WorldWideScience

Sample records for air sacs add

  1. Loss of air sacs improved hominin speech abilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. de Boer

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, the acoustic-perceptual effects of air sacs are investigated. Using an adaptive hearing experiment, it is shown that air sacs reduce the perceptual effect of vowel-like articulations. Air sacs are a feature of the vocal tract of all great apes, except humans. Because the presence or a

  2. Loss of air sacs improved hominin speech abilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Boer, Bart

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, the acoustic-perceptual effects of air sacs are investigated. Using an adaptive hearing experiment, it is shown that air sacs reduce the perceptual effect of vowel-like articulations. Air sacs are a feature of the vocal tract of all great apes, except humans. Because the presence or absence of air sacs is correlated with the anatomy of the hyoid bone, a probable minimum and maximum date of the loss of air sacs can be estimated from fossil hyoid bones. Australopithecus afarensis still had air sacs about 3.3 Ma, while Homo heidelbergensis, some 600 000 years ago and Homo neandethalensis some 60 000 years ago, did no longer. The reduced distinctiveness of articulations produced with an air sac is in line with the hypothesis that air sacs were selected against because of the evolution of complex vocal communication. This relation between complex vocal communication and fossil evidence may help to get a firmer estimate of when speech first evolved. PMID:22078314

  3. Acoustic analysis of primate air sacs and their effect on vocalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Boer, Bart

    2009-12-01

    This paper presents an analysis of the acoustic impedance of primate air sacs and their interaction with the vocal tract. A lumped element model is derived and it is found that the inertance of the neck and the volume of the air sac are relevant, as well as the mass and stiffness of the walls (depending on the tissue). It is also shown that at low frequencies, radiation from the air sac can be non-negligible, even if the mouth is open. It is furthermore shown that an air sac can add one or two low resonances to the resonances of the oral tract, and that it shifts up the oral tract's resonances below approximately 2000 Hz, and shifts them closer together. The theory was verified by acoustic measurements and applied to the red howler monkey (Alouatta seniculus) and the siamang (Symphalangus syndactylus). The theory describes the physical models and the siamang calls correctly, but appears incomplete for the howler monkey vocalizations. The relation between air sacs and the evolution of speech is discussed briefly, and it is proposed that an air sac would reduce the ability to produce distinctive speech, but would enhance the impression of size of the vocalizer. PMID:20000947

  4. Endoscopic examination of snakes by access through an air sac.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jekl, V; Knotek, Z

    2006-03-25

    Sixteen boa constrictors (Boa constrictor), three royal pythons (Python regius) and 15 Burmese pythons (Python molurus bivittatus) were examined endoscopically by access through the air sac. The snakes were immobilised in a ventral position using a half-open anaesthetic system with assisted ventilation and a mixture of isoflurane and oxygen. The rigid endoscope was introduced percutaneously and the internal structure of the lungs and the air sac, and the shape, size and external surface of the liver were visible in the cranial direction. In the smaller snakes the bifurcation and caudal part of the trachea could be viewed, provided the endoscope was positioned in a retrograde orientation. The caudal orientation of the endoscope made it possible to view the gall bladder and the size, shape and surface of the spleen. In some cases, the pancreas and the surface of the stomach and colon could be monitored. Endoscopy through the air sac also made it possible to check the major veins in the coelom. The snakes were monitored for at least 30 days after the intervention and no changes in their respiratory function or general health were observed. PMID:16565339

  5. Anisotropic shrinkage of insect air sacs revealed in vivo by X-ray microtomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Liang; Chen, Rongchang; Du, Guohao; Yang, Yiming; Wang, Feixiang; Deng, Biao; Xie, Honglan; Xiao, Tiqiao

    2016-01-01

    Air sacs are thought to be the bellows for insect respiration. However, their exact mechanism of action as a bellows remains unclear. A direct way to investigate this problem is in vivo observation of the changes in their three-dimensional structures. Therefore, four-dimensional X-ray phase contrast microtomography is employed to solve this puzzle. Quantitative analysis of three-dimensional image series reveals that the compression of the air sac during respiration in bell crickets exhibits obvious anisotropic characteristics both longitudinally and transversely. Volumetric changes of the tracheal trunks in the prothorax further strengthen the evidence of this finding. As a result, we conclude that the shrinkage and expansion of the insect air sac is anisotropic, contrary to the hypothesis of isotropy, thereby providing new knowledge for further research on the insect respiratory system. PMID:27580585

  6. Penguin lungs and air sacs: implications for baroprotection, oxygen stores and buoyancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponganis, P J; St Leger, J; Scadeng, M

    2015-03-01

    The anatomy and volume of the penguin respiratory system contribute significantly to pulmonary baroprotection, the body O2 store, buoyancy and hence the overall diving physiology of penguins. Therefore, three-dimensional reconstructions from computerized tomographic (CT) scans of live penguins were utilized to measure lung volumes, air sac volumes, tracheobronchial volumes and total body volumes at different inflation pressures in three species with different dive capacities [Adélie (Pygoscelis adeliae), king (Aptenodytes patagonicus) and emperor (A. forsteri) penguins]. Lung volumes scaled to body mass according to published avian allometrics. Air sac volumes at 30 cm H2O (2.94 kPa) inflation pressure, the assumed maximum volume possible prior to deep dives, were two to three times allometric air sac predictions and also two to three times previously determined end-of-dive total air volumes. Although it is unknown whether penguins inhale to such high volumes prior to dives, these values were supported by (a) body density/buoyancy calculations, (b) prior air volume measurements in free-diving ducks and (c) previous suggestions that penguins may exhale air prior to the final portions of deep dives. Based upon air capillary volumes, parabronchial volumes and tracheobronchial volumes estimated from the measured lung/airway volumes and the only available morphometry study of a penguin lung, the presumed maximum air sac volumes resulted in air sac volume to air capillary/parabronchial/tracheobronchial volume ratios that were not large enough to prevent barotrauma to the non-collapsing, rigid air capillaries during the deepest dives of all three species, and during many routine dives of king and emperor penguins. We conclude that volume reduction of airways and lung air spaces, via compression, constriction or blood engorgement, must occur to provide pulmonary baroprotection at depth. It is also possible that relative air capillary and parabronchial volumes are

  7. Air sacs (sacci pneumatici) in the long-legged buzzard (buteo rufinus) (kızıl şahinde (buteo rufinus) hava keseleri (sacci pneumatici))

    OpenAIRE

    ORHAN, İsmail Önder; KABAK, Murat; OTO, Çağdaş; HAZIROĞLU, Reşide Merih

    2009-01-01

    Although, a lot of researchers have investigated air sacs in several birds’ species, there hasn’t been anyinformation about the long-legged buzzard’s air sacs. This study aimed to observe the air sacs of mature long-legged buzzard. So thesacs of 5 adult birds were treated by takilon from methylmethacrylate group and colored-neoprene latex for polymerization in orderto show and demonstrate the total volume of air sacs and invaded bone tissues. The morphology of the sacs, which was described,wa...

  8. A lectin histochemical study of the thoracic respiratory air sacs of the fowl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.J. Bezuidenhout

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available The lectin-binding characteristics of the epithelial lining of the thoracic air sacs of the chicken were determined. Con A, LCA and PSA bound to the apical membrane as well as to the cytoplasm distal to the nucleus of the surface epithelium, indicated the presence of a-linked mannose as well as Nacetylchitobiose- linked a-fucose residues in the glycoproteins. GSL I bound to the apical membrane and cytoplasm distal to the nucleus, but not to the cilia of the epithelium, where-as MPL, DBA and RCA120 bound to the apical membrane, cilia and cytoplasm, indicated the presence of a-linked Nacetylgalactosamine residues. However, neither SJA or SBA showed any binding, indicating the absence of b anomers of galactosyl (b1.3N-acetylgalactosamine and b-linked N-acetylgalactosamine residues. UEA I bound to the apical membrane and cilia, as well as to the cytoplasm of a few cells, indicated the presence of a-linked fucose residues. PNA bound to the apical membrane of some, but not all, surface epithelium cells, indicated the presence of galactosyl (b1.3N-acetylgalactosamine residues. WGA bound to the apical membrane and cilia, as well as to the cytoplasm of a few cells, indicated the presence of neuraminic acid residues.

  9. The rat subcutaneous air sac model. A new and simple method for in vivo screening of antiangiogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An experimental rat model, the Subcutaneous Air Sac (SAS) model, was developed to provide an animal model in which neo-vascularisation can be easily assessed in situ and quantified using a radiolabelled plasma marker. The SAS model was designed to replace a previous model where neo-vascularisation was induced by chemical injury of rat or rabbit cornea or by implantation of tumour cells intracorneally, a methodology which is believed to cause severe pain to the animals. In the SAS model the air sac replaces the cornea as a transparent avascular substratum in which vascularisation can be observed. The air sac is induced by injection of air subcutaneously on the back of the animal. After 8 to 10 days a sufficient air sac has been established. The animal is anaesthesized and by a minor operation the cellulose sponge is implanted upon the air sac under the skin. The vaso-proliferative effect of the cellulose sponge caused formation of new vessels which are macroscopically visible 10 days after implantation. The ability of the in vivo SAS model to show an anti-angiogenic effect of a systemically applied test compound was investigated using the fumagilline analogue TNP-470 (o-chloro-acetylcarbomoyl-fumagillol) as a positive control at dose levels of 0, 1, 2.5, 5 and 10 mg/kg/day given subcutaneously for 10 days. The neo-angio genesis was scored both in situ using a subjective point system and by measuring the 125I-activity of the implant and the membrane after an intravenous injection of 125I-labelled antibodies. The neo-angio genesis was reduced by approximately 45-50% in animals treated with 5 or 10 mg/kg/day of TNP-470 compared to animals treated with the vehicle. The animals treated with 10 mg/kg/day TNP-470 showed signs of toxicity. The SAS model is considered highly relevant for in vivo testing of potential anti-angiogenci drugs on humane grounds. The high reproducibility, the low cost and the technical simplicity of the method makes it attractive. (au)

  10. FGF coordinates air sac development by activation of the EGF ligand Vein through the transcription factor PntP2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Josefa; Bota-Rabassedas, Neus; Franch-Marro, Xavier

    2015-01-01

    How several signaling pathways are coordinated to generate complex organs through regulation of tissue growth and patterning is a fundamental question in developmental biology. The larval trachea of Drosophila is composed of differentiated functional cells and groups of imaginal tracheoblasts that build the adult trachea during metamorphosis. Air sac primordium cells (ASP) are tracheal imaginal cells that form the dorsal air sacs that supply oxygen to the flight muscles of the Drosophila adult. The ASP emerges from the tracheal branch that connects to the wing disc by the activation of both Bnl-FGF/Btl and EGFR signaling pathways. Together, these pathways promote cell migration and proliferation. In this study we demonstrate that Vein (vn) is the EGF ligand responsible for the activation of the EGFR pathway in the ASP. We also find that the Bnl-FGF/Btl pathway regulates the expression of vn through the transcription factor PointedP2 (PntP2). Furthermore, we show that the FGF target gene escargot (esg) attenuates EGFR signaling at the tip cells of the developing ASP, reducing their mitotic rate to allow proper migration. Altogether, our results reveal a link between Bnl-FGF/Btl and EGFR signaling and provide novel insight into how the crosstalk of these pathways regulates migration and growth. PMID:26632449

  11. The Effect of Lacrimal Sac Massage, Probing with Irrigation or Air Insufflations in Congenital Nasolacrimal Duct Obstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Nasiri

    Full Text Available Objective: The most common cause of lacrimation in children is congenital nasolacrimal duct obstruction. Although there is a belief that the most of them resolve spontaneously, there is no agreement in the time and type of treatment. This study was done to determine the success rate of three approaches to treatment of congenital nasolacrimal duct obstruction in children aged 12-24 months. Material & Methods: From February 2006 to December 2006, 60 12-24 month-old children with congenital nasolacrimal duct obstruction were enrolled in this study. The parents that agreed to probing were divided accidentally into two groups of probing and irrigation, and probing and air insufflation. The parents that agreed to wait for a month went to conservative management with office massage of the nasolacrimal duct and treatment with antibiotics by ophthalmologist.Findings: Of 60 children included in this study 27(45% were females and 33(55% males. The mean age of children in the group of probing with irrigation was 18.09 months, probing and air insufflation 19.44 months, and in group of conservative management 19.41 months. The success rate was 91.30% in the group of probing and irrigation, 96% in the group of probing and air insufflation, and 100% in the group for conservative treatment.Conclusion: Congenital nasolacrimal duct obstruction in almost all of children resolved spontaneously or by simple surgical intervention (probing. The persistent cases may have structural abnormality in nasolacrimal duct or nasal anatomy. Our study showed that conservative and surgical approach in children aged 12-24 months have a favorable outcome, therefore the age can not be a relevant factor in selection of the type of treatment in congenital nasolacrimal duct obstruction.

  12. Main: SAC101 [AT Atlas

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SAC101 SAC1 Development of the synchrotron beamlines dedicated to the measurement o...f micron-size protein crystals Development of the synchrotron beamlines dedicated to the measurement of micr

  13. The Sac Actun System, Quintana Roo, Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Sac Actun system, located in northeast Quintana Roo, Mexico, is among the most extensive underwater cave systems located along the Caribbean coast of the Yucatan Peninsula. The cave is composed of linear phreatic conduits that have two forms. The coastal sections of the Sac Actun system are characterized by low horizontal tunnels that form mazes paralleling the coast and rudimentary conduits broken by fracture-controlled rooms. Inland passages are fault/fracture controlled, have a linear, anastomotic configuration, and align perpendicular to the coast. Access to the cave system is gained through cenotes which are the portals into the Yucatan underwater cave systems. The occurrence of drowned speleothems in many parts of the cave system, and sections of air-filled upper level passages are indicative of major fluctuations in sea level. The Sac Actun system is part of one of the most extensive and significant eogenetic karst aquifers in the world. The development of the Sac Actun system, as well as the many other caves systems along the Yucatan Caribbean Coast is controlled by the coastal hydrologic regime, driven by glacio-eustatics, and influenced by stratigraphic and structural controls. The karstic permeability of the aquifer makes it and the Sac Actun system vulnerable to the anthropogenic impacts of increased population growth, quarries, and infrastructure development associated with the burgeoning tourist industry that dominates land use in the region. (Author)

  14. SAC-A Satellite

    OpenAIRE

    Machado, Marcos; Roggero, Edgardo; Alonso, Roberto; Anigstein, Pablo; Caruso, Daniel; Bratina, Juan; Vega, Julio; Pena, Ricardo Sanchez

    1996-01-01

    The SAC-A is a Low Cost - Short Schedule - Small Bus dedicated to test equipment and new technologies which may be used in operational or scientific missions with more immunity to failures. The opportunity to fly in a low orbit for a reasonable period of time, allows the characterization of the behavior of this new instrumentation in real world applications and also to compute performance. The 68 kg satellite will have an almost octagonal configuration to be fitted within the Hitchhiker Motor...

  15. Giant dacryocystomucopyocele in an adult: a review of lacrimal sac enlargements with clinical and histopathologic differential diagnoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Lynn J P; Jakobiec, Frederick A; Zakka, Fouad R; Rubin, Peter A D

    2012-09-01

    Dacryocystocele is an umbrella term that refers to any diffuse, centrifugal enlargement of the lacrimal sac that results from combined proximal and distal obstructions in the tear drainage system. In adults, the presence of mucus in the cyst's contents leads to the modified term of dacryocystomucocele. If infection supervenes, which almost always occurs in protracted cases and adds the clinical dimension of a dacryocystitis, then a dacryocystomucopyocele is created. Dacryocystocele and its congeners are much rarer in adults than in children. We describe a 95-year-old woman with an acquired, enormous dacryocystomucopyocele, larger than any previously reported, that developed over 25 years and produced globe displacement with an associated conspicuous enlargement of the nasolacrimal duct. The aspirated sac fluid was mucopurulent and harbored low-virulence bacterial organisms of the Prevotella and Petosteptococcus species. In infants, dacryocystoceles are transitory as the result of spontaneously reversible factors. In adults, secondary proximal irreversible fibrotic strictures or bony changes around the nasolacrimal duct typically arise from chronic inflammation or low grade infection. Other possible causations of duct obstruction, in addition to florid mucosal edema, include encroachment on the duct by enlarged contiguous ethmoid air cells; a sinus mucocele or sinusitis; idiopathic, post-traumatic or dysplastic bony remodeling of the wall of the duct; and a neoplasm-all of which require some form of surgical intervention, typically dacryocystorhinostomy. The differential diagnosis of medial canthal swellings centered on the lacrimal sac spans malformations, diverticula, dermoid/epidermoid cysts, sac inflammations/infections causing swelling without generalized sac enlargement, encephaloceles and primary epithelial tumors, as well as extrinsic tumors impinging on the sac. PMID:22784678

  16. Primary omental yolk sac tumor

    OpenAIRE

    Lim, Seon Hwa; Kim, Yon Hee; Yim, Ga Won; Nam, Eun Ji; Kim, Young Tae; KIM, SUNGHOON

    2013-01-01

    Extra-ovarian yolk sac tumor arising in the omentum is extremely rare. As yolk sac tumor originated from the omentum has been rarely reported, its clinical information is very limited. The authors encountered a case of yolk sac tumor originated from the omentum, and reported the case herein. A 32-year-old woman was presented with developed low abdominal distension for a month. Magnetic resonance imaging findings were suggestive of ovarian malignancy with ascites and peritoneal seeding nodules...

  17. The Sac Actun System, Quintana Roo, Mexico; Sistema Sac Actun, Quintana Roo, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kambesis, P. N.; Coke, J. G.

    2016-07-01

    The Sac Actun system, located in northeast Quintana Roo, Mexico, is among the most extensive underwater cave systems located along the Caribbean coast of the Yucatan Peninsula. The cave is composed of linear phreatic conduits that have two forms. The coastal sections of the Sac Actun system are characterized by low horizontal tunnels that form mazes paralleling the coast and rudimentary conduits broken by fracture-controlled rooms. Inland passages are fault/fracture controlled, have a linear, anastomotic configuration, and align perpendicular to the coast. Access to the cave system is gained through cenotes which are the portals into the Yucatan underwater cave systems. The occurrence of drowned speleothems in many parts of the cave system, and sections of air-filled upper level passages are indicative of major fluctuations in sea level. The Sac Actun system is part of one of the most extensive and significant eogenetic karst aquifers in the world. The development of the Sac Actun system, as well as the many other caves systems along the Yucatan Caribbean Coast is controlled by the coastal hydrologic regime, driven by glacio-eustatics, and influenced by stratigraphic and structural controls. The karstic permeability of the aquifer makes it and the Sac Actun system vulnerable to the anthropogenic impacts of increased population growth, quarries, and infrastructure development associated with the burgeoning tourist industry that dominates land use in the region. (Author)

  18. Primary omental yolk sac tumor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Seon Hwa; Kim, Yon Hee; Yim, Ga Won; Nam, Eun Ji; Kim, Young Tae; Kim, Sunghoon

    2013-11-01

    Extra-ovarian yolk sac tumor arising in the omentum is extremely rare. As yolk sac tumor originated from the omentum has been rarely reported, its clinical information is very limited. The authors encountered a case of yolk sac tumor originated from the omentum, and reported the case herein. A 32-year-old woman was presented with developed low abdominal distension for a month. Magnetic resonance imaging findings were suggestive of ovarian malignancy with ascites and peritoneal seeding nodules. Explorative laparotomy was performed and then the findings from frozen biopsy of omentum were suggestive of poorly differentiated tumor though whether it was primary or metastatic was uncertain. Thus, staging laparotomy were performed. Histopathology confirmed that the tumor was a yolk sac tumor of omentum origin. Then, 6 cycles of postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy at intervals of 3 weeks were performed using bleomycin, etoposide, and cisplatin regimen. Four-year outpatient follow-up thereafter showed no relapse. PMID:24396822

  19. Endolymphatic sac involvement in bacterial meningitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Martin Nue; Brandt, Christian; Østergaard, Christian;

    2015-01-01

    days. Bacteria invaded the inner ear through the cochlear aquaduct. On days 5-6, the bacteria invaded the endolymphatic sac through the endolymphatic duct subsequent to invasion of the vestibular endolymphatic compartment. No evidence of direct bacterial invasion of the sac through the meninges...... was found. Leukocyte infiltration of the sac occurred prior to bacterial invasion. During meningitis, bacteria do not invade the endolymphatic sac through the dura, but solely through the endolymphatic duct, following the invasion of the vestibular system. Leukocyte infiltration of the sac occurs prior to...

  20. Gene expression of the endolymphatic sac

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Morten; Martin-Bertelsen, Tomas; Friis-Hansen, Lennart;

    2011-01-01

    endolymphatic sac has multiple and diverse functions in the inner ear. Objectives:The objective of this study was to provide a comprehensive review of the genes expressed in the endolymphatic sac in the rat and perform a functional characterization based on measured mRNA abundance. Methods:Microarray technology...... was used to investigate the gene expression of the endolymphatic sac with the surrounding dura. Characteristic and novel endolymphatic sac genes were determined by comparing with expressions in pure dura. Results: In all, 463 genes were identified specific for the endolymphatic sac. Functional...

  1. Unusual encounters in a hernia sac

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ketan Vagholkar

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Contents of a hernia sac are always a surprise. In most cases the contents of the sac determine the type of repair. A case of an inguinal hernia sac containing the appendix along with the dislodged end of a ventriculoperitoneal shunt tube is presented in view of its rarity. [Int J Res Med Sci 2016; 4(5.000: 1728-1729

  2. Benign mixed tumor of the lacrimal sac

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong-Suk Lee

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Neoplasms of the lacrimal drainage system are uncommon, but potentially life-threatening and are often difficult to diagnose. Among primary lacrimal sac tumors, benign mixed tumors are extremely rare. Histologically, benign mixed tumors have been classified as a type of benign epithelial tumor. Here we report a case of benign mixed tumor of the lacrimal sac.

  3. New Administrator of SAC, Chen Gang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    On June 14th,SAC held a meeting presented by its middle-high officials,at which Zhang Qinrong,Member of CPC Leading Group and Director of Personnel Department,General Administration of Quality Supervision,Inspection and Quarantine (AQSIQ),announced the personnel decision made by the State Council,the Organization Department of the CPC Central Committee and AQSIQ.In the decision,Chen Gang was appointed as Member of CPC Leading Group of AQSIQ,Administrator of SAC and Secretary of CPC Leading Group of SAC,and Ji Zhengkun was dismissed as the Member of CPC Leading Group of AQSIQ,Administrator of SAC and Secretary of CPC Leading Group of SAC.The meeting was presided by Ji Zhengkun.Zhi Shuping,Minister of AQSIQ and Secretary of CPC Leading Group of AQSIQ,attended the meeting and gave a speech.Ji Zhengkun and Chen Gang also delivered speeches.

  4. Experimental Hyperactivity of the Endolymphatic Sac

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Morten; Thomsen, Allan Randrup; Poulsen, Steen Seier;

    2013-01-01

    induced hyperactivity of the endolymphatic sac. One group of rats was immunized by a single dose whereas a second group was immunized twice. Control animals were injected with Freund's adjuvant in saline only. Serum was collected from all rats by the end of the study and harvested autoantibodies were...... tested by immunohistochemistry. The endolymphatic sacs were investigated by transmission electron microscopy. Endolymphatic sac stimulation was observed in all immunized rats. Based on detailed ultrastructural observations, the degree of reactivity seemed proportional to the number of injections and the...... homogeneous substance of which many were observed to fuse with primary lysozymes. Basolateral foldings were numerous and in the subepithelial capillaries formation of multiple and apposing fenestrations were observed. No endolymphatic sac stimulation was observed in the control animals. Specific ribosome...

  5. The endolymphatic sac, a potential endocrine gland?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qvortrup, K; Rostgaard, J; Holstein-Rathlou, N H;

    1999-01-01

    A previous investigation indicated that the chief cells of the endolymphatic sac produce an endogenous inhibitor of sodium re-absorption in the kidneys, which has tentatively been named "saccin". In this study, the ultrastructure of the endolymphatic sac and in particular the chief cells is...... described, demonstrating that this organ fulfils the morphological criteria of a potential endocrine gland. Accordingly, the chief cells are shown to exhibit all the organelles and characteristics of cells that simultaneously synthesize, secrete, absorb and digest proteins....

  6. Acoustic communication in the Greater Sage-Grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) an examination into vocal sacs, sound propagation, and signal directionality

    OpenAIRE

    Dantzker, Marc Steven

    2015-01-01

    The thesis is an inquiry into the acoustic communication of a very unusual avian species, the Greater Sage-Grouse, Centrocercus urophasianus. One of the most outstanding features of this animal's dynamic mating display is its use of paired air sacs that emerge explosively from an esophageal pouch. My first line of inquiry into this system is a review of the form and function of similar vocal apparatuses, collectively called vocal sacs, in birds. Next, with a combination of mathematical models...

  7. Anatomical relation between anterior ethmoidal sinus and lacrimal sac fossa on high resolution CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate the anatomical relation between anterior ethmoidal sinus and the lacrimal sac fossa, and thus help prevent complications during dacryocystorhinostomy. Fifty three people without previous history of trauma, surgery, or paranasal sinus disease were randomly selected, and the 106 lacrimal sac fossas of these subjects were evaluated by high resolution CT. A series of three 2-mm thick axial sections at least 2mm from the inferior orbital wall were obtained. The bony landmarks of the lacrimal sac fossa were established and the location of the most anterior ethmoid sinus was classified as one of three types. In type 1, no sinuses were anterior to the posterior lacrimal crest. While in type 2, sinuses extended anterior to this crest but remained behind the suture at the anterior edge of the lacrimal bone. In type 3, sinuses extended into the frontal process of the maxilla, anterior to the lacrimal bone suture. In addition, the category of both orbits of the same patient was compared. Among the 106 orbits examined, only seven (6.6%) were classified as type 1, with no ethmoid air cells postioned under the lacrimal sac fossa. Seventy six (71.7%) qualified as type 2, while the remaining 23 (21.7%) were type 3, demonstration anterior ethmoid air cells within the nasal process of the maxilla. The position of the air cells was symmetric in 41 of the 53 subjects (77.4%) and asymmetric in 12 (22.6%). In cases involving surgery of the lacrimal sac fossa, such as dacryocystorhinostomy, a knowledge of the consistent anatomic relationship between the anterior ethmoidal sinus and the lacrimal sac fossa is invaluable

  8. Imaging appearance in papillary endolymphatic sac tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To evaluate the imaging findings on CT, MRI, and angiography in patients with papillary, endolymphatic sac tumors (PELSTs) . Methods: CT and MR imaging studies in 5 patients (aged 12 - 41 years) with histopathologically proved papillary endolymphatic sac tumors were retrospectively reviewed, and four of the five also underwent angiograms. CT scans were evaluated for bone erosion and calcification, MR images for signal intensity changes, enhancement patterns, and flow voids, and angiograms for tumor blood supply. Results: All tumors were destructive, containing calcifications centered in the retrolabyrinthine region and showing irregular hone margins on CT. MR imaging appearance varied with lesion size and nature. Three of the five tumors showed a high-signal intensity margin on unenhanced T1 and T2-weighted images, and the margins were more clear with fat-suppress imaging. The others were heterogeneous and contained cystic high-signal intensity area on both T1 and T2 weighted images. All the tumors showed irregular low signal intensity within the endolymphatic sac anatomically and flow voids signals. The blood supply arose predominantly from the external carotid artery. Two tumors had additional supply from posterior circulation. Conclusion: Papillary endolymphatic sac tumors are destructive and hypervascular lesions that arise from the retrolabyrinthine region in the temporal hone. These imaging findings combined with the original location may help distinguish PELSTs from other more common arid aggressive temporal bone tumors

  9. Gene Expression in the Human Endolymphatic Sac

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Martin Nue; Kirkeby, Svend; Vikeså, Jonas;

    2015-01-01

    Pendrin, SLC4a1 sodium-bicarbonate transporter, SLC9a2 sodium-hydrogen transporter, SLC12a3 thiazide-sensitive Na-Cl transporter, and SLC34a2 sodium-phosphate transporter. CONCLUSIONS: Several important ion transporters of the SLC family are expressed in the human endolymphatic sac, including Pendrin, the...

  10. Surveillance Analysis Computer System (SACS) software requirements specification (SRS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document is the primary document establishing requirements for the Surveillance Analysis Computer System (SACS) Database, an Impact Level 3Q system. The purpose is to provide the customer and the performing organization with the requirements for the SACS Project

  11. Three National Standardization Technical Committees Authorized By SAC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ In December, 2004, the Standardization Administration of China (SAC) has approved the establishments of three National Standardization Technical Committees. They are the National Standardization Technical Committees for Environmental Protection Products (SAC/TC275), for Safety Management of Agricultural Transgenic Biology (SAC/TC276) and for Testing of New Varieties of Plant (SAC/TC277).The National Standardization Technical Committee for Environmental Protection Products is responsible for the development and revision of national standards in the following fields:

  12. rSac3,a novel Sac domain phosphoinositide phosphatase,promotes neurite outgrowth in PC12 cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yiyuan Yuan; Xiang Gao; Ning Guo; Hui Zhang; Zhiqin Xie; Meilei Jin; Baoming Li; Lei yu; Naihe Jing

    2007-01-01

    Sac domain-containing proteins belong to a newly identified family of phosphoinositide phosphatases(the PIPPase family).Despite well-characterized enzymatic activity,the biological functions of this mammalian Sac domain PIPPase family remain largely unknown.We identified a novel Sac domain-containing protein,rat Sac3(rSac3),which iS widely expressed in various tissues and localized to the endoplasmic reticulum,Golgi complex and recycling endosomes.rSac3 displays PIPPase activity with PI(3)P,PI(4)P and PI(3,5)P2 as substrates in vitro,and a mutation in the catalytic core of the Sac domain abolishes its enzymatic activity.The expression of rSac3 iS upregulated during nerve growth factor (NGF)-stimulated PC12 cell neuronal differentiation,and overexpression of this protein promotes neurite outgrowth in PC12 cells.Conversely,inhibition of rSac3 expression by antisense oligonucleotides reduces neurite outgrowth of NGFstimulated PC12 cells,and the active site mutation of rSac3 eliminates its neurite-outgrowth-promoting activity.These results indicate that rSac3 promotes neurite outgrowth in differentiating neurons through its PIPPase activity,suggesting that Sac domain PIPPase proteins may participate in forward membrane trafficking from the endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi complex to the plasma membrane,and may function as regulators of this crucial process of neuronal cell growth and differentiation.

  13. Classification of embryo sacs in the Eragrostis curvula Complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. B. Vorster

    1984-12-01

    Full Text Available At each of 17 collecting points between Johannesburg and Brits in the Transvaal, three plants which belong to the  Eragrostis curvula Complex were collected and studied. A total o f 3 902 embryo sacs was examined in this sample. Of the embryo sacs examined, 3 306 were apomictic by means of diplospory, whereas 99 were sexual monosporic Polygonum-type embryo sacs. One hundred and nineteen embryo sacs were abnormal or divergent, and 378 were degenerated. There are indications that seasonal climatic fluctuations may be responsible for embryo sacs developing abnormally or degenerating. Simple and multiple correlations confirmed that sexual embryo sacs usually do not develop abnormally or degenerate during the later developmental stages. This finding lends credence to both the system of classification of individual embryo sacs and to the validity of the estimate of the proportion of sexuality of the plants sampled at each sampling point.

  14. MRI of cul-de-sac endometriosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The endometriosis is a gynecological disorder characterized by the presence of ectopic functioning endometrial tissue. According to different studies, the incidence of endometriosis in fertile women oscillates between 10% and 15%. There are many theories (Sampson or menstrual blood transport, coelomic methaplasia, lymphatic dissemination, blood, etc.) that take part in the ethiopatogenic explanation of the disease. The findings obtained by excretory urography, computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), cytology and histology in a 31 years old patient with cul-de-sac endometriosis is presented. MRI was the imaging method of choice for diagnosis and follow-up after treatment of this condition. (author)

  15. Primary Nasopharngeal Yolk Sac Tumor: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arumugam, Dhanalakshmi; Thandavarayan, Pavithra; Chidambaram, Lalitha; Boj, Sudha; Marudasalam, Sumathi

    2016-05-01

    Yolk sac tumour also known as primitive endodermal tumour is the most common malignant germ cell tumour (GCT) in the paediatric age group. Most common sites of involvement are ovaries and testes, but rarely can occur in the extragonadal sites. In the head and neck region, yolk sac tumours have been reported in the nasopharynx, sinonasal tract, orbit, ear and parotid gland. Nasopharynx is an uncommon site for yolk sac tumour and very few cases of nasopharngeal pure yolk sac tumour have been reported so far. Yolk sac tumours are highly malignant and have a poor prognosis. This is a case of pure GCT in a three-year-old female child who presented with a rapidly growing nasopharyngeal mass. Histopathological examination followed by immunohistochemistry and serum AFP study clinched the diagnosis of yolk sac tumour. The tumour responded well to chemotherapy as evidenced by decrease in serum AFP levels. PMID:27437234

  16. Classification of embryo sacs in the Eragrostis curvula Complex

    OpenAIRE

    T. B. Vorster; H. Liebenberg

    1984-01-01

    At each of 17 collecting points between Johannesburg and Brits in the Transvaal, three plants which belong to the  Eragrostis curvula Complex were collected and studied. A total o f 3 902 embryo sacs was examined in this sample. Of the embryo sacs examined, 3 306 were apomictic by means of diplospory, whereas 99 were sexual monosporic Polygonum-type embryo sacs. One hundred and nineteen embryo sacs were abnormal or divergent, and 378 were degenerated. There are indications that seasonal clima...

  17. Whisker Formation on SAC305 Soldered Assemblies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meschter, S.; Snugovsky, P.; Bagheri, Z.; Kosiba, E.; Romansky, M.; Kennedy, J.; Snugovsky, L.; Perovic, D.

    2014-11-01

    This article describes the results of a whisker formation study on SAC305 assemblies, evaluating the effects of lead-frame materials and cleanliness in different environments: low-stress simulated power cycling (50-85°C thermal cycling), thermal shock (-55°C to 85°C), and high temperature/high humidity (85°C/85% RH). Cleaned and contaminated small outline transistors, large leaded quad flat packs (QFP), plastic leaded chip carrier packages, and solder balls with and without rare earth elements (REE) were soldered to custom designed test boards with Sn3Ag0.5Cu (SAC305) solder. After assembly, all the boards were cleaned, and half of them were recontaminated (1.56 µg/cm2 Cl-). Whisker length, diameter, and density were measured. Detailed metallurgical analysis on components before assembly and on solder joints before and after testing was performed. It was found that whiskers grow from solder joint fillets, where the thickness is less than 25 µm, unless REE was present. The influence of lead-frame and solder ball material, microstructure, cleanliness, and environment on whisker characteristics is discussed. This article provides detailed metallurgical observations and select whisker length data obtained during this multiyear testing program.

  18. Lacrimal Sac Dacryoliths-Pathogenesis and Composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serdar Özer

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The Main objective of the present study is to review the literature about the chemical composition and the formation of dacryoliths. Dacryoliths are calculi of the lacrimal system observed incidentally during dacryocystorhinostomy. Theories about the formation of dacryoliths mainly suppose that dacryoliths are simply a secondary phenomenon resulting from a lacrimal pathway obstruction and accumulation of debris. Inflammation caused by fungi, most commonly Candida albicans, an eyelash within the sac, or adrenalin use are also considered to be potential causes. It was also reported that the unstable concentrations of electrolytes rather than the supersaturation of some electrolytes are related to the pathogenesis of dacryoliths. Chemical analysis of the dacryoliths in studies had revealed calcium, magnesium, potassium, sulfur, and some phosphorus. Atomic absorption spectrophotometric investigations demonstrated organic proteins and, to a much lesser extent, inorganic material. (Turk J Ophthalmol 2013; 43: 186-9

  19. Single Assignment C (SAC): High Productivity meets High Performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Grelck

    2012-01-01

    We present the ins and outs of the purely functional, data parallel programming language SaC (Single Assignment C). SaC defines state- and side-effect-free semantics on top of a syntax resembling that of imperative languages like C/C++/C# or Java: functional programming with curly brackets. In contr

  20. On the robustness of SAC silencing in closed mitosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruth, Donovan; Liu, Jian

    Mitosis equally partitions sister chromatids to two daughter cells. This is achieved by properly attaching these chromatids via their kinetochores to microtubules that emanate from the spindle poles. Once the last kinetochore is properly attached, the spindle microtubules pull the sister chromatids apart. Due to the dynamic nature of microtubules, however, kinetochore-microtubule attachment often goes wrong. When this erroneous attachment occurs, it locally activates an ensemble of proteins, called the spindle assembly checkpoint proteins (SAC), which halts the mitotic progression until all the kinetochores are properly attached by spindle microtubules. The timing of SAC silencing thus determines the fidelity of chromosome segregation. We previously established a spatiotemporal model that addresses the robustness of SAC silencing in open mitosis for the first time. Here, we focus on closed mitosis by examining yeast mitosis as a model system. Though much experimental work has been done to study the SAC in cells undergoing closed mitosis, the processes responsible are not well understood. We leverage and extend our previous model to study SAC silencing mechanism in closed mitosis. We show that a robust signal of the SAC protein accumulation at the spindle pole body can be achieved. This signal is a nonlinear increasing function of number of kinetochore-microtubule attachments, and can thus serve as a robust trigger to time the SAC silencing. Together, our mechanism provides a unified framework across species that ensures robust SAC silencing and fidelity of chromosome segregation in mitosis. Intramural research program in NHLBI at NIH.

  1. Expression of histamine receptors in the human endolymphatic sac

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, M Nue; Kirkeby, S; Vikeså, J.;

    2016-01-01

    The human endolymphatic sac (ES) is situated in a duplicature of the dura in the posterior cranial fossa and constitutes a part of the inner ear. The sac possesses immunological capacities and is responsible for a major part of the trans-epithelial ion transport occurring within the inner ear, via...

  2. Selfcoelum lamothei n. sp. (Digenea: Cyclocoelidae: Cyclocoelinae from the air sacs of the long-billed curlew, Numenius americanus (Scolopacidae, from the Galveston, Texas area, USA Selfcoelum lamothei, n. sp. (Digenea: Cyclocoelidae: Cyclocoelinae de los sacos aéreos del playero de pico largo, Numenius americanus (Scolopacidae, del área del condado de Galveston, Texas, EUA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles K. Blend

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Fourteen specimens of a new species of cyclocoelid, Selfcoelum lamothei n. sp. (Digenea: Cyclocoelidae: Cyclocoelinae, from the air sacs of a long-billed curlew, Numenius americanus Bechstein (Scolopacidae, collected from the Galveston area, Galveston County, Texas, USA, were examined. The new species has an intertesticular ovary that forms a triangle with the testes, placing it in Cyclocoelinae Stossich, 1902. The new species is most similar to Selfcoelum capellum (Khan, 1935 n. comb., but differs from this species by lacking an oral sucker and by having a somewhat larger ovary, larger testes, a smaller posttesticular space, a larger cirrus sac, larger eggs, and the vitelline follicles of S. lamothei n. sp. are more bulky making the vitelline fields more laterally extensive, and more anteriorly distributed (reaching anteriorly to the level of the pharynx compared to the level of the cecal bifurcation than those of S. capellum. The new species can be distinguished from the 2 species currently assigned to Selfcoelum Dronen, Gardner and Jiménez, 2006, S. brasilianum (Stossich, 1902 and S. limnodromi Dronen, Gardner and Jiménez, 2006, by having an intercecal uterus rather than having uterine loops that overreach the ceca laterally. The genus Selfcoelum should be emended to include those species where the uterus is either intercecal or where the uterine loops overreach the ceca laterally and those species with or without an oral sucker.Se examinaron 14 ejemplares de una nueva especie de ciclocélido, Selfcoelum lamothei n. sp. (Digenea: Cyclocoelidae: Cyclocoelinae que es parásito de los sacos aéreos del playero de pico largo, Numenius americanus Bechstein (Scolopacidae, recolectados en el condado de Galveston, Texas, EUA. La especie nueva se caracteriza por presentar el ovario en posición intertesticular, formando un triángulo con relación a los testículos. Este rasgo sitúa a la nueva especie entre los Cyclocoelinae Stossich, 1902

  3. Add-A-Source technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Counting neutrons emitted by spontaneously fissioning plutonium isotopes is a means for determining Plutonium content in samples. Correlations techniques have been developed for separating such neutrons from a background of nonfission neutrons due to (α, n) reactions. Further procedures are then used to correct the effect of neutron-induced fission. In order to perform such a correction the sample's chemical composition (including the presence of moisture) must be a well known parameter. The present paper reports a theoretical formulation of a new approach (add-a-source technique), which could allow to correct the measurement indipendently by the knowledge of the sample's chemical composition

  4. NEW CONCEPT FOR DETERMINING THE ORDERS OF SAC AND PC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Baodian; Liu Dongsu; Ma Wenping; Wang Xinmei

    2004-01-01

    The autocorrelation of a Boolean function possesses the capability to reflect such characteristics as linear structure, Strict Avalanche Criterion(SAC) and Propagation Criterion(PC)of degree k. But it can do nothing in determining the order of SAC or PC. A calculating table for the autocorrelation is constructed in this paper so as to show what is beyond the autocorrelation and how the three cryptographic characteristics are exhibited. A deeper study on the calculating table in a similar way has helped us to develop a new concept, named as the general autocorrelation, to address efficiently the problem how to determine the orders of SAC and PC. The application on the Advanced Encryption Standard(AES) shows the SAC and PC characteristics of Boolean functions of AES S-box.

  5. Human papillomavirus: cause of epithelial lacrimal sac neoplasia?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sjö, Nicolai Christian; von Buchwald, Christian; Cassonnet, Patricia;

    2007-01-01

    PURPOSE: Epithelial tumours of the lacrimal sac are rare but important entities that may carry grave prognoses. In this study the prevalence and possible role of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in epithelial tumours of the lacrimal sac were evaluated. METHODS: Five papillomas and six...... types 6 or 11 were identified in all four lacrimal sac papillomas suitable for PCR analysis and in situ hybridization. Four of six lacrimal sac carcinomas harboured HPV. One carcinoma was positive for HPV 11 only, two carcinomas had concomitant infection with HPV 6 or 11 and high-risk HPV 16, and the...... remaining carcinoma was positive for HPV 16. All specimens of dacryocystitis were betaglobin-positive and HPV-negative. Using DNA ISH, two papillomas and a single carcinoma showed evidence for vegetative HPV 11 DNA replication, whereas no HPV 16 DNA replication was found in the five carcinomas tested. HPV...

  6. YOLK SAC TUMOUR IN A PREMENARCHAL GIRL : A CASE REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sourav

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Yolk sac tumour, otherwise known as endodermal sinus tumour, is a rare and highly malignant germ cell tumour accounting for approximately 10% of malignant germ cell tumours. The tumour usually presents as a rapidly growing mass in young women. Here we present a case of a young premenarchal girl with a huge ovarian tumour which proved to be a yolk sac tumour and was successfully managed.

  7. Documentation for delivery of Star Tracker to SAC-C

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kilsgaard, Søren; Thuesen, Gøsta; Riis, Troels;

    1999-01-01

    The documentation EIDP (End Item Data Package) describes all the tests which have been performed on the flight hardware of the Star Tracker for the Argentine, Danish and NASA satellite SAC-C.......The documentation EIDP (End Item Data Package) describes all the tests which have been performed on the flight hardware of the Star Tracker for the Argentine, Danish and NASA satellite SAC-C....

  8. Primary lesser sac myxoid liposarcoma: A case report

    OpenAIRE

    Noushad, S. Navin; Rajaraman, R.; Shanmugam, Subbiah

    2016-01-01

    Highlights • Lesser sac pathological entities are uncommon. • A 62 year old male, cancer presented with progressive abdominal distension. • Examination revealed a midline intra abdominal mass in the epigastrium and umbilical region. • Radiological investigations were suggestive of a retroperitoneal tumor. • Surgical exploration confirmed a large multi lobulated tumor arising primarily from the lesser sac. • Post operative histopathological examination confirmed a myxoid liposarcoma. • A liter...

  9. Distinct antigenic characteristics of murine parietal yolk sac laminin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wewer, U M; Tichy, D; Damjanov, A; Paulsson, M; Damjanov, I

    1987-01-01

    Two monoclonal antibodies (LAM-A and LAM-B) specific for laminin from normal and neoplastic parietal yolk sac (PYS) cells were produced in rats immunized with a mouse yolk sac carcinoma cell line. Both antibodies immunoprecipitated the 400,000- and 200,000-Da chains of laminin and reacted with pu...... derived from normal or malignant PYS cells has distinct antigenic sites that are immunochemically not apparent in most other basement membranes....

  10. Highly Metastatic Ovarian Yolk Sac Carcinoma in a Rat

    OpenAIRE

    Sakamoto, Akika; Yamaguchi, Yuko; Yamakawa, Seiki; Nagatani, Mariko; Tamura, Kazutoshi

    2011-01-01

    We investigated a highly metastatic ovarian yolk sac carcinoma in a 52-week-old female Crl:CD(SD) rat. Macroscopically, the present case had severe ascites, bilateral ovarian masses and numerous nodules in the abdominal and thoracic cavities. Histopathologically, these masses and nodules were generally composed of two types of cells mimicking a parietal and visceral yolk sac. The parietal cells were round to polygonal, contained eosinophilic droplets and were arranged in nests and cords in th...

  11. A Demonstration of the System Assessment Capability (SAC) Rev. 1 Software for the Hanford Remediation Assessment Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The System Assessment Capability (SAC) is a suite of interrelated computer codes that provides the capability to conduct large-scale environmental assessments on the Hanford Site. Developed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for the Department of Energy, SAC models the fate and transport of radioactive and chemical contaminants, starting with the inventory of those contaminants in waste sites, simulating transport through the environment, and continuing on through impacts to the environment and humans. Separate modules in the SAC address inventory, release from waste forms, water flow and mass transport in the vadose zone, water flow and mass transport in the groundwater, water flow and mass transport in the Columbia River, air transport, and human and ecological impacts. The SAC supports deterministic analyses as well as stochastic analyses using a Monte Carlo approach, enabling SAC users to examine the effect of uncertainties in a number of key parameters. The initial assessment performed with the SAC software identified a number of areas where both the software and the analysis approach could be improved. Since that time the following six major software upgrades have been made: (1) An air pathway model was added to support all-pathway analyses. (2) Models for releases from glass waste forms, buried graphite reactor cores, and buried naval reactor compartments were added. (3) An air-water dual-phase model was added to more accurately track the movement of volatile contaminants in the vadose zone. (4) The ability to run analyses was extended from 1,000 years to 10,000 years or longer after site closure. (5) The vadose zone flow and transport model was upgraded to support two-dimensional or three-dimensional analyses. (6) The ecological model and human risk models were upgraded so the concentrations of contaminants in food products consumed by humans are produced by the ecological model. This report documents the functions in the SAC software and provides a

  12. A Demonstration of the System Assessment Capability (SAC) Rev. 1 Software for the Hanford Remediation Assessment Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eslinger, Paul W.; Kincaid, Charles T.; Nichols, William E.; Wurstner, Signe K.

    2006-11-06

    The System Assessment Capability (SAC) is a suite of interrelated computer codes that provides the capability to conduct large-scale environmental assessments on the Hanford Site. Developed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for the Department of Energy, SAC models the fate and transport of radioactive and chemical contaminants, starting with the inventory of those contaminants in waste sites, simulating transport through the environment, and continuing on through impacts to the environment and humans. Separate modules in the SAC address inventory, release from waste forms, water flow and mass transport in the vadose zone, water flow and mass transport in the groundwater, water flow and mass transport in the Columbia River, air transport, and human and ecological impacts. The SAC supports deterministic analyses as well as stochastic analyses using a Monte Carlo approach, enabling SAC users to examine the effect of uncertainties in a number of key parameters. The initial assessment performed with the SAC software identified a number of areas where both the software and the analysis approach could be improved. Since that time the following six major software upgrades have been made: (1) An air pathway model was added to support all-pathway analyses. (2) Models for releases from glass waste forms, buried graphite reactor cores, and buried naval reactor compartments were added. (3) An air-water dual-phase model was added to more accurately track the movement of volatile contaminants in the vadose zone. (4) The ability to run analyses was extended from 1,000 years to 10,000 years or longer after site closure. (5) The vadose zone flow and transport model was upgraded to support two-dimensional or three-dimensional analyses. (6) The ecological model and human risk models were upgraded so the concentrations of contaminants in food products consumed by humans are produced by the ecological model. This report documents the functions in the SAC software and provides a

  13. 40 CFR 75.34 - Units with add-on emission controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Units with add-on emission controls. 75.34 Section 75.34 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTINUOUS EMISSION MONITORING Missing Data Substitution Procedures § 75.34 Units with add-on emission controls. (a) The owner...

  14. Firefox add-ons for medical reference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoy, Matthew B

    2010-07-01

    Firefox is a Web browser created by the Mozilla project, an open-source software group. Features of the browser include automated updates, advanced security and standards compliance, and the ability to add functionality through add-ons and extensions. First introduced in 2004, Firefox now accounts for roughly 30% of the browser market. This article will focus primarily on add-ons and extensions available for the browser that are useful to medical researchers. PMID:20677067

  15. An inguinal hernia sac tumor of extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yamazaki Hidehiro

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Metastatic hernia sac tumor from biliary malignancy is extremely rare with only one such case previously reported. We herein report an additional case of extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma presenting as a hernia sac tumor. Case presentation A 78-year-old man presented with an irreducible right inguinal hernia associated with a firm tumor, 2.0 cm in diameter. A computed tomography scan demonstrated a soft tissue density mass with heterogeneous enhancement within the right inguinal canal. The patient underwent a hernia repair and the hernia sac tumor was resected. Histological examination of the tumor revealed a metastatic adenocarcinoma suggesting the tumor was of pancreato-biliary origin. Further investigation using imaging studies disclosed a primary tumor in the upper bile duct. The patient died of the disease nine months after the resection. Conclusion Hernia sac tumors should be considered when an irreducible, growing mass appears within an inguinal hernia. Computed tomography may be useful for the early detection of hernia sac tumors from undiagnosed intra-abdominal malignancies.

  16. Influence of natural silt on the survival of Oreochromis mossambicus yolk sac larvae

    OpenAIRE

    Smit, L.; H. H. du Preez; G.J. Steyn

    1998-01-01

    This study investigates the tolerance of Oreochromis mossambicus yolk sac larvae to natural silt from the Phalaborwa Barrage. Larvae survived silt concentrations lower than 13.2 g silt/I, but were highly active, indicating sublethal stress effects. When silt concentrations exceeded 29 g silt/I, stress reactions such as floating at the surface, gulping air, reduced fin and opercular movements and partial and complete loss of equilibrium were observed. Fish that succumbed exhibited darker pigme...

  17. Inviting Calm Within: ADD, Neurology, and Mindfulness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riner, Phillip S.; Tanase, Madalina

    2014-01-01

    The fourth edition of the "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders" ("DSM IV") describes ADD as behaviorally observed impairments in attention, impulsivity, and hyperactivity. Officially known as AD/HD, we use ADD here because we are dealing primarily with attention, organizational, and impulsivity issues. A more…

  18. Fast frequency hopping codes applied to SAC optical CDMA network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Shin-Pin

    2015-06-01

    This study designed a fast frequency hopping (FFH) code family suitable for application in spectral-amplitude-coding (SAC) optical code-division multiple-access (CDMA) networks. The FFH code family can effectively suppress the effects of multiuser interference and had its origin in the frequency hopping code family. Additional codes were developed as secure codewords for enhancing the security of the network. In considering the system cost and flexibility, simple optical encoders/decoders using fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs) and a set of optical securers using two arrayed-waveguide grating (AWG) demultiplexers (DeMUXs) were also constructed. Based on a Gaussian approximation, expressions for evaluating the bit error rate (BER) and spectral efficiency (SE) of SAC optical CDMA networks are presented. The results indicated that the proposed SAC optical CDMA network exhibited favorable performance.

  19. Prognosis of hepatoid yolk sac tumor in women: what's up, Doc?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rittiluechai, Kristsanamon; Wilcox, Rebecca; Lisle, Jennifer; Everett, Elise; Wallace, H James; Verschraegen, Claire F

    2014-04-01

    Ovarian yolk sac tumors are highly malignant germ cell tumors that commonly occur in young women. The hepatoid yolk sac tumor is a variant form of yolk sac tumor in which there has been extensive tumor differentiation to early liver tissue. Hepatoid differentiation is traditionally considered to signify a poor prognosis. This review focuses on diagnostic criteria and establishes the optimal treatment for patients with hepatoid yolk sac tumor. Immunohistochemical stains are useful for distinguishing hepatoid yolk sac tumor from the other hepatoid-appearing tumors. With a multidisciplinary treatment approach using platinum-based regimens, the outcome is similar to those of any yolk sac tumor. PMID:24462393

  20. Southeast Economic Add-on 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — To collect data on an angler's last trip for revealed preference models and economic valuation purposes. Typically done as an add-on to the MRIP intercept survey...

  1. Southeast Economic Add-on 1997

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — To collect data on an angler's last trip for revealed preference models and economic valuation purposes. Typically done as an add-on to the MRIP intercept survey...

  2. Southeast Economic Add-on 2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — To collect data on an angler's last trip for revealed preference models and economic valuation purposes. Typically done as an add-on to the MRIP intercept survey...

  3. Southeast Economic Add-on 2003

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — To collect data on an angler's last trip for revealed preference models and economic valuation purposes. Typically done as an add-on to the MRIP intercept survey...

  4. ADD psychosis as a separate entity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellak, L

    1985-01-01

    "Attention deficit disorder (ADD) psychosis" merits delineation as a separate entity. It constitutes the end result of the effects of a certain particular neurological deficit (ADD) on personality organization. It is my belief that about 10 percent of psychoses currently diagnosed most often schizophrenic and sometimes affective psychosis must best be considered a separate organic psychosis, i.e., an ADD psychosis. This ADD psychosis, then, is not merely a subgroup of schizophrenia, as I once thought. It merits a separate designation because its etiology, pathogenesis, and life history are different from those of the schizophrenic syndrome. The family histories are also different, as are the psychological findings. The treatment response is so different that it merits urgent consideration. Prognosis, both short range and long range, also seems different from those of the other psychoses. PMID:4081648

  5. An unusual foreign body in the preputial sac.

    OpenAIRE

    A K Jaiswal

    1992-01-01

    A 28 year old Indian male presented with an unusual foreign body, a penicillin bottle containing tincture of iodine, in the preputial sac. The purpose of introducing the bottle was to tickle his glans penis as a form of masturbation. The bottle was so firmly impacted that it could be removed only under general anaesthesia.

  6. Placentation in mammals: Definitive placenta, yolk sac, and paraplacenta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, A M; Enders, A C

    2016-07-01

    An overview is given of variations in placentation with particular focus on yolk sac, paraplacenta, and other structures important to histotrophic nutrition. The placenta proper varies in general shape, internal structure, and the number of tissues in the interhemal barrier. Yolk sac membranes persist to term in insectivores, colugos, rodents, and lagomorphs. In the latter two orders, they are of known importance for maternal-fetal transfer of antibodies, vitamins, lipids, and proteins. The detached yolk sac of bats is also active throughout gestation. A vascular paraplacenta, or smooth chorioallantois, has known functions in ruminants and carnivores and is found in several other orders of mammal where its function has yet to be explored. In human gestation, the chorion (avascular chorioallantois) is important for hormone synthesis. The true chorion of squirrels and hedgehogs is avascular but may nevertheless allow transfer from mother to fetus through the exocelom. Hemophagous areas with columnar trophoblast are paraplacental structures in carnivores and elephants but occur also within the placenta as in hyenas and moles. In shrews, it is the yolk sac that ingests and processes red cells. Areolas and chorionic vesicles are other structures important for absorption of uterine secretions and ingestion of cellular debris. In conclusion, we find that paraplacental structures, while showing less variation than the placenta proper, contribute not just to the integrity of overall placentation, but in various ways to maternal-fetal interrelationships. PMID:27155730

  7. YOLK SAC TUMOUR IN A PREMENARCHAL GIRL : A CASE REPORT

    OpenAIRE

    Sourav; Avishek; Pallab Kumar; Bandana; Mrinmoyee

    2015-01-01

    Yolk sac tumour, otherwise known as endodermal sinus tumour, is a rare and highly malignant germ cell tumour accounting for approximately 10% of malignant germ cell tumours. The tumour usually presents as a rapidly growing mass in young women. Here we present a case of a young premenarchal girl with a huge ovarian tumour which pro...

  8. Robin Panneton named university's SACS coordinator effective July 1

    OpenAIRE

    Owczarski, Mark

    2009-01-01

    Robin Panneton, associate professor of psychology and former director of developmental and biological psychology in Virginia Tech's College of Science, has been appointed as the university's Southern Association of Colleges and Schools (SACS) coordinator by Vice President and Dean for Undergraduate Education Daniel Wubah.

  9. Unusual presentation of Enterobius vermicularis in conjunctival sac.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallick, Sanjay Kumar; Sengupta, Ranadeep; Banerjee, Arup Kumar

    2015-10-01

    We report an unusual case of extraintestinal infection with adult Enterobius vermicularis worms in the conjunctival sac of a two-and-a-half year old boy from Alipurduar, West Bengal, India. Only two other similar cases have been reported in the English literature, one from Assam, India in 1976, and the other from Illinois and California in 2011. PMID:25540166

  10. Sudden unilateral deafness with endolymphatic sac adenocarcinoma: MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A 30-year-old man presented with sudden left deafness and vertigo. CT showed an osteolytic retrolabyrinthine tumour of the left temporal bone. High signal from the tumour and labyrinth was seen on fat-suppressed T 1-weighted images. At surgery, a haemorrhagic papillary-cystic adenocarcinoma of the endolymphatic sac was found. (orig.)

  11. Sudden unilateral deafness with endolymphatic sac adenocarcinoma: MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaeta, M.; Blandino, A.; Minutoli, F.; Pandolfo, I. [Inst. of Radiological Sciences, Univ. of Messina (Italy)

    1999-10-01

    A 30-year-old man presented with sudden left deafness and vertigo. CT showed an osteolytic retrolabyrinthine tumour of the left temporal bone. High signal from the tumour and labyrinth was seen on fat-suppressed T 1-weighted images. At surgery, a haemorrhagic papillary-cystic adenocarcinoma of the endolymphatic sac was found. (orig.)

  12. TMACS Test Procedure TP008: SACS Interface. Revision 5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The TMACS Software Project Test Procedures translate the project's acceptance criteria into test steps. Software releases are certified when the affected Test Procedures are successfully performed and the customers authorize installation of these changes. This Test Procedure tests the TMACS SACS Interface functions

  13. A Model of Add-on Pricing

    OpenAIRE

    Glenn Ellison

    2004-01-01

    This paper develops a model of competitive price discrimination with horizontal and vertical differentiation. The main application is to add-on pricing – advertising low prices for one good in hopes of selling additional products at high prices. Price discrimination is self-reinforcing: the model sometimes has both equilibria in which all firms practice price discrimination and equilibria in which none do. The paper focuses on the Chicago-school argument that profits earned on add-ons will be...

  14. Acoustic communication in the Greater Sage-Grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) an examination into vocal sacs, sound propagation, and signal directionality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dantzker, Marc Steven

    The thesis is an inquiry into the acoustic communication of a very unusual avian species, the Greater Sage-Grouse, Centrocercus urophasianus. One of the most outstanding features of this animal's dynamic mating display is its use of paired air sacs that emerge explosively from an esophageal pouch. My first line of inquiry into this system is a review of the form and function of similar vocal apparatuses, collectively called vocal sacs, in birds. Next, with a combination of mathematical models and field measurements, My collaborator and I investigate the acoustic environment where the Greater Sage-Grouse display. The complexities of this acoustic environment are relevant both to the birds and to the subsequent examinations of the display's properties. Finally, my collaborators and I examine a cryptic component of the acoustic display --- directionality --- which we measured simultaneously from multiple locations around free moving grouse on their mating grounds.

  15. Functional blood flow patterns of the endolymphatic sac in the rat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Morten; Qvortrup, Klaus

    2008-01-01

    Conclusion. Visualization of the endolymphatic sac vascular network under video fluorescence microscopy showed a typical microvascular organization. The microvascular arrangement and the microcirculation may reflect a functional state of the endolymphatic sac. Damage or change of the blood circul...... sac served as return paths for the microcirculation. The blood flow pattern was highly variable between rats....

  16. Air

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... house) Industrial emissions (like smoke and chemicals from factories) Household cleaners (spray cleaners, air fresheners) Car emissions (like carbon monoxide) *All of these things make up “particle pollution.” They mostly come from cars, trucks, buses, and ...

  17. Efficacy of Several Pesticide Products on Brown Widow Spider (Araneae: Theridiidae) Egg Sacs and Their Penetration Through the Egg Sac Silk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vetter, Richard S; Tarango, Jacob; Campbell, Kathleen A; Tham, Christine; Hayashi, Cheryl Y; Choe, Dong-Hwan

    2016-02-01

    Information on pesticide effects on spiders is less common than for insects; similar information for spider egg sacs is scarcer in the open literature. Spider egg sacs are typically covered with a protective silk layer. When pesticides are directly applied to egg sacs, the silk might prevent active ingredients from reaching the eggs, blocking their insecticidal effect. We investigated the impact of six water-based pesticide sprays and four oil-based aerosol products against egg sacs of brown widow spiders, Latrodectus geometricus C. L. Koch. All water-based spray products except one failed to provide significant mortality to egg sacs, resulting in successful spiderling emergence from treated egg sacs at a similar rate to untreated egg sacs. In contrast to water-based sprays, oil-based aerosols provided almost complete control, with 94-100% prevention of spiderling emergence. Penetration studies using colored pesticide products indicated that oil-based aerosols were significantly more effective in penetrating egg sac silk than were the water-based sprays, delivering the active ingredients on most (>99%) of the eggs inside the sac. The ability of pesticides to penetrate spider egg sac silk and deliver lethal doses of active ingredients to the eggs is discussed in relation to the chemical nature of egg sac silk proteins. Our study suggests that pest management procedures primarily relying on perimeter application of water-based sprays might not provide satisfactory control of brown widow spider eggs. Determination of the most effective active ingredients and carrier characteristics warrant further research to provide more effective control options for spider egg sacs. PMID:26530954

  18. Air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In recent years several regulations and standards for air quality and limits for air pollution were issued or are in preparation by the European Union, which have severe influence on the environmental monitoring and legislation in Austria. This chapter of the environmental control report of Austria gives an overview about the legal situation of air pollution control in the European Union and in specific the legal situation in Austria. It gives a comprehensive inventory of air pollution measurements for the whole area of Austria of total suspended particulates, ozone, volatile organic compounds, nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxide, carbon monoxide, heavy metals, benzene, dioxin, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and eutrophication. For each of these pollutants the measured emission values throughout Austria are given in tables and geographical charts, the environmental impact is discussed, statistical data and time series of the emission sources are given and legal regulations and measures for an effective environmental pollution control are discussed. In particular the impact of fossil-fuel power plants on the air pollution is analyzed. (a.n.)

  19. Hydrocele of Femoral Hernial Sac-an Extremely Rare Case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madhivanan, S; Jain, Ravindra Kumar

    2016-06-01

    A previously healthy 40-year-old woman presented with a right groin swelling for the last 2 years. Diagnosed preoperatively as uncomplicated, irreducible epiplocele of right femoral hernia, later per-operatively was diagnosed as hydrocele of femoral hernial sac also known as "femorocele"; ultrasound abdomen and groin demonstrated as a cystic mass right groin with no precise origin. All other basic line investigations within normal limits, except anemia 7 gm %, corrected to 10 gm %, by preoperative transfusions of 2 units of complete fresh blood. After low approach incision, excision of hydrocele sac, and feormal hernia repair were done with approximation of iliopectineal ligament to inguinal ligament, patient was discharged on 5th postoperative day with satisfactory wound healing and uneventful hospitalization. PMID:27358521

  20. Spectral Amplitude Coding (SAC)-OCDMA Network with 8DPSK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldhaibani, A. O.; Aljunid, S. A.; Fadhil, Hilal A.; Anuar, M. S.

    2013-09-01

    Optical code division multiple access (OCDMA) technique is required to meet the increased demand for high speed, large capacity communications in optical networks. In this paper, the transmission performance of a spectral amplitude coding (SAC)-OCDMA network is investigated when a conventional single-mode fiber (SMF) is used as the transmission link using 8DPSK modulation. The DW has a fixed weight of two. Simulation results reveal that the transmission distance is limited mainly by the fiber dispersion when high coding chip rate is used. For a two-user SAC-OCDMA network operating with 2 Gbit/s data rate and two wavelengths for each user, the maximum allowable transmission distance is about 15 km.

  1. Primary Yolk Sac Tumor of the Omentum: Case Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baek, Chang Kyu; Oh, Young Taik; Jung, Dae Chul [Dept. of Radiology, Research Institue of Radiological Science, Yensei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Bae, Yoon Sung [Dept. of Pathology, Yensei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-01-15

    A 32-year-old woman had been referred to our hospital for lower abdominal pain. Pelvic ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging revealed a huge solid mass with an internal cystic portion. The patient underwent a staging laparotomy and subsequent total abdominal hysterectomy with bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy, bilateral pelvic lymph nodes sampling, and total omentectomy. At staging laparotomy, a large omental mass was found. The tumor displayed the typical histological patterns observed in the yolk sac tumor. The alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) serum value on the 10th day after surgery was 11,576.67 IU/mL and decreased to 6.46 IU/mL after chemotherapy. At the end of the treatment, all the findings, including the AFP level, were normal. We report a case of primary yolk sac tumor of the omentum in a 32-year-old woman.

  2. A clinicopathologic analysis of primary orbital yolk sac tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PENG Ji-ying

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective On rare occasions, yolk sac tumor may arise from extragonadal sites. Orbit is an unusual location for the primary development of this tumor. The presence of intracranial yolk sac tumor on biopsy always makes the diagnosis challenge for pathologists. Herein we report a case of intracranial primary yolk sac tumor in left orbital apex. The clinicopathology of this tumor and its differential diagnosis are discussed. Methods The clinical manifestation of a patient with primary yolk sac tumor occurring in left orbital apex was presented retrospectively. Resected orbital mass was routinely paraffin-embedded and stained with hematoxylin and eosin. Dako Envision immunohistochemical staining system was used to detect the tumor antigen expressions, including alpha-fetoprotein (AFP, cytokeratin, placental alkaline phosphatase (PLAP, CD30, CD34, CD45, CD99, CD117, synaptophysin (Syn and chromogranin A (CgA. Results A 2-year-old boy presented with 3-month history of ptosis of eyelid and exophthalmos on left eye. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI scan revealed a lesion occupied the left orbital apex with infiltration of surrounding normal structure, including left posterior ethmoid sinus, the wall of left maxillary sinus and sphenoid. However, there was no evidence of tumor infiltrating in brain parenchyma. Craniotomy was performed and the tumor was removed by en bloc resection. Grossly, the biopsy specimen received in small pieces was 1.20 cm × 1.00 cm × 1.00 cm when aggregated. No fibrous capsule, necrosis, haemorrhage and gross calcification were found in the tissue fragments. Histological examination revealed that the tumor was arranged in a reticular pattern. The cells were relatively large with a clear cytoplasm and vesicular nuclei. Scattered mitotic figures were noted. Schiller-Duval bodies and periodic acid-Schiff (PAS positive (eosinophilic bodies were evident in the tumor tissue. Immunohistochemical staining showed that the tumor cells

  3. Educational report: A case of lacrimal sac rhinosporidiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamison, Aaron; Crofts, Kevin; Roberts, Fiona; Gregory, Maria Elena

    2016-10-01

    This article reports a presentation of lacrimal sac rhinosporidiosis and informs the reader of this uncommon but important diagnosis. A 36-year-old man from Pakistan presented with a 3-month history of swelling at the nasal aspect of the left lower lid. This was associated with occasional crepitus and slight localised discomfort, but no epiphora. There was a palpable fullness near the left medial canthus associated with telecanthus but a normal sac washout and normal eye examination otherwise. Previous medical history included an ipsilateral nasal polypectomy and inferior meatal antrostomy around 10 years previously, whilst living in Pakistan. Various imaging modalities were useful in identifying a soft tissue mass within the left nasolacrimal duct. Following excision biopsy, histological examination confirmed the presence of rhinosporidiosis, likely caused by the organism Rhinosporidium seeberi. Rhinosporidiosis should be considered as a potential cause in any case of lacrimal sac pathology. Imaging studies may be helpful in measuring the extent of disease, although histological examination is required to confirm the diagnosis. Although rare, the complications of rhinosporidiosis can be potentially blinding or fatal. As discussed in this case, the presence of telecanthus may represent a lacrimal system tumour, either malignant or benign, and should always prompt further investigation. PMID:27541939

  4. Yolk sac tumor in a patient with transverse testicular ectopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu Yi-Ping

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Transverse testicular ectopia (TTE is a rare anomaly in which both testes descend through a single inguinal canal. We report a case of yolk sac tumor in the ectopic testis of a patient with TTE. A 24-year-old man presented to our hospital with a left inguinal-mass, right cryptorchidism and elevated alpha-fetoprotein (AFP. A left herniotomy 3 years earlier demonstrated both testes in the left scrotum, one above another positionally. Four months ago, a left scrotal mass appeared and radical orchiectomy of both testes revealed testicular yolk sac tumor of the ectopic testis. An enlarging left inguinal-mass appeared 2 months ago and he was referred to our hospital. Laboratory data showed an elevation of AFP (245.5 ng/ml and a 46 XY karyotype. He underwent bilateral retroperitoneal lymph node dissection and simultaneous left inguinal mass dissection. Histopathologic examination revealed a diagnosis of recurrent yolk sac tumor in the left inguinal mass. The retroperitoneal lymph node was not enlarged and, on histopathology, was not involved. The patient has now been followed up for 8 months without evidence of biochemical or radiological recurrence.

  5. Oblique sectional planes of block plastinates eased by Sac Plastination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kürtül, Ibrahim; Hammer, Niels; Rabi, Suganthy; Saito, Toshiyuki; Böhme, Jörg; Steinke, Hanno

    2012-07-01

    To find an oblique cutting plane of a plastinate, e.g. to cut gamma-nails in the femur, the Block Plastination technique was modified. After CT and MRI examination, the specimens were plastinated with the standard resin mixture E6/E12/E600. Instead of using a box to form a block during the casting and curing stage, we embedded the specimen in a sac made of polyester foil. A polymerized wooden block was attached to the specimen. The sac was wrapped with tape to the embedded specimen with the block. This approach limited the amount of required resin to the inner volume of the plastinate. Then, the plastination sac was put in the incubator for further polymerization and curing. When the foil was removed from the plastinated specimen, the wooden block served as a socket for the grip when sawing. The outer shape of the specimen remained visible. Doing so, the adequate cutting plane could be determined easily. PMID:22209028

  6. Sac Angiography and Glue Embolization in Emergency Endovascular Aneurysm Repair for Ruptured Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koike, Yuya, E-mail: r06118@hotmail.co.jp; Nishimura, Jun-ichi, E-mail: jun-ichi-n@nifty.com; Hase, Soichiro, E-mail: haseman@hotmail.co.jp; Yamasaki, Motoshige, E-mail: genyamasaki@gmail.com [Kawasaki Saiwai Hospital, Department of Interventional Radiology (Japan)

    2015-04-15

    PurposeThe purpose of this study was to demonstrate a sac angiography technique and evaluate the feasibility of N-butyl cyanoacrylate (NBCA) embolization of the ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) sac in emergency endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) in hemodynamically unstable patients.MethodsA retrospective case series of three patients in whom sac angiography was performed during emergency EVAR for ruptured AAA was reviewed. After stent graft deployment, angiography within the sac of aneurysm (sac angiography) was performed by manually injecting 10 ml of contrast material through a catheter to identify the presence and site of active bleeding. In two patients, sac angiography revealed active extravasation of the contrast material, and NBCA embolization with a coaxial catheter system was performed to achieve prompt sealing.ResultsSac angiography was successful in all three patients. In the two patients who underwent NBCA embolization for aneurysm sac bleeding, follow-up computed tomography (CT) images demonstrated the accumulation of NBCA consistent with the bleeding site in preprocedural CT images.ConclusionsEVAR is associated with a potential risk of ongoing bleeding from type II or IV endoleaks into the disrupted aneurysm sac in patients with severe coagulopathy. Therefore, sac angiography and NBCA embolization during emergency EVAR may represent a possible technical improvement in the treatment of ruptured AAA in hemodynamically unstable patients.

  7. The Pearl Sac Formation in Male and Female Pinctada maxima Host Oysters Implanted With Allograft Saibo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    La Eddy

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to study the effect of male and female host oysters on the pearl sac formation in Pinctada maxima oyster. One hundred sixty oysters were used in a completely randomized design with 2 x 4 factorial arrangement and 20 replications. The 1st factor was that sex of host oyster consisted of two levels that is males and females. The 2nd factor was week after nucleus implantation with four levels that is 1, 2, 3, and 4 weeks. The parameters observed were the percentage of successful oysters to form the pearl sac, the speed of pearl sac formation, the percentage of nucleus coverage by the pearl sac, histology of the pearl sac growth and development, and haemolymph glucose, calcium and phosphorus concentrations. Our results showed that the percentages of host oysters that succeeded in forming a pearl sac were 80% and 75% in female and male host oysters, respectively. There was no statistical difference in nucleus rejection and mortality in male and female host oysters but the results indicated that male host oysters showed a numerically higher nucleus rejection. The speed of pearl sac growth and the percentage of nucleus coverage by the pearl sac in female host oysters were better than those in male host oysters. Haemolymph calcium, phosphorus and glucose concentrations, oxygen consumption, and histological development of the pearl sac were not different between male and female host oysters. Pearl sac formation in the female host oysters was better than that in male host oysters.

  8. Sac Angiography and Glue Embolization in Emergency Endovascular Aneurysm Repair for Ruptured Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PurposeThe purpose of this study was to demonstrate a sac angiography technique and evaluate the feasibility of N-butyl cyanoacrylate (NBCA) embolization of the ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) sac in emergency endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) in hemodynamically unstable patients.MethodsA retrospective case series of three patients in whom sac angiography was performed during emergency EVAR for ruptured AAA was reviewed. After stent graft deployment, angiography within the sac of aneurysm (sac angiography) was performed by manually injecting 10 ml of contrast material through a catheter to identify the presence and site of active bleeding. In two patients, sac angiography revealed active extravasation of the contrast material, and NBCA embolization with a coaxial catheter system was performed to achieve prompt sealing.ResultsSac angiography was successful in all three patients. In the two patients who underwent NBCA embolization for aneurysm sac bleeding, follow-up computed tomography (CT) images demonstrated the accumulation of NBCA consistent with the bleeding site in preprocedural CT images.ConclusionsEVAR is associated with a potential risk of ongoing bleeding from type II or IV endoleaks into the disrupted aneurysm sac in patients with severe coagulopathy. Therefore, sac angiography and NBCA embolization during emergency EVAR may represent a possible technical improvement in the treatment of ruptured AAA in hemodynamically unstable patients

  9. Cytochemical study of the embryo sac of Nicotiana tabacum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. P. Babbikova

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The mitotic cycle in the egg cell and physico-chemical state of chromatin in the egg cell and central cell of the tobacco embryo sac were studied. It was revealed that during egg cell formation a change in the mitotic cycle kinetics takes place, it consists in prolongation of the S-period as compared with that of somatic cells and G1 - period as compared with that of male gametes. Egg cell and central cell nuclei differ in chromatin structure. Condensed chromatin dominates in the egg cell nucleus, diffuse chromatin in the central cell nucleus, but both show only weak metabolic activity.

  10. Rhinosporidiosis of lacrimal sac: An interesting case of orbital swelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, Sandip Kanti; Bain, Jayanta; Maity, Kuntal; Chattopadhyay, Debarati; Baitalik, Debasis; Majumdar, Bijay Kumar; Gupta, Vivek; Kumar, Ashwini; Dalal, Bibhas Saha; Malik, Anu

    2016-01-01

    Rhinosporidiosis is a chronic localized granulomatous disease caused by Rhinosporidium seeberi, an aquatic protistan parasite belonging to a clade, Mesomycetozoea. Infestation of Rhinosporidiosis to the eye and adnexa is termed oculosporidiosis, in such cases, conjunctival mucosa is mostly involved; however in our case, it involved only the lacrimal sac and deeper periorbital tissue and presented as a case of orbital swelling. Surgical excision of the lesion was done, postoperatively dapsone therapy was given for 6 months, and the patient responded very well with no recurrence till date. PMID:27003980

  11. Abscess in the inguinal hernial sac after peritonitis surgery: A case report

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Satoshi Ikeda; Haruka Takeda; Masanori Yoshimitsu; Takao Hinoi; Makoto Yoshida; Daisuke Sumitani; Yuji Takakura; Yasuo Kawaguchi; Manabu Shimomura; Masakazu Tokunaga; Katsufumi Kawahori; Hideki Ohdan; Masazumi Okajima

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we report an extremely rare case of an abscess that developed in the inguinal hernial sac after surgery for peritonitis. A 60-year-old man underwent laparoscopic low anterior resection for rectal cancer.One day after this operation, peritoneal drainage and ileostomy were performed for rectal anastomotic leakage. Five days after the second operation, computed tomography revealed an abscess in the left inguinal hernial sac. Subsequently, hernioplasty and resection of the inflamed sac were performed.

  12. Endolymphatic sac tumor with von Hippel-Lindau disease: report of a case with atypical pathology of endolymphatic sac tumor

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Xiang; Liu, Xue-Song; Fang, Yuan; Zhang, Xiu-Hui; Zhang, Yue-Kang

    2014-01-01

    The authors described a case of a patient with co-existing endolymphatic sac tumor (ELST) and hemangioblastoma in the posterior cranial fossa, which belonged to a subtype of Von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) disease confirmed by the test of VHL-gene. The signs in this 42-year-old female included intermittent headache and dizziness. Imaging revealed a giant mass in the right cerebellopontine angle (CPA) region and another lesion in the left cerebellar hemisphere. The results of biopsy after two operatio...

  13. SacY, a Transcriptional Antiterminator from Bacillus subtilis, Is Regulated by Phosphorylation In Vivo†

    OpenAIRE

    Idelson, Maria; Amster-Choder, Orna

    1998-01-01

    SacY antiterminates transcription of the sacB gene in Bacillus subtilis in response to the presence of sucrose in the growth medium. We have found that it can substitute for BglG, a homologous protein, in antiterminating transcription of the bgl operon in Escherichia coli. We therefore sought to determine whether, similarly to BglG, SacY is regulated by reversible phosphorylation in response to the availability of the inducing sugar. We show here that two forms of SacY, phosphorylated and non...

  14. Potentiodynamic polarization effect on phase and microstructure of SAC305 solder in hydrochloric acid solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaini, Nurwahida Binti Mohd; Nazeri, Muhammad Firdaus Bin Mohd

    2016-07-01

    The corrosion analysis of SAC305 lead free solder was investigated in Hydrochloric acid (HCl) solution. Potentiodynamic polarization was used to polarize the SAC305. The effect of polarization on the phase and microstructure were compared to as-prepared SAC305 solder. Potentiodynamic polarization introduces mixed corrosion products on the surface of SAC305 solder. The XRD analysis confirms that the mixed corrosion products emerged on the surface after polarization by formation of SnO and SnO2 of which confirmed that dissolution of Sn was dominant during polarization. Microstructure analysis reveal the presence of gap and porosities produced limits the protection offered by the passivation film.

  15. A pigeon crop sac radioreceptor assay for prolactin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ovine prolactin, labelled with 125I by either lactoperoxidase or a mild chloramine T method, was bound to receptors from the pigeon crop sac mucosa cells of prolactin-injected pigeons. Binding was demonstrated in a crude homogenate of mucosal cells removed from the crop by scraping and in a subcellular fraction in which 5'- nucleotidase activity was enhanced two- to three-fold. The binding was specific, dependent on time, temperature and the concentration of receptors and had a dissociation constant of 7 x 10-10 mol/l. The binding capacity of the crop tissue was 71 fmol/mg membrane protein. Nine purified preparations of prolactin from four species were assayed by local pigeon crop sac bioassay and by radioreceptor assay. The two methods were highly correlated (r = 0.934). The regression equation was radioreceptor assay = 1.22 bioassay - 0.18 indicating a 1:1 correspondence between the two methods for prolactin purified from sheep, rat, horse and pig anterior pituitary glands. (author)

  16. The PIKfyve–ArPIKfyve–Sac3 triad in human breast cancer: Functional link between elevated Sac3 phosphatase and enhanced proliferation of triple negative cell lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: •We assess PAS complex proteins and phosphoinositide levels in breast cancer cells. •Sac3 and ArPIKfyve are markedly elevated in triple-negative breast cancer cells. •Sac3 silencing inhibits proliferation in triple-negative breast cancer cell lines. •Phosphoinositide profiles are altered in breast cancer cells. •This is the first evidence linking high Sac3 with breast cancer cell proliferation. -- Abstract: The phosphoinositide 5-kinase PIKfyve and 5-phosphatase Sac3 are scaffolded by ArPIKfyve in the PIKfyve–ArPIKfyve–Sac3 (PAS) regulatory complex to trigger a unique loop of PtdIns3P–PtdIns(3,5)P2 synthesis and turnover. Whereas the metabolizing enzymes of the other 3-phosphoinositides have already been implicated in breast cancer, the role of the PAS proteins and the PtdIns3P–PtdIns(3,5)P2 conversion is unknown. To begin elucidating their roles, in this study we monitored the endogenous levels of the PAS complex proteins in cell lines derived from hormone-receptor positive (MCF7 and T47D) or triple-negative breast cancers (TNBC) (BT20, BT549 and MDA-MB-231) as well as in MCF10A cells derived from non-tumorigenic mastectomy. We report profound upregulation of Sac3 and ArPIKfyve in the triple negative vs. hormone-sensitive breast cancer or non-tumorigenic cells, with BT cell lines showing the highest levels. siRNA-mediated knockdown of Sac3, but not that of PIKfyve, significantly inhibited proliferation of BT20 and BT549 cells. In these cells, knockdown of ArPIKfyve had only a minor effect, consistent with a primary role for Sac3 in TNBC cell proliferation. Intriguingly, steady-state levels of PtdIns(3,5)P2 in BT20 and T47D cells were similar despite the 6-fold difference in Sac3 levels between these cell lines. However, steady-state levels of PtdIns3P and PtdIns5P, both regulated by the PAS complex, were significantly reduced in BT20 vs. T47D or MCF10A cell lines, consistent with elevated Sac3 affecting directly or indirectly the

  17. The PIKfyve–ArPIKfyve–Sac3 triad in human breast cancer: Functional link between elevated Sac3 phosphatase and enhanced proliferation of triple negative cell lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ikonomov, Ognian C., E-mail: oikonomo@med.wayne.edu; Filios, Catherine, E-mail: cfilios@med.wayne.edu; Sbrissa, Diego, E-mail: dsbrissa@med.wayne.edu; Chen, Xuequn, E-mail: xchen@med.wayne.edu; Shisheva, Assia, E-mail: ashishev@med.wayne.edu

    2013-10-18

    Highlights: •We assess PAS complex proteins and phosphoinositide levels in breast cancer cells. •Sac3 and ArPIKfyve are markedly elevated in triple-negative breast cancer cells. •Sac3 silencing inhibits proliferation in triple-negative breast cancer cell lines. •Phosphoinositide profiles are altered in breast cancer cells. •This is the first evidence linking high Sac3 with breast cancer cell proliferation. -- Abstract: The phosphoinositide 5-kinase PIKfyve and 5-phosphatase Sac3 are scaffolded by ArPIKfyve in the PIKfyve–ArPIKfyve–Sac3 (PAS) regulatory complex to trigger a unique loop of PtdIns3P–PtdIns(3,5)P{sub 2} synthesis and turnover. Whereas the metabolizing enzymes of the other 3-phosphoinositides have already been implicated in breast cancer, the role of the PAS proteins and the PtdIns3P–PtdIns(3,5)P{sub 2} conversion is unknown. To begin elucidating their roles, in this study we monitored the endogenous levels of the PAS complex proteins in cell lines derived from hormone-receptor positive (MCF7 and T47D) or triple-negative breast cancers (TNBC) (BT20, BT549 and MDA-MB-231) as well as in MCF10A cells derived from non-tumorigenic mastectomy. We report profound upregulation of Sac3 and ArPIKfyve in the triple negative vs. hormone-sensitive breast cancer or non-tumorigenic cells, with BT cell lines showing the highest levels. siRNA-mediated knockdown of Sac3, but not that of PIKfyve, significantly inhibited proliferation of BT20 and BT549 cells. In these cells, knockdown of ArPIKfyve had only a minor effect, consistent with a primary role for Sac3 in TNBC cell proliferation. Intriguingly, steady-state levels of PtdIns(3,5)P{sub 2} in BT20 and T47D cells were similar despite the 6-fold difference in Sac3 levels between these cell lines. However, steady-state levels of PtdIns3P and PtdIns5P, both regulated by the PAS complex, were significantly reduced in BT20 vs. T47D or MCF10A cell lines, consistent with elevated Sac3 affecting directly or

  18. Conjunctival sac bacterial flora isolated prior to cataract surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suto C

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Chikako Suto1,2, Masahiro Morinaga1,2, Tomoko Yagi1,2, Chieko Tsuji3, Hiroshi Toshida41Department of Ophthalmology, Saiseikai Kurihashi Hospital, Saitama; 2Department of Ophthalmology, Tokyo Women's Medical University, Tokyo; 3Department of Clinical Laboratory, Saiseikai Kurihashi Hospital, Saitama; 4Department of Ophthalmology, Juntendo University Shizuoka Hospital, Izunokuni, Shizuoka, JapanObjective: To determine the trends of conjunctival sac bacterial flora isolated from patients prior to cataract surgery.Subjects and methods: The study comprised 579 patients (579 eyes who underwent cataract surgery. Specimens were collected by lightly rubbing the inferior palpebral conjunctival sac with a sterile cotton swab 2 weeks before surgery, and then cultured for isolation of bacteria and antimicrobial sensitivity testing. The bacterial isolates and percentage of drug-resistant isolates were compared among age groups and according to whether or not patients had diabetes mellitus, hyperlipidemia, dialysis therapy, oral steroid use, dry eye syndrome, or allergic conjunctivitis.Results: The bacterial isolation rate was 39.2%. There were 191 strains of Gram-positive cocci, accounting for the majority of all isolates (67.0%, among which methicillin-sensitive coagulase-negative staphylococci was the most frequent (127 strains, 44.5%, followed by methicillin-resistant coagulase-negative staphylococci (37 strains, 12.7%. All 76 Gram-positive bacillary isolates (26.7% were from the genus Corynebacterium. Among the 16 Gram-negative bacillary isolates (5.9%, the most frequent was Escherichia coli (1.0%. The bacterial isolation rate was higher in patients >60 years old, and was lower in patients with dry eye syndrome, patients under topical treatment for other ocular disorders, and patients with hyperlipidemia. There was no significant difference in bacterial isolation rate with respect to the presence/absence of diabetes mellitus, steroid therapy, dialysis, or

  19. Influence of developmental cervical stenosis on dural sac space

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tang Yanchao; Yu Miao; Liu Zhongjun; Sun Yu; Liu Xiaoguang

    2014-01-01

    Background This retrospective study aimed to investigate the difference of the intra-dural reserving space for spinal cord in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) between patients with and without developmental cervical stenosis and its clinical significance.Methods A total of 264 patients with cervical spondylotic myelopathy who had decompression surgeries were recruited.The average follow-up was 29 months.Based on their lateral radiographs,they were divided into stenosis group and non-stenosis group.On the magnetic resonance images,the ratio of the sagittal diameter of the dural sac to that of the vertebral body was measured and calculated as MRI Pavlov ratio at the mid-vertebral level on T2-weighted sagittal images from C3 to C7.The ratio of the transverse area of the spinal cord to that of the dural sac was measured and calculated as occupation ratio on T2-weighted axial images at the same levels.The MRI Pavlov ratio and occupation ratio were compared between the two groups.The stenosis group was further divided into space-reserving and non-space-reserving subgroups based on the occupation ratios; then clinical parameters were compared between the two subgroups to determine the clinical significance of the reserving space.Results The MRI Pavlov ratio of the stenosis group was significantly smaller than that of the non-stenosis group at C3-C7 (P <0.01),while the occupation ratio was significantly larger only at C7 (P <0.05).For the space-reserving subgroup,the postoperative recovery rate was lower (P <0.05).The postoperative recovery rate was (23±6)% in anterior approach,larger than (-23±15)% in posterior approach (P <0.05).Conclusions Developmental cervical stenosis is associated with a smaller sagittal diameter of the dural sac,but does not lead to a significant decrease in intra-dural space available for the cord.For patients with normal intra-dural space,the recovery after anterior decompression surgery was better than posterior approach.

  20. Gravitational scattering in the ADD model revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is argued that the assumption that the standard model particles live on a finite brane in the ADD model does in itself imply a finite propagator for virtual Kaluza-Klein mode exchange. The part of the propagator relevant for large distance scattering is cut-off-independent for scattering at distances large compared to the brane width. The matrix element corresponding to this part can also, at least for an odd number of extra dimensions, be Fourier transformed to position space, giving back the extra-dimensional version of Newton's law. For an even number of extra dimensions a corresponding result is found by requiring that Newton's law should be recovered. (orig.)

  1. Quiescent plasma experiments: an add-on

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the classical literature of plasma physics, one cannot miss the references of Q-machines. It was such a powerful experimental device in which the very early basic plasma experiments were conducted and the results from those went into all plasma physics text-books. In those experiments, a highly ionized plasma produced by contact or resonance ionization of alkali atoms (mostly cesium) on hot tungsten surfaces was confined in an axial magnetic field. This collision-less plasma was expected to be quiescent, because the temperature of both the species (ions and electrons) would be same as the temperature of the plate (∼ 0.2 eV). But due to the inherent experimental set ups, many fluctuations were present, which were detected and were satisfactorily explained too. In this talk, the highlights of these Q-machine experiments conducted worldwide will be revisited and a possible add-on would be discussed. (author)

  2. How do Innovation Intermediaries add Value?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tran, Yen; Hsuan, Juliana; Mahnke, Volker

    2011-01-01

    Innovation intermediaries are increasingly being used in practice, but there is little concrete theoretical guidance on when and how they add value to client's new product development (NPD) processes. This paper develops propositions on innovation intermediaries value-added based on a detailed case...... study of an innovation intermediary's relations to three major clients in the European apparel fashion industry. We identify key contingencies to an innovation intermediary's value added (e.g. NDP speed and complexity of involvement). We also suggest a framework that specifies when a combination of four...... types of specific intermediary capabilities (best-cost capabilities, timing-capabilities, market-response capabilities, and product solution capabilities) increases value added in clients' NDP processes....

  3. Using Joint Interviews to Add Analytic Value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polak, Louisa; Green, Judith

    2016-10-01

    Joint interviewing has been frequently used in health research, and is the subject of a growing methodological literature. We review this literature, and build on it by drawing on a case study of how people make decisions about taking statins. This highlights two ways in which a dyadic approach to joint interviewing can add analytic value compared with individual interviewing. First, the analysis of interaction within joint interviews can help to explicate tacit knowledge and to illuminate the range of often hard-to-access resources that are drawn upon in making decisions. Second, joint interviews mitigate some of the weaknesses of interviewing as a method for studying practices; we offer a cautious defense of the often-tacit assumption that the "naturalness" of joint interviews strengthens their credibility as the basis for analytic inferences. We suggest that joint interviews are a particularly appropriate method for studying complex shared practices such as making health decisions. PMID:25850721

  4. Vienna SAC-SOS: Analysis of the European VLBI Sessions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ros, C. T.; Pavetich, P.; Nilsson, T.; Böhm, J.; Schuh, H.

    2012-12-01

    The Institute of Geodesy and Geophysics (IGG) of the Vienna University of Technology as an IVS Special Analysis Center for Specific Observing Sessions (SAC-SOS) has analyzed the European VLBI sessions using the software VieVS. Between 1990 and 2011, 115 sessions have been carried out. The analyzed baselines have lengths ranging from approximately 445 to 4580 km, and they show good repeatabilities, apart from the ones containing station Simeiz. The station velocities have also been investigated. The stations situated in the stable part of Europe have not shown significant relative movements w.r.t. Wettzell, whereas the stations located in the northern areas have the largest vertical motions as a result of the post glacial isostatic rebound of the zone. The stations placed in Italy, around the Black Sea, in Siberia, and near the Arctic Circle show the largest relative horizontal motions because they belong to different geodynamical units.

  5. SAC-OCDMA with Zero Vector Combinatorial Code (ZVCC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swati Sharma

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the performance of the incoherent SAC-OCDMAsystem using Zero Vector Combinatorial Code (ZVCC has beenobserved by varying the code length and data rate. ZVCC is betterthan the other proposed code as it has small code length,accommodates more number of users and the design algorithm issimple. The results have been observed and analyzed in terms ofBER. The simulated results show that the system at code weight 4accommodates around 99 users at effective power -10dBm and asdata rate is increased the BER degrades. The comparative studyof the system using ZVCC with Zero Cross-correlation Code hasbeen carried out. The results indicate that ZVCC truly performsbetter than ZCC code.

  6. Genetics of Serum Resistance in Neisseria gonorrhoeae: The sac-1 Genetic Locus

    OpenAIRE

    Cannon, Janne G.; Lee, Terrence J.; Guymon, Lawrence F.; Sparling, P. Frederick

    1981-01-01

    A genetic locus affecting susceptibility to the bactericidal activity of normal human serum has been designated sac-1. This locus was shown to be closely linked to, but not identical with, a second locus (designated nmp-2) that affects protein 1 of the outer membrane. The sac-1 locus could be linked to known antibiotic resistance markers on the gonococcal chromosome by genetic transformation.

  7. Gene expression demonstrates an immunological capacity of the human endolymphatic sac

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Martin Nue; Kirkeby, Svend; Vikeså, Jonas;

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS: The purpose of the present study is to explore, demonstrate, and describe the expression of genes related to the innate immune system in the human endolymphatic sac. It is hypothesized that the endolymphatic sac has a significant immunological function in the human inner ea...

  8. Infestation of the lacrimal sac by Rhinosporidium seeberi: A clinicopathological case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bipasha Mukherjee

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Rhinosporidium seeberi , till recently known as a fungus, has been reclassified as a protistan parasite. It infects humans and many animal species. The authors describe a rare case of oculosporidiosis with involvement of the lacrimal sac exhibiting features of idiopathic orbital inflammatory disease in a young male patient. Clinical features, pathophysiology, and management of lacrimal sac rhinosporidiosis have been discussed.

  9. Basement membrane components secreted by mouse yolk sac carcinoma cell lines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damjanov, A; Wewer, U M; Tuma, B;

    1990-01-01

    Three new cell lines (NE, ME, LRD) were cloned from mouse-embryo-derived teratocarcinomas and characterized on the basis of developmental, ultrastructural, and cytochemical criteria as nullipotent embryonal carcinoma (EC), pure parietal yolk sac (PYS) carcinoma and mixed parieto-visceral yolk sac...

  10. ZBTB16: a novel sensitive and specific biomarker for yolk sac tumor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Guang-Qian; Li, Faqian; Unger, Pamela D; Katerji, Hani; Yang, Qi; McMahon, Loralee; Burstein, David E

    2016-06-01

    Although the function of zinc finger and BTB domain containing 16 (ZBTB16) in spermatogenesis is well documented, expression of ZBTB16 in germ cell tumors has not yet been studied. The aim of this study was to investigate the immunohistochemical expression and diagnostic utility of ZBTB16 in germ cell tumors. A total of 67 adult germ cell tumors were studied (62 testicular germ cell tumors, 2 ovarian yolk sac tumors, 1 mediastinal yolk sac tumor, and 2 retroperitoneal metastatic yolk sac tumors). The 62 testicular primary germ cell tumors are as follows: 34 pure germ cell tumors (20 seminomas, 8 embryonal carcinomas, 2 teratomas, 1 choriocarcinoma, 1 carcinoid, and 2 spermatocytic tumors) and 28 mixed germ cell tumors (composed of 13 embryonal carcinomas, 15 yolk sac tumors, 15 teratomas, 7 seminomas, and 3 choriocarcinomas in various combinations). Thirty-five cases contained germ cell neoplasia in situ. Yolk sac tumor was consistently reactive for ZBTB16. Among the 15 testicular yolk sac tumors in mixed germ cell tumors, all displayed moderate to diffuse ZBTB16 staining. ZBTB16 reactivity was present regardless of the histologic patterns of yolk sac tumor and ZBTB16 was able to pick up small foci of yolk sac tumor intermixed/embedded in other germ cell tumor subtype elements. Diffuse ZBTB16 immunoreactivity was also observed in 2/2 metastatic yolk sac tumors, 1/1 mediastinal yolk sac tumor, 2/2 ovarian yolk sac tumors, 2/2 spermatocytic tumors, 1/1 carcinoid, and the spermatogonial cells. All the other non-yolk sac germ cell tumors were nonreactive, including seminoma (n=27), embryonal carcinoma (n=21), teratoma (n=17), choriocarcinoma (n=4), and germ cell neoplasia in situ (n=35). The sensitivity and specificity of ZBTB16 in detecting yolk sac tumor among the germ cell tumors was 100% (20/20) and 96% (66/69), respectively. In conclusion, ZBTB16 is a highly sensitive and specific marker for yolk sac tumor. PMID:26916077

  11. Laminin, a noncollagenous component of epithelial basement membranes synthesized by a rat yolk sac tumor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wewer, U; Albrechtsen, R; Ruoslahti, E

    1981-01-01

    Laminin, a glycoprotein antigenically similar or identical to a component of epithelial basement membranes, was identified as a major component of the abundant extracellular matrix synthesized by an experimentally induced rat yolk sac tumor. Immunocytochemical staining revealed laminin in cultured...... polypeptides with molecular weights of approximately 200,000 and 400,000. These comigrated with the polypeptides of mouse laminin isolated previously. The yolk sac tumor tissue grown in vivo contained laminin in the tumor cells and in the extracellular material as evidenced by immunofluorescence and...... membranes in rat tissues in a manner indistinguishable from antilaminin. The presence of laminin in rat yolk sac cells, the presumed origin of our yolk sac tumor, was studied in some detail. Laminin was found to be present in normal cells of the visceral as well as the parietal yolk sac layer and in their...

  12. Molecular detection and in vitro antioxidant activity of S-allyl-L-cysteine (SAC) extracted from Allium sativum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Y-E; Wang, W-D

    2016-01-01

    It is well known that Allium sativum has potential applications to clinical treatment of various cancers due to its remarkable ability in eliminating free radicals and increasing metabolism. An allyl-substituted cysteine derivative - S-allyl-L-cysteine (SAC) was separated and identified from Allium sativum. The extracted SAC was reacted with 1-pyrenemethanol to obtain pyrene-labelled SAC (Py-SAC) to give SAC fluorescence properties. Molecular detection of Py-SAC was conducted by steady-state fluorescence spectroscopy and time-resolved fluorescence method to quantitatively measure concentrations of Py-SAC solutions. The ability of removing 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and hydroxyl radical using Py-SAC was determined through oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC). Results showed the activity of Py-SAC and Vitamin C (VC) with ORAC as index, the concentrations of Py-SAC and VC were 58.43 mg/L and 5.72 mg/L respectively to scavenge DPPH, and 8.16 mg/L and 1.67 mg/L to scavenge •OH respectively. Compared with VC, the clearance rates of Py-SAC to scavenge DPPH were much higher, Py-SAC could inhibit hydroxyl radical. The ability of removing radical showed a dose-dependent relationship within the scope of the drug concentration. PMID:27453278

  13. Support to Aviation Control Service (SACS: an online service for near real-time satellite monitoring of volcanic plumes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Brenot

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Volcanic eruptions emit plumes of ash and gases in the atmosphere, potentially at very high altitudes. Ash rich plumes are hazardous for airplanes as ash is very abrasive and easily melts inside their engines. With more than 50 active volcanoes per year and the ever increasing number of commercial flights, the safety of airplanes is a real concern. Satellite measurements are ideal for monitoring global volcanic activity and, in combination with atmospheric dispersion models, to track and forecast volcanic plumes. Here we present the Support to Aviation Control Service (SACS, http://sacs.aeronomie.be, which is a free online service initiated by ESA for the near real-time (NRT satellite monitoring of volcanic plumes of SO2 and ash. It combines data from two UV-visible (OMI, GOME-2 and two infrared (AIRS, IASI spectrometers. This new multi-sensor warning system of volcanic plumes, running since April 2012, is based on the detection of SO2 and is optimised to avoid false alerts while at the same time limiting the number of notifications in case of large plumes. The system shows successful results with 95% of our notifications corresponding to true volcanic activity.

  14. Influence of natural silt on the survival of Oreochromis mossambicus yolk sac larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Smit

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the tolerance of Oreochromis mossambicus yolk sac larvae to natural silt from the Phalaborwa Barrage. Larvae survived silt concentrations lower than 13.2 g silt/I, but were highly active, indicating sublethal stress effects. When silt concentrations exceeded 29 g silt/I, stress reactions such as floating at the surface, gulping air, reduced fin and opercular movements and partial and complete loss of equilibrium were observed. Fish that succumbed exhibited darker pigmentation, and silt and mucus covered bodies. LC,( values were derived as 53.4 g silt/I, 31.7 g silt/I and 19.1 g silt/I for 1 hour, 24 hour and 48 hour exposure periods, respectively. Since these concentrations are much lower than the silt released from the Phalaborwa Barrage during flushing, it can be concluded that the release of high silt concentrations can severely impact the larval fish populations in the Olifants River below the Barrage.

  15. The effect of pigeon yolk sac fluid on the growth behavior of calcium carbonate crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Juan; Cheng, Haixia; Shen, Xinyu; Tong, Hua

    2015-03-01

    Previous experiments have proved that thermodynamically unstable calcium carbonate vaterite can exist for long periods in the yolk sac of a pigeon embryo. The aim of this article was to demonstrate the effect of in vitro mineralization of yolk sac fluid on calcium carbonate by direct precipitation. Experiments were conducted using pigeon yolk sac fluid and using lecithin extracted from pigeon yolk sac fluid as a control to investigate the regulating effects of the organic components in the embryo on the formation of the calcium carbonate precipitate. Multiple characterization methods were employed to study the various morphological patterns, sizes, crystal growth, and crystal phase transformations of the calcium carbonate precipitates as regulated by the yolk sac fluid extracted at different stages of incubation. The experimental results demonstrate that as the incubation proceeds towards the later stages, the composition and environmental features of the yolk sac fluid become more favorable for the formation of relatively unstable calcium carbonate phases with high energies of the vaterite state. The experiments conducted with extracted lecithin as the template for crystal growth yielded similar results. A large amount of organic molecules with polar functional groups carried by the yolk sac fluid have strong effects and can both initially induce the crystallization and regulate the aggregation of calcium carbonate. Furthermore, this regulation process is found to be closely related to the lecithin contained in yolk sac fluid. These observations confirm the changes in yolk sac fluid composition during incubation have significant effects on the production of vaterite, which implicates the calcium transport during embryo growth. PMID:25681477

  16. Surveillance Analysis Computer System (SACS): Software requirements specification (SRS). Revision 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document is the primary document establishing requirements for the Surveillance Analysis Computer System (SACS) database, an Impact Level 3Q system. SACS stores information on tank temperatures, surface levels, and interstitial liquid levels. This information is retrieved by the customer through a PC-based interface and is then available to a number of other software tools. The software requirements specification (SRS) describes the system requirements for the SACS Project, and follows the Standard Engineering Practices (WHC-CM-6-1), Software Practices (WHC-CM-3-10) and Quality Assurance (WHC-CM-4-2, QR 19.0) policies

  17. Endolymphatic sac tumor: case report and review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun Yan-Hua

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Endolymphatic sac tumor (ELST is a rare neoplasm which can be encountered sporadically or in Von Hippel-Lindau (VHL disease. Here we report a sporadic case of ELST in 31-year-old man. Neither the symptoms nor a family history of VHL disease were found in the patient. CT imaging demonstrated an expansile lytic lesion of the mastoid process of the left petrous bone. MR scanning revealed a 5.2 cm × 4.7 cm × 4.2 cm mass which showed hyperintensity on T1- and T2-weighted images. Histologic sections showed a papillary, cystic or glandular architecture. The papillary and glandular structures were lined by a single layer of flattened cuboidal-to-columnar cells. The stroma of the papillary fronds was richly vascularized and chronically inflamed. The tumor showed diffusely positive reactivity with cytokeratin (Pan, cytokeratin 19, cytokeratin 5/6, cytokeratin 7, EMA, vimentin, CD56, and NSE and also showed variable reactivity with glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP and VEGF. The Ki-67 immunostain showed a proliferation index of Virtual Slides The virtual slide(s for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/7973320646763012

  18. Endolymphatic sac tumor with von Hippel-Lindau disease: report of a case with atypical pathology of endolymphatic sac tumor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiang; Liu, Xue-Song; Fang, Yuan; Zhang, Xiu-Hui; Zhang, Yue-Kang

    2014-01-01

    The authors described a case of a patient with co-existing endolymphatic sac tumor (ELST) and hemangioblastoma in the posterior cranial fossa, which belonged to a subtype of Von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) disease confirmed by the test of VHL-gene. The signs in this 42-year-old female included intermittent headache and dizziness. Imaging revealed a giant mass in the right cerebellopontine angle (CPA) region and another lesion in the left cerebellar hemisphere. The results of biopsy after two operations confirmed the diagnosis respectively. Both of the tumors were resected totally. Nevertheless, we had to confess the misdiagnosis as vascular tumor instead of ELST at the initial diagnosis because of the rarity of ELST associated with atypical histological characteristics. The purposes we reported this case were to describe the atypical pathological feature of ELST and the mutation of germline VHL not mentioned in previously literature, furthermore, to foster understanding of ELSTs with the avoidance of the similar misdiagnosis as far as possible in future. PMID:24966975

  19. Primary yolk sac tumor of seminal vesicle: a case report and literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao Xu-Dong

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Yolk sac tumor (endodermal sinus tumor is a rare malignant germ cell tumor arising in the testis or ovary. Extragonadal yolk sac tumor is even rarer and has only been described in case reports. Due to the rarity of the tumors, the appropriately optimal treatment remains unclear. We report a case of yolk sac tumor in the seminal vesicle. Case A 38-year-old Asian male presented with gross hematuria and hemospermia. Transrectal ultrasound scan showed a solid mass in the left seminal vesicle and the scrotal sonography showed no abnormalities. Bilateral seminal vesicles were resected, and histopathological examination showed a typical pattern of yolk sac tumor (YST. The patient responded poorly to comprehensive treatment of radiotherapy, chemotherapy and surgeries, developed systemic multiple metastases, and died of cachexia one and half years after diagnosis.

  20. Performance Evaluation of Hybrid SCM/SAC-OCDMA Transmissions System using Dynamic Cyclic Shift Code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd, Thanaa Hussein; Aljunid, S. A.; Fadhil, Hilal Adnan; Radhi, Ibrahim Fadhil; Saad, N. M.

    2012-12-01

    In this paper, the performance of a hybrid scheme of Subcarrier Multiplexing (SCM) technique in a Spectral Amplitude Coding (SAC) Optical Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA) transmissions system is evaluated. The hybrid system is design using new code family; we call it Dynamic Cyclic Shift (DCS) code. The DCS code design for SAC-OCDMA system to reduce the effect of Multi Access Interference due to it property of low cross-correlation (λC ≤ 1) between code words. In contrast, the SCM scheme shows the ability to increase the data rate of SAC-OCDMA system. Consequently, the hybrid SCM/SAC-OCDMA system could be one promising solution to the high-capacity access network with low cost effective, good flexibility and enhanced security, which makes an attractive candidate for next-generation broadband access network.

  1. Intra-gestational sac injection for tubal pregnancy: an interventional approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: It's an investigation of the procedure, effects and clinical application of the interventional intra-gestational sac injection as a treatment of tubal pregnancy. Methods: Under DSA guidance a selective salpingography was performed and MTX was injected into the gestational sac or oviduct. The procedure was performed in 13 cases with oviductal pregnancy before the gestational sac ruptured. Results: Technical success was obtained in all cases. The serum HCG began to fall in 7 days after the procedure, and dropped to normal level in 2-4 weeks of the procedure. Conclusion: Interventional selective salpingography and intra-gestational sac injection is a simple, safe and effective treatment of the un-ruptured tubal pregnancy

  2. Immature teratoma with microscopic yolk sac tumor: A case of diagnostic challenge on histology

    OpenAIRE

    Sonali R Saraf; Madhu Chaturvedi; Manisha Khare; Alka Kalgutkar

    2016-01-01

    An adolescent girl with raised alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) levels presented with a left-sided large solid ovarian mass. Microscopically, the tumor was composed of a variety of immature and mature tissues derived from the three germ layers having very sparse (single focus of) immature neuroepithelium. Few areas also showed the presence of a reticular pattern of yolk sac tumor (YST). Hence, the tumor was diagnosed as immature teratoma with microscopic foci of yolk sac elements. After 6 months of ci...

  3. Discovering Focus: Helping Students with ADD (Attention Deficit Disorder)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valkenburg, Jim

    2012-01-01

    Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD) is a neurological disorder which effects learning and that has a confusing set of diagnostic symptoms and an even more confusing set of remedies ranging from medication to meditation to nothing at all. Current neurological research suggests, however, that there are strategies that the individual with ADD can use to…

  4. Established and potential physiological roles of bicarbonate-sensing soluble adenylyl cyclase (sAC) in aquatic animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tresguerres, Martin; Barott, Katie L; Barron, Megan E; Roa, Jinae N

    2014-03-01

    Soluble adenylyl cyclase (sAC) is a recently recognized source of the signaling molecule cyclic AMP (cAMP) that is genetically and biochemically distinct from the classic G-protein-regulated transmembrane adenylyl cyclases (tmACs). Mammalian sAC is distributed throughout the cytoplasm and it may be present in the nucleus and inside mitochondria. sAC activity is directly stimulated by HCO3(-), and sAC has been confirmed to be a HCO3(-) sensor in a variety of mammalian cell types. In addition, sAC can functionally associate with carbonic anhydrases to act as a de facto sensor of pH and CO2. The two catalytic domains of sAC are related to HCO3(-)-regulated adenylyl cyclases from cyanobacteria, suggesting the cAMP pathway is an evolutionarily conserved mechanism for sensing CO2 levels and/or acid/base conditions. Reports of sAC in aquatic animals are still limited but are rapidly accumulating. In shark gills, sAC senses blood alkalosis and triggers compensatory H(+) absorption. In the intestine of bony fishes, sAC modulates NaCl and water absorption. And in sea urchin sperm, sAC may participate in the initiation of flagellar movement and in the acrosome reaction. Bioinformatics and RT-PCR results reveal that sAC orthologs are present in most animal phyla. This review summarizes the current knowledge on the physiological roles of sAC in aquatic animals and suggests additional functions in which sAC may be involved. PMID:24574382

  5. Tin whisker growth from micro-alloyed SAC solders in corrosive climate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Illés, Balázs, E-mail: billes@ett.bme.hu [Department of Electronics Technology, Budapest University of Technology and Economics, Egry József St. 18, Budapest 1111 (Hungary); Horváth, Barbara [National Institute for Materials Science, 1-2-1 Sengen, Tsukuba 305-0047 (Japan)

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: • Lead-free micro-alloyed SAC solders can also develop tin whiskers. • The whiskering ability depends on the corrosion behavior of the SAC solders. • Copper and bismuth traces were found within the whiskers. • Copper and bismuth atoms can fragment the whisker grain. • The grain fragmentation can reduce the maximum length of the developed whiskers. - Abstract: In this paper the tin whisker growth properties of lead-free SAC (SnAgCu) solder alloys were investigated. There different alloys were studied: two micro-alloyed SAC (SnAgCu + Bi + Sb) and the widely applied SAC305 as reference. FR4 test board was developed for 0805 chip resistor components. Solder joints were fabricated on imm-Sn surface finish. The samples were aged in elevated temperature and different humidity levels to induce the tin whisker formation: at 85 °C/85RH% and 85 °C/20RH%. The test duration was 3000 h. Whisker growth was checked after every 500 h by scanning electron microscope. The developed whiskers were etched by focused ion beam and the cross-sections were observed by scanning ion microscope and transmission electron microscope. It was shown that the lead-free SAC solder alloys can also develop tin whiskers and the whiskering ability depends on the corrosion behavior of the SAC solders. Copper and bismuth precipitations were found at the whisker roots and within the whiskers which could effect on the number, length and type of the developed whiskers.

  6. Tin whisker growth from micro-alloyed SAC solders in corrosive climate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Lead-free micro-alloyed SAC solders can also develop tin whiskers. • The whiskering ability depends on the corrosion behavior of the SAC solders. • Copper and bismuth traces were found within the whiskers. • Copper and bismuth atoms can fragment the whisker grain. • The grain fragmentation can reduce the maximum length of the developed whiskers. - Abstract: In this paper the tin whisker growth properties of lead-free SAC (SnAgCu) solder alloys were investigated. There different alloys were studied: two micro-alloyed SAC (SnAgCu + Bi + Sb) and the widely applied SAC305 as reference. FR4 test board was developed for 0805 chip resistor components. Solder joints were fabricated on imm-Sn surface finish. The samples were aged in elevated temperature and different humidity levels to induce the tin whisker formation: at 85 °C/85RH% and 85 °C/20RH%. The test duration was 3000 h. Whisker growth was checked after every 500 h by scanning electron microscope. The developed whiskers were etched by focused ion beam and the cross-sections were observed by scanning ion microscope and transmission electron microscope. It was shown that the lead-free SAC solder alloys can also develop tin whiskers and the whiskering ability depends on the corrosion behavior of the SAC solders. Copper and bismuth precipitations were found at the whisker roots and within the whiskers which could effect on the number, length and type of the developed whiskers

  7. Regulation of carotenoid accumulation and the expression of carotenoid metabolic genes in citrus juice sacs in vitro

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Lancui; Ma, Gang; Kato, Masaya; Yamawaki, Kazuki; Takagi, Toshihiko; Kiriiwa, Yoshikazu; Ikoma, Yoshinori; Matsumoto, Hikaru; Yoshioka, Terutaka; Nesumi, Hirohisa

    2011-01-01

    In the present study, to investigate the mechanisms regulating carotenoid accumulation in citrus, a culture system was set up in vitro with juice sacs of three citrus varieties, Satsuma mandarin (Citrus unshiu Marc.), Valencia orange (Citrus sinensis Osbeck), and Lisbon lemon (Citrus limon Burm.f.). The juice sacs of all the three varieties enlarged gradually with carotenoid accumulation. The changing patterns of carotenoid content and the expression of carotenoid metabolic genes in juice sac...

  8. In Vivo and Cadaver Studies of the Canalicular/Lacrimal Sac Mucosal Folds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongsheng You

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The study aimed to investigate canalicular/lacrimal sac mucosal folds (CLS-MFs in vivo and in cadavers in order to explore their functional roles in the lacrimal drainage system. Method. The observations of CLS-MFs in vivo were performed on 16 patients with chronic dacryocystitis after undergoing an endonasal endoscopic dacryocystorhinostomy (EE-DCR. The lacrimal sacs and common canaliculi of 19 adult cadavers were dissected. The opening/closing of an orifice and mucosal fold was recorded. All of the specimens were subjected to a histological examination. Results. The upper and lower lacrimal canaliculi in all of the samples united to form a common canaliculus that opened to the lacrimal sac. CLS-MFs were observed in 10 of the 16 patients (62.5% and 9 of the 19 cadavers (47.4%. The orifices or mucosal folds could be opened or closed when related muscles contracted or relaxed. Histological sections showed a mucosal fold at one side of an orifice. Conclusion. Common canaliculus is the most common type that the canaliculus opens to lacrimal sac. CLS-MFs exist in a certain ratio that can be opened/closed with the movement of the orifices. They may be involved in the drainage of tears or the pathogenesis of acute dacryocystitis or lacrimal sac mucocele.

  9. Failure of zinc to prevent dysmorphogenesis of cultured rat conceptuses by anti-yolk sac antiserum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marlow, R.; Freeman, S.J.

    1989-01-01

    Day 10 rat conceptuses were cultured for 48h in the presence of either cadmium or anti-vesceral yolk sac antiserum (AVYS). Cadmium was embryotoxic at concentrations exceeding 0.25 ug/ml while AVYS caused embryonic dysmorphogenesis, particularly affecting the optic vesicles, at concentrations of 2 ul/ml and above. The effect of pretreatment with zinc on embryotoxicity caused by cadmium or AVYS was studied. Zinc ameliorated the effects of cadmium but had no effect on AVYS-induced embryonic abnormalities. In a second set of experiments inhibition of /sup 125/I-labelled PVP uptake by the yolk sac of cultured whole conceptuses was studied. Cadmium and AVYS both inhibited uptake compared to control cultures. Zinc again ameliorated the effect of cadmium but had no action against AVYS-induced inhibition. These results are in contrast to their previous findings using isolated cultured yolk sacs in which zinc ameliorated the inhibitory effects on /sup 125/I-labelled PVP uptake of both cadmium and AVYS. These data show that in experiments using the isolated cultured yolk sac and the intact cultured conceptus, a qualitatively different response in yolk sac behavior is observed under similar experimental conditions.

  10. Developmental expression of otoconin-22 in the bullfrog endolymphatic sac and inner ear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaoi, Yuichi; Onda, Tomoaki; Hidaka, Yoshie; Yajima, Shinya; Suzuki, Masakazu; Tanaka, Shigeyasu

    2004-05-01

    In amphibians, calcium carbonate crystals are present in the endolymphatic sac and the inner ear. The formation of these crystals is considered to be facilitated by a protein called otoconin-22. We examined the spatial and temporal expression of otoconin-22 during the development of the bullfrog (Rana catesbeiana) using RT-PCR, in situ hybridization (ISH), and immunofluorescence techniques. By RT-PCR, otoconin-22 mRNA was first detected in embryos at Shumway stage 20, and this expression pattern continues in late stages. The first otoconin-22 mRNA-positive reaction was detected in stage 22 embryos in the placode of the endolymphatic sac. Otoconin-22 protein was observed in the epithelial cells of the endolymphatic sac at stage 24. On the other hand, a whole-mount ISH technique showed the first expression of otoconin-22 mRNA in the inner ear, in addition to the endolymphatic sac, at the mid-phase of Shumway stage 25. We discuss the role of otoconin-22 in the formation of calcium carbonate crystals in the endolymphatic sac and inner ear. PMID:15100243

  11. The association of patent sac branch vessels with type 2 endoleak of abdominal aortic aneurysm after endovascular exclusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To determine the association of patent sac branch vessels with early type 2 endoleak rate after endovascular exclusion (EVE). Methods: 8 abdominal aortic aneurysm patients in the presence of type 2 endoleak after EVE were retrospectively reviewed. Results: All the patients with type 2 endoleak had multiple sac branch vessels preoperatively. Conclusions: Patent sac branches play an important role in the pathogenesis of type 2 endoleak. If the excluded sac is increasing in size rapidly, the patent branches must be embolized promptly to avoid aneurysm rupture

  12. Established and potential physiological roles of bicarbonate-sensing soluble adenylyl cyclase (sAC) in aquatic animals

    OpenAIRE

    Tresguerres, M.; Barott, KL; Barron, ME; Roa, JN

    2014-01-01

    Soluble adenylyl cyclase (sAC) is a recently recognized source of the signaling molecule cyclic AMP (cAMP) that is genetically and biochemically distinct from the classic G-protein-regulated transmembrane adenylyl cyclases (tmACs). Mammalian sAC is distributed throughout the cytoplasm and it may be present in the nucleus and inside mitochondria. sAC activity is directly stimulated by HCO3 -, and sAC has been confirmed to be a HCO3 - sensor in a variety of mammalian cell types. In addition, sA...

  13. Simulation of a 3 Gb/s SAC-OCDMA Based on Multi-Diagonal Code

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashwani Tiwari, Dharmendra Singh

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we've modelled and simulated a 3Gb/s (3×1Gb/s optical system supported spectral amplitude coding writing for the optical code-division multiple-access (SAC-OCDMA theme. So as to cut back the result of multiple-access interference, we've utilized a replacement family of SAC-OCDMA codes known as a multi-diagonal (MD code. The new code family supported the MD code reveals properties of zero cross-correlation code, flexibility in choosing the code parameters and support of a large no of users, combined with high rate. each the numerical and simulation results have to make clear that our optical system supported the MD code will accommodate most numbers of co-occurring users with higher rate transmission and lower bit error rates, compared to the previous SAC-OCDMA codes.

  14. A New Technique for Reduction the Phase Induced Intensity Noise in SAC-OCDMA Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd, Thanaa Hussein; Aljunid, Syed Alwee; Fadhil, Hilal Adnan

    2011-12-01

    A new code for reduction the phase induced intensity noise has been presented. The new code is proposed for Spectral Amplitude-Coding Optical Code Division Multiple Accesses (SAC-OCDMA). This new code family we call it Dynamic Cyclic Shift (DCS) code. The DCS code reduced the effect of Multi Access Interference (MAI) due to it is the property of variable cross correlation. We find that the performance of the DCS code is a batter than other SAC-OCDMA codes such as; Random Diagonal (RD) code, Modified Quadratic Congruence (MQC) code and Modified Frequency Hopping (MFH) code. Through the mathematical calculation and simulation analysis, for the bit-error rate of DCS code is significantly better than other SAC-OCDMA codes, the effect of Phase Induced Intensity Noise is reduced. In addition, proofof-principle simulations of 10 Gb/s for 20 km have been successfully demonstrated and achieved low BER compared to the other codes.

  15. Effects of extra nitrogenous fertilizer on sugar accumulation in juice sacs of satsuma mandarin fruit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    urea was applied at the root of Citrus unshiu on the 27th of June and the 5th of september (once 0.5 kg urea/fruit tree). Sugar accumulation, contents of ABA and IAA, content of organic acid, distribution of 14C-photosynthates from source leaf in fruit and the activities of sucrose-metabolizing enzymes were investigated in juice sacs of treatment and control satsuma mandarin fruits respectively. The results showed that the treatment of urea reduced partitioning of 14C-photosynthates into juice sacs of satsuma mandarin fruit, decreased the ratio of ABA/IAA, increased the activities of sucrose metabolizing enzymes (especially the activities of enzymes on sucrose cleavage). These factors may finally result in reducing the content of sugar in juice sacs of satsuma mandarin fruit

  16. In vitro effects of acth on pigeon crop-sac epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, M; Mahmood, I; Hasan, R; Javaid, A; Naim, T; Fatima, H; Ahmed, M

    2001-01-01

    ACTH in vitro produces non-specific crop-sac epithelium response. Crop-sac maintained in 10 IU.ACTH in isologous serum at 37 degrees C for 6 hrs. showed an increase of 105 +/- 0.95 mg for 12 hrs. 115 +/- 1.13 mg, for 18 hr. 125 +/- 0.95 mg. and for 24 hrs. 145 +/- 2.31 mg. The results were analyzed statistically by ANOVA technique. A significant rise in mean weight. In ACTH treated crop-sac, indicates a time related relationship (P < 0.01, ANOVA, Table 2). Thus present data indicates that there is a correlation between the epithelial response and initiation of ACTH present in the serum. PMID:16414848

  17. Experimental demonstration of variable weight SAC-OCDMA system for QoS differentiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyedzadeh, Saleh; Mahdiraji, Ghafour Amouzad; Sahbudin, Ratna Kalos Zakiah; Abas, Ahmad Fauzi; Anas, Siti Barirah Ahmad

    2014-10-01

    In this paper the experimental and simulation results of variable-weight spectral amplitude coding optical code division multiple access (VW-SAC-OCDMA) system is demonstrated. In the proposed system, three users with weights of 6, 4 and 2 each operating at data rate of 1.25 Gb/s represent video, data and voice services, respectively. Results show that for back-to-back system minimum average power of -20 dBm per chip is required to maintain the acceptable performance. Transmission up to 60 km of fiber is demonstrated. Using mathematical approximation the capacity of VW-SAC-OCDMA system is demonstrated.

  18. IgG is transported across the mouse yolk sac independently of FcγRIIb

    OpenAIRE

    Mohanty, Sudhasri; Kim, Jonghan; Latha P Ganesan; Phillips, Gary S.; Hua, Keding; Jarjoura, David; Hayton, William L.; Robinson, John M.; Anderson, Clark L.

    2009-01-01

    It is generally accepted that FcRn is the major IgG transporter in human syncytiotrophoblast and the mouse yolk sac endoderm, however the finding of a different Fc receptor FcγRIIb (RIIb) in the human placental endothelium has suggested the existence of an additional IgG transporter. To test this hypothesis in the mouse, we utilized wild-type (RIIb+/+) mice and mice with a null mutation in the gene encoding RIIb (RIIb−/− mice). We found that while RIIb is expressed in the placental yolk sac v...

  19. Induction of rat yolk sac carcinomas with consistent pattern of laminin, entactin, and type IV collagen biosynthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wewer, U

    1984-01-01

    Twenty-four yolk sac carcinomas in Lewis rats were experimentally induced by puncturing the pregnant uterine wall with a hypodermic needle at day 9-13 of gestation. Morphologically, the tumours were composed of parietal- and visceral yolk sac carcinoma and to a less degree of trophoblastic giant ...

  20. Auto-inflammatory challenge of the endolymphatic sac - Cochlear damage measured by distortion product oto-acoustic emissions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Michael; Friis, Morten; Karlsen, Charlotte Vestrup;

    2015-01-01

    CONCLUSION: Twenty-five rats were challenged by an immunologic attack of the endolymphatic sac. After 6 months, distortion product oto-acoustic emissions (DPOAE) revealed a dysfunction of the outer hair cells and immunological active cells were observed in the endolymphatic sac. This information ...

  1. Modeling the Rate-Dependent Durability of Reduced-Ag SAC Interconnects for Area Array Packages Under Torsion Loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivas, Vikram; Menon, Sandeep; Osterman, Michael; Pecht, Michael G.

    2013-08-01

    Solder durability models frequently focus on the applied strain range; however, the rate of applied loading, or strain rate, is also important. In this study, an approach to incorporate strain rate dependency into durability estimation for solder interconnects is examined. Failure data were collected for SAC105 solder ball grid arrays assembled with SAC305 solder that were subjected to displacement-controlled torsion loads. Strain-rate-dependent (Johnson-Cook model) and strain-rate-independent elastic-plastic properties were used to model the solders in finite-element simulation. Test data were then used to extract damage model constants for the reduced-Ag SAC solder. A generalized Coffin-Manson damage model was used to estimate the durability. The mechanical fatigue durability curve for reduced-silver SAC solder was generated and compared with durability curves for SAC305 and Sn-Pb from the literature.

  2. In vitro Manipulation of Impatiens glandulifera Pollen for Transporting Extracellular Substances to the Embryo Sac

    OpenAIRE

    Noreldaim Hussein

    2014-01-01

    Pollen from Impatiens glandulifera were manipulated in vitro to investigate the possibility of using them as a vector for transporting extracellular substances to the site of gamete fusion in the embryo sac. Manipulation of plant male and female gametophytes included studies on pollen culture in vitro, pollen viability and developmental state and loading of fluorescent probes by plasmolysis/endocytosis via germinating pollen.

  3. Regulation of ascorbic acid metabolism by blue LED light irradiation in citrus juice sacs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lancui; Ma, Gang; Yamawaki, Kazuki; Ikoma, Yoshinori; Matsumoto, Hikaru; Yoshioka, Terutaka; Ohta, Satoshi; Kato, Masaya

    2015-04-01

    In the present study, the effects of red and blue LED lights on the accumulation of ascorbic acid (AsA) were investigated in the juice sacs of three citrus varieties, Satsuma mandarin, Valencia orange, and Lisbon lemon. The results showed that the blue LED light treatment effectively increased the AsA content in the juice sacs of the three citrus varieties, whereas the red LED light treatment did not. By increasing the blue LED light intensity, the juice sacs of the three citrus varieties accumulated more AsA. Moreover, continuous irradiation with blue LED light was more effective than pulsed irradiation for increasing the AsA content in the juice sacs of the three citrus varieties. Gene expression results showed that the modulation of AsA accumulation by blue LED light was highly regulated at the transcription level. The up-regulation of AsA biosynthetic genes (CitVTC1, CitVTC2, CitVTC4, and CitGLDH), AsA regeneration genes (CitMDAR1, CitMDAR2, and CitDHAR) and two GSH-producing genes (CitGR and CitchGR) contributed to these increases in the AsA content in the three citrus varieties. PMID:25711821

  4. Oxygenated fixation demonstrates novel and improved ultrastructural features of the human endolymphatic sac

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Martin Nue; Caye-Thomasen, Per; Qvortrup, Klaus

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS: The purpose of the present study is to describe in detail the ultrastructure of the human endolymphatic sac using a new and improved method of fixation as well as a refined surgical approach in obtaining specimens. STUDY DESIGN: Transmission electron microscopy of the human...

  5. Laminin from rat yolk sac tumor: isolation, partial characterization, and comparison with mouse laminin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engvall, E; Krusius, T; Wewer, U;

    1983-01-01

    Laminin was isolated from a rat yolk sac tumor by salt extraction, gel filtration, and affinity chromatography on heparin-Sepharose. The purified laminin gave two polypeptide chains with approximate Mr of 200,000 and 400,000 in sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Its amino...

  6. SAC on a Niagara T3-4 Server: Lessons and Experiences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Grelck; R. Douma

    2011-01-01

    The Sparc T3-4 server provides up to 512 concurrent hardware threads, a degree of concurrency that is unprecedented in a single server system. This paper reports on how the automatically parallelising compiler of the data-parallel functional array language SAC copes with up to 512 execution units. W

  7. Potential value of aneurysm sac volume measurements in addition to diameter measurements after endovascular aneurysm repair.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keulen, J.W. van; Prehn, J. van; Prokop, M.; Moll, F.L.; Herwaarden, J.A. van

    2009-01-01

    PURPOSE:To investigate the value of aneurysm sac volume measurement in addition to diameter measurements based on computed tomographic angiography (CTA) after endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR). METHODS:Interrogation of a vascular database identified 56 patients (51 men; median age 77 years, range

  8. SAC/TC 118 in 2006 The work plan for the secretariat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ The following works will be developed by the secretariat of SAC/TC 118 in 2006: 1. System construction: The Procedures for Management on National Reference Materials will be detailed in order to form a comprehensive administrative and technical management system for the overall procedures from new item application, development and review, approval and promulgation, sale management to after-sale supervision.

  9. Immature teratoma with microscopic yolk sac tumor: A case of diagnostic challenge on histology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonali R Saraf

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available An adolescent girl with raised alpha-fetoprotein (AFP levels presented with a left-sided large solid ovarian mass. Microscopically, the tumor was composed of a variety of immature and mature tissues derived from the three germ layers having very sparse (single focus of immature neuroepithelium. Few areas also showed the presence of a reticular pattern of yolk sac tumor (YST. Hence, the tumor was diagnosed as immature teratoma with microscopic foci of yolk sac elements. After 6 months of cisplatin-based chemotherapy, she developed a recurrence which was composed of mature teratoma on histology. In this case, the single focus of immature neuroepithelium caused a difficulty in labeling this tumor as an immature teratoma which otherwise resembled a mature teratoma. The raised AFP levels suggested the presence of yolk sac element, the classical form of which was seen at microscopy in only a few areas. As compared to the markedly elevated serum AFP levels, the classical yolk sac tumorous area was very limited thus advocating the view that differentiated glands with subnuclear vacuoles similar to immature endoderm represent well-differentiated forms of YST.[1

  10. Ovarian mixed germ cell tumor with yolk sac and teratomatous components in a dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Nicholas A; Manivel, J Carlos; Olson, Erik J

    2013-05-01

    Mixed germ cell tumors of the ovary have rarely been reported in veterinary species. A 3-year-old intact female Labrador Retriever dog was presented for lethargy, abdominal distention, and a midabdominal mass. An exploratory laparotomy revealed a large (23 cm in diameter) left ovarian tumor and multiple small (2-3 cm in diameter) pale tan masses on the peritoneum and abdominal surface of the diaphragm. Histological examination of the left ovary revealed a mixed germ cell tumor with a yolk sac component with rare Schiller-Duval bodies and a teratomatous component comprised primarily of neural differentiation. The abdominal metastases were solely comprised of the yolk sac component. The yolk sac component was diffusely immunopositive for cytokeratin with scattered cells reactive for α-fetoprotein and placental alkaline phosphatase. Within the teratomatous component, the neuropil was diffusely immunopositive for S100, neuron-specific enolase, and neurofilaments with a few glial fibrillary acidic protein immunopositive cells. Ovarian germ cell tumors may be pure and consist of only 1 germ cell element or may be mixed and include more than 1 germ cell element, such as teratoma and yolk sac tumor. PMID:23604259

  11. Bleomycin-Induced Flagellate Erythema in a Patient Diagnosed with Ovarian Yolk Sac Tumor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boussios, Stergios; Moschetta, Michele; McLachlan, Jennifer; Banerjee, Susana

    2015-01-01

    Flagellate linear hyperpigmentation can rarely be caused by the chemotherapy agent, bleomycin. Herein, we describe the case of a 20-year-old woman treated with bleomycin for an ovarian yolk sac tumor and review the prominent features of this form of dermatitis. PMID:26798532

  12. Bleomycin-Induced Flagellate Erythema in a Patient Diagnosed with Ovarian Yolk Sac Tumor

    OpenAIRE

    Stergios Boussios; Michele Moschetta; Jennifer McLachlan; Susana Banerjee

    2015-01-01

    Flagellate linear hyperpigmentation can rarely be caused by the chemotherapy agent, bleomycin. Herein, we describe the case of a 20-year-old woman treated with bleomycin for an ovarian yolk sac tumor and review the prominent features of this form of dermatitis.

  13. Bleomycin-Induced Flagellate Erythema in a Patient Diagnosed with Ovarian Yolk Sac Tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stergios Boussios

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Flagellate linear hyperpigmentation can rarely be caused by the chemotherapy agent, bleomycin. Herein, we describe the case of a 20-year-old woman treated with bleomycin for an ovarian yolk sac tumor and review the prominent features of this form of dermatitis.

  14. TO ASSESS VALUE OF YOLK SAC IN PREDICTING PREGNANCY OUTCOME DURING FIRST TRIMESTER: OBSERVATIONAL STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajani Nawal

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective :To find out normal size and shape of yolk sac in pregnancies between 5-12 weeks of gestation , its association with pregnancy outcome and correlation of various fetal parameters with mean yolk sac diameter. Method : 95 pregnant women of 20-30 years age group with amenorrhoea 1 month 5 days to 7 days selected randomly for this study from August 2009 to October 2010, underwent TVS fortnightly from 5-11 weeks of gestation and at 12 weeks either of the TVS or TAS to visualize changes in mean yolk sac diameter (MYSD and yolk sac (YS shape and pregnancy outcomes. Results analyzed by Z-test and correlation coefficient found out between various parameters. Results :- In Pregnancies with normal outcome(n=72, MYSD was progressively increased from 3.17 mm at 5-5.2 weeks of GA to 5.03 mm at 9-9.2 weeks of GA. At 11 weeks YS either disappeared (73.61% or MYSD decreased (26.38% with round & regular shape. Highly significant difference with p value <0.001, was detected between MYSD of pregnancy with normal outcome and missed abortion(n=19. Four cases of missed abortion had irregular shaped YS. In anembryonic pregnancies YS was not seen. Highly significant (p value <0.001 correlation was found between MYSD and GA by LMP (r=+0.740,MYSD and MGSD ( r =+0.739 and significant correlation was detected between MYSD and CRL (r =+0.355, p value <0.005. Conclusions : Abnormalities of the yolk sac size or shape ,and absence can be used as poor predictive indicators of early pregnancy ,even before fetal morphology can be studied sonographically. [National J of Med Res 2012; 2(3.000: 343-347

  15. Primitive fitting based on the efficient multiBaySAC algorithm.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhizhong Kang

    Full Text Available Although RANSAC is proven to be robust, the original RANSAC algorithm selects hypothesis sets at random, generating numerous iterations and high computational costs because many hypothesis sets are contaminated with outliers. This paper presents a conditional sampling method, multiBaySAC (Bayes SAmple Consensus, that fuses the BaySAC algorithm with candidate model parameters statistical testing for unorganized 3D point clouds to fit multiple primitives. This paper first presents a statistical testing algorithm for a candidate model parameter histogram to detect potential primitives. As the detected initial primitives were optimized using a parallel strategy rather than a sequential one, every data point in the multiBaySAC algorithm was assigned to multiple prior inlier probabilities for initial multiple primitives. Each prior inlier probability determined the probability that a point belongs to the corresponding primitive. We then implemented in parallel a conditional sampling method: BaySAC. With each iteration of the hypothesis testing process, hypothesis sets with the highest inlier probabilities were selected and verified for the existence of multiple primitives, revealing the fitting for multiple primitives. Moreover, the updated version of the initial probability was implemented based on a memorable form of Bayes' Theorem, which describes the relationship between prior and posterior probabilities of a data point by determining whether the hypothesis set to which a data point belongs is correct. The proposed approach was tested using real and synthetic point clouds. The results show that the proposed multiBaySAC algorithm can achieve a high computational efficiency (averaging 34% higher than the efficiency of the sequential RANSAC method and fitting accuracy (exhibiting good performance in the intersection of two primitives, whereas the sequential RANSAC framework clearly suffers from over- and under-segmentation problems. Future work will

  16. A single bivalent efficiently inhibits cyclin B1 degradation and polar body extrusion in mouse oocytes indicating robust SAC during female meiosis I.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steffen Hoffmann

    Full Text Available The Spindle Assembly Checkpoint (SAC inhibits anaphase until microtubule-to-kinetochore attachments are formed, thus securing correct chromosome separation and preventing aneuploidy. Whereas in mitosis even a single unattached chromosome keeps the SAC active, the high incidence of aneuploidy related to maternal meiotic errors raises a concern about the lower efficiency of SAC in oocytes. Recently it was suggested that in mouse oocytes, contrary to somatic cells, not a single chromosome but a critical mass of chromosomes triggers efficient SAC pointing to the necessity of evaluating the robustness of SAC in oocytes. Two types of errors in chromosome segregation upon meiosis I related to SAC were envisaged: (1 SAC escape, when kinetochores emit SAC-activating signal unable to stop anaphase I; and (2 SAC deceive, when kinetochores do not emit the signal. Using micromanipulations and live imaging of the first polar body extrusion, as well as the dynamics of cyclin B1 degradation, here we show that in mouse oocytes a single bivalent keeps the SAC active. This is the first direct evaluation of SAC efficiency in mouse oocytes, which provides strong evidence that the robustness of SAC in mammalian oocytes is comparable to other cell types. Our data do not contradict the hypothesis of the critical mass of chromosomes necessary for SAC activation, but suggest that the same rule may govern SAC activity also in other cell types. We postulate that the innate susceptibility of oocytes to errors in chromosome segregation during the first meiotic division may not be caused by lower efficiency of SAC itself, but could be linked to high critical chromosome mass necessary to keep SAC active in oocyte of large size.

  17. Enhancing Teaching using MATLAB Add-Ins for Excel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Paul V.

    2004-01-01

    In this paper I will illustrate how to extend the capabilities of Microsoft Excel spreadsheets with add-ins created by MATLAB. Excel provides a broad array of fundamental tools but often comes up short when more sophisticated scenarios are involved. To overcome this short-coming of Excel while retaining its ease of use, I will describe how…

  18. How HR Leaders Can Add Value to an Organization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smallwood, Norm; Ulrich, Dave

    2006-01-01

    Generally speaking, it is safe to say that human resource leaders whole-heartedly believe that the HR function should add value to an organization. However, many wonder where to start. In this article, the authors outline three ways in which the HR function, and the HR leader, can create sustained value for an organization and its stakeholders.

  19. Gonadoblastoma and hepatoid and endometrioid-like yolk sac tumor: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulbright, Thomas M

    2014-07-01

    Dr Robert E. Scully greatly advanced our understanding of germ cell neoplasia to the extent that it is difficult to narrow the discussion of his contributions to this topic so that it can be covered in a brief article. This article accordingly focuses on some of the recent developments concerning 2 of his major contributions in this area-the gonadoblastoma (GB) and variant morphologies of yolk sac tumor. GB was defined by Dr Scully in 1953 and its features elaborated in detail by him in 1970. This neoplasm occurred in young patients who often displayed phenotypic sex ambiguities and frequently presented with primary amenorrhea. It was bilateral in 40%, and consisted of circumscribed nests of small sex cord cells and germinoma-like cells admixed with round deposits of eosinophilic, hyaline, often calcified material. These nests were set in a spindle cell gonadal stroma with Leydig-like or lutein-like cells. Because of his work we now understand that this precursor to invasive germ cell tumors occurs in patients with a specific form of disorder of sex development, namely gonadal dysgenesis, and only in those who have a particular portion of the Y chromosome, the GB locus/TSPY gene, within the gonadal tissue. An essential element to the development of GB appears to be a defect in the genetic pathway that leads to the development of Sertoli cells. Improperly formed Sertoli cells predispose to "delayed maturation" of the gonocytes of the gonad and predispose them to undergo malignant transformation. "Undifferentiated gonadal tissue" has been proposed as the precursor to the development of GB and consists of an unorganized mixture of apparently non-neoplastic germ cells, germ cells with delayed maturation, and neoplastic germ cells with sex cord cells and gonadal stroma. Two variant morphologies of yolk sac tumor were also recognized by Dr Scully. In the hepatoid variant features similar to hepatocellular carcinoma occurred, although primitive glandular foci and lack of

  20. New development of the yolk sac theory in diabetic embryopathy: molecular mechanism and link to structural birth defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Daoyin; Reece, E Albert; Lin, Xue; Wu, Yanqing; AriasVillela, Natalia; Yang, Peixin

    2016-02-01

    Maternal diabetes mellitus is a significant risk factor for structural birth defects, including congenital heart defects and neural tube defects. With the rising prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus and obesity in women of childbearing age, diabetes mellitus-induced birth defects have become an increasingly significant public health problem. Maternal diabetes mellitus in vivo and high glucose in vitro induce yolk sac injuries by damaging the morphologic condition of cells and altering the dynamics of organelles. The yolk sac vascular system is the first system to develop during embryogenesis; therefore, it is the most sensitive to hyperglycemia. The consequences of yolk sac injuries include impairment of nutrient transportation because of vasculopathy. Although the functional relationship between yolk sac vasculopathy and structural birth defects has not yet been established, a recent study reveals that the quality of yolk sac vasculature is related inversely to embryonic malformation rates. Studies in animal models have uncovered key molecular intermediates of diabetic yolk sac vasculopathy, which include hypoxia-inducible factor-1α, apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1, and its inhibitor thioredoxin-1, c-Jun-N-terminal kinases, nitric oxide, and nitric oxide synthase. Yolk sac vasculopathy is also associated with abnormalities in arachidonic acid and myo-inositol. Dietary supplementation with fatty acids that restore lipid levels in the yolk sac lead to a reduction in diabetes mellitus-induced malformations. Although the role of the human yolk in embryogenesis is less extensive than in rodents, nevertheless, human embryonic vasculogenesis is affected negatively by maternal diabetes mellitus. Mechanistic studies have identified potential therapeutic targets for future intervention against yolk sac vasculopathy, birth defects, and other complications associated with diabetic pregnancies. PMID:26432466

  1. Etv2 is expressed in the yolk sac hematopoietic and endothelial progenitors and regulates Lmo2 gene expression

    OpenAIRE

    Koyano-Nakagawa, Naoko; Kweon, Junghun; Iacovino, Michelina; Shi, Xiaozhong; Rasmussen, Tara L.; Borges, Luciene; Zirbes, Katie M.; Li, Tongbin; Perlingeiro, Rita C.R.; Kyba, Michael; Garry, Daniel J.

    2012-01-01

    During embryogenesis, the endothelial and the hematopoietic lineages first appear during gastrulation in the blood island of the yolk sac. We have previously reported that an Ets variant gene 2 (Etv2/ER71) mutant embryo lacks hematopoietic and endothelial lineages, however, the precise roles of Etv2 in yolk sac development remains unclear. In the present study, we define the role of Etv2 in yolk sac blood island development using the Etv2 mutant and a novel Etv2-EYFP reporter transgenic line....

  2. Gamma knife treatment of an endolymphatic sac tumor: Unique features of a case and review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xing Cheng

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Endolymphatic sac tumors are rare, histologically non-aggressive lesions, but often become locally invasive and lead to erosion of the petrous bone. We report a rare case with multiple endolymphatic sac tumors located at bilateral cerebellopontine angles and vermis of the cerebellum. One of the lesions was surgically resected and others were treated using gamma knife radiosurgery. Local recurrence and metastasis occurred, which was treated with gamma knife radiosurgery. With an appropriate prescription dose and isodose, gamma knife radiosurgery may have an important role in the treatment of endolymphatic sac tumor.

  3. Plant-derived SAC domain of PAR-4 (Prostate Apoptosis Response 4 exhibits growth inhibitory effects in prostate cancer cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shayan eSarkar

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The gene Par-4 (Prostate Apoptosis Response 4 was originally identified in prostate cancer cells undergoing apoptosis and its product Par-4 showed cancer specific pro-apoptotic activity. Particularly, the SAC domain of Par-4 (SAC-Par-4 selectively kills cancer cells leaving normal cells unaffected. The therapeutic significance of bioactive SAC-Par-4 is enormous in cancer biology; however, its large scale production is still a matter of concern. Here we report the production of SAC-Par-4-GFP fusion protein coupled to translational enhancer sequence (5′ AMV and apoplast signal peptide (aTP in transgenic Nicotiana tabacum cv. Samsun NN plants under the control of a unique recombinant promoter M24. Transgene integration was confirmed by genomic DNA PCR, Southern and Northern blotting, Real-time PCR and Nuclear run-on assays. Results of Western blot analysis and ELISA confirmed expression of recombinant SAC-Par-4-GFP protein and it was as high as 0.15% of total soluble protein. In addition, we found that targeting of plant recombinant SAC-Par-4-GFP to the apoplast and endoplasmic reticulum (ER was essential for the stability of plant recombinant protein in comparison to the bacterial derived SAC-Par-4. Deglycosylation analysis demonstrated that ER-targeted SAC-Par-4-GFP-SEKDEL undergoes O-linked glycosylation unlike apoplast-targeted SAC-Par-4-GFP. Furthermore, various in vitro studies like mammalian cells proliferation assay (MTT, apoptosis induction assays, and NF-κB suppression suggested the cytotoxic and apoptotic properties of plant-derived SAC-Par-4-GFP against multiple prostate cancer cell lines. Additionally, pre-treatment of MAT-LyLu prostate cancer cells with purified SAC-Par-4-GFP significantly delayed the onset of tumor in a syngeneic rat prostate cancer model. Taken altogether, we proclaim that plant made SAC-Par-4 may become a useful alternate therapy for effectively alleviating cancer in the new era.

  4. Development of SAC-OCDMA in FSO with multi-wavelength laser source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghaddasi, Majid; Mamdoohi, Ghazaleh; Muhammad Noor, Ahmad Shukri; Mahdi, Mohd Adzir; Ahmad Anas, Siti Barirah

    2015-12-01

    We propose and demonstrate a free space optical network, based on spectral amplitude coding optical code division multiple access (SAC-OCDMA) with a multi-wavelength laser source. A detailed theoretical analysis that represents the characteristics of SAC-OCDMA system was developed. In addition to the impact of turbulence, influences of several system noises such as optical beat interference (OBI), relative intensity noise, and receiver noises, have been studied. From the numerical results, it was found that the influence of OBI is more dominant, especially at higher received power. Two different codes, namely, modified quadratic congruence and modified double weight, are then compared with the latter which provides better performance. A transmission distance of 2.6 km with 10 users and an 8 cm aperture diameter is advisable whenever the turbulence is moderate. These results can be improved when a beam divergence smaller than 1 mrad is utilized.

  5. Fungi infection in honeybee hives in regions affected by Brazilian sac brood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.M. Keller

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The Brazilian Sac Brood is a disease that affects apiaries of Africanized bee hives in Brazil, thereby making them susceptible to high losses. This study investigated the pathogenicity of Africanized bee hives by the entomopathogenic fungi in a Brazilian Sac Brood endemic region. The degree of fungal contamination, presence of mycotoxins in beehive elements, and vulnerability of healthy beehives in environments subjected and not subjected to the disease were investigated. From the contaminating fungal load, species that are mycotoxin producers and pathogenic causing mortality in the bees have been isolated. The analysis of bee pollen and bee bread samples did not show the presence of the toxic pollen of Stryphnodendron (Fabaceae, which has been indicated as the causative agent of mortality in pre-pupal stage larvae. However, bee bread showed the highest correlation between substrate and fungal contamination.

  6. Bilateral ovarian mixed epithelial adenocarcinoma in a postmenopausal woman with unilateral ovarian yolk sac tumor component.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qin; Chen, Xiaoduan

    2014-01-01

    Ovarian yolk sac tumors (YSTs) usually occur in the young women and have been rarely documented in perimenopausal and postmenopausal women. The different age distribution supposes their complex nomenclature and histogenesis. We report a case of bilateral ovarian epithelial carcinoma with right ovarian YST component in a postmenopausal woman. The patient was treated by surgery and adjuvant combination chemotherapy of taxol and carboplatin for 6 courses and has been clinically free of tumor for 6 months. The correlation between the YST and the epithelial components always confuse us. Ovarian yolk sac tumors are not a discrete entity and represent a multifaceted group of neoplasms. The conjunction of multi antibodies help in differential diagnoses. In addition to a thorough case description, the literature concerning this entity is reviewed and discussed. PMID:25550883

  7. Intrinsic Levanase Activity of Bacillus subtilis 168 Levansucrase (SacB).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Méndez-Lorenzo, Luz; Porras-Domínguez, Jaime R; Raga-Carbajal, Enrique; Olvera, Clarita; Rodríguez-Alegría, Maria Elena; Carrillo-Nava, Ernesto; Costas, Miguel; López Munguía, Agustín

    2015-01-01

    Levansucrase catalyzes the synthesis of fructose polymers through the transfer of fructosyl units from sucrose to a growing fructan chain. Levanase activity of Bacillus subtilis levansucrase has been described since the very first publications dealing with the mechanism of levan synthesis. However, there is a lack of qualitative and quantitative evidence regarding the importance of the intrinsic levan hydrolysis of B. subtilis levansucrase and its role in the levan synthesis process. Particularly, little attention has been paid to the long-term hydrolysis products, including its participation in the final levan molecules distribution. Here, we explored the hydrolytic and transferase activity of the B. subtilis levansucrase (SacB) when levans produced by the same enzyme are used as substrate. We found that levan is hydrolyzed through a first order exo-type mechanism, which is limited to a conversion extent of around 30% when all polymer molecules reach a structure no longer suitable to SacB hydrolysis. To characterize the reaction, Isothermal Titration Calorimetry (ITC) was employed and the evolution of the hydrolysis products profile followed by HPLC, GPC and HPAEC-PAD. The ITC measurements revealed a second step, taking place at the end of the reaction, most probably resulting from disproportionation of accumulated fructo-oligosaccharides. As levanase, levansucrase may use levan as substrate and, through a fructosyl-enzyme complex, behave as a hydrolytic enzyme or as a transferase, as demonstrated when glucose and fructose are added as acceptors. These reactions result in a wide variety of oligosaccharides that are also suitable acceptors for fructo-oligosaccharide synthesis. Moreover, we demonstrate that SacB in the presence of levan and glucose, through blastose and sucrose synthesis, results in the same fructooligosaccharides profile as that observed in sucrose reactions. We conclude that SacB has an intrinsic levanase activity that contributes to the final

  8. In vitro Manipulation of Impatiens glandulifera Pollen for Transporting Extracellular Substances to the Embryo Sac

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noreldaim Hussein

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Pollen from Impatiens glandulifera were manipulated in vitro to investigate the possibility of using them as a vector for transporting extracellular substances to the site of gamete fusion in the embryo sac. Manipulation of plant male and female gametophytes included studies on pollen culture in vitro, pollen viability and developmental state and loading of fluorescent probes by plasmolysis/endocytosis via germinating pollen.

  9. Macrofauna community inside and outside of the Darwin Mounds SAC, NE Atlantic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Serpetti

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Over the past two decades, growing concerns have been raised regarding the effects of towed fishing gears, such as trawls and dredges, on deep-sea biodiversity and ecosystem functioning. Trawling disturbs the benthic communities both physically and biologically, and can eliminate the most vulnerable organisms and modify habitat structure; chronically disturbed communities are often dominated by opportunistic species. The European Union is under obligation to designate a network of offshore Special Areas of Conservation (SACs and Marine Protected Areas (MPAs by the end of 2012 based on the perceived expectation that these networks will help protect marine biodiversity and that within these areas, faunal abundance and diversity will be higher than the surrounding fished areas.

    The Darwin Mounds, only discovered in 1998, are located in the Rockall Trough, NE Atlantic at a depth of ~ 1000 m. Deep-water trawling regularly took place in the region of the Darwin Mounds; however in 2004 the mounds were designated as the first offshore SAC in UK and the area is now closed to bottom trawling. As part of the HERMIONE programme the influence of human impact on the Oceans was one of the key themes and in June 2011, an investigation of the macrofaunal community structure at comparable sites both inside and outside of the Darwin Mound SAC was undertaken. Macrofaunal communities were found to differ significantly, with the difference mostly driven by changes in the abundance of polychaetes, crustaceans and nematodes whilst no significant differences were seen for the other phyla. Whereas overall macrofaunal abundance was higher outside the SAC compared to within, this pattern varies considerably between phyla. Diversity indices showed no significant differences between protected and unprotected sites. This could indicate that a few years of preservation are not enough time to determine a recovery by the macrofaunal community of cold-water ecosystems

  10. Lymph sacs are not required for the initiation of lymph node formation

    OpenAIRE

    Vondenhoff, Mark F.; : Serge A. van de Pavert; Dillard, Miriam E.; Greuter, Mascha; Goverse, Gera; Oliver, Guillermo; Mebius, Reina E.

    2008-01-01

    The lymphatic vasculature drains lymph fluid from the tissue spaces of most organs and returns it to the blood vasculature for recirculation. Before reaching the circulatory system, antigens and pathogens transported by the lymph are trapped by the lymph nodes. As proposed by Florence Sabin more than a century ago and recently validated, the mammalian lymphatic vasculature has a venous origin and is derived from primitive lymph sacs scattered along the embryonic body axis. Also as proposed by...

  11. Intrinsic Levanase Activity of Bacillus subtilis 168 Levansucrase (SacB.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luz Méndez-Lorenzo

    Full Text Available Levansucrase catalyzes the synthesis of fructose polymers through the transfer of fructosyl units from sucrose to a growing fructan chain. Levanase activity of Bacillus subtilis levansucrase has been described since the very first publications dealing with the mechanism of levan synthesis. However, there is a lack of qualitative and quantitative evidence regarding the importance of the intrinsic levan hydrolysis of B. subtilis levansucrase and its role in the levan synthesis process. Particularly, little attention has been paid to the long-term hydrolysis products, including its participation in the final levan molecules distribution. Here, we explored the hydrolytic and transferase activity of the B. subtilis levansucrase (SacB when levans produced by the same enzyme are used as substrate. We found that levan is hydrolyzed through a first order exo-type mechanism, which is limited to a conversion extent of around 30% when all polymer molecules reach a structure no longer suitable to SacB hydrolysis. To characterize the reaction, Isothermal Titration Calorimetry (ITC was employed and the evolution of the hydrolysis products profile followed by HPLC, GPC and HPAEC-PAD. The ITC measurements revealed a second step, taking place at the end of the reaction, most probably resulting from disproportionation of accumulated fructo-oligosaccharides. As levanase, levansucrase may use levan as substrate and, through a fructosyl-enzyme complex, behave as a hydrolytic enzyme or as a transferase, as demonstrated when glucose and fructose are added as acceptors. These reactions result in a wide variety of oligosaccharides that are also suitable acceptors for fructo-oligosaccharide synthesis. Moreover, we demonstrate that SacB in the presence of levan and glucose, through blastose and sucrose synthesis, results in the same fructooligosaccharides profile as that observed in sucrose reactions. We conclude that SacB has an intrinsic levanase activity that

  12. Large endolymphatic sac. A congenital deformity of the inner ear shown by magnetic resonance imaging

    OpenAIRE

    Phelps, P D; Mahoney, C. F. O.; Luxon, L M

    1997-01-01

    Fluctuant and progressive hearing impairment in a patient with a wide vestibular aqueduct has been called the 'large vestibular aqueduct syndrome'. Recently reports of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies describe enlargement of the endolymphatic sac and duct in patients shown to have large vestibular aqueducts by computed tomography (CT). A patient with progressive deafness was shown to have borderline or slightly enlarged vestibular aqueducts by re-formatted sagittal CT. However, MRI in...

  13. Contrast-enhanced MR imaging of the endolymphatic sac in patients with sudden hearing loss

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Our objective was to evaluate the frequency of contrast enhancement of the endolymphatic sac in patients with sudden hearing loss. Forty consecutive patients with sudden sensorineural hearing loss (20 males and 20 females; age range 11-82 years), 40 age-matched control subjects, and 5 patients with Meniere's disease were examined using the same imaging protocol on a 1.5-T MR system. Pre- and post-contrast-enhanced T1-weighted 3D spoiled gradient-echo sequence (3D SPGR; TR/TE=23/10 ms, no. of excitations=1, flip angle=30 ) images were obtained using a voxel size of 0.6 x 0.7 x 0.8 mm3. Contrast enhancement in the area of the endolymphatic sac was assessed by two radiologists, and the frequency of contrast enhancement was compared between the three study groups. Enhancement of the ipsilateral endolymphatic sac was observed in 30 of the 40 patients with sudden hearing loss (75%). Twenty of these 30 patients also showed enhancement on the contralateral side, and 1 patient showed enhancement only on the contralateral side. Only 1 of the 5 patients with Meniere's disease showed enhancement. Nine of the 40 control subjects (22.5%) showed enhancement (bilateral enhancement in 5 subjects, unilateral in 4). The frequency of enhancement in patients with sudden hearing loss was significantly higher than that in control subjects (P<0.0001) or patients with Meniere's disease (P<0.05). The frequency of contrast enhancement of the endolymphatic sac is significantly increased in patients with sudden hearing loss, but further study is necessary to clarify the relationship between this finding and the pathophysiology of sudden hearing loss. (orig.)

  14. Nickel interactions with glutathione and related enzyme in 11-day embryo and yolk sac in rat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serafini, M.T.; Romeu, A. (Univ. of Barcelona, Tarragona (Spain))

    1991-12-01

    The embryotoxicity and teratogenicity of nickel compounds has been observed in rats. Little is known about the biochemical mechanism(s) of Ni-teratogenesis. Furthermore, nickel induced a rapid, but transient rise in the serum glucose and changes in hormone balance in pregnant rats as well as metabolic changes in females. The purpose of this study was to characterize the effect of NiCl{sub 2} on glutathione and related enzymes in 11-day embryo and visceral yolk sac in rat.

  15. Metastatic anal sac carcinoma with hypercalcaemia and associated hypertrophic osteopathy in a dog

    OpenAIRE

    Giuliano, A.; R.S. Fernandez; Dobson, J.

    2015-01-01

    A seven-year-old male neutered Irish setter was treated for a metastatic anal sac adenocarcinoma (ASAC) and hypercalcaemia by complete surgical excision of the primary tumour and partial excision of the sublumbar lymph nodes. Further enlargement of the sublumbar lymph nodes was linked to recurrent hypercalcaemia 3 months after surgical treatment. Medical treatment with Toceranib and Clodronate showed modest results in the treatment of the tumour and the hypercalcaemia. Radiotherapy of the sub...

  16. Bilateral ovarian mixed epithelial adenocarcinoma in a postmenopausal woman with unilateral ovarian yolk sac tumor component

    OpenAIRE

    Qin CHEN; Chen, Xiaoduan

    2014-01-01

    Ovarian yolk sac tumors (YSTs) usually occur in the young women and have been rarely documented in perimenopausal and postmenopausal women. The different age distribution supposes their complex nomenclature and histogenesis. We report a case of bilateral ovarian epithelial carcinoma with right ovarian YST component in a postmenopausal woman. The patient was treated by surgery and adjuvant combination chemotherapy of taxol and carboplatin for 6 courses and has been clinically free of tumor for...

  17. An Excel Add-In for Statistical Process Control Charts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel E. Buttrey

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available t shifts in processes in, for example, manufacturing. Among these are control charts".Control charts and other SPC techniques have been in use since at least the 1950s, and,because they are comparatively unsophisticated, are often used by management or op-erations personnel without formal statistical training. These personnel will often haveexperience with the popular spreadsheet program Excel, but may have less training on amainstream statistical package. Base Excel does not provide the ability to draw controlcharts directly, although add-ins for that purpose are available for purchase.We present a free add-in for Excel that draws the most common sorts of control charts.It follows the development of the textbook of Montgomery (2005, so it may be well-suited for instructional purposes.

  18. ProADD: A database on Protein Aggregation Diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Shobana, Ramesh; Pandaranayaka, Eswari PJ

    2014-01-01

    ProADD, a database for protein aggregation diseases, is developed to organize the data under a single platform to facilitate easy access for researchers. Diseases caused due to protein aggregation and the proteins involved in each of these diseases are integrated. The database helps in classification of proteins involved in the protein aggregation diseases based on sequence and structural analysis. Analysis of proteins can be done to mine patterns prevailing among the aggregating proteins. Av...

  19. Tiagabine add-on for drug-resistant partial epilepsy

    OpenAIRE

    Pereira, J; Marson, A G; Hutton, J L

    2012-01-01

    Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2002;(3):CD001908. Tiagabine add-on for drug-resistant partial epilepsy. Pereira J, Marson AG, Hutton JL. Servico de Neurologia, Hospital de Santo Antonio, Largo Prof. Abel Salazar, 4099-001 Porto, Portugal. Abstract BACKGROUND: Epilepsy is a common neurological condition, affecting almost 0.5 to 1 per cent of the population. Nearly 30 per cent of people with epilepsy are resistant to currently available drugs. Tiagabine...

  20. Does Chiropractic “Add Years to Life”?

    OpenAIRE

    Gleberzon, Brian J.

    2004-01-01

    The chiropractic cliché “Chiropractic Adds Life to Years and Years to Life” was examined for validity. It was assumed that chiropractors themselves would be the best informed about the health benefits of chiropractic care. Chiropractors would therefore be most likely to receive some level of chiropractic care, and do so on a long-term basis. If chiropractic care significantly improves general health then chiropractors themselves should demonstrate longer life spans than the general population...

  1. Stereovision Imaging in Smart Mobile Phone Using Add on Prisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bar-Magen Numhauser, Jonathan; Zalevsky, Zeev

    2014-03-01

    In this work we present the use of a prism-based add on component installed on top of a smart phone to achieve stereovision capabilities using iPhone mobile operating system. Through these components and the combination of the appropriate application programming interface and mathematical algorithms the obtained results will permit the analysis of possible enhancements for new uses to such system, in a variety of areas including medicine and communications.

  2. Oil rigging firm to add 50 engineering vessels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    China Oilfield Services Ltd., the oil service unit of the State-owned offshore oil and gas producer China NationalOffshore Oil Corporation, plans to add 50 vessels to its ocean engineering fleet, according to Cai Dian, manager of the shipping department at COSL. COSL is China's largest integrated oilfield service provider, operating a fleet of 108 vessels, which accounts for 60 percent of China's total ocean engineering vessel number.

  3. Using a Bilingual Resource to Add Synonyms to a Wordnet

    OpenAIRE

    Niemi, Jyrki; Linden, Krister; HyvÀrinen, Mirka

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a simple method for finding new synonym candidates to a bilingual wordnet by using another bilingual resource. Our goal is to add new synonyms to the existing synsets of the Finnish WordNet, which has direct word sense translation correspondences to the Princeton WordNet. For this task, we use Wikipedia and its links between the articles of the same topic in Finnish and English.

  4. Failure of aneurysm sac shrinkage after endovascular repair; the effect of mural calcification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Love, M. [Department of Radiology, Royal Victoria Hospital, Belfast (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: mark.love@royalhospitals.n-i.nhs.uk; Wray, A. [Department of Radiology, Royal Victoria Hospital, Belfast (United Kingdom); Worthington, M. [Department of Radiology, Royal Victoria Hospital, Belfast (United Kingdom); Ellis, P. [Department of Radiology, Royal Victoria Hospital, Belfast (United Kingdom)

    2005-12-15

    AIM: To evaluate the effect of abdominal aortic aneurysm wall calcification on subsequent sac shrinkage after endovascular repair. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Seventy-three patients underwent endovascular aneurysm repair. The degree of sac wall calcification on pre-procedural computed tomography (CT) examination was graded from 1 to 4 according to the degree of circumferential involvement. On follow-up CT imaging, the maximum transverse diameter (MTD) of the sac was recorded, as well as the presence or absence of endoleak. In those patients with a non-shrinking aneurysm, but no CT evidence of endoleak, contrast-enhanced ultrasound (USS) was performed. Any patient with an endoleak, however diagnosed, was excluded from the study. Kruskal-Wallis and Spearman's rank correlation coefficient testing was applied to compare the degree of calcification and change in MTD. RESULTS: Sixty-three pre-procedural CT images were available for calcification grading. Six of this group had endoleaks resulting in 57 sets of data being available for the study. A reduction in MTD occurred in 68.25% of these patients by 1 year post-procedure. Our figures show aortic calcification is inversely associated with MTD reduction at 6 months (p=0.01), 1 year (p=0.05) and 2 years (p=0.05). CONCLUSION: This study indicates that the degree of aortic wall calcification is significant in predicting MTD reduction post-endovascular repair. The possible mechanisms and implications of this are discussed.

  5. Effect of Heavy Metals on the Developmental Stages of Ovule and Embryonic Sac in Euphorbia cheiradenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behrouz E. Malayeri

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to elucidate some microscopic effects of heavy metals on the developmental stages of ovules in plants. We chose a large area in the near Malayer city as a polluted area. In this region amount of heavy metals is several times more than non-polluted area. Flowers and young pods removed from plants. The specimens fixed in FAA70 stored in 70% ethanol, embedded in paraffin and sectioned at 8 μm with microtome. Staining was carried out with Hematoxylin and developmental stages were compared in plants that collected from polluted and non-polluted area. The results of this research showed that heavy metals can affect some abnormality in during of ovule developmental process, in plants that collected from polluted area. These abnormalities include changes of ovule shape, quick degradation of embryonic sac`s cell, quick growth of integuments, an increase in embryonic sac cytoplasm concentration, irregularity and even stopping the nuclear envelope formation. Finally reduction in number of ovules were seen in polluted plants.

  6. Demonstrating storage of CO2 in geological reservoirs: the Sleipner and SACS projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At the Sleipner gas field in the North Sea, CO2 has been stripped from the produced natural gas and injected into a sand layer called the Utsira formation. Injection started in October 1996, to date nearly 8 million tonnes of CO2 have been injected without any significant operational problems observed in the capture plant or in the injection well. The Sleipner project is the first commercial application of CO2 storage in deep saline aquifers in the world. To monitor the injected CO2, a separate project called the saline aquifer CO02 storage (SACS) project was established in 1998. As part of the SACS project, 3D seismic surveying has been used to successfully monitor the CO2 in the Utsira formation, an industry first. Repeat seismic surveys have successfully imaged movement of the injected CO2 within the reservoir. Reservoir simulation tools have been successfully adapted to describe the migration of the CO2 in the reservoir. The simulation packages have been calibrated against the repeat seismic surveys and shown themselves to be capable of replicating the position of the CO2 in the reservoir. The possible reactions between minerals within the reservoir sand and the injected CO2 have been studied by laboratory experiments and simulations. The cumulative experiences of the Sleipner and SACS projects will be embodied in a Best Practice Manual to assist other organisations planning CO2 injection projects to take advantage of the learning processes undertaken and to assist in facilitating new projects of this type. (author)

  7. The efficacy of sleeve technique in primary nasolacrimal duct obstruction with a high lacrimal sac

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyoung-Nam Kim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To evaluate the efficacy of a sleeve technique during endoscopic dacryocystorhinostomy (DCR in primary nasolacrimal duct obstruction (NLDO patients with a high lacrimal sac. Materials and Methods: The medical records of 45 patients (49 cases undergoing endoscopic DCR for primary NLDO with a high lacrimal sac were retrospectively reviewed. In 19 patients (21 cases, the thick maxilla covering the common canalicular opening was removed using a drill and a bicanalicular silicone tube was inserted (group 1. In 26 patients (28 cases, instead of removal of the thick maxilla, a sleeve was inserted into the bicanalicular silicone tube (group 2. At 6 months postoperatively, the success rate was evaluated and the size of the intranasal mucosal ostium was measured. Results: The success rates in group 1 and 2 was 90.5% and 96.4%, respectively (P = 0.400. The intranasal mucosal ostium in group 1 and 2 measured 1.7 ± 0.7 mm and 3.1 ± 1.0 mm, respectively, and the difference was significant (P = 0.042. Conclusions: In primary NLDO patients with a high lacrimal sac, DCR inserting a silicone tube and a sleeve together had a satisfactory success rate without using a drill. In comparison with traditional surgical methods, it helped enlarge the size of the intranasal mucosal ostium.

  8. Rare incidence of yolk sac tumor in pregnancy posing management challenge: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chanda Rai

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Yolk sac tumor of the ovary, although rare but highly malignant, when diagnosed in a pregnant woman is difficult to manage because of risks involved to the fetus but with the advent of surgery and chemotherapy prognosis has greatly improved. A G3P2L2, 35 years old, woman got admitted at 8 months amenorrhea with absent fetal movements since two days with labor pains. She carried an ultrasound report, done at a private clinic which showed intrauterine death of fetus along with a pelvic tumor. Her CT done at our hospital confirmed a pelvic tumor mass posterior to the uterus and in close proximity with the rectum. A laparotomy was planned for her as the pelvic mass was preventing the descent of fetal head thus hindering vaginal delivery. Biopsy from the tumor mass revealed yolk sac tumor of the ovary. Her general condition was poor with low Hb levels and deranged LFT and KFT and was shifted to ICU for intensive care but she could not survive despite the best efforts. Early diagnosis of ovarian yolk sac tumor in pregnancy leads to timely intervention in the forms of surgery and chemotherapy which greatly improves the survival rates. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2016; 5(8.000: 2853-2855

  9. Abnormalities Occurring during Female Gametophyte Development Result in the Diversity of Abnormal Embryo Sacs and Leads to Abnormal Fertilization in indicaljaponica Hybrids in Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu-Xiang Zeng; Chao-Yue Hu; Yong-Gen Lu; Jin-Quan Li; Xiang-Dong Liu

    2009-01-01

    Embryo sac abortion is one of the major masons for sterility in indicaljaponica hybrids In rice. To clarify the causal mechanism of embryo sac abortion, we studied the female gametophyte development in two indicaljaponica hybrids via an eosin B staining procedure for embryo sac scanning using confocal laser scanning microscope. Different types of abnormalities occurred during megasporogenesis and megagamatogenesis were demonstrated. The earliest abnormality was observed in the megasporocyte. A lot of the chalazal-most megaspores were degenerated before the mono-nucleate embryo sac stage. Disordered positioning of nucleus and abnormal nucallus tissue were characteristics of the abnormal female gametes from the mono-nucleate to four-nucleate embryo sac stages. The abnormalities that occurred from the early stage of the eight-nucleate embryo sac development to the mature embryo sac stage were characterized by smaller sizes and wrinkled antipodals. Asynchronous nuclear migration, abnormal positioning of nucleus, and degeneration of egg apparatus were also found at the eight-nucleate embryo sac stage. The abnormalities that occurred during female gametophyte development resulted in five major types of abnormal embryo sacs. These abnormal embryo sacs led to abnormal fertilization. Hand pollination using normal pollens on the spikelets during anthesis showed that normal pollens could not exclude the effect of abnormal embryo sac on seed setting.

  10. GnRH-Analoga und Add-back-Verfahren

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kleinstein J

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available GnRH-Analoga haben eine große Bedeutung in der medikamentösen Therapie der Endometriose erlangt. Sie sind in der Lage, Endometrioseassoziierte Schmerzen zu beseitigen und sind Bestandteil der Therapie der endometriosebedingten Infertilität. Aufgrund der Chronizität der Endometriose bedarf es in vielen Fällen der Prolongation der GnRH-A-Therapie über den Zeitraum von 6 Monaten hinaus. Für diese Fälle eignet sich eine Add-back- Therapie nach dem Format von Hormonersatztherapien, um vasomotorischen Nebeneffekten und dem Knochensubstanzverlust entgegenwirken zu können. Dabei wird der Estrogenanteil niedrig dosiert eingesetzt, um innerhalb eines "therapeutischen Fensters" den Hypoestrogenismus auszugleichen, ohne das Endometriosewachstum zu fördern. Prinzipiell kann dazu das Estrogen oral, aber auch transdermal appliziert werden. Die Effektivität der Kombination aus GnRH-A plus Add-back bezüglich der Knochenprotektion konnte bereits für einen Zeitraum von bis zu 10 Jahren bestätigt werden, sodass damit eine Langzeitkonzeption für Frauen mit rezidivierender Endometriose und wiederholten operativen Eingriffen existiert. Alternativen zur klassischen Add-back mit Sexualsteroiden existieren vielfältig, aber ihr Einsatz ist durch Partialwirkungen und eigene Nebenwirkungen limitiert.

  11. An unusual mixed germ cell tumor of the testis consisting of rhabdomyosarcoma, mature teratoma and yolk sac tumor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Eva Lovri(c); Dubravka Bobonj Hi(z)ak; Melita Peri(c) Balja; Tanja Leni(c)ek; Bo(z)o Kru(s)lin

    2010-01-01

    @@ Dear Editor, We recently encountered a rare case of testicular mixed germ cell tumor (MGCT) in a 32-year-old man. The tumor was composed of a combination of a yolk sac tumor, teratoma and rhabdomyosarcomatous somatic type malignancy.

  12. Ovarian Yolk Sac Tumor With High-Grade Serous Carcinoma in a 62-Year-Old Woman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Whitney A; Masand, Ramya P

    2016-06-01

    Ovarian yolk sac tumors are germ cell tumors that usually present in children and young women. Rarely, these tumors can arise in older women, usually in conjunction with surface epithelial tumors, suggesting divergent differentiation from the latter. The combination of mixed ovarian yolk sac tumor and high-grade serous carcinoma is rare, with only one case documented in the literature. We present a case of mixed ovarian yolk sac tumor and high-grade serous carcinoma in a postmenopausal woman, including a brief discussion of the immunohistochemical findings and differential diagnosis. Despite the rarity of mixed ovarian yolk sac tumor and surface epithelial tumors, it is important to recognize the biphasic nature of the tumor, which should prompt a thorough immunohistochemical evaluation. The therapeutic and prognostic implications of proper diagnosis cannot be overemphasized. PMID:26782153

  13. Manipulation of Ovaries/Ovules and Clearance and Isolation of Embryo Sacs of Impatiens glandulifera and Nicotiana tabacum

    OpenAIRE

    Noreldaim Hussein

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this research was to develop techniques to clear and/or isolate embryo sacs of Impatiens glandulifera and Nicotiana tabacum, to facilitate microscopic examination for subsequent experimentation on in vitro fertilization of flowering plants. Two techniques were applied: The clearing and enzymic maceration. Both of the 2 adopted techniques were effective in revealing embryo sacs of the studied plant species. A fixative prepared from propionic acid, formaldehyde, ethanol (50%) i...

  14. Implementation of reconfigurable optical add-drop multiplexer management system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Lei; Huang, Zhaoxiang; Zhang, Minglun; Huang, Yongqing; Li, Ling

    2005-11-01

    A detailed management system implementation process for a realized reconfigurable optical add-drop multiplexer (ROADM) is presented. The ROADM is capable of freely adding/dropping any of 40 wavelengths within C-band at ITU_T standard spacing according to the user's configuration demand from the management system. SNMP and Java language are used in the deployment of the management system. The management system framework and its implementation process are introduced in template-based form, so they are generic enough to be deployed in managing such reconfigurable elements in optical transport network, and be of value to others who are contemplating managing such kind of reconfigurable elements.

  15. Increasing withdrawal rates add oil reserves in Java Sea area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports on an offshore Southeast Sumatra contract area, resizing downhole pumps which increased withdrawal rates from 36 to 37 worked-over wells. These greater fluid producing rates, according to decline curve analysis, will substantially add to the recoverable oil reserves. The work increased an average well's oil production rate by 183 bo/d and added 183,000 bbl/well to recoverable oil reserves without materially affecting water cut. The cost of the reserve additions was $0.37/bbl. No loss in ultimate recovery was indicated for any of the wells

  16. Increasing withdrawal rates add oil reserves in Java Sea area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ventura, J. (Maxis Energy Corp., Dallas, TX (US)); Temansja, A.D. (Maxus Southeast, Sumatra Inc., Jakarta (ID))

    1991-11-18

    This paper reports on an offshore Southeast Sumatra contract area, resizing downhole pumps which increased withdrawal rates from 36 to 37 worked-over wells. These greater fluid producing rates, according to decline curve analysis, will substantially add to the recoverable oil reserves. The work increased an average well's oil production rate by 183 bo/d and added 183,000 bbl/well to recoverable oil reserves without materially affecting water cut. The cost of the reserve additions was $0.37/bbl. No loss in ultimate recovery was indicated for any of the wells.

  17. Determination of OM/OC ratios and specific attenuation coefficients (SAC in ambient fine PM at a rural site in southern Ontario: implications for emission sources, particle aging, and radiative forcing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. W. Chan

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Ambient particulate matter (PM samples were collected on quartz filters at a rural site in southern Ontario during intensive studies in 2005 and 2007. The concentrations of organic carbon (OC, pyrolysis organic carbon (POC, and elemental carbon (EC were determined by thermal analysis. These results were compared to the organic aerosol mass concentration (OM measured by an Aerodyne Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (AMS and to the particle absorption coefficient (b_asp obtained from a Radiance Research Particle Soot Absorption Photometer (PSAP. The total organic mass to organic carbon ratios (OM/OC and specific attenuation coefficients (SAC were also derived. According to the results, the POC mass is proportional to the approximated oxygen mass in the aerosols and OM/OC ratios can be estimated directly from thermal measurements. The study also suggests that the air masses from the south, with relatively low OC/EC ratios, high EC, sulphate contents and OM/OC ratios, were originated from urban and industrial emissions and subsequently experienced photo-oxidations in the atmosphere, implying that the oxygenated organics could come from both primary and secondary sources. Whereas the air masses from the north, with relatively high OC/EC ratios, low EC, sulphate contents and OM/OC ratios, were dominant by the background clean air with relatively larger contributions from biogenic emissions.

    The mean SAC derived from the 2005 and 2007 studies are 4.9 m2 g−1 and 3.8 m2 g−1, respectively. When POC mass approaching zero (i.e. the impact of atmospheric aging is minimized, the SAC for primary emitted soot is estimated to be 5.8 m2 g−1 and 6.3 m2 g−1 for the northern and southern air masses, respectively, supported by the corresponding values when particulate sulphate concentration approaches zero. A decreasing trend in the SAC value with atmospheric aging

  18. Stretch induced endothelin-1 secretion by adult rat astrocytes involves calcium influx via stretch-activated ion channels (SACs)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ostrow, Lyle W., E-mail: lostrow1@jhmi.edu [Department of Neurology, Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21205 (United States); Suchyna, Thomas M.; Sachs, Frederick [Department of Physiology and Biophysical Sciences, State University of New York at Buffalo, Buffalo, NY 14214 (United States)

    2011-06-24

    Highlights: {yields} Endothelin-1 expression by adult rat astrocytes correlates with cell proliferation. {yields} Stretch-induced ET-1 is inhibited by GsMtx-4, a specific inhibitor of Ca{sup 2+} permeant SACs. {yields} The less specific SAC inhibitor streptomycin also inhibits ET-1 secretion. {yields} Stretch-induced ET-1 production depends on a calcium influx. {yields} SAC pharmacology may provide a new class of therapeutic agents for CNS pathology. -- Abstract: The expression of endothelins (ETs) and ET-receptors is often upregulated in brain pathology. ET-1, a potent vasoconstrictor, also inhibits the expression of astrocyte glutamate transporters and is mitogenic for astrocytes, glioma cells, neurons, and brain capillary endothelia. We have previously shown that mechanical stress stimulates ET-1 production by adult rat astrocytes. We now show in adult astrocytes that ET-1 production is driven by calcium influx through stretch-activated ion channels (SACs) and the ET-1 production correlates with cell proliferation. Mechanical stimulation using biaxial stretch (<20%) of a rubber substrate increased ET-1 secretion, and 4 {mu}M GsMTx-4 (a specific inhibitor of SACs) inhibited secretion by 30%. GsMTx-4 did not alter basal ET-1 levels in the absence of stretch. Decreasing the calcium influx by lowering extracellular calcium also inhibited stretch-induced ET-1 secretion without effecting ET-1 secretion in unstretched controls. Furthermore, inhibiting SACs with the less specific inhibitor streptomycin also inhibited stretch-induced ET-1 secretion. The data can be explained with a simple model in which ET-1 secretion depends on an internal Ca{sup 2+} threshold. This coupling of mechanical stress to the astrocyte endothelin system through SACs has treatment implications, since all pathology deforms the surrounding parenchyma.

  19. The Pearl Sac Formation in Male and Female Pinctada maxima Host Oysters Implanted With Allograft Saibo

    OpenAIRE

    La Eddy; Ridwan Affandi; Nastiti Kusumorini; Yulvian Sani; Wasmen Manalu

    2015-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to study the effect of male and female host oysters on the pearl sac formation in Pinctada maxima oyster. One hundred sixty oysters were used in a completely randomized design with 2 x 4 factorial arrangement and 20 replications. The 1st factor was that sex of host oyster consisted of two levels that is males and females. The 2nd factor was week after nucleus implantation with four levels that is 1, 2, 3, and 4 weeks. The parameters observed were the percentage of ...

  20. Relación entre movimientos sacádicos, lectura y rendimiento escolar

    OpenAIRE

    Alonso-Gutiérrez, Miriam

    2013-01-01

    La lectura es un elemento fundamental para el aprendizaje escolar. Para poseer una lectura eficaz es necesario combinar alta velocidad con alta comprensión y, si no se lleva a cabo como se debe, es necesario mejorarla conociendo todos los procesos que intervienen. Den tro de los procesos de percepción de la lectura se encuentra la visión, de la que el siguiente estudio destaca la importancia de los movimientos sacádicos. En este trabajo se analiza la relación existente entre los movi...

  1. [Sigmoidoperianal fistula associated with diverticulitis and Cul de Sac situation--diagnostics and therapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weyand, G; Rinast, E; Englert, A; Houf, M

    2002-07-01

    We report on the case of a 64-year-old female patient who presented herself in our outpatient clinic because of a perianal fistula with recurrent abscesses. We describe the step diagnostics and the surgical treatment of the causal sigmoido-perianal fistula with diverticulitis and Cul de sac situation. Clinical examination, fistulography, colonoscopy and MRT were part of the precise representation and preparation for the high anterior rectosigmoidal resection with simultaneous rectopexy according to Sudeck which were performed without complications. The sigmoidoperianal fistula must be taken into account as a differential diagnosis of a recalcitrant high perianal fistula. PMID:12122593

  2. Serial MR imaging studies in enlarged endolymphatic duct and sac syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Large vestibular aqueduct syndrome (LVAS) is a congenital disorder characterized by progressive or fluctuating sensorineural hearing loss of unknown etiology. Serial MR examinations were performed before and after the development of hearing loss in two patients with LVAS. The signal and volume of the enlarged endolymphatic sac (EES) vary even in ears with stable hearing. In ears with fluctuating hearing, changes in EES signals were observed in only one of two patients. The finding that the EES volume and signal intensity vary dynamically independently of hearing is important for future research into the pathophysiology of hearing loss in this syndrome. (orig.)

  3. Influencia de los movimientos sacádicos y la lateralidad en la velocidad lectora

    OpenAIRE

    Jiménez-García, Ruth

    2014-01-01

    La lectura es una herramienta fundamental para el aprendizaje. Sin embargo, los datos ofrecidos por informe PISA del 2012 indican que los alumnos españoles tienen un bajo rendimiento lector. El proceso lector depende, entre otros factores, de la velocidad lectora; por ello, desde esta investiga-ción se plantea que las dificultades en la lectura se deben a factores neuropsicológicos como la vi-sión, destacando los movimientos sacádicos y la lateralidad. De este modo, el objetivo central de est...

  4. Basement membrane heparan sulfate proteoglycan from the L2 rat yolk sac carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fenger, M; Wewer, U; Albrechtsen, R

    1984-01-01

    Heparan sulfate proteoglycan from the L2 rat yolk sac carcinoma has been purified and partially characterized. The proteoglycan has an apparent Mr of 750 000, 35% of which represents the core protein. The core protein seems to be homogeneous, whereas the heparan sulfate chains are heterogeneous w...... with an Mr of about 50 000-70 000, with 30% of the glucosamine being N-sulfated. Antibodies raised against the core protein of the heparan sulfate proteoglycan reacted with basement membranes of various rat and human tissue....

  5. Left ovarian gonadoblastoma with yolk sac tumor in a young woman

    OpenAIRE

    Gelincik Ibrahim; Ozen Suleyman; Bayram Irfan

    2010-01-01

    Gonodoblastomas with ovarian germ cell tumors other than dysgerminoma coexists very rarely with yolk sac tumor (YST). Because of this rarity, we report a case of gonadoblastoma with YST. An 18-year-old female patient was admitted to our hospital with an abdomino-pelvic mass. Ultrasonographical examinations revealed a 15X14 cm heterogenous pelvic mass with calcific foci in the left adnexal area. Macroscopically, the resected mass was oval and measured 18X15X15 cm and weighed 3150 gm. Histologi...

  6. CT imaging of ovarian yolk sac tumor with emphasis on differential diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yang-Kang; Zheng, Yu; Lin, Jian-Bang; Xu, Gui-Xiao; Cai, Ai-Qun; Zhou, Xiu-Guo; Zhang, Guo-Jun

    2015-01-01

    Ovarian yolk sac tumors (YSTs) are rare neoplasms. No radiological study has been done to compare the imaging findings between this type of tumor and other ovarian tumors. Here we analyzed the CT findings of 11 pathologically proven ovarian YSTs and compared their imaging findings with 18 other types of ovarian tumors in the same age range. Patient age, tumor size, tumor shape, ascites and metastasis of two groups did not differ significantly (P > 0.05). A mixed solid-cystic nature, intratumoral hemorrhage, marked enhancement and dilated intratumoral vessel of two groups differed significantly (P ovarian tumors. PMID:26074455

  7. CT imaging of ovarian yolk sac tumor with emphasis on differential diagnosis

    OpenAIRE

    Yang-Kang Li; Yu Zheng; Jian-Bang Lin; Gui-Xiao Xu; Ai-Qun Cai; Xiu-Guo Zhou; Guo-Jun Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Ovarian yolk sac tumors (YSTs) are rare neoplasms. No radiological study has been done to compare the imaging findings between this type of tumor and other ovarian tumors. Here we analyzed the CT findings of 11 pathologically proven ovarian YSTs and compared their imaging findings with 18 other types of ovarian tumors in the same age range. Patient age, tumor size, tumor shape, ascites and metastasis of two groups did not differ significantly (P > 0.05). A mixed solid-cystic nature, intratumo...

  8. Mixed ovarian germ cell tumor composed of immature teratoma, yolk sac tumor and embryonal carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ying; Zhou, Feng; Qian, Zhida; Qing, Jiale; Zhao, Mengdam; Huang, Lili

    2014-11-01

    We report the case of a 19-year-old woman experiencing lower abdominal distension and pain. Laboratory tests indicated elevated serum levels of Alpha-Fetoprotein (AFP) and human Chorionic Gonadotropin (hCG). A large mass was detected in the abdomen by physical examination and by transvaginal ultrasonography. Exploratory laparotomy was performed, and a smooth-surfaced, spherical, solid tumor was found on the left ovary, measuring 11.5 x 9.9 x 6.9 cm. Histological evaluation revealed that the tumor consisted of a combination of immature teratoma, Yolk Sac Tumor, and embryonal carcinoma; this is a very rare combination in mixed germ cell tumors. PMID:25518772

  9. Type I Endoleak-like Phenomenon Causing Rupture of the Replaced Aneurysm Sac 12 Years after Open Repair of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm

    OpenAIRE

    Matsushita, Masahiro; Ikezawa, Teruo; Banno, Hiroshi

    2008-01-01

    Only a few cases of endoleak following conventional abdominal aortic aneurysm repair have been reported. We treated a patient with a type I endoleak-like phenomenon occuring 12 years after conventional abdominal aortic aneurysm repair. Computed tomography demonstrated dilation of the surgically replaced, once-shrunken aneurysm sac to a diameter of 3.5 cm. Thrombus was identified between the graft and the sac. Four months later the sac ruptured, and emergency repair was performed. Dehiscence o...

  10. Stretch induced endothelin-1 secretion by adult rat astrocytes involves calcium influx via stretch-activated ion channels (SACs)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: → Endothelin-1 expression by adult rat astrocytes correlates with cell proliferation. → Stretch-induced ET-1 is inhibited by GsMtx-4, a specific inhibitor of Ca2+ permeant SACs. → The less specific SAC inhibitor streptomycin also inhibits ET-1 secretion. → Stretch-induced ET-1 production depends on a calcium influx. → SAC pharmacology may provide a new class of therapeutic agents for CNS pathology. -- Abstract: The expression of endothelins (ETs) and ET-receptors is often upregulated in brain pathology. ET-1, a potent vasoconstrictor, also inhibits the expression of astrocyte glutamate transporters and is mitogenic for astrocytes, glioma cells, neurons, and brain capillary endothelia. We have previously shown that mechanical stress stimulates ET-1 production by adult rat astrocytes. We now show in adult astrocytes that ET-1 production is driven by calcium influx through stretch-activated ion channels (SACs) and the ET-1 production correlates with cell proliferation. Mechanical stimulation using biaxial stretch (2+ threshold. This coupling of mechanical stress to the astrocyte endothelin system through SACs has treatment implications, since all pathology deforms the surrounding parenchyma.

  11. Graft Distortion After Endovascular Repair of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm: Association with Sac Morphology and Mid-Term Complications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To investigate the incidence, significance, and mechanism of stent-graft distortion after endovascular repair (EVR) of abdominal aortic aneurysm.Methods: EVR of abdominal aortic aneurysm was performed in 51 cases (49 modular, bifurcated; 2 tube). Thirty-two patients were followed for 6 or more months and had equivalent baseline and follow-up images which could be used to determine changes in graft configuration. Sac dimensions were measured using computed tomographic (CT) images and graft-related complications were recorded.Results: Amongst 32 patients evaluated on follow-up, there was graft distortion in 24. Distorted grafts were significantly (p= 0.002) associated with sac diameter reduction (mean 5 mm) and sac length reduction (mean 8.1 mm). All graft-related complications occurred in the limbs of eight distorted grafts, with a mean reduction of sac length in this group of 7.8 mm on reformatted CT images.Conclusion: There was a highly significant association between graft distortion and limb complications, and reduced sac dimensions

  12. Enhancement of Processability and Electrical Resistance by Use of Ag-Based Composite Inks Containing Ultrafine SAC305 Alloy Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Yong Moo; Kim, Hyun-Jin; Jang, Seok Pil; Lee, Jong-Hyun

    2014-09-01

    We propose use of Ag/Sn-3.0 (wt.%) Ag-0.5 Cu (SAC305) composite ink to reduce sintering temperature, sintering time, and material costs. The SAC305 nanoparticle (NP) surfaces were not capped by any stabilizers, which are detrimental to the resistivity of the sintered tracks. Compared with commercial pure Ag ink, use of Ag/3.2 (vol.%) SAC305 composite ink containing ultrafine SAC305 NPs resulted in outstandingly enhanced processability, enabling faster sintering at low temperatures. The average sheet resistance of composite ink samples sintered for 25 min at 170°C was as low as 0.011 Ω/□, comparable with that of a pure Ag sample sintered for over 30 min at 220°C. The morphology and the differential scanning calorimetry curves enabled explanation of the changes in the sintering behavior and sheet resistance. The Ag/SAC305 clusters in the composite ink sintered at 170°C grew, on average, to ~201.1-226.1 nm as a result of faster local liquid-phase sintering, and most of the Ag particles were mutually linked, dramatically changing the microstructure.

  13. Does E-learning Portal Add Value to Adult Learners?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Issham Ismail

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available E-learning is overtaking traditional teaching and learning environment in distance education program. The aim of this research is to investigate the advantages of the E-learning Portal towards adult learners who have enrolled their studies in, School of Distance Education, Universiti Sains Malaysia (USM. How much have learners gain and benefitted from the portal in their studies? Data were collected from a sample of 1084 undergraduate learners from USM through questionnaire. The data revealed that the learners agreed that they gain from the portal. The mean collected from the survey is in the range from 3.60 to 3.96. Most learners agreed that E-learning Portal add value in their studies. Therefore first class facilities should be provided to adult learners in order to increase their studies thus enable them to perform well in their examination.

  14. Maternal-fetal immunoglobulin transport: Studies on the binding, internalization, and release of IgG by chick yolk sac tissue and cultured cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Immunoglobulin G (IgG) is transported from the yolk across the endodermal cells of the yolk sac and into the fetal circulation during chick embryonic development, thus providing the chick with passive immunity until it becomes immunocompetent. Saturable, Fc-specific receptors are present on the endodermal cells and are believed to mediate this transfer. In this study, IgG receptors were shown to be present on the yolk sac endodermal cells throughout the 21 days of development, although most of the transport occurs during the last 3 days prior to hatching. Fluorescently conjugated IgG was internalized by a receptor mechanism into small apical vesicles in yolk sac endoderm throughout, but cells from 19 day yolk sacs internalized more conjugate than those from 14 day yolk sacs. This was confirmed and quantitated by assaying the internalization of 125I-IgG into yolk sac tissue. IgG was internalized by a receptor mediated mechanism, reaching a steady state level after 1 to 2 hours. Although both ages of yolk sac tissue possessed the same number of surface IgG receptors, as measured by equilibrium binding assays at 4 degree C, 19 day yolk sac had the capacity to internalize six times as much IgG by a receptor mechanism as 14 day yolk sac

  15. U.S. Pediatricians to Add Poverty to Well-Visit Checklist

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... news/fullstory_157694.html U.S. Pediatricians to Add Poverty to Well-Visit Checklist One simple question might ... diet and developmental milestones. Soon, they'll add poverty to the well-visit checklist. Poverty can significantly ...

  16. Aerobic Bacterial Flora of Conjunctival Sac in the Healthy Iranian Water Buffalo (Bubalus bubalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Araghi-Sooreh

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This study was aimed to identify the normal aerobic bacterial flora of the conjunctiva in the Iranian water buffalo and to determine the effect of gender, age and ecotype variations on the flora. Fifty healthy Iranian water buffalos (33 females, 17 males, aged 1-15 years, of four different ecotypes-Azeri, Mazandarani, Khuzestani and Guilani were selected and divided into 4 age groups. Swabs were taken from the inferior conjunctival sac of both eyes (n = 100 and cultured on blood and MacConkey agar in aerobic condition. Forty seven buffalos out of 50 (94% were positive for bacteria; 44/50 (88% had positive culture from both eyes. The most frequent isolates were Staphylococcus sp., Escherichia coli and Bacillus cereus. Statistical analysis did not show significant difference in frequency of isolates between sexes, ecotypes and age groups (p>0.05. A correlation was found between the buffalo age and number of species isolated per eye (p<0.01. In this study Dermatophilus congolensis and Edwardsiella tarda were reported for the first time in the conjunctiva of animals. Gram-positive aerobes were most commonly cultured from the conjunctival sac of healthy water buffalos.

  17. Evaluation of cloned cells, animal model, and ATRA sensitivity of human testicular yolk sac tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Junfeng

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The testicular yolk sac tumor (TYST is the most common neoplasm originated from germ cells differentiated abnormally, a major part of pediatric malignant testicular tumors. The present study aimed at developing and validating the in vitro and vivo models of TYST and evaluating the sensitivity of TYST to treatments, by cloning human TYST cells and investigating the histology, ultra-structure, growth kinetics and expression of specific proteins of cloned cells. We found biological characteristics of cloned TYST cells were similar to the yolk sac tumor and differentiated from the columnar to glandular-like or goblet cells-like cells. Chromosomes for tumor identification in each passage met nature of the primary tumor. TYST cells were more sensitive to all-trans-retinoic acid which had significantly inhibitory effects on cell proliferation. Cisplatin induced apoptosis of TYST cells through the activation of p53 expression and down-regulation of Bcl- expression. Thus, we believe that cloned TYST cells and the animal model developed here are useful to understand the molecular mechanism of TYST cells and develop potential therapies for human TYST.

  18. Performance Analysis of SAC Optical PPM-CDMA System-Based Interference Rejection Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsowaidi, N.; Eltaif, Tawfig; Mokhtar, M. R.

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, we aim to theoretically analyse optical code division multiple access (OCDMA) system that based on successive interference cancellation (SIC) using pulse position modulation (PPM), considering the interference between the users, imperfection cancellation occurred during the cancellation process and receiver noises. Spectral amplitude coding (SAC) scheme is used to suppress the overlapping between the users and reduce the receiver noises effect. The theoretical analysis of the multiple access interference (MAI)-limited performance of this approach indicates the influence of the size of M-ary PPM on OCDMA system. The OCDMA system performance improves with increasing M-ary PPM. Therefore, it was found that the SIC/SAC-OCDMA system using PPM technique along with modified prime (MPR) codes used as signature sequence code offers significant improvement over the one without cancellation and it can support up to 103 users at the benchmarking value of bit error rate (BER) = 10-9 with prime number p = 11 while the system without cancellation scheme can support only up to 52 users.

  19. Metastatic anal sac carcinoma with hypercalcaemia and associated hypertrophic osteopathy in a dog

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Giuliano

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available A seven-year-old male neutered Irish setter was treated for a metastatic anal sac adenocarcinoma (ASAC and hypercalcaemia by complete surgical excision of the primary tumour and partial excision of the sublumbar lymph nodes. Further enlargement of the sublumbar lymph nodes was linked to recurrent hypercalcaemia 3 months after surgical treatment. Medical treatment with Toceranib and Clodronate showed modest results in the treatment of the tumour and the hypercalcaemia. Radiotherapy of the sublumbar lymph nodes and later concurrent carboplatin chemotherapy resulted in partial tumour remission with marked reduction in size of the lymph nodes and normalization of the calcaemia. Unfortunately, concurrently with subsequent relapse of the hypercalaemia, the dog developed hypertrophic osteopathy (HO and lumbar spinal metastasis and the dog was euthanized. To the authors’ knowledge, this is the second case of metastatic apocrine gland carcinoma of the anal sac associated with HO and the first case that describe the development of HO late in the stage of the disease.

  20. Standardization and validation of a novel and simple method to assess lumbar dural sac size

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aim: To develop and validate a simple, reproducible method to assess dural sac size using standard imaging technology. Materials and methods: This study was institutional review board-approved. Two readers, blinded to the diagnoses, measured anterior–posterior (AP) and transverse (TR) dural sac diameter (DSD), and AP vertebral body diameter (VBD) of the lumbar vertebrae using MRI images from 53 control patients with pre-existing MRI examinations, 19 prospectively MRI-imaged healthy controls, and 24 patients with Marfan syndrome with prior MRI or CT lumbar spine imaging. Statistical analysis utilized linear and logistic regression, Pearson correlation, and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves. Results: AP-DSD and TR-DSD measurements were reproducible between two readers (r = 0.91 and 0.87, respectively). DSD (L1–L5) was not different between male and female controls in the AP or TR plane (p = 0.43; p = 0.40, respectively), and did not vary by age (p = 0.62; p = 0.25) or height (p = 0.64; p = 0.32). AP-VBD was greater in males versus females (p = 1.5 × 10−8), resulting in a smaller dural sac ratio (DSR) (DSD/VBD) in males (p = 5.8 × 10−6). Marfan patients had larger AP-DSDs and TR-DSDs than controls (p = 5.9 × 10−9; p = 6.5 × 10−9, respectively). Compared to DSR, AP-DSD and TR-DSD better discriminate Marfan from control subjects based on area under the curve (AUC) values from unadjusted ROCs (AP-DSD p < 0.01; TR-DSD p = 0.04). Conclusion: Individual vertebrae and L1–L5 (average) AP-DSD and TR-DSD measurements are simple, reliable, and reproducible for quantitating dural sac size without needing to control for gender, age, or height. - Highlights: • DSD (L1-L5) does not differ in the AP or TR plane by gender, height, or age. • AP- and TR-DSD measures correlate well between readers with different experience. • Height is positively correlated to AP-VBD in both males and females. • Varying vertebral

  1. Prevascular femoral hernia and its relation with inferior epigastric vessels: a rare presentation of the femoral hernia sac.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boshnaq, Mohamed; Phan, Yih Chyn; Akhtar, Mansoor; Hamade, Ayman

    2016-01-01

    A 61-year-old man presented to the emergency department, with a 2-week history of a painful lump on his right groin. A diagnosis of an irreducible right femoral hernia was made. As such, an urgent operation was carried out on the same day, and the patient was found to have a rare prevascular femoral hernia in which the sac was lying over the femoral vessels and split by the inferior epigastric vessels into 2 components resembling 2 trouser limbs. The hernia sac presented in a different and challenging way that necessitated meticulous dissection and full orientation of the anatomy of the femoral triangle. Complete dissection and control of the inferior epigastric vessels, and complete reduction of the sac followed by repair with a prosthetic mesh plug were performed successfully. The patient was discharged home the next day. PMID:27090547

  2. Manipulation of Ovaries/Ovules and Clearance and Isolation of Embryo Sacs of Impatiens glandulifera and Nicotiana tabacum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noreldaim Hussein

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to develop techniques to clear and/or isolate embryo sacs of Impatiens glandulifera and Nicotiana tabacum, to facilitate microscopic examination for subsequent experimentation on in vitro fertilization of flowering plants. Two techniques were applied: The clearing and enzymic maceration. Both of the 2 adopted techniques were effective in revealing embryo sacs of the studied plant species. A fixative prepared from propionic acid, formaldehyde, ethanol (50% in the ratio 5:5:90 was used. The clearing solution was prepared from lactic acid (85%, chloral hydrate, phenol, clove oil and xylene in the ratio 2:2:2:2:1 by weight. Both the clearing and the enzymic maceration techniques proved effective in revealing embryo sacs of I. glandulifera and N. tabacum

  3. Phase-Induced Intensity Noise Reduction with Improved Group Velocity Dispersion Tolerance in SAC-OCDMA Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anuar M. Safar

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The demand for efficient optical communication systems has fuelled considerable research in developing techniques for eradicating phase-induced intensity noise (PIIN in spectral-amplitude coding optical code-division multiple-access (SAC-OCDMA. This paper investigates the use of modified-AND subtraction detection technique to mitigate PIIN in SAC-OCDMA systems. The simulation results show that the modified-AND subtraction detection demonstrates better performance over the conventional AND detection approach. Furthermore, we have found that, from a transmission length of 40 km onwards, group velocity dispersion (GVD degrades SAC-OCDMA system performance apparently. Dispersion compensating fiber (DCF is used to lessen the influence of GVD caused by single mode fiber (SMF.

  4. The Source for ADD/ADHD: Attention Deficit Disorder and Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard, Gail J.; Russell, Joy L.

    This book is intended for professionals who are responsible for designing and implementing educational programs for children with attention deficit disorders and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADD/ADHD). Chapters address: (1) myths and realities about ADD/ADHD; (2) definitions, disorders associated with ADD/ADHD, and federal educational…

  5. Determination of the inferior border of the thecal sac using magnetic resonance imaging: implications on radiation therapy treatment planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To determine whether the traditional teaching of placing the caudal border of the spinal field at the S2-S3 interspace in children receiving craniospinal irradiation (CSI) is appropriate. Methods and Materials: Twenty-three children had magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the spine with gadolinium prior to craniospinal irradiation at one institution. Thecal sac termination using MRI was determined by drawing a perpendicular line from the point of convergence of dural margins to the corresponding vertebral body. Results: Location of thecal sac termination varied from mid-S1 to low S3 vertebral body, with the most frequent site at the upper S2 vertebral level. Only 2 of 23 (8.7%) children had thecal sac terminations below the S2-S3 interspace. For the nine patients with neuraxis disease, none had thecal sac terminations below the S2-S3 interspace. In seven of the nine patients who had neuraxis seeding at initial presentation, MRI of the spine after CSI was performed and showed that thecal sac termination was lower after radiation therapy in two children, higher in one, and the same in four. Conclusions: In 2 of 23 children (8.7%), placement of the inferior border at the bottom of the S2 vertebral body would have missed the entire thecal sac. Treatment to the entire neuraxis with adequate coverage of distal spinal theca can be achieved by using MRI. Individualized spinal fields using the MRI may help minimize radiation scatter to the gonads while adequately covering the target volume

  6. Histological analyses demonstrate the temporary contribution of yolk sac, liver, and bone marrow to hematopoiesis during chicken development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscila Tavares Guedes

    Full Text Available The use of avian animal models has contributed to the understanding of many aspects of the ontogeny of the hematopoietic system in vertebrates. However, specific events that occur in the model itself are still unclear. There is a lack of consensus, among previous studies, about which is the intermediate site responsible for expansion and differentiation of hematopoietic cells, and the liver's contribution to the development of this system. Here we aimed to evaluate the presence of hematopoiesis in the yolk sac and liver in chickens, from the stages of intra-aortic clusters in the aorta-genital ridges-mesonephros (AGM region until hatching, and how it relates to the establishment of the bone marrow. Gallus gallus domesticus L. embryos and their respective yolk sacs at embryonic day 3 (E3 and up to E21 were collected and processed according to standard histological techniques for paraffin embedding. The slides were stained with hematoxylin-eosin, Lennert's Giemsa, and Sirius Red at pH 10.2, and investigated by light microscopy. This study demonstrated that the yolk sac was a unique hematopoietic site between E4 and E12. Hematopoiesis occurred in the yolk sac and bone marrow between E13 and E20. The liver showed granulocytic differentiation in the connective tissue of portal spaces at E15 and onwards. The yolk sac showed expansion of erythrocytic and granulocytic lineages from E6 to E19, and E7 to E20, respectively. The results suggest that the yolk sac is the major intermediate erythropoietic and granulopoietic site where expansion and differentiation occur during chicken development. The hepatic hematopoiesis is restricted to the portal spaces and represented by the granulocytic lineage.

  7. Altered callose deposition during embryo sac formation of multi-pistil mutant (mp1) in Medicago sativa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, H C; Jin, L; Li, J; Wang, X J

    2016-01-01

    Whether callose deposition is the cause or result of ovule sterility in Medicago sativa remains controversial, because it is unclear when and where changes in callose deposition and dissolution occur during fertile and sterile embryo sac formation. Here, alfalfa spontaneous multi-pistil mutant (mp1) and wild-type plants were used to compare the dynamics of callose deposition during embryo sac formation using microscopy. The results showed that both mutant and wild-type plants experienced megasporogenesis and megagametogenesis, and there was no significant difference during megasporogenesis. In contrast to the wild-type plants, in which the mature embryo sac was observed after three continuous cycles of mitosis, functional megaspores of mutant plants developed abnormally after the second round of mitosis, leading to degeneration of synergid, central, and antipodal cells. Callose deposition in both mutant and wild-type plants was first observed in the walls of megasporocytes, and then in the megaspore tetrad walls. After meiosis, the callose wall began to degrade as the functional megaspore underwent mitosis, and almost no callose was observed in the mature embryo sac in wild-type plants. However, callose deposition was observed in mp1 plants around the synergid, and increased with the development of the embryo sac, and was mainly deposited at the micropylar end. Our results indicate that synergid, central, and antipodal cells, which are surrounded by callose, may degrade owing to lack of nutrition. Callose accumulation around the synergid and at the micropylar end may hinder signals required for the pollen tube to enter the embryo sac, leading to abortion. PMID:27323128

  8. Relación entre atención selectiva y movimientos oculares sacádicos

    OpenAIRE

    Arguello-Vargas, Diana Karina

    2015-01-01

    La atención selectiva y los movimientos oculares sacádicos son fundamentales para el desarrollo del proceso de enseñanza-aprendizaje y para el rendimiento académico. Por esta razón, la presente investigación tiene por objetivo estudiar la relación entre atención selectiva y movimientos oculares sacádicos y proponer un programa de intervención, en una muestra de sesenta y tres niñas escolarizadas de cuarto y quinto de primaria, pertenecientes a un colegio privado de la ciudad de Bucaramanga y ...

  9. The IRBIT domain adds new functions to the AHCY family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devogelaere, Benoit; Sammels, Eva; De Smedt, Humbert

    2008-07-01

    During the past few years, the IRBIT domain has emerged as an important add-on of S-adenosyl-L-homocystein hydrolase (AHCY), thereby creating the new family of AHCY-like proteins. In this review, we discuss the currently available data on this new family of proteins. We describe the IRBIT domain as a unique part of these proteins and give an overview of its regulation via (de)phosphorylation and proteolysis. The second part of this review is focused on the potential functions of the AHCY-like proteins. We propose that the IRBIT domain serves as an anchor for targeting AHCY-like proteins towards cytoplasmic targets. This leads to regulation of (i) intracellular Ca2+ via the inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor (IP3R), (ii) intracellular pH via the Na+/HCO3 - cotransporters (NBCs); whereas inactivation of the IRBIT domain induces (iii) nuclear translocation and regulation of AHCY activity. Dysfunction of AHCY-like proteins will disturb these three important functions, with various biological implications. PMID:18536033

  10. Does aquaculture add resilience to the global food system?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troell, Max; Naylor, Rosamond L; Metian, Marc; Beveridge, Malcolm; Tyedmers, Peter H; Folke, Carl; Arrow, Kenneth J; Barrett, Scott; Crépin, Anne-Sophie; Ehrlich, Paul R; Gren, Asa; Kautsky, Nils; Levin, Simon A; Nyborg, Karine; Österblom, Henrik; Polasky, Stephen; Scheffer, Marten; Walker, Brian H; Xepapadeas, Tasos; de Zeeuw, Aart

    2014-09-16

    Aquaculture is the fastest growing food sector and continues to expand alongside terrestrial crop and livestock production. Using portfolio theory as a conceptual framework, we explore how current interconnections between the aquaculture, crop, livestock, and fisheries sectors act as an impediment to, or an opportunity for, enhanced resilience in the global food system given increased resource scarcity and climate change. Aquaculture can potentially enhance resilience through improved resource use efficiencies and increased diversification of farmed species, locales of production, and feeding strategies. However, aquaculture's reliance on terrestrial crops and wild fish for feeds, its dependence on freshwater and land for culture sites, and its broad array of environmental impacts diminishes its ability to add resilience. Feeds for livestock and farmed fish that are fed rely largely on the same crops, although the fraction destined for aquaculture is presently small (∼4%). As demand for high-value fed aquaculture products grows, competition for these crops will also rise, as will the demand for wild fish as feed inputs. Many of these crops and forage fish are also consumed directly by humans and provide essential nutrition for low-income households. Their rising use in aquafeeds has the potential to increase price levels and volatility, worsening food insecurity among the most vulnerable populations. Although the diversification of global food production systems that includes aquaculture offers promise for enhanced resilience, such promise will not be realized if government policies fail to provide adequate incentives for resource efficiency, equity, and environmental protection. PMID:25136111

  11. Lixisenatide as add-on therapy to basal insulin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brown DX

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Dominique Xavier Brown, Emma Louise Butler, Marc Evans Diabetes Department, University Hospital Llandough, Cardiff, UK Abstract: Many patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus do not achieve target glycosylated hemoglobin A1c levels despite optimally titrated basal insulin and satisfactory fasting plasma glucose levels. Current evidence suggests that HbA1c levels are dictated by both basal glucose and postprandial glucose levels. This has led to a consensus that postprandial glucose excursions contribute to poor glycemic control in these patients. Lixisenatide is a once-daily, prandial glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1 receptor agonist with a four-fold affinity for the GLP-1 receptor compared with native GLP-1. Importantly, lixisenatide causes a significant delay in gastric emptying time, an important determinant of the once-daily dosing regimen. An exendin-4 mimetic with six lysine residues removed at the C-terminal, lixisenatide has pronounced postprandial glucose-lowering effects, making it a novel incretin agent for use in combination with optimally titrated basal insulin. Lixisenatide exerts profound effects on postprandial glucose through established mechanisms of glucose-dependent insulin secretion and glucagon suppression in combination with delayed gastric emptying. This review discusses the likely place that lixisenatide will occupy in clinical practice, given its profound effects on postprandial glucose and potential to reduce glycemic variability. Keywords: lixisenatide, add-on therapy, insulin, GLP-1 receptor agonist, postprandial glucose, pharmacodynamics

  12. SAC105掺Ni焊球对焊接点强度与可靠性的影响%Effects of SAC105 Ni Doping Solder Ball on the Strength and Reliability of the Solder Joint

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张淑红; 陶自春

    2015-01-01

    在内存封装领域,球栅阵列封装(BGA)由于具有高密度和低成本的特点而被广泛采用.在实际的使用过程中,由于遭受外界各种形式的机械负载和冲击造成器件失效,为了改善焊点的强度和可靠性,以SAC105(Sn985AgCu0.5)无铅焊球为参照制备出SAC105 Ni005焊球.为了研究两种焊球焊接点的可靠性与强度,采用焊球的快速剪切测试以及BGA器件的剪切测试方法来检测焊点强度,同时采用威布尔分析方法对两种焊球的热循环测试(TCT)结果进行分析.研究表明,SAC105 Ni0.05焊球比SAC 105焊球具有更长的温度循环可靠性预期寿命、更强的焊接点强度以及更低的脆性断裂的概率.

  13. Solutions Network Formulation Report. Reducing Light Pollution in U.S. Coastal Regions Using the High Sensitivity Cameras on the SAC-C and Aquarius/SAC-D Satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Jane C.; Knowlton, Kelly

    2007-01-01

    Light pollution has significant adverse biological effects on humans, animals, and plants and has resulted in the loss of our ability to view the stars and planets of the universe. Over half of the U.S. population resides in coastal regions where it is no longer possible to see the stars and planets in the night sky. Forty percent of the entire U.S. population is never exposed to conditions dark enough for their eyes to convert to night vision capabilities. In coastal regions, urban lights shine far out to sea where they are augmented by the output from fishing boat, cruise ship and oil platform floodlights. The proposed candidate solution suggests using HSCs (high sensitivity cameras) onboard the SAC-C and Aquarius/SAC-D satellites to quantitatively evaluate light pollution at high spatial resolution. New products modeled after pre-existing, radiance-calibrated, global nighttime lights products would be integrated into a modified Garstang model where elevation, mountain screening, Rayleigh scattering, Mie scattering by aerosols, and atmospheric extinction along light paths and curvature of the Earth would be taken into account. Because the spatial resolution of the HSCs on SAC-C and the future Aquarius/SAC-D missions is greater than that provided by the DMSP (Defense Meteorological Satellite Program) OLS (Operational Linescan System) or VIIRS (Visible/Infrared Imager/Radiometer Suite), it may be possible to obtain more precise light intensity data for analytical DSSs and the subsequent reduction in coastal light pollution.

  14. Mediastinal Yolk Sac Tumor Producing Protein Induced by Vitamin K Absence or Antagonist-II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akutsu, Noriyuki; Adachi, Yasushi; Isosaka, Mai; Mita, Hiroaki; Takagi, Hideyasu; Sasaki, Shigeru; Yamamoto, Hiroyuki; Arimura, Yoshiaki; Ishii, Yoshifumi; Masumori, Naoya; Endo, Takao; Shinomura, Yasuhisa

    2015-01-01

    Extragonadal yolk sac tumors (YSTs) are rare. We herein report the case of a 66-year-old man with mediastinal, lung and liver tumors. The largest mass was located in the liver and contained a high concentration of protein induced by vitamin K absence or antagonist-II (PIVKA-II) and alpha-fetoprotein. Therefore, the lesion was difficult to distinguish from hepatocellular carcinoma. Finally, YST was diagnosed based on the results of a liver biopsy. Although chemotherapy was effective, the patient died of respiratory failure. The autopsy revealed primary mediastinal YST. In the current report, we describe this case of PIVKA-II-producing YST and review previous cases of PIVKA-II-producing tumors other than hepatoma. PMID:26073245

  15. Characterization of a dermatan sulfate proteoglycan synthesized by murine parietal yolk sac (PYS-2) cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Couchman, J R; Woods, A; Höök, M;

    1985-01-01

    carry sulfate residues predominantly attached to C-4 of the galactosamine unit; less than 10% of the sulfate groups occur as 6-sulfated galactosamine units. About 60% of the uronic acid residues are of the glucuronic configuration, the rest being iduronic acid. Analysis by sodium dodecyl sulfate......A dermatan sulfate proteoglycan has been isolated from a murine parietal yolk sac cell line, which in culture synthesizes basement membrane components. The proteoglycan has a molecular weight of 200,000-300,000 with 10-15 dermatan sulfate chains of Mr = 14,000-16,000. The glycosaminoglycan chains...... protein (Mr = 8,000). This proteoglycan is distinctly different from the large cartilage proteoglycan in the smaller size of its core protein, and its relationship to other small chondroitin and dermatan sulfate proteoglycans and to the chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan recently located in rat tissue...

  16. Sac I Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (RFLP) related to the human CST2 gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minaguchi, Kiyoshi; Kiriyama, Tateshi; Saitoh, Eiichi; Isemura, Satoko; Sanada, Kazuo

    2002-02-01

    Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (RFLP) related to cystatin gene (CST) family was detected in the Japanese population by using restriction enzyme Sac I. A polymorphic site, located at 0.9 kb from the 3' end of the CST2 gene, revealed a two allele polymorphism with band sizes of 3.5 kb and 8.3 kb by hybridization with probe including exon 2 of the CST1 gene. The gene frequencies in the Japanese population were 0.326 for 3.5 kb allele and 0.674 for 8.3 kb allele (n = 86). The phenotypes of the polymorphism showed no association with the previously reported electrophoretic cystatin SA protein phenotypes. PMID:12013824

  17. Response of the pigeon crop sac to mammotrophic hormones: Comparison between relaxin and prolactin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of relaxin (RLX), a hormone that has previously been demonstrated to have mammotrophic properties, were studied in the pigeon crop sac, a well-known target organ for mammotrophic and lactogenic hormones, and compared with the effects produced by prolactin (PRL). The two hormones were injected directly over the crop at different doses and the response was evaluated after differing times of exposure. RLX causes a dose-related increase in wet and dry weights and [3H]thymidine and [3H]uridine uptake by the crop mucosa, as well as morphological changes indicating growth and differentiation of the epithelial cells similar to those occurring during physiological activation in incubation and hatching. At the doses assayed, the effects of RLX were nearly identical to those obtained following PRL in the short-term experiments, but differences in functional responses were found in the long-term experiment

  18. Left ovarian gonadoblastoma with yolk sac tumor in a young woman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gelincik Ibrahim

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Gonodoblastomas with ovarian germ cell tumors other than dysgerminoma coexists very rarely with yolk sac tumor (YST. Because of this rarity, we report a case of gonadoblastoma with YST. An 18-year-old female patient was admitted to our hospital with an abdomino-pelvic mass. Ultrasonographical examinations revealed a 15X14 cm heterogenous pelvic mass with calcific foci in the left adnexal area. Macroscopically, the resected mass was oval and measured 18X15X15 cm and weighed 3150 gm. Histological examination showed both gonadoblastic and YST areas. There were many gonadoblastic nests in the subcapsular areas of the tumor. The gonadoblastic nests were composed of large and small cells. The YST areas showed enteric differentiation and numerous hyaline globules. Immunohistochemical examination may help in the diagnosis of these gonadoblastoma with YST.

  19. Five new species of the Afrotropical dark sac spider genus Messapus Simon, 1898 (Araneae: Corinnidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddad, Charles R; Mbo, Zingisile

    2015-01-01

    The Afrotropical dark sac spider genus Messapus Simon, 1898 (Corinnidae: Corinninae) currently only comprises two described species, the type species M. martini Simon, 1898 and M. natalis (Pocock, 1898), which have both recently been redescribed. The leg and setal morphology of Messapus is studied using scanning electron microscopy for the first time, for M. martini and M. tigris sp. n., and additional characters are provided to supplement a recent generic description. Five new species are described in the current paper: M. megae sp. n. (♂ ♀, from Zimbabwe), M. meridionalis sp. n. (♀, from South Africa), M. seiugatus sp. n. (♀, from Guinea), M. tigris sp. n. (♀, from Botswana and Namibia), and M. tropicus sp. n. (♂ ♀, from Democratic Republic of the Congo). All five species are arboreal spiders occurring on bark, lower foliage strata and the canopies of forest and savannah trees. An identification key to the seven species of the genus is provided. PMID:26701488

  20. Embryo sac development in yellow passion fruit Passiflora edulis f. flavicarpa (Passifloraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarete Magalhães de Souza

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The yellow passion fruit, Passiflora edulis f. flavicarpa, is one of the most important Brazilian fruit crops. It is an allogamous, diploid, and self-incompatible species. It has hermaphrodite, solitary flowers, located in the leaf axils and protected by leaf bracts. The flower has an androgynophore, which is a straight stalk supporting its reproductive parts. There are usually five anthers, located at the tip of each of the five filaments. The ovary is borne just above the filaments, at the top of the androgynophore; there are three styles that are united at their base, and at the top there are three stigmas. The objective of this research was to observe embryo sac development in yellow passion flowers. Ovaries at different stages of development were fixed in FAA (formalin, acetic acid and alcohol solution, hydrated, stained with Mayer’s hemalum, and dehydrated. Ovules were cleared by using methyl salicylate, mounted on slides, and observed through a confocal scanning laser microscope. The yellow passion fruit ovule is bitegmic, crassinucellate, and anatropous, and its gametophyte development is of the Polygonum type. After meiosis, functional megaspores under go three successive mitotic divisions, resulting in an eight-nucleate megagametophyte: the egg apparatus at the micropylar end, two polar nuclei at the cell center, and three antipodals at the chalazal end. The egg apparatus is formed by an egg cell and two synergids, each with a filiform apparatus. The mature embryo sac has an egg cell, two synergids, two polar nuclei, and three antipodes, as has been described for most angiosperms.

  1. New Technique for Suppression Four-Wave Mixing Effects in SAC-OCDMA Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim Fadhil Radhi

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available A new technique invented for suppressing the FWM in SAC-OCDMA systems based on adding idle code at the sideband of the code construction to generate the virtual FWM power at the sideband of the signal, and then by subtracting these virtual FWM power from the original FWM power in the system and filtering the data part at the channel. This technique is applied for both SAC codes, Random Diagonal Code (RD and Multi Diagonal Code (MD. Moreover, in terms of cost, the reported technique is considered a cost-effective as the LED light source is used to generate the sideband codes. The results showed that the FWM reduced approximately 25 dBm after using the technique. For example, in the RD code the FWM power at 40km fiber length and input power is 15 dBm using the SMF fiber type is approximately -55 dBm before using the technique, after using the technique at the same values of parameters the FWM power is approximately -90dBm. In other words, at the MD code the FWM power before using the technique is approximately -61 dBm, the same parameters values, however after using our technique the value of the FWM power is approximately -81dBm. However, These results gave impact on the Bit Error Rate (BER also, for example the value of BER in the RD code at the input power -10dBm and 35km fiber length before using the technique is 1.6×10-23 and after using the technique the value of BER will become 4.05×10-28. In addition at the MD code the BER value before using the technique is 9.4×10-22 and after using the technique the value of BER is 7.4×10-31.

  2. PolySac3DB: an annotated data base of 3 dimensional structures of polysaccharides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarkar Anita

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Polysaccharides are ubiquitously present in the living world. Their structural versatility makes them important and interesting components in numerous biological and technological processes ranging from structural stabilization to a variety of immunologically important molecular recognition events. The knowledge of polysaccharide three-dimensional (3D structure is important in studying carbohydrate-mediated host-pathogen interactions, interactions with other bio-macromolecules, drug design and vaccine development as well as material science applications or production of bio-ethanol. Description PolySac3DB is an annotated database that contains the 3D structural information of 157 polysaccharide entries that have been collected from an extensive screening of scientific literature. They have been systematically organized using standard names in the field of carbohydrate research into 18 categories representing polysaccharide families. Structure-related information includes the saccharides making up the repeat unit(s and their glycosidic linkages, the expanded 3D representation of the repeat unit, unit cell dimensions and space group, helix type, diffraction diagram(s (when applicable, experimental and/or simulation methods used for structure description, link to the abstract of the publication, reference and the atomic coordinate files for visualization and download. The database is accompanied by a user-friendly graphical user interface (GUI. It features interactive displays of polysaccharide structures and customized search options for beginners and experts, respectively. The site also serves as an information portal for polysaccharide structure determination techniques. The web-interface also references external links where other carbohydrate-related resources are available. Conclusion PolySac3DB is established to maintain information on the detailed 3D structures of polysaccharides. All the data and features are available

  3. Border Effects in Passenger Air Traffic

    OpenAIRE

    Klodt, Henning

    2003-01-01

    National borders substantially matter in passenger air traffic. Empirical estimates based upon a new data set on domestic and international departures from German airports indicate that the German border reduces air traffic activity by a factor of four to five. This result adds a further piece of evidence to the significance of border effects in various kinds of economic activity.

  4. Combined anti-solvent and cooling method of manufacturing indomethacin-saccharin (IMC-SAC) co-crystal powders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chun, Nan-Hee; Lee, Min-Jeong; Song, Geon-Hyung; Chang, Kwan-Young; Kim, Chang-Sam; Choi, Guang J.

    2014-12-01

    The anti-solvent approach has been demonstrated as one potential industrial method to produce pharmaceutical co-crystal powders with high purity. In this study, we combined the anti-solvent method with cooling to maximize the yield of the solution-based co-crystallization between indomethacin (IMC) and saccharin (SAC). The cooling start time was the key process parameter; other parameters were fixed based on results of preliminary work. Highly pure IMC-SAC co-crystal powders were produced via the combined method, regardless of the cooling start time, and the yield was substantially enhanced. However, some material properties, such as crystallinity and particle size, were affected by the cooling start time; i.e., whether cooling was started before nucleation (pre-nucleation cooling) or after nucleation (post-nucleation cooling). When pre-nucleation cooling was applied, a greater degree of supersaturation led to nucleation of α-IMC and IMC-SAC together. The metastable α-IMC eventually transitioned to stable IMC-SAC co-crystal particles, followed by crystal growth. When post-nucleation cooling was applied, the transient α-IMC was not detected during the entire process.

  5. What a signature adds to the consent process.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Neary, Peter

    2012-02-03

    BACKGROUND: "Consent is a process by which a patient is informed and becomes a participant in decisions regarding their medical management." It is argued, however, that providing a signature to a form adds little to the quality of this process. METHODS: Views regarding the consent ritual of nonselected patients undergoing endoscopy (cystoscopy or sigmoidoscopy) were prospectively studied together with those of the attending staff. Patient volunteers were randomly assigned to one of two groups and given verbal explanation before the procedure, either alone (group A) or with a request to sign a form in addition (group B). A standardized questionnaire regarding preferences then was applied. RESULTS: A total of 37 patients (22 men) were studied along with seven staff members. Most surveyed felt that signing a consent form helped to empower the patient (group A, 84%; group B, 83%; staff, 100%). Although the patients mainly believed that it functioned primarily to protect the hospital and doctor (group A, 89%; group B, 67%), only one patient (3% of total) felt that such a formality undermined the patient-doctor relationship. Most staff members favored signing a form (86%). The majority of patients either favored it (group A, 47%; group B, 78%) or expressed no strong preference (group A, 32%; group B, 11%). Interestingly, more women than men preferred signing (73 vs. 55%; p = 0.25), perhaps because more women believed that it functioned to preserve autonomy (93 vs. 77% of men). Age was no particular determinant of perspective. CONCLUSION: Although it may be viewed as primarily serving to protect the doctor and hospital, the formal process of signing written consent forms appeals to patients and staff.

  6. Integrated add/drop multiplexer (ADM) using micromachined mirror

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, J.; Zhang, Q. X.; Balasubramanian, N.; Huang, J.-M.; Liu, Ai Q.

    2001-10-01

    High speed, low insertion loss optical add/drop multiplexer (ADM) is designed and fabricated. The optical vertical micromirror is fabricated by deep dry etching, the aspect ratio reaches as high as 20. A thin aluminum film is deposited on the sidewall of the micromirror to increase the reflectivity. The anchors and pads are fabricated firstly, followed by the comb drive, micromirror and fiber grooves. Refilling technique is introduced to electrically insulate the anchors and pads from the substrate while still maintaining the mechanical support. The anchors and pads are strong enough to sustain the floating structures (micromirror and moving comb) and also assure good electrical connection to the electrostatic comb drive so that the external voltage can be applied. By improving dry etching, the finger width is only 2micrometers and the gap is only 2.5micrometers . A typical electrostatic comb drive is fabricated by the deep reactive ion etching (RIE) and underneath releasing. Folded suspension beams of 800micrometers long, 2.0 micrometers wide and 35micrometers deep are employed to support the movable micromirror. The stiffness along the desired lateral direction is 0.21N/m. Comb drive using three electrodes is employed. Its applied voltage is decreased by a ratio of 0.707 compared with that of the two electrodes system, and the switching speed is also increased. To simply the optical fiber assembly, fiber grooves are fabricated along with the other structures. This device has a typical of optical ADM that can be widely used in all optical networks. All of the processes are compatible with IC technology and can be integrated with control circuits in a single chip.

  7. Effects of breeder age on mineral contents and weight of yolk sac, embryo development, and hatchability in Pekin ducks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onbasilar, E E; Erdem, E; Hacan, O; Yalçin, S

    2014-02-01

    The current study was carried out to investigate the effects of breeder age on egg composition, changes of embryo, yolk sac, and yolk minerals during incubation and hatchability in Pekin ducks. A total of 495 freshly laid eggs were obtained from the same flock of Pekin ducks, aged 28, 34, and 40 wk, and were reared in accordance with the management guide of the duck breeders (Star 53-Grimaud Freres). At each breeder age, egg measurements were made on a random subsample of unincubated eggs. Embryo and yolk sac measurements were made on embryonic day (E) 12, E16, E20, and E25. On d 28 of incubation, the healthy ducklings were removed and sex of chicks was determined. All chicks were weighed and hatching results were determined. Egg weight and yolk percentages increased; however, albumen percentages, shell thickness, and yolk index decreased as the flock aged. Shell percentages, shell breaking strength, albumen index, and haugh units were not affected by breeder age. Also, breeder age affected the Mg, P, K, Ca, Cu, and Zn levels in the yolk, except for Na level on day of setting, and breeder age affected the mineral consumed by embryo during incubation. However, on E25, the levels of examined minerals, except for P level in the yolk sac, were not statistically different in duck breeder age groups. Relative yolk sac and embryo weights of eggs obtained from different breeder ages varied from E16 to E25; however, embryo length was different in breeder age groups from E12 to E20. Hatching weight was affected by breeder age and sex. Hatching results were not different among breeder age groups. This study indicates that breeder age is important for some egg characteristics, relative yolk sac weight, some contents of minerals in the yolk, embryonic growth during incubation, and duckling weight. PMID:24570471

  8. Embedding objects during 3D printing to add new functionalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuen, Po Ki

    2016-07-01

    A novel method for integrating and embedding objects to add new functionalities during 3D printing based on fused deposition modeling (FDM) (also known as fused filament fabrication or molten polymer deposition) is presented. Unlike typical 3D printing, FDM-based 3D printing could allow objects to be integrated and embedded during 3D printing and the FDM-based 3D printed devices do not typically require any post-processing and finishing. Thus, various fluidic devices with integrated glass cover slips or polystyrene films with and without an embedded porous membrane, and optical devices with embedded Corning(®) Fibrance™ Light-Diffusing Fiber were 3D printed to demonstrate the versatility of the FDM-based 3D printing and embedding method. Fluid perfusion flow experiments with a blue colored food dye solution were used to visually confirm fluid flow and/or fluid perfusion through the embedded porous membrane in the 3D printed fluidic devices. Similar to typical 3D printed devices, FDM-based 3D printed devices are translucent at best unless post-polishing is performed and optical transparency is highly desirable in any fluidic devices; integrated glass cover slips or polystyrene films would provide a perfect optical transparent window for observation and visualization. In addition, they also provide a compatible flat smooth surface for biological or biomolecular applications. The 3D printed fluidic devices with an embedded porous membrane are applicable to biological or chemical applications such as continuous perfusion cell culture or biocatalytic synthesis but without the need for any post-device assembly and finishing. The 3D printed devices with embedded Corning(®) Fibrance™ Light-Diffusing Fiber would have applications in display, illumination, or optical applications. Furthermore, the FDM-based 3D printing and embedding method could also be utilized to print casting molds with an integrated glass bottom for polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) device replication

  9. Error-free 320 Gb/s simultaneous add-drop multiplexing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mulvad, Hans Christian Hansen; Oxenløwe, Leif Katsuo; Clausen, Anders;

    2007-01-01

    We report on the first demonstration of error-free time-division add-drop multiplexing at 320 Gb/s. The add- and drop-operations are performed simultaneously in a non-linear optical loop mirror with only 100 m of highly non-linear fibre.......We report on the first demonstration of error-free time-division add-drop multiplexing at 320 Gb/s. The add- and drop-operations are performed simultaneously in a non-linear optical loop mirror with only 100 m of highly non-linear fibre....

  10. Evaluation of an anal sac adenocarcinoma tumor in a Spitz dog

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Javad Javanbakht; Abbas Tavassoli; Atefeh Sabbagh; Mehdy Aghamohammmad Hassan; Shohreh Alian Samakkhah; Radmehr Shafiee; Ali Lakzian; Vahideh Rahmani Ghalee; Sonia Shoja Gharebagh

    2013-01-01

    A 9-year-old emasculated male Spitz with tenesmus and constipation had a subcutaneous mass at the left ventral aspect of the anus with history of polyuria and polydipsia. A complete blood cell count, serum biochemistry panel, and urinalysis (cystocentesis sample) were evaluated. Abnormalities in the serum biochemistry panel included a mildly elevated serum cholesterol concentration (7.28 mmol/L; reference interval, 2.70-5.94 mmol/L), increased serum alkaline phosphatase activity (184 U/L; reference interval, 9-90 U/L), alanine transaminase (122 U/L;reference interval, 5-60 U/L) activity and aspartate aminotransferase (80 U/L; reference interval, 5-55 U/L) activity, severe increased total calcium concentration (16.3 mg/dL; reference interval, 8.2-12.4 mg/dL or 9.3-11.4 mg/dL), and decreased total calcium concentration (3.4 mg/dL, reference interval, 2.5-5.6mg/dL). Furthermore, testing revealed an increased intact parathyroid hormone concentration (38.6 pmol/L; reference interval, 3-17 pmol/L). On cytologic and histopathologic examinations, various types of cells were observed. Most of the cells were oval to polygonal and had elliptical or elongate nuclei and a moderate amount of pale to basophilic cytoplasm. The remaining cells had round to oval nuclei and pale to basophilic cytoplasm. Cells of both types were loosely adhered to each other and were arranged in rosette-like structures. Both neoplastic cell types had fine homogenous chromatin and either a small indistinct nucleolus or no visible nucleolus. Mild anisokaryosis and anisocytosis were observed. Histologically, the mass consists of glandular structures formed by cuboidal cells admixed with bundles of spindle cells. Based on location and histologic features, the final diagnosis was adenocarcinoma of the apocrine gland of the anal sac, which should be included as a cytologic differential diagnosis when spindle cells and typical epithelial cells are observed in masses in the region of the anal sac of dogs.

  11. Relationships between TGFbeta proteins and oxygen concentrations inside the first trimester human gestational sac.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shanthi Muttukrishna

    Full Text Available In early pregnancy, the O(2 gradient between the maternal circulation and the gestational sac tissues modulates trophoblast biological functions. The aim was to evaluate if placental partial pressure of oxygen (PaO(2 modulates in vivo synthesis of specific placental proteins inside the first trimester gestational sac. Matched samples of peripheral venous blood, blood from the placental bed (PB, coelomic fluid (CF and placental tissue were obtained in 37 normal pregnancies at 6-12 weeks gestation. PaO(2 was measured in PB and CF using an IRMA blood gas monitor. Inhibin A, activin A, sEng, PlGF, sFlt-1 and free VEGF concentrations were measured in all samples. HSP 70 was measured in placental extracts. ANOVA showed approximately 60% increase in PB PaO(2 (P = 0.02 between after 10 weeks gestation. Unpaired Student's T-test between two groups (6-9 weeks vs 9-12 weeks shows a significant increase in MS Activin A (P = 0.001, CF activin A (P<0.001, MS P1GF (P = 0.001, CF PlGF (P<0.001, MS sFLT-1 (P = 0.03, CF sFLT-1 (P = 0.01, HSP 70 in placental extracts (P = 0.04 and a significant decrease in PB inhibin A levels (P<0.001 and PB sFLT-1 (P = 0.02 . Multiple correlation analysis showed a significant negative correlation between PB inhibin A levels and gestation (r = -0.45, P<0.05 and PB PaO(2 (r = -0.5, P = 0.008 and also between sFLT-1 and PB PaO(2 (P = 0.03. There was a positive correlation (P<0.01 between PlGF, sEng and VEGF levels in the placental extracts. Our results indicate a direct relationship in the early intrauterine PaO(2 in vivo and inhibin A and sFLT-1 concentrations confirming our hypothesis that specific placental proteins are regulated by intrauterine O(2 tension.

  12. Evaluation of an anal sac adenocarcinoma tumor in a Spitz dog

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Javad; Javanbakht; Abbas; Tavassoli; Atefeh; Sabbagh; Mehdy; Aghamohammmad; Hassan; Shohreh; Alian; Samakkhah; Radmehr; Shafiee; Ali; Lakzian; Vahideh; Rahmani; Ghalee; Sonia; Shoja; Gharebagh

    2013-01-01

    A 9-year-old emasculated male Spitz with tenesmus and constipation had a subcutaneous mass at the left ventral aspect of the anus with history of polyuria and polydipsia.A complete blood cell count,serum biochemistry panel,and urinalysis(cystocentesis sample)were evaluated.Abnormalities in the serum biochemistry panel included a mildly elevated serum cholesterol concentration(7.28 mmol/L;reference interval,2.70-5.94 mmol/L),increased serum alkaline phosphatase activity(184 U/L;reference interval,9-90 U/L),alanine transaminase(122 U/L;reference interval,5-60 U/L)activity and aspartate aminotransferase(80 U/L;reference interval,5-55 U/L)activity,severe increased total calcium concentration(16.3 mg/dL;reference interval,8.2-12.4 mg/dL or 9.3-11.4 mg/dL),and decreased total calcium concentration(3.4 mg/dL,reference interval,2.5-5.6mg/dL).Furthermore,testing revealed an increased intact parathyroid hormone concentration(38.6 pmol/L;reference interval,3-17 pmol/L).On cytologic and histopathologic examinations,various types of cells were observed.Most of the cells were oval to polygonal and had elliptical or elongate nuclei and a moderate amount of pale to basophilic cytoplasm.The remaining cells had round to oval nuclei and pale to basophilic cytoplasm.Cells of both types were loosely adhered to each other and were arranged in rosette-like structures.Both neoplastic cell types had fine homogenous chromatin and either a small indistinct nucleolus or no visible nucleolus.Mild anisokaryosis and anisocytosis were observed.Histologically,the mass consists of glandular structures formed by cuboidal cells admixed with bundles of spindle cells.Based on location and histologic features,the final diagnosis was adenocarcinoma of the apocrine gland of the anal sac,which should be included as a cytologic differential diagnosis when spindle cells and typical epithelial cells are observed in masses in the region of the anal sac of dogs.

  13. MR imaging features and clinical value of vestibular aqueduct and endolymphatic sac in patients with large vestibular aqueduct syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To investigate MR imaging features of endolymphatic sac and vestibular aqueduct in patients with large vestibular aqueduct syndrome (LVAS) and its correlation with hearing loss. Methods: MR imaging findings of LVAS were analyzed in 31 cases (62 ears) retrospectively. MR imaging features were grouped into 4 types. In the first type, the signals of endolymphatic and vestibular aqueduct were hypointense without any hyperintense area. In the second type, the signals of endolymphatic sac and vestibular were hyperintense which were confined within vestibular fissure. In the third type, the area from vestibular aqueduct backward out of the edge of the petrous bone was hyperintense, but its lower boundary was above posterior semicircular. In the fourth type the area which was hyperintense was below the posterior semicircular. To avoid errors in visual inspection, the hyperintense and hypointense area of endolymphatic and the signal intensity of vestibular aqueduct and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) were measured. The differences of signal intensity among the vestibular endolymphatic sac between the high-signal areas and low signal areas were compared with paired t-test. The correlation of the endolymphatic sac MRI classification and degree of hearing loss was analyzed by corrected Chi-square test and Spearman correlation analysis. Result: Ten ears belonged to type Ⅰ (moderate hearing loss in 1 ear,severe in 4 ears,profound in 5 ears), 17 ears belonged to type Ⅱ (moderate hearing loss in 1 ear; severe in 5 ears,profound in 11 ears), 23 ears to type Ⅲ (moderate hearing loss in 3 ear, severe in 5 ears, profound in 15 ears) and 12 ears belonged to Ⅳ (mild hearing loss in 1 ear, moderate in 1 ear, severe 3 ear, profound in 7 ears). The boundary between hyperintense and hypointense area was clear, and the signal intensity ratios was 2.02 ± 0.06. The signal ratios of hyperintense and hypointense area to vestibular and CSF were 0.95 ±0.12, 0.49 ±0.10, 0.99 ± 0

  14. Relative investment in egg load and poison sac in fig wasps: Implications for physiological mechanisms underlying seed and wasp production in figs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinson, Ellen O.; Jandér, K. Charlotte; Peng, Yan-Qiong; Chen, Huan-Huan; Machado, Carlos A.; Arnold, A. Elizabeth; Herre, Edward Allen

    2014-05-01

    Fig pollinating wasps and most non-pollinator wasps apply secretions from their poison sacs into oviposited flowers that appear necessary to the formation of the galls that their developing offspring consume. Thus, both eggs and poison sac secretions appear to be essential for wasp reproduction, but the relative investment in each is unknown. We measured relative investment in poison sac and egg production in pollinating and non-pollinating wasps associated with seven species of monoecious Panamanian figs representing both active and passive pollination syndromes. We then collected similar data for four fig hosts in China, where some wasp species in the genus Eupristina have lost the ability to pollinate ("cheaters"). All wasps examined possessed large poison sacs, and we found a strong positive correlation between poison sac size and absolute egg production. In the Panamanian species, the relative poison sac to egg investment was highest in the externally ovipositing non-pollinator wasps, followed by active pollinators, then by passive pollinators. Further, pollinator wasps of fig species with demonstrated host sanctions against "cheating" wasps showed higher investment in the poison sac than wasps of species without sanctions. In the Chinese samples, relative investment in the poison sac was indistinguishable between pollinators and "cheaters" associated with the same fig species. We suggest that higher relative investment in poison sac across fig wasp species reflects higher relative difficulty in initiating formation of galls and subsequently obtaining resources from the fig. We discuss the implications for the stability of the fig-wasp mutualism, and for the ability of non-pollinators to exploit this mutualism.

  15. IMAGING DIAGNOSIS--USE OF RADIOGRAPHY AND COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY IN THE DIAGNOSIS OF A MINERALIZED YOLK SAC IN A BROWN KIWI (APTERYX MANTELLI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wightman, Paul; Cohen, Eli B; Hunter, Stuart; Gartrell, Brett

    2015-01-01

    A 12-day-old Brown Kiwi (Apteryx mantelli) was presented with anorexia, torticollis, head-tilt, and coelomic distension. Radiographs showed an ill-defined, fat-opaque, coelomic mass displacing viscera craniodorsally. Curvilinear mineral opacities were superimposed over the ventral aspect of the mass. Computed tomography demonstrated the presence of mineral within the periphery of a fat attenuating mass consistent with a retained yolk sac. A deutectomy (yolk sac excision) was performed. Histopathology of the excised tissue confirmed the diagnosis of a retained yolk sac with multifocal mineralization. PMID:25199884

  16. ¿Las dificultades en los movimientos sacádicos influyen negativamente en la velocidad y comprensión lectora?

    OpenAIRE

    Valle-Tato, Consuelo

    2013-01-01

    Las dificultades en los movimientos sacádicos de los ojos son unas de las posibles causas de los problemas de lectura. Es por este motivo que en el presente estudio se analiza la relación entre estos movimientos oculares y la velocidad y comprensión lectora. Adicionalmente, se estudia la influencia de los movimientos sacádicos en el rendimiento escolar. Para ello, se han evaluado los movimientos sacádicos en 34 alumnos de 1º de primaria mediante los test K-D y DEM y la velocidad y comprensión...

  17. Expression of the Bacillus subtilis sacB gene leads to sucrose sensitivity in the gram-positive bacterium Corynebacterium glutamicum but not in Streptomyces lividans.

    OpenAIRE

    Jäger, W; Schäfer, A.; Pühler, A; Labes, G; Wohlleben, W.

    1992-01-01

    The expression of the structural gene (sacB) encoding Bacillus subtilis levansucrase in two gram-positive soil bacteria, Corynebacterium glutamicum ATCC 13032 and Streptomyces lividans 1326, was investigated. sacB expression in the presence of sucrose is lethal to C. glutamicum but not to S. lividans. While S. lividans secretes levansucrase into the medium, we could show that the enzyme is retained by C. glutamicum cells. Our results imply that the sacB gene can be used as a positive selectio...

  18. Migrating bullet in the thecal sac at the level of the conus medullaris without neurological deficit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koban, Orkun; Çal, Hasan; Ekşi, Murat Şakir; Özcan-Ekşi, Emel Ece; Öğrenci, Ahmet

    2016-07-01

    Bullets can lodge in the organs, blood vessels or thecal sac. To our knowledge, a migrating bullet at the level of the conus medullaris without neurological deficit has never been reported. We present our patient along with a discussion of bullet migration in the spinal canal and its mechanisms, diagnosis and treatment. A 29-year-old man was admitted to the emergency department due to a gunshot wound in the right upper quadrant of his abdomen. He had no neurological deficit. Spinal CT scan and plain radiography showed the bullet had passed through the L2 vertebral body and had migrated downwards until it had lost its energy and come to rest in the spinal canal at the L3 vertebra level. There was a grade 5 injury to the pancreas head concomitant with mesenteric injury of the transverse colon, harboring a 0.5 cm hole. He had an emergent laparotomy to have a Roux-en-Y reconstruction and repair of the transverse colon. After his general status stabilized, he was taken back to the operating room to extract the bullet from the spinal canal. L3 and partial L2 laminectomy were performed. The dura was opened and the bullet was observed intrathecally. No cerebrospinal fluid fistula was observed. The surgeries and post-operative period were uneventful. PMID:26921138

  19. Experimental Model of Saccular Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm in Swines with Pericardium Sac

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurício de Amorim Aquino

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: To consider modifications in an experimental model of saccular aortic aneurysm, aiming at better reproducibility, to be used in the development of vascular prostheses. Methods: Experimental study in two phases, developed in the Center of Experimental Surgery and Bioterium (CCEB of the University of Health Sciences of Alagoas (UNCISAL, with 11 hybrid swine, female, mean weight of 20 ± 5 kg, according to modifications in the Perini technique was performed. In the first phase, the aneurysm was confectioned with bovine pericardial patch. In the second phase, fifteen days later, the patency of the aneurysms was confirmed by Doppler ultrasonography. The described variables were aortic and aneurysm sac patency, incidence of rupture, morbidity and mortality. The statistical analysis program used was STATA v.8. Results: All animals survived to the procedures. Surgical mean time was 73 minutes. Aneurysm rupture, proximal or distal aortic thrombosis, visceral or legs ischemia weren't observed. Parietal thrombus formation was observed in all of the aneurysms, two of which (18%; IC 95% = 3.98 - 48.84 were occluded and nine (82%; IC 95% = 51.15 - 96.01 were patent. Conclusion: In this series, the modifications carried out in the technique related to the surgical approach, race, anesthesia, and imaging exams reproduced the experimental model, reducing its costs, without hindering the analysis of the variables. The satisfactory patency ratio allows the method to be used in experimental models for the development of vascular prostheses.

  20. The Effect of Indium on Intestinal Absorption of Iron Using Everted Gut Sac Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Ghaffari

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Iron is an essential metal which involves in more cell activities in the form of enzymes and / or other metaloproteins . Indium is one of the toxic elements that may be interfered with iron metabolism . Using this element has increased recently by different industry. Therefore the aim of this investigation was to study interfer of indium on first phase of iron metabolism (absorption intestinal by everted gut sac (E.G.S . Preliminary results showed that the optimum concentration of iron and indium for best intestinal absorption were 102 and 70 mg/L , respectively . Addition of glucose to incubation media caused increase in iron and / or indium absorption and reduction was seen where ouabain was added to the media , suggest a probable active transport of the element across of the intestinal mucosal cell . Iron absorption was reduced almost by 28% when indium was presented in incubation media . Results obtained from this study indicated that indium might be able to interfer with iron metabolism , at intestinal absorption .

  1. Development of Multi-Service (MS) for SAC-OCDMA systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakaee, Majid H.; Seyedzadeh, Saleh; Adnan Fadhil, Hilal; Barirah Ahmad Anas, Siti; Mokhtar, Makhfudzah

    2014-08-01

    A Multi-Service Optical Code Division Multiple Access (MS-OCDMA) code based on Spectral Amplitude Coding (SAC) is proposed in this paper. The advantage of proposed code on setting a variable number of users in a basic code matrix with a fixed code weight makes it more flexible in generating codewords. The appropriate quality of service required for various network applications can be provided by choosing a different number of users for the basic code matrix of MS code. The properties of the proposed code is compared with other OCDMA codes in terms of code length and maximum cross-correlation. The performance of the MS code mathematically analysed and probability of error for users is plotted as a function of the number of active users and optical received power. Shot, phase induced intensity and thermal noises are considered in mathematical analysis. Results show that by choosing code weight of 4 and optimizing number of users per sequence, the MS code supports up to 82 users, each operating at a bit-rate of 622 Mbps with reference to the Bit Error Rate (BER) of 10-9.

  2. Effect of blue LED light intensity on carotenoid accumulation in citrus juice sacs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lancui; Ma, Gang; Yamawaki, Kazuki; Ikoma, Yoshinori; Matsumoto, Hikaru; Yoshioka, Terutaka; Ohta, Satoshi; Kato, Masaya

    2015-09-01

    In the present study, the effects of blue LED light intensity on carotenoid accumulation and expression of genes related to carotenoid biosynthesis were investigated in the juice sacs of Satsuma mandarin (Citrus unshiu Marc.) and Valencia orange (Citrus sinensis Osbeck) in vitro. The results showed that 100 μmol m(-2)s(-1) blue LED light (100B) was effective for increasing carotenoid content, especially β-cryptoxanthin, in Satsuma mandarin after cultured in vitro for four weeks. In Valencia orange, in contrast, 50 μmol m(-2)s(-1) blue LED light (50B) treatment was effective for inducing carotenoid accumulation through increasing the contents of two major carotenoids, all-trans-violaxanthin and 9-cis-violaxanthin. In addition, gene expression results showed that the simultaneous increases in the expression of genes (CitPSY, CitPDS, CitZDS, CitLCYb2, and CitHYb) involved in producing β,β-xanthophylls were well consistent with the accumulation of β-cryptoxanthin in Satsuma mandarin under 100B, and violaxanthin in Valencia orange under 50B. The results presented herein contribute to further elucidating the regulatory mechanism of carotenoid accumulation by blue LED light. PMID:26432407

  3. Isotopic investigation of groundwater in the Cul-de-Sac plain, Haiti

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The major aquifer of the Cul-de-Sac plain consists of a Quaternary multilayer alluvial formation occupying a graben between two Eocene karst anticlinoriums. Environmental isotopes clearly delineate the origin and major flow patterns of groundwater in this aquifer and its relationship with the karst systems. The major source of recharge is the Riviere Grise, but other sources from the southeastern karst are also important. The northern karst does not contribute significantly. The origin of groundwater salinization in the northern part of the plain and in the zone of Port-au-Prince is also being investigated with isotopes. It appears that this is derived from mixing with a saline water which is slightly enriched in heavy isotopes with respect to fresh groundwater but obeys the same δ18O-δD relationship. Possible mechanisms of saline water formation are discussed which could account for the isotopic enrichment observed. Saline groundwater may derive from water submitted to evaporation in conditions of high relative humidity or it may have formed during a period when the isotopic composition of precipitation was slightly enriched in heavy isotopes in comparison to the present. Sea water intrusion induced by exploitation is reponsible for water salinization in wells close to the coast in the area of Port-au-Prince. (author). 5 refs, 7 figs, 6 tabs

  4. Isotopic study of the groundwater of the flatland of Cul-de-Sac, Republic of Haiti

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main aquifer of the flatland of the Cul-de-Sac is made up of a multiple alluvial formation which has accumulated in the quaternary on the graben between two anticlinorius of karstified limestone of the eocenic age. The environmental isotopes clearly show the origin and the preferential course of water circulation in the aquifer and its relation with the karstic system. The main source of recharge is the river Gris. The contribution of the north karst is of little importance. The origin of the salinity of the groundwater in the septentrional region of the flatland and the region of Port-au-Prince has also been investigated. The salt water is slightly enriched with heavy isotopes with respect to fresh groundwater, not showing any deviation from the straight line of meteoric waters. These waters could be derived from superficial waters put under evaporation under the condition of relative high humidity or from precipitations of another period which have been enriched with heavy isotopes with respect to the current precipitations. In the area of Port-au-Prince the salinity of the groundwater is the result of seawater intrusion as a consequence of intensive exploitation. 7 refs, 7 figs, 6 tabs

  5. Determining the Level of the Dural Sac Tip: Magnetic Resonance Imaging in an Adult Population

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Binokay, F.; Akgul, E.; Bicakci, K.; Soyupak, S.; Aksungur, E.; Sertdemir, Y. [Cukurova Univ., Balcali Hospital, Adana (Turkey). Dept. of Radiology and Dept. of Biostatistics

    2006-07-15

    Purpose: To determine the variation in the location of the dural sac (DS) in a living adult population and to correlate this position with age and sex. Material and Methods: T2-weighted, midline, sagittal, spin-echo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies of 743 patients were assessed to identify the tip of the DS. This location was recorded in relation to the upper, middle, or lower third of the adjacent vertebral body or the adjacent intervertebral disk. Results: Frequency distribution for levels of termination of the DS on MRI demonstrated that the end of the DS was usually located at the upper one-third of S2 (25.2%). The mean level in females was also the upper one-third of S2 (26.5%) and in males the lower one-third of S2 (24.1%). The overall mean DS position was mostly at the upper one-third of S2. No significant differences in DS position were seen between male and female patients or with increasing age. Conclusion: It is important to know the possible range for the termination level of the DS when performing caudal anesthesia and craniospinal irradiation in some clinical situations. The distribution of DS location in a large adult population was shown to range from the L5-S1 intervertebral disk to the upper third of S3 vertebrae.

  6. Unique stereocontrol in carborane chemistry: skeletal alkylcarbonation (SAC) versus exoskeletal alkylmethylation (EAM) reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakardjiev, Mario; Holub, Josef; Macháček, Jan; Hnyk, Drahomír; Štíbr, Bohumil; Růžičková, Zdeňka; Růžička, Aleš

    2015-04-13

    Reactions between the arachno-6,9-C2B8H14 (1) dicarbaborane and acyl chlorides, RCOCl (2), are subject to stereocontrol that completely changes the nature of the reaction products. While most chlorides produce the 8-R-nido-7,8,9-C3B8H11 (3) tricarbollides (by skeletal alkylcarbonation=SAC), bulky RCOCls (2; where R=1-adamantyl, 2 a; 1-mesityl, 2 b; 9-anthranyl, 2 c; 1-naphthyl, 2 d) in 1,2-dichloroethane (DCE) in the presence of triethylamine at 40-60 °C gave a series of entirely different 1-R-2-CH3-closo-1,6-C2B8H8 (4) dicarbaboranes upon acidification with conc. H2SO4 (by exosleletal alkylmehylation=EAM). Both types of reactions seem to proceed via a common [8-R-nido-7,8,9-C3B8H10](-) (3(-)) anion which in the EAM case is unstable because of steric crowd and undergoes rearrangement via the isomeric [R-nido-7,8,10-C3B8H10](-) tricarbollide structures which, on protonation, undergo reductive extraction of one CH vertex to generate the 2-CH3 substituent in structure 4. PMID:25708127

  7. Yolk sac tumor with a prominent polyvesicular vitelline pattern: a report of three cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Robert H; Ulbright, Thomas M; Policarpio-Nicolas, Maria Luisa C

    2013-03-01

    We report 3 cases of the rare polyvesicular vitelline variant of ovarian yolk sac tumor (YST). The patients were 23, 29, and 43 years old, and all presented with large unilateral adnexal masses confined to the ovary. One tumor was predominantly cystic, and the other 2 had prominent cystic components; all 3 also had solid components. Microscopic examination of the cystic regions showed dilated cysts that largely effaced the stroma resulting in a honeycomb-like appearance. The solid foci were characterized predominantly by small tubules in a fibrous stroma; the tubules exhibited variably conspicuous cystic dilatation to merge with the microcystic appearance. The tumor cells varied from large and primitive-appearing to flattened and deceptively innocuous when lining large cysts. They were immunoreactive for α-fetoprotein and glypican-3. Non-polyvesicular vitelline components of YST were present focally in 2 cases (hepatoid in one, reticular and endometrioid like in the second). Two patients are disease free after 20 and 26 years, respectively; disease-free follow-up is of short duration in the third case (2 years). The good long-term outcome in 2 cases supports prior evidence that suggests that the natural history of this form of YST may be more indolent than conventional forms of the tumor. PMID:23348213

  8. Modulo-p Addition Based Constant Weight Variable Length Prime Codes for SAC-OCDMA Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malleswari.M

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a novel prime code family called constant weight and variable length prime code (CWVLPC is presented. The CWVL prime code is constructed from the basic prime codes which are generated using modulo-p addition. Since the proposed code family possesses very good correlation property (cross correlation equal to zero, the system eliminates the phase induced intensity noise (PIIN and multi user interference (MUI completely. In addition, for any given prime number p, we can generate p number of code families with different length. Further, the weight of the proposed code is kept always equal to one independent of the prime number p and the p number of code families; thus it can simplify the design of encoder/decoder structures of the proposed SAC-OCDMA system. Also, bit error rate performance of the developed code is much better than the commonly used MQC code. To illustrate, for p=17 and an acceptable bit error rate of 10-9, the proposed coding system supports 225 simultaneous users with code length of 289 at an effective source power of -5 dBm.

  9. Cognitive Control and Attentional Selection in Adolescents with ADHD versus ADD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Laurie; Henderson, John; Nigg, Joel T.

    2010-01-01

    An important research question is whether Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is related to early- or late-stage attentional control mechanisms and whether this differentiates a nonhyperactive subtype (ADD). This question was addressed in a sample of 145 ADD/ADHD and typically developing comparison adolescents (aged 13-17). Attentional…

  10. Changes in Serum Acute Phase Reactants, Inflammatory Mediators and Gangliosides in Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica with Retained Yolk Sac

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Mosleh, S. Nazifi* and A. Alaeddini

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Twenty-two 2-week-old Japanese quails (Coturnix japonica with retained yolk sac have been assessed using validated standard procedures to quantify the serum concentration of the acute phase reactants (haptoglobin and serum amyloid A, inflammatory mediators (tumor necrosis factor-alpha, gamma interferon and gangliosides (total sialic acid, lipid bound sialic acid and protein bound sialic acid. The present findings show that the concentrations of all measured parameters in diseased birds were significantly higher than the control group. Inflammation following yolk sac infection/retention leads to stimulation of the synthesis of inflammatory mediators, acute phase reactants and gangliosides. Among the study variables, lipid bound sialic acid had the most obvious change, so it is the most sensitive parameter.

  11. Fairy Chemicals, 2-Azahypoxanthine and 2-Aza-8-oxohypoxanthine, Regulate Carotenoid Accumulation in Citrus Juice Sacs in Vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Gang; Zhang, Lancui; Yamawaki, Kazuki; Yahata, Masaki; Choi, Jae-Hoon; Kawagishi, Hirokazu; Kato, Masaya

    2015-08-19

    "Fairy chemicals", 2-azahypoxanthine (AHX) and 2-aza-8-oxohypoxanthine (AOH), are two novel plant-growth regulating compounds isolated from a fairy ring forming fungus, Lepista sordida. In the present study, the effects of AHX and AOH on the accumulation of carotenoids and expression of genes related to carotenoid metabolism were investigated in the juice sacs of Satsuma mandarin (Citrus unshiu Marc.) in vitro. The results showed that AHX and AOH regulated carotenoid metabolism in the citrus juice sacs. Carotenoid accumulation was induced by AHX in the second week and by AOH in the fourth week. In the meanwhile, the modification of carotenoid accumulation by the AHX and AOH treatments was highly regulated at the transcriptional level. The results presented herein provide new information on the functions of AHX and AOH in plants and contribute to elucidating the mechanisms by which AHX and AOH stimulate plant growth. PMID:26208741

  12. Percutaneous discal cyst rupture in a professional football player using sublaminar epidural injection for thecal sac displacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Michael V; Park, Andrew; Bumpass, David; Jennings, Jack W; Matava, Matthew J

    2015-01-01

    A case of percutaneous discal cyst rupture in a 25-year-old professional American football player is reported. The patient presented with a 3-day history of severe left-sided back pain. Magnetic resonance imaging examination demonstrated a discal cyst effacing the left L4-L5 lateral recess, with interposed thecal sac. A sublaminar epidural injection was performed displacing the thecal sac, exposing the discal cyst, and allowing for percutaneous perforation. The patient had complete resolution of symptoms after discal cyst rupture and was able to compete in a professional football game 3 days later. Computed tomography-guided percutaneous rupture is a therapeutic modality that may be considered for treatment of a symptomatic discal cyst. PMID:25541445

  13. Generalized optical code construction for enhanced and Modified Double Weight like codes without mapping for SAC-OCDMA systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumawat, Soma; Ravi Kumar, M.

    2016-07-01

    Double Weight (DW) code family is one of the coding schemes proposed for Spectral Amplitude Coding-Optical Code Division Multiple Access (SAC-OCDMA) systems. Modified Double Weight (MDW) code for even weights and Enhanced Double Weight (EDW) code for odd weights are two algorithms extending the use of DW code for SAC-OCDMA systems. The above mentioned codes use mapping technique to provide codes for higher number of users. A new generalized algorithm to construct EDW and MDW like codes without mapping for any weight greater than 2 is proposed. A single code construction algorithm gives same length increment, Bit Error Rate (BER) calculation and other properties for all weights greater than 2. Algorithm first constructs a generalized basic matrix which is repeated in a different way to produce the codes for all users (different from mapping). The generalized code is analysed for BER using balanced detection and direct detection techniques.

  14. CHAOS-a model of the Earth's magnetic field derived from CHAMP, Orsted, and SAC-C magnetic satellite data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Nils; Luhr, H.; Sabaka, T.J.;

    2006-01-01

    We have derived a model of the near-Earth magnetic field (up to spherical harmonic degree n= 50 for the static field, and up to n = 18 for the first time derivative) using more than 6.5 yr of high-precision geomagnetic measurements from the three satellites Orsted, CHAMP and SAC-C taken between 1...... 1999 March and 2005 December. Our modelling approach goes in several aspects beyond that used for recent models: (i) we use different data selection criteria and allow for higher geomagnetic activity (index Kp......We have derived a model of the near-Earth magnetic field (up to spherical harmonic degree n= 50 for the static field, and up to n = 18 for the first time derivative) using more than 6.5 yr of high-precision geomagnetic measurements from the three satellites Orsted, CHAMP and SAC-C taken between...

  15. Sustainable complete remission in recurrence yolk sac tumor patient treated with tandem high-dose chemotherapy and autologous stem cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, N A; Wang, P N; Huang, K G; Adlan, A S; Casanova, J

    2013-01-01

    A 21-year-old lady diagnosed with Stage 3 ovarian yolk sac tumor (YST) underwent primary cytoreductive fertility sparing surgery, followed by conventional courses of platinum-based chemotherapy and etoposide. Recurrence at cul-da-sac was noted after a short period of remission and secondary debulking performed followed by four cycles of conventional chemotherapy. The patient's disease progressed despite courses of treatments. A joint team management including a hematologist was commenced following the failure of conventional chemotherapies. Two cycles of high-dose chemotherapy (HDCT) with ifosfamide/cisplatin/etoposide (ICE) regimen, followed by autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT) were given. With this salvage treatment, she remained in complete remission and disease-free for more than 30 months, while maintaining her reproductive function. These approaches appear to be effective as a salvage treatment in selected cases of patients with ovarian germ cell tumor, especially those who failed primary conventional chemotherapy. PMID:23781595

  16. Fecal sacs attract insects to the nest and provoke an activation of the immune system of nestlings

    OpenAIRE

    Ibáñez-Álamo, Juan Diego; Ruiz-Raya, Francisco; Rodríguez, Laura; Soler, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    Background Nest sanitation is a widespread but rarely studied behavior in birds. The most common form of nest sanitation behavior, the removal of nestling feces, has focused the discussion about which selective pressures determine this behavior. The parasitism hypothesis, which states that nestling fecal sacs attract parasites that negatively affect breeding birds, was proposed 40 years ago and is frequently cited as a demonstrated fact. But, to our knowledge, there is no previous experimenta...

  17. Influence of sex, age, and fasting on blood parameters and body, bursa, spleen and yolk sac weights of broiler chicks

    OpenAIRE

    DL Pires; EB Malheiros; Boleli IC

    2007-01-01

    The effects of water and feed fasting for 24, 48 and 72 hours post-hatching on blood parameters (mean corpuscular volume, MCV; red blood-cell, RBC; hematocrit, HCT; hemoglobin, HGB; plasma glucose, CGP; plasma total protein, PP, and differential leukocytes count), and on body, liver, spleen, bursa, and yolk sac weights were analyzed. Erythrogram data were obtained with a blood cell counter. Total plasma protein and plasma glucose were determined by using the Bradford method (1976) and a gluco...

  18. Hematopoietic differentiation of human embryonic stem cells progresses through sequential hematoendothelial, primitive, and definitive stages resembling human yolk sac development

    OpenAIRE

    Zambidis, E. T.; Peault, B; Park, T S; Bunz, F; Civin, C I

    2005-01-01

    We elucidate the cellular and molecular kinetics of the stepwise differentiation of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) to primitive and definitive erythromyelopoiesis from human embryoid bodies (hEBs) in serum-free clonogenic assays. Hematopoiesis initiates from CD45 hEB cells with emergence of semiadherent mesodermal-hematoendothelial (MHE) colonies that can generate endothelium and form organized, yolk sac-like structures that secondarily generate multipotent primitive hematopoietic stem pr...

  19. A global model of mantle conductivity derived from 5 years of CHAMP, Orsted, and SAC-C magnetic data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuvshinov, A.; Olsen, Nils

    2006-01-01

    We present a global 1-D conductivity model which is obtained by analysis of five years ( 2001 - 2005) of simultaneous magnetic data from the three satellites Orsted, CHAMP and SAC-C. After removal of core and crustal fields as predicted by a recent field model we used non-polar scalar and vector...... model which is rather similar to models derived from ground-based data....

  20. Definitive Hematopoiesis in the Yolk Sac Emerges from Wnt-Responsive Hemogenic Endothelium Independently of Circulation and Arterial Identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frame, Jenna M; Fegan, Katherine H; Conway, Simon J; McGrath, Kathleen E; Palis, James

    2016-02-01

    Adult-repopulating hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) emerge in low numbers in the midgestation mouse embryo from a subset of arterial endothelium, through an endothelial-to-hematopoietic transition. HSC-producing arterial hemogenic endothelium relies on the establishment of embryonic blood flow and arterial identity, and requires β-catenin signaling. Specified prior to and during the formation of these initial HSCs are thousands of yolk sac-derived erythro-myeloid progenitors (EMPs). EMPs ensure embryonic survival prior to the establishment of a permanent hematopoietic system, and provide subsets of long-lived tissue macrophages. While an endothelial origin for these HSC-independent definitive progenitors is also accepted, the spatial location and temporal output of yolk sac hemogenic endothelium over developmental time remain undefined. We performed a spatiotemporal analysis of EMP emergence, and document the morphological steps of the endothelial-to-hematopoietic transition. Emergence of rounded EMPs from polygonal clusters of Kit(+) cells initiates prior to the establishment of arborized arterial and venous vasculature in the yolk sac. Interestingly, Kit(+) polygonal clusters are detected in both arterial and venous vessels after remodeling. To determine whether there are similar mechanisms regulating the specification of EMPs with other angiogenic signals regulating adult-repopulating HSCs, we investigated the role of embryonic blood flow and Wnt/β-catenin signaling during EMP emergence. In embryos lacking a functional circulation, rounded Kit(+) EMPs still fully emerge from unremodeled yolk sac vasculature. In contrast, canonical Wnt signaling appears to be a common mechanism regulating hematopoietic emergence from hemogenic endothelium. These data illustrate the heterogeneity in hematopoietic output and spatiotemporal regulation of primary embryonic hemogenic endothelium. PMID:26418893

  1. Yolk-sac larval development of the substrate-brooding cichlid Archocentrus nigrofasciatus in relation to temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlahos, Nikolaos; Vasilopoulos, Michael; Mente, Eleni; Hotos, George; Katselis, George; Vidalis, Kosmas

    2015-09-01

    In order to conserve and culture the cichlid fish Archocentrus nigrofasciatus, more information about its reproductive biology and its larval behavior and morphogenesis is necessary. Currently, temperatures ranging from 21 to 27 °C are used in ornamental aquaculture hatcheries. Lower temperatures are preferred to reduce the costs of water heating, and 23 °C is usually the selected temperature. However, there is limited information on culturing protocols for ornamental species and most of the information generated on this topic remains scarce. Thus, the present study examines the morphological development of Archocentrus nigrofasciatus during the yolk-sac period up to the age of 100 h post-hatching in relation to 2 temperature regimes used in ornamental aquaculture: a temperature of 27 °C (thermal optimum) and a decreased temperature of 23 °C (thermal tolerance). The results of this study suggest that the 27 °C temperature generates intense morphological changes in yolk-sac development in a shorter period. This has advantages as it reduces the time of yolk-sac larval development, and, thus, minimizes the transition phase to exogenous feeding and maximizes the efficiency at which yolk is converted into body tissues. The present paper provides necessary information to produce freshwater ornamental fish with better practices so as to increase larval survival and capitalize on time for growth. PMID:26201370

  2. Molecular detection and drought resistance analysis of SacB-transgenic poplars (Populus alba ×P.glandulosa)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The propagation of drought-resistant transgenic poplars is one of the more effective ways to improve the ecological state of arid regions.The expression of SacB gene in transgenic lines of Populus alba × P.glandulosa was analyzed by a semi-quantitative RT-PCR.Drought resistance of these transgenic lines was evaluated by water stress trials in a greenhouse.Results showed that the mRNA transcription of SacB was found in all transgenic lines and fructan has accumulated in the leaves of these plants.The growth,biomass and leaf water content of some transgenic lines were significantly higher than those of the control plants under drought stress.Correlation analysis indicated that the said factors were significantly and positively related to the concentration of fructan in the leaves of the transgenic lines.Results revealed that the expression of SacB gene in transgenic poplars enhanced its resistance to water stress.

  3. Normal values of the sagittal diameter of the lumbar spine (vertebral body and dural sac) in children measured by MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knirsch, Walter [University Children' s Hospital Freiburg, Department of Pediatric Cardiology, Freiburg (Germany); University Children' s Hospital Zurich, Division of Paediatric Cardiology, Zurich (Switzerland); Kurtz, Claudia; Langer, Mathias [University Hospital Freiburg, Department of Radiology, Freiburg (Germany); Haeffner, Nicole; Kececioglu, Deniz [University Children' s Hospital Freiburg, Department of Pediatric Cardiology, Freiburg (Germany)

    2005-04-01

    The definition of normal values is a prerequisite for the reliable evaluation of abnormality in the lumbar spine, such as spinal canal stenosis or dural ectasia in patients with Marfan syndrome. Values for vertebral body diameter (VBD) and dural sac diameter (DSD) for the lumbar spine have been published in adults. In children, normal values have been established using conventional radiography or myelography, but not by MRI. To define normal values for the sagittal diameter of the vertebral body and dural sac, and to calculate a dural sac ratio (DSR) in the lumbosacral spine (L1-S1) in healthy children using MRI. A total of 75 healthy children between 6 years and 17 years of age were examined using a sagittal T2-weighted sequence. Sagittal VBD and DSD were measured and a DSR was calculated. This was a retrospective and cross-sectional study. With increasing age there is a significant increase of VBD, a slight increase of DSD, and a slight decrease of DSR. There is no significant sex difference. DSR in healthy children is higher than in healthy adults. MRI is a reliable method demonstrating the natural shape of the lumbosacral spine and its absolute values. These normal values compare well with those established by conventional radiological techniques. Our data may serve as a reference for defining dural ectasia in children with Marfan syndrome. (orig.)

  4. Normal values of the sagittal diameter of the lumbar spine (vertebral body and dural sac) in children measured by MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The definition of normal values is a prerequisite for the reliable evaluation of abnormality in the lumbar spine, such as spinal canal stenosis or dural ectasia in patients with Marfan syndrome. Values for vertebral body diameter (VBD) and dural sac diameter (DSD) for the lumbar spine have been published in adults. In children, normal values have been established using conventional radiography or myelography, but not by MRI. To define normal values for the sagittal diameter of the vertebral body and dural sac, and to calculate a dural sac ratio (DSR) in the lumbosacral spine (L1-S1) in healthy children using MRI. A total of 75 healthy children between 6 years and 17 years of age were examined using a sagittal T2-weighted sequence. Sagittal VBD and DSD were measured and a DSR was calculated. This was a retrospective and cross-sectional study. With increasing age there is a significant increase of VBD, a slight increase of DSD, and a slight decrease of DSR. There is no significant sex difference. DSR in healthy children is higher than in healthy adults. MRI is a reliable method demonstrating the natural shape of the lumbosacral spine and its absolute values. These normal values compare well with those established by conventional radiological techniques. Our data may serve as a reference for defining dural ectasia in children with Marfan syndrome. (orig.)

  5. Intracranial yolk sac tumor in an adult patient: MRI, diffusion-weighted imaging and 1H MR spectroscopy features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mačvanski Marija

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Yolk sac tumors represent only 5%-7% of intracranial germ cell tumors, which comprise about 1% of all primary brain tumors in adults. Literature data about nonspecific imaging characteristics of these tumors are scant. We presented magnetic resonance imaging findings with diffusion-weighted imaging and proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy of this rare type of tumor in an adult patient. Case report. A 55-year-old man with progressive left side weakness, headache, dizziness and ataxia, underwent preoperative magnetic resonance imaging, diffusion-weighted imaging and proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy. After surgical resection and histological analysis, the final diagnosis of yolk sac tumor was established. Retrospective imaging analysis were performed in order to determine imaging and biochemical parameters that could be useful in the diagnostic evaluation of this tumor type. Conclusion. Though the imaging features of yolk sac tumor are not specific, morphoanatomical and metabolic imaging could offer the information that provides new insights into this tumor that may facilitate further therapeutic decision process and potentially provides better information regarding the disease prognosis.

  6. Air Consumption Analysis of Air-Jet Weaving

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RAJ KUMAR KHIANI

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In Textile industry, production is mostly key concern for Industry owner. This always has attracted researchers and machines manufacturers to make new developments in process and machines. Air-jet is one of the leading and successful highest productive weaving machines. However, it is now well established that due to add of charges of compressed air, manufacturing cost of air-jet weaving machine is higher as compared with rapier and projectile weaving machines. This is why countries having energy issues do not prefer air-jet weaving machines comparing projectile weaving machines. In this regard, several researchers and machine manufacturers have continuously been working to improve the efficiency of air-jet weft insertion. However, industry practice is as important as design made by researchers. The aim of this research is to investigate the air consumption of air-jet weaving on industrial scale practice. In this study, five weaving machine of same manufacturer and model were selected. It was observed that despite of manufacturing same quality of fabric, air consumption was varying almost in all weaving machines. Conventionally, mill workers adopt hit and trial practice in weaving industry including airpressure setting which leads to variation of nozzle pressure. Main reason of disparity of air consumption in air-jet weaving machines may be variation of distance from compressor to weaving machines, number of joints, un-necessary valve opening and pipes leakages cause an increase of compressed air consumption.

  7. Yolk sac tumor of the ovary in a young girl with tuberous sclerosis: A case report and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Riley G; Akande, Manzilat Y; Younes, Houssam K; Jagarpu, Jawahar; Mba, Nkechi; Savell, Van H; Almond, Stephen P

    2014-12-01

    •We reported the first tuberous sclerosis patient with an ovarian yolk sac tumor.•Although angiomyolipoma is a common benign tumor in TS patients, abdominal malignancies must be considered. PMID:26075992

  8. 基于 Python 语言的 Add -In 开发应用%The Development and Application of Add-In Based on Python Language

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张玉群; 朱道壮

    2014-01-01

    By introducing the process method of Python language menu developmentusing Add-In plugins in ArcGIS, proposed in ArcGIS for data processing, to guide developers to use a simple way of development.%通过简要介绍Python语言在ArcGIS中采用Add-In插件进行菜单开发的流程,提出了在ArcGIS进行数据处理时,开发人员应使用的一种简便易行的开发方式。

  9. SAC-SMA a priori parameter differences and their impact on distributed hydrologic model simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ziya; Koren, Victor; Reed, Seann; Smith, Michael; Zhang, Yu; Moreda, Fekadu; Cosgrove, Brian

    2012-02-01

    SummaryDeriving a priori gridded parameters is an important step in the development and deployment of an operational distributed hydrologic model. Accurate a priori parameters can reduce the manual calibration effort and/or speed up the automatic calibration process, reduce calibration uncertainty, and provide valuable information at ungauged locations. Underpinned by reasonable parameter data sets, distributed hydrologic modeling can help improve water resource and flood and flash flood forecasting capabilities. Initial efforts at the National Weather Service Office of Hydrologic Development (NWS OHD) to derive a priori gridded Sacramento Soil Moisture Accounting (SAC-SMA) model parameters for the conterminous United States (CONUS) were based on a relatively coarse resolution soils property database, the State Soil Geographic Database (STATSGO) (Soil Survey Staff, 2011) and on the assumption of uniform land use and land cover. In an effort to improve the parameters, subsequent work was performed to fully incorporate spatially variable land cover information into the parameter derivation process. Following that, finer-scale soils data (the county-level Soil Survey Geographic Database (SSURGO) ( Soil Survey Staff, 2011a,b), together with the use of variable land cover data, were used to derive a third set of CONUS, a priori gridded parameters. It is anticipated that the second and third parameter sets, which incorporate more physical data, will be more realistic and consistent. Here, we evaluate whether this is actually the case by intercomparing these three sets of a priori parameters along with their associated hydrologic simulations which were generated by applying the National Weather Service Hydrology Laboratory's Research Distributed Hydrologic Model (HL-RDHM) ( Koren et al., 2004) in a continuous fashion with an hourly time step. This model adopts a well-tested conceptual water balance model, SAC-SMA, applied on a regular spatial grid, and links to physically

  10. Amplitude of Accommodation and Add Power in An Adult Population of Tehran, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Khabazkhoob

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To determine add power (AP and amplitude of accommodation (AA in a sample of Iranian population and its relationship with refractive errorsMethods: This cross-sectional study enrolled people of 35-70 years old by simple random sampling. Exclusion criteria were myopia or hyperopia over 6 diopter (D and astigmatism more than 0.75 D. Those with a history of eye disorders and taking certain medicines that affect on vision were excluded. After correcting refractive errors, distance and near visual acuity (VA and APs were determined considering subject’s age and AA at a distance of 33 cm. The AA was measured using a Royal Air Force (RAF rule with push up method.Results: Of 422 participants, 205 (48.6% were males with a mean age of 50.2±8.8 years old, mean AP of 1.57±0.82 D, and average AA of 3.48±2.5 D. For each year of age, AP raised 0.1 D and AA decreased to 0.23 D (p<0.001. The need for AP occurs when AA was less than 6 D. Conclusion: The results of this study showed the distributions of AP and AA in a sample of Iranian population. The AA in this study was mid-range in comparison with other studies. It was found that females became presbyopic earlier than males and hyperopes became presbyopic earlier than emmetropes and myopes. These results pointed out that decreasing in AA less than 6 D requires AP.

  11. Rat visceral yolk sac cells: viability and expression of cell markers during maternal diabetes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The function of the visceral yolk sac (VYS) is critical for embryo organogenesis until final fetal development in rats, and can be affected by conditions such as diabetes. In view of the importance of diabetes during pregnancy for maternal and neonatal health, the objective of this study was to assess fetal weight, VYS cell markers, and viability in female Wistar rats (200-250 g) with induced diabetes (alloxan, 37 mg/kg) on the 8th gestational day (gd 8). At gd 15, rats from control (n=5) and diabetic (n=5) groups were anesthetized and laparotomized to remove the uterine horns for weighing of fetuses and collecting the VYS. Flow cytometry was used for characterizing VYS cells, and for determining mitochondrial activity, cell proliferation, DNA ploidy, cell cycle phases, and caspase-3 activity. Fetal weight was reduced in the diabetic group. Expression of the cell markers CD34, VEGFR1, CD115, CD117, CD14, CCR2, CD90, CD44, STRO-1, OCT3/4, and Nanog was detected in VYS cells in both groups. In the diabetic group, significantly decreased expression of CD34 (P<0.05), CCR2 (P<0.001), and OCT3/4 (P<0.01), and significantly increased expression of CD90 (P<0.05), CD117 (P<0.01), and CD14 (P<0.05) were observed. VYS cells with inactive mitochondria, activated caspase-3, and low proliferation were present in the rats with diabetes. Severe hyperglycemia caused by maternal diabetes had negative effects on pregnancy, VYS cell viability, and the expression of cell markers

  12. Rat visceral yolk sac cells: viability and expression of cell markers during maternal diabetes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aires, M.B. [Departamento de Morfologia, Universidade Federal de Sergipe, São Cristóvão, SE (Brazil); Santos, J.R.A. [Departamento de Enfermagem, Universidade Federal de Sergipe, São Cristóvão, SE (Brazil); Souza, K.S.; Farias, P.S. [Departamento de Morfologia, Universidade Federal de Sergipe, São Cristóvão, SE (Brazil); Santos, A.C.V. [Departamento de Enfermagem, Universidade Federal de Sergipe, São Cristóvão, SE (Brazil); Fioretto, E.T. [Departamento de Morfologia, Universidade Federal de Sergipe, São Cristóvão, SE (Brazil); Maria, D.A. [Laboratório de Bioquímica e Biofísica, Instituto Butantan, São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2015-07-10

    The function of the visceral yolk sac (VYS) is critical for embryo organogenesis until final fetal development in rats, and can be affected by conditions such as diabetes. In view of the importance of diabetes during pregnancy for maternal and neonatal health, the objective of this study was to assess fetal weight, VYS cell markers, and viability in female Wistar rats (200-250 g) with induced diabetes (alloxan, 37 mg/kg) on the 8th gestational day (gd 8). At gd 15, rats from control (n=5) and diabetic (n=5) groups were anesthetized and laparotomized to remove the uterine horns for weighing of fetuses and collecting the VYS. Flow cytometry was used for characterizing VYS cells, and for determining mitochondrial activity, cell proliferation, DNA ploidy, cell cycle phases, and caspase-3 activity. Fetal weight was reduced in the diabetic group. Expression of the cell markers CD34, VEGFR1, CD115, CD117, CD14, CCR2, CD90, CD44, STRO-1, OCT3/4, and Nanog was detected in VYS cells in both groups. In the diabetic group, significantly decreased expression of CD34 (P<0.05), CCR2 (P<0.001), and OCT3/4 (P<0.01), and significantly increased expression of CD90 (P<0.05), CD117 (P<0.01), and CD14 (P<0.05) were observed. VYS cells with inactive mitochondria, activated caspase-3, and low proliferation were present in the rats with diabetes. Severe hyperglycemia caused by maternal diabetes had negative effects on pregnancy, VYS cell viability, and the expression of cell markers.

  13. Lacrimal Sac Mucoepidermoid Carcinoma with Metastases to the Cavernous Sinus Following Dacryocystorhinostomy Treated with Stereotactic Radiotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan C.P. Roos

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: We report a very good outcome in a 44-year-old woman in whom cancer was missed as the cause of nasolacrimal duct obstruction and dacryocystitis and which was deemed inoperable after spreading to the cavernous sinus. Case Report: The patient was referred to our unit 12 months following uneventful right dacryocystorhinostomy for nasolacrimal duct obstruction. This had been complicated by the formation of a significant canthal swelling 6 months later, which had been excised at that time. The symptom of nasolacrimal duct obstruction and scar recurrence prompted the referral to our unit. Examination and biopsy confirmed a malignancy. Despite extensive surgery, including concurrent radical neck dissection and parotidectomy, within 6 months, her mucoepidermoid carcinoma was found to have spread to the cavernous sinus, restricting blood flow from the carotid and causing an abducens nerve palsy. Though deemed inoperable at first, Gamma Knife stereotactic radiosurgery was sought as treatment for her disease, resulting in a good outcome 4 years after surgery. Conclusion: Experience from this case suggests the importance of considering malignancy as a cause in young patients when presenting with nasolacrimal duct obstruction. In such cases, and perhaps for all patients, biopsy specimens should be submitted as many tumours are found incidentally at the time of dacryocystorhinostomy. Whilst the external approach to dacryocystorhinostomy may identify abnormal anatomy intraoperatively, prompting biopsy, this is less likely with an endonasal approach where osteotomy precedes sac visualisation. The endonasal approach may therefore be less appropriate in such cases where malignancy is suspected as osteotomy may aid in the spread.

  14. Maternal offloading of organochlorine contaminants in the yolk-sac placental scalloped hammerhead shark (Sphyrna lewini).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Kady; Adams, Douglas H

    2015-04-01

    Elasmobranchs are a group of animals that typically occupy upper trophic levels in food webs and have a propensity to accumulate high contaminant concentrations. To date, few studies have investigated maternal offloading processes in sharks, despite the fact that this process represents a substantial source of exposure for young sharks and is a significant pathway for contaminant redistribution within marine ecosystems. Comparable to mammalian systems, scalloped hammerhead sharks (Sphyrna lewini) utilize a yolk-sac placental strategy to nourish young in utero, which may allow females to transfer contaminants to young. Organic contaminants (PCBs and chlorinated pesticides) were measured in livers of both females and males from several age classes that were collected from U.S. Atlantic waters, including two near-term pregnant females and their embryos. Adult female hammerheads (n = 3) were found to have lower levels of PCBs compared to the younger, adult male (mean ± SD, 11.1 ± 1.0 vs. 22.8 μg g(-1) lw), but had substantially higher concentrations of pesticides (4.1 ± 0.9 vs. 1.9 μg g(-1) lw). Embryos from the two litters (n = 36) had similar levels of summed organic contaminant concentrations (4.6 ± 0.9 μg g(-1) lw) and pregnant females were estimated to offload approximately 0.03-2.3% of their hepatic contaminant load to offspring. While the potential health impacts of these transferred contaminants is unknown, this is the first study to demonstrate that scalloped hammerheads are exposed to a substantial amount of contaminants prior to birth and document maternal offloading of organochlorines in a pseudo-placental shark species. Therefore, future research should continue to investigate the potential adverse effects these contaminants have on elasmobranch physiology. PMID:25527298

  15. Rat visceral yolk sac cells: viability and expression of cell markers during maternal diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.B. Aires

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The function of the visceral yolk sac (VYS is critical for embryo organogenesis until final fetal development in rats, and can be affected by conditions such as diabetes. In view of the importance of diabetes during pregnancy for maternal and neonatal health, the objective of this study was to assess fetal weight, VYS cell markers, and viability in female Wistar rats (200-250 g with induced diabetes (alloxan, 37 mg/kg on the 8th gestational day (gd 8. At gd 15, rats from control (n=5 and diabetic (n=5 groups were anesthetized and laparotomized to remove the uterine horns for weighing of fetuses and collecting the VYS. Flow cytometry was used for characterizing VYS cells, and for determining mitochondrial activity, cell proliferation, DNA ploidy, cell cycle phases, and caspase-3 activity. Fetal weight was reduced in the diabetic group. Expression of the cell markers CD34, VEGFR1, CD115, CD117, CD14, CCR2, CD90, CD44, STRO-1, OCT3/4, and Nanog was detected in VYS cells in both groups. In the diabetic group, significantly decreased expression of CD34 (P<0.05, CCR2 (P<0.001, and OCT3/4 (P<0.01, and significantly increased expression of CD90 (P<0.05, CD117 (P<0.01, and CD14 (P<0.05 were observed. VYS cells with inactive mitochondria, activated caspase-3, and low proliferation were present in the rats with diabetes. Severe hyperglycemia caused by maternal diabetes had negative effects on pregnancy, VYS cell viability, and the expression of cell markers.

  16. Imaging and clinical findings in large endolymphatic duct and sac syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koesling, Sabrina [University of Halle, Department of Radiology, E-Grube-Street 40, D-06097 Halle (Germany)]. E-mail: sabrina.koesling@medizin.uni-halle.de; Rasinski, Christine [University of Halle, Department of Otorhinolaryngology (Germany); Amaya, Beatrice [University of Halle, Department of Radiology, E-Grube-Street 40, D-06097 Halle (Germany)

    2006-01-15

    Objective: Large endolymphatic duct and sac syndrome (LEDS) is known as the most common kind of inner ear malformations, which is radiologically detectable. Nevertheless, nowadays many questions are not fully cleared and LEDS is relatively unknown among general radiologists. The aim of this study was to evaluate the incidence of LEDS in the own patient population and to present our experiences regarding imaging findings, clinical presentation and follow up. Materials and methods: Based on a complete recording of all patients, sent from ENT department to radiology, we identified all radiological diagnosed cases of inner ear malformations including LEDS and all patients in whom an inner ear malformation was clinically suspected. The retrospective study included clinical records, HR-CT and MRI performed between 1994 and 2002. Results: Among 169 patients (338 ear), 17 of patients (median age: 12 years) and 28 ears, respectively, had enlarged endolymphatic structures. In 10 patients - 6% - (15 ears), no other abnormalities were detected, called isolated LEDS, seven patients showed additional inner ear abnormalities. One patient showed a labyrinthine hemorrhage after sudden hearing loss. Audiometric data revealed sensorineural hearing loss in 22 ears, deafness in 5 ears and normal hearing in 1 case of 28 ears. In 10 (67%) of 15 ears with isolated LEDS, the hearing loss was downward-fluctuating progressive. Twelve patients (eight with isolated LEDS) had partly repeated sudden hearing losses. A trigger for worsening of hearing was found in five patients. A correlation between the severity of morphological changes on imaging and the degree of hearing disturbances could not be detected. Only four young patients underwent a radiological examination within the first or second year after onset of hearing loss. Three patients received a cochlear implant. Conclusions: LEDS might be the cause of progressive hearing loss and repeated acute hearing losses in children and young

  17. Effect of γ-irradiation on the uptake and digestion of 125I-labeled bovine serum albumin by rat visceral yolk sac cultured in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of γ-irradiation on a major nutritional function of the yolk sac (the uptake and digestion of macromolecular materials) was studied in rat visceral yolk sacs cultured in vitro being used 125I-labeled bovine serum albumin (RISA) as the tracer protein. The uptake of RISA (per g wet weight) by rat yolk sacs irradiated with doses of 5-80 Gy was essentially the same as that in the unirradiated control yolk sacs. There were no significant differences in yolk sac uptake of RISA with respect to the radiation doses or to culture period up to 18 hours after irradiation. External γ-irradiation with 10-80 Gy doses also had no effect on the extracellular release of 125I from yolk sacs which had been taken it up as RISA. The ratios of the activity in ultrafiltrates of the medium to the total activity in the medium were slightly higher at doses of 40 and 80 Gy. (author)

  18. Air Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Air pollution is a mixture of solid particles and gases in the air. Car emissions, chemicals from factories, dust, ... a gas, is a major part of air pollution in cities. When ozone forms air pollution, it's ...

  19. Air Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Air pollution is a mixture of solid particles and gases in the air. Car emissions, chemicals from factories, dust, pollen and ... Ozone, a gas, is a major part of air pollution in cities. When ozone forms air pollution, ...

  20. Consumer Mental Accounts and Implications to Selling Base Products and Add-ons

    OpenAIRE

    Sanjiv Erat; Sreekumar R. Bhaskaran

    2012-01-01

    Firms in a variety of industries offer add-on products to consumers who have previously purchased a base product. We posit that consumers, in making their decisions as to whether to purchase add-ons that complement the base products, find a greater need for the value offered by the add-ons when the "unrecovered" value (i.e., price paid minus the benefits obtained so far) associated with the base products is higher. We conduct experiments that test the proposed hypothesis and examine the strat...

  1. Tunable add-drop filter using an active whispering gallery mode microcavity

    CERN Document Server

    Monifi, Faraz; Yang, Lan

    2013-01-01

    An add-drop filter (ADF) fabricated using a whispering gallery mode resonator has different crosstalks for add and drop functions due to non-zero intrinsic losses of the resonator. Here, we show that introducing gain medium in the resonator and optically pumping it below the lasing threshold not only allows loss compensation to achieve similar and lower crosstalks but also tunability in bandwidth and add-drop efficiency. For an active ADF fabricated using an erbium-ytterbium co-doped microsphere, we achieved 24-fold enhancement in the intrinsic quality factor, 3.5-fold increase in drop efficiency, bandwidth tunability of 35 MHz and a crosstalk of only 2%.

  2. Cognitive Control and Attentional Selection in Adolescents with ADHD versus ADD

    OpenAIRE

    Carr, Laurie; Henderson, John; Nigg, Joel T.

    2010-01-01

    An important research question is whether Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is related to early or late stage attentional control mechanisms and whether this differentiates a non-hyperactive subtype (“ADD”). This question was addressed in a sample of 145 ADD/ADHD and typically developing comparison adolescents (aged 13-17). Attentional blink and antisaccade tasks were used to assay early and late stage control, respectively. ADD was defined using normative cutoffs to assure low ...

  3. Effect and Potential Mechanism of Electroacupuncture Add-On Treatment in Patients with Parkinson's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fang; Sun, Li; Zhang, Xiao-Zhe; Jia, Jun; Liu, Zhuo; Huang, Xi-Yan; Yu, Shu-Yang; Zuo, Li-Jun; Cao, Chen-Jie; Wang, Xiao-Min; Zhang, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. To explore effectiveness and mechanisms of electroacupuncture (EA) add-on treatment in Parkinson's disease (PD) patients. Methods. Fifty PD patients were randomly assigned to drug plus EA (D + EA) group and drug alone (D) group. Subjects in D + EA group received stimulation in points of bilateral fengfu, fengchi, hegu, and central dazhui. Participants were evaluated by scales for motor and nonmotor symptoms. Levels of neuroinflammatory factors and neurotransmitters in serum were detected. Results. EA add-on treatment remarkably reduced scores of Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) III and its subitems of tremor, rigidity, and bradykinesia and conspicuously decreased UPDRS III scores in patients with bradykinesia-rigidity and mixed types and mild severity. Depression and sleep disturbances were eased, which were reflected by decreased scores of Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, and elevated noradrenaline level. Effects of EA add-on treatment on motor symptoms and sleep disturbances were superior to drug alone treatment, markedly improving life quality of PD patients. EA add-on treatment decreased nitric oxide level in serum. Conclusions. EA add-on treatment is effective on most motor symptoms and some nonmotor symptoms and is particularly efficacious in PD patients at early stage. Antineuroinflammation may be a mechanism of EA add-on treatment. PMID:26351515

  4. Integrated Antenna/Solar Array Cell (IA/SAC) System for Flexible Access Communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ricard Q.; Clark, Eric B.; Pal, Anna Maria T.; Wilt, David M.; Mueller, Carl H.

    2004-01-01

    Present satellite communications systems normally use separate solar cells and antennas. Since solar cells generally account for the largest surface area of the spacecraft, co-locating the antenna and solar cells on the same substrate opens the possibility for a number of data-rate-enhancing communications link architecture that would have minimal impact on spacecraft weight and size. The idea of integrating printed planar antenna and solar array cells on the same surface has been reported in the literature. The early work merely attempted to demonstrate the feasibility by placing commercial solar cells besides a patch antenna. Recently, Integrating multiple antenna elements and solar cell arrays on the same surface was reported for both space and terrestrial applications. The application of photovoltaic solar cell in a planar antenna structure where the radiating patch antenna is replaced by a Si solar cell has been demonstrated in wireless communication systems (C. Bendel, J. Kirchhof and N. Henze, 3rd Would Photovotaic Congress, Osaka, Japan, May 2003). Based on a hybrid approach, a 6x1 slot array with circularly polarized crossdipole elements co-located on the same surface of the solar cells array has been demonstrated (S. Vaccaro, J. R. Mosig and P. de Maagt, IEEE Trans. Ant. and Propag., Vol. 5 1, No. 8, Aug. 2003). Amorphous silicon solar cells with about 5-10% efficiency were used in these demonstrations. This paper describes recent effort to integrate advanced solar cells with printed planar antennas. Compared to prior art, the proposed WSAC concept is unique in the following ways: 1) Active antenna element will be used to achieve dynamic beam steering; 2) High efficiency (30%) GaAs multi-junction solar cells will be used instead of Si, which has an efficiency of about 15%; 3) Antenna and solar cells are integrated on a common GaAs substrate; and 4) Higher data rate capability. The IA/SAC is designed to operate at X-band (8-12 GH) and higher frequencies

  5. Evidence of the most stretchable egg sac silk stalk, of the European spider of the year Meta menardi.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emiliano Lepore

    Full Text Available Spider silks display generally strong mechanical properties, even if differences between species and within the same species can be observed. While many different types of silks have been tested, the mechanical properties of stalks of silk taken from the egg sac of the cave spider Meta menardi have not yet been analyzed. Meta menardi has recently been chosen as the "European spider of the year 2012", from the European Society of Arachnology. Here we report a study where silk stalks were collected directly from several caves in the north-west of Italy. Field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM images showed that stalks are made up of a large number of threads, each of them with diameter of 6.03 ± 0.58 µm. The stalks were strained at the constant rate of 2 mm/min, using a tensile testing machine. The observed maximum stress, strain and toughness modulus, defined as the area under the stress-strain curve, are 0.64 GPa, 751% and 130.7 MJ/m(3, respectively. To the best of our knowledge, such an observed huge elongation has never been reported for egg sac silk stalks and suggests a huge unrolling microscopic mechanism of the macroscopic stalk that, as a continuation of the protective egg sac, is expected to be composed by fibres very densely and randomly packed. The Weibull statistics was used to analyze the results from mechanical testing, and an average value of Weibull modulus (m is deduced to be in the range of 1.5-1.8 with a Weibull scale parameter (σ(0 in the range of 0.33-0.41 GPa, showing a high coefficient of correlation (R(2 = 0.97.

  6. Prediction of liquid−liquid equilibria of (aromatic + aliphatic + ionic liquid) systems using the Cosmo-SAC model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Aromatic/aliphatic hydrocarbons separation by ionic liquids. ► Cosmo-SAC thermodynamic model for prediction of LLE by quantum chemical calculations. ► Predictions successful for some ionic liquids. ► Correlation by single parameter for other ionic liquids. ► Preliminary screening of additional ionic liquids for aromatic/aliphatic separation. - Abstract: The extraction of aromatic hydrocarbons from aliphatic hydrocarbons is an important problem. This process can be used to enhance the capacity of ethylene crackers by prior removal of aromatics that cannot be cracked. Ionic liquids have been investigated extensively for liquid–liquid extraction of aromatics from aliphatics. The choice of a suitable ionic liquid may be made by measuring liquid−liquid equilibria. However, the large number of ionic liquids, formed by the various cation and anion combinations, makes the experimental measurements expensive and time consuming. Hence, a predictive thermodynamic model called Cosmo-SAC that uses quantum chemical calculations for calculating liquid−liquid equilibria has been evaluated. A priori predictions are accurate for some ionic liquids and inaccurate for some ionic liquids. However, it has been shown that even when a priori predictions are inaccurate, the data can be correlated using a single parameter that is characteristic of the ionic liquid and accurate predictions can be made for additional aromatic/aliphatic combinations for the same ionic liquid. A comparison with the NRTL and UNIQUAC models has also been carried out. In addition, a preliminary screening of ionic liquids for aromatic/aliphatic separations has been carried out using the Cosmo-SAC model. Finally, the “Cosmo” files for eight cations and sixteen anions corresponding to 128 potential ionic liquids have been provided for the use of the general scientific community to predict any thermodynamic equilibria involving ionic liquids without the use of any molecular modeling

  7. Effects of post-reflow cooling rate and thermal aging on growth behavior of interfacial intermetallic compound between SAC305 solder and Cu substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xiaowu; Xu, Tao; Jiang, Xiongxin; Li, Yulong; Liu, Yi; Min, Zhixian

    2016-04-01

    The interfacial reactions between Cu and Sn3Ag0.5Cu (SAC305) solder reflowed under various cooling rates were investigated. It is found that the cooling rate is an important parameter in solder reflow process because it influences not only microstructure of solder alloy but also the morphology and growth of intermetallic compounds (IMCs) formed between solder and Cu substrate. The experimental results indicate that only scallop-like Cu6Sn5 IMC layer is observed between solder and Cu substrate in case of water cooling and air cooling, while bilayer composed of scallop-like Cu6Sn5 and thin layer-like Cu3Sn is detected under furnace cooling due to sufficient reaction time to form Cu3Sn between Cu6Sn5 IMC and Cu substrate which resulted from slow cooling rate. Samples with different reflow cooling rates were further thermal-aged at 423 K. And it is found that the thickness of IMC increases linearly with square root of aging time. The growth constants of interfacial IMC layer during aging were obtained and compared for different cooling rates, indicating that the IMC layer thickness increased faster in samples under low cooling rate than in the high cooling rate under the same aging condition. The long prismatic grains were formed on the existing interfacial Cu6Sn5 grains to extrude deeply into solder matrix with lower cooling rate and long-term aging, and the Cu6Sn5 grains coarsened linearly with cubic root of aging time.

  8. FcRn in the yolk sac endoderm of mouse is required for IgG transport to fetus1

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Jonghan; Mohanty, Sudhasri; Ganesan, Latha P.; Hua, Keding; Jarjoura, David; Hayton, William L.; Robinson, John M.; Anderson, Clark L.

    2009-01-01

    In adults the nonclassical MHC-I molecule, FcRn, binds both IgG and albumin and rescues both from a degradative fate, endowing both proteins with high plasma concentrations. FcRn also transports IgG from mother to young during gestation. Anticipating that a detailed understanding of gestational IgG transport in the mouse may give us a useful model to understand FcRn function in the human placenta, we have studied FcRn in the mouse yolk sac placenta in detail. Analyzing day 19-20 fetuses of th...

  9. The gametophytic expression of the gene for sensor histidine kinase CKI1 is essential for embryo sac formation in Arabidopsis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hejátko, Jan; Pernisová, M.; Eneva, T.; Palme, K.; Brzobohatý, Břetislav

    Brno : Masarykova univerzita v Brně, 2003 - (Dubová, J.). s. 67 ISBN 80-210-3194-8. [International Conference on Plant Embryology /9./. 01.09.2003-03.09.2003, Brno] R&D Projects: GA MŠk VS96096; GA MŠk LN00A081 Grant ostatní: QLRT(XE) 2000-0020; QLRT-CT(XE) 2001-01871 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5004920 Keywords : embryo sac formation * CKI1 * histidine kinase Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics

  10. Los movimientos sacádicos y su influencia en la lectura en Educación Primaria.

    OpenAIRE

    Garrido-Hermoso, Elisabeth

    2013-01-01

    La lectura es una actividad de suma importancia para ponerla en práctica en cualquier ámbito de la vida cotidiana, sin embargo la lectura puede verse afectada por disfunciones visuales como los movimientos oculares. En el presente trabajo se estudia la funcionalidad visual, en concreto los movimientos sacádicos y cómo influye en las tareas de lectura, en especial con la velocidad y la comprensión lectora y cómo repercute en el rendimiento académico. Para ello se ha evaluado a una muestr...

  11. CT Findings of Intrarenal Yolk Sac Tumor with Tumor Thrombus Extending into the Inferior Vena Cava: A Case Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Shao Chun; Li, Xue Hua; Sun, Can Hui; Feng, Shi Ting; Peng, Zhen Peng; Huang, Si Yun; Li, Zi Ping [Dept. of Radiology, The First Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou (China)

    2014-10-15

    Yolk sac tumor (YST) is a rare germ cell neoplasm of childhood that usually arises from the testis or ovary. The rare cases of YST in various extragonadal locations have been reported, but the primary intrarenal YST is even more uncommon. Here, we report a case of a primary intrarenal YST with tumor thrombus of the inferior vena cava and left renal vein in a 2-year-old boy, with an emphasis on the CT features. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of an intrarenal YST with intravascular involvement.

  12. Receptor DCS para el satélite SAC-D/AQUARIUS : Desde el concepto a los ensayos integrados

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández Michelli, Juan; Carlotto, Jorge A.; Juárez, José M.; Sager, Gerardo Enrique; Lorente, Hugo Enrique

    2011-01-01

    La Comisión Nacional de Actividades Espaciales (CoNAE) ha incluido en la misión SAC-D/ AQUARIUS un receptor destinado a la recolección satelital de datos provenientes de plataformas terrestres. El Grupo de Investigaciones en Comunicaciones Digitales (GriDCOMD) ha suscripto un convenio para realizar el desarrollo, integración y ensayos de dicho receptor. El sistema de recolección satelital de datos está basado en sistemas ya existentes como el ARGOS (EEUU-Francia) y el SCD (Brasil) y es compat...

  13. Primary juxtaovarian yolk sac tumor concurrent with an ipsilateral ovarian mature teratoma in an adult woman: a rare association

    OpenAIRE

    Ma, Haifen; Yu, Jihong; Tang, Jingjing; Wang, Min

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Yolk sac tumor (YST) is a rare neoplasm that primarily occurs in the ovary in children and young women. Previously, it has been reported that the teratomatous components can be recognized in part of YSTs or appear in the contralateral ovary. Here, we report a rare case of an adult woman with a juxtaovarian YST concurrent with an ipsilateral ovarian mature teratoma. Methods: A 47-year-old woman found a pelvic mass for nine days and subsequently underwent debulking operation. The sp...

  14. Prognostic value of serum α-fetoprotein in ovarian yolk sac tumors: A systematic review and meta-analysis

    OpenAIRE

    GUO, YANG-LONG; Zhang, Ying-Li; Zhu, Jian-Qing

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the prognostic value of serum α-fetoprotein (AFP) levels in patients with ovarian yolk sac tumor (OYST). We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to assess the associations between serum AFP level and prognosis in OYST. A total of 12 quantitative studies met the inclusion criteria. Preoperative AFP was not found to be associated with overall survival (OS) [odds ratio (OR)=0.84, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.43–1.62] in OYST. However, a high po...

  15. Air Abrasion

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... delivered directly to your desktop! more... What Is Air Abrasion? Article Chapters What Is Air Abrasion? What Happens? The Pros and Cons Will I Feel Anything? Is Air Abrasion for Everyone? print full article print this ...

  16. A clinicopathological analysis of papillary endolymphatic sac tumor in inner ear

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LIN Yu-jing

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Background Endolymphatic sac tumor (ELST is a rare tumor originating fromendolymphatic epithelium of inner ear. This tumor exhibits low-grade malignancy with benign histopathological appearance and clinically destructive behavior which occurs in the skull base and frequently invades the posterior petrous bone, the mastoid, semicircular canal, cerebellopontine angle structures and cranial nerve. The presence of intracranial ELST always makes the diagnosis challenge for clinicians and pathologists. Herein we describe a case of ELST in skull base. The clinicopathology of this tumor and its differential diagnosis are discussed. Methods The clinical manifestation of a patient with primary ELST occurring in right cerebellopontine angle was presented retrospectively. Resected mass was routinely paraffin-embedded and stained with hematoxylin and eosin. Dako EnVision immunohistochemical staining system was used to detect the tumor antigen expressions, including cytokeratin (CK, vimentin (Vim, epithelial membrane antigen (EMA, carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA, synaptophysin (Syn, chromogranin A (CgA, S-100 protein (S-100, glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP, thyroglobulin (TG, thyroid transcription factor-1 (TTF-1 and Ki-67. Results A 32-year-old male patient presented with 20-year history of progressive hearing loss. MRI scan revealed an expansile lytic lesion of the mastoid process of the right petrous bone, measuring 4.20 cm × 3.30 cm × 2.00 cm, occupied the right cerebellopontine angle with infiltration of surrounding dura mater. But the lesion did not break the dura mater and invade the brain parenchyma. Craniotomy was performed and the tumor was removed totally. Histological examination revealed a papillary, cystic or glandular architecture in mass. The papillary and glandular structures were lined by a single layer of flattened cuboidal-to-columnar cells. The stroma of the papillary fronds was richly vascularized and chronically inflamed. There

  17. Influence of sex, age, and fasting on blood parameters and body, bursa, spleen and yolk sac weights of broiler chicks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DL Pires

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The effects of water and feed fasting for 24, 48 and 72 hours post-hatching on blood parameters (mean corpuscular volume, MCV; red blood-cell, RBC; hematocrit, HCT; hemoglobin, HGB; plasma glucose, CGP; plasma total protein, PP, and differential leukocytes count, and on body, liver, spleen, bursa, and yolk sac weights were analyzed. Erythrogram data were obtained with a blood cell counter. Total plasma protein and plasma glucose were determined by using the Bradford method (1976 and a glucose PAP liquiform kit (Labtest, cat. n. 84, respectively. Specific leukocyte counts were carried out on blood smears stained with Rosenfeld solution. According to the obtained data, water and feed post-hatching fasting reduced MCV values, which also were lower in males than that in females. Fasting for 48 hours promoted an increase in PP, while fasting for 72 hours reduced HCT. Chicks submitted to fasting presented lower body weights as compared to fed chicks, but their liver weight did not increase between 48 and 72 hours of age. Fasting decreased spleen weight, but bursa and yolk sac weight were not affected. Data showed that female and male chicks react in a similar way to post-hatching fasting, which affects body weight, liver and spleen weight, and HCT and PP values. Moreover, 72 hours of fasting affected more intensely HCT and MCV values.

  18. Endolymphatic Sac Enlargement in a Girl with a Novel Mutation for Distal Renal Tubular Acidosis and Severe Deafness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rink Nikki

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Hereditary distal renal tubular acidosis (dRTA is caused by mutations of genes encoding subunits of the H+-ATPase (ATP6V0A4 and ATP6V1B1 expressed in α-intercalated cells of the distal renal tubule and in the cochlea. We report on a 2-year-old girl with distal RTA and profound speech delay which was initially misdiagnosed as autism. Genetic analysis showed compound heterozygous mutations with one known and one novel mutation of the ATP6V1B1 gene; cerebral magnetic resonance imaging (MRI revealed bilateral enlargement of the endolymphatic sacs of the inner ear. With improved cooperation, audiometric testing showed that hearing loss was most profound on the right, where endolymphatic sac enlargement was greatest, demonstrating a clear link between the degree of deafness and the degree of inner ear abnormality. This case indicates the value of MRI for diagnosis of inner ear involvement in very young children with distal RTA. Although citrate therapy quickly corrects the acidosis and restores growth, early diagnosis of deafness is crucial so that hearing aids can be used to assist acquisition of speech and to provide enough auditory nerve stimulation to assure the affected infants remain candidates for cochlear implantation.

  19. Endolymphatic sac enlargement in a girl with a novel mutation for distal renal tubular acidosis and severe deafness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikki, Rink; Martin, Bitzan; Gus, O'Gorman; Mato, Nagel; Elena, Torban; Paul, Goodyer

    2012-01-01

    Hereditary distal renal tubular acidosis (dRTA) is caused by mutations of genes encoding subunits of the H(+)-ATPase (ATP6V0A4 and ATP6V1B1) expressed in α-intercalated cells of the distal renal tubule and in the cochlea. We report on a 2-year-old girl with distal RTA and profound speech delay which was initially misdiagnosed as autism. Genetic analysis showed compound heterozygous mutations with one known and one novel mutation of the ATP6V1B1 gene; cerebral magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed bilateral enlargement of the endolymphatic sacs of the inner ear. With improved cooperation, audiometric testing showed that hearing loss was most profound on the right, where endolymphatic sac enlargement was greatest, demonstrating a clear link between the degree of deafness and the degree of inner ear abnormality. This case indicates the value of MRI for diagnosis of inner ear involvement in very young children with distal RTA. Although citrate therapy quickly corrects the acidosis and restores growth, early diagnosis of deafness is crucial so that hearing aids can be used to assist acquisition of speech and to provide enough auditory nerve stimulation to assure the affected infants remain candidates for cochlear implantation. PMID:22966473

  20. An elective detection of an Amyand's hernia with an adhesive caecum to the sac: Report of a rare case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengul, Ilker; Sengul, Demet; Aribas, Duygu

    2011-01-01

    Context: Existence of non-inflamed or inflamed vermiform appendix in an inguinal hernia is named Amyand's hernia in honor to the surgeon Claudius Amyand who successfully performed first perforated appendicitis. Case Report: A 69-year-old Turkish male patient with a slight right groin pain and swelling was presented to our clinic, and found to have a slightly tender and reducible right inguinal hernia. He underwent surgery under general anesthesia, and a adhesive caecum and an inflamed appendix were explored within the hernia sac. Adhesions were divided by sharp dissection and appendectomy was performed. After carrying out a Lichtenstein hernioplasty, a broad-spectrum antibiotic was postoperatively admitted for 3 days. He recovered uneventfully, and neither complication nor recurrence was detected during 52 months of follow-up. Conclusions: Although occurrence of an appendicitis in an inguinal hernia is rare, a surgeon should be vigilant for facing with it even in elective cases. Treatment can be provided only surgically, but surgical treatment is not standard except from appendectomy. In our opinion, application of mesh hernia repair should depend on the degree of inflammation of appendix and the presence of incarceration of hernia sac with a suitable antibiotic admission for 3-5 days postoperatively. PMID:22171249

  1. Pyocele of the lachrymal sac: A late and unusual complication after surgery for a juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Eloy

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Philippe Eloy, Vincent Bachy, Véronique Grulois, Bernard BertrandDepartment of Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, University Hospital of Mont-Godinne, Université Catholique de Louvain, Yvoir, BelgiumAbstract: JNA (Juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma is a benign but highly vascular and aggressive tumor that takes its origin in the basisphenoid region close to the sphenopalatine foramen. It occurs invariably in male teenagers. Surgery is the treatment of choice. In the past, external transfacial approaches were recommended. Nowadays endonasal endoscopic approach is performed by experienced teams even for extended tumor. The authors report a case of a pyocele of the lachrymal sac occurring 60 years after a transantral surgery for a JNA. The patient was then successfully operated with an endonasal endoscopic dacryocystorhinostomy using a powered instrumentation and a navigation system. This case confirms the necessity of a long follow-up for all the patients who had a transantral surgery with resection of the medial wall of the maxillary sinus and dissection of the nasolacrymal duct.Keywords: pyocele of the lachrymal sac, complication, surgery for JNA, JNA, endonasal DCR, navigation system

  2. Aneurysm Sac Pressure Measurement with Minimally Invasive Implantable Pressure Sensors: An Alternative to Current Surveillance Regimes after EVAR?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Current protocols for surveillance after endovascular repair (EVAR) of abdominal aortic aneurysms are mostly based on costly and time-consuming imaging procedures and aim to detect adverse events such as graft migration, endoleaks or aneurysm sac enlargement. These imaging procedures are either associated with radiation exposure to the patients or may be harmful to the patient due to the use of iodine- or gadolinium-containing contrast agents. Furthermore the advantages of EVAR in the short term might be negated by the necessity for endograft surveillance over years. Thus, alternative modalities for follow-up are being investigated. One of these technologies provides pressure information directly from the aneurysm sac. This noninvasive, telemetric pressure sensing was tested in vitro as well as in first clinical trials and was able to identify successful aneurysm exclusion after EVAR. The telemetric pressure sensors showed a promising efficacy and accuracy in detecting type I and type III endoleaks and will help to clarify the clinical relevance of type II endoleaks. This article provides an overview of the in vitro sensors investigated as well as the first clinical trials and the sensors' potential to change the current endograft surveillance regimes

  3. Even an old technique is suitable in the molecular world of science: the everted sac preparation turns 60 years old.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Kirk L

    2014-04-15

    An old proverb states "necessity is the mother of invention." This certainly holds true in science as one pursues research questions. Experimental techniques have evolved as scientists have asked more specific research questions. Indeed, techniques such as the Ussing chamber, the perfused renal tubule preparation, patch-clamp, polymerase chain reaction, and site-directed mutagenesis have been developed over the past 60 years. However, sometimes, simple techniques may be useful and still very informative, and this certainly applies to intestinal physiology. Indeed, Gerald Wiseman and Thomas Hastings Wilson described the intestinal everted sac preparation some 60 years ago. Since then, this technique has been used for numerous research purposes including determining ion, amino acid, water and solute transport across the intestinal epithelium; and drug metabolism, absorption, and interactions in pharmaceutical/pharmacological research and even in education. This article provides a historical review of the development of the in vitro intestinal preparation that led to the everted sac preparation and its use in science. PMID:24573083

  4. An Unusual Lesser Sac Collection Causing Gastric Outlet Obstruction with Coincidental Occurrence of Leriche's Syndrome: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singla, Anand; Walia, Darshanjeet Singh; Kaur, Rishabhpreet

    2016-04-01

    Gastric outlet obstruction in adults is usually caused by pyloric stenosis secondary to peptic ulcer disease or malignancy. However, there are few other causes such as a foreign body and external compression due to pseudocyst pancreas. We present a rare aetiology of a large collection of pus in the lesser sac in our patient causing gastric outlet obstruction. A perforated peptic ulcer was suspected in our patient who had symptoms of sudden onset pain in epigastric region which was referred to back. This was followed by pain in upper abdomen, vomiting, constipation and fever for which patient was being managed conservatively before being referred to us. The CECT didn't show any leakage of contrast to the lesser sac making the possibility of healed perforation likely as all other causes were ruled out at the time of presentation to our hospital. The CECT scan ruled out other causes of gastric outlet obstruction with normal wall thickness of the stomach and duodenum along with normal looking liver, pancreas and no lymphadenopathy. The liver function tests and serum amylase were within normal limits. Along with this, there was another unrelated rare coincidental finding of aortoiliac occlusive disease termed as Leriche's syndrome. Ultrasound guided percutaneous drainage was done following which the patient's obstruction was relieved and patient was referred to the department of vascular surgery for the mangement of aortoiliac occlusive disease. PMID:27190892

  5. Tunable Fano resonance in a single-ring-resonator-based add/drop interferometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kaiyang; Liu, Xiaoqi; Yu, Changqiu; Zhang, Yundong

    2013-07-10

    We theoretically study a single-ring-resonator-based add/drop interferometer to achieve tunable Fano resonance. The Fano resonance results from the interference of two resonant beams propagating in the ring resonator. The line shapes of the Fano resonance are tunable by controlling the coupling coefficients between the waveguide and ring resonator. The spectra of the drop port and through port of the add/drop interferometer are horizontally mirror-symmetric. A box-like spectral response can be produced with the proper coupling coefficient owing to the double resonances. When the phase difference between the two light inputs to the add/drop interferometer is compensated, a doubled free spectral range can be obtained. PMID:23852203

  6. Sensitivity analysis of add-on price estimate for select silicon wafering technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokashi, A. R.

    1982-01-01

    The cost of producing wafers from silicon ingots is a major component of the add-on price of silicon sheet. Economic analyses of the add-on price estimates and their sensitivity internal-diameter (ID) sawing, multiblade slurry (MBS) sawing and fixed-abrasive slicing technique (FAST) are presented. Interim price estimation guidelines (IPEG) are used for estimating a process add-on price. Sensitivity analysis of price is performed with respect to cost parameters such as equipment, space, direct labor, materials (blade life) and utilities, and the production parameters such as slicing rate, slices per centimeter and process yield, using a computer program specifically developed to do sensitivity analysis with IPEG. The results aid in identifying the important cost parameters and assist in deciding the direction of technology development efforts.

  7. THE SLOAN DIGITAL SKY SURVEY CO-ADD: A GALAXY PHOTOMETRIC REDSHIFT CATALOG

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present and describe a catalog of galaxy photometric redshifts (photo-z) for the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Co-add Data. We use the artificial neural network (ANN) technique to calculate the photo-z and the nearest neighbor error method to estimate photo-z errors for ∼13 million objects classified as galaxies in the co-add with r 68 = 0.031. After presenting our results and quality tests, we provide a short guide for users accessing the public data.

  8. Add-on effect of Brahmi in the management of schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukanto Sarkar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Brahmi(Bacopa monnieri, an Ayurvedic herb has primarily been used to enhance cognitive ability, memory and learning skills. We present a case study of schizophrenia in which add-on Brahmi extracts 500 mg/day for a period of one month resulted in reduction in psychopathology without any treatment-emergent adverse effect. Although preliminary, our case study suggests therapeutic efficacy of add-on Brahmi in schizophrenia, thus opening up a new dimension of its role in alternative medicines.

  9. Add-drop filter based on dual photonic crystal nanobeam cavities in push-pull mode

    CERN Document Server

    Poulton, Christopher V; Wade, Mark T; Popovic, Milos A

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate an add-drop filter based on a dual photonic crystal nanobeam cavity system that emulates the operation of a traveling-wave resonator and drops light on resonance to a single output port. Realized on an advanced SOI CMOS (IBM 45nm SOI) chip without any foundry process modifications, the device shows 16dB extinction in through port and 1dB loss in drop port with a 3dB bandwidth of 64GHz. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first implementation of a four-port add-drop filter based on photonic crystal nanobeam cavities.

  10. The Chicken Yolk Sac IgY Receptor, a Mammalian Mannose Receptor Family Member, Transcytoses IgY across Polarized Epithelial Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Tesar, Devin B; Cheung, Evelyn J.; Bjorkman, Pamela J

    2008-01-01

    In mammals the transfer of passive immunity from mother to young is mediated by the MHC-related receptor FcRn, which transports maternal IgG across epithelial cell barriers. In birds, maternal IgY in egg yolk is transferred across the yolk sac to passively immunize chicks during gestation and early independent life. The chicken yolk sac IgY receptor (FcRY) is the ortholog of the mammalian phospholipase A2 receptor, a mannose receptor family member, rather than an FcRn or MHC homolog. FcRn and...

  11. CAS is to organize the establishment of new national professional standardization technical committees, subcommittees & working groups under the commissioning of SAC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ To implement the development strategy, bringing standardization into full play in technically supporting the construction of socialism market economy of China, achieving the task of development and revision of national standards, upgrading the level of standardization development of China, fully realizing the leaping development of our standardization course, the Standardization Administration of China (SAC) has decided to expand the scale of national professional standardization technical committee system. Currently, the China Association for Standardization (CAS), under the commissioning of SAC, is to organize the establishment of new national professional standardization technical committees, subcommittees and working groups.

  12. Endovascular treatment of type II endoleak following thoracic endovascular aortic repair for thoracic aortic aneurysm: Case report of squeeze technique to reach the aneurysmal sac

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Hyun Jung; Kim, Chang Won; Lee, Tae Hong; Song, Seung Hwan; Lee, Chung Won; Chung, Sung Woon [Pusan National University Hospital, School of Medicine, Pusan National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-12-15

    Type II endoleaks are common after thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR). Various strategies are introduced to manage type II endoleaks, such as the use of coils, plugs, or liquid embolic agents (histoacryl, thrombin, onyx, etc.) through a transarterial approach or a direct puncture of the aneurysmal sac. We herein report a case of a type II endoleak caused by reverse blood flow through intercostal artery after TEVAR which was successfully treated with n-butyl cyanoacrylate (histoacryl)-lipiodol mixture by a squeeze technique to reach the aneurismal sac using a microcatheter.

  13. La Ataxia Espinocerebelosa tipo 2:estudio de los movimientos oculares sacádicos en familias portadoras de la mutación SCA2

    OpenAIRE

    Rodriguez Labrada, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    La Ataxia Espinocerebelosa tipo 2 (SCA2) se distingue por el enlentecimiento de los movimientos oculares sacádicos. Con el objetivo caracterizar estos movimientos y evaluarlos como biomarcadores de la enfermedad, se realizó un estudio observacional- analítico con 110 enfermos y 54 portadores de la mutación, evaluados mediante exámenes clínicos, electrofisiológicos y genéticos. La velocidad sacádica correlacionó con el tamaño de la mutación, la severidad de la ataxia y el tiempo previo a la...

  14. Precocious puberty secondary to a mixed germ cell-sex cord-stromal tumor associated with an ovarian yolk sac tumor: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Metwalley Kotb; Elsers Dalia; Farghaly Hekma; Abdel-Lateif Hanaa; Abdel-Kader Mohamed

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Introduction Ovarian tumors are the least common cause of sexual precocity in girls. Mixed germ cell-sex cord-stromal tumors associated with a yolk sac tumor of the ovary are rare neoplasms, of which only a small number of well-documented cases have been described so far. Here, we report precocious puberty in a four-year-old Egyptian girl caused by a mixed germ cell-sex cord-stromal tumor associated with a yolk sac tumor of the ovary. Case presentation A four-year-old Egyptian girl w...

  15. Endovascular treatment of type II endoleak following thoracic endovascular aortic repair for thoracic aortic aneurysm: Case report of squeeze technique to reach the aneurysmal sac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Type II endoleaks are common after thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR). Various strategies are introduced to manage type II endoleaks, such as the use of coils, plugs, or liquid embolic agents (histoacryl, thrombin, onyx, etc.) through a transarterial approach or a direct puncture of the aneurysmal sac. We herein report a case of a type II endoleak caused by reverse blood flow through intercostal artery after TEVAR which was successfully treated with n-butyl cyanoacrylate (histoacryl)-lipiodol mixture by a squeeze technique to reach the aneurismal sac using a microcatheter.

  16. Expression of histamine receptors in the human endolymphatic sac: the molecular rationale for betahistine use in Menieres disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Møller, M Nue; Kirkeby, S; Vikeså, J; Nielsen, F Cilius; Caye-Thomasen, P

    2016-07-01

    The human endolymphatic sac (ES) is situated in a duplicature of the dura in the posterior cranial fossa and constitutes a part of the inner ear. The sac possesses immunological capacities and is responsible for a major part of the trans-epithelial ion transport occurring within the inner ear, via molecular mechanisms similar to that of the kidney collecting duct epithelia. Dysfunction of the trans-epithelial ion transport has been hypothesized as the reason for the endolymphatic hydrops occurring in Menieres diseases. Thus, candidate drug selection for medical treatment of Menieres disease has been based on a potential capability of improving trans-epithelial ion transport. However, recent human studies seems to rule out diuretic therapy and The Committee for Medicinal Products for Human Use redrew the recommendation for trimetazidine (Vastarel) treatment in the management of Meniere disease in 2012. This leaves betahistine (Betaserc) as the only drug for potential prevention of the incapacitating attacks of dizziness, tinnitus and hearing loss. However, the histamine receptors targeted by betahistine have never been demonstrated in the human ES. Accordingly, this study aims to investigate the expression of histamine receptors of the human ES epithelium and sub-epithelial stroma. Following sampling of human endolymphatic sac tissue during translabyrinthine surgery, the expression of histamine receptor genes was determined by cDNA microarray analysis. Results were subsequently verified by immuno-histochemistry. The combined results of microarrays and immuno-histochemistry showed expression of the histamine receptor HRH1 in the epithelial lining of the ES, whereas HRH3 was expressed exclusively in the sub-epithelial capillary network. Receptors HRH2 and -4 were not expressed. The present data provide the first direct evidence of a molecular rationale for betahistine treatment in Menieres disease. A potential betahistine effect in Menieres disease may primarily be

  17. Comparison Study on Three Different Reconfigurable Optical Add Drop Multiplexer Architectures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Bin; ZHANG Yang-an; HUANG Yong-qing; REN Xiao-min

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we present the evolution of reconfigurable optical add drop multiplexer(ROADM) technologies, and compare three main ROADM architectures available on the market today. Three architectures include broadcast-select and demux-switch-mux[and the integrated version planar lightwave circuit(PLC)] and wavelengths-selective switch.

  18. 76 FR 28885 - Brucellosis in Swine; Add Texas to List of Validated Brucellosis-Free States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-19

    ... Inspection Service 9 CFR Part 78 Brucellosis in Swine; Add Texas to List of Validated Brucellosis- Free... comments. SUMMARY: We are amending the brucellosis regulations concerning the interstate movement of swine by adding Texas to the list of validated brucellosis-free States. We have determined that Texas...

  19. Design and Implementation of 10 Gbps Optical Add-Drop Transponder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Byoung-Sung; Kim; Seung-Il; Myong; Jung-Chan; Lee; Je-Soo; Ko

    2003-01-01

    10 Gbps optical add-drop transponder, which can accommodate VSR (very short reach) to LR (long reach) subnetworks, is designed and implemented. The transponder consists of an OCA (optical transport network connection assembly), a SCA (sub-network connection assembly), and a FECA (forward error correction assembly).

  20. ATRX ADD domain links an atypical histone methylation recognition mechanism to human mental-retardation syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iwase, Shigeki; Xiang, Bin; Ghosh, Sharmistha; Ren, Ting; Lewis, Peter W.; Cochrane, Jesse C.; Allis, C. David; Picketts, David J.; Patel, Dinshaw J.; Li, Haitao; Shi, Yang (Harvard-Med); (Ottawa Hosp.); (MSKCC); (Rockefeller); (CH-Boston); (Tsinghua); (Mass. Gen. Hosp.)

    2011-07-19

    ATR-X (alpha-thalassemia/mental retardation, X-linked) syndrome is a human congenital disorder that causes severe intellectual disabilities. Mutations in the ATRX gene, which encodes an ATP-dependent chromatin-remodeler, are responsible for the syndrome. Approximately 50% of the missense mutations in affected persons are clustered in a cysteine-rich domain termed ADD (ATRX-DNMT3-DNMT3L, ADD{sub ATRX}), whose function has remained elusive. Here we identify ADD{sub ATRX} as a previously unknown histone H3-binding module, whose binding is promoted by lysine 9 trimethylation (H3K9me3) but inhibited by lysine 4 trimethylation (H3K4me3). The cocrystal structure of ADD{sub ATRX} bound to H3{sub 1-15}K9me3 peptide reveals an atypical composite H3K9me3-binding pocket, which is distinct from the conventional trimethyllysine-binding aromatic cage. Notably, H3K9me3-pocket mutants and ATR-X syndrome mutants are defective in both H3K9me3 binding and localization at pericentromeric heterochromatin; thus, we have discovered a unique histone-recognition mechanism underlying the ATR-X etiology.

  1. ATRX ADD Domain Links an Atypical Histone Methylation Recognition Mechanism to Human Mental-Retardation Syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S Iwase; B Xiang; S Ghosh; T Ren; P Lewis; J Cochrane; C Allis; D Picketts; D Patel; et al.

    2011-12-31

    ATR-X (alpha-thalassemia/mental retardation, X-linked) syndrome is a human congenital disorder that causes severe intellectual disabilities. Mutations in the ATRX gene, which encodes an ATP-dependent chromatin-remodeler, are responsible for the syndrome. Approximately 50% of the missense mutations in affected persons are clustered in a cysteine-rich domain termed ADD (ATRX-DNMT3-DNMT3L, ADD{sub ATRX}), whose function has remained elusive. Here we identify ADD{sub ATRX} as a previously unknown histone H3-binding module, whose binding is promoted by lysine 9 trimethylation (H3K9me3) but inhibited by lysine 4 trimethylation (H3K4me3). The cocrystal structure of ADD{sub ATRX} bound to H3{sub 1-15}K9me3 peptide reveals an atypical composite H3K9me3-binding pocket, which is distinct from the conventional trimethyllysine-binding aromatic cage. Notably, H3K9me3-pocket mutants and ATR-X syndrome mutants are defective in both H3K9me3 binding and localization at pericentromeric heterochromatin; thus, we have discovered a unique histone-recognition mechanism underlying the ATR-X etiology.

  2. Project DyAdd: Implicit Learning in Adult Dyslexia and ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laasonen, Marja; Väre, Jenni; Oksanen-Hennah, Henna; Leppämäki, Sami; Tani, Pekka; Harno, Hanna; Hokkanen, Laura; Pothos, Emmanuel; Cleeremans, Axel

    2014-01-01

    In this study of the project DyAdd, implicit learning was investigated through two paradigms in adults (18-55 years) with dyslexia (n?=?36) or with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD, n?=?22) and in controls (n?=?35). In the serial reaction time (SRT) task, there were no group differences in learning. However, those with ADHD exhibited…

  3. Neural Biomarkers for Dyslexia, ADHD, and ADD in the Auditory Cortex of Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrallach, Bettina; Groß, Christine; Bernhofs, Valdis; Engelmann, Dorte; Benner, Jan; Gündert, Nadine; Blatow, Maria; Wengenroth, Martina; Seitz, Angelika; Brunner, Monika; Seither, Stefan; Parncutt, Richard; Schneider, Peter; Seither-Preisler, Annemarie

    2016-01-01

    Dyslexia, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and attention deficit disorder (ADD) show distinct clinical profiles that may include auditory and language-related impairments. Currently, an objective brain-based diagnosis of these developmental disorders is still unavailable. We investigated the neuro-auditory systems of dyslexic, ADHD, ADD, and age-matched control children (N = 147) using neuroimaging, magnetencephalography and psychoacoustics. All disorder subgroups exhibited an oversized left planum temporale and an abnormal interhemispheric asynchrony (10-40 ms) of the primary auditory evoked P1-response. Considering right auditory cortex morphology, bilateral P1 source waveform shapes, and auditory performance, the three disorder subgroups could be reliably differentiated with outstanding accuracies of 89-98%. We therefore for the first time provide differential biomarkers for a brain-based diagnosis of dyslexia, ADHD, and ADD. The method allowed not only allowed for clear discrimination between two subtypes of attentional disorders (ADHD and ADD), a topic controversially discussed for decades in the scientific community, but also revealed the potential for objectively identifying comorbid cases. Noteworthy, in children playing a musical instrument, after three and a half years of training the observed interhemispheric asynchronies were reduced by about 2/3, thus suggesting a strong beneficial influence of music experience on brain development. These findings might have far-reaching implications for both research and practice and enable a profound understanding of the brain-related etiology, diagnosis, and musically based therapy of common auditory-related developmental disorders and learning disabilities. PMID:27471442

  4. Vocabulario enla lengua Castellana, la del Ynga y Xebera (British Library, Ms. Add. 25,323)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Alexander-Bakkerus

    2013-01-01

    The codex Vocabulario enla Lengua Castellana, la del Inga y Xebera (British Library, shelf mark Ms. Add. 25,323), does not only contain a Spanish-Quechua-Xebero vocabulary, but also a rather elaborate description of certain Xebero sounds. Although the author of the manuscript is unknown, we may attr

  5. Civic Engagement and Global Citizenship in a University Context: Core Business or Desirable Add-On?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munck, Ronaldo

    2010-01-01

    Can civic engagement become a "core business" of the contemporary university, or is it an attractive "add-on" that is not affordable in the current economic climate? Contemporary universities often play an important role in local community development and, as such, have the opportunity to develop civic engagement strategies to sit alongside…

  6. Ciprofloxacin and probiotic Escherichia coli Nissle add-on treatment in active ulcerative colitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Andreas Munk; Mirsepasi, Hengameh; Halkjær, Sofie Ingdam;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIM: Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a chronic inflammatory bowel disease. The probiotic bacterium Escherichia coli Nissle 1917 (EcN) has been used to maintain and induce clinical remission in UC. Our aim was to test the effect of Ciprofloxacin and/or orally administered EcN as add-on to...

  7. How to Add Philosophy Dimensions in Your Basic International Business Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thanopoulos, John

    2010-01-01

    This article aims to assist professors in introducing concepts of self, philosophy, religions, the universe, existential dilemmas, etc., in their basic international business classes. Using active learning and five-member student teams, a student organized and administered conference adds a very useful dimension of knowledge sacrificing only one…

  8. Neural Biomarkers for Dyslexia, ADHD, and ADD in the Auditory Cortex of Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrallach, Bettina; Groß, Christine; Bernhofs, Valdis; Engelmann, Dorte; Benner, Jan; Gündert, Nadine; Blatow, Maria; Wengenroth, Martina; Seitz, Angelika; Brunner, Monika; Seither, Stefan; Parncutt, Richard; Schneider, Peter; Seither-Preisler, Annemarie

    2016-01-01

    Dyslexia, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and attention deficit disorder (ADD) show distinct clinical profiles that may include auditory and language-related impairments. Currently, an objective brain-based diagnosis of these developmental disorders is still unavailable. We investigated the neuro-auditory systems of dyslexic, ADHD, ADD, and age-matched control children (N = 147) using neuroimaging, magnetencephalography and psychoacoustics. All disorder subgroups exhibited an oversized left planum temporale and an abnormal interhemispheric asynchrony (10–40 ms) of the primary auditory evoked P1-response. Considering right auditory cortex morphology, bilateral P1 source waveform shapes, and auditory performance, the three disorder subgroups could be reliably differentiated with outstanding accuracies of 89–98%. We therefore for the first time provide differential biomarkers for a brain-based diagnosis of dyslexia, ADHD, and ADD. The method allowed not only allowed for clear discrimination between two subtypes of attentional disorders (ADHD and ADD), a topic controversially discussed for decades in the scientific community, but also revealed the potential for objectively identifying comorbid cases. Noteworthy, in children playing a musical instrument, after three and a half years of training the observed interhemispheric asynchronies were reduced by about 2/3, thus suggesting a strong beneficial influence of music experience on brain development. These findings might have far-reaching implications for both research and practice and enable a profound understanding of the brain-related etiology, diagnosis, and musically based therapy of common auditory-related developmental disorders and learning disabilities. PMID:27471442

  9. Project DyAdd: Visual Attention in Adult Dyslexia and ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laasonen, Marja; Salomaa, Jonna; Cousineau, Denis; Leppamaki, Sami; Tani, Pekka; Hokkanen, Laura; Dye, Matthew

    2012-01-01

    In this study of the project DyAdd, three aspects of visual attention were investigated in adults (18-55 years) with dyslexia (n = 35) or attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD, n = 22), and in healthy controls (n = 35). Temporal characteristics of visual attention were assessed with Attentional Blink (AB), capacity of visual attention…

  10. Add More Vegetables to Your Day: 10 Tips to Help You Eat More Vegetables

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... encouraging them as snacks as well, not just meals. 1 discover fast ways to cook Cook fresh or frozen vegetables in the microwave for a quick-and-easy dish to add to any meal. Steam green beans, carrots, or broccoli in a ...

  11. Development of a radiometer based on an Add-ON card for PC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The design of an add-on card for PC that enables it to record nuclear pulses provided by two channels is described in this paper. This card carries acts as a pulse discriminator, and according to the software it finds many appliances in radioimmunoassay, nuclear medicine, industry and other fields

  12. Associations between Dopamine and Serotonin Genes and Job Satisfaction: Preliminary Evidence from the Add Health Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Zhaoli; Li, Wendong; Arvey, Richard D.

    2011-01-01

    Previous behavioral genetic studies have found that job satisfaction is partially heritable. We went a step further to examine particular genetic markers that may be associated with job satisfaction. Using an oversample from the National Adolescent Longitudinal Study (Add Health Study), we found 2 genetic markers, dopamine receptor gene DRD4 VNTR…

  13. Development of a new code family based on SAC-OCDMA system with large cardinality for OCDMA network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd, Thanaa Hussein; Aljunid, S. A.; Fadhil, Hilal Adnan; Ahmad, R. A.; Saad, N. M.

    2011-07-01

    We have proposed a new Multi-Diagonal (MD) code for Spectral Amplitude - Coding Optical Code Division Multiple Access (SAC-OCDMA). Although this new MD code has many properties, one of the important properties of this code is that the cross correlation is always zero. Simplicity in code construction and flexibility in cross correlation control has made this code a compelling candidate for future OCDMA applications. The Multiple access interference (MAI) effects have been successfully and completely eliminated. Based on the theoretical analysis MD code is shown here to provide a much better performance compared to Modified Quadratic Congruence (MQC) code and Random Diagonal (RD) code. Proof-of-principle simulations of encoding with 5 and 10 users with 622 Mb/s data transmission at a BER of 10 -12 have been successfully demonstrated together with the DIRECT detection scheme.

  14. Design for a New Signal Analyzer through a Circuit Modeling Simulation as a One Body System for SAC's

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A circuit simulation analysis and diagnosis methods are used to diagnose instruments in detail when they give apparently abnormal readings. In this paper, a new simulator for analyzing the modeling of important circuits under SACs(severe accident conditions) has been designed. The realization of a one body system by using a one order command system in the LabVIEW and Pspice was used instead of a complex two body system. The program shows the output data from the circuit modeling according to a one order command system. The procedure for the simulator design was divided into two steps, of which the first step was the design of the diagnosis methods, and the second step was a circuit simulator for the signal processing tool and the special signal analysis tool. It has three main functions which are a signal processing tool, an accident management tool, and an additional guide from the initial screen. (authors)

  15. Proteomic analysis of the early bovine yolk sac fluid and cells from the day 13 ovoid and elongated preimplantation embryos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Pernille L; Beck, Hans Christian; Petersen, Tonny S;

    2014-01-01

    The bovine blastocyst hatches 8 to 9 days after fertilization, and this is followed by several days of preimplantation development during which the embryo transforms from a spherical over an ovoid to an elongated shape. As the spherical embryo enlarges, the cells of the inner cell mass...... slightly later stage cell differentiation in the developing bovine embryo. In vitro-produced Day 6 embryos were transferred into a recipient heifer and after 7 days of further in vivo culture, ovoid and elongated Day 13 embryos were recovered by flushing both uterine horns after slaughter. The primitive YS...... differentiate into the hypoblast and epiblast, which remain surrounded by the trophectoderm. The formation of the hypoblast epithelium is also accompanied by a change in the fluid within the embryo, i.e., the blastocoel fluid gradually alters to become the primitive yolk sac (YS) fluid. Our previous research...

  16. High-performance liquid chromatography combined with intrinsic fluorescence detection to analyse melittin in individual honeybee (Apis mellifera) venom sac.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Jiangtao; Ying, Bihua; Huang, Shaokang; Ma, Shuangqin; Long, Peng; Tu, Xijuan; Yang, Wenchao; Wu, Zhenhong; Chen, Wenbin; Miao, Xiaoqing

    2015-10-01

    Melittin is the major toxin peptide in bee venom, which has diverse biological effects. In the present study, melittin was separated by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography, and was then detected using intrinsic fluorescence signal of tryptophan residue. The accuracy, linearity, limit of quantitation (LOQ), intra-day and inter-day precision of the method were carefully validated in this study. Results indicate that the intrinsic fluorescence signal of melittin has linear range from 0.04μg/mL to 20μg/mL with LOQ of 0.04μg/mL. The recovery range of spiked samples is between 81.93% and 105.25%. The precision results are expressed as relative standard deviation (RSD), which is in the range of 2.1-7.4% for intra-day precision and 6.2-10.8% for inter-day precision. Because of the large linear dynamic range and the high sensitivity, intrinsic fluorescence detection (IFD) can be used for analyzing melittin contents in individual venom sac of honeybee (Apis mellifera). The detected contents of melittin in individual bee venom sac are 0.18±0.25μg for one-day old honeybees (n=30), and 114.98±43.51μg for 25-day old (n=30) honeybees, respectively. Results indicate that there is large bee-to-bee difference in melittin contents. The developed method can be useful for discovering the melittin related honeybee biology information, which might be covered in the complex samples. PMID:26319802

  17. Whispering to the deaf: communication by a frog without external vocal sac or tympanum in noisy environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boistel, Renaud; Aubin, Thierry; Cloetens, Peter; Langer, Max; Gillet, Brigitte; Josset, Patrice; Pollet, Nicolas; Herrel, Anthony

    2011-01-01

    Atelopus franciscus is a diurnal bufonid frog that lives in South-American tropical rain forests. As in many other frogs, males produce calls to defend their territories and attract females. However, this species is a so-called "earless" frog lacking an external tympanum and is thus anatomically deaf. Moreover, A. franciscus has no external vocal sac and lives in a sound constraining environment along river banks where it competes with other calling frogs. Despite these constraints, male A. franciscus reply acoustically to the calls of conspecifics in the field. To resolve this apparent paradox, we studied the vocal apparatus and middle-ear, analysed signal content of the calls, examined sound and signal content propagation in its natural habitat, and performed playback experiments. We show that A. franciscus males can produce only low intensity calls that propagate a short distance (<8 m) as a result of the lack of an external vocal sac. The species-specific coding of the signal is based on the pulse duration, providing a simple coding that is efficient as it allows discrimination from calls of sympatric frogs. Moreover, the signal is redundant and consequently adapted to noisy environments. As such a coding system can be efficient only at short-range, territory holders established themselves at short distances from each other. Finally, we show that the middle-ear of A. franciscus does not present any particular adaptations to compensate for the lack of an external tympanum, suggesting the existence of extra-tympanic pathways for sound propagation. PMID:21779377

  18. Whispering to the deaf: communication by a frog without external vocal sac or tympanum in noisy environments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renaud Boistel

    Full Text Available Atelopus franciscus is a diurnal bufonid frog that lives in South-American tropical rain forests. As in many other frogs, males produce calls to defend their territories and attract females. However, this species is a so-called "earless" frog lacking an external tympanum and is thus anatomically deaf. Moreover, A. franciscus has no external vocal sac and lives in a sound constraining environment along river banks where it competes with other calling frogs. Despite these constraints, male A. franciscus reply acoustically to the calls of conspecifics in the field. To resolve this apparent paradox, we studied the vocal apparatus and middle-ear, analysed signal content of the calls, examined sound and signal content propagation in its natural habitat, and performed playback experiments. We show that A. franciscus males can produce only low intensity calls that propagate a short distance (<8 m as a result of the lack of an external vocal sac. The species-specific coding of the signal is based on the pulse duration, providing a simple coding that is efficient as it allows discrimination from calls of sympatric frogs. Moreover, the signal is redundant and consequently adapted to noisy environments. As such a coding system can be efficient only at short-range, territory holders established themselves at short distances from each other. Finally, we show that the middle-ear of A. franciscus does not present any particular adaptations to compensate for the lack of an external tympanum, suggesting the existence of extra-tympanic pathways for sound propagation.

  19. GAMMA-GLUTAMYL TRANSFERASE (GGT) ACTIVITY AND BIOCHEMICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF RAT VISCERAL YOLK-SAC DURING GESTATION WITH OR WITHOUT TRYPAN BLUE EXPOSURE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yolk-sacs from untreated Sprague Dawley rat conceptuses were removed on days 9-18 of gestation and examined for gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT), alkaline phosphatase (AP), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT) activities. All enzyme activities w...

  20. Tensile creep characteristics of Sn–3.5Ag–0.5Cu (SAC355) solder reinforced with nano-metric ZnO particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recently, nano-composite solders have been developed in the electronic packaging materials industry to improve the mechanical response of solder joints to be used in service under different conditions. In this study mechanical mixing has been used to disperse nano-metric ZnO particles in Sn–3.5Ag–0.5Cu (SAC355) solder at 420 °C for 2 h. In comparison with SAC355 solder, addition of nano-metric ZnO particles effectively suppressed the formation and restricted the volume fraction of the Ag3Sn and Cu6Sn5 intermetallic compound particles, lowering grain sizes and controlled the growth of β-Sn grains in the matrix. An improvement in tensile creep resistance of the reinforced SAC355 composite is noticed. This improvement seems to be due to its effect in structural refinement and makes the composite solder to display a large creep life time. The addition of nano-metric ZnO particles keeps the melting temperature nearly at the SAC355 level, indicating that the composite solder is fit for the existing soldering process

  1. Ovule-to-seed development in Dovyalis caffra (Salicaceae: Flacourtieae with notes on the taxonomic significance of the extranucellar embryo sac

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. M. A. Steyn

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Dovyalis caffra (Hook.f. & Harv. Hook.f. is a widespread and horticulturally important southern African endemic. Here described, ovule-to-seed development represents the first embryological information on this genus of the tribe Flacourtieae, Salicaceae  sensu lato. Results are discussed in the light of data available on the embryology of the order Malpighiales in general and on the tribe Flacourtieae in particular. It is clear that Dovyalis E.Mey. ex Am. shares many characters with other members of the Flacourtieae. Ovules of D. caffra are anatropous. bitegmic and crassinucellate with both bisporic Allium- and monosporic Polygonum-type embryo sacs. One of the most characteristic embryological features of the tribe is the pres­ence of an unusual, extranucellar embryo sac that stretches halfway up into the micropyle. Since this extraordinary-shaped embryo sac also defines the embryo sacs of Salix L. and Populus L., it is suggested that the character provides strong sup­port for the proposed close phylogenetic link between tribes Flacourtieae and Saliceae of Salicaceae sensu lato.

  2. MR imaging of the lumbar disk herniation : relationship between the direction of herniated disc and pressure effect on nerve root and dural sac

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cha, B. H.; Shon, M. Y.; Kim, K. W.; Lim, M. A.; Kwon, K. R; Kim, S. S. [Sunlin Presbyterian Hospital, Pohang (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-04-01

    To evaluate the relationship between the direction of herniated disc and pressure effect on nerve root and dural sac, as seen on MRI. We retrospectively reviewed lumbar spine MR images of 122 cases of lumbar disk herniation 75 patients MRI findings were analyzed with regard to the relationship between the direction of the herniated disc and pressure effect on nerve root and dural sac. Pressure effect on nerve root and dural sac was arbitrarily divided into three types. Type I was defined as zero or minimal compression of nerve roots or thecal sac by the herniated disc ; type II was defined as mild to moderate compression, while III was defined as severe compression or displacement of nerve roots and/or thecal sac. Of the 122 cases seen in these 75 patients, 97(80%) were observed at L4-5 and L5-S1. The central type(71cases ; 58%) was more frequently observed than the posterolateral type(48cases ; 40%) or lateral type(3cases ; 2%). The totals of types I, II, and III were 44(36%), 43(35%) and 35 cases(29%), respectively. Seventy-seven %(34/44) of type I and 65%(28/43) of type II were of the central type but for type III, the corresponding figure was only 26%(9/35). On MR imaging, most of lumbar disk herniations were observed at L4-5 and L5-S1, with a predominance of the central type rather than the posterolateral one. Most of the central types were either type I or type II.

  3. Analysis of reconfigurable multi-channel wavelength add drop multiplexer for intelligent optical networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponmalar, S.; Sundaravadivelu, S.

    2011-07-01

    This paper presents design of an electro-optically tunable polymer multi-channel wavelength add drop multiplexer (WADM). The proposed WADM with trapezoidal waveguide geometry and poled electro-optical polymer material in the waveguide cores enables the wavelength tuning speed of WADM as 7.5 ps at the resonance wavelength of 1550 nm and coupling length of 1.5 mm. The device can be electro-optically tuned to add/drop multiple channels. Transmission spectra of the device with varying device parameters are simulated. The proposed WADM with high speed, small size and varying tuning capability makes this device, an important element in faster provisioning and routing of light paths in intelligent optical network.

  4. Chip-scale fully reconfigurable optical add/drop multiplexing subsystem in polymer microphotonic circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izuhara, Tomoyuki; Fujita, Junichiro; Radojevic, Antonije; Gerhardt, Reinald; Eldada, Louay A.

    2004-10-01

    We report on a highly integrated photonic circuit using a polymer-based planar waveguide system. The properties of the materials used in this work such as ultra-low optical loss, widely tunable refractive index, and large thermo-optic coefficient, enable a multi-functional chip-scale microphotonic circuit. We discuss the application of this technology to the fabrication of a fully reconfigurable optical add/drop multiplexer. This subsystem includes channel switching, power monitoring, load balancing, and wavelength shuffling functionalities that are required for agile wavelength-division multiplexing optical networks. Optical properties of our material systems and performance characteristics of the implemented optical passive/active elements are presented, and the integration schemes of the devices to achieve a fully integrated reconfigurable optical add/drop multiplexer are discussed.

  5. How Can Facilities Management Add Value To Organisations As Well As To Society?

    OpenAIRE

    Jensen, P.A.; A.L. Sarasoja; Van der Voordt, D.J.M.; Coenen, C.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present lessons learnt from a 3 year collaborative research project on the added value of Facilities Management (FM) involving institutions in five European countries. The starting point was the so-called FM Value Map developed earlier by the leader of the research group. The project applied three basic theoretical perspectives: FM, Corporate Real Estate Management (CREM) and Business to Business (B2B) marketing and started with a major literature review on add...

  6. Med-records: an ADD database of AAEC medical records since 1966

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since its inception in 1958 most of the staff of the AAEC Research Establishment at Lucas Heights have had annual medical examinations. Medical information accrued since 1966 has been collected as an ADD database to allow ad hoc enquiries to be made against the data. Details are given of the database schema and numerous support routines ranging from the integrity checking of input data to analysis and plotting of the summary results

  7. When can pessimism add value? How real option disinvestment flexibility augments project NPV

    OpenAIRE

    Keswani, A; Shackleton, M. B.

    2002-01-01

    In this article by drawing together existing option pricing models we demonstrate how different degrees of managerial flexability can affect the value of a project. In particular we also include new option pricing results that allow us to properly take into account a firms exit option. Our paper illustrates that these disinvestment options can be valuable suggesting that managerial pessimism (i.e. consideration of outcomes if the project does not perform) can add value.

  8. Hera-FFX: a Firefox add-on for Semi-automatic Web Accessibility Evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    Fuertes Castro, José Luis; González, Ricardo; Gutiérrez, Emmanuelle; Martínez Normand, Loïc

    2009-01-01

    Website accessibility evaluation is a complex task requiring a combination of human expertise and software support. There are several online and offline tools to support the manual web accessibility evaluation process. However, they all have some weaknesses because none of them includes all the desired features. In this paper we present Hera-FFX, an add-on for the Firefox web browser that supports semi-automatic web accessibility evaluation.

  9. Marriage and Health in the Transition to Adulthood: Evidence for African Americans in Add Health

    OpenAIRE

    Harris, Kathleen Mullan; Lee, Hedwig; DeLeone, Felicia Yang

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines the relationship between early marriage (before age 26), cohabitation, and health for African Americans and whites during the transition to adulthood using the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health). We examine three categories of health outcomes relevant to young adulthood: physical health, mental health, and health risk behaviors. Lagged dependent variable models are used to examine the health effects of early marriage and cohabitation accounting f...

  10. Immunophenotyping in Myelodysplastic Syndromes Can Add Prognostic Information to Well-Established and New Clinical Scores

    OpenAIRE

    Reis-Alves, Suiellen C.; Traina, Fabíola; Harada, Guilherme; Campos, Paula M.; Sara T. O. Saad; Metze, Konradin; Lorand-Metze, Irene

    2013-01-01

    Background myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) are a heterogeneous group of hematopoietic clonal disorders. So, prognostic variables are important to separate patients with a similar biology and clinical outcome. We compared the importance of risk stratification in primary MDS of IPSS and WPSS with the just described revision of IPSS (IPSS-R), and examined if variables obtained by bone marrow immunophenotyping could add prognostic information to any of the scores. Methods In this prospective stud...

  11. Bilateral Waveform Similarity Overlap-and-Add Based Packet Loss Concealment for Voice over IP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.F. Yeh

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper invested a bilateral waveform similarity overlap-and-add algorithm for voice packet lost. Since Packet lost will cause the semantic misunderstanding, it has become one of the most essential problems in speech communication. This investment is based on waveform similarity measure using overlap-and-Add algorithm and provides the bilateral information to enhance the speech signal reconstruction. Traditionally, it has been improved that waveform similarity overlap-and-add (WSOLA technique is an effective algorithm to deal with packet loss concealment (PLC for real-time time communication. WSOLA algorithm is widely applied to deal with the length adaptation and packet loss concealment of speech signal. Time scale modification of audio signal is one of the most essential research topics in data communication, especially in voice of IP (VoIP. Herein, the proposed the bilateral WSOLA (BWSOLA that is derived from WSOLA. Instead of only exploitation one direction speech data, the proposed method will reconstruct the lost voice data according to the preceding and cascading data. The related algorithms have been developed to achieve the optimal reconstructing estimation. The experimental results show that the quality of the reconstructed speech signal of the bilateral WSOLA is much better compared to the standard WSOLA and GWSOLA on different packet loss rate and length using the metrics PESQ and MOS. The significant improvement is obtained by bilateral information and proposed method. The proposed bilateral waveform similarity overlap-and-add (BWSOLA outperforms the traditional approaches especially in the long duration data loss.

  12. Pleasure and pedagogy: the consumption of DVD add-ons among Irish teenagers

    OpenAIRE

    Brereton, Pat; O'Connor, Barbara

    2007-01-01

    This article addresses the issue of young people and media use in the digital age, more specifically the interconnection between new media pleasures and pedagogy as they relate to the consumption of DVD add-ons. Arguing against the view of new media as having predominantly detrimental effects on young people, the authors claim that new media can enable young people to develop media literacy skills and are of the view that media literacy strategies must be based on an understanding and legitim...

  13. Accurate plutonium waste measurements using the 252Cf add-a- source technique for matrix corrections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have developed a new measurement technique to improve the accuracy and sensitivity of the nondestructive assay (NDA) of plutonium scrap and waste. The 200-ell drum assay system uses the classical NDA method of counting passive-neutron coincidences from plutonium but has added the new features of ''add-a-source'' to improve the accuracy for matrix corrections and statistical techniques to improve the low-level detectability limits. The add-a-source technique introduces a small source of 252Cf (10-8 g) near the external surface of the sample drum. The drum perturbs the rate at which coincident neutrons from the 252Cf are counted. The perturbation provides the data to correct for the matrix and plutonium inside the drum. The errors introduced from matrix materials in 200-ell drums have been reduced by an order of magnitude using the add-a-source technique. In addition, the add-a-source method can detect unexpected neutron-shielding material inside the drum that might hide the presence of special nuclear materials. The detectability limit of the new waste-drum assay system for plutonium is better than prior systems for actual waste materials. For the in-plant installation at a mixed-oxide fabrication facility, the detectability limit is 0.73 mg of 24OPu (or 2.3 mg of high-burnup plutonium) for a 15-min. measurement. For a drum containing 100 kg of waste, this translates to about 7 nCi/g. This excellent sensitivity was achieved using a special low-background detector design, good overhead shielding, and statistical techniques in the software to selectively reduce the cosmic-ray neutron background

  14. Add on testosterone therapy in negative symptoms of schizophrenia with gonadal trauma: Hitting the bull's eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jha, Shailesh; Garg, Amit

    2016-06-30

    The coincidence or causal incidence of hormonal dysregulation leading to psychotic manifestation had been a point of debate. The interplay of these hormones in pathogenesis of psychotic symptom domains is still inconclusive along with some symptom domains which worsen with antipsychotics. Early detection and treatment with liaison approach is of great help to such patients. We report a case of schizophrenia with primary hypogonadism that responded dramatically to add on testosterone supplement. PMID:27138816

  15. Low crosstalk Bragg grating/Mach-Zehnder interferometer optical add-drop multiplexer in silicon photonics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Junjia; Chen, Lawrence R

    2015-10-01

    We characterize the interferometric crosstalk and system performance of two optical add-drop multiplexer (OADM) designs based on Bragg grating/Mach-Zehnder interferometers implemented in silicon-on-insulator. Both OADM designs exhibit low crosstalk and negligible crosstalk-induced power penalties over their 3 dB bandwidths. The devices are tolerant to wavelength drift and misalignment between the transmitter and OADM; moreover, their designs can be optimized further to enable high performance operation in WDM systems. PMID:26480158

  16. Sensitivity and specificity of the amer dizziness diagnostic scale (adds) for patients with vestibular disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Al Saif, Amer; Alsenany, Samira

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] To investigate the sensitivity and specificity of a newly developed diagnostic tool, the Amer Dizziness Diagnostic Scale (ADDS), to evaluate and differentially diagnose vestibular disorder and to identify the strengths and weaknesses of the scale and its usefulness in clinical practice. [Subjects and Methods] Two hundred subjects of both genders (72 males, 128 females) aged between 18 to 60 (49.5±7.8) who had a history of vertigo and/or dizziness symptoms for this previous two weeks...

  17. radEq Add-On Module for CFD Solver Loci-CHEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCloud, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Loci-CHEM to be applied to flow velocities where surface radiation due to heating from compression and friction becomes significant. The module adds a radiation equilibrium boundary condition to the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code to produce accurate results. The module expanded the upper limit for accurate CFD solutions of Loci-CHEM from Mach 4 to Mach 10 based on Space Shuttle Orbiter Re-Entry trajectories. Loci-CHEM already has a very promising architecture and performance, but absence of radiation equilibrium boundary condition limited the application of Loci-CHEM to below Mach 4. The immediate advantage of the add-on module is that it allows Loci-CHEM to work with supersonic flows up to Mach 10. This transformed Loci-CHEM from a rocket engine- heritage CFD code with general subsonic and low-supersonic applications, to an aeroheating code with hypersonic applications. The follow-on advantage of the module is that it is a building block for additional add-on modules that will solve for the heating generated at Mach numbers higher than 10.

  18. The Dnmt3L ADD Domain Controls Cytosine Methylation Establishment during Spermatogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgios Vlachogiannis

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available A critical aspect of mammalian gametogenesis is the reprogramming of genomic DNA methylation. The catalytically inactive adaptor Dnmt3L is essential to ensuring this occurs correctly, but the mechanism by which it functions is unclear. Using gene targeting to engineer a single-amino-acid mutation, we show that the Dnmt3L histone H3 binding domain (ADD is necessary for spermatogenesis. Genome-wide single-base-resolution DNA methylome analysis of mutant germ cells revealed overall reductions in CG methylation at repetitive sequences and non-promoter CpG islands. Strikingly, we also observe an even more severe loss of non-CG methylation, suggesting an unexpected role for the ADD in this process. These epigenetic deficiencies were coupled with defects in spermatogonia, with mutant cells displaying marked changes in gene expression and reactivation of retrotransposons. Our results demonstrate that the Dnmt3L ADD is necessary for Dnmt3L function and full reproductive fitness.

  19. Does Gonadotropin Releasing Hormone Agonists plus add-back therapy bring an aurora to orthodontic treatment?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang Lingyong

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Obviously, long therapy time of orthodontic treatment and a number of its adverse effects, such as pain, root resorption, enamel demineralization, periodontal disease, are the main reasons of complaints from patients. It is the first thing for an orthodontist to shorten the period of treatment and decrease the complications of orthodontic treatment as much as possible. The Hypothesis: We hypothesis Gonadotropin Releasing Hormone Agonists (GnRHa and add-back therapy can create the "therapeutic window", namely, the appropriate estrogen level and assuage the adverse effects of estrogen deficiency which should be avoided as much as possible. Evaluation of the Hypothesis: It is generally acknowledged that estrogen has direct regulating role in bone metabolism by acting on osteoblasts and osteoclasts. Estrogen deficiency can increase the rate of orthodontic tooth movement and also bring about some adverse effects. The appropriate estrogen level, which we call the "therapeutic window" in orthodontic treatment, can speed up the orthodontic tooth movement and eliminate the adverse effects as far as possible. GnRHa can be the maker of estrogen deficiency; meanwhile, add-back therapy can remove the adverse effects by estrogen deficiency. So, we believe that GnRHa plus add-back therapy could be a new adjuvant method of orthodontic treatment and be good for orthodontists and patients.

  20. 卵巢卵黄囊瘤的MSCT诊断%MSCT Diagnosis of Ovarian Yolk Sac Tumor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹璐; 叶兆祥; 刘佩芳; 李绪斌

    2013-01-01

    Objective To explore the MSCT features of ovarian yolk sac tumor and improve its diagnostic accuracy. Methods Clinical data and MSCT images of 9 patients with ovarian yolk sac tumor were reviewed retrospectively. The onset age ranged 11 to 28 years old,and the average age was 19.5 years old. Alpha Fetal Protein( AFP) was significantly higher before operation in 9 cases (4255 ~ 187689 ug/L). All the cases were examined by both plain and enhanced pelvis CT scan, and 7 cases were also performed with abdomen CT scan. Results There were all unilateral ovarian masses. 7 cases in the right side,and 2 in the left side. The CT plain scan demonstrated oval or lobulated mass with sharp margined. There was maximum diameter of mass with 10. 2 ~ 18. 8 cm . All the tumors were mixed solid and cystic, and predominantly cystic. The solid part of the mass was prominent enhanced. Abundant vessels were seen in tumors Conclusion There are some MSCT characteristics in ovarian yolk sac tumor, correct diagnosis can be made combined with the clinical features before operation.%目的 探讨卵巢卵黄囊瘤的多层螺旋CT表现特点,旨在提高对该病的诊断准确率.方法 回顾性分析经手术病理证实的9例卵巢卵黄囊瘤患者的临床及MSCT资料.患者发病年龄11 ~28岁,平均19.5岁.9例术前血清甲胎蛋白值为4255 ~187689 μg/L,均明显升高.所有病例均行盆腔CT平扫及增强扫描,其中7例同时行上腹部CT平扫及增强扫描.结果 全部患者均为单侧卵巢发病,右侧7例,左侧2例.肿瘤边界清楚,呈卵圆形或分叶状,均为囊实性肿物,且以囊性成分居多.肿物最大径为10.2 ~18.8 em.增强后肿瘤的实性部分明显强化,瘤体内部肿瘤血管丰富.结论 卵巢卵黄囊瘤的多层螺旋CT表现具有一定特征性,结合临床特点,可做出正确诊断.

  1. Histological and ultrastructural observation of the ink sac of Octopus variabilis%长蛸墨囊的组织学及其墨腺超微结构

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王亚; 王春琳; 詹萍萍; 宋微微; 母昌考; 邵楚; 刘帅

    2011-01-01

    分析了长蛸墨囊组织学及墨腺细胞的超微结构.结果表明,墨囊由墨囊体、导管和墨腺3部分组成,墨囊壁和导管壁分为外膜、肌肉层、粘膜下层和粘膜层,墨囊壁与肝脏外膜紧密相连,墨囊导管开口于直肠末端近肛门处;墨腺集中在墨囊底部靠近肝脏的一侧,由粘膜上皮细胞向囊腔内增生形成,呈索状,腺体中部含丰富的结缔组织;墨腺细胞分为具有无分泌功能的A型细胞和有分泌功能的B型细胞,微绒毛分布于B型细胞的顶端;墨汁颗粒在墨腺细胞囊泡中形成,并以胞吐或细胞破碎的形式将墨汁颗粒排出.%Octopus variabilis has become one of the most popular seafood for its delicious taste, which has large market demand in China and is advantaged in marine products exports. However, due to the over fishing and water pollution, the natural resource of Octopus variabilis declined rapidly. For this reason,the industry of artificial culturing got rapid development. The Octopus variabilis will spurt the ink when meeting the stimulation originally. The peculiar ink defence system of Octopus variabilis is based on the activity of the highly specialized ink gland which is deputed to the continuous production of the black insoluble melanin pigment that is stored in the ink sac. This organ has been studied in other cephalopod, but the ink gland in Octopus variabilis is different from the others. Therefore, the histology of the ink sac and ultrastructural structure of the ink gland of Octopus variabilis was studied using light microscopy and electron microscopy in this paper. The observed results showed that the ink sac was composed of ink sac body, pipe and ink glands. The ink sac of Octopus variabilis opened into the end of the recta near the anus by pipe. The wall of the ink sac and pipe were both composed of epicardial,muscular layer,submucosa layer and mucosa layer. And the epicardial of ink sac wall were stratified squamous

  2. High Performance Wavelength Converter Based on Semiconductor Optical Amplifier and Mach-Zehnder Interferometer Optical add/drop Multiplexer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xueyan, Zheng; Liu, Fenghai; Clausen, Anders;

    1999-01-01

    Using an SOA and a optical add/drop multiplexer, a wavelength converter with 18 dB input power dynamic range at 1 dB penalty is realised.......Using an SOA and a optical add/drop multiplexer, a wavelength converter with 18 dB input power dynamic range at 1 dB penalty is realised....

  3. Air Pollution

    OpenAIRE

    Lawther, P. J.

    2014-01-01

    The human costs of air pollution are considerable in Jordan. According to a report published in 2000 by the World Bank under the Mediterranean Environmental Technical Assistance Program (METAP), approximately 600 people die prematurely each year in Jordan because of urban pollution. 50-90% of air pollution in Jordanian towns is caused by road traffic. Readings taken in 2007 by Jordanian researchers showed that levels of black carbon particles in the air were higher in urban areas (caused by v...

  4. The avian respiratory system: a unique model for studies of respiratory toxicosis and for monitoring air quality.

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, R. E.; Brain, J D; Wang, N.

    1997-01-01

    There are many distinct differences (morphologic, physiologic, and mechanical) between the bird's lung-air-sac respiratory system and the mammalian bronchoalveolar lung. In this paper, we review the physiology of the avian respiratory system with attention to those mechanisms that may lead to significantly different results, relative to those in mammals, following exposure to toxic gases and airborne particulates. We suggest that these differences can be productively exploited to further our ...

  5. Senate passes clean air bill

    Science.gov (United States)

    In an 89 to 11 vote the Senate passed a clean air bill aimed at reducing pollution by the turn of the century by imposing tougher controls on American industry. The bill is the first revision of the Clean Air Act of 1970 in 13 years and calls for new limits on auto pollution to clean up smog in most U.S. cities, decreasing by half emissions by power plants that cause acid rain to protect the ecology, and increasing technological controls on factories to protect against cancer-causing and toxic substances. The bill will add about $20 billion per year to the estimated $33 billion cost of complying with current pollution laws.

  6. The European Union, Financial Crises and the Regulation of Hedge Funds: A Policy Cul-de-Sac or Policy Window?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David John Lutton

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available A series of financial crises involving hedge funds has created a general perception that action needs to be taken. A number of key member states and political actors favour tighter regulation. Traditional bureaucratic theory suggests that the European Commission would seek to maximise this ‘policy window’, and yet there remains no single unified European Union (EU regulatory framework specifically targeting hedge funds. The nature of the regulatory regime, which has generally demanded a ‘light touch’ approach, means there are strict limits the EU’s ability to act. From an EU perspective, hedge fund regulation appears to be a policy cul-de-sac. However, the relationship between hedge funds and financial crisis is complex and less straightforward than is often portrayed. Hedge fund regulation cannot, however, be considered in isolation but should be viewed in the context of a wider programme to integrate European financial services markets. Viewed from this perspective, EU regulation is in fact changing the landscape of the hedge fund industry through a process of negative integration.

  7. Detection of CD2 expression in chicken hematogenic embryo yolk sac lymphoid cells prior to thymus genesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dongyu Zhou; Jigui Wang; Weiquan Liu; Rongxiu Liu; Yuehu Pei

    2008-01-01

    Lymphoid mononuclear cells from chick embryos at stage 16 were collected prior to fetal liver and thymus genesis to study the differentiation and function of the hematogenic yolk sac and to detect whether CD2 occurs on the surface of lymphoid mononuclear cells.The phenotype and functional activity of the cell surface protein E receptor and the ultrastructure of embryonic E+ cells were compared with those of mature T cells.Our results indicate 99.36% homology between the E receptors of embryonic lymphocytes and mature T cells.Other similarities,including molecular distribution,motivation,the ability to form an erythrocyte rosette,the structure of the receptor-ligand complex,and the conformation of the signal channel,were detected between embryonic lymphocytes and mature CD2-expressing T cells.These results indicate that CD2 is already expressed prior to fetal fiver and thymus genesis and that its expression is not dependent on the thymic microenvironment.

  8. Occurrence of differential meiotic associations and additional chromosomes in the embryo-sac mother cells of Allium roylei Stearn

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Geeta Sharma; Ravinder N. Gohil

    2011-04-01

    A small population of complex translocation heterozygote plants of Allium roylei from the Bani region of Jammu Province was studied for meiosis in the female track. This study resulted in identification of two variants, having embryo-sac mother cells (EMCs) with more than 16 chromosomes. EMCs of the remaining plants invariably had diploid $(2n = 16)$ chromosome complement. Female meiosis, in general, was found to be abnormal, with nearly 23% and 11% chromosomes associating as quadrivalents or trivalents at prophase I and at metaphase I, respectively. This was followed by irregular segregation of chromosomes at anaphase I. Amongst the variants; one had 38% EMCs with eight bivalents plus two small sized chromosomes. Their small size, dispensable nature and tendency to affect the pairing behaviour of normal complement are some of the features that latter chromosomes share with the B chromosomes. Seventeen to nineteen chromosomes were observed in 35% EMCs of other variant; the remaining cells had 16 chromosomes. Chromosomal behaviour in both kind of cells (euploid and aneuploid) was more or less similar. Unlike female meiocytes, male meiocytes analysed earlier of this strain always had 16 chromosomes which paired to form extremely complex associations involving 3–16 chromosomes. The most likely cause of this asynchrony with regards to number of chromosomes involved in multivalent formation seems to be interaction of genes controlling chiasma formation with the different physiological conditions of male and female meiocytes.

  9. Prognostic value of serum α-fetoprotein in ovarian yolk sac tumors: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yang-Long; Zhang, Ying-Li; Zhu, Jian-Qing

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the prognostic value of serum α-fetoprotein (AFP) levels in patients with ovarian yolk sac tumor (OYST). We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to assess the associations between serum AFP level and prognosis in OYST. A total of 12 quantitative studies met the inclusion criteria. Preoperative AFP was not found to be associated with overall survival (OS) [odds ratio (OR)=0.84, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.43-1.62] in OYST. However, a high postoperative AFP level was associated with worse OS (OR=0.16, 95% CI: 0.05-0.48) and relapse-free survival (RFS) (OR=0.18, 95% CI: 0.08-0.43) compared to a low postoperative AFP level in patients with OYST. In addition, a postoperative AFP level of >1,000 ng/ml was associated with a decrease in OS (OR=0.16, 95% CI: 0.05-0.50) and RFS (OR=0.21, 95% CI: 0.08-0.57). In conclusion, the postoperative, but not the preoperative, AFP level was found to be a prognostic factor in patients with OYST. In particular, a postoperative AFP level of >1,000 ng/ml was an indicator of poor prognosis in patients with OYST. PMID:25469282

  10. Which thiazide to choose as add-on therapy for hypertension?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barrios V

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Vivencio Barrios,1 Carlos Escobar2 1Department of Cardiology, Hospital Ramon y Cajal, 2Department of Cardiology, Hospital La Paz, Madrid, Spain Abstract: Combined therapy is required in the majority of patients with hypertension to achieve blood pressure (BP targets. Although different antihypertensive drugs can be combined, not all combinations are equally effective and safe. In this context, the combination of a renin angiotensin system inhibitor with a diuretic, usually a thiazide, particularly hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ or thiazide-like diuretics, such as chlorthalidone or indapamide, is recommended. However, not all diuretics are equal. Although HCTZ, chlorthalidone, and indapamide as add-on therapy effectively reduce BP levels, the majority of studies have obtained greater BP reductions with chlorthalidone or indapamide than with HCTZ. Moreover, there are data showing benefits with chlorthalidone or indapamide beyond BP. Thus, chlorthalidone seems to have pleiotropic effects beyond BP reduction. Moreover, compared with placebo, chlorthalidone has small effects on fasting glucose and total cholesterol, and compared with HCTZ, chlorthalidone achieves significantly lower total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels. Similarly, indapamide has demonstrated no negative impact on glucose or lipid metabolism. More importantly, although head-to-head clinical trials comparing the effects of indapamide or chlorthalidone with HCTZ are not available, indirect comparisons and post hoc analyses suggest that the use of chlorthalidone or indapamide is associated with a reduction in cardiovascular events. Despite this, the most frequent diuretic used in clinical practice as add-on therapy for hypertension is HCTZ. The purpose of this review is to update the published data on the efficacy and safety of HCTZ, chlorthalidone, and indapamide as add-on therapy in patients with hypertension. Keywords: blood pressure control, hydrochlorothiazide

  11. What's next after metformin? focus on sulphonylurea: add-on or combination therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lim PC

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The pathophysiology of type 2 diabetes (T2DM mainly focused on insulin resistance and insulin deficiency over the past decades. Currently, the pathophysiologies expanded to ominous octet and guidelines were updated with newer generation of antidiabetic drug classes. However, many patients had yet to achieve their target glycaemic control. Although all the guidelines suggested metformin as first line, there was no definite consensus on the second line drug agents as variety of drug classes were recommended. Objectives: The aim of this review was to evaluate the drug class after metformin especially sulphonylurea and issues around add-on or fixed dose combination therapy. Methods: Extensive literature search for English language articles, clinical practice guidelines and references was performed using electronic databases. Results: Adding sulphonylurea to metformin targeted both insulin resistance and insulin deficiency. Sulphonylurea was efficacious and cheaper than thiazolidinedione, dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor, glucagon-like peptide 1 analogue and insulin. The main side effect of sulphonylurea was hypoglycaemia but there was no effect on the body weight when combining with metformin. Fixed dose sulphonylurea/metformin was more efficacious at lower dose and reported to have fewer side effects with better adherence. Furthermore, fixed dose combination was cheaper than add-on therapy. In conclusion, sulphonylurea was feasible as the second line agent after metformin as the combination targeted on two pathways, efficacious, cost-effective and had long safety history. Fixed dose combination tablet could improve patient’s adherence and offered an inexpensive and more efficacious option regardless of original or generic product as compared to add-on therapy.

  12. Speech on the Opening Ceremony of ISO/TC 176 Plenary Meeting 2011 Chen Gang,Administrator of SAC October 24,2011

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Ladies and gentlemen,Good morning!We come to the 28th Plenary Meeting of ISO/TC 176 in Beijing just after the World Standards Day Conference in this so nice October.Secretary General of ISO,Rob Steele,especially sent us a video speech to express his congratulations on World Standards Day activities and ISO/TC 176 Meeting held by China.This year also marks the tenth anniversary of SAC.As the undertaker of this meeting,on behalf of SAC,I am greatly honored to send my congratulations on the opening of this meeting,my welcome to all experts and friends here,and my sincere thanks to relevant units and friends who made great contributions to this meeting.

  13. New approach in add-on multi-channel analyser for gamma ray spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A recently developed add-on card for data acquisition from National Instrument has the possibility of being employed in the field of the gamma ray spectrometry as an industrial and teaching tool. The card's technical capability, the operating program designed for gamma spectrometry and results of the system's reliability, dynamic characteristics, limits in data processing and the quality of the obtainable gamma spectra are given. The advantages and deficiencies as well as important features are emphasised when prompt gamma analysis is of interest in industrial applications and educational issues

  14. MetaEasy: A Meta-Analysis Add-In for Microsoft Excel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evangelos Kontopantelis

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Meta-analysis is a statistical methodology that combines or integrates the results ofseveral independent clinical trials considered by the analyst to be `combinable' (Huque1988. However, completeness and user-friendliness are uncommon both in specialisedmeta-analysis software packages and in mainstream statistical packages that have to relyon user-written commands. We implemented the meta-analysis methodology in an Mi-crosoft Excel add-in which is freely available and incorporates more meta-analysis models(including the iterative maximum likelihood and prole likelihood than are usually avail-able, while paying particular attention to the user-friendliness of the package.

  15. JAWS: Just Add Water System - A device for detection of nucleic acids in Martian ice caps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anders J.; Willerslev, Eske; Mørk, Søren;

    2002-01-01

    The design of a device for nucleic acid detection in the Martian ice caps is presented; the Just Add Water System (JAWS). It is based on fiber-optic PNA (peptide nucleic acid) light up probe random microsphere universal array technology. JAWS is designed to be part of a larger system with a...... regulation of pH and salt concentrations e.g. the MOD systems and could be installed on a planetary probe melting its way down the Martian ice caps e.g. the NASA Cryobot. JAWS can be used for detection of remains of ancient life preserved in the Martian ice as well as for detection of contamination brought...

  16. CLINICAL OUTCOME WITH ADD ON RACECADOTRIL VERSUS STANDARD CARE IN PAEDIATRIC GASTROENTERITIS – OUR EXPERIENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijayalakshmi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Acute gastroenteritis (AGE is a diarrheal disease of rapid onset, with an increase in the water content, volume, or frequency of stools and often self-limiting. The WHO recommends ORS as the treatment of choice for children with mild to moderate gastroenteritis in both developed and developing countries. Racecadotril, an intestinal enkephalinase inhibitor, has been used as treatment because it would decrease the duration of acute diarrhea and fluid loss. Racecadotril has sufficient proven efficacy in the treatment of acute diarrhea in children. We evaluated the clinical outcome with add on Racecadotril versus standard care in paediatric gastroenteritis. METHODS This open-label randomized study was undertaken at department of Pediatrics, Medical College, for a period of two years. A total 42 children, age group between 3- 10 years of age having watery non-bloody diarrhea with mild to moderate dehydration were enrolled in the study. Patients with severe dehydration, bloody diarrhea or hypersensitivity to Racecadotril were excluded from the study. The patients were randomly assigned to receive intravenous rehydration therapy + Racecadotril (1.5mg/Kg three times a day or intravenous rehydration therapy alone. The bedside nurse or care giver was instructed to administer the medication. All patients received standardized follow - up care for 7 days. The primary outcomes recorded were percentage of patients having diarrhea, median Stool frequency and percentage of patients switched to complete oral re-rehydration on day 3 and day-7. RESULTS Out of 42 children in each group whose data were analyzed, 27 patients received intravenous rehydration therapy + Racecadotril (1.5mg/Kg three times a day and remaining 15 received intravenous rehydration therapy alone. All patients were age and gender matched, however percentage of patients who were moderately dehydrated were marginally higher in Racecadotril add on group. More than 50% reduction in

  17. Empagliflozin as Add-on to Metformin Plus Sulfonylurea in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Häring, Hans-Ulrich; Merker, Ludwig; Seewaldt-Becker, Elke; WEIMER Marc; Meinicke, Thomas; Woerle, Hans J.; Broedl, Uli C.; ,

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To investigate the efficacy and tolerability of empagliflozin as add-on to metformin and sulfonylurea in patients with type 2 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Patients inadequately controlled on metformin and sulfonylurea (HbA1c ≥7 to ≤10%) were randomized and treated with once-daily empagliflozin 10 mg (n = 225), empagliflozin 25 mg (n = 216), or placebo (n = 225) for 24 weeks. The primary end point was change from baseline in HbA1c at week 24. Key secondary end points were ch...

  18. How can Facilities Management Add Value to Organisations as well as to Society

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Per Anker; Sarasoja, Anna-Liisa; van der Voordt, Theo;

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present lessons learnt from a 3 year collaborative research project on the added value of Facilities Management (FM) involving institutions in five European countries. The starting point was the so-called FM Value Map developed earlier by the leader of the research...... models are presented and compared. They include parameters and strategies for how FM can add value with many similarities and a trend towards convergence. Stakeholder relationships and relationship management are seen as crucial in adding value, which for instance is expressed in the concepts FM Value...

  19. Compact Z-add-drop wavelength filters for long-range surface plasmon polaritons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boltasseva, Alexandra; Bozhevolnyi, Sergey I.; Søndergaard, Thomas;

    2005-01-01

    stripes embedded in polymer. We investigate influence of the grating length and crossing angle on the filter characteristics and demonstrate a 10o-ZAD filter based on 80-mm-long gratings that exhibit a 15-dB dip (centered at ~1.55 mm) in transmission of the direct arm along with the corresponding ~13-nm......We design, fabricate and investigate compact Z-add-drop (ZAD) filters for long-range surface plasmon polaritons (LR-SPPs) at telecom wavelengths. The ZAD filter for LR-SPPs consists of two ridge gratings formed by periodic gold thickness modulation at the intersections of three zigzag-crossed gold...

  20. Frequency-Domain Chromatic Dispersion Equalization Using Overlap-Add Methods in Coherent Optical System

    CERN Document Server

    Xu, Tianhua; Popov, Sergei; Forzati, Marco; Martensson, Jonas; Mussolin, Marco; Li, Jie; Wang, Ke; Zhang, Yimo; Friberg, Ari T

    2016-01-01

    The frequency domain equalizers (FDEs) employing two types of overlap-add zero-padding (OLA-ZP) methods are applied to compensate the chromatic dispersion in a 112-Gbit/s non-return-to-zero polarization division multiplexed quadrature phase shift keying (NRZ-PDM-QPSK) coherent optical transmission system. Simulation results demonstrate that the OLA-ZP methods can achieve the same acceptable performance as the overlap-save method. The required minimum overlap (or zero-padding) in the FDE is derived, and the optimum fast Fourier transform length to minimize the computational complexity is also analyzed.

  1. ADD1/SREBP1c activates the PGC1-alpha promoter in brown adipocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hao, Qin; Hansen, Jacob B; Petersen, Rasmus K;

    2010-01-01

    Cold adaptation elicits a paradoxical simultaneous induction of fatty acid synthesis and beta-oxidation in brown adipose tissue. We show here that cold exposure coordinately induced liver X receptor alpha (LXRalpha), adipocyte determination and differentiation-dependent factor 1 (ADD1)/sterol...... regulatory element-binding protein-1c (SREBP1c) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator-1alpha (PGC1alpha) in brown and inguinal white adipose tissues, but not in epididymal white adipose tissue. Using in vitro models of white and brown adipocytes we demonstrate that beta...... regulator of PGC1alpha expression in brown adipose tissue....

  2. Sensitivity analysis of the add-on price estimate for the silicon web growth process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokashi, A. R.

    1981-01-01

    The web growth process, a silicon-sheet technology option, developed for the flat plate solar array (FSA) project, was examined. Base case data for the technical and cost parameters for the technical and commercial readiness phase of the FSA project are projected. The process add on price, using the base case data for cost parameters such as equipment, space, direct labor, materials and utilities, and the production parameters such as growth rate and run length, using a computer program developed specifically to do the sensitivity analysis with improved price estimation are analyzed. Silicon price, sheet thickness and cell efficiency are also discussed.

  3. Air Pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Air quality is affected by many types of pollutants that are emitted from various sources, including stationary and mobile. These sources release both criteria and hazardous air pollutants, which cause health effects, ecological harm, and material damage. They are generally categ...

  4. Estimating the postmortem interval (PMI) using accumulated degree-days (ADD) in a temperate region of South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myburgh, Jolandie; L'Abbé, Ericka N; Steyn, Maryna; Becker, Piet J

    2013-06-10

    The validity of the method in which total body score (TBS) and accumulated degree-days (ADD) are used to estimate the postmortem interval (PMI) is examined. TBS and ADD were recorded for 232 days in northern South Africa, which has temperatures between 17 and 28 °C in summer and 6 and 20 °C in winter. Winter temperatures rarely go below 0°C. Thirty pig carcasses, which weighed between 38 and 91 kg, were used. TBS was scored using the modified method of Megyesi et al. [1]. Temperature was acquired from an on site data logger and the weather station bureau; differences between these two sources were not statistically significant. Using loglinear random-effects maximum likelihood regression, an r(2) value for ADD (0.6227) was produced and linear regression formulae to estimate PMI from ADD with a 95% prediction interval were developed. The data of 16 additional pigs that were placed a year later were then used to validate the accuracy of this method. The actual PMI and ADD were compared to the estimated PMI and ADD produced by the developed formulae as well as the estimated PMIs within the 95% prediction interval. A validation of the study produced poor results as only one pig of 16 fell within the 95% interval when using the formulae, showing that ADD has limited use in the prediction of PMI in a South African setting. PMID:23601149

  5. Utilization of a ts-sacB selection system for the generation of a Mycobacterium avium serovar-8 specific glycopeptidolipid allelic exchange mutant

    OpenAIRE

    Belisle John T; Inamine Julia M; Eckstein Torsten M; Lee Sun-Hwa; Irani Vida R; Maslow Joel N

    2004-01-01

    Abstract Background Mycobacterium avium are ubiquitous environmental organisms and a cause of disseminated infection in patients with end-stage AIDS. The glycopeptidolipids (GPL) of M. avium are proposed to participate in the pathogenesis of this organism, however, establishment of a clear role for GPL in disease production has been limited by the inability to genetically manipulate M. avium. Methods To be able to study the role of the GPL in M. avium pathogenesis, a ts-sacB selection system,...

  6. Effect of Graphene Nanoplatelets on Wetting, Microstructure, and Tensile Characteristics of Sn-3.0Ag-0.5Cu (SAC) Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Ashutosh; Sohn, Heung-Rak; Jung, Jae Pil

    2016-01-01

    The effect of graphene nanoplatelets (GNPs) on the wettability, microstructure, and tensile properties of Sn-3.0Ag-0.5Cu (SAC 305) was studied using melting and casting route. The microstructure of the bulk solder is observed with a scanning electron microscope and transmission electron microscope, and the intermetallic compound (IMC) phases are identified by electron probe micro-analyzer. The solderability of the samples is assessed by spreading and wetting tests on a Cu substrate. The experimental results indicate that an addition of 0.05 wt pct GNPs in Sn-3Ag-0.5Cu solder improves the spreading and wettability significantly compared to monolithic SAC. It is also revealed that the thickness of the Ag3Sn IMCs is reduced as compared to the monolithic SAC alloy. Tensile results show that the composite solder exhibits the 13.9 pct elongation and 17 pct increase in the ultimate tensile strength when 0.05 wt pct GNPs in Sn-3Ag-0.5Cu alloy are added. This may be due to the refinement of the IMCs in composite solders compared to the same in Sn-3Ag-0.5Cu alloy brought about by the uniform dispersion of graphene nanoplatelets. It is suggested in this study that the amount of GNPs in Sn-3Ag-0.5Cu alloy should not exceed 0.05 wt pct as it may degrade the desired properties due to the agglomeration of GNPs.

  7. Mitochondria-rich cell activity in the yolk-sac membrane of tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus) larvae acclimatized to different ambient chloride levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Li-Yih; Hwang, Pung-Pung

    2004-03-01

    Mitochondria-rich cells (MRCs) in the yolk-sac membrane of tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus) larvae were examined by Na+/K(+)-ATPase immunocytochemistry and vital staining for glycoproteins following acclimation to high (7.5-7.9 mmol l(-1)), normal (0.48-0.52 mmol l(-1)) or low (0.002-0.007 mmol l(-1)) ambient Cl- levels. With a combination of concanavalin-A (Con-A)-Texas-Red conjugate staining (larvae exposed to the dye in vivo in the water) and a monoclonal antibody raised against Na+/K(+)-ATPase, MRCs were easily recognized and presumed to be active when Con-A-positive (i.e. with their apical membrane in contact with the water) or inactive when Con-A-negative. The proportion of active cells gradually increased during a 48-h acclimation to low-Cl- medium but decreased during acclimation to high-Cl- medium. Total densities of MRCs did not change when ambient chloride levels were altered. Furthermore, in live larvae exposed to changes in ambient Cl-, yolk-sac MRCs, vitally stained with DASPEI and subsequently traced in time, did not significantly alter turnover. The polymorphism of the apical membrane compartment of the MRCs represents structural modification of the active MRCs. Yolk-sac pavement cells labeled with the membrane marker FM1-43 (fluorescent lipophilic tracer) were shown to cover active MRCs in larvae transferred from normal to high ambient Cl- levels, thereby inactivating the MRCs. PMID:15010484

  8. [Spermiogenesis and the function of the vaginal sac in Ichthyocephalus anadenoboli. n. sp. (Rhigonematidae; Nematoda), a parasite of Anadenobolus politus (Porat) (Rhinocricidae; Diplopoda) in Guadeloupe].

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Waerebeke, D; Adamson, M L; Kermarrec, A

    1984-01-01

    Ichthyocephalus anadenoboli n. sp. ( Rhigonematidae ; Nematoda) from Anadenobolus politus ( Porat ) ( Rhinocricidae ; Diplopoda ) from Guadeloupe is described. The new species most closely resembles I. egleri since both sexes are of approximately the same size and the spicules are markedly unequal; it is distinguished in having a much longer right spicule, by the form of the extremity of the left spicule and by the presence of a vaginal sac opening into the vagina at its junction with the uteri. In addition certain aspects of spermiogenesis in the new species are studied. Maturation of spermatids occurs in two phases, one in the testis and seminal receptacle of males, the second in the vaginal sac in females. The second phase involves profound changes in form as well as nuclear transformation. It is suggested that the vaginal sac observed in certain species of Rhigonema as well as the " bourse copulatrice " of certain Tetrameres spp. and Maupasina weissi , like that of Ichthyocephalus anadenoboli , are specialized to accommodate the final stages of spermiogenesis. PMID:6547037

  9. A Study of Temperature, Microstructure and Hardness Properties of Sn-3.8Ag-0.7Cu (SAC Solder Alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Amares

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Solder alloys are one of the most crucial aspect linking the electrical components to the printed circuit board PCB substrate. Thus, producing a good solder is a must to say in electronic industries. Among major functions of solder alloys are to provide beneficial properties in melting, microstructure and mechanical strand. In this aspect, the Sn-3.8Ag-0.7Cu (SAC solder alloys are recommended as potential candidate to assure these benefits. In this study, the solder possesses melting temperature of, TM=227°C which is below the desired soldering temperature, TM=250°C. Besides, this SAC solder produces well-defined microstructures with Sn-matrix and eutectic phase consisting Cu6Sn5 and Ag3Sn displayed from SEM image, contributes in harvesting good mechanical properties. The SAC solder also provides a high hardness value with an average of 14.4Hv for Vickers hardness. All these results seem to satisfy the need of a viable solder alloy.

  10. De novo development and progression of endolymphatic sac tumour in von hippel-lindau disease: an observational study and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eze, Nwaneka; Huber, Alexander; Schuknecht, Bernhard

    2013-10-01

    Endolymphatic sac tumors (ELST) are rare invasive lesions of the temporal bone that are commonly associated with von Hippel-Lindau disease. This report describes serial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomography (CT) findings over a period of 6 years in a 12-year-old patient who developed an ELST after 3.5 years surveillance for a cerebellar hemangioblastoma. A 1.5 × 8 mm tumor was identified on MRI within the endolymphatic duct when the patient presented with audiovestibular symptoms due to intralabyrinthine hemorrhage. The tumor demonstrated subsequent growth over 25 months until the patient agreed to undergo surgical resection by subtotal petrosectomy. De novo development and the natural history have been described only in six previous cases. MRI is regarded to be unreliable with respect to the ability to demonstrate an ELST in the presence of intralabyrinthine hemorrhage, with only two out of four previously reported patients demonstrating positive MRI findings. Little is known about the precise origin (endolymphatic duct versus sac), growth, and symptom correlation. This case highlights that new audiovestibular symptoms are a potential clinical clue and intralabyrinthine hemorrhage is a neuroimaging indicator for the presence of an ELST, which based on high-resolution MRI appears to originate in the endolymphatic duct rather than sac. PMID:24436921

  11. Just add water: reproducible singly dispersed silver nanoparticle suspensions on-demand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacCuspie, Robert I., E-mail: robert.maccuspie@nist.gov; Allen, Andrew J.; Martin, Matthew N.; Hackley, Vincent A. [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Materials Measurement Science Division (United States)

    2013-07-15

    Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are of interest due to their antimicrobial attributes, which are derived from their inherent redox instability and subsequent release of silver ions. At the same time, this instability is a substantial challenge for achieving stable long-term storage for on-demand use of AgNPs. In this study, we describe and validate a 'just add water' approach for achieving suspensions of principally singly dispersed AgNPs. By lyophilizing (freeze drying) the formulated AgNPs into a solid powder, or cake, water is removed thereby eliminating solution-based chemical changes. Storing under inert gas further reduces surface reactions such as oxidation. An example of how to optimize a lyophilization formulation is presented, as well as example formulations for three AgNP core sizes. This 'just add water' approach enables ease of use for the researcher desiring on-demand singly dispersed AgNP suspensions from a single master batch. Implementation of this methodology will enable studies to be performed over long periods of time and across different laboratories using particles that are identical chemically and physically and available on-demand. In addition, the approach of freeze drying and on-demand reconstitution by adding water has enabled the development of AgNP reference materials with the required shelf-life stability, one of the principal objectives of this research.

  12. Minimization of System Resources for Cloud based Application using Web Browser Add On

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meduri Jagadeesh

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Evolution of cloud makes users to manage the data and applications online. It is the responsibility of the cloud service providers to care of data secure in terms of transferring and efficient byproviding reliable performance. There are many challenges that are faced by the service providers to achieve the trust of the user. User feels insecure while the data is send to the cloud servers, when the data is more confident and uses applications that provide security to the data (by encryption and decryption. These applications to encrypt data will consume more time and systems resources. All these applications work depending upon the operating system of the user. This proposed approach will reduce user’s burden in interacting to the cloud through browsers add-on. This add-on is designed by AES encryption methodology with a SHA-2 key which is proved to be secure. The main aim of this paper is to explore various environments and design cloud based applications which are more user friendly at the same time reduce hardware cost. This design also highlights a threat to the mailing servers as they can’t find the transmitting information from the user.

  13. Just add water: reproducible singly dispersed silver nanoparticle suspensions on-demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are of interest due to their antimicrobial attributes, which are derived from their inherent redox instability and subsequent release of silver ions. At the same time, this instability is a substantial challenge for achieving stable long-term storage for on-demand use of AgNPs. In this study, we describe and validate a “just add water” approach for achieving suspensions of principally singly dispersed AgNPs. By lyophilizing (freeze drying) the formulated AgNPs into a solid powder, or cake, water is removed thereby eliminating solution-based chemical changes. Storing under inert gas further reduces surface reactions such as oxidation. An example of how to optimize a lyophilization formulation is presented, as well as example formulations for three AgNP core sizes. This “just add water” approach enables ease of use for the researcher desiring on-demand singly dispersed AgNP suspensions from a single master batch. Implementation of this methodology will enable studies to be performed over long periods of time and across different laboratories using particles that are identical chemically and physically and available on-demand. In addition, the approach of freeze drying and on-demand reconstitution by adding water has enabled the development of AgNP reference materials with the required shelf-life stability, one of the principal objectives of this research

  14. Add/drop filters based on SiC technology for optical interconnects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper we demonstrate an add/drop filter based on SiC technology. Tailoring of the channel bandwidth and wavelength is experimentally demonstrated. The concept is extended to implement a 1 by 4 wavelength division multiplexer with channel separation in the visible range. The device consists of a p-i'(a-SiC:H)-n/p-i(a-Si:H)-n heterostructure. Several monochromatic pulsed lights, separately or in a polychromatic mixture illuminated the device. Independent tuning of each channel is performed by steady state violet bias superimposed either from the front and back sides. Results show that, front background enhances the light-to-dark sensitivity of the long and medium wavelength channels and quench strongly the others. Back violet background has the opposite behaviour. This nonlinearity provides the possibility for selective removal or addition of wavelengths. An optoelectronic model is presented and explains the light filtering properties of the add/drop filter, under different optical bias conditions

  15. Flexible Topology Migration in Optical Cross Add and Drop Multiplexer in Metropolitan Ring Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad S. Ab-Rahman

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Optical Cross Add and Drop Multiplexer (OXADM is a recently invented optical networks device. Approach: A design with a purpose to combine the operational concepts of Optical Add-Drop Multiplexer (OADM and Optical Cross Connect (OXC has been developed. It is developed by studying the drawbacks in existing devices and with some excellence features added. OXADM is introduced to increase the survivability in the ring network. With the ‘Accumulation’ feature and ‘U’ turn reflection enable the multiplex, linear and ring protection scheme activated to ensure the signal arrives at the customer although breakdown occurs in the line and optical node. Beside that with the new features, the topology migration can also be done without the restructuring process due to randomly growth of new nodes. Results: The result shows that; network performance is similar without need a modification on components. Conclusion: Output power and BER performance at different node in ring and mesh optical network are shown to show the achievement of objective.

  16. Compact add-and-drop and wavelength filter based on microdisk on SOI substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morand, Alain; Phan-Huy, Kien; Martin, Bruno; Bredillot, Fanny; Amans, David; Benech, Pierre; Verbert, Jérémy; Hadji, Emmanuel; Fedeli, Jean-Marc

    2006-02-01

    Recently, integrated optic applications on SOI substrate like add-and-drop structures or wavelength filters based on microdisk resonators have been investigated by many research groups. Microdisks exhibiting high quality-factor thanks to the high refractive index contrast between silica and silicon materials have been already reported. However efficient components usually show few micrometers diameter which is huge compared to photonic crystals ones. In this paper, realization and characterization of efficient and compact components are reported. The dropped-wavelength function, composed of a 1.5 μm radius disk and 0.3 μm x 0.3 μm square section waveguides is demonstrated. 22 dB extinction ratio is measured from spectral measurement while keeping a quality factor of 1000. In this structure, the distance between the microdisk and the waveguide is discussed from experimental point of view. Indeed, the efficiency of the add-and-drop strongly depends on this parameter. Moreover, a wavelength filter based on a 4 μm radius microdisk is also shown. Quality-factors of 92,900 +/- 5500 were measured showing that these filters are more efficient than equivalent microring filters. A 10 dB extinction ratio of the wavelength rejected signal is reported. For some resonance wavelengths, spectral response degeneracy of the filter appears. An explanation of this effect is given in this paper.

  17. Add-on therapy options in asthma not adequately controlled by inhaled corticosteroids: a comprehensive review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moilanen Eeva

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Many patients with persistent asthma can be controlled with inhaled corticosteroids (ICS. However, a considerable proportion of patients remain symptomatic, despite the use of ICS. We present systematically evidence that supports the different treatment options. A literature search was made of Medline/PubMed to identify randomised and blinded trials. To demonstrate the benefit that can be obtained by increasing the dose of ICS, dose-response studies with at least three different ICS doses were identified. To demonstrate whether more benefit can be obtained by adding long-acting β2-agonist (LABA, leukotriene antagonist (LTRA or theophylline than by increasing the dose of ICS, studies comparing these options were identified. Thirdly, studies comparing the different "add-on" options were identified. The addition of a LABA is more effective than increasing the dose of ICS in improving asthma control. By increasing the dose of ICS, clinical improvement is likely to be of small magnitude. Addition of a LTRA or theophylline to the treatment regimen appears to be equivalent to doubling the dose of ICS. Addition of a LABA seems to be superior to an LTRA in improving lung function. However, addition of LABA and LTRA may be equal with respect to asthma exacerbations. However, more and longer studies are needed to better clarify the role of LTRAs and theophylline as add-on therapies.

  18. OATools: An ArcMap add-in for the orientation analysis of geological structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kociánová, Lenka; Melichar, Rostislav

    2016-02-01

    This paper describes Orientation Analysis Tools (OATools), a new add-in, which has been developed for ArcGIS software (ESRI) to allow the spatial analysis of structural data. These tools bring a complex approach to structural data analysis that highlights the spatial aspect of oriented data. In this paper we introduce the functionality of this add-in, which allows users to plot selected data in azimuthal projection, calculate and plot fold axes, construct density distribution diagrams and rose histograms, and create maps of spatial averages and fold axes. There is a link between projections and maps; therefore, it is possible to select point data in the projection and see their location on the map, and vice versa. Practical use of these tools is demonstrated in a case study of the Svratka and Polička crystalline units (Eastern margin of the Bohemian Massif, Czech Republic), where a large dataset was collected. Using OATools the structural conditions were explored. Major changes in foliation dip directions were detected and the axial surfaces of the folds were determined. We also demonstrate the benefit of applying these tools, together with the potential of GIS with respect to spatial data queries, storage, and visualization.

  19. Full-optical tunable add/drop filter based on nonlinear photonic crystal ring resonators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansouri-Birjandi, Mohammad Ali; Tavousi, Alireza; Ghadrdan, Majid

    2016-09-01

    Here, we propose a full-optical tunable Add/Drop filter based on single (SR) and double-vertically (DR) aligned Kerr-like nonlinear photonic crystal ring resonators (PCRRs). Silicon (Si) nano-crystal is used as the nonlinear material inside and outside of PCRRs. The minimum optical power required to turn-on/turn-off the SR and DR filters are 2000 mW/μm2, and 150 mW/μm2, respectively. We believe since the DR filter has a higher Q-factor rather than SR and also since the optical power reads more nonlinear rods with a longer time to pass the structure, thus the optical power required is much lower (10 folds). In addition, the minimum power required to 1 nm redshift the center operating wavelength of SR filter is 125 mW/μm2 (i.e. ΔnNL = 0.005) and for DR is as low as 8 mW/μm2. Performance of the Add/Drop filter structure is simulated by means of finite difference time domain (FDTD) method, in which the simulations showed an ultra-compact size structure with promising ultrafast tune-ability speeds.

  20. Gantry and isocenter displacements of a linear accelerator caused by an add-on micromultileaf collimator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riis, Hans L.; Zimmermann, Sune J.; Hjelm-Hansen, Mogens [Radiofysisk Laboratorium, Odense University Hospital, Sdr. Boulevard 29, DK-5000 Odense C (Denmark)

    2013-03-15

    Purpose: The delivery of high quality stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) and stereotactic radiotherapy (SRT) treatments to the patient requires knowledge of the position of the isocenter to submillimeter accuracy. To meet the requirements the deviation between the radiation and mechanical isocenters must be less than 1 mm. The use of add-on micromultileaf collimators ({mu}MLCs) in SRS and SRT is an additional challenge to the anticipated high-level geometric and dosimetric accuracy of the treatment. The aim of this work was to quantify the gantry excursions during rotation with and without an add-on {mu}MLC attached to the gantry head. In addition, the shift in the position of the isocenter and its correlation to the kV beam center of the cone-beam CT system was included in the study. Methods: The quantification of the gantry rotational performance was done using a pointer supported by an in-house made rigid holder attached to the gantry head of the accelerator. The pointer positions were measured using a digital theodolite. To quantify the effect of an {mu}MLC of 50 kg, the measurements were repeated with the {mu}MLC attached to the gantry head. The displacement of the isocenter due to an add-on {mu}MLC of 50 kg was also investigated. In case of the pointer measurement the {mu}MLC was simulated by weights attached to the gantry head. A method of least squares was applied to determine the position and displacement of the mechanical isocenter. Additionally, the displacement of the radiation isocenter was measured using a ball-bearing phantom and the electronic portal image device system. These measurements were based on 8 MV photon beams irradiated onto the ball from the four cardinal angles and two opposed collimator angles. The measurements and analysis of the data were carried out automatically using software delivered by the manufacturer. Results: The displacement of the mechanical isocenter caused by a 50 kg heavy {mu}MLC was found to be (-0.01 {+-} 0.05, -0

  1. Thin air

    OpenAIRE

    Jasanoff, Sheila

    2013-01-01

    Clearing the air How do we grasp the air? Without Michel Callon’s guidance, I might never have asked that question. Years ago, when I first entered environmental law practice, I took it for granted that problems such as air pollution exist “out there” in the real world for science to discover and law to fix. It is a measure of Callon’s influence that I understand the law today as a metaphysical instrument, no less powerful in its capacity to order nature than the tools of the ancient oracular...

  2. 卵巢内胚窦瘤超声表现%Ultrasonographic characteristics of ovarian yolk sac tumor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    玄英华; 张波; 谭莉; 姜玉新

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate ultrasonographic features of primary and metastatic ovarian yolk sac tumors.Methods Ultrasonographic features of 19 primary lesions and 33 metastatic lesions in 35 patients were retrospectively analyzed.Results Primary tumors were sized (14.6±3.6)cm in maximum diameter,manifesting as cysti-solid masses.Solid components of primary tumors were mainly hypoechoic or isoechoic(16/19)with rich blood supplies.Thirty-three metastatic lesions were located in pelvoceliac cavity(26/33) and liver parenchyma(7/33),sized (9.4±4.5)cm,(9.2±4.9)cm and (5.6±1.6)cm in maximum diameter respectively.Metastatic lesions in pelvoceliac lesions mainly demonstrated as hypoechoic masses(21/26), however lesions in the liver were mainly hyperechoic(5/7).Anechoic regions could be found in 9/26 of the pelvoceliac lesions.Blood supply was found less rich in metastatic masses than that in primary ones.Elevated serum level of alpha fetoprotein (AFP) was observed in all patients; ranging from 217 to 211 682 μg/L.Conclusions Primary and metastatic lesions of ovarian yolk sac tumor have obvious ultrasonographic characteristics.Combined with serum AFP level,the accuracy of diagnosis could be improved.%目的探讨卵巢内胚窦瘤原发及转移病灶超声声像图特征.方法 回顾性分析35例卵巢内胚窦瘤患者19个原发病灶及33个转移病灶超声表现.结果 本组卵巢内胚窦瘤患者19个原发病灶直径为(14.6±3.6)cm,所有病灶均为囊实性,实性部分以低回声及中等回声为主(16/19),血流较丰富.33个转移病灶多位于盆、腹腔(26/33),部分累及肝脏实质(7/33);26个盆、腹腔转移病灶直径分别为(9.4±4.5)、(9.2±4.9)cm,7个肝内转移病灶直径为(5.6±1.6)cm;盆、腹腔转移病灶多为低回声(21/26),肝内转移病灶主要为高回声(5/7).9个(9/26)转移病灶为囊实性,血流较原发病灶少.血清甲胎蛋白(AFP)水平均有不同程度升高,为217~211 682 μg/L.结论卵巢内胚窦

  3. 76 FR 37114 - Determination Concerning a Petition To Add a Class of Employees to the Special Exposure Cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-24

    ... to add a class of employees from the Dow Chemical Company in Madison, Illinois, to the Special... Atomic Weapons Employees who worked at Dow Chemical Company in Madison, Illinois, from January 1,...

  4. 78 FR 64502 - Determination Concerning a Petition To Add a Class of Employees to the Special Exposure Cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-29

    ... notice of a determination concerning a petition to add a class of employees from the Pantex Plant in... contractors and subcontractors who worked at the Pantex Plant in Amarillo, Texas, from January 1,...

  5. 76 FR 70147 - Determination Concerning a Petition To Add a Class of Employees to the Special Exposure Cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-10

    ... to add a class of employees from the Piqua Organic Moderated Reactor, Piqua, Ohio, to the Special... subcontractors who worked in any location at the Piqua Organic Moderated Reactor during the operational...

  6. Trails, RS2477, add events rev, Published in 2004, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, Iron County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Trails, RS2477 dataset, published at 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2004. It is described as 'add events...

  7. Trails, RS2477, rs2477 add roads, Published in 2006, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, Iron County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Trails, RS2477 dataset, published at 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2006. It is described as 'rs2477 add...

  8. Trails, RS2477, add roads, Published in 2003, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, Iron County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Trails, RS2477 dataset, published at 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2003. It is described as 'add roads'....

  9. Trails, RS2477, add roads rev, Published in 2004, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, Iron County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Trails, RS2477 dataset, published at 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2004. It is described as 'add roads...

  10. Comparison of the association of sac growth and coil compaction with recurrence in coil embolized cerebral aneurysms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna L Hoppe

    Full Text Available In recurrent cerebral aneurysms treated by coil embolization, coil compaction is regarded as the presumptive mechanism. We test the hypothesis that aneurysm growth is the primary recurrence mechanism. We also test the hypothesis that the coil mass will translate a measurable extent when recurrence occurs.An objective, quantitative image analysis protocol was developed to determine the volumes of aneurysms and coil masses during initial and follow-up visits from 3D rotational angiograms. The population consisted of 15 recurrence and 12 non-recurrence control aneurysms initially completely coiled at a single center. An investigator sensitivity study was performed to assess the objectivity of the methods. Paired Wilcoxon tests (p<0.05, one-tailed were performed to assess for aneurysm and coil growth. The translation of the coil mass center at follow-up was computed. A Mann Whitney U-Test (p<0.05, one-tailed was used to compare translation of coil mass centers between recurrence and control subjects.Image analysis protocol was found to be insensitive to the investigator. Aneurysm growth was evident in the recurrence cohort (p=0.003 but not the control (p=0.136. There was no evidence of coil compaction in either the recurrence or control cohorts (recurrence: p=0.339; control: p=0.429. The translation of the coil mass centers was found to be significantly larger in the recurrence cohort than the control cohort (p=0.047.Aneurysm sac growth, not coil compaction, was the primary mechanism of recurrence following successful coil embolization. The coil mass likely translates to a measurable extent when recurrence occurs and has the potential to serve as a non-angiographic recurrence marker.

  11. Embryonic----Fetal Hb switch in humans: studies on erythroid bursts generated by embryonic progenitors from yolk sac and liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peschle, C; Migliaccio, A R; Migliaccio, G; Petrini, M; Calandrini, M; Russo, G; Mastroberardino, G; Presta, M; Gianni, A M; Comi, P

    1984-04-01

    The synthesis of embryonic (zeta, epsilon), fetal (alpha, gamma), and adult (beta) globin was evaluated in human yolk sacs (YS) and livers at different ontogenic stages (i.e., from 6 through 10-12 wk of age) by means of analytical isoelectric focusing. Globin production was comparatively evaluated in vivo (i.e., in directly labeled erythroblasts from YS and liver) and in vitro [i.e., in erythroid bursts generated in culture by erythroid burst-forming units (BFU-E) from the same erythropoietic tissues]. Erythroid bursts generated in vitro by BFU-E from 6-wk livers and YS show essentially a "fetal" globin synthetic pattern: this is in sharp contrast to the "embryonic" pattern in corresponding liver and YS erythroblasts directly labeled in vivo. The invitro phenomenon suggests that (i) 6-wk BFU-E constitute a new generation of progenitors, which have already switched from an embryonic to a fetal program, and/or (ii) expression of their fetal program is induced by unknown in vitro factor(s), which may underlie the in vivo switch at later ontogenic stages. It is emphasized that 6- to 7-wk BFU-E are endowed with the potential for in vitro synthesis of not only epsilon- and gamma-chains but also some beta-globin. In general, we observed an inverse correlation between the levels of epsilon- and beta-chain synthesis. These results, together with previous studies on fetal, perinatal, and adult BFU-E, are compatible with models suggesting that in ontogeny the chromatin configuration is gradually modified at the level of the non-alpha gene cluster, thus leading to a 5'----3' activation of globin genes in a balanced fashion. PMID:6201856

  12. Albumin-like protein is the major protein constituent of luminal fluid in the human endolymphatic sac.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung Huhn Kim

    Full Text Available The endolymphatic sac (ES is an inner ear organ that is connected to the cochleo-vestibular system through the endolymphatic duct. The luminal fluid of the ES contains a much higher concentration of proteins than any other compartment of the inner ear. This high protein concentration likely contributes to inner ear fluid volume regulation by creating an osmotic gradient between the ES lumen and the interstitial fluid. We characterized the protein profile of the ES luminal fluid of patients (n = 11 with enlarged vestibular aqueducts (EVA by proteomics. In addition, we investigated differences in the protein profiles between patients with recent hearing deterioration and patients without hearing deterioration. The mean total protein concentration of the luminal fluid was 554.7±94.6 mg/dl. A total of 58 out of 517 spots detected by 2-DE were analyzed by MALDI-TOF MS. The protein profile of the luminal fluid was different from the profile of plasma. Proteins identified from 29 of the spots were also present in the MARC-filtered human plasma; however, the proteins identified from the other 25 spots were not detected in the MARC-filtered human plasma. The most abundant protein in the luminal fluid was albumin-like proteins, but most of them were not detected in MARC-filtered human plasma. The concentration of albumin-like proteins was higher in samples from patients without recent hearing deterioration than in patients with recent hearing deterioration. Consequently, the protein of ES luminal fluid is likely to be originated from both the plasma and the inner ear and considering that inner ear fluid volumes increase abnormally in patients with EVA following recent hearing deterioration, it is tempting to speculate that albumin-like proteins may be involved in the regulation of inner ear fluid volume through creation of an osmotic gradient during pathological conditions such as endolymphatic hydrops.

  13. Yolk sac tumor of the ovary: a retrospective multicenter study of 33 Japanese women by Tohoku Gynecologic Cancer Unit (TGCU).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kojimahara, Takanobu; Nakahara, Kenji; Takano, Tadao; Yaegashi, Nobuo; Nishiyama, Hiroshi; Fujimori, Keiya; Sato, Naoki; Terada, Yukihiro; Tase, Toru; Yokoyama, Yoshihito; Mizunuma, Hideki; Shoji, Tadahiro; Sugiyama, Toru; Kurachi, Hirohisa

    2013-01-01

    Yolk sac tumor (YST) of the ovary is a rare germ cell tumor comprising about 1% of all ovarian malignancies. YST usually occurs as a rapidly growing unilateral tumor in young women. With the introduction of cisplatin, YST has been changed from a fatal tumor to a curable tumor. The standard treatment of YST consists of fertility-preserving surgery and 3 or 4 courses of adjuvant combination chemotherapy with bleomycin, etoposide, and cisplatin (BEP). However, the long-term prognosis of BEP-treated YST patients has not been well studied. We therefore conducted a retrospective multicenter study to investigate the prognostic factors of 33 YST patients, including 25 patients treated with BEP. The median age at initial treatment was 20 years (range 10-53). There were 15 patients (at stage I), one (stage II), 16 (stage III), and one (stage IV). Nominal and grouped numerical values were analyzed by the Kaplan-Meier method. All patients had unilateral tumor, with right-side predominance (23 patients; P = 0.02). Eighteen patients had pure YST, 13 had mixed germ cell tumor with YST component, and other 2 patients were not specified. Twenty-eight patients received fertility-preserving surgery. Twenty-seven patients had optimal surgery with less than 1 cm residual tumor diameter. Median number of chemotherapy courses was 5. Median follow-up period was 49 months. The cumulative 5-year survival rate was 87%. Univariate analysis revealed the following significant prognostic factors (P tumor diameter, and residual tumor. Extensive debulking surgery to minimize residual tumor would improve the prognosis. PMID:23912096

  14. Ovarian yolk sac tumors in older women arising from epithelial ovarian tumors or with no detectable epithelial component.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Lawrence M; Talerman, Aleksander; Levy, Tally; Sukmanov, Oleg; Czernobilsky, Bernard

    2011-09-01

    Yolk sac tumor (YST) occurs rarely in older women, either in association with a variety of ovarian epithelial tumors or, considerably less often, without an identifiable epithelial precursor. The patients often have elevated serum levels of α-fetoprotein that roughly correlate with the amount of the YST component. In postmenopausal women with an ovarian mass and elevated serum levels of α-fetoprotein, a tumor of this type should be suspected. Endometrioid carcinoma is the most common putative precursor, and the tumor is often associated with an endometriotic cyst; however, malignant Müllerian mixed tumor and mucinous neoplasms have also been reported as precursors. We report 4 cases of YST in postmenopausal women. Of the 3 cases with an identified epithelial component, 1 was serous carcinoma, another was clear cell adenocarcinoma, and the third was an admixture of endometrioid and clear cell adenocarcinoma arising from an endometriotic cyst. Although a precursor epithelial ovarian neoplasm, typically a malignancy (somatic carcinoma), is usually identified, no precursor neoplasm was observed in 1 of our cases and in 5 cases from the literature. We believe that YSTs in older women, whether or not an epithelial component is detected histologically, constitute a single entity that is distinct from YSTs in younger patients and should be treated aggressively. Neoplasms with a YST component in older women are less responsive to the chemotherapy currently used for ovarian germ cell tumors; therefore, adjuvant therapy should include platinum-based chemotherapy designed to treat both epithelial ovarian cancer and germ cell tumors. Of the 24 reported cases, including our own, 17 died of neoplasms within 25 months and another was living with disease at 2 months. However, 2 more recent patients treated aggressively with platinum-based chemotherapy designed to treat both epithelial and germ cell tumor components with stage 1 disease are living and have been disease free >1

  15. Air Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to a close in June 2013 when the company, Conscious Clothing, was awarded the My Air grand ... Page Options: Request Translation Services Facebook Twitter LinkedIn Google+ Reddit Email Evernote More Increase Font Size Decrease ...

  16. Neurofeedback combined with training in metacognitive strategies: effectiveness in students with ADD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, L; Thompson, M

    1998-12-01

    A review of records was carried out to examine the results obtained when people with Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD) received 40 sessions of training that combined neurofeedback with the teaching of metacognitive strategies. While not a controlled scientific study, the results, including pre- and post-measures, are consistent with previously published research concerning the use of neurofeedback with children. A significant addition is that a description of procedures is included. The 111 subjects, 98 children (age 5 to 17) and 13 adults (ages 18 to 63), attended forty 50-min sessions, usually twice a week. Feedback was contingent on decreasing slow wave activity (usually 4-7 Hz, occasionally 9-11 Hz) and increasing fast wave activity (15-18 Hz for most subjects but initially 13-15 Hz for subjects with impulsivity and hyperactivity). Metacognitive strategies related to academic tasks were taught when the feedback indicated the client was focused. Some clients also received temperature and/or EDR biofeedback during some sessions. Initially, 30 percent of the children were taking stimulant medications (Ritalin), whereas 6 percent were on stimulant medications after 40 sessions. All charts were included where pre- and post-testing results were available for one or more of the following: the Test of Variables of Attention (TOVA, n = 76), Wechsler Intelligence Scales (WISC-R, WISC-III, or WAIS-R, n = 68), Wide Range Achievement Test (WRAT 3, n = 99), and the electroencephalogram assessment (QEEG) providing a ratio of theta (4-8 Hz) to beta (16-20 Hz) activity (n = 66). Significant improvements (p academic performance on the WRAT 3. The average gain for the full scale IQ equivalent scores was 12 points. A decrease in the EEG ratio of theta/beta was also observed. These data are important because they provide an extension of results from earlier studies (Lubar, Swartwood, Swartwood, & O'Donnell, 1995; Linden, Habib, & Radojevic, 1996). They also demonstrate that

  17. Sliding tethered ligands add topological interactions to the toolbox of ligand-receptor design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Martin; Kékicheff, Patrick; Iss, Jean; Fajolles, Christophe; Charitat, Thierry; Daillant, Jean; Marques, Carlos M.

    2015-09-01

    Adhesion in the biological realm is mediated by specific lock-and-key interactions between ligand-receptor pairs. These complementary moieties are ubiquitously anchored to substrates by tethers that control the interaction range and the mobility of the ligands and receptors, thus tuning the kinetics and strength of the binding events. Here we add sliding anchoring to the toolbox of ligand-receptor design by developing a family of tethered ligands for which the spacer can slide at the anchoring point. Our results show that this additional sliding degree of freedom changes the nature of the adhesive contact by extending the spatial range over which binding may sustain a significant force. By introducing sliding tethered ligands with self-regulating length, this work paves the way for the development of versatile and reusable bio-adhesive substrates with potential applications for drug delivery and tissue engineering.

  18. Design of a reconfigurable optical add/drop multiplexer based on tunable Fabry-Perot array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Jiansen; Wang, Xin; Li, Zhuo; Yang, Yang; Xu, Rui; Shi, Rui

    2015-08-01

    With the development of optical fiber communication, dense wavelength division multiplexing (DWDM) system is important for the rapid management of multi-wavelength in the core node of the optical transmission network. In this paper, a reconfigurable optical add-drop multiplexer (ROADM) based on the tunable Fabry-Perot (F-P) array is proposed. An optical switch with high isolation and low crosstalk is designed by using the characteristics of filtering and tuning for the F-P array. The principle, structure, and function of the tunable F-P array are introduced. The characteristics of filtering and tuning for the F-P filter are also calculated, and the factor for the isolation, crosstalk, response time and insertion loss are analyzed. A single physical channel ROADM with 16 signal channels, which operates in C-band, is designed and optimized by simulation.

  19. SCEW: a Microsoft Excel add-in for easy creation of survival curves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Haseeb Ahmad

    2006-07-01

    Survival curves are frequently used for reporting survival or mortality outcomes of experimental pharmacological/toxicological studies and of clinical trials. Microsoft Excel is a simple and widely used tool for creation of numerous types of graphic presentations however it is difficult to create step-wise survival curves in Excel. Considering the familiarity of clinicians and biomedical scientists with Excel, an algorithm survival curves in Excel worksheet (SCEW) has been developed for easy creation of survival curves directly in Excel worksheets. The algorithm has been integrated in the form of Excel add-in for easy installation and usage. The program is based on modification of frequency data for binary break-up using the spreadsheet formula functions whereas a macro subroutine automates the creation of survival curves. The advantages of this program are simple data input, minimal procedural steps and the creation of survival curves in the familiar confines of Excel. PMID:16777258

  20. Nanophotonic graphene-based racetrack-resonator add/drop filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirth, L. A.; da Silva, M. G.; Neves, D. M. C.; Sombra, A. S. B.

    2016-05-01

    We are presenting and analyzing a graphene-based nanophotonic device to operate as a resonator-add/drop filter, whose control is obtained by varying the graphene chemical potential. That device consists of graphene-based waveguides, two directional couplers and a racetrack resonator with 90° bends. Since the graphene chemical potential provides the achievement of the necessary parameters, the resonance and filtering of the signals are obtained by applying the correct value of the graphene chemical potential in the graphene nanoribbons. The results of this study should help in the development of new graphene-based nanophotonic devices operating in the terahertz and infrared range (including in the C-band of the International Telecommunication Union - ITU), for use in future communications networks.

  1. Biosynthesis of Succulent Bamboo Shoots of Bambusa balcooa into Phytosterols and Its Biotransformation into ADD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kananbala SARANGTHEM; Thongam Nabakumar SINGH

    2003-01-01

    Fermentation of the succulent bamboo shoots of Bambusa balcooa Roxb. resulted in an enrichment of phytosterols from 0.12% to 0.62% dry weight as compared to that of the fresh unfermented samples. The bacterial strains responsible for higher accumulation of phytosterols during fermentation of the bamboo shoots have been isolated and further extraction and purification of the crude phytosterols (isolated from the fermented samples) were done by TLC, UV, NMR, IR and Mass spectral analysis. The isolated phytosterols (β-sitos-terols) were then subjected to microbial transformation which yielded a considerable amount of androsta-1, 4-diene-3,17-dione (ADD) in the incubation mixture in presence of metabolic inhibitors (α, α'-dipyridyl and sodium arsenate).

  2. Introduction to SAC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ Standardization Administration of the People's Republic of China was established by the State Council of China in April 2001 and authorized by the State Council to exercise the administrative functions and carry out centralized administration for standardization in China.

  3. SAC reports growing unrest

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2009-01-01

    President Valdis Zatlers palus valitsusel pöörata suuremat tähelepanu tööpuudusele, kuna hiljuti läbiviidud uuringust selgus, et sellest on saamas suurim probleem. Usaldus valitsuse ja parlamendi vastu on väga madal

  4. The effects of residual tritium on air-detritiation dryer performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects on the performance of an air-detritiation dryer (ADD) of inlet-gas humidity and residual tritiated water (HTO) left on the desiccant following regeneration were demonstrated. Residual HTO significantly reduced the detritiation factor (DFSP) of an ADD from clean-bed values. In addition, HTO/H2O separation occurred in the ADD, with H2O leading HTO. HTO roll-up may also have occurred. Finally, an increase in the inlet-gas humidity at constant inlet HTO concentration decreased the DFSP while increasing the humidity-reduction factor (HRFSP)

  5. Air surveillance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patton, G.W.

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the air surveillance and monitoring programs currently in operation at that Hanford Site. Atmospheric releases of pollutants from Hanford to the surrounding region are a potential source of human exposure. For that reason, both radioactive and nonradioactive materials in air are monitored at a number of locations. The influence of Hanford emissions on local radionuclide concentrations was evaluated by comparing concentrations measured at distant locations within the region to concentrations measured at the Site perimeter. This section discusses sample collection, analytical methods, and the results of the Hanford air surveillance program. A complete listing of all analytical results summarized in this section is reported separately by Bisping (1995).

  6. 40 CFR 63.4567 - How do I establish the emission capture system and add-on control device operating limits during...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true How do I establish the emission capture... Emission Rate with Add-on Controls Option § 63.4567 How do I establish the emission capture system and add... operating limits for that catalytic oxidizer. (c) Regenerative carbon adsorbers. If your add-on...

  7. 40 CFR 63.4767 - How do I establish the emission capture system and add-on control device operating limits during...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true How do I establish the emission capture... Rate with Add-on Controls Option § 63.4767 How do I establish the emission capture system and add-on...) Carbon adsorbers. If your add-on control device is a carbon adsorber, establish the operating...

  8. Molecular cloning of otoconin-22 complementary deoxyribonucleic acid in the bullfrog endolymphatic sac: effect of calcitonin on otoconin-22 messenger ribonucleic acid levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaoi, Yuichi; Suzuki, Masakazu; Tomura, Hideaki; Sasayama, Yuichi; Kikuyama, Sakae; Tanaka, Shigeyasu

    2003-08-01

    Anuran amphibians have a special organ called the endolymphatic sac (ELS), containing many calcium carbonate crystals, which is believed to have a calcium storage function. The major protein of aragonitic otoconia, otoconin-22, which is considered to be involved in the formation of calcium carbonate crystals, has been purified from the saccule of the Xenopus inner ear. In this study, we cloned a cDNA encoding otoconin-22 from the cDNA library constructed for the paravertebral lime sac (PVLS) of the bullfrog, Rana catesbeiana, and sequenced it. The bullfrog otoconin-22 encoded a protein consisting of 147 amino acids, including a signal peptide of 20 amino acids. The protein had cysteine residues identical in a number and position to those conserved among the secretory phospholipase A(2) family. The mRNA of bullfrog otoconin-22 was expressed in the ELS, including the PVLS and inner ear. This study also revealed the presence of calcitonin receptor-like protein in the ELS, with the putative seven-transmembrane domains of the G protein-coupled receptors. The ultimobranchialectomy induced a prominent decrease in the otoconin-22 mRNA levels of the bullfrog PVLS. Supplementation of the ultimobranchialectomized bullfrogs with synthetic salmon calcitonin elicited a significant increase in the mRNA levels of the sac. These findings suggest that calcitonin secreted from the ultimobranchial gland, regulates expression of bullfrog otoconin-22 mRNA via calcitonin receptor-like protein on the ELS, thereby stimulating the formation of calcium carbonate crystals in the lumen of the ELS. PMID:12865304

  9. Healthy Air Outdoors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... lung.org > Our Initiatives > Healthy Air > Outdoor Healthy Air Outdoors The quality of the air we breathe ... families and can even shorten their lives. Outdoor Air Pollution and Health Outdoor air pollution continues to ...

  10. Air quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This chapter of the 'Assessment of the state of the environment in Lebanon' describes the air quality and identifies the most important air quality issues. Baseline information about the factors affecting dispersion and the climate of Lebanon presents as well and overall estimation of total emissions in Lebanon. Emissions from vehicles, electricity and power plants generation are described. Industrial emitters of air pollutants are described for each kind of industry i.e.cement plants, Selaata fertilizer factory, sugar-beet factory, refineries and for those derived from the use of leaded fuel . Impact of economic and human activities on air quality in Lebanon (especially in Beirut and Tripoli) are quantified by quantities of CO2, SO2, NOx, total suspended particulates(TSP), deposition and their environmental effects on health. In abscence of emissions monitoring, data available are expressed in terms of fuel use, output and appropriate empirical factors, national output and workfores sizes. Finally key issues and some potential mitigation /management approaches are presented

  11. Notice on the 3 National Compulsory Standards Stipulated by AQSIQ and SAC,including the General Technical Regulations for Infant Blended Milk Powder and Infant Complete Grain Flour

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ In order to meet the needs of the current milk powder market and to lead enterprises to abide by the 3 national compulsory standards, i.e., the General Technical Regulations for Infant Blended Milk Powder and Infant Completed Grain Flour,GB10767-1997, the Infant Blended Milk Powder I(Blended Power Ⅰ), GB10765-1997 and the Infant Blended Milk Powder Ⅱ and Ⅲ (Blended Power Ⅱ and Ⅲ), GB10766-1997, General Administration of Quality Supervision, Inspection and Quarantine of China (AQSIQ) and Standardization Administration of China (SAC) issued the following notice, explaining requirements in detail.

  12. CM5, a pre-Swarm comprehensive geomagnetic field model derived from over 12 yr of CHAMP, Ørsted, SAC-C and observatory data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sabaka, Terence J.; Olsen, Nils; Tyler, Robert H.;

    2015-01-01

    A comprehensive magnetic field model named CM5 has been derived from CHAMP, Orsted and SAC-C satellite and observatory hourly-means data from 2000 August to 2013 January using the Swarm Level-2 Comprehensive Inversion (CI) algorithm. Swarm is a recently launched constellation of three satellites to...... induction. SIVW has allowed for a much improved lithospheric field recovery over CM4 by exploiting CHAMP along-track difference data yielding resolution levels up to spherical harmonic degree 107, and has allowed for the successful extraction of the oceanic M2 tidal magnetic field from quiet, nightside data...

  13. El papel de las estrategias de aprendizaje, la memoria y los movimientos sacádicos en el rendimiento académico

    OpenAIRE

    Picó-Bassa, Ariadna

    2014-01-01

    Se ha empleado una metodología de tipo selectivo, midiendo las estrategias de aprendizaje con la prueba ACRA, los movimientos sacádico con la prueba KD, y la memoria a corto plazo mediante el listado de palabras incluidas en la escala de memoria de Weschler, dígitos en orden inverso, Corsi en orden inverso y test de aprendizaje auditivo-verbal de Rey. La muestra estuvo compuesta de 30 alumnos de 1º y 2º de ESO cuyas edades se comprenden entre los 12 y 13 años y provenientes de centros privado...

  14. De Novo Development and Progression of Endolymphatic Sac Tumour in von Hippel-Lindau Disease: An Observational Study and Literature Review

    OpenAIRE

    Eze, Nwaneka; Huber, Alexander; Schuknecht, Bernhard

    2013-01-01

    Endolymphatic sac tumors (ELST) are rare invasive lesions of the temporal bone that are commonly associated with von Hippel-Lindau disease. This report describes serial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomography (CT) findings over a period of 6 years in a 12-year-old patient who developed an ELST after 3.5 years surveillance for a cerebellar hemangioblastoma. A 1.5 × 8 mm tumor was identified on MRI within the endolymphatic duct when the patient presented with audiovestibular sy...

  15. Precocious puberty secondary to a mixed germ cell-sex cord-stromal tumor associated with an ovarian yolk sac tumor: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Metwalley Kotb

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Ovarian tumors are the least common cause of sexual precocity in girls. Mixed germ cell-sex cord-stromal tumors associated with a yolk sac tumor of the ovary are rare neoplasms, of which only a small number of well-documented cases have been described so far. Here, we report precocious puberty in a four-year-old Egyptian girl caused by a mixed germ cell-sex cord-stromal tumor associated with a yolk sac tumor of the ovary. Case presentation A four-year-old Egyptian girl was referred to our pediatric endocrinology unit for evaluation of bilateral breast budding, pubic hair and vaginal bleeding. On examination, we found that her breast enlargement and pubic hair were compatible with Tanner III. A thorough workup revealed a large mass in her right ovary. Magnetic resonance imaging ofher brain showed that her pituitary gland was normal. A hormonal assay revealed high levels of estradiol, 280 to 375pmol/L; progesterone, 5.3 nmol/L; testosterone 38.9 pg/mL; and androstenedione, 4.1 ng/mL. Her basal and stimulated levels of luteinizing hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone were low. Tumor markers levels were high, with a total inhibin of 1,069U/L and an alpha-fetoprotein of 987 μg/L. Her chromosomes were normal (46XX. Our patient underwent an explorative laparotomy and a solid tumor localized to her right ovary was identified. A right salpingo-oophorectomy was performed and the histopathological diagnosis was a mixed germ cell-sex cord-stromal tumorwith a yolk sac tumor of the ovary. Postoperatively, she was started on treatment with chemotherapy. Our patient is doing well without evidence of tumor recurrence or metastasis during eight months of postoperative follow-up. Conclusion Although a mixed germ cell-sex cord-stromal tumor associated with a yolk sac tumor of the ovary is a rare occurrence, it should be considered in the differential diagnosis for a prepubescent girl with an abdominal mass and precocious puberty.

  16. PKSolver: An add-in program for pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic data analysis in Microsoft Excel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yong; Huo, Meirong; Zhou, Jianping; Xie, Shaofei

    2010-09-01

    This study presents PKSolver, a freely available menu-driven add-in program for Microsoft Excel written in Visual Basic for Applications (VBA), for solving basic problems in pharmacokinetic (PK) and pharmacodynamic (PD) data analysis. The program provides a range of modules for PK and PD analysis including noncompartmental analysis (NCA), compartmental analysis (CA), and pharmacodynamic modeling. Two special built-in modules, multiple absorption sites (MAS) and enterohepatic circulation (EHC), were developed for fitting the double-peak concentration-time profile based on the classical one-compartment model. In addition, twenty frequently used pharmacokinetic functions were encoded as a macro and can be directly accessed in an Excel spreadsheet. To evaluate the program, a detailed comparison of modeling PK data using PKSolver and professional PK/PD software package WinNonlin and Scientist was performed. The results showed that the parameters estimated with PKSolver were satisfactory. In conclusion, the PKSolver simplified the PK and PD data analysis process and its output could be generated in Microsoft Word in the form of an integrated report. The program provides pharmacokinetic researchers with a fast and easy-to-use tool for routine and basic PK and PD data analysis with a more user-friendly interface. PMID:20176408

  17. Long-acting muscarinic antagonists: a potential add-on therapy in the treatment of asthma?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William W. Busse

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disorder of the airways that is a major global burden on both individuals and healthcare systems. Despite guideline-directed treatment, a significant proportion of patients with asthma do not achieve control. This review focuses on the potential use of long-acting anticholinergics as bronchodilators in the treatment of asthma, with results published from clinical trials of glycopyrrolate, umeclidinium and tiotropium. The tiotropium clinical trial programme is the most advanced, with data available from a number of phase II and III studies of tiotropium as an add-on to inhaled corticosteroid maintenance therapy, with or without a long-acting β2-agonist, in patients across asthma severities. Recent studies using the Respimat Soft Mist inhaler have identified 5 µg once daily as the preferred dosing regimen, which has shown promising results in adults, adolescents and children with asthma. Tiotropium Respimat has recently been incorporated into the Global Initiative for Asthma 2015 treatment strategy as a recommended alternative therapy at steps 4 and 5 in adult patients with a history of exacerbations. The increasing availability of evidence from ongoing and future clinical trials will be beneficial in determining where long-acting anticholinergic agents fit in future treatment guidelines across a variety of patient populations and disease severities.

  18. Exercise Ventilatory Inefficiency Adds to Lung Function in Predicting Mortality in COPD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neder, J Alberto; Alharbi, Abdullah; Berton, Danilo C; Alencar, Maria Clara N; Arbex, Flavio F; Hirai, Daniel M; Webb, Katherine A; O'Donnell, Denis E

    2016-08-01

    Severity of resting functional impairment only partially predicts the increased risk of death in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Increased ventilation during exercise is associated with markers of disease progression and poor prognosis, including emphysema extension and pulmonary vascular impairment. Whether excess exercise ventilation would add to resting lung function in predicting mortality in COPD, however, is currently unknown. After an incremental cardiopulmonary exercise test, 288 patients (forced expiratory volume in one second ranging from 18% to 148% predicted) were followed for a median (interquartile range) of 57 (47) months. Increases in the lowest (nadir) ventilation to CO2 output (VCO2) ratio determined excess exercise ventilation. Seventy-seven patients (26.7%) died during follow-up: 30/77 (38.9%) deaths were due to respiratory causes. Deceased patients were older, leaner, had a greater co-morbidity burden (Charlson Index) and reported more daily life dyspnea. Moreover, they had poorer lung function and exercise tolerance (p 34 was associated with IC/TLC ≤ 0.34 or IC/TLC ≤ 0.31 for all-cause and respiratory mortality, respectively (p COPD severity. Physiological abnormalities beyond traditional airway dysfunction and lung mechanics are relevant in determining the course of the disease. PMID:27077955

  19. Self-collimation-based photonic crystal Mach–Zehnder add-drop filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Photonic crystal Mach–Zehnder add-drop filters (PC-MZADFs) based on the self-collimation phenomenon in a two-dimensional (2D) PC are proposed and numerically studied using finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) simulations. Each PC-MZADF is composed of a symmetric Mach–Zehnder interferometer (MZI) with an identical filter in each of its two different optical paths. Zizag-box resonators (ZBRs) and Fano resonators (FRs) are employed as the optical filters in rod-type and hole-type PCs, respectively. It is shown that self-collimated beams with the ZBR and FR resonant frequencies can be dropped or added using multiple-beam interference. We also show that the resonant frequencies of the resonators can be adjusted by varying the radii of their rods or holes. Our results indicate that this device design may constitute an efficient approach to light propagation manipulation and increase the application range of self-collimated beams. (paper)

  20. ATOM - an OMERO add-on for automated import of image data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lipp Peter

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Modern microscope platforms are able to generate multiple gigabytes of image data in a single experimental session. In a routine research laboratory workflow, these data are initially stored on the local acquisition computer from which files need to be transferred to the experimenter's (remote image repository (e.g., DVDs, portable hard discs or server-based storage because of limited local data storage. Although manual solutions for this migration, such as OMERO - a client-server software for visualising and managing large amounts of image data - exist, this import process may be a time-consuming and tedious task. Findings We have developed ATOM, a Java-based and thus platform-independent add-on for OMERO enabling automated transfer of image data from a wide variety of acquisition software packages into OMERO. ATOM provides a graphical user interface and allows pre-organisation of experimental data for the transfer. Conclusions ATOM is a convenient extension of the OMERO software system. An automated interface to OMERO will be a useful tool for scientists working with file formats supported by the Bio-Formats file format library, a platform-independent library for reading the most common file formats of microscope images.

  1. Does large needle aspiration biopsy add pain to the thyroid nodule evaluation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpi, Angelo; Rossi, Giuseppe; Nicolini, Andrea; Iervasi, Giorgio; Russo, Matteo; Mechanick, Jeffrey

    2013-01-01

    Thyroid large needle aspiration biopsy is disregarded because it is thought to be associated with pain. This is in contrast with our 32 years long experience. We surveyed reports of pain in patients examined with fine needle aspiration biopsy (78, 87.2% women, mean age 59 years) or FNAB+large needle aspiration biopsy (48, 87.5% women, mean age 60 years). Each patient was questioned regarding a) no unpleasant sensation (score "0"); b) unpleasant sensation ("1"); c) mild pain (no analgesic used; "2"); or d) pain (analgesic used; "3"). The mean size of the needle used was for FNAB 22.3±0.7 or 20.8±1 gauge in the fine needle aspiration or fine needle aspiration plus large needle aspiration biopsy group, respectively (pfine needle aspiration plus large needle aspiration biopsy group. However, the pain score in the fine needle aspiration biopsy or fine needle aspiration biopsy plus large needle aspiration biopsy group was not significantly different. Large needle aspiration biopsy after fine needle aspiration biopsy does not add any discomfort or pain and therefore in light of the demonstrable benefits, should be included in clinical algorithms for the evaluation of thyroid nodules. PMID:23536779

  2. Does large needle aspiration biopsy add pain to the thyroid nodule evaluation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelo Carpi

    Full Text Available Thyroid large needle aspiration biopsy is disregarded because it is thought to be associated with pain. This is in contrast with our 32 years long experience. We surveyed reports of pain in patients examined with fine needle aspiration biopsy (78, 87.2% women, mean age 59 years or FNAB+large needle aspiration biopsy (48, 87.5% women, mean age 60 years. Each patient was questioned regarding a no unpleasant sensation (score "0"; b unpleasant sensation ("1"; c mild pain (no analgesic used; "2"; or d pain (analgesic used; "3". The mean size of the needle used was for FNAB 22.3±0.7 or 20.8±1 gauge in the fine needle aspiration or fine needle aspiration plus large needle aspiration biopsy group, respectively (p<.0001. The number of percutaneous punctures was higher in the fine needle aspiration plus large needle aspiration biopsy group. However, the pain score in the fine needle aspiration biopsy or fine needle aspiration biopsy plus large needle aspiration biopsy group was not significantly different. Large needle aspiration biopsy after fine needle aspiration biopsy does not add any discomfort or pain and therefore in light of the demonstrable benefits, should be included in clinical algorithms for the evaluation of thyroid nodules.

  3. Calling all LEGO lovers! Add a mini control room to your collection

    CERN Document Server

    Katarina Anthony

    2015-01-01

    The mini LHC Lego project launched in March (see here) now has almost 6,000 supporters - well on its way to the 10,000 votes needed for it to (hopefully!) hit store shelves. This week, the project added a new feature to its line: a mini control centre! The new LEGO Control centre, featuring operators "Kerstin" and "Marco".   The mini LHC project is the brainchild of ATLAS PhD student Nathan Readioff, who designed Lego replicas of the LHC and the ALICE, ATLAS, CMS and LHCb experiments on a micro scale. Each detector model is small enough to fit in the palm of your hand but crammed with detailed internal systems revealed by cutaway walls. Every major detector component is represented by a Lego piece. Now, Nathan has created a control centre to complement the mini LHC project. This would be an add-on feature for Lego’s consideration, should they decide to develop the accelerator into a box set. “The control centre is ...

  4. Self-collimation-based photonic crystal Mach-Zehnder add-drop filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sun-Goo; Park, Jong-Moon; Kee, Chul-Sik; Lee, Jongjin

    2016-02-01

    Photonic crystal Mach-Zehnder add-drop filters (PC-MZADFs) based on the self-collimation phenomenon in a two-dimensional (2D) PC are proposed and numerically studied using finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) simulations. Each PC-MZADF is composed of a symmetric Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI) with an identical filter in each of its two different optical paths. Zizag-box resonators (ZBRs) and Fano resonators (FRs) are employed as the optical filters in rod-type and hole-type PCs, respectively. It is shown that self-collimated beams with the ZBR and FR resonant frequencies can be dropped or added using multiple-beam interference. We also show that the resonant frequencies of the resonators can be adjusted by varying the radii of their rods or holes. Our results indicate that this device design may constitute an efficient approach to light propagation manipulation and increase the application range of self-collimated beams.

  5. Predictors of life satisfaction among Asian American adolescents- analysis of add health data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jui-Yen; Wang, Kuan-Yuan; Ringel-Kulka, Tamar

    2015-01-01

    Life satisfaction correlates with adolescent risk taking behavior and their outcomes in adulthood. Despite the fast rise in numbers of Asian adolescents in the U.S., the predictors of their life satisfaction are not well understood. This study examined the relationship between several demographic and contextual factors and global life satisfaction among this population. Data were derived from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health), a nationally representative probability sample of US adolescents. Bivariate and multivariable logistic regression was conducted to evaluate hypothesized predictors of global life satisfaction of Asian American adolescents. All analyses were conducted using STATA version 11. After exclusion of cases with missing values, 1021 Asian American adolescents were studied. Self- rated health, self-esteem, perceived neighborhood quality, parental support and peer support were significantly and positively related to better global life satisfaction. However, after controlling for other factors, only self-esteem (adjusted odds ratio [aOR]: 4.76; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.86-8.33) and perceived peer support (aOR: 2.76; 95% CI: 1.33-5.76) significantly predicted higher life satisfaction. Peer support and adolescents' self-concept are strongly correlated with Asian American adolescents' subjective well-being. To promote the wellness of this population, culturally sensitive strategies in developing peer relationship and healthy self-concept may be effective. More studies are needed for subgroup comparison of various ethnicities among Asian American adolescents. PMID:25992312

  6. How to Add Value to your Business with CEA: A Practical Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Cardenas

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Companies are always trying to differentiate themselves from the rest of the pack by applying different strategies such as improving customer service, increasing the efficiency of their operations, or reducing their costs. Most of the time, however, these goals are competing against each other for scarce resources, and managers often need to decide to concentrate on one. A small company can effectively and simultaneously accomplish these goals for a fraction of the cost by implementing communications-enabled business processes or solutions, which are a set of technology components that add real-time networking functionality to applications. One particular implementation of this framework is the one provided by Coral CEA. Coral CEA is a business ecosystem anchored around CEA functionalities that are offered as building blocks, out-of-the-box components that link the capabilities and intelligence of networks platforms with the power of current applications to provide a new set of features and functionalities. In this article, we show how a small company called Rezact, located in the ski resort town of Mont-Tremblant, Quebec, successfully implemented CEA capabilities within its own operations using Coral CEA services.

  7. Mozart K.448 acts as a potential add-on therapy in children with refractory epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Lung-Chang; Lee, Wei-Te; Wang, Chien-Hua; Chen, Hsiu-Lin; Wu, Hui-Chuan; Tsai, Chin-Lin; Wei, Ruey-Chang; Mok, Hin-Kiu; Weng, Chia-Fen; Lee, Mei-Wen; Yang, Rei-Cheng

    2011-03-01

    Mozart's Sonata for two pianos in D major, K.448 (Mozart K.448), has been shown to improve mental function, leading to what is known as the Mozart effect. Our previous work revealed that epileptiform discharges in children with epilepsy decreased during and immediately after listening to Mozart K.448. In this study, we evaluated the long-term effects of Mozart K.448 on children with refractory epilepsy. Eleven children with refractory epilepsy were enrolled. All of the patients were diagnosed as having had refractory epilepsy for more than 1 year (range =1 year to 6 years 4 months, mean =3 years 11 months) and had been receiving at least two antiepileptic drugs (AED). During the study period, they listened to Mozart K.448 once a day before bedtime for 6 months. Seizure frequencies were recorded 6 months before they started listening to this music and monthly during the study period. All of the patients remained on the same AEDs during the 6-month study period. Frequencies of seizures were compared before and after listening to Mozart K.448. Eight of eleven patients were seizure free (N=2) or had very good responses (N=6) after 6 months of listening to Mozart K.448. The remaining three (27.3%) showed minimal or no effect (effectiveness Mozart K.448 should be further studied as a potential add-on therapy in the treatment of children with refractory epilepsy. PMID:21292560

  8. Royal Danish Air Force. Air Operations Doctrine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørby, Søren

    This brief examines the development of the first Danish Air Force Air Operations Doctrine, which was officially commissioned in October 1997 and remained in effect until 2010. The development of a Danish air power doctrine was heavily influenced by the work of Colonel John Warden (USAF), both...... through his book ”The Air Campaign” and his subsequent planning of the air campaign against Iraq in 1990-1991. Warden’s ideas came to Denmark and the Danish Air Force by way of Danish Air Force students attending the United States Air Force Air University in Alabama, USA. Back in Denmark, graduates from...... the Air University inspired a small number of passionate airmen, who then wrote the Danish Air Operations Doctrine. The process was supported by the Air Force Tactical Command, which found that the work dovetailed perfectly with the transformation process that the Danish Air Force was in the midst of...

  9. Air pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Australian cites experience a number of current and emerging air pollution problems. Concentrations of traditional primary pollutants such as CO, lead and dust have fallen in recent years as a consequence of air pollutant control measures, and the widespread introduction of lead-free petrol. However, recommended guidelines for ozone, the principal component of photochemical smog, are regularly exceeded in major capital cities in the summer months. In addition, it is predicted that extensive urban expansion will lead to much greater dependence on the motor vehicle as the primary means of transportation. Effects of air pollution are felt at a variety of scales. Traditionally, concerns about gaseous and particulate emissions from industrial and vehicular sources were focused on local impacts due to exposure to toxic species such as CO and lead. As noted above, concentrations of these pollutants have been reduced by a variety of control measures. Pollutants which have effects at a regional scale, such as photochemically-produced ozone, and acidic gases and particles have proved more difficult to reduce. In general, these pollutants arc not the result of direct emissions to atmosphere, but result from complex secondary processes driven by photochemical reactions of species such as NO2 and aldehydes. In addition, global effects of gaseous and particulate emissions to the atmosphere have received significant recent attention, concentrations of atmospheric CO2 with predicted impacts on global climate, and ozone depletion due to anthropogenic emissions of chlorine-containing chemicals are the two major examples. Combustion processes from petrol- and diesel-fuelled vehicles, make major contributions to air pollution, and the magnitude of this contribution is discussed in this article

  10. An elective detection of an Amyand′s hernia with an adhesive caecum to the sac: Report of a rare case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilker Sengul

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Existence of non-inflamed or inflamed vermiform appendix in an inguinal hernia is named Amyand′s hernia in honor to the surgeon Claudius Amyand who successfully performed first perforated appendicitis. Case Report: A 69-year-old Turkish male patient with a slight right groin pain and swelling was presented to our clinic, and found to have a slightly tender and reducible right inguinal hernia. He underwent surgery under general anesthesia, and a adhesive caecum and an inflamed appendix were explored within the hernia sac. Adhesions were divided by sharp dissection and appendectomy was performed. After carrying out a Lichtenstein hernioplasty, a broad-spectrum antibiotic was postoperatively admitted for 3 days. He recovered uneventfully, and neither complication nor recurrence was detected during 52 months of follow-up. Conclusions: Although occurrence of an appendicitis in an inguinal hernia is rare, a surgeon should be vigilant for facing with it even in elective cases. Treatment can be provided only surgically, but surgical treatment is not standard except from appendectomy. In our opinion, application of mesh hernia repair should depend on the degree of inflammation of appendix and the presence of incarceration of hernia sac with a suitable antibiotic admission for 3-5 days postoperatively.

  11. The ultrastructure of the mature embryo sac in the natural tetraploid of red clover (Trifolium pratense L.: that has a very low rate of seed formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gönül Algan

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, ultrastructural organization of cells in the mature embryo sac of natural tetraploid Trifolium pratense L. was investigated. The mature embryo sac of this plant contains an egg cell with two synergids at the micropylar end, and a central cell with two polar nuclei. The ultrastructure of these cells agrees with what is known for most angiosperms studied with the electron microscope. The egg cell is a large and highly vacuolate cell, partially surrounded by a wall. Much of the cytoplasm is located around the nucleus at the chalazal end and there are few numbers of channel-shaped endoplasmic reticulum, mitochondria, plastids and numerous ribosomes distributed throughout the cytoplasm. Unlike the egg cell, much of the cytoplasm in synergid cells is located at micropylar part of the cell and the synergid cytoplasm contains especially, large numbers of rough endoplasmic reticulum, free ribosomes, mitochondria and plastids. The central cell of T. pratense L. contains two large polar nuclei which lie close to the egg apparatus. Each polar nucleus has a single, large, dense nucleolus that contains several nucleolar vacuoles. Much of the central cell cytoplasm consisting of granular and agranular endoplasmic reticulum, mitochondria, plastids, ribosomes, dictyosomes and lipid bodies are placed around polar nuclei.

  12. Cloning and analysis of gene expression of interleukin-17 homolog in triangle-shell pearl mussel, Hyriopsis cumingii, during pearl sac formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Rui; Wang, Meng; Xia, Ni; Yu, Shuang; Chen, Yi; Wang, Ning

    2016-05-01

    Successful allograft of mantle tissues in certain bivalve mollusks can form pearl sacs secreting nacre for pearl production. Little was known, however, about the immune consequences in response to the tissue transplantation. In the present study, interleukin (IL)-17, one of the key regulatory genes of alloimmunity, was cloned from the triangle-shell pearl mussel (HcIL-17) Hyriopsis cumingii by high-throughput sequencing of the mantle transcriptome. The sequence of HcIL-17 contains an open reading frame of 567 bp encoding a putative protein of 188 amino acid residues. Analysis of sequence characteristics, multiple sequence alignment and phylogenetic analysis indicated HcIL-17 was a novel member in the mollusk IL-17 family. Expression of the HcIL-17 gene in donor mantle tissues and in hemocytes of recipient mussel was up-regulated dramatically within 7 days in response to the mantle tissue allograft for pearl aquaculture, suggesting remarkable proinflammatory responses during pearl sac formation in triangle-shell pearl mussels. Analysis of the time-course expression of HcIL-17 gene revealed the induction of HcIL-17 was time-dependent, reflecting the different periods of alloimmune events in triangle-shell mussels. The results of this study provide essential background information for further investigation of mollusk alloimmunity. PMID:26994668

  13. Relationship of the area measurement of the large endolymphatic duct and sac syndrome as well as the clinical symptoms with CT and MR imaging results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Ji Sang; Hong, Hyun Sook; Lee, Jong Sea; Kim, Dae Ho; Lee, Hae Kyung; Yi, Beom Ha; Cha, Jang Gyu; Park, Seong Jin; Kim, Shi Chan [Soonchunhyang University Bucheon Hospital, Bucheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-08-15

    To evaluate the CT and MRI findings of the large endolymphatic duct or sac syndrome (LEDS) and its associated anomalies, with clinical features. We retrospectively reviewed the MR and CT images of 52 ears obtained from 26 patients with LEDS. We reviewed the clinical findings, audiology testing, and treatment results. The degree of hearing loss was classified from normal to profound, based on pure tone audiometry. The largest areas were measured at each endolymphatic duct and analyzed to determine whether a correlation exists with the degree of hearing loss. We also analyzed the differences in measurements between CT and MRI findings. All 26 patients had some degree of sensorineural hearing loss, which resulted in 18 ears to undergo a cochlear implantation. One patient was diagnosed with Cornelia de Lange syndrome. Five patients had a sudden hearing loss onset. Ten ears had incomplete cochlear partitions, whereas 28 ears had enlarged vestibules. All patients had severe to profound hearing loss. We found no statistical correlation between the size of the largest area of the endolymphatic duct and the degree of hearing loss. The mean area of the endolymphatic ducts, as per an MRI examination, revealed slightly greater areas than the CT findings, although the differences were not significant. Enlarged vestibules and incomplete partitions of the cochlea were common anomalies associated with LEDS. We found no statistical correlation between the largest area of the endolymphatic duct or sac with the degree of hearing loss.

  14. Relationship of the area measurement of the large endolymphatic duct and sac syndrome as well as the clinical symptoms with CT and MR imaging results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate the CT and MRI findings of the large endolymphatic duct or sac syndrome (LEDS) and its associated anomalies, with clinical features. We retrospectively reviewed the MR and CT images of 52 ears obtained from 26 patients with LEDS. We reviewed the clinical findings, audiology testing, and treatment results. The degree of hearing loss was classified from normal to profound, based on pure tone audiometry. The largest areas were measured at each endolymphatic duct and analyzed to determine whether a correlation exists with the degree of hearing loss. We also analyzed the differences in measurements between CT and MRI findings. All 26 patients had some degree of sensorineural hearing loss, which resulted in 18 ears to undergo a cochlear implantation. One patient was diagnosed with Cornelia de Lange syndrome. Five patients had a sudden hearing loss onset. Ten ears had incomplete cochlear partitions, whereas 28 ears had enlarged vestibules. All patients had severe to profound hearing loss. We found no statistical correlation between the size of the largest area of the endolymphatic duct and the degree of hearing loss. The mean area of the endolymphatic ducts, as per an MRI examination, revealed slightly greater areas than the CT findings, although the differences were not significant. Enlarged vestibules and incomplete partitions of the cochlea were common anomalies associated with LEDS. We found no statistical correlation between the largest area of the endolymphatic duct or sac with the degree of hearing loss

  15. Open-label add-on treatment trial of minocycline in fragile X syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tranfaglia Michael

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fragile X syndrome (FXS is a disorder characterized by a variety of disabilities, including cognitive deficits, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, autism, and other socio-emotional problems. It is hypothesized that the absence of the fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP leads to higher levels of matrix metallo-proteinase-9 activity (MMP-9 in the brain. Minocycline inhibits MMP-9 activity, and alleviates behavioural and synapse abnormalities in fmr1 knockout mice, an established model for FXS. This open-label add-on pilot trial was conducted to evaluate safety and efficacy of minocycline in treating behavioural abnormalities that occur in humans with FXS. Methods Twenty individuals with FXS, ages 13-32, were randomly assigned to receive 100 mg or 200 mg of minocycline daily. Behavioural evaluations were made prior to treatment (baseline and again 8 weeks after daily minocycline treatment. The primary outcome measure was the Aberrant Behaviour Checklist-Community Edition (ABC-C Irritability Subscale, and the secondary outcome measures were the other ABC-C subscales, clinical global improvement scale (CGI, and the visual analog scale for behaviour (VAS. Side effects were assessed using an adverse events checklist, a complete blood count (CBC, hepatic and renal function tests, and antinuclear antibody screen (ANA, done at baseline and at 8 weeks. Results The ABC-C Irritability Subscale scores showed significant improvement (p Conclusions Results from this study demonstrate that minocycline provides significant functional benefits to FXS patients and that it is well-tolerated. These findings are consistent with the fmr1 knockout mouse model results, suggesting that minocycline modifies underlying neural defects that account for behavioural abnormalities. A placebo-controlled trial of minocycline in FXS is warranted. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov Open-Label Trial NCT00858689.

  16. Add-on topiramate reduces weight in overweight patients with affective disorders: a clinical case series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tredget John

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The weight-gain caused by many psychotropic drugs is a major cause for poor compliance with such medications and could also increase cardio-vascular morbidity among psychiatric patients. Recent reports have shown that the anticonvulsant topiramate causes weight loss in various patient groups. The drug has also shown effectiveness in open trials as a mood stabilizer in patients with affective disorders, but not in controlled trials in the acute treatment of mania. We used topiramate to treat 12 patients with affective disorders who had a body-mass index >30 kg/m2. Methods Topiramate was prescribed as part of our routine clinical practice, as an add-on medication, or as a replacement of a mood stabilizer. Patients' weight was recorded in 1 to 2 monthly intervals. Patients were followed up for between 6 and 12 months. The final dose of topiramate varied from 200 to 600 mg/day. Results Topiramate was effective in reducing the weight in 10 out of the 12 patients. At six months the 12 patients had lost a mean of 7.75 kg (SD = 6.9 kg, p Conclusion The evidence of a strong weight-reducing potential of topiramate is indisputable and clinically significant. Topiramate could be considered in the treatment of bipolar patients who are overweight, or whose concerns about weight gain compromise their compliance with long-term prophylactic medication. So far there is no evidence that topiramate has anti-manic effect and it should not be used as monotherapy.

  17. Using the PhenX Toolkit to Add Standard Measures to a Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendershot, Tabitha; Pan, Huaqin; Haines, Jonathan; Harlan, William R; Marazita, Mary L; McCarty, Catherine A; Ramos, Erin M; Hamilton, Carol M

    2015-01-01

    The PhenX (consensus measures for Phenotypes and eXposures) Toolkit (https://www.phenxtoolkit.org/) offers high-quality, well-established measures of phenotypes and exposures for use by the scientific community. The goal is to promote the use of standard measures, enhance data interoperability, and help investigators identify opportunities for collaborative and translational research. The Toolkit contains 395 measures drawn from 22 research domains (fields of research), along with additional collections of measures for Substance Abuse and Addiction (SAA) research, Mental Health Research (MHR), and Tobacco Regulatory Research (TRR). Additional measures for TRR that are expected to be released in 2015 include Obesity, Eating Disorders, and Sickle Cell Disease. Measures are selected by working groups of domain experts using a consensus process that includes input from the scientific community. The Toolkit provides a description of each PhenX measure, the rationale for including it in the Toolkit, protocol(s) for collecting the measure, and supporting documentation. Users can browse measures in the Toolkit or can search the Toolkit using the Smart Query Tool or a full text search. PhenX Toolkit users select measures of interest to add to their Toolkit. Registered Toolkit users can save their Toolkit and return to it later to revise or complete. They then have options to download a customized Data Collection Worksheet that specifies the data to be collected, and a Data Dictionary that describes each variable included in the Data Collection Worksheet. The Toolkit also has a Register Your Study feature that facilitates cross-study collaboration by allowing users to find other investigators using the same PhenX measures. PMID:26132000

  18. Air filtration and indoor air quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bekö, Gabriel

    2006-01-01

    Demands for better indoor air quality are increasing, since we spend most of our time indoors and we are more and more aware of indoor air pollution. Field studies in different parts of the world have documented that high percentage of occupants in many offices and buildings find the indoor air...... decent ventilation and air cleaning/air filtration, high indoor air quality cannot be accomplished. The need for effective air filtration has increased with increasing evidence on the hazardous effects of fine particles. Moreover, the air contains gaseous pollutants, removal of which requires various air...... cleaning techniques. Supply air filter is one of the key components in the ventilation system. Studies have shown that used ventilation filters themselves can be a significant source of indoor air pollution with consequent impact on perceived air quality, sick building syndrome symptoms and performance...

  19. 76 FR 41757 - Mahan Airways, et al.; Modification of Temporary Denial Order To Add Zarand Aviation as a Denied...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-15

    ...: \\1\\ The February 25, 2011 Order was published in the Federal Register on March 7, 2011. See 76 FR... request of the Office of Export Enforcement (``OEE'') to modify the February 25, 2011 Renewal Order... Request To Add Zarand Aviation to the TDO OEE has presented evidence that a French registered Airbus...

  20. Effect of Tinospora cordifolia as an add - on therapy on the blood glucose levels of patients with Type 2 diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saumya Mishra

    2015-06-01

    Conclusion: The results obtained from the present study conclude that Tc, when given in the form of add-on therapy, was found to be synergistic and effective in the better management of Type 2 diabetes. The drug was well tolerated by the patients and no adverse drug event was recorded. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2015; 4(3.000: 537-541

  1. Marriage and Health in the Transition to Adulthood: Evidence for African Americans in the Add Health Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Kathleen Mullan; Lee, Hedwig; DeLeone, Felicia Yang

    2010-01-01

    This article explores the relationships among early marriage (before age 26 years), cohabitation, and health for African Americans and Whites during the transition to adulthood using the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health). The study examines three categories of health outcomes relevant to young adulthood: physical…

  2. Measurement of the Economic Growth and Add-on of the R.M. Solow Adjusted Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion Gh. Rosca

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Besides the models of M. Keynes, R.F. Harrod, E. Domar, D. Romer, Ramsey-Cass-Koopmans model etc., the R.M. Solow model is part of the category which characterizes the economic growth.The paper aim is the economic growth measurement and add-on of the R.M. Solow adjusted model.

  3. 15 CFR 19.5 - How will Commerce entities add interest, penalty charges, and administrative costs to a Commerce...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... administrative costs on Commerce debts in accordance with the provisions of 31 U.S.C. 3717 and 31 CFR 901.9... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false How will Commerce entities add interest, penalty charges, and administrative costs to a Commerce debt? 19.5 Section 19.5 Commerce...

  4. Cortical atrophy rates in Alzheimer's patients and subjects with mild cognitive impairment from the AddNeuroMed data collection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eskildsen, Simon Fristed; Westman, Eric; Gwadry-Sridhar, Femida;

    Background: The AddNeuroMed project is a multi-centre European project which aims to identify biomarkers in Alzheimer's disease (AD). In this study we measured the rate of cortical atrophy in AD patients, subjects with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and healthy controls (HC) using MRI. Methods:...

  5. Cascadability improvement of a Cross-gain modulation wavelength converter using a grating based oiptical add/drop multiplexer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xueyan, Zheng; Liu, Fenghai

    2000-01-01

    By adding a grating based optical add/drop multiplexer, the maximum cascaded number of a cross-gain modulation based wavelength converter is improved from two to six rounds in a loop experiment at 10 Gb/s due to the improved high frequency response of the converter....

  6. Multi-mode fiber coarse WDM grating router using broadband add/drop filters for wavelength re-use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We demonstrate a grating-router with 37nm channel spacing and 6nm FWHM in the 800-900nm range for WDM over multimode fiber. Broadband thin-film add/drop filters provide wavelength re-use enabling NxN fully non-blocking interconnection with N wavelengths

  7. Solar air conditioning: introduction and basics; Solare Klimatisierung Einfuehrung und Grundlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albers, J. [Inst. fuer Erhaltung und Modernisierung von Bauwerken e.V. an der Technische Univ. Berlin (Germany)

    2005-07-01

    A considerable increase of the cold energy demand is expected world-wide in the coming years. Electrically operated cold compression plants are currently used at the most in order to meet the cold energy demand resulting also in a rising electric current and primary energy demand. This can have an effect on the supply security as well as on the change of the world climate. Therefore more alternative methods of cold generation are supposed to be applied in the future. The following contribution describes that plant systems for solar air conditioning (SAC-systems) are an attractive and feasible technology that demands engineering but can also be further developed and can make an important contribution to the target mentioned above. First an overview is provided of conventional air conditioning technology and of the expected development tendencies with regard to cold demand. Afterwards the currently available solar air conditioning methods and their possible applications are explained. (orig.)

  8. Effect of “add-on” interventions on exercise training in individuals with COPD: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos A. Camillo

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this review was to identify the effectiveness of therapies added on to conventional exercise training to maximise exercise capacity in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. Electronic databases were searched, identifying trials comparing exercise training with exercise training plus “add-on” therapy. Outcomes included peak oxygen uptake (V′O2peak, work rate and incremental/endurance cycle and field walking tests. Individual trial effects on exercise capacity were extracted and collated into eight subgroups and pooled for meta-analysis. Sensitivity analyses were conducted to explore the stability of effect estimates across studies employing patient-centred designs and those deemed to be of “high” quality (PEDro score >5 out of 10. 74 studies (2506 subjects met review inclusion criteria. Interventions spanned a broad scope of clinical practice and were most commonly evaluated via the 6-min walking distance and V′O2peak. Meta-analysis revealed few clinically relevant and statistically significant benefits of “add-on” therapies on exercise performance compared with exercise training. Benefits favouring “add-on” therapies were observed across six different interventions (additional exercise training, noninvasive ventilation, bronchodilator therapy, growth hormone, vitamin D and nutritional supplementation. The sensitivity analyses included considerably fewer studies, but revealed minimal differences to the primary analysis. The lack of systematic benefits of “add-on” interventions is a probable reflection of methodological limitations, such as “one size fits all” eligibility criteria, that are inherent in many of the included studies of “add-on” therapies. Future clarification regarding the exact value of such therapies may only arise from adequately powered, multicentre clinical trials of tailored interventions for carefully selected COPD patient subgroups defined according to distinct

  9. Relación de los movimientos sacádicos con la velocidad y con la comprensión lectora en niños de educación primaria.

    OpenAIRE

    Parras-González, Antonia

    2013-01-01

    La mayoría de los aprendizajes que realizan los alumnos se basa en la adquisición de un adecuado y correcto proceso lector, que implica una velocidad y comprensión eficaces. Durante la lectura los ojos no siguen la línea del texto de un modo regular, sino que realizan pequeños saltos que reciben el nombre de sacádicos. El objetivo de este estudio es determinar si existe una relación entre los movimientos sacádicos y la velocidad lectora, por un lado, y entre dichos movimientos y la comprensió...

  10. Real-Time Air Pollutants Rendering based on Image Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demin Wang

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new method for realistic real-time rendering of air pollutants based on image processing. The air pollutants’ variable density can create many shapes of mist what can add a realistic environment to virtual scene. In order to achieve a realistic effect, we further enhance thus obtained air pollution data getting from monitor in spatial domain. In the proposed method we map the densities of air pollutants to different gray levels, and visualize them by blending those gray levels with background images. The proposed method can also visualize large-scale air pollution data from different viewpoints in real-time and provide the resulting image with any resolution theoretically, which is very important and favorable for the Internet transmission.

  11. R9 Air Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Region 9 Air Districts layer is a compilation of polygons representing the California Air Pollution Control and Air Quality Management Districts, Arizona Air...

  12. AirData

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The AirData site provides access to yearly summaries of United States air pollution data, taken from EPA's air pollution databases. AirData has information about...

  13. California Air Basins

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — Air ResourcesCalifornia Air Resources BoardThe following datasets are from the California Air Resources Board: * arb_california_airbasins - California Air BasinsThe...

  14. Hazardous Air Pollutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Facebook Twitter Google+ Pinterest Contact Us Hazardous Air Pollutants Hazardous air pollutants are those known to cause ... protect against adverse environmental effects. About Hazardous Air Pollutants What are hazardous air pollutants? Health and Environmental ...

  15. Insights from a national survey into why substance abuse treatment units add prevention and outreach services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lemak Christy

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous studies have found that even limited prevention-related interventions can affect health behaviors such as substance use and risky sex. Substance abuse treatment providers are ideal candidates to provide these services, but typically have little or no financial incentive to do so. The purpose of this study was therefore to explore why some substance abuse treatment units have added new prevention and outreach services. Based on an ecological framework of organizational strategy, three categories of predictors were tested: (1 environmental, (2 unit-level, and (3 unit leadership. Results A lagged cross-sectional logistic model of 450 outpatient substance abuse treatment units revealed that local per capita income, mental health center affiliation, and clinical supervisors' graduate degrees were positively associated with likelihood of adding prevention-related education and outreach services. Managed care contracts and methadone treatment were negatively associated with addition of these services. No hospital-affiliated agencies added prevention and outreach services during the study period. Conclusion Findings supported the study's ecological perspective on organizational strategy, with factors at environmental, unit, and unit leadership levels associated with additions of prevention and outreach services. Among the significant predictors, ties to managed care payers and unit leadership graduate education emerge as potential leverage points for public policy. In the current sample, units with managed care contracts were less likely to add prevention and outreach services. This is not surprising, given managed care's emphasis on cost control. However, the association with this payment source suggests that public managed care programs might affects prevention and outreach differently through revised incentives. Specifically, government payers could explicitly compensate substance abuse treatment units in managed care

  16. In vitro potential modulation of baicalin and baicalein on P-glycoprotein activity and expression in Caco-2 cells and rat gut sacs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Qing; Wang, Zhiyong; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Miao, Peipei; Zhao, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Yujie; Ma, Shuangcheng

    2016-09-01

    Context Previous studies have shown that Scutellariae Radix, the dried root of Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi (Labiatae), has a certain inhibitory effect on P-glycoprotein (P-gp), but the effects of its main active constituents on P-gp are still ambiguous. Objectives In vitro studies were performed to investigate the effects of its main active constituents (baicalin and its aglycone, baicalein) on the activity and expression of P-gp in intestine using Caco-2 cells and rat gut sacs. Materials and methods In Caco-2 cell experiments, the effects of baicalin and baicalein on P-gp activity were investigated using a P-gp substrate, rhodamine 123 and non-substrate fluorescein Na, by determining their intracellular fluorescence accumulation, and their effects on P-gp expression were determined using flow cytometry. In addition, rat gut sac model was selected to investigate the effects of baicalin and baicalein on the transport of verapamil, a classical P-gp substrate. The gut sacs of male Sprague-Dawley rats were filled with 0.4 mL the test solution contained verapamil (0.2575 mg/mL) and the drugs [baicalin and baicalein, at concentrations of 1/8 IC50 (59.875, 41.5 μg/mL), 1/4 IC50 (119.75, 83 μg/mL) and 1/2 IC50 (239.5, 166 μg/mL)], and then incubated in Tyrode's solution for a period of time. After termination of the incubation, the incubated solution was processed for the subsequent detection. Results According to the results of MTT assay, the IC50 values of verapamil, baicalin and baicalein were 104, 479, 332 μg/mL, respectively. The obtained results from the two models were confirmed mutually. As a result, baicalin exhibited no obvious effect on intracellular accumulation of Rh-123, and almost had no effect on P-gp expression and verapamil transportation, while baicalein significantly increased intracellular accumulation of Rh-123 (p < 0.01), down-regulated P-gp expression (p < 0.01) and increased the transport of verapamil (p < 0

  17. 卵巢卵黄囊瘤30例临床病理分析%Clinical Pathological Analysis of Ovarian Yolk Sac Tumor 30 Cases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙秀华; 孙美玲; 王淑芹

    2012-01-01

      Objective To explore the pathological analysis of yolk sac tumor. Methods Select our ovarian yolk sac tumors were cases 30 cases,the clinical data were retrospectively analyzed. Result Typical and mixed types cases are much higher than in other cases pathological types, postoperative follow-up, 10 cases clinicalⅠperiod and 6 cases clinicalⅡperiod patients alive, 2 cases clinicalⅠafter 3 years of death, clinicalⅡperiod after two years in 4 cases were dead, clinicalⅢperiod in 5 patients after one year death in 3, 2 cases died after two years, clinicalⅣperiod after 3 months 2 cases died. Conclusion Many materials and comprehensive observation for correct diagnosis yolk sac tumor the has important function, the histological types and the clinical stages and closely related to the prognosis, clinically by operation with PVB or VAC chemotherapy for treatment.%  目的探讨卵巢卵黄囊瘤的临床病理分析。方法选取我院收治的卵巢卵黄囊瘤病例30例,对其临床资料进行回顾性分析。结果经典型和混合型病例明显高于其他病理类型病例,术后随访,10例临床Ⅰ期和6例临床Ⅱ期患者健在,2例临床Ⅰ期术后3年死亡,临床Ⅱ期4例术后2年死亡,临床Ⅲ期5例术后1年死亡3例,术后2年死亡2例,临床Ⅳ期2例术后3个月均死亡。结论多取材且全面观察对于卵巢卵黄囊瘤的正确诊断具有重要作用,其组织学类型以及临床分期与预后密切相关,临床上多采用手术合并VAC或者PVB化疗方案治疗。

  18. 药物流产加用中药生化汤加味的治疗效果比较%Drug abortion add with biochemical tonga taste of traditional Chinese medicine treatment effect comparison

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高秀容; 郑燕萍

    2013-01-01

    目的:探讨药物流产加用中药生化汤加味的治疗效果比较。方法:资料选自2009年3月-2013年2月在我院就诊的终止妊娠的妇女300例,分为两组,每组150例,对照组给予药物流产,研究组给予米索前列醇与加味生化汤流产,对两组终止妊娠妇女流产效果情况、胚囊排出与阴道流血及月经复潮时间情况进行分析。结果:研究组的流产率为92%,高于对照组80.67%,差异具有统计学意义(P<0.05);研究组的胚囊排出时间为(6.47±1.38)h、阴道流血时间为(10.81±4.25)d、月经复潮时间为(35.9±6.4)d,显著低于对照组(5.05±1.57)h、(13.80±5.44)d、(36.5±6.8),差异具有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论:药物流产加用中药生化汤的治疗效果较单纯的药物流产效果更佳。%objective: to study the drug abortion add with biochemical tonga taste of traditional Chinese medicine treatment effect comparison. Methods: the data in March 2009 - February 2013 in our hospital to terminate the pregnancy women and 300 cases were divided into two groups, 150 cases in each group, control group given a medical abortion, the team give misoprostol and biochemical soup flavored abortion, on two groups of women abortion effect, embryo sac discharge and termination of pregnancy vaginal bleeding and menstruation after tide time were analyzed. Results: the team's abortion rate was 92%, 80.67% higher than the control group, the difference statistical y significant (P < 0.05); Team's embryo sac discharge time is the time of vaginal bleeding (6.47 + 1.38) h, for agger (10.81 + 4.25) d, menstrual time is (35.9 + 6.4) d, significantly lower than the control group (5.05 + 1.57), (13.80-5.44), d, h (36.5 + / - 6.8), statistical y significant difference (P < 0.05). Conclusion: the therapeutic effect of drug abortion and biochemical soup with Chinese traditional medicine the pure drug abortion effect is bet er.

  19. Propuesta de intervención para la enseñanza de un SAC a un niño con Síndrome de Down

    OpenAIRE

    Álvarez Rodríguez, Víctor

    2015-01-01

    En este trabajo fin de grado, “Propuesta de intervención para la enseñanza de un SAC a un niño con Síndrome de Down” se muestra una intervención en un caso práctico con un niño que presenta Síndrome de Down. Este alumno tiene 12 años y además del síndrome, tiene una fuerte discapacidad intelectual, a lo que se suma, además, una ausencia de intención comunicativa. Por esto, para intentar solucionar estos problemas que presenta para comunicarse, he preparado esta intervención ...

  20. (Liquid + liquid) equilibrium in binary systems of isomeric C8 aliphatic monoethers with acetonitrile and its interpretation by the COSMO-SAC model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The (liquid + liquid) solubility curves have been determined by a synthetic method for six binary mixtures of [acetonitrile + {heptyl methyl ether CH3OnC7H15, or ethyl hexyl ether C2H5OnC6H13, or pentyl propyl ether nC3H7OnC5H11, or isopentyl propyl ether nC3H7Oi C5H11, or dibutyl ether nC4H9OnC4H9, or butyl isobutyl ether nC4H9OiC4H9}]. The possibility of the COSMO-SAC model to account for the thermodynamic differences between these systems has been tested and the discussion on the influence of screening charge of ethers on the system properties was undertaken