 s−1 and n-butane (3.23 μg.m−2 s−1. The measured concentrations and fluxes were used to calculate the efficiency of removal of VOCs by snow, which is defined as difference between the initial and final concentration/flux values of compounds before and after wet deposition. The removal efficiency was calculated at −24°C (−13.7°C and ranged from 37% (35% for o-xylene to 93% (63% for i-pentane. The distribution coefficients of VOCs between the air and snow phases were derived from published poly-parameter linear free energy relationship (pp-LFER data, and compared with distribution coefficients obtained from the simultaneous measurements of VOC concentrations in air and snow at Jungfraujoch. The coefficients calculated from pp-LFER exceeded those values measured in the present study, which indicates more efficient snow scavenging of the VOCs investigated than suggested by theoretical predictions.

  19. Performance Assessment of a Solar powered Air Quality and Weather Station Placed on a School Rooftop in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summary of compact, roof version of a Village Green Project station installed on a secondary school rooftop in Hong Kong. Preliminary comparison of the station's data against nearby regulatory monitors are summarized.

  20. Developing Empirical Lightning Cessation Forecast Guidance for the Cape Canaveral Air Force Station and Kennedy Space Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stano, Geoffrey T.; Fuelberg, Henry E.; Roeder, William P.

    2010-01-01

    This research addresses the 45th Weather Squadron's (45WS) need for improved guidance regarding lightning cessation at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station and Kennedy Space Center (KSC). KSC's Lightning Detection and Ranging (LDAR) network was the primary observational tool to investigate both cloud-to-ground and intracloud lightning. Five statistical and empirical schemes were created from LDAR, sounding, and radar parameters derived from 116 storms. Four of the five schemes were unsuitable for operational use since lightning advisories would be canceled prematurely, leading to safety risks to personnel. These include a correlation and regression tree analysis, three variants of multiple linear regression, event time trending, and the time delay between the greatest height of the maximum dBZ value to the last flash. These schemes failed to adequately forecast the maximum interval, the greatest time between any two flashes in the storm. The majority of storms had a maximum interval less than 10 min, which biased the schemes toward small values. Success was achieved with the percentile method (PM) by separating the maximum interval into percentiles for the 100 dependent storms.

  1. Mercury emission from terrestrial background surfaces in the eastern USA. II: Air/surface exchange of mercury within forests from South Carolina to New England

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mercury air/surface exchange was measured over litter-covered soils with low Hg concentrations within various types of forests along the eastern seaboard of the USA. The fieldwork was conducted at six forested sites in state parks in South Carolina, North Carolina, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, New York and Maine from mid-May to early June 2005. The study showed that the Hg air/surface exchange was consistently very low and similar (overall daytime mean flux = 0.2 ± 0.9 ng m-2 h-1, n = 310, for all six sites monitored) with the various forest types. These flux values are comparable with those found in a year-long study in Tennessee (yearly daytime mean = 0.4 ± 0.5 ng m-2 h-1), but lower than many previous flux results reported for background soils. The Hg fluxes at all sites oscillated around zero, with many episodes of deposition (negative fluxes) occurring in both daytime and nighttime. While there were particular days showing significant correlations among the Hg air/surface exchange and certain environmental parameters, perhaps because of the low fluxes encountered, few significant correlations were found for any particular day of sampling between the Hg flux and environmental parameters such as solar radiation, soil temperature, air temperature (little variability seen), relative humidity, and ambient air Hg concentrations. Factors driving the Hg exchange as previously found for enriched soils may not hold for these background litter-covered forest soils. The results suggest that spatial variations of the Hg air/surface exchange were small among these different forest types for this particular time of year

  2. Occurrence of phthalate diesters in particulate and vapor phases in indoor air and implications for human exposure in Albany, New York, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Tri Manh; Kannan, Kurunthachalam

    2015-04-01

    Phthalate diesters are used as plasticizers in a wide range of consumer products. Because phthalates have been shown in laboratory animal studies to be toxic, human exposure to these chemicals is a matter of concern. Nevertheless, little is known about inhalation exposure to phthalates in the United States. In this study, occurrence of nine phthalates was determined in 60 indoor air samples collected in 2014 in Albany, New York, USA. Airborne particulate and vapor phase samples were collected from various sampling locations by use of a low-volume air sampler. The median concentrations of nine phthalates in air samples collected from homes, offices, laboratories, schools, salons (hair and nail salons), and public places were 732, 143, 170, 371, 2600, and 354 ng/m(3), respectively. Diethyl phthalate (DEP) was found at the highest concentrations, which ranged from 4.83 to 2250 ng/m(3) (median 152) followed by di-n-butyl phthalate, which ranged from 4.05 to 1170 ng/m(3) (median 63.3). The median inhalation exposure dose to phthalates was estimated at 0.845, 0.423, 0.203, 0.089, and 0.070 µg/kg-bw/d for infants, toddlers, children, teenagers, and adults, respectively. Inhalation is an important pathway of human exposure to DEP. PMID:25702083

  3. Long-term Monitoring Program Optimization for Chlorinated Volatile Organic Compound Plume, Naval Air Station Brunswick, Maine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderone, G. M.

    2006-12-01

    A long-term monitoring program was initiated in 1995 at 6 sites at NAS Brunswick, including 3 National Priorities List (Superfund) sites. Primary contaminants of concern include chlorinated volatile organic compounds, including tetrachloroethane, trichloroethene, and vinyl chloride, in addition to metals. More than 80 submersible pumping systems were installed to facilitate sample collection utilizing the low-flow sampling technique. Long-term monitoring of the groundwater is conducted to assess the effectiveness of remedial measures, and monitor changes in contaminant concentrations in the Eastern Plume Operable Unit. Long-term monitoring program activities include quarterly groundwater sampling and analysis at more than 90 wells across 6 sites; surface water, sediment, seep, and leachate sampling and analysis at 3 sites; landfill gas monitoring; well maintenance; engineering inspections of landfill covers and other sites or evidence of stressed vegetation; water level gauging; and treatment plant sampling and analysis. Significant cost savings were achieved by optimizing the sampling network and reducing sampling frequency from quarterly to semi- annual or annual sampling. As part of an ongoing optimization effort, a geostatistical assessment of the Eastern Plume was conducted at the Naval Air Station, Brunswick, Maine. The geostatistical assessment used 40 monitoring points and analytical data collected over 3 years. For this geostatistical assessment, EA developed and utilized a database of analytical results generated during 3 years of long-term monitoring which was linked to a Geographic Information System to enhance data visualization capacity. The Geographic Information System included themes for groundwater volatile organic compound concentration, groundwater flow directions, shallow and deep wells, and immediate access to point-specific analytical results. This statistical analysis has been used by the site decision-maker and its conclusions supported a

  4. Atmospheric station Křešín u Pacova, Czech Republic – a Central European research infrastructure for studying greenhouse gases, aerosols and air quality

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dvorská, Alice; Sedlák, Pavel; Schwarz, Jaroslav; Fusek, M.; Hanuš, Vlastimil; Vodička, Petr; Trusina, Jan

    Vol. 12. Göttingen: Copernicus GmbH, 2015, s. 79-83. ISSN 1992-0628. [EMS Annual Meeting /14./ and European Conference on Applied Climatology /10./. Praha (CZ), 06.10.2014-10.10.2014] R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1415 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 ; RVO:67985858 Keywords : air quality * atmospheric station Křešín * greenhouse gases * Czech Republic * aerosols Subject RIV: DI - Air Pollution ; Quality ; CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry (UCHP-M)

  5. Estimating the effect of air pollution from a coal-fired power station on the development of children's pulmonary function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dubnov, J.; Barchana, M.; Rishpon, S.; Leventhal, A.; Segal, I.; Carel, R.; Portnov, B.A. [Ministry of Health, Haifa (Israel). Haifa District Health Office

    2007-01-15

    Using geographical information systems (GIS) tools, the present study analyzed the association between children's lung function development and their long-term exposure to air pollution. The study covered the cohort of 1492 schoolchildren living in the vicinity of a major coal-fired power station in the Hadera sub-district of Israel. In 1996 and 1999, the children underwent subsequent pulmonary function tests (PFT) (forced vital capacity (FVC) and forced expiratory volume during the first second (FEV1)), and the children's parents completed a detailed questionnaire on their health status and household characteristics. A negative association was found between changes in the results of PFT and the estimated individual levels of air pollution. A sensitivity test revealed a FEV1 decline from -4.3% for the average pollution level to -10.2% for the high air pollution level. The results of a sensitivity test for FVC were found to be similar. Association with the reported health status was found to be insignificant. As we conclude, air pollution from a coal-fired power station, although not exceeding local pollution standards, had a negative effect on children's lung function development. As argued, previous studies carried out in the region failed to show the above association because they were based on zone approaches that assign average concentration levels of air pollutants to all individuals in each zone, leading to a misclassification bias of individual exposure.

  6. Atmospheric station Křešín u Pacova, Czech Republic – a Central European research infrastructure for studying greenhouse gases, aerosols and air quality

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dvorská, A.; Sedlák, Pavel; Schwarz, J.; Fusek, M.; Hanuš, V.; Vodička, P.; Trusina, J.

    Vol. 12. Göttingen: Copernicus GmbH, 2015, s. 79-83. ISSN 1992-0628. [EMS Annual Meeting /14./ and European Conference on Applied Climatology /10./. Praha (CZ), 06.10.2014-10.10.2014] Institutional support: RVO:68378289 Keywords : air quality * atmospheric station Křešín * greenhouse gases * Czech Republic * aerosols Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology http://www.adv-sci-res.net/12/79/2015/asr-12-79-2015.pdf

  7. SPATIAL ANALYSIS OF VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS FROM A COMMUNITY-BASED AIR TOXICS MONITORING NETWORK IN DEER PARK, TEXAS, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    This RARE Project with EPA Region 6 was a spatial analysis study of select volatile organic compounds (VOC) collected using passive air monitors at outdoor residential locations in the Deer Park, Texas area near the Houston Ship Channel. Correlation analysis of VOC species confi...

  8. Application of continuous seismic-reflection techniques to delineate paleochannels beneath the Neuse River at US Marine Corps Air Station, Cherry Point, North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardinell, Alex P.

    1999-01-01

    A continuous seismic-reflection profiling survey was conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey on the Neuse River near the Cherry Point Marine Corps Air Station during July 7-24, 1998. Approximately 52 miles of profiling data were collected during the survey from areas northwest of the Air Station to Flanner Beach and southeast to Cherry Point. Positioning of the seismic lines was done by using an integrated navigational system. Data from the survey were used to define and delineate paleochannel alignments under the Neuse River near the Air Station. These data also were correlated with existing surface and borehole geophysical data, including vertical seismic-profiling velocity data collected in 1995. Sediments believed to be Quaternary in age were identified at varying depths on the seismic sections as undifferentiated reflectors and lack the lateral continuity of underlying reflectors believed to represent older sediments of Tertiary age. The sediments of possible Quaternary age thicken to the southeast. Paleochannels of Quaternary age and varying depths were identified beneath the Neuse River estuary. These paleochannels range in width from 870 feet to about 6,900 feet. Two zones of buried paleochannels were identified in the continuous seismic-reflection profiling data. The eastern paleochannel zone includes two large superimposed channel features identified during this study and in re-interpreted 1995 land seismic-reflection data. The second paleochannel zone, located west of the first paleochannel zone, contains several small paleochannels near the central and south shore of the Neuse River estuary between Slocum Creek and Flanner Beach. This second zone of channel features may be continuous with those mapped by the U.S. Geological Survey in 1995 using land seismic-reflection data on the southern end of the Air Station. Most of the channels were mapped at the Quaternary-Tertiary sediment boundary. These channels appear to have been cut into the older sediments

  9. Environmental Conditions and Threatened and Endangered Species Populations near the Titain, Atlas, and Delta Launch Complexes, Cape Canaveral Air Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oddy, Donna M.; Stolen, Eric D.; Schmalzer, Paul A.; Hensley, Melissa A.; Hall, Patrice; Larson, Vickie L.; Turek, Shannon R.

    1999-01-01

    Launches of Delta, Atlas, and Titan rockets from Cape Canaveral Air Station (CCAS) have potential environmental effects. These could occur from direct impacts of launches or indirectly from habitat alterations. This report summarizes a three-year study (1995-1998) characterizing the environment, with particular attention to threatened and endangered species, near Delta, Atlas, and Titan launch facilities. Cape Canaveral has been modified by Air Force development and by 50 years of fire suppression. The dominant vegetation type around the Delta and Atlas launch complexes is coastal oak hammock forest. Oak scrub is the predominant upland vegetation type near the Titan launch complexes. Compositionally, these are coastal scrub communities that has been unburned for greater than 40 years and have developed into closed canopy, low-stature forests. Herbaceous vegetation around active and inactive facilities, coastal strand and dune vegetation near the Atlantic Ocean, and exotic vegetation in disturbed areas are common. Marsh and estuarine vegetation is most common west of the Titan complexes. Launch effects to vegetation include scorch, acid, and particulate deposition. Discernable, cumulative effects are limited to small areas near the launch complexes. Water quality samples were collected at the Titan, Atlas, and Delta launch complexes in September 1995 (wet season) and January 1996 (dry season). Samples were analyzed for heavy metals, chloride, total organic carbon, calcium, iron, magnesium, sodium, total alkalinity, pH, and conductivity. Differences between fresh, brackish, and saline surface waters were evident. The natural buffering capacity of the environment surrounding the CCAS launch complexes is adequate for neutralizing acid deposition in rainfall and launch deposition. Populations of the Florida Scrub-Jay (Aphelocoma coerulescens), a Federally- listed, threatened species, reside near the launch complexes. Thirty-seven to forty-one scrub-jay territories were

  10. Environmental Conditions and Threatened and Endangered Species Populations near the Titan, Atlas, and Delta Launch Complexes, Cape Canaveral Air Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oddy, Donna M.; Stolen, Eric D.; Schmalzer, Paul A.; Hensley, Melissa A.; Hall, Patrice; Larson, Vickie L.; Turek, Shannon R.

    1999-01-01

    Launches of Delta, Atlas, and Titan rockets from Cape Canaveral Air Station (CCAS) have potential environmental effects. These could occur from direct impacts of launches or indirectly from habitat alterations. This report summarizes a three-year study (1 995-1 998) characterizing the environment, with particular attention to threatened and endangered species, near Delta, Atlas, and Titan launch facilities. Cape Canaveral has been modified by Air Force development and by 50 years of fire suppression. The dominant vegetation type around the Delta and Atlas launch complexes is coastal oak hammock forest. Oak scrub is the predominant upland vegetation type near the Titan launch complexes. Compositionally, these are coastal scrub communities that has been unburned for > 40 years and have developed into closed canopy, low-stature forests. Herbaceous vegetation around active and inactive facilities, coastal strand and dune vegetation near the Atlantic Ocean, and exotic vegetation in disturbed areas are common. Marsh and estuarine vegetation is most common west of the Titan complexes. Launch effects to vegetation include scorch, acid, and particulate deposition. Discernable, cumulative effects are limited to small areas near the launch complexes. Water quality samples were collected at the Titan, Atlas, and Delta launch complexes in September 1995 (wet season) and January 1996 (dry season). Samples were analyzed for heavy metals, chloride, total organic carbon, calcium, iron, magnesium, sodium, total alkalinity, pH, and conductivity. Differences between fresh, brackish, and saline surface waters were evident. The natural buffering capacity of the environment surrounding the CCAS launch complexes is adequate for neutralizing acid deposition in rainfall and launch deposition. Populations of the Florida Scrub-Jay (Aphelocoma coerulescens), a Federally-listed, threatened species, reside near the launch complexes. Thirty-seven to forty-one scrub-jay territories were located at

  11. Speciation and Fate of Trace Metals in Estuarine Sediments Under Reduced and Oxidized Conditions, Seaplane Lagoon, Alameda Naval Air Station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carroll, S A; Day, P A; Esser, B; Randall, S

    2002-10-18

    We have identified important chemical reactions that control the fate of metal-contaminated estuarine sediments if they are left undisturbed (in situ) or if they are dredged. We combined information on the molecular bonding of metals in solids from X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) with thermodynamic and kinetic driving forces obtained from dissolved metal concentrations to deduce the dominant reactions under reduced and oxidized conditions. We evaluated the in situ geochemistry of metals (cadmium, chromium, iron, lead, manganese and zinc) as a function of sediment depth (to 100 cm) from a 60-year record of contamination at the Alameda Naval Air Station, California. Results from XAS and thermodynamic modeling of porewaters show that cadmium and most of the zinc form stable sulfide phases, and that lead and chromium are associated with stable carbonate, phosphate, phyllosilicate, or oxide minerals. Therefore, there is minimal risk associated with the release of these trace metals from the deeper sediments contaminated prior to the Clean Water Act (1975) as long as reducing conditions are maintained. Increased concentrations of dissolved metals with depth were indicative of the formation of metal HS- complexes. The sediments also contain zinc, chromium, and manganese associated with detrital iron-rich phyllosilicates and/or oxides. These phases are recalcitrant at near-neutral pH and do not undergo reductive dissolution within the 60-year depositional history of sediments at this site. The fate of these metals during dredging was evaluated by comparing in situ geochemistry with that of sediments oxidized by seawater in laboratory experiments. Cadmium and zinc pose the greatest hazard from dredging because their sulfides were highly reactive in seawater. However, their dissolved concentrations under oxic conditions were limited eventually by sorption to or co-precipitation with an iron (oxy)hydroxide. About 50% of the reacted CdS and 80% of the reacted ZnS were

  12. Binational school-based monitoring of traffic-related air pollutants in El Paso, Texas (USA) and Ciudad Juarez, Chihuahua (Mexico)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paired indoor and outdoor concentrations of fine and coarse particulate matter (PM), PM2.5 reflectance [black carbon(BC)], and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) were determined for sixteen weeks in 2008 at four elementary schools (two in high and two in low traffic density zones) in a U.S.-Mexico border community to aid a binational health effects study. Strong spatial heterogeneity was observed for all outdoor pollutant concentrations. Concentrations of all pollutants, except coarse PM, were higher in high traffic zones than in the respective low traffic zones. Black carbon and NO2 appear to be better traffic indicators than fine PM. Indoor air pollution was found to be well associated with outdoor air pollution, although differences existed due to uncontrollable factors involving student activities and building/ventilation configurations. Results of this study indicate substantial spatial variability of pollutants in the region, suggesting that children's exposures to these pollutants vary based on the location of their school. - Highlights: → First binational investigation characterizing traffic air pollutants at four schools in El Paso, USA and Cd. Juarez, Mexico. → Paired in-outdoor sampling of PM2.5, PM10-2.5, reflectance [black carbon(BC)], and NO2 for 16 weeks in 2008 at each school. → Two schools (one in each city) were located in high traffic density areas and the other two in areas of low traffic density. Usage of spatially resolved environmental indictors of traffic pollutants in a range of exposure settings. → Substantial intra-urban spatial variability in pollutant concentrations observed between and within the two cities. - Spatial variability in traffic-mediated pollutant concentrations can exist at the intra-urban level and ambient monitoring sites may not accurately represent these concentration gradients.

  13. Binational school-based monitoring of traffic-related air pollutants in El Paso, Texas (USA) and Ciudad Juarez, Chihuahua (Mexico)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raysoni, Amit U., E-mail: auraysoni@miners.utep.edu [Environmental Science and Engineering Ph.D. Program, University of Texas, El Paso, TX 79968 (United States); Sarnat, Jeremy A.; Sarnat, Stefanie Ebelt [Department of Environmental Health, Rollins School of Public Health at Emory University, Atlanta, GA 30322 (United States); Garcia, Jose Humberto [Centro de Investigacion y Desarrollo Tecnologico, Tecnologico de Monterrey, Campus Ciudad Juarez, Ciudad Juarez, Chihuahua 32470 (Mexico); Holguin, Fernando [University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, PA 15213 (United States); Flores Luevano, Silvia [Interdisciplinary Health Science Ph.D. Program, College of Health Sciences, The University of Texas, El Paso, TX 79968 (United States); Li, Wen-Whai [Environmental Science and Engineering Ph.D. Program, University of Texas, El Paso, TX 79968 (United States); Department of Civil Engineering, University of Texas, El Paso, TX 79968 (United States)

    2011-10-15

    Paired indoor and outdoor concentrations of fine and coarse particulate matter (PM), PM2.5 reflectance [black carbon(BC)], and nitrogen dioxide (NO{sub 2}) were determined for sixteen weeks in 2008 at four elementary schools (two in high and two in low traffic density zones) in a U.S.-Mexico border community to aid a binational health effects study. Strong spatial heterogeneity was observed for all outdoor pollutant concentrations. Concentrations of all pollutants, except coarse PM, were higher in high traffic zones than in the respective low traffic zones. Black carbon and NO{sub 2} appear to be better traffic indicators than fine PM. Indoor air pollution was found to be well associated with outdoor air pollution, although differences existed due to uncontrollable factors involving student activities and building/ventilation configurations. Results of this study indicate substantial spatial variability of pollutants in the region, suggesting that children's exposures to these pollutants vary based on the location of their school. - Highlights: > First binational investigation characterizing traffic air pollutants at four schools in El Paso, USA and Cd. Juarez, Mexico. > Paired in-outdoor sampling of PM{sub 2.5}, PM{sub 10-2.5}, reflectance [black carbon(BC)], and NO{sub 2} for 16 weeks in 2008 at each school. > Two schools (one in each city) were located in high traffic density areas and the other two in areas of low traffic density. > Usage of spatially resolved environmental indictors of traffic pollutants in a range of exposure settings. > Substantial intra-urban spatial variability in pollutant concentrations observed between and within the two cities. - Spatial variability in traffic-mediated pollutant concentrations can exist at the intra-urban level and ambient monitoring sites may not accurately represent these concentration gradients.

  14. Ground level chemical analysis of air transported from the 1998 Mexican-central american fires to the southwestern USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villanueva Fierro, Ignacio [Departmento de Ciencias Ambientales, COFAA, CIIDIR-IPN Unidad Durango, Durango, Durango (Mexico)]. E-mail: ifierro62@yahoo.com; Popp, Carl J. [Department of Chemistry, New Mexico Tech, NM (United States); Dixon, Roy W. [Department of Chemistry, California State University at Sacramento, Sacramento, CA (USA); Martin, Randal S. [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Utah State University, Logan, UT (United States); Gaffney, Jeffrey S. [Department of Chemistry, University of Arkansas at Little Rock, Little Rock, AR(United States); Marley, Nancy A. [Graduate Institute of Technology, University of Arkansas at Little Rock, Little Rock, AR (United States); Harris, Joyce M. [Office of Oceanic and Atmospheric Research, ERL/CMDL, NOAA, Boulder, CO (United States)

    2009-02-15

    In May 1998, a large number of forest fires in the region of southern Mexico and Central America, released huge amounts of contaminants that were transported over the Pacific Ocean, then, due to a change in air current direction, the primary contaminants and their secondary pollutant products impacted central New Mexico after 5 to 6 days transport time. The total distance traveled was approximately 3000 km from the fire source. Background measurements of a number of key chemical markers were taken before and during the haze incursion at a site located at Socorro, NM. A number of days before the haze episode in NM, large areas of Texas, Louisiana and the lower Mississippi River valley were also inundated by smoke from the fires. The sum of carbonyl compounds was 5.6 ppbv before and 15.5 ppbv during the smoke event; the sum of carboxylic acids went from 7.2 ppbv to 8.6 ppbv; C1-C2 hydrocarbons went from 270 ppbv to 133 ppbv; particulate NO{sub 3}{sup -} went from 0.1 to 1.3 {mu}g/m{sup 3}; SO{sub 4}{sup -2} went from 1.2 to 3.4 {mu}g/m{sup 3}; and PM10 concentrations remained between the range measured before the episode (15-20 {mu}g/m{sup 3}). The results indicate the significant impact on a rural site from long range transport of primary and secondary smoke pollutants from biomass burning events and the importance of these species being primarily in the gaseous and fine aerosol size range. These fine aerosols are important as climate forcing agents and in reducing air quality and visibility. [Spanish] En mayo de 1998, varios incendios forestales en la region sur de Mexico y en America Central, emitieron enormes cantidades de contaminantes que fueron transportados al Oceano Pacifico; entonces, debido a los cambios de direccion de las corrientes de aire, los contaminantes primarios emitidos, o como contaminantes secundarios, empezaron a llegar al centro de Nuevo Mexico, despues de 5 a 6 dias del episodio. La distancia total del transporte fue de aproximadamente 3000

  15. (1.Hechi Service, Maintenance Method of Upper-air Weather Station Back-up Power%高空站后备电源维护方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    覃晓玲; 赵建吉; 曾斌

    2011-01-01

    对目前高空站所使用的后备电源的维护方面,参考有关资料,结合台站的工作经验,总结出备份电源的维护与保障方法,为各台站在日常使用备份电源时提供一定参考。%Based on back-up power used in upper-air stations and work experience, some maintenance methods were discussed.

  16. Performance assessment of a solar-powered air quality and weather station placed on a school rooftop in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emerging air pollution measurement technologies that require minimal infrastructure to deploy may lead to new insights on air pollution spatial variability in urban areas. Through a collaboration between the USEPA and HKEPD, this study evaluates the performance of a compact, roo...

  17. Near–surface air temperature and snow skin temperature comparison from CREST-SAFE station data with MODIS land surface temperature data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. L. Pérez Díaz

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Land Surface Temperature (LST is a key variable (commonly studied to understand the hydrological cycle that helps drive the energy balance and water exchange between the Earth's surface and its atmosphere. One observable constituent of much importance in the land surface water balance model is snow. Snow cover plays a critical role in the regional to global scale hydrological cycle because rain-on-snow with warm air temperatures accelerates rapid snow-melt, which is responsible for the majority of the spring floods. Accurate information on near-surface air temperature (T-air and snow skin temperature (T-skin helps us comprehend the energy and water balances in the Earth's hydrological cycle. T-skin is critical in estimating latent and sensible heat fluxes over snow covered areas because incoming and outgoing radiation fluxes from the snow mass and the air temperature above make it different from the average snowpack temperature. This study investigates the correlation between MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS LST data and observed T-air and T-skin data from NOAA-CREST-Snow Analysis and Field Experiment (CREST-SAFE for the winters of 2013 and 2014. LST satellite validation is imperative because high-latitude regions are significantly affected by climate warming and there is a need to aid existing meteorological station networks with the spatially continuous measurements provided by satellites. Results indicate that near-surface air temperature correlates better than snow skin temperature with MODIS LST data. Additional findings show that there is a negative trend demonstrating that the air minus snow skin temperature difference is inversely proportional to cloud cover. To a lesser extent, it will be examined whether the surface properties at the site are representative for the LST properties within the instrument field of view.

  18. Near-surface air temperature and snow skin temperature comparison from CREST-SAFE station data with MODIS land surface temperature data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez Díaz, C. L.; Lakhankar, T.; Romanov, P.; Muñoz, J.; Khanbilvardi, R.; Yu, Y.

    2015-08-01

    Land Surface Temperature (LST) is a key variable (commonly studied to understand the hydrological cycle) that helps drive the energy balance and water exchange between the Earth's surface and its atmosphere. One observable constituent of much importance in the land surface water balance model is snow. Snow cover plays a critical role in the regional to global scale hydrological cycle because rain-on-snow with warm air temperatures accelerates rapid snow-melt, which is responsible for the majority of the spring floods. Accurate information on near-surface air temperature (T-air) and snow skin temperature (T-skin) helps us comprehend the energy and water balances in the Earth's hydrological cycle. T-skin is critical in estimating latent and sensible heat fluxes over snow covered areas because incoming and outgoing radiation fluxes from the snow mass and the air temperature above make it different from the average snowpack temperature. This study investigates the correlation between MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) LST data and observed T-air and T-skin data from NOAA-CREST-Snow Analysis and Field Experiment (CREST-SAFE) for the winters of 2013 and 2014. LST satellite validation is imperative because high-latitude regions are significantly affected by climate warming and there is a need to aid existing meteorological station networks with the spatially continuous measurements provided by satellites. Results indicate that near-surface air temperature correlates better than snow skin temperature with MODIS LST data. Additional findings show that there is a negative trend demonstrating that the air minus snow skin temperature difference is inversely proportional to cloud cover. To a lesser extent, it will be examined whether the surface properties at the site are representative for the LST properties within the instrument field of view.

  19. Performance evaluation of the air exhaust sampling and monitoring systems at the Bruce-A nuclear generating station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Bruce-A plant consists of four 825 MWe CANDU nuclear generating units. Each unit has 2 ventilation exhausts; a nominally Contaminated exhaust and a nominally Non-Contaminated exhaust. Each exhaust stream is monitored continuously for radioiodine, for radioactive particulate and for noble gases. The monitors provide warning of increasing emissions (i.e., a control function) and also provide a measure of station emission performance. The monitor systems consist of a probe in the exhaust stream, a sample line about 20 m long, and the monitor itself. Standards for probe design are available and some guidelines for sample-line design can be extracted from published data. Little, if any, in-station performance data are available for sampling systems, although plateout of radioiodine and deposition of particulate have been the subject of much speculation and a little laboratory study. A major in-station study has been undertaken at Bruce-A to obtain relevant in-station data. By comparisons of the concentrations of iodine, methyl iodine, and uranine particulate found at various points in the system, it could be concluded that no loss of iodine, methyl iodine, or particulate occurred in the ∼ 20 m line and that particulate material is sampled accurately even by a poorly designed probe mounted in a very poor location

  20. Characterization of air flow patterns at the Atmospheric Station Křešín u Pacova

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hošková, K.; Sedlák, Pavel; Dvorská, Alice; Prošek, P.

    Berlín: European Meteorological Society, 2014, s. 16. [EMS Annual Meeting, 14th & European Conference on Applications of Meteorology (ECAM), 10th. Prague (CZ), 06.10.2014-10.10.2014] Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : atmospheric station Křešín * atmospheric tower * greenhouse gases * atmospheric pollution Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology

  1. Assessment of wind speed and wind power through three stations in Egypt, including air density variation and analysis results with rough set theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is well known that the wind energy potential is proportional to both air density and the third power of the wind speed average over a suitable time period. The wind speed and air density have random variables depending on both time and location. The main objective of this work is to derive the most general wind energy potential of the wind formulation putting into consideration the time variable in both wind speed and air density. The correction factor is derived explicitly in terms of the cross-correlation and the coefficients of variation.The application is performed for environmental and wind speed measurements at the Cairo Airport, Kosseir and Hurguada, Egypt. Comparisons are made between Weibull, Rayleigh, and actual data distributions of wind speed and wind power of one year 2005. A Weibull distribution is the best match to the actual probability distribution of wind speed data for most stations. The maximum wind energy potential was 373 W/m2 in June at Hurguada (Red Sea coast) where the annual mean value was 207 W/m2. By Using Rough Set Theory, We Find That the Wind Power Depends on the Wind Speed with greater than air density

  2. The use of total susceptibility in the analysis of long term PM10 (PM2.5) collected at Hungarian air quality monitoring stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Márton, Emö; Domján, Ádám; Lautner, Péter; Szentmarjay, Tibor; Uram, János

    2013-04-01

    Air monitoring stations in Hungary are operated by Environmental, Nature Conservancy and Water Pollution Inspectorates, according to the CEN/TC 264 European Union standards. PM10 samples are collected on a 24-hour basis, for two weeks in February, in May, in August and in November. About 720m3 air is pumped through quartz filters daily. Mass measurements and toxic metal analysis (As, Pb, Cd, Ni) are made on each filter (Whatmann DHA-80 PAH, 150 mm diameter) by the inspectorates. We have carried out low field magnetic susceptibility measurements using a KLY-2 instrument on all PM10 samples collected at 9 stations from 2009 on (a total of more than 2000 filters). One station, located far from direct sources, monitors background pollution. Here PM2.5 was also collected in two-week runs, seven times during the period of 2009-2012 and made available for the non-destructive magnetic susceptibility measurements. Due to the rather weak magnetic signal, the susceptibility of each PM-10 sample was computed from 10, that of each PM2.5 sample from 20 measurements. Corrections were made for the susceptibility of the sample holder, for the unpolluted filter (provided with each of the two-week runs), and for the plastic bag containing the samples. The susceptibilities of the PM10 samples were analyzed from different aspects, like the degree of magnetic pollution at different stations, daily and seasonal variations of the total and mass susceptibilities compared to the mass of the pollutants and in relation to the concentrations of the toxic elements. As expected, the lowest total and mass susceptibilities characterize the background station (pollution arrives mostly from distant sources, Vienna, Bratislava or even the Sudeten), while the highest values were measured for an industrial town with heavy traffic. At the background station the mass of the PM10 and PM2.5, respectively for the same period are quite similar, while the magnetic susceptibilities are usually higher in the

  3. Discharges from nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    HM Inspectorate of Pollution commissioned, with authorising responsibilities in England and Wales, a study into the discharges of radioactive effluents from Nuclear Power Stations. The study considered arisings from nuclear power stations in Europe and the USA and the technologies to treat and control the radioactive discharges. This report contains details of the technologies used at many nuclear power stations to treat and control radioactive discharges and gives, where information was available, details of discharges and authorised discharge limits. (author)

  4. Elemental composition and radical formation potency of PM10 at an urban background station in Germany in relation to origin of air masses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellack, Bryan; Quass, Ulrich; Beuck, Henning; Wick, Gabriele; Kuttler, Wilhelm; Schins, Roel P. F.; Kuhlbusch, Thomas A. J.

    2015-03-01

    At an urban background station in Mülheim-Styrum, North Rhine Westphalia, Germany, a set of 75 PM10 samples was collected over a one year period, followed by analyses for mass, chemical composition and hydroxyl radical (OHrad) formation potency. Additionally, the origin of air masses for the sampling days was calculated by 48-h backward trajectories, subdivided into the four cardinal sectors. Significant lower PM10 mass concentrations were observed for summertime air masses from the west compared to the other seasons and cardinal sectors. For the OHrad formation potency higher values were detected if air masses originate from east and south, thus predominantly being of continental origin. From the elevated OHrad formation potencies in fall and winter a seasonal trend with low potencies in summers is assumed. Furthermore, source apportionment was performed by a positive matrix factor analysis, separating seven plausible factors which could be attributed to mineral dust, secondary nitrate, industry, non-exhaust traffic, fossil fuel combustion, marine aerosol and secondary aerosol factors. The intrinsic OHrad formation potency was found to be associated mainly with the fossil fuel combustion factor (45%) and industry factor (22%).

  5. Vacuum switchgear for power station auxiliary switchboards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sizewell B is the first UK power station in which vacuum switchgear is used for the auxiliary switchboards. Previously the 3.3kV, 6.6kV or 11kV switchgear has used air-break circuit breakers and fused air-break contactors, known as motor starting devices or fused switching devices (FSD). The use of vacuum interrupters is therefore a new technology in this application, although it has been established in the UK distribution network and in industrial installations from the mid 1970s. Vacuum switchgear was already in use in the USA for power station auxiliary switchgear at the time that it was proposed for Sizewell B. The Sizewell B high voltage auxiliary switchgear comprises eight Unit and Station Auxiliary Switchboards at 3.3kV and 11kV, and four 3.3kV Essential Switchboards for the essential safety related circuits, making a total of 65 circuit breakers plus FSD panels. (Author)

  6. Photochemical Assessment Monitoring Stations (PAMS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Photochemical Assessment Monitoring Stations (PAMS). This file provides information on the numbers and distribution (latitude/longitude) of air monitoring sites...

  7. Trace elements in aerosols from background air pollution monitoring stations in the Amazon Basin using nuclear-related techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to study the natural release of aerosol particles by the Amazon Basin tropical rain forest, the composition and size distribution of biogenic aerosol particles were analyzed. The role of the atmospheric emissions from the Amazon Basin rain forest in the global atmosphere will be investigated. The atmosphere was studied in long-term sampling stations in three different locations. The elemental composition of aerosol particles released during biomass burning was also measured in several different ecosystems, from primary forest to Savannah. One of the main focuses was to identify and quantify important physical and chemical processes in the generation, transformation and deposition of aerosol particles. Also important was to obtain a better understanding of natural aerosol sources concerning identification, their characteristics and strength, to be able to understand the natural chemistry in the atmosphere on a global scale. 36 refs, 3 figs, 3 tabs

  8. Performance and evaluation of gas-engine-driven rooftop air conditioning equipment at the Willow Grove Naval Air Station. Final report (revised October 21, 1996)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armstrong, P.R.; Katipamula, S.

    1996-10-01

    The performance was evaluated of a new US cooling technology that has been installed for the first time at a federal facility. The technology is a 15-ton natural gas-engine-driven rooftop air conditioning unit made by Thermo King. Two units were installed to serve the Navy Exchange at Willow Grove. The savings potential at Willow Grove is described and that in the federal sector estimated. Conditions for implementation are discussed. In summary, the new technology is generally cost-effective at sites where marginal electricity cost (per MBtu at the meter) is more than 4 times the marginal gas cost (per MBtu at the meter) and annual full-load-equivalent cooling hours exceed 2,000.

  9. Air

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... house) Industrial emissions (like smoke and chemicals from factories) Household cleaners (spray cleaners, air fresheners) Car emissions (like carbon monoxide) *All of these things make up “particle pollution.” They mostly come from cars, trucks, buses, and ...

  10. Microplasma Ionization of Volatile Organics for Improving Air/Water Monitoring Systems On-Board the International Space Station.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernier, Matthew C; Alberici, Rosana M; Keelor, Joel D; Dwivedi, Prabha; Zambrzycki, Stephen C; Wallace, William T; Gazda, Daniel B; Limero, Thomas F; Symonds, Josh M; Orlando, Thomas M; Macatangay, Ariel; Fernández, Facundo M

    2016-07-01

    Low molecular weight polar organics are commonly observed in spacecraft environments. Increasing concentrations of one or more of these contaminants can negatively impact Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) systems and/or the health of crew members, posing potential risks to the success of manned space missions. Ambient plasma ionization mass spectrometry (MS) is finding effective use as part of the analytical methodologies being tested for next-generation space module environmental analysis. However, ambient ionization methods employing atmospheric plasmas typically require relatively high operation voltages and power, thus limiting their applicability in combination with fieldable mass spectrometers. In this work, we investigate the use of a low power microplasma device in the microhollow cathode discharge (MHCD) configuration for the analysis of polar organics encountered in space missions. A metal-insulator-metal (MIM) structure with molybdenum foil disc electrodes and a mica insulator was used to form a 300 μm diameter plasma discharge cavity. We demonstrate the application of these MIM microplasmas as part of a versatile miniature ion source for the analysis of typical volatile contaminants found in the International Space Station (ISS) environment, highlighting their advantages as low cost and simple analytical devices. Graphical Abstract ᅟ. PMID:27080004

  11. Microplasma Ionization of Volatile Organics for Improving Air/Water Monitoring Systems On-Board the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernier, Matthew C.; Alberici, Rosana M.; Keelor, Joel D.; Dwivedi, Prabha; Zambrzycki, Stephen C.; Wallace, William T.; Gazda, Daniel B.; Limero, Thomas F.; Symonds, Josh M.; Orlando, Thomas M.; Macatangay, Ariel; Fernández, Facundo M.

    2016-07-01

    Low molecular weight polar organics are commonly observed in spacecraft environments. Increasing concentrations of one or more of these contaminants can negatively impact Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) systems and/or the health of crew members, posing potential risks to the success of manned space missions. Ambient plasma ionization mass spectrometry (MS) is finding effective use as part of the analytical methodologies being tested for next-generation space module environmental analysis. However, ambient ionization methods employing atmospheric plasmas typically require relatively high operation voltages and power, thus limiting their applicability in combination with fieldable mass spectrometers. In this work, we investigate the use of a low power microplasma device in the microhollow cathode discharge (MHCD) configuration for the analysis of polar organics encountered in space missions. A metal-insulator-metal (MIM) structure with molybdenum foil disc electrodes and a mica insulator was used to form a 300 μm diameter plasma discharge cavity. We demonstrate the application of these MIM microplasmas as part of a versatile miniature ion source for the analysis of typical volatile contaminants found in the International Space Station (ISS) environment, highlighting their advantages as low cost and simple analytical devices.

  12. Microplasma Ionization of Volatile Organics for Improving Air/Water Monitoring Systems On-Board the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernier, Matthew C.; Alberici, Rosana M.; Keelor, Joel D.; Dwivedi, Prabha; Zambrzycki, Stephen C.; Wallace, William T.; Gazda, Daniel B.; Limero, Thomas F.; Symonds, Josh M.; Orlando, Thomas M.; Macatangay, Ariel; Fernández, Facundo M.

    2016-04-01

    Low molecular weight polar organics are commonly observed in spacecraft environments. Increasing concentrations of one or more of these contaminants can negatively impact Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) systems and/or the health of crew members, posing potential risks to the success of manned space missions. Ambient plasma ionization mass spectrometry (MS) is finding effective use as part of the analytical methodologies being tested for next-generation space module environmental analysis. However, ambient ionization methods employing atmospheric plasmas typically require relatively high operation voltages and power, thus limiting their applicability in combination with fieldable mass spectrometers. In this work, we investigate the use of a low power microplasma device in the microhollow cathode discharge (MHCD) configuration for the analysis of polar organics encountered in space missions. A metal-insulator-metal (MIM) structure with molybdenum foil disc electrodes and a mica insulator was used to form a 300 μm diameter plasma discharge cavity. We demonstrate the application of these MIM microplasmas as part of a versatile miniature ion source for the analysis of typical volatile contaminants found in the International Space Station (ISS) environment, highlighting their advantages as low cost and simple analytical devices.

  13. The 2006 Cape Canaveral Air Force Station Range Reference Atmosphere Model Validation Study and Sensitivity Analysis to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Space Shuttle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decker, Ryan; Burns, Lee; Merry, Carl; Harrington, Brian

    2008-01-01

    NASA's Space Shuttle utilizes atmospheric thermodynamic properties to evaluate structural dynamics and vehicle flight performance impacts by the atmosphere during ascent. Statistical characteristics of atmospheric thermodynamic properties at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) used in Space. Shuttle Vehicle assessments are contained in the Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (CCAFS) Range Reference Atmosphere (RRA) Database. Database contains tabulations for monthly and annual means (mu), standard deviations (sigma) and skewness of wind and thermodynamic variables. Wind, Thermodynamic, Humidity and Hydrostatic parameters 1 km resolution interval from 0-30 km 2 km resolution interval 30-70 km Multiple revisions of the CCAFS RRA database have been developed since initial RRA published in 1963. 1971, 1983, 2006 Space Shuttle program utilized 1983 version for use in deriving "hot" and "cold" atmospheres, atmospheric density dispersions for use in vehicle certification analyses and selection of atmospheric thermodynamic profiles for use in vehicle ascent design and certification analyses. During STS-114 launch preparations in July 2005 atmospheric density observations between 50-80 kft exceeded density limits used for aerodynamic ascent heating constraints in vehicle certification analyses. Mission specific analyses were conducted and concluded that the density bias resulted in small changes to heating rates and integrated heat loading on the vehicle. In 2001, the Air Force Combat Climatology Center began developing an updated RRA for CCAFS.

  14. First retrieval of hourly atmospheric radionuclides just after the Fukushima accident by analyzing filter-tapes of operational air pollution monitoring stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuruta, Haruo; Oura, Yasuji; Ebihara, Mitsuru; Ohara, Toshimasa; Nakajima, Teruyuki

    2014-10-01

    No observed data have been found in the Fukushima Prefecture (FP) for the time-series of atmospheric radionuclides concentrations just after the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FD1NPP) accident. Accordingly, current estimates of internal radiation doses from inhalation, and atmospheric radionuclide concentrations by atmospheric transport models are highly uncertain. Here, we present a new method for retrieving the hourly atmospheric 137Cs concentrations by measuring the radioactivity of suspended particulate matter (SPM) collected on filter tapes in SPM monitors which were operated even after the accident. This new dataset focused on the period of March 12-23, 2011 just after the accident, when massive radioactive materials were released from the FD1NPP to the atmosphere. Overall, 40 sites of the more than 400 sites in the air quality monitoring stations in eastern Japan were studied. For the first time, we show the spatio-temporal variation of atmospheric 137Cs concentrations in the FP and the Tokyo Metropolitan Area (TMA) located more than 170 km southwest of the FD1NPP. The comprehensive dataset revealed how the polluted air masses were transported to the FP and TMA, and can be used to re-evaluate internal exposure, time-series radionuclides release rates, and atmospheric transport models.

  15. 车站高大空间空调系统气流组织与热舒适性分析%Air Distribution and Thermal Comfort of Air Conditioning System in a Large Space Building of Railway Station

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    常远; 刘泽勤

    2014-01-01

    兼顾人体热舒适和建筑节能的要求,对目前车站高大空间空调气流组织的数值模拟研究报道进行对比分析。分析结果显示,人们对高大空间建筑室内热舒适要求高于居住建筑和办公建筑;从满足人体热舒适角度出发,空调送风加地板辐射供冷方案适于夏季满员工况,地板辐射供热加空调加湿方案适用于冬季满员工况;高大空间的空调系统适宜采用上送上回的送风方式,其温度场和速度场均优于上送下回的空调送风方式;在高大空间内设置分层空调系统将在一定程度上降低空调能耗,且分层空调中送风速度对分层界面的位置影响较大,送风温差对高大空间分层空调的温度分布和流场分布有较大影响。%The numerical simulation of air distribution of air conditioning in larger space of current railway stations are studied with consideration to requirements of both human thermal comfort and building energy efficiency. The analysis shows that, the indoor thermal comfort requirements of human body in large space building are more than that in residential buildings and office buildings. The scheme of the air con-ditioning supply air plus radiant floor cooling is suitable for the full working conditions in summer from the viewpoint of satisfying the human thermal comfort, and the scheme of the floor radiant heating plus air con-ditioning humidification is suitable for the full working conditions in winter. The air supply mode of upper supply top return is suitable for air conditioning system in large space buildings, and the temperature field and velocity field of this mode were superior to the mode of upper supply bottom return. The stratified air conditioning systems installed in large space could reduce the energy consumption of the air conditioning system to a certain extent, the velocity of supply air in the stratified air conditioning system has greater in-fluence on the position

  16. A comparative analysis of hierarchy and regional system of domestic air passenger transport network between China and USA%中美航空客运网络层次结构和地域系统对比分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶倩; 吴殿廷; 戴特奇; 郭谦; 鲍捷

    2013-01-01

    美国民航1978年彻底市场化以来已经历30多年的发展,航空网络趋于成熟.我国民航也在经历市场化改革,机场属地化完成至今已近10年,运量快速增长、高铁建设等因素正剧烈地影响着网络演变.对比中美两国航空网络有利于判断我国航线网络和机场体系的演变趋势,对于我国民航发展具有借鉴意义.以中国大陆地区和美国本土48个州作为研究区,运用交通地理信息系统和VBA等技术,从绝对联系和首位联系两个角度,对当前中美两国航空客运网络层次结构和地域系统进行分析与对比.研究发现:中国航空客运网络已表现出一定的轴辐体系,但一级枢纽较少、客运压力过大,且航空枢纽重东南、轻中西;美国航空客运网络的轴辐体系已趋向完善,各大枢纽和重要城市之间的内部空间联系非常密切.进而,提出了一些政策性建议,以期对我国航空客运网络未来的空间发展形式和方向提供借鉴.%Geography of air transportation is one of the youngest branches of geography.As the hub-and-spoke system becomes mature in the United States of America (USA) and China's air transportation and network are developing rapidly in recent years,modes and overall efficiency of air transport network have drawn attention of geographers and become a research focus.Over three decades has passed since the airline deregulation of USA in 1978.America's air transport network has been well developed since then.China's civil aviation is also experiencing market-oriented reforms.Around ten years ago,China's Civil Aviation Authority announced the achievement of airport localization.Recently China's air passenger flow is growing rapidly and its air transport network is changing due to factors such as construction of high-speed railway.It is helpful for estimating trends of China's future air network and airport system to compare air transport networks between China and USA.This paper

  17. Air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In recent years several regulations and standards for air quality and limits for air pollution were issued or are in preparation by the European Union, which have severe influence on the environmental monitoring and legislation in Austria. This chapter of the environmental control report of Austria gives an overview about the legal situation of air pollution control in the European Union and in specific the legal situation in Austria. It gives a comprehensive inventory of air pollution measurements for the whole area of Austria of total suspended particulates, ozone, volatile organic compounds, nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxide, carbon monoxide, heavy metals, benzene, dioxin, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and eutrophication. For each of these pollutants the measured emission values throughout Austria are given in tables and geographical charts, the environmental impact is discussed, statistical data and time series of the emission sources are given and legal regulations and measures for an effective environmental pollution control are discussed. In particular the impact of fossil-fuel power plants on the air pollution is analyzed. (a.n.)

  18. The nuclear power station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The processes taking place in a nuclear power plant and the dangers arising from a nuclear power station are described. The means and methods of controlling, monitoring, and protecting the plant and things that can go wrong are presented. There is also a short discourse on the research carried out in the USA and Germany, aimed at assessing the risks of utilising nuclear energy by means of the incident tree analysis and probability calculations. (DG)

  19. Appendix to Health and Safety Laboratory environmental quarterly, March 1, 1976--June 1, 1976. [Tabulated data on content of lead in surface air and /sup 7/Be, /sup 95/Zr, /sup 137/Cs, /sup 144/Ce, and /sup 90/Sr in surface air, milk, drinking water, and foods sampled in USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hardy, E.P. Jr.

    1976-07-01

    Tabulated data are presented on: the monthly deposition of /sup 89/Sr and /sup 90/Sr at some 100 world land sites; the content of lead and /sup 7/Be, /sup 95/Zr, /sup 137/Cs, and /sup 144/Ce in samples of surface air from various world sites; and the content of /sup 90/Sr in samples of milk, drinking water, and animal and human diets collected at various locations throughout the USA. (CH)

  20. Comparison of passive diffusion bag samplers and submersible pump sampling methods for monitoring volatile organic compounds in ground water at Area 6, Naval Air Station, Whidbey Island, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huffman, Raegan L.

    2002-01-01

    Ground-water samples were collected in April 1999 at Naval Air Station Whidbey Island, Washington, with passive diffusion samplers and a submersible pump to compare concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in water samples collected using the two sampling methods. Single diffusion samplers were installed in wells with 10-foot screened intervals, and multiple diffusion samplers were installed in wells with 20- to 40-foot screened intervals. The diffusion samplers were recovered after 20 days and the wells were then sampled using a submersible pump. VOC concentrations in the 10-foot screened wells in water samples collected with diffusion samplers closely matched concentrations in samples collected with the submersible pump. Analysis of VOC concentrations in samples collected from the 20- to 40-foot screened wells with multiple diffusion samplers indicated vertical concentration variation within the screened interval, whereas the analysis of VOC concentrations in samples collected with the submersible pump indicated mixing during pumping. The results obtained using the two sampling methods indicate that the samples collected with the diffusion samplers were comparable with and can be considerably less expensive than samples collected using a submersible pump.

  1. Peak Wind Forecasts for the Launch-Critical Wind Towers on Kennedy Space Center/Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Phase IV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Winifred

    2011-01-01

    This final report describes the development of a peak wind forecast tool to assist forecasters in determining the probability of violating launch commit criteria (LCC) at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (CCAFS). The peak winds arc an important forecast clement for both the Space Shuttle and Expendable Launch Vehicle (ELV) programs. The LCC define specific peak wind thresholds for each launch operation that cannot be exceeded in order to ensure the safety of the vehicle. The 45th Weather Squadron (45 WS) has found that peak winds are a challenging parameter to forecast, particularly in the cool season months of October through April. Based on the importance of forecasting peak winds, the 45 WS tasked the Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) to update the statistics in the current peak-wind forecast tool to assist in forecasting LCC violations. The tool includes onshore and offshore flow climatologies of the 5-minute mean and peak winds and probability distributions of the peak winds as a function of the 5-minute mean wind speeds.

  2. Successful Demolition of Historic Cape Canaveral Air Force Station Launch Facilities: Managing the Process to Maximize Recycle Value to Fund Demolition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper will present the history of the Atlas 36 and Titan 40 Space Launch Complexes (SLC), the facility assessment process, demolition planning, recycle methodology, and actual facility demolition that resulted in a 40% reduction in baseline cost. These two SLC launched hundreds of payloads into space from Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (AFS), Florida. The Atlas-Centaur family of rockets could lift small- to medium-size satellites designed for communications, weather, or military use, placing them with near pinpoint accuracy into their intended orbits. The larger Titan family was relied upon for heavier lifting needs, including launching military satellites as well as interplanetary probes. But despite their efficiency and cost-effectiveness, the Titan rockets, as well as earlier generation Atlas models, were retired in 2005. Concerns about potential environmental health hazards from PCBs and lead-based paint chipping off the facilities also contributed to the Air Force's decision in 2005 to dismantle and demolish the Atlas and Titan missile-launching systems. Lockheed Martin secured the complex following the final launch, removed equipment and turned over the site to the Air Force for decommissioning and demolition (D and D). AMEC was retained by the Air Force to perform demolition planning and facility D and D in 2004. AMEC began with a review of historical information, interviews with past operations personnel, and 100% facility assessment of over 100 structures. There where numerous support buildings that due to their age contained asbestos containing material (ACM), PCB-impacted material, and universal material that had to be identified and removed prior to demolition. Environmental testing had revealed that the 36B mobile support tower (MST) exceeded the TSCA standard for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) paint (<50 ppm), as did the high bay sections of the Titan Vertical Integration Building (VIB). Thus, while most of the steel structures could be

  3. Les réseaux d’équipements sportifs dans les stations balnéaires : l’exemple du tennis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Françoise Rollan

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Les réseaux d’équipements sportifs sont indissociables de l’histoire du sport et de son développement dans notre pays. Le sport est passé en un siècle d’une activité, représentative du snobisme à un phénomène populaire. L’installation du sport moderne a été difficile car il s’opposait aux sports traditionnels. Le rôle de l’Etat a été fondamental dans le développement du sport et surtout la loi de 1901 sur les associations a permis aux réseaux sportifs de se constituer et d’initier les réseaux d’équipements, l’Etat prenant le relais dans un second temps. Dans les stations balnéaires, dont la hiérarchie était déjà établie avant la Première Guerre mondiale, ce sont les Anglais qui ont été à l’origine de l’installation des différents sports. Les classes très aisées ont suivi et ont participé à leur diffusion. Les équipements privés ont d’abord été pris en charge par l’Etat. Mais suite aux investissements massifs des années 1980, les réseaux d’équipements sportifs sont aujourd’hui sous-utilisés une partie de l’année. Les golfs des stations balnéaires des côtes de l’Atlantique, de la Manche et de la mer du Nord organisés en réseaux grâce aux programmes immobiliers qui les accompagnent sont quant à eux, rentabilisés tout au long de l’année.Sport facilities networks are an integral part of sport history and development in France. Starting as a snobbish activity, in one century sport became a popular phenomenon. Modern sport, going against traditional sport, met with a great many obstacles. On top of this, the legislation was not favourable since it forbade any association. Therefore the role of the State was essential. But, it was the 1901 Law concerning associations which made it truly possible for the sporting networks to be formed and for sport facilities networks to be initiated, the State taking over in a second time. On seaside resorts, the hierarchy of which

  4. Hydrogeologic and water-quality data from well clusters near the wastewater-treatment plant, U.S. Marine Corps Air Station, Cherry Point, North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, L.C., Jr.; Daniel, C. C., III

    1990-01-01

    Hydrogeologic and ground-water quality data were collected near the wastewater-treatment plant and associated polishing lagoons at the Marine Corps Air Station, Cherry Point, North Carolina, in 1988. Between March and May 1988, two observation wells were installed upgradient and six wells were installed downgradient of the polishing lagoons and sampled for organic and inorganic U.S. Environmental Protection Agency priority pollutants. Placement of the well screens allowed sampling from both the upper and lower parts of the surficial aquifer. Natural gamma-ray geophysical logs were run in the four deepest wells. Lithologic logs were prepared from split-spoon samples collected during the drilling operations. Laboratory hydraulic conductivity tests were conducted on samples of fine-grained material recovered from the two confining units that separate the surficial aquifer and the drinking-water supply aquifer; values ranged from 0.011 to 0.014 foot per day (4x10-6 to 5x10-6 centimeters per second). Static water levels were recorded on April 25, 1988. Relatively low concentrations of purgeable organic compounds (up to 2.2 micrograms per liter for dichlorodifluoromethane), acid and base/neutral extractable compounds (up to 58 micrograms per liter for bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate), or pesticides (up to 0.03 micrograms per liter for diazinon and methyl parathion) were detected in water samples collected from all of the wells. Trace metals were detected in concentrations above minimum detectable limits in all of the wells and were found to be higher in water samples collected from the downgradient wells (up to 320 micrograms per liter for zinc) than in water samples from the upgradient wells.

  5. «Bibliotecas para todos»: ideas para un proyecto de fundación de bibliotecas populares en las estaciones de subterráneos y ferrocarriles de la Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires y el GBA «Libraries for all the people»: ideas for establishing public libraries in railway and underground stations of the Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires and Gran Buenos Aires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomás Solari

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available El artículo relata una propuesta de creación de bibliotecas populares en estaciones de ferrocarriles y subterráneos de la Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires y el Gran Buenos Aires, con el fin de promocionar la lectura.The article relates to the proposal to establish public libraries in railway and underground stations of the Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires and Gran Buenos Aires, in order to promote reading.

  6. 美军2020联合一体化防空反导构想浅析%The USA vision for 2020 joint integrated air and missile defense

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    阙渭焰

    2016-01-01

    The USA vision for 2020 joint integrated air and missile defense (IAMD) is analyzed .The IAMD related strategic and threat environments are unscrambled ,around the core of the intent for IAMD vision .Six key imperatives for joint IAMD vision are encapsulated .The whole status of IAMD is clearly described .%对美军2020联合一体化防空反导(IAMD)构想进行了分析。围绕这个构想的核心思想,解读了美军联合IAMD力量体系所面临的全球战略环境和战区环境;突出构想六个方面的要点,介绍了美军联合IA M D力量体系未来发展的全貌。

  7. Testing the USA EPA's ISCST-Version 3 model on dioxins: a comparison of predicted and observed air and soil concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorber, Matthew; Eschenroeder, Alan; Robinson, Randall

    The central purpose of our study was to examine the performance of the United States Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) nonreactive Gaussian air quality dispersion model, the Industrial Source Complex Short-Term Model (ISCST3) Version 98226, in predicting polychlorinated dibenzodioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans concentrations (subsequently referred to as dioxins and furans, or CDD/Fs) in both air and soil near the Columbus Municipal Solid Waste-to-Energy Facility (CMSWTE) in Columbus, OH. During its 11 yr operation, the CMSWTE was estimated to be emitting nearly 1 kg of CDD/F Toxic Equivalents (TEQs) per year, making it one of the highest single emitters of dioxin in the United States during its operation. An ambient air-monitoring study conducted in 1994, prior to its shutdown in December of 1994, clearly identified high dioxin air concentration in the downwind direction during two sampling events. In one of the events, the CMSWTE stack was concurrently monitored for dioxins. A soil sampling study conducted in 1995/1996 was similarly able to identify an area of impacted soil extending mainly in the predominant downwind direction up to 3 km from the CMSWTE. Site-specific information, including meteorological data, stack parameters and emission rates, and terrain descriptions, were input into ISCST3 to predict ground-level 48-h concentrations which could be compared with the 48-h measured air concentrations. Predicted annual average dry and wet deposition of particle-bound dioxins were input into a simple soil reservoir model to predict soil concentrations that would be present after 11.5 yr of emissions, which were compared to measured concentrations. Both soil- and air-predicted concentrations were generally within a factor of 10 of observations, and judged to be reasonable given the small number of observations and the uncertainties of the exercise. Principal uncertainties identified and discussed include: source characterization (stack emission

  8. Interior Alaska Gravity Station Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The gravity station data total 9416 records. This data base was received in March 1997. Principal gravity parameters include Free-air Anomalies which have been...

  9. Gravity Station Data for Portugal

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The gravity station data total 3064 records. This data base was received in April 1997. Principal gravity parameters include Free-air Anomalies which have been...

  10. Gravity Station Data for Spain

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The gravity station data total 28493 records. This data base was received in April 1997. Principal gravity parameters include Free-air Anomalies which have been...

  11. Twelve Months of Air Quality Monitoring at Ash Meadows National Wildlife Refuge, Southwestern Rural Nevada, U.S.A (EMSI April 2007)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engelbrecht, Johann P; Shafer, David S; Campbell, Dave; Campbell, Scott; McCurdy, Greg; Kohl, Steven D; Nikolich, George; Sheetz, Larry

    2011-08-01

    The one year of air quality monitoring data collected at the Ash Meadows National Wildlife Refuge (NWR) was the final part of the air quality "Scoping Studies" for the Environmental Monitoring Systems Initiative (EMSI) in southern and central Nevada. The objective of monitoring at Ash Meadows was to examine aerosol and meteorological data, seasonal trends in aerosol and meteorological parameters as well as to examine evidence for long distance transport of some constituents. The 9,307 hectare refuge supports more than 50 springs and 24 endemic species, including the only population of the federally listed endangered Devil’s Hole pupfish (Cyprinodon diabolis) (U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, 1990). Ash Meadows NWR is located in a Class II air quality area, and the aerosol measurements collected with this study are compared to those of Interagency Monitoring of Protected Visual Environments (IMPROVE) sites. Measurements taken at Ash Meadows NWR over a period of 12 months provide new baseline air quality and meteorological information for rural southwestern Nevada, specifically Nye County and the Amargosa Valley.

  12. Aerosol Optical Extinction during the Front Range Air Pollution and Photochemistry Experiment (FRAPPE) 2014 Summertime Field Campaign, Colorado U.S.A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dingle, J. H.; Vu, K. K. T.; Bahreini, R.; Apel, E. C.; Campos, T. L.; Cantrell, C. A.; Cohen, R. C.; Ebben, C. J.; Flocke, F. M.; Fried, A.; Herndon, S. C.; Hills, A. J.; Hornbrook, R. S.; Huey, L. G.; Kaser, L.; Mauldin, L.; Montzka, D. D.; Nowak, J. B.; Richter, D.; Roscioli, J. R.; Shertz, S.; Stell, M. H.; Tanner, D.; Tyndall, G. S.; Walega, J.; Weibring, P.; Weinheimer, A. J.

    2015-12-01

    Aerosol optical extinction (βext) was measured in the Colorado Front Range Denver Metropolitan Area as part of the summertime air quality airborne field campaign to characterize the influence of sources, photochemical processing, and transport of pollution on local air quality. An Aerodyne Cavity Attenuated Phase Shift particle light extinction monitor (CAPS-PMex) was deployed to measure dry βext at λ=632 nm at 1 Hz. Data from a suite of gas-phase instrumentation were used to interpret the βext under various categories of aged air masses and sources. Extinction enhancement ratios of Δβext/ΔCO were evaluated under 3 differently aged air mass categories (fresh, intermediately aged, and aged) to investigate impacts of photochemistry on βext. Δβext/ΔCO was significantly increased in heavily aged air masses compared to fresh air masses (0.17 Mm-1/ppbv and 0.094 Mm-1/ppbv respectively). The resulting increase in Δβext/ΔCO under heavily aged air masses was represented by secondary organic aerosols (SOA) formation. Aerosol composition and sources from urban, natural oil and gas wells (OG), and agriculture and livestock operations were also evaluated for their impacts on βext. Linear regression fits to βext vs. organic aerosol mass showed higher correlation coefficients under the urban and OG plumes (r=0.55 and r=0.71 respectively) and weakest under agricultural and livestock plumes (r=0.28). The correlation between βext and nitrate aerosol mass however was best under the agriculture and livestock plumes (r=0.81), followed by OG plumes (r=0.74), suggesting co-location of aerosol nitrate precursor sources with OG emissions. Finally, non-refractory mass extinction efficiency (MEE) was analyzed. MEE was observed to be 1.37 g/m2 and 1.30 g/m2 in OG and urban+OG plumes, respectively.

  13. First retrieval of hourly atmospheric radionuclides just after the Fukushima accident by analyzing filter-tapes of operational air pollution monitoring stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuruta, Haruo; Oura, Yasuji; Ebihara, Mitsuru; Ohara, Toshimasa; Nakajima, Teruyuki

    2015-04-01

    The current estimates for the internal radiation doses from inhalation by the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station (FD1NPS) accident on March 11, 2011 have large uncertainty, because no observed data has been found of continuous monitoring of radioactive materials in the atmosphere in the Fukushima prefecture (FP) just after the accident, compared with the many observed datasets of deposition densities of radionuclides on the grounds in eastern Japan. To retrieve the atmospheric transport of radioactive materials released from the FD1NPS, we collected the used filter tapes installed in Suspended Particulate Matter (SPM) monitors with beta-ray attenuation method operated in the air pollution monitoring network of eastern Japan. Then, we measured hourly Cs-134 and Cs-137 concentrations in SPM at 40 monitoring sites in the FP and Tokyo Metropolitan Area (TMA) located more than 170 km southwest of the FD1NPS, after more than one year. The period for measurements was during March 12-23, 2011, when atmospheric, aquatic, and terrestrial environments were seriously suffered in most of eastern Japan by a large amount of radioactive materials released from the FD1NPS. In this paper, a comprehensive study will be reported for the first time on a spatio-temporal variation of atmospheric Cs-137 concentrations in the FP and the TMA. Major results are as follows; (1) Nine major plumes with Cs-137 concentrations higher than 10 Bq m-3 were found, of which 5 and 4 plumes were transported to the FP and TMA, respectively. The radioactive materials from the FD1NPS was transported four times in the period to the northern part of Hamadori located in the east coast of the FP, and which was little known up to this study. (2) Two plumes transported to the TMA were newly founded, in addition to the well-known two major plumes on March 15 and 21, 2011. (3) The radiation dose rate measured at some monitoring posts in Nakadori located in the central area of the FP, did not increase even when

  14. Phenotypes and Virulence among Staphylococcus aureus USA100, USA200, USA300, USA400, and USA600 Clonal Lineages

    OpenAIRE

    King, Jessica M.; Kulhankova, Katarina; Stach, Christopher S.; Vu, Bao G.; Salgado-Pabón, Wilmara

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Staphylococcus aureus diseases affect ~500,000 individuals per year in the United States. Worldwide, the USA100, USA200, USA400, and USA600 lineages cause many of the life-threatening S. aureus infections, such as bacteremia, infective endocarditis, pneumonia, toxic shock syndrome, and surgical site infections. However, the virulence mechanisms associated with these clonal lineages, in particular the USA100 and USA600 isolates, have been severely understudied. We investigated the vir...

  15. Estimation of potential evapotranspiration from extraterrestrial radiation, air temperature and humidity to assess future climate change effects on the vegetation of the Northern Great Plains, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, David A.; Bachelet, Dominique M.; Symstad, Amy J.; Ferschweiler, Ken; Hobbins, Michael

    2014-01-01

    The potential evapotranspiration (PET) that would occur with unlimited plant access to water is a central driver of simulated plant growth in many ecological models. PET is influenced by solar and longwave radiation, temperature, wind speed, and humidity, but it is often modeled as a function of temperature alone. This approach can cause biases in projections of future climate impacts in part because it confounds the effects of warming due to increased greenhouse gases with that which would be caused by increased radiation from the sun. We developed an algorithm for linking PET to extraterrestrial solar radiation (incoming top-of atmosphere solar radiation), as well as temperature and atmospheric water vapor pressure, and incorporated this algorithm into the dynamic global vegetation model MC1. We tested the new algorithm for the Northern Great Plains, USA, whose remaining grasslands are threatened by continuing woody encroachment. Both the new and the standard temperature-dependent MC1 algorithm adequately simulated current PET, as compared to the more rigorous PenPan model of Rotstayn et al. (2006). However, compared to the standard algorithm, the new algorithm projected a much more gradual increase in PET over the 21st century for three contrasting future climates. This difference led to lower simulated drought effects and hence greater woody encroachment with the new algorithm, illustrating the importance of more rigorous calculations of PET in ecological models dealing with climate change.

  16. Amtrak Stations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Updated database of the Federal Railroad Administration's (FRA) Amtrak Station database. This database is a geographic data set containing Amtrak intercity railroad...

  17. Characterization of traffic-related air pollutant metrics at four schools in El Paso, Texas, USA: Implications for exposure assessment and siting schools in urban areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raysoni, Amit U.; Stock, Thomas H.; Sarnat, Jeremy A.; Montoya Sosa, Teresa; Ebelt Sarnat, Stefanie; Holguin, Fernando; Greenwald, Roby; Johnson, Brent; Li, Wen-Whai

    2013-12-01

    Children spend substantial amount of time within school microenvironments; therefore, assessing school-based exposures is essential for characterizing and preventing children's health risks to air pollutants. Indeed, the importance of characterizing children's exposures in schools is recognized by the US Environmental Protection Agency's recent initiative to promote outdoor air monitoring networks near schools. As part of a health effects study investigating the impact of traffic-related air pollution on asthmatic children along the US-Mexico border, this research examines children's exposures to, and spatio-temporal heterogeneity in concentrations of, traffic-related air pollutants at four elementary schools in El Paso, Texas. Three schools were located in an area of high traffic density and one school in an area of low traffic density. Paired indoor and outdoor concentrations of 48-h fine and coarse particulate matter (PM2.5 and PM10-2.5), 48-h black carbon (BC), 96-h nitrogen dioxide (NO2), and 96-h volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were measured for 13 weeks at each school. Outdoor concentrations of PM, NO2, BC, and BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, m,p-xylene, o-xylene) compounds were similar among the three schools in the high-traffic zone in contrast to the school in the low-traffic zone. Results from this study and previous studies in this region corroborate the fact that PM pollution in El Paso is dominated by coarse PM (PM10-2.5) and fine fraction (PM2.5) accounts for only 25-30% of the total PM mass in PM10. BTEX species and BC are better surrogates for traffic air pollution in this region. Correlation analyses indicate a range of association between indoor and outdoor pollutant concentrations due to uncontrollable factors like student foot traffic and varying building and ventilation configurations across the four schools. Results suggest the need of micro-scale monitoring for children's exposure assessment, which may not be adequately characterized

  18. Royal Danish Air Force. Air Operations Doctrine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørby, Søren

    This brief examines the development of the first Danish Air Force Air Operations Doctrine, which was officially commissioned in October 1997 and remained in effect until 2010. The development of a Danish air power doctrine was heavily influenced by the work of Colonel John Warden (USAF), both...... through his book ”The Air Campaign” and his subsequent planning of the air campaign against Iraq in 1990-1991. Warden’s ideas came to Denmark and the Danish Air Force by way of Danish Air Force students attending the United States Air Force Air University in Alabama, USA. Back in Denmark, graduates from...... the Air University inspired a small number of passionate airmen, who then wrote the Danish Air Operations Doctrine. The process was supported by the Air Force Tactical Command, which found that the work dovetailed perfectly with the transformation process that the Danish Air Force was in the midst of...

  19. Key comparison BIPM.RI(I)-K2 of the air-kerma standards of the NIST, USA and the BIPM in low-energy x-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A key comparison has been made between the air-kerma standards of the NIST and the BIPM in the low-energy x-ray range. The results show the standards to be in general agreement at the level of the combined standard uncertainty for the comparison of 4.1 parts in 103, although the results for the different radiation qualities show variations that are larger than would be expected. The results are analysed and presented in terms of degrees of equivalence, suitable for entry in the BIPM key comparison database. (authors)

  20. Nuclear electricity in the U.S.A. - A status report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The status of nuclear electricity programs in the USA is reviewed. About 20% of the electricity in the USA comes from nuclear generating stations. The potential impact of greenhouse concerns is prominent in plans for the future. Advanced reactor programs for water, liquid metal and gas cooled systems is reviewed. Safety and plant economics feature prominently in future considerations. The increasing average availability of nuclear stations in the USA provides some insights on lessons to be learned for the future. (author)

  1. Validation and development of existing and new RAOB-based warm-season convective wind forecasting tools for Cape Canaveral Air Force Station and Kennedy Space Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCue, Mitchell Hollis

    Using a 15-year (1995 to 2009) climatology of 1500 UTC warm-season (May through September) rawinsonde observation (RAOB) data from the Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (CCAFS) Skid Strip (KXMR) and 5 minute wind data from 36 wind towers on CCAFS and Kennedy Space Center (KSC), several convective wind forecasting techniques currently employed by the 45th Weather Squadron (45 WS) were evaluated. Present forecasting methods under evaluation include examining the vertical equivalent potential temperature (theta e) profile, vertical profiles of wind spend and direction, and several wet downburst forecasting indices. Although previous research found that currently used wet downburst forecasting methods showed little promise for forecasting convective winds, it was carried out with a very small sample, limiting the reliability of the results. Evaluation versus a larger 15-year dataset was performed to truly assess the forecasting utility of these methods in the central Florida warm-season convective environment. In addition, several new predictive analytic based forecast methods for predicting the occurrence of warm-season convection and its associated wind gusts were developed and validated. This research was performed in order to help the 45 WS better forecast not only which days are more likely to produce convective wind gusts, but also to better predict which days are more likely to yield warning criteria wind events of 35 knots or greater, should convection be forecasted. Convective wind forecasting is a very challenging problem that requires new statistically based modeling techniques since conventional meteorologically based methods do not perform well. New predictive analytic based forecasting methods were constructed using R statistical software and incorporate several techniques including multiple linear regression, logistic regression, multinomial logistic regression, classification and regression trees (CART), and ensemble CART using bootstrapping. All of

  2. Use of Segregation Indices, Townsend Index, and Air Toxics Data to Assess Lifetime Cancer Risk Disparities in Metropolitan Charleston, South Carolina, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LaShanta J. Rice

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Studies have demonstrated a relationship between segregation and level of education, occupational opportunities, and risk behaviors, yet a paucity of research has elucidated the association between racial residential segregation, socioeconomic deprivation, and lifetime cancer risk. Objectives: We examined estimated lifetime cancer risk from air toxics by racial composition, segregation, and deprivation in census tracts in Metropolitan Charleston. Methods: Segregation indices were used to measure the distribution of groups of people from different races within neighborhoods. The Townsend Index was used to measure economic deprivation in the study area. Poisson multivariate regressions were applied to assess the association of lifetime cancer risk with segregation indices and Townsend Index along with several sociodemographic measures. Results: Lifetime cancer risk from all pollution sources was 28 persons/million for half of the census tracts in Metropolitan Charleston. Isolation Index and Townsend Index both showed significant correlation with lifetime cancer risk from different sources. This significance still holds after adjusting for other sociodemographic measures in a Poisson regression, and these two indices have stronger effect on lifetime cancer risk compared to the effects of sociodemographic measures. Conclusions: We found that material deprivation, measured by the Townsend Index and segregation measured by the Isolation index, introduced high impact on lifetime cancer risk by air toxics at the census tract level.

  3. A portable air-quality station based on thick film gas sensors for real time detection of traces of atmospheric pollutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fioravanti, A.; Bonanno, A.; Gherardi, S.; Carotta, M. C.; Skouloudis, A. N.

    2016-03-01

    Different functional materials, single or mixed nano-crystalline semiconductor oxides, were synthesized via appropriated wet-chemistry routes. The powders were used to fabricate metal oxide (MOX) thick film gas sensors. Portable monitoring stations based on the aforementioned sensors were prepared, including electronics for acquisition, processing and wireless transmission of the data. Results of long term trials in field, carried out locating few units closely to as many conventional fixed-site monitoring stations, have been reported. The comparison was performed between the temporal evolution of the conductivity changes of the sensors with the pollutants’ concentrations, as measured by the analytical instruments.

  4. Study on influence of different makeup air types to atrium fire safety in a railway station%不同补风形式对某火车站中庭火灾安全的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨晖; 李恒松; 张思健; 曹诚

    2015-01-01

    The smoke exhaust effect brought by different types of makeup air, including downside air supply and lateral air supply, in the atrium of a railway station was studied by numerical simulation.The results showed that under the same heat release rate of fire source, no matter which type of makeup air was adopted, the law of"the larger the volume of make-up air is, the higher the visibility in the simulation region, and the lower the average temperature"was all presented.The average temperature in the simulation region under lateral air supply condition was lower than that of downside air supply condition when the volume of make-up air was small.When the volume of make-up air was larger, the average temperature under two air supply conditions tended to be uniform.Mean-while, the visibility under lateral air supply condition was higher than that of downside air supply condition.For the selected model of railway station, the optimum volume of make-up air was 90 percent of smoke exhaust volume. When conducting architectural engineering design, the fire performance-based design should be adopted reasonably to determine the reasonable type and volume of makeup air.%通过数值模拟计算,对某火车站中庭火灾补风采用下送风和侧送风时的排烟效果进行了分析研究。研究结果表明,相同火源热释放速率的情况下,无论采用何种补风形式,均有“补风量越大,模拟区域能见度越高、平均温度越低”的规律。当补风量较小时,侧送风条件下模拟区域内的平均温度低于下送风条件下模拟区域内的平均温度;而补风量越大,侧送风和下送风条件下的平均温度趋于一致。另外,侧送风条件下的能见度高于下送风条件下的能见度。对于所选用的火车站模型,最佳补风量应为排烟量的90%。在进行建筑工程设计时,应合理采用火灾性能化设计确定合理的补风方式以及补风量。

  5. Regional-scale impacts of Phase 1 of the Clean Air Act Amendments in the USA: the relation between emissions and concentrations, both wet and dry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A comparison of data records in the 1990s, both before (1991-1994) and after (1995-1997) implementation of Phase I of the Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) of 1990 for the eastern US, shows a significant reduction in SO2 emissions for most states, except for Texas, North Carolina, Illinois, Florida, and Alabama. However, of the major NOx emitting states, only two eastern states (New York and Pennsylvania) show significant declines in NOx. A pattern of large declines in SO2 emissions (>20%) after CAAA implementation, and large declines in precipitation SO42- and H+, as well as air concentrations of SO2 and SO42- (components of dry deposition), exists for most regions of the eastern US. In most cases, the emission/concentration relations are close to 1:1 when the source region based on 15-h back trajectories is used for the New England region, and source regions based on 9-h back trajectories are used for the six other eastern US regions that were studied. The southern Appalachian Mountain region, an acid-sensitive area receiving high levels of acidic deposition, has not seen an appreciable improvement in precipitation acidity. This area has also shown the least improvement in wet and dry sulfur concentrations, of the areas examined. Precipitation base cations (Ca2+ and Mg2+) show a pattern of either increasing or level concentrations when comparing 1990-1994 to 1995-1998 data, for six of the seven regions examined. Ammonium concentrations have generally changed 15%. (Author)

  6. 对空气质量实时发布站点的监控研究%Study on Monitoring of Air Quality Real-time Publishing Station

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    裴成磊; 黄祖照; 刘叶新; 邝俊侠

    2015-01-01

    Combining with the working practice of real-time publishing of Guangzhou environmental monito-ring central station,it studied on monitoring of publishing station in the aspects of data consistency,abnormal da-ta,data quality,etc.Based on real-time communication technology and cloud technology,the network information platform was established and the work of recognizing anomalies of real-time publishing station and responding without delay was done well.The reliability and effective rate of real-time publishing data were improved and the stability of real-time publishing station was guaranteed.%结合广州市环境监测中心站空气质量实时发布工作的实践,开展对发布站点的监控研究。在数据一致性、异常数据和数据质量等方面对发布站点实施监控,并使用实时通讯技术和云技术,建立网络化信息平台,有效识别发布站点的异常问题并及时响应,提高了实时发布数据的可靠性和有效率,保障了发布站点的稳定运行。

  7. Long and short-term atmospheric radiation analyses based on coupled measurements at high altitude remote stations and extensive air shower modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubert, G.; Federico, C. A.; Pazianotto, M. T.; Gonzales, O. L.

    2016-02-01

    In this paper are described the ACROPOL and OPD high-altitude stations devoted to characterize the atmospheric radiation fields. The ACROPOL platform, located at the summit of the Pic du Midi in the French Pyrenees at 2885 m above sea level, exploits since May 2011 some scientific equipment, including a BSS neutron spectrometer, detectors based on semiconductor and scintillators. In the framework of a IEAv and ONERA collaboration, a second neutron spectrometer was simultaneously exploited since February 2015 at the summit of the Pico dos Dias in Brazil at 1864 m above the sea level. The both high station platforms allow for investigating the long period dynamics to analyze the spectral variation of cosmic-ray- induced neutron and effects of local and seasonal changes, but also the short term dynamics during solar flare events. This paper presents long and short-term analyses, including measurement and modeling investigations considering the both high altitude stations data. The modeling approach, based on ATMORAD computational platform, was used to link the both station measurements.

  8. Electromagnetic Interference Analysis and Suppression Measures of Air Compression Station Control System%空压机站控制系统电磁干扰分析及抑制措施

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄军东; 王林

    2012-01-01

    The problems of air compression station include electromagnetic interference,PC crashed and equipment faults,which affect normal production.The electromagnetic interference principle and suppression measures are analyzed.The relevant reasons are analyzed combined electromagnetic interference with the air compressor controller crash or damage and the improvement measures are proposed.%针对空压机站控制系统受电磁干扰而引起死机或设备故障,影响正常生产的问题,分析了电磁干扰机理及抑制措施,结合空压机控制器电磁干扰引起死机甚至损坏的故障,进行相应原因分析,并提出改进措施。

  9. Contemporary Tendencies in Radio Station Management

    OpenAIRE

    CIUREL Daniel-Liviu

    2013-01-01

    Radio station management has changed dramatically during the last few years. Operating in a stiff competition environment, radio stations need to focus on new business models, as they evolve from broadcasting to narrowcasting or nichecasting. Since a radio station operates simultaneously on two markets (the consumers and the advertisers) attention should be placed both on the radio production and the radio promotion, on-air as well as off-air. The Program Director (PD) is acting more and more...

  10. Air ion and pollution index variation for indoor and outdoor atmosphere at rural station Ramanandnagar (17° 4′N, 74° 25′) India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S D Pawar

    2013-02-01

    In the present study, the observation of indoor air ion concentration at a rural site has been carried out for the first time. These indoor observations are compared with outdoor air ion concentration. Net charge can be introduced into the atmosphere by processes such as combustion, rainfall and ultraviolet radiation. As compared to indoors, average air ions of both the polarities at outdoors are higher. Moreover, the air ion concentrations, experience large fluctuations during daytime, as compared to nighttime values. Positive and negative air ion concentrations are lower and uniform throughout the night both for indoor and outdoor conditions. Pollution index is more or less unity for outdoors in all-the-time period, which is good for human health. Due to limited sources of air ions indoors, it is observed that pollution index decreases from 00:00–02:00 hours and minimum is reached during 12:00–14:00 hours for indoors. During 00:00–02:00 hours, the indoor pollution index is 1.55, which is very harmful to human health.

  11. 美国大气污染治理投融资机制研究及借鉴%Study on Investment and Fund-raising Mechanism of Air Pollution Control in U.S.A.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程玉

    2015-01-01

    Air polution control started in the 50’s of the 20th in U.S.A. At present time the U.S. government has formed a completely multiple investment and fund-raising mode dominated by public ifnance, with a sum of initiatives, such as green credit of ifnancial institutions, capital markets of fund-raising and emissions trading of pol utants. In order to ensure the promotion of the effective investment and fund-raising policies and measures, the U.S. government has established the special advisory agencies for fund-raising, and has deifned government’s liability in control ing the air pol ution, and has established the regional economic sanctions for those regions which do not fulifl the control plans. Drawing on the experiences of the U.S. investment and fund-raising, China could reform the tax system through initiatives innovation and establish the government-led multiple investment and fund-raising mechanism, so as to reply the heavy pressure of a great capital need in air polution control.%美国大气污染治理开始于20世纪50年代,目前已经基本形成了以政府公共财政主导、金融机构绿色信贷、资本市场融资、污染物排放权交易等多元化的投融资模式。同时,美国建立了较为完善的投融资保障性措施,设立了专门的污染控制资金筹集与咨询机构,并通过立法明确各层级政府的大气污染治理责任,对没有完成治理计划的地区实施经济制裁。借鉴美国大气污染治理投融资的经验,我国可以通过制度创新进一步改革税收体制,完善以政府为主导的多元化投融资机制,以应对国内大气污染治理领域面临的资金压力。

  12. Performance optimization of envelope and air conditioning system in telecommunication base station%基站围护结构性能及空调系统性能优化分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    涂壤; 李震; 刘晓华; 田浩; 刘芳

    2011-01-01

    An air conditioning system consumes 40% of the total energy in telecommunication base station (TBS), and it is very important to reduce energy consumption of the air conditioning system for improving the COP of total TBS. According to present TBS energy saving methods, simulates the annual TBS energy consumption with DeST software, and puts forward some TBS energy saving measures and suggestions for selection of envelope and performance improving of the air conditioning system. Concludes that the heat insulation level of envelope should be determined according to the geographical position and heat producing strength of TBS, shading and roof ventilation has little impact on the energy efficient improving of the air conditioning system, and heat pipe heat exchangers can greatly reduce the energy consumption of air conditioning system.%基站空调系统能耗占整个基站总能耗的40%左右,降低空调系统能耗对提高整个基站的COPs至关重要.针对现有的基站节能方法,采用DeST软件模拟了基站全年能耗,针对围护结构的选择和提高空调系统能效提出了基站节能措施和建议.得到的结论为:围护结构保温性取决于基站的地理位置和发热量;遮阳和屋顶通风对基站节能效果影响不大;热管换热机组可以大幅降低基站空调能耗.

  13. Prediction of surface air temperatures by neural network, example based on three-year temperature monitoring at Spořilov station

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bodri, L.; Čermák, Vladimír

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 47, č. 1 (2003), s. 173-184. ISSN 0039-3169 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA3012005 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z3012916 Keywords : surface air temperatures * neural networks * temperature monitoring Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy Impact factor: 0.426, year : 2003

  14. QUALITY ASSURANCE PERFORMANCE AUDIT REPORT FOR THE SECRETARIA DEL MEDIO AMBIENTE CIUDAD DE MEXICO, DF, MEXICO RED AUTOMATICA DE MONITOREO ATMOSFERICO (RAMA) AIR QUALITY MONITORING STATIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The United States Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) conducted this evaluation of the air monitoring network, known as RAM (Red Automatica de Monitoreo Atmosferico) at the request of the Mexico City Secretariat of the Environment on October 16-27, 2000. This evaluation...

  15. Nuclear power in Japan and the USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development of the nuclear power industry in Japan and the USA is discussed. The author lists the number of nuclear power plants operating, under construction and planned and considers the contribution made by nuclear power stations to the total electricity generated. The advantages of nuclear power to both countries are outlined and forecasts are made of the role to be played by nuclear power in future years

  16. Phenotypes and Virulence among Staphylococcus aureus USA100, USA200, USA300, USA400, and USA600 Clonal Lineages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Jessica M; Kulhankova, Katarina; Stach, Christopher S; Vu, Bao G; Salgado-Pabón, Wilmara

    2016-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus diseases affect ~500,000 individuals per year in the United States. Worldwide, the USA100, USA200, USA400, and USA600 lineages cause many of the life-threatening S. aureus infections, such as bacteremia, infective endocarditis, pneumonia, toxic shock syndrome, and surgical site infections. However, the virulence mechanisms associated with these clonal lineages, in particular the USA100 and USA600 isolates, have been severely understudied. We investigated the virulence of these strains, in addition to strains in the USA200, USA300, and USA400 types, in well-established in vitro assays and in vivo in the rabbit model of infective endocarditis and sepsis. We show in the infective endocarditis and sepsis model that strains in the USA100 and USA600 lineages cause high lethality and are proficient in causing native valve infective endocarditis. Strains with high cytolytic activity or producing toxic shock syndrome toxin 1 (TSST-1) or staphylococcal enterotoxin C (SEC) caused lethal sepsis, even with low cytolytic activity. Strains in the USA100, USA200, USA400, and USA600 lineages consistently contained genes that encode for the enterotoxin gene cluster proteins, SEC, or TSST-1 and were proficient at causing infective endocarditis, while the USA300 strains lacked these toxins and were deficient in promoting vegetation growth. The USA100, USA200, and USA400 strains in our collection formed strong biofilms in vitro, whereas the USA200 and USA600 strains exhibited increased blood survival. Hence, infective endocarditis and lethal sepsis are multifactorial and not intrinsic to any one individual clonal group, further highlighting the importance of expanding our knowledge of S. aureus pathogenesis to clonal lineages causative of invasive disease. IMPORTANCE S. aureus is the leading cause of infective endocarditis in the developed world, affecting ~40,000 individuals each year in the United States, and the second leading cause of bacteremia (D. R

  17. Weather station with a web server

    OpenAIRE

    Repinc, Matej

    2013-01-01

    In this diploma thesis we present the process of making a cheap weather station using Arduino prototyping platform and its functionality. The weather station monitors current temperature, humidity of air and air pressure. The station has its own simple HTTP server that is used to relay current data in two different formats: JSON encoded data and simple HTML website. The weather station can also send data to a pre-defined server used for data collection. We implemented a web site where data an...

  18. Involvement of the ORNL Chemical Technology Division in contaminated air and water handling at the Three Mile Island Nuclear Power Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The President's Commission on the Accident at Three Mile Island requested that Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) generate documents concerning two areas in which ORNL personnel provided on-site assistance following the accident on March 28, 1979. These are: instrumentation diagnostics, and the treatment of radioactive wastes and liquid effluents stemming from the accident. This report describes the involvement of the ORNL Chemical Technology Division (CTD) in contaminated air and water handling at Three Mile Island

  19. Near–surface air temperature and snow skin temperature comparison from CREST-SAFE station data with MODIS land surface temperature data

    OpenAIRE

    C. L. Pérez Díaz; T. Lakhankar; P. Romanov; Muñoz, J; R. Khanbilvardi; Yu, Y.

    2015-01-01

    Land Surface Temperature (LST) is a key variable (commonly studied to understand the hydrological cycle) that helps drive the energy balance and water exchange between the Earth's surface and its atmosphere. One observable constituent of much importance in the land surface water balance model is snow. Snow cover plays a critical role in the regional to global scale hydrological cycle because rain-on-snow with warm air temperatures accelera...

  20. Burar seismic station: evaluation of seismic performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new seismic monitoring system, the Bucovina Seismic Array (BURAR), has been established since July 2002, in the Northern part of Romania, in a joint effort of the Air Force Technical Applications Center, USA, and the National Institute for Earth Physics (NIEP), Romania. The small-aperture array consists of 10 seismic sensors (9 vertical short-period and one three-component broad band) located in boreholes and distributed in a 5 x 5 km2 area. At present, the seismic data are continuously recorded by the BURAR and transmitted in real-time to the Romanian National Data Center in Bucharest and National Data Center of the USA, in Florida. Based on the BURAR seismic information gathered at the National Data Center, NIEP (ROMNDC), in the August 2002 - December 2004 time interval, analysis and statistical assessments were performed. Following the preliminary processing of the data, several observations on the global performance of the BURAR system were emphasized. Data investigation showed an excellent efficiency of the BURAR system particularly in detecting teleseismic and regional events. Also, a statistical analysis for the BURAR detection capability of the local Vrancea events was performed in terms of depth and magnitude for the year 2004. The high signal detection capability of the BURAR resulted, generally, in improving the location solutions for the Vrancea seismic events. The location solution accuracy is enhanced when adding BURAR recordings, especially in the case of low magnitude events (recorded by few stations). The location accuracy is increased, both in terms of constraining hypocenter depth and epicentral coordinates. Our analysis certifies the importance of the BURAR system in NIEP efforts to elaborate seismic bulletins. Furthermore, the specific procedures for array data processing (beam forming, f-k analysis) increase significantly the signal-to-noise ratio by summing up the coherent signals from the array components, and ensure a better accuracy of

  1. Effect of cooling charge air on the gas turbine performance and feasibility of using absorption refrigeration in the “Kelanitissa” power station, Sri Lanka

    OpenAIRE

    Kodituwakku, Dinindu

    2014-01-01

    One of the drawbacks of the gas turbine is that performance drops rapidly when ambient air temperature increases. This is a major drawback for gas turbines operated in a tropical country like Sri Lanka. In Colombo, commercial capital of Sri Lanka where this study was carried out, the ambient temperature typically varies between 25 0C and 32 0C.   The Kelanitissa gas turbine plant has single shaft gas turbines (GE MS5001 R) operated in open cycle which use diesel as fuel (designed for dual fue...

  2. Forecast skill of a high-resolution real-time mesoscale model designed for weather support of operations at Kennedy Space Center and Cape Canaveral Air Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Gregory E.; Zack, John W.; Manobianco, John

    1994-01-01

    NASA funded Mesoscale Environmental Simulations and Operations (MESO), Inc. to develop a version of the Mesoscale Atmospheric Simulation System (MASS). The model has been modified specifically for short-range forecasting in the vicinity of KSC/CCAS. To accomplish this, the model domain has been limited to increase the number of horizontal grid points (and therefore grid resolution) and the model' s treatment of precipitation, radiation, and surface hydrology physics has been enhanced to predict convection forced by local variations in surface heat, moisture fluxes, and cloud shading. The objective of this paper is to (1) provide an overview of MASS including the real-time initialization and configuration for running the data pre-processor and model, and (2) to summarize the preliminary evaluation of the model's forecasts of temperature, moisture, and wind at selected rawinsonde station locations during February 1994 and July 1994. MASS is a hydrostatic, three-dimensional modeling system which includes schemes to represent planetary boundary layer processes, surface energy and moisture budgets, free atmospheric long and short wave radiation, cloud microphysics, and sub-grid scale moist convection.

  3. Search for molecular bremsstrahlung radiation signals in Ku band with coincidental operations of radio telescopes with air shower detectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fukushima Masaki

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Microwave radiation from extensive air showers is expected to provide a new technique to observe UHECR. We insatlled and operate radio telescopes in Osaka and at Telescope Array site in Utah, USA. In Osaka, we are coincidentally operating two Ku band radio telescopes with an air shower array which consists of nine plastic scintillators with about 10 m separation. In Utah, we installed two telescopes just beside the Black Rock Mesa fluorescence detector (FD station of the Telescope Array experiment, and we operated the radio telescopes coincidentally with FD event triggers. We report the experimental setups and the results of these measurements.

  4. 地铁车站隧道轨顶排热风口设置形式研究%Study on the Arrangement of the Ceiling Exhaust Air Outlets of Subway Station Tunnels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郝盛

    2011-01-01

    Heat extraction in subway tunnels is important in system design. Different heat extractions have important effects on the air temperature field in the tunnel. This paper numerically analyzed the effects of the different ceiling exhaust outlets and the layout of the condensers of the train on the air temperature field of the tunnel. The results is a good reference for the optimal design of the ceiling exhaust outlets of the subway station tunnel.%车站隧道排热是系统设计时需要考虑的重要问题。不同排热方式对隧道内的温度分布有重要影响。本文通过数值模拟,计算分析了在不同排热风口形式、列车顶部冷凝器布置对车站隧道温度的影响。模拟计算结果可为车站隧道轨顶排热风口的优化设计提供重要参考。

  5. USA tankid tulevad Eestisse

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2015-01-01

    USA on valmis Balti riikidesse ladustama lahingutanke, jalavämasinaid ja muud raskerelvastust. Eestisse paigutatakse sellisel juhul sõjatehnikat 150 USA sõjaväelase jaoks. Selline otsus peaks langetatama juba järgmisel nädalal

  6. Studies on the exposure pathway-air-grass-cow-milk for radioiodine due to release during normal operation from the Gundremmingen nuclear power station in 1975

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The environmental aspects involved in the transport of 131I are reviewed by means of calculation and measurement. On the basis of the release of 131I in airborne effluent from the plant during the grazing season 1975 and the dispersion factors and the air-milk-transfer-factor (including the ingestion factor of 8.8 x 105rem x m3/Ci x s) the thyroid dose to the 'critical infant' has been calculated. The actual 131I content in milk has been measured. Weekly environmental samples - 5 liters - have been taken. From the discharge via stack of 60 mCi of 131I a value of 6.2 pCi/l has been calculated. The measurements showed no 131J comcentrations in milk higher than 0.54 pCi/l (3 sigma-detection limit) and 0.18 pCi/l (1 sigma-detection limit). These differences lead to the conclusion that either the ecological models in use today or the assumption that all the Iodine is elemental, overestimate the ingestion dose-factors and with this the radiation exposure to the thyroid of an infant. Similar differences between calculation and measurement were found at other nuclear power plants. (orig./HP)

  7. Using Arduinos and 3D-printers to Build Research-grade Weather Stations and Environmental Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ham, J. M.

    2013-12-01

    Many plant, soil, and surface-boundary-layer processes in the geosphere are governed by the microclimate at the land-air interface. Environmental monitoring is needed at smaller scales and higher frequencies than provided by existing weather monitoring networks. The objective of this project was to design, prototype, and test a research-grade weather station that is based on open-source hardware/software and off-the-shelf components. The idea is that anyone could make these systems with only elementary skills in fabrication and electronics. The first prototypes included measurements of air temperature, humidity, pressure, global irradiance, wind speed, and wind direction. The best approach for measuring precipitation is still being investigated. The data acquisition system was deigned around the Arduino microcontroller and included an LCD-based user interface, SD card data storage, and solar power. Sensors were sampled at 5 s intervals and means, standard deviations, and maximum/minimums were stored at user-defined intervals (5, 30, or 60 min). Several of the sensor components were printed in plastic using a hobby-grade 3D printer (e.g., RepRap Project). Both passive and aspirated radiation shields for measuring air temperature were printed in white Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene (ABS). A housing for measuring solar irradiance using a photodiode-based pyranometer was printed in opaque ABS. The prototype weather station was co-deployed with commercial research-grade instruments at an agriculture research unit near Fort Collins, Colorado, USA. Excellent agreement was found between Arduino-based system and commercial weather instruments. The technology was also used to support air quality research and automated air sampling. The next step is to incorporate remote access and station-to-station networking using Wi-Fi, cellular phone, and radio communications (e.g., Xbee).

  8. Evaluation of ambient air quality in Guangzhou, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Kai; YE You-hua; LIU Qiang; LIU Ai-jun; PENG Shao-lin

    2007-01-01

    On the basis of the reported air quality index (API) and air pollutant monitoring data provided by the Guangzhou Environment Monitoring Stations over the last twenty-five years, the characteristics of air quality, prominent pollutants, and variation of the average annual concentrations of SO2, NO2, total suspended particulate(TSP), fine particulates (PM10), CO and dustfall in Guangzhou City were analyzed. Results showed that TSP was the prominent pollutant in the ambient air environment of Guangzhou City. Of the prominent pollutants, TSP accounted for nearly 62%, SO2 12.3%, and NOx 6.4%, respectively. The average API of Guangzhou over 6 years was higher than that of Beijing, Tianjin, Nanjing, Hangzhou, Suzhou and Shanghai, and lower than that of Shenzhen, Zhuhai and Shantou. Concentrations of air pollutants have shown an downward trend in recent years, but they are generally worse than ambient air quality standards for USA, Hong Kong and EU. SO2 and NOx pollution were still serious, impling that waste gas pollution from all kinds of vehicles had become a significant problem for environmental protection in Guangzhou. The possible causes of worsening air quality were also discussed in this paper.

  9. 溪洛渡电站机组主轴中心补气系统漏水监测%Discussion on water leakage monitoring of air admission system of turbine shaft of Xiluodu Hydropower Station

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏学锋; 郭锐; 孙长江; 宋国林; 刘林林

    2015-01-01

    As the natural air admission device is employed in the shaft of Voith turbines in Xiluodu Hydropower Station, the installation elevation of air admission valve is lower than the tail water level. Water leakage may occur in the air admission system due to the turbines vibration, aging of shaft seal rings and other factors. When the water in the shaft reached a certain amount, the moment of inertia will increase and endangering the rotor insulation. Excessive water will flow into the stator and the rotor through the shaft, and consequently submerge the turbine unit. However, except for the observation hole preinstalled on the shaft, there is no other effective water leakage monitoring devices or methods. Therefore, a wireless water level alarm system for monitoring water leakage in the space between the shaft and the central air admission pipeline was designed to guarantee the safe and stable operation of the hydro-generator unit.%溪洛渡电站安装的由福伊特制造的水力机组,采用的是主轴中心自然补气装置,补气阀安装高程低于尾水位,这样,在运行过程中,可能由于机组振动以及密封圈老化等因素,致使主轴中心补气系统漏水风险。当主轴内蓄积一定量的水时,会增加转动惯量、危及转子绝缘,水量过多时还会通过中心体流入定子、转子,造成水淹机组的事故。因此,提出采用无线水位报警系统对主轴与中心补气管之间漏水进行监测,以保障机组安全、稳定运行。

  10. Comprehensive Retrieval of Spatio-temporal Variations in Atmospheric Radionuclides just after the Fukushima Accident by Analyzing Filter-tapes of Operational Air Pollution Monitoring Stations in Eastern Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuruta, Haruo; Oura, Yasuji; Ebihara, Mitsuru; Ohara, Toshimasa; Moriguchi, Yuichi; Nakajima, Teruyuki

    2016-04-01

    After the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station (FD1NPS) accident on March 11, 2011, many datasets have been available of deposition density of radionuclides in soils in eastern Japan. By contrast, no time-series data of atmospheric radionuclides has been measured in the Fukushima prefecture (FP), although very limited data is available in the Tokyo metropolitan area (TMA) located more than 170 km southwest of the FD1NPS. As a result, atmospheric transport models simulating the atmospheric concentrations and surface deposition of radionuclides have large uncertainty, as well as the estimate of release rate of source terms and of internal exposure from inhalation. One year after the accident, we collected the used filter-tapes installed in Suspended Particulate Matter (SPM) monitors with beta-ray attenuation method operated by local governments in the air pollution monitoring network of eastern Japan. The SPM monitoring stations are mostly located in the urban and/or industrial area to measure the hourly mass concentration of SPM less than 10 μm in diameter for health effect due to atmospheric aerosols. By measuring radionuclides in SPM on the filter-tapes, we retrieved hourly atmospheric Cs-134 and Cs-137 concentrations during March 12-23, 2011, when atmospheric, aquatic, and terrestrial environments were seriously suffered in most of eastern Japan. Until now, we measured hourly radiocesium at around 100 SPM sites in the southern Tohoku region (ST) including the FP and in the TMA. By analysing the dataset, about 10 plumes/polluted air masses with Cs-137 concentrations higher than 10 Bq m-3 were found, and some plumes were newly detected in this study. And the spatio-temporal distributions of atmospheric Cs-137 were clearly shown for all the plumes. The east coast area of the FP where the FD1NPS was located in the centre was attacked several times by the plumes, and suffered the highest time-integrated Cs-137 concentration during the period among the ST and TMA

  11. Arctic aerosol life cycle: linking aerosol size distributions observed between 2000 and 2010 with air mass transport and precipitation at Zeppelin station, Ny-Ålesund, Svalbard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Tunved

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In this study we present a qualitative and quantitative assessment of more the 10 yr of aerosol number size distribution data observed in the Arctic environment (Mt Zeppelin (78°56' N, 11°53' E, 474 m a.s.l., Ny Ålesund, Svalbard. We provide statistics on both seasonal and diurnal characteristics of the aerosol observations and conclude that the Arctic aerosol number size distribution and auxiliary parameters such as integral mass and surface have a very pronounced seasonal variation. This seasonal variation seems to be controlled by both dominating source as well as meteorological conditions in general. In principle, three distinctly different periods can be identified during the Arctic year: the haze period characterized by a dominating accumulation mode aerosol (March–May followed by the sunlit summer period with low abundance of accumulation mode particles but high concentration of small particles which likely are recently and locally formed (June–August. The rest of the year is characterized by comparably low concentration of accumulation mode particles and negligible abundance of ultra fine particles (September–February. Minimum aerosol mass and number concentration is usually observed during September/October. We further show that the transition between the different regimes is fast, suggesting rapid change in conditions defining their appearance. A source climatology based on trajectory analysis is provided and it is shown that there is a strong seasonality of dominating source areas, with dominance of Eurasia during the autumn-winter period and dominance of North Atlantic air during the summer months. We also show that new particle formation events seem to be a rather common phenomenon during the Arctic summer, and this is the result of both photochemical production of nucleating/condensing species and low condensation sink. It is also suggested that wet removal play a key role in defining the Arctic aerosol year, and plays a

  12. USA Hire Testing Platform

    Data.gov (United States)

    Office of Personnel Management — The USA Hire Testing Platform delivers tests used in hiring for positions in the Federal Government. To safeguard the integrity of the hiring processes and ensure...

  13. Accommodating life sciences on the Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arno, Roger D.

    1987-01-01

    The NASA Ames Research Center Biological Research Project (BRP) is responsible for identifying and accommodating high priority life science activities, utilizing nonhuman specimens, on the Space Station and is charged to bridge the gap between the science community and the Space Station Program. This paper discusses the approaches taken by the BRP in accomodating these research objectives to constraints imposed by the Space Station System, while maintaining a user-friendly environment. Consideration is given to the particular research disciplines which are given priority, the science objectives in each of these disciplines, the functions and activities required by these objectives, the research equipment, and the equipment suits. Life sciences programs planned by the Space Station participating partners (USA, Europe, Japan, and Canada) are compared.

  14. 某水电站油压装置自动补气超时问题的分析及处理%Analysis and Treatment of the Overtime Problem in Automatic Air Supplement of Oil Pressure Device in a Hydropower Station

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭守峰

    2015-01-01

    The structure and working principles of an automatic air supplement unit are introduced, which is adopted in the oil pressure device of the generator governor in a hydropower station.The overtime problem of the air supplement process occurred in the automatic air supplement unit is analyzed.Based on the analysis, the overtime problem is solved by optimization of the automatic air supplement parameters.%介绍了某水电站调速器油压装置自动补气装置组成、原理,并对该电站出现的自动补气装置补气超时现象的原因进行了分析,结合实际,通过自动补气参数的优化,自动补气超时现象消除。

  15. 某水电站油压装置自动补气超时问题的分析及处理%Analysis and Treatment of the Overtime Problem in Automatic Air Supplement of Oil Pressure Device in a Hydropower Station

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭守峰

    2015-01-01

    介绍了某水电站调速器油压装置自动补气装置组成、原理,并对该电站出现的自动补气装置补气超时现象的原因进行了分析,结合实际,通过自动补气参数的优化,自动补气超时现象消除。%The structure and working principles of an automatic air supplement unit are introduced, which is adopted in the oil pressure device of the generator governor in a hydropower station.The overtime problem of the air supplement process occurred in the automatic air supplement unit is analyzed.Based on the analysis, the overtime problem is solved by optimization of the automatic air supplement parameters.

  16. Comprehensive Retrieval of Spatio-temporal Variations in Atmospheric Radionuclides just after the Fukushima Accident by Analyzing Filter-tapes of Operational Air Pollution Monitoring Stations in Eastern Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuruta, H.; Oura, Y.; Ebihara, M.; Ohara, T.; Nakajima, T.

    2015-12-01

    After the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station (FD1NPS) accident on March 11, 2011, many datasets have been available of deposition density of radionuclides in soils in eastern Japan. By contrast, no time-series data of atmospheric radionuclides has been measured in the Fukushima prefecture (FP), although very limited data is available in the Tokyo metropolitan area (TMA) located more than 170 km southwest of the FD1NPS. As a result, atmospheric transport models simulating the atmospheric concentrations and surface deposition of radionuclides have large uncertainty, as well as the estimate of release rate of source terms and of internal exposure from inhalation. One year after the accident, we collected the used filter-tapes installed in Suspended Particulate Matter (SPM) monitors with beta-ray attenuation method operated by local governments in the air pollution monitoring network of eastern Japan. By measuring radionuclides in SPM on the filter-tapes, we retrieved hourly atmospheric Cs-134 and Cs-137 concentrations during March 12-23, 2011, when atmospheric, aquatic, and terrestrial environments were seriously suffered in most of eastern Japan. Until now, we measured hourly radiocesium at around 100 SPM sites in the southern Tohoku region (ST) including the FP and in the TMA. By analysing the dataset, nine major plumes with Cs-137 concentrations higher than 10 Bq m-3 were found, and some plumes were newly found in this study. A local area of relatively high Cs-137 deposition density in the TMA by precipitation on the morning of March 21, was consistent with an area where the time-integrated atmospheric Cs-137 concentrations were also high due to the transport of a plume on the morning of March 21. In the FP, however, the correlation was not so clear. High radionuclides trapped in a cloud layer might be transported to the ST with relatively high Cs-137 deposition densities, because the atmospheric Cs-137 concentrations were under the detection limit.

  17. Using geo-targeted social media data to detect outdoor air pollution

    OpenAIRE

    Jiang, W; Y Wang; Tsou, M. H.; Fu, X

    2016-01-01

    Outdoor air pollution has become a more and more serious issue over recent years (He, 2014). Urban air quality is measured at air monitoring stations. Building air monitoring stations requires land, incurs costs and entails skilled technicians to maintain a station. Many countries do not have any monitoring stations and even lack any means to monitor air quality. Recent years, the social media could be used to monitor air quality dynamically (Wang, 2015; Mei, 2014). However, no studies have i...

  18. Review of radioactive discharges from nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    HM Inspectorate of Pollution commissioned, with authorising responsibilities in England and Wales, a study into the discharges of radioactive effluents from Nuclear Power Stations. The study considered arisings from nuclear power stations in Europe and the USA and the technologies to treat and control the radioactive discharges. This report is a review of the arisings and concludes that suitable technologies exist, which if applied, could reduce discharges from nuclear power plants in England and Wales in line with the rest of Europe. (author)

  19. The USA PATRIOT Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minow, Mary; Coyle, Karen; Kaufman, Paula

    2002-01-01

    Explains the USA PATRIOT (Uniting and Strengthening America by Providing Appropriate Tools Required to Intercept and Obstruct Terrorism) Act, passed after the September 11 terrorist attacks, and its implications for libraries and patron records. Considers past dealings with the FBI; court orders; search warrants; wiretaps; and subpoenas. Includes:…

  20. Baltimaade kunsti turnee USAs

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    1998-01-01

    5. nov.-st USA Lõuna-Carolina osariigis Wellington B. Grey galeriis ja Jenkins Fine Art Center's 13 eesti, läti ja leedu kunstniku näitus, mis hakkab kolme aasta jooksul ringlema Ameerikas. Eksponeeritud fotokunst, video, installatsioon, joonistused. Kuraator Peeter Linnap ja Mari Laanemets peavad ettekande näituse avamisega samal ajal toimuval Fotohariduse Ühingu konverentsil

  1. Valitsus toetab USA kaitseinvesteeringuid

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2015-01-01

    Valitsus kiitis heaks kokkuleppe, mis võimaldab USA relvajõududel kasutada kaitseväe valduses olevaid alasid ja ehitisi ning teha seal vajalikke ehitustöid. Kokkuleppe kohaselt võivad ameeriklased ehitustöid teha Ämari lennubaasis, keskpolügoonil ja Tapa linnakus

  2. Guantanamo rikub USA seadusi / Krister Paris

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Paris, Krister

    2003-01-01

    Kaks USA tsiviilkohut leiavad oma otsuses, et USA valitsus rikub USA-s ja Guantanamo sõjaväebaasis kinnipeetavate nn. vaenlasvõitlejate õigusi. Inimõigusorganisatsioonid avaldavad heameelt kohtute otsuste üle

  3. How dangerous are atomic power stations?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article takes a look at potential dangers presented by atomic power stations and measures taken to ensure safety. Since the accident in Chernobyl, atomic power stations represent, from the point of view of the general public, a considerable danger. The article analyses the actual risks presented by atom power stations and asks the question, if these risks can even be assessed. Basic considerations on the stability and safety of reactors are discussed. Safety precautions implemented for the world's first nuclear reactor in the USA are discussed. The various safety precautions taken for various types of reactor are examined in detail. Also, the dangers presented by emissions that occur during normal operation are examined. The danger of a nuclear meltdown caused by external factors such as earthquakes, fire, aircraft crashes and terrorist activity is discussed

  4. How will land use affect air temperature in the surface boundary layer? Lessons learned from a comparative study on the energy balance of an oak savanna and annual grassland in California, USA

    OpenAIRE

    BALDOCCHI, DENNIS; Ma, Siyan

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the effect of land use on differences in air temperature. We based our analysis on a decade of weather and energy flux measurements, collected over two contrasting landscapes, an oak savanna and an annual grassland, growing under the same climate conditions. Over the decade, the daily-averaged, potential air temperature above the aerodynamically rougher and optically darker oak savanna was 0.5°C warmer than that above the aerodynamically smoother and optically brighter annual ...

  5. 76 FR 44821 - Digital Low Power Television, Television Translator, and Television Booster Stations and To Amend...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-27

    ... television stations have ceased over-the-air analog broadcasting, many low power television stations are... Television Broadcasting The SBA defines a television broadcasting station as a small business if such station... establishments operate television broadcasting studios and facilities for the programming and transmission...

  6. USA-USSR protocol

    CERN Multimedia

    1970-01-01

    On 30 November the USA Atomic Energy Commission and the USSR State Committee for the Utilization of Atomic Energy signed, in Washington, a protocol 'on carrying out of joint projects in the field of high energy physics at the accelerators of the National Accelerator Laboratory (Batavia) and the Institute for High Energy Physics (Serpukhov)'. The protocol will be in force for five years and can be extended by mutual agreement.

  7. Interpretation of Borehole Geophysical Logs, Aquifer-Isolation Tests, and Water-Quality Data for Sites 1, 3, and 5 at the Willow Grove Naval Air Station/Joint Reserve Base, Horsham Township, Montgomery County, Pennsylvania: 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloto, Ronald A.

    2007-01-01

    Borehole geophysical logging, heatpulse-flowmeter measurements, borehole television surveys, and aquifer-isolation tests were conducted in 2005 at the Willow Grove Naval Air Station/Joint Reserve Base (NAS/JRB) in Horsham Township, Montgomery County, Pa. This study was done by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the U.S. Navy in support of hydrogeological investigations to address ground-water contamination. Data collected for this study are valuable for understanding ground-water flow in the Stockton Formation at the local and regional scale. The Willow Grove NAS/JRB is underlain by the Stockton Formation, which consists of sedimentary rocks of Triassic age. The rocks of the Stockton Formation form a complex, heterogeneous aquifer with partially connected zones of high permeability. Borehole geophysical logs, heatpulse-flowmeter measurements, and borehole television surveys made in seven boreholes ranging from 70 to 350 ft deep were used to identify potential water-producing fractures and fracture zones and to select intervals for aquifer-isolation tests. An upward vertical hydraulic gradient was measured in one borehole, a downward vertical hydraulic gradient was measured in four boreholes, both an upward and a downward vertical hydraulic gradient were measured in one borehole, and no flow was measurable in one borehole. The aquifer-isolation tests isolated 30 discrete fractures in the seven boreholes for collection of depth-discrete hydraulic and water-quality data. Of the 30 fractures identified as potentially water producing, 26 fractures (87 percent) produced more than 1 gallon per minute of water. The specific capacity of the isolated intervals producing more than 1 gallon per minute ranged from 0.02 to 5.2 gallons per minute per foot. There was no relation between specific capacity and depth of the fracture. Samples for analysis for volatile organic compounds were collected from each isolated zone. Tetrachloroethylene (PCE) was the most

  8. Comparison Between Radar and Automatic Weather Station Refractivity Variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallali, Ruben; Dalaudier, Francis; Parent du Chatelet, Jacques

    2016-08-01

    Weather radars measure changes in the refractive index of air in the atmospheric boundary layer. The technique uses the phase of signals from ground targets located around the radar to provide information on atmospheric refractivity related to meteorological quantities such as temperature, pressure and humidity. The approach has been successfully implemented during several field campaigns using operational S-band radars in Canada, UK, USA and France. In order to better characterize the origins of errors, a recent study has simulated temporal variations of refractivity based on Automatic Weather Station (AWS) measurements. This reveals a stronger variability of the refractivity during the summer and in the afternoon when the refractivity is the most sensitive to humidity, probably because of turbulence close to the ground. This raises the possibility of retrieving information on the turbulent state of the atmosphere from the variability in radar refractivity. An analysis based on a 1-year dataset from the operational C-band radar at Trappes (near Paris, France) and AWS refractivity variability measurements was used to measure those temporal and spatial variabilities. Particularly during summer, a negative bias increasing with range is observed between radar and AWS estimations, and is well explained by a model based on Taylor's hypotheses. The results demonstrate the possibility of establishing, depending on season, a quantitative and qualitative link between radar and AWS refractivity variability that reflects low-level coherent turbulent structures.

  9. Long-range air transmission of bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovallius, A; Bucht, B; Roffey, R; Anäs, P

    1978-06-01

    Bacterial spores from a sandstorm area north of the Black Sea were transmitted to Sweden by air, giving increased concentrations of viable bacterial spores at two air sampling stations in Sweden. PMID:677884

  10. Fire Stations - 2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — Fire Station Locations in Kansas Any location where fire fighters are stationed at or based out of, or where equipment that such personnel use in carrying out their...

  11. Streamflow Gaging Stations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This map layer shows selected streamflow gaging stations of the United States, Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin Islands, in 2013. Gaging stations, or gages, measure...

  12. Fire Stations - 2009

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — Fire Stations in Kansas Any location where fire fighters are stationed or based out of, or where equipment that such personnel use in carrying out their jobs is...

  13. Hammond Bay Biological Station

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Hammond Bay Biological Station (HBBS), located near Millersburg, Michigan, is a field station of the USGS Great Lakes Science Center (GLSC). HBBS was established by...

  14. Weather Radar Stations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — These data represent Next-Generation Radar (NEXRAD) and Terminal Doppler Weather Radar (TDWR) weather radar stations within the US. The NEXRAD radar stations are...

  15. Water Level Station History

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Images contain station history information for 175 stations in the National Water Level Observation Network (NWLON). The NWLON is a network of long-term,...

  16. Reference Climatological Stations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Reference Climatological Stations (RCS) network represents the first effort by NOAA to create and maintain a nationwide network of stations located only in...

  17. RadNet-Air Near Real Time Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — RadNet-Air is a national network of air monitoring stations that regularly collect air samples for near real time analysis of radioactivity. The data is transmitted...

  18. US Air Force Balloon Observations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Worksheets containing pilot balloon data computed from releases at Air Force stations in the western United States. Elevation and azimuth angles are used to compute...

  19. Estimates of Cl atom concentrations and hydrocarbon kinetic reactivity in surface air at Appledore Island, Maine (USA), during International Consortium for Atmospheric Research on Transport and Transformation/Chemistry of Halogens at the Isles of Shoals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pszenny, Alexander A. P.; Fischer, Emily V.; Russo, Rachel S.; Sive, Barkley C.; Varner, Ruth K.

    2007-05-01

    Average hydroxyl radical (OH) to chlorine atom (Cl·) ratios ranging from 45 to 119 were determined from variability-lifetime relationships for selected nonmethane hydrocarbons (NMHC) in surface air from six different transport sectors arriving at Appledore Island, Maine, during July 2004. Multiplying these ratios by an assumed average OH concentration of 2.5 × 106 cm-3 yielded estimates of Cl· concentrations of 2.2 to 5.6 × 104 cm-3. Summed reaction rates of methane and more than 30 abundant NMHCs with OH and Cl· suggest that Cl· reactions increased the kinetic reactivity of hydrocarbons by 16% to 30% over that due to OH alone in air associated with the various transport sectors. Isoprene and other abundant biogenic alkenes were the most important hydrocarbon contributors after methane to overall kinetic reactivity.

  20. The USA-National Phenology Network Biophysical Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Losleben, M. V.; Crimmins, T. M.; Weltzin, J. F.

    2009-12-01

    On January 1, 2009, the USA National Phenology Network (USA-NPN, www.usanpn.org) launched the USA-NPN Biophysical Program. The overarching goal of the Biophysical Program (BP) is to link phenology, the study of recurring plant and animal life cycle stages, with climate through the integration of phenology observations, meteorological, and spectral remote sensing measurements at sites across a broad a spectrum of environments. Phenology is critical for understanding a changing world. Many of the recurring plant and animal life cycle stages such as leafing and flowering of plants, maturation of agricultural crops, emergence of insects, and migration of birds are sensitive to climatic variation and change, and are simple to observe and record. Such changes can effect, for example, timing mismatches between the emergence of food sources and the arrival of migrating populations, or create new disease and invasive species vectors via increasingly suitable growing seasons relative to the climatic life cycle requirements of hosts or the organisms themselves. New vectors or crashing populations can have major repercussions on entire ecosystems and regional economics. Thus, to track phenology and build a national database, the USA-NPN is providing standard phenology monitoring protocols. Further, the integration of weather stations with phenological data provides an opportunity to understand how a changing climate is altering phenology. Thus, the USA-NPN Biophysical Program is developing an integrative biology-climate site template for widespread dissemination, in collaboration with the Rocky Mountain Biological Laboratory (RMBL, http://rmbl.org/rockymountainbiolab/). This poster presents the USA-NPN Biophysical Program, and the results of the collaboration with RMBL during the summer of 2009, including the installation of an elevational network of climate stations. The National Science Foundation’s Major Research Instrumentation (NSF’s MRI) program provides funding

  1. Tšarterkool USA-s / Johannes Kiersch

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kiersch, Johannes

    2001-01-01

    24.-27. mainì 01 toimub Tallinnas EFFE 2001 (European Forum of Freedom in Education) konverents "Haridus tänases kodanikuühiskonnas." Konverentsil esineb ka Witteni Waldorf-pedagoogika Instituudi õppejõud Johannes Kiersch. Lähemalt tema artiklist USA-s populaarsust võitvate tsharterkoolide kohta, mis on riigi- ja erakooli vahevorm

  2. Interpretation of borehole geophysical logs, aquifer-isolation tests, and water quality, supply wells 1 and 2, Willow Grove Naval Air Station/Joint Reserve Base, Horsham Township, Montgomery County, Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloto, Ronald A.; Goode, Daniel J.; Frasch, Steven M.

    2002-01-01

    Ground water pumped from supply wells 1 and 2 on the Willow Grove Naval Air Station/Joint Reserve Base (NAS/JRB) provides water for use at the base, including potable water for drinking. The supply wells have been contaminated by volatile organic compounds (VOC?s), particularly trichloroethylene (TCE) and tetrachloroethylene (PCE), and the water is treated to remove the VOC?s. The Willow Grove NAS/JRB and surrounding area are underlain by sedimentary rocks of the Triassic-age Stockton Formation, which form a complex, heterogeneous aquifer. The ground-water-flow system for the supply wells was characterized by use of borehole geophysical logs and heatpulse-flowmeter measurements. The heatpulse-flowmeter measurements showed upward and downward borehole flow under nonpumping conditions in both wells. The hydraulic and chemical properties of discrete water-bearing fractures in the supply wells were characterized by isolating each water-bearing fracture with straddle packers. Eight fractures in supply well 1 and five fractures in supply well 2 were selected for testing on the basis of the borehole geophysical logs and borehole television surveys. Water samples were collected from each isolated fracture and analyzed for VOC?s and inorganic constituents. Fractures at 50?59, 79?80, 196, 124?152, 182, 241, 256, and 350?354 ft btoc (feet below top of casing) were isolated in supply well 1. Specific capacities ranged from 0.26 to 5.7 (gal/min)/ft (gallons per minute per foot) of drawdown. The highest specific capacity was for the fracture isolated at 179.8?188 ft btoc. Specific capacity and depth of fracture were not related in either supply well. The highest concentrations of PCE were in water samples collected from fractures isolated at 236.8?245 and 249.8?258 ft btoc, which are hydraulically connected. The concentration of PCE generally increased with depth to a maximum of 39 mg/L (micrograms per liter) at a depth of 249.8? 258 ft btoc and then decreased to 21 mg/L at a

  3. Environmental Measurements Laboratory. Regional Baseline Station, Chester, New Jersey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research programs conducted at the Regional Baseline Station at Chester, NJ during 1981 are reported. Data are presented on chemical air pollutants and background radiation. Items within the scope of EDB have been entered individually into the data base

  4. Outdoor Field Experience with Autonomous Stations

    CERN Document Server

    Lopes, L; Blanco, A; Carolino, N; Cerda, M A; Conceicao, R; Cunha, O; Ferreira, M; Fonte, P; Luz, R; Mendes, L; Pereira, A; Pimenta, M; Sarmento, R; Tome, B

    2016-01-01

    In the last two decades Resistive Plate Chambers were employed in the Cosmic Ray Experiments COVER-PLASTEX and ARGO/YBJ. In both experiments the detectors were housed indoors, likely owing to gas distribution requirements and the need to control environment variables that directly affect RPCs operational stability. But in experiments where Extended Air Shower (EAS) sampling is necessary, large area arrays composed by dispersed stations are deployed, rendering this kind of approach impossible. In this situation, it would be mandatory to have detectors that could be deployed in small standalone stations, with very rare opportunities for maintenance, and with good resilience to environmental conditions. Aiming to meet these requirements, we started some years ago the development of RPCs for Autonomous Stations. The results from indoor tests and measurements were very promising, both concerning performance and stability under very low gas flow rate, which is the main requirement for Autonomous Stations. In this w...

  5. Beaver Valley Power Station and Shippingport Atomic Power Station. 1984 Annual environmental report, radiological. Volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes the Radiological Environmental Monitoring Program conducted during 1984 in the vicinity of the Beaver Valley Power Station and the Shippingport Atomic Power Station. The Radiological Environmental Program consists of on-site sampling of water and gaseous effluents and off-site monitoring of water, air, river sediments, soils, food pathway samples, and radiation levels in the vicinity of the site. This report discusses the results of this monitoring during 1984. The environmental program outlined in the Beaver Valley Power Station Technical Specifications was followed throughout 1984. The results of this environmental monitoring program show that Shippingport Atomic Power Station and Beaver Valley Power Station operations have not adversely affected the surrounding environment. 23 figs., 18 tabs

  6. Non-Coop Station History

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Station history documentation for stations outside the US Cooperative Observer network. Primarily National Weather Service stations assigned WBAN station IDs. Other...

  7. Anisotropy of successive air showers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochi, N.; Wada, T.; Yamashita, Y.; Ohashi, A.; Yamamoto, I.; Nakatsuka, T.; Large Area Air Shower (LAAS) Group

    2001-04-01

    We have investigated the anisotropy of successive air shower (SAS) events, which we define as the detection of many air showers within a short time window, using data from six stations of the Large Area Air Shower (LAAS) group. On the criterion of 22 air showers within 20 minutes, five SAS events are found against 1.4 expected from the Poisson distribution in Okayama University station's data. From six stations' data, we find 24 SAS events in total. By plotting them in equatorial coordinates, it is revealed that SAS events are observed more frequently when the Galactic plane is around the zenith. This can be attributed to a hypothetical small flux of ultra-high-energy γ-rays from the direction of the Galactic plane superposed on conventional cosmic rays. If this hypothesis is true, the analytical procedure used here has potential to measure ultra-high-energy γ-ray sources by even small air shower arrays like ours.

  8. Anisotropy of successive air showers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have investigated the anisotropy of successive air shower (SAS) events, which we define as the detection of many air showers within a short time window, using data from six stations of the Large Area Air Shower (LAAS) group. On the criterion of 22 air showers within 20 minutes, five SAS events are found against 1.4 expected from the Poisson distribution in Okayama University station's data. From six stations' data, we find 24 SAS events in total. By plotting them in equatorial coordinates, it is revealed that SAS events are observed more frequently when the Galactic plane is around the zenith. This can be attributed to a hypothetical small flux of ultra-high-energy γ-rays from the direction of the Galactic plane superposed on conventional cosmic rays. If this hypothesis is true, the analytical procedure used here has potential to measure ultra-high-energy γ-ray sources by even small air shower arrays like ours

  9. Go.USA.gov URL Shortner API

    Data.gov (United States)

    General Services Administration — The Go.USA.gov REST API allows you interact with Go.USA.gov by shortening URLs, previewing long urls, and getting the number of clicks to a Go.USA.gov URL.. An API...

  10. Microbiology on Space Station Freedom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierson, Duane L. (Editor); Mcginnis, Michael R. (Editor); Mishra, S. K. (Editor); Wogan, Christine F. (Editor)

    1991-01-01

    This panel discussion convened in Houston, Texas, at the Lunar and Planetary Institute, on November 6 to 8, 1989, to review NASA's plans for microbiology on Space Station Freedom. A panel of distinguished scientists reviewed, validated, and recommended revisions to NASA's proposed acceptability standards for air, water, and internal surfaces on board Freedom. Also reviewed were the proposed microbiology capabilities and monitoring plan, disinfection procedures, waste management, and clinical issues. In the opinion of this advisory panel, ensuring the health of the Freedom's crews requires a strong goal-oriented research effort to determine the potential effects of microorganisms on the crewmembers and on the physical environment of the station. Because there are very few data addressing the fundamental question of how microgravity influences microbial function, the panel recommended establishing a ground-based microbial model of Freedom, with subsequent evaluation using in-flight shuttle data. Sampling techniques and standards will be affected by both technological advances in microgravity-compatible instrumentation, and by changes in the microbial population over the life of the station.

  11. Euroopa teadis USA salavanglaist / Tõnis Erilaid

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Erilaid, Tõnis, 1943-

    2005-01-01

    USA endise välisministri Colin Powelli sõnul pole see tema sõpradele Euroopas uudiseks, et USA on viinud vange riikidesse, kus tema seadused ei kehti. USA praeguse välisministri Condoleezza Rice'i sõnul on USA vange üle kuulanud väljaspool USA-d. USA Today kirjeldab Stare Kiejkuty küla Poolas, kus arvatavasti on olnud salavangla

  12. Measurement of 7Be in CTBT radionuclide stations verification samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) International Monitoring System (IMS) radionuclide network, including 80 stations, was designed to monitor nuclear test all over the word. The stations should be certified by CTBT to comply with the technical requirements. Among the certification tests carried out at each station, parallel sampling with portable particle sampler is performed. The verification samples from the portable air sampler will be analyzed at radionuclide laboratories to calibrate the equipment of stations. According to technical requirement of radionuclide station certification, this article deduced the formula of 7Be radioactivity concentration. The preparation and analysis procedure of verification samples were established. As part of certification of radionuclide stations RN42 and RN56, the verification samples from these two stations were measured by HPGe γ spectrometer in Beijing Radionuclide Laboratory. (authors)

  13. Reduction of noxious substance emissions at the pulverized fuel combustion in the combustor of the BKZ-160 boiler of the Almaty heat electropower station using the "Overfire Air" technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Askarova, A. S.; Messerle, V. E.; Ustimenko, A. B.; Bolegenova, S. A.; Bolegenova, S. A.; Maximov, V. Yu.; Yergalieva, A. B.

    2016-01-01

    The computational experiments using the "Overfire Air" (OFA) technology at the coal dust torch combustion in the combustor of the BKZ-160 boiler of the heat power plant No. 2 in Almaty have been conducted. The results show a possibility of reaching a reduction of the emission of noxious nitrogen oxides NO x and minimizing the energy losses. The results of numerical experiments on the influence of the additional air supply on the main characteristics of heat and mass transfer are presented. A comparison with the base regime of the solid fuel combustion when there is no supply of the additional air (OFA = 0 %) has been made.

  14. Amtrak Rail Stations (National)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — Updated database of the Federal Railroad Administration's (FRA) Amtrak Station database. This database is a geographic data set containing Amtrak intercity railroad...

  15. Cooperative Station History Forms

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Various forms, photographs and correspondence documenting the history of Cooperative station instrumentation, location changes, inspections, and...

  16. Air Quality Monitoring Programme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kemp, K.; Palmgren, F.

    The air quality in Danish cities has been monitored continuously since 1982 within the Danish Air Quality (LMP) network. The aim has been to follow the concentration levels of toxic pollutants in the urban atmosphere and to provide the necessary knowledge to assess the trends, to perform source...... apportionment, and to evaluate the chemical reactions and the dispersion of the pollutants in the atmosphere. In 2002 the air quality was measured in four Danish cities and at two background sites. NO2 and PM10 were at several stations found in concentrations above the new EU limit values, which the Member...

  17. USA-s valmib Eesti reisisaadete sari / Maris Meiessaar

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Meiessaar, Maris

    2009-01-01

    Eesti juurtega ameerika filmimees James Tusty oma dokfilmi "Laulev revolutsioon" sünnist ja retseptsioonist. Praegu valmistub ta koos Allfilmiga Euroopa telekanalite jaoks tegema filmi sellesuvisest laulupeost ning USA televisiooni jaoks 13-osalist sarja "Estonia"

  18. Pepeljajev eesti näitlejatega USA-s

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2008-01-01

    Sasha Pepeljajevi tantsulavastust "Uksed" etendati USA rahvusvahelisel teatrifestivalil "Arts & Ideas". Vene-Eesti trupi Apparatus lavastus on pühendatud Daniil Harmsi 100. sünniaastapäevale ning põhineb tema töödel

  19. Future USA development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The planning for further development in the USA at this time is a mixture of expectation and guessing. Modeling development is certain to continue, but the target reactor is uncertain. The next plant may or may not use the FFTR driver fuel design. The planning, therefore, emphasizes fundamentals and flexibility. There are many options to be modeled. The FFTF driver fuel performance in FFTF must be evaluated; both the reference and improved designs. A decision to use the FFTR driver design in the large plant will demand predictions on the effects of axial blankets, constant power (rather than decreasing) throughout life, and power changes, behavior beyond breach and design basis transients in large plants. A decision favoring a lower doubling time oxide design adds the effects of higher strength/lower swelling alloys, increased pin diameter, reduced cladding thickness/diameter, increased smeared density, gap versus pellet density, and reduced pin pitch/diameter. A helium bonded carbide design adds concern about increased potential for fuel-cladding-assembly mechanical interactions. And blanket pin performance predictions, either in a homogeneous or a heterogeneous core, add an increasing power history and enhanced assembly interactions. It is possible that the decision will be to choose a first core and retain all options for later cores. The modeling objective, for whatever options are chosen, is to predict the effect of normal and off-normal design conditions on performance limits (i.e., fuel temperature, pin deformation, pin lifetime). Several significant uncertainties in the mechanisms associated with the performance limits remain and will be addressed. These include gap closure, gap conductance and fuel properties at higher burnup, fuel-fission product reactions, retained gas, breach mechanisms, assembly interactions and behavior beyond breach, plus establishing appropriate criteria. The LIFE system, with its elements of 1D and 2D fundamental modeling

  20. The Station System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, David W.

    1970-01-01

    Describes an introductory college chemistry course utilizing laboratory stations and laboratory instruction by video taped presentations. Author discusses the general operation of the laboratory, the method used in evaluating students' progress, the teaching effectiveness and economy of the station system. Results of a student questionnaire reveal…

  1. Meyrin Petrol Station

    CERN Document Server

    2006-01-01

    Please note that the Meyrin petrol station will be closed for maintenance work on Tuesday 19 and Wednesday 20 December 2006. If you require petrol during this period we invite you to use the Prévessin petrol station, which will remain open. TS-IC-LO Section Tel.: 77039 - 73793

  2. SPS rectifier stations

    CERN Multimedia

    1974-01-01

    The first of the twelves SPS rectifier stations for the bending magnets arrived at CERN at the end of the year. The photograph shows a station with the rectifiers on the left and in the other three cubicles the chokes, capacitors and resistor of the passive filter.

  3. Nuclear power stations licensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The judicial aspects of nuclear stations licensing are presented. The licensing systems of the United States, Spain, France and Federal Republic of Germany are focused. The decree n0 60.824 from July 7 sup(th), 1967 and the following legislation which define the systematic and area of competence in nuclear stations licensing are analysed

  4. Secure base stations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosch, Peter; Brusilovsky, Alec; McLellan, Rae; Mullender, Sape; Polakos, Paul

    2009-01-01

    With the introduction of the third generation (3G) Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS) base station router (BSR) and fourth generation (4G) base stations, such as the 3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP) Long Term Evolution (LTE) Evolved Node B (eNB), it has become important to se

  5. Electric Vehicle Charging Stations as a Climate Change Mitigation Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cave, Bridget; DeYoung, Russell J.

    2014-01-01

    In order to facilitate the use of electric vehicles at NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC), charging stations should be made available to LaRC employees. The implementation of charging stations would decrease the need for gasoline thus decreasing CO2 emissions improving local air quality and providing a cost savings for LaRC employees. A charging station pilot program is described that would install stations as the need increased and also presents a business model that pays for the electricity used and installation at no cost to the government.

  6. Dengue in Florida (USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge R. Rey

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Florida (USA, particularly the southern portion of the State, is in a precarious situation concerning arboviral diseases. The geographic location, climate, lifestyle, and the volume of travel and commerce are all conducive to arbovirus transmission. During the last decades, imported dengue cases have been regularly recorded in Florida, and the recent re-emergence of dengue as a major public health concern in the Americas has been accompanied by a steady increase in the number of imported cases. In 2009, there were 28 cases of locally transmitted dengue in Key West, and in 2010, 65 cases were reported. Local transmission was also reported in Martin County in 2013 (29 cases, and isolated locally transmitted cases were also reported from other counties in the last five years. Dengue control and prevention in the future will require close cooperation between mosquito control and public health agencies, citizens, community and government agencies, and medical professionals to reduce populations of the vectors and to condition citizens and visitors to take personal protection measures that minimize bites by infected mosquitoes.

  7. Search for molecular bremsstrahlung radiation signals in Ku band with coincidental operations of radio telescopes with air shower detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Microwave radiation from extensive air showers is expected to provide a new technique to observe UHECR. We developed three set of radio telescopes in Osaka, in Kobe and at Telescope Array site in Utah, USA. In Osaka, we are coincidentally operating two Ku band radio telescopes with an air shower array which consists of nine plastic scintillators with about 10 m separation. In Kobe, we have started the operation of twelve radio telescopes of 1.2 m diameter in March 2012. In Utah, we installed two telescopes just beside the Black Rock Mesa fluorescence detector (FD) station of the Telescope Array experiment, and we operated the radio telescopes coincidentally with FD event triggers. We report the experimental setups and the results of these measurements.

  8. Ergonomic and anthropometric issues of the forward Apache crew station

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oudenhuijzen, A.J.K.

    1999-01-01

    This paper describes the anthropometric accommodation in the Apache crew systems. These activities are part of a comprehensive project, in a cooperative effort from the Armstrong Laboratory at Wright Patterson Air Force Base (Dayton, Ohio, USA) and TNO Human Factors Research Institute (TNO HFRI) in

  9. USA pelgab Hiina tehnoloogialuuret / Tõnis Arnover

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Arnover, Tõnis, 1952-

    2005-01-01

    Hiina Ameerika-vastasest majandusluurest. USA luureameti andmetel on USA-s loodud üle kolme tuhande Hiina firma, kelle ülesandeks on tööstusliku või sõjalise tehnoloogia hankimine. Vt. samas: Hiina firmad ostavad üha suuremaid USA ettevõtteid

  10. Kohtusid Eesti ja USA presidendid

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2007-01-01

    25. juunil 2007 kohtusid Washingtonis Valges Majas USA president George W. Bush ja Eesti president Toomas Hendrik Ilves. Kõne all oli viisavabadus, arengud Afganistanis ja Iraagis, NATO küberkaitsekeskuse loomine Tallinna. T.H. Ilves kohtus ka USA Kongressi Esindajatekoja spiikri Nancy Pelosi, kaitseminister Robert Gates'i ja parlamendiliikmetega. Vabariigi President töövisiidil Ameerika Ühendriikides 25.-26.06.2007

  11. Reprocessing (1): Barnwell, USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The matter discussed is whether the US Administration will allow a large reprocessing plant, located in a South Carolina forest, to start operations. Constructed by private industry at a cost so far of some 250 million dollars, this facility could become either a key component in the US nuclear power programme, or a massively expensive white elephant. Designed as the first full-scale commercial plant to reprocess spent fuel from power reactors, the facility is falling victim to rising concerns about the proliferation of nuclear weapons, and its fate will probably hang on a complex series of regulatory, political and diplomatic decisions expected to be taken in the near future. Even if the Administration decides to allow the plant to start operations, however, its problems will not be entirely over. Before it can operate at full capacity additional facilities to solidify highly active wastes from the plant and to convert Pu nitrate to oxide will be required, estimated to cost 500 million dollars, a sum that private industry says it is unwilling to risk without government assistance. The plant is designed to reprocess fuel continuously from about 50 commercial power reactors, extracting Pu and U and recycling the materials as new reactor fuel. Activities of environmental and anti-nuclear groups with regard to large scale Pu production are discussed, together with the findings of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, including the holding of public hearings. Political developments are also discussed, including the establishment of international controls. The conclusion is reached that the future for reprocessing in the USA is uncertain. (U.K.)

  12. Waste Transfer Stations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    tion and transport is usually the most costly part of any waste management system; and when waste is transported over a considerable distance or for a long time, transferring the waste from the collection vehicles to more efficient transportation may be economically beneficial. This involves a...... transfer station where the transfer takes place. These stations may also be accessible by private people, offering flexibility to the waste system, including facilities for bulky waste, household hazardous waste and recyclables. Waste transfer may also take place on the collection route from small...... describes the main features of waste transfer stations, including some considerations about the economical aspects on when transfer is advisable....

  13. Waste Transfer Stations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2011-01-01

    tion and transport is usually the most costly part of any waste management system; and when waste is transported over a considerable distance or for a long time, transferring the waste from the collection vehicles to more efficient transportation may be economically beneficial. This involves a...... transfer station where the transfer takes place. These stations may also be accessible by private people, offering flexibility to the waste system, including facilities for bulky waste, household hazardous waste and recyclables. Waste transfer may also take place on the collection route from small...... describes the main features of waste transfer stations, including some considerations about the economical aspects on when transfer is advisable....

  14. Enhanced Master Station History Report

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Enhanced Master Station History Report (EMSHR) is a daily compiled list of basic, historical information for every station in the station history database,...

  15. REGIONAL AIR POLLUTION STUDY, QUALITY ASSURANCE AUDITS

    Science.gov (United States)

    RAPS Quality Assurance audits were conducted under this Task Order in continuation of the audit program previously conducted under Task Order No. 58. Quantitative field audits were conducted of the Regional Air Monitoring System (RAMS) Air Monitoring Stations, Local Air Monitorin...

  16. Television Broadcast Stations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Communications Commission — The FCC TV Query should be used to generate lists and/or retrieve information about television broadcast stations. It provides an official listing of all TV Channels.

  17. TV Analog Station Transmitters

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This file is an extract from the Consolidated Database System (CDBS) licensed by the Media Bureau. It consists of Analog Television Stations (see Rule Part47 CFR...

  18. ASOS Station Photos

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The images contained in this library are of stations in the Automated Surface Observing System (ASOS) network. These images were taken between 1998-2001 for the...

  19. Master Station History Report

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Standard/Legacy MSHR, formally identified as the DSI-9767 dataset, is the legacy dataset/report sorted by NCDC Station ID and period of record. This...

  20. Realtime USGS Streamflow Stations

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Approximately 5,000 of the 6,900 U.S. Geological Survey sampling stations are equipped with telemetry to transmit data on streamflow, temperature, and other...

  1. Mukilteo Research Station

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Research at the Mukilteo Research Station focuses on understanding the life cycle of marine species and the impacts of ecosystem stressors on anadromous and marine...

  2. Active Marine Station Metadata

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Active Marine Station Metadata is a daily metadata report for active marine bouy and C-MAN (Coastal Marine Automated Network) platforms from the National Data...

  3. USRCRN Station Information

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Documentation of United States Regional Climate Reference Network (USRCRN) installations in 2009. Installations documented are for USRCRN pilot project stations in...

  4. "Central Station" Londonis

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2000-01-01

    Londoni galeriis Milch seitsme läti, leedu ja eesti kunstniku projekt "Central Station". Kuraatorid Lisa Panting, Sally Tallant. Eestist osalevad Hanno Soans (Catarina Campinoga koostöös valminud video), Kiwa, Kai Kaljo

  5. FEMA DFIRM Station Start

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This table contains information about station starting locations. These locations indicate the reference point that was used as the origin for distance measurements...

  6. Materials Test Station

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — When completed, the Materials Test Station at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center will meet mission need. MTS will provide the only fast-reactor-like irradiation...

  7. Electrostatic pickup station

    CERN Multimedia

    1982-01-01

    Electrostatic pickup station, with 4 interleaved electrodes, to measure beam position in the horizontal and vertical plane. This type is used in the transfer lines leaving the PS (TT2, TT70, TTL2). See also 7904075.

  8. Space Station galley design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trabanino, Rudy; Murphy, George L.; Yakut, M. M.

    1986-01-01

    An Advanced Food Hardware System galley for the initial operating capability (IOC) Space Station is discussed. Space Station will employ food hardware items that have never been flown in space, such as a dishwasher, microwave oven, blender/mixer, bulk food and beverage dispensers, automated food inventory management, a trash compactor, and an advanced technology refrigerator/freezer. These new technologies and designs are described and the trades, design, development, and testing associated with each are summarized.

  9. Evaluation of VIIRS Land Surface Temperature Using CREST-SAFE Air, Snow Surface, and Soil Temperature Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos L. Pérez Díaz

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the Visible Infrared Imager Radiometer Suite (VIIRS Land Surface Temperature (LST Environmental Data Record (EDR was evaluated against snow surface (T-skin and near-surface air temperature (T-air ground observations recorded at the Cooperative Remote Sensing Science and Technology Center—Snow Analysis and Field Experiment (CREST-SAFE, located in Caribou, ME, USA during the winters of 2013 and 2014. The satellite LST corroboration of snow-covered areas is imperative because high-latitude regions are often physically inaccessible and there is a need to complement the data from the existing meteorological station networks. T-skin is not a standard meteorological parameter commonly observed at synoptic stations. Common practice is to measure surface infrared emission from the land surface at research stations across the world that allow for estimating ground-observed LST. Accurate T-skin observations are critical for estimating latent and sensible heat fluxes over snow-covered areas because the incoming and outgoing radiation fluxes from the snow mass and T-air make the snow surface temperature different from the average snowpack temperature. Precise characterization of the LST using satellite observations is an important issue because several climate and hydrological models use T-skin as input. Results indicate that T-air correlates better than T-skin with VIIRS LST data and that the accuracy of nighttime LST retrievals is considerably better than that of daytime. Based on these results, empirical relationships to estimate T-air and T-skin for clear-sky conditions from remotely-sensed (RS LST were derived. Additionally, an empirical formula to correct cloud-contaminated RS LST was developed.

  10. Air pollution meteorology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is intended as a training cum reference document for scientists posted at the Environmental Laboratories at the Nuclear Power Station Sites and other sites of the Department of Atomic Energy with installations emitting air pollutants, radioactive or otherwise. Since a manual already exists for the computation of doses from radioactive air pollutants, a general approach is take here i.e. air pollutants in general are considered. The first chapter presents a brief introduction to the need and scope of air pollution dispersion modelling. The second chapter is a very important chapter discussing the aspects of meteorology relevant to air pollution and dispersion modelling. This chapter is important because without this information one really does not understand the phenomena affecting dispersion, the scope and applicability of various models or their limitations under various weather and site conditions. The third chapter discusses the air pollution models in detail. These models are applicable to distances of a few tens of kilometres. The fourth chapter discusses the various aspects of meteorological measurements relevant to air pollution. The chapters are followed by two appendices. Apendix A discusses the reliability of air pollution estimates. Apendix B gives some practical examples relevant to general air pollution. It is hoped that the document will prove very useful to the users. (author)

  11. Microbiology facilities aboard Space Station Freedom (SSF)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cioletti, L. A.; Mishra, S. K.; Richard, Elizabeth E.; Taylor, R.

    1990-01-01

    A comprehensive microbiological facility is being designed for use on board Space Station Freedom (SSF). Its purpose will be to conduct microbial surveillance of the SSF environment and to examine clinical specimens. Air, water, and internal surfaces will be periodically monitored to satisfy requirements for a safe environment. Crew health will remain a principle objective for every mission. This paper will review the Microbiology Subsystem capabilities planned for SSF application.

  12. Mesocarnivore Photo Stations [ds26

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — This database was established to record furbearer and raptor presence through photographs taken at camera stations. The general study area where camera stations...

  13. Air Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Air pollution is a mixture of solid particles and gases in the air. Car emissions, chemicals from factories, dust, ... a gas, is a major part of air pollution in cities. When ozone forms air pollution, it's ...

  14. Air Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Air pollution is a mixture of solid particles and gases in the air. Car emissions, chemicals from factories, dust, pollen and ... Ozone, a gas, is a major part of air pollution in cities. When ozone forms air pollution, ...

  15. UMTS Network Stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, C.

    2010-09-01

    The weakness of small island electrical grids implies a handicap for the electrical generation with renewable energy sources. With the intention of maximizing the installation of photovoltaic generators in the Canary Islands, arises the need to develop a solar forecasting system that allows knowing in advance the amount of PV generated electricity that will be going into the grid, from the installed PV power plants installed in the island. The forecasting tools need to get feedback from real weather data in "real time" from remote weather stations. Nevertheless, the transference of this data to the calculation computer servers is very complicated with the old point to point telecommunication systems that, neither allow the transfer of data from several remote weather stations simultaneously nor high frequency of sampling of weather parameters due to slowness of the connection. This one project has developed a telecommunications infrastructure that allows sensorizadas remote stations, to send data of its sensors, once every minute and simultaneously, to the calculation server running the solar forecasting numerical models. For it, the Canary Islands Institute of Technology has added a sophisticated communications network to its 30 weather stations measuring irradiation at strategic sites, areas with high penetration of photovoltaic generation or that have potential to host in the future photovoltaic power plants connected to the grid. In each one of the stations, irradiance and temperature measurement instruments have been installed, over inclined silicon cell, global radiation on horizontal surface and room temperature. Mobile telephone devices have been installed and programmed in each one of the weather stations, which allow the transfer of their data taking advantage of the UMTS service offered by the local telephone operator. Every minute the computer server running the numerical weather forecasting models receives data inputs from 120 instruments distributed

  16. Risk Management in Air Protection in the Republic of Croatia

    OpenAIRE

    Peternel, Renata; Toth, Ivan; Hercog, Predrag

    2014-01-01

    In the Republic of Croatia, according to the Air Protection Act, air pollution assessment is obligatory on the whole State territory. For individual regions and populated areas in the State a network has been established for permanent air quality monitoring. The State network consists of stations for measuring background pollution, regional and cross-border remote transfer and measurements as part of international government liabilities, then stations for measuring air quality in areas of cul...

  17. 气温变化对唐山地震台跨断层形变观测的影响%Effect of air temperature variation on the cross-fault deformation observations at the Tangshan seismic station

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄建平; 石耀霖; 孙玉军; 李文静

    2012-01-01

    利用三维热一弹性模型有限元方法,模拟了唐山地震台及其周边地区在地表温度呈不同幅度的周期性变化的情况下,对台站短基线观测的影响,并对由于地表温度变化产生的应变进行了估算.计算结果表明,由于温度差异造成的观测桩距离的年变化幅度达到2mm左右,这与目前台站观测数据的年变化幅度基本一致,表明台站观测数据包含了温度的重要影响.另外,台站各基线桩的位移序列相对于温度变化滞后了1 ~1.5个月的时间.同时发现,台站短基线各测段的实际观测数据存在着同步的趋势性变化,这不是稳定年变化的温度变化能解释的,因此这种趋势变化可能与局部应力场调整或者断层活动有关.%The finite element method ( FEM) of 3D linear elastic model has been used to calculate the effect of ground temperature variation with different amplitudes to the baseline observation in and around Tangshan seismic station. And the strain induced from the ground temperature variations was also estimated. The results show that the yearly amplitude of the displacement among bench marks induced by the temperature variation can be up to 2mm or so, which is almost the same as that of the yearly variation of the data observed at the station. This means that the effect of the temperature is included in the data. What's more, the displacements among 4 bench marks and their strain serials are delayed about 1 or 1. 5 months compared with the temperature changes. At the same time, there are synchronous trend changes in the 4 segments, which cannot be explained from the temperature variation and may be connected with the strain adjustment and/or fault movements.

  18. Hydrogen Fuelling Stations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rothuizen, Erasmus Damgaard

    This thesis concerns hydrogen fuelling stations from an overall system perspective. The study investigates thermodynamics and energy consumption of hydrogen fuelling stations for fuelling vehicles for personal transportation. For the study a library concerning the components in a hydrogen fuelling...... station has been developed in Dymola. The models include the fuelling protocol (J2601) for hydrogen vehicles made by Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) and the thermodynamic property library CoolProp is used for retrieving state point. The components in the hydrogen fuelling library are building up....... A system consisting of one high pressure storage tank is used to investigate the thermodynamics of fuelling a hydrogen vehicle. The results show that the decisive parameter for how the fuelling proceeds is the pressure loss in the vehicle. The single tank fuelling system is compared to a cascade fuelling...

  19. US Air Force Data Processing Manuals

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data Processing Reference manual for United States Air Force surface stations, circa 1960s. TDF-13 stands for Tape Deck Format number 13, the format in which the...

  20. NOAA NOS SOS, EXPERIMENTAL - Air Temperature

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA NOS SOS server is part of the IOOS DIF SOS Project. The stations in this dataset have air temperature data. *These services are for testing and evaluation...

  1. Hydrogen vehicle fueling station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daney, D.E.; Edeskuty, F.J.; Daugherty, M.A. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)] [and others

    1995-09-01

    Hydrogen fueling stations are an essential element in the practical application of hydrogen as a vehicle fuel, and a number of issues such as safety, efficiency, design, and operating procedures can only be accurately addressed by a practical demonstration. Regardless of whether the vehicle is powered by an internal combustion engine or fuel cell, or whether the vehicle has a liquid or gaseous fuel tank, the fueling station is a critical technology which is the link between the local storage facility and the vehicle. Because most merchant hydrogen delivered in the US today (and in the near future) is in liquid form due to the overall economics of production and delivery, we believe a practical refueling station should be designed to receive liquid. Systems studies confirm this assumption for stations fueling up to about 300 vehicles. Our fueling station, aimed at refueling fleet vehicles, will receive hydrogen as a liquid and dispense it as either liquid, high pressure gas, or low pressure gas. Thus, it can refuel any of the three types of tanks proposed for hydrogen-powered vehicles -- liquid, gaseous, or hydride. The paper discusses the fueling station design. Results of a numerical model of liquid hydrogen vehicle tank filling, with emphasis on no vent filling, are presented to illustrate the usefulness of the model as a design tool. Results of our vehicle performance model illustrate our thesis that it is too early to judge what the preferred method of on-board vehicle fuel storage will be in practice -- thus our decision to accommodate all three methods.

  2. Fuel for CAGR stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The design of the fuel stringer consisting of 8 elements and other components is described. The heat transfer performance of the 36 pin element was extensively studied in laboratory tests. Identical pins of stainless steel clad hollow UO2 pellets were irradiated in the prototype Windscale AGR in 9 pin elements: the programme included studies of the effect of rating changes. Extensive post-irradiation examination was made of a wide variety of properties. The behaviour of the complete fuel assembly for the commercial stations under handling and flow conditions has been studied in large gas loops. The early fuel history at Hinkley Point 'B' and Hunterston 'B' stations is summarised. (author)

  3. USA asekaitseminister seisab Eesti eest

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2010-01-01

    Eestis visiidil viibiv USA asekaitseminister poliitika alal Michele Flournoy ütles, et pooldab koostöökohtade otsimist Moskvaga, kuid on kindlal seisukohal, et Venemaa ei tohi end siin piirkonnas kehtestada. Flournoy tunnustas Eesti panust Afganistani ning samuti liitlassuhetesse laiemalt

  4. Dyslexia Laws in the USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youman, Martha; Mather, Nancy

    2013-01-01

    Throughout the various states of the USA, the appropriate identification of dyslexia and the timely provision of interventions are characterized by variability and inconsistency. Several states have recognized the existence of this disorder and the well-established need for services. These states have taken proactive steps to implement laws and…

  5. USA panustab keskkonda / Jeffrey Goldstein

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Goldstein, Jeffrey

    2007-01-01

    USA uus energiapoliitika kava näeb ette bensiini tarbimise vähendamist järgneva 10 aasta jooksul 20%, mis omakorda vähendab ameeriklaste autodest eralduva süsihappegaasi heitmete kasvu ning vähendab sõltuvust naftast

  6. Sõda, mille USA on juba kaotanud / Mart Helme

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Helme, Mart, 1949-

    2003-01-01

    USA pole suutnud Iraagi-vastase sõja vajalikkust põhjendada, arvavad paljud USA poliitikavaatlejad. Rängaks diplomaatiliseks eksimuseks peetakse USA kaitseministri Donald Rumsfeldi avaldust, et USA ei vaja kellegi abi sõjas

  7. USA andis Gruusiale vastakaid signaale / Neeme Raud

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Raud, Neeme, 1969-

    2008-01-01

    USA välisministri Condoleezza Riceþi saabumisest Thbilisisse, et avaldada Gruusiale toetust. USA poolt antud soovitustest Gruusia president Mihhail Saakashvilile mitte jõudu kasutada ega alluda Venemaa provokatsioonidele ning hoiatustest sõjalise konflikti tagajärgede eest. USA analüütikute arvamusi

  8. USA suursaadikuga Tallinna lahel / Katrin Kruss

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kruss, Katrin

    2007-01-01

    USA suursaadik Stanley Davis Phillips oma haridusteest, perekonnast, armastusest mere vastu, panusest isa Earl Phillipsi mööbliäri laiendamisse, golfiharrastusest, suursaadikute ettevalmistusest USA-s, suursaadiku residentsist Pirital ning uue saatkonnahoone otsingutest Tallinnas. Lisa: Stanley Davis Phillips

  9. Power station instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Power stations are characterized by a wide variety of mechanical and electrical plant operating with structures, liquids and gases working at high pressures and temperatures and with large mass flows. The voltages and currents are also the highest that occur in most industries. In order to achieve maximum economy, the plant is operated with relatively small margins from conditions that can cause rapid plant damage, safety implications, and very high financial penalties. In common with other process industries, power stations depend heavily on control and instrumentation. These systems have become particularly significant, in the cost-conscious privatized environment, for providing the means to implement the automation implicit in maintaining safety standards, improving generation efficiency and reducing operating manpower costs. This book is for professional instrumentation engineers who need to known about their use in power stations and power station engineers requiring information about the principles and choice of instrumentation available. There are 8 chapters; chapter 4 on instrumentation for nuclear steam supply systems is indexed separately. (Author)

  10. Pickering generating station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The design, operation, and economics of the Pickering generating station are described. Pickering A comprises four 508MW(e) units and is based on the Candu system of heavy water moderated, pressurised heavy water cooled, uranium dioxide fueled, horizontal pressure tube reactor. Brief details are given of station layout and principle design parameters. Safety features are described and a brief account is given of scheduling, construction and commissioning. Operating performance is discussed. Turbine generators and auxiliaries, and the feedwater system contributed to more than half the outage time. An illustration is given of incorrect rolling operation which caused cracks in the Zr-Nb pressure tube, resulting in several leaks in Unit 3. Heavy water losses were low, as were radioactive releases. Economic features are discussed in terms of capital cost operating costs and total unit energy cost. Reference is made to Pickering B which is a 4 x 540MW(e) station, a mirror image of Pickering A, and scheduled for operation in 1980. The interest in the Pickering station being shown in many areas of the world is attributed to its simplicity, low fuel cycle cost, versatile pressure tube design features which meet requirements for safety, reliability, and maintainability. (U.K.)

  11. Space Station Final Configuration

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    An artist's conception of what the final configuration of the International Space Station (ISS) will look like when it is fully built and deployed. The ISS is a multidisciplinary laboratory, technology test bed, and observatory that will provide an unprecedented undertaking in scientific, technological, and international experimentation.

  12. Galileo Station Keeping Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Cambriles, Antonio; Bejar-Romero, Juan Antonio; Aguilar-Taboada, Daniel; Perez-Lopez, Fernando; Navarro, Daniel

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents analyses done for the design and implementation of the Maneuver Planning software of the Galileo Flight Dynamics Facility. The station keeping requirements of the constellation have been analyzed in order to identify the key parameters to be taken into account in the design and implementation of the software.

  13. INTERACT Station Catalogue - 2015

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    INTERACT stations are located in all major environmental envelopes of the Arctic providing an ideal platform for studying climate change and its impact on the environment and local communities. Since alpine environments face similar changes and challenges as the Arctic, the INTERACT network also...

  14. Biblis nuclear power station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A short constructive description of the components of the Biblis nuclear power station is given here. In addition to the heat flow diagram, the coolant cycle and the turbine control system, some details of construction and reactor safety are presented. (TK/AK)

  15. Designing a Weather Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Harry T.

    2012-01-01

    The collection and analysis of weather data is crucial to the location of alternate energy systems like solar and wind. This article presents a design challenge that gives students a chance to design a weather station to collect data in advance of a large wind turbine installation. Data analysis is a crucial part of any science or engineering…

  16. Fessenheim nuclear power station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Fessenheim nuclear power plant includes two PWR type units each with net electrical output of 890MW(e). The site and layout of the station, geological features and cooling water characteristics are described. Reference is made to other aspects of the environment such as population density and agronomy. (U.K.)

  17. Electrostatic pickup station

    CERN Multimedia

    1979-01-01

    Electrostatic pickup station, with 4 electrodes, to measure beam position in the horizontal and vertical plane. This type is used in the transfer lines leaving the PS (TT2, TTL2, TT70). See also 8206063, where the electrode shapes are clearly visible.

  18. Measurement of gamma radiation around base station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ? -radiation have been measured around base station in Isparta region of Turkey to see the contribution of base station on the background radiation. Isparta which is surrounded by high mountain of Davras is located at southern part of Turkey. There are several volcanic activity in this region. The background radiation arises from two main sources. These are natural and technological sources. The natural radiation are mainly contributed by cosmic rays and terrestrial radiation. Cosmic rays comes from outside of the atmosphere after supernova explosion in the universe. The radiation comes direct from outside of atmosphere called primer cosmic rays and some of them can create seconder particle such as neutron.proton etc after some reaction with the oxygen, nitrogen etc in the atmosphere. The origin of terrestrial radiation are some radionucleus in rocks and soils. These are mainly 40K, 238U, 232Th and their products. The terrestrial radiation depends on geological structure of the region. The other types of γ-radiation is technological origin. With the development of technology in many different fields radiation can be produced. Nowadays mobile phones are widely used technological device and this requires base station to be established around habitable area. The electromagnetic radiations from base station and its effect are always a big question in people's mind and this would be investigated. The measurement have been performed using ASP/2e counter connected to a sing NaI(Tl) γ-ray detector. It was done around five different base station and also different altitude in Davraz mountain. The radiation dose from ambient air over five months ranges from 50 to 140 nGy h-1. The contribution of base station to the natural background radiation was clearly seen in the measurement

  19. Variabilidade espacial e temporal de dados termopluviométricos diários da rede de estações agrometeorológicas do Instituto Agronômico (IAC Spatial and temporal variability of daily air temperature and precipitation data of the IAC weather station network, São Paulo State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Bento Paes de Camargo

    2005-01-01

    ção pluvial, observaram-se valores menores de SEE durante o inverno, de até 4 mm, e valores mais elevados, de até 15 mm, durante o verão. Pelas análises, os limites máximos de distâncias admitidos para explicar mais de 90% das variações dos elementos termopluviométricos entre locais foram para TMAX, 80 km (primavera-verão e 90 km (outono-inverno; para TMIN são necessários 55 km para os meses de verão, 75 km para inverno-primavera e 90 km durante o outono. Para dados pluviométricos, as distâncias de até 12 km explicam 90% da variação para os meses de verão, até 20 km para os de primavera e outono e de até 27 km para os de inverno.Ensuring continuous, good quality data from weather station networks requires a knowledge of spatial and temporal variability. This knowledge is essential to identify suspect data and provide estimates for data gaps. This study was conducted aiming to quantify and contrast the spatial and temporal variability for daily weather variables for a tropical climatic condition of the Instituto Agronômico (IAC weather station network, located in the State of São Paulo, Brazil. For a period of 20 years (1981-2000 data were available from 19 weather stations. The daily meteorological variables studied were maximum and minimum air temperature and precipitation. In the spatial analysis, a central station was paired with each of the other stations in the area. The coefficient of variation (R² and standard error of estimate (SEE were calculated by regression of daily measurements between pairs of the same weather variables for various station within the area. The SEE and R² were plotted against linear distance from the central station. Best fit lines were determined for the variograms (R² and errograms (SEE. Analysis were performed for each month. Generally, the R² decreased while the SEE increased with distance of separation between sites. A significant seasonal cycle was found in the SEE data for maximum and minimum air temperature and

  20. Hydrogen Filling Station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boehm, Robert F; Sabacky, Bruce; Anderson II, Everett B; Haberman, David; Al-Hassin, Mowafak; He, Xiaoming; Morriseau, Brian

    2010-02-24

    Hydrogen is an environmentally attractive transportation fuel that has the potential to displace fossil fuels. The Freedom CAR and Freedom FUEL initiatives emphasize the importance of hydrogen as a future transportation fuel. Presently, Las Vegas has one hydrogen fueling station powered by natural gas. However, the use of traditional sources of energy to produce hydrogen does not maximize the benefit. The hydrogen fueling station developed under this grant used electrolysis units and solar energy to produce hydrogen fuel. Water and electricity are furnished to the unit and the output is hydrogen and oxygen. Three vehicles were converted to utilize the hydrogen produced at the station. The vehicles were all equipped with different types of technologies. The vehicles were used in the day-to-day operation of the Las Vegas Valley Water District and monitoring was performed on efficiency, reliability and maintenance requirements. The research and demonstration utilized for the reconfiguration of these vehicles could lead to new technologies in vehicle development that could make hydrogen-fueled vehicles more cost effective, economical, efficient and more widely used. In order to advance the development of a hydrogen future in Southern Nevada, project partners recognized a need to bring various entities involved in hydrogen development and deployment together as a means of sharing knowledge and eliminating duplication of efforts. A road-mapping session was held in Las Vegas in June 2006. The Nevada State Energy Office, representatives from DOE, DOE contractors and LANL, NETL, NREL were present. Leadership from the National hydrogen Association Board of Directors also attended. As a result of this session, a roadmap for hydrogen development was created. This roadmap has the ability to become a tool for use by other road-mapping efforts in the hydrogen community. It could also become a standard template for other states or even countries to approach planning for a hydrogen

  1. Hydrogen Filling Station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boehm, Robert F; Sabacky, Bruce; Anderson II, Everett B; Haberman, David; Al-Hassin, Mowafak; He, Xiaoming; Morriseau, Brian

    2010-02-24

    Hydrogen is an environmentally attractive transportation fuel that has the potential to displace fossil fuels. The Freedom CAR and Freedom FUEL initiatives emphasize the importance of hydrogen as a future transportation fuel. Presently, Las Vegas has one hydrogen fueling station powered by natural gas. However, the use of traditional sources of energy to produce hydrogen does not maximize the benefit. The hydrogen fueling station developed under this grant used electrolysis units and solar energy to produce hydrogen fuel. Water and electricity are furnished to the unit and the output is hydrogen and oxygen. Three vehicles were converted to utilize the hydrogen produced at the station. The vehicles were all equipped with different types of technologies. The vehicles were used in the day-to-day operation of the Las Vegas Valley Water District and monitoring was performed on efficiency, reliability and maintenance requirements. The research and demonstration utilized for the reconfiguration of these vehicles could lead to new technologies in vehicle development that could make hydrogen-fueled vehicles more cost effective, economical, efficient and more widely used. In order to advance the development of a hydrogen future in Southern Nevada, project partners recognized a need to bring various entities involved in hydrogen development and deployment together as a means of sharing knowledge and eliminating duplication of efforts. A road-mapping session was held in Las Vegas in June 2006. The Nevada State Energy Office, representatives from DOE, DOE contractors and LANL, NETL, NREL were present. Leadership from the National hydrogen Association Board of Directors also attended. As a result of this session, a roadmap for hydrogen development was created. This roadmap has the ability to become a tool for use by other road-mapping efforts in the hydrogen community. It could also become a standard template for other states or even countries to approach planning for a hydrogen

  2. Air Abrasion

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... delivered directly to your desktop! more... What Is Air Abrasion? Article Chapters What Is Air Abrasion? What Happens? The Pros and Cons Will I Feel Anything? Is Air Abrasion for Everyone? print full article print this ...

  3. 国际空间站舱内空气温湿度控制技术综述%Overview of cabin air temperature and humidity control techniques in International Space Station

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卜珺珺; 曹军; 杨晓林

    2013-01-01

    The environmental control and life support system (ECLSS) for a manned space craft is quite different from that for an unmanned spacecraft, with the cabin air temperature and humidity control (THC) as a key part. Taking the US cabin as an example, the paper reviews the scenarios of each cabin THC onboard the ISS, including the design indices, the buildup of the hardware and the techniques adopted. The key techniques of the THC onboard the ISS are discussed, including the condensing heat exchanger (CHX), and its internal mechanisms of the heat eliminating and the vapor condensing. With a new type porous media CHX of NASA in mind, the paper comments on the development direction of the future CHX.%与非载人航天器不同的是,载人航天器有环控生保系统,而舱内空气温湿度控制又是环控生保系统的一项重要内容.文章跟踪和介绍了国际空间站各舱内的温湿度控制方案,包括设计指标、硬件组成及所采用的技术;重点评述了国际空间站舱内温湿度控制系统的关键设备——冷凝干燥器组件及其降温除湿原理;最后结合NASA近年来研究的多孔渗水冷凝干燥器,指出未来冷凝干燥器的发展方向.

  4. Battery charging stations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergey, M.

    1997-12-01

    This paper discusses the concept of battery charging stations (BCSs), designed to service rural owners of battery power sources. Many such power sources now are transported to urban areas for recharging. A BCS provides the opportunity to locate these facilities closer to the user, is often powered by renewable sources, or hybrid systems, takes advantage of economies of scale, and has the potential to provide lower cost of service, better service, and better cost recovery than other rural electrification programs. Typical systems discussed can service 200 to 1200 people, and consist of stations powered by photovoltaics, wind/PV, wind/diesel, or diesel only. Examples of installed systems are presented, followed by cost figures, economic analysis, and typical system design and performance numbers.

  5. Central Station Design Options

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of EDISON Work Package 4.1 is the evaluation of possible Central (charging) Stations design options for making possible the public charging of Electric Vehicles (EVs). A number of scenarios for EVs are assessed, with special emphasis on the options of Fast Charging and Battery Swapping...... charging, rated at 50 kW, fast charging would be easier in both Denmark and Bornholm scenarios. For each scenario and charging power level, the possible number of EVs is estimated and finally architectural design options are proposed. Technical assessment is performed for evaluating the benefits.......g. due to vandalism, the charge supply circuit is disconnected. More electrical vehicles on the market are capable today of quick charging up to 50 kW power level. The feasibility of Central Stations with fast charging/swapping option, their capacity, design, costs and grid impact, as well as battery...

  6. Carbon Monoxide Monitoring at Stationary and Mobile Stations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Pourmahabadian

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine citizen exposures to CO in Kermanshah city. Measurements were made through 20 stationary and 54 mobile stations in different areas of the city and totally 2240 air samples were collected. Different variables such as weekly days, daytime (morning and afternoon, seasons, wind effects and taxi ages were investigated. The results showed that minimum CO concentration levels are existed at less traffic area stations in summer. But maximum levels of CO concentrations were observed in commercial area stations in winter and in all mobile stations CO concentration levels were very high. CO concentration variation levels were exceeded from 9 ppm for 8 h and 35 ppm for 1 h, as specified by US EPA at commercial area stations and all mobile stations. High concentration levels of CO concentrations belong to taxi cabin in fall season, so that by increasing taxi age (based on car making year or year of registration from 8 to 21 years, CO concentration levels came down and up in spring and summer, respectively. In addition, the results showed that CO concentration levels in even highly polluted of commercial area station decreases considerably on weekend (Friday and at high wind speed of 3.5 m sec-1. But, high CO concentrations levels were observed at different seasons in all mobile stations. Finally, variation patterns of CO concentrations inside of taxi cabin are related to the driving speed of taxi and CO peak concentrations after sudden brake are higher than 60 ppm.

  7. Automatic Traffic Recorder (ATR) Stations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The data included in the GIS Traffic Stations Version database have been assimilated from station description files provided by FHWA for Weigh-in-Motion (WIM), and...

  8. Weigh-in-Motion Stations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The data included in the GIS Traffic Stations Version database have been assimilated from station description files provided by FHWA for Weigh-in-Motion (WIM), and...

  9. Emergency Medical Service (EMS) Stations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — EMS Locations in Kansas The EMS stations dataset consists of any location where emergency medical services (EMS) personnel are stationed or based out of, or where...

  10. Shippingport station communications program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author discusses how the communications program for the Shippingport Atomic Power Station has a long history. It can be traced as far back as 1953, when the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) awarded a contract to Westinghouse Electric to design the nuclear portion of a power plant for electric utility use. During May of the next year, President Eisenhower initiated groundbreaking ceremonies for the construction of the commercial atomic power plant at Shippingport, Pennsylvania

  11. Tropospheric ozone and precursors at the Porspoder station, France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dutot, A.L.; Colin, P.; Etienne, A.; Boudries, H.; Toupance, G.; Perros, P.; Maillet, M. [Lab. Inter-Universitaire des Systemes Atmospheriques (LISA), Creteil (France)

    1997-12-31

    The geographical position of the Porspoder station has been chosen to solve two principal questions: (a) to quantify the chemical composition of the air masses coming from the Atlantic Ocean. This chemical composition represents the oceanic background, the clean European air before the photochemical evolution above the continent; (b) in contrast, during anticyclonic situations, one can model the influence of the European plume on the chemistry of the oceanic boundary layer of the North Atlantic. (orig.)

  12. Asthma aggravation, combustion, and stagnant air

    OpenAIRE

    Norris, G; Larson, T; Koenig, J.; Claiborn, C.; Sheppard, L; D. Finn

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND—The relationship between current concentrations of ambient air pollution and adverse health effects is controversial. We report a meteorological index of air stagnation that is associated with daily visits to the emergency department for asthma in two urban areas.
METHODS—Data on daily values of a stagnation persistence index and visits to the emergency department for asthma were collected for approximately two years in Spokane, Washington, USA and for 15months...

  13. Adiabatic Liquid Piston Compressed Air Energy Storage

    OpenAIRE

    Petersen, Tage; Elmegaard, Brian; Pedersen, Allan Schrøder

    2013-01-01

    This project investigates the potential of a Compressed Air Energy Storage system (CAES system). CAES systems are used to store mechanical energy in the form of compressed air. The systems use electricity to drive the compressor at times of low electricity demand with the purpose of converting the mechanical energy into electricity at times of high electricity demand. Two such systems are currently in operation; one in Germany (Huntorf) and one in the USA (Macintosh, Alabama). In both cases, ...

  14. Space station: Cost and benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    Costs for developing, producing, operating, and supporting the initial space station, a 4 to 8 man space station, and a 4 to 24 man space station are estimated and compared. These costs include contractor hardware; space station assembly and logistics flight costs; and payload support elements. Transportation system options examined include orbiter modules; standard and extended duration STS fights; reusable spacebased perigee kick motor OTV; and upper stages. Space station service charges assessed include crew hours; energy requirements; payload support module storage; pressurized port usage; and OTV service facility. Graphs show costs for science missions, space processing research, small communication satellites; large GEO transportation; OVT launch costs; DOD payload costs, and user costs.

  15. Variability of benzene exposure among filling station attendants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A monitoring survey of filling station attendants aimed at identifying sources of variability of exposure to benzene and other aromatics was carried out. Concurrent samples of the worker's breathing zone air, atmospheric air in the service station proximity, and gasoline were collected, along with information about daily workloads and other exposure-related factors. Benzene personal exposure was characterised by a small between-worker variability and a predominant within-worker variance component. Such elevated day-to-day variability yields to imprecise estimates of mean personal exposure. Almost 70% of the overall personal exposure variance was explained by a model including daily benzene from dispensed fuel, presence of a shelter over the refueling area, amount of fuel supplied to the station if a delivery occurred, and background atmospheric benzene concentration

  16. Turbo-generator sets in conventional and nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development of unit power in conventional and nuclear power stations in Germany and the USA - the development of design criteria for conventional and reheat turbines - a survey of constructional types and problems of conventional reheat turbines by the example of turbine types for 150, 300, 600 and 1,200 MW - saturated steam turbines for boiling-water and pressurized-water reactors - maintenance, automatics, and turbine protection systems - reliability and availability - common turbine defects: outlook on limiting outputs of turbines and generators with different cooling systems and low-pressure parts. (orig./AK)

  17. Mir Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    This is a view of the Russian Mir Space Station photographed by a crewmember of the fifth Shuttle/Mir docking mission, STS-81. The image shows: upper center - Progress supply vehicle, Kvant-1 module, and Core module; center left - Priroda module; center right - Spektr module; bottom left - Kvant-2 module; bottom center - Soyuz; and bottom right - Kristall module and Docking module. The Progress was an unmarned, automated version of the Soyuz crew transfer vehicle, designed to resupply the Mir. The Kvant-1 provided research in the physics of galaxies, quasars, and neutron stars, by measuring electromagnetic spectra and x-ray emissions. The Core module served as the heart of the space station and contained the primary living and working areas, life support, and power, as well as the main computer, communications, and control equipment. Priroda's main purpose was Earth remote sensing. The Spektr module provided Earth observation. It also supported research into biotechnology, life sciences, materials science, and space technologies. American astronauts used the Spektr as their living quarters. Kvant-2 was a scientific and airlock module, providing biological research, Earth observations, and EVA (extravehicular activity) capability. The Soyuz typically ferried three crewmembers to and from the Mir. A main purpose of the Kristall module was to develop biological and materials production technologies in the space environment. The Docking module made it possible for the Space Shuttle to dock easily with the Mir. The journey of the 15-year-old Russian Mir Space Station ended March 23, 2001, as the Mir re-entered the Earth's atmosphere and fell into the south Pacific Ocean.

  18. Capacity at Railway Stations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Landex, Alex

    2011-01-01

    zone(s) the possible conflicts with other trains (also in the opposite direction) are taken into account leading to more trustworthy results. Although the UIC 406 methodology proposes that the railway network should be divided into line sections when trains turn around and when the train order is...... changed, this paper recommends that the railway lines are not always be divided. In case trains turn around on open (single track) line, the capacity consumption may be too low if a railway line is divided. The same can be the case if only few trains are overtaken at an overtaking station. For dead end...

  19. Submerged AUV Charging Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jack A.; Chao, Yi; Curtin, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Autonomous Underwater Vehicles (AUVs) are becoming increasingly important for military surveillance and mine detection. Most AUVs are battery powered and have limited lifetimes of a few days to a few weeks. This greatly limits the distance that AUVs can travel underwater. Using a series of submerged AUV charging stations, AUVs could travel a limited distance to the next charging station, recharge its batteries, and continue to the next charging station, thus traveling great distances in a relatively short time, similar to the Old West “Pony Express.” One solution is to use temperature differences at various depths in the ocean to produce electricity, which is then stored in a submerged battery. It is preferred to have the upper buoy submerged a reasonable distance below the surface, so as not to be seen from above and not to be inadvertently destroyed by storms or ocean going vessels. In a previous invention, a phase change material (PCM) is melted (expanded) at warm temperatures, for example, 15 °C, and frozen (contracted) at cooler temperatures, for example, 8 °C. Tubes containing the PCM, which could be paraffin such as pentadecane, would be inserted into a container filled with hydraulic oil. When the PCM is melted (expanded), it pushes the oil out into a container that is pressurized to about 3,000 psi (approx equals 20.7 MPa). When a valve is opened, the high-pressure oil passes through a hydraulic motor, which turns a generator and charges a battery. The low-pressure oil is finally reabsorbed into the PCM canister when the PCM tubes are frozen (contracted). Some of the electricity produced could be used to control an external bladder or a motor to the tether line, such that depth cycling is continued for a very long period of time. Alternatively, after the electricity is generated by the hydraulic motor, the exiting low-pressure oil from the hydraulic motor could be vented directly to an external bladder on the AUV, such that filling of the bladder

  20. LAAS network observation of air showers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A network observation of air showers is in progress in Japan. Researchers from 10 institutions are taking part in the network, forming the Large Area Air Shower (LAAS) group. As of June 2000, eight air shower arrays (stations) are in operation, while five more stations are under construction. The stations are scattered over an enormous area of 130,000 km2, however the Global Positioning System (GPS) provides comparable time stamps among them with an accuracy of one microsecond. The aim of the network is to find out correlations in primary cosmic rays just below the knee. The data from the planned Norikura array (2,770 m a.s.l.) is expected to reveal new aspects of correlated cosmic rays. The current status of the network and performance of arrays calculated by the air shower simulation code CORSIKA are described here

  1. Eesti on USA uus lemmik / Argo Ideon

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ideon, Argo, 1966-

    2007-01-01

    President Toomas Hendrik Ilvese visiidist Washingtoni, kohtumistest USA presidendi George W. Bushi, asepresident Dick Cheney, asevälisminister John Negroponte, kaitseminister Robert M. Gates'i, USA Kongressi esindajatekoja spiikri Nancy Pelosi ja kongresmenidega. Eestil õnnestus korraldada USA pealinnas kohtumised, mille järjekorras ootab hulk palju suuremaid riike. Vabariigi President töövisiidil Ameerika Ühendriikides 25.-26.06.2007

  2. 10 aastat USA-Balti hartat

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2008-01-01

    10 aasta möödumisest 16. jaanuaril 1998 Valges Majas toimunud tseremooniast kui Ameerika Ühendriikide, Leedu, Läti ja Eesti presidendid allkirjastasid USA-Balti partnerlusharta. Eesti, Läti, Leedu presidentide ühisavaldusest - "ajalooline poliitiline teetähis Balti-USA riikide suhtes", tähistamaks USA-Balti partnerlusharta 10. aastapäeva. President George W. Bushi õnnitlusest Eesti, Läti ja Leedu elanikele harta 10. aastapäeva puhul\\

  3. USA otsib Iraanist aktiivselt tuumainfot / Neeme Raud

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Raud, Neeme, 1969-

    2005-01-01

    Iraan avaldas protesti USA luurelendude üle Iraani kohal. USA endine kaitseminister James Baker peab Iraani ja Põhja-Koreaga nende tuumaprogrammide hävitamiseks sõja alustamist suurimaks veaks. Kuigi Bushi meeskond rõhutab vajadust lahendada küsimus rahumeelselt, toovad Dick Cheney' ja Condoleezza Rice'i avaldused mitme USA kommentaatori arvates meelde Iraagi sõja eelse taktika

  4. Virginia Tech's Ashley White named to USA Today All-USA First Team

    OpenAIRE

    Crumbley, Liz

    2005-01-01

    Virginia Tech senior Ashley White, a University Honors student pursuing degrees in both materials science and engineering and music performance, has been named to USA Today's All-USA College Academic First Team.

  5. USA klaaskatuste murdmise aeg / Kaivo Kopli

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kopli, Kaivo

    2008-01-01

    USA presidendivalimistel kandideeris esmakordselt afroameeriklane, presidendikandidaatide kampaanias osales naiskandidaat Hillary Clinton. Vt. samas: Obama isa kodukülas palvetati ja valmistuti suureks peoks

  6. BusinessUSA Resource Access API

    Data.gov (United States)

    General Services Administration — BusinessUSA connects businesses to government services and information. The API provides access to resource abstracts including programs, services, data, events,...

  7. Air issues update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    from Ontario Power Generation (OPG) actually rose to 55.8 kT in 1998 from 50 kT in 1990. ASAP had been formulated on the assumption that OPG was to reduce its NO{sub x} emissions to 38 kT in the year 2000 and beyond. On April 1, 2000, the MOE shut down its network of acid deposition monitoring stations as a cost-saving measure. MOE produces very good annual air quality reports and has launched an Air Quality Ontario Web site to serve as a real-time information source in addition to the air quality report series. In January 2001, MOE assured ECO that the Web site will include more information for the smog season.

  8. Air Quality at Your Street

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Steen Solvang; Becker, Thomas; Ketzel, Matthias;

    concerned citizents, or in the context of localization of institutions, etc. The purpose of the project ‘Air Quality at Your Street’ is to create interactive air quality maps on the internet using webGIS to illustrate the geographical variation of air quality in Denmark for selected health related air...... is calculated with a model system consisting of a regional model (DEHM), an urban background model (UBM) and a street model (OSPM) with associated meteorology and emissions data etc. Recently updated input data has been used for the road network and traffic data based on the national traffic model...... (LTM) from DTU Transport as well as data on travel speeds based on GPS data from SpeedMap from the Danish Road Directorate. Modelled concentrations have been compared to fixed regional, urban background and street air quality monitoring stations to assess uncertainties, and to model results from about...

  9. Development of a Turnkey Hydrogen Fueling Station Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David E. Guro; Edward Kiczek; Kendral Gill; Othniel Brown

    2010-07-29

    The transition to hydrogen as a fuel source presents several challenges. One of the major hurdles is the cost-effective production of hydrogen in small quantities (less than 1MMscf/month). In the early demonstration phase, hydrogen can be provided by bulk distribution of liquid or compressed gas from central production plants; however, the next phase to fostering the hydrogen economy will likely include onsite generation and extensive pipeline networks to help effect a pervasive infrastructure. Providing inexpensive hydrogen at a fleet operator’s garage or local fueling station is a key enabling technology for direct hydrogen Fuel Cell Vehicles (FCVs). The objective of this project was to develop a comprehensive, turnkey, stand-alone, commercial hydrogen fueling station for FCVs with state-of-the-art technology that is cost-competitive with current hydrocarbon fuels. Such a station would promote the advent of the hydrogen fuel economy for buses, fleet vehicles, and ultimately personal vehicles. Air Products, partnering with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), The Pennsylvania State University, Harvest Energy Technology, and QuestAir, developed a turnkey hydrogen fueling station on the Penn State campus. Air Products aimed at designing a station that would have 65% overall station efficiency, 82% PSA (pressure swing adsorption) efficiency, and the capability of producing hydrogen at $3.00/kg (gge) H2 at mass production rates. Air Products designed a fueling station at Penn State from the ground up. This project was implemented in three phases. The first phase evaluated the various technologies available in hydrogen generation, compression, storage, and gas dispensing. In the second phase, Air Products designed the components chosen from the technologies examined. Finally, phase three entailed a several-month period of data collection, full-scale operation, maintenance of the station, and optimization of system reliability and performance. Based on field data

  10. 77 FR 6587 - Startek USA, Inc. Alexandria, LA; Startek USA, Inc., Collinsville, VA; Amended Certification...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-08

    ... published in the Federal Register on February 10, 2011 (76 FR 7587). On its own motion, the Department... Employment and Training Administration Startek USA, Inc. Alexandria, LA; Startek USA, Inc., Collinsville, VA..., applicable to workers of StarTek USA, Inc., Alexandria, Louisiana. The workers are engaged in the supply...

  11. Eestis ära põlatud leiutis teenib USA-s head kasumit / Sigrid Laev

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Laev, Sigrid

    2005-01-01

    Tallinna Tehnikaülikooli materjaliteaduste instituudi vanemteaduri Vello Valdna poolt 1990. aastate lõpus leiutatud röntgenluminofoori tootmisse andmist Eestis takistas rahapuudus, leiutis sai patendi USA-s ja tema tootmist alustas USA röntgensüsteemide tootja Bruker. Kommenteerib Vello Valdna

  12. Berliini müür USA-s varisemas / Mehis Replik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Replik, Mehis

    1998-01-01

    USA-s on pankade liitumine lõppjärgus. Tabelid: Pankade Euromoney TOP 200, suurima turuväärtusega pangad juunis 1998, Ida- ja Kesk-Euroopa pankade võrdlus koguvarade alusel. Euroopa ühinevad pangad. Artiklis on käsitletud ka USA pangandusalaseid õigusakte läbi ajaloo

  13. Selfcoelum lamothei n. sp. (Digenea: Cyclocoelidae: Cyclocoelinae from the air sacs of the long-billed curlew, Numenius americanus (Scolopacidae, from the Galveston, Texas area, USA Selfcoelum lamothei, n. sp. (Digenea: Cyclocoelidae: Cyclocoelinae de los sacos aéreos del playero de pico largo, Numenius americanus (Scolopacidae, del área del condado de Galveston, Texas, EUA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles K. Blend

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Fourteen specimens of a new species of cyclocoelid, Selfcoelum lamothei n. sp. (Digenea: Cyclocoelidae: Cyclocoelinae, from the air sacs of a long-billed curlew, Numenius americanus Bechstein (Scolopacidae, collected from the Galveston area, Galveston County, Texas, USA, were examined. The new species has an intertesticular ovary that forms a triangle with the testes, placing it in Cyclocoelinae Stossich, 1902. The new species is most similar to Selfcoelum capellum (Khan, 1935 n. comb., but differs from this species by lacking an oral sucker and by having a somewhat larger ovary, larger testes, a smaller posttesticular space, a larger cirrus sac, larger eggs, and the vitelline follicles of S. lamothei n. sp. are more bulky making the vitelline fields more laterally extensive, and more anteriorly distributed (reaching anteriorly to the level of the pharynx compared to the level of the cecal bifurcation than those of S. capellum. The new species can be distinguished from the 2 species currently assigned to Selfcoelum Dronen, Gardner and Jiménez, 2006, S. brasilianum (Stossich, 1902 and S. limnodromi Dronen, Gardner and Jiménez, 2006, by having an intercecal uterus rather than having uterine loops that overreach the ceca laterally. The genus Selfcoelum should be emended to include those species where the uterus is either intercecal or where the uterine loops overreach the ceca laterally and those species with or without an oral sucker.Se examinaron 14 ejemplares de una nueva especie de ciclocélido, Selfcoelum lamothei n. sp. (Digenea: Cyclocoelidae: Cyclocoelinae que es parásito de los sacos aéreos del playero de pico largo, Numenius americanus Bechstein (Scolopacidae, recolectados en el condado de Galveston, Texas, EUA. La especie nueva se caracteriza por presentar el ovario en posición intertesticular, formando un triángulo con relación a los testículos. Este rasgo sitúa a la nueva especie entre los Cyclocoelinae Stossich, 1902

  14. Green electricity - experiences from USA; Groen el - erfarenheter fraan USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graens, N.

    1995-10-01

    Environmental concern has opened a market for electric power produced from renewable energy sources in USA. A number of American electric utilities have responded to the interest from the public and offered green electricity at a price somewhat above the normal rates. Most of these programs, that have existed for a few years, have succeeded quite well, giving the utilities better relations to their customers and experiences from marketing new products. The customers have been satisfied and shown enthusiasm for the new product. The present report reviews the attitudes to and drive behind green electricity from/relative to utilities, customers, environmental organizations and authorities. The programs and experiences of the utilities are described, and the prospects for green power on a deregulated market are discussed. Speculations about market responses to green power in Sweden are also made. 37 refs, 13 figs

  15. Space station furnace facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobb, Sharon D.; Lehoczky, Sandor L.

    1996-07-01

    The Space Shuttle Furnace Facility (SSFF) is the modular, multi-user scientific instrumentation for conducting materials research in the reduced gravity environment of the International Space Station. The facility is divided into the Core System and two Instrument Racks. The core system provides the common electrical and mechanical support equipment required to operate experiment modules (EMs). The EMs are investigator unique furnaces or apparatus designed to accomplish specific science investigations. Investigations are peer selected every two years from proposals submitted in response to National Aeronautics and Space Administration Research Announcements. The SSFF Core systems are designed to accommodate an envelope of eight types of experiment modules. The first two modules to be developed for the first instrument rack include a high temperature gradient furnace with quench, and a low temperature gradient furnace. A new EM is planned to be developed every two years.

  16. Local control stations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, W.S.; Higgins, J.C. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Wachtel, J.A. [Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States). Div. of Systems Research

    1993-05-01

    This paper describes research concerning the effects of human engineering design at local control stations (i.e., operator interfaces located outside the control room) on human performance and plant safety. The research considered both multifunction panels (e.g. remote shutdown panels) as well as single-function interfaces (e.g., valves, breakers, gauges, etc.). Changes in performance shaping factors associated with variations in human engineering at LCSs were estimated based on expert opinion. By means of a scaling procedure, these estimates were used to modify the human error probabilities in a PRA model, which was then employed to generate estimates of plant risk and scoping-level value/impact ratios for various human engineering upgrades. Recent documentation of human engineering deficiencies at single-function LCSs was also reviewed, and an assessment of the current status of LCSs with respect to human engineering was conducted.

  17. Local control stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes research concerning the effects of human engineering design at local control stations (i.e., operator interfaces located outside the control room) on human performance and plant safety. The research considered both multifunction panels (e.g. remote shutdown panels) as well as single-function interfaces (e.g., valves, breakers, gauges, etc.). Changes in performance shaping factors associated with variations in human engineering at LCSs were estimated based on expert opinion. By means of a scaling procedure, these estimates were used to modify the human error probabilities in a PRA model, which was then employed to generate estimates of plant risk and scoping-level value/impact ratios for various human engineering upgrades. Recent documentation of human engineering deficiencies at single-function LCSs was also reviewed, and an assessment of the current status of LCSs with respect to human engineering was conducted

  18. Exobiology experiments for space station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devincenzi, D. L.; Griffiths, L. D.

    1985-01-01

    The benefits the Space Station could provide to the study of the origin, evolution, and distribution of life throughout the universe are described. Space Station experiments relevant to the cosmic evolution of biogenic elements and compounds, prebiotic chemical evolution, early evolution of life, and the evolution of advanced life forms are examined. The application of astronomical and astrometric observations to be obtained from the Space Station to the origin of life research is discussed.

  19. Hybrid downscaling of wind climates over the eastern USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weibull distribution parameters (scale and shape) of wind speeds at 85 stations over the eastern USA are downscaled from distribution parameters of large-scale climate variables drawn from both global and regional models. A probabilistic statistical downscaling approach when applied in hybrid downscaling (combining dynamical and statistical downscaling), exhibits skill in reproducing the macro-scale variability in wind climates in independent data. However, use of predictors from a regional climate model (RCM) run at 50 km resolution does not substantially improve the downscaling results over those obtained when direct output from the parent atmosphere ocean general circulation model (AOGCM) run at approximately 200 km resolution is used for the predictors. The technique is applied to develop projections of mean and 90th percentile wind speeds based on output from six sets of RCM simulations. Projected differences in the mean and 90th percentile wind speeds over the eastern USA for 2041–2060 relative to 1981–1998 are of very modest magnitude (i.e. <5% of the value during 1981–1998), and are smaller than the inherent downscaling uncertainty. The implied near-term stability of wind climates is consistent with analysis of wind speeds directly simulated by RCMs. (paper)

  20. USA raport hoiatab tuumaterroristide eest / Karin Volmer

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Volmer, Karin

    2007-01-01

    USA-s tegutseva tuumaterrori vastase organisatsiooni Nuclear Threat Initiative (NTI) raport kinnitab maailma edusamme tuumamaterjali turvalisuses, kuid on ka palju ohuallikaid. Analüütikud kahtlevad Venemaa ja Pakistani armee usaldusväärsuses tuumamaterjali hoidmisel. Lisa: Tuumaterrori raport

  1. Etteheide: USA okupeerib Haitit / Kaivo Kopli

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kopli, Kaivo

    2010-01-01

    Prantsusmaa ja Brasiilia on esitanud protesti, sest USA sõjalennukitele on antud eelisõigus Haiti pealinna Port-au-Prince'i lennujaama kasutamisel. Paljude kommentaatorite hinnangul on Prantsusmaa püüdnud haarata prominentset rolli Haiti abistamisel, kuid USA on tegutsenud kiiremini ja jõulisemalt. Kaart

  2. USA annab eeskuju terroristidele / Neeme Raud

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Raud, Neeme, 1969-

    2005-01-01

    Inimõiguse organisatsioon Human Rights Watch kritiseerib USA-d vangide piinamise ja alandamise pärast Iraagis, Afganistanis ja Kuubal nn. terrorismivanglas. Washington Posti andmetel kavatseb Bushi administratsioon avada mitmel pool maailmas vanglaid, kus hakatakse hoidma terroriste eemal avalikkuse tähelepanust. Lisa: USA näitel on inimõigusi rikkunud

  3. Bulgaaria valitsus tahab USA raketikilpi / Mihkel Niglas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Niglas, Mihkel

    2007-01-01

    Bulgaarias küsiti USA presidendilt George W. Bushilt, miks Poolasse ja Tšehhi kavandatav raketikilp ei hakka katma Bulgaariat. USA paigutab septembris Bulgaaria sõjabaasi üle 3000 sõduri. George W. Bush toetab Bulgaaria nõudmist Liibüale vabastada Bulgaaria meditsiiniõed

  4. Krossil on probleeme USA viisaga? / Raimo Poom

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Poom, Raimo

    2011-01-01

    Eesti Päevaleht esitas USA Eesti-saatkonnale järelepärimise seoses sellega, et Eerik-Niiles Krossi USA-viisa on tühistatud. Saatkonna pressi- ja kultuuriatašee James Landi vastusest. Eerik-Niiles Krossi kommentaare

  5. Eestit huvitab USA armee kohaloleku suurenemine

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2015-01-01

    Riigikogu riigikaitsekomisjoni esimees Marko Mihkelson avaldas eilsel kohtumisel USA senati relvajõudude komitee delegatsiooniga tänu Ameerika Ühendriikide pikajalise toetuse eest Eesti julgeoleku tagamisel ning rõhutas, et USA väekoosseisu suurendamine Eestis oleks tervitatav. Kahepoolsel kohtumisel räägiti Balti regiooni julgeolekuolukorrast ning peatuti pikemalt kaitsekoostöö teemadel

  6. Teadlased : USA liitub Kyoto protokolliga / Neeme Raud

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Raud, Neeme, 1969-

    2004-01-01

    USA ja Austraalia on ainsad riigid, mis pole Kyoto protokollile alla kirjutanud. Princetoni ülikooli professori Michael Oppenheimeri arvates võib USA president George W. Bush oma seisukohti keskkonnaküsimustes muuta, sest teiseks ametiajaks valitud presidendid ei pea mõtlema uuele kampaaniale ning püüavad enne Valgest Majast lahkumist oma mainet maailma silmis parandada

  7. Measurement results obtained from air quality monitoring system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turzanski, P.K.; Beres, R. [Provincial Inspection of Environmental Protection, Cracow (Poland)

    1995-12-31

    An automatic system of air pollution monitoring operates in Cracow since 1991. The organization, assembling and start-up of the network is a result of joint efforts of the US Environmental Protection Agency and the Cracow environmental protection service. At present the automatic monitoring network is operated by the Provincial Inspection of Environmental Protection. There are in total seven stationary stations situated in Cracow to measure air pollution. These stations are supported continuously by one semi-mobile (transportable) station. It allows to modify periodically the area under investigation and therefore the 3-dimensional picture of creation and distribution of air pollutants within Cracow area could be more intelligible.

  8. Ideaalne torm USA majanduses / Ken Goldstein ; interv. Neeme Raud

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Goldstein, Ken

    2008-01-01

    USA majandusuuringute organisatsiooni The Conference Board analüütik USA majanduse olukorrast, mõjust maailmamajandusele, arenguvõimalustest ning uue presidendi vajalikest sammudest majanduses. Lisa: Enamuse arvates on USA valel teel

  9. Agricultural Experiment Stations and Branch Stations in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Calvin H.; Atucha, Amaya

    2015-01-01

    In 1887, Congress passed the Hatch Act, which formally established and provided a funding mechanism for agricultural experiment stations in each state and territory in the United States. The main purpose of agricultural experiment stations is to conduct agricultural research to meet the needs of the citizens of the United States. The objective of…

  10. Battersea Power Station and environmental issues 1929-1989

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowler, Catherine; Brimblecombe, Peter

    From inception (1920s) to partial demolition (1980s) London's Battersea Power Station provoked public concern over environmental impacts. Adverse reaction during the early stages concerned siting and the effects of air pollutants on the urban surroundings. Potential air pollution problems resulted in a restrictive 'condition' being inserted in the consent for Battersea which required smoke and sulphur dioxide to be controlled. The 'condition' did not reassure either the public or special interest groups who campaigned against the construction of the station. However plans were too advanced to be halted and the official response focused on ensuring successful implementation of flue gas desulphurization. Though the subsequent effectiveness of emission control during the station's working life is arguable, the building itself rapidly became a popular London landmark and an architectural symbol of the fascination that surrounds technology. Objections to its decommissioning and demolition in the 1980s once again placed Battersea Power Station at the centre of public protest. Reactions to the station illustrate the rapidity with which our perception of environmental threats may change.

  11. Final environmental assessment for vegetation control at VHF stations, microwave stations, electrical substations, and pole yards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-10-13

    Southwestern Power Adm. operates very high frequency (VHF) and microwave radio stations, electrical substations, and pole yards for electric power transmission throughout AR, MO, and OK. Vegetation growth at the stations must be suppressed for safety of operation and personnel. Southwestern has been using a combination of mechanical/manual and herbicide control for this purpose; Federally- mandated reductions in staff and budgetary resources require Southwestern to evaluate all potentially efficient methods for vegetation control. Three alternatives were examined: no action, mechanical/manual control, and (proposed) a combination of mechanical/manual and herbicide control. Environmental impacts on air and water quality, wetlands, wildlife, endangered species, archaeological and other resources, farmland, human health, transportation, etc. were evaluated.

  12. Place-Based Stressors Associated with Industry and Air Pollution

    OpenAIRE

    Kondo, Michelle C.; Gross-Davis, Carol Ann; May, Katlyn; Davis, Lauren O.; Johnson, Tyiesha; Mallard, Mable; Gabbadon, Alice; Sherrod, Claudia; Branas, Charles C.

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to air pollution and its sources is increasingly viewed as a psychosocial stress, however its nature is not understood. This article explores the role of the concept of place on risk perception and community stress within data collected from eight focus groups in Philadelphia, USA. Discussions focused on air pollution, a nearby oil refinery, health, and a proposal for air monitoring. We present a framework of place-based elements of risk perception that includes place identity, stigm...

  13. On the history of air conditioning; Zur Geschichte der Raumklimatechnik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fitzner, Klaus; Finke, Ulrich [Klimakonzept Ingenieurgesellschaft, Berlin (Germany)

    2010-01-15

    The theoretical bases of indoor air conditioning originates from the time of enlightenment (Lavoisier 1792). For the first time air conditioning is applied 1836 in the House of Commons in London. Wide application begins in the USA in the 1930s, in Germany due to the war after the 1950s. Starting from 1970 there are advancements in Germany and Northern Europe, which make it possible not to only air-condition but to fulfil thermally comfortable conditions. (orig.)

  14. Lighting energy efficiency opportunities at Cheyenne Mountain Air Station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molburg, J.C.; Rozo, A.J.; Sarles, J.K.; Haffenden, R.A.; Thimmapuram, P.R.; Cavallo, J.D.

    1996-06-01

    CMAS is an intensive user of electricity for lighting because of its size, lack of daylight, and 24-hour operating schedule. Argonne National Laboratory recently conducted a lighting energy conservation evaluation at CMAS. The evaluation included inspection and characterization of existing lighting systems, analysis of energy-efficient retrofit options, and investigation of the environmental effects that these lighting system retrofits could have when they are ready to be disposed of as waste. Argonne devised three retrofit options for the existing lighting systems at various buildings: (1) minimal retrofit--limited fixture replacement; (2) moderate retrofit--more extensive fixture replacement and limited application of motion detectors; and (3) advanced retrofit--fixture replacement, reduction in the number of lamps, expansion of task lighting, and more extensive application of motion detectors. Argonne used data on electricity consumption to analyze the economic and energy effects of these three retrofit options. It performed a cost analysis for each retrofit option in terms of payback. The analysis showed that lighting retrofits result in savings because they reduce electricity consumption, cooling load, and maintenance costs. The payback period for all retrofit options was found to be less than 2 years, with the payback period decreasing for more aggressive retrofits. These short payback periods derived largely from the intensive (24-hours-per-day) use of electric lighting at the facility. Maintenance savings accounted for more than half of the annual energy-related savings under the minimal and moderate retrofit options and slightly less than half of these savings under the advanced retrofit option. Even if maintenance savings were excluded, the payback periods would still be impressive: about 4.4 years for the minimal retrofit option and 2 years for the advanced option. The local and regional environmental impacts of the three retrofit options were minimal.

  15. Green electricity - experiences from USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Environmental concern has opened a market for electric power produced from renewable energy sources in USA. A number of American electric utilities have responded to the interest from the public and offered green electricity at a price somewhat above the normal rates. Most of these programs, that have existed for a few years, have succeeded quite well, giving the utilities better relations to their customers and experiences from marketing new products. The customers have been satisfied and shown enthusiasm for the new product. The present report reviews the attitudes to and drive behind green electricity from/relative to utilities, customers, environmental organizations and authorities. The programs and experiences of the utilities are described, and the prospects for green power on a deregulated market are discussed. Speculations about market responses to green power in Sweden are also made. 37 refs, 13 figs

  16. Lightning Nitrogen Oxides (LNOx) Vertical Profile Quantification and 10 Year Trend Analysis using Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) Satellite Measurements, Air Quality Station (AQS) Surface Measurements, The National Lightning Detection Network (NLDN), and Simulated by Cloud Resolving Chemical Transport Model (REAM Cloud)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smeltzer, C. D.; Wang, Y.; Koshak, W. J.

    2014-12-01

    Vertical profiles and emission lifetimes of lightning nitrogen oxides (LNOx) are derived using the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI). Approximately 200 million flashes, over a 10 year climate period, from the United States National Lighting Detection Network (NLDN), are aggregated with OMI cloud top height to determine the vertical LNOx structure. LNOx lifetime is determined as function of LNOx signal in a 36 kilometer vertical column from the time of the last known flash to depletion of the LNOx signal. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Air Quality Station (AQS) surface data further support these results by demonstrating as much as a 200% increase in surface level NO2 during strong thunderstorm events and a lag as long as 5 to 8 hours from the lightning event to the peak surface event, indicating a evolutional process. Analysis of cloud resolving chemical transport model (REAM Cloud) demonstrates that C-shaped LNOx profiles, which agree with OMI vertical profile observations, evolve due to micro-scale convective meteorology given inverted C-shaped LNOx emission profiles as determined from lightning radio telemetry. It is shown, both in simulations and in observations, that the extent to which the LNOx vertical distribution is C-shaped and the lifetime of LNOx is proportional to the shear-strength of the thunderstorm. Micro-scale convective meteorology is not adequately parameterized in global scale and regional scale chemical transport models (CTM). Therefore, these larger scale CTMs ought to use a C-shape emissions profile to best reproduce observations until convective parameterizations are updated. These findings are used to simulate decadal LNOx and lightning ozone climatology over the Continental United States (CONUS) from 2004-2014.

  17. A brief history of exploration in Lechuguilla Cave in New Mexico, USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lechuguilla Cave, a complex three-dimensional cave with a single known entrance, is located in remote desert terrain in Carlsbad Caverns National Park, in southeastern New Mexico, USA. The Guadalupe Mountains there contain uplifted limestone and dolomite rock in the Permian-age Capitan Reef complex. Hundreds of caves have been found in this region, but Lechuguilla Cave greatly exceeds the size of all others known. It was only a small pit mined for bat guano in the early twentieth century. In the 1970s the Cave Research Foundation performed digs at the bottom, where profuse air movement had been noted in the debris. This work ceased but another team of cavers visited in 1984, hearing and feeling the significant air, and began a digging project approved by the Park. The cavers dug into continuing passage in 1986. It was explored in three major branches, generally trending west/southwest to east/northeast, parallel to the reef face, with north-south connections along deep rift features. Depositional and corrosional events during sulfuric-acid speleogenesis created remarkable speleothems and speleogenesis, and the cave has often been called the Jewel of the Underground. The rapidly growing cave passed 80 km of surveyed length by 1990. Within the first ten years of exploration, 28 large-scale expeditions led to the cave reaching 113 km in length. From 1997 to 2013, 109 additional kilometers were mapped with smaller teams of up to 12 cavers per expedition. Exploration and mapping is now done in three to five expeditions per year, and recent work has focused on climbs and smaller leads such as tight crawls and fissures that were previously passed. Significant discoveries continue to be found using these techniques. The cave reaches a depth of 475 m and has been mapped to over 222 km in length. Exploration to the extreme ends is efficiently done with multi-day expeditions, using established camps in each branch. Cavers from the United States and dozens of other countries

  18. Islands for nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The safety principles, design criteria and types of artificial island for an offshore nuclear power station are discussed with particular reference to siting adjacent to an industrial island. The paper concludes that the engineering problems are soluble and that offshore nuclear power stations will eventually be built but that much fundamental work is still required. (author)

  19. Space Station medical sciences concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, J. A.; Johnson, P. C., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    Current life sciences concepts relating to Space Station are presented including the following: research, extravehicular activity, biobehavioral considerations, medical care, maintenance of dental health, maintaining health through physical conditioning and countermeasures, protection from radiation, atmospheric contamination control, atmospheric composition, noise pollution, food supply and service, clothing and furnishings, and educational program possibilities. Information on the current status of Soviet Space Stations is contained.

  20. Characteristics and distributions of organic substances in the air of some American cities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chambers, L.A.; Tabor, E.C.; Foter, M.J.

    1957-01-01

    Preliminary analyses obtained through 18 months of operation of a nation-wide air sampling program are reported. The sampling program reported includes more than 30 metropolitan complexes in the USA and one in England.

  1. Review and studies of gas treatment and ventilation systems in Ontario Hydro's nuclear generating stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gas treatment systems for Ontario Hydro's major nuclear generating stations, namely Pickering A and B, Bruce A and B, and Darlington, are briefly described and compared. The Off-Gas Management System, the Reactor Ventilation System (or Contaminated Exhaust System) and the D2O Vapour Recovery System reduce gaseous radioactive emissions during normal station operation whereas the Emergency Filtered Air Discharge System is designed for post-accident containment clean-up. RandD areas to improve gaseous radionuclide control are also briefly discussed. A study at Bruce A using the tracer gas technique to determine the effectiveness of a modification to the ventilation system to induce air flow in the desired direction is discussed in detail. Results showed that the technique provided quantitative data of air movement in the station. Other applications of the tracer gas technique in nuclear generating stations have also been implemented or developed. (author)

  2. Shippingport station communications program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At the Shippingport Station Decommissioning Project, the central idea of the communications program that was developed for use was purposely designed to be as uncomplicated as possible. The central theme, that was developed and communicated, is that all nuclear plants will someday need to be retired and also decommissioned. The Shippingport Plant, originally constructed as a demonstration nuclear power plant, was now being decommissioned as a demonstration to the world-wide nuclear industry that this evolution can be done in a safe and cost-effective manner. Furthermore, the technology currently exists to complete this process. The new phase of the communications program was initiated even before the responsibility for the plant was transferred from Duquesne Light to GE. With such a change forthcoming, it was necessary to inform local officials of these plans, and the reasons for them. Equally important was the need to inform a variety of agencies and offices in the three-state area of the changes, and the continuing need to involve them in the Site Emergency Plan. This document was also revised in recognition of changing site conditions, as well as the changes in responsibility. 1 ref

  3. Swedish encapsulation station review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, Sven Olof; Brunzell, P.; Heibel, R.; McCarthy, J.; Pennington, C.; Rusch, C.; Varley, G. [NAC International, Zuerich (Switzerland)

    1998-06-01

    In the Encapsulation Station (ES) Review performed by NAC International, a number of different areas have been studied. The main objectives with the review have been to: Perform an independent review of the cost estimates for the ES presented in SKB`s document `Plan 1996`. This has been made through comparisons between the ES and BNFL`s Waste Encapsulation Plant (WEP) at Sellafield as well as with the CLAB facility. Review the location of the ES (at the CLAB site or at the final repository) and its interaction with other parts of the Swedish system for spent fuel management. Review the logistics and plant capacity of the ES. Identify important safety aspects of the ES as a basis for future licensing activities. Based on NAC International`s experience of casks for transport and storage of spent fuel, review the basic design of the copper/steel canister and the transport cask. This review insides design, manufacturing, handling and licensing aspects. Perform an overall comparison between the ES project and the CLAB project with the objective to identify major project risks and discuss their mitigation 19 refs, 9 figs, 35 tabs

  4. Accelerated GLAS exposure station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS) is being developed by NASA/GSFC to measure the dynamics of the ice sheet mass balance, land, and cloud and atmospheric properties. An instrument altimetric resolution of 10 cm per shot is required. The laser transmitter will be a diode pumped, Q-switched, Nd:YAG laser producing 1064 nm, 100 mJ, 4 ns pulses at 40 Hz repetition rate in a TEM∞ mode. A minimum lifetime goal of 2 billion shots is required per laser transmitter. The performance of the GLAS laser can be limited by physical damage to the optical components caused by the interaction of intense laser energy with the optical coatings and substrates. Very little data exists describing the effects of long duration laser exposure, of 4 ns pulses, on an optical component. An Accelerated GLAS Exposure Station (AGES) is being developed which will autonomously operate and monitor the GLAS laser at an accelerated rate of 500 Hz. The effects of a large number of laser shots will be recorded. Parameters to be monitored include: laser power, pulsewidth, beam size, laser diode drive current and power, Q-switch drive voltage, temperature, and humidity. For comparison, one set of AGES-sister optical components will be used in the non-accelerated GLAS laser and another will be evaluated by a commercial optical damage test facility

  5. Swedish encapsulation station review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the Encapsulation Station (ES) Review performed by NAC International, a number of different areas have been studied. The main objectives with the review have been to: Perform an independent review of the cost estimates for the ES presented in SKB's document 'Plan 1996'. This has been made through comparisons between the ES and BNFL's Waste Encapsulation Plant (WEP) at Sellafield as well as with the CLAB facility. Review the location of the ES (at the CLAB site or at the final repository) and its interaction with other parts of the Swedish system for spent fuel management. Review the logistics and plant capacity of the ES. Identify important safety aspects of the ES as a basis for future licensing activities. Based on NAC International's experience of casks for transport and storage of spent fuel, review the basic design of the copper/steel canister and the transport cask. This review insides design, manufacturing, handling and licensing aspects. Perform an overall comparison between the ES project and the CLAB project with the objective to identify major project risks and discuss their mitigation

  6. Validation of an Integrated Hydrogen Energy Station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heydorn, Edward C

    2012-10-26

    This report presents the results of a 10-year project conducted by Air Products and Chemicals, Inc. (Air Products) to determine the feasibility of coproducing hydrogen with electricity. The primary objective was to demonstrate the technical and economic viability of a hydrogen energy station using a high-temperature fuel cell designed to produce power and hydrogen. This four-phase project had intermediate go/no-go decisions and the following specific goals: Complete a technical assessment and economic analysis of the use of high-temperature fuel cells, including solid oxide and molten carbonate, for the co-production of power and hydrogen (energy park concept). Build on the experience gained at the Las Vegas H2 Energy Station and compare/contrast the two approaches for co-production. Determine the applicability of co-production from a high-temperature fuel cell for the existing merchant hydrogen market and for the emerging hydrogen economy. Demonstrate the concept on natural gas for six months at a suitable site with demand for both hydrogen and electricity. Maintain safety as the top priority in the system design and operation. Obtain adequate operational data to provide the basis for future commercial activities, including hydrogen fueling stations. Work began with the execution of the cooperative agreement with DOE on 30 September 2001. During Phase 1, Air Products identified high-temperature fuel cells as having the potential to meet the coproduction targets, and the molten carbonate fuel cell system from FuelCell Energy, Inc. (FuelCell Energy) was selected by Air Products and DOE following the feasibility assessment performed during Phase 2. Detailed design, construction and shop validation testing of a system to produce 250 kW of electricity and 100 kilograms per day of hydrogen, along with site selection to include a renewable feedstock for the fuel cell, were completed in Phase 3. The system also completed six months of demonstration operation at the

  7. Ammonia at Blodgett Forest, Sierra Nevada, USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, Marc L.; Littlejohn, David

    2007-11-06

    Ammonia is a reactive trace gas that is emitted in large quantities by animal agriculture and other sources in California, which subsequently forms aerosol particulate matter, potentially affecting visibility, climate, and human health. We performed initial measurements of NH{sub 3} at the Blodgett Forest Research Station (BFRS) during a two week study in June, 2006. The site is used for ongoing air quality research and is a relatively low-background site in the foothills of the Sierra Nevada. Measured NH{sub 3} mixing ratios were quite low (< 1 to {approx} 2 ppb), contrasting with typical conditions in many parts of the Central Valley. Eddy covariance measurements showed NH{sub 3} fluxes that scaled with measured NH{sub 3} mixing ratio and calculated aerodynamic deposition velocity, suggesting dry deposition is a significant loss mechanism for atmospheric NH{sub 3} at BFRS. A simple model of NH{sub 3} transport to the site supports the hypothesis that NH{sub 3} is transported from the Valley to BFRS, but deposits on vegetation during the summer. Further work is necessary to determine whether the results obtained in this study can be generalized to other seasons.

  8. Long-term dynamics of death rates of emphysema, asthma, and pneumonia and improving air quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kravchenko J

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Julia Kravchenko,1 Igor Akushevich,2 Amy P Abernethy,3 Sheila Holman,4 William G Ross Jr,5 H Kim Lyerly1,6 1Department of Surgery, 2Center for Population Health and Aging, 3Duke Clinical Research Institute, Duke University Medical Center, Duke University, Durham, 4Division of Air Quality, North Carolina Department of Environment and Natural Resources, Raleigh, 5Nicholas School of the Environment, 6Department of Pathology, Duke University Medical Center, Duke University, Durham, NC, USA Background: The respiratory tract is a major target of exposure to air pollutants, and respiratory diseases are associated with both short- and long-term exposures. We hypothesized that improved air quality in North Carolina was associated with reduced rates of death from respiratory diseases in local populations. Materials and methods: We analyzed the trends of emphysema, asthma, and pneumonia mortality and changes of the levels of ozone, sulfur dioxide (SO2, nitrogen dioxide (NO2, carbon monoxide (CO, and particulate matters (PM2.5 and PM10 using monthly data measurements from air-monitoring stations in North Carolina in 1993–2010. The log-linear model was used to evaluate associations between air-pollutant levels and age-adjusted death rates (per 100,000 of population calculated for 5-year age-groups and for standard 2000 North Carolina population. The studied associations were adjusted by age group-specific smoking prevalence and seasonal fluctuations of disease-specific respiratory deaths. Results: Decline in emphysema deaths was associated with decreasing levels of SO2 and CO in the air, decline in asthma deaths–with lower SO2, CO, and PM10 levels, and decline in pneumonia deaths–with lower levels of SO2. Sensitivity analyses were performed to study potential effects of the change from International Classification of Diseases (ICD-9 to ICD-10 codes, the effects of air pollutants on mortality during summer and winter, the impact of approach when only

  9. Diurnal, weekly and monthly spatial variations of air pollutants and air quality of Beijing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei; Tang, Hongzhao; Zhao, Haimeng

    2015-10-01

    Under the National Ambient Air Quality Standard released in 2012 (NAAQS-2012), Beijing began to publicize hourly Air Quality Index as well as real time concentrations of 6 pollutants in its web platform to provide detailed information for air quality assessment from 2013. In this study, hourly air quality monitoring data from May 2014 to April 2015 were collected for all 35 monitoring stations in Beijing to analyze the temporal and spatial variations of air pollutants and air quality. It is found that in spatial pattern, the air qualities in southern and northern Beijing are totally different. The association between heavy pollution concentrations and wind situations suggested that neighboring area's air quality has an important role in the air quality of Beijing combining with air quality attainment rates in all 35 monitoring stations and northern China. For temporal variations, late night and early morning are the most polluted time while afternoon is the least polluted time for all pollutants except O3 with most polluted time in afternoon. Summer time in Beijing has the best air quality while winter time has the worst air quality coinciding with the heating season in the winter.

  10. Air Pollution

    OpenAIRE

    Lawther, P. J.

    2014-01-01

    The human costs of air pollution are considerable in Jordan. According to a report published in 2000 by the World Bank under the Mediterranean Environmental Technical Assistance Program (METAP), approximately 600 people die prematurely each year in Jordan because of urban pollution. 50-90% of air pollution in Jordanian towns is caused by road traffic. Readings taken in 2007 by Jordanian researchers showed that levels of black carbon particles in the air were higher in urban areas (caused by v...

  11. 47 CFR 97.109 - Station control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Station control. 97.109 Section 97.109... SERVICE Station Operation Standards § 97.109 Station control. (a) Each amateur station must have at least one control point. (b) When a station is being locally controlled, the control operator must be at...

  12. Seismometer array station processors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A description is given of the design, construction and initial testing of two types of Seismometer Array Station Processor (SASP), one to work with data stored on magnetic tape in analogue form, the other with data in digital form. The purpose of a SASP is to detect the short period P waves recorded by a UK-type array of 20 seismometers and to edit these on to a a digital library tape or disc. The edited data are then processed to obtain a rough location for the source and to produce seismograms (after optimum processing) for analysis by a seismologist. SASPs are an important component in the scheme for monitoring underground explosions advocated by the UK in the Conference of the Committee on Disarmament. With digital input a SASP can operate at 30 times real time using a linear detection process and at 20 times real time using the log detector of Weichert. Although the log detector is slower, it has the advantage over the linear detector that signals with lower signal-to-noise ratio can be detected and spurious large amplitudes are less likely to produce a detection. It is recommended, therefore, that where possible array data should be recorded in digital form for input to a SASP and that the log detector of Weichert be used. Trial runs show that a SASP is capable of detecting signals down to signal-to-noise ratios of about two with very few false detections, and at mid-continental array sites it should be capable of detecting most, if not all, the signals with magnitude above msub(b) 4.5; the UK argues that, given a suitable network, it is realistic to hope that sources of this magnitude and above can be detected and identified by seismological means alone. (author)

  13. Cabin air temperature of parked vehicles in summer conditions: life-threatening environment for children and pets calculated by a dynamic model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horak, Johannes; Schmerold, Ivo; Wimmer, Kurt; Schauberger, Günther

    2016-07-01

    In vehicles that are parked, no ventilation and/or air conditioning takes place. If a vehicle is exposed to direct solar radiation, an immediate temperature rise occurs. The high cabin air temperature can threaten children and animals that are left unattended in vehicles. In the USA, lethal heat strokes cause a mean death rate of 37 children per year. In addition, temperature-sensitive goods (e.g. drugs in ambulances and veterinary vehicles) can be adversely affected by high temperatures. To calculate the rise of the cabin air temperature, a dynamic model was developed that is driven by only three parameters, available at standard meteorological stations: air temperature, global radiation and wind velocity. The transition from the initial temperature to the constant equilibrium temperature depends strongly on the configuration of the vehicle, more specifically on insulation, window area and transmission of the glass, as well as on the meteorological conditions. The comparison of the model with empirical data showed good agreement. The model output can be applied to assess the heat load of children and animals as well as temperature-sensitive goods, which are transported and/or stored in a vehicle.

  14. Estimation of Citywide Air Pollution in Beijing

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Jin-Feng; Hu, Mao-Gui; Xu, Cheng-Dong; Christakos, George; Zhao, Yu

    2013-01-01

    There has been discrepancies between the daily air quality reports of the Beijing municipal government, observations recorded at the U.S. Embassy in Beijing, and Beijing residents’ perceptions of air quality. This study estimates Beijing’s daily area PM2.5 mass concentration by means of a novel technique SPA (Single Point Areal Estimation) that uses data from the single PM2.5 observation station of the U.S Embassy and the 18 PM10 observation stations of the Beijing Municipal Environmental Pro...

  15. Space Station Human Factors Research Review. Volume 3: Space Station Habitability and Function: Architectural Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Marc M. (Editor); Eichold, Alice (Editor); Heers, Susan (Editor)

    1987-01-01

    Articles are presented on a space station architectural elements model study, space station group activities habitability module study, full-scale architectural simulation techniques for space stations, and social factors in space station interiors.

  16. Licensing reform in the USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The licensing process for nuclear power plants in the USA is currently in two distinct stages: the issuance of a construction permit followed later by the issuance of an operation license. The ''two-step'' process has come under heavy criticism from the U.S. nuclear industry on the grounds that it causes uncertainty and delays and therefore inhibits new commitments to nuclear power plants. In 1989 the NRC published new regulations for the licensing of nuclear power plants which provide for the issuance of early site permits, safety certifications of standard designs, and combined construction permits and operating licences. The new rule was challenged by intervenors representing antinuclear groups who filed a legal challenge seeking to have the rule set aside on the grounds that it violates the Atomic Energy Act which they allege makes two-step licensing mandatory. In November 1990 the US Court of Appeals upheld the NRC's authority to issue combined licenses. An appeal for a rehearing has been filed. The paper analyses the events and the possible consequences of an adverse court decision. It reviews the options open to the NRC and industry if the court decision is upheld. The possibility of congressional action to amend the Atomic Energy Act is discussed. (author)

  17. Food-Growing, Air- And Water-Cleaning Module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauer, R. L.; Scheld, H. W.; Mafnuson, J. W.

    1988-01-01

    Apparatus produces fresh vegetables and removes pollutants from air. Hydroponic apparatus performs dual function of growing fresh vegetables and purifying air and water. Leafy vegetables rooted in granular growth medium grow in light of fluorescent lamps. Air flowing over leaves supplies carbon dioxide and receives fresh oxygen from them. Adaptable to production of food and cleaning of air and water in closed environments as in underwater research stations and submarines.

  18. LHV soovib USA-s kohtuvälist kokkulepet / Toivo Tänavsuu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tänavsuu, Toivo

    2005-01-01

    Kohtuväline kokkulepe LHV ja USA väärtpaberituru järelevalveasutuse SEC vahel tähendaks külmutatud väärtpaberikontode avamist, ent tõenäoliselt ka seda, et LHV peab maksma trahvi. Kohtuistungil USA-s esindavad LHV töötajaid Kristjan Lepikut ja Oliver Peeki advokaadid. Lisa: Teisedki on "sundpuhkusel"

  19. Ilves kritiseeris USA juhtidega Venemaad / Dagne Hanschmidt

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hanschmidt, Dagne

    2008-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Postimees : na russkom jazõke 21. apr. lk. 4. President Toomas Hendrik Ilves kohtus töövisiidil Ameerika Ühendriikidesse USA asepresidendi Dick Cheney ja riigisekretär Condoleezza Rice'iga. Arutusel olid Euroopa Liidu suhted Venemaaga, Venemaa käitumine Gruusiaga, NATO viimase tippkohtumise tulemused. USA välisminister C. Rice avaldas Eesti presidendile tänu Eesti silmapaistva panuse eest Afganistanis. Kohtumisi kommenteerivad Riigikogu Euroopa Liidu asjade komisjoni esimees Marko Mihkelson ja Riigikogu väliskomisjoni esimees Sven Mikser. Vt. samas: Euroliit andis USA viisavabadusele rohelise tee. Euroopa Liidu sise- ja justiitsministrite kohtumisel kiideti heaks otsused, mis võimaldavad Eestil liituda USA viisavabadusprogrammiga. Vabariigi President töövisiidil Ameerika Ühendriikides 17.-23.04.2008

  20. Air Pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Air quality is affected by many types of pollutants that are emitted from various sources, including stationary and mobile. These sources release both criteria and hazardous air pollutants, which cause health effects, ecological harm, and material damage. They are generally categ...

  1. Comprehensive air monitoring plan: general monitoring report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-03-31

    Recommendations are provided for general monitoring of hydrogen sulfide (H/sub 2/S) in ambient air in parts of Colusa, Lake, Mendocino, Napa, and Sonoma counties potentially impacted by emissions from geothermal development projects in the Geysers-Calistoga Known Geothermal Resource Area. Recommendations for types, placement, performance guidelines, and criteria and procedure for triggering establishment and termination of CAMP monitoring equipment were determined after examination of four factors: population location; emission sources; meteorological considerations; and data needs of permitting agencies and applicants. Three alternate financial plans were developed. Locations and equipment for immediate installation are recommended for: two air quality stations in communities where the State ambient air quality standard for H/sub 2/S has been exceeded; three air quality trend stations to monitor progress in reduction of H/sub 2/S emissions; two meteorological observation stations to monitor synoptic wind flow over the area; and one acoustic radar and one rawinsonde station to monitor air inversions which limit the depth of the mixing layer.

  2. Development of an atmospheric fossil fuel CO2 monitoring station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Complete text of publication follows. The aim of the project supported by Hungarian NSF (ref No. F69029) is determination of atmospheric fossil fuel CO2 concentration in major cities or average industrial regions in Hungary using together measurement of CO2 mixing ratio and radiocarbon (14C) content of the air. For this aim we developed a high precision atmospheric CO2 monitoring station in ATOMKI (Figure 1.). The station's measuring system is based on an Ultramat 6F (Siemens) infrared gas analyser. To help continuous, unattended run and autocalibration we built up an automatic gas handling line for the analyzer. For radiocarbon measurements we applied an integrating sampling system. One was installed in Debrecen station and two independent 14CO2 sampling line were installed 400 km far from Debrecen at Hegyhatsal station as background references. During several tests of the measuring and sampling systems we demonstrated that uncertainty of individual CO2 mixing ratio results is less than 0.5 ppm and the applied radiocarbon sampling system developed by ATOMKI works with good reproducibility. In September and October of 2008 we measured the mixing ratio and radiocarbon content of atmospheric CO2 at Debrecen and the far rural reference station (Hegyhatsal) simultaneously. It was concluded that trends in CO2 mixing ratio variations in time are very similar at the three different sampling points (2 m above ground in Debrecen, 10 m and 115 m above ground in Hegyhatsal). Air quality in Debrecen during September of 2008 seemed to be relatively clear from the point of view of its CO2 content at least. When winter came in October, with lower outside temperature and less sunshine hours the CO2 content of air was increased in general at all the three sampling points, but this effect was more intensive closer to the ground level. According our radiocarbon observations it was clearly indicated that there was not significant amount of fossil fuel CO2 in the air of Debrecen during

  3. Quo vadis, USA dollar? : finantsturgude viimastest arengutest / Robert Liljequist

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Liljequist, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Swedbank AB Soome strateegiajuht vastab küsimustele, mis puudutavad USA majandust alanud aastal, dollari n.-ö turvalise valuuta staatuse kaotamise ohtu, võlakirjade ostmise vähendamist ja selle mõju USA dollarile, Euroopa Keskpanga poliitika mõju euro ja USA dollari suhtele. Swebanki prognoos USA dollari kohta

  4. USA tahab Iraagilt täispuutumatust / Kaivo Kopli

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kopli, Kaivo

    2008-01-01

    USA ja Iraagi läbirääkimised USA vägede staatuse üle venivad, USA soovib oma sõduritele täielikku immuniteeti. Iraak olevat nõus nende USA üksuste immuniteediga, kes on sõjalistes rajatistes või missioonil, milles on varem kokku lepitud

  5. USA suursaadik : hirmud on alistanud lootuse / Toomas Sildam

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Sildam, Toomas, 1961-

    2004-01-01

    Eestist lahkuv USA suursaadik Joseph de Thomas andis USA iseseisvuspäeva kõnes hinnangu Eesti toetusele Iraagis ja USA Iraagi-poliitikale. Parlamendiliige Eiki Berg USA suursaadiku kõnest. Vt. ka: Suursaadiku sõnum lk. 10

  6. Lahingustress ajab USA sõdurid jooma / Neeme Raud

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Raud, Neeme, 1969-

    2007-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Postimees : na russkom jazõke, 15. märts 2007, lk. 10. USA kaitseministeeriumi siseuurimuse kohaselt kasvas alkoholi kuritarvitamine tegevteenistuses olevate USA sõjaväelaste seas aastatel 2002-2005 enam kui 30%. Alkoholi ja uimastite tarvitamisest Iraagis ja Afganistanis teenivate USA sõdurite hulgas. Vt. samas: USA relvajõududes puhkes uus homoskandaal

  7. USA võtab hoogu maha / Tarvo Vaarmets

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Vaarmets, Tarvo

    2010-01-01

    Pärast riiklike soodustuste lõppu koduostjatele on USA-s vähenenud kinnisvara soetamine, jaemüüjate käive langes juunis võrreldes maiga 0,5%. USA keskpanga presidendi Ben Bernanke hinnangul on USA majandus ebatavaliselt ebamäärane

  8. CFD Simulation of Airflow in the Side-Platform Stations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adibi Omid

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Design of an appropriate ventilation system is one of the main concerns in the construction of subways. In this paper, thermal comforts of side-platform stations are investigated by numerical methods. For the numerical simulation, grids are generated by structured methods and governing equations are discretized by finite volume methods. In the numerical simulation, second order upwind and second order central difference scheme are used to consider the convection and diffusion terms of momentum and energy equations, respectively. Results of this study show that in term of thermal comfort, region next to the hallway and the middle part of the platform is the worst zones of the station. In these zones, air velocity is very low (less than 0.5m/s and the air temperature reaches to 34°C which is more than its limit (Tmax≤32°C.

  9. Bacteria, some permanent tenants Space Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vacuum cleaners to operate the vacuum or rags with ethanol they are the products of cleaning of the astronauts. Is there tight spaces fully sterilized? It seems not, even in the Space Station International (ISS). When it comes to bacteria, they are able to travel more than 400 kilometers housed in costumes, bodies and interior of the astronauts themselves and settle in a enclosed space where-unlike in a cleanroom 'terrestre- the air is not recycled. A NASA study has found an abundance of bacteria 'opportunists' which, although harmless on Earth, they might derivasen cause infections in inflammations or skin irritations. Not forgetting those fungi that could damage or affect the infrastructure equipment space. (Author)

  10. Solid waste treatment processes for space station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marrero, T. R.

    1983-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the state-of-the-art of solid waste(s) treatment processes applicable to a Space Station. From the review of available information a source term model for solid wastes was determined. An overall system is proposed to treat solid wastes under constraints of zero-gravity and zero-leakage. This study contains discussion of more promising potential treatment processes, including supercritical water oxidation, wet air (oxygen) oxidation, and chemical oxidation. A low pressure, batch-type treament process is recommended. Processes needed for pretreatment and post-treatment are hardware already developed for space operations. The overall solid waste management system should minimize transfer of wastes from their collection point to treatment vessel.

  11. Microbial Monitoring of the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierson, Duane L.; Botkin, Douglas J.; Bruce, Rebekah J.; Castro, Victoria A.; Smith, Melanie J.; Oubre, Cherie M.; Ott, C. Mark

    2013-01-01

    microbial growth. Air filtration can dramatically reduce the number of airborne bacteria, fungi, and particulates in spacecraft breathing air. Waterborne bacteria can be reduced to acceptable levels by thermal inactivation of bacteria during water processing, along with a residual biocide, and filtration at the point of use can ensure safety. System design must include onboard capability to achieve recovery of the system from contamination. Robust housekeeping procedures that include periodic cleaning and disinfection will prevent high levels of microbial growth on surfaces. Food for consumption in space must be thoroughly tested for excessive microbial content and pathogens before launch. Thorough preflight examination of flight crews, consumables, payloads, and the environment can greatly reduce pathogens in spacecraft. Many of the lessons learned from the Space Shuttle and previous programs were applied in the early design phase of the International Space Station, resulting in the safest space habitat to date. This presentation describes the monitoring program for the International Space Station and will summarize results from preflight and on-orbit monitoring.

  12. WVU Hydrogen Fuel Dispensing Station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, William [West Virginia University Research Corporation, Morgantown, WV (United States)

    2015-09-01

    The scope of this project was changed during the course of the project. Phase I of the project was to construct a site similar to the site at Central West Virginia Regional Airport in Charleston, WV to show that duplication of the site was a feasible method of conducting hydrogen stations. Phase II of the project was necessitated due to a lack of funding that was planned for the development of the station in Morgantown. The US Department of Energy determined that the station in Charleston would be dismantled and moved to Morgantown and reassembled at the Morgantown site. This necessitated storage of the components of the station for almost a year at the NAFTC Headquarters which caused a number of issues with the equipment that will be discussed in later portions of this report. This report will consist of PHASE I and PHASE II with discussions on each of the tasks scheduled for each phase of the project.

  13. Clearing the air : report 2 : air quality trends in Sudbury 1998 to 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report highlighted key trends in air pollutant concentrations in the Greater Sudbury region between 1998 and 2007. Air pollutant concentrations were compared with ambient air quality criteria for Ontario as well as federal standards. The study measured levels of sulfur dioxide (SO2); ground-level ozone (O3); particulate matter (PM); and metals. An air quality index was used to rate overall air quality based on hourly measurements of up to 6 air pollutants. Air quality monitoring stations were placed throughout the Greater Sudbury region to record the amounts of pollutants in the air. The study showed that average SO2 concentrations continued to decrease across the monitoring network. O3 concentrations met the provincial 1-hour criterion except when long-range O3 was transported into the region from the United States under specific meteorological conditions. Coarse fractions of particulates were less than the annual criterion at stations. Average PM concentrations met the Canada Wide Standard, while the 24-hour criteria for metals were met for most of the year. Sudbury's air quality was then compared to air quality data obtained from other Ontario cities. It was concluded that Sudbury's air quality will continue to improve in the future. 9 figs.

  14. Space Station Biological Research Project Habitat: Incubator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, G. J.; Kirven-Brooks, M.; Scheller, N. M.

    2001-01-01

    Developed as part of the suite of Space Station Biological Research Project (SSBRP) hardware to support research aboard the International Space Station (ISS), the Incubator is a temperature-controlled chamber, for conducting life science research with small animal, plant and microbial specimens. The Incubator is designed for use only on the ISS and is transported to/from the ISS, unpowered and without specimens, in the Multi-Purpose Logistics Module (MPLM) of the Shuttle. The Incubator interfaces with the three SSBRP Host Systems; the Habitat Holding Racks (HHR), the Life Sciences Glovebox (LSG) and the 2.5 m Centrifuge Rotor (CR), providing investigators with the ability to conduct research in microgravity and at variable gravity levels of up to 2-g. The temperature within the Specimen Chamber can be controlled between 4 and 45 C. Cabin air is recirculated within the Specimen Chamber and can be exchanged with the ISS cabin at a rate of approximately equal 50 cc/min. The humidity of the Specimen Chamber is monitored. The Specimen Chamber has a usable volume of approximately equal 19 liters and contains two (2) connectors at 28v dc, (60W) for science equipment; 5 dedicated thermometers for science; ports to support analog and digital signals from experiment unique sensors or other equipment; an Ethernet port; and a video port. It is currently manifested for UF-3 and will be launched integrated within the first SSBRP Habitat Holding Rack.

  15. Gas Compressor Station Economic Optimization

    OpenAIRE

    Rainer Kurz; Matt Lubomirsky; Klaus Brun

    2012-01-01

    When considering gas compressor stations for pipeline projects, the economic success of the entire operation depends to a significant extent on the operation of the compressors involved. In this paper, the basic factors contributing to the economics are outlined, with particular emphasis on the interaction between the pipeline and the compressor station. Typical scenarios are described, highlighting the fact that pipeline operation has to take into account variations in load.

  16. Space stations systems and utilization

    CERN Document Server

    Messerschmid, Ernst

    1999-01-01

    The design of space stations like the recently launched ISS is a highly complex and interdisciplinary task. This book describes component technologies, system integration, and the potential usage of space stations in general and of the ISS in particular. It so adresses students and engineers in space technology. Ernst Messerschmid holds the chair of space systems at the University of Stuttgart and was one of the first German astronauts.

  17. Space Station reference configuration description

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    The data generated by the Space Station Program Skunk Works over a period of 4 months which supports the definition of a Space Station reference configuration is documented. The data were generated to meet these objectives: (1) provide a focal point for the definition and assessment of program requirements; (2) establish a basis for estimating program cost; and (3) define a reference configuration in sufficient detail to allow its inclusion in the definition phase Request for Proposal (RFP).

  18. Hungarian repeat station survey, 2010

    OpenAIRE

    Péter Kovács; András Csontos; Balázs Heilig; András Koppán

    2013-01-01

    The last Hungarian repeat station survey was completed between October 2010 and February 2011. Declination, inclination and the total field were observed using one-axial DMI fluxgate magnetometer mounted on Zeiss20A theodolite and GSM 19 Overhauser magnetometer. The magnetic elements of the sites were reduced to the epoch of 2010.5 on the basis of the continuous recordings of Tihany Geophysical Observatory. In stations located far from the reference observatory, the observations were carried ...

  19. Research of volatile organic compounds from petrol filling stations

    OpenAIRE

    Bikbajeva, Žana

    2008-01-01

    The research focuses on the environmental problem of volatile organic compounds in ambient air of petrol filling stations. The literature review of the issues, arising from petrol-related VOCs, with actual and proposed VOC emissions trends in Europe, have been performed. Besides petrol filling station’s typical technology layout, petrol nature and composition, applicable petrol vapour recovery solutions and their efficiency were examinated. The volatile organic compounds’ experimental researc...

  20. Ground stations for aeronautical and space laser communications at German Aerospace Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moll, Florian; Shrestha, Amita; Fuchs, Christian

    2015-10-01

    Free-space laser communications are subject of current research and development in many research and industrial bodies. Long distance air-ground and space-ground can be implemented in future communication networks as feeder, backbone and backhaul links for various air- and space-based scenarios. The Institute of Communications and Navigation of the German Aerospace Center (DLR) operates two ground stations to investigate the communication channel and system: the Optical Ground Station Oberpfaffenhofen and the Transportable Optical Ground Station. The first one is a fixed installation and operated as experimental station with focus on channel measurements and tests of new developments. Various measurement devices, communication receivers and optical setups may easily be installed for different objectives. The facility is described with its dome installation, telescope setup and infrastructure. Past and current deployment in several projects is described and selected measurement achievements presented. The second ground station is developed for semi-operational use and demonstration purposes. Based on experience with the experimental ground station, this one is developed with higher level of integration and system robustness. The focus application is the space-ground and air-ground downlink of payload data from Earth observation missions. Therefore, it is also designed to be easily transportable for worldwide deployment. The system is explained and main components are discussed. The characteristics of both ground stations are presented and discussed. Further advancements in the equipment and capability are also presented.

  1. Trends of nuclear power in U.S.A. Nuclear power big nation intending to survive in liberation market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At present in the end of 1998, 104 units of nuclear power plants with 100.16 MkW of electric power are in operation in U.S.A. This power corresponds to almost twice of Japan and France which are the second and the third nuclear big nations in the world, respectively. On actual result of operation in 1998, they occupy 18.7 % of total power generation in U.S.A., and upgrading of their recent operation rate is remarkable (from 71 % in 1997 to 78 % in 1998) to show more than 90 % in most of nuclear power stations. As decline of nuclear power trends to be told recently, actual results of operation in previously established nuclear power stations are much favorable. Here were investigated on maintenance of competitive power in liberation, effort to solution of wastes problem, re-evaluation of nuclear power due to environmental regulation, and R and D aiming at its innovative technology on nuclear power. U.S.A. always leads allover of the world, of course in the nuclear power. It has a possibility to form in Europe and Japan after 10 to 20 years to occur in U.S.A. at present, and it seems to affect largely on future trends of nuclear power in the world. (G.K.)

  2. Thin air

    OpenAIRE

    Jasanoff, Sheila

    2013-01-01

    Clearing the air How do we grasp the air? Without Michel Callon’s guidance, I might never have asked that question. Years ago, when I first entered environmental law practice, I took it for granted that problems such as air pollution exist “out there” in the real world for science to discover and law to fix. It is a measure of Callon’s influence that I understand the law today as a metaphysical instrument, no less powerful in its capacity to order nature than the tools of the ancient oracular...

  3. The duty health physicist program at Byron Nuclear Power Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Duty Health Physicist Program at Byron Station was established to deal with routine health physics tasks and provide an interface between frontline and upper radiation-chemistry management. The program consists of a weekly rotation of selected members of the health physics staff into the duty health physicist position to handle the assigned duty tasks. The tasks include, but are not limited to, daily isotopic and air sample review, effluent release package review, maximum permissible concentration calculations, dose approvals, as-low-as-reasonably-achievable action review of pending jobs, and general availability to answer questions and address problems in health-physics-related areas of plant operation. The daily attendance of the duty health physicist at the radiation-chemistry and station plan-of-the-day meetings has increased the overall presence and visibility of the health physics program to upper station management and other station departments. Since its inception in July of 1985, the Duty Health Physics Program has been a major contributor to the observed 50% reduction in reportable personnel errors in the radiation-chemistry department (based on personnel-error-related deviation reports and license event reports generated on the radiation-chemistry department at Byron Station). Although difficulty to quantify, other important benefits of this program are also discussed in this paper

  4. The Miksova water power station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This leaflet describes the Miksova water power station. The Miksova water power station is part of the second derived cascade of hydro power stations on the river Vah. It was built at the end of a huge development in Slovak hydro-energy in the late 1950's and the beginning of the 1960's. It is the second water power station on this derived cascade, which is situated downstream the Hricov reservoir and water power station. At the power station, three turbine sets with vertical Kaplan turbines are installed with a total power output of 3 x 31.2 = 93.6 MW. With this power output the Miksova water power station (Miksova I) was the biggest water power station in the Slovak Republic until the construction of Pumping water power station Liptovska Mara. And it is still the biggest channel water power station on the Vah so far. It was put into operation during the period 1963 to 1965. There are three turbine sets with Kaplan turbines from CKD Blansko, with a synchronous hydro-alternator installed in the power station. Their installed capacity is 93.6 MW in total and the projected annual production of electrical energy is 207 GWh. The turbines are fi ve-bladed (on the Hricov and Povazska Bystrica water power stations they are four-bladed) and the impeller wheel has a diameter of 4800 mm. They are designed for extension of the head from 24.1 to 22.21 m and each of them has an absorption capacity of 134 m3.s-1 nd a nominal operating speed of 2.08 m3.s-1, runaway speed 4.9 m3.s-1. Each synchronous hydro-alternator has a maximum power output of 31.2 MW, a nominal voltage of 10.5 kV and power factor cos φ of 0.8. Power from the power station is led out through 110 kV switchgear. The water power station operates under automatic turbine mode of operation with remote indication and control from the Dispatch Centre at Vodne elektrarne, in Trencin. From start of operation until the end of 2003 all three turbine sets operated for a total of 450,500 running hours and the Miksova water

  5. Electricity competition and clean air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The government of Ontario plans to establish a competitive market for the generation and sale of electricity by the year 2000, at which time Ontario Hydro will lose its monopoly. The government's rationale for moving to a competitive electricity market and the details of why this move could lead to a significant increase in air pollution was discussed. An overview of the health and environmental effects of electricity related air pollution was presented and the current national and provincial air quality objectives were outlined. The government of Ontario has promised that in implementing a competitive electricity market it will ensure that the province's environmental protection record is maintained and improved. It was suggested that in order to fulfill this commitment, new environmental regulations should be established to ensure that Ontario's total electricity-related emissions will decline when competition begins. Currently, air pollution from coal-fired power generating stations causes some of Ontario's most challenging health and environmental problems. Coal-fired generation stations are also major contributors to the build-up of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. 74 refs., 2 tabs., 2 figs

  6. Particulate Matter 2.5 and Black Carbon concentrations in underground San Francisco Bay Area Rapid Transit stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, A.; Williams, N.; Quartey, R.; Quintana, M.; Bell, B.; Biswas, N.; Hunter, S.; Marks-Block, T.; Yu, X.

    2013-12-01

    differences in PM concentration between stations are attributed to the number of train lines at each station, the length of adjacent train tunnel, and access to open air at each station. Discussion of PM sources and BC data awaits further elemental analysis of particles collected on instruments' filters. Twenty-four hour sampling of underground BART station air quality is recommended to further understand long-term patterns and potential exposure risks to employees and commuters.

  7. Air Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to a close in June 2013 when the company, Conscious Clothing, was awarded the My Air grand ... Page Options: Request Translation Services Facebook Twitter LinkedIn Google+ Reddit Email Evernote More Increase Font Size Decrease ...

  8. Air Quality of Beijing and Impacts of the New Ambient Air Quality Standard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Chen

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Beijing has been publishing daily reports on its air quality since 2000, and while the air pollution index (API shows that the air quality has improved greatly since 2000, this is not the perception of Beijing’s residents. The new national ambient air quality standard (NAAQS-2012, which includes the monitoring of PM2.5, has posed stricter standards for evaluating air quality. With the new national standard, the air quality in Beijing is calculated using both NAAQS-2012 and the previous standard. The annual attainment rate has dropped from 75.5% to 50.7%. The spatial analysis of air quality shows that only a background station could attain the national standard, while urban and suburban stations exceed the national standard. Among the six pollutants included in the NAAQS-2012, PM2.5 is the major contributor to the air quality index (AQI comparing with the five other pollutants. The results indicate that under previous NAAQS without PM2.5 monitoring, the air quality has improved greatly in the past decade.  By considering PM2.5, the air quality attainment has dropped greatly. Furthermore, a great effort is needed for local government to bring down the PM2.5 concentration.

  9. Space Station Freedom as an engineering experiment station: An overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, M. Frank

    1992-01-01

    In this presentation, the premise that Space Station Freedom has great utility as an engineering experiment station will be explored. There are several modes in which it can be used for this purpose. The most obvious are space qualification, process development, in space satellite repair, and materials engineering. The range of engineering experiments which can be done at Space Station Freedom run the gamut from small process oriented experiments to full exploratory development models. A sampling of typical engineering experiments are discussed in this session. First and foremost, Space Station Freedom is an elaborate experiment itself, which, if properly instrumented, will provide engineering guidelines for even larger structures which must surely be built if humankind is truly 'outward bound.' Secondly, there is the test, evaluation and space qualification of advanced electric thruster concepts, advanced power technology and protective coatings which must of necessity be tested in the vacuum of space. The current approach to testing these technologies is to do exhaustive laboratory simulation followed by shuttle or unmanned flights. Third, the advanced development models of life support systems intended for future space stations, manned mars missions, and lunar colonies can be tested for operation in a low gravity environment. Fourth, it will be necessary to develop new protective coatings, establish construction techniques, evaluate new materials to be used in the upgrading and repair of Space Station Freedom. Finally, the industrial sector, if it is ever to build facilities for the production of commercial products, must have all the engineering aspects of the process evaluated in space prior to a commitment to such a facility.

  10. Douglas Point Generating Station Commissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper discusses a number of the interesting experiences encountered at the Douglas Point Nuclear Power Station. Sufficient background with respect to the basic process, equipment location, and commissioning history is given so that those not familiar with the station may follow the remainder of the paper. Three commissioning philosophies followed in the commissioning of Canadian nuclear power stations are mentioned: (1) no ordinary water used for commissioning heavy-water systems: (2) fuelling machines used for initial fuel loading; (3) no portable steam-generating equipment for preliminary turbine-generator run up. Against this background the following experiences are mentioned: low power physics measurements; fuel channel replacement and faulty booster removal; heat transport pressure control; ion-exchange resin in the heat transport system; heat transport pumps; boiler level control; possible fretting of pressure tubes; turbine operation; heavy-water experience. The paper concludes by mentioning some important lessons learned from the experience to date and states confidence in the future of Douglas Point Generating Station, and future Canadian nuclear power stations. (author)

  11. Quebec-USA electricity export contracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electricity exports from Hydro-Quebec to utilities in the USA significantly affects the economy and environment of Quebec. These exports may be arranged under interconnection agreements to sell excess capacity and production during off-peak periods or under firm sales contracts. Hydro-Quebec exports could also replace power plants that would otherwise be needed in the USA. The economic environment for Hydro-Quebec exports to the USA is reviewed along with the regulatory environment applicable to international trade (General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade, Canada-USA Free Trade Agreement, North American Free Trade Agreement), Quebec (Canadian federal and provincial law), and the USA (federal and state law). A jurisdictional analysis of power export contracts is then presented, citing examples of contracts already signed by Hydro-Quebec with utilities in New York and New England. Contract law and contract provisions are discussed, including common clauses and particular clauses. Suggestions are made for new clauses that would improve the electricity trade. 215 refs., 13 figs., 3 tabs

  12. Latest developments in advanced network management and cross-sharing of next-generation flux stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burba, George; Johnson, Dave; Velgersdyk, Michael; Begashaw, Israel; Allyn, Douglas

    2016-04-01

    be merged into a single quality-control file (v) Multiple flux stations can be linked into an automated time-synchronized network (vi) Flux network managers, or PI's, can see all stations in real-time, including fluxes, supporting data, automated reports, and email alerts (vii) PI's can assign rights, allow or restrict access to stations and data: selected stations can be shared via rights-managed access internally or with external institutions (viii) Researchers without stations could form "virtual networks" for specific projects by collaborating with PIs from different actual networks This presentation provides detailed examples of FluxSuite currently utilized to manage two large flux networks in China (National Academy of Sciences and Agricultural Academy of Sciences), and smaller networks with stations in the USA, Germany, Ireland, Malaysia and other locations around the globe. Very latest 2016 developments and expanded functionality are also discussed.

  13. Radioxenon spiked air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watrous, Matthew G; Delmore, James E; Hague, Robert K; Houghton, Tracy P; Jenson, Douglas D; Mann, Nick R

    2015-12-01

    Four of the radioactive xenon isotopes ((131m)Xe, (133m)Xe, (133)Xe and (135)Xe) with half-lives ranging from 9 h to 12 days are produced from nuclear fission and can be detected from days to weeks following their production and release. Being inert gases, they are readily transported through the atmosphere. Sources for release of radioactive xenon isotopes include operating nuclear reactors via leaks in fuel rods, medical isotope production facilities, and nuclear weapons' detonations. They are not normally released from fuel reprocessing due to the short half-lives. The Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty has led to creation of the International Monitoring System. The International Monitoring System, when fully implemented, will consist of one component with 40 stations monitoring radioactive xenon around the globe. Monitoring these radioactive xenon isotopes is important to the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty in determining whether a seismically detected event is or is not a nuclear detonation. A variety of radioactive xenon quality control check standards, quantitatively spiked into various gas matrices, could be used to demonstrate that these stations are operating on the same basis in order to bolster defensibility of data across the International Monitoring System. This paper focuses on Idaho National Laboratory's capability to produce three of the xenon isotopes in pure form and the use of the four xenon isotopes in various combinations to produce radioactive xenon spiked air samples that could be subsequently distributed to participating facilities. PMID:26318775

  14. Reviewing nuclear power station achievement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For measurement of nuclear power station achievement against original purchase the usual gross output figures are of little value since the term loosely covers many different definitions. An authentically designed output figure has been established which relates to net design output plus house load at full load. Based on these figures both cumulative and moving annual load factors are measured, the latter measuring the achievement over the last year, thus showing trends with time. Calculations have been carried out for all nuclear stations in the Western World with 150 MW(e) gross design output and above. From these are shown: moving annual load factor indicating relative station achievements for all the plants; cumulative load factors from which return of investment can be calculated; average moving annual load factors for the four types of system Magnox, PWR, HWR, and BWR; and a relative comparison of achievement by country in a few cases. (U.K.)

  15. Hungarian repeat station survey, 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Péter Kovács

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The last Hungarian repeat station survey was completed between October 2010 and February 2011. Declination, inclination and the total field were observed using one-axial DMI fluxgate magnetometer mounted on Zeiss20A theodolite and GSM 19 Overhauser magnetometer. The magnetic elements of the sites were reduced to the epoch of 2010.5 on the basis of the continuous recordings of Tihany Geophysical Observatory. In stations located far from the reference observatory, the observations were carried out in the morning and afternoon in order to decrease the effect of the distant temporal correction. To further increase the accuracy, on-site dIdD variometer has also been installed near the Aggtelek station, in the Baradla cave, during the survey of the easternmost sites. The paper presents the technical details and the results of our last campaign. The improvement of the accuracy of the temporal reduction by the use of the local variometer is also reported.

  16. Photogrammetric stations for robot vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haggren, Henrik G. A.

    1992-03-01

    Photogrammetric stations are used for vision based dynamic control of 3-D related phenomena. The vision sensors are fixed solid-state cameras which are permanently mounted and set up for a specific control task. The on-site calibration of the station allows the continuous processing of the 3-D space coordinates for all object points according to their actual 2-D image locations For automated control processes the object points are targeted using predefined templates extracted from the perspective images. The precision of an object point measured by the station is better than 1:10,000 of the object volume in all three coordinates. The vision application presented here is the locating of car bodies in the 3-D space of a robotic sealing cell.

  17. Pure Air`s Bailly scrubber: A four-year retrospective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manavi, G.B.; Vymazal, D.C. [Pure Air, Allentown, PA (United States); Sarkus, T.A. [Dept. of Energy, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    Pure Air`s Advanced Flue Gas Desulfurization (AFGD) Clean Coal Project has completed four highly successful years of operation at NIPSCO`s Bailly Station. As part of their program, Pure Air has concluded a six-part study of system performance. This paper summarizes the results of the demonstration program, including AFGD performance on coals ranging from 2.0--2.4% sulfur. The paper highlights novel aspects of the Bailly facility, including pulverized limestone injection, air rotary sparger for oxidation, wastewater evaporation system and the production of PowerChip{reg_sign} gypsum. Operations and maintenance which have led to the facility`s notable 99.47% availability record are also discussed. A project company, Pure Air on the Lake Limited Partnership, owns the AFGD facility. Pure Air was the turn key contractor and Air Products and Chemicals, Inc. is the operator of the AFGD system.

  18. Reprocessed height time series for GPS stations

    OpenAIRE

    S. Rudenko; Schön, N.; Uhlemann, M; G. Gendt

    2013-01-01

    Precise weekly positions of 403 Global Positioning System (GPS) stations located worldwide are obtained by reprocessing GPS data of these stations for the time span from 4 January 1998 until 29 December 2007. The processing algorithms and models used as well as the solution and results obtained are presented. Vertical velocities of 266 GPS stations having a tracking history longer than 2.5 yr are computed; 107 of them are GPS stations located at tide gauges (TIGA observing stations). The vert...

  19. Racial gradients of ambient air pollution exposure in Hamilton, Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Michael Buzzelli; Michael Jerrett

    2004-01-01

    Environmental justice research in the United States has coalesced around the notion that visible-minority status, along with socioeconomic position (SEP), conditions exposure to environmental health hazards. In the context of long-standing debates over Canada - USA urban differences, we address the question of whether racial gradients exist in air pollution across Hamilton, Canada. Monitored air quality data are spatially interpolated with a kriging algorithm. These interpolated exposures are...

  20. OSCILLATIONS AND CYCLES OF AIR TEMPERATURE IN SOUTH AMERICA

    OpenAIRE

    Ion Isaia

    2013-01-01

    This paper is seeking to prove that on the South American continent there are the same cycles of air temperature (almost perfect) as those proven to exist in Europe (Romania), New Zeeland and North America (the U.S.A.) The oscillations and air temperature cycles of South America have their own characteristics, due to the large expansion of this continent in both latitude and longitude. The absence of important mountain chains with longitudinal display allows quick and intense advection of bot...

  1. Modelling environmental equity: access to air quality in Birmingham, England

    OpenAIRE

    Brainard, Julii S.; Jones, Andrew P.; Bateman, Ian J.; Lovett, Andrew A; Peter J Fallon

    2002-01-01

    Many studies in the USA have noted inequities with regard to the socioeconomic status or racial character of communities and their relative exposure to environmental disamenities. In this paper the authors focus particularly on the environmental equity of air pollution in the English city of Birmingham. Using statistical methodologies they examine the pattern of exposure to two key air pollutants: carbon monoxide (CO) and nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ) across certain population groups in the city. ...

  2. Checking nuclear power station safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper describes the test facilities and research projects for Sizewell-B and other nuclear power stations, directed by the National Nuclear Corporation (NNC). The NNC is Britain's nuclear power station design and construction company, and is currently carrying out commissioning on both the Heysham and Torness AGRs. A description is given of NNC's nuclear research and development work, which includes: the production of Cobalt-free alloy, coatings for the primary containment shell, and ''fitness for purpose'' tests on reactor components using its 'Loki' rig to put the equipment through postulated accident conditions. NNC also has a rig to test structural features under extreme thermal shock conditions. (U.K.)

  3. Air Quality Assessment Using Interpolation Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Awkash Kumar

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Air pollution is increasing rapidly in almost all cities around the world due to increase in population. Mumbai city in India is one of the mega cities where air quality is deteriorating at a very rapid rate. Air quality monitoring stations have been installed in the city to regulate air pollution control strategies to reduce the air pollution level. In this paper, air quality assessment has been carried out over the sample region using interpolation techniques. The technique Inverse Distance Weighting (IDW of Geographical Information System (GIS has been used to perform interpolation with the help of concentration data on air quality at three locations of Mumbai for the year 2008. The classification was done for the spatial and temporal variation in air quality levels for Mumbai region. The seasonal and annual variations of air quality levels for SO2, NOx and SPM (Suspended Particulate Matter have been focused in this study. Results show that SPM concentration always exceeded the permissible limit of National Ambient Air Quality Standard. Also, seasonal trends of pollutant SPM was low in monsoon due rain fall. The finding of this study will help to formulate control strategies for rational management of air pollution and can be used for many other regions.

  4. Monitoring air sparging using resistivity tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Air sparging is a relatively new technique for the remediation of ground water contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons. In this technique, air is injected below the water table, beneath the contaminated soil. Remediation occurs by a combination of contaminant partitioning into the vapor phase and enhanced biodegradation. The air is usually removed by vacuum extraction in the vadose zone. The efficiency of remediation from air sparging is a function of the air flow pattern, although the distribution of the injected air is still poorly understood. Cross-borehole resistivity surveys were performed at a former service station in Florence, Oregon, to address this unknown. The resistivity measurements were made using six wells, one of which was the sparge well. Data were collected over a two-week period during and after several air injections, or sparge events. Resistivity images were calculated between wells using an algorithm that assumes axially symmetric structures. The movement of the injected air through time was defined by regions of large increases in resistivity, greater than 100 percent from the background. During early sparge times, air moved outward and upward from the injection point as it ascended to the unsaturated zone. At later sparge times, the air flow reached a somewhat stable cone-shaped pattern radiating out and up from the injection point. Two days after sparging was discontinued, a residue of entrained air remained in the saturated zone, as indicated by a zone of 60 to 80 percent water saturation

  5. "Riia ring, "luurepost ja tööjaotus USA esindustest Baltikumis 1920. aastatel / Eero Medijainen""

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Medijainen, Eero, 1959-

    2012-01-01

    Diplomaatilisest taustast. USA esinduste rajamisest Baltikumi. Olukorrast USA saatkonnas 1922. aastal. USA sõjalisest vaatlejast "Balti provintsides" 1919-1922. Luurekeskusest ja Sergius Riisist. "Vene sektsiooni" formaliseeerumisest.

  6. Air surveillance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patton, G.W.

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the air surveillance and monitoring programs currently in operation at that Hanford Site. Atmospheric releases of pollutants from Hanford to the surrounding region are a potential source of human exposure. For that reason, both radioactive and nonradioactive materials in air are monitored at a number of locations. The influence of Hanford emissions on local radionuclide concentrations was evaluated by comparing concentrations measured at distant locations within the region to concentrations measured at the Site perimeter. This section discusses sample collection, analytical methods, and the results of the Hanford air surveillance program. A complete listing of all analytical results summarized in this section is reported separately by Bisping (1995).

  7. International lunar observatory / power station: from Hawaii to the Moon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durst, S.

    Astronomy's great advantages from the Moon are well known - stable surface, diffuse atmosphere, long cool nights (14 days), low gravity, far side radio frequency silence. A large variety of astronomical instruments and observations are possible - radio, optical and infrared telescopes and interferometers; interferometry for ultra- violet to sub -millimeter wavelengths and for very long baselines, including Earth- Moon VLBI; X-ray, gamma-ray, cosmic ray and neutrino detection; very low frequency radio observation; and more. Unparalleled advantages of lunar observatories for SETI, as well as for local surveillance, Earth observation, and detection of Earth approaching objects add significant utility to lunar astronomy's superlatives. At least nine major conferences in the USA since 1984 and many elsewhere, as well as ILEWG, IAF, IAA, LEDA and other organizations' astronomy-from-the-Moon research indicate a lunar observatory / power station, robotic at first, will be one of the first mission elements for a permanent lunar base. An international lunar observatory will be a transcending enterprise, highly principled, indispensable, soundly and broadly based, and far- seeing. Via Astra - From Hawaii to the Moon: The astronomy and scie nce communities, national space agencies and aerospace consortia, commercial travel and tourist enterprises and those aspiring to advance humanity's best qualities, such as Aloha, will recognize Hawaii in the 21st century as a new major support area and pan- Pacific port of embarkation to space, the Moon and beyond. Astronomical conditions and facilities on Hawaii's Mauna Kea provide experience for construction and operation of observatories on the Moon. Remote and centrally isolated, with diffuse atmosphere, sub-zero temperature and limited working mobility, the Mauna Kea complex atop the 4,206 meter summit of the largest mountain on the planet hosts the greatest collection of large astronomical telescopes on Earth. Lunar, extraterrestrial

  8. AIR QUALITY MONITORING WITH THE LICHEN BIODIVERSITY INDEX (LBI IN THE DISTRICT OF FAENZA (ITALY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuela Cioffi

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The Lichen Biodiversity Index (LBI is a method for monitoring air pollution. This method employs lichens living on lime trees because they are sensitive to NOx and SOx, and it considers the variations in their communities. This study was performed in 16 stations located in the suburbs of Faenza city town and the result shows a more than acceptable air quality although in some stations the air was affected by the polluting effects of the vehicle traffic.

  9. Flex concept for US-A BWR extended loss of AC power events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The US-Advanced Boiling Water Reactor (US-A BWR), certified by the US NRC, is a third generation, evolutionary boiling water reactor design which is the reference for the South Texas Project Units 3 and 4 (Stp 3 and 4) Combined License Application (Cola) and incorporates numerous design and technology enhancements for improved safety performance. Nuclear Innovation North America (NINA) is the License Applicant for this new build project, and Toshiba is the selected primary technology contractor. The Stp 3 and 4 project has finished the US NRC technical review of the Cola, and the final safety evaluation report (FSER) is scheduled to be issued by the US NRC in 2015. Following the accident at the Fukushima Dai-ichi plant, the US-A BWR was reviewed for Beyond Design Basis Event (BDBE) safety using industry and regulatory guidance for US NRC Order EA-12-049 Order Modifying Licenses with Regard to Requirements for Mitigation of Beyond Design Basis External Events (BDBEE). By virtue of the design approach, the US-A BWR is capable of providing an indefinite coping period for a station blackout. The use of installed systems with extended coping times is a significant advantage of the US-A BWR compared to most of the plants currently operating in the U.S. In addition, the Stp 3 and 4 design incorporates enhancements consistent with the current US industry Diverse and Flexible Coping Strategies (Flex) initiative. The final technical topic requiring review by the US NRC Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards was the Flex Integrated Plan submitted by NINA, and this review was successfully completed. This paper summarizes the progress of the US-A BWR in licensing the Flex Integrated Plan for the project, and describes the technology and features of the US-A BWR design that contribute to safety post-Fukushima. It also provides an informational comparison of the design capabilities of the US-A BWR for extreme external events, and relates these capabilities to re

  10. Flex concept for US-A BWR extended loss of AC power events

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Powers, J. [Toshiba America Nuclear Energy, Charlotte, North Carolina (United States); Aoyagi, Y.; Kataoka, K. [Toshiba Corporation, Kawasaki, Kanagawa (Japan); Thomas, S.; Mookhoek, B., E-mail: jim.powers@toshiba.com [Nuclear Innovation North America, Lake Jackson, Texas (United States)

    2015-09-15

    The US-Advanced Boiling Water Reactor (US-A BWR), certified by the US NRC, is a third generation, evolutionary boiling water reactor design which is the reference for the South Texas Project Units 3 and 4 (Stp 3 and 4) Combined License Application (Cola) and incorporates numerous design and technology enhancements for improved safety performance. Nuclear Innovation North America (NINA) is the License Applicant for this new build project, and Toshiba is the selected primary technology contractor. The Stp 3 and 4 project has finished the US NRC technical review of the Cola, and the final safety evaluation report (FSER) is scheduled to be issued by the US NRC in 2015. Following the accident at the Fukushima Dai-ichi plant, the US-A BWR was reviewed for Beyond Design Basis Event (BDBE) safety using industry and regulatory guidance for US NRC Order EA-12-049 Order Modifying Licenses with Regard to Requirements for Mitigation of Beyond Design Basis External Events (BDBEE). By virtue of the design approach, the US-A BWR is capable of providing an indefinite coping period for a station blackout. The use of installed systems with extended coping times is a significant advantage of the US-A BWR compared to most of the plants currently operating in the U.S. In addition, the Stp 3 and 4 design incorporates enhancements consistent with the current US industry Diverse and Flexible Coping Strategies (Flex) initiative. The final technical topic requiring review by the US NRC Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards was the Flex Integrated Plan submitted by NINA, and this review was successfully completed. This paper summarizes the progress of the US-A BWR in licensing the Flex Integrated Plan for the project, and describes the technology and features of the US-A BWR design that contribute to safety post-Fukushima. It also provides an informational comparison of the design capabilities of the US-A BWR for extreme external events, and relates these capabilities to re

  11. Indoor switchyards for power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Special problems encountered in the design of the 230 kV switchyards of the coastal nuclear station at Tarapur, India, are discussed. The remedial measures taken to overcome the deleterious effects of the salty sea water are also outlined. (K.B.)

  12. Space Station-Baseline Configuration

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    In response to President Reagan's directive to NASA to develop a permanent marned Space Station within a decade, part of the State of the Union message to Congress on January 25, 1984, NASA and the Administration adopted a phased approach to Station development. This approach provided an initial capability at reduced costs, to be followed by an enhanced Space Station capability in the future. This illustration depicts the baseline configuration, which features a 110-meter-long horizontal boom with four pressurized modules attached in the middle. Located at each end are four photovoltaic arrays generating a total of 75-kW of power. Two attachment points for external payloads are provided along this boom. The four pressurized modules include the following: A laboratory and habitation module provided by the United States; two additional laboratories, one each provided by the European Space Agency (ESA) and Japan; and an ESA-provided Man-Tended Free Flyer, a pressurized module capable of operations both attached to and separate from the Space Station core. Canada was expected to provide the first increment of a Mobile Serving System.

  13. Space Station reference configuration update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonner, Tom F., Jr.

    1985-01-01

    The reference configuration of the NASA Space Station as of November 1985 is presented in a series of diagrams, drawings, graphs, and tables. The configurations for components to be contributed by ESA, Canada, and Japan are included. Brief captions are provided, along with answers to questions raised at the conference.

  14. Remote input/output station

    CERN Multimedia

    1972-01-01

    A general view of the remote input/output station installed in building 112 (ISR) and used for submitting jobs to the CDC 6500 and 6600. The card reader on the left and the line printer on the right are operated by programmers on a self-service basis.

  15. Damage prevention in power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The conference provided orientational information for engineers as planners, manufacturers, designers and operators of power stations working in planning, quality assurance, assembly/installation and safety. The topics were: Risk analysis; failure detection and evaluation; failure examples; reliability from planning to acceptance; reliability during operation; risk reduction by insurances; successful damage prevention. (orig./GL)

  16. The Medicina Station Status Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orfei, Alessandro; Orlati, Andrea; Maccaferri, Giuseppe

    2013-01-01

    General information about the Medicina Radio Astronomy Station, the 32-m antenna status, and the staff in charge of the VLBI observations is provided. In 2012, the data from geodetic VLBI observations were acquired using the Mark 5A recording system with good results. Updates of the hardware were performed and are briefly described.

  17. Merchant funding for power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The next frontier for project finance is merchant generation: the financing of IPPs without long-term offtake contracts. Banks are just beginning to finance merchant generation power stations. One of the first was Destec's Indian Queens project in Cornwall, UK. Bruce Johnston and Martin Bartlam of Wilde Sapte discuss the project. (UK)

  18. Criteria Applied in the Recent Choice of Site for the First Argentine Nuclear Power Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The basic requirements for the site of a nuclear power station with lower electricity generation costs than those of an equivalent conventional plant are fulfilled, in Argentina, in the area known as Gran Buenos Aires-Litoral. In 1965, the power grid of this area linked together stations with a total installed capacity of 2200 MW, and a further 1300 MW will have to be added during the period 1966-1972. On the basis of estimated power requirements a nuclear station of up to 500 MW could be installed in 1971-1972, and the grid could bear this increase in capacity. The criteria applied in the choice of site fall under two main headings: (a ) station construction, and (b) station operation. The first heading covers, in addition to proper integration of the station into the grid, the availability of cooling water, favourable topography, suitable foundations, easy access, and acceptable hydrological, soil and meteorological conditions. The second heading covers, apart from measures relating to the prevention of reactor accidents and the containment of the radioactivity, such items as the features of the site in relation to centres of population, assuming that the safety measures cannot entirely prevent an escape of fission products. Careful consideration of the criteria falling under these two headings has led to the choice, as most suitable site for the first Argentina nuclear power station, of the locality known as ''Atucla'', some 100 km northwest of Buenos Aires, on-the banks of the Rio Paraná de Las Palmas. (author)

  19. A respiratory alert model for the Shenandoah Valley, Virginia, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hondula, David M; Davis, Robert E; Knight, David B; Sitka, Luke J; Enfield, Kyle; Gawtry, Stephen B; Stenger, Phillip J; Deaton, Michael L; Normile, Caroline P; Lee, Temple R

    2013-01-01

    Respiratory morbidity (particularly COPD and asthma) can be influenced by short-term weather fluctuations that affect air quality and lung function. We developed a model to evaluate meteorological conditions associated with respiratory hospital admissions in the Shenandoah Valley of Virginia, USA. We generated ensembles of classification trees based on six years of respiratory-related hospital admissions (64,620 cases) and a suite of 83 potential environmental predictor variables. As our goal was to identify short-term weather linkages to high admission periods, the dependent variable was formulated as a binary classification of five-day moving average respiratory admission departures from the seasonal mean value. Accounting for seasonality removed the long-term apparent inverse relationship between temperature and admissions. We generated eight total models specific to the northern and southern portions of the valley for each season. All eight models demonstrate predictive skill (mean odds ratio = 3.635) when evaluated using a randomization procedure. The predictor variables selected by the ensembling algorithm vary across models, and both meteorological and air quality variables are included. In general, the models indicate complex linkages between respiratory health and environmental conditions that may be difficult to identify using more traditional approaches. PMID:22438053

  20. Heavy water detritiation to support CANDU station maintenance activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heavy water and tritium control are important aspects of CANDU operation and have a major impact on station maintenance activities. Station personnel are trained to understand the importance of heavy water management and the economics and environmental impact of tritiated heavy water losses. This paper discusses new GE technology that can now make a major improvement in CANDU maintenance activities through significant reductions in station tritium levels. Tritium is of particular concern in the CANDU industry given the nature of heavy water reactors to build up high levels of tritium over time. High tritium levels in the reactor vault significantly slow down maintenance activities in the reactor vault due to the requirement for personnel protective equipment, including breathing apparatus and cumbersome plastic air suits. The difficulties increase as reactors age and tritium levels increase. Building upon GE's extensive operational experience in tritium management in CANDU reactors and its own tritium handling facility, GE. has developed a new large-scale diffusion based isotope separation process as an alternative to conventional cryogenic distillation. Having a tritium inventory an order of magnitude lower than conventional cryogenic distillation, this process is very attractive for heavy water detritiation, and applicable to single and multi-unit CANDU stations. This new process can now provide a step change reduction in CANDU heavy water tritium levels resulting in reduced environmental emissions and lowering reactor vault tritium MPC(a) levels. Reactor vault tritium can be reduced sufficiently for maintenance activities to be done without plastic suits, leading to shorter outages, improved station capacity factors, and improved station economics. (author)

  1. Sediment quality triad assessment of an industrialized estuary of the northeastern USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iannuzzi, Timothy J; Armstrong, Tina N; Long, Edward R; Iannuzzi, Jacqueline; Ludwig, David F

    2008-04-01

    The lower Passaic River in northern New Jersey (USA) has been heavily industrialized since the mid-nineteenth century and its shoreline and aquatic habitats degraded or destroyed. Similar to other urban systems, Passaic River sediments, both surface and buried, historically have contained elevated levels of numerous contaminants that may pose risks to ecological receptors and humans. Sediments from 15 stations in the lower Passaic River and 3 reference stations in the Mullica River in southern New Jersey were sampled in 1999 and characterized for chemical contamination, toxicity, and impairment of the benthic community. The objective of this study was to determine the incidence, degree, and nature of degraded surficial sediments in the area to support subsequent plans for restoration of the system. Results demonstrated that Passaic River sediments had concentrations of many organic and inorganic contaminants at levels significantly greater than the reference area and effect-based guidelines. Sediments were toxic to marine amphipods at 11 stations and the benthic assemblages were impaired relative to the reference area at all stations. The weight-of-evidence of this sediment quality triad (SQT) assessment indicates that impacts from multiple contaminants are occurring throughout the lower Passaic River and, that these impacts must be evaluated further and addressed as part of ongoing restoration initiatives for the river. PMID:17588158

  2. A Monitoring of Air Pollutants (CO, SO2 and NO in Ambient Air Near an Industrial Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radin Mohamed Radin Maya Saphira

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A monitoring assessment was carried out to measure the concentration of air pollutants in ambient air in the university campus, which is located adjacent to the industrial area. The air pollutants were monitored for CO (Carbon monoxide, SO2 (Sulfur dioxide and NO (Nitrous oxide at the three sampling points, with distance reference based from the industrial area. Air pollutant gases were sampled from the I-Brid Toxic Gases Analyzer with the sampling hour referred to the Recommended Malaysian Air Quality Guidelines (RMAQG during October 2013 to Jun 2014. Meteorological data was collected from the E-Sampler device for 24 hours. It was found that the CO concentrations were fall within the RMAQG at all stations monitored. The SO2 concentration was high at Station 3 (Material lab, with 0.66 ppm which was exceeded the RMAQG of 0.13 ppm. All three stations recorded high concentration of NO, which the peak concentration occurred at the afternoon sampling. The nearest Station 3 (Material lab has recorded the highest level of NO, SO2 and CO compared to the other stations. The monitoring data has contributed some highlights to the authority and awareness about possible long risk effect of the air pollutants at the case study.

  3. Importance of biological systems in industrial waste treatment potential application to the space station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revis, Nathaniel; Holdsworth, George

    1990-01-01

    In addition to having applications for waste management issues on planet Earth, microbial systems have application in reducing waste volumes aboard spacecraft. A candidate for such an application is the space station. Many of the planned experiments generate aqueous waste. To recycle air and water the contaminants from previous experiments must be removed before the air and water can be used for other experiments. This can be achieved using microorganisms in a bioreactor. Potential bioreactors (inorganics, organics, and etchants) are discussed. Current technologies that may be applied to waste treatment are described. Examples of how biological systems may be used in treating waste on the space station.

  4. Healthy Air Outdoors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... lung.org > Our Initiatives > Healthy Air > Outdoor Healthy Air Outdoors The quality of the air we breathe ... families and can even shorten their lives. Outdoor Air Pollution and Health Outdoor air pollution continues to ...

  5. Air quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This chapter of the 'Assessment of the state of the environment in Lebanon' describes the air quality and identifies the most important air quality issues. Baseline information about the factors affecting dispersion and the climate of Lebanon presents as well and overall estimation of total emissions in Lebanon. Emissions from vehicles, electricity and power plants generation are described. Industrial emitters of air pollutants are described for each kind of industry i.e.cement plants, Selaata fertilizer factory, sugar-beet factory, refineries and for those derived from the use of leaded fuel . Impact of economic and human activities on air quality in Lebanon (especially in Beirut and Tripoli) are quantified by quantities of CO2, SO2, NOx, total suspended particulates(TSP), deposition and their environmental effects on health. In abscence of emissions monitoring, data available are expressed in terms of fuel use, output and appropriate empirical factors, national output and workfores sizes. Finally key issues and some potential mitigation /management approaches are presented

  6. Recent developments in radiation curing in the USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nablo, Sam V.

    Radiation curing activities in the USA continue to focus strongly on the use of both UV and EB for the polymerization of silicone release coatings on paper and film. The high speeds of cure (200 m/minute) achievable at "room temperature" continue to make this the process of choice for the siliconization of both film and paper. Some of the process difficulties peculiar to this chemistry will be discussed. The success of the multi-color lithographic printing of web using single station electron curing has resulted in a major market for electron processors. The aesthetic and physical properties of the overprint varnishes used in this application are important and will be discussed. The relatively high costs of both the inks and varnishes will probably limit this application to folding carton use for foodstuffs and high quality products, with UV continuing to dominate in lower speed, less demanding applications. The application of electron initiated graft modification of polymer materials, particularly for biological/medical device application, is showing a good rate of development as is the use of selective treatment of materials for functional modification of packaging films, particularly for gas permeability control. Some examples of these applications will be reviewed. Continued work with "deep" curing or vulcanization of composite structures, particularly in the elastomers field, will be discussed with a brief review of the continuing growth of electron processing in this industry, particularly for tires and roofing products.

  7. Recent developments in radiation curing in the USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation curing activities in the USA focus strongly on the use of both UV and EB for the polymerization of silicone release coatings on paper and film. The high speeds of cure (200 m/minute) achievable at ''room temperature'' continue to make this the process of choice for the siliconization of both film and paper. Some of the process difficulties peculiar to this chemistry will be discussed. The success of the multi-color lithographic printing of web using single station electron curing has resulted in a major market for electron processors. The aesthetic and physical properties of the overprint varnishes used in this application are important and will be discussed. The relatively high costs of both the inks and varnishes will probably limit this application to folding carton use for foodstuffs and high quality products, with UV continuing to dominate in lower speed, less demanding applications. The application of electron initiated graft modification of polymer materials, particularly for biological/medical device application, is showing a good rate of development as is the use of selective treatment of materials for functional modification of packaging films, particularly for gas permeability control. Some examples of these applications will be reviewed. Continued work with ''deep'' curing or vulcanization of composite structures, particularly in the elastomers field, will be discussed with a brief review of the continuing growth of electron processing in this industry, particularly for tyres and roofing products. (author)

  8. Synthetic Pattern of Fish Diversity in Alabama, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen, X.

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The state of Alabama has a rich fish fauna. Analyzing the current distributional patterns of fish diversity by synthesizing information and integrating different spatial and temporal scales is important for understanding the underlying mechanisms of diversity and making strategies for fish conservation. Basing the study on long-term intensive samples (9,244 collections of fish species at 3,716 field stations across Alabama from 1845 to 1994, I analyzed the general pattern of fish diversity in Alabama at the county level. The results indicate that more than half the area of Alabama has high fish diversity, including fish species endemic to the USA. Most of the counties with the highest fish diversity are in southwestern Alabama. Nonnative fish species occurred mainly in the southernmost counties, such as Mobile and Baldwin. Twelve counties have the rare species which has only one occurence location in each country, with Lauderdale County having the most (10 rare species; the counties with the rare species are generally distributed at the four corner areas of the state boundaries, particularly on the northern and southern boundaries. A high positive correlation exists between species diversity and endemic species, but there is no significant correlation between species diversity and diversification. Both Power-law and logarithmic relationships exist between class of species diversity and its frequency; counties with higher fish diversity tend to have low human-population densities, and are located at or nearby the Alluvial-deltaic Plain and Gulf Coast floodplain.

  9. Bush soovib rahajagamisega USA majandust turgutada / Neeme Raud

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Raud, Neeme, 1969-

    2008-01-01

    USA presidendi George W. Bushi plaanist maksta igale maksumaksjale tagasi 800 ja peredele 1600 dollarit, et majandust tõusule juhtida. USA Keskpanga poliitikast ja maailma börside jätkuvast langusest. Kommenteerivad: Romet Tepper, Jaanus Pikkani

  10. The USA: Challenges of the Superpower

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Ketevan Rostiashvili

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the collapse of the Soviet Union function and mission of the United States in the contemporary world system is one of the most debatable problems of academic litera-ture. This article is an attempt to analyze most recent socioeconomic and political tendencies of the USA for better understanding the scale of ongoing transformation of the society. As the level of integration of contemporary world is very high, transfor-mation of the USA provokes tectonic changes and transformation of the world system, its structure and nature. This study argues that, although the US primacy in the world is significantly challenged and shaken by external and internal factors, the USA still preserves its traditional function of economic, financial, military and political superpow-er, but in a quite different environment. The article predominantly uses materials drawn from the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA, The World Fact book 2012; U.S. Census Bureau, Statistical Abstract of the USA - 2012, the US Federal Budgets 2010-2012, and other valuable literature and sources.

  11. Babesia microti Infection, Eastern Pennsylvania, USA

    OpenAIRE

    Acosta, Marcela E. Perez; Ender, Peter T.; Smith, Erin M; Jeffrey A Jahre

    2013-01-01

    Infection with Babesia microti has not been well-described in eastern Pennsylvania, USA, despite the vector of this organism being prevalent. We report 3 cases of babesiosis in eastern Pennsylvania in persons without recent travel outside the region or history of blood transfusions, suggesting emergence of this infection.

  12. USA survestab Mubarakit lahkuma / Hendrik Vosman

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Vosman, Hendrik

    2011-01-01

    USA on teinud Egiptusele mitu ettepanekut, kõige tõenäolisemaks peetakse kava, mille kohaselt president Hosni Mubarak astuks tagasi kohe ja annaks võimu üle vahevalitsusele. Opositsioonijuhi ElBaradei ettepanekul peaks riiki hakkama juhtima presidendikogu

  13. Euroopa ja USA: liidus tulevikuks / Barack Obama

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Obama, Barack, 1961-

    2010-01-01

    Ameerika Ühendriikide president kirjutab 19.-20. novembril Lissabonis toimuvast NATO tippkohtumisest, USA ja Euroopa vastastikusest vajalikkusest ning NATO-sisesest koostööst. Barack Obama leiab, et NATO ja Venemaa võiksid taaskäivitada oma suhted

  14. Outdoor Air Quality Level Inference via Surveillance Cameras

    OpenAIRE

    Zheng Zhang; Huadong Ma; Huiyuan Fu; Liang Liu; Cheng Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Air pollution is a universal problem confronted by many developing countries. Because there are very few air quality monitoring stations in cities, it is difficult for people to know the exact air quality level anytime and anywhere. Fortunately, large amount of surveillance cameras have been deployed in the cities and can capture image densely and conveniently in the cities. In this case, this provides the possibility to utilize surveillance cameras as sensors to obtain data and predict the a...

  15. 2013 German refrigeration and air conditioning meeting. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    These proceedings cover the following main topics: cryoengineering - superconduction / energy storage; cryoapplications in biology and medicine; metrology; adsorption processes; condensation/evaporation; working fluids / simulation; ice production; plants and compressors; expansion and ejectors or recooling; use of cooling (passenger car air conditioning, supermarket); refrigerants; plant efficiency; emissions and legislation; air conditioning and use of heat pumps; air quality and control; building technology and block-type thermal power stations.

  16. Tarapur atomic power station: analysis of station blackout scenario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Contractor, A.D.; Lele, H.G.; Vaze, K.K. [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India). Reactor Safety Division; Srivastava, A.

    2015-03-15

    India is currently operating two BWR built by General Electric Company. The design features of these reactors are similar to the Fukushima's BWR except some better containment features in Indian BWR. This paper discusses the enveloping scenario of station blackout of infinite duration with no operator action and no component failure. The paper describes the details of modelling the TAPS-BWR plant model including SCDAP modelling of reactor core in system code RELAP5 and further thermal hydraulic safety assessment of station blackout scenario. The analysis brought out effectively the response of the plant to this high-pressure severe accident scenario. The time line of the severe accident progression will give details of various stages of accident progression along with hydrogen generation, which will be useful in evolving suitable severe accident management guidelines.

  17. Tarapur atomic power station: analysis of station blackout scenario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    India is currently operating two BWR built by General Electric Company. The design features of these reactors are similar to the Fukushima's BWR except some better containment features in Indian BWR. This paper discusses the enveloping scenario of station blackout of infinite duration with no operator action and no component failure. The paper describes the details of modelling the TAPS-BWR plant model including SCDAP modelling of reactor core in system code RELAP5 and further thermal hydraulic safety assessment of station blackout scenario. The analysis brought out effectively the response of the plant to this high-pressure severe accident scenario. The time line of the severe accident progression will give details of various stages of accident progression along with hydrogen generation, which will be useful in evolving suitable severe accident management guidelines.

  18. Appendix to radon and radon-daughter concentrations in air in the vicinity of the Anaconda Uranium Mill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Information is presented on the following subjects: site characteristics - stratigraphic description and water-bearing characteristics; meteorology - pooled observations made at two stations of windspeed, wind direction, and stability class; radon concentrations in air at various stations; and, frequencies of occurrence of given working levels at various stations

  19. USA suursaadik : toetame Eestit / Stanley Davis Phillips ; interv. Erkki Bahovski

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Phillips, Stanley Davis

    2007-01-01

    USA suursaadik Eestis Stanley Davis Phillips vastab küsimustele, mis puudutavad USA positsiooni Tõnismäe pronkssõduri suhtes, Eesti saatkonna piiramist Moskvas, USA ja Venemaa suhteid ning koostööd, sõda terrorismiga, USA kava paigutada Tšehhi ja Poolasse raketitõrjebaasid, Eesti presidendi Toomas Hendrik Ilvese visiiti USAsse. Lisa: Stanley Davis Phillips. Ilmunud ka: Postimees : na russkom jazõke 16. mai lk. 5

  20. Võidurelvastumise tagasitulek : USA kiiluvees Venemaa ja Hiina / Heiki Suurkask

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Suurkask, Heiki, 1972-

    2007-01-01

    USA eelarvekavas on ette nähtud kaitsekulutuste jätkuv suurenemine, suureneda võib ka relvajõudude isikkoosseis. Relvajõududele kulub USA-s ligi 4% SKT-st. Globaalselt liidetuna tõusid kõikide riikide kulutused relvajõududele 1990. aasta tasemele. Hiina ja Venemaa kaitsekulutustest. Lisad: Aasia riigid kasvatavad sõjalisi kulutusi; 25 riigil pole oma sõjaväge. Graafik: USA sõjalised kulutused