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Sample records for air sacs add

  1. Loss of air sacs improved hominin speech abilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. de Boer

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, the acoustic-perceptual effects of air sacs are investigated. Using an adaptive hearing experiment, it is shown that air sacs reduce the perceptual effect of vowel-like articulations. Air sacs are a feature of the vocal tract of all great apes, except humans. Because the presence or a

  2. Acoustic analysis of primate air sacs and their effect on vocalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Boer, Bart

    2009-12-01

    This paper presents an analysis of the acoustic impedance of primate air sacs and their interaction with the vocal tract. A lumped element model is derived and it is found that the inertance of the neck and the volume of the air sac are relevant, as well as the mass and stiffness of the walls (depending on the tissue). It is also shown that at low frequencies, radiation from the air sac can be non-negligible, even if the mouth is open. It is furthermore shown that an air sac can add one or two low resonances to the resonances of the oral tract, and that it shifts up the oral tract's resonances below approximately 2000 Hz, and shifts them closer together. The theory was verified by acoustic measurements and applied to the red howler monkey (Alouatta seniculus) and the siamang (Symphalangus syndactylus). The theory describes the physical models and the siamang calls correctly, but appears incomplete for the howler monkey vocalizations. The relation between air sacs and the evolution of speech is discussed briefly, and it is proposed that an air sac would reduce the ability to produce distinctive speech, but would enhance the impression of size of the vocalizer. PMID:20000947

  3. Evidence for avian intrathoracic air sacs in a new predatory dinosaur from Argentina.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul C Sereno

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Living birds possess a unique heterogeneous pulmonary system composed of a rigid, dorsally-anchored lung and several compliant air sacs that operate as bellows, driving inspired air through the lung. Evidence from the fossil record for the origin and evolution of this system is extremely limited, because lungs do not fossilize and because the bellow-like air sacs in living birds only rarely penetrate (pneumatize skeletal bone and thus leave a record of their presence. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We describe a new predatory dinosaur from Upper Cretaceous rocks in Argentina, Aerosteon riocoloradensis gen. et sp. nov., that exhibits extreme pneumatization of skeletal bone, including pneumatic hollowing of the furcula and ilium. In living birds, these two bones are pneumatized by diverticulae of air sacs (clavicular, abdominal that are involved in pulmonary ventilation. We also describe several pneumatized gastralia ("stomach ribs", which suggest that diverticulae of the air sac system were present in surface tissues of the thorax. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We present a four-phase model for the evolution of avian air sacs and costosternal-driven lung ventilation based on the known fossil record of theropod dinosaurs and osteological correlates in extant birds: (1 Phase I-Elaboration of paraxial cervical air sacs in basal theropods no later than the earliest Late Triassic. (2 Phase II-Differentiation of avian ventilatory air sacs, including both cranial (clavicular air sac and caudal (abdominal air sac divisions, in basal tetanurans during the Jurassic. A heterogeneous respiratory tract with compliant air sacs, in turn, suggests the presence of rigid, dorsally attached lungs with flow-through ventilation. (3 Phase III-Evolution of a primitive costosternal pump in maniraptoriform theropods before the close of the Jurassic. (4 Phase IV-Evolution of an advanced costosternal pump in maniraptoran theropods before the close of the Jurassic

  4. Anisotropic shrinkage of insect air sacs revealed in vivo by X-ray microtomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Liang; Chen, Rongchang; Du, Guohao; Yang, Yiming; Wang, Feixiang; Deng, Biao; Xie, Honglan; Xiao, Tiqiao

    2016-09-01

    Air sacs are thought to be the bellows for insect respiration. However, their exact mechanism of action as a bellows remains unclear. A direct way to investigate this problem is in vivo observation of the changes in their three-dimensional structures. Therefore, four-dimensional X-ray phase contrast microtomography is employed to solve this puzzle. Quantitative analysis of three-dimensional image series reveals that the compression of the air sac during respiration in bell crickets exhibits obvious anisotropic characteristics both longitudinally and transversely. Volumetric changes of the tracheal trunks in the prothorax further strengthen the evidence of this finding. As a result, we conclude that the shrinkage and expansion of the insect air sac is anisotropic, contrary to the hypothesis of isotropy, thereby providing new knowledge for further research on the insect respiratory system.

  5. Anisotropic shrinkage of insect air sacs revealed in vivo by X-ray microtomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Liang; Chen, Rongchang; Du, Guohao; Yang, Yiming; Wang, Feixiang; Deng, Biao; Xie, Honglan; Xiao, Tiqiao

    2016-01-01

    Air sacs are thought to be the bellows for insect respiration. However, their exact mechanism of action as a bellows remains unclear. A direct way to investigate this problem is in vivo observation of the changes in their three-dimensional structures. Therefore, four-dimensional X-ray phase contrast microtomography is employed to solve this puzzle. Quantitative analysis of three-dimensional image series reveals that the compression of the air sac during respiration in bell crickets exhibits obvious anisotropic characteristics both longitudinally and transversely. Volumetric changes of the tracheal trunks in the prothorax further strengthen the evidence of this finding. As a result, we conclude that the shrinkage and expansion of the insect air sac is anisotropic, contrary to the hypothesis of isotropy, thereby providing new knowledge for further research on the insect respiratory system. PMID:27580585

  6. Ventilation patterns of the songbird lung/air sac system during different behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackelprang, Rebecca; Goller, Franz

    2013-10-01

    Unidirectional, continuous airflow through the avian lung is achieved through an elaborate air sac system with a sequential, posterior to anterior ventilation pattern. This classical model was established through various approaches spanning passively ventilated systems to mass spectrometry analysis of tracer gas flow into various air sacs during spontaneous breathing in restrained ducks. Information on flow patterns in other bird taxa is missing, and these techniques do not permit direct tests of whether the basic flow pattern can change during different behaviors. Here we use thermistors implanted into various locations of the respiratory system to detect small pulses of tracer gas (helium) to reconstruct airflow patterns in quietly breathing and behaving (calling, wing flapping) songbirds (zebra finch and yellow-headed blackbird). The results illustrate that the basic pattern of airflow in these two species is largely consistent with the model. However, two notable differences emerged. First, some tracer gas arrived in the anterior set of air sacs during the inspiration during which it was inhaled, suggesting a more rapid throughput through the lung than previously assumed. Second, differences in ventilation between the two anterior air sacs emerged during calling and wing flapping, indicating that adjustments in the flow pattern occur during dynamic behaviors. It is unclear whether this modulation in ventilation pattern is passive or active. This technique for studying ventilation patterns during dynamic behaviors proves useful for establishing detailed timing of airflow and modulation of ventilation in the avian respiratory system.

  7. A lectin histochemical study of the thoracic respiratory air sacs of the fowl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.J. Bezuidenhout

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available The lectin-binding characteristics of the epithelial lining of the thoracic air sacs of the chicken were determined. Con A, LCA and PSA bound to the apical membrane as well as to the cytoplasm distal to the nucleus of the surface epithelium, indicated the presence of a-linked mannose as well as Nacetylchitobiose- linked a-fucose residues in the glycoproteins. GSL I bound to the apical membrane and cytoplasm distal to the nucleus, but not to the cilia of the epithelium, where-as MPL, DBA and RCA120 bound to the apical membrane, cilia and cytoplasm, indicated the presence of a-linked Nacetylgalactosamine residues. However, neither SJA or SBA showed any binding, indicating the absence of b anomers of galactosyl (b1.3N-acetylgalactosamine and b-linked N-acetylgalactosamine residues. UEA I bound to the apical membrane and cilia, as well as to the cytoplasm of a few cells, indicated the presence of a-linked fucose residues. PNA bound to the apical membrane of some, but not all, surface epithelium cells, indicated the presence of galactosyl (b1.3N-acetylgalactosamine residues. WGA bound to the apical membrane and cilia, as well as to the cytoplasm of a few cells, indicated the presence of neuraminic acid residues.

  8. Motor control of sound frequency in birdsong involves the interaction between air sac pressure and labial tension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, Rodrigo; Goller, Franz; Mindlin, Gabriel B.

    2014-03-01

    Frequency modulation is a salient acoustic feature of birdsong. Its control is usually attributed to the activity of syringeal muscles, which affect the tension of the labia responsible for sound production. We use experimental and theoretical tools to test the hypothesis that for birds producing tonal sounds such as domestic canaries (Serinus canaria), frequency modulation is determined by both the syringeal tension and the air sac pressure. For different models, we describe the structure of the isofrequency curves, which are sets of parameters leading to sounds presenting the same fundamental frequencies. We show how their shapes determine the relative roles of syringeal tension and air sac pressure in frequency modulation. Finally, we report experiments that allow us to unveil the features of the isofrequency curves.

  9. The rat subcutaneous air sac model. A new and simple method for in vivo screening of antiangiogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An experimental rat model, the Subcutaneous Air Sac (SAS) model, was developed to provide an animal model in which neo-vascularisation can be easily assessed in situ and quantified using a radiolabelled plasma marker. The SAS model was designed to replace a previous model where neo-vascularisation was induced by chemical injury of rat or rabbit cornea or by implantation of tumour cells intracorneally, a methodology which is believed to cause severe pain to the animals. In the SAS model the air sac replaces the cornea as a transparent avascular substratum in which vascularisation can be observed. The air sac is induced by injection of air subcutaneously on the back of the animal. After 8 to 10 days a sufficient air sac has been established. The animal is anaesthesized and by a minor operation the cellulose sponge is implanted upon the air sac under the skin. The vaso-proliferative effect of the cellulose sponge caused formation of new vessels which are macroscopically visible 10 days after implantation. The ability of the in vivo SAS model to show an anti-angiogenic effect of a systemically applied test compound was investigated using the fumagilline analogue TNP-470 (o-chloro-acetylcarbomoyl-fumagillol) as a positive control at dose levels of 0, 1, 2.5, 5 and 10 mg/kg/day given subcutaneously for 10 days. The neo-angio genesis was scored both in situ using a subjective point system and by measuring the 125I-activity of the implant and the membrane after an intravenous injection of 125I-labelled antibodies. The neo-angio genesis was reduced by approximately 45-50% in animals treated with 5 or 10 mg/kg/day of TNP-470 compared to animals treated with the vehicle. The animals treated with 10 mg/kg/day TNP-470 showed signs of toxicity. The SAS model is considered highly relevant for in vivo testing of potential anti-angiogenci drugs on humane grounds. The high reproducibility, the low cost and the technical simplicity of the method makes it attractive. (au)

  10. Highlights of the ecancer/SAC First International Prostate Cancer Symposium, 11-12 March 2016, Buenos Aires, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villalba, Marcelo Blanco; Bramajo, Marina; Bruno, Mario

    2016-01-01

    The ecancer/SAC First International Prostate Cancer Symposium, held in Buenos Aires, included national, regional, and international experts in the field of prostate cancer. More than 200 professionals from a variety of areas (clinical urologists, pathologists, oncologists, biologists, imaging specialists, radiation therapists, and generalist doctors, among others) attended, and they proposed multidisciplinary management of prostate pathology from the start in concordance with the ideas set forth by the organising committee. A radiotherapy workshop was also held during the symposium, in which new techniques and their possible uses were specifically discussed. In addition to the local doctors, Dr Lilian Faroni (COI Group, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil), Dr Leonardo Carmona (Chilean Head and Neck Institute, Chile), and Dr Anthony Addesa (Jupiter Medical Centre, Florida, USA) also participated in this symposium. PMID:27350786

  11. Boundary conditions for heat transfer and evaporative cooling in the trachea and air sac system of the domestic fowl: a two-dimensional CFD analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina S Sverdlova

    Full Text Available Various parts of the respiratory system play an important role in temperature control in birds. We create a simplified computational fluid dynamics (CFD model of heat exchange in the trachea and air sacs of the domestic fowl (Gallus domesticus in order to investigate the boundary conditions for the convective and evaporative cooling in these parts of the respiratory system. The model is based upon published values for respiratory times, pressures and volumes and upon anatomical data for this species, and the calculated heat exchange is compared with experimentally determined values for the domestic fowl and a closely related, wild species. In addition, we studied the trachea histologically to estimate the thickness of the heat transfer barrier and determine the structure and function of moisture-producing glands. In the transient CFD simulation, the airflow in the trachea of a 2-dimensional model is evoked by changing the volume of the simplified air sac. The heat exchange between the respiratory system and the environment is simulated for different ambient temperatures and humidities, and using two different models of evaporation: constant water vapour concentration model and the droplet injection model. According to the histological results, small mucous glands are numerous but discrete serous glands are lacking on the tracheal surface. The amount of water and heat loss in the simulation is comparable with measured respiratory values previously reported. Tracheal temperature control in the avian respiratory system may be used as a model for extinct or rare animals and could have high relevance for explaining how gigantic, long-necked dinosaurs such as sauropoda might have maintained a high metabolic rate.

  12. Main: SAC101 [AT Atlas

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SAC101 SAC1 Development of the synchrotron beamlines dedicated to the measurement o...f micron-size protein crystals Development of the synchrotron beamlines dedicated to the measurement of micr

  13. Primary omental yolk sac tumor

    OpenAIRE

    Lim, Seon Hwa; Kim, Yon Hee; Yim, Ga Won; Nam, Eun Ji; Kim, Young Tae; KIM, SUNGHOON

    2013-01-01

    Extra-ovarian yolk sac tumor arising in the omentum is extremely rare. As yolk sac tumor originated from the omentum has been rarely reported, its clinical information is very limited. The authors encountered a case of yolk sac tumor originated from the omentum, and reported the case herein. A 32-year-old woman was presented with developed low abdominal distension for a month. Magnetic resonance imaging findings were suggestive of ovarian malignancy with ascites and peritoneal seeding nodules...

  14. The Sac Actun System, Quintana Roo, Mexico; Sistema Sac Actun, Quintana Roo, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kambesis, P. N.; Coke, J. G.

    2016-07-01

    The Sac Actun system, located in northeast Quintana Roo, Mexico, is among the most extensive underwater cave systems located along the Caribbean coast of the Yucatan Peninsula. The cave is composed of linear phreatic conduits that have two forms. The coastal sections of the Sac Actun system are characterized by low horizontal tunnels that form mazes paralleling the coast and rudimentary conduits broken by fracture-controlled rooms. Inland passages are fault/fracture controlled, have a linear, anastomotic configuration, and align perpendicular to the coast. Access to the cave system is gained through cenotes which are the portals into the Yucatan underwater cave systems. The occurrence of drowned speleothems in many parts of the cave system, and sections of air-filled upper level passages are indicative of major fluctuations in sea level. The Sac Actun system is part of one of the most extensive and significant eogenetic karst aquifers in the world. The development of the Sac Actun system, as well as the many other caves systems along the Yucatan Caribbean Coast is controlled by the coastal hydrologic regime, driven by glacio-eustatics, and influenced by stratigraphic and structural controls. The karstic permeability of the aquifer makes it and the Sac Actun system vulnerable to the anthropogenic impacts of increased population growth, quarries, and infrastructure development associated with the burgeoning tourist industry that dominates land use in the region. (Author)

  15. Primary omental yolk sac tumor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Seon Hwa; Kim, Yon Hee; Yim, Ga Won; Nam, Eun Ji; Kim, Young Tae; Kim, Sunghoon

    2013-11-01

    Extra-ovarian yolk sac tumor arising in the omentum is extremely rare. As yolk sac tumor originated from the omentum has been rarely reported, its clinical information is very limited. The authors encountered a case of yolk sac tumor originated from the omentum, and reported the case herein. A 32-year-old woman was presented with developed low abdominal distension for a month. Magnetic resonance imaging findings were suggestive of ovarian malignancy with ascites and peritoneal seeding nodules. Explorative laparotomy was performed and then the findings from frozen biopsy of omentum were suggestive of poorly differentiated tumor though whether it was primary or metastatic was uncertain. Thus, staging laparotomy were performed. Histopathology confirmed that the tumor was a yolk sac tumor of omentum origin. Then, 6 cycles of postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy at intervals of 3 weeks were performed using bleomycin, etoposide, and cisplatin regimen. Four-year outpatient follow-up thereafter showed no relapse. PMID:24396822

  16. Haemangiopericytoma of the lacrimal sac.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Akihide; Wu, Albert; Sun, Michelle T; Inatani, Masaru; Katori, Nobutada; Selva, Dinesh

    2016-08-01

    Haemangiopericytomas (HPCs) are rare tumours which infrequently occur in the lacrimal sac. Only 8 cases of lacrimal sac HPC have previously been reported. The authors report 2 additional cases presenting clinically with epiphora and a mass. One case recurred 3 times during an 18-year period. The other case did not recur during 51 months of follow-up. The tumours showed immunohistochemical features consistent with a diagnosis of HPC. The authors recommend wide excision for these tumours and careful long-term follow-up to detect recurrence which is not uncommon. PMID:27322416

  17. Cul-de-Sac Kids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hochschild, Thomas R., Jr.

    2013-01-01

    Previous research indicates that adults who live on cul-de-sac streets are more likely to have positive experiences with neighbors than residents of other street types (Brown and Werner, 1985; Hochschild Jr, 2011; Mayo Jr, 1979; Willmott, 1963). The present research ascertains whether street design has an impact on children's neighborhood…

  18. Gene expression of the endolymphatic sac

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Morten; Martin-Bertelsen, Tomas; Friis-Hansen, Lennart;

    2011-01-01

    that the endolymphatic sac has multiple and diverse functions in the inner ear. Objectives:The objective of this study was to provide a comprehensive review of the genes expressed in the endolymphatic sac in the rat and perform a functional characterization based on measured mRNA abundance. Methods:Microarray technology...... was used to investigate the gene expression of the endolymphatic sac with the surrounding dura. Characteristic and novel endolymphatic sac genes were determined by comparing with expressions in pure dura. Results: In all, 463 genes were identified specific for the endolymphatic sac. Functional annotation...

  19. Room 101: The Social SAC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Allhouse

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This column looks at the SAC at the University of Bradford (UoB, which is commonly known as Room 101. The column looks at how Room 101 has reacted to the problem of reduced usage as a result of the cancellation of foreign language courses at the UoB, social media making online communication between learners easier, and the availability of online resources which have reduced the perceived importance of SAC resources (such as books and CDs. Room 101 has adopted a materials-light, people-focussed approach which has led to increased usage. Other solutions were tried and are detailed in this instalment, with examples from the literature. Room 101’s approach has centred on facilitated social learning opportunities and a friendly, student-led atmosphere, with many students working in the Centre. This instalment is the first of three; the following instalments will look at research conducted into student and staff thoughts on the current state of SACs in UK Higher Education.

  20. Desmoid tumor within lesser sac

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Čolović Radoje

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Desmoid tumors or fibromatoses comprise a number of benign fibrous proliferative lesions that have local infiltrative growth and tendency to recur after incomplete excision. They never metastasize. The authors present a 31-year old woman who, due to epigastric pain and palpable mass detected on presentation, underwent the excision of firm tumorous mass, 210x140x115mm in diameter, from the lesser sac. Compressing the splenic vein, the tumor caused left-sided portal hypertension which subsided after the mass was removed. The recovery was uneventful. The histological examination verified typical desmoid tumor. Twelve years after surgery, the patient remained symptom-free with no signs of recurrence.

  1. Experimental Hyperactivity of the Endolymphatic Sac

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Morten; Thomsen, Allan Randrup; Poulsen, Steen Seier;

    2013-01-01

    Injury to the endolymphatic sac may play an important role in the pathogenesis of Ménière's disease, an inner ear disorder characterized by hearing loss, tinnitus and attacks of vertigo. Isoimmunization of 16 inbred Lewis rats with a crude endolymphatic sac extract and complete Freund's adjuvant...

  2. Benign mixed tumor of the lacrimal sac

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong-Suk Lee

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Neoplasms of the lacrimal drainage system are uncommon, but potentially life-threatening and are often difficult to diagnose. Among primary lacrimal sac tumors, benign mixed tumors are extremely rare. Histologically, benign mixed tumors have been classified as a type of benign epithelial tumor. Here we report a case of benign mixed tumor of the lacrimal sac.

  3. Gene Expression in the Human Endolymphatic Sac

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Martin Nue; Kirkeby, Svend; Vikeså, Jonas;

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS: The purpose of the present study is to explore, demonstrate, and describe the expression of genes related to the solute carrier (SLC) molecules of ion transporters in the human endolymphatic sac. STUDY DESIGN: cDNA microarrays and immunohistochemistry were used for analyses...... of fresh human endolymphatic sac tissue samples. METHODS: Twelve tissue samples of the human endolymphatic sac were obtained during translabyrinthine surgery for vestibular schwannoma. Microarray technology was used to investigate tissue sample expression of solute carrier family genes, using adjacent dura...... mater as control. Immunohistochemistry was used for verification of translation of selected genes, as well as localization of the specific protein within the sac. RESULTS: An extensive representation of the SLC family genes were upregulated in the human endolymphatic sac, including SLC26a4 Pendrin, SLC4...

  4. New Administrator of SAC, Chen Gang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    On June 14th,SAC held a meeting presented by its middle-high officials,at which Zhang Qinrong,Member of CPC Leading Group and Director of Personnel Department,General Administration of Quality Supervision,Inspection and Quarantine (AQSIQ),announced the personnel decision made by the State Council,the Organization Department of the CPC Central Committee and AQSIQ.In the decision,Chen Gang was appointed as Member of CPC Leading Group of AQSIQ,Administrator of SAC and Secretary of CPC Leading Group of SAC,and Ji Zhengkun was dismissed as the Member of CPC Leading Group of AQSIQ,Administrator of SAC and Secretary of CPC Leading Group of SAC.The meeting was presided by Ji Zhengkun.Zhi Shuping,Minister of AQSIQ and Secretary of CPC Leading Group of AQSIQ,attended the meeting and gave a speech.Ji Zhengkun and Chen Gang also delivered speeches.

  5. Endolymphatic sac involvement in bacterial meningitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Martin Nue; Brandt, Christian; Østergaard, Christian;

    2015-01-01

    The commonest sequelae of bacterial meningitis are related to the inner ear. Little is known about the inner ear immune defense. Evidence suggests that the endolymphatic sac provides some protection against infection. A potential involvement of the endolymphatic sac in bacterial meningitis...... is largely unaccounted for, and thus the object of the present study. A well-established adult rat model of Streptococcus pneumoniae meningitis was employed. Thirty adult rats were inoculated intrathecally with Streptococcus pneumoniae and received no additional treatment. Six rats were sham...... days. Bacteria invaded the inner ear through the cochlear aquaduct. On days 5-6, the bacteria invaded the endolymphatic sac through the endolymphatic duct subsequent to invasion of the vestibular endolymphatic compartment. No evidence of direct bacterial invasion of the sac through the meninges...

  6. SACS: Spitzer Archival Cluster Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Daniel

    Emerging from the cosmic web, galaxy clusters are the most massive gravitationally bound structures in the universe. Thought to have begun their assembly at z > 2, clusters provide insights into the growth of large-scale structure as well as the physics that drives galaxy evolution. Understanding how and when the most massive galaxies assemble their stellar mass, stop forming stars, and acquire their observed morphologies in these environments remain outstanding questions. The redshift range 1.3 imaging or from X-ray surveys. Mid-infrared (MIR) imaging with the IRAC camera on board of the Spitzer Space Telescope has changed the landscape. High-redshift clusters are easily identified in the MIR due to a combination of the unique colors of distant galaxies and a negative k-correction in the 3-5 μm range which makes such galaxies bright. Even 90-sec observations with Spitzer/IRAC, a depth which essentially all extragalactic observations in the archive achieve, is sufficient to robustly detect overdensities of L* galaxies out to z~2. Here we request funding to embark on a ambitious scientific program, the “SACS: Spitzer Archival Cluster Survey”, a comprehensive search for the most distant galaxy clusters in all Spitzer/IRAC extragalactic pointings available in the archive. With the SACS we aim to discover ~2000 of 1.3 < z < 2.5 clusters, thus provide the ultimate catalog for high-redshift MIR selected clusters: a lasting legacy for Spitzer. The study we propose will increase by more than a factor of 10 the number of high-redshift clusters discovered by all previous surveys combined, providing a high-purity, uniform sample. Matching the Spitzer/IRAC-selected clusters with data at similar and longer wavelengths available in the archive (WISE 3- 5μm, Spitzer/MIPS 24μm or Herschel/SPIRE 250μm data) we will be also able to study the dependence on the environment of star formation and AGN activity out to z~2, and to study the effect of star-forming galaxies and AGNs

  7. The endolymphatic sac, a potential endocrine gland?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qvortrup, K; Rostgaard, J; Holstein-Rathlou, N H;

    1999-01-01

    is described, demonstrating that this organ fulfils the morphological criteria of a potential endocrine gland. Accordingly, the chief cells are shown to exhibit all the organelles and characteristics of cells that simultaneously synthesize, secrete, absorb and digest proteins.......A previous investigation indicated that the chief cells of the endolymphatic sac produce an endogenous inhibitor of sodium re-absorption in the kidneys, which has tentatively been named "saccin". In this study, the ultrastructure of the endolymphatic sac and in particular the chief cells...

  8. Acoustic communication in the Greater Sage-Grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) an examination into vocal sacs, sound propagation, and signal directionality

    OpenAIRE

    Dantzker, Marc Steven

    2015-01-01

    The thesis is an inquiry into the acoustic communication of a very unusual avian species, the Greater Sage-Grouse, Centrocercus urophasianus. One of the most outstanding features of this animal's dynamic mating display is its use of paired air sacs that emerge explosively from an esophageal pouch. My first line of inquiry into this system is a review of the form and function of similar vocal apparatuses, collectively called vocal sacs, in birds. Next, with a combination of mathematical models...

  9. Aneurysm sac shrinkage after endovascular treatment of the aorta: beyond sac pressure and endoleaks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgakarakos, Efstratios; Georgiadis, George S; Ioannou, Christos V; Kapoulas, Konstantinos C; Trellopoulos, George; Lazarides, Miltos

    2012-06-01

    The isolation of the aneurysm sac from systemic pressure and its consequent shrinkage are considered criteria of success after endovascular repair (EVAR). However, the process of shrinkage does not solely depend on the intrasac pressure, the predictive role of which remains ambiguous. This brief review summarizes the additional pathophysiological mechanisms that regulate the biomechanical properties of the aneurysm wall and may interfere with the process of aneurysm sac shrinkage. PMID:22402935

  10. Three National Standardization Technical Committees Authorized By SAC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ In December, 2004, the Standardization Administration of China (SAC) has approved the establishments of three National Standardization Technical Committees. They are the National Standardization Technical Committees for Environmental Protection Products (SAC/TC275), for Safety Management of Agricultural Transgenic Biology (SAC/TC276) and for Testing of New Varieties of Plant (SAC/TC277).The National Standardization Technical Committee for Environmental Protection Products is responsible for the development and revision of national standards in the following fields:

  11. rSac3,a novel Sac domain phosphoinositide phosphatase,promotes neurite outgrowth in PC12 cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yiyuan Yuan; Xiang Gao; Ning Guo; Hui Zhang; Zhiqin Xie; Meilei Jin; Baoming Li; Lei yu; Naihe Jing

    2007-01-01

    Sac domain-containing proteins belong to a newly identified family of phosphoinositide phosphatases(the PIPPase family).Despite well-characterized enzymatic activity,the biological functions of this mammalian Sac domain PIPPase family remain largely unknown.We identified a novel Sac domain-containing protein,rat Sac3(rSac3),which iS widely expressed in various tissues and localized to the endoplasmic reticulum,Golgi complex and recycling endosomes.rSac3 displays PIPPase activity with PI(3)P,PI(4)P and PI(3,5)P2 as substrates in vitro,and a mutation in the catalytic core of the Sac domain abolishes its enzymatic activity.The expression of rSac3 iS upregulated during nerve growth factor (NGF)-stimulated PC12 cell neuronal differentiation,and overexpression of this protein promotes neurite outgrowth in PC12 cells.Conversely,inhibition of rSac3 expression by antisense oligonucleotides reduces neurite outgrowth of NGFstimulated PC12 cells,and the active site mutation of rSac3 eliminates its neurite-outgrowth-promoting activity.These results indicate that rSac3 promotes neurite outgrowth in differentiating neurons through its PIPPase activity,suggesting that Sac domain PIPPase proteins may participate in forward membrane trafficking from the endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi complex to the plasma membrane,and may function as regulators of this crucial process of neuronal cell growth and differentiation.

  12. Primary Nasopharngeal Yolk Sac Tumor: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arumugam, Dhanalakshmi; Thandavarayan, Pavithra; Chidambaram, Lalitha; Boj, Sudha; Marudasalam, Sumathi

    2016-05-01

    Yolk sac tumour also known as primitive endodermal tumour is the most common malignant germ cell tumour (GCT) in the paediatric age group. Most common sites of involvement are ovaries and testes, but rarely can occur in the extragonadal sites. In the head and neck region, yolk sac tumours have been reported in the nasopharynx, sinonasal tract, orbit, ear and parotid gland. Nasopharynx is an uncommon site for yolk sac tumour and very few cases of nasopharngeal pure yolk sac tumour have been reported so far. Yolk sac tumours are highly malignant and have a poor prognosis. This is a case of pure GCT in a three-year-old female child who presented with a rapidly growing nasopharyngeal mass. Histopathological examination followed by immunohistochemistry and serum AFP study clinched the diagnosis of yolk sac tumour. The tumour responded well to chemotherapy as evidenced by decrease in serum AFP levels. PMID:27437234

  13. Congenital lacrimal sac fistula: intraoperative visualization by polyvinyl siloxane cast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatnagar, Aparna; Eckstein, Lauren A; Douglas, Raymond S; Goldberg, Robert A

    2008-01-01

    We report the intraoperative use of polyvinyl siloxane impression material to demonstrate the anatomy of the lacrimal sac, canaliculi, and lacrimal duct in a case of congenital lacrimal sac fistula. A 1-week-old boy was examined for tearing since birth. Examination revealed a left congenital lacrimal sac fistula. After a failed surgery to close the fistula with silicone intubation at 6 months of age, the patient underwent endonasal dacryocystorhinostomy performed at 14 months of age, aided by intraoperative injection of polyvinyl siloxane (trade name Reprosil) to mark and protect the nasolacrimal sac and facilitate endonasal visualization. A polyvinyl siloxane cast demonstrated the anatomy of the accessory canaliculus causing nasolacrimal duct obstruction. Postoperatively, the epiphora resolved and the fistula remained closed. The polyvinyl siloxane cast provides a 3-dimensional "ex vivo " model of the lacrimal sac, upper duct, and canalicular anatomy, and can be used in dacryocystorhinostomy surgery to identify and protect the lacrimal sac.

  14. Advanced Stellar Compass, SAC-C, Interface Control Document

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Peter Buch; Betto, Maurizio; Riis, Troels;

    Interface Control Document for the Advanced Stellar Compass for the SAC-C satellite. The SAC-C is Argentine, Danish and NASA satellite. On the SAC-C satellite there are a simplified version of the Ørsted instrumentation platform. The Advanced Stellar Compass is a improved version of the Ørsted Star...... Imager. This document descibes the interface between the Advanced Stellar Compass and OBDH, the size of the DPU and the Camera etc....

  15. Selfcoelum lamothei n. sp. (Digenea: Cyclocoelidae: Cyclocoelinae from the air sacs of the long-billed curlew, Numenius americanus (Scolopacidae, from the Galveston, Texas area, USA Selfcoelum lamothei, n. sp. (Digenea: Cyclocoelidae: Cyclocoelinae de los sacos aéreos del playero de pico largo, Numenius americanus (Scolopacidae, del área del condado de Galveston, Texas, EUA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles K. Blend

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Fourteen specimens of a new species of cyclocoelid, Selfcoelum lamothei n. sp. (Digenea: Cyclocoelidae: Cyclocoelinae, from the air sacs of a long-billed curlew, Numenius americanus Bechstein (Scolopacidae, collected from the Galveston area, Galveston County, Texas, USA, were examined. The new species has an intertesticular ovary that forms a triangle with the testes, placing it in Cyclocoelinae Stossich, 1902. The new species is most similar to Selfcoelum capellum (Khan, 1935 n. comb., but differs from this species by lacking an oral sucker and by having a somewhat larger ovary, larger testes, a smaller posttesticular space, a larger cirrus sac, larger eggs, and the vitelline follicles of S. lamothei n. sp. are more bulky making the vitelline fields more laterally extensive, and more anteriorly distributed (reaching anteriorly to the level of the pharynx compared to the level of the cecal bifurcation than those of S. capellum. The new species can be distinguished from the 2 species currently assigned to Selfcoelum Dronen, Gardner and Jiménez, 2006, S. brasilianum (Stossich, 1902 and S. limnodromi Dronen, Gardner and Jiménez, 2006, by having an intercecal uterus rather than having uterine loops that overreach the ceca laterally. The genus Selfcoelum should be emended to include those species where the uterus is either intercecal or where the uterine loops overreach the ceca laterally and those species with or without an oral sucker.Se examinaron 14 ejemplares de una nueva especie de ciclocélido, Selfcoelum lamothei n. sp. (Digenea: Cyclocoelidae: Cyclocoelinae que es parásito de los sacos aéreos del playero de pico largo, Numenius americanus Bechstein (Scolopacidae, recolectados en el condado de Galveston, Texas, EUA. La especie nueva se caracteriza por presentar el ovario en posición intertesticular, formando un triángulo con relación a los testículos. Este rasgo sitúa a la nueva especie entre los Cyclocoelinae Stossich, 1902

  16. Lacrimal Sac Dacryoliths-Pathogenesis and Composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serdar Özer

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The Main objective of the present study is to review the literature about the chemical composition and the formation of dacryoliths. Dacryoliths are calculi of the lacrimal system observed incidentally during dacryocystorhinostomy. Theories about the formation of dacryoliths mainly suppose that dacryoliths are simply a secondary phenomenon resulting from a lacrimal pathway obstruction and accumulation of debris. Inflammation caused by fungi, most commonly Candida albicans, an eyelash within the sac, or adrenalin use are also considered to be potential causes. It was also reported that the unstable concentrations of electrolytes rather than the supersaturation of some electrolytes are related to the pathogenesis of dacryoliths. Chemical analysis of the dacryoliths in studies had revealed calcium, magnesium, potassium, sulfur, and some phosphorus. Atomic absorption spectrophotometric investigations demonstrated organic proteins and, to a much lesser extent, inorganic material. (Turk J Ophthalmol 2013; 43: 186-9

  17. On the robustness of SAC silencing in closed mitosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruth, Donovan; Liu, Jian

    Mitosis equally partitions sister chromatids to two daughter cells. This is achieved by properly attaching these chromatids via their kinetochores to microtubules that emanate from the spindle poles. Once the last kinetochore is properly attached, the spindle microtubules pull the sister chromatids apart. Due to the dynamic nature of microtubules, however, kinetochore-microtubule attachment often goes wrong. When this erroneous attachment occurs, it locally activates an ensemble of proteins, called the spindle assembly checkpoint proteins (SAC), which halts the mitotic progression until all the kinetochores are properly attached by spindle microtubules. The timing of SAC silencing thus determines the fidelity of chromosome segregation. We previously established a spatiotemporal model that addresses the robustness of SAC silencing in open mitosis for the first time. Here, we focus on closed mitosis by examining yeast mitosis as a model system. Though much experimental work has been done to study the SAC in cells undergoing closed mitosis, the processes responsible are not well understood. We leverage and extend our previous model to study SAC silencing mechanism in closed mitosis. We show that a robust signal of the SAC protein accumulation at the spindle pole body can be achieved. This signal is a nonlinear increasing function of number of kinetochore-microtubule attachments, and can thus serve as a robust trigger to time the SAC silencing. Together, our mechanism provides a unified framework across species that ensures robust SAC silencing and fidelity of chromosome segregation in mitosis. Intramural research program in NHLBI at NIH.

  18. Single Assignment C (SAC): High Productivity meets High Performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Grelck

    2012-01-01

    We present the ins and outs of the purely functional, data parallel programming language SaC (Single Assignment C). SaC defines state- and side-effect-free semantics on top of a syntax resembling that of imperative languages like C/C++/C# or Java: functional programming with curly brackets. In contr

  19. Abnormal Structure of Embryo Sac in Autotetraploid Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Hai-bin; FENG Jiu-huan; LU Yong-gen; LIU Xiang-dong

    2006-01-01

    The structures of mature embryo sacs in 13 genetic stock lines of autotetraploid rice (Oryza sativa L.), including indica,japonica and javanica, were studied by using the whole-mount stain-clearing laser scanning confocal microscopy (WCLSM).Among the 13 autotetrapioid rice, the majority of ovaries possess normal polygonum-type embryo sacs, while a few ovaries were characterized by abnormal embryo sacs. The abnormalities of embryo sacs could be classified into six categories, i. e. no female The frequency of abnormal embryo sac in japonica (26.6%) was higher than that in indica (19.34%). In addition, the major abnormalities in each autotetraploid line varied, suggesting that the abnormalities may be related to the genotypes of the varieties.

  20. Multi-level security for computer networking: SAC digital network approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griess, W.; Poutre, D.L.

    1983-10-01

    For telecommunications systems simultaneously handling data of different security levels, multilevel secure (MLS) operation permits maximum use of resources by automatically providing protection to users with various clearances and needs-to-know. The strategic air command (SAC) is upgrading the primary record data system used to command and control its strategic forces. The upgrade, called the SAC Digital Network (SACDIN), is designed to provide multilevel security to support users and external interfaces, with allowed accesses ranging from unclassified to top secret. SACDIN implements a security kernel based upon the Bell and Lapadula security model. This study presents an overview of the SACDIN security architecture and describes the basic message flow across the MLS network. 7 references.

  1. The endolymphatic sac: a scanning and transmission electron microscopy study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qvortrup, Klaus; Bretlau, Poul

    2002-01-01

    A recent investigation has suggested that the chief cells of the endolymphatic sac produce an endogenous inhibitor of sodium resorption in the kidneys, tentatively named saccin. In the current study, the ultrastructure of the endolymphatic sac and in particular the chief cells are described to de...... to demonstrate that this organ fulfils the morphological criteria of a potential endocrine gland. Accordingly, the chief cells are shown to exhibit all the organelles and characteristics of cells that simultaneously synthesize, secrete, absorb and digest proteins.......A recent investigation has suggested that the chief cells of the endolymphatic sac produce an endogenous inhibitor of sodium resorption in the kidneys, tentatively named saccin. In the current study, the ultrastructure of the endolymphatic sac and in particular the chief cells are described...

  2. Human papillomavirus: cause of epithelial lacrimal sac neoplasia?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sjö, Nicolai Christian; von Buchwald, Christian; Cassonnet, Patricia;

    2007-01-01

    PURPOSE: Epithelial tumours of the lacrimal sac are rare but important entities that may carry grave prognoses. In this study the prevalence and possible role of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in epithelial tumours of the lacrimal sac were evaluated. METHODS: Five papillomas and six...... types 6 or 11 were identified in all four lacrimal sac papillomas suitable for PCR analysis and in situ hybridization. Four of six lacrimal sac carcinomas harboured HPV. One carcinoma was positive for HPV 11 only, two carcinomas had concomitant infection with HPV 6 or 11 and high-risk HPV 16, and the...... remaining carcinoma was positive for HPV 16. All specimens of dacryocystitis were betaglobin-positive and HPV-negative. Using DNA ISH, two papillomas and a single carcinoma showed evidence for vegetative HPV 11 DNA replication, whereas no HPV 16 DNA replication was found in the five carcinomas tested. HPV...

  3. NEW CONCEPT FOR DETERMINING THE ORDERS OF SAC AND PC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Baodian; Liu Dongsu; Ma Wenping; Wang Xinmei

    2004-01-01

    The autocorrelation of a Boolean function possesses the capability to reflect such characteristics as linear structure, Strict Avalanche Criterion(SAC) and Propagation Criterion(PC)of degree k. But it can do nothing in determining the order of SAC or PC. A calculating table for the autocorrelation is constructed in this paper so as to show what is beyond the autocorrelation and how the three cryptographic characteristics are exhibited. A deeper study on the calculating table in a similar way has helped us to develop a new concept, named as the general autocorrelation, to address efficiently the problem how to determine the orders of SAC and PC. The application on the Advanced Encryption Standard(AES) shows the SAC and PC characteristics of Boolean functions of AES S-box.

  4. Highly Metastatic Ovarian Yolk Sac Carcinoma in a Rat

    OpenAIRE

    Sakamoto, Akika; Yamaguchi, Yuko; Yamakawa, Seiki; Nagatani, Mariko; Tamura, Kazutoshi

    2011-01-01

    We investigated a highly metastatic ovarian yolk sac carcinoma in a 52-week-old female Crl:CD(SD) rat. Macroscopically, the present case had severe ascites, bilateral ovarian masses and numerous nodules in the abdominal and thoracic cavities. Histopathologically, these masses and nodules were generally composed of two types of cells mimicking a parietal and visceral yolk sac. The parietal cells were round to polygonal, contained eosinophilic droplets and were arranged in nests and cords in th...

  5. Primary lesser sac myxoid liposarcoma: A case report

    OpenAIRE

    Noushad, S. Navin; Rajaraman, R.; Shanmugam, Subbiah

    2016-01-01

    Highlights • Lesser sac pathological entities are uncommon. • A 62 year old male, cancer presented with progressive abdominal distension. • Examination revealed a midline intra abdominal mass in the epigastrium and umbilical region. • Radiological investigations were suggestive of a retroperitoneal tumor. • Surgical exploration confirmed a large multi lobulated tumor arising primarily from the lesser sac. • Post operative histopathological examination confirmed a myxoid liposarcoma. • A liter...

  6. Documentation for delivery of Star Tracker to SAC-C

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kilsgaard, Søren; Thuesen, Gøsta; Riis, Troels;

    1999-01-01

    The documentation EIDP (End Item Data Package) describes all the tests which have been performed on the flight hardware of the Star Tracker for the Argentine, Danish and NASA satellite SAC-C.......The documentation EIDP (End Item Data Package) describes all the tests which have been performed on the flight hardware of the Star Tracker for the Argentine, Danish and NASA satellite SAC-C....

  7. Automatic segmentation and classification of gestational sac based on mean sac diameter using medical ultrasound image

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khazendar, Shan; Farren, Jessica; Al-Assam, Hisham; Sayasneh, Ahmed; Du, Hongbo; Bourne, Tom; Jassim, Sabah A.

    2014-05-01

    Ultrasound is an effective multipurpose imaging modality that has been widely used for monitoring and diagnosing early pregnancy events. Technology developments coupled with wide public acceptance has made ultrasound an ideal tool for better understanding and diagnosing of early pregnancy. The first measurable signs of an early pregnancy are the geometric characteristics of the Gestational Sac (GS). Currently, the size of the GS is manually estimated from ultrasound images. The manual measurement involves multiple subjective decisions, in which dimensions are taken in three planes to establish what is known as Mean Sac Diameter (MSD). The manual measurement results in inter- and intra-observer variations, which may lead to difficulties in diagnosis. This paper proposes a fully automated diagnosis solution to accurately identify miscarriage cases in the first trimester of pregnancy based on automatic quantification of the MSD. Our study shows a strong positive correlation between the manual and the automatic MSD estimations. Our experimental results based on a dataset of 68 ultrasound images illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed scheme in identifying early miscarriage cases with classification accuracies comparable with those of domain experts using K nearest neighbor classifier on automatically estimated MSDs.

  8. A Demonstration of the System Assessment Capability (SAC) Rev. 1 Software for the Hanford Remediation Assessment Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eslinger, Paul W.; Kincaid, Charles T.; Nichols, William E.; Wurstner, Signe K.

    2006-11-06

    The System Assessment Capability (SAC) is a suite of interrelated computer codes that provides the capability to conduct large-scale environmental assessments on the Hanford Site. Developed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for the Department of Energy, SAC models the fate and transport of radioactive and chemical contaminants, starting with the inventory of those contaminants in waste sites, simulating transport through the environment, and continuing on through impacts to the environment and humans. Separate modules in the SAC address inventory, release from waste forms, water flow and mass transport in the vadose zone, water flow and mass transport in the groundwater, water flow and mass transport in the Columbia River, air transport, and human and ecological impacts. The SAC supports deterministic analyses as well as stochastic analyses using a Monte Carlo approach, enabling SAC users to examine the effect of uncertainties in a number of key parameters. The initial assessment performed with the SAC software identified a number of areas where both the software and the analysis approach could be improved. Since that time the following six major software upgrades have been made: (1) An air pathway model was added to support all-pathway analyses. (2) Models for releases from glass waste forms, buried graphite reactor cores, and buried naval reactor compartments were added. (3) An air-water dual-phase model was added to more accurately track the movement of volatile contaminants in the vadose zone. (4) The ability to run analyses was extended from 1,000 years to 10,000 years or longer after site closure. (5) The vadose zone flow and transport model was upgraded to support two-dimensional or three-dimensional analyses. (6) The ecological model and human risk models were upgraded so the concentrations of contaminants in food products consumed by humans are produced by the ecological model. This report documents the functions in the SAC software and provides a

  9. A Demonstration of the System Assessment Capability (SAC) Rev. 1 Software for the Hanford Remediation Assessment Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The System Assessment Capability (SAC) is a suite of interrelated computer codes that provides the capability to conduct large-scale environmental assessments on the Hanford Site. Developed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for the Department of Energy, SAC models the fate and transport of radioactive and chemical contaminants, starting with the inventory of those contaminants in waste sites, simulating transport through the environment, and continuing on through impacts to the environment and humans. Separate modules in the SAC address inventory, release from waste forms, water flow and mass transport in the vadose zone, water flow and mass transport in the groundwater, water flow and mass transport in the Columbia River, air transport, and human and ecological impacts. The SAC supports deterministic analyses as well as stochastic analyses using a Monte Carlo approach, enabling SAC users to examine the effect of uncertainties in a number of key parameters. The initial assessment performed with the SAC software identified a number of areas where both the software and the analysis approach could be improved. Since that time the following six major software upgrades have been made: (1) An air pathway model was added to support all-pathway analyses. (2) Models for releases from glass waste forms, buried graphite reactor cores, and buried naval reactor compartments were added. (3) An air-water dual-phase model was added to more accurately track the movement of volatile contaminants in the vadose zone. (4) The ability to run analyses was extended from 1,000 years to 10,000 years or longer after site closure. (5) The vadose zone flow and transport model was upgraded to support two-dimensional or three-dimensional analyses. (6) The ecological model and human risk models were upgraded so the concentrations of contaminants in food products consumed by humans are produced by the ecological model. This report documents the functions in the SAC software and provides a

  10. von Hippel-Lindau disease: surveillance strategy for endolymphatic sac tumors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Marie Louise Mølgaard; Gimsing, Steen; Kosteljanetz, Michael;

    2011-01-01

    : Up to 16% of patients with the hereditary von Hippel-Lindau disease develop endolymphatic sac tumors of the inner ear. Early diagnosis and treatment of endolymphatic sac tumors can prevent audiovestibular morbidity, but optimal endolymphatic sac tumor surveillance strategy has yet...... to be determined. We aimed to evaluate endolymphatic sac tumor surveillance to determine the best surveillance strategy....

  11. Applied Endoscopic Anatomical Evaluation of the Lacrimal Sac

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyyed Mostafa Hashemi

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Dacryocystorhinostomy (DCR, a popular surgical procedure, has been performed using an endoscopic approach over recent years. Excellent anatomical knowledge is required for this endoscopic surgical approach. This study was performed in order to better evaluate the anatomical features of the lacrimal apparatus from cadavers in the Isfahan forensic center as a sample of the Iranian population.   Materials and Methods: DCR was performed using a standard method on 26 cadaver eyes from the forensic center of Isfahan. The lacrimal sac was exposed completely, then the anatomical features of the lacrimal sac and canaliculus were measured using a specified ruler.   Results: A total of 26 male cadaveric eyes were used, of which four (16.7% were probably non-Caucasian. Two (8% of the eyes needed septoplasty, one (4% needed uncinectomy, and none needed turbinoplasty. Four (16% lacrimal sacs were anterior to axilla, one (4% was posterior and 20 (80% were at the level of the axilla of the middle turbinate. The distance  from the nasal sill to the anterior edge of the lacrimal sac (from its mid-height was 39.04 (±4.92 mm. The distance from the nasal sill to the posterior edge of the lacrimal sac (from its mid-height was 45.50 (±4.47 mm. The width and length of the lacrimal sac was 7.54 (±1.44 mm and 13.16 (±5.37 mm, respectively. The distance from the anterior edge of the lacrimal sac to the posterior edge of the uncinate process was 14.06 (±3.00 mm, while the distance from the anterior nasal spine to the anterior edge of the lacrimal sac (from its mid-height was 37.20 (±5.37 mm.The height of the fundus was 3.26 (±1.09 mm. The distance from the superior punctum to the fundus was 12.70 (±1.45 mm, and the distance from the inferior punctum to the fundus was 11.10 (±2.02 mm.   Conclusion:  Given the differences between the various studies conducted in order to evaluate the position of the lacrimal sac, studies such as this can help to

  12. Firefox add-ons for medical reference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoy, Matthew B

    2010-07-01

    Firefox is a Web browser created by the Mozilla project, an open-source software group. Features of the browser include automated updates, advanced security and standards compliance, and the ability to add functionality through add-ons and extensions. First introduced in 2004, Firefox now accounts for roughly 30% of the browser market. This article will focus primarily on add-ons and extensions available for the browser that are useful to medical researchers. PMID:20677067

  13. Bifurcation Adds Flavor to Basketball

    CERN Document Server

    Min, Byeong June

    2016-01-01

    We report an emergence of bifurcation in basketball, a single-particle system governed by Newtonian mechanics. When shooting the basketball, the obvious control parameters are the launch speed and the launch angle. We propose to use the three-dimensional velocity phase-space volume associated with the given launch parameters to quantify the difficulty of the shooting. The optimal launch angle that maximizes the associated phase-space volume undergoes a bifurcation as the launch speed is increased, if the shooter is farther than a critical distance away from the hoop. Thus, the bifurcation makes it very important to control the launch speed accurately. If the air resistance is removed, the bifurcation disappears and the phase-space volume distribution becomes dispersionless and shrinks in magnitude.

  14. An inguinal hernia sac tumor of extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yamazaki Hidehiro

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Metastatic hernia sac tumor from biliary malignancy is extremely rare with only one such case previously reported. We herein report an additional case of extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma presenting as a hernia sac tumor. Case presentation A 78-year-old man presented with an irreducible right inguinal hernia associated with a firm tumor, 2.0 cm in diameter. A computed tomography scan demonstrated a soft tissue density mass with heterogeneous enhancement within the right inguinal canal. The patient underwent a hernia repair and the hernia sac tumor was resected. Histological examination of the tumor revealed a metastatic adenocarcinoma suggesting the tumor was of pancreato-biliary origin. Further investigation using imaging studies disclosed a primary tumor in the upper bile duct. The patient died of the disease nine months after the resection. Conclusion Hernia sac tumors should be considered when an irreducible, growing mass appears within an inguinal hernia. Computed tomography may be useful for the early detection of hernia sac tumors from undiagnosed intra-abdominal malignancies.

  15. Inviting Calm Within: ADD, Neurology, and Mindfulness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riner, Phillip S.; Tanase, Madalina

    2014-01-01

    The fourth edition of the "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders" ("DSM IV") describes ADD as behaviorally observed impairments in attention, impulsivity, and hyperactivity. Officially known as AD/HD, we use ADD here because we are dealing primarily with attention, organizational, and impulsivity issues. A more…

  16. 75 FR 45164 - ``Add Us In'' Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-02

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Office of the Assistant Secretary for Office of Disability Employment Policy ``Add Us In'' Program AGENCY... from $500,000 to $625,000. The objectives of this new initiative, Add Us In, are: (1) To increase...

  17. Vascular development and hemodynamic force in the mouse yolk sac

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica D Garcia

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Vascular remodeling of the mouse embryonic yolk sac is a highly dynamic process dependent on multiple genetic signaling pathways as well as biomechanical factors regulating proliferation, differentiation, migration, cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions. During this early developmental window, the initial primitive vascular network of the yolk sac undergoes a dynamic remodeling process concurrent with the onset of blood flow, in which endothelial cells establish a branched, hierarchical structure of large vessels and smaller capillary beds. In this review, we will describe the molecular and biomechanical regulators which guide vascular remodeling in the mouse embryonic yolk sac, as well as live imaging methods for characterizing endothelial cell and hemodynamic function in cultured embryos.

  18. Prognosis of hepatoid yolk sac tumor in women: what's up, Doc?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rittiluechai, Kristsanamon; Wilcox, Rebecca; Lisle, Jennifer; Everett, Elise; Wallace, H James; Verschraegen, Claire F

    2014-04-01

    Ovarian yolk sac tumors are highly malignant germ cell tumors that commonly occur in young women. The hepatoid yolk sac tumor is a variant form of yolk sac tumor in which there has been extensive tumor differentiation to early liver tissue. Hepatoid differentiation is traditionally considered to signify a poor prognosis. This review focuses on diagnostic criteria and establishes the optimal treatment for patients with hepatoid yolk sac tumor. Immunohistochemical stains are useful for distinguishing hepatoid yolk sac tumor from the other hepatoid-appearing tumors. With a multidisciplinary treatment approach using platinum-based regimens, the outcome is similar to those of any yolk sac tumor. PMID:24462393

  19. Air

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... house) Industrial emissions (like smoke and chemicals from factories) Household cleaners (spray cleaners, air fresheners) Car emissions (like carbon monoxide) *All of these things make up “particle pollution.” They mostly come from cars, trucks, buses, and ...

  20. ADD psychosis as a separate entity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellak, L

    1985-01-01

    "Attention deficit disorder (ADD) psychosis" merits delineation as a separate entity. It constitutes the end result of the effects of a certain particular neurological deficit (ADD) on personality organization. It is my belief that about 10 percent of psychoses currently diagnosed most often schizophrenic and sometimes affective psychosis must best be considered a separate organic psychosis, i.e., an ADD psychosis. This ADD psychosis, then, is not merely a subgroup of schizophrenia, as I once thought. It merits a separate designation because its etiology, pathogenesis, and life history are different from those of the schizophrenic syndrome. The family histories are also different, as are the psychological findings. The treatment response is so different that it merits urgent consideration. Prognosis, both short range and long range, also seems different from those of the other psychoses. PMID:4081648

  1. Southeast Economic Add-on 2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — To collect data on an angler's last trip for revealed preference models and economic valuation purposes. Typically done as an add-on to the MRIP intercept survey...

  2. Southeast Economic Add-on 2003

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — To collect data on an angler's last trip for revealed preference models and economic valuation purposes. Typically done as an add-on to the MRIP intercept survey...

  3. Southeast Economic Add-on 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — To collect data on an angler's last trip for revealed preference models and economic valuation purposes. Typically done as an add-on to the MRIP intercept survey...

  4. Southeast Economic Add-on 1997

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — To collect data on an angler's last trip for revealed preference models and economic valuation purposes. Typically done as an add-on to the MRIP intercept survey...

  5. An unusual foreign body in the preputial sac.

    OpenAIRE

    A K Jaiswal

    1992-01-01

    A 28 year old Indian male presented with an unusual foreign body, a penicillin bottle containing tincture of iodine, in the preputial sac. The purpose of introducing the bottle was to tickle his glans penis as a form of masturbation. The bottle was so firmly impacted that it could be removed only under general anaesthesia.

  6. Sudden unilateral deafness with endolymphatic sac adenocarcinoma: MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaeta, M.; Blandino, A.; Minutoli, F.; Pandolfo, I. [Inst. of Radiological Sciences, Univ. of Messina (Italy)

    1999-10-01

    A 30-year-old man presented with sudden left deafness and vertigo. CT showed an osteolytic retrolabyrinthine tumour of the left temporal bone. High signal from the tumour and labyrinth was seen on fat-suppressed T 1-weighted images. At surgery, a haemorrhagic papillary-cystic adenocarcinoma of the endolymphatic sac was found. (orig.)

  7. Robin Panneton named university's SACS coordinator effective July 1

    OpenAIRE

    Owczarski, Mark

    2009-01-01

    Robin Panneton, associate professor of psychology and former director of developmental and biological psychology in Virginia Tech's College of Science, has been appointed as the university's Southern Association of Colleges and Schools (SACS) coordinator by Vice President and Dean for Undergraduate Education Daniel Wubah.

  8. Placentation in mammals: Definitive placenta, yolk sac, and paraplacenta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, A M; Enders, A C

    2016-07-01

    An overview is given of variations in placentation with particular focus on yolk sac, paraplacenta, and other structures important to histotrophic nutrition. The placenta proper varies in general shape, internal structure, and the number of tissues in the interhemal barrier. Yolk sac membranes persist to term in insectivores, colugos, rodents, and lagomorphs. In the latter two orders, they are of known importance for maternal-fetal transfer of antibodies, vitamins, lipids, and proteins. The detached yolk sac of bats is also active throughout gestation. A vascular paraplacenta, or smooth chorioallantois, has known functions in ruminants and carnivores and is found in several other orders of mammal where its function has yet to be explored. In human gestation, the chorion (avascular chorioallantois) is important for hormone synthesis. The true chorion of squirrels and hedgehogs is avascular but may nevertheless allow transfer from mother to fetus through the exocelom. Hemophagous areas with columnar trophoblast are paraplacental structures in carnivores and elephants but occur also within the placenta as in hyenas and moles. In shrews, it is the yolk sac that ingests and processes red cells. Areolas and chorionic vesicles are other structures important for absorption of uterine secretions and ingestion of cellular debris. In conclusion, we find that paraplacental structures, while showing less variation than the placenta proper, contribute not just to the integrity of overall placentation, but in various ways to maternal-fetal interrelationships. PMID:27155730

  9. TMACS Test Procedure TP008: SACS Interface. Revision 5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The TMACS Software Project Test Procedures translate the project's acceptance criteria into test steps. Software releases are certified when the affected Test Procedures are successfully performed and the customers authorize installation of these changes. This Test Procedure tests the TMACS SACS Interface functions

  10. Add Audio and Video to Your Site

    CERN Document Server

    MacDonald, Matthew

    2010-01-01

    Nothing spices up websites like cool sound effects (think ker-thunk as visitors press a button) or embedded videos. Think you need a programmer to add sizzle to your site? Think again. This hands-on guide gives you the techniques you need to add video, music, animated GIFs, and sound effects to your site. This Mini Missing Manual is excerpted from Creating a Web Site: The Missing Manual.

  11. Acoustic communication in the Greater Sage-Grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) an examination into vocal sacs, sound propagation, and signal directionality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dantzker, Marc Steven

    The thesis is an inquiry into the acoustic communication of a very unusual avian species, the Greater Sage-Grouse, Centrocercus urophasianus. One of the most outstanding features of this animal's dynamic mating display is its use of paired air sacs that emerge explosively from an esophageal pouch. My first line of inquiry into this system is a review of the form and function of similar vocal apparatuses, collectively called vocal sacs, in birds. Next, with a combination of mathematical models and field measurements, My collaborator and I investigate the acoustic environment where the Greater Sage-Grouse display. The complexities of this acoustic environment are relevant both to the birds and to the subsequent examinations of the display's properties. Finally, my collaborators and I examine a cryptic component of the acoustic display --- directionality --- which we measured simultaneously from multiple locations around free moving grouse on their mating grounds.

  12. Air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In recent years several regulations and standards for air quality and limits for air pollution were issued or are in preparation by the European Union, which have severe influence on the environmental monitoring and legislation in Austria. This chapter of the environmental control report of Austria gives an overview about the legal situation of air pollution control in the European Union and in specific the legal situation in Austria. It gives a comprehensive inventory of air pollution measurements for the whole area of Austria of total suspended particulates, ozone, volatile organic compounds, nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxide, carbon monoxide, heavy metals, benzene, dioxin, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and eutrophication. For each of these pollutants the measured emission values throughout Austria are given in tables and geographical charts, the environmental impact is discussed, statistical data and time series of the emission sources are given and legal regulations and measures for an effective environmental pollution control are discussed. In particular the impact of fossil-fuel power plants on the air pollution is analyzed. (a.n.)

  13. 38 CFR Appendix A to Part 41 - Data Collection Form (Form SF-SAC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Data Collection Form (Form SF-SAC) A Appendix A to Part 41 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS.... Appendix A to Part 41—Data Collection Form (Form SF-SAC) Note: Data Collection Form SF-SAC and...

  14. Functional blood flow patterns of the endolymphatic sac in the rat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Morten; Qvortrup, Klaus

    2008-01-01

    Conclusion. Visualization of the endolymphatic sac vascular network under video fluorescence microscopy showed a typical microvascular organization. The microvascular arrangement and the microcirculation may reflect a functional state of the endolymphatic sac. Damage or change of the blood circul...... sac served as return paths for the microcirculation. The blood flow pattern was highly variable between rats....

  15. Efficacy of Several Pesticide Products on Brown Widow Spider (Araneae: Theridiidae) Egg Sacs and Their Penetration Through the Egg Sac Silk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vetter, Richard S; Tarango, Jacob; Campbell, Kathleen A; Tham, Christine; Hayashi, Cheryl Y; Choe, Dong-Hwan

    2016-02-01

    Information on pesticide effects on spiders is less common than for insects; similar information for spider egg sacs is scarcer in the open literature. Spider egg sacs are typically covered with a protective silk layer. When pesticides are directly applied to egg sacs, the silk might prevent active ingredients from reaching the eggs, blocking their insecticidal effect. We investigated the impact of six water-based pesticide sprays and four oil-based aerosol products against egg sacs of brown widow spiders, Latrodectus geometricus C. L. Koch. All water-based spray products except one failed to provide significant mortality to egg sacs, resulting in successful spiderling emergence from treated egg sacs at a similar rate to untreated egg sacs. In contrast to water-based sprays, oil-based aerosols provided almost complete control, with 94-100% prevention of spiderling emergence. Penetration studies using colored pesticide products indicated that oil-based aerosols were significantly more effective in penetrating egg sac silk than were the water-based sprays, delivering the active ingredients on most (>99%) of the eggs inside the sac. The ability of pesticides to penetrate spider egg sac silk and deliver lethal doses of active ingredients to the eggs is discussed in relation to the chemical nature of egg sac silk proteins. Our study suggests that pest management procedures primarily relying on perimeter application of water-based sprays might not provide satisfactory control of brown widow spider eggs. Determination of the most effective active ingredients and carrier characteristics warrant further research to provide more effective control options for spider egg sacs.

  16. Efficacy of Several Pesticide Products on Brown Widow Spider (Araneae: Theridiidae) Egg Sacs and Their Penetration Through the Egg Sac Silk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vetter, Richard S; Tarango, Jacob; Campbell, Kathleen A; Tham, Christine; Hayashi, Cheryl Y; Choe, Dong-Hwan

    2016-02-01

    Information on pesticide effects on spiders is less common than for insects; similar information for spider egg sacs is scarcer in the open literature. Spider egg sacs are typically covered with a protective silk layer. When pesticides are directly applied to egg sacs, the silk might prevent active ingredients from reaching the eggs, blocking their insecticidal effect. We investigated the impact of six water-based pesticide sprays and four oil-based aerosol products against egg sacs of brown widow spiders, Latrodectus geometricus C. L. Koch. All water-based spray products except one failed to provide significant mortality to egg sacs, resulting in successful spiderling emergence from treated egg sacs at a similar rate to untreated egg sacs. In contrast to water-based sprays, oil-based aerosols provided almost complete control, with 94-100% prevention of spiderling emergence. Penetration studies using colored pesticide products indicated that oil-based aerosols were significantly more effective in penetrating egg sac silk than were the water-based sprays, delivering the active ingredients on most (>99%) of the eggs inside the sac. The ability of pesticides to penetrate spider egg sac silk and deliver lethal doses of active ingredients to the eggs is discussed in relation to the chemical nature of egg sac silk proteins. Our study suggests that pest management procedures primarily relying on perimeter application of water-based sprays might not provide satisfactory control of brown widow spider eggs. Determination of the most effective active ingredients and carrier characteristics warrant further research to provide more effective control options for spider egg sacs. PMID:26530954

  17. Hydrocele of Femoral Hernial Sac-an Extremely Rare Case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madhivanan, S; Jain, Ravindra Kumar

    2016-06-01

    A previously healthy 40-year-old woman presented with a right groin swelling for the last 2 years. Diagnosed preoperatively as uncomplicated, irreducible epiplocele of right femoral hernia, later per-operatively was diagnosed as hydrocele of femoral hernial sac also known as "femorocele"; ultrasound abdomen and groin demonstrated as a cystic mass right groin with no precise origin. All other basic line investigations within normal limits, except anemia 7 gm %, corrected to 10 gm %, by preoperative transfusions of 2 units of complete fresh blood. After low approach incision, excision of hydrocele sac, and feormal hernia repair were done with approximation of iliopectineal ligament to inguinal ligament, patient was discharged on 5th postoperative day with satisfactory wound healing and uneventful hospitalization. PMID:27358521

  18. A clinicopathologic analysis of primary orbital yolk sac tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PENG Ji-ying

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective On rare occasions, yolk sac tumor may arise from extragonadal sites. Orbit is an unusual location for the primary development of this tumor. The presence of intracranial yolk sac tumor on biopsy always makes the diagnosis challenge for pathologists. Herein we report a case of intracranial primary yolk sac tumor in left orbital apex. The clinicopathology of this tumor and its differential diagnosis are discussed. Methods The clinical manifestation of a patient with primary yolk sac tumor occurring in left orbital apex was presented retrospectively. Resected orbital mass was routinely paraffin-embedded and stained with hematoxylin and eosin. Dako Envision immunohistochemical staining system was used to detect the tumor antigen expressions, including alpha-fetoprotein (AFP, cytokeratin, placental alkaline phosphatase (PLAP, CD30, CD34, CD45, CD99, CD117, synaptophysin (Syn and chromogranin A (CgA. Results A 2-year-old boy presented with 3-month history of ptosis of eyelid and exophthalmos on left eye. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI scan revealed a lesion occupied the left orbital apex with infiltration of surrounding normal structure, including left posterior ethmoid sinus, the wall of left maxillary sinus and sphenoid. However, there was no evidence of tumor infiltrating in brain parenchyma. Craniotomy was performed and the tumor was removed by en bloc resection. Grossly, the biopsy specimen received in small pieces was 1.20 cm × 1.00 cm × 1.00 cm when aggregated. No fibrous capsule, necrosis, haemorrhage and gross calcification were found in the tissue fragments. Histological examination revealed that the tumor was arranged in a reticular pattern. The cells were relatively large with a clear cytoplasm and vesicular nuclei. Scattered mitotic figures were noted. Schiller-Duval bodies and periodic acid-Schiff (PAS positive (eosinophilic bodies were evident in the tumor tissue. Immunohistochemical staining showed that the tumor cells

  19. Endolymphatic sac tumor : a rare cerebellopontine angle tumor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph B

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available Endolymphatic sac tumors (ELST are rare papillary tumors of the temporal bone. Previously named as aggressive papillary middle ear tumors, they have recently been shown to arise from the endolymphatic sac. They are a rare in cerebello-pontine angle (CPA. We present a case of an ELST who presented as a CPA tumor with hydrocephalus. He underwent a ventriculo-peritoneal shunt initially. On exploration of the CP angle, the tumor was found to be extremely vascular. He was re-explored following embolization, and a subtotal excision of the tumor was done. Extensive petrous bone infiltration and vascularity of the tumor makes total excision almost impossible with high risk of cranial nerve deficits, excessive blood loss and CSF leak. This tumor should be considered in the differential diagnosis of vascular CPA tumors which erode the petrous temporal bone. The relevant literature is reviewed.

  20. Yolk sac tumor in a patient with transverse testicular ectopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu Yi-Ping

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Transverse testicular ectopia (TTE is a rare anomaly in which both testes descend through a single inguinal canal. We report a case of yolk sac tumor in the ectopic testis of a patient with TTE. A 24-year-old man presented to our hospital with a left inguinal-mass, right cryptorchidism and elevated alpha-fetoprotein (AFP. A left herniotomy 3 years earlier demonstrated both testes in the left scrotum, one above another positionally. Four months ago, a left scrotal mass appeared and radical orchiectomy of both testes revealed testicular yolk sac tumor of the ectopic testis. An enlarging left inguinal-mass appeared 2 months ago and he was referred to our hospital. Laboratory data showed an elevation of AFP (245.5 ng/ml and a 46 XY karyotype. He underwent bilateral retroperitoneal lymph node dissection and simultaneous left inguinal mass dissection. Histopathologic examination revealed a diagnosis of recurrent yolk sac tumor in the left inguinal mass. The retroperitoneal lymph node was not enlarged and, on histopathology, was not involved. The patient has now been followed up for 8 months without evidence of biochemical or radiological recurrence.

  1. Educational report: A case of lacrimal sac rhinosporidiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamison, Aaron; Crofts, Kevin; Roberts, Fiona; Gregory, Maria Elena

    2016-10-01

    This article reports a presentation of lacrimal sac rhinosporidiosis and informs the reader of this uncommon but important diagnosis. A 36-year-old man from Pakistan presented with a 3-month history of swelling at the nasal aspect of the left lower lid. This was associated with occasional crepitus and slight localised discomfort, but no epiphora. There was a palpable fullness near the left medial canthus associated with telecanthus but a normal sac washout and normal eye examination otherwise. Previous medical history included an ipsilateral nasal polypectomy and inferior meatal antrostomy around 10 years previously, whilst living in Pakistan. Various imaging modalities were useful in identifying a soft tissue mass within the left nasolacrimal duct. Following excision biopsy, histological examination confirmed the presence of rhinosporidiosis, likely caused by the organism Rhinosporidium seeberi. Rhinosporidiosis should be considered as a potential cause in any case of lacrimal sac pathology. Imaging studies may be helpful in measuring the extent of disease, although histological examination is required to confirm the diagnosis. Although rare, the complications of rhinosporidiosis can be potentially blinding or fatal. As discussed in this case, the presence of telecanthus may represent a lacrimal system tumour, either malignant or benign, and should always prompt further investigation. PMID:27541939

  2. Oblique sectional planes of block plastinates eased by Sac Plastination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kürtül, Ibrahim; Hammer, Niels; Rabi, Suganthy; Saito, Toshiyuki; Böhme, Jörg; Steinke, Hanno

    2012-07-01

    To find an oblique cutting plane of a plastinate, e.g. to cut gamma-nails in the femur, the Block Plastination technique was modified. After CT and MRI examination, the specimens were plastinated with the standard resin mixture E6/E12/E600. Instead of using a box to form a block during the casting and curing stage, we embedded the specimen in a sac made of polyester foil. A polymerized wooden block was attached to the specimen. The sac was wrapped with tape to the embedded specimen with the block. This approach limited the amount of required resin to the inner volume of the plastinate. Then, the plastination sac was put in the incubator for further polymerization and curing. When the foil was removed from the plastinated specimen, the wooden block served as a socket for the grip when sawing. The outer shape of the specimen remained visible. Doing so, the adequate cutting plane could be determined easily. PMID:22209028

  3. Carcinoma of the anal sac glands in ranch mink.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadlow, W J

    1985-05-01

    During a 14-year period, carcinoma of the anal sac apocrine glands was found in 52 pastel and 8 sapphire mink (Mustela vison) kept for studies on slow viral diseases. The pastel mink varied in age from 72 to 135 months (mean age 108 months), the sapphire mink from 63 to 100 months (mean age 81 months). All but one pastel mink were females. The primary tumor varied in size from masses that caused bulges in the perineum to those that were found only after microscopic examination of the anal sac glands. Although the primary tumor grew mainly by expansion with little local infiltration, 41 of the 60 tumors had metastasized to the regional lymph nodes and sometimes also to more distant sites. The striking propensity of the carcinoma to metastasize while still small, even microscopic, often resulted in massive secondary growths, notably in the iliac lymph nodes. Hypercalcemia did not accompany the carcinoma. Its varied microscopic appearance included solid, glandular, squamous cell, and spindle or round cell components. Combinations of them formed mixed or complex histologic patterns, no doubt largely attributable to neoplastic proliferation of myoepithelial cells and squamous metaplasia of the apocrine gland epithelium. Although its cause remains obscure, the carcinoma appeared to arise from small foci of hyperplastic apocrine glands, sometimes in relation to both anal sacs. The tumor is a common and distinctive expression of neoplasia in older ranch mink.

  4. 76 FR 49508 - ``Add Us In'' Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-10

    ... Federal Register on August 4, 2011 at 76 FR 150. Specifically, we are correcting the Funding Opportunity... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Office of Disability Employment Program ``Add Us In'' Initiative AGENCY: Office of Disability...

  5. Sac Angiography and Glue Embolization in Emergency Endovascular Aneurysm Repair for Ruptured Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koike, Yuya, E-mail: r06118@hotmail.co.jp; Nishimura, Jun-ichi, E-mail: jun-ichi-n@nifty.com; Hase, Soichiro, E-mail: haseman@hotmail.co.jp; Yamasaki, Motoshige, E-mail: genyamasaki@gmail.com [Kawasaki Saiwai Hospital, Department of Interventional Radiology (Japan)

    2015-04-15

    PurposeThe purpose of this study was to demonstrate a sac angiography technique and evaluate the feasibility of N-butyl cyanoacrylate (NBCA) embolization of the ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) sac in emergency endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) in hemodynamically unstable patients.MethodsA retrospective case series of three patients in whom sac angiography was performed during emergency EVAR for ruptured AAA was reviewed. After stent graft deployment, angiography within the sac of aneurysm (sac angiography) was performed by manually injecting 10 ml of contrast material through a catheter to identify the presence and site of active bleeding. In two patients, sac angiography revealed active extravasation of the contrast material, and NBCA embolization with a coaxial catheter system was performed to achieve prompt sealing.ResultsSac angiography was successful in all three patients. In the two patients who underwent NBCA embolization for aneurysm sac bleeding, follow-up computed tomography (CT) images demonstrated the accumulation of NBCA consistent with the bleeding site in preprocedural CT images.ConclusionsEVAR is associated with a potential risk of ongoing bleeding from type II or IV endoleaks into the disrupted aneurysm sac in patients with severe coagulopathy. Therefore, sac angiography and NBCA embolization during emergency EVAR may represent a possible technical improvement in the treatment of ruptured AAA in hemodynamically unstable patients.

  6. The Pearl Sac Formation in Male and Female Pinctada maxima Host Oysters Implanted With Allograft Saibo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    La Eddy

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to study the effect of male and female host oysters on the pearl sac formation in Pinctada maxima oyster. One hundred sixty oysters were used in a completely randomized design with 2 x 4 factorial arrangement and 20 replications. The 1st factor was that sex of host oyster consisted of two levels that is males and females. The 2nd factor was week after nucleus implantation with four levels that is 1, 2, 3, and 4 weeks. The parameters observed were the percentage of successful oysters to form the pearl sac, the speed of pearl sac formation, the percentage of nucleus coverage by the pearl sac, histology of the pearl sac growth and development, and haemolymph glucose, calcium and phosphorus concentrations. Our results showed that the percentages of host oysters that succeeded in forming a pearl sac were 80% and 75% in female and male host oysters, respectively. There was no statistical difference in nucleus rejection and mortality in male and female host oysters but the results indicated that male host oysters showed a numerically higher nucleus rejection. The speed of pearl sac growth and the percentage of nucleus coverage by the pearl sac in female host oysters were better than those in male host oysters. Haemolymph calcium, phosphorus and glucose concentrations, oxygen consumption, and histological development of the pearl sac were not different between male and female host oysters. Pearl sac formation in the female host oysters was better than that in male host oysters.

  7. Rhinosporidiosis of lacrimal sac: An interesting case of orbital swelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, Sandip Kanti; Bain, Jayanta; Maity, Kuntal; Chattopadhyay, Debarati; Baitalik, Debasis; Majumdar, Bijay Kumar; Gupta, Vivek; Kumar, Ashwini; Dalal, Bibhas Saha; Malik, Anu

    2016-01-01

    Rhinosporidiosis is a chronic localized granulomatous disease caused by Rhinosporidium seeberi, an aquatic protistan parasite belonging to a clade, Mesomycetozoea. Infestation of Rhinosporidiosis to the eye and adnexa is termed oculosporidiosis, in such cases, conjunctival mucosa is mostly involved; however in our case, it involved only the lacrimal sac and deeper periorbital tissue and presented as a case of orbital swelling. Surgical excision of the lesion was done, postoperatively dapsone therapy was given for 6 months, and the patient responded very well with no recurrence till date. PMID:27003980

  8. 跟我学“加”法——add…to,add to,add up,add up to辨析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余阳

    2009-01-01

    add…to,add to,add up和add up to都有"加"的意思,它们有什么区别吗?请看:1.add…to意思是"把……加到……上去"。如:Please add my name to your mailing list.请把我的名字加入你们的邮件名单中。

  9. Abscess in the inguinal hernial sac after peritonitis surgery: A case report

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Satoshi Ikeda; Haruka Takeda; Masanori Yoshimitsu; Takao Hinoi; Makoto Yoshida; Daisuke Sumitani; Yuji Takakura; Yasuo Kawaguchi; Manabu Shimomura; Masakazu Tokunaga; Katsufumi Kawahori; Hideki Ohdan; Masazumi Okajima

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we report an extremely rare case of an abscess that developed in the inguinal hernial sac after surgery for peritonitis. A 60-year-old man underwent laparoscopic low anterior resection for rectal cancer.One day after this operation, peritoneal drainage and ileostomy were performed for rectal anastomotic leakage. Five days after the second operation, computed tomography revealed an abscess in the left inguinal hernial sac. Subsequently, hernioplasty and resection of the inflamed sac were performed.

  10. Endolymphatic sac tumor with von Hippel-Lindau disease: report of a case with atypical pathology of endolymphatic sac tumor

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Xiang; Liu, Xue-Song; Fang, Yuan; Zhang, Xiu-Hui; Zhang, Yue-Kang

    2014-01-01

    The authors described a case of a patient with co-existing endolymphatic sac tumor (ELST) and hemangioblastoma in the posterior cranial fossa, which belonged to a subtype of Von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) disease confirmed by the test of VHL-gene. The signs in this 42-year-old female included intermittent headache and dizziness. Imaging revealed a giant mass in the right cerebellopontine angle (CPA) region and another lesion in the left cerebellar hemisphere. The results of biopsy after two operatio...

  11. Glucocorticoid and progesterone receptors in yolk sac placenta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbone, J P; Baldridge, R C; Magen, A B; Andrew, C L; Koszalka, T R; Brent, R L

    1986-01-01

    The parietal yolk sac (PYS) of the rat fetus at the 14th day of gestation contains glucocorticoid as well as progesterone receptors; both are present in the trophoblast cell layer. Following heat activation the receptors are capable of binding to deoxyribonucleic acid- (DNA-)cellulose. Glucocorticoid receptors, but not progesterone receptors, are also present in the visceral yolk sac (VYS) at the 14th day of gestation. Greater amounts (some 250 femtomoles/mg cytosol protein) of a glucocorticoid receptor are present in the VYS on the 17th day of gestation. The Kd is approximately 4 X 10(-9) M; following activation it also binds to DNA-cellulose. The elution pattern of the activated VYS receptor from diethylaminoethyl-(DEAE-)Sephadex, however, is similar to that found with kidney and colon rather than that of liver (i.e., it resembles corticosteroid binder IB rather than binder II) indicating a possible role in transport. Although the receptors are separate entities, progesterone competes as effectively as corticosterone for binding to the glucocorticoid receptors in both the PYS and and VYS, thus raising the question of the possible effect of changes in progesterone concentrations on the functioning of glucocorticoids during development.

  12. [Absorption of extractive Polygonum orientale in rat everted gut sacs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yue; Tang, Li; Cao, Xu; Zheng, Lin; Wang, Ai-Min; Huang, Yong

    2014-06-01

    Using in vitro everted gut to investigate the intestinal absorption of the extracts from Polygonum orientale at different concentration. UPLC-MS/MS was used to detect the content of protocatechuic acid, isoorientin, orientin, vitexin, cynaroside, quercitrin, kaempferol-rhamnoside in different intestinal segments, then compared the results with the absorption of chemical components of extractive P. orientale in each intestinal segments, and calculated the absorption parameter. We took the statistic analysis with SPSS statistic software. The influence significance of each factors were analyzed to describe the character of absorption. The absorption of each component is linearity in different intestinal segments and different dose, and the square of coeficient correlation exceed 0.95, which consistent with zero order rate process. The K(a) increase along with the raised dosage of the extractive P. orientale (R2 > 0.95), indicated it is the passive absorption; different intestinal segments have different absorption. And the absorption trend in intestinal is duodenum, jejunum, ileum are greater than the colon. As ingredients are selectively absorbed in intestinal sac, the everted intestinal sac method is selected to assess the intestinal absorption charcteristics of ingredients of extractive P. orientale. PMID:25272855

  13. SacY, a Transcriptional Antiterminator from Bacillus subtilis, Is Regulated by Phosphorylation In Vivo†

    OpenAIRE

    Idelson, Maria; Amster-Choder, Orna

    1998-01-01

    SacY antiterminates transcription of the sacB gene in Bacillus subtilis in response to the presence of sucrose in the growth medium. We have found that it can substitute for BglG, a homologous protein, in antiterminating transcription of the bgl operon in Escherichia coli. We therefore sought to determine whether, similarly to BglG, SacY is regulated by reversible phosphorylation in response to the availability of the inducing sugar. We show here that two forms of SacY, phosphorylated and non...

  14. Potentiodynamic polarization effect on phase and microstructure of SAC305 solder in hydrochloric acid solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaini, Nurwahida Binti Mohd; Nazeri, Muhammad Firdaus Bin Mohd

    2016-07-01

    The corrosion analysis of SAC305 lead free solder was investigated in Hydrochloric acid (HCl) solution. Potentiodynamic polarization was used to polarize the SAC305. The effect of polarization on the phase and microstructure were compared to as-prepared SAC305 solder. Potentiodynamic polarization introduces mixed corrosion products on the surface of SAC305 solder. The XRD analysis confirms that the mixed corrosion products emerged on the surface after polarization by formation of SnO and SnO2 of which confirmed that dissolution of Sn was dominant during polarization. Microstructure analysis reveal the presence of gap and porosities produced limits the protection offered by the passivation film.

  15. The PIKfyve–ArPIKfyve–Sac3 triad in human breast cancer: Functional link between elevated Sac3 phosphatase and enhanced proliferation of triple negative cell lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ikonomov, Ognian C., E-mail: oikonomo@med.wayne.edu; Filios, Catherine, E-mail: cfilios@med.wayne.edu; Sbrissa, Diego, E-mail: dsbrissa@med.wayne.edu; Chen, Xuequn, E-mail: xchen@med.wayne.edu; Shisheva, Assia, E-mail: ashishev@med.wayne.edu

    2013-10-18

    Highlights: •We assess PAS complex proteins and phosphoinositide levels in breast cancer cells. •Sac3 and ArPIKfyve are markedly elevated in triple-negative breast cancer cells. •Sac3 silencing inhibits proliferation in triple-negative breast cancer cell lines. •Phosphoinositide profiles are altered in breast cancer cells. •This is the first evidence linking high Sac3 with breast cancer cell proliferation. -- Abstract: The phosphoinositide 5-kinase PIKfyve and 5-phosphatase Sac3 are scaffolded by ArPIKfyve in the PIKfyve–ArPIKfyve–Sac3 (PAS) regulatory complex to trigger a unique loop of PtdIns3P–PtdIns(3,5)P{sub 2} synthesis and turnover. Whereas the metabolizing enzymes of the other 3-phosphoinositides have already been implicated in breast cancer, the role of the PAS proteins and the PtdIns3P–PtdIns(3,5)P{sub 2} conversion is unknown. To begin elucidating their roles, in this study we monitored the endogenous levels of the PAS complex proteins in cell lines derived from hormone-receptor positive (MCF7 and T47D) or triple-negative breast cancers (TNBC) (BT20, BT549 and MDA-MB-231) as well as in MCF10A cells derived from non-tumorigenic mastectomy. We report profound upregulation of Sac3 and ArPIKfyve in the triple negative vs. hormone-sensitive breast cancer or non-tumorigenic cells, with BT cell lines showing the highest levels. siRNA-mediated knockdown of Sac3, but not that of PIKfyve, significantly inhibited proliferation of BT20 and BT549 cells. In these cells, knockdown of ArPIKfyve had only a minor effect, consistent with a primary role for Sac3 in TNBC cell proliferation. Intriguingly, steady-state levels of PtdIns(3,5)P{sub 2} in BT20 and T47D cells were similar despite the 6-fold difference in Sac3 levels between these cell lines. However, steady-state levels of PtdIns3P and PtdIns5P, both regulated by the PAS complex, were significantly reduced in BT20 vs. T47D or MCF10A cell lines, consistent with elevated Sac3 affecting directly or

  16. Influence of developmental cervical stenosis on dural sac space

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tang Yanchao; Yu Miao; Liu Zhongjun; Sun Yu; Liu Xiaoguang

    2014-01-01

    Background This retrospective study aimed to investigate the difference of the intra-dural reserving space for spinal cord in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) between patients with and without developmental cervical stenosis and its clinical significance.Methods A total of 264 patients with cervical spondylotic myelopathy who had decompression surgeries were recruited.The average follow-up was 29 months.Based on their lateral radiographs,they were divided into stenosis group and non-stenosis group.On the magnetic resonance images,the ratio of the sagittal diameter of the dural sac to that of the vertebral body was measured and calculated as MRI Pavlov ratio at the mid-vertebral level on T2-weighted sagittal images from C3 to C7.The ratio of the transverse area of the spinal cord to that of the dural sac was measured and calculated as occupation ratio on T2-weighted axial images at the same levels.The MRI Pavlov ratio and occupation ratio were compared between the two groups.The stenosis group was further divided into space-reserving and non-space-reserving subgroups based on the occupation ratios; then clinical parameters were compared between the two subgroups to determine the clinical significance of the reserving space.Results The MRI Pavlov ratio of the stenosis group was significantly smaller than that of the non-stenosis group at C3-C7 (P <0.01),while the occupation ratio was significantly larger only at C7 (P <0.05).For the space-reserving subgroup,the postoperative recovery rate was lower (P <0.05).The postoperative recovery rate was (23±6)% in anterior approach,larger than (-23±15)% in posterior approach (P <0.05).Conclusions Developmental cervical stenosis is associated with a smaller sagittal diameter of the dural sac,but does not lead to a significant decrease in intra-dural space available for the cord.For patients with normal intra-dural space,the recovery after anterior decompression surgery was better than posterior approach.

  17. Conjunctival sac bacterial flora isolated prior to cataract surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suto C

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Chikako Suto1,2, Masahiro Morinaga1,2, Tomoko Yagi1,2, Chieko Tsuji3, Hiroshi Toshida41Department of Ophthalmology, Saiseikai Kurihashi Hospital, Saitama; 2Department of Ophthalmology, Tokyo Women's Medical University, Tokyo; 3Department of Clinical Laboratory, Saiseikai Kurihashi Hospital, Saitama; 4Department of Ophthalmology, Juntendo University Shizuoka Hospital, Izunokuni, Shizuoka, JapanObjective: To determine the trends of conjunctival sac bacterial flora isolated from patients prior to cataract surgery.Subjects and methods: The study comprised 579 patients (579 eyes who underwent cataract surgery. Specimens were collected by lightly rubbing the inferior palpebral conjunctival sac with a sterile cotton swab 2 weeks before surgery, and then cultured for isolation of bacteria and antimicrobial sensitivity testing. The bacterial isolates and percentage of drug-resistant isolates were compared among age groups and according to whether or not patients had diabetes mellitus, hyperlipidemia, dialysis therapy, oral steroid use, dry eye syndrome, or allergic conjunctivitis.Results: The bacterial isolation rate was 39.2%. There were 191 strains of Gram-positive cocci, accounting for the majority of all isolates (67.0%, among which methicillin-sensitive coagulase-negative staphylococci was the most frequent (127 strains, 44.5%, followed by methicillin-resistant coagulase-negative staphylococci (37 strains, 12.7%. All 76 Gram-positive bacillary isolates (26.7% were from the genus Corynebacterium. Among the 16 Gram-negative bacillary isolates (5.9%, the most frequent was Escherichia coli (1.0%. The bacterial isolation rate was higher in patients >60 years old, and was lower in patients with dry eye syndrome, patients under topical treatment for other ocular disorders, and patients with hyperlipidemia. There was no significant difference in bacterial isolation rate with respect to the presence/absence of diabetes mellitus, steroid therapy, dialysis, or

  18. Vienna SAC-SOS: Analysis of the European VLBI Sessions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ros, C. T.; Pavetich, P.; Nilsson, T.; Böhm, J.; Schuh, H.

    2012-12-01

    The Institute of Geodesy and Geophysics (IGG) of the Vienna University of Technology as an IVS Special Analysis Center for Specific Observing Sessions (SAC-SOS) has analyzed the European VLBI sessions using the software VieVS. Between 1990 and 2011, 115 sessions have been carried out. The analyzed baselines have lengths ranging from approximately 445 to 4580 km, and they show good repeatabilities, apart from the ones containing station Simeiz. The station velocities have also been investigated. The stations situated in the stable part of Europe have not shown significant relative movements w.r.t. Wettzell, whereas the stations located in the northern areas have the largest vertical motions as a result of the post glacial isostatic rebound of the zone. The stations placed in Italy, around the Black Sea, in Siberia, and near the Arctic Circle show the largest relative horizontal motions because they belong to different geodynamical units.

  19. How do Innovation Intermediaries add Value?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tran, Yen; Hsuan, Juliana; Mahnke, Volker

    2011-01-01

    Innovation intermediaries are increasingly being used in practice, but there is little concrete theoretical guidance on when and how they add value to client's new product development (NPD) processes. This paper develops propositions on innovation intermediaries value-added based on a detailed case...... study of an innovation intermediary's relations to three major clients in the European apparel fashion industry. We identify key contingencies to an innovation intermediary's value added (e.g. NDP speed and complexity of involvement). We also suggest a framework that specifies when a combination of four...... types of specific intermediary capabilities (best-cost capabilities, timing-capabilities, market-response capabilities, and product solution capabilities) increases value added in clients' NDP processes....

  20. Using Joint Interviews to Add Analytic Value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polak, Louisa; Green, Judith

    2016-10-01

    Joint interviewing has been frequently used in health research, and is the subject of a growing methodological literature. We review this literature, and build on it by drawing on a case study of how people make decisions about taking statins. This highlights two ways in which a dyadic approach to joint interviewing can add analytic value compared with individual interviewing. First, the analysis of interaction within joint interviews can help to explicate tacit knowledge and to illuminate the range of often hard-to-access resources that are drawn upon in making decisions. Second, joint interviews mitigate some of the weaknesses of interviewing as a method for studying practices; we offer a cautious defense of the often-tacit assumption that the "naturalness" of joint interviews strengthens their credibility as the basis for analytic inferences. We suggest that joint interviews are a particularly appropriate method for studying complex shared practices such as making health decisions. PMID:25850721

  1. Genetics of Serum Resistance in Neisseria gonorrhoeae: The sac-1 Genetic Locus

    OpenAIRE

    Cannon, Janne G.; Lee, Terrence J.; Guymon, Lawrence F.; Sparling, P. Frederick

    1981-01-01

    A genetic locus affecting susceptibility to the bactericidal activity of normal human serum has been designated sac-1. This locus was shown to be closely linked to, but not identical with, a second locus (designated nmp-2) that affects protein 1 of the outer membrane. The sac-1 locus could be linked to known antibiotic resistance markers on the gonococcal chromosome by genetic transformation.

  2. Involvement of Sac1 phosphoinositide phosphatase in the metabolism of phosphatidylserine in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tani, Motohiro; Kuge, Osamu

    2014-04-01

    Sac1 is a phosphoinositide phosphatase that preferentially dephosphorylates phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate. Mutation of SAC1 causes not only the accumulation of phosphoinositides but also reduction of the phosphatidylserine (PS) level in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In this study, we characterized the mechanism underlying the PS reduction in SAC1-deleted cells. Incorporation of (32) P into PS was significantly delayed in sac1∆ cells. Such a delay was also observed in SAC1- and PS decarboxylase gene-deleted cells, suggesting that the reduction in the PS level is caused by a reduction in the rate of biosynthesis of PS. A reduction in the PS level was also observed with repression of STT4 encoding phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase or deletion of VPS34 encoding phophatidylinositol 3-kinase. However, the combination of mutations of SAC1 and STT4 or VPS34 did not restore the reduced PS level, suggesting that both the synthesis and degradation of phosphoinositides are important for maintenance of the PS level. Finally, we observed an abnormal PS distribution in sac1∆ cells when a specific probe for PS was expressed. Collectively, these results suggested that Sac1 is involved in the maintenance of a normal rate of biosynthesis and distribution of PS.

  3. Diagnostic imaging features of normal anal sacs in dogs and cats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Yechan; Jeong, Eunseok; Park, Sangjun; Jeong, Jimo; Choi, Ul Soo; Kim, Min-Su; Kim, Namsoo

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to provide normal reference features for canine and feline anal sacs using ultrasound, low-field magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and radiograph contrast as diagnostic imaging tools. A total of ten clinically normal beagle dogs and eight clinically normally cats were included. General radiography with contrast, ultrasonography and low-field MRI scans were performed. The visualization of anal sacs, which are located at distinct sites in dogs and cats, is possible with a contrast study on radiography. Most surfaces of the anal sacs tissue, occasionally appearing as a hyperechoic thin line, were surrounded by the hypoechoic external sphincter muscle on ultrasonography. The normal anal sac contents of dogs and cats had variable echogenicity. Signals of anal sac contents on low-field MRI varied in cats and dogs, and contrast medium using T1-weighted images enhanced the anal sac walls more obviously than that on ultrasonography. In conclusion, this study provides the normal features of anal sacs from dogs and cats on diagnostic imaging. Further studies including anal sac evaluation are expected to investigate disease conditions. PMID:26645338

  4. Basement membrane components secreted by mouse yolk sac carcinoma cell lines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damjanov, A; Wewer, U M; Tuma, B;

    1990-01-01

    Three new cell lines (NE, ME, LRD) were cloned from mouse-embryo-derived teratocarcinomas and characterized on the basis of developmental, ultrastructural, and cytochemical criteria as nullipotent embryonal carcinoma (EC), pure parietal yolk sac (PYS) carcinoma and mixed parieto-visceral yolk sac...

  5. Infestation of the lacrimal sac by Rhinosporidium seeberi: A clinicopathological case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bipasha Mukherjee

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Rhinosporidium seeberi , till recently known as a fungus, has been reclassified as a protistan parasite. It infects humans and many animal species. The authors describe a rare case of oculosporidiosis with involvement of the lacrimal sac exhibiting features of idiopathic orbital inflammatory disease in a young male patient. Clinical features, pathophysiology, and management of lacrimal sac rhinosporidiosis have been discussed.

  6. ZBTB16: a novel sensitive and specific biomarker for yolk sac tumor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Guang-Qian; Li, Faqian; Unger, Pamela D; Katerji, Hani; Yang, Qi; McMahon, Loralee; Burstein, David E

    2016-06-01

    Although the function of zinc finger and BTB domain containing 16 (ZBTB16) in spermatogenesis is well documented, expression of ZBTB16 in germ cell tumors has not yet been studied. The aim of this study was to investigate the immunohistochemical expression and diagnostic utility of ZBTB16 in germ cell tumors. A total of 67 adult germ cell tumors were studied (62 testicular germ cell tumors, 2 ovarian yolk sac tumors, 1 mediastinal yolk sac tumor, and 2 retroperitoneal metastatic yolk sac tumors). The 62 testicular primary germ cell tumors are as follows: 34 pure germ cell tumors (20 seminomas, 8 embryonal carcinomas, 2 teratomas, 1 choriocarcinoma, 1 carcinoid, and 2 spermatocytic tumors) and 28 mixed germ cell tumors (composed of 13 embryonal carcinomas, 15 yolk sac tumors, 15 teratomas, 7 seminomas, and 3 choriocarcinomas in various combinations). Thirty-five cases contained germ cell neoplasia in situ. Yolk sac tumor was consistently reactive for ZBTB16. Among the 15 testicular yolk sac tumors in mixed germ cell tumors, all displayed moderate to diffuse ZBTB16 staining. ZBTB16 reactivity was present regardless of the histologic patterns of yolk sac tumor and ZBTB16 was able to pick up small foci of yolk sac tumor intermixed/embedded in other germ cell tumor subtype elements. Diffuse ZBTB16 immunoreactivity was also observed in 2/2 metastatic yolk sac tumors, 1/1 mediastinal yolk sac tumor, 2/2 ovarian yolk sac tumors, 2/2 spermatocytic tumors, 1/1 carcinoid, and the spermatogonial cells. All the other non-yolk sac germ cell tumors were nonreactive, including seminoma (n=27), embryonal carcinoma (n=21), teratoma (n=17), choriocarcinoma (n=4), and germ cell neoplasia in situ (n=35). The sensitivity and specificity of ZBTB16 in detecting yolk sac tumor among the germ cell tumors was 100% (20/20) and 96% (66/69), respectively. In conclusion, ZBTB16 is a highly sensitive and specific marker for yolk sac tumor. PMID:26916077

  7. Laminin, a noncollagenous component of epithelial basement membranes synthesized by a rat yolk sac tumor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wewer, U; Albrechtsen, R; Ruoslahti, E

    1981-01-01

    Laminin, a glycoprotein antigenically similar or identical to a component of epithelial basement membranes, was identified as a major component of the abundant extracellular matrix synthesized by an experimentally induced rat yolk sac tumor. Immunocytochemical staining revealed laminin in cultured...... polypeptides with molecular weights of approximately 200,000 and 400,000. These comigrated with the polypeptides of mouse laminin isolated previously. The yolk sac tumor tissue grown in vivo contained laminin in the tumor cells and in the extracellular material as evidenced by immunofluorescence and...... membranes in rat tissues in a manner indistinguishable from antilaminin. The presence of laminin in rat yolk sac cells, the presumed origin of our yolk sac tumor, was studied in some detail. Laminin was found to be present in normal cells of the visceral as well as the parietal yolk sac layer and in their...

  8. Support to Aviation Control Service (SACS: an online service for near real-time satellite monitoring of volcanic plumes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Brenot

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Volcanic eruptions emit plumes of ash and gases in the atmosphere, potentially at very high altitudes. Ash rich plumes are hazardous for airplanes as ash is very abrasive and easily melts inside their engines. With more than 50 active volcanoes per year and the ever increasing number of commercial flights, the safety of airplanes is a real concern. Satellite measurements are ideal for monitoring global volcanic activity and, in combination with atmospheric dispersion models, to track and forecast volcanic plumes. Here we present the Support to Aviation Control Service (SACS, http://sacs.aeronomie.be, which is a free online service initiated by ESA for the near real-time (NRT satellite monitoring of volcanic plumes of SO2 and ash. It combines data from two UV-visible (OMI, GOME-2 and two infrared (AIRS, IASI spectrometers. This new multi-sensor warning system of volcanic plumes, running since April 2012, is based on the detection of SO2 and is optimised to avoid false alerts while at the same time limiting the number of notifications in case of large plumes. The system shows successful results with 95% of our notifications corresponding to true volcanic activity.

  9. Molecular detection and in vitro antioxidant activity of S-allyl-L-cysteine (SAC) extracted from Allium sativum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Y-E; Wang, W-D

    2016-01-01

    It is well known that Allium sativum has potential applications to clinical treatment of various cancers due to its remarkable ability in eliminating free radicals and increasing metabolism. An allyl-substituted cysteine derivative - S-allyl-L-cysteine (SAC) was separated and identified from Allium sativum. The extracted SAC was reacted with 1-pyrenemethanol to obtain pyrene-labelled SAC (Py-SAC) to give SAC fluorescence properties. Molecular detection of Py-SAC was conducted by steady-state fluorescence spectroscopy and time-resolved fluorescence method to quantitatively measure concentrations of Py-SAC solutions. The ability of removing 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and hydroxyl radical using Py-SAC was determined through oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC). Results showed the activity of Py-SAC and Vitamin C (VC) with ORAC as index, the concentrations of Py-SAC and VC were 58.43 mg/L and 5.72 mg/L respectively to scavenge DPPH, and 8.16 mg/L and 1.67 mg/L to scavenge •OH respectively. Compared with VC, the clearance rates of Py-SAC to scavenge DPPH were much higher, Py-SAC could inhibit hydroxyl radical. The ability of removing radical showed a dose-dependent relationship within the scope of the drug concentration. PMID:27453278

  10. Invagination of the hernial sac stump. Technique for repair of inguinal hernia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafik, A

    1980-09-01

    A technique for repair of indirect inguinal hernia is presented. The hernial sac stump is invaginated in an attempt to secure high ligation of the sac and obliterate any residual peritoneal diverticulum. Four hundred forty-two patients were operated on. The technique consists essentially of division of the internal spermatic fascial tube at the neck as well as embedding of the sac stump by purse-string sutures in a narrow neck of Lembert sutures in a wide neck. The defect in the fascia transversalis is closed over the stump. Three hundred eighty-one patients were followed up 2 to 15 years, with a recurrence rate of 1.6 percent. The concept that in indirect hernia the problem involves the sac rather than the defect is put forward. Recurrence results essentially from the existence of a handmade sac rather than an improperly repaired defect. The role of invagination of the sac in securing complete excision of the sac and proper closure of the defect is discussed. In initiating recurrence, the part played by the redundant peritoneum deep to the internal ring is emphasized. Changes in the dynamics of intraabdominal tension induced by stump embedding are explained.

  11. XPS of oxygen atoms on Ag(111) and Ag(110) surfaces: accurate study with SAC/SAC-CI combined with dipped adcluster model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, Atsushi; Nakatsuji, Hiroshi

    2013-08-01

    O1s core-electron binding energies (CEBE) of the atomic oxygens on different Ag surfaces were investigated by the symmetry adapted cluster-configuration interaction (SAC-CI) method combined with the dipped adcluster model, in which the electron exchange between bulk metal and adsorbate is taken into account properly. Electrophilic and nucleophilic oxygens (O(elec) and O(nuc)) that might be important for olefin epoxidation in a low-oxygen coverage condition were focused here. We consider the O1s CEBE as a key property to distinguish the surface oxygen states, and series of calculation was carried out by the Hartree-Fock, Density functional theory, and SAC/SAC-CI methods. The experimental information and our SAC/SAC-CI results indicate that O(elec) is the atomic oxygen adsorbed on the fcc site of Ag(111) and that O(nuc) is the one on the reconstructed added-row site of Ag(110) and that one- and two-electron transfers occur, respectively, to the O(elec) and O(nuc) adclusters from the silver surface.

  12. Endolymphatic sac tumor: case report and review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun Yan-Hua

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Endolymphatic sac tumor (ELST is a rare neoplasm which can be encountered sporadically or in Von Hippel-Lindau (VHL disease. Here we report a sporadic case of ELST in 31-year-old man. Neither the symptoms nor a family history of VHL disease were found in the patient. CT imaging demonstrated an expansile lytic lesion of the mastoid process of the left petrous bone. MR scanning revealed a 5.2 cm × 4.7 cm × 4.2 cm mass which showed hyperintensity on T1- and T2-weighted images. Histologic sections showed a papillary, cystic or glandular architecture. The papillary and glandular structures were lined by a single layer of flattened cuboidal-to-columnar cells. The stroma of the papillary fronds was richly vascularized and chronically inflamed. The tumor showed diffusely positive reactivity with cytokeratin (Pan, cytokeratin 19, cytokeratin 5/6, cytokeratin 7, EMA, vimentin, CD56, and NSE and also showed variable reactivity with glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP and VEGF. The Ki-67 immunostain showed a proliferation index of Virtual Slides The virtual slide(s for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/7973320646763012

  13. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart Rrrr of... - Operating Limits if Using the Emission Rate With Add-on Controls Option

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., as established in Method 204 of appendix M to 40 CFR part 51 i. collecting the direction of air flow... Rate With Add-on Controls Option 1 Table 1 to Subpart RRRR of Part 63 Protection of Environment... Limits if Using the Emission Rate With Add-on Controls Option If you are required to comply...

  14. Endolymphatic sac tumor with von Hippel-Lindau disease: report of a case with atypical pathology of endolymphatic sac tumor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiang; Liu, Xue-Song; Fang, Yuan; Zhang, Xiu-Hui; Zhang, Yue-Kang

    2014-01-01

    The authors described a case of a patient with co-existing endolymphatic sac tumor (ELST) and hemangioblastoma in the posterior cranial fossa, which belonged to a subtype of Von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) disease confirmed by the test of VHL-gene. The signs in this 42-year-old female included intermittent headache and dizziness. Imaging revealed a giant mass in the right cerebellopontine angle (CPA) region and another lesion in the left cerebellar hemisphere. The results of biopsy after two operations confirmed the diagnosis respectively. Both of the tumors were resected totally. Nevertheless, we had to confess the misdiagnosis as vascular tumor instead of ELST at the initial diagnosis because of the rarity of ELST associated with atypical histological characteristics. The purposes we reported this case were to describe the atypical pathological feature of ELST and the mutation of germline VHL not mentioned in previously literature, furthermore, to foster understanding of ELSTs with the avoidance of the similar misdiagnosis as far as possible in future. PMID:24966975

  15. Primary yolk sac tumor of seminal vesicle: a case report and literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao Xu-Dong

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Yolk sac tumor (endodermal sinus tumor is a rare malignant germ cell tumor arising in the testis or ovary. Extragonadal yolk sac tumor is even rarer and has only been described in case reports. Due to the rarity of the tumors, the appropriately optimal treatment remains unclear. We report a case of yolk sac tumor in the seminal vesicle. Case A 38-year-old Asian male presented with gross hematuria and hemospermia. Transrectal ultrasound scan showed a solid mass in the left seminal vesicle and the scrotal sonography showed no abnormalities. Bilateral seminal vesicles were resected, and histopathological examination showed a typical pattern of yolk sac tumor (YST. The patient responded poorly to comprehensive treatment of radiotherapy, chemotherapy and surgeries, developed systemic multiple metastases, and died of cachexia one and half years after diagnosis.

  16. Gene expression demonstrates an immunological capacity of the human endolymphatic sac

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Martin Nue; Kirkeby, Svend; Vikeså, Jonas;

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS: The purpose of the present study is to explore, demonstrate, and describe the expression of genes related to the innate immune system in the human endolymphatic sac. It is hypothesized that the endolymphatic sac has a significant immunological function in the human inner ear....... STUDY DESIGN: DNA microarrays and immunohistochemistry were used for analyses of fresh human endolymphatic-sac tissue samples. METHODS: Twelve tissue samples from the human endolymphatic sac were obtained during translabyrinthine surgery for vestibular schwannoma. Microarray technology was used...... to investigate tissue sample gene expression using adjacent dura mater as control. The expression of genes specific for the innate immune system was determined and results for selected key molecules verified by immunohistochemistry. RESULTS: A comprehensive overview of expressed genes of the innate immune system...

  17. Immature teratoma with microscopic yolk sac tumor: A case of diagnostic challenge on histology

    OpenAIRE

    Sonali R Saraf; Madhu Chaturvedi; Manisha Khare; Alka Kalgutkar

    2016-01-01

    An adolescent girl with raised alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) levels presented with a left-sided large solid ovarian mass. Microscopically, the tumor was composed of a variety of immature and mature tissues derived from the three germ layers having very sparse (single focus of) immature neuroepithelium. Few areas also showed the presence of a reticular pattern of yolk sac tumor (YST). Hence, the tumor was diagnosed as immature teratoma with microscopic foci of yolk sac elements. After 6 months of ci...

  18. SAC-OCDM/TDM system for upgrading the TDM PON

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    He Chen; Shilin Xiao; Lilin Yi; Yi Dong; Weisheng Hu

    2011-01-01

    A spectral amplitude coded-optical code division multiplexing time division multiplexing (SAC-OCDM/TDM) passive optical network (PON) for upgrading the traditional TDM PON is proposed. To the best of our knowledge, our work is the first to report on the use of both spectral and orthogonal code domains, which are transparent to optical network unit (ONU) for hybrid PON, in order to upgrade TDM PON seamlessly. The fewer encoder/decoders and cheaper optical source under the conditions of high bite rate and large ONU accommodation make the system cost-effective. A downstream experiment is demonstrated, and the results demonstrate that the proposed system is feasible.%A spectral amplitude coded-optical code division multiplexing time division multiplexing (SACOCDM/TDM) passive optical network (PON) for upgrading the traditional TDM PON is proposed.To the best of our knowledge,our work is the first to report on the use of both spectral and orthogonal code domains,which are transparent to optical network unit (ONU) for hybrid PON,in order to upgrade TDM PON seamlessly.The fewer encoder/decoders and cheaper optical source under the conditions of high bite rate and large ONU accommodation make the system cost-effective.A downstream experiment is demonstrated,and the results demonstrate that the proposed system is feasible.The time division multiplexing (TDM) technique is used in the Ethernet passive optical network (EPON) and Gigabit passive optical network (GPON),which is currently used commercially and performs optimally.Nextgeneration broadband access networks are a new topic.Therefore,whether there is a need to upgrade directly the bit rates,of EPON and GPON or to introduce new techniques in passive optical network (PON) remains to be elucidated.

  19. Sac1--Vps74 structure reveals a mechanism to terminate phosphoinositide signaling in the Golgi apparatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cai, Yiying; Deng, Yongqiang; Horenkamp, Florian; Reinisch, Karin M.; Burd, Christopher G. [Yale-MED

    2014-08-25

    Sac1 is a phosphoinositide phosphatase of the endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi apparatus that controls organelle membrane composition principally via regulation of phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate signaling. We present a characterization of the structure of the N-terminal portion of yeast Sac1, containing the conserved Sac1 homology domain, in complex with Vps74, a phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase effector and the orthologue of human GOLPH3. The interface involves the N-terminal subdomain of the Sac1 homology domain, within which mutations in the related Sac3/Fig4 phosphatase have been linked to Charcot–Marie–Tooth disorder CMT4J and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Disruption of the Sac1–Vps74 interface results in a broader distribution of phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate within the Golgi apparatus and failure to maintain residence of a medial Golgi mannosyltransferase. The analysis prompts a revision of the membrane-docking mechanism for GOLPH3 family proteins and reveals how an effector of phosphoinositide signaling serves a dual function in signal termination.

  20. Discovering Focus: Helping Students with ADD (Attention Deficit Disorder)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valkenburg, Jim

    2012-01-01

    Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD) is a neurological disorder which effects learning and that has a confusing set of diagnostic symptoms and an even more confusing set of remedies ranging from medication to meditation to nothing at all. Current neurological research suggests, however, that there are strategies that the individual with ADD can use to…

  1. Established and potential physiological roles of bicarbonate-sensing soluble adenylyl cyclase (sAC) in aquatic animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tresguerres, Martin; Barott, Katie L; Barron, Megan E; Roa, Jinae N

    2014-03-01

    Soluble adenylyl cyclase (sAC) is a recently recognized source of the signaling molecule cyclic AMP (cAMP) that is genetically and biochemically distinct from the classic G-protein-regulated transmembrane adenylyl cyclases (tmACs). Mammalian sAC is distributed throughout the cytoplasm and it may be present in the nucleus and inside mitochondria. sAC activity is directly stimulated by HCO3(-), and sAC has been confirmed to be a HCO3(-) sensor in a variety of mammalian cell types. In addition, sAC can functionally associate with carbonic anhydrases to act as a de facto sensor of pH and CO2. The two catalytic domains of sAC are related to HCO3(-)-regulated adenylyl cyclases from cyanobacteria, suggesting the cAMP pathway is an evolutionarily conserved mechanism for sensing CO2 levels and/or acid/base conditions. Reports of sAC in aquatic animals are still limited but are rapidly accumulating. In shark gills, sAC senses blood alkalosis and triggers compensatory H(+) absorption. In the intestine of bony fishes, sAC modulates NaCl and water absorption. And in sea urchin sperm, sAC may participate in the initiation of flagellar movement and in the acrosome reaction. Bioinformatics and RT-PCR results reveal that sAC orthologs are present in most animal phyla. This review summarizes the current knowledge on the physiological roles of sAC in aquatic animals and suggests additional functions in which sAC may be involved. PMID:24574382

  2. Saccharinato complexes of Ce(V) with 2-hydroxypyridine: Synthesis, spectroscopic and thermal characteristics of [Ce(sac) 2(SO 4)(H 2O) 4] and [Ce(sac) 2(SO 4)(PyOH) 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaballa, Akmal S.; Teleb, Said M.; Müller, Thomas

    2008-10-01

    The synthesis of Ce(IV) complexes [Ce(sac) 2(SO 4)(H 2O) 4] ( 1) and [Ce(sac) 2 (SO 4)(PyOH) 2] ( 2) (sac = saccharinate, PyOH = 2-hydroxypyridine) starting with sodium saccharinate is described. Their vibrational and nuclear magnetic resonance ( 1H, 13C) spectra as well as their thermal mode of degradation were investigated. The data indicate that sac in complex 1 behaves as a monodentate ligand through the nitrogen atoms. Saccharinato ligand in complex 2 shows different mode of coordination, where it behaves as tridentate and binds Ce(IV) through its carbonylic oxygen, nitrogen and sulphonylic oxygen atoms. The most probable structure in complex 2 is that, units of [Ce(sac) 2(SO 4)(PyOH) 2] are linked by bridges of the O- of sac sulphonyl leading to polymeric chains.

  3. SAC-Ⅲ短臂离心机的研制与应用研究%Development and Application of SAC-Ⅲ Human Short-arm Centrifuge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张毅; 杨长斌; 高原; 张舒; 刘新宇; 王永春; 孙喜庆

    2012-01-01

    Objective To develop a new type of human short-arm centrifuge( SAC-Ⅲ ) and observe its application. Methods SAC-Ⅲ consisted of electric power system, operating and controlling system, audio and video monitoring system, tread wheel resistance training and work measuring system, electric brake system, short arm and supporting construction, etc. Driven by electric power, the short arm moved around the axis and artificial gravity was produced. Sixteen healthy male subjects were exposed to artificial gravity induced by SAC-Ⅲ and heart rate ( HR) , respiratory rate ( RR) were monitored with a wireless physiological signal recording device. Results As compared with those of baseline, Both HR and RR increased when subjects were exposed to 1 G, increased significantly when exposed to 2 G (P<0.05), and further increased when exposed to 3 G (P <0. 01). Conclusion The changes of HR and RR when exposed to artificial gravity shows that SAC-Ⅲhuman centrifuge combined exercise can be used for anti-G physiological training or as a promising countermeasure a-gainst the influcence of microgravity.%目的 研制一种新型短臂离心机(SAC-Ⅲ)并观察其应用效果.方法 SAC-Ⅲ型短臂离心机由电源、操作控制系统、声像监控系统、脚踏阻力锻炼及做功计量系统、电控静音刹车系统、工作转臂及支承结构等部件组成.通过电源系统,使工作转臂绕支撑装置作圆周运动,产生人工重力.选取16名男性志愿者,在SAC-Ⅲ型短臂离心机上人工重力暴露,分析在1G,2G和3G作用下心率和呼吸等生理参数的变化.结果 利用SAC-Ⅲ型短臂离心机,与基础值相比,心率和呼吸率1G暴露时呈增加趋势,2G暴露时显著增加(P<0.05),3G暴露时进一步增加(P<0.01).结论 在SAC-Ⅲ型短臂离心机暴露时,心率和呼吸率的变化表明其能有效模拟人工重力作用,可作为飞行人员抗荷生理训练设备或航天员对抗失重生理影响的有力措施.

  4. Direct Effects of Microalgae and Protists on Herring (Clupea harengus Yolk Sac Larvae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Björn Illing

    Full Text Available This study investigated effects of microalgae (Rhodomonas baltica and heterotrophic protists (Oxyrrhis marina on the daily growth, activity, condition and feeding success of Atlantic herring (Clupea harengus larvae from hatch, through the end of the endogenous (yolk sac period. Yolk sac larvae were reared in the presence and absence of microplankton and, each day, groups of larvae were provided access to copepods. Larvae reared with microalgae and protists exhibited precocious (2 days earlier and ≥ 60% increased feeding incidence on copepods compared to larvae reared in only seawater (SW. In the absence and presence of microalgae and protists, life span and growth trajectories of yolk sac larvae were similar and digestive enzyme activity (trypsin and nutritional condition (RNA-DNA ratio markedly declined in all larvae directly after yolk sac depletion. Thus, microplankton promoted early feeding but was not sufficient to alter life span and growth during the yolk sac phase. Given the importance of early feeding, field programs should place greater emphasis on the protozooplankton-ichthyoplankton link to better understand match-mismatch dynamics and bottom-up drivers of year class success in marine fish.

  5. In Vivo and Cadaver Studies of the Canalicular/Lacrimal Sac Mucosal Folds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongsheng You

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The study aimed to investigate canalicular/lacrimal sac mucosal folds (CLS-MFs in vivo and in cadavers in order to explore their functional roles in the lacrimal drainage system. Method. The observations of CLS-MFs in vivo were performed on 16 patients with chronic dacryocystitis after undergoing an endonasal endoscopic dacryocystorhinostomy (EE-DCR. The lacrimal sacs and common canaliculi of 19 adult cadavers were dissected. The opening/closing of an orifice and mucosal fold was recorded. All of the specimens were subjected to a histological examination. Results. The upper and lower lacrimal canaliculi in all of the samples united to form a common canaliculus that opened to the lacrimal sac. CLS-MFs were observed in 10 of the 16 patients (62.5% and 9 of the 19 cadavers (47.4%. The orifices or mucosal folds could be opened or closed when related muscles contracted or relaxed. Histological sections showed a mucosal fold at one side of an orifice. Conclusion. Common canaliculus is the most common type that the canaliculus opens to lacrimal sac. CLS-MFs exist in a certain ratio that can be opened/closed with the movement of the orifices. They may be involved in the drainage of tears or the pathogenesis of acute dacryocystitis or lacrimal sac mucocele.

  6. Sac-0601 prevents retinal vascular leakage in a mouse model of diabetic retinopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maharjan, Sony; Lee, Sujin; Agrawal, Vijayendra; Choi, Hyun-Jung; Maeng, Yong-Sun; Kim, Kyeojin; Kim, Nam-Jung; Suh, Young-Ger; Kwon, Young-Guen

    2011-04-25

    Endothelium integrity is important for the normal functioning of vessels, the disruption of which can lead to disease. The blood-retinal barrier required for normal retinal function is compromised in diabetic retinopathy, causing retinal vascular leakage. Previously, we demonstrated the ability of Sac-0601[((2R,3S)-3-acetoxy-6-((3S,10R,13R,17R)-10,13-dimethyl-17-((R)-6-methylheptan-2-yl)-2,3,4,7,8,9,10,11,12,13,14,15,16,17-tetradecahydro-1H-cyclopenta[a]phenanthren-3-yloxy)-3,6-dihydro-2H-pyran-2-yl)methyl acetate], a pseudo-sugar derivative of cholesterol, to increase survival of retinal endothelial cells. In the present study, we evaluated the ability of Sac-0601 to prevent retinal vascular leakages in vitro and in vivo. Sac-0601 treatment blocked VEGF-induced formation of actin stress fibers and stabilized the cortical actin ring in retinal endothelial cells. It also inhibited degradation of occludin, an important tight junction protein, and blocked VEGF-induced disruption of its linear pattern at the cell border. The [(14)C] sucrose permeability assay demonstrated that Sac-0601 was able to prevent VEGF-induced retinal endothelial permeability. The compound inhibited the vascular leakage in retina of mice intravitreally injected with VEGF. And it also significantly reduced the leakage in retina of diabetic retinopathy mice model. Taken together, our findings suggest the potential therapeutic usefulness of Sac-0601 for retinal vascular permeability diseases.

  7. Developmental expression of otoconin-22 in the bullfrog endolymphatic sac and inner ear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaoi, Yuichi; Onda, Tomoaki; Hidaka, Yoshie; Yajima, Shinya; Suzuki, Masakazu; Tanaka, Shigeyasu

    2004-05-01

    In amphibians, calcium carbonate crystals are present in the endolymphatic sac and the inner ear. The formation of these crystals is considered to be facilitated by a protein called otoconin-22. We examined the spatial and temporal expression of otoconin-22 during the development of the bullfrog (Rana catesbeiana) using RT-PCR, in situ hybridization (ISH), and immunofluorescence techniques. By RT-PCR, otoconin-22 mRNA was first detected in embryos at Shumway stage 20, and this expression pattern continues in late stages. The first otoconin-22 mRNA-positive reaction was detected in stage 22 embryos in the placode of the endolymphatic sac. Otoconin-22 protein was observed in the epithelial cells of the endolymphatic sac at stage 24. On the other hand, a whole-mount ISH technique showed the first expression of otoconin-22 mRNA in the inner ear, in addition to the endolymphatic sac, at the mid-phase of Shumway stage 25. We discuss the role of otoconin-22 in the formation of calcium carbonate crystals in the endolymphatic sac and inner ear. PMID:15100243

  8. Failure of zinc to prevent dysmorphogenesis of cultured rat conceptuses by anti-yolk sac antiserum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marlow, R.; Freeman, S.J.

    1989-01-01

    Day 10 rat conceptuses were cultured for 48h in the presence of either cadmium or anti-vesceral yolk sac antiserum (AVYS). Cadmium was embryotoxic at concentrations exceeding 0.25 ug/ml while AVYS caused embryonic dysmorphogenesis, particularly affecting the optic vesicles, at concentrations of 2 ul/ml and above. The effect of pretreatment with zinc on embryotoxicity caused by cadmium or AVYS was studied. Zinc ameliorated the effects of cadmium but had no effect on AVYS-induced embryonic abnormalities. In a second set of experiments inhibition of /sup 125/I-labelled PVP uptake by the yolk sac of cultured whole conceptuses was studied. Cadmium and AVYS both inhibited uptake compared to control cultures. Zinc again ameliorated the effect of cadmium but had no action against AVYS-induced inhibition. These results are in contrast to their previous findings using isolated cultured yolk sacs in which zinc ameliorated the inhibitory effects on /sup 125/I-labelled PVP uptake of both cadmium and AVYS. These data show that in experiments using the isolated cultured yolk sac and the intact cultured conceptus, a qualitatively different response in yolk sac behavior is observed under similar experimental conditions.

  9. The association of patent sac branch vessels with type 2 endoleak of abdominal aortic aneurysm after endovascular exclusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To determine the association of patent sac branch vessels with early type 2 endoleak rate after endovascular exclusion (EVE). Methods: 8 abdominal aortic aneurysm patients in the presence of type 2 endoleak after EVE were retrospectively reviewed. Results: All the patients with type 2 endoleak had multiple sac branch vessels preoperatively. Conclusions: Patent sac branches play an important role in the pathogenesis of type 2 endoleak. If the excluded sac is increasing in size rapidly, the patent branches must be embolized promptly to avoid aneurysm rupture

  10. Established and potential physiological roles of bicarbonate-sensing soluble adenylyl cyclase (sAC) in aquatic animals

    OpenAIRE

    Tresguerres, M.; Barott, KL; Barron, ME; Roa, JN

    2014-01-01

    Soluble adenylyl cyclase (sAC) is a recently recognized source of the signaling molecule cyclic AMP (cAMP) that is genetically and biochemically distinct from the classic G-protein-regulated transmembrane adenylyl cyclases (tmACs). Mammalian sAC is distributed throughout the cytoplasm and it may be present in the nucleus and inside mitochondria. sAC activity is directly stimulated by HCO3 -, and sAC has been confirmed to be a HCO3 - sensor in a variety of mammalian cell types. In addition, sA...

  11. Top 5 Ways to Help Students with ADD/ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Kathy

    2011-01-01

    This article suggests five ways to help students with ADD/ADHD. These are: (1) Integrate the primitive reflexes; (2) Diet; (3) Visual attention; (4) Help for auditory attention; and (5) Cognitive training.

  12. Shrouding add-on information: an experimental study

    OpenAIRE

    Wenzel, Tobias; Normann, Hans-Theo

    2015-01-01

    We explore how competition affects firms obfuscation strategies in laboratory experiments. Firms sell a base good and an add-on product. The price of the add-on may be shrouded and, if so, myopic consumers pay too much. Shrouding is an equilibrium but an unshrouding equilibrium coexists. In our experiments, competition matters in that only duopolistic markets are frequently shrouded whereas fourfirm markets are not. With repeated interaction, shrouding rates do not increase. However, the oppo...

  13. Effects of extra nitrogenous fertilizer on sugar accumulation in juice sacs of satsuma mandarin fruit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    urea was applied at the root of Citrus unshiu on the 27th of June and the 5th of september (once 0.5 kg urea/fruit tree). Sugar accumulation, contents of ABA and IAA, content of organic acid, distribution of 14C-photosynthates from source leaf in fruit and the activities of sucrose-metabolizing enzymes were investigated in juice sacs of treatment and control satsuma mandarin fruits respectively. The results showed that the treatment of urea reduced partitioning of 14C-photosynthates into juice sacs of satsuma mandarin fruit, decreased the ratio of ABA/IAA, increased the activities of sucrose metabolizing enzymes (especially the activities of enzymes on sucrose cleavage). These factors may finally result in reducing the content of sugar in juice sacs of satsuma mandarin fruit

  14. Documented bites by a yellow sac spider (Cheiracanthium punctorium in Italy: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Papini

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In Italy reports of human envenomations by yellow sac spiders have been sporadic. Since increasing clinical information would improve understanding of the danger of yellow sac spiders to humans, we report the case of a 7-year-old child and her father bitten by a documented Cheiracanthium punctorium. They developed acute persistent pain with local skin signs and numbness, and required emergency treatment. The father recovered completely within 1 to 2 hours and the child within 3 to 4 days after treatment, probably as a result of spontaneous evolution. Clinicians should be aware of the risks and immediate management of spider bites.

  15. Effects of Technological Parameters on the Mechanical Performances of SAC-cementitious Materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    A new type of SAC-cementitious material was manufactured by taking sulphoaluminate cement(SAC) as the basic material, polyvinyl alcohol(PVA) as the organic polymer and adding coupling agent(KH). Its flexural strength can reach 165 MPa, the compressive strength can be larger than 267 MPa.A set of fitable technological parameters of the material were gained through experiments. In addition, the flexural strength and toughness can be improved greatly by adding KH, whose values can be increased by 49.76% and 14.55%, respectively.

  16. IgG is transported across the mouse yolk sac independently of FcγRIIb

    OpenAIRE

    Mohanty, Sudhasri; Kim, Jonghan; Latha P Ganesan; Phillips, Gary S.; Hua, Keding; Jarjoura, David; Hayton, William L.; Robinson, John M.; Anderson, Clark L.

    2009-01-01

    It is generally accepted that FcRn is the major IgG transporter in human syncytiotrophoblast and the mouse yolk sac endoderm, however the finding of a different Fc receptor FcγRIIb (RIIb) in the human placental endothelium has suggested the existence of an additional IgG transporter. To test this hypothesis in the mouse, we utilized wild-type (RIIb+/+) mice and mice with a null mutation in the gene encoding RIIb (RIIb−/− mice). We found that while RIIb is expressed in the placental yolk sac v...

  17. Induction of rat yolk sac carcinomas with consistent pattern of laminin, entactin, and type IV collagen biosynthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wewer, U

    1984-01-01

    Twenty-four yolk sac carcinomas in Lewis rats were experimentally induced by puncturing the pregnant uterine wall with a hypodermic needle at day 9-13 of gestation. Morphologically, the tumours were composed of parietal- and visceral yolk sac carcinoma and to a less degree of trophoblastic giant ...

  18. The actin-related protein Sac1 is required for morphogenesis and cell wall integrity in Candida albicans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bing; Yu, Qilin; Jia, Chang; Wang, Yuzhou; Xiao, Chenpeng; Dong, Yijie; Xu, Ning; Wang, Lei; Li, Mingchun

    2015-08-01

    Candida albicans is a common pathogenic fungus and has aroused widespread attention recently. Actin cytoskeleton, an important player in polarized growth, protein secretion and organization of cell shape, displays irreplaceable role in hyphal development and cell integrity. In this study, we demonstrated a homologue of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Sac1, in C. albicans. It is a potential PIP phosphatase with Sac domain which is related to actin organization, hyphal development, biofilm formation and cell wall integrity. Deletion of SAC1 did not lead to insitiol-auxotroph phenotype in C. albicans, but this gene rescued the growth defect of S. cerevisiae sac1Δ in the insitiol-free medium. Hyphal induction further revealed the deficiency of sac1Δ/Δ in hyphal development and biofilm formation. Fluorescence observation and real time PCR (RT-PCR) analysis suggested both actin and the hyphal cell wall protein Hwp1 were overexpressed and mislocated in this mutant. Furthermore, cell wall integrity (CWI) was largely affected by deletion of SAC1, due to the hypersensitivity to cell wall stress, changed content and distribution of chitin in the mutant. As a result, the virulence of sac1Δ/Δ was seriously attenuated. Taken together, this study provides evidence that Sac1, as a potential PIP phosphatase, is essential for actin organization, hyphal development, CWI and pathogenicity in C. albicans.

  19. Modeling the Rate-Dependent Durability of Reduced-Ag SAC Interconnects for Area Array Packages Under Torsion Loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivas, Vikram; Menon, Sandeep; Osterman, Michael; Pecht, Michael G.

    2013-08-01

    Solder durability models frequently focus on the applied strain range; however, the rate of applied loading, or strain rate, is also important. In this study, an approach to incorporate strain rate dependency into durability estimation for solder interconnects is examined. Failure data were collected for SAC105 solder ball grid arrays assembled with SAC305 solder that were subjected to displacement-controlled torsion loads. Strain-rate-dependent (Johnson-Cook model) and strain-rate-independent elastic-plastic properties were used to model the solders in finite-element simulation. Test data were then used to extract damage model constants for the reduced-Ag SAC solder. A generalized Coffin-Manson damage model was used to estimate the durability. The mechanical fatigue durability curve for reduced-silver SAC solder was generated and compared with durability curves for SAC305 and Sn-Pb from the literature.

  20. Dispensability of the SAC Depends on the Time Window Required by Aurora B to Ensure Chromosome Biorientation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monje-Casas, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    Aurora B and the spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) collaborate to ensure the proper biorientation of chromosomes during mitosis. However, lack of Aurora B activity and inactivation of the SAC have a very different impact on chromosome segregation. This is most evident in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, since in this organism the lack of Aurora B is lethal and leads to severe aneuploidy problems, while the SAC is dispensable under normal growth conditions and mutants in this checkpoint do not show evident chromosome segregation defects. We demonstrate that the efficient repair of incorrect chromosome attachments by Aurora B during the initial stages of spindle assembly in budding yeast determines the lack of chromosome segregation defects in SAC mutants, and propose that the differential time window that Aurora B kinase requires to establish chromosome biorientation is the key factor that determines why some cells are more dependent on a functional SAC than others. PMID:26661752

  1. Primary yolk sac tumor of the gluteus: a case report and literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li B

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Bo Li,1 Qianqian Jiang,1 Shitai Zhang,1 Yang Zhou,1 Qing-Fu Zhang,2 Ling OuYang1 1Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Shengjing Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang, 2Department of Pathology, the First Affiliated Hospital and College of Basic Medical Sciences, China Medical University, Shenyang, People’s Republic of China Abstract: Yolk sac tumor (YST is a common malignant primitive germ cell tumor that often exhibits differentiation into endodermal structures. They most commonly occur in childhood and adolescence and are rare after the age of 40 years. Derived from the yolk sac during the embryonic period, YSTs can occur in the gonads and germ cells because the tumor cells migrate from the yolk sac toward the gonads. Here, we present a rare case of primary gluteus YST in a 3-year-old girl. She received BEP chemotherapy (bleomycin + etoposide + cisplatin after surgical resection. There was no evidence of recurrence 7 months after primary treatment. Keywords: immunohistochemistry, yolk sac tumor, germ cell tumor

  2. SAC/TC 118 in 2006 The work plan for the secretariat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ The following works will be developed by the secretariat of SAC/TC 118 in 2006: 1. System construction: The Procedures for Management on National Reference Materials will be detailed in order to form a comprehensive administrative and technical management system for the overall procedures from new item application, development and review, approval and promulgation, sale management to after-sale supervision.

  3. Bleomycin-Induced Flagellate Erythema in a Patient Diagnosed with Ovarian Yolk Sac Tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stergios Boussios

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Flagellate linear hyperpigmentation can rarely be caused by the chemotherapy agent, bleomycin. Herein, we describe the case of a 20-year-old woman treated with bleomycin for an ovarian yolk sac tumor and review the prominent features of this form of dermatitis.

  4. Immature teratoma with microscopic yolk sac tumor: A case of diagnostic challenge on histology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonali R Saraf

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available An adolescent girl with raised alpha-fetoprotein (AFP levels presented with a left-sided large solid ovarian mass. Microscopically, the tumor was composed of a variety of immature and mature tissues derived from the three germ layers having very sparse (single focus of immature neuroepithelium. Few areas also showed the presence of a reticular pattern of yolk sac tumor (YST. Hence, the tumor was diagnosed as immature teratoma with microscopic foci of yolk sac elements. After 6 months of cisplatin-based chemotherapy, she developed a recurrence which was composed of mature teratoma on histology. In this case, the single focus of immature neuroepithelium caused a difficulty in labeling this tumor as an immature teratoma which otherwise resembled a mature teratoma. The raised AFP levels suggested the presence of yolk sac element, the classical form of which was seen at microscopy in only a few areas. As compared to the markedly elevated serum AFP levels, the classical yolk sac tumorous area was very limited thus advocating the view that differentiated glands with subnuclear vacuoles similar to immature endoderm represent well-differentiated forms of YST.[1

  5. Ovarian mixed germ cell tumor with yolk sac and teratomatous components in a dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Nicholas A; Manivel, J Carlos; Olson, Erik J

    2013-05-01

    Mixed germ cell tumors of the ovary have rarely been reported in veterinary species. A 3-year-old intact female Labrador Retriever dog was presented for lethargy, abdominal distention, and a midabdominal mass. An exploratory laparotomy revealed a large (23 cm in diameter) left ovarian tumor and multiple small (2-3 cm in diameter) pale tan masses on the peritoneum and abdominal surface of the diaphragm. Histological examination of the left ovary revealed a mixed germ cell tumor with a yolk sac component with rare Schiller-Duval bodies and a teratomatous component comprised primarily of neural differentiation. The abdominal metastases were solely comprised of the yolk sac component. The yolk sac component was diffusely immunopositive for cytokeratin with scattered cells reactive for α-fetoprotein and placental alkaline phosphatase. Within the teratomatous component, the neuropil was diffusely immunopositive for S100, neuron-specific enolase, and neurofilaments with a few glial fibrillary acidic protein immunopositive cells. Ovarian germ cell tumors may be pure and consist of only 1 germ cell element or may be mixed and include more than 1 germ cell element, such as teratoma and yolk sac tumor. PMID:23604259

  6. Bleomycin-Induced Flagellate Erythema in a Patient Diagnosed with Ovarian Yolk Sac Tumor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boussios, Stergios; Moschetta, Michele; McLachlan, Jennifer; Banerjee, Susana

    2015-01-01

    Flagellate linear hyperpigmentation can rarely be caused by the chemotherapy agent, bleomycin. Herein, we describe the case of a 20-year-old woman treated with bleomycin for an ovarian yolk sac tumor and review the prominent features of this form of dermatitis. PMID:26798532

  7. Bleomycin-Induced Flagellate Erythema in a Patient Diagnosed with Ovarian Yolk Sac Tumor

    OpenAIRE

    Stergios Boussios; Michele Moschetta; Jennifer McLachlan; Susana Banerjee

    2015-01-01

    Flagellate linear hyperpigmentation can rarely be caused by the chemotherapy agent, bleomycin. Herein, we describe the case of a 20-year-old woman treated with bleomycin for an ovarian yolk sac tumor and review the prominent features of this form of dermatitis.

  8. In vitro Manipulation of Impatiens glandulifera Pollen for Transporting Extracellular Substances to the Embryo Sac

    OpenAIRE

    Noreldaim Hussein

    2014-01-01

    Pollen from Impatiens glandulifera were manipulated in vitro to investigate the possibility of using them as a vector for transporting extracellular substances to the site of gamete fusion in the embryo sac. Manipulation of plant male and female gametophytes included studies on pollen culture in vitro, pollen viability and developmental state and loading of fluorescent probes by plasmolysis/endocytosis via germinating pollen.

  9. SAC on a Niagara T3-4 Server: Lessons and Experiences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Grelck; R. Douma

    2011-01-01

    The Sparc T3-4 server provides up to 512 concurrent hardware threads, a degree of concurrency that is unprecedented in a single server system. This paper reports on how the automatically parallelising compiler of the data-parallel functional array language SAC copes with up to 512 execution units. W

  10. Yolk sac tumor of the seminal vesicles: A rare malignant cause of hematospermia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan D Gill

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Extra-gonadal yolk sac tumors (YSTs are rare and generally associated with poor outcomes. Involvement of the seminal vesicles is extremely rare with only one previously described case. We report a case of a primary YST of the seminal vesicles and discuss the management strategy.

  11. Yolk sac tumor of the seminal vesicles: A rare malignant cause of hematospermia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Jonathan D; Bhattarai, Selina; Patel, Chirag N; Paul, Alan B

    2015-01-01

    Extra-gonadal yolk sac tumors (YSTs) are rare and generally associated with poor outcomes. Involvement of the seminal vesicles is extremely rare with only one previously described case. We report a case of a primary YST of the seminal vesicles and discuss the management strategy.

  12. Oxygenated fixation demonstrates novel and improved ultrastructural features of the human endolymphatic sac

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Martin Nue; Caye-Thomasen, Per; Qvortrup, Klaus

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS: The purpose of the present study is to describe in detail the ultrastructure of the human endolymphatic sac using a new and improved method of fixation as well as a refined surgical approach in obtaining specimens. STUDY DESIGN: Transmission electron microscopy of the human...

  13. Potential value of aneurysm sac volume measurements in addition to diameter measurements after endovascular aneurysm repair.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keulen, J.W. van; Prehn, J. van; Prokop, M.; Moll, F.L.; Herwaarden, J.A. van

    2009-01-01

    PURPOSE:To investigate the value of aneurysm sac volume measurement in addition to diameter measurements based on computed tomographic angiography (CTA) after endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR). METHODS:Interrogation of a vascular database identified 56 patients (51 men; median age 77 years, range

  14. TO ASSESS VALUE OF YOLK SAC IN PREDICTING PREGNANCY OUTCOME DURING FIRST TRIMESTER: OBSERVATIONAL STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajani Nawal

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective :To find out normal size and shape of yolk sac in pregnancies between 5-12 weeks of gestation , its association with pregnancy outcome and correlation of various fetal parameters with mean yolk sac diameter. Method : 95 pregnant women of 20-30 years age group with amenorrhoea 1 month 5 days to 7 days selected randomly for this study from August 2009 to October 2010, underwent TVS fortnightly from 5-11 weeks of gestation and at 12 weeks either of the TVS or TAS to visualize changes in mean yolk sac diameter (MYSD and yolk sac (YS shape and pregnancy outcomes. Results analyzed by Z-test and correlation coefficient found out between various parameters. Results :- In Pregnancies with normal outcome(n=72, MYSD was progressively increased from 3.17 mm at 5-5.2 weeks of GA to 5.03 mm at 9-9.2 weeks of GA. At 11 weeks YS either disappeared (73.61% or MYSD decreased (26.38% with round & regular shape. Highly significant difference with p value <0.001, was detected between MYSD of pregnancy with normal outcome and missed abortion(n=19. Four cases of missed abortion had irregular shaped YS. In anembryonic pregnancies YS was not seen. Highly significant (p value <0.001 correlation was found between MYSD and GA by LMP (r=+0.740,MYSD and MGSD ( r =+0.739 and significant correlation was detected between MYSD and CRL (r =+0.355, p value <0.005. Conclusions : Abnormalities of the yolk sac size or shape ,and absence can be used as poor predictive indicators of early pregnancy ,even before fetal morphology can be studied sonographically. [National J of Med Res 2012; 2(3.000: 343-347

  15. Primitive fitting based on the efficient multiBaySAC algorithm.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhizhong Kang

    Full Text Available Although RANSAC is proven to be robust, the original RANSAC algorithm selects hypothesis sets at random, generating numerous iterations and high computational costs because many hypothesis sets are contaminated with outliers. This paper presents a conditional sampling method, multiBaySAC (Bayes SAmple Consensus, that fuses the BaySAC algorithm with candidate model parameters statistical testing for unorganized 3D point clouds to fit multiple primitives. This paper first presents a statistical testing algorithm for a candidate model parameter histogram to detect potential primitives. As the detected initial primitives were optimized using a parallel strategy rather than a sequential one, every data point in the multiBaySAC algorithm was assigned to multiple prior inlier probabilities for initial multiple primitives. Each prior inlier probability determined the probability that a point belongs to the corresponding primitive. We then implemented in parallel a conditional sampling method: BaySAC. With each iteration of the hypothesis testing process, hypothesis sets with the highest inlier probabilities were selected and verified for the existence of multiple primitives, revealing the fitting for multiple primitives. Moreover, the updated version of the initial probability was implemented based on a memorable form of Bayes' Theorem, which describes the relationship between prior and posterior probabilities of a data point by determining whether the hypothesis set to which a data point belongs is correct. The proposed approach was tested using real and synthetic point clouds. The results show that the proposed multiBaySAC algorithm can achieve a high computational efficiency (averaging 34% higher than the efficiency of the sequential RANSAC method and fitting accuracy (exhibiting good performance in the intersection of two primitives, whereas the sequential RANSAC framework clearly suffers from over- and under-segmentation problems. Future work will

  16. Electromigration effect on intermetallic growth and Young's modulus in SAC solder joint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Luhua; Pang, John H. L.; Ren, Fei; Tu, K. N.

    2006-12-01

    Solid-state intermetallic compound (IMC) growth behavior plays and important role in solder joint reliability of electronic packaging assemblies. The directional impact of electromigration (EM) on the growth of interfacial IMCs in Ni/SAC/Ni, Cu/SAC/Ni single BGA ball solder joint, and fine pitch ball-grid-array (FPBGA) at the anode and cathode sides is reported in this study. When the solder joint was subjected to a current density of 5,000 A/cm2 at 125°C or 150°C, IMC layer growth on the anode interface was faster than that on the cathode interface, and both were faster than isothermal aging due to the Joule heating effect. The EM affects the IMC growth rate, as well as the composition and mechanical properties. The Young’s modulus and hardness were measured by the nanoindentation continuous stiffness measurement (CSM) from planar IMC surfaces after EM exposure. Different values were observed at the anode and cathode. The energy-dispersive x-ray (EDX) line scan analysis was conducted at the interface from the cathode to anode to study the presence of species; Ni was found in the anode IMC at SAC/Cu in the Ni/SAC/Cu joint, but not detected when the current was reverse. Electron-probe microanalysis (EPMA) measurement on the Ni/SAC/Ni specimen also confirmed the polarized Ni and Cu distributions in cathode and anode IMCs, which were (Ni0.57Cu0.43)3Sn4 and (Cu0.73Ni0.27)6Sn5, respectively. Thus, the Young’s moduli of the IMC are 141 and 175 GPa, respectively.

  17. Crystal plasticity finite element analysis of deformation behaviour in SAC305 solder joint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darbandi, Payam

    Due to the awareness of the potential health hazards associated with the toxicity of lead (Pb), actions have been taken to eliminate or reduce the use of Pb in consumer products. Among those, tin (Sn) solders have been used for the assembly of electronic systems. Anisotropy is of significant importance in all structural metals, but this characteristic is unusually strong in Sn, making Sn based solder joints one of the best examples of the influence of anisotropy. The effect of anisotropy arising from the crystal structure of tin and large grain microstructure on the microstructure and the evolution of constitutive responses of microscale SAC305 solder joints is investigated. Insights into the effects of key microstructural features and dominant plastic deformation mechanisms influencing the measured relative activity of slip systems in SAC305 are obtained from a combination of optical microscopy, orientation imaging microscopy (OIM), slip plane trace analysis and crystal plasticity finite element (CPFE) modeling. Package level SAC305 specimens were subjected to shear deformation in sequential steps and characterized using optical microscopy and OIM to identify the activity of slip systems. X-ray micro Laue diffraction and high energy monochromatic X-ray beam were employed to characterize the joint scale tensile samples to provide necessary information to be able to compare and validate the CPFE model. A CPFE model was developed that can account for relative ease of activating slip systems in SAC305 solder based upon the statistical estimation based on correlation between the critical resolved shear stress and the probability of activating various slip systems. The results from simulations show that the CPFE model developed using the statistical analysis of activity of slip system not only can satisfy the requirements associated with kinematic of plastic deformation in crystal coordinate systems (activity of slip systems) and global coordinate system (shape changes

  18. A single bivalent efficiently inhibits cyclin B1 degradation and polar body extrusion in mouse oocytes indicating robust SAC during female meiosis I.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steffen Hoffmann

    Full Text Available The Spindle Assembly Checkpoint (SAC inhibits anaphase until microtubule-to-kinetochore attachments are formed, thus securing correct chromosome separation and preventing aneuploidy. Whereas in mitosis even a single unattached chromosome keeps the SAC active, the high incidence of aneuploidy related to maternal meiotic errors raises a concern about the lower efficiency of SAC in oocytes. Recently it was suggested that in mouse oocytes, contrary to somatic cells, not a single chromosome but a critical mass of chromosomes triggers efficient SAC pointing to the necessity of evaluating the robustness of SAC in oocytes. Two types of errors in chromosome segregation upon meiosis I related to SAC were envisaged: (1 SAC escape, when kinetochores emit SAC-activating signal unable to stop anaphase I; and (2 SAC deceive, when kinetochores do not emit the signal. Using micromanipulations and live imaging of the first polar body extrusion, as well as the dynamics of cyclin B1 degradation, here we show that in mouse oocytes a single bivalent keeps the SAC active. This is the first direct evaluation of SAC efficiency in mouse oocytes, which provides strong evidence that the robustness of SAC in mammalian oocytes is comparable to other cell types. Our data do not contradict the hypothesis of the critical mass of chromosomes necessary for SAC activation, but suggest that the same rule may govern SAC activity also in other cell types. We postulate that the innate susceptibility of oocytes to errors in chromosome segregation during the first meiotic division may not be caused by lower efficiency of SAC itself, but could be linked to high critical chromosome mass necessary to keep SAC active in oocyte of large size.

  19. Enhancing Teaching using MATLAB Add-Ins for Excel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Paul V.

    2004-01-01

    In this paper I will illustrate how to extend the capabilities of Microsoft Excel spreadsheets with add-ins created by MATLAB. Excel provides a broad array of fundamental tools but often comes up short when more sophisticated scenarios are involved. To overcome this short-coming of Excel while retaining its ease of use, I will describe how…

  20. How HR Leaders Can Add Value to an Organization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smallwood, Norm; Ulrich, Dave

    2006-01-01

    Generally speaking, it is safe to say that human resource leaders whole-heartedly believe that the HR function should add value to an organization. However, many wonder where to start. In this article, the authors outline three ways in which the HR function, and the HR leader, can create sustained value for an organization and its stakeholders.

  1. The Care Tradition: Beyond "Add Women and Stir."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noddings, Nel

    2001-01-01

    Examines problems of curricular inclusion, emphasizing ways of including the interests and contributions of women in social studies curricula. After describing the inadequacy of the "add women and stir" approach to inclusion, the paper discusses the tradition of care long identified with female life, then explores ways to preserve and extend this…

  2. Gonadoblastoma and hepatoid and endometrioid-like yolk sac tumor: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulbright, Thomas M

    2014-07-01

    Dr Robert E. Scully greatly advanced our understanding of germ cell neoplasia to the extent that it is difficult to narrow the discussion of his contributions to this topic so that it can be covered in a brief article. This article accordingly focuses on some of the recent developments concerning 2 of his major contributions in this area-the gonadoblastoma (GB) and variant morphologies of yolk sac tumor. GB was defined by Dr Scully in 1953 and its features elaborated in detail by him in 1970. This neoplasm occurred in young patients who often displayed phenotypic sex ambiguities and frequently presented with primary amenorrhea. It was bilateral in 40%, and consisted of circumscribed nests of small sex cord cells and germinoma-like cells admixed with round deposits of eosinophilic, hyaline, often calcified material. These nests were set in a spindle cell gonadal stroma with Leydig-like or lutein-like cells. Because of his work we now understand that this precursor to invasive germ cell tumors occurs in patients with a specific form of disorder of sex development, namely gonadal dysgenesis, and only in those who have a particular portion of the Y chromosome, the GB locus/TSPY gene, within the gonadal tissue. An essential element to the development of GB appears to be a defect in the genetic pathway that leads to the development of Sertoli cells. Improperly formed Sertoli cells predispose to "delayed maturation" of the gonocytes of the gonad and predispose them to undergo malignant transformation. "Undifferentiated gonadal tissue" has been proposed as the precursor to the development of GB and consists of an unorganized mixture of apparently non-neoplastic germ cells, germ cells with delayed maturation, and neoplastic germ cells with sex cord cells and gonadal stroma. Two variant morphologies of yolk sac tumor were also recognized by Dr Scully. In the hepatoid variant features similar to hepatocellular carcinoma occurred, although primitive glandular foci and lack of

  3. Gamma knife treatment of an endolymphatic sac tumor: Unique features of a case and review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xing Cheng

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Endolymphatic sac tumors are rare, histologically non-aggressive lesions, but often become locally invasive and lead to erosion of the petrous bone. We report a rare case with multiple endolymphatic sac tumors located at bilateral cerebellopontine angles and vermis of the cerebellum. One of the lesions was surgically resected and others were treated using gamma knife radiosurgery. Local recurrence and metastasis occurred, which was treated with gamma knife radiosurgery. With an appropriate prescription dose and isodose, gamma knife radiosurgery may have an important role in the treatment of endolymphatic sac tumor.

  4. Plant-derived SAC domain of PAR-4 (Prostate Apoptosis Response 4 exhibits growth inhibitory effects in prostate cancer cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shayan eSarkar

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The gene Par-4 (Prostate Apoptosis Response 4 was originally identified in prostate cancer cells undergoing apoptosis and its product Par-4 showed cancer specific pro-apoptotic activity. Particularly, the SAC domain of Par-4 (SAC-Par-4 selectively kills cancer cells leaving normal cells unaffected. The therapeutic significance of bioactive SAC-Par-4 is enormous in cancer biology; however, its large scale production is still a matter of concern. Here we report the production of SAC-Par-4-GFP fusion protein coupled to translational enhancer sequence (5′ AMV and apoplast signal peptide (aTP in transgenic Nicotiana tabacum cv. Samsun NN plants under the control of a unique recombinant promoter M24. Transgene integration was confirmed by genomic DNA PCR, Southern and Northern blotting, Real-time PCR and Nuclear run-on assays. Results of Western blot analysis and ELISA confirmed expression of recombinant SAC-Par-4-GFP protein and it was as high as 0.15% of total soluble protein. In addition, we found that targeting of plant recombinant SAC-Par-4-GFP to the apoplast and endoplasmic reticulum (ER was essential for the stability of plant recombinant protein in comparison to the bacterial derived SAC-Par-4. Deglycosylation analysis demonstrated that ER-targeted SAC-Par-4-GFP-SEKDEL undergoes O-linked glycosylation unlike apoplast-targeted SAC-Par-4-GFP. Furthermore, various in vitro studies like mammalian cells proliferation assay (MTT, apoptosis induction assays, and NF-κB suppression suggested the cytotoxic and apoptotic properties of plant-derived SAC-Par-4-GFP against multiple prostate cancer cell lines. Additionally, pre-treatment of MAT-LyLu prostate cancer cells with purified SAC-Par-4-GFP significantly delayed the onset of tumor in a syngeneic rat prostate cancer model. Taken altogether, we proclaim that plant made SAC-Par-4 may become a useful alternate therapy for effectively alleviating cancer in the new era.

  5. Fungi infection in honeybee hives in regions affected by Brazilian sac brood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.M. Keller

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The Brazilian Sac Brood is a disease that affects apiaries of Africanized bee hives in Brazil, thereby making them susceptible to high losses. This study investigated the pathogenicity of Africanized bee hives by the entomopathogenic fungi in a Brazilian Sac Brood endemic region. The degree of fungal contamination, presence of mycotoxins in beehive elements, and vulnerability of healthy beehives in environments subjected and not subjected to the disease were investigated. From the contaminating fungal load, species that are mycotoxin producers and pathogenic causing mortality in the bees have been isolated. The analysis of bee pollen and bee bread samples did not show the presence of the toxic pollen of Stryphnodendron (Fabaceae, which has been indicated as the causative agent of mortality in pre-pupal stage larvae. However, bee bread showed the highest correlation between substrate and fungal contamination.

  6. Multi-level security for computer networking - SAC digital network approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griess, W.; Poutre, D. L.

    The functional features and architecture of the SACDIN (SAC digital network) are detailed. SACDIN is the new data transmission segment for directing SAC's strategic forces. The system has 135 processor nodes at 32 locations and processes, distributes and stores data of any level of security classification. The sophistication of access nodes is dependent on the location. A reference monitor mediates the multilevel security by implementation of the multi-state machine concept, i.e., the Bell-LaPadula model (1973, 1974), which concludes that a secure state can never lead to an unsecure state. The monitor is controlled by the internal access control mechanism, which resides in PROM. Details of the access process are provided, including message flow on trusted paths appropriate to the security clearance of the user.

  7. Bilateral ovarian mixed epithelial adenocarcinoma in a postmenopausal woman with unilateral ovarian yolk sac tumor component.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qin; Chen, Xiaoduan

    2014-01-01

    Ovarian yolk sac tumors (YSTs) usually occur in the young women and have been rarely documented in perimenopausal and postmenopausal women. The different age distribution supposes their complex nomenclature and histogenesis. We report a case of bilateral ovarian epithelial carcinoma with right ovarian YST component in a postmenopausal woman. The patient was treated by surgery and adjuvant combination chemotherapy of taxol and carboplatin for 6 courses and has been clinically free of tumor for 6 months. The correlation between the YST and the epithelial components always confuse us. Ovarian yolk sac tumors are not a discrete entity and represent a multifaceted group of neoplasms. The conjunction of multi antibodies help in differential diagnoses. In addition to a thorough case description, the literature concerning this entity is reviewed and discussed. PMID:25550883

  8. A Rare Case of Endolymphatic Sac Tumour: Clinicopathologic Study and Surgical Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuele Ferri

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Endolymphatic sac tumor (ELST is a rare neoplasm arising from the intrapetrous portion of the endolymphatic sac, either isolated or in association with the von Hippel-Lindau disease. We report a sporadic case of ELST with an overview of the literature and a discussion of clinic-radiological, histopathologic, and surgical findings. Case Report. A young woman presented with a progressive hearing loss in the left ear. Otoscopy showed a reddish, bleeding hypotympanic mass. CT demonstrated an expansile lytic mastoid lesion extending to the middle ear, with bone erosion. MRI confirmed a lesion of increased signal on T1-weighted sequences. The patient underwent a canal wall-down tympanoplasty with complete removal of the tumor. Histopathology was consistent with a papillary ELST. Immunohistochemistry was positive for cytokeratin and chromogranin A. Conclusion. This paper highlights the rarity of ELST, the need for an accurate neuroradiological and immunohistochemical study at the early stages, and the timeliness of surgical treatment.

  9. Intrinsic Levanase Activity of Bacillus subtilis 168 Levansucrase (SacB).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Méndez-Lorenzo, Luz; Porras-Domínguez, Jaime R; Raga-Carbajal, Enrique; Olvera, Clarita; Rodríguez-Alegría, Maria Elena; Carrillo-Nava, Ernesto; Costas, Miguel; López Munguía, Agustín

    2015-01-01

    Levansucrase catalyzes the synthesis of fructose polymers through the transfer of fructosyl units from sucrose to a growing fructan chain. Levanase activity of Bacillus subtilis levansucrase has been described since the very first publications dealing with the mechanism of levan synthesis. However, there is a lack of qualitative and quantitative evidence regarding the importance of the intrinsic levan hydrolysis of B. subtilis levansucrase and its role in the levan synthesis process. Particularly, little attention has been paid to the long-term hydrolysis products, including its participation in the final levan molecules distribution. Here, we explored the hydrolytic and transferase activity of the B. subtilis levansucrase (SacB) when levans produced by the same enzyme are used as substrate. We found that levan is hydrolyzed through a first order exo-type mechanism, which is limited to a conversion extent of around 30% when all polymer molecules reach a structure no longer suitable to SacB hydrolysis. To characterize the reaction, Isothermal Titration Calorimetry (ITC) was employed and the evolution of the hydrolysis products profile followed by HPLC, GPC and HPAEC-PAD. The ITC measurements revealed a second step, taking place at the end of the reaction, most probably resulting from disproportionation of accumulated fructo-oligosaccharides. As levanase, levansucrase may use levan as substrate and, through a fructosyl-enzyme complex, behave as a hydrolytic enzyme or as a transferase, as demonstrated when glucose and fructose are added as acceptors. These reactions result in a wide variety of oligosaccharides that are also suitable acceptors for fructo-oligosaccharide synthesis. Moreover, we demonstrate that SacB in the presence of levan and glucose, through blastose and sucrose synthesis, results in the same fructooligosaccharides profile as that observed in sucrose reactions. We conclude that SacB has an intrinsic levanase activity that contributes to the final

  10. Pericardial sac perforation: a rare complication of neonatal nasogastric tube feeding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Din Mahmoud Hanafy, Emad; Al Naqeeb, Niran [Al-Adan Hospital, Neonatal ICU, Department of Paediatrics, Hawally (Kuwait); Ashebu, Samuel D.; Bopaya Nanda, Harini [Al-Adan Hospital, Department of Diagnostic Radiology and Imaging, P.O. Box 43721, Hawally (Kuwait)

    2006-10-15

    The insertion of a nasogastric tube for feeding and gastric aspiration is a common practice in the care of newborns, especially if they are preterm and unwell. Esophageal perforation is a rare but serious complication of this procedure. Associated perforation of the pericardial sac is an unusual, severe, and previously unreported complication of nasogastric tube feeding in a neonate. We present an illustrative case. (orig.)

  11. Bilateral ovarian mixed epithelial adenocarcinoma in a postmenopausal woman with unilateral ovarian yolk sac tumor component

    OpenAIRE

    Qin CHEN; Chen, Xiaoduan

    2014-01-01

    Ovarian yolk sac tumors (YSTs) usually occur in the young women and have been rarely documented in perimenopausal and postmenopausal women. The different age distribution supposes their complex nomenclature and histogenesis. We report a case of bilateral ovarian epithelial carcinoma with right ovarian YST component in a postmenopausal woman. The patient was treated by surgery and adjuvant combination chemotherapy of taxol and carboplatin for 6 courses and has been clinically free of tumor for...

  12. In vitro Manipulation of Impatiens glandulifera Pollen for Transporting Extracellular Substances to the Embryo Sac

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noreldaim Hussein

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Pollen from Impatiens glandulifera were manipulated in vitro to investigate the possibility of using them as a vector for transporting extracellular substances to the site of gamete fusion in the embryo sac. Manipulation of plant male and female gametophytes included studies on pollen culture in vitro, pollen viability and developmental state and loading of fluorescent probes by plasmolysis/endocytosis via germinating pollen.

  13. Large endolymphatic sac. A congenital deformity of the inner ear shown by magnetic resonance imaging

    OpenAIRE

    Phelps, P D; Mahoney, C. F. O.; Luxon, L M

    1997-01-01

    Fluctuant and progressive hearing impairment in a patient with a wide vestibular aqueduct has been called the 'large vestibular aqueduct syndrome'. Recently reports of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies describe enlargement of the endolymphatic sac and duct in patients shown to have large vestibular aqueducts by computed tomography (CT). A patient with progressive deafness was shown to have borderline or slightly enlarged vestibular aqueducts by re-formatted sagittal CT. However, MRI in...

  14. Contrast-enhanced MR imaging of the endolymphatic sac in patients with sudden hearing loss

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naganawa, Shinji; Koshikawa, Tokiko; Fukatsu, Hiroshi; Ishigaki, Takeo [Department of Radiology, Nagoya University School of Medicine (Japan); Nakashima, Tsutomu [Department of Otolayngology, Nagoya University School of Medicine (Japan); Ichinose, Nobuyasu [Toshiba Nasu Operations, Tochigi (Japan)

    2002-05-01

    Our objective was to evaluate the frequency of contrast enhancement of the endolymphatic sac in patients with sudden hearing loss. Forty consecutive patients with sudden sensorineural hearing loss (20 males and 20 females; age range 11-82 years), 40 age-matched control subjects, and 5 patients with Meniere's disease were examined using the same imaging protocol on a 1.5-T MR system. Pre- and post-contrast-enhanced T1-weighted 3D spoiled gradient-echo sequence (3D SPGR; TR/TE=23/10 ms, no. of excitations=1, flip angle=30 ) images were obtained using a voxel size of 0.6 x 0.7 x 0.8 mm{sup 3}. Contrast enhancement in the area of the endolymphatic sac was assessed by two radiologists, and the frequency of contrast enhancement was compared between the three study groups. Enhancement of the ipsilateral endolymphatic sac was observed in 30 of the 40 patients with sudden hearing loss (75%). Twenty of these 30 patients also showed enhancement on the contralateral side, and 1 patient showed enhancement only on the contralateral side. Only 1 of the 5 patients with Meniere's disease showed enhancement. Nine of the 40 control subjects (22.5%) showed enhancement (bilateral enhancement in 5 subjects, unilateral in 4). The frequency of enhancement in patients with sudden hearing loss was significantly higher than that in control subjects (P<0.0001) or patients with Meniere's disease (P<0.05). The frequency of contrast enhancement of the endolymphatic sac is significantly increased in patients with sudden hearing loss, but further study is necessary to clarify the relationship between this finding and the pathophysiology of sudden hearing loss. (orig.)

  15. Macrofauna community inside and outside of the Darwin Mounds SAC, NE Atlantic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Serpetti

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Over the past two decades, growing concerns have been raised regarding the effects of towed fishing gears, such as trawls and dredges, on deep-sea biodiversity and ecosystem functioning. Trawling disturbs the benthic communities both physically and biologically, and can eliminate the most vulnerable organisms and modify habitat structure; chronically disturbed communities are often dominated by opportunistic species. The European Union is under obligation to designate a network of offshore Special Areas of Conservation (SACs and Marine Protected Areas (MPAs by the end of 2012 based on the perceived expectation that these networks will help protect marine biodiversity and that within these areas, faunal abundance and diversity will be higher than the surrounding fished areas.

    The Darwin Mounds, only discovered in 1998, are located in the Rockall Trough, NE Atlantic at a depth of ~ 1000 m. Deep-water trawling regularly took place in the region of the Darwin Mounds; however in 2004 the mounds were designated as the first offshore SAC in UK and the area is now closed to bottom trawling. As part of the HERMIONE programme the influence of human impact on the Oceans was one of the key themes and in June 2011, an investigation of the macrofaunal community structure at comparable sites both inside and outside of the Darwin Mound SAC was undertaken. Macrofaunal communities were found to differ significantly, with the difference mostly driven by changes in the abundance of polychaetes, crustaceans and nematodes whilst no significant differences were seen for the other phyla. Whereas overall macrofaunal abundance was higher outside the SAC compared to within, this pattern varies considerably between phyla. Diversity indices showed no significant differences between protected and unprotected sites. This could indicate that a few years of preservation are not enough time to determine a recovery by the macrofaunal community of cold-water ecosystems

  16. Metastatic anal sac carcinoma with hypercalcaemia and associated hypertrophic osteopathy in a dog

    OpenAIRE

    Giuliano, A.; R.S. Fernandez; Dobson, J.

    2015-01-01

    A seven-year-old male neutered Irish setter was treated for a metastatic anal sac adenocarcinoma (ASAC) and hypercalcaemia by complete surgical excision of the primary tumour and partial excision of the sublumbar lymph nodes. Further enlargement of the sublumbar lymph nodes was linked to recurrent hypercalcaemia 3 months after surgical treatment. Medical treatment with Toceranib and Clodronate showed modest results in the treatment of the tumour and the hypercalcaemia. Radiotherapy of the sub...

  17. Intrinsic Levanase Activity of Bacillus subtilis 168 Levansucrase (SacB.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luz Méndez-Lorenzo

    Full Text Available Levansucrase catalyzes the synthesis of fructose polymers through the transfer of fructosyl units from sucrose to a growing fructan chain. Levanase activity of Bacillus subtilis levansucrase has been described since the very first publications dealing with the mechanism of levan synthesis. However, there is a lack of qualitative and quantitative evidence regarding the importance of the intrinsic levan hydrolysis of B. subtilis levansucrase and its role in the levan synthesis process. Particularly, little attention has been paid to the long-term hydrolysis products, including its participation in the final levan molecules distribution. Here, we explored the hydrolytic and transferase activity of the B. subtilis levansucrase (SacB when levans produced by the same enzyme are used as substrate. We found that levan is hydrolyzed through a first order exo-type mechanism, which is limited to a conversion extent of around 30% when all polymer molecules reach a structure no longer suitable to SacB hydrolysis. To characterize the reaction, Isothermal Titration Calorimetry (ITC was employed and the evolution of the hydrolysis products profile followed by HPLC, GPC and HPAEC-PAD. The ITC measurements revealed a second step, taking place at the end of the reaction, most probably resulting from disproportionation of accumulated fructo-oligosaccharides. As levanase, levansucrase may use levan as substrate and, through a fructosyl-enzyme complex, behave as a hydrolytic enzyme or as a transferase, as demonstrated when glucose and fructose are added as acceptors. These reactions result in a wide variety of oligosaccharides that are also suitable acceptors for fructo-oligosaccharide synthesis. Moreover, we demonstrate that SacB in the presence of levan and glucose, through blastose and sucrose synthesis, results in the same fructooligosaccharides profile as that observed in sucrose reactions. We conclude that SacB has an intrinsic levanase activity that

  18. Nickel interactions with glutathione and related enzyme in 11-day embryo and yolk sac in rat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serafini, M.T.; Romeu, A. (Univ. of Barcelona, Tarragona (Spain))

    1991-12-01

    The embryotoxicity and teratogenicity of nickel compounds has been observed in rats. Little is known about the biochemical mechanism(s) of Ni-teratogenesis. Furthermore, nickel induced a rapid, but transient rise in the serum glucose and changes in hormone balance in pregnant rats as well as metabolic changes in females. The purpose of this study was to characterize the effect of NiCl{sub 2} on glutathione and related enzymes in 11-day embryo and visceral yolk sac in rat.

  19. Macrofauna community inside and outside of the Darwin Mounds SAC, NE Atlantic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serpetti, N.; Gontikaki, E.; Narayanaswamy, B. E.; Witte, U.

    2012-11-01

    Over the past two decades, growing concerns have been raised regarding the effects of towed fishing gears, such as trawls and dredges, on deep-sea biodiversity and ecosystem functioning. Trawling disturbs the benthic communities both physically and biologically, and can eliminate the most vulnerable organisms and modify habitat structure; chronically disturbed communities are often dominated by opportunistic species. The European Union is under obligation to designate a network of offshore Special Areas of Conservation (SACs) and Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) by the end of 2012 based on the perceived expectation that these networks will help protect marine biodiversity and that within these areas, faunal abundance and diversity will be higher than the surrounding fished areas. The Darwin Mounds, only discovered in 1998, are located in the Rockall Trough, NE Atlantic at a depth of ~ 1000 m. Deep-water trawling regularly took place in the region of the Darwin Mounds; however in 2004 the mounds were designated as the first offshore SAC in UK and the area is now closed to bottom trawling. As part of the HERMIONE programme the influence of human impact on the Oceans was one of the key themes and in June 2011, an investigation of the macrofaunal community structure at comparable sites both inside and outside of the Darwin Mound SAC was undertaken. Macrofaunal communities were found to differ significantly, with the difference mostly driven by changes in the abundance of polychaetes, crustaceans and nematodes whilst no significant differences were seen for the other phyla. Whereas overall macrofaunal abundance was higher outside the SAC compared to within, this pattern varies considerably between phyla. Diversity indices showed no significant differences between protected and unprotected sites. This could indicate that a few years of preservation are not enough time to determine a recovery by the macrofaunal community of cold-water ecosystems and that a continued

  20. Evaluation of Refractivity Profiles from CHAMP and SAC-C GPS Radio Occultation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poli, Paul; Ao, Chi On; Joiner, Joanna; delaTorreJuarez, Manuel; Hoff, Raymond

    2002-01-01

    The GeoForschungsZentrum's Challenging Minisatellite Payload for Geophysical Research and Application (CHAMP, Germany-US) and the Comision Nacional de Actividades Especiales' Satelite de Aplicaciones Cientificas-C (SAC-C, Argentina-US) missions are the first missions to carry a second-generation Blackjack Global Positioning System (GPS) receiver. One of the new features of this receiver is its ability to sense the lower troposphere closer to the surface than the proof-of-concept GPS Meteorology experiment (GPS/MET). Since their launch, CHAMP and SAC-C have collected thousands of GPS radio occultations, representing a wealth of measurements available for data assimilation and Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP). In order to evaluate the refractivity data derived by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) from raw radio occultation measurements, we use Data Assimilation Office (DAO) 6-hour forecasts as an independent state of the atmosphere. We compare CHAMP and SAC-C refractivity (processed by JPL) with refractivity calculated from the DAO global fields of temperature, water vapor content and humidity. We show statistics of the differences as well as histograms of the differences.

  1. Rare incidence of yolk sac tumor in pregnancy posing management challenge: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chanda Rai

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Yolk sac tumor of the ovary, although rare but highly malignant, when diagnosed in a pregnant woman is difficult to manage because of risks involved to the fetus but with the advent of surgery and chemotherapy prognosis has greatly improved. A G3P2L2, 35 years old, woman got admitted at 8 months amenorrhea with absent fetal movements since two days with labor pains. She carried an ultrasound report, done at a private clinic which showed intrauterine death of fetus along with a pelvic tumor. Her CT done at our hospital confirmed a pelvic tumor mass posterior to the uterus and in close proximity with the rectum. A laparotomy was planned for her as the pelvic mass was preventing the descent of fetal head thus hindering vaginal delivery. Biopsy from the tumor mass revealed yolk sac tumor of the ovary. Her general condition was poor with low Hb levels and deranged LFT and KFT and was shifted to ICU for intensive care but she could not survive despite the best efforts. Early diagnosis of ovarian yolk sac tumor in pregnancy leads to timely intervention in the forms of surgery and chemotherapy which greatly improves the survival rates. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2016; 5(8.000: 2853-2855

  2. Failure of aneurysm sac shrinkage after endovascular repair; the effect of mural calcification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Love, M. [Department of Radiology, Royal Victoria Hospital, Belfast (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: mark.love@royalhospitals.n-i.nhs.uk; Wray, A. [Department of Radiology, Royal Victoria Hospital, Belfast (United Kingdom); Worthington, M. [Department of Radiology, Royal Victoria Hospital, Belfast (United Kingdom); Ellis, P. [Department of Radiology, Royal Victoria Hospital, Belfast (United Kingdom)

    2005-12-15

    AIM: To evaluate the effect of abdominal aortic aneurysm wall calcification on subsequent sac shrinkage after endovascular repair. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Seventy-three patients underwent endovascular aneurysm repair. The degree of sac wall calcification on pre-procedural computed tomography (CT) examination was graded from 1 to 4 according to the degree of circumferential involvement. On follow-up CT imaging, the maximum transverse diameter (MTD) of the sac was recorded, as well as the presence or absence of endoleak. In those patients with a non-shrinking aneurysm, but no CT evidence of endoleak, contrast-enhanced ultrasound (USS) was performed. Any patient with an endoleak, however diagnosed, was excluded from the study. Kruskal-Wallis and Spearman's rank correlation coefficient testing was applied to compare the degree of calcification and change in MTD. RESULTS: Sixty-three pre-procedural CT images were available for calcification grading. Six of this group had endoleaks resulting in 57 sets of data being available for the study. A reduction in MTD occurred in 68.25% of these patients by 1 year post-procedure. Our figures show aortic calcification is inversely associated with MTD reduction at 6 months (p=0.01), 1 year (p=0.05) and 2 years (p=0.05). CONCLUSION: This study indicates that the degree of aortic wall calcification is significant in predicting MTD reduction post-endovascular repair. The possible mechanisms and implications of this are discussed.

  3. Tiagabine add-on for drug-resistant partial epilepsy

    OpenAIRE

    Pereira, J; Marson, A G; Hutton, J L

    2012-01-01

    Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2002;(3):CD001908. Tiagabine add-on for drug-resistant partial epilepsy. Pereira J, Marson AG, Hutton JL. Servico de Neurologia, Hospital de Santo Antonio, Largo Prof. Abel Salazar, 4099-001 Porto, Portugal. Abstract BACKGROUND: Epilepsy is a common neurological condition, affecting almost 0.5 to 1 per cent of the population. Nearly 30 per cent of people with epilepsy are resistant to currently available drugs. Tiagabine...

  4. Stereovision Imaging in Smart Mobile Phone Using Add on Prisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bar-Magen Numhauser, Jonathan; Zalevsky, Zeev

    2014-03-01

    In this work we present the use of a prism-based add on component installed on top of a smart phone to achieve stereovision capabilities using iPhone mobile operating system. Through these components and the combination of the appropriate application programming interface and mathematical algorithms the obtained results will permit the analysis of possible enhancements for new uses to such system, in a variety of areas including medicine and communications.

  5. ProADD: A database on Protein Aggregation Diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Shobana, Ramesh; Pandaranayaka, Eswari PJ

    2014-01-01

    ProADD, a database for protein aggregation diseases, is developed to organize the data under a single platform to facilitate easy access for researchers. Diseases caused due to protein aggregation and the proteins involved in each of these diseases are integrated. The database helps in classification of proteins involved in the protein aggregation diseases based on sequence and structural analysis. Analysis of proteins can be done to mine patterns prevailing among the aggregating proteins. Av...

  6. Oil rigging firm to add 50 engineering vessels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    China Oilfield Services Ltd., the oil service unit of the State-owned offshore oil and gas producer China NationalOffshore Oil Corporation, plans to add 50 vessels to its ocean engineering fleet, according to Cai Dian, manager of the shipping department at COSL. COSL is China's largest integrated oilfield service provider, operating a fleet of 108 vessels, which accounts for 60 percent of China's total ocean engineering vessel number.

  7. Abnormalities Occurring during Female Gametophyte Development Result in the Diversity of Abnormal Embryo Sacs and Leads to Abnormal Fertilization in indicaljaponica Hybrids in Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu-Xiang Zeng; Chao-Yue Hu; Yong-Gen Lu; Jin-Quan Li; Xiang-Dong Liu

    2009-01-01

    Embryo sac abortion is one of the major masons for sterility in indicaljaponica hybrids In rice. To clarify the causal mechanism of embryo sac abortion, we studied the female gametophyte development in two indicaljaponica hybrids via an eosin B staining procedure for embryo sac scanning using confocal laser scanning microscope. Different types of abnormalities occurred during megasporogenesis and megagamatogenesis were demonstrated. The earliest abnormality was observed in the megasporocyte. A lot of the chalazal-most megaspores were degenerated before the mono-nucleate embryo sac stage. Disordered positioning of nucleus and abnormal nucallus tissue were characteristics of the abnormal female gametes from the mono-nucleate to four-nucleate embryo sac stages. The abnormalities that occurred from the early stage of the eight-nucleate embryo sac development to the mature embryo sac stage were characterized by smaller sizes and wrinkled antipodals. Asynchronous nuclear migration, abnormal positioning of nucleus, and degeneration of egg apparatus were also found at the eight-nucleate embryo sac stage. The abnormalities that occurred during female gametophyte development resulted in five major types of abnormal embryo sacs. These abnormal embryo sacs led to abnormal fertilization. Hand pollination using normal pollens on the spikelets during anthesis showed that normal pollens could not exclude the effect of abnormal embryo sac on seed setting.

  8. GnRH-Analoga und Add-back-Verfahren

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kleinstein J

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available GnRH-Analoga haben eine große Bedeutung in der medikamentösen Therapie der Endometriose erlangt. Sie sind in der Lage, Endometrioseassoziierte Schmerzen zu beseitigen und sind Bestandteil der Therapie der endometriosebedingten Infertilität. Aufgrund der Chronizität der Endometriose bedarf es in vielen Fällen der Prolongation der GnRH-A-Therapie über den Zeitraum von 6 Monaten hinaus. Für diese Fälle eignet sich eine Add-back- Therapie nach dem Format von Hormonersatztherapien, um vasomotorischen Nebeneffekten und dem Knochensubstanzverlust entgegenwirken zu können. Dabei wird der Estrogenanteil niedrig dosiert eingesetzt, um innerhalb eines "therapeutischen Fensters" den Hypoestrogenismus auszugleichen, ohne das Endometriosewachstum zu fördern. Prinzipiell kann dazu das Estrogen oral, aber auch transdermal appliziert werden. Die Effektivität der Kombination aus GnRH-A plus Add-back bezüglich der Knochenprotektion konnte bereits für einen Zeitraum von bis zu 10 Jahren bestätigt werden, sodass damit eine Langzeitkonzeption für Frauen mit rezidivierender Endometriose und wiederholten operativen Eingriffen existiert. Alternativen zur klassischen Add-back mit Sexualsteroiden existieren vielfältig, aber ihr Einsatz ist durch Partialwirkungen und eigene Nebenwirkungen limitiert.

  9. Ovarian Yolk Sac Tumor With High-Grade Serous Carcinoma in a 62-Year-Old Woman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Whitney A; Masand, Ramya P

    2016-06-01

    Ovarian yolk sac tumors are germ cell tumors that usually present in children and young women. Rarely, these tumors can arise in older women, usually in conjunction with surface epithelial tumors, suggesting divergent differentiation from the latter. The combination of mixed ovarian yolk sac tumor and high-grade serous carcinoma is rare, with only one case documented in the literature. We present a case of mixed ovarian yolk sac tumor and high-grade serous carcinoma in a postmenopausal woman, including a brief discussion of the immunohistochemical findings and differential diagnosis. Despite the rarity of mixed ovarian yolk sac tumor and surface epithelial tumors, it is important to recognize the biphasic nature of the tumor, which should prompt a thorough immunohistochemical evaluation. The therapeutic and prognostic implications of proper diagnosis cannot be overemphasized. PMID:26782153

  10. An unusual mixed germ cell tumor of the testis consisting of rhabdomyosarcoma, mature teratoma and yolk sac tumor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Eva Lovri(c); Dubravka Bobonj Hi(z)ak; Melita Peri(c) Balja; Tanja Leni(c)ek; Bo(z)o Kru(s)lin

    2010-01-01

    @@ Dear Editor, We recently encountered a rare case of testicular mixed germ cell tumor (MGCT) in a 32-year-old man. The tumor was composed of a combination of a yolk sac tumor, teratoma and rhabdomyosarcomatous somatic type malignancy.

  11. 40 CFR 75.34 - Units with add-on emission controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Units with add-on emission controls... add-on emission controls. (a) The owner or operator of an affected unit equipped with add-on SO2 and... which the add-on emission controls are documented to be operating properly, as described in the...

  12. Manipulation of Ovaries/Ovules and Clearance and Isolation of Embryo Sacs of Impatiens glandulifera and Nicotiana tabacum

    OpenAIRE

    Noreldaim Hussein

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this research was to develop techniques to clear and/or isolate embryo sacs of Impatiens glandulifera and Nicotiana tabacum, to facilitate microscopic examination for subsequent experimentation on in vitro fertilization of flowering plants. Two techniques were applied: The clearing and enzymic maceration. Both of the 2 adopted techniques were effective in revealing embryo sacs of the studied plant species. A fixative prepared from propionic acid, formaldehyde, ethanol (50%) i...

  13. GPS radio occultation with CHAMP and SAC-C: global monitoring of thermal tropopause parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Schmidt

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study the global lapse-rate tropopause (LRT pressure, temperature, potential temperature, and sharpness are discussed based on Global Positioning System (GPS radio occultations (RO from the German CHAMP (CHAllenging Minisatellite Payload and the U.S.-Argentinian SAC-C (Satelite de Aplicaciones Cientificas-C satellite missions. Results with respect to seasonal variations are compared with operational radiosonde data and ECMWF (European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecast operational analyses. Results on the tropical quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO are updated from an earlier study. CHAMP RO data are available continuously since May 2001 with on average 150 high resolution temperature profiles per day. SAC-C data are available for several periods in 2001 and 2002. In this study temperature data from CHAMP for the period May 2001-December 2004 and SAC-C data from August 2001-October 2001 and March 2002-November 2002 were used, respectively. The bias between GPS RO temperature profiles and radiosonde data was found to be less than 1.5K between 300 and 10hPa with a standard deviation of 2-3K. Between 200-20hPa the bias is even less than 0.5K (2K standard deviation. The mean deviations based on 167699 comparisons between CHAMP/SAC-C and ECMWF LRT parameters are (-2.1±37.1hPa for pressure and (0.1±4.2K for temperature. Comparisons of LRT pressure and temperature between CHAMP and nearby radiosondes (13230 resulted in (5.8±19.8hPa and (-0.1±3.3K, respectively. The comparisons between CHAMP/SAC-C and ECMWF show on average the largest differences in the vicinity of the jet streams with up to 700m in LRT altitude and 3K in LRT temperature, respectively. The CHAMP mission generates the first long-term RO data set. Other satellite missions will follow (GRACE, COSMIC, MetOp, TerraSAR-X, EQUARS generating together some thousand temperature profiles daily.

  14. Ultrastructure of the endolymphatic sac in the larva of the japanese red-bellied newt Cynops pyrrhogaster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, W.; Wiederhold, M.; Hejl, R.

    1998-01-01

    The ultrastructure of the endolymphatic sac (ES) of the late stage larva of the Japanese red-bellied newt, Cynops pyrrhogaster (stage 57), was examined by light and transmission electron microscopy. The two endolymphatic sacs are located at the dorsal-medial side of the otic vesicle on the dorsal-lateral side of the midbrain in the cranial cavity. The wall of the sac is composed of a layer of cubical epithelial cells with loose, interposed intercellular spaces. The sac contains a large luminal cavity, in which endolymph and numerous otoconia are present. The epithelial cells of different portions of the sac have a similar structure. These cells contain an abundance of cytoplasmic organelles, including ribosomes, Golgi complexes, and numerous vesicles. Two types of vesicles are found in the epithelial cells: the "floccular" vesicle and the "granular" vesicle. The floccular vesicles are located in the supra- and lateral-nuclear cytoplasm and contain floccular material. The granular vesicles have a fine granular substance and are usually situated apposed to the apical cell membrane. The granular vesicles are suggested to be secreted into the lumen, while the floccular vesicles are thought to be absorbed from the lumen and conveyed to the intercellular spaces by the epithelial cells. The apical surfaces of the epithelial cells bear numerous microvilli. Apparently floating cells, which bear long microvilli on the free surfaces, are observed in the lumen of the ES. Based on the fine structure, the function of the endolymphatic sac of the newt Cynops pyrrhogaster is discussed.

  15. Determination of OM/OC ratios and specific attenuation coefficients (SAC in ambient fine PM at a rural site in southern Ontario: implications for emission sources, particle aging, and radiative forcing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. W. Chan

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Ambient particulate matter (PM samples were collected on quartz filters at a rural site in southern Ontario during intensive studies in 2005 and 2007. The concentrations of organic carbon (OC, pyrolysis organic carbon (POC, and elemental carbon (EC were determined by thermal analysis. These results were compared to the organic aerosol mass concentration (OM measured by an Aerodyne Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (AMS and to the particle absorption coefficient (b_asp obtained from a Radiance Research Particle Soot Absorption Photometer (PSAP. The total organic mass to organic carbon ratios (OM/OC and specific attenuation coefficients (SAC were also derived. According to the results, the POC mass is proportional to the approximated oxygen mass in the aerosols and OM/OC ratios can be estimated directly from thermal measurements. The study also suggests that the air masses from the south, with relatively low OC/EC ratios, high EC, sulphate contents and OM/OC ratios, were originated from urban and industrial emissions and subsequently experienced photo-oxidations in the atmosphere, implying that the oxygenated organics could come from both primary and secondary sources. Whereas the air masses from the north, with relatively high OC/EC ratios, low EC, sulphate contents and OM/OC ratios, were dominant by the background clean air with relatively larger contributions from biogenic emissions.

    The mean SAC derived from the 2005 and 2007 studies are 4.9 m2 g−1 and 3.8 m2 g−1, respectively. When POC mass approaching zero (i.e. the impact of atmospheric aging is minimized, the SAC for primary emitted soot is estimated to be 5.8 m2 g−1 and 6.3 m2 g−1 for the northern and southern air masses, respectively, supported by the corresponding values when particulate sulphate concentration approaches zero. A decreasing trend in the SAC value with atmospheric aging

  16. 78 FR 63878 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Virginia; Revised Ambient Air...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-25

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Virginia; Revised Ambient Air Quality Standards for Fine Particulate Matter AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA... Commonwealth of Virginia State Implementation Plan (SIP). The revisions add ambient air quality standards...

  17. Novel fiber bottle microresonator add-drop filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senthil Murugan, Ganapathy; Wilkinson, James S.; Zervas, Michalis N.

    2010-02-01

    Novel bottle microresonators fabricated from standard telecommunications optical fiber were recently shown to support helical whispering gallery modes (WGMs) extending along the bottle length between the bottle necks. Intensity maxima were observed around the turning points on both sides close to the bottle necks where the WGMs are effectively reflected. Selective excitation on one side of the bottle microresonator leads to strong power localization at a symmetrically located turning point for the WGMs and can potentially be exploited to form effective add-drop filters. Channel dropping characteristics have been studied experimentally for the first time in this novel type of microresonator. A tapered optical fiber (drawn down to 2-3 microns in diameter with effective index of approximately 1.2) was placed on one side of the bottle to excite the bottle WGMs. A similar tapered fiber placed symmetrically on the other side of the bottle acted as a probe to extract the excited modes. We have successfully extracted power from all the resonance wavelengths using the probe placed at appropriate positions along the bottle, leading to the potential to construct efficient all fiber add-drop filters.

  18. Stretch induced endothelin-1 secretion by adult rat astrocytes involves calcium influx via stretch-activated ion channels (SACs)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ostrow, Lyle W., E-mail: lostrow1@jhmi.edu [Department of Neurology, Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21205 (United States); Suchyna, Thomas M.; Sachs, Frederick [Department of Physiology and Biophysical Sciences, State University of New York at Buffalo, Buffalo, NY 14214 (United States)

    2011-06-24

    Highlights: {yields} Endothelin-1 expression by adult rat astrocytes correlates with cell proliferation. {yields} Stretch-induced ET-1 is inhibited by GsMtx-4, a specific inhibitor of Ca{sup 2+} permeant SACs. {yields} The less specific SAC inhibitor streptomycin also inhibits ET-1 secretion. {yields} Stretch-induced ET-1 production depends on a calcium influx. {yields} SAC pharmacology may provide a new class of therapeutic agents for CNS pathology. -- Abstract: The expression of endothelins (ETs) and ET-receptors is often upregulated in brain pathology. ET-1, a potent vasoconstrictor, also inhibits the expression of astrocyte glutamate transporters and is mitogenic for astrocytes, glioma cells, neurons, and brain capillary endothelia. We have previously shown that mechanical stress stimulates ET-1 production by adult rat astrocytes. We now show in adult astrocytes that ET-1 production is driven by calcium influx through stretch-activated ion channels (SACs) and the ET-1 production correlates with cell proliferation. Mechanical stimulation using biaxial stretch (<20%) of a rubber substrate increased ET-1 secretion, and 4 {mu}M GsMTx-4 (a specific inhibitor of SACs) inhibited secretion by 30%. GsMTx-4 did not alter basal ET-1 levels in the absence of stretch. Decreasing the calcium influx by lowering extracellular calcium also inhibited stretch-induced ET-1 secretion without effecting ET-1 secretion in unstretched controls. Furthermore, inhibiting SACs with the less specific inhibitor streptomycin also inhibited stretch-induced ET-1 secretion. The data can be explained with a simple model in which ET-1 secretion depends on an internal Ca{sup 2+} threshold. This coupling of mechanical stress to the astrocyte endothelin system through SACs has treatment implications, since all pathology deforms the surrounding parenchyma.

  19. 用.NET开发SolidWorks Add-in%The development of SolidWorks Add-in in .NET

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    阳程; 戴跃洪; 林夏斌

    2006-01-01

    分析. NET平台下非托管SolidWorks COM组件访问的技术原理,对该平台下SolidWorks COM对象向SolidWorks PIA对象模型转变的规则作了比较详细的归纳总结.并运用实例阐述在. NET环境下开发SolidWorks Add-in的实现过程与步骤,以期为在. NET平台下进行SolidWorks的二次开发与研究起到探索的作用.

  20. [Sigmoidoperianal fistula associated with diverticulitis and Cul de Sac situation--diagnostics and therapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weyand, G; Rinast, E; Englert, A; Houf, M

    2002-07-01

    We report on the case of a 64-year-old female patient who presented herself in our outpatient clinic because of a perianal fistula with recurrent abscesses. We describe the step diagnostics and the surgical treatment of the causal sigmoido-perianal fistula with diverticulitis and Cul de sac situation. Clinical examination, fistulography, colonoscopy and MRT were part of the precise representation and preparation for the high anterior rectosigmoidal resection with simultaneous rectopexy according to Sudeck which were performed without complications. The sigmoidoperianal fistula must be taken into account as a differential diagnosis of a recalcitrant high perianal fistula. PMID:12122593

  1. Left ovarian gonadoblastoma with yolk sac tumor in a young woman

    OpenAIRE

    Gelincik Ibrahim; Ozen Suleyman; Bayram Irfan

    2010-01-01

    Gonodoblastomas with ovarian germ cell tumors other than dysgerminoma coexists very rarely with yolk sac tumor (YST). Because of this rarity, we report a case of gonadoblastoma with YST. An 18-year-old female patient was admitted to our hospital with an abdomino-pelvic mass. Ultrasonographical examinations revealed a 15X14 cm heterogenous pelvic mass with calcific foci in the left adnexal area. Macroscopically, the resected mass was oval and measured 18X15X15 cm and weighed 3150 gm. Histologi...

  2. CT imaging of ovarian yolk sac tumor with emphasis on differential diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yang-Kang; Zheng, Yu; Lin, Jian-Bang; Xu, Gui-Xiao; Cai, Ai-Qun; Zhou, Xiu-Guo; Zhang, Guo-Jun

    2015-01-01

    Ovarian yolk sac tumors (YSTs) are rare neoplasms. No radiological study has been done to compare the imaging findings between this type of tumor and other ovarian tumors. Here we analyzed the CT findings of 11 pathologically proven ovarian YSTs and compared their imaging findings with 18 other types of ovarian tumors in the same age range. Patient age, tumor size, tumor shape, ascites and metastasis of two groups did not differ significantly (P > 0.05). A mixed solid-cystic nature, intratumoral hemorrhage, marked enhancement and dilated intratumoral vessel of two groups differed significantly (P ovarian tumors. PMID:26074455

  3. CT imaging of ovarian yolk sac tumor with emphasis on differential diagnosis

    OpenAIRE

    Yang-Kang Li; Yu Zheng; Jian-Bang Lin; Gui-Xiao Xu; Ai-Qun Cai; Xiu-Guo Zhou; Guo-Jun Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Ovarian yolk sac tumors (YSTs) are rare neoplasms. No radiological study has been done to compare the imaging findings between this type of tumor and other ovarian tumors. Here we analyzed the CT findings of 11 pathologically proven ovarian YSTs and compared their imaging findings with 18 other types of ovarian tumors in the same age range. Patient age, tumor size, tumor shape, ascites and metastasis of two groups did not differ significantly (P > 0.05). A mixed solid-cystic nature, intratumo...

  4. Mixed ovarian germ cell tumor composed of immature teratoma, yolk sac tumor and embryonal carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ying; Zhou, Feng; Qian, Zhida; Qing, Jiale; Zhao, Mengdam; Huang, Lili

    2014-11-01

    We report the case of a 19-year-old woman experiencing lower abdominal distension and pain. Laboratory tests indicated elevated serum levels of Alpha-Fetoprotein (AFP) and human Chorionic Gonadotropin (hCG). A large mass was detected in the abdomen by physical examination and by transvaginal ultrasonography. Exploratory laparotomy was performed, and a smooth-surfaced, spherical, solid tumor was found on the left ovary, measuring 11.5 x 9.9 x 6.9 cm. Histological evaluation revealed that the tumor consisted of a combination of immature teratoma, Yolk Sac Tumor, and embryonal carcinoma; this is a very rare combination in mixed germ cell tumors. PMID:25518772

  5. Relación entre movimientos sacádicos, lectura y rendimiento escolar

    OpenAIRE

    Alonso-Gutiérrez, Miriam

    2013-01-01

    La lectura es un elemento fundamental para el aprendizaje escolar. Para poseer una lectura eficaz es necesario combinar alta velocidad con alta comprensión y, si no se lleva a cabo como se debe, es necesario mejorarla conociendo todos los procesos que intervienen. Den tro de los procesos de percepción de la lectura se encuentra la visión, de la que el siguiente estudio destaca la importancia de los movimientos sacádicos. En este trabajo se analiza la relación existente entre los movi...

  6. Use of inverted intestinal sacs to assess the effect of gastrointestinal insult on carcinogen absorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capel, I D; Cosier, R S; Pinnock, M H; Williams, D C

    1981-01-01

    Rats were subjected to various forms of treatment in the manner likely to induce gastrointestinal insult. These and control animals were sacrificed and, using inverted sacs, the rate of absorption of either dimethylnitrosamine and benzo(a)pyrene determined. The gastrointestinal injury resulting from the differing treatments did not significantly affect the absorption of benzo(a)pyrene, whereas that of dimethylnitrosamine was significantly increased after each incubation time, most notably by alcohol pretreatment. The results demonstrate that intestinal damage increases the absorption of some carcinogens.

  7. The Pearl Sac Formation in Male and Female Pinctada maxima Host Oysters Implanted With Allograft Saibo

    OpenAIRE

    La Eddy; Ridwan Affandi; Nastiti Kusumorini; Yulvian Sani; Wasmen Manalu

    2015-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to study the effect of male and female host oysters on the pearl sac formation in Pinctada maxima oyster. One hundred sixty oysters were used in a completely randomized design with 2 x 4 factorial arrangement and 20 replications. The 1st factor was that sex of host oyster consisted of two levels that is males and females. The 2nd factor was week after nucleus implantation with four levels that is 1, 2, 3, and 4 weeks. The parameters observed were the percentage of ...

  8. Basement membrane heparan sulfate proteoglycan from the L2 rat yolk sac carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fenger, M; Wewer, U; Albrechtsen, R

    1984-01-01

    Heparan sulfate proteoglycan from the L2 rat yolk sac carcinoma has been purified and partially characterized. The proteoglycan has an apparent Mr of 750 000, 35% of which represents the core protein. The core protein seems to be homogeneous, whereas the heparan sulfate chains are heterogeneous w...... with an Mr of about 50 000-70 000, with 30% of the glucosamine being N-sulfated. Antibodies raised against the core protein of the heparan sulfate proteoglycan reacted with basement membranes of various rat and human tissue....

  9. Stretch induced endothelin-1 secretion by adult rat astrocytes involves calcium influx via stretch-activated ion channels (SACs)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: → Endothelin-1 expression by adult rat astrocytes correlates with cell proliferation. → Stretch-induced ET-1 is inhibited by GsMtx-4, a specific inhibitor of Ca2+ permeant SACs. → The less specific SAC inhibitor streptomycin also inhibits ET-1 secretion. → Stretch-induced ET-1 production depends on a calcium influx. → SAC pharmacology may provide a new class of therapeutic agents for CNS pathology. -- Abstract: The expression of endothelins (ETs) and ET-receptors is often upregulated in brain pathology. ET-1, a potent vasoconstrictor, also inhibits the expression of astrocyte glutamate transporters and is mitogenic for astrocytes, glioma cells, neurons, and brain capillary endothelia. We have previously shown that mechanical stress stimulates ET-1 production by adult rat astrocytes. We now show in adult astrocytes that ET-1 production is driven by calcium influx through stretch-activated ion channels (SACs) and the ET-1 production correlates with cell proliferation. Mechanical stimulation using biaxial stretch (2+ threshold. This coupling of mechanical stress to the astrocyte endothelin system through SACs has treatment implications, since all pathology deforms the surrounding parenchyma.

  10. Morphological characterization of gland cells of the glandular sac area in the complex stomach of the Bactrian camel (Camelus bactrianus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eerdunchaolu; Takehana, K; Kobayashi, A; Baiyin; Cao, G F; Andrén, A; Iwasa, K; Abe, M

    1999-07-01

    The morphology of the gland cells in the glandular sac area of the Bactrian camel and the composition of secretory substances were examined by histochemical methods. It was found that the gland cells of the glandular sac area were of the same type and size as those of the cardiac glands. The composition of secretory substances from the glandular sac area was the same as that of secretory substances from the cardiac glands. Moreover, secretory substances from the gland cells of the glandular sac area contained a great deal of acid glycoconjugates, such as sialic acid, in addition to neutral saccharides (fucose, mannose, glucose, N-acetyl-D-glucosamin, galactose and N-acetyl-galactosamin). Furthermore, immunohistochemical examination showed that progastricsin was present in the gland cells of the glandular sac area and the cardiac gland. In this study, histological analysis suggested that the stomach of the Bactrian camel is a single cavity stomach, formed as a result of multiple differentiation and growth of cardiac glands through the process of evolution.

  11. Macroscopic, cytological and bacteriological evaluation of anal sac content in normal dogs and in dogs with selected dermatological diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappalardo, Ersilia; Martino, Piera Anna; Noli, Chiara

    2002-12-01

    Macroscopic and cytological aspects of anal sac content were evaluated in 40 normal dogs and 10 dogs each with pyoderma, Malassezia dermatitis associated with atopic dermatitis and uncomplicated atopic dermatitis. Bacteria isolated from anal sacs were compared with those from abdominal skin and hair in 20 normal dogs and 10 dogs with pyoderma. There was no difference between the groups in anal sac dimension, or in the colour, consistency or presence of granules in their content. Extracellular bacteria were found in higher numbers in diseased animals, whereas intracellular bacteria were observed in 40% of dogs with pyoderma and in only 2.5% of normal dogs. Malassezia spp. were present in 15.7% of dogs, with no difference between groups. Neutrophils were observed in 12.5% of normal dogs, 30% of dogs with Malassezia dermatitis with underlying atopic dermatitis and in 70 and 80% of dogs with pyoderma and uncomplicated atopic dermatitis, respectively. Seven bacterial species were isolated from anal sacs, with no difference between normal dogs and dogs with pyoderma. In five normal animals and in four dogs with pyoderma the same bacterial strains were isolated from anal sacs and from abdominal skin and hair. PMID:12464064

  12. Graft Distortion After Endovascular Repair of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm: Association with Sac Morphology and Mid-Term Complications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To investigate the incidence, significance, and mechanism of stent-graft distortion after endovascular repair (EVR) of abdominal aortic aneurysm.Methods: EVR of abdominal aortic aneurysm was performed in 51 cases (49 modular, bifurcated; 2 tube). Thirty-two patients were followed for 6 or more months and had equivalent baseline and follow-up images which could be used to determine changes in graft configuration. Sac dimensions were measured using computed tomographic (CT) images and graft-related complications were recorded.Results: Amongst 32 patients evaluated on follow-up, there was graft distortion in 24. Distorted grafts were significantly (p= 0.002) associated with sac diameter reduction (mean 5 mm) and sac length reduction (mean 8.1 mm). All graft-related complications occurred in the limbs of eight distorted grafts, with a mean reduction of sac length in this group of 7.8 mm on reformatted CT images.Conclusion: There was a highly significant association between graft distortion and limb complications, and reduced sac dimensions

  13. A subsurface add-on for standard atomic force microscopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verbiest, G. J., E-mail: Verbiest@physik.rwth-aachen.de [JARA-FIT and II. Institute of Physics, RWTH Aachen University, 52074 Aachen (Germany); Zalm, D. J. van der; Oosterkamp, T. H.; Rost, M. J., E-mail: Rost@physics.leidenuniv.nl [Kamerlingh Onnes Laboratory, Leiden University, P.O. Box 9504, 2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands)

    2015-03-15

    The application of ultrasound in an Atomic Force Microscope (AFM) gives access to subsurface information. However, no commercially AFM exists that is equipped with this technique. The main problems are the electronic crosstalk in the AFM setup and the insufficiently strong excitation of the cantilever at ultrasonic (MHz) frequencies. In this paper, we describe the development of an add-on that provides a solution to these problems by using a special piezo element with a lowest resonance frequency of 2.5 MHz and by separating the electronic connection for this high frequency piezo element from all other connections. In this sense, we support researches with the possibility to perform subsurface measurements with their existing AFMs and hopefully pave also the way for the development of a commercial AFM that is capable of imaging subsurface features with nanometer resolution.

  14. Does E-learning Portal Add Value to Adult Learners?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Issham Ismail

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available E-learning is overtaking traditional teaching and learning environment in distance education program. The aim of this research is to investigate the advantages of the E-learning Portal towards adult learners who have enrolled their studies in, School of Distance Education, Universiti Sains Malaysia (USM. How much have learners gain and benefitted from the portal in their studies? Data were collected from a sample of 1084 undergraduate learners from USM through questionnaire. The data revealed that the learners agreed that they gain from the portal. The mean collected from the survey is in the range from 3.60 to 3.96. Most learners agreed that E-learning Portal add value in their studies. Therefore first class facilities should be provided to adult learners in order to increase their studies thus enable them to perform well in their examination.

  15. Evaluation of cloned cells, animal model, and ATRA sensitivity of human testicular yolk sac tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Junfeng

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The testicular yolk sac tumor (TYST is the most common neoplasm originated from germ cells differentiated abnormally, a major part of pediatric malignant testicular tumors. The present study aimed at developing and validating the in vitro and vivo models of TYST and evaluating the sensitivity of TYST to treatments, by cloning human TYST cells and investigating the histology, ultra-structure, growth kinetics and expression of specific proteins of cloned cells. We found biological characteristics of cloned TYST cells were similar to the yolk sac tumor and differentiated from the columnar to glandular-like or goblet cells-like cells. Chromosomes for tumor identification in each passage met nature of the primary tumor. TYST cells were more sensitive to all-trans-retinoic acid which had significantly inhibitory effects on cell proliferation. Cisplatin induced apoptosis of TYST cells through the activation of p53 expression and down-regulation of Bcl- expression. Thus, we believe that cloned TYST cells and the animal model developed here are useful to understand the molecular mechanism of TYST cells and develop potential therapies for human TYST.

  16. Performance Analysis of SAC Optical PPM-CDMA System-Based Interference Rejection Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsowaidi, N.; Eltaif, Tawfig; Mokhtar, M. R.

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, we aim to theoretically analyse optical code division multiple access (OCDMA) system that based on successive interference cancellation (SIC) using pulse position modulation (PPM), considering the interference between the users, imperfection cancellation occurred during the cancellation process and receiver noises. Spectral amplitude coding (SAC) scheme is used to suppress the overlapping between the users and reduce the receiver noises effect. The theoretical analysis of the multiple access interference (MAI)-limited performance of this approach indicates the influence of the size of M-ary PPM on OCDMA system. The OCDMA system performance improves with increasing M-ary PPM. Therefore, it was found that the SIC/SAC-OCDMA system using PPM technique along with modified prime (MPR) codes used as signature sequence code offers significant improvement over the one without cancellation and it can support up to 103 users at the benchmarking value of bit error rate (BER) = 10-9 with prime number p = 11 while the system without cancellation scheme can support only up to 52 users.

  17. Aerobic Bacterial Flora of Conjunctival Sac in the Healthy Iranian Water Buffalo (Bubalus bubalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Araghi-Sooreh

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This study was aimed to identify the normal aerobic bacterial flora of the conjunctiva in the Iranian water buffalo and to determine the effect of gender, age and ecotype variations on the flora. Fifty healthy Iranian water buffalos (33 females, 17 males, aged 1-15 years, of four different ecotypes-Azeri, Mazandarani, Khuzestani and Guilani were selected and divided into 4 age groups. Swabs were taken from the inferior conjunctival sac of both eyes (n = 100 and cultured on blood and MacConkey agar in aerobic condition. Forty seven buffalos out of 50 (94% were positive for bacteria; 44/50 (88% had positive culture from both eyes. The most frequent isolates were Staphylococcus sp., Escherichia coli and Bacillus cereus. Statistical analysis did not show significant difference in frequency of isolates between sexes, ecotypes and age groups (p>0.05. A correlation was found between the buffalo age and number of species isolated per eye (p<0.01. In this study Dermatophilus congolensis and Edwardsiella tarda were reported for the first time in the conjunctiva of animals. Gram-positive aerobes were most commonly cultured from the conjunctival sac of healthy water buffalos.

  18. Metastatic anal sac carcinoma with hypercalcaemia and associated hypertrophic osteopathy in a dog

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Giuliano

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available A seven-year-old male neutered Irish setter was treated for a metastatic anal sac adenocarcinoma (ASAC and hypercalcaemia by complete surgical excision of the primary tumour and partial excision of the sublumbar lymph nodes. Further enlargement of the sublumbar lymph nodes was linked to recurrent hypercalcaemia 3 months after surgical treatment. Medical treatment with Toceranib and Clodronate showed modest results in the treatment of the tumour and the hypercalcaemia. Radiotherapy of the sublumbar lymph nodes and later concurrent carboplatin chemotherapy resulted in partial tumour remission with marked reduction in size of the lymph nodes and normalization of the calcaemia. Unfortunately, concurrently with subsequent relapse of the hypercalaemia, the dog developed hypertrophic osteopathy (HO and lumbar spinal metastasis and the dog was euthanized. To the authors’ knowledge, this is the second case of metastatic apocrine gland carcinoma of the anal sac associated with HO and the first case that describe the development of HO late in the stage of the disease.

  19. 77 FR 59610 - Flonicamid; Applications To Add New Food Uses on Previously Registered Pesticide Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-28

    ... applications to add new food uses on previously registered pesticide products containing the insecticide... registered pesticide products containing the insecticide, flonicamid, N-(cyanomethyl)-4-(trifluoromethyl)-3... AGENCY Flonicamid; Applications To Add New Food Uses on Previously Registered Pesticide Products...

  20. Maternal-fetal immunoglobulin transport: Studies on the binding, internalization, and release of IgG by chick yolk sac tissue and cultured cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Immunoglobulin G (IgG) is transported from the yolk across the endodermal cells of the yolk sac and into the fetal circulation during chick embryonic development, thus providing the chick with passive immunity until it becomes immunocompetent. Saturable, Fc-specific receptors are present on the endodermal cells and are believed to mediate this transfer. In this study, IgG receptors were shown to be present on the yolk sac endodermal cells throughout the 21 days of development, although most of the transport occurs during the last 3 days prior to hatching. Fluorescently conjugated IgG was internalized by a receptor mechanism into small apical vesicles in yolk sac endoderm throughout, but cells from 19 day yolk sacs internalized more conjugate than those from 14 day yolk sacs. This was confirmed and quantitated by assaying the internalization of 125I-IgG into yolk sac tissue. IgG was internalized by a receptor mediated mechanism, reaching a steady state level after 1 to 2 hours. Although both ages of yolk sac tissue possessed the same number of surface IgG receptors, as measured by equilibrium binding assays at 4 degree C, 19 day yolk sac had the capacity to internalize six times as much IgG by a receptor mechanism as 14 day yolk sac

  1. Standardization and validation of a novel and simple method to assess lumbar dural sac size

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aim: To develop and validate a simple, reproducible method to assess dural sac size using standard imaging technology. Materials and methods: This study was institutional review board-approved. Two readers, blinded to the diagnoses, measured anterior–posterior (AP) and transverse (TR) dural sac diameter (DSD), and AP vertebral body diameter (VBD) of the lumbar vertebrae using MRI images from 53 control patients with pre-existing MRI examinations, 19 prospectively MRI-imaged healthy controls, and 24 patients with Marfan syndrome with prior MRI or CT lumbar spine imaging. Statistical analysis utilized linear and logistic regression, Pearson correlation, and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves. Results: AP-DSD and TR-DSD measurements were reproducible between two readers (r = 0.91 and 0.87, respectively). DSD (L1–L5) was not different between male and female controls in the AP or TR plane (p = 0.43; p = 0.40, respectively), and did not vary by age (p = 0.62; p = 0.25) or height (p = 0.64; p = 0.32). AP-VBD was greater in males versus females (p = 1.5 × 10−8), resulting in a smaller dural sac ratio (DSR) (DSD/VBD) in males (p = 5.8 × 10−6). Marfan patients had larger AP-DSDs and TR-DSDs than controls (p = 5.9 × 10−9; p = 6.5 × 10−9, respectively). Compared to DSR, AP-DSD and TR-DSD better discriminate Marfan from control subjects based on area under the curve (AUC) values from unadjusted ROCs (AP-DSD p < 0.01; TR-DSD p = 0.04). Conclusion: Individual vertebrae and L1–L5 (average) AP-DSD and TR-DSD measurements are simple, reliable, and reproducible for quantitating dural sac size without needing to control for gender, age, or height. - Highlights: • DSD (L1-L5) does not differ in the AP or TR plane by gender, height, or age. • AP- and TR-DSD measures correlate well between readers with different experience. • Height is positively correlated to AP-VBD in both males and females. • Varying vertebral

  2. Prevascular femoral hernia and its relation with inferior epigastric vessels: a rare presentation of the femoral hernia sac.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boshnaq, Mohamed; Phan, Yih Chyn; Akhtar, Mansoor; Hamade, Ayman

    2016-01-01

    A 61-year-old man presented to the emergency department, with a 2-week history of a painful lump on his right groin. A diagnosis of an irreducible right femoral hernia was made. As such, an urgent operation was carried out on the same day, and the patient was found to have a rare prevascular femoral hernia in which the sac was lying over the femoral vessels and split by the inferior epigastric vessels into 2 components resembling 2 trouser limbs. The hernia sac presented in a different and challenging way that necessitated meticulous dissection and full orientation of the anatomy of the femoral triangle. Complete dissection and control of the inferior epigastric vessels, and complete reduction of the sac followed by repair with a prosthetic mesh plug were performed successfully. The patient was discharged home the next day. PMID:27090547

  3. Characteristics of indomethacin-saccharin (IMC-SAC) co-crystals prepared by an anti-solvent crystallization process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chun, Nan-Hee; Wang, In-Chun; Lee, Min-Jeong; Jung, Yun-Taek; Lee, Sangkil; Kim, Woo-Sik; Choi, Guang J

    2013-11-01

    The creation of co-crystals of various insoluble drug substances has been extensively investigated as a promising approach to improve their pharmaceutical performance. In this study, co-crystal powders of indomethacin and saccharin (IMC-SAC) were prepared by an anti-solvent (water) addition and compared with co-crystals by evaporation method. No successful synthesis of a pharmaceutical co-crystal powder via an anti-solvent approach has been reported. Among solvents examined, methanol was practically the only one that resulted in the formation of highly pure IMC-SAC co-crystal powders by anti-solvent approach. The mechanism of a preferential formation of IMC-SAC co-crystal to IMC was explained with two aspects: phase solubility diagram and solution complexation concept. Accordingly, the anti-solvent approach can be considered as a competitive route for producing pharmaceutical co-crystal powders with acceptable properties.

  4. Manipulation of Ovaries/Ovules and Clearance and Isolation of Embryo Sacs of Impatiens glandulifera and Nicotiana tabacum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noreldaim Hussein

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to develop techniques to clear and/or isolate embryo sacs of Impatiens glandulifera and Nicotiana tabacum, to facilitate microscopic examination for subsequent experimentation on in vitro fertilization of flowering plants. Two techniques were applied: The clearing and enzymic maceration. Both of the 2 adopted techniques were effective in revealing embryo sacs of the studied plant species. A fixative prepared from propionic acid, formaldehyde, ethanol (50% in the ratio 5:5:90 was used. The clearing solution was prepared from lactic acid (85%, chloral hydrate, phenol, clove oil and xylene in the ratio 2:2:2:2:1 by weight. Both the clearing and the enzymic maceration techniques proved effective in revealing embryo sacs of I. glandulifera and N. tabacum

  5. 5 CFR 591.227 - What adjustment factors does OPM add to the price indexes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false What adjustment factors does OPM add to...-Nonforeign Areas Cost-Of-Living Allowances § 591.227 What adjustment factors does OPM add to the price indexes? OPM adds to the price index an adjustment factor that reflects differences in need, access to...

  6. 47 CFR 73.9006 - Add-in covered demodulator products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Add-in covered demodulator products. 73.9006... RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES Digital Broadcast Television Redistribution Control § 73.9006 Add-in covered... passed to an output (e.g., where a demodulator add-in card in a personal computer passes such content...

  7. 24 CFR 983.206 - HAP contract amendments (to add or substitute contract units).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false HAP contract amendments (to add or... Contract § 983.206 HAP contract amendments (to add or substitute contract units). (a) Amendment to... substitute unit and must determine the reasonable rent for such unit. (b) Amendment to add contract units....

  8. An add-on system including a micro-reactor for an atr-ir spectrometer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    The invention relates to an add-on system for an attenuated total reflectance infrared (ATR-IR) spectrometer, the add-on system allowing for time-resolved in situ IR measurements of heterogeneous mixtures. The add-on device comprises a micro-reactor (300A) forming a sample cavity (305) when...

  9. 12 CFR 502.60 - When will OTS adjust, add, waive, or eliminate a fee?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false When will OTS adjust, add, waive, or eliminate... TREASURY ASSESSMENTS AND FEES Fees § 502.60 When will OTS adjust, add, waive, or eliminate a fee? Under unusual circumstances, the Director may deem it necessary or appropriate to adjust, add, waive,...

  10. Altered callose deposition during embryo sac formation of multi-pistil mutant (mp1) in Medicago sativa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, H C; Jin, L; Li, J; Wang, X J

    2016-01-01

    Whether callose deposition is the cause or result of ovule sterility in Medicago sativa remains controversial, because it is unclear when and where changes in callose deposition and dissolution occur during fertile and sterile embryo sac formation. Here, alfalfa spontaneous multi-pistil mutant (mp1) and wild-type plants were used to compare the dynamics of callose deposition during embryo sac formation using microscopy. The results showed that both mutant and wild-type plants experienced megasporogenesis and megagametogenesis, and there was no significant difference during megasporogenesis. In contrast to the wild-type plants, in which the mature embryo sac was observed after three continuous cycles of mitosis, functional megaspores of mutant plants developed abnormally after the second round of mitosis, leading to degeneration of synergid, central, and antipodal cells. Callose deposition in both mutant and wild-type plants was first observed in the walls of megasporocytes, and then in the megaspore tetrad walls. After meiosis, the callose wall began to degrade as the functional megaspore underwent mitosis, and almost no callose was observed in the mature embryo sac in wild-type plants. However, callose deposition was observed in mp1 plants around the synergid, and increased with the development of the embryo sac, and was mainly deposited at the micropylar end. Our results indicate that synergid, central, and antipodal cells, which are surrounded by callose, may degrade owing to lack of nutrition. Callose accumulation around the synergid and at the micropylar end may hinder signals required for the pollen tube to enter the embryo sac, leading to abortion. PMID:27323128

  11. Histological analyses demonstrate the temporary contribution of yolk sac, liver, and bone marrow to hematopoiesis during chicken development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscila Tavares Guedes

    Full Text Available The use of avian animal models has contributed to the understanding of many aspects of the ontogeny of the hematopoietic system in vertebrates. However, specific events that occur in the model itself are still unclear. There is a lack of consensus, among previous studies, about which is the intermediate site responsible for expansion and differentiation of hematopoietic cells, and the liver's contribution to the development of this system. Here we aimed to evaluate the presence of hematopoiesis in the yolk sac and liver in chickens, from the stages of intra-aortic clusters in the aorta-genital ridges-mesonephros (AGM region until hatching, and how it relates to the establishment of the bone marrow. Gallus gallus domesticus L. embryos and their respective yolk sacs at embryonic day 3 (E3 and up to E21 were collected and processed according to standard histological techniques for paraffin embedding. The slides were stained with hematoxylin-eosin, Lennert's Giemsa, and Sirius Red at pH 10.2, and investigated by light microscopy. This study demonstrated that the yolk sac was a unique hematopoietic site between E4 and E12. Hematopoiesis occurred in the yolk sac and bone marrow between E13 and E20. The liver showed granulocytic differentiation in the connective tissue of portal spaces at E15 and onwards. The yolk sac showed expansion of erythrocytic and granulocytic lineages from E6 to E19, and E7 to E20, respectively. The results suggest that the yolk sac is the major intermediate erythropoietic and granulopoietic site where expansion and differentiation occur during chicken development. The hepatic hematopoiesis is restricted to the portal spaces and represented by the granulocytic lineage.

  12. Border Effects in Passenger Air Traffic

    OpenAIRE

    Klodt, Henning

    2003-01-01

    National borders substantially matter in passenger air traffic. Empirical estimates based upon a new data set on domestic and international departures from German airports indicate that the German border reduces air traffic activity by a factor of four to five. This result adds a further piece of evidence to the significance of border effects in various kinds of economic activity.

  13. Atypical presentation of sacrococcygeal yolk sac tumor in infant: beware of the injuries of the gluteal region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, Francesco; Di Serafino, Marco; Oresta, Patrizia

    2016-09-01

    Malignant sacrococcygeal yolk sac tumor is a rare extra-gonadal germ cell tumor of infancy and childhood. We report the case of a 14-month-old white female infant with a rapidly growing supra-gluteal mass at first misdiagnosed as hemangioma after a clinical assessment. The lesion was then classified as extra-gonadal yolk sac tumor due to alarming ultrasound features, later confirmed at MRI and pathology. This report remarks the need of a rigorous methodology in the ultrasound exploration of the gluteal region. PMID:27635156

  14. Does aquaculture add resilience to the global food system?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troell, Max; Naylor, Rosamond L; Metian, Marc; Beveridge, Malcolm; Tyedmers, Peter H; Folke, Carl; Arrow, Kenneth J; Barrett, Scott; Crépin, Anne-Sophie; Ehrlich, Paul R; Gren, Asa; Kautsky, Nils; Levin, Simon A; Nyborg, Karine; Österblom, Henrik; Polasky, Stephen; Scheffer, Marten; Walker, Brian H; Xepapadeas, Tasos; de Zeeuw, Aart

    2014-09-16

    Aquaculture is the fastest growing food sector and continues to expand alongside terrestrial crop and livestock production. Using portfolio theory as a conceptual framework, we explore how current interconnections between the aquaculture, crop, livestock, and fisheries sectors act as an impediment to, or an opportunity for, enhanced resilience in the global food system given increased resource scarcity and climate change. Aquaculture can potentially enhance resilience through improved resource use efficiencies and increased diversification of farmed species, locales of production, and feeding strategies. However, aquaculture's reliance on terrestrial crops and wild fish for feeds, its dependence on freshwater and land for culture sites, and its broad array of environmental impacts diminishes its ability to add resilience. Feeds for livestock and farmed fish that are fed rely largely on the same crops, although the fraction destined for aquaculture is presently small (∼4%). As demand for high-value fed aquaculture products grows, competition for these crops will also rise, as will the demand for wild fish as feed inputs. Many of these crops and forage fish are also consumed directly by humans and provide essential nutrition for low-income households. Their rising use in aquafeeds has the potential to increase price levels and volatility, worsening food insecurity among the most vulnerable populations. Although the diversification of global food production systems that includes aquaculture offers promise for enhanced resilience, such promise will not be realized if government policies fail to provide adequate incentives for resource efficiency, equity, and environmental protection. PMID:25136111

  15. The IRBIT domain adds new functions to the AHCY family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devogelaere, Benoit; Sammels, Eva; De Smedt, Humbert

    2008-07-01

    During the past few years, the IRBIT domain has emerged as an important add-on of S-adenosyl-L-homocystein hydrolase (AHCY), thereby creating the new family of AHCY-like proteins. In this review, we discuss the currently available data on this new family of proteins. We describe the IRBIT domain as a unique part of these proteins and give an overview of its regulation via (de)phosphorylation and proteolysis. The second part of this review is focused on the potential functions of the AHCY-like proteins. We propose that the IRBIT domain serves as an anchor for targeting AHCY-like proteins towards cytoplasmic targets. This leads to regulation of (i) intracellular Ca2+ via the inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor (IP3R), (ii) intracellular pH via the Na+/HCO3 - cotransporters (NBCs); whereas inactivation of the IRBIT domain induces (iii) nuclear translocation and regulation of AHCY activity. Dysfunction of AHCY-like proteins will disturb these three important functions, with various biological implications. PMID:18536033

  16. Does aquaculture add resilience to the global food system?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troell, Max; Naylor, Rosamond L; Metian, Marc; Beveridge, Malcolm; Tyedmers, Peter H; Folke, Carl; Arrow, Kenneth J; Barrett, Scott; Crépin, Anne-Sophie; Ehrlich, Paul R; Gren, Asa; Kautsky, Nils; Levin, Simon A; Nyborg, Karine; Österblom, Henrik; Polasky, Stephen; Scheffer, Marten; Walker, Brian H; Xepapadeas, Tasos; de Zeeuw, Aart

    2014-09-16

    Aquaculture is the fastest growing food sector and continues to expand alongside terrestrial crop and livestock production. Using portfolio theory as a conceptual framework, we explore how current interconnections between the aquaculture, crop, livestock, and fisheries sectors act as an impediment to, or an opportunity for, enhanced resilience in the global food system given increased resource scarcity and climate change. Aquaculture can potentially enhance resilience through improved resource use efficiencies and increased diversification of farmed species, locales of production, and feeding strategies. However, aquaculture's reliance on terrestrial crops and wild fish for feeds, its dependence on freshwater and land for culture sites, and its broad array of environmental impacts diminishes its ability to add resilience. Feeds for livestock and farmed fish that are fed rely largely on the same crops, although the fraction destined for aquaculture is presently small (∼4%). As demand for high-value fed aquaculture products grows, competition for these crops will also rise, as will the demand for wild fish as feed inputs. Many of these crops and forage fish are also consumed directly by humans and provide essential nutrition for low-income households. Their rising use in aquafeeds has the potential to increase price levels and volatility, worsening food insecurity among the most vulnerable populations. Although the diversification of global food production systems that includes aquaculture offers promise for enhanced resilience, such promise will not be realized if government policies fail to provide adequate incentives for resource efficiency, equity, and environmental protection.

  17. Lixisenatide as add-on therapy to basal insulin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brown DX

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Dominique Xavier Brown, Emma Louise Butler, Marc Evans Diabetes Department, University Hospital Llandough, Cardiff, UK Abstract: Many patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus do not achieve target glycosylated hemoglobin A1c levels despite optimally titrated basal insulin and satisfactory fasting plasma glucose levels. Current evidence suggests that HbA1c levels are dictated by both basal glucose and postprandial glucose levels. This has led to a consensus that postprandial glucose excursions contribute to poor glycemic control in these patients. Lixisenatide is a once-daily, prandial glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1 receptor agonist with a four-fold affinity for the GLP-1 receptor compared with native GLP-1. Importantly, lixisenatide causes a significant delay in gastric emptying time, an important determinant of the once-daily dosing regimen. An exendin-4 mimetic with six lysine residues removed at the C-terminal, lixisenatide has pronounced postprandial glucose-lowering effects, making it a novel incretin agent for use in combination with optimally titrated basal insulin. Lixisenatide exerts profound effects on postprandial glucose through established mechanisms of glucose-dependent insulin secretion and glucagon suppression in combination with delayed gastric emptying. This review discusses the likely place that lixisenatide will occupy in clinical practice, given its profound effects on postprandial glucose and potential to reduce glycemic variability. Keywords: lixisenatide, add-on therapy, insulin, GLP-1 receptor agonist, postprandial glucose, pharmacodynamics

  18. SAC105掺Ni焊球对焊接点强度与可靠性的影响%Effects of SAC105 Ni Doping Solder Ball on the Strength and Reliability of the Solder Joint

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张淑红; 陶自春

    2015-01-01

    在内存封装领域,球栅阵列封装(BGA)由于具有高密度和低成本的特点而被广泛采用.在实际的使用过程中,由于遭受外界各种形式的机械负载和冲击造成器件失效,为了改善焊点的强度和可靠性,以SAC105(Sn985AgCu0.5)无铅焊球为参照制备出SAC105 Ni005焊球.为了研究两种焊球焊接点的可靠性与强度,采用焊球的快速剪切测试以及BGA器件的剪切测试方法来检测焊点强度,同时采用威布尔分析方法对两种焊球的热循环测试(TCT)结果进行分析.研究表明,SAC105 Ni0.05焊球比SAC 105焊球具有更长的温度循环可靠性预期寿命、更强的焊接点强度以及更低的脆性断裂的概率.

  19. Solutions Network Formulation Report. Reducing Light Pollution in U.S. Coastal Regions Using the High Sensitivity Cameras on the SAC-C and Aquarius/SAC-D Satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Jane C.; Knowlton, Kelly

    2007-01-01

    Light pollution has significant adverse biological effects on humans, animals, and plants and has resulted in the loss of our ability to view the stars and planets of the universe. Over half of the U.S. population resides in coastal regions where it is no longer possible to see the stars and planets in the night sky. Forty percent of the entire U.S. population is never exposed to conditions dark enough for their eyes to convert to night vision capabilities. In coastal regions, urban lights shine far out to sea where they are augmented by the output from fishing boat, cruise ship and oil platform floodlights. The proposed candidate solution suggests using HSCs (high sensitivity cameras) onboard the SAC-C and Aquarius/SAC-D satellites to quantitatively evaluate light pollution at high spatial resolution. New products modeled after pre-existing, radiance-calibrated, global nighttime lights products would be integrated into a modified Garstang model where elevation, mountain screening, Rayleigh scattering, Mie scattering by aerosols, and atmospheric extinction along light paths and curvature of the Earth would be taken into account. Because the spatial resolution of the HSCs on SAC-C and the future Aquarius/SAC-D missions is greater than that provided by the DMSP (Defense Meteorological Satellite Program) OLS (Operational Linescan System) or VIIRS (Visible/Infrared Imager/Radiometer Suite), it may be possible to obtain more precise light intensity data for analytical DSSs and the subsequent reduction in coastal light pollution.

  20. Left ovarian gonadoblastoma with yolk sac tumor in a young woman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gelincik Ibrahim

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Gonodoblastomas with ovarian germ cell tumors other than dysgerminoma coexists very rarely with yolk sac tumor (YST. Because of this rarity, we report a case of gonadoblastoma with YST. An 18-year-old female patient was admitted to our hospital with an abdomino-pelvic mass. Ultrasonographical examinations revealed a 15X14 cm heterogenous pelvic mass with calcific foci in the left adnexal area. Macroscopically, the resected mass was oval and measured 18X15X15 cm and weighed 3150 gm. Histological examination showed both gonadoblastic and YST areas. There were many gonadoblastic nests in the subcapsular areas of the tumor. The gonadoblastic nests were composed of large and small cells. The YST areas showed enteric differentiation and numerous hyaline globules. Immunohistochemical examination may help in the diagnosis of these gonadoblastoma with YST.

  1. Mediastinal Yolk Sac Tumor Producing Protein Induced by Vitamin K Absence or Antagonist-II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akutsu, Noriyuki; Adachi, Yasushi; Isosaka, Mai; Mita, Hiroaki; Takagi, Hideyasu; Sasaki, Shigeru; Yamamoto, Hiroyuki; Arimura, Yoshiaki; Ishii, Yoshifumi; Masumori, Naoya; Endo, Takao; Shinomura, Yasuhisa

    2015-01-01

    Extragonadal yolk sac tumors (YSTs) are rare. We herein report the case of a 66-year-old man with mediastinal, lung and liver tumors. The largest mass was located in the liver and contained a high concentration of protein induced by vitamin K absence or antagonist-II (PIVKA-II) and alpha-fetoprotein. Therefore, the lesion was difficult to distinguish from hepatocellular carcinoma. Finally, YST was diagnosed based on the results of a liver biopsy. Although chemotherapy was effective, the patient died of respiratory failure. The autopsy revealed primary mediastinal YST. In the current report, we describe this case of PIVKA-II-producing YST and review previous cases of PIVKA-II-producing tumors other than hepatoma.

  2. Mediastinal Yolk Sac Tumor Producing Protein Induced by Vitamin K Absence or Antagonist-II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akutsu, Noriyuki; Adachi, Yasushi; Isosaka, Mai; Mita, Hiroaki; Takagi, Hideyasu; Sasaki, Shigeru; Yamamoto, Hiroyuki; Arimura, Yoshiaki; Ishii, Yoshifumi; Masumori, Naoya; Endo, Takao; Shinomura, Yasuhisa

    2015-01-01

    Extragonadal yolk sac tumors (YSTs) are rare. We herein report the case of a 66-year-old man with mediastinal, lung and liver tumors. The largest mass was located in the liver and contained a high concentration of protein induced by vitamin K absence or antagonist-II (PIVKA-II) and alpha-fetoprotein. Therefore, the lesion was difficult to distinguish from hepatocellular carcinoma. Finally, YST was diagnosed based on the results of a liver biopsy. Although chemotherapy was effective, the patient died of respiratory failure. The autopsy revealed primary mediastinal YST. In the current report, we describe this case of PIVKA-II-producing YST and review previous cases of PIVKA-II-producing tumors other than hepatoma. PMID:26073245

  3. Five new species of the Afrotropical dark sac spider genus Messapus Simon, 1898 (Araneae: Corinnidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddad, Charles R; Mbo, Zingisile

    2015-12-11

    The Afrotropical dark sac spider genus Messapus Simon, 1898 (Corinnidae: Corinninae) currently only comprises two described species, the type species M. martini Simon, 1898 and M. natalis (Pocock, 1898), which have both recently been redescribed. The leg and setal morphology of Messapus is studied using scanning electron microscopy for the first time, for M. martini and M. tigris sp. n., and additional characters are provided to supplement a recent generic description. Five new species are described in the current paper: M. megae sp. n. (♂ ♀, from Zimbabwe), M. meridionalis sp. n. (♀, from South Africa), M. seiugatus sp. n. (♀, from Guinea), M. tigris sp. n. (♀, from Botswana and Namibia), and M. tropicus sp. n. (♂ ♀, from Democratic Republic of the Congo). All five species are arboreal spiders occurring on bark, lower foliage strata and the canopies of forest and savannah trees. An identification key to the seven species of the genus is provided.

  4. Embryo sac development in yellow passion fruit Passiflora edulis f. flavicarpa (Passifloraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarete Magalhães de Souza

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The yellow passion fruit, Passiflora edulis f. flavicarpa, is one of the most important Brazilian fruit crops. It is an allogamous, diploid, and self-incompatible species. It has hermaphrodite, solitary flowers, located in the leaf axils and protected by leaf bracts. The flower has an androgynophore, which is a straight stalk supporting its reproductive parts. There are usually five anthers, located at the tip of each of the five filaments. The ovary is borne just above the filaments, at the top of the androgynophore; there are three styles that are united at their base, and at the top there are three stigmas. The objective of this research was to observe embryo sac development in yellow passion flowers. Ovaries at different stages of development were fixed in FAA (formalin, acetic acid and alcohol solution, hydrated, stained with Mayer’s hemalum, and dehydrated. Ovules were cleared by using methyl salicylate, mounted on slides, and observed through a confocal scanning laser microscope. The yellow passion fruit ovule is bitegmic, crassinucellate, and anatropous, and its gametophyte development is of the Polygonum type. After meiosis, functional megaspores under go three successive mitotic divisions, resulting in an eight-nucleate megagametophyte: the egg apparatus at the micropylar end, two polar nuclei at the cell center, and three antipodals at the chalazal end. The egg apparatus is formed by an egg cell and two synergids, each with a filiform apparatus. The mature embryo sac has an egg cell, two synergids, two polar nuclei, and three antipodes, as has been described for most angiosperms.

  5. New Technique for Suppression Four-Wave Mixing Effects in SAC-OCDMA Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim Fadhil Radhi

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available A new technique invented for suppressing the FWM in SAC-OCDMA systems based on adding idle code at the sideband of the code construction to generate the virtual FWM power at the sideband of the signal, and then by subtracting these virtual FWM power from the original FWM power in the system and filtering the data part at the channel. This technique is applied for both SAC codes, Random Diagonal Code (RD and Multi Diagonal Code (MD. Moreover, in terms of cost, the reported technique is considered a cost-effective as the LED light source is used to generate the sideband codes. The results showed that the FWM reduced approximately 25 dBm after using the technique. For example, in the RD code the FWM power at 40km fiber length and input power is 15 dBm using the SMF fiber type is approximately -55 dBm before using the technique, after using the technique at the same values of parameters the FWM power is approximately -90dBm. In other words, at the MD code the FWM power before using the technique is approximately -61 dBm, the same parameters values, however after using our technique the value of the FWM power is approximately -81dBm. However, These results gave impact on the Bit Error Rate (BER also, for example the value of BER in the RD code at the input power -10dBm and 35km fiber length before using the technique is 1.6×10-23 and after using the technique the value of BER will become 4.05×10-28. In addition at the MD code the BER value before using the technique is 9.4×10-22 and after using the technique the value of BER is 7.4×10-31.

  6. PolySac3DB: an annotated data base of 3 dimensional structures of polysaccharides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarkar Anita

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Polysaccharides are ubiquitously present in the living world. Their structural versatility makes them important and interesting components in numerous biological and technological processes ranging from structural stabilization to a variety of immunologically important molecular recognition events. The knowledge of polysaccharide three-dimensional (3D structure is important in studying carbohydrate-mediated host-pathogen interactions, interactions with other bio-macromolecules, drug design and vaccine development as well as material science applications or production of bio-ethanol. Description PolySac3DB is an annotated database that contains the 3D structural information of 157 polysaccharide entries that have been collected from an extensive screening of scientific literature. They have been systematically organized using standard names in the field of carbohydrate research into 18 categories representing polysaccharide families. Structure-related information includes the saccharides making up the repeat unit(s and their glycosidic linkages, the expanded 3D representation of the repeat unit, unit cell dimensions and space group, helix type, diffraction diagram(s (when applicable, experimental and/or simulation methods used for structure description, link to the abstract of the publication, reference and the atomic coordinate files for visualization and download. The database is accompanied by a user-friendly graphical user interface (GUI. It features interactive displays of polysaccharide structures and customized search options for beginners and experts, respectively. The site also serves as an information portal for polysaccharide structure determination techniques. The web-interface also references external links where other carbohydrate-related resources are available. Conclusion PolySac3DB is established to maintain information on the detailed 3D structures of polysaccharides. All the data and features are available

  7. 基于COM Add-ins技术的Excel成绩统计插件开发%Development oF Excel Score Statistic Add-ins Based on Com Add-Ins Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余鹏飞; 李海燕

    2006-01-01

    COM Add-ins 技术是Office 2000/XP提供的一种新技术,该技术基于COM技术来扩展Office软件的功能.讨论了在Excel下COM Add-ins 技术的实现方法,然后给出了用该技术实现成绩统计功能的具体步骤和主要代码.

  8. CHAOS-a model of the Earth's magnetic field derived from CHAMP, Orsted, and SAC-C magnetic satellite data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Nils; Luhr, H.; Sabaka, T.J.;

    2006-01-01

    We have derived a model of the near-Earth magnetic field (up to spherical harmonic degree n= 50 for the static field, and up to n = 18 for the first time derivative) using more than 6.5 yr of high-precision geomagnetic measurements from the three satellites Orsted, CHAMP and SAC-C taken between...

  9. Fetus-in-fetu in the scrotal sac of a newborn infant: imaging, surgical and pathological findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, J.H.; Yoon, C.H.; Cho, K.S.; Auh, Y.H. [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lim, S.D. [Department of Diagnostic Pathology, Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, E.A.R.; Kim, K.S.; Pi, S.Y. [Department of Pediatrics, Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, K.S. [Department of Urology, Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-06-01

    We report a case of fetus-in-fetu located in the scrotal sac of a newborn male infant. Plain radiography (including specimen radiography), ultrasonography and MRI clearly demonstrated vertebral column, ribs, skull, pelvic bones, femurs and a portion of tibiae and humeri. The diagnosis was confirmed by pathological examination. (orig.) With 4 figs., 5 refs.

  10. Integrated add/drop multiplexer (ADM) using micromachined mirror

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, J.; Zhang, Q. X.; Balasubramanian, N.; Huang, J.-M.; Liu, Ai Q.

    2001-10-01

    High speed, low insertion loss optical add/drop multiplexer (ADM) is designed and fabricated. The optical vertical micromirror is fabricated by deep dry etching, the aspect ratio reaches as high as 20. A thin aluminum film is deposited on the sidewall of the micromirror to increase the reflectivity. The anchors and pads are fabricated firstly, followed by the comb drive, micromirror and fiber grooves. Refilling technique is introduced to electrically insulate the anchors and pads from the substrate while still maintaining the mechanical support. The anchors and pads are strong enough to sustain the floating structures (micromirror and moving comb) and also assure good electrical connection to the electrostatic comb drive so that the external voltage can be applied. By improving dry etching, the finger width is only 2micrometers and the gap is only 2.5micrometers . A typical electrostatic comb drive is fabricated by the deep reactive ion etching (RIE) and underneath releasing. Folded suspension beams of 800micrometers long, 2.0 micrometers wide and 35micrometers deep are employed to support the movable micromirror. The stiffness along the desired lateral direction is 0.21N/m. Comb drive using three electrodes is employed. Its applied voltage is decreased by a ratio of 0.707 compared with that of the two electrodes system, and the switching speed is also increased. To simply the optical fiber assembly, fiber grooves are fabricated along with the other structures. This device has a typical of optical ADM that can be widely used in all optical networks. All of the processes are compatible with IC technology and can be integrated with control circuits in a single chip.

  11. What a signature adds to the consent process.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Neary, Peter

    2012-02-03

    BACKGROUND: "Consent is a process by which a patient is informed and becomes a participant in decisions regarding their medical management." It is argued, however, that providing a signature to a form adds little to the quality of this process. METHODS: Views regarding the consent ritual of nonselected patients undergoing endoscopy (cystoscopy or sigmoidoscopy) were prospectively studied together with those of the attending staff. Patient volunteers were randomly assigned to one of two groups and given verbal explanation before the procedure, either alone (group A) or with a request to sign a form in addition (group B). A standardized questionnaire regarding preferences then was applied. RESULTS: A total of 37 patients (22 men) were studied along with seven staff members. Most surveyed felt that signing a consent form helped to empower the patient (group A, 84%; group B, 83%; staff, 100%). Although the patients mainly believed that it functioned primarily to protect the hospital and doctor (group A, 89%; group B, 67%), only one patient (3% of total) felt that such a formality undermined the patient-doctor relationship. Most staff members favored signing a form (86%). The majority of patients either favored it (group A, 47%; group B, 78%) or expressed no strong preference (group A, 32%; group B, 11%). Interestingly, more women than men preferred signing (73 vs. 55%; p = 0.25), perhaps because more women believed that it functioned to preserve autonomy (93 vs. 77% of men). Age was no particular determinant of perspective. CONCLUSION: Although it may be viewed as primarily serving to protect the doctor and hospital, the formal process of signing written consent forms appeals to patients and staff.

  12. Embedding objects during 3D printing to add new functionalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuen, Po Ki

    2016-07-01

    A novel method for integrating and embedding objects to add new functionalities during 3D printing based on fused deposition modeling (FDM) (also known as fused filament fabrication or molten polymer deposition) is presented. Unlike typical 3D printing, FDM-based 3D printing could allow objects to be integrated and embedded during 3D printing and the FDM-based 3D printed devices do not typically require any post-processing and finishing. Thus, various fluidic devices with integrated glass cover slips or polystyrene films with and without an embedded porous membrane, and optical devices with embedded Corning(®) Fibrance™ Light-Diffusing Fiber were 3D printed to demonstrate the versatility of the FDM-based 3D printing and embedding method. Fluid perfusion flow experiments with a blue colored food dye solution were used to visually confirm fluid flow and/or fluid perfusion through the embedded porous membrane in the 3D printed fluidic devices. Similar to typical 3D printed devices, FDM-based 3D printed devices are translucent at best unless post-polishing is performed and optical transparency is highly desirable in any fluidic devices; integrated glass cover slips or polystyrene films would provide a perfect optical transparent window for observation and visualization. In addition, they also provide a compatible flat smooth surface for biological or biomolecular applications. The 3D printed fluidic devices with an embedded porous membrane are applicable to biological or chemical applications such as continuous perfusion cell culture or biocatalytic synthesis but without the need for any post-device assembly and finishing. The 3D printed devices with embedded Corning(®) Fibrance™ Light-Diffusing Fiber would have applications in display, illumination, or optical applications. Furthermore, the FDM-based 3D printing and embedding method could also be utilized to print casting molds with an integrated glass bottom for polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) device replication

  13. Embedding objects during 3D printing to add new functionalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuen, Po Ki

    2016-07-01

    A novel method for integrating and embedding objects to add new functionalities during 3D printing based on fused deposition modeling (FDM) (also known as fused filament fabrication or molten polymer deposition) is presented. Unlike typical 3D printing, FDM-based 3D printing could allow objects to be integrated and embedded during 3D printing and the FDM-based 3D printed devices do not typically require any post-processing and finishing. Thus, various fluidic devices with integrated glass cover slips or polystyrene films with and without an embedded porous membrane, and optical devices with embedded Corning(®) Fibrance™ Light-Diffusing Fiber were 3D printed to demonstrate the versatility of the FDM-based 3D printing and embedding method. Fluid perfusion flow experiments with a blue colored food dye solution were used to visually confirm fluid flow and/or fluid perfusion through the embedded porous membrane in the 3D printed fluidic devices. Similar to typical 3D printed devices, FDM-based 3D printed devices are translucent at best unless post-polishing is performed and optical transparency is highly desirable in any fluidic devices; integrated glass cover slips or polystyrene films would provide a perfect optical transparent window for observation and visualization. In addition, they also provide a compatible flat smooth surface for biological or biomolecular applications. The 3D printed fluidic devices with an embedded porous membrane are applicable to biological or chemical applications such as continuous perfusion cell culture or biocatalytic synthesis but without the need for any post-device assembly and finishing. The 3D printed devices with embedded Corning(®) Fibrance™ Light-Diffusing Fiber would have applications in display, illumination, or optical applications. Furthermore, the FDM-based 3D printing and embedding method could also be utilized to print casting molds with an integrated glass bottom for polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) device replication

  14. Research of Code Auto-generation Technology Based on Add-in%基于Add-in的代码自动生成技术的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梅成才; 王丽侠

    2006-01-01

    VB的Add-in技术提供了扩展VB开发环境的接口.文章论述了基于VB Add-in技术的可视化代码自动生成系统的设计方法,该系统的实现与应用可以简化软件的开发过程,加快软件的开发速度,提高代码的重用率.

  15. Error-free 320 Gb/s simultaneous add-drop multiplexing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mulvad, Hans Christian Hansen; Oxenløwe, Leif Katsuo; Clausen, Anders;

    2007-01-01

    We report on the first demonstration of error-free time-division add-drop multiplexing at 320 Gb/s. The add- and drop-operations are performed simultaneously in a non-linear optical loop mirror with only 100 m of highly non-linear fibre.......We report on the first demonstration of error-free time-division add-drop multiplexing at 320 Gb/s. The add- and drop-operations are performed simultaneously in a non-linear optical loop mirror with only 100 m of highly non-linear fibre....

  16. Evaluation of an anal sac adenocarcinoma tumor in a Spitz dog

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Javad Javanbakht; Abbas Tavassoli; Atefeh Sabbagh; Mehdy Aghamohammmad Hassan; Shohreh Alian Samakkhah; Radmehr Shafiee; Ali Lakzian; Vahideh Rahmani Ghalee; Sonia Shoja Gharebagh

    2013-01-01

    A 9-year-old emasculated male Spitz with tenesmus and constipation had a subcutaneous mass at the left ventral aspect of the anus with history of polyuria and polydipsia. A complete blood cell count, serum biochemistry panel, and urinalysis (cystocentesis sample) were evaluated. Abnormalities in the serum biochemistry panel included a mildly elevated serum cholesterol concentration (7.28 mmol/L; reference interval, 2.70-5.94 mmol/L), increased serum alkaline phosphatase activity (184 U/L; reference interval, 9-90 U/L), alanine transaminase (122 U/L;reference interval, 5-60 U/L) activity and aspartate aminotransferase (80 U/L; reference interval, 5-55 U/L) activity, severe increased total calcium concentration (16.3 mg/dL; reference interval, 8.2-12.4 mg/dL or 9.3-11.4 mg/dL), and decreased total calcium concentration (3.4 mg/dL, reference interval, 2.5-5.6mg/dL). Furthermore, testing revealed an increased intact parathyroid hormone concentration (38.6 pmol/L; reference interval, 3-17 pmol/L). On cytologic and histopathologic examinations, various types of cells were observed. Most of the cells were oval to polygonal and had elliptical or elongate nuclei and a moderate amount of pale to basophilic cytoplasm. The remaining cells had round to oval nuclei and pale to basophilic cytoplasm. Cells of both types were loosely adhered to each other and were arranged in rosette-like structures. Both neoplastic cell types had fine homogenous chromatin and either a small indistinct nucleolus or no visible nucleolus. Mild anisokaryosis and anisocytosis were observed. Histologically, the mass consists of glandular structures formed by cuboidal cells admixed with bundles of spindle cells. Based on location and histologic features, the final diagnosis was adenocarcinoma of the apocrine gland of the anal sac, which should be included as a cytologic differential diagnosis when spindle cells and typical epithelial cells are observed in masses in the region of the anal sac of dogs.

  17. Evaluation of an anal sac adenocarcinoma tumor in a Spitz dog

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Javad; Javanbakht; Abbas; Tavassoli; Atefeh; Sabbagh; Mehdy; Aghamohammmad; Hassan; Shohreh; Alian; Samakkhah; Radmehr; Shafiee; Ali; Lakzian; Vahideh; Rahmani; Ghalee; Sonia; Shoja; Gharebagh

    2013-01-01

    A 9-year-old emasculated male Spitz with tenesmus and constipation had a subcutaneous mass at the left ventral aspect of the anus with history of polyuria and polydipsia.A complete blood cell count,serum biochemistry panel,and urinalysis(cystocentesis sample)were evaluated.Abnormalities in the serum biochemistry panel included a mildly elevated serum cholesterol concentration(7.28 mmol/L;reference interval,2.70-5.94 mmol/L),increased serum alkaline phosphatase activity(184 U/L;reference interval,9-90 U/L),alanine transaminase(122 U/L;reference interval,5-60 U/L)activity and aspartate aminotransferase(80 U/L;reference interval,5-55 U/L)activity,severe increased total calcium concentration(16.3 mg/dL;reference interval,8.2-12.4 mg/dL or 9.3-11.4 mg/dL),and decreased total calcium concentration(3.4 mg/dL,reference interval,2.5-5.6mg/dL).Furthermore,testing revealed an increased intact parathyroid hormone concentration(38.6 pmol/L;reference interval,3-17 pmol/L).On cytologic and histopathologic examinations,various types of cells were observed.Most of the cells were oval to polygonal and had elliptical or elongate nuclei and a moderate amount of pale to basophilic cytoplasm.The remaining cells had round to oval nuclei and pale to basophilic cytoplasm.Cells of both types were loosely adhered to each other and were arranged in rosette-like structures.Both neoplastic cell types had fine homogenous chromatin and either a small indistinct nucleolus or no visible nucleolus.Mild anisokaryosis and anisocytosis were observed.Histologically,the mass consists of glandular structures formed by cuboidal cells admixed with bundles of spindle cells.Based on location and histologic features,the final diagnosis was adenocarcinoma of the apocrine gland of the anal sac,which should be included as a cytologic differential diagnosis when spindle cells and typical epithelial cells are observed in masses in the region of the anal sac of dogs.

  18. Relationships between TGFbeta proteins and oxygen concentrations inside the first trimester human gestational sac.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shanthi Muttukrishna

    Full Text Available In early pregnancy, the O(2 gradient between the maternal circulation and the gestational sac tissues modulates trophoblast biological functions. The aim was to evaluate if placental partial pressure of oxygen (PaO(2 modulates in vivo synthesis of specific placental proteins inside the first trimester gestational sac. Matched samples of peripheral venous blood, blood from the placental bed (PB, coelomic fluid (CF and placental tissue were obtained in 37 normal pregnancies at 6-12 weeks gestation. PaO(2 was measured in PB and CF using an IRMA blood gas monitor. Inhibin A, activin A, sEng, PlGF, sFlt-1 and free VEGF concentrations were measured in all samples. HSP 70 was measured in placental extracts. ANOVA showed approximately 60% increase in PB PaO(2 (P = 0.02 between after 10 weeks gestation. Unpaired Student's T-test between two groups (6-9 weeks vs 9-12 weeks shows a significant increase in MS Activin A (P = 0.001, CF activin A (P<0.001, MS P1GF (P = 0.001, CF PlGF (P<0.001, MS sFLT-1 (P = 0.03, CF sFLT-1 (P = 0.01, HSP 70 in placental extracts (P = 0.04 and a significant decrease in PB inhibin A levels (P<0.001 and PB sFLT-1 (P = 0.02 . Multiple correlation analysis showed a significant negative correlation between PB inhibin A levels and gestation (r = -0.45, P<0.05 and PB PaO(2 (r = -0.5, P = 0.008 and also between sFLT-1 and PB PaO(2 (P = 0.03. There was a positive correlation (P<0.01 between PlGF, sEng and VEGF levels in the placental extracts. Our results indicate a direct relationship in the early intrauterine PaO(2 in vivo and inhibin A and sFLT-1 concentrations confirming our hypothesis that specific placental proteins are regulated by intrauterine O(2 tension.

  19. Generation of functional platelets from human embryonic stem cells in vitro via ES-sacs, VEGF-promoted structures that concentrate hematopoietic progenitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takayama, Naoya; Nishikii, Hidekazu; Usui, Joichi; Tsukui, Hiroko; Sawaguchi, Akira; Hiroyama, Takashi; Eto, Koji; Nakauchi, Hiromitsu

    2008-06-01

    Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) could potentially represent an alternative source for blood transfusion therapies and a promising tool for studying the ontogeny of hematopoiesis. When we cultured hESCs on either C3H10T1/2 or OP-9 cells to facilitate hematopoiesis, we found that exogenous administration of vascular endothelial growth factor promoted the emergence of sac-like structures, which we named embryonic stem cell-derived sacs (ES-sacs). These ES-sacs consisted of multiple cysts demarcated by cellular monolayers that retained some of the properties of endothelial cells. The spherical cells inside ES-sacs expressed primarily CD34, along with VE-cadherin, CD31, CD41a, and CD45, and were able to form hematopoietic colonies in semisolid culture and to differentiate into mature megakaryocytes by day 24 in the presence of thrombopoietin. Apparently, ES-sacs provide a suitable environment for hematopoietic progenitors. Relatively large numbers of mature megakaryocytes could be induced from the hematopoietic progenitors within ES-sacs, which were then able to release platelets that displayed integrin alpha IIb beta 3 activation and spreading in response to ADP or thrombin. This novel protocol thus provides a means of generating platelets from hESCs, which could serve as the basis for efficient production of platelets for clinical transfusion and studies of thrombopoiesis.

  20. Aortic aneurysm sac pressure measurements after endovascular repair using an implantable remote sensor: initial experience and short-term follow-up

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoppe, Hanno; Kaufman, John A. [Dotter Interventional Institute, Oregon Health and Science University, Portland, OR (United States); Segall, Jocelyn A.; Liem, Timothy K.; Landry, Gregory J. [Oregon Health and Science University, Department of Vascular Surgery, Portland, OR (United States)

    2008-05-15

    The purpose of this single-center study was to report our initial experience with an implantable remote pressure sensor for aneurysm sac pressure measurement in patients post-endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) including short-term follow-up. A pressure sensor (EndoSure, Atlanta, GA) was implanted in 12 patients treated with different commercially available aortic endografts for EVAR. Pressure was read pre- and post-EVAR in the operating room. One-month follow-up (30 days {+-} 6 days) was performed including sac pressure readings and IV contrast CT scans. Variables were compared using the paired Student's t test. An intraprocedure type-I endoleak and a type-III endoleak were successfully treated resulting in decreasing sac pressures. In all patients, post-EVAR systolic sac pressure decreased by an average of 33% (P {<=} 0.005) compared to pre-EVAR measurements. One-month follow-up demonstrated a 47% decrease in systolic sac pressure (P {<=} 0.05). On follow-up CT scans, the average maximum aneurysm diameter pre-EVAR was 6.3 {+-} 1.6 cm and post-EVAR 6.0 {+-} 1.7 cm (P{<=}0.05). The diameter of the aneurysm sac was larger only in one patient with a type-III endoleak. Remote sac pressure measurement may provide important information in addition to imaging and may help to reduce the number of follow-up CT scans. (orig.)

  1. Air Consumption Analysis of Air-Jet Weaving

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RAJ KUMAR KHIANI

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In Textile industry, production is mostly key concern for Industry owner. This always has attracted researchers and machines manufacturers to make new developments in process and machines. Air-jet is one of the leading and successful highest productive weaving machines. However, it is now well established that due to add of charges of compressed air, manufacturing cost of air-jet weaving machine is higher as compared with rapier and projectile weaving machines. This is why countries having energy issues do not prefer air-jet weaving machines comparing projectile weaving machines. In this regard, several researchers and machine manufacturers have continuously been working to improve the efficiency of air-jet weft insertion. However, industry practice is as important as design made by researchers. The aim of this research is to investigate the air consumption of air-jet weaving on industrial scale practice. In this study, five weaving machine of same manufacturer and model were selected. It was observed that despite of manufacturing same quality of fabric, air consumption was varying almost in all weaving machines. Conventionally, mill workers adopt hit and trial practice in weaving industry including airpressure setting which leads to variation of nozzle pressure. Main reason of disparity of air consumption in air-jet weaving machines may be variation of distance from compressor to weaving machines, number of joints, un-necessary valve opening and pipes leakages cause an increase of compressed air consumption.

  2. Relative investment in egg load and poison sac in fig wasps: Implications for physiological mechanisms underlying seed and wasp production in figs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinson, Ellen O.; Jandér, K. Charlotte; Peng, Yan-Qiong; Chen, Huan-Huan; Machado, Carlos A.; Arnold, A. Elizabeth; Herre, Edward Allen

    2014-05-01

    Fig pollinating wasps and most non-pollinator wasps apply secretions from their poison sacs into oviposited flowers that appear necessary to the formation of the galls that their developing offspring consume. Thus, both eggs and poison sac secretions appear to be essential for wasp reproduction, but the relative investment in each is unknown. We measured relative investment in poison sac and egg production in pollinating and non-pollinating wasps associated with seven species of monoecious Panamanian figs representing both active and passive pollination syndromes. We then collected similar data for four fig hosts in China, where some wasp species in the genus Eupristina have lost the ability to pollinate ("cheaters"). All wasps examined possessed large poison sacs, and we found a strong positive correlation between poison sac size and absolute egg production. In the Panamanian species, the relative poison sac to egg investment was highest in the externally ovipositing non-pollinator wasps, followed by active pollinators, then by passive pollinators. Further, pollinator wasps of fig species with demonstrated host sanctions against "cheating" wasps showed higher investment in the poison sac than wasps of species without sanctions. In the Chinese samples, relative investment in the poison sac was indistinguishable between pollinators and "cheaters" associated with the same fig species. We suggest that higher relative investment in poison sac across fig wasp species reflects higher relative difficulty in initiating formation of galls and subsequently obtaining resources from the fig. We discuss the implications for the stability of the fig-wasp mutualism, and for the ability of non-pollinators to exploit this mutualism.

  3. Experimental studies of a matrix-tubular solar air collector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plesca, M.; Varlan, P. [Moldova Technical Univ., Chisinau (Moldova, Republic of). Dept. of Heat and Gas Supply and Ventilation

    2009-06-15

    The most common types of solar air collectors (SAC) are contact-type and matrix-type collectors, with the latter being more efficient. This paper described the design and testing of a matrix-tubular flat solar air collector in the city of Chisinau, Moldova, where the outdoor climatic radiation, heat, and humidity characteristics are favorable for the efficient use of solar energy for building heating and drying applications. The amount of solar energy absorbed by a solar energy air collector depends on the level of insulation and orientation of the solar collector; the absorbance of the absorber surface; and the transmittance of the cover material. This study examined the heat transfer, efficiency, and pressure drop using copper tubes inserted perpendicular to the plane of the absorber plate. The SAC consists of a glazed insulated case, an absorber, and ducting for cold air delivery and hot air discharge. Copper tubes are inserted perpendicular to the plane of the absorber. The absorber is installed in the body of the SAC in such a way that it divides it into an upper channel and lower channel. The channel bottom is lined with aluminium foil that reflects solar radiation coming through the tubes and decreases heat loss in the solar collector. Copper tubes increase the heat exchange surface, create air turbulence and intensify heat transfer. This increases the efficiency of the solar collector. The pressure drop of the matrix-tubular solar air collector is 40 per cent lower than that of the matrix-plate collectors. 11 refs., 2 tabs., 6 figs.

  4. Primary Yolk Sac Tumor of the Omentum: A Case Report and Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenichi Harano

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Yolk sac tumor (YST is a rare malignant tumor originating from germ cells. YST normally originates from the gonads, rarely occurring in extragonadal sites. We report a 35-year-old man with YST arising in the omentum, which is the first reported case of a primary YST of the omentum in an adult male. The patient presented to the community hospital with abdominal distension. A CT scan showed thickening of the omentum with ascites. The patient underwent open biopsy of the omental mass. The Pathology Department of the hospital could not make a definitive diagnosis at that time, and the tumor was considered a cancer of unknown primary (CUP origin with features of primary colorectal cancer based on the immunohistochemistry (IHC findings of the biopsy specimen (CK7–/CK20+ and CDX-2+. He was then referred to our hospital. We found that serum α-fetoprotein was abnormally elevated to 7,144 ng/ml (normal <10.0, and reevaluation of the biopsy specimen revealed microcystic or reticular patterns of tumor cells with Schiller-Duval bodies typical of YST. The present case suggests that IHC is a very useful diagnostic tool for subtyping CUP but should be interpreted in the context of clinical and morphological findings.

  5. Yolk sac tumor with a prominent polyvesicular vitelline pattern: a report of three cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Robert H; Ulbright, Thomas M; Policarpio-Nicolas, Maria Luisa C

    2013-03-01

    We report 3 cases of the rare polyvesicular vitelline variant of ovarian yolk sac tumor (YST). The patients were 23, 29, and 43 years old, and all presented with large unilateral adnexal masses confined to the ovary. One tumor was predominantly cystic, and the other 2 had prominent cystic components; all 3 also had solid components. Microscopic examination of the cystic regions showed dilated cysts that largely effaced the stroma resulting in a honeycomb-like appearance. The solid foci were characterized predominantly by small tubules in a fibrous stroma; the tubules exhibited variably conspicuous cystic dilatation to merge with the microcystic appearance. The tumor cells varied from large and primitive-appearing to flattened and deceptively innocuous when lining large cysts. They were immunoreactive for α-fetoprotein and glypican-3. Non-polyvesicular vitelline components of YST were present focally in 2 cases (hepatoid in one, reticular and endometrioid like in the second). Two patients are disease free after 20 and 26 years, respectively; disease-free follow-up is of short duration in the third case (2 years). The good long-term outcome in 2 cases supports prior evidence that suggests that the natural history of this form of YST may be more indolent than conventional forms of the tumor. PMID:23348213

  6. Unique stereocontrol in carborane chemistry: skeletal alkylcarbonation (SAC) versus exoskeletal alkylmethylation (EAM) reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakardjiev, Mario; Holub, Josef; Macháček, Jan; Hnyk, Drahomír; Štíbr, Bohumil; Růžičková, Zdeňka; Růžička, Aleš

    2015-04-13

    Reactions between the arachno-6,9-C2B8H14 (1) dicarbaborane and acyl chlorides, RCOCl (2), are subject to stereocontrol that completely changes the nature of the reaction products. While most chlorides produce the 8-R-nido-7,8,9-C3B8H11 (3) tricarbollides (by skeletal alkylcarbonation=SAC), bulky RCOCls (2; where R=1-adamantyl, 2 a; 1-mesityl, 2 b; 9-anthranyl, 2 c; 1-naphthyl, 2 d) in 1,2-dichloroethane (DCE) in the presence of triethylamine at 40-60 °C gave a series of entirely different 1-R-2-CH3-closo-1,6-C2B8H8 (4) dicarbaboranes upon acidification with conc. H2SO4 (by exosleletal alkylmehylation=EAM). Both types of reactions seem to proceed via a common [8-R-nido-7,8,9-C3B8H10](-) (3(-)) anion which in the EAM case is unstable because of steric crowd and undergoes rearrangement via the isomeric [R-nido-7,8,10-C3B8H10](-) tricarbollide structures which, on protonation, undergo reductive extraction of one CH vertex to generate the 2-CH3 substituent in structure 4. PMID:25708127

  7. [Pseudomyxoma peritonei spread into the right inguinal hernia sac--a case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cichon, Paulina; Drucis, Kamil; Kakol, Michal; Jastrzebski, Tomasz; Polec, Tomasz

    2013-10-01

    Pseudomyxoma peritonei (PMP) is a rare, progressive disease of unknown origin. The incidence is estimated at about 1-2/100,000,000 per year. The primary tumor site is usually discovered in the appendix or- in case of women--in ovaries, appearing as tumors of low malignancy. Making an accurate diagnosis causes difficulties--symptoms tend to be misleading, suggesting more frequent pathologies of the abdominal cavity. It is also not rare that the patient is for a long time asymptomatic. We present a case of a 68-year-old patient of the Surgical Oncology Department treated for pseudomyxoma peritonei, diagnosed incidentally at the time of clinical examination for the reasons of chronic hypertension. The symptoms reported by the patient did not suggest any neoplastic process of the peritoneal cavity. Systemic chemotherapy of two paths (a total number of 10 cycles) did not result and at the time of post-treatment control, due to no response to standard chemotherapy, it was decided to administer chemotherapy intraperitoneally in hyperthermia (HIPEC). During the operation, peritoneal cytoreduction prior to the scheduled HIPEC was performed; the right-sided inguinal hernia was repaired. Within the hernia sac the implanted myxoid cells were found, their presence inside was probably the main reason of clinical manifestation of the disease. PMID:24340893

  8. Experimental Model of Saccular Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm in Swines with Pericardium Sac

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurício de Amorim Aquino

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: To consider modifications in an experimental model of saccular aortic aneurysm, aiming at better reproducibility, to be used in the development of vascular prostheses. Methods: Experimental study in two phases, developed in the Center of Experimental Surgery and Bioterium (CCEB of the University of Health Sciences of Alagoas (UNCISAL, with 11 hybrid swine, female, mean weight of 20 ± 5 kg, according to modifications in the Perini technique was performed. In the first phase, the aneurysm was confectioned with bovine pericardial patch. In the second phase, fifteen days later, the patency of the aneurysms was confirmed by Doppler ultrasonography. The described variables were aortic and aneurysm sac patency, incidence of rupture, morbidity and mortality. The statistical analysis program used was STATA v.8. Results: All animals survived to the procedures. Surgical mean time was 73 minutes. Aneurysm rupture, proximal or distal aortic thrombosis, visceral or legs ischemia weren't observed. Parietal thrombus formation was observed in all of the aneurysms, two of which (18%; IC 95% = 3.98 - 48.84 were occluded and nine (82%; IC 95% = 51.15 - 96.01 were patent. Conclusion: In this series, the modifications carried out in the technique related to the surgical approach, race, anesthesia, and imaging exams reproduced the experimental model, reducing its costs, without hindering the analysis of the variables. The satisfactory patency ratio allows the method to be used in experimental models for the development of vascular prostheses.

  9. 40 CFR Table 1b to Subpart Dddd of... - Add-on Control Systems Compliance Options

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Add-on Control Systems Compliance Options 1B Table 1B to Subpart DDDD of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY.... 63, Subpt. DDDD, Table 1B Table 1B to Subpart DDDD of Part 63—Add-on Control Systems...

  10. Sildenafil add-on therapy in paediatric pulmonary arterial hypertension, experiences of a national referral centre

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Douwes, Johannes M.; Roofthooft, Marcus T. R.; Van Loon, Rosa L. E.; Ploegstra, Mark-Jan; Bartelds, Beatrijs; Hillege, Hans L.; Berger, Rudolphus

    2014-01-01

    Objective In paediatric pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), the effectiveness of add-on combination PAH-therapy has not yet been systematically studied. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of sildenafil add-on therapy in paediatric PAH patients treated with bosentan. Methods In

  11. 75 FR 73075 - Notice of Motion To Add Exhibit to Petition for Declaratory Order and Complaint

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-29

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Notice of Motion To Add Exhibit to Petition for Declaratory Order and... of Pella, Iowa (Complainant) filed a motion to add a document as Exhibit P-28 to its July 2, 2010... document is added to a subscribed docket(s). For assistance with any FERC Online service, please...

  12. Cognitive Control and Attentional Selection in Adolescents with ADHD versus ADD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Laurie; Henderson, John; Nigg, Joel T.

    2010-01-01

    An important research question is whether Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is related to early- or late-stage attentional control mechanisms and whether this differentiates a nonhyperactive subtype (ADD). This question was addressed in a sample of 145 ADD/ADHD and typically developing comparison adolescents (aged 13-17). Attentional…

  13. Prevalence of Aggression and Defiance in Children with ADD/ADHD Tendencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Janella

    2011-01-01

    Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD) and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) appear to have become more prevalent in the past few years. Many children who display ADD/ADHD tendencies also display behaviors which cause problems in a classroom setting. Considering the fact that these behaviors could be displayed by the student population as…

  14. On frequency domain adaptive filters using the overlap-add method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sommen, P.C.W.; Jayasinghe, J.A.K.S.

    1988-01-01

    The authors introduce a frequency-domain adaptive filter (FDAF) configuration using the overlap-add method which has the same complexity and convergence behavior as the overlap-save configuration. It is shown that an FDAF using the overlap-add method can be realized with the same number of DFTs (dis

  15. Measuring Narcissism within Add Health: The Development and Validation of a New Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Mark S.; Brunell, Amy B.

    2012-01-01

    This study reports the development of a measure of narcissism within the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health) data set. In Study 1, items were selected from Wave III to form the Add Health Narcissism Scale (AHNS). These were factor analyzed, yielding a single factor comprised of five subscales. We correlated the AHNS and…

  16. Air Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Air pollution is a mixture of solid particles and gases in the air. Car emissions, chemicals from factories, dust, pollen and ... Ozone, a gas, is a major part of air pollution in cities. When ozone forms air pollution, ...

  17. Primary Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma Localized to the Lacrimal Sac: A Case Presentation and Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarrabi, Kevin; Desai, Ved; Yim, Brandom; Gabig, Theodore G

    2016-01-01

    We report a rare case of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) of the lacrimal sac in a 50-year-old male. The incidence of primary ocular lymphoma is low and it is considered a rare disease. Moreover, reports of ocular DLBCL are uncommon and the disease remains poorly characterized. Our patient presented for management of osteomyelitis and was incidentally found to have a painless swelling and cyst around his right eye. A PET/CT scan revealed hypermetabolic activity within the lacrimal sac and a subsequent excisional biopsy of the mass yielded histopathology consistent with DLBCL. Consequently, the patient underwent treatment with R-CHOP therapy. The patient responded well to chemotherapy with a substantial shrinkage in tumor burden and the disease remained localized. Herein, we present a rare case of primary ocular lymphoma, highlight the importance of early diagnosis, and review current treatment modalities. PMID:27672460

  18. Sustainable complete remission in recurrence yolk sac tumor patient treated with tandem high-dose chemotherapy and autologous stem cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, N A; Wang, P N; Huang, K G; Adlan, A S; Casanova, J

    2013-01-01

    A 21-year-old lady diagnosed with Stage 3 ovarian yolk sac tumor (YST) underwent primary cytoreductive fertility sparing surgery, followed by conventional courses of platinum-based chemotherapy and etoposide. Recurrence at cul-da-sac was noted after a short period of remission and secondary debulking performed followed by four cycles of conventional chemotherapy. The patient's disease progressed despite courses of treatments. A joint team management including a hematologist was commenced following the failure of conventional chemotherapies. Two cycles of high-dose chemotherapy (HDCT) with ifosfamide/cisplatin/etoposide (ICE) regimen, followed by autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT) were given. With this salvage treatment, she remained in complete remission and disease-free for more than 30 months, while maintaining her reproductive function. These approaches appear to be effective as a salvage treatment in selected cases of patients with ovarian germ cell tumor, especially those who failed primary conventional chemotherapy. PMID:23781595

  19. Generalized optical code construction for enhanced and Modified Double Weight like codes without mapping for SAC-OCDMA systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumawat, Soma; Ravi Kumar, M.

    2016-07-01

    Double Weight (DW) code family is one of the coding schemes proposed for Spectral Amplitude Coding-Optical Code Division Multiple Access (SAC-OCDMA) systems. Modified Double Weight (MDW) code for even weights and Enhanced Double Weight (EDW) code for odd weights are two algorithms extending the use of DW code for SAC-OCDMA systems. The above mentioned codes use mapping technique to provide codes for higher number of users. A new generalized algorithm to construct EDW and MDW like codes without mapping for any weight greater than 2 is proposed. A single code construction algorithm gives same length increment, Bit Error Rate (BER) calculation and other properties for all weights greater than 2. Algorithm first constructs a generalized basic matrix which is repeated in a different way to produce the codes for all users (different from mapping). The generalized code is analysed for BER using balanced detection and direct detection techniques.

  20. Percutaneous discal cyst rupture in a professional football player using sublaminar epidural injection for thecal sac displacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Michael V; Park, Andrew; Bumpass, David; Jennings, Jack W; Matava, Matthew J

    2015-01-01

    A case of percutaneous discal cyst rupture in a 25-year-old professional American football player is reported. The patient presented with a 3-day history of severe left-sided back pain. Magnetic resonance imaging examination demonstrated a discal cyst effacing the left L4-L5 lateral recess, with interposed thecal sac. A sublaminar epidural injection was performed displacing the thecal sac, exposing the discal cyst, and allowing for percutaneous perforation. The patient had complete resolution of symptoms after discal cyst rupture and was able to compete in a professional football game 3 days later. Computed tomography-guided percutaneous rupture is a therapeutic modality that may be considered for treatment of a symptomatic discal cyst. PMID:25541445

  1. Effect of Relative Wind on Notch Back Car with Add-On Parts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debojyoti Mitra

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The behavior of different add-on parts to a basic car model has been studied experimentally .Experiments were conducted with different add-on parts, like rear end spoiler & front end spoiler in order to find out how these add-on parts influence the drag and lift coefficients of a basic car model. The experiment was done in Jadavpur University low turbulence subsonic closed circuit wind tunnel at different Reynolds number .The results from the experimentindicated that the addition of different add-on parts like front end spoiler and rear end spoiler to a basic car model reduces the lift coefficient to a considerable amount while the drag coefficient is reduced by a small amount. It was concluded that the addition of these add-on parts like rear-end spoiler etc increases the aerodynamicstability of a basic car model and hence they can be used in real life which will be an added advantage.

  2. Fecal sacs attract insects to the nest and provoke an activation of the immune system of nestlings

    OpenAIRE

    Ibáñez-Álamo, Juan Diego; Ruiz-Raya, Francisco; Rodríguez, Laura; Soler, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    Background Nest sanitation is a widespread but rarely studied behavior in birds. The most common form of nest sanitation behavior, the removal of nestling feces, has focused the discussion about which selective pressures determine this behavior. The parasitism hypothesis, which states that nestling fecal sacs attract parasites that negatively affect breeding birds, was proposed 40 years ago and is frequently cited as a demonstrated fact. But, to our knowledge, there is no previous experimenta...

  3. A global model of mantle conductivity derived from 5 years of CHAMP, Orsted, and SAC-C magnetic data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuvshinov, A.; Olsen, Nils

    2006-01-01

    We present a global 1-D conductivity model which is obtained by analysis of five years ( 2001 - 2005) of simultaneous magnetic data from the three satellites Orsted, CHAMP and SAC-C. After removal of core and crustal fields as predicted by a recent field model we used non-polar scalar and vector...... model which is rather similar to models derived from ground-based data....

  4. Influence of sex, age, and fasting on blood parameters and body, bursa, spleen and yolk sac weights of broiler chicks

    OpenAIRE

    DL Pires; EB Malheiros; Boleli IC

    2007-01-01

    The effects of water and feed fasting for 24, 48 and 72 hours post-hatching on blood parameters (mean corpuscular volume, MCV; red blood-cell, RBC; hematocrit, HCT; hemoglobin, HGB; plasma glucose, CGP; plasma total protein, PP, and differential leukocytes count), and on body, liver, spleen, bursa, and yolk sac weights were analyzed. Erythrogram data were obtained with a blood cell counter. Total plasma protein and plasma glucose were determined by using the Bradford method (1976) and a gluco...

  5. Hematopoietic differentiation of human embryonic stem cells progresses through sequential hematoendothelial, primitive, and definitive stages resembling human yolk sac development

    OpenAIRE

    Zambidis, E. T.; Peault, B; Park, T S; Bunz, F; Civin, C I

    2005-01-01

    We elucidate the cellular and molecular kinetics of the stepwise differentiation of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) to primitive and definitive erythromyelopoiesis from human embryoid bodies (hEBs) in serum-free clonogenic assays. Hematopoiesis initiates from CD45 hEB cells with emergence of semiadherent mesodermal-hematoendothelial (MHE) colonies that can generate endothelium and form organized, yolk sac-like structures that secondarily generate multipotent primitive hematopoietic stem pr...

  6. Definitive Hematopoiesis in the Yolk Sac Emerges from Wnt-Responsive Hemogenic Endothelium Independently of Circulation and Arterial Identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frame, Jenna M; Fegan, Katherine H; Conway, Simon J; McGrath, Kathleen E; Palis, James

    2016-02-01

    Adult-repopulating hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) emerge in low numbers in the midgestation mouse embryo from a subset of arterial endothelium, through an endothelial-to-hematopoietic transition. HSC-producing arterial hemogenic endothelium relies on the establishment of embryonic blood flow and arterial identity, and requires β-catenin signaling. Specified prior to and during the formation of these initial HSCs are thousands of yolk sac-derived erythro-myeloid progenitors (EMPs). EMPs ensure embryonic survival prior to the establishment of a permanent hematopoietic system, and provide subsets of long-lived tissue macrophages. While an endothelial origin for these HSC-independent definitive progenitors is also accepted, the spatial location and temporal output of yolk sac hemogenic endothelium over developmental time remain undefined. We performed a spatiotemporal analysis of EMP emergence, and document the morphological steps of the endothelial-to-hematopoietic transition. Emergence of rounded EMPs from polygonal clusters of Kit(+) cells initiates prior to the establishment of arborized arterial and venous vasculature in the yolk sac. Interestingly, Kit(+) polygonal clusters are detected in both arterial and venous vessels after remodeling. To determine whether there are similar mechanisms regulating the specification of EMPs with other angiogenic signals regulating adult-repopulating HSCs, we investigated the role of embryonic blood flow and Wnt/β-catenin signaling during EMP emergence. In embryos lacking a functional circulation, rounded Kit(+) EMPs still fully emerge from unremodeled yolk sac vasculature. In contrast, canonical Wnt signaling appears to be a common mechanism regulating hematopoietic emergence from hemogenic endothelium. These data illustrate the heterogeneity in hematopoietic output and spatiotemporal regulation of primary embryonic hemogenic endothelium. PMID:26418893

  7. Definitive Hematopoiesis in the Yolk Sac Emerges from Wnt-Responsive Hemogenic Endothelium Independently of Circulation and Arterial Identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frame, Jenna M; Fegan, Katherine H; Conway, Simon J; McGrath, Kathleen E; Palis, James

    2016-02-01

    Adult-repopulating hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) emerge in low numbers in the midgestation mouse embryo from a subset of arterial endothelium, through an endothelial-to-hematopoietic transition. HSC-producing arterial hemogenic endothelium relies on the establishment of embryonic blood flow and arterial identity, and requires β-catenin signaling. Specified prior to and during the formation of these initial HSCs are thousands of yolk sac-derived erythro-myeloid progenitors (EMPs). EMPs ensure embryonic survival prior to the establishment of a permanent hematopoietic system, and provide subsets of long-lived tissue macrophages. While an endothelial origin for these HSC-independent definitive progenitors is also accepted, the spatial location and temporal output of yolk sac hemogenic endothelium over developmental time remain undefined. We performed a spatiotemporal analysis of EMP emergence, and document the morphological steps of the endothelial-to-hematopoietic transition. Emergence of rounded EMPs from polygonal clusters of Kit(+) cells initiates prior to the establishment of arborized arterial and venous vasculature in the yolk sac. Interestingly, Kit(+) polygonal clusters are detected in both arterial and venous vessels after remodeling. To determine whether there are similar mechanisms regulating the specification of EMPs with other angiogenic signals regulating adult-repopulating HSCs, we investigated the role of embryonic blood flow and Wnt/β-catenin signaling during EMP emergence. In embryos lacking a functional circulation, rounded Kit(+) EMPs still fully emerge from unremodeled yolk sac vasculature. In contrast, canonical Wnt signaling appears to be a common mechanism regulating hematopoietic emergence from hemogenic endothelium. These data illustrate the heterogeneity in hematopoietic output and spatiotemporal regulation of primary embryonic hemogenic endothelium.

  8. Normal values of the sagittal diameter of the lumbar spine (vertebral body and dural sac) in children measured by MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knirsch, Walter [University Children' s Hospital Freiburg, Department of Pediatric Cardiology, Freiburg (Germany); University Children' s Hospital Zurich, Division of Paediatric Cardiology, Zurich (Switzerland); Kurtz, Claudia; Langer, Mathias [University Hospital Freiburg, Department of Radiology, Freiburg (Germany); Haeffner, Nicole; Kececioglu, Deniz [University Children' s Hospital Freiburg, Department of Pediatric Cardiology, Freiburg (Germany)

    2005-04-01

    The definition of normal values is a prerequisite for the reliable evaluation of abnormality in the lumbar spine, such as spinal canal stenosis or dural ectasia in patients with Marfan syndrome. Values for vertebral body diameter (VBD) and dural sac diameter (DSD) for the lumbar spine have been published in adults. In children, normal values have been established using conventional radiography or myelography, but not by MRI. To define normal values for the sagittal diameter of the vertebral body and dural sac, and to calculate a dural sac ratio (DSR) in the lumbosacral spine (L1-S1) in healthy children using MRI. A total of 75 healthy children between 6 years and 17 years of age were examined using a sagittal T2-weighted sequence. Sagittal VBD and DSD were measured and a DSR was calculated. This was a retrospective and cross-sectional study. With increasing age there is a significant increase of VBD, a slight increase of DSD, and a slight decrease of DSR. There is no significant sex difference. DSR in healthy children is higher than in healthy adults. MRI is a reliable method demonstrating the natural shape of the lumbosacral spine and its absolute values. These normal values compare well with those established by conventional radiological techniques. Our data may serve as a reference for defining dural ectasia in children with Marfan syndrome. (orig.)

  9. Normal values of the sagittal diameter of the lumbar spine (vertebral body and dural sac) in children measured by MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The definition of normal values is a prerequisite for the reliable evaluation of abnormality in the lumbar spine, such as spinal canal stenosis or dural ectasia in patients with Marfan syndrome. Values for vertebral body diameter (VBD) and dural sac diameter (DSD) for the lumbar spine have been published in adults. In children, normal values have been established using conventional radiography or myelography, but not by MRI. To define normal values for the sagittal diameter of the vertebral body and dural sac, and to calculate a dural sac ratio (DSR) in the lumbosacral spine (L1-S1) in healthy children using MRI. A total of 75 healthy children between 6 years and 17 years of age were examined using a sagittal T2-weighted sequence. Sagittal VBD and DSD were measured and a DSR was calculated. This was a retrospective and cross-sectional study. With increasing age there is a significant increase of VBD, a slight increase of DSD, and a slight decrease of DSR. There is no significant sex difference. DSR in healthy children is higher than in healthy adults. MRI is a reliable method demonstrating the natural shape of the lumbosacral spine and its absolute values. These normal values compare well with those established by conventional radiological techniques. Our data may serve as a reference for defining dural ectasia in children with Marfan syndrome. (orig.)

  10. Yolk-sac larval development of the substrate-brooding cichlid Archocentrus nigrofasciatus in relation to temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlahos, Nikolaos; Vasilopoulos, Michael; Mente, Eleni; Hotos, George; Katselis, George; Vidalis, Kosmas

    2015-09-01

    In order to conserve and culture the cichlid fish Archocentrus nigrofasciatus, more information about its reproductive biology and its larval behavior and morphogenesis is necessary. Currently, temperatures ranging from 21 to 27 °C are used in ornamental aquaculture hatcheries. Lower temperatures are preferred to reduce the costs of water heating, and 23 °C is usually the selected temperature. However, there is limited information on culturing protocols for ornamental species and most of the information generated on this topic remains scarce. Thus, the present study examines the morphological development of Archocentrus nigrofasciatus during the yolk-sac period up to the age of 100 h post-hatching in relation to 2 temperature regimes used in ornamental aquaculture: a temperature of 27 °C (thermal optimum) and a decreased temperature of 23 °C (thermal tolerance). The results of this study suggest that the 27 °C temperature generates intense morphological changes in yolk-sac development in a shorter period. This has advantages as it reduces the time of yolk-sac larval development, and, thus, minimizes the transition phase to exogenous feeding and maximizes the efficiency at which yolk is converted into body tissues. The present paper provides necessary information to produce freshwater ornamental fish with better practices so as to increase larval survival and capitalize on time for growth. PMID:26201370

  11. Intracranial yolk sac tumor in an adult patient: MRI, diffusion-weighted imaging and 1H MR spectroscopy features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mačvanski Marija

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Yolk sac tumors represent only 5%-7% of intracranial germ cell tumors, which comprise about 1% of all primary brain tumors in adults. Literature data about nonspecific imaging characteristics of these tumors are scant. We presented magnetic resonance imaging findings with diffusion-weighted imaging and proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy of this rare type of tumor in an adult patient. Case report. A 55-year-old man with progressive left side weakness, headache, dizziness and ataxia, underwent preoperative magnetic resonance imaging, diffusion-weighted imaging and proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy. After surgical resection and histological analysis, the final diagnosis of yolk sac tumor was established. Retrospective imaging analysis were performed in order to determine imaging and biochemical parameters that could be useful in the diagnostic evaluation of this tumor type. Conclusion. Though the imaging features of yolk sac tumor are not specific, morphoanatomical and metabolic imaging could offer the information that provides new insights into this tumor that may facilitate further therapeutic decision process and potentially provides better information regarding the disease prognosis.

  12. SLC26A4 targeted to the endolymphatic sac rescues hearing and balance in Slc26a4 mutant mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangming Li

    Full Text Available Mutations of SLC26A4 are a common cause of human hearing loss associated with enlargement of the vestibular aqueduct. SLC26A4 encodes pendrin, an anion exchanger expressed in a variety of epithelial cells in the cochlea, the vestibular labyrinth and the endolymphatic sac. Slc26a4 (Δ/Δ mice are devoid of pendrin and develop a severe enlargement of the membranous labyrinth, fail to acquire hearing and balance, and thereby provide a model for the human phenotype. Here, we generated a transgenic mouse line that expresses human SLC26A4 controlled by the promoter of ATP6V1B1. Crossing this transgene into the Slc26a4 (Δ/Δ line restored protein expression of pendrin in the endolymphatic sac without inducing detectable expression in the cochlea or the vestibular sensory organs. The transgene prevented abnormal enlargement of the membranous labyrinth, restored a normal endocochlear potential, normal pH gradients between endolymph and perilymph in the cochlea, normal otoconia formation in the vestibular labyrinth and normal sensory functions of hearing and balance. Our study demonstrates that restoration of pendrin to the endolymphatic sac is sufficient to restore normal inner ear function. This finding in conjunction with our previous report that pendrin expression is required for embryonic development but not for the maintenance of hearing opens the prospect that a spatially and temporally limited therapy will restore normal hearing in human patients carrying a variety of mutations of SLC26A4.

  13. Molecular detection and drought resistance analysis of SacB-transgenic poplars (Populus alba ×P.glandulosa)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The propagation of drought-resistant transgenic poplars is one of the more effective ways to improve the ecological state of arid regions.The expression of SacB gene in transgenic lines of Populus alba × P.glandulosa was analyzed by a semi-quantitative RT-PCR.Drought resistance of these transgenic lines was evaluated by water stress trials in a greenhouse.Results showed that the mRNA transcription of SacB was found in all transgenic lines and fructan has accumulated in the leaves of these plants.The growth,biomass and leaf water content of some transgenic lines were significantly higher than those of the control plants under drought stress.Correlation analysis indicated that the said factors were significantly and positively related to the concentration of fructan in the leaves of the transgenic lines.Results revealed that the expression of SacB gene in transgenic poplars enhanced its resistance to water stress.

  14. Radio Telescopes Will Add to Cassini-Huygens Discoveries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-12-01

    When the European Space Agency's Huygens spacecraft makes its plunge into the atmosphere of Saturn's moon Titan on January 14, radio telescopes of the National Science Foundation's National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) will help international teams of scientists extract the maximum possible amount of irreplaceable information from an experiment unique in human history. Huygens is the 700-pound probe that has accompanied the larger Cassini spacecraft on a mission to thoroughly explore Saturn, its rings and its numerous moons. The Green Bank Telescope The Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope CREDIT: NRAO/AUI/NSF (Click on image for GBT gallery) The Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope (GBT) in West Virginia and eight of the ten telescopes of the continent-wide Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA), located at Pie Town and Los Alamos, NM, Fort Davis, TX, North Liberty, IA, Kitt Peak, AZ, Brewster, WA, Owens Valley, CA, and Mauna Kea, HI, will directly receive the faint signal from Huygens during its descent. Along with other radio telescopes in Australia, Japan, and China, the NRAO facilities will add significantly to the information about Titan and its atmosphere that will be gained from the Huygens mission. A European-led team will use the radio telescopes to make extremely precise measurements of the probe's position during its descent, while a U.S.-led team will concentrate on gathering measurements of the probe's descent speed and the direction of its motion. The radio-telescope measurements will provide data vital to gaining a full understanding of the winds that Huygens encounters in Titan's atmosphere. Currently, scientists know little about Titan's winds. Data from the Voyager I spacecraft's 1980 flyby indicated that east-west winds may reach 225 mph or more. North-south winds and possible vertical winds, while probably much weaker, may still be significant. There are competing theoretical models of Titan's winds, and the overall picture is best summarized as

  15. Yolk sac tumor of the ovary in a young girl with tuberous sclerosis: A case report and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Riley G; Akande, Manzilat Y; Younes, Houssam K; Jagarpu, Jawahar; Mba, Nkechi; Savell, Van H; Almond, Stephen P

    2014-12-01

    •We reported the first tuberous sclerosis patient with an ovarian yolk sac tumor.•Although angiomyolipoma is a common benign tumor in TS patients, abdominal malignancies must be considered. PMID:26075992

  16. 基于 Python 语言的 Add -In 开发应用%The Development and Application of Add-In Based on Python Language

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张玉群; 朱道壮

    2014-01-01

    By introducing the process method of Python language menu developmentusing Add-In plugins in ArcGIS, proposed in ArcGIS for data processing, to guide developers to use a simple way of development.%通过简要介绍Python语言在ArcGIS中采用Add-In插件进行菜单开发的流程,提出了在ArcGIS进行数据处理时,开发人员应使用的一种简便易行的开发方式。

  17. Rat visceral yolk sac cells: viability and expression of cell markers during maternal diabetes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The function of the visceral yolk sac (VYS) is critical for embryo organogenesis until final fetal development in rats, and can be affected by conditions such as diabetes. In view of the importance of diabetes during pregnancy for maternal and neonatal health, the objective of this study was to assess fetal weight, VYS cell markers, and viability in female Wistar rats (200-250 g) with induced diabetes (alloxan, 37 mg/kg) on the 8th gestational day (gd 8). At gd 15, rats from control (n=5) and diabetic (n=5) groups were anesthetized and laparotomized to remove the uterine horns for weighing of fetuses and collecting the VYS. Flow cytometry was used for characterizing VYS cells, and for determining mitochondrial activity, cell proliferation, DNA ploidy, cell cycle phases, and caspase-3 activity. Fetal weight was reduced in the diabetic group. Expression of the cell markers CD34, VEGFR1, CD115, CD117, CD14, CCR2, CD90, CD44, STRO-1, OCT3/4, and Nanog was detected in VYS cells in both groups. In the diabetic group, significantly decreased expression of CD34 (P<0.05), CCR2 (P<0.001), and OCT3/4 (P<0.01), and significantly increased expression of CD90 (P<0.05), CD117 (P<0.01), and CD14 (P<0.05) were observed. VYS cells with inactive mitochondria, activated caspase-3, and low proliferation were present in the rats with diabetes. Severe hyperglycemia caused by maternal diabetes had negative effects on pregnancy, VYS cell viability, and the expression of cell markers

  18. Imaging and clinical findings in large endolymphatic duct and sac syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koesling, Sabrina [University of Halle, Department of Radiology, E-Grube-Street 40, D-06097 Halle (Germany)]. E-mail: sabrina.koesling@medizin.uni-halle.de; Rasinski, Christine [University of Halle, Department of Otorhinolaryngology (Germany); Amaya, Beatrice [University of Halle, Department of Radiology, E-Grube-Street 40, D-06097 Halle (Germany)

    2006-01-15

    Objective: Large endolymphatic duct and sac syndrome (LEDS) is known as the most common kind of inner ear malformations, which is radiologically detectable. Nevertheless, nowadays many questions are not fully cleared and LEDS is relatively unknown among general radiologists. The aim of this study was to evaluate the incidence of LEDS in the own patient population and to present our experiences regarding imaging findings, clinical presentation and follow up. Materials and methods: Based on a complete recording of all patients, sent from ENT department to radiology, we identified all radiological diagnosed cases of inner ear malformations including LEDS and all patients in whom an inner ear malformation was clinically suspected. The retrospective study included clinical records, HR-CT and MRI performed between 1994 and 2002. Results: Among 169 patients (338 ear), 17 of patients (median age: 12 years) and 28 ears, respectively, had enlarged endolymphatic structures. In 10 patients - 6% - (15 ears), no other abnormalities were detected, called isolated LEDS, seven patients showed additional inner ear abnormalities. One patient showed a labyrinthine hemorrhage after sudden hearing loss. Audiometric data revealed sensorineural hearing loss in 22 ears, deafness in 5 ears and normal hearing in 1 case of 28 ears. In 10 (67%) of 15 ears with isolated LEDS, the hearing loss was downward-fluctuating progressive. Twelve patients (eight with isolated LEDS) had partly repeated sudden hearing losses. A trigger for worsening of hearing was found in five patients. A correlation between the severity of morphological changes on imaging and the degree of hearing disturbances could not be detected. Only four young patients underwent a radiological examination within the first or second year after onset of hearing loss. Three patients received a cochlear implant. Conclusions: LEDS might be the cause of progressive hearing loss and repeated acute hearing losses in children and young

  19. Maternal offloading of organochlorine contaminants in the yolk-sac placental scalloped hammerhead shark (Sphyrna lewini).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Kady; Adams, Douglas H

    2015-04-01

    Elasmobranchs are a group of animals that typically occupy upper trophic levels in food webs and have a propensity to accumulate high contaminant concentrations. To date, few studies have investigated maternal offloading processes in sharks, despite the fact that this process represents a substantial source of exposure for young sharks and is a significant pathway for contaminant redistribution within marine ecosystems. Comparable to mammalian systems, scalloped hammerhead sharks (Sphyrna lewini) utilize a yolk-sac placental strategy to nourish young in utero, which may allow females to transfer contaminants to young. Organic contaminants (PCBs and chlorinated pesticides) were measured in livers of both females and males from several age classes that were collected from U.S. Atlantic waters, including two near-term pregnant females and their embryos. Adult female hammerheads (n = 3) were found to have lower levels of PCBs compared to the younger, adult male (mean ± SD, 11.1 ± 1.0 vs. 22.8 μg g(-1) lw), but had substantially higher concentrations of pesticides (4.1 ± 0.9 vs. 1.9 μg g(-1) lw). Embryos from the two litters (n = 36) had similar levels of summed organic contaminant concentrations (4.6 ± 0.9 μg g(-1) lw) and pregnant females were estimated to offload approximately 0.03-2.3% of their hepatic contaminant load to offspring. While the potential health impacts of these transferred contaminants is unknown, this is the first study to demonstrate that scalloped hammerheads are exposed to a substantial amount of contaminants prior to birth and document maternal offloading of organochlorines in a pseudo-placental shark species. Therefore, future research should continue to investigate the potential adverse effects these contaminants have on elasmobranch physiology. PMID:25527298

  20. Lacrimal Sac Mucoepidermoid Carcinoma with Metastases to the Cavernous Sinus Following Dacryocystorhinostomy Treated with Stereotactic Radiotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan C.P. Roos

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: We report a very good outcome in a 44-year-old woman in whom cancer was missed as the cause of nasolacrimal duct obstruction and dacryocystitis and which was deemed inoperable after spreading to the cavernous sinus. Case Report: The patient was referred to our unit 12 months following uneventful right dacryocystorhinostomy for nasolacrimal duct obstruction. This had been complicated by the formation of a significant canthal swelling 6 months later, which had been excised at that time. The symptom of nasolacrimal duct obstruction and scar recurrence prompted the referral to our unit. Examination and biopsy confirmed a malignancy. Despite extensive surgery, including concurrent radical neck dissection and parotidectomy, within 6 months, her mucoepidermoid carcinoma was found to have spread to the cavernous sinus, restricting blood flow from the carotid and causing an abducens nerve palsy. Though deemed inoperable at first, Gamma Knife stereotactic radiosurgery was sought as treatment for her disease, resulting in a good outcome 4 years after surgery. Conclusion: Experience from this case suggests the importance of considering malignancy as a cause in young patients when presenting with nasolacrimal duct obstruction. In such cases, and perhaps for all patients, biopsy specimens should be submitted as many tumours are found incidentally at the time of dacryocystorhinostomy. Whilst the external approach to dacryocystorhinostomy may identify abnormal anatomy intraoperatively, prompting biopsy, this is less likely with an endonasal approach where osteotomy precedes sac visualisation. The endonasal approach may therefore be less appropriate in such cases where malignancy is suspected as osteotomy may aid in the spread.

  1. Maternal offloading of organochlorine contaminants in the yolk-sac placental scalloped hammerhead shark (Sphyrna lewini).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Kady; Adams, Douglas H

    2015-04-01

    Elasmobranchs are a group of animals that typically occupy upper trophic levels in food webs and have a propensity to accumulate high contaminant concentrations. To date, few studies have investigated maternal offloading processes in sharks, despite the fact that this process represents a substantial source of exposure for young sharks and is a significant pathway for contaminant redistribution within marine ecosystems. Comparable to mammalian systems, scalloped hammerhead sharks (Sphyrna lewini) utilize a yolk-sac placental strategy to nourish young in utero, which may allow females to transfer contaminants to young. Organic contaminants (PCBs and chlorinated pesticides) were measured in livers of both females and males from several age classes that were collected from U.S. Atlantic waters, including two near-term pregnant females and their embryos. Adult female hammerheads (n = 3) were found to have lower levels of PCBs compared to the younger, adult male (mean ± SD, 11.1 ± 1.0 vs. 22.8 μg g(-1) lw), but had substantially higher concentrations of pesticides (4.1 ± 0.9 vs. 1.9 μg g(-1) lw). Embryos from the two litters (n = 36) had similar levels of summed organic contaminant concentrations (4.6 ± 0.9 μg g(-1) lw) and pregnant females were estimated to offload approximately 0.03-2.3% of their hepatic contaminant load to offspring. While the potential health impacts of these transferred contaminants is unknown, this is the first study to demonstrate that scalloped hammerheads are exposed to a substantial amount of contaminants prior to birth and document maternal offloading of organochlorines in a pseudo-placental shark species. Therefore, future research should continue to investigate the potential adverse effects these contaminants have on elasmobranch physiology.

  2. Rat visceral yolk sac cells: viability and expression of cell markers during maternal diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.B. Aires

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The function of the visceral yolk sac (VYS is critical for embryo organogenesis until final fetal development in rats, and can be affected by conditions such as diabetes. In view of the importance of diabetes during pregnancy for maternal and neonatal health, the objective of this study was to assess fetal weight, VYS cell markers, and viability in female Wistar rats (200-250 g with induced diabetes (alloxan, 37 mg/kg on the 8th gestational day (gd 8. At gd 15, rats from control (n=5 and diabetic (n=5 groups were anesthetized and laparotomized to remove the uterine horns for weighing of fetuses and collecting the VYS. Flow cytometry was used for characterizing VYS cells, and for determining mitochondrial activity, cell proliferation, DNA ploidy, cell cycle phases, and caspase-3 activity. Fetal weight was reduced in the diabetic group. Expression of the cell markers CD34, VEGFR1, CD115, CD117, CD14, CCR2, CD90, CD44, STRO-1, OCT3/4, and Nanog was detected in VYS cells in both groups. In the diabetic group, significantly decreased expression of CD34 (P<0.05, CCR2 (P<0.001, and OCT3/4 (P<0.01, and significantly increased expression of CD90 (P<0.05, CD117 (P<0.01, and CD14 (P<0.05 were observed. VYS cells with inactive mitochondria, activated caspase-3, and low proliferation were present in the rats with diabetes. Severe hyperglycemia caused by maternal diabetes had negative effects on pregnancy, VYS cell viability, and the expression of cell markers.

  3. Rat visceral yolk sac cells: viability and expression of cell markers during maternal diabetes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aires, M.B. [Departamento de Morfologia, Universidade Federal de Sergipe, São Cristóvão, SE (Brazil); Santos, J.R.A. [Departamento de Enfermagem, Universidade Federal de Sergipe, São Cristóvão, SE (Brazil); Souza, K.S.; Farias, P.S. [Departamento de Morfologia, Universidade Federal de Sergipe, São Cristóvão, SE (Brazil); Santos, A.C.V. [Departamento de Enfermagem, Universidade Federal de Sergipe, São Cristóvão, SE (Brazil); Fioretto, E.T. [Departamento de Morfologia, Universidade Federal de Sergipe, São Cristóvão, SE (Brazil); Maria, D.A. [Laboratório de Bioquímica e Biofísica, Instituto Butantan, São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2015-07-10

    The function of the visceral yolk sac (VYS) is critical for embryo organogenesis until final fetal development in rats, and can be affected by conditions such as diabetes. In view of the importance of diabetes during pregnancy for maternal and neonatal health, the objective of this study was to assess fetal weight, VYS cell markers, and viability in female Wistar rats (200-250 g) with induced diabetes (alloxan, 37 mg/kg) on the 8th gestational day (gd 8). At gd 15, rats from control (n=5) and diabetic (n=5) groups were anesthetized and laparotomized to remove the uterine horns for weighing of fetuses and collecting the VYS. Flow cytometry was used for characterizing VYS cells, and for determining mitochondrial activity, cell proliferation, DNA ploidy, cell cycle phases, and caspase-3 activity. Fetal weight was reduced in the diabetic group. Expression of the cell markers CD34, VEGFR1, CD115, CD117, CD14, CCR2, CD90, CD44, STRO-1, OCT3/4, and Nanog was detected in VYS cells in both groups. In the diabetic group, significantly decreased expression of CD34 (P<0.05), CCR2 (P<0.001), and OCT3/4 (P<0.01), and significantly increased expression of CD90 (P<0.05), CD117 (P<0.01), and CD14 (P<0.05) were observed. VYS cells with inactive mitochondria, activated caspase-3, and low proliferation were present in the rats with diabetes. Severe hyperglycemia caused by maternal diabetes had negative effects on pregnancy, VYS cell viability, and the expression of cell markers.

  4. Tunable add-drop filter using an active whispering gallery mode microcavity

    CERN Document Server

    Monifi, Faraz; Yang, Lan

    2013-01-01

    An add-drop filter (ADF) fabricated using a whispering gallery mode resonator has different crosstalks for add and drop functions due to non-zero intrinsic losses of the resonator. Here, we show that introducing gain medium in the resonator and optically pumping it below the lasing threshold not only allows loss compensation to achieve similar and lower crosstalks but also tunability in bandwidth and add-drop efficiency. For an active ADF fabricated using an erbium-ytterbium co-doped microsphere, we achieved 24-fold enhancement in the intrinsic quality factor, 3.5-fold increase in drop efficiency, bandwidth tunability of 35 MHz and a crosstalk of only 2%.

  5. An add-on system for photochemical ATR-IR spectroscopy studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    The invention relates to an add-on system for a unit mainly adapted for attenuated total reflectance infrared (ATR-IR) spectroscopy. The add-on system enables time-resolved in-situ measurements of different sample types in an easy, simple and inexpensive way. The add-on system includes a cap (300G......) and the cap (300B,300H,300J), a source of light, e.g. a light emitting diode (418) or an optical fibre (416) connectable to a laser, and a light source containing cavity....

  6. Prenatal ultrasonic diagnosis of fetal lacrimal sac cyst%产前超声诊断胎儿泪囊囊肿

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄苑铭; 黄冬平; 梁耀佳; 邹鹏; 陈丹; 马小燕

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨产前超声诊断胎儿泪囊囊肿的价值.方法 回顾性分析12胎产前超声诊断为胎儿泪囊囊肿的声像图特征,并追踪其妊娠结局.结果 产前超声检出12胎胎儿泪囊囊肿,孕周为26~36周,其中双侧3胎,单侧9胎.泪囊囊肿典型超声声像图表现为眼眶内下方见囊性无回声.6胎囊肿产前自行消失;1胎经终止妊娠后确定存在泪囊囊肿2胎分娩后囊肿自行消失;1胎分娩后因新生儿呼吸窘迫而接受外科手术治疗;2胎失访.结论 胎儿泪囊囊肿有其特征性超声表现,正确诊断有利于指导临床工作.%To explore the value of prenatal ultrasound in diagnosis of lacrimal sac cyst. Methods Prenatal ultrasonic features of 12 fetuses with fetal lacrimal sac cyst were retrospectively analyzed, and the pregnancy outcomes were followed up. Results Twelve fetuses of fetal lacrimal sac cyst were detected with prenatal ultrasound, and their gestational age ranged from 26 to 36 weeks. Among these fetuses, lacrimal sac cyst was bilateral in 3 fetuses and unilateral in 9 fetuses. The typical ultrasonic feature of lacrimal sac cyst was cystic mass without echo in medial and inferior orbit. The lacrimal sac cyst resolved spontaneously prenatally in 6 fetuses. One lacrimal sac cyst was determined after termination of pregnancy. Two lacrimal sac cyst resolved spontaneously after delivery. The lacrimal sac cyst disappeared in one newborn after receiving surgical intervention for respiratory distress syndrome after delivery. Two fetuses were lost during follow-up. Conclusion Fetal lacrimal sac cyst has characteristic ultrasonic appearances. Correct diagnosis is valuable for guiding clinical work.

  7. Mothers whose children have ADD/ADHD discuss their children's medication use: an investigation of blogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Juanne N; Lang, Laura

    2012-01-01

    This article presents the results of a frame and discourse analysis of Internet blog sites where parents (usually mothers) discuss their concerns about medication use by their children with attention deficit disorder or attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADD/ADHD). This is a particularly important topic in an era characterized by powerful circulating discourses around the contentious medicalization of, and prevalent pharmaceutical treatments for, ADD/ADHD, as well as the mother blame associated with having a child diagnosed with ADD/ADHD. The findings document that the mothers see ADD/ADHD as legitimate medical diagnoses and view themselves as caretakers of children with brain and neuro-chemical anomalies affecting the behavior of their children. They favor pharmaceutical use and describe themselves as experts in the difficult and complex issues related to pharmaceuticalized parenting. At the same time their adoption of medicalization is contingent as they express specific critiques of some doctors, some types of doctors, and critically evaluate science.

  8. Design of a Floating-Point Fused Add-Subtract Unit Using Verilog

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayank Sharma,

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available A floating-point (FP fused add-subtract unit is presented that performs simultaneous floating-point operation of add-subtract on a common pair of single-precision data at the same time that it takes to perform in a single addition with a conventional floating-point adder. The system was placed and routed in 45nm process so that there will be less consumption of memory as well as power.

  9. Novel 2×2 multiwavelength optical cross connects based on optical add/drop multiplexers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Fenghai; Pedersen, Rune Johan Skullerud; Jeppesen, Palle

    2000-01-01

    A novel architecture of 2×2 multiwavelength optical cross connects based on optical add/drop multiplexers and optical switches is described. The structure is strictly nonblocking with a high degree of modularity. Its basic performance is experimentally demonstrated.......A novel architecture of 2×2 multiwavelength optical cross connects based on optical add/drop multiplexers and optical switches is described. The structure is strictly nonblocking with a high degree of modularity. Its basic performance is experimentally demonstrated....

  10. Investigation of cascadability of add-drop multiplexers in OTDM systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jepsen, Kim Stokholm; Poulsen, Henrik Nørskov; Clausen, Anders;

    1998-01-01

    The influence of coherent cross-talk on the cascadability of add-drop multiplexers in optical time division multiplexing (OTDM) systems is analysed theoretically using moment generating functions. Calculations are validated by experiments......The influence of coherent cross-talk on the cascadability of add-drop multiplexers in optical time division multiplexing (OTDM) systems is analysed theoretically using moment generating functions. Calculations are validated by experiments...

  11. Air Abrasion

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... delivered directly to your desktop! more... What Is Air Abrasion? Article Chapters What Is Air Abrasion? What Happens? The Pros and Cons Will I Feel Anything? Is Air Abrasion for Everyone? print full article print this ...

  12. Development of the endolymphatic sac and duct in the Japanese red-bellied newt, Cynops pyrrhogaster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, W.; Wiederhold, M. L.; Harrison, J. L.

    1998-01-01

    The development and maturation of the endolymphatic sac (ES) and duct (ED) were studied in the newt Cynops pyrrhogaster. The ES first appears as an oval capsule at the dorsal-medial tip of the otic vesicle at stage 39, about 11 days after oviposition. The ES consists of polymorphous epithelial cells with a minimum of cytoplasm. The intercellular space (IS) between the epithelial cells is narrow and has a smooth surface. At stage 44, the size of the ES increases as many vacuoles in the IS become filled. At stage 46, 18 days after oviposition, the ES elongates markedly and a slit-like lumen is found in the ES. The epithelium contains a few cell organelles which are scattered in the cytoplasm. The vacuoles in the IS are fused, which expands the IS. Two days later (stage 48), floccular material (endolymph) is present in the expanded lumen. The IS dilates and has a wide and irregular appearance. At stage 50, approximately 26 days after oviposition, the ES extends and expands significantly and crystals (otoconia) can now be seen in the widened lumen of the ES. The cytoplasm of the cuboidal epithelial cells contains an abundance of vesicles surrounded by ribosomes and Golgi complexes. Intercellular digitations are formed in the expanded IS. At stage 54, the ES forms a large bellow-like pouch. Numerous otoconia accumulate in the lumen. Free floating cells and cell debris can be seen in the lumen at this stage. The epithelial cells contain numerous cytoplasmic organelles which are evenly distributed in the cytoplasm. Granules are found in the apical and lateral cytoplasm. The IS is loose and displays a labyrinthine appearance. The primitive ED first appears as a connection between the ES and the saccule but no lumen is present inside at stage 39. At stage 46, a narrow lumen is formed in the ED, which corresponds to the formation of the ES lumen. At stage 50, as the ED extends, floccular material is seen in the lumen. At stage 54, the ED bears numerous microvilli on its

  13. Effects of post-reflow cooling rate and thermal aging on growth behavior of interfacial intermetallic compound between SAC305 solder and Cu substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xiaowu; Xu, Tao; Jiang, Xiongxin; Li, Yulong; Liu, Yi; Min, Zhixian

    2016-04-01

    The interfacial reactions between Cu and Sn3Ag0.5Cu (SAC305) solder reflowed under various cooling rates were investigated. It is found that the cooling rate is an important parameter in solder reflow process because it influences not only microstructure of solder alloy but also the morphology and growth of intermetallic compounds (IMCs) formed between solder and Cu substrate. The experimental results indicate that only scallop-like Cu6Sn5 IMC layer is observed between solder and Cu substrate in case of water cooling and air cooling, while bilayer composed of scallop-like Cu6Sn5 and thin layer-like Cu3Sn is detected under furnace cooling due to sufficient reaction time to form Cu3Sn between Cu6Sn5 IMC and Cu substrate which resulted from slow cooling rate. Samples with different reflow cooling rates were further thermal-aged at 423 K. And it is found that the thickness of IMC increases linearly with square root of aging time. The growth constants of interfacial IMC layer during aging were obtained and compared for different cooling rates, indicating that the IMC layer thickness increased faster in samples under low cooling rate than in the high cooling rate under the same aging condition. The long prismatic grains were formed on the existing interfacial Cu6Sn5 grains to extrude deeply into solder matrix with lower cooling rate and long-term aging, and the Cu6Sn5 grains coarsened linearly with cubic root of aging time.

  14. Evidence of the most stretchable egg sac silk stalk, of the European spider of the year Meta menardi.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emiliano Lepore

    Full Text Available Spider silks display generally strong mechanical properties, even if differences between species and within the same species can be observed. While many different types of silks have been tested, the mechanical properties of stalks of silk taken from the egg sac of the cave spider Meta menardi have not yet been analyzed. Meta menardi has recently been chosen as the "European spider of the year 2012", from the European Society of Arachnology. Here we report a study where silk stalks were collected directly from several caves in the north-west of Italy. Field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM images showed that stalks are made up of a large number of threads, each of them with diameter of 6.03 ± 0.58 µm. The stalks were strained at the constant rate of 2 mm/min, using a tensile testing machine. The observed maximum stress, strain and toughness modulus, defined as the area under the stress-strain curve, are 0.64 GPa, 751% and 130.7 MJ/m(3, respectively. To the best of our knowledge, such an observed huge elongation has never been reported for egg sac silk stalks and suggests a huge unrolling microscopic mechanism of the macroscopic stalk that, as a continuation of the protective egg sac, is expected to be composed by fibres very densely and randomly packed. The Weibull statistics was used to analyze the results from mechanical testing, and an average value of Weibull modulus (m is deduced to be in the range of 1.5-1.8 with a Weibull scale parameter (σ(0 in the range of 0.33-0.41 GPa, showing a high coefficient of correlation (R(2 = 0.97.

  15. Primary juxtaovarian yolk sac tumor concurrent with an ipsilateral ovarian mature teratoma in an adult woman: a rare association

    OpenAIRE

    Ma, Haifen; Yu, Jihong; Tang, Jingjing; Wang, Min

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Yolk sac tumor (YST) is a rare neoplasm that primarily occurs in the ovary in children and young women. Previously, it has been reported that the teratomatous components can be recognized in part of YSTs or appear in the contralateral ovary. Here, we report a rare case of an adult woman with a juxtaovarian YST concurrent with an ipsilateral ovarian mature teratoma. Methods: A 47-year-old woman found a pelvic mass for nine days and subsequently underwent debulking operation. The sp...

  16. Prognostic value of serum α-fetoprotein in ovarian yolk sac tumors: A systematic review and meta-analysis

    OpenAIRE

    GUO, YANG-LONG; Zhang, Ying-Li; Zhu, Jian-Qing

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the prognostic value of serum α-fetoprotein (AFP) levels in patients with ovarian yolk sac tumor (OYST). We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to assess the associations between serum AFP level and prognosis in OYST. A total of 12 quantitative studies met the inclusion criteria. Preoperative AFP was not found to be associated with overall survival (OS) [odds ratio (OR)=0.84, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.43–1.62] in OYST. However, a high po...

  17. [The orbital implant after exenteration of the orbit with the preservation of the eyelids and the conjunctival sac].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krásný, J; Novák, V; Otradovec, J

    2006-04-01

    In ophthalmology, the orbital exenteration presents the most mutilating surgical procedure. The surgical technique presented by authors, preserves the eyelids and conjunctival sac. This surgical procedure was suggested and repeatedly performed in adult patients with extensive benign tumors (mostly meningeomas) by J. Otradovec and J. Safár. The enucleation of the eyeball preceded this type of surgery. The final state made it possible to put the prosthesis into the conjunctival sac. Today we inform about further development of this surgical technique and according to our own experiences we widen its indications to some malignant tumors (rhabdomyosarcoma and metastases of the retinoblastoma, etc.) in children. The initial cutaneous incision starts in the eyebrow area and is directed toward the bone of the orbital rim. The preparation of the tissue underneath the intact conjunctival sac to the lower aspect of the bone orbital rim follows. After folding the conjuctival-cutaneous sac back, the real content of the orbit is exenterated in the classical manner. After the hemostasis in the orbital apex, the flap is returned to its primary position and suturing of the primary incision in anatomical layers terminates the surgery. The authors refer about a boy, now 17 years old, who underwent at the age of three years the exenteration of the orbit in this manner due to a rhabdomyosarcoma. The authors also refer about the development and application of a special type of prosthesis made from silicone rubber--implant grade--filling out the orbital space and forming the anterior segment of the eye. The prosthesis was created from a classical orbital implant, regularly used in enucleation surgery and a conjunctival implant, a convex-concave plate with diameter of 20 mm. Both parts are made from the same type of silicon rubber and were connected together by vulcanization. The orbital implant was eliptically extended according to the measurements of the orbital casting made from

  18. CT Findings of Intrarenal Yolk Sac Tumor with Tumor Thrombus Extending into the Inferior Vena Cava: A Case Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Shao Chun; Li, Xue Hua; Sun, Can Hui; Feng, Shi Ting; Peng, Zhen Peng; Huang, Si Yun; Li, Zi Ping [Dept. of Radiology, The First Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou (China)

    2014-10-15

    Yolk sac tumor (YST) is a rare germ cell neoplasm of childhood that usually arises from the testis or ovary. The rare cases of YST in various extragonadal locations have been reported, but the primary intrarenal YST is even more uncommon. Here, we report a case of a primary intrarenal YST with tumor thrombus of the inferior vena cava and left renal vein in a 2-year-old boy, with an emphasis on the CT features. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of an intrarenal YST with intravascular involvement.

  19. Redox activity of melanin from the ink sac of Sepia officinalis by means of colorimetric oxidative assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srisuk, Pathomthat; Correlo, Vitor M; Leonor, Isabel B; Palladino, Pasquale; Reis, Rui L

    2016-01-01

    The redox properties of natural extract from cuttlefish ink sac (Sepia officinalis) and synthetic melanin used as a biomimetic in melanin structural investigation were determined by comparison of this phenol-based heterogeneous pigment with gallic acid used as a standard in Folin-Ciocalteu colorimetric assay widely employed for characterisation of oxidative properties of biomaterials. Reactivity of sepia melanin reported here is much higher than previously indicated and this protocol should allow the redox characterisation of all melanins irrespective of their origin and composition. PMID:26299816

  20. 640 Gbit/s optical time-division add-drop multiplexing in a non-linear optical loop mirror

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mulvad, Hans Christian Hansen; Galili, Michael; Oxenløwe, Leif Katsuo;

    2009-01-01

    Error-free 640 Gbit/s all-optical time-division add-drop multiplexing is demonstrated using a non-linear optical loop mirror. Both the add- and drop operations are achieved simultaneously by switching.......Error-free 640 Gbit/s all-optical time-division add-drop multiplexing is demonstrated using a non-linear optical loop mirror. Both the add- and drop operations are achieved simultaneously by switching....

  1. 42 CFR 82.16 - How will NIOSH add to monitoring data to remedy limitations of individual monitoring and missed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false How will NIOSH add to monitoring data to remedy... PROGRAM ACT OF 2000 Dose Reconstruction Process § 82.16 How will NIOSH add to monitoring data to remedy... to add this to the total dose estimate. For monitoring periods where external dosimetry data...

  2. Treatment of infectious waste: development and testing of an add-on set for used gravity displacement autoclaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolze, René; Kühling, Jan-Gerd

    2009-06-01

    The safe management of potentially infectious healthcare waste is gaining increasing worldwide importance. In developing countries, simple incinerators are used for the treatment of this type of waste stream. However, as these incinerators produce high emissions and represent the main generators of dioxin and furans in these countries, alternative and cost-effective solutions are needed. As steam treatment systems do not produce persistent organic pollutants, the use of existing (older) medical autoclaves could represent a solution for the treatment of infectious waste. ETLog Health EnviroTech & Logistics, the German-based consulting and engineering company carried out the first research into whether gravity air displacement autoclaves can be used for the safe decontamination of infectious waste. The research showed that it is not possible to decontaminate waste using this type of autoclave. A subsequent research and development phase might, however, make it possible to develop a new process cycle. Tests carried out on the basis of international standards and norms showed that by applying this process cycle and using an add-on set, it is possible to treat healthcare waste using the existing stock of older medical autoclaves. The process cycle and the add-on set developed were tested under existing conditions in Hanoi, Vietnam using the treatment cycle developed for a 13-year-old autoclave. All the parameters for infectious waste decontamination were reached. As modified autoclaves prevent the emission of toxic substances, this approach presents an interim solution, which avoids the impacts on human health and the environment caused by the incineration of healthcare waste.

  3. A clinicopathological analysis of papillary endolymphatic sac tumor in inner ear

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LIN Yu-jing

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Background Endolymphatic sac tumor (ELST is a rare tumor originating fromendolymphatic epithelium of inner ear. This tumor exhibits low-grade malignancy with benign histopathological appearance and clinically destructive behavior which occurs in the skull base and frequently invades the posterior petrous bone, the mastoid, semicircular canal, cerebellopontine angle structures and cranial nerve. The presence of intracranial ELST always makes the diagnosis challenge for clinicians and pathologists. Herein we describe a case of ELST in skull base. The clinicopathology of this tumor and its differential diagnosis are discussed. Methods The clinical manifestation of a patient with primary ELST occurring in right cerebellopontine angle was presented retrospectively. Resected mass was routinely paraffin-embedded and stained with hematoxylin and eosin. Dako EnVision immunohistochemical staining system was used to detect the tumor antigen expressions, including cytokeratin (CK, vimentin (Vim, epithelial membrane antigen (EMA, carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA, synaptophysin (Syn, chromogranin A (CgA, S-100 protein (S-100, glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP, thyroglobulin (TG, thyroid transcription factor-1 (TTF-1 and Ki-67. Results A 32-year-old male patient presented with 20-year history of progressive hearing loss. MRI scan revealed an expansile lytic lesion of the mastoid process of the right petrous bone, measuring 4.20 cm × 3.30 cm × 2.00 cm, occupied the right cerebellopontine angle with infiltration of surrounding dura mater. But the lesion did not break the dura mater and invade the brain parenchyma. Craniotomy was performed and the tumor was removed totally. Histological examination revealed a papillary, cystic or glandular architecture in mass. The papillary and glandular structures were lined by a single layer of flattened cuboidal-to-columnar cells. The stroma of the papillary fronds was richly vascularized and chronically inflamed. There

  4. Influence of sex, age, and fasting on blood parameters and body, bursa, spleen and yolk sac weights of broiler chicks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DL Pires

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The effects of water and feed fasting for 24, 48 and 72 hours post-hatching on blood parameters (mean corpuscular volume, MCV; red blood-cell, RBC; hematocrit, HCT; hemoglobin, HGB; plasma glucose, CGP; plasma total protein, PP, and differential leukocytes count, and on body, liver, spleen, bursa, and yolk sac weights were analyzed. Erythrogram data were obtained with a blood cell counter. Total plasma protein and plasma glucose were determined by using the Bradford method (1976 and a glucose PAP liquiform kit (Labtest, cat. n. 84, respectively. Specific leukocyte counts were carried out on blood smears stained with Rosenfeld solution. According to the obtained data, water and feed post-hatching fasting reduced MCV values, which also were lower in males than that in females. Fasting for 48 hours promoted an increase in PP, while fasting for 72 hours reduced HCT. Chicks submitted to fasting presented lower body weights as compared to fed chicks, but their liver weight did not increase between 48 and 72 hours of age. Fasting decreased spleen weight, but bursa and yolk sac weight were not affected. Data showed that female and male chicks react in a similar way to post-hatching fasting, which affects body weight, liver and spleen weight, and HCT and PP values. Moreover, 72 hours of fasting affected more intensely HCT and MCV values.

  5. Endolymphatic Sac Enlargement in a Girl with a Novel Mutation for Distal Renal Tubular Acidosis and Severe Deafness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rink Nikki

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Hereditary distal renal tubular acidosis (dRTA is caused by mutations of genes encoding subunits of the H+-ATPase (ATP6V0A4 and ATP6V1B1 expressed in α-intercalated cells of the distal renal tubule and in the cochlea. We report on a 2-year-old girl with distal RTA and profound speech delay which was initially misdiagnosed as autism. Genetic analysis showed compound heterozygous mutations with one known and one novel mutation of the ATP6V1B1 gene; cerebral magnetic resonance imaging (MRI revealed bilateral enlargement of the endolymphatic sacs of the inner ear. With improved cooperation, audiometric testing showed that hearing loss was most profound on the right, where endolymphatic sac enlargement was greatest, demonstrating a clear link between the degree of deafness and the degree of inner ear abnormality. This case indicates the value of MRI for diagnosis of inner ear involvement in very young children with distal RTA. Although citrate therapy quickly corrects the acidosis and restores growth, early diagnosis of deafness is crucial so that hearing aids can be used to assist acquisition of speech and to provide enough auditory nerve stimulation to assure the affected infants remain candidates for cochlear implantation.

  6. Endolymphatic sac enlargement in a girl with a novel mutation for distal renal tubular acidosis and severe deafness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikki, Rink; Martin, Bitzan; Gus, O'Gorman; Mato, Nagel; Elena, Torban; Paul, Goodyer

    2012-01-01

    Hereditary distal renal tubular acidosis (dRTA) is caused by mutations of genes encoding subunits of the H(+)-ATPase (ATP6V0A4 and ATP6V1B1) expressed in α-intercalated cells of the distal renal tubule and in the cochlea. We report on a 2-year-old girl with distal RTA and profound speech delay which was initially misdiagnosed as autism. Genetic analysis showed compound heterozygous mutations with one known and one novel mutation of the ATP6V1B1 gene; cerebral magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed bilateral enlargement of the endolymphatic sacs of the inner ear. With improved cooperation, audiometric testing showed that hearing loss was most profound on the right, where endolymphatic sac enlargement was greatest, demonstrating a clear link between the degree of deafness and the degree of inner ear abnormality. This case indicates the value of MRI for diagnosis of inner ear involvement in very young children with distal RTA. Although citrate therapy quickly corrects the acidosis and restores growth, early diagnosis of deafness is crucial so that hearing aids can be used to assist acquisition of speech and to provide enough auditory nerve stimulation to assure the affected infants remain candidates for cochlear implantation. PMID:22966473

  7. Pyocele of the lachrymal sac: A late and unusual complication after surgery for a juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Eloy

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Philippe Eloy, Vincent Bachy, Véronique Grulois, Bernard BertrandDepartment of Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, University Hospital of Mont-Godinne, Université Catholique de Louvain, Yvoir, BelgiumAbstract: JNA (Juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma is a benign but highly vascular and aggressive tumor that takes its origin in the basisphenoid region close to the sphenopalatine foramen. It occurs invariably in male teenagers. Surgery is the treatment of choice. In the past, external transfacial approaches were recommended. Nowadays endonasal endoscopic approach is performed by experienced teams even for extended tumor. The authors report a case of a pyocele of the lachrymal sac occurring 60 years after a transantral surgery for a JNA. The patient was then successfully operated with an endonasal endoscopic dacryocystorhinostomy using a powered instrumentation and a navigation system. This case confirms the necessity of a long follow-up for all the patients who had a transantral surgery with resection of the medial wall of the maxillary sinus and dissection of the nasolacrymal duct.Keywords: pyocele of the lachrymal sac, complication, surgery for JNA, JNA, endonasal DCR, navigation system

  8. An elective detection of an Amyand's hernia with an adhesive caecum to the sac: Report of a rare case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengul, Ilker; Sengul, Demet; Aribas, Duygu

    2011-01-01

    Context: Existence of non-inflamed or inflamed vermiform appendix in an inguinal hernia is named Amyand's hernia in honor to the surgeon Claudius Amyand who successfully performed first perforated appendicitis. Case Report: A 69-year-old Turkish male patient with a slight right groin pain and swelling was presented to our clinic, and found to have a slightly tender and reducible right inguinal hernia. He underwent surgery under general anesthesia, and a adhesive caecum and an inflamed appendix were explored within the hernia sac. Adhesions were divided by sharp dissection and appendectomy was performed. After carrying out a Lichtenstein hernioplasty, a broad-spectrum antibiotic was postoperatively admitted for 3 days. He recovered uneventfully, and neither complication nor recurrence was detected during 52 months of follow-up. Conclusions: Although occurrence of an appendicitis in an inguinal hernia is rare, a surgeon should be vigilant for facing with it even in elective cases. Treatment can be provided only surgically, but surgical treatment is not standard except from appendectomy. In our opinion, application of mesh hernia repair should depend on the degree of inflammation of appendix and the presence of incarceration of hernia sac with a suitable antibiotic admission for 3-5 days postoperatively. PMID:22171249

  9. An Unusual Lesser Sac Collection Causing Gastric Outlet Obstruction with Coincidental Occurrence of Leriche's Syndrome: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singla, Anand; Walia, Darshanjeet Singh; Kaur, Rishabhpreet

    2016-04-01

    Gastric outlet obstruction in adults is usually caused by pyloric stenosis secondary to peptic ulcer disease or malignancy. However, there are few other causes such as a foreign body and external compression due to pseudocyst pancreas. We present a rare aetiology of a large collection of pus in the lesser sac in our patient causing gastric outlet obstruction. A perforated peptic ulcer was suspected in our patient who had symptoms of sudden onset pain in epigastric region which was referred to back. This was followed by pain in upper abdomen, vomiting, constipation and fever for which patient was being managed conservatively before being referred to us. The CECT didn't show any leakage of contrast to the lesser sac making the possibility of healed perforation likely as all other causes were ruled out at the time of presentation to our hospital. The CECT scan ruled out other causes of gastric outlet obstruction with normal wall thickness of the stomach and duodenum along with normal looking liver, pancreas and no lymphadenopathy. The liver function tests and serum amylase were within normal limits. Along with this, there was another unrelated rare coincidental finding of aortoiliac occlusive disease termed as Leriche's syndrome. Ultrasound guided percutaneous drainage was done following which the patient's obstruction was relieved and patient was referred to the department of vascular surgery for the mangement of aortoiliac occlusive disease. PMID:27190892

  10. Aneurysm Sac Pressure Measurement with Minimally Invasive Implantable Pressure Sensors: An Alternative to Current Surveillance Regimes after EVAR?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Current protocols for surveillance after endovascular repair (EVAR) of abdominal aortic aneurysms are mostly based on costly and time-consuming imaging procedures and aim to detect adverse events such as graft migration, endoleaks or aneurysm sac enlargement. These imaging procedures are either associated with radiation exposure to the patients or may be harmful to the patient due to the use of iodine- or gadolinium-containing contrast agents. Furthermore the advantages of EVAR in the short term might be negated by the necessity for endograft surveillance over years. Thus, alternative modalities for follow-up are being investigated. One of these technologies provides pressure information directly from the aneurysm sac. This noninvasive, telemetric pressure sensing was tested in vitro as well as in first clinical trials and was able to identify successful aneurysm exclusion after EVAR. The telemetric pressure sensors showed a promising efficacy and accuracy in detecting type I and type III endoleaks and will help to clarify the clinical relevance of type II endoleaks. This article provides an overview of the in vitro sensors investigated as well as the first clinical trials and the sensors' potential to change the current endograft surveillance regimes

  11. Photothermally tunable silicon-microring-based optical add-drop filter through integrated light absorber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xi; Shi, Yuechun; Lou, Fei; Chen, Yiting; Yan, Min; Wosinski, Lech; Qiu, Min

    2014-10-20

    An optically pumped thermo-optic (TO) silicon ring add-drop filter with fast thermal response is experimentally demonstrated. We propose that metal-insulator-metal (MIM) light absorber can be integrated into silicon TO devices, acting as a localized heat source which can be activated remotely by a pump beam. The MIM absorber design introduces less thermal capacity to the device, compared to conventional electrically-driven approaches. Experimentally, the absorber-integrated add-drop filter shows an optical response time of 13.7 μs following the 10%-90% rule (equivalent to a exponential time constant of 5 μs) and a wavelength shift over pump power of 60 pm/mW. The photothermally tunable add-drop filter may provide new perspectives for all-optical routing and switching in integrated Si photonic circuits. PMID:25401557

  12. Tunable Fano resonance in a single-ring-resonator-based add/drop interferometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kaiyang; Liu, Xiaoqi; Yu, Changqiu; Zhang, Yundong

    2013-07-10

    We theoretically study a single-ring-resonator-based add/drop interferometer to achieve tunable Fano resonance. The Fano resonance results from the interference of two resonant beams propagating in the ring resonator. The line shapes of the Fano resonance are tunable by controlling the coupling coefficients between the waveguide and ring resonator. The spectra of the drop port and through port of the add/drop interferometer are horizontally mirror-symmetric. A box-like spectral response can be produced with the proper coupling coefficient owing to the double resonances. When the phase difference between the two light inputs to the add/drop interferometer is compensated, a doubled free spectral range can be obtained. PMID:23852203

  13. Add-on effect of Brahmi in the management of schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukanto Sarkar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Brahmi(Bacopa monnieri, an Ayurvedic herb has primarily been used to enhance cognitive ability, memory and learning skills. We present a case study of schizophrenia in which add-on Brahmi extracts 500 mg/day for a period of one month resulted in reduction in psychopathology without any treatment-emergent adverse effect. Although preliminary, our case study suggests therapeutic efficacy of add-on Brahmi in schizophrenia, thus opening up a new dimension of its role in alternative medicines.

  14. THE SLOAN DIGITAL SKY SURVEY CO-ADD: A GALAXY PHOTOMETRIC REDSHIFT CATALOG

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present and describe a catalog of galaxy photometric redshifts (photo-z) for the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Co-add Data. We use the artificial neural network (ANN) technique to calculate the photo-z and the nearest neighbor error method to estimate photo-z errors for ∼13 million objects classified as galaxies in the co-add with r 68 = 0.031. After presenting our results and quality tests, we provide a short guide for users accessing the public data.

  15. Add-drop filter based on dual photonic crystal nanobeam cavities in push-pull mode

    CERN Document Server

    Poulton, Christopher V; Wade, Mark T; Popovic, Milos A

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate an add-drop filter based on a dual photonic crystal nanobeam cavity system that emulates the operation of a traveling-wave resonator and drops light on resonance to a single output port. Realized on an advanced SOI CMOS (IBM 45nm SOI) chip without any foundry process modifications, the device shows 16dB extinction in through port and 1dB loss in drop port with a 3dB bandwidth of 64GHz. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first implementation of a four-port add-drop filter based on photonic crystal nanobeam cavities.

  16. Precocious puberty secondary to a mixed germ cell-sex cord-stromal tumor associated with an ovarian yolk sac tumor: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Metwalley Kotb; Elsers Dalia; Farghaly Hekma; Abdel-Lateif Hanaa; Abdel-Kader Mohamed

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Introduction Ovarian tumors are the least common cause of sexual precocity in girls. Mixed germ cell-sex cord-stromal tumors associated with a yolk sac tumor of the ovary are rare neoplasms, of which only a small number of well-documented cases have been described so far. Here, we report precocious puberty in a four-year-old Egyptian girl caused by a mixed germ cell-sex cord-stromal tumor associated with a yolk sac tumor of the ovary. Case presentation A four-year-old Egyptian girl w...

  17. Endovascular treatment of type II endoleak following thoracic endovascular aortic repair for thoracic aortic aneurysm: Case report of squeeze technique to reach the aneurysmal sac

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Hyun Jung; Kim, Chang Won; Lee, Tae Hong; Song, Seung Hwan; Lee, Chung Won; Chung, Sung Woon [Pusan National University Hospital, School of Medicine, Pusan National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-12-15

    Type II endoleaks are common after thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR). Various strategies are introduced to manage type II endoleaks, such as the use of coils, plugs, or liquid embolic agents (histoacryl, thrombin, onyx, etc.) through a transarterial approach or a direct puncture of the aneurysmal sac. We herein report a case of a type II endoleak caused by reverse blood flow through intercostal artery after TEVAR which was successfully treated with n-butyl cyanoacrylate (histoacryl)-lipiodol mixture by a squeeze technique to reach the aneurismal sac using a microcatheter.

  18. CAS is to organize the establishment of new national professional standardization technical committees, subcommittees & working groups under the commissioning of SAC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ To implement the development strategy, bringing standardization into full play in technically supporting the construction of socialism market economy of China, achieving the task of development and revision of national standards, upgrading the level of standardization development of China, fully realizing the leaping development of our standardization course, the Standardization Administration of China (SAC) has decided to expand the scale of national professional standardization technical committee system. Currently, the China Association for Standardization (CAS), under the commissioning of SAC, is to organize the establishment of new national professional standardization technical committees, subcommittees and working groups.

  19. Endovascular treatment of type II endoleak following thoracic endovascular aortic repair for thoracic aortic aneurysm: Case report of squeeze technique to reach the aneurysmal sac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Type II endoleaks are common after thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR). Various strategies are introduced to manage type II endoleaks, such as the use of coils, plugs, or liquid embolic agents (histoacryl, thrombin, onyx, etc.) through a transarterial approach or a direct puncture of the aneurysmal sac. We herein report a case of a type II endoleak caused by reverse blood flow through intercostal artery after TEVAR which was successfully treated with n-butyl cyanoacrylate (histoacryl)-lipiodol mixture by a squeeze technique to reach the aneurismal sac using a microcatheter.

  20. Evaluation for High-risk HPV in Squamous Cell Carcinomas and Precursor Lesions Arising in the Conjunctiva and Lacrimal Sac.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afrogheh, Amir H; Jakobiec, Frederick A; Hammon, Rebecca; Grossniklaus, Hans E; Rocco, James; Lindeman, Neal I; Sadow, Peter M; Faquin, William C

    2016-04-01

    High-risk human papilloma virus (HR-HPV) is a well-established causative agent of oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). In addition, HR-HPV has occasionally been reported to be present in dysplastic and malignant lesions of the conjunctiva and lacrimal sac, although its overall incidence and etiological role in periocular SCC are controversial. Sequential surgical samples of 52 combined cases of invasive SCC (I-SCC) and SCC in situ (SCCIS) from 2 periocular sites (conjunctiva and lacrimal sac) diagnosed over a 14-year period (2000 to 2014) were selected for evaluation, and relevant patient characteristics were documented. p16 immunohistochemistry was performed as a screening test. All p16-positive cases were further evaluated for HR-HPV using DNA in situ hybridization (DNA ISH), and a subset was also analyzed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Of 43 ocular surface squamous neoplasias (OSSNs), 30% (n=13; 8 SCCIS and 5 I-SCC cases) were positive for HR-HPV. HPV-positive OSSNs occurred in 8 men and 5 women with a mean age of 60 years (range, 39 to 94 y). HPV type-16 was detected in all conjunctival cases evaluated by PCR. All 5 conjunctival I-SCCs were nonkeratinizing (n=4) or partially keratinizing (n=1) and managed by simple excision. In contrast, HPV-negative conjunctival I-SCCs were predominantly keratinizing (11 keratinizing and 2 nonkeratinizing). Of 9 lacrimal sac I-SCCs (LSSCCs), 66.7% (n=6) were positive for HR-HPV by p16 and DNA ISH; HPV subtypes were HPV-16 (n=5) and HPV-58 (n=1). In addition, 2 p16-positive cases with negative DNA ISH results were HR-HPV positive (HPV-16 and HPV-33) when evaluated by PCR, suggesting that the rate of HR-HPV positivity among the LSSCCs may be as high as 89% (n=8). The combined group of HR-HPV-positive LSSCCs was seen in 4 men and 4 women with a mean age of 60 years (range, 34 to 71 y). Seven of the 8 HPV-positive LSSCCs (87.5%) had a nonkeratinizing or partially keratinizing histomorphology, whereas 1 case (12

  1. Development of a radiometer based on an Add-ON card for PC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The design of an add-on card for PC that enables it to record nuclear pulses provided by two channels is described in this paper. This card carries acts as a pulse discriminator, and according to the software it finds many appliances in radioimmunoassay, nuclear medicine, industry and other fields

  2. Associations between Dopamine and Serotonin Genes and Job Satisfaction: Preliminary Evidence from the Add Health Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Zhaoli; Li, Wendong; Arvey, Richard D.

    2011-01-01

    Previous behavioral genetic studies have found that job satisfaction is partially heritable. We went a step further to examine particular genetic markers that may be associated with job satisfaction. Using an oversample from the National Adolescent Longitudinal Study (Add Health Study), we found 2 genetic markers, dopamine receptor gene DRD4 VNTR…

  3. Break out of the box: how to add value to the security function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Russell F

    2007-01-01

    Opportunities to create programs that enhance the value of the security function are present now and will be in the future, according to the author, who illustrates a number of ways the resourceful security practitioner can add to his department's reputation and his organization's bottom line.

  4. Psychometric Properties and Norms of the German ABC-Community and PAS-ADD Checklist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeilinger, Elisabeth L.; Weber, Germain; Haveman, Meindert J.

    2011-01-01

    Aim: The aim of the present study was to standardize and generate psychometric evidence of the German language versions of two well-established English language mental health instruments: the "Aberrant Behavior Checklist-Community" (ABC-C) and the "Psychiatric Assessment Schedule for Adults with Developmental Disabilities" (PAS-ADD) Checklist. New…

  5. Neural Biomarkers for Dyslexia, ADHD, and ADD in the Auditory Cortex of Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrallach, Bettina; Groß, Christine; Bernhofs, Valdis; Engelmann, Dorte; Benner, Jan; Gündert, Nadine; Blatow, Maria; Wengenroth, Martina; Seitz, Angelika; Brunner, Monika; Seither, Stefan; Parncutt, Richard; Schneider, Peter; Seither-Preisler, Annemarie

    2016-01-01

    Dyslexia, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and attention deficit disorder (ADD) show distinct clinical profiles that may include auditory and language-related impairments. Currently, an objective brain-based diagnosis of these developmental disorders is still unavailable. We investigated the neuro-auditory systems of dyslexic, ADHD, ADD, and age-matched control children (N = 147) using neuroimaging, magnetencephalography and psychoacoustics. All disorder subgroups exhibited an oversized left planum temporale and an abnormal interhemispheric asynchrony (10-40 ms) of the primary auditory evoked P1-response. Considering right auditory cortex morphology, bilateral P1 source waveform shapes, and auditory performance, the three disorder subgroups could be reliably differentiated with outstanding accuracies of 89-98%. We therefore for the first time provide differential biomarkers for a brain-based diagnosis of dyslexia, ADHD, and ADD. The method allowed not only allowed for clear discrimination between two subtypes of attentional disorders (ADHD and ADD), a topic controversially discussed for decades in the scientific community, but also revealed the potential for objectively identifying comorbid cases. Noteworthy, in children playing a musical instrument, after three and a half years of training the observed interhemispheric asynchronies were reduced by about 2/3, thus suggesting a strong beneficial influence of music experience on brain development. These findings might have far-reaching implications for both research and practice and enable a profound understanding of the brain-related etiology, diagnosis, and musically based therapy of common auditory-related developmental disorders and learning disabilities. PMID:27471442

  6. Project DyAdd: Implicit Learning in Adult Dyslexia and ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laasonen, Marja; Väre, Jenni; Oksanen-Hennah, Henna; Leppämäki, Sami; Tani, Pekka; Harno, Hanna; Hokkanen, Laura; Pothos, Emmanuel; Cleeremans, Axel

    2014-01-01

    In this study of the project DyAdd, implicit learning was investigated through two paradigms in adults (18-55 years) with dyslexia (n?=?36) or with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD, n?=?22) and in controls (n?=?35). In the serial reaction time (SRT) task, there were no group differences in learning. However, those with ADHD exhibited…

  7. Neural Biomarkers for Dyslexia, ADHD, and ADD in the Auditory Cortex of Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrallach, Bettina; Groß, Christine; Bernhofs, Valdis; Engelmann, Dorte; Benner, Jan; Gündert, Nadine; Blatow, Maria; Wengenroth, Martina; Seitz, Angelika; Brunner, Monika; Seither, Stefan; Parncutt, Richard; Schneider, Peter; Seither-Preisler, Annemarie

    2016-01-01

    Dyslexia, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and attention deficit disorder (ADD) show distinct clinical profiles that may include auditory and language-related impairments. Currently, an objective brain-based diagnosis of these developmental disorders is still unavailable. We investigated the neuro-auditory systems of dyslexic, ADHD, ADD, and age-matched control children (N = 147) using neuroimaging, magnetencephalography and psychoacoustics. All disorder subgroups exhibited an oversized left planum temporale and an abnormal interhemispheric asynchrony (10–40 ms) of the primary auditory evoked P1-response. Considering right auditory cortex morphology, bilateral P1 source waveform shapes, and auditory performance, the three disorder subgroups could be reliably differentiated with outstanding accuracies of 89–98%. We therefore for the first time provide differential biomarkers for a brain-based diagnosis of dyslexia, ADHD, and ADD. The method allowed not only allowed for clear discrimination between two subtypes of attentional disorders (ADHD and ADD), a topic controversially discussed for decades in the scientific community, but also revealed the potential for objectively identifying comorbid cases. Noteworthy, in children playing a musical instrument, after three and a half years of training the observed interhemispheric asynchronies were reduced by about 2/3, thus suggesting a strong beneficial influence of music experience on brain development. These findings might have far-reaching implications for both research and practice and enable a profound understanding of the brain-related etiology, diagnosis, and musically based therapy of common auditory-related developmental disorders and learning disabilities. PMID:27471442

  8. Compact Z-add-drop wavelength filters for long-range surface plasmon polaritons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boltasseva, Alexandra; Bozhevolnyi, Sergey I.; Søndergaard, Thomas;

    2005-01-01

    We design, fabricate and investigate compact Z-add-drop (ZAD) filters for long-range surface plasmon polaritons (LR-SPPs) at telecom wavelengths. The ZAD filter for LR-SPPs consists of two ridge gratings formed by periodic gold thickness modulation at the intersections of three zigzag-crossed gold...

  9. Design and Implementation of 10 Gbps Optical Add-Drop Transponder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Byoung-Sung; Kim; Seung-Il; Myong; Jung-Chan; Lee; Je-Soo; Ko

    2003-01-01

    10 Gbps optical add-drop transponder, which can accommodate VSR (very short reach) to LR (long reach) subnetworks, is designed and implemented. The transponder consists of an OCA (optical transport network connection assembly), a SCA (sub-network connection assembly), and a FECA (forward error correction assembly).

  10. Comparison Study on Three Different Reconfigurable Optical Add Drop Multiplexer Architectures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Bin; ZHANG Yang-an; HUANG Yong-qing; REN Xiao-min

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we present the evolution of reconfigurable optical add drop multiplexer(ROADM) technologies, and compare three main ROADM architectures available on the market today. Three architectures include broadcast-select and demux-switch-mux[and the integrated version planar lightwave circuit(PLC)] and wavelengths-selective switch.

  11. Civic Engagement and Global Citizenship in a University Context: Core Business or Desirable Add-On?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munck, Ronaldo

    2010-01-01

    Can civic engagement become a "core business" of the contemporary university, or is it an attractive "add-on" that is not affordable in the current economic climate? Contemporary universities often play an important role in local community development and, as such, have the opportunity to develop civic engagement strategies to sit alongside…

  12. 76 FR 28885 - Brucellosis in Swine; Add Texas to List of Validated Brucellosis-Free States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-19

    ... Inspection Service 9 CFR Part 78 Brucellosis in Swine; Add Texas to List of Validated Brucellosis- Free... comments. SUMMARY: We are amending the brucellosis regulations concerning the interstate movement of swine by adding Texas to the list of validated brucellosis-free States. We have determined that Texas...

  13. Ritanserin as add-on medication to neuroleptic therapy for patients with chronic or subchronic schizophrenia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Den Boer, JA; Vahlne, JO; Post, P; Heck, AH; Daubenton, F; Olbrich, R

    2000-01-01

    The effect of ritanserin, a potent 5HT(2A/2C) receptor antagonist, used as an add-on medication to neuroleptic treatmentin patients with schizophrenia, was compared with that of placebo, in an international, double-blind, parallel-group study. Previously established neuroleptic therapy was maintaine

  14. Vocabulario enla lengua Castellana, la del Ynga y Xebera (British Library, Ms. Add. 25,323)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Alexander-Bakkerus

    2013-01-01

    The codex Vocabulario enla Lengua Castellana, la del Inga y Xebera (British Library, shelf mark Ms. Add. 25,323), does not only contain a Spanish-Quechua-Xebero vocabulary, but also a rather elaborate description of certain Xebero sounds. Although the author of the manuscript is unknown, we may attr

  15. Neural biomarkers for dyslexia, ADHD and ADD in the auditory cortex of children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bettina Serrallach

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Dyslexia, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD, and attention deficit disorder (ADD show distinct clinical profiles that may include auditory and language-related impairments. Currently, an objective brain-based diagnosis of these developmental disorders is still unavailable. We investigated the neuro-auditory systems of dyslexic, ADHD, ADD, and age-matched control children (N=147 using neuroimaging, magnet-encephalography and psychoacoustics. All disorder subgroups exhibited an oversized left planum temporale and an abnormal interhemispheric asynchrony (10-40 ms of the primary auditory evoked P1-response. Considering right auditory cortex morphology, bilateral P1 source waveform shapes, and auditory performance, the three disorder subgroups could be reliably differentiated with outstanding accuracies of 89-98%. We therefore for the first time provide differential biomarkers for a brain-based diagnosis of dyslexia, ADHD, and ADD. The method allowed not only a clear discrimination between two subtypes of attentional disorders (ADHD and ADD, a topic controversially discussed for decades in the scientific community, but also revealed the potential for objectively identifying comorbid cases. Noteworthy, in children playing a musical instrument, after three and a half years of training the observed interhemispheric asynchronies were reduced by about 2/3, thus suggesting a strong beneficial influence of music experience on brain development. These findings might have far-reaching implications for both research and practice and enable a profound understanding of the brain-related etiology, diagnosis, and musically based therapy of common auditory-related developmental disorders and learning disabilities.

  16. Ciprofloxacin and probiotic Escherichia coli Nissle add-on treatment in active ulcerative colitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Andreas Munk; Mirsepasi, Hengameh; Halkjær, Sofie Ingdam;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIM: Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a chronic inflammatory bowel disease. The probiotic bacterium Escherichia coli Nissle 1917 (EcN) has been used to maintain and induce clinical remission in UC. Our aim was to test the effect of Ciprofloxacin and/or orally administered EcN as add-on to...

  17. Impact of Number of Add/Drop Ports of OXCs on LSP Blocking Performance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes the connection establishment of label switched paths (LSP) in IP/MPLS over optical networks. Our investigations on two typical network topologies show that the number of add/drop ports of OXCs has a significant impact on the LSP blocking performance.

  18. Strategies for Successfully Teaching Students with ADD or ADHD in Instrumental Lessons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melago, Kathleen A.

    2014-01-01

    Teachers can easily encounter students with Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD) or Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in the instrumental lesson setting. Applicable to instrumental lesson settings in the public or private schools, private studios, or college studios, this article focuses on specific strategies ranging from the…

  19. Characterization of RNS multiply-add units for power efficient DSP

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cardarilli, Gian Carlo; Nannarelli, Alberto; Petricca, Massimo;

    2015-01-01

    ) for a fused multiply-add unit by taking into account four metrics: area, delay, power consumption, and switching activity. The results of the DSE are verified against the TCS and RNS implementation of parallel FIR filters of different characteristics. In both the DSE and the filter implementation, we consider...

  20. How to Add Philosophy Dimensions in Your Basic International Business Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thanopoulos, John

    2010-01-01

    This article aims to assist professors in introducing concepts of self, philosophy, religions, the universe, existential dilemmas, etc., in their basic international business classes. Using active learning and five-member student teams, a student organized and administered conference adds a very useful dimension of knowledge sacrificing only one…

  1. Proteomic analysis of the early bovine yolk sac fluid and cells from the day 13 ovoid and elongated preimplantation embryos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Pernille L; Beck, Hans Christian; Petersen, Tonny S;

    2014-01-01

    The bovine blastocyst hatches 8 to 9 days after fertilization, and this is followed by several days of preimplantation development during which the embryo transforms from a spherical over an ovoid to an elongated shape. As the spherical embryo enlarges, the cells of the inner cell mass...... slightly later stage cell differentiation in the developing bovine embryo. In vitro-produced Day 6 embryos were transferred into a recipient heifer and after 7 days of further in vivo culture, ovoid and elongated Day 13 embryos were recovered by flushing both uterine horns after slaughter. The primitive YS...... differentiate into the hypoblast and epiblast, which remain surrounded by the trophectoderm. The formation of the hypoblast epithelium is also accompanied by a change in the fluid within the embryo, i.e., the blastocoel fluid gradually alters to become the primitive yolk sac (YS) fluid. Our previous research...

  2. Direct aneurysm sac catheterization and embolization of an enlarging internal iliac aneurysm using cone-beam CT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merchant, Monish; Shah, Rohan; Resnick, Scott

    2015-01-01

    Since cone-beam computed tomography (CT) has been adapted for use with a C-arm system it has brought volumetric CT capabilities in the interventional suite. Although cone-beam CT image resolution is far inferior to that generated by traditional CT scanners, the system offers the ability to place an access needle into position under tomographic guidance and use the access to immediately begin a fluoroscopic procedure without moving the patient. We describe a case of a “jailed” enlarging internal iliac artery aneurysm secondary to abdominal aortic aneurysm repair, in which direct percutaneous puncture of the internal iliac artery aneurysm sac was performed under cone-beam CT guidance. PMID:25858522

  3. Proposed helmet PET geometries with add-on detectors for high sensitivity brain imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tashima, Hideaki; Yamaya, Taiga

    2016-10-01

    For dedicated brain PET, we can significantly improve sensitivity for the cerebrum region by arranging detectors in a compact hemisphere. The geometrical sensitivity for the top region of the hemisphere is increased compared with conventional cylindrical PET consisting of the same number of detectors. However, the geometrical sensitivity at the center region of the hemisphere is still low because the bottom edge of the field-of-view is open, the same as for the cylindrical PET. In this paper, we proposed a helmet PET with add-on detectors for high sensitivity brain PET imaging for both center and top regions. The key point is the add-on detectors covering some portion of the spherical surface in addition to the hemisphere. As the location of the add-on detectors, we proposed three choices: a chin detector, ear detectors, and a neck detector. For example, the geometrical sensitivity for the region-of-interest at the center was increased by 200% by adding the chin detector which increased the size by 12% of the size of the hemisphere detector. The other add-on detectors gave almost the same increased sensitivity effect as the chin detector did. Compared with standard whole-body-cylindrical PET, the proposed geometries can achieve 2.6 times higher sensitivity for brain region even with less than 1/4 detectors. In addition, we conducted imaging simulations for geometries with a diameter of 250 mm and with high resolution depth-of-interaction detectors. The simulation results showed that the proposed geometries increased image quality, and all of the add-on detectors were equivalently effective. In conclusion, the proposed geometries have high potential for widespread applications in high-sensitivity, high-resolution, and low-cost brain PET imaging.

  4. High-performance liquid chromatography combined with intrinsic fluorescence detection to analyse melittin in individual honeybee (Apis mellifera) venom sac.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Jiangtao; Ying, Bihua; Huang, Shaokang; Ma, Shuangqin; Long, Peng; Tu, Xijuan; Yang, Wenchao; Wu, Zhenhong; Chen, Wenbin; Miao, Xiaoqing

    2015-10-01

    Melittin is the major toxin peptide in bee venom, which has diverse biological effects. In the present study, melittin was separated by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography, and was then detected using intrinsic fluorescence signal of tryptophan residue. The accuracy, linearity, limit of quantitation (LOQ), intra-day and inter-day precision of the method were carefully validated in this study. Results indicate that the intrinsic fluorescence signal of melittin has linear range from 0.04μg/mL to 20μg/mL with LOQ of 0.04μg/mL. The recovery range of spiked samples is between 81.93% and 105.25%. The precision results are expressed as relative standard deviation (RSD), which is in the range of 2.1-7.4% for intra-day precision and 6.2-10.8% for inter-day precision. Because of the large linear dynamic range and the high sensitivity, intrinsic fluorescence detection (IFD) can be used for analyzing melittin contents in individual venom sac of honeybee (Apis mellifera). The detected contents of melittin in individual bee venom sac are 0.18±0.25μg for one-day old honeybees (n=30), and 114.98±43.51μg for 25-day old (n=30) honeybees, respectively. Results indicate that there is large bee-to-bee difference in melittin contents. The developed method can be useful for discovering the melittin related honeybee biology information, which might be covered in the complex samples. PMID:26319802

  5. Whispering to the deaf: communication by a frog without external vocal sac or tympanum in noisy environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boistel, Renaud; Aubin, Thierry; Cloetens, Peter; Langer, Max; Gillet, Brigitte; Josset, Patrice; Pollet, Nicolas; Herrel, Anthony

    2011-01-01

    Atelopus franciscus is a diurnal bufonid frog that lives in South-American tropical rain forests. As in many other frogs, males produce calls to defend their territories and attract females. However, this species is a so-called "earless" frog lacking an external tympanum and is thus anatomically deaf. Moreover, A. franciscus has no external vocal sac and lives in a sound constraining environment along river banks where it competes with other calling frogs. Despite these constraints, male A. franciscus reply acoustically to the calls of conspecifics in the field. To resolve this apparent paradox, we studied the vocal apparatus and middle-ear, analysed signal content of the calls, examined sound and signal content propagation in its natural habitat, and performed playback experiments. We show that A. franciscus males can produce only low intensity calls that propagate a short distance (<8 m) as a result of the lack of an external vocal sac. The species-specific coding of the signal is based on the pulse duration, providing a simple coding that is efficient as it allows discrimination from calls of sympatric frogs. Moreover, the signal is redundant and consequently adapted to noisy environments. As such a coding system can be efficient only at short-range, territory holders established themselves at short distances from each other. Finally, we show that the middle-ear of A. franciscus does not present any particular adaptations to compensate for the lack of an external tympanum, suggesting the existence of extra-tympanic pathways for sound propagation. PMID:21779377

  6. Whispering to the deaf: communication by a frog without external vocal sac or tympanum in noisy environments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renaud Boistel

    Full Text Available Atelopus franciscus is a diurnal bufonid frog that lives in South-American tropical rain forests. As in many other frogs, males produce calls to defend their territories and attract females. However, this species is a so-called "earless" frog lacking an external tympanum and is thus anatomically deaf. Moreover, A. franciscus has no external vocal sac and lives in a sound constraining environment along river banks where it competes with other calling frogs. Despite these constraints, male A. franciscus reply acoustically to the calls of conspecifics in the field. To resolve this apparent paradox, we studied the vocal apparatus and middle-ear, analysed signal content of the calls, examined sound and signal content propagation in its natural habitat, and performed playback experiments. We show that A. franciscus males can produce only low intensity calls that propagate a short distance (<8 m as a result of the lack of an external vocal sac. The species-specific coding of the signal is based on the pulse duration, providing a simple coding that is efficient as it allows discrimination from calls of sympatric frogs. Moreover, the signal is redundant and consequently adapted to noisy environments. As such a coding system can be efficient only at short-range, territory holders established themselves at short distances from each other. Finally, we show that the middle-ear of A. franciscus does not present any particular adaptations to compensate for the lack of an external tympanum, suggesting the existence of extra-tympanic pathways for sound propagation.

  7. Ocean surface waves and winds over the north Indian Ocean from satellite altimeter - preliminary results of SAC-NIO joint project

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sarkar, A.; Rajkumar, R.; Gairola, R.M.; Gohil, B.S.; Vethamony, P.; Rao, L.V.G.

    With the aim of retrieving, validating and mapping ocean surface winds and waves in the north Indian Ocean, GEOSAT altimeter data for the period November 1986 to October 1987 and available sea truth data for the above period were processed in SAC...

  8. CM5, a pre-Swarm comprehensive geomagnetic field model derived from over 12 yr of CHAMP, Ørsted, SAC-C and observatory data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sabaka, Terence J.; Olsen, Nils; Tyler, Robert H.;

    2015-01-01

    A comprehensive magnetic field model named CM5 has been derived from CHAMP, Orsted and SAC-C satellite and observatory hourly-means data from 2000 August to 2013 January using the Swarm Level-2 Comprehensive Inversion (CI) algorithm. Swarm is a recently launched constellation of three satellites ...

  9. Tensile creep characteristics of Sn–3.5Ag–0.5Cu (SAC355) solder reinforced with nano-metric ZnO particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recently, nano-composite solders have been developed in the electronic packaging materials industry to improve the mechanical response of solder joints to be used in service under different conditions. In this study mechanical mixing has been used to disperse nano-metric ZnO particles in Sn–3.5Ag–0.5Cu (SAC355) solder at 420 °C for 2 h. In comparison with SAC355 solder, addition of nano-metric ZnO particles effectively suppressed the formation and restricted the volume fraction of the Ag3Sn and Cu6Sn5 intermetallic compound particles, lowering grain sizes and controlled the growth of β-Sn grains in the matrix. An improvement in tensile creep resistance of the reinforced SAC355 composite is noticed. This improvement seems to be due to its effect in structural refinement and makes the composite solder to display a large creep life time. The addition of nano-metric ZnO particles keeps the melting temperature nearly at the SAC355 level, indicating that the composite solder is fit for the existing soldering process

  10. 40 CFR 63.4766 - How do I determine the add-on control device emission destruction or removal efficiency?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 25 of appendix A to 40 CFR part 60 if the add-on control device is an oxidizer, and you expect the... device outlet. (2) Use Method 25A of appendix A to 40 CFR part 60 if the add-on control device is an... control device outlet. (3) Use Method 25A of appendix A to 40 CFR part 60 if the add-on control device...

  11. 40 CFR 63.3545 - How do I determine the add-on control device emission destruction or removal efficiency?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... appendix A to 40 CFR part 60 if the add-on control device is an oxidizer and you expect the total gaseous... appendix A to 40 CFR part 60 if the add-on control device is an oxidizer and you expect the total gaseous... appendix A to 40 CFR part 60 if the add-control device is not an oxidizer. (4) You may use Method 18...

  12. MR imaging of the lumbar disk herniation : relationship between the direction of herniated disc and pressure effect on nerve root and dural sac

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cha, B. H.; Shon, M. Y.; Kim, K. W.; Lim, M. A.; Kwon, K. R; Kim, S. S. [Sunlin Presbyterian Hospital, Pohang (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-04-01

    To evaluate the relationship between the direction of herniated disc and pressure effect on nerve root and dural sac, as seen on MRI. We retrospectively reviewed lumbar spine MR images of 122 cases of lumbar disk herniation 75 patients MRI findings were analyzed with regard to the relationship between the direction of the herniated disc and pressure effect on nerve root and dural sac. Pressure effect on nerve root and dural sac was arbitrarily divided into three types. Type I was defined as zero or minimal compression of nerve roots or thecal sac by the herniated disc ; type II was defined as mild to moderate compression, while III was defined as severe compression or displacement of nerve roots and/or thecal sac. Of the 122 cases seen in these 75 patients, 97(80%) were observed at L4-5 and L5-S1. The central type(71cases ; 58%) was more frequently observed than the posterolateral type(48cases ; 40%) or lateral type(3cases ; 2%). The totals of types I, II, and III were 44(36%), 43(35%) and 35 cases(29%), respectively. Seventy-seven %(34/44) of type I and 65%(28/43) of type II were of the central type but for type III, the corresponding figure was only 26%(9/35). On MR imaging, most of lumbar disk herniations were observed at L4-5 and L5-S1, with a predominance of the central type rather than the posterolateral one. Most of the central types were either type I or type II.

  13. Chip-scale fully reconfigurable optical add/drop multiplexing subsystem in polymer microphotonic circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izuhara, Tomoyuki; Fujita, Junichiro; Radojevic, Antonije; Gerhardt, Reinald; Eldada, Louay A.

    2004-10-01

    We report on a highly integrated photonic circuit using a polymer-based planar waveguide system. The properties of the materials used in this work such as ultra-low optical loss, widely tunable refractive index, and large thermo-optic coefficient, enable a multi-functional chip-scale microphotonic circuit. We discuss the application of this technology to the fabrication of a fully reconfigurable optical add/drop multiplexer. This subsystem includes channel switching, power monitoring, load balancing, and wavelength shuffling functionalities that are required for agile wavelength-division multiplexing optical networks. Optical properties of our material systems and performance characteristics of the implemented optical passive/active elements are presented, and the integration schemes of the devices to achieve a fully integrated reconfigurable optical add/drop multiplexer are discussed.

  14. A Robust and Tunable Add-Drop Filter Using Whispering Gallery Mode Microtoroid Resonator

    CERN Document Server

    Monifi, F; Ozdemir, S K; Yang, L; 10.1109/JLT.2012.2214026

    2013-01-01

    We fabricated and theoretically investigated an add-drop filter using an on-chip whispering gallery mode (WGM) microtoroid resonator with ultra-high quality factor (Q) side coupled to two taper fibers, forming the bus and drop waveguides. The new device design incorporates silica side walls close to the microresonators which not only enable placing the coupling fibers on the same plane with respect to the microtoroid resonator but also provides mechanical stability, leading to an add-drop filter with high drop efficiency and improved robustness to environmental perturbations. We show that this new device can be thermally tuned to drop desired wavelengths from the bus without significantly affecting the drop efficiency, which is around 57%

  15. How Can Facilities Management Add Value To Organisations As Well As To Society?

    OpenAIRE

    Jensen, P.A.; A.L. Sarasoja; Van der Voordt, D.J.M.; Coenen, C.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present lessons learnt from a 3 year collaborative research project on the added value of Facilities Management (FM) involving institutions in five European countries. The starting point was the so-called FM Value Map developed earlier by the leader of the research group. The project applied three basic theoretical perspectives: FM, Corporate Real Estate Management (CREM) and Business to Business (B2B) marketing and started with a major literature review on add...

  16. Waveguide structure optimization of arrayed waveguide gratings concatenation in cascaded optical add/drop multiplexers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuanliang Chu(初元量); Hanyi Zhang(张汉一)

    2003-01-01

    The dimensions of input waveguide and output waveguide of arrayed waveguide gratings (AWGs) determinethe crosstalk, insertion loss and 1-dB bandwidth. In cascaded optical add/drop multiplexers (OADMs),the value of these parameters will largely affect the power penalty of system. The power penalty ofcascaded OADMs is calculated with different waveguide dimensions of AWGs in this paper. Consideringof wavelength misalignment, an optimization design of AWGs is obtained.

  17. Hera-FFX: a Firefox add-on for Semi-automatic Web Accessibility Evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    Fuertes Castro, José Luis; González, Ricardo; Gutiérrez, Emmanuelle; Martínez Normand, Loïc

    2009-01-01

    Website accessibility evaluation is a complex task requiring a combination of human expertise and software support. There are several online and offline tools to support the manual web accessibility evaluation process. However, they all have some weaknesses because none of them includes all the desired features. In this paper we present Hera-FFX, an add-on for the Firefox web browser that supports semi-automatic web accessibility evaluation.

  18. Pleasure and pedagogy: the consumption of DVD add-ons among Irish teenagers

    OpenAIRE

    Brereton, Pat; O'Connor, Barbara

    2007-01-01

    This article addresses the issue of young people and media use in the digital age, more specifically the interconnection between new media pleasures and pedagogy as they relate to the consumption of DVD add-ons. Arguing against the view of new media as having predominantly detrimental effects on young people, the authors claim that new media can enable young people to develop media literacy skills and are of the view that media literacy strategies must be based on an understanding and legitim...

  19. Bilateral Waveform Similarity Overlap-and-Add Based Packet Loss Concealment for Voice over IP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.F. Yeh

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper invested a bilateral waveform similarity overlap-and-add algorithm for voice packet lost. Since Packet lost will cause the semantic misunderstanding, it has become one of the most essential problems in speech communication. This investment is based on waveform similarity measure using overlap-and-Add algorithm and provides the bilateral information to enhance the speech signal reconstruction. Traditionally, it has been improved that waveform similarity overlap-and-add (WSOLA technique is an effective algorithm to deal with packet loss concealment (PLC for real-time time communication. WSOLA algorithm is widely applied to deal with the length adaptation and packet loss concealment of speech signal. Time scale modification of audio signal is one of the most essential research topics in data communication, especially in voice of IP (VoIP. Herein, the proposed the bilateral WSOLA (BWSOLA that is derived from WSOLA. Instead of only exploitation one direction speech data, the proposed method will reconstruct the lost voice data according to the preceding and cascading data. The related algorithms have been developed to achieve the optimal reconstructing estimation. The experimental results show that the quality of the reconstructed speech signal of the bilateral WSOLA is much better compared to the standard WSOLA and GWSOLA on different packet loss rate and length using the metrics PESQ and MOS. The significant improvement is obtained by bilateral information and proposed method. The proposed bilateral waveform similarity overlap-and-add (BWSOLA outperforms the traditional approaches especially in the long duration data loss.

  20. Marriage and Health in the Transition to Adulthood: Evidence for African Americans in Add Health

    OpenAIRE

    Harris, Kathleen Mullan; Lee, Hedwig; DeLeone, Felicia Yang

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines the relationship between early marriage (before age 26), cohabitation, and health for African Americans and whites during the transition to adulthood using the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health). We examine three categories of health outcomes relevant to young adulthood: physical health, mental health, and health risk behaviors. Lagged dependent variable models are used to examine the health effects of early marriage and cohabitation accounting f...

  1. Med-records: an ADD database of AAEC medical records since 1966

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since its inception in 1958 most of the staff of the AAEC Research Establishment at Lucas Heights have had annual medical examinations. Medical information accrued since 1966 has been collected as an ADD database to allow ad hoc enquiries to be made against the data. Details are given of the database schema and numerous support routines ranging from the integrity checking of input data to analysis and plotting of the summary results

  2. Linagliptin as add-on therapy to insulin for patients with type 2 diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    von Websky K

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Karoline von Websky, Christoph Reichetzeder, Berthold Hocher Institute of Nutritional Science, University of Potsdam, Potsdam-Rehbrücke, Germany Abstract: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM is a highly prevalent, progressive disease that often is poorly controlled. The combination of an incretin-based therapy and insulin is a promising approach to optimize the management of glycemic control without hypoglycemia and weight gain. Linagliptin, a recently approved oral dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor, has a unique pharmacological profile. The convenient, once-daily dosing does not need adjustment in patients with hepatic and/or renal impairment. In clinical studies linagliptin shows an important reduction of blood glucose with an overall safety profile similar to that of placebo. So far, the combination of linagliptin and insulin has been tested in three major clinical studies in different populations. It has been shown that linagliptin is an effective and safe add-on therapy to insulin in patients with T2DM. The efficacy and safety of this combination was also shown in vulnerable, elderly T2DM patients and in patients with T2DM and renal impairment. Favorable effects regarding the counteraction of hypoglycemia make linagliptin especially interesting as an add-on therapy to insulin. This review aims to present the existing clinical studies on the efficacy and safety of linagliptin as add-on therapy to insulin in patients with T2DM in the context of current literature. Additionally, the possible advantages of linagliptin as an add-on therapy to insulin in relation to cardiovascular safety, patient-centered therapy and the prevention of hypoglycemia, are discussed. Keywords: incretin, dipeptidyl peptidase-4, glucagon like peptide-1, glycemic control, renal impairment, hypoglycemia

  3. Add on testosterone therapy in negative symptoms of schizophrenia with gonadal trauma: Hitting the bull's eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jha, Shailesh; Garg, Amit

    2016-06-30

    The coincidence or causal incidence of hormonal dysregulation leading to psychotic manifestation had been a point of debate. The interplay of these hormones in pathogenesis of psychotic symptom domains is still inconclusive along with some symptom domains which worsen with antipsychotics. Early detection and treatment with liaison approach is of great help to such patients. We report a case of schizophrenia with primary hypogonadism that responded dramatically to add on testosterone supplement. PMID:27138816

  4. THERIAK_D: An add-on to implement equilibrium computations in geodynamic models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duesterhoeft, Erik; Capitani, Christian

    2013-11-01

    This study presents the theory, applicability, and merits of the new THERIAK_D add-on for the open source Theriak/Domino software package. The add-on works as an interface between Theriak and user-generated scripts, providing the opportunity to process phase equilibrium computation parameters in a programming environment (e.g., C or MATLAB®). THERIAK_D supports a wide range of features such as calculating the solid rock density or testing the stability of mineral phases along any pressure-temperature (P-T) path and P-T grid. To demonstrate applicability, an example is given in which the solid rock density of a 2-D-temperature-pressure field is calculated, portraying a simplified subduction zone. Consequently, the add-on effectively combines thermodynamics and geodynamic modeling. The carefully documented examples could be easily adapted for a broad range of applications. THERIAK_D is free, and the program, user manual, and source codes may be downloaded from http://www.min.uni-kiel.de/˜ed/theriakd/.

  5. radEq Add-On Module for CFD Solver Loci-CHEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCloud, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Loci-CHEM to be applied to flow velocities where surface radiation due to heating from compression and friction becomes significant. The module adds a radiation equilibrium boundary condition to the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code to produce accurate results. The module expanded the upper limit for accurate CFD solutions of Loci-CHEM from Mach 4 to Mach 10 based on Space Shuttle Orbiter Re-Entry trajectories. Loci-CHEM already has a very promising architecture and performance, but absence of radiation equilibrium boundary condition limited the application of Loci-CHEM to below Mach 4. The immediate advantage of the add-on module is that it allows Loci-CHEM to work with supersonic flows up to Mach 10. This transformed Loci-CHEM from a rocket engine- heritage CFD code with general subsonic and low-supersonic applications, to an aeroheating code with hypersonic applications. The follow-on advantage of the module is that it is a building block for additional add-on modules that will solve for the heating generated at Mach numbers higher than 10.

  6. DYNAMIC OPTIMIZATION OF OVERLAPAND-ADD LENGTH OVER MBOFDM SYSTEM BASED ON SNR AND CIR ESTIMATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nouri Naziha

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available An important role performed by Zero Padding (ZP in multi-band OFDM (MB-OFDM System. This role show for low-complexity in résistance against multipath interference by reducing inter-carrier interference (ICI and eliminating the inter-symbol interference (ISI Also, zeropadded suffix can be used to eliminate ripples in the power spectral density in order to conform to FCC requirements. At the receiver of MB-OFDM system needs to use of a technique called as overlap-and-add (OLA. Which maintain the circular convolution property and take the multipath energy of the channel. In this paper, we proposed a method of performing overlap-and-add length for zero padded suffixes. Then, we studied the effect of this method, dynamic optimization of overlap-and-add (OLA equalization, on the performance of MBOFDM system on Bit Error Rate (BER with AWGN channel and Saleh-Valenzuela (S-V Multipath channel Model. In the dynamic optimization OLA, the Length of ZP depends on length of channel impulse response (CIR. These measures, based on SNR, insert the ZP according to the measurement. Dynamic optimization of length of ZP improves the Performance of MBOFDM system. In fact we developed a technique to select the length of ZP as function of SNR and CIR estimate(repetition. In our simulation this technique improve to 3 dB at BER=10-2 with a multipath channels CM4.

  7. 卵巢卵黄囊瘤的MSCT诊断%MSCT Diagnosis of Ovarian Yolk Sac Tumor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹璐; 叶兆祥; 刘佩芳; 李绪斌

    2013-01-01

    Objective To explore the MSCT features of ovarian yolk sac tumor and improve its diagnostic accuracy. Methods Clinical data and MSCT images of 9 patients with ovarian yolk sac tumor were reviewed retrospectively. The onset age ranged 11 to 28 years old,and the average age was 19.5 years old. Alpha Fetal Protein( AFP) was significantly higher before operation in 9 cases (4255 ~ 187689 ug/L). All the cases were examined by both plain and enhanced pelvis CT scan, and 7 cases were also performed with abdomen CT scan. Results There were all unilateral ovarian masses. 7 cases in the right side,and 2 in the left side. The CT plain scan demonstrated oval or lobulated mass with sharp margined. There was maximum diameter of mass with 10. 2 ~ 18. 8 cm . All the tumors were mixed solid and cystic, and predominantly cystic. The solid part of the mass was prominent enhanced. Abundant vessels were seen in tumors Conclusion There are some MSCT characteristics in ovarian yolk sac tumor, correct diagnosis can be made combined with the clinical features before operation.%目的 探讨卵巢卵黄囊瘤的多层螺旋CT表现特点,旨在提高对该病的诊断准确率.方法 回顾性分析经手术病理证实的9例卵巢卵黄囊瘤患者的临床及MSCT资料.患者发病年龄11 ~28岁,平均19.5岁.9例术前血清甲胎蛋白值为4255 ~187689 μg/L,均明显升高.所有病例均行盆腔CT平扫及增强扫描,其中7例同时行上腹部CT平扫及增强扫描.结果 全部患者均为单侧卵巢发病,右侧7例,左侧2例.肿瘤边界清楚,呈卵圆形或分叶状,均为囊实性肿物,且以囊性成分居多.肿物最大径为10.2 ~18.8 em.增强后肿瘤的实性部分明显强化,瘤体内部肿瘤血管丰富.结论 卵巢卵黄囊瘤的多层螺旋CT表现具有一定特征性,结合临床特点,可做出正确诊断.

  8. 40 CFR 63.3546 - How do I establish the emission capture system and add-on control device operating limits during...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... system and add-on control device operating limits during the performance test? 63.3546 Section 63.3546... Add-on Controls Option § 63.3546 How do I establish the emission capture system and add-on control....8(f) as specified in § 63.3492. (a) Thermal oxidizers. If your add-on control device is a...

  9. Histological and ultrastructural observation of the ink sac of Octopus variabilis%长蛸墨囊的组织学及其墨腺超微结构

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王亚; 王春琳; 詹萍萍; 宋微微; 母昌考; 邵楚; 刘帅

    2011-01-01

    分析了长蛸墨囊组织学及墨腺细胞的超微结构.结果表明,墨囊由墨囊体、导管和墨腺3部分组成,墨囊壁和导管壁分为外膜、肌肉层、粘膜下层和粘膜层,墨囊壁与肝脏外膜紧密相连,墨囊导管开口于直肠末端近肛门处;墨腺集中在墨囊底部靠近肝脏的一侧,由粘膜上皮细胞向囊腔内增生形成,呈索状,腺体中部含丰富的结缔组织;墨腺细胞分为具有无分泌功能的A型细胞和有分泌功能的B型细胞,微绒毛分布于B型细胞的顶端;墨汁颗粒在墨腺细胞囊泡中形成,并以胞吐或细胞破碎的形式将墨汁颗粒排出.%Octopus variabilis has become one of the most popular seafood for its delicious taste, which has large market demand in China and is advantaged in marine products exports. However, due to the over fishing and water pollution, the natural resource of Octopus variabilis declined rapidly. For this reason,the industry of artificial culturing got rapid development. The Octopus variabilis will spurt the ink when meeting the stimulation originally. The peculiar ink defence system of Octopus variabilis is based on the activity of the highly specialized ink gland which is deputed to the continuous production of the black insoluble melanin pigment that is stored in the ink sac. This organ has been studied in other cephalopod, but the ink gland in Octopus variabilis is different from the others. Therefore, the histology of the ink sac and ultrastructural structure of the ink gland of Octopus variabilis was studied using light microscopy and electron microscopy in this paper. The observed results showed that the ink sac was composed of ink sac body, pipe and ink glands. The ink sac of Octopus variabilis opened into the end of the recta near the anus by pipe. The wall of the ink sac and pipe were both composed of epicardial,muscular layer,submucosa layer and mucosa layer. And the epicardial of ink sac wall were stratified squamous

  10. High Performance Wavelength Converter Based on Semiconductor Optical Amplifier and Mach-Zehnder Interferometer Optical add/drop Multiplexer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xueyan, Zheng; Liu, Fenghai; Clausen, Anders;

    1999-01-01

    Using an SOA and a optical add/drop multiplexer, a wavelength converter with 18 dB input power dynamic range at 1 dB penalty is realised.......Using an SOA and a optical add/drop multiplexer, a wavelength converter with 18 dB input power dynamic range at 1 dB penalty is realised....

  11. 40 CFR Table 2 to Subpart Oooo of... - Operating Limits if Using Add-On Control Devices and Capture System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Operating Limits if Using Add-On Control Devices and Capture System 2 Table 2 to Subpart OOOO of Part 63 Protection of Environment... OOOO of Part 63—Operating Limits if Using Add-On Control Devices and Capture System If you are...

  12. 76 FR 70147 - Determination Concerning a Petition To Add a Class of Employees to the Special Exposure Cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-10

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Determination Concerning a Petition To Add a Class of Employees to the Special Exposure... to add a class of employees from the Piqua Organic Moderated Reactor, Piqua, Ohio, to the...

  13. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart Ssss of... - Operating Limits if Using Add-on Control Devices and Capture System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Operating Limits if Using Add-on Control Devices and Capture System 1 Table 1 to Subpart SSSS of Part 63 Protection of Environment... Using Add-on Control Devices and Capture System If you are required to comply with operating limits...

  14. 76 FR 37114 - Determination Concerning a Petition To Add a Class of Employees to the Special Exposure Cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-24

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Determination Concerning a Petition To Add a Class of Employees to the Special Exposure... to add a class of employees from the Linde Ceramics Plant in Tonawanda, New York, to the...

  15. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart Jjjj of... - Operating Limits if Using Add-On Control Devices and Capture System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Operating Limits if Using Add-On Control Devices and Capture System 1 Table 1 to Subpart JJJJ of Part 63 Protection of Environment... Limits if Using Add-On Control Devices and Capture System If you are required to comply with...

  16. 31 CFR 5.5 - How will Treasury entities add interest, penalty charges, and administrative costs to a Treasury...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... administrative costs on Treasury debts in accordance with the provisions of 31 U.S.C. 3717 and 31 CFR 901.9, on... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How will Treasury entities add... Debts § 5.5 How will Treasury entities add interest, penalty charges, and administrative costs to...

  17. 77 FR 58383 - Determination Concerning a Petition To Add a Class of Employees to the Special Exposure Cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Determination Concerning a Petition To Add a Class of Employees to the Special Exposure... notice of a determination concerning a petition to add a class of employees from Titanium...

  18. 77 FR 76490 - Determination Concerning a Petition to Add a Class of Employees to the Special Exposure Cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-28

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Determination Concerning a Petition to Add a Class of Employees to the Special Exposure... notice of a determination concerning a petition to add a class of employees from the Weldon Spring...

  19. 36 CFR 1011.5 - What interest, penalty charges and administrative costs will the Presidio Trust add to a debt?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What interest, penalty charges and administrative costs will the Presidio Trust add to a debt? 1011.5 Section 1011.5 Parks... § 1011.5 What interest, penalty charges and administrative costs will the Presidio Trust add to a...

  20. 78 FR 64502 - Determination Concerning a Petition To Add a Class of Employees to the Special Exposure Cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Determination Concerning a Petition To Add a Class of Employees to the Special Exposure... notice of a determination concerning a petition to add a class of employees from the Pantex Plant...

  1. 78 FR 64501 - Determination Concerning a Petition to Add a Class of Employees to the Special Exposure Cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Determination Concerning a Petition to Add a Class of Employees to the Special Exposure... notice of a determination concerning a petition to add a class of employees from Baker Brothers,...

  2. 77 FR 9251 - Determination Concerning a Petition To Add a Class of Employees to the Special Exposure Cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Determination Concerning a Petition To Add a Class of Employees to the Special Exposure... notice of a determination concerning a petition to add a class of employees from the...

  3. 78 FR 18351 - Determination Concerning a Petition To Add a Class of Employees to the Special Exposure Cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Determination Concerning a Petition To Add a Class of Employees to the Special Exposure... notice of a determination concerning a petition to add a class of employees from the Hanford site...

  4. 76 FR 37115 - Determination Concerning a Petition To Add a Class of Employees to the Special Exposure Cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-24

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Determination Concerning a Petition To Add a Class of Employees to the Special Exposure... to add a class of employees from the Chapman Valve Manufacturing Company (i.e., Building 23 and...

  5. 15 CFR 19.5 - How will Commerce entities add interest, penalty charges, and administrative costs to a Commerce...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... administrative costs on Commerce debts in accordance with the provisions of 31 U.S.C. 3717 and 31 CFR 901.9... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false How will Commerce entities add... Debts § 19.5 How will Commerce entities add interest, penalty charges, and administrative costs to...

  6. 78 FR 98 - Determination Concerning a Petition To Add a Class of Employees to the Special Exposure Cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-02

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Determination Concerning a Petition To Add a Class of Employees to the Special Exposure... notice of a determination concerning a petition to add a class of employees from the United...

  7. 78 FR 36550 - Determination Concerning a Petition To Add a Class of Employees to the Special Exposure Cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-18

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Determination Concerning a Petition To Add a Class of Employees to the Special Exposure... notice of a determination concerning a petition to add a class of employees from the Brookhaven...

  8. 77 FR 32642 - Determination Concerning a Petition To Add a Class of Employees to the Special Exposure Cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Determination Concerning a Petition To Add a Class of Employees to the Special Exposure... notice of a determination concerning a petition to add a class of employees from Hangar 481 at...

  9. 76 FR 70148 - Determination Concerning a Petition To Add a Class of Employees to the Special Exposure Cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-10

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Determination Concerning a Petition To Add a Class of Employees to the Special Exposure... to add a class of employees from the Norton Co. (or a subsequent owner), Worcester, Massachusetts,...

  10. The MMPI-168(L) and ADD in Assessing Psychopathology in Individuals with Mental Retardation: Between and within Instrument Associations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDaniel, William F.; Passmore, Corie E.; Sewell, Hollie M.

    2003-01-01

    A study involving 58 adults with mental retardation and mental disorders found few correlations between the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) and the Assessment of Dual Diagnosis (ADD). The major exception was the Mania scale of the MMPI, which correlated moderately well with the ADD Schizophrenia and Dementia scales. (Contains…

  11. The avian respiratory system: a unique model for studies of respiratory toxicosis and for monitoring air quality.

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, R. E.; Brain, J D; Wang, N.

    1997-01-01

    There are many distinct differences (morphologic, physiologic, and mechanical) between the bird's lung-air-sac respiratory system and the mammalian bronchoalveolar lung. In this paper, we review the physiology of the avian respiratory system with attention to those mechanisms that may lead to significantly different results, relative to those in mammals, following exposure to toxic gases and airborne particulates. We suggest that these differences can be productively exploited to further our ...

  12. Effect of egg weight on composition, embryonic growth, and expression of amino acid transporter genes in yolk sac membranes and small intestines of the domestic pigeon (Columba livia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, M X; Li, X G; Yan, H C; Wang, X Q; Gao, C Q

    2016-06-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of egg weight on the composition of the egg, the growth of the embryo, and the expression of amino acid transporter genes in the yolk sac membranes and small intestines of the domestic pigeon (Columba livia). A total of 240 fertilized eggs were collected and divided into two groups based on the weight of the eggs, light (LE) and heavy (HE). The composition of 20 eggs from each group was measured, and the remaining eggs were weighed and placed in an incubator. On embryonic days (E) 9, 11, 13, and 15 and day of hatch (DOH), 15 embryos/hatchlings from each group were measured for embryonic growth, and samples were collected. The HE had heavier yolk and albumen weights than the LE (P < 0.01). Compared with the LE, the HE had heavier yolk-free embryonic body and yolk sac weights from E13 to DOH (P < 0.05). Additionally, the HE had larger yolk sac membrane weights from E13 to E15 (P < 0.05) and had more residual yolk sac content on DOH than those of the LE (P < 0.01). The yolk absorption was greater for the HE than for the LE from E11 to E13 (P < 0.05). Furthermore, the abundance of CAT2 and PepT1 mRNA in the yolk sac membranes was greater in the HE than in the LE on E13 (P < 0.05). Compared with the LE, the gene expression of EAAT2 in the intestine on E13 was greater in the HE, whereas the expression of EAAT3 was lower in the HE (P < 0.05). Taken together, our results suggest that egg weight influenced the composition of the eggs, embryonic development, and expression of amino acid transporter genes in the yolk sac membranes and small intestines of pigeon embryos.

  13. Thin air

    OpenAIRE

    Jasanoff, Sheila

    2013-01-01

    Clearing the air How do we grasp the air? Without Michel Callon’s guidance, I might never have asked that question. Years ago, when I first entered environmental law practice, I took it for granted that problems such as air pollution exist “out there” in the real world for science to discover and law to fix. It is a measure of Callon’s influence that I understand the law today as a metaphysical instrument, no less powerful in its capacity to order nature than the tools of the ancient oracular...

  14. The European Union, Financial Crises and the Regulation of Hedge Funds: A Policy Cul-de-Sac or Policy Window?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David John Lutton

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available A series of financial crises involving hedge funds has created a general perception that action needs to be taken. A number of key member states and political actors favour tighter regulation. Traditional bureaucratic theory suggests that the European Commission would seek to maximise this ‘policy window’, and yet there remains no single unified European Union (EU regulatory framework specifically targeting hedge funds. The nature of the regulatory regime, which has generally demanded a ‘light touch’ approach, means there are strict limits the EU’s ability to act. From an EU perspective, hedge fund regulation appears to be a policy cul-de-sac. However, the relationship between hedge funds and financial crisis is complex and less straightforward than is often portrayed. Hedge fund regulation cannot, however, be considered in isolation but should be viewed in the context of a wider programme to integrate European financial services markets. Viewed from this perspective, EU regulation is in fact changing the landscape of the hedge fund industry through a process of negative integration.

  15. Prognostic value of serum α-fetoprotein in ovarian yolk sac tumors: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yang-Long; Zhang, Ying-Li; Zhu, Jian-Qing

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the prognostic value of serum α-fetoprotein (AFP) levels in patients with ovarian yolk sac tumor (OYST). We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to assess the associations between serum AFP level and prognosis in OYST. A total of 12 quantitative studies met the inclusion criteria. Preoperative AFP was not found to be associated with overall survival (OS) [odds ratio (OR)=0.84, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.43-1.62] in OYST. However, a high postoperative AFP level was associated with worse OS (OR=0.16, 95% CI: 0.05-0.48) and relapse-free survival (RFS) (OR=0.18, 95% CI: 0.08-0.43) compared to a low postoperative AFP level in patients with OYST. In addition, a postoperative AFP level of >1,000 ng/ml was associated with a decrease in OS (OR=0.16, 95% CI: 0.05-0.50) and RFS (OR=0.21, 95% CI: 0.08-0.57). In conclusion, the postoperative, but not the preoperative, AFP level was found to be a prognostic factor in patients with OYST. In particular, a postoperative AFP level of >1,000 ng/ml was an indicator of poor prognosis in patients with OYST. PMID:25469282

  16. Occurrence of differential meiotic associations and additional chromosomes in the embryo-sac mother cells of Allium roylei Stearn

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Geeta Sharma; Ravinder N. Gohil

    2011-04-01

    A small population of complex translocation heterozygote plants of Allium roylei from the Bani region of Jammu Province was studied for meiosis in the female track. This study resulted in identification of two variants, having embryo-sac mother cells (EMCs) with more than 16 chromosomes. EMCs of the remaining plants invariably had diploid $(2n = 16)$ chromosome complement. Female meiosis, in general, was found to be abnormal, with nearly 23% and 11% chromosomes associating as quadrivalents or trivalents at prophase I and at metaphase I, respectively. This was followed by irregular segregation of chromosomes at anaphase I. Amongst the variants; one had 38% EMCs with eight bivalents plus two small sized chromosomes. Their small size, dispensable nature and tendency to affect the pairing behaviour of normal complement are some of the features that latter chromosomes share with the B chromosomes. Seventeen to nineteen chromosomes were observed in 35% EMCs of other variant; the remaining cells had 16 chromosomes. Chromosomal behaviour in both kind of cells (euploid and aneuploid) was more or less similar. Unlike female meiocytes, male meiocytes analysed earlier of this strain always had 16 chromosomes which paired to form extremely complex associations involving 3–16 chromosomes. The most likely cause of this asynchrony with regards to number of chromosomes involved in multivalent formation seems to be interaction of genes controlling chiasma formation with the different physiological conditions of male and female meiocytes.

  17. SAC305/Cu微焊点界面金属间化合物生长速率

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王建华; 孟工戈; 孙凤莲

    2015-01-01

    界面金属间化合物(IMC)的生长速率是影响钎焊接头可靠性的重要因素.文中研究了焊点尺寸、时效温度及镍镀层对SAC305/Cu微焊点界面IMC生长速率的影响.结果表明,焊球尺寸为200,300,400和500 μm,时效温度为100,130,160℃条件下,界面IMC层厚度生长速率随时效时间平方根数值的升高而增长.焊点尺寸由小变大,界面IMC层厚度更薄,IMC的生长速率也更小.随着时效温度的升高,界面IMC生长速率增大.镍镀层对界面IMC的生长速率有明显的抑制作用,即降低IMC生长速率,使其增厚变缓.

  18. Structure of the yellow sac spider Cheiracanthium punctorium genes provides clues to evolution of insecticidal two-domain knottin toxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachkova, M Y; Slavokhotova, A A; Grishin, E V; Vassilevski, A A

    2014-08-01

    Yellow sac spiders (Cheiracanthium punctorium, family Miturgidae) are unique in terms of venom composition, because, as we show here, two-domain toxins have replaced the usual one-domain peptides as the major constituents. We report the structure of the two-domain Che. punctorium toxins (CpTx), along with the corresponding cDNA and genomic DNA sequences. At least three groups of insecticidal CpTx were identified, each consisting of several members. Unlike many cone snail and snake toxins, accelerated evolution is not typical of cptx genes, which instead appear to be under the pressure of purifying selection. Both CpTx modules present the inhibitor cystine knot (ICK), or knottin signature; however, the sequence similarity between the domains is low. Conversely, notable similarity was found between separate domains of CpTx and one-domain toxins from spiders of the Lycosidae family. The observed chimerism is a landmark of exon shuffling events, but in contrast to many families of multidomain protein genes no introns were found in the cptx genes. Considering the possible scenarios, we suggest that an early transcription-mediated fusion event between two related one-domain toxin genes led to the emergence of a primordial cptx-like sequence. We conclude that evolution of toxin variability in spiders appears to be quite different from other venomous animals.

  19. Clinicopathologic study of endolymphatic sac tumor (ELST) and differential diagnosis of papillary tumors located at the cerebellopontine angle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Jiang; Wang, Junmei; Cui, Yun; Zhang, Cuiping; Li, Guilin; Fang, Jingyi; Yue, Shenglin; Xu, Li

    2015-10-01

    We investigated the clinicopathologic features and immunophenotypes of 10 cases of endolymphatic sac tumor (ELST) and compared them with other papillary tumors, including eight cases of choroid plexus papilloma (CPP), three cases of atypical choroid plexus papilloma (ACPP), two cases of papillary ependymoma (PE), three cases of papillary meningioma (PM) and two cases of metastatic carcinoma (MC) the at cerebellopontine angle (CPA). The age at onset of ELST ranged from 13 to 39 years. The male-to-female ratio was 1:1. The clinical presentations were primarily ear-related symptoms. The temporal bones showed extensive destruction. Histologically, the important characteristics for differential diagnosis with CPP, which is most similar to ELST, include the quantity of blood vessels, the nuclei location at apical surface of the papillary, clear cytoplasm cells sometimes with visible vacuoles, psammoma bodies and dura or bone invasion. Immunohistochemistry stains for AE1/AE3, cytokeratin CK)5/6, epithelial membrane antigen, CK8/18, S-100, and synaptophysin are helpful in diagnosis of ELST. In ELST, ultrastructure of uniform 2 μm vesicles in cytoplasm was seen, and gene analysis also showed missense mutation in exon 3. This study indicates that the above histological features combined with immunohistochemistry findings are important for making the correct diagnosis. Gene analysis should be used in patients without medical history to exclude von Hippel-Lindau disease. PMID:25944396

  20. Detection of CD2 expression in chicken hematogenic embryo yolk sac lymphoid cells prior to thymus genesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dongyu Zhou; Jigui Wang; Weiquan Liu; Rongxiu Liu; Yuehu Pei

    2008-01-01

    Lymphoid mononuclear cells from chick embryos at stage 16 were collected prior to fetal liver and thymus genesis to study the differentiation and function of the hematogenic yolk sac and to detect whether CD2 occurs on the surface of lymphoid mononuclear cells.The phenotype and functional activity of the cell surface protein E receptor and the ultrastructure of embryonic E+ cells were compared with those of mature T cells.Our results indicate 99.36% homology between the E receptors of embryonic lymphocytes and mature T cells.Other similarities,including molecular distribution,motivation,the ability to form an erythrocyte rosette,the structure of the receptor-ligand complex,and the conformation of the signal channel,were detected between embryonic lymphocytes and mature CD2-expressing T cells.These results indicate that CD2 is already expressed prior to fetal fiver and thymus genesis and that its expression is not dependent on the thymic microenvironment.

  1. What's next after metformin? focus on sulphonylurea: add-on or combination therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lim PC

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The pathophysiology of type 2 diabetes (T2DM mainly focused on insulin resistance and insulin deficiency over the past decades. Currently, the pathophysiologies expanded to ominous octet and guidelines were updated with newer generation of antidiabetic drug classes. However, many patients had yet to achieve their target glycaemic control. Although all the guidelines suggested metformin as first line, there was no definite consensus on the second line drug agents as variety of drug classes were recommended. Objectives: The aim of this review was to evaluate the drug class after metformin especially sulphonylurea and issues around add-on or fixed dose combination therapy. Methods: Extensive literature search for English language articles, clinical practice guidelines and references was performed using electronic databases. Results: Adding sulphonylurea to metformin targeted both insulin resistance and insulin deficiency. Sulphonylurea was efficacious and cheaper than thiazolidinedione, dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor, glucagon-like peptide 1 analogue and insulin. The main side effect of sulphonylurea was hypoglycaemia but there was no effect on the body weight when combining with metformin. Fixed dose sulphonylurea/metformin was more efficacious at lower dose and reported to have fewer side effects with better adherence. Furthermore, fixed dose combination was cheaper than add-on therapy. In conclusion, sulphonylurea was feasible as the second line agent after metformin as the combination targeted on two pathways, efficacious, cost-effective and had long safety history. Fixed dose combination tablet could improve patient’s adherence and offered an inexpensive and more efficacious option regardless of original or generic product as compared to add-on therapy.

  2. Which thiazide to choose as add-on therapy for hypertension?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barrios V

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Vivencio Barrios,1 Carlos Escobar2 1Department of Cardiology, Hospital Ramon y Cajal, 2Department of Cardiology, Hospital La Paz, Madrid, Spain Abstract: Combined therapy is required in the majority of patients with hypertension to achieve blood pressure (BP targets. Although different antihypertensive drugs can be combined, not all combinations are equally effective and safe. In this context, the combination of a renin angiotensin system inhibitor with a diuretic, usually a thiazide, particularly hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ or thiazide-like diuretics, such as chlorthalidone or indapamide, is recommended. However, not all diuretics are equal. Although HCTZ, chlorthalidone, and indapamide as add-on therapy effectively reduce BP levels, the majority of studies have obtained greater BP reductions with chlorthalidone or indapamide than with HCTZ. Moreover, there are data showing benefits with chlorthalidone or indapamide beyond BP. Thus, chlorthalidone seems to have pleiotropic effects beyond BP reduction. Moreover, compared with placebo, chlorthalidone has small effects on fasting glucose and total cholesterol, and compared with HCTZ, chlorthalidone achieves significantly lower total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels. Similarly, indapamide has demonstrated no negative impact on glucose or lipid metabolism. More importantly, although head-to-head clinical trials comparing the effects of indapamide or chlorthalidone with HCTZ are not available, indirect comparisons and post hoc analyses suggest that the use of chlorthalidone or indapamide is associated with a reduction in cardiovascular events. Despite this, the most frequent diuretic used in clinical practice as add-on therapy for hypertension is HCTZ. The purpose of this review is to update the published data on the efficacy and safety of HCTZ, chlorthalidone, and indapamide as add-on therapy in patients with hypertension. Keywords: blood pressure control, hydrochlorothiazide

  3. Speech on the Opening Ceremony of ISO/TC 176 Plenary Meeting 2011 Chen Gang,Administrator of SAC October 24,2011

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Ladies and gentlemen,Good morning!We come to the 28th Plenary Meeting of ISO/TC 176 in Beijing just after the World Standards Day Conference in this so nice October.Secretary General of ISO,Rob Steele,especially sent us a video speech to express his congratulations on World Standards Day activities and ISO/TC 176 Meeting held by China.This year also marks the tenth anniversary of SAC.As the undertaker of this meeting,on behalf of SAC,I am greatly honored to send my congratulations on the opening of this meeting,my welcome to all experts and friends here,and my sincere thanks to relevant units and friends who made great contributions to this meeting.

  4. Air Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to a close in June 2013 when the company, Conscious Clothing, was awarded the My Air grand ... Page Options: Request Translation Services Facebook Twitter LinkedIn Google+ Reddit Email Evernote More Increase Font Size Decrease ...

  5. New approach in add-on multi-channel analyser for gamma ray spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A recently developed add-on card for data acquisition from National Instrument has the possibility of being employed in the field of the gamma ray spectrometry as an industrial and teaching tool. The card's technical capability, the operating program designed for gamma spectrometry and results of the system's reliability, dynamic characteristics, limits in data processing and the quality of the obtainable gamma spectra are given. The advantages and deficiencies as well as important features are emphasised when prompt gamma analysis is of interest in industrial applications and educational issues

  6. Compact wavelength add-drop multiplexers using Bragg gratings in coupled dielectric-loaded plasmonic waveguides

    CERN Document Server

    Biagi, Giulio; Radko, Ilya P; Rubahn, Horst-Günter; Pedersen, Kjeld; Bozhevolnyi, Sergey I

    2016-01-01

    We report a novel design of a compact wavelength add-drop multiplexer utilizing dielectric-loaded surface plasmon-polariton waveguides (DLSPPWs). The DLSPPW-based configuration exploits routing properties of directional couplers and filtering abilities of Bragg gratings. We present practical realization of a 20-$\\mu$m-long device operating at telecom wavelengths that can reroute optical signals separated by approximately 70 nm in the wavelength band. We characterize the performance of the fabricated structures using scanning near-field optical microscopy as well as leakage-radiation microscopy and support our findings with numerical simulations.

  7. MetaEasy: A Meta-Analysis Add-In for Microsoft Excel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evangelos Kontopantelis

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Meta-analysis is a statistical methodology that combines or integrates the results ofseveral independent clinical trials considered by the analyst to be `combinable' (Huque1988. However, completeness and user-friendliness are uncommon both in specialisedmeta-analysis software packages and in mainstream statistical packages that have to relyon user-written commands. We implemented the meta-analysis methodology in an Mi-crosoft Excel add-in which is freely available and incorporates more meta-analysis models(including the iterative maximum likelihood and prole likelihood than are usually avail-able, while paying particular attention to the user-friendliness of the package.

  8. Frequency-Domain Chromatic Dispersion Equalization Using Overlap-Add Methods in Coherent Optical System

    CERN Document Server

    Xu, Tianhua; Popov, Sergei; Forzati, Marco; Martensson, Jonas; Mussolin, Marco; Li, Jie; Wang, Ke; Zhang, Yimo; Friberg, Ari T

    2016-01-01

    The frequency domain equalizers (FDEs) employing two types of overlap-add zero-padding (OLA-ZP) methods are applied to compensate the chromatic dispersion in a 112-Gbit/s non-return-to-zero polarization division multiplexed quadrature phase shift keying (NRZ-PDM-QPSK) coherent optical transmission system. Simulation results demonstrate that the OLA-ZP methods can achieve the same acceptable performance as the overlap-save method. The required minimum overlap (or zero-padding) in the FDE is derived, and the optimum fast Fourier transform length to minimize the computational complexity is also analyzed.

  9. Can metabolomics in addition to genomics add to prognostic and predictive information in breast cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, Anthony

    2010-11-16

    Genomic data from breast cancers provide additional prognostic and predictive information that is beginning to be used for patient management. The question arises whether additional information derived from other 'omic' approaches such as metabolomics can provide additional information. In an article published this month in BMC Cancer, Borgan et al. add metabolomic information to genomic measures in breast tumours and demonstrate, for the first time, that it may be possible to further define subgroups of patients which could be of value clinically. See research article: http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2407/10/628.

  10. Empagliflozin as Add-on to Metformin Plus Sulfonylurea in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Häring, Hans-Ulrich; Merker, Ludwig; Seewaldt-Becker, Elke; WEIMER Marc; Meinicke, Thomas; Woerle, Hans J.; Broedl, Uli C.; ,

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To investigate the efficacy and tolerability of empagliflozin as add-on to metformin and sulfonylurea in patients with type 2 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Patients inadequately controlled on metformin and sulfonylurea (HbA1c ≥7 to ≤10%) were randomized and treated with once-daily empagliflozin 10 mg (n = 225), empagliflozin 25 mg (n = 216), or placebo (n = 225) for 24 weeks. The primary end point was change from baseline in HbA1c at week 24. Key secondary end points were ch...

  11. ADD1/SREBP1c activates the PGC1-alpha promoter in brown adipocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hao, Qin; Hansen, Jacob B; Petersen, Rasmus K;

    2010-01-01

    regulatory element-binding protein-1c (SREBP1c) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator-1alpha (PGC1alpha) in brown and inguinal white adipose tissues, but not in epididymal white adipose tissue. Using in vitro models of white and brown adipocytes we demonstrate that beta......Cold adaptation elicits a paradoxical simultaneous induction of fatty acid synthesis and beta-oxidation in brown adipose tissue. We show here that cold exposure coordinately induced liver X receptor alpha (LXRalpha), adipocyte determination and differentiation-dependent factor 1 (ADD1)/sterol...... as a regulator of PGC1alpha expression in brown adipose tissue....

  12. Immunostaining of skin biopsy adds no diagnostic value in MGUS-associated peripheral neuropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Al-Zuhairy, Ali; Schrøder, Henrik Daa; Plesner, Torben;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: For several decades an association between MGUS, IgM-MGUS in particular, and peripheral neuropathy has been suspected. Several histopathology studies have shown binding of IgM to myelin and a secondary widening of myelin lamellae in cutaneous nerves and in the sural nerve ...... biopsies for immunoglobulin deposition does not add significant diagnostic value in the evaluation of neuropathies suspected to be caused by MGUS or WM. IgM immunoglobulin deposition in skin biopsy might merely be an epiphenomenon secondary to high IgM blood levels....

  13. The Fourier Imaging X-ray Spectrometer (FIXS) for the Argentinian, Scout-launched satelite de Aplicaciones Cienficas-1 (SAC-1)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennis, Brian R.; Crannell, Carol JO; Desai, Upendra D.; Orwig, Larry E.; Kiplinger, Alan L.; Schwartz, Richard A.; Hurford, Gordon J.; Emslie, A. Gordon; Machado, Marcos; Wood, Kent

    1988-01-01

    The Fourier Imaging X-ray Spectrometer (FIXS) is one of four instruments on SAC-1, the Argentinian satellite being proposed for launch by NASA on a Scout rocket in 1992/3. The FIXS is designed to provide solar flare images at X-ray energies between 5 and 35 keV. Observations will be made on arcsecond size scales and subsecond time scales of the processes that modify the electron spectrum and the thermal distribution in flaring magnetic structures.

  14. Study on the Processing Technology of Suspended Beverage of Orange Sacs%柑橘砂囊悬浮饮料生产工艺的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈艳; 谢婧; 冉旭

    2011-01-01

    以新鲜槿柑为原料,通过碱处理法去除囊衣:橘瓣在温度为80℃、质量分数为0.5%的NaOH溶液中保持5min,可制备出颗粒饱满、含汁较多的砂囊。采用正交试验设计,确定了复配悬浮剂与砂囊用量的最优组合。结果表明:琼脂添加量0.8g/kg,CMC添加量4g/kg,砂囊添加量30g/kg时,制得的柑橘砂囊悬浮饮料稳定性好、果粒悬浮均匀。通过试验得出产品的配方,所得的柑橘砂囊悬浮饮料酸甜适宜、清凉爽口,而且有咀嚼果肉的爽脆感。%Suspended beverage of orange sacs was developed using fresh citrus as the main raw material. Orange sac has the characteristics of full pellet and rich juice, through the alkali treatment removing capsule clothes, under the conditions of 0.5%NaOH 80 ℃ keeping 5 min. The production processing of suspended beverage of orange sacs was discussed in this study by the orthogonal experiment design. Results show that the optimal combination for cloudy agency and orange sac: agar 0.8 g/kg, CMC additives 4 g/kg, juice sac dosage 30 g/kg.Suspended drink has appropriate sour and sweet, cool and refreshing, and crisp feeling by chewing the pulp.

  15. Utilization of a ts-sacB selection system for the generation of a Mycobacterium avium serovar-8 specific glycopeptidolipid allelic exchange mutant

    OpenAIRE

    Belisle John T; Inamine Julia M; Eckstein Torsten M; Lee Sun-Hwa; Irani Vida R; Maslow Joel N

    2004-01-01

    Abstract Background Mycobacterium avium are ubiquitous environmental organisms and a cause of disseminated infection in patients with end-stage AIDS. The glycopeptidolipids (GPL) of M. avium are proposed to participate in the pathogenesis of this organism, however, establishment of a clear role for GPL in disease production has been limited by the inability to genetically manipulate M. avium. Methods To be able to study the role of the GPL in M. avium pathogenesis, a ts-sacB selection system,...

  16. Presence of an isoform of H+-pyrophosphatase located in the alveolar sacs of a scuticociliate parasite of turbot: physiological consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallo, Natalia; Lamas, Jesús; Defelipe, Ana-Paula; Decastro, Maria-Eugenia; Sueiro, Rosa-Ana; Leiro, José-Manuel

    2016-04-01

    H+-pyrophosphatases (H+-PPases) are integral membrane proteins that couple pyrophosphate energy to an electrochemical gradient across biological membranes and promote the acidification of cellular compartments. Eukaryotic organisms, essentially plants and protozoan parasites, contain various types of H+-PPases associated with vacuoles, plasma membrane and acidic Ca+2 storage organelles called acidocalcisomes. We used Lysotracker Red DND-99 staining to identify two acidic cellular compartments in trophozoites of the marine scuticociliate parasite Philasterides dicentrarchi: the phagocytic vacuoles and the alveolar sacs. The membranes of these compartments also contain H+-PPase, which may promote acidification of these cell structures. We also demonstrated for the first time that the P. dicentrarchi H+-PPase has two isoforms: H+-PPase 1 and 2. Isoform 2, which is probably generated by splicing, is located in the membranes of the alveolar sacs and has an amino acid motif recognized by the H+-PPase-specific antibody PABHK. The amino acid sequences of different isolates of this ciliate are highly conserved. Gene and protein expression in this isoform are significantly regulated by variations in salinity, indicating a possible physiological role of this enzyme and the alveolar sacs in osmoregulation and salt tolerance in P. dicentrarchi. PMID:26932195

  17. De novo development and progression of endolymphatic sac tumour in von hippel-lindau disease: an observational study and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eze, Nwaneka; Huber, Alexander; Schuknecht, Bernhard

    2013-10-01

    Endolymphatic sac tumors (ELST) are rare invasive lesions of the temporal bone that are commonly associated with von Hippel-Lindau disease. This report describes serial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomography (CT) findings over a period of 6 years in a 12-year-old patient who developed an ELST after 3.5 years surveillance for a cerebellar hemangioblastoma. A 1.5 × 8 mm tumor was identified on MRI within the endolymphatic duct when the patient presented with audiovestibular symptoms due to intralabyrinthine hemorrhage. The tumor demonstrated subsequent growth over 25 months until the patient agreed to undergo surgical resection by subtotal petrosectomy. De novo development and the natural history have been described only in six previous cases. MRI is regarded to be unreliable with respect to the ability to demonstrate an ELST in the presence of intralabyrinthine hemorrhage, with only two out of four previously reported patients demonstrating positive MRI findings. Little is known about the precise origin (endolymphatic duct versus sac), growth, and symptom correlation. This case highlights that new audiovestibular symptoms are a potential clinical clue and intralabyrinthine hemorrhage is a neuroimaging indicator for the presence of an ELST, which based on high-resolution MRI appears to originate in the endolymphatic duct rather than sac. PMID:24436921

  18. Effect of Graphene Nanoplatelets on Wetting, Microstructure, and Tensile Characteristics of Sn-3.0Ag-0.5Cu (SAC) Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Ashutosh; Sohn, Heung-Rak; Jung, Jae Pil

    2016-01-01

    The effect of graphene nanoplatelets (GNPs) on the wettability, microstructure, and tensile properties of Sn-3.0Ag-0.5Cu (SAC 305) was studied using melting and casting route. The microstructure of the bulk solder is observed with a scanning electron microscope and transmission electron microscope, and the intermetallic compound (IMC) phases are identified by electron probe micro-analyzer. The solderability of the samples is assessed by spreading and wetting tests on a Cu substrate. The experimental results indicate that an addition of 0.05 wt pct GNPs in Sn-3Ag-0.5Cu solder improves the spreading and wettability significantly compared to monolithic SAC. It is also revealed that the thickness of the Ag3Sn IMCs is reduced as compared to the monolithic SAC alloy. Tensile results show that the composite solder exhibits the 13.9 pct elongation and 17 pct increase in the ultimate tensile strength when 0.05 wt pct GNPs in Sn-3Ag-0.5Cu alloy are added. This may be due to the refinement of the IMCs in composite solders compared to the same in Sn-3Ag-0.5Cu alloy brought about by the uniform dispersion of graphene nanoplatelets. It is suggested in this study that the amount of GNPs in Sn-3Ag-0.5Cu alloy should not exceed 0.05 wt pct as it may degrade the desired properties due to the agglomeration of GNPs.

  19. Presence of an isoform of H+-pyrophosphatase located in the alveolar sacs of a scuticociliate parasite of turbot: physiological consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallo, Natalia; Lamas, Jesús; Defelipe, Ana-Paula; Decastro, Maria-Eugenia; Sueiro, Rosa-Ana; Leiro, José-Manuel

    2016-04-01

    H+-pyrophosphatases (H+-PPases) are integral membrane proteins that couple pyrophosphate energy to an electrochemical gradient across biological membranes and promote the acidification of cellular compartments. Eukaryotic organisms, essentially plants and protozoan parasites, contain various types of H+-PPases associated with vacuoles, plasma membrane and acidic Ca+2 storage organelles called acidocalcisomes. We used Lysotracker Red DND-99 staining to identify two acidic cellular compartments in trophozoites of the marine scuticociliate parasite Philasterides dicentrarchi: the phagocytic vacuoles and the alveolar sacs. The membranes of these compartments also contain H+-PPase, which may promote acidification of these cell structures. We also demonstrated for the first time that the P. dicentrarchi H+-PPase has two isoforms: H+-PPase 1 and 2. Isoform 2, which is probably generated by splicing, is located in the membranes of the alveolar sacs and has an amino acid motif recognized by the H+-PPase-specific antibody PABHK. The amino acid sequences of different isolates of this ciliate are highly conserved. Gene and protein expression in this isoform are significantly regulated by variations in salinity, indicating a possible physiological role of this enzyme and the alveolar sacs in osmoregulation and salt tolerance in P. dicentrarchi.

  20. A Study of Temperature, Microstructure and Hardness Properties of Sn-3.8Ag-0.7Cu (SAC Solder Alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Amares

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Solder alloys are one of the most crucial aspect linking the electrical components to the printed circuit board PCB substrate. Thus, producing a good solder is a must to say in electronic industries. Among major functions of solder alloys are to provide beneficial properties in melting, microstructure and mechanical strand. In this aspect, the Sn-3.8Ag-0.7Cu (SAC solder alloys are recommended as potential candidate to assure these benefits. In this study, the solder possesses melting temperature of, TM=227°C which is below the desired soldering temperature, TM=250°C. Besides, this SAC solder produces well-defined microstructures with Sn-matrix and eutectic phase consisting Cu6Sn5 and Ag3Sn displayed from SEM image, contributes in harvesting good mechanical properties. The SAC solder also provides a high hardness value with an average of 14.4Hv for Vickers hardness. All these results seem to satisfy the need of a viable solder alloy.

  1. Flexible Topology Migration in Optical Cross Add and Drop Multiplexer in Metropolitan Ring Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad S. Ab-Rahman

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Optical Cross Add and Drop Multiplexer (OXADM is a recently invented optical networks device. Approach: A design with a purpose to combine the operational concepts of Optical Add-Drop Multiplexer (OADM and Optical Cross Connect (OXC has been developed. It is developed by studying the drawbacks in existing devices and with some excellence features added. OXADM is introduced to increase the survivability in the ring network. With the ‘Accumulation’ feature and ‘U’ turn reflection enable the multiplex, linear and ring protection scheme activated to ensure the signal arrives at the customer although breakdown occurs in the line and optical node. Beside that with the new features, the topology migration can also be done without the restructuring process due to randomly growth of new nodes. Results: The result shows that; network performance is similar without need a modification on components. Conclusion: Output power and BER performance at different node in ring and mesh optical network are shown to show the achievement of objective.

  2. Full-optical tunable add/drop filter based on nonlinear photonic crystal ring resonators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansouri-Birjandi, Mohammad Ali; Tavousi, Alireza; Ghadrdan, Majid

    2016-09-01

    Here, we propose a full-optical tunable Add/Drop filter based on single (SR) and double-vertically (DR) aligned Kerr-like nonlinear photonic crystal ring resonators (PCRRs). Silicon (Si) nano-crystal is used as the nonlinear material inside and outside of PCRRs. The minimum optical power required to turn-on/turn-off the SR and DR filters are 2000 mW/μm2, and 150 mW/μm2, respectively. We believe since the DR filter has a higher Q-factor rather than SR and also since the optical power reads more nonlinear rods with a longer time to pass the structure, thus the optical power required is much lower (10 folds). In addition, the minimum power required to 1 nm redshift the center operating wavelength of SR filter is 125 mW/μm2 (i.e. ΔnNL = 0.005) and for DR is as low as 8 mW/μm2. Performance of the Add/Drop filter structure is simulated by means of finite difference time domain (FDTD) method, in which the simulations showed an ultra-compact size structure with promising ultrafast tune-ability speeds.

  3. Add-drop filters based on asymmetric high-order microring resonators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dong; Huang, Yongqing; Ren, Xiaomin; Duan, Xiaofeng; Shen, Bing; Wang, Qi; Zhang, Xia; Cai, Shiwei

    2012-11-01

    Add/drop filters are key components of Wavelength Division Multiplexing (WDM) communication systems. Free spectral range(FSR) is a key parameter for Add/drop filters, the FSR should operate within the entire C-band (1530-1562nm).And flat-top drop-port response with a sharp rolloff is also import, Flatness of the passband, sharp roll-off from passband to stop band are necessary to minimize the pulse broadening and the packing efficiency of wavelength channels. In this paper, we proposed an asymmetric approach to design high-order microring filters, The aim is to achieve large extension ratios and adequate suppression of the spurious interstitial mode, meanwhile, flat-top and steep-side response in filter could be obtained by this approach. Our simulation results showed an extended FSR of 40nm, reducing the interstitial peak suppression from 5dB to 35dB and a boxlike filter response with sharpe factor(SF) of 0.68. And a quality-factor of 2961 and a 3-dB bandwidth of 0.52nm is achieved.

  4. Just add water: reproducible singly dispersed silver nanoparticle suspensions on-demand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacCuspie, Robert I., E-mail: robert.maccuspie@nist.gov; Allen, Andrew J.; Martin, Matthew N.; Hackley, Vincent A. [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Materials Measurement Science Division (United States)

    2013-07-15

    Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are of interest due to their antimicrobial attributes, which are derived from their inherent redox instability and subsequent release of silver ions. At the same time, this instability is a substantial challenge for achieving stable long-term storage for on-demand use of AgNPs. In this study, we describe and validate a 'just add water' approach for achieving suspensions of principally singly dispersed AgNPs. By lyophilizing (freeze drying) the formulated AgNPs into a solid powder, or cake, water is removed thereby eliminating solution-based chemical changes. Storing under inert gas further reduces surface reactions such as oxidation. An example of how to optimize a lyophilization formulation is presented, as well as example formulations for three AgNP core sizes. This 'just add water' approach enables ease of use for the researcher desiring on-demand singly dispersed AgNP suspensions from a single master batch. Implementation of this methodology will enable studies to be performed over long periods of time and across different laboratories using particles that are identical chemically and physically and available on-demand. In addition, the approach of freeze drying and on-demand reconstitution by adding water has enabled the development of AgNP reference materials with the required shelf-life stability, one of the principal objectives of this research.

  5. OATools: An ArcMap add-in for the orientation analysis of geological structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kociánová, Lenka; Melichar, Rostislav

    2016-02-01

    This paper describes Orientation Analysis Tools (OATools), a new add-in, which has been developed for ArcGIS software (ESRI) to allow the spatial analysis of structural data. These tools bring a complex approach to structural data analysis that highlights the spatial aspect of oriented data. In this paper we introduce the functionality of this add-in, which allows users to plot selected data in azimuthal projection, calculate and plot fold axes, construct density distribution diagrams and rose histograms, and create maps of spatial averages and fold axes. There is a link between projections and maps; therefore, it is possible to select point data in the projection and see their location on the map, and vice versa. Practical use of these tools is demonstrated in a case study of the Svratka and Polička crystalline units (Eastern margin of the Bohemian Massif, Czech Republic), where a large dataset was collected. Using OATools the structural conditions were explored. Major changes in foliation dip directions were detected and the axial surfaces of the folds were determined. We also demonstrate the benefit of applying these tools, together with the potential of GIS with respect to spatial data queries, storage, and visualization.

  6. Development of a colonoscopy add-on device for improvement of the intubation process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Litten JD

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Jonathan D Litten1, JungHun Choi2, David Drozek31Department of Mechanical Engineering; 2Department of Mechanical Engineering and Biomedical Engineering Program; 3College of Osteopathic Medicine, Department of Specialty Medicine, Ohio University, Athens, OH, USAAbstract: A colonoscopy add-on device has been developed to reduce intubation time without modification of the current colonoscope and peripheral devices. One of the main purposes of the system is to minimize trauma caused by the distal tip of the colonoscope. The detachable sensory fixture at the end of the distal tip measures the distance between the distal tip and the colon wall in three directions, and the actuation system attached at the base of the colonoscope controls the distal tip by rotating two dial knobs. The device controls the distal tip to minimize contact between the distal tip and the colon wall, and the distal tip ideally points out the next possible lumen. A compatibility test of the infrared sensory system was carried out, and the design of the actuation system was accomplished. The system is integrated and controlled by a microprocessor. The device was tested in a silicon colon and porcine intestine. The results showed that a colonoscopist successfully reached the cecum with the aid of the colonoscopy add-on device without significant contact between the colon wall and the distal tip. The colonoscopy aid device was very helpful for the novice colonoscopist.Keywords: colonoscope, infrared sensors, intubation, trauma, colonoscopy training model

  7. The Politics, Development and Problems of Small Irrigation Dams in Malawi: Experiences from Mzuzu ADD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryson Gwiyani Nkhoma

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper examines the progress made regarding the development of small irrigation dams in Malawi with the view of establishing their significance in improving rural livelihoods in the country. The paper adopts a political economy theory and a qualitative research approach. Evidence from Mzuzu Agricultural Development Division (ADD, where small reservoirs acquire specific relevance, shows that despite the efforts made, the development of small dams is making little progress. The paper highlights that problems of top-down planning, high investment costs, negligence of national and local interests, over-dependency on donors, and conflicts over the use of dams – which made large-scale dams unpopular in the 1990s – continue to affect the development of small irrigation dams in Malawi. The paper argues that small irrigation dams should not be simplistically seen as a panacea to the problems of large-scale irrigation dams. Like any other projects, small dams are historically and socially constructed through interests of different actors in the local settings, and can only succeed if actors, especially those from formal institutions, develop adaptive learning towards apparent conflicting relations that develop among them in the process of implementation. In the case of Mzuzu ADD, it was the failure of the government to develop this adaptive learning to the contestations and conflicts among these actors that undermined successful implementation of small irrigation dams. The paper recommends the need to consider local circumstances, politics, interests, rights and institutions when investing in small irrigation dams.

  8. Gantry and isocenter displacements of a linear accelerator caused by an add-on micromultileaf collimator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riis, Hans L.; Zimmermann, Sune J.; Hjelm-Hansen, Mogens [Radiofysisk Laboratorium, Odense University Hospital, Sdr. Boulevard 29, DK-5000 Odense C (Denmark)

    2013-03-15

    Purpose: The delivery of high quality stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) and stereotactic radiotherapy (SRT) treatments to the patient requires knowledge of the position of the isocenter to submillimeter accuracy. To meet the requirements the deviation between the radiation and mechanical isocenters must be less than 1 mm. The use of add-on micromultileaf collimators ({mu}MLCs) in SRS and SRT is an additional challenge to the anticipated high-level geometric and dosimetric accuracy of the treatment. The aim of this work was to quantify the gantry excursions during rotation with and without an add-on {mu}MLC attached to the gantry head. In addition, the shift in the position of the isocenter and its correlation to the kV beam center of the cone-beam CT system was included in the study. Methods: The quantification of the gantry rotational performance was done using a pointer supported by an in-house made rigid holder attached to the gantry head of the accelerator. The pointer positions were measured using a digital theodolite. To quantify the effect of an {mu}MLC of 50 kg, the measurements were repeated with the {mu}MLC attached to the gantry head. The displacement of the isocenter due to an add-on {mu}MLC of 50 kg was also investigated. In case of the pointer measurement the {mu}MLC was simulated by weights attached to the gantry head. A method of least squares was applied to determine the position and displacement of the mechanical isocenter. Additionally, the displacement of the radiation isocenter was measured using a ball-bearing phantom and the electronic portal image device system. These measurements were based on 8 MV photon beams irradiated onto the ball from the four cardinal angles and two opposed collimator angles. The measurements and analysis of the data were carried out automatically using software delivered by the manufacturer. Results: The displacement of the mechanical isocenter caused by a 50 kg heavy {mu}MLC was found to be (-0.01 {+-} 0.05, -0

  9. 卵巢内胚窦瘤超声表现%Ultrasonographic characteristics of ovarian yolk sac tumor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    玄英华; 张波; 谭莉; 姜玉新

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate ultrasonographic features of primary and metastatic ovarian yolk sac tumors.Methods Ultrasonographic features of 19 primary lesions and 33 metastatic lesions in 35 patients were retrospectively analyzed.Results Primary tumors were sized (14.6±3.6)cm in maximum diameter,manifesting as cysti-solid masses.Solid components of primary tumors were mainly hypoechoic or isoechoic(16/19)with rich blood supplies.Thirty-three metastatic lesions were located in pelvoceliac cavity(26/33) and liver parenchyma(7/33),sized (9.4±4.5)cm,(9.2±4.9)cm and (5.6±1.6)cm in maximum diameter respectively.Metastatic lesions in pelvoceliac lesions mainly demonstrated as hypoechoic masses(21/26), however lesions in the liver were mainly hyperechoic(5/7).Anechoic regions could be found in 9/26 of the pelvoceliac lesions.Blood supply was found less rich in metastatic masses than that in primary ones.Elevated serum level of alpha fetoprotein (AFP) was observed in all patients; ranging from 217 to 211 682 μg/L.Conclusions Primary and metastatic lesions of ovarian yolk sac tumor have obvious ultrasonographic characteristics.Combined with serum AFP level,the accuracy of diagnosis could be improved.%目的探讨卵巢内胚窦瘤原发及转移病灶超声声像图特征.方法 回顾性分析35例卵巢内胚窦瘤患者19个原发病灶及33个转移病灶超声表现.结果 本组卵巢内胚窦瘤患者19个原发病灶直径为(14.6±3.6)cm,所有病灶均为囊实性,实性部分以低回声及中等回声为主(16/19),血流较丰富.33个转移病灶多位于盆、腹腔(26/33),部分累及肝脏实质(7/33);26个盆、腹腔转移病灶直径分别为(9.4±4.5)、(9.2±4.9)cm,7个肝内转移病灶直径为(5.6±1.6)cm;盆、腹腔转移病灶多为低回声(21/26),肝内转移病灶主要为高回声(5/7).9个(9/26)转移病灶为囊实性,血流较原发病灶少.血清甲胎蛋白(AFP)水平均有不同程度升高,为217~211 682 μg/L.结论卵巢内胚窦

  10. Embryonic----Fetal Hb switch in humans: studies on erythroid bursts generated by embryonic progenitors from yolk sac and liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peschle, C; Migliaccio, A R; Migliaccio, G; Petrini, M; Calandrini, M; Russo, G; Mastroberardino, G; Presta, M; Gianni, A M; Comi, P

    1984-04-01

    The synthesis of embryonic (zeta, epsilon), fetal (alpha, gamma), and adult (beta) globin was evaluated in human yolk sacs (YS) and livers at different ontogenic stages (i.e., from 6 through 10-12 wk of age) by means of analytical isoelectric focusing. Globin production was comparatively evaluated in vivo (i.e., in directly labeled erythroblasts from YS and liver) and in vitro [i.e., in erythroid bursts generated in culture by erythroid burst-forming units (BFU-E) from the same erythropoietic tissues]. Erythroid bursts generated in vitro by BFU-E from 6-wk livers and YS show essentially a "fetal" globin synthetic pattern: this is in sharp contrast to the "embryonic" pattern in corresponding liver and YS erythroblasts directly labeled in vivo. The invitro phenomenon suggests that (i) 6-wk BFU-E constitute a new generation of progenitors, which have already switched from an embryonic to a fetal program, and/or (ii) expression of their fetal program is induced by unknown in vitro factor(s), which may underlie the in vivo switch at later ontogenic stages. It is emphasized that 6- to 7-wk BFU-E are endowed with the potential for in vitro synthesis of not only epsilon- and gamma-chains but also some beta-globin. In general, we observed an inverse correlation between the levels of epsilon- and beta-chain synthesis. These results, together with previous studies on fetal, perinatal, and adult BFU-E, are compatible with models suggesting that in ontogeny the chromatin configuration is gradually modified at the level of the non-alpha gene cluster, thus leading to a 5'----3' activation of globin genes in a balanced fashion. PMID:6201856

  11. Yolk sac tumor of the ovary: a retrospective multicenter study of 33 Japanese women by Tohoku Gynecologic Cancer Unit (TGCU).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kojimahara, Takanobu; Nakahara, Kenji; Takano, Tadao; Yaegashi, Nobuo; Nishiyama, Hiroshi; Fujimori, Keiya; Sato, Naoki; Terada, Yukihiro; Tase, Toru; Yokoyama, Yoshihito; Mizunuma, Hideki; Shoji, Tadahiro; Sugiyama, Toru; Kurachi, Hirohisa

    2013-01-01

    Yolk sac tumor (YST) of the ovary is a rare germ cell tumor comprising about 1% of all ovarian malignancies. YST usually occurs as a rapidly growing unilateral tumor in young women. With the introduction of cisplatin, YST has been changed from a fatal tumor to a curable tumor. The standard treatment of YST consists of fertility-preserving surgery and 3 or 4 courses of adjuvant combination chemotherapy with bleomycin, etoposide, and cisplatin (BEP). However, the long-term prognosis of BEP-treated YST patients has not been well studied. We therefore conducted a retrospective multicenter study to investigate the prognostic factors of 33 YST patients, including 25 patients treated with BEP. The median age at initial treatment was 20 years (range 10-53). There were 15 patients (at stage I), one (stage II), 16 (stage III), and one (stage IV). Nominal and grouped numerical values were analyzed by the Kaplan-Meier method. All patients had unilateral tumor, with right-side predominance (23 patients; P = 0.02). Eighteen patients had pure YST, 13 had mixed germ cell tumor with YST component, and other 2 patients were not specified. Twenty-eight patients received fertility-preserving surgery. Twenty-seven patients had optimal surgery with less than 1 cm residual tumor diameter. Median number of chemotherapy courses was 5. Median follow-up period was 49 months. The cumulative 5-year survival rate was 87%. Univariate analysis revealed the following significant prognostic factors (P tumor diameter, and residual tumor. Extensive debulking surgery to minimize residual tumor would improve the prognosis. PMID:23912096

  12. Ovarian yolk sac tumors in older women arising from epithelial ovarian tumors or with no detectable epithelial component.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Lawrence M; Talerman, Aleksander; Levy, Tally; Sukmanov, Oleg; Czernobilsky, Bernard

    2011-09-01

    Yolk sac tumor (YST) occurs rarely in older women, either in association with a variety of ovarian epithelial tumors or, considerably less often, without an identifiable epithelial precursor. The patients often have elevated serum levels of α-fetoprotein that roughly correlate with the amount of the YST component. In postmenopausal women with an ovarian mass and elevated serum levels of α-fetoprotein, a tumor of this type should be suspected. Endometrioid carcinoma is the most common putative precursor, and the tumor is often associated with an endometriotic cyst; however, malignant Müllerian mixed tumor and mucinous neoplasms have also been reported as precursors. We report 4 cases of YST in postmenopausal women. Of the 3 cases with an identified epithelial component, 1 was serous carcinoma, another was clear cell adenocarcinoma, and the third was an admixture of endometrioid and clear cell adenocarcinoma arising from an endometriotic cyst. Although a precursor epithelial ovarian neoplasm, typically a malignancy (somatic carcinoma), is usually identified, no precursor neoplasm was observed in 1 of our cases and in 5 cases from the literature. We believe that YSTs in older women, whether or not an epithelial component is detected histologically, constitute a single entity that is distinct from YSTs in younger patients and should be treated aggressively. Neoplasms with a YST component in older women are less responsive to the chemotherapy currently used for ovarian germ cell tumors; therefore, adjuvant therapy should include platinum-based chemotherapy designed to treat both epithelial ovarian cancer and germ cell tumors. Of the 24 reported cases, including our own, 17 died of neoplasms within 25 months and another was living with disease at 2 months. However, 2 more recent patients treated aggressively with platinum-based chemotherapy designed to treat both epithelial and germ cell tumor components with stage 1 disease are living and have been disease free >1

  13. Albumin-like protein is the major protein constituent of luminal fluid in the human endolymphatic sac.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung Huhn Kim

    Full Text Available The endolymphatic sac (ES is an inner ear organ that is connected to the cochleo-vestibular system through the endolymphatic duct. The luminal fluid of the ES contains a much higher concentration of proteins than any other compartment of the inner ear. This high protein concentration likely contributes to inner ear fluid volume regulation by creating an osmotic gradient between the ES lumen and the interstitial fluid. We characterized the protein profile of the ES luminal fluid of patients (n = 11 with enlarged vestibular aqueducts (EVA by proteomics. In addition, we investigated differences in the protein profiles between patients with recent hearing deterioration and patients without hearing deterioration. The mean total protein concentration of the luminal fluid was 554.7±94.6 mg/dl. A total of 58 out of 517 spots detected by 2-DE were analyzed by MALDI-TOF MS. The protein profile of the luminal fluid was different from the profile of plasma. Proteins identified from 29 of the spots were also present in the MARC-filtered human plasma; however, the proteins identified from the other 25 spots were not detected in the MARC-filtered human plasma. The most abundant protein in the luminal fluid was albumin-like proteins, but most of them were not detected in MARC-filtered human plasma. The concentration of albumin-like proteins was higher in samples from patients without recent hearing deterioration than in patients with recent hearing deterioration. Consequently, the protein of ES luminal fluid is likely to be originated from both the plasma and the inner ear and considering that inner ear fluid volumes increase abnormally in patients with EVA following recent hearing deterioration, it is tempting to speculate that albumin-like proteins may be involved in the regulation of inner ear fluid volume through creation of an osmotic gradient during pathological conditions such as endolymphatic hydrops.

  14. Comparison of the association of sac growth and coil compaction with recurrence in coil embolized cerebral aneurysms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna L Hoppe

    Full Text Available In recurrent cerebral aneurysms treated by coil embolization, coil compaction is regarded as the presumptive mechanism. We test the hypothesis that aneurysm growth is the primary recurrence mechanism. We also test the hypothesis that the coil mass will translate a measurable extent when recurrence occurs.An objective, quantitative image analysis protocol was developed to determine the volumes of aneurysms and coil masses during initial and follow-up visits from 3D rotational angiograms. The population consisted of 15 recurrence and 12 non-recurrence control aneurysms initially completely coiled at a single center. An investigator sensitivity study was performed to assess the objectivity of the methods. Paired Wilcoxon tests (p<0.05, one-tailed were performed to assess for aneurysm and coil growth. The translation of the coil mass center at follow-up was computed. A Mann Whitney U-Test (p<0.05, one-tailed was used to compare translation of coil mass centers between recurrence and control subjects.Image analysis protocol was found to be insensitive to the investigator. Aneurysm growth was evident in the recurrence cohort (p=0.003 but not the control (p=0.136. There was no evidence of coil compaction in either the recurrence or control cohorts (recurrence: p=0.339; control: p=0.429. The translation of the coil mass centers was found to be significantly larger in the recurrence cohort than the control cohort (p=0.047.Aneurysm sac growth, not coil compaction, was the primary mechanism of recurrence following successful coil embolization. The coil mass likely translates to a measurable extent when recurrence occurs and has the potential to serve as a non-angiographic recurrence marker.

  15. Road and Street Centerlines, Iron add blue, Published in 2005, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, Iron County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — , published at 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2005. It is described as 'Iron add blue'. The extent of these...

  16. Trails, RS2477, add events rev, Published in 2004, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, Iron County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Trails, RS2477 dataset, published at 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2004. It is described as 'add events...

  17. Trails, RS2477, add roads, Published in 2003, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, Iron County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Trails, RS2477 dataset, published at 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2003. It is described as 'add roads'....

  18. Trails, RS2477, rs2477 add roads, Published in 2006, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, Iron County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Trails, RS2477 dataset, published at 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2006. It is described as 'rs2477 add...

  19. Trails, RS2477, add roads rev, Published in 2004, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, Iron County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Trails, RS2477 dataset, published at 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2004. It is described as 'add roads...

  20. 76 FR 37114 - Determination Concerning a Petition To Add a Class of Employees to the Special Exposure Cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-24

    ... to add a class of employees from the Dow Chemical Company in Madison, Illinois, to the Special... Atomic Weapons Employees who worked at Dow Chemical Company in Madison, Illinois, from January 1,...

  1. Montelukast as Add-On Therapy to Inhaled Corticosteroids in the Management of Asthma (The SAS Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Mark FitzGerald

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To evaluate the effectiveness of montelukast as add-on therapy for asthmatic patients who remain uncontrolled with low, moderate or high doses of inhaled corticosteroid monotherapy.

  2. Air surveillance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patton, G.W.

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the air surveillance and monitoring programs currently in operation at that Hanford Site. Atmospheric releases of pollutants from Hanford to the surrounding region are a potential source of human exposure. For that reason, both radioactive and nonradioactive materials in air are monitored at a number of locations. The influence of Hanford emissions on local radionuclide concentrations was evaluated by comparing concentrations measured at distant locations within the region to concentrations measured at the Site perimeter. This section discusses sample collection, analytical methods, and the results of the Hanford air surveillance program. A complete listing of all analytical results summarized in this section is reported separately by Bisping (1995).

  3. 40 CFR 63.9323 - How do I determine the add-on control device emission destruction or removal efficiency?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... the add-on control device simultaneously, using either Method 25 or 25A of appendix A to 40 CFR part... both the inlet and outlet measurements. (1) Use Method 25 of appendix A to 40 CFR part 60 if the add-on.... (1) Use Method 1 or 1A of appendix A to 40 CFR part 60, as appropriate, to select sampling sites...

  4. Simultaneous add-drop multiplexing of 80 Gbit/s data in a non-linear optical loop mirror

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mulvad, Hans Christian Hansen; Galili, Michael; Oxenløwe, Leif Katsuo;

    2006-01-01

    We report on a demonstration of simultaneous 80 Gbit/s add-drop multiplexing in a non-linear optical loop mirror. Data pulses are actively dropped and added via cross-phase modulation by the same control pulse.......We report on a demonstration of simultaneous 80 Gbit/s add-drop multiplexing in a non-linear optical loop mirror. Data pulses are actively dropped and added via cross-phase modulation by the same control pulse....

  5. Simultaneous 160 Gb/s Add-Drop Multiplexing in a Non-Linear Optical Loop Mirror

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mulvad, Hans Christian Hansen; Oxenløwe, Leif Katsuo; Galili, Michael;

    2006-01-01

    We report on a demonstration of error-free simultaneous add-drop multiplexing of 160 Gb/s data in a non-linear optical loop mirror composed of 100 m highly non-linear fibre......We report on a demonstration of error-free simultaneous add-drop multiplexing of 160 Gb/s data in a non-linear optical loop mirror composed of 100 m highly non-linear fibre...

  6. The effects of residual tritium on air-detritiation dryer performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects on the performance of an air-detritiation dryer (ADD) of inlet-gas humidity and residual tritiated water (HTO) left on the desiccant following regeneration were demonstrated. Residual HTO significantly reduced the detritiation factor (DFSP) of an ADD from clean-bed values. In addition, HTO/H2O separation occurred in the ADD, with H2O leading HTO. HTO roll-up may also have occurred. Finally, an increase in the inlet-gas humidity at constant inlet HTO concentration decreased the DFSP while increasing the humidity-reduction factor (HRFSP)

  7. Neurofeedback combined with training in metacognitive strategies: effectiveness in students with ADD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, L; Thompson, M

    1998-12-01

    A review of records was carried out to examine the results obtained when people with Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD) received 40 sessions of training that combined neurofeedback with the teaching of metacognitive strategies. While not a controlled scientific study, the results, including pre- and post-measures, are consistent with previously published research concerning the use of neurofeedback with children. A significant addition is that a description of procedures is included. The 111 subjects, 98 children (age 5 to 17) and 13 adults (ages 18 to 63), attended forty 50-min sessions, usually twice a week. Feedback was contingent on decreasing slow wave activity (usually 4-7 Hz, occasionally 9-11 Hz) and increasing fast wave activity (15-18 Hz for most subjects but initially 13-15 Hz for subjects with impulsivity and hyperactivity). Metacognitive strategies related to academic tasks were taught when the feedback indicated the client was focused. Some clients also received temperature and/or EDR biofeedback during some sessions. Initially, 30 percent of the children were taking stimulant medications (Ritalin), whereas 6 percent were on stimulant medications after 40 sessions. All charts were included where pre- and post-testing results were available for one or more of the following: the Test of Variables of Attention (TOVA, n = 76), Wechsler Intelligence Scales (WISC-R, WISC-III, or WAIS-R, n = 68), Wide Range Achievement Test (WRAT 3, n = 99), and the electroencephalogram assessment (QEEG) providing a ratio of theta (4-8 Hz) to beta (16-20 Hz) activity (n = 66). Significant improvements (p academic performance on the WRAT 3. The average gain for the full scale IQ equivalent scores was 12 points. A decrease in the EEG ratio of theta/beta was also observed. These data are important because they provide an extension of results from earlier studies (Lubar, Swartwood, Swartwood, & O'Donnell, 1995; Linden, Habib, & Radojevic, 1996). They also demonstrate that

  8. Healthy Air Outdoors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... lung.org > Our Initiatives > Healthy Air > Outdoor Healthy Air Outdoors The quality of the air we breathe ... families and can even shorten their lives. Outdoor Air Pollution and Health Outdoor air pollution continues to ...

  9. How can Facilities Management Add Value to Organisations as well as to Society

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Per Anker; Sarasoja, Anna-Liisa; van der Voordt, Theo;

    2013-01-01

    group. The project applied three basic theoretical perspectives: FM, Corporate Real Estate Management (CREM) and Business to Business (B2B) marketing and started with a major literature review on added value based on each of these perspectives. The collaboration included a series of workshops...... and preparation of research papers covering theoretical, methodological and empirical aspects. The results were published as an anthology in May 2012. The three basic perspectives of FM, CREM and B2B marketing provide both overlapping and complementary focus areas in relation to adding value. Four conceptual...... models are presented and compared. They include parameters and strategies for how FM can add value with many similarities and a trend towards convergence. Stakeholder relationships and relationship management are seen as crucial in adding value, which for instance is expressed in the concepts FM Value...

  10. Design of a reconfigurable optical add/drop multiplexer based on tunable Fabry-Perot array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Jiansen; Wang, Xin; Li, Zhuo; Yang, Yang; Xu, Rui; Shi, Rui

    2015-08-01

    With the development of optical fiber communication, dense wavelength division multiplexing (DWDM) system is important for the rapid management of multi-wavelength in the core node of the optical transmission network. In this paper, a reconfigurable optical add-drop multiplexer (ROADM) based on the tunable Fabry-Perot (F-P) array is proposed. An optical switch with high isolation and low crosstalk is designed by using the characteristics of filtering and tuning for the F-P array. The principle, structure, and function of the tunable F-P array are introduced. The characteristics of filtering and tuning for the F-P filter are also calculated, and the factor for the isolation, crosstalk, response time and insertion loss are analyzed. A single physical channel ROADM with 16 signal channels, which operates in C-band, is designed and optimized by simulation.

  11. Sliding tethered ligands add topological interactions to the toolbox of ligand-receptor design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Martin; Kékicheff, Patrick; Iss, Jean; Fajolles, Christophe; Charitat, Thierry; Daillant, Jean; Marques, Carlos M.

    2015-09-01

    Adhesion in the biological realm is mediated by specific lock-and-key interactions between ligand-receptor pairs. These complementary moieties are ubiquitously anchored to substrates by tethers that control the interaction range and the mobility of the ligands and receptors, thus tuning the kinetics and strength of the binding events. Here we add sliding anchoring to the toolbox of ligand-receptor design by developing a family of tethered ligands for which the spacer can slide at the anchoring point. Our results show that this additional sliding degree of freedom changes the nature of the adhesive contact by extending the spatial range over which binding may sustain a significant force. By introducing sliding tethered ligands with self-regulating length, this work paves the way for the development of versatile and reusable bio-adhesive substrates with potential applications for drug delivery and tissue engineering.

  12. JAWS: Just Add Water System - A device for detection of nucleic acids in Martian ice caps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anders J.; Willerslev, Eske; Mørk, Søren;

    2002-01-01

    with a regulation of pH and salt concentrations e.g. the MOD systems and could be installed on a planetary probe melting its way down the Martian ice caps e.g. the NASA Cryobot. JAWS can be used for detection of remains of ancient life preserved in the Martian ice as well as for detection of contamination brought......The design of a device for nucleic acid detection in the Martian ice caps is presented; the Just Add Water System (JAWS). It is based on fiber-optic PNA (peptide nucleic acid) light up probe random microsphere universal array technology. JAWS is designed to be part of a larger system...

  13. Celecoxib Adjunctive Treatment to Antipsychotics in Schizophrenia: A Review of Randomized Clinical Add-On Trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Berardis, Domenico; Vellante, Federica; Santacroce, Rita; Orsolini, Laura; Valchera, Alessandro; Girinelli, Gabriella; Carano, Alessandro; Fornaro, Michele; Gambi, Francesco; Martinotti, Giovanni; Di Giannantonio, Massimo

    2016-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a severe, chronic and debilitating mental disorder. Past literature has reported various hypotheses about the psychopathology of schizophrenia. Recently, a growing literature has been trying to explain the role of inflammation in the etiopathogenesis of schizophrenia. In the past, numerous immune modulation and anti-inflammatory treatment options have been proposed for schizophrenia, but sometimes the results were inconsistent. Electronic search was carried out in November 2015. PubMed and Scopus databases have been used to find studies to introduce in this review. Only randomized-placebo-controlled add-on trials were taken into account. In this way, six articles were obtained for the discussion. Celecoxib showed beneficial effects mostly in early stages of schizophrenia. In chronic schizophrenia, the data are controversial, possibly in part for methodological reasons. PMID:27524864

  14. Interaction and dynamics of add-atoms with 2-dimensional structures

    CERN Multimedia

    The interaction and dynamics of add-atoms with graphene, graphene-derivate structures and, later, MoSi$_2$, two-dimensional – single and few – atomic layers will be studied with the Perturbed Angular Correlation – PAC – technique. Graphene is also envisaged as new platform for growing semiconductor nanostructure devices, such as quantum dots and as a particularly powerful catalyst. Understanding nucleation of nanostructures and clusters on graphene and related phases in wet conditions as they are used in chemical methods in research and industry require complementary studies. These systems will therefore be studied systematically using radioactive probe atoms attaching via a transfer media (e.g., water in catalysis process) or being deposited with soft-landing techniques under vacuum and UHV conditions, as put in place at the ASPIC setup at ISOLDE. The hyperfine fields obtained under different environments are expected to reveal basic information on the rich atomic and physical mechanisms associated w...

  15. Biosynthesis of Succulent Bamboo Shoots of Bambusa balcooa into Phytosterols and Its Biotransformation into ADD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kananbala SARANGTHEM; Thongam Nabakumar SINGH

    2003-01-01

    Fermentation of the succulent bamboo shoots of Bambusa balcooa Roxb. resulted in an enrichment of phytosterols from 0.12% to 0.62% dry weight as compared to that of the fresh unfermented samples. The bacterial strains responsible for higher accumulation of phytosterols during fermentation of the bamboo shoots have been isolated and further extraction and purification of the crude phytosterols (isolated from the fermented samples) were done by TLC, UV, NMR, IR and Mass spectral analysis. The isolated phytosterols (β-sitos-terols) were then subjected to microbial transformation which yielded a considerable amount of androsta-1, 4-diene-3,17-dione (ADD) in the incubation mixture in presence of metabolic inhibitors (α, α'-dipyridyl and sodium arsenate).

  16. Wavelength tunable integrated add-drop filter with 10.6 nm bandwidth adjustability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boroojerdi, M T; Ménard, M; Kirk, A G

    2016-09-19

    We present the design and characterization of a silicon-on-insulator based bandwidth and wavelength-tunable add-drop filter. The tunability of the device is achieved by independently controlling the central wavelength of two cascaded contra-directional grating assisted couplers. The device was fabricated using e-beam lithography and the tuning is demonstrated using the thermo-optic effect, which was obtained with metal heaters fabricated by a lift-off process. It is experimentally demonstrated that within the wavelength range of 1555 nm to 1573 nm the transmission bandwidth of the device can be tuned from 1.1 nm to 11.7 nm. Moreover, more than 4 nm of central wavelength tuning is demonstrated. The tunability of the central wavelength is limited by the breakdown current of the metal heaters. PMID:27661939

  17. SAC reports growing unrest

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2009-01-01

    President Valdis Zatlers palus valitsusel pöörata suuremat tähelepanu tööpuudusele, kuna hiljuti läbiviidud uuringust selgus, et sellest on saamas suurim probleem. Usaldus valitsuse ja parlamendi vastu on väga madal

  18. Introduction to SAC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ Standardization Administration of the People's Republic of China was established by the State Council of China in April 2001 and authorized by the State Council to exercise the administrative functions and carry out centralized administration for standardization in China.

  19. 40 CFR 63.4966 - How do I establish the emission capture system and add-on control device operating limits during...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true How do I establish the emission capture... with Add-on Controls Option § 63.4966 How do I establish the emission capture system and add-on control... to § 63.4965. (c) Carbon adsorbers. If your add-on control device is a carbon adsorber, establish...

  20. 40 CFR 63.4767 - How do I establish the emission capture system and add-on control device operating limits during...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true How do I establish the emission capture... Rate with Add-on Controls Option § 63.4767 How do I establish the emission capture system and add-on...) Carbon adsorbers. If your add-on control device is a carbon adsorber, establish the operating...

  1. 40 CFR 63.4567 - How do I establish the emission capture system and add-on control device operating limits during...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true How do I establish the emission capture... Emission Rate with Add-on Controls Option § 63.4567 How do I establish the emission capture system and add... operating limits for that catalytic oxidizer. (c) Regenerative carbon adsorbers. If your add-on...

  2. 40 CFR 63.4363 - How do I establish the add-on control device operating limits during the performance test?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true How do I establish the add-on control... § 63.4363 How do I establish the add-on control device operating limits during the performance test... specified in § 63.4292. (a) Thermal oxidizers. If your add-on control device is a thermal...

  3. 40 CFR 63.3169 - What are the requirements for a capture system or add-on control device which is not taken into...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... system or add-on control device which is not taken into account when demonstrating compliance with the....3169 What are the requirements for a capture system or add-on control device which is not taken into... systems or add-on control devices which you choose not to take into account when demonstrating...

  4. 40 CFR 63.9324 - How do I establish the emission capture system and add-on control device operating limits during...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... capture system and add-on control device operating limits during the performance test? 63.9324 Section 63... Requirements § 63.9324 How do I establish the emission capture system and add-on control device operating...) Thermal oxidizers. If your add-on control device is a thermal oxidizer, establish the operating...

  5. 40 CFR 63.3174 - What are the requirements for a capture system or add-on control device which is not taken into...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... system or add-on control device which is not taken into account when demonstrating compliance with the... Electrodeposition Primer Emission Limitations § 63.3174 What are the requirements for a capture system or add-on... limitations? You may have capture systems or add-on control devices which you choose not to take into...

  6. Royal Danish Air Force. Air Operations Doctrine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørby, Søren

    This brief examines the development of the first Danish Air Force Air Operations Doctrine, which was officially commissioned in October 1997 and remained in effect until 2010. The development of a Danish air power doctrine was heavily influenced by the work of Colonel John Warden (USAF), both...... through his book ”The Air Campaign” and his subsequent planning of the air campaign against Iraq in 1990-1991. Warden’s ideas came to Denmark and the Danish Air Force by way of Danish Air Force students attending the United States Air Force Air University in Alabama, USA. Back in Denmark, graduates from...... the Air University inspired a small number of passionate airmen, who then wrote the Danish Air Operations Doctrine. The process was supported by the Air Force Tactical Command, which found that the work dovetailed perfectly with the transformation process that the Danish Air Force was in the midst...

  7. Molecular cloning of otoconin-22 complementary deoxyribonucleic acid in the bullfrog endolymphatic sac: effect of calcitonin on otoconin-22 messenger ribonucleic acid levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaoi, Yuichi; Suzuki, Masakazu; Tomura, Hideaki; Sasayama, Yuichi; Kikuyama, Sakae; Tanaka, Shigeyasu

    2003-08-01

    Anuran amphibians have a special organ called the endolymphatic sac (ELS), containing many calcium carbonate crystals, which is believed to have a calcium storage function. The major protein of aragonitic otoconia, otoconin-22, which is considered to be involved in the formation of calcium carbonate crystals, has been purified from the saccule of the Xenopus inner ear. In this study, we cloned a cDNA encoding otoconin-22 from the cDNA library constructed for the paravertebral lime sac (PVLS) of the bullfrog, Rana catesbeiana, and sequenced it. The bullfrog otoconin-22 encoded a protein consisting of 147 amino acids, including a signal peptide of 20 amino acids. The protein had cysteine residues identical in a number and position to those conserved among the secretory phospholipase A(2) family. The mRNA of bullfrog otoconin-22 was expressed in the ELS, including the PVLS and inner ear. This study also revealed the presence of calcitonin receptor-like protein in the ELS, with the putative seven-transmembrane domains of the G protein-coupled receptors. The ultimobranchialectomy induced a prominent decrease in the otoconin-22 mRNA levels of the bullfrog PVLS. Supplementation of the ultimobranchialectomized bullfrogs with synthetic salmon calcitonin elicited a significant increase in the mRNA levels of the sac. These findings suggest that calcitonin secreted from the ultimobranchial gland, regulates expression of bullfrog otoconin-22 mRNA via calcitonin receptor-like protein on the ELS, thereby stimulating the formation of calcium carbonate crystals in the lumen of the ELS. PMID:12865304

  8. Precocious puberty secondary to a mixed germ cell-sex cord-stromal tumor associated with an ovarian yolk sac tumor: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Metwalley Kotb

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Ovarian tumors are the least common cause of sexual precocity in girls. Mixed germ cell-sex cord-stromal tumors associated with a yolk sac tumor of the ovary are rare neoplasms, of which only a small number of well-documented cases have been described so far. Here, we report precocious puberty in a four-year-old Egyptian girl caused by a mixed germ cell-sex cord-stromal tumor associated with a yolk sac tumor of the ovary. Case presentation A four-year-old Egyptian girl was referred to our pediatric endocrinology unit for evaluation of bilateral breast budding, pubic hair and vaginal bleeding. On examination, we found that her breast enlargement and pubic hair were compatible with Tanner III. A thorough workup revealed a large mass in her right ovary. Magnetic resonance imaging ofher brain showed that her pituitary gland was normal. A hormonal assay revealed high levels of estradiol, 280 to 375pmol/L; progesterone, 5.3 nmol/L; testosterone 38.9 pg/mL; and androstenedione, 4.1 ng/mL. Her basal and stimulated levels of luteinizing hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone were low. Tumor markers levels were high, with a total inhibin of 1,069U/L and an alpha-fetoprotein of 987 μg/L. Her chromosomes were normal (46XX. Our patient underwent an explorative laparotomy and a solid tumor localized to her right ovary was identified. A right salpingo-oophorectomy was performed and the histopathological diagnosis was a mixed germ cell-sex cord-stromal tumorwith a yolk sac tumor of the ovary. Postoperatively, she was started on treatment with chemotherapy. Our patient is doing well without evidence of tumor recurrence or metastasis during eight months of postoperative follow-up. Conclusion Although a mixed germ cell-sex cord-stromal tumor associated with a yolk sac tumor of the ovary is a rare occurrence, it should be considered in the differential diagnosis for a prepubescent girl with an abdominal mass and precocious puberty.

  9. De Novo Development and Progression of Endolymphatic Sac Tumour in von Hippel-Lindau Disease: An Observational Study and Literature Review

    OpenAIRE

    Eze, Nwaneka; Huber, Alexander; Schuknecht, Bernhard

    2013-01-01

    Endolymphatic sac tumors (ELST) are rare invasive lesions of the temporal bone that are commonly associated with von Hippel-Lindau disease. This report describes serial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomography (CT) findings over a period of 6 years in a 12-year-old patient who developed an ELST after 3.5 years surveillance for a cerebellar hemangioblastoma. A 1.5 × 8 mm tumor was identified on MRI within the endolymphatic duct when the patient presented with audiovestibular sy...

  10. Notice on the 3 National Compulsory Standards Stipulated by AQSIQ and SAC,including the General Technical Regulations for Infant Blended Milk Powder and Infant Complete Grain Flour

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ In order to meet the needs of the current milk powder market and to lead enterprises to abide by the 3 national compulsory standards, i.e., the General Technical Regulations for Infant Blended Milk Powder and Infant Completed Grain Flour,GB10767-1997, the Infant Blended Milk Powder I(Blended Power Ⅰ), GB10765-1997 and the Infant Blended Milk Powder Ⅱ and Ⅲ (Blended Power Ⅱ and Ⅲ), GB10766-1997, General Administration of Quality Supervision, Inspection and Quarantine of China (AQSIQ) and Standardization Administration of China (SAC) issued the following notice, explaining requirements in detail.

  11. Comparative study on the quality of different citrus juice sacs%不同品种柑橘汁胞的品质比较研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨子玉; 唐颂; 任婧楠; 台亚楠; 董曼; 潘思轶; 范刚

    2015-01-01

    汁胞是柑橘汁胞饮料中重要的组成部分,其品质决定了柑橘汁胞饮料的色泽、口感等一系列感官指标.本文以夏橙、赣南脐橙、温州蜜柑和湘西椪柑四种柑橘作为研究对象,比较了四种不同柑橘汁胞可溶性固形物含量、可滴定酸、汁胞柄长度、色度等理化指标的差异,并对不同品种的柑橘汁胞进行了感官评定,综合二者进行评价.结果表明,四个不同品种柑橘汁胞中VC含量在20~45 mg/1 00mL之间,其中赣南脐橙的VC含量最高,湘西椪柑可溶性固形物含量最高;除湘西椪柑与赣南脐橙之外,四个品种两两之间色度差异较大;感官分析结果表明湘西椪柑汁胞具有最良好的感官特征.%Citrus juice sacs are important portion of the citrus juice sacs drink,its quality determines series of sensory index of the citrus juice sacs drink.Valencia Orange,Gannan navel orange,Satsuma orange and Xiangxi ponkan were selected as research materials,the physicochemical indexes of these four cultivars were determined,and sensory evaluation was also investigated.The results showed that the VC contents were 20~45mg/100mL of these citrus juice sacs,and the highest level of VC in Gannan navel orange was observed.The content of soluble solid in Xiangxi ponkan was the highest among these citrus cultivars.A great difference on the color was observed beween the two cultivars except for Xiangxi ponkan and Gannan navel orange.The sensory evaluation results showed that Xiangxi ponkan had the best sensory attribute.

  12. Add-on conservation benefits of marine territorial user rights fishery policies in central Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelcich, Stefan; Godoy, Natalio; Prado, Luis; Castilla, Juan Carlos

    2008-01-01

    To combine the rational use of marine benthic resources and economic development of small-scale fishers, Chile passed legislation in 1991 establishing a comanagement policy that grants exclusive territorial user rights for fisheries (TURFs) to artisanal fisher organizations in well-defined inshore coastal areas, known as Management and Exploitation Areas for Benthic Resources (MEABRs). In general the policy has been proclaimed a management and economic success because benthic resource abundances have increased inside MEABRs in comparison with open-access areas. However, there is a lack of studies assessing the impact of this management policy on nontargeted subtidal species and community assemblages and the policy's implications for biodiversity and conservation. This study starts to fill this gap and links the allocation of TURFs for benthic resources with add-on conservation benefits for species that are not directly linked with the fishery policy. Comparative subtidal surveys inside vs. outside MEABRs were used to assess the effects of three MEABRs on managed targeted benthic species, biodiversity (species richness), and community assemblages in central Chile. Surveys focused exclusively on subtidal kelp forest habitats dominated by Lessonia trabeculata, spanning 4-12 m in depth and with similar levels of habitat complexity. The study comprised: (1) quantification of kelp forest complexity, (2) understory survey of sessile species, (3) quantification of conspicuous benthic macroinvertebrates, including those under management, and (4) quantification of reef-fish species inside the kelp habitat. Results showed population enhancement of target-managed invertebrates inside MEABRs. Moreover, reef-fish species were significantly more diverse and abundant inside MEABRs, and community assemblages of nontarget benthic invertebrates and reef fish were significantly different inside vs. outside MEABRs. The comanagement of inshore benthic resources in Chile, through MEABRs

  13. Air filtration and indoor air quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bekö, Gabriel

    2006-01-01

    Demands for better indoor air quality are increasing, since we spend most of our time indoors and we are more and more aware of indoor air pollution. Field studies in different parts of the world have documented that high percentage of occupants in many offices and buildings find the indoor air...... decent ventilation and air cleaning/air filtration, high indoor air quality cannot be accomplished. The need for effective air filtration has increased with increasing evidence on the hazardous effects of fine particles. Moreover, the air contains gaseous pollutants, removal of which requires various air...... cleaning techniques. Supply air filter is one of the key components in the ventilation system. Studies have shown that used ventilation filters themselves can be a significant source of indoor air pollution with consequent impact on perceived air quality, sick building syndrome symptoms and performance...

  14. Calling all LEGO lovers! Add a mini control room to your collection

    CERN Multimedia

    Katarina Anthony

    2015-01-01

    The mini LHC Lego project launched in March (see here) now has almost 6,000 supporters - well on its way to the 10,000 votes needed for it to (hopefully!) hit store shelves. This week, the project added a new feature to its line: a mini control centre! The new LEGO Control centre, featuring operators "Kerstin" and "Marco".   The mini LHC project is the brainchild of ATLAS PhD student Nathan Readioff, who designed Lego replicas of the LHC and the ALICE, ATLAS, CMS and LHCb experiments on a micro scale. Each detector model is small enough to fit in the palm of your hand but crammed with detailed internal systems revealed by cutaway walls. Every major detector component is represented by a Lego piece. Now, Nathan has created a control centre to complement the mini LHC project. This would be an add-on feature for Lego’s consideration, should they decide to develop the accelerator into a box set. “The control centre is ...

  15. Exercise Ventilatory Inefficiency Adds to Lung Function in Predicting Mortality in COPD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neder, J Alberto; Alharbi, Abdullah; Berton, Danilo C; Alencar, Maria Clara N; Arbex, Flavio F; Hirai, Daniel M; Webb, Katherine A; O'Donnell, Denis E

    2016-08-01

    Severity of resting functional impairment only partially predicts the increased risk of death in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Increased ventilation during exercise is associated with markers of disease progression and poor prognosis, including emphysema extension and pulmonary vascular impairment. Whether excess exercise ventilation would add to resting lung function in predicting mortality in COPD, however, is currently unknown. After an incremental cardiopulmonary exercise test, 288 patients (forced expiratory volume in one second ranging from 18% to 148% predicted) were followed for a median (interquartile range) of 57 (47) months. Increases in the lowest (nadir) ventilation to CO2 output (VCO2) ratio determined excess exercise ventilation. Seventy-seven patients (26.7%) died during follow-up: 30/77 (38.9%) deaths were due to respiratory causes. Deceased patients were older, leaner, had a greater co-morbidity burden (Charlson Index) and reported more daily life dyspnea. Moreover, they had poorer lung function and exercise tolerance (p 34 was associated with IC/TLC ≤ 0.34 or IC/TLC ≤ 0.31 for all-cause and respiratory mortality, respectively (p COPD severity. Physiological abnormalities beyond traditional airway dysfunction and lung mechanics are relevant in determining the course of the disease. PMID:27077955

  16. PKSolver: An add-in program for pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic data analysis in Microsoft Excel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yong; Huo, Meirong; Zhou, Jianping; Xie, Shaofei

    2010-09-01

    This study presents PKSolver, a freely available menu-driven add-in program for Microsoft Excel written in Visual Basic for Applications (VBA), for solving basic problems in pharmacokinetic (PK) and pharmacodynamic (PD) data analysis. The program provides a range of modules for PK and PD analysis including noncompartmental analysis (NCA), compartmental analysis (CA), and pharmacodynamic modeling. Two special built-in modules, multiple absorption sites (MAS) and enterohepatic circulation (EHC), were developed for fitting the double-peak concentration-time profile based on the classical one-compartment model. In addition, twenty frequently used pharmacokinetic functions were encoded as a macro and can be directly accessed in an Excel spreadsheet. To evaluate the program, a detailed comparison of modeling PK data using PKSolver and professional PK/PD software package WinNonlin and Scientist was performed. The results showed that the parameters estimated with PKSolver were satisfactory. In conclusion, the PKSolver simplified the PK and PD data analysis process and its output could be generated in Microsoft Word in the form of an integrated report. The program provides pharmacokinetic researchers with a fast and easy-to-use tool for routine and basic PK and PD data analysis with a more user-friendly interface. PMID:20176408

  17. CosmoCalc: An Excel add-in for cosmogenic nuclide calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeesch, Pieter

    2007-08-01

    As dating methods using Terrestrial Cosmogenic Nuclides (TCN) become more popular, the need arises for a general-purpose and easy-to-use data reduction software. The CosmoCalc Excel add-in calculates TCN production rate scaling factors (using Lal, Stone, Dunai, and Desilets methods); topographic, snow, and self-shielding factors; and exposure ages, erosion rates, and burial ages and visualizes the results on banana-style plots. It uses an internally consistent TCN production equation that is based on the quadruple exponential approach of Granger and Smith (2000). CosmoCalc was designed to be as user-friendly as possible. Although the user interface is extremely simple, the program is also very flexible, and nearly all default parameter values can be changed. To facilitate the comparison of different scaling factors, a set of converter tools is provided, allowing the user to easily convert cut-off rigidities to magnetic inclinations, elevations to atmospheric depths, and so forth. Because it is important to use a consistent set of scaling factors for the sample measurements and the production rate calibration sites, CosmoCalc defines the production rates implicitly, as a function of the original TCN concentrations of the calibration site. The program is best suited for 10Be, 26Al, 3He, and 21Ne calculations, although basic functionality for 36Cl and 14C is also provided. CosmoCalc can be downloaded along with a set of test data from http://cosmocalc.googlepages.com.

  18. PKSolver: An add-in program for pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic data analysis in Microsoft Excel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yong; Huo, Meirong; Zhou, Jianping; Xie, Shaofei

    2010-09-01

    This study presents PKSolver, a freely available menu-driven add-in program for Microsoft Excel written in Visual Basic for Applications (VBA), for solving basic problems in pharmacokinetic (PK) and pharmacodynamic (PD) data analysis. The program provides a range of modules for PK and PD analysis including noncompartmental analysis (NCA), compartmental analysis (CA), and pharmacodynamic modeling. Two special built-in modules, multiple absorption sites (MAS) and enterohepatic circulation (EHC), were developed for fitting the double-peak concentration-time profile based on the classical one-compartment model. In addition, twenty frequently used pharmacokinetic functions were encoded as a macro and can be directly accessed in an Excel spreadsheet. To evaluate the program, a detailed comparison of modeling PK data using PKSolver and professional PK/PD software package WinNonlin and Scientist was performed. The results showed that the parameters estimated with PKSolver were satisfactory. In conclusion, the PKSolver simplified the PK and PD data analysis process and its output could be generated in Microsoft Word in the form of an integrated report. The program provides pharmacokinetic researchers with a fast and easy-to-use tool for routine and basic PK and PD data analysis with a more user-friendly interface.

  19. Mozart K.448 acts as a potential add-on therapy in children with refractory epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Lung-Chang; Lee, Wei-Te; Wang, Chien-Hua; Chen, Hsiu-Lin; Wu, Hui-Chuan; Tsai, Chin-Lin; Wei, Ruey-Chang; Mok, Hin-Kiu; Weng, Chia-Fen; Lee, Mei-Wen; Yang, Rei-Cheng

    2011-03-01

    Mozart's Sonata for two pianos in D major, K.448 (Mozart K.448), has been shown to improve mental function, leading to what is known as the Mozart effect. Our previous work revealed that epileptiform discharges in children with epilepsy decreased during and immediately after listening to Mozart K.448. In this study, we evaluated the long-term effects of Mozart K.448 on children with refractory epilepsy. Eleven children with refractory epilepsy were enrolled. All of the patients were diagnosed as having had refractory epilepsy for more than 1 year (range =1 year to 6 years 4 months, mean =3 years 11 months) and had been receiving at least two antiepileptic drugs (AED). During the study period, they listened to Mozart K.448 once a day before bedtime for 6 months. Seizure frequencies were recorded 6 months before they started listening to this music and monthly during the study period. All of the patients remained on the same AEDs during the 6-month study period. Frequencies of seizures were compared before and after listening to Mozart K.448. Eight of eleven patients were seizure free (N=2) or had very good responses (N=6) after 6 months of listening to Mozart K.448. The remaining three (27.3%) showed minimal or no effect (effectiveness Mozart K.448 should be further studied as a potential add-on therapy in the treatment of children with refractory epilepsy. PMID:21292560

  20. Mozart K.448 acts as a potential add-on therapy in children with refractory epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Lung-Chang; Lee, Wei-Te; Wang, Chien-Hua; Chen, Hsiu-Lin; Wu, Hui-Chuan; Tsai, Chin-Lin; Wei, Ruey-Chang; Mok, Hin-Kiu; Weng, Chia-Fen; Lee, Mei-Wen; Yang, Rei-Cheng

    2011-03-01

    Mozart's Sonata for two pianos in D major, K.448 (Mozart K.448), has been shown to improve mental function, leading to what is known as the Mozart effect. Our previous work revealed that epileptiform discharges in children with epilepsy decreased during and immediately after listening to Mozart K.448. In this study, we evaluated the long-term effects of Mozart K.448 on children with refractory epilepsy. Eleven children with refractory epilepsy were enrolled. All of the patients were diagnosed as having had refractory epilepsy for more than 1 year (range =1 year to 6 years 4 months, mean =3 years 11 months) and had been receiving at least two antiepileptic drugs (AED). During the study period, they listened to Mozart K.448 once a day before bedtime for 6 months. Seizure frequencies were recorded 6 months before they started listening to this music and monthly during the study period. All of the patients remained on the same AEDs during the 6-month study period. Frequencies of seizures were compared before and after listening to Mozart K.448. Eight of eleven patients were seizure free (N=2) or had very good responses (N=6) after 6 months of listening to Mozart K.448. The remaining three (27.3%) showed minimal or no effect (effectiveness Mozart K.448 should be further studied as a potential add-on therapy in the treatment of children with refractory epilepsy.