Sample records for air resistance

  1. Air void structure and frost resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasholt, Marianne Tange


    are conducted. Results were not originally presented in a way, which made comparison possible. Here the amount of scaled material is depicted as function of air voids parameters: total air content, specific surface, spacing factor, and total surface area of air voids. The total surface area of air voids...... is proportional to the product of total air content and specific surface. In all 4 cases, the conclusion is concurrent that the parameter of total surface area of air voids performs equally well or better than the spacing factor when linking air void characteristics to frost resistance (salt frost scaling...... on that capillary pores are connected to air voids. The chance that a capillary pore is connected to an air void depends on the total surface area of air voids in the system, not the spacing factor....

  2. Calculation of the dynamic air flow resistivity of fibre materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarnow, Viggo


    The acoustic attenuation of acoustic fiber materials is mainly determined by the dynamic resistivity to an oscillating air flow. The dynamic resistance is calculated for a model with geometry close to the geometry of real fibre material. The model constists of parallel cylinders placed randomly. ......-consistent procedure gives the same results as the more complicated procedure based on average over Voronoi cells. Graphs of the dynamic resistivity versus frequency are given for fiber densities and diameters typical for acoustic fiber materials.......The acoustic attenuation of acoustic fiber materials is mainly determined by the dynamic resistivity to an oscillating air flow. The dynamic resistance is calculated for a model with geometry close to the geometry of real fibre material. The model constists of parallel cylinders placed randomly...

  3. Cold air challenge and specific airway resistance in preschool children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kim Gjerum; Bisgaard, Hans


    prognosis in preschool children. Cold air challenge and plethysmographic measurement of specific airway resistance (sRaw) are feasible candidate methods for diagnosis, clinical monitoring and research during this critical period of lung growth and development. Methodology and practical aspects of cold air......Important asthma outcomes such as lung function and bronchial hyperresponsiveness are probably determined in early childhood. Early and longitudinal objective assessment of lung function and bronchial hyperresponsiveness is necessary to enable early diagnosis, monitor intervention and improve...

  4. Resistance Characteristics of Arc in Long Air Gap

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Zhanqing; YU Junjie; ZENG Rong; CHEN He; PENG Xiang


    Arc resistance is an important parameter for characterizing long arcs in air,and its laboratory testing is of importance for accurate arc modeling of electromagnetic transient caused by short circuit fault.Therefore,we constructed an experimental system to study the characteristics of long AC arc in air.Driven by currents of 10 kA or 40 kA (root mean square value),the system produces arcs with different initial lengths of 1 m,2 m and 4 m,and the movement of the arcs are captured by a high-speed camera.After performing experiments using the system,we carried out analysis and comparisons of the arc resistance of arcs with different lengths and different currents,as well as a study of the relationship between the macro-morphology and the resistance of the arcs.Conclusions were drawn from the experimental results:the arc voltage had obvious saturation characteristics; the arc resistance increased with the increase of arc length and the decrease of current; the arcs bended or extended significantly in time and the peak arc voltage within a single cycle increased correspondingly; the arcs had voltage and current in the same phase.In the end,a formula of arc resistance based on the experiment results is derived.

  5. Experimental investigation of frictional resistance reduction with air layer on the hull bottom of a ship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jang Jinho


    Full Text Available In an effort to cope with recent high oil price and global warming, developments of air lubricated ships have been pursued to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and to save fuel costs by reducing the frictional resistance. In this study, reduction in the frictional resistance by air lubrication with air layers generated on the lower surface of a flat plate was investigated experimentally in the large water tunnel of SSMB. The generated air layers were observed, and changes in the local frictional drag were measured at various flow rates of injected air. The results indicated that air lubrication with air layers might be useful in reducing the frictional resistance at specific conditions of air injection. Accordingly, resistance and self-propulsion tests for a 66K DWT bulk carrier were carried out in the towing tank of SSMB to estimate the expected net power savings.

  6. Identification of the epidural space: loss of resistance with air, lidocaine, or the combination of air and lidocaine. (United States)

    Evron, Samuel; Sessler, Daniel; Sadan, Oscar; Boaz, Mona; Glezerman, Marek; Ezri, Tiberiu


    The ideal technique for identifying the epidural space remains unclear. Five-hundred-forty-seven women in labor who requested epidural analgesia were randomly allocated to three groups according to the technique by which the epidural space was identified: 1) loss-of-resistance with air (air; n = 180), 2) loss-of-resistance with lidocaine (lidocaine; n = 185), and 3) loss-of-resistance with both air and lidocaine (air-plus-lidocaine; n = 182). We assessed ease of epidural catheter insertion, characteristics of the blockade, quality of analgesia, and complications. The inability to thread the epidural catheter occurred in 16% of the air, 4% of the lidocaine, and 3% of the air-plus-lidocaine patients (P air group had unblocked segments (6.6% versus 3.2% and 2.2%, respectively; P air group (1.7% versus 0% in the other two groups; P space with air was more difficult and caused more dural punctures than with lidocaine or air plus lidocaine. Additionally, sequential use of air and lidocaine had no advantage over lidocaine alone.

  7. A method based on potential theory for calculating air cavity formation of an air cavity resistance reduction ship

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Yun-bo; WU Xiao-yu; MA Yong; WANG Jin-guang


    This research is intended to provide academic reference and design guidance for further studies to determine the most effective means to reduce a ship's resistance through an air-cavity.On the basis of potential theory and on the assumption of an ideal and irrotational fluid,this paper drives a method for calculating air cavity formation using slender ship theory then points out the parameters directly related to the formation of air cavities and their interrelationships.Simulations showed that the formation of an air cavity is affected by cavitation number,velocity,groove geometry and groove size.When the ship's velocity and groove structure are given,the cavitation number must be within range to form a steady air cavity.The interface between air and water forms a wave shape and could be adjustedby an air injection system.

  8. Perceiving nasal patency through mucosal cooling rather than air temperature or nasal resistance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Zhao

    Full Text Available Adequate perception of nasal airflow (i.e., nasal patency is an important consideration for patients with nasal sinus diseases. The perception of a lack of nasal patency becomes the primary symptom that drives these patients to seek medical treatment. However, clinical assessment of nasal patency remains a challenge because we lack objective measurements that correlate well with what patients perceive. The current study examined factors that may influence perceived patency, including air temperature, humidity, mucosal cooling, nasal resistance, and trigeminal sensitivity. Forty-four healthy subjects rated nasal patency while sampling air from three facial exposure boxes that were ventilated with untreated room air, cold air, and dry air, respectively. In all conditions, air temperature and relative humidity inside each box were recorded with sensors connected to a computer. Nasal resistance and minimum airway cross-sectional area (MCA were measured using rhinomanometry and acoustic rhinometry, respectively. General trigeminal sensitivity was assessed through lateralization thresholds to butanol. No significant correlation was found between perceived patency and nasal resistance or MCA. In contrast, air temperature, humidity, and butanol threshold combined significantly contributed to the ratings of patency, with mucosal cooling (heat loss being the most heavily weighted predictor. Air humidity significantly influences perceived patency, suggesting that mucosal cooling rather than air temperature alone provides the trigeminal sensation that results in perception of patency. The dynamic cooling between the airstream and the mucosal wall may be quantified experimentally or computationally and could potentially lead to a new clinical evaluation tool.

  9. 42 CFR 84.153 - Airflow resistance test, Type A and Type AE supplied-air respirators; minimum requirements. (United States)


    ... supplied-air respirators; minimum requirements. 84.153 Section 84.153 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE... APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Supplied-Air Respirators § 84.153 Airflow resistance test, Type A and Type AE supplied-air respirators; minimum requirements. (a) Airflow resistance will...

  10. 42 CFR 84.154 - Airflow resistance test; Type B and Type BE supplied-air respirators; minimum requirements. (United States)


    ... supplied-air respirators; minimum requirements. 84.154 Section 84.154 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE... APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Supplied-Air Respirators § 84.154 Airflow resistance test; Type B and Type BE supplied-air respirators; minimum requirements. (a) Airflow resistance shall...

  11. Hydraulic Resistance and Liberation of Air in Aviation Kerosene Flow Through Diaphragms at Low Pressure (United States)

    Kitanin, É. L.; Kitanina, E. É.; Zherebtsov, V. A.; Peganova, M. M.; Stepanov, S. G.; Bondarenko, D. A.; Morisson, D.


    This paper presents the results of experimental investigations of the liberation of air in gravity flow of aviation fuel through a pipeline with diaphragms. Experiments were carried out in the pressure range 0.2-1.0 bar and temperature range -20 to +20°C. The TC-1 kerosene was preliminarily saturated with air at atmospheric pressure. The liberation of air after the diaphragms with three ratios of the flow area to the cross-sectional area of the pipeline has been investigated. The results of investigations of the two-phase flow in several experimental pipelines containing one or two diaphragms and other local hydraulic resistances have been generalized. The obtained approximation equations permit calculating the hydraulic resistance of the diaphragm in the two-phase flow and the mass gas content of air after the diaphragm in pipelines of complex geometry.

  12. Measurement of the resistivity of porous materials with an alternating air-flow method. (United States)

    Dragonetti, Raffaele; Ianniello, Carmine; Romano, Rosario A


    Air-flow resistivity is a main parameter governing the acoustic behavior of porous materials for sound absorption. The international standard ISO 9053 specifies two different methods to measure the air-flow resistivity, namely a steady-state air-flow method and an alternating air-flow method. The latter is realized by the measurement of the sound pressure at 2 Hz in a small rigid volume closed partially by the test sample. This cavity is excited with a known volume-velocity sound source implemented often with a motor-driven piston oscillating with prescribed area and displacement magnitude. Measurements at 2 Hz require special instrumentation and care. The authors suggest an alternating air-flow method based on the ratio of sound pressures measured at frequencies higher than 2 Hz inside two cavities coupled through a conventional loudspeaker. The basic method showed that the imaginary part of the sound pressure ratio is useful for the evaluation of the air-flow resistance. Criteria are discussed about the choice of a frequency range suitable to perform simplified calculations with respect to the basic method. These criteria depend on the sample thickness, its nonacoustic parameters, and the measurement apparatus as well. The proposed measurement method was tested successfully with various types of acoustic materials.

  13. The vapor diffusion resistance and air permeance of masonry and roofing systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hens, Hugo S.L.C. [Laboratory of Building Physics, Department of Civil Engineering, University of Leuven, Kasteelpark Arenberg, 51, 3001 Leuven (Belgium)


    Several building parts contain layers composed of separate elements that are mortared together or simply interlock or overlap. Typical examples are masonry walls, brick veneers, tiled roofing systems and slated roofing systems. The mortar joints, the interlocks and overlaps should affect the water vapor diffusion resistance and the air permeance of the composite layer, at least in comparison with the vapor and air flow properties of the pure elements. However, little information is found in literature that allows a quantification of the differences. The article describes a purpose designed test method for measuring the water vapor diffusion resistance of composite layers. It comments on the results and also gives data for the air permeances, measured with a pressure box. From the results and data, it is clear that mortared joints, interlocks and overlaps decrease the water vapor diffusion resistance and increase the air permeance of a composite layer compared to the pure material. In fact, mortared joints, interlocks and overlaps act as preferential paths for water vapor and air mitigation. As a consequence, using composite layers as outside finish in thermally insulated building parts, as done in pitched roofs and cavity walls, diminishes the interstitial condensation risk, accelerates drying of the cladding when wetted by wind-driven rain and affects the effectiveness of outside air cross ventilation below or behind the finish. (author)

  14. [Phenotypic and genotypic characterization of imipenem-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated in a Buenos Aires hospital]. (United States)

    Cejas, D; Almuzara, M; Santella, G; Tuduri, A; Palombarani, S; Figueroa, S; Gutkind, G; Radice, M


    From 129 P. aeruginosa isolated at a health care centre located in Buenos Aires (Hospital "Eva Perón"), 14% produced IMP-13. Although 18 isolates were metallo-beta-lactamases (MBL) producers, only those isolates that displayed altered outer membrane protein profiles correlated with the resistant category according to CLSI or even Subcomisión de Antimicrobianos, SADEBAC, AAM. Phenotypic screening of metallo-beta-lactamases proved to be appropriate for detecting MBL producing isolates. IMP-13 producing isolates corresponded to at least five different clonal types, which not only suggests the dissemination of the resistant strain but also of the resistant marker.

  15. Investigation of Proprietary Air-Entraining Admixtures to Produce Frost- Resistant Concrete with Low Air Content (United States)


    given air content, a higher specific surface should result in a smaller spacing factor ( Mindess and Young 1981). Therefore, if a particular AEA produced...MS. Mindess , S., and Young, J. F. 1981. Concrete, Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ. Powers, T. C. 1954 (May). "Void Spacing as a Basis for

  16. Disinfectant-resistant bacteria in Buenos Aires city hospital wastewater Resistência bacteriana a desinfetantes em efluentes de um hospital em Buenos Aires, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Nuñez


    Full Text Available Large quantities of disinfectants are used in hospitals, externally on human skin or to eliminate microorganisms from inanimate objects. After use, residual quantities of these products reach the wastewater, exposing the bacteria that survive in hospital wastewaters to a wide range of biocides that could act as a selective pressure for the development of resistance. Increasing attention has been directed recently to the resistance of bacteria to disinfectants. The aim of this paper was to determine the disinfectant bacterial resistance pattern of the microflora released to the urban sewer system by hospital effluents. The characterization of the waste water microflora was performed by determination of the CFU of heterotrophic bacteria, fecal indicator bacteria, Pseudomonas sp. and Staphylococcus sp., in a Buenos Aires hospital effluent. The bacterial resistance to the disinfectants more frequently used in the hospital practice, glutaraldehyde, chlorhexidine and povidone-iodine, was then evaluated. Disinfectant resistant bacterial strains were isolated and typified. Between 10³ and 10(6 chlorexidine resistant bacteria/100 mL were isolated from the samples. Bacteria resistant to other disinfectants ranged between 10³ and 10(4 /100 mL. The bacterial population resistant to desinfectants to was mainly composed by Enterobacteriaceae, Staphylococcus spp, and Bacillus spp, which are highly associated to nosocomial infections. The results obtained show that the hospital effluents are of importance in the bacterial resistance selection process, particularly in the case of disinfectants.Os hospitais utilizam uma grande quantidade de desinfetantes para eliminar microorganismos tanto da pele humana como de superfícies inanimadas. Após sua utilização, esses produtos podem chegar ao esgoto em quantidades residuais. A pressão seletiva exercida pelos antimicrobianos nos efluentes hospitalares propicia a disseminação de linhagens resistentes. Além dos

  17. 42 CFR 84.155 - Airflow resistance test; Type C supplied-air respirator, continuous flow class and Type CE... (United States)


    ... respirator, continuous flow class and Type CE supplied-air respirator; minimum requirements. 84.155 Section... Respirators § 84.155 Airflow resistance test; Type C supplied-air respirator, continuous flow class and Type... shall not exceed 25 mm. (1 inch) of water-column height when the air flow into the...

  18. Air-Impregnated Nanoporous Anodic Aluminum Oxide Layers for Enhancing the Corrosion Resistance of Aluminum. (United States)

    Jeong, Chanyoung; Lee, Junghoon; Sheppard, Keith; Choi, Chang-Hwan


    Nanoporous anodic aluminum oxide layers were fabricated on aluminum substrates with systematically varied pore diameters (20-80 nm) and oxide thicknesses (150-500 nm) by controlling the anodizing voltage and time and subsequent pore-widening process conditions. The porous nanostructures were then coated with a thin (only a couple of nanometers thick) Teflon film to make the surface hydrophobic and trap air in the pores. The corrosion resistance of the aluminum substrate was evaluated by a potentiodynamic polarization measurement in 3.5 wt % NaCl solution (saltwater). Results showed that the hydrophobic nanoporous anodic aluminum oxide layer significantly enhanced the corrosion resistance of the aluminum substrate compared to a hydrophilic oxide layer of the same nanostructures, to bare (nonanodized) aluminum with only a natural oxide layer on top, and to the latter coated with a thin Teflon film. The hydrophobic nanoporous anodic aluminum oxide layer with the largest pore diameter and the thickest oxide layer (i.e., the maximized air fraction) resulted in the best corrosion resistance with a corrosion inhibition efficiency of up to 99% for up to 7 days. The results demonstrate that the air impregnating the hydrophobic nanopores can effectively inhibit the penetration of corrosive media into the pores, leading to a significant improvement in corrosion resistance.

  19. Microbiological air quality in some kindergartens and antibiotic resistance of bacteria of the Staphylococcus spp. genus

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    Łukasz Kubera


    Full Text Available Background: Microbiological contamination of the air and the acquisition of the antibiotic resistance by pathogenic bacteria is a growing phenomenon that has a substantial impact on the quality of our health. This problem applies mainly to public areas where we spend a large part of our lives. This study was focused on the microbiological analysis of the air in some kindergartens and antibiotic resistance of bacteria of the Stephylococcus spp. genus. The identification of the isolated mould fungi has been also made. Material and Methods: Air samples were collected from classrooms in the seasonal cycle in the mornings and afternoons using 2 methods, sedimentation and impact. Air samples collected outside the kindergartens served as controls. Air quality assessments were based on the groups of indicator microorganisms, according to Polish standards. The susceptibility of isolated staphylococci was assessed with the disc-diffusion method, using 8 different classes of antibiotics, in line with the recommendations of the European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (EUCAST. Results: The analyses show that, regardless of the method, the total number of heterothropic bacteria and staphylococci in the air of the analyzed kindergartens exceeded the allowable limits. There was no air pollution with the fungal infection. Based on the antibiogram, it was found that Staphylococcus spp. strains showed the highest sensitivity to chloramphenicol and the lowest to penicillin and gentamicin. Among the fungi moulds of the genus Cladosporium predominated. Conclusions: The results of the analyses highlight the need for regular health checks and further research to help identify biological factors that may significantly affect the quality of health of people living in public spaces. Med Pr 2015;66(1:49–56

  20. HIV-1 resistance to antiretroviral drugs in pregnant women from Buenos Aires metropolitan area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inés Zapiola


    Full Text Available The study aimed to determine the prevalence of antiretroviral resistance associated mutations in HIV-1 infected pregnant woman treated in Buenos Aires metropolitan area (period 2008-2014. A total of 136 women with viral load = 500 copies/ml were included: 77 (56.6% were treatment-naïve and 59 (43.4% were antiretroviral-experienced patients either with current (n: 24 or previous (n = 35 antiretroviral therapy. Genotypic baseline resistance was investigated in plasma of antiretroviral-naïve patients and antiretroviral-experienced patients. The resistance mutations were identified according to the lists of the World Health Organization and the International Antiviral Society, respectively. Frequencies of resistance associated mutations detected in 2008-2011 and 2012-2014 were compared. A total of 37 (27.2% women presented at least one resistance associated mutation: 25/94 (26.5% in 2008-2011 and 12/42 (28.5% in 2012-2014 (p > 0.05. Among naïves, 15 (19.5% had at least one mutation: 10/49 (20.4% in the period 2008-2011 and 5/28 (17.8% in 2012-2014 (p > 0.05. The resistance mutations detected in naïves were associated with non nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors, being K103N the most common mutation in both periods. In antiretroviral experienced patients, 22/59 (37.3% had at least one resistance mutation. This study demonstrates a high frequency of resistance associated mutations which remained stable in the period analyzed. These levels suggest an increased circulation of HIV-1 antiretroviral resistant strains in our setting compared to previous reports from Argentina

  1. Experimental Investigation of Flow Resistance in a Coal Mine Ventilation Air Methane Preheated Catalytic Oxidation Reactor

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    Bin Zheng


    Full Text Available This paper reports the results of experimental investigation of flow resistance in a coal mine ventilation air methane preheated catalytic oxidation reactor. The experimental system was installed at the Energy Research Institute of Shandong University of Technology. The system has been used to investigate the effects of flow rate (200 Nm3/h to 1000 Nm3/h and catalytic oxidation bed average temperature (20°C to 560°C within the preheated catalytic oxidation reactor. The pressure drop and resistance proportion of catalytic oxidation bed, the heat exchanger preheating section, and the heat exchanger flue gas section were measured. In addition, based on a large number of experimental data, the empirical equations of flow resistance are obtained by the least square method. It can also be used in deriving much needed data for preheated catalytic oxidation designs when employed in industry.

  2. Atmospheric pressure resistive barrier air plasma jet induced bacterial inactivation in aqueous environment (United States)

    Thiyagarajan, Magesh; Sarani, Abdollah; Gonzales, Xavier


    An atmospheric pressure resistive barrier air plasma jet is designed to inactivate bacteria in aqueous media in direct and indirect exposure modes of treatment. The resistive barrier plasma jet is designed to operate at both dc and standard 50-60 Hz low frequency ac power input and the ambient air at 50% humidity level was used as the operating gas. The voltage-current characteristics of the plasma jet were analyzed and the operating frequency of the discharge was measured to be 20 kHz and the plasma power was measured to be 26 W. The plasma jet rotational temperatures (Trot) are obtained from the optical emission spectra, from the N2C-B(2+) transitions by matching the experimental spectrum results with the Spectra Air (SPECAIR) simulation spectra. The reactive oxygen and nitrogen species were measured using optical emission spectroscopy and gas analyzers, for direct and indirect treatment modes. The nitric oxides (NO) were observed to be the predominant long lived reactive nitrogen species produced by the plasma. Three different bacteria including Staphylococcus aureus (Gram-positive), Escherichia coli (Gram-negative), and Neisseria meningitidis (Gram-negative) were suspended in an aqueous media and treated by the resistive barrier air plasma jet in direct and indirect exposure modes. The results show that a near complete bacterial inactivation was achieved within 120 s for both direct and indirect plasma treatment of S. aureus and E. coli bacteria. Conversely, a partial inactivation of N. meningitidis was observed by 120 s direct plasma exposure and insignificant inactivation was observed for the indirect plasma exposure treatment. Plasma induced shifts in N. meningitidis gene expression was analyzed using pilC gene expression as a representative gene and the results showed a reduction in the expression of the pilC gene compared to untreated samples suggesting that the observed protection against NO may be regulated by other genes.

  3. Plant resistance mechanisms to air pollutants: rhythms in ascorbic acid production during growth under ozone stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, E.H. (Climate Stress Laboratory, USDA, ARS, Beltsville, MD (United States))


    Relationships between ozone (O3) tolerance and leaf ascorbic acid concentrations in O3-susceptible (O3-S) 'Hark' and O3-resistant (O3-R) 'Hood' soybean, Glycine max (L.) Merr., cultivars were examined with high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Leaf samples were analyzed at 4 intervals during a 24 h period. Soybean cultivars grown in the greenhouse with charcoal filtered (CF) and nonfiltered (NF) air showed daily oscillations in ascorbic acid production. Highest ascorbic acid levels in leaves during light coincided with highest concentrations of photochemical oxidants in the atmosphere at 2:00 p.m. The resistant genotype produced more ascorbic acid in its trifoliate leaves than did the corresponding susceptible genotype. Under CF air (an O3-reduced environment) O3-S and O3-R cultivars showed rhythms in ascorbic acid production. In NF air (an O3 stress environment) the O3-R cultivar alone showed rhythms in ascorbic acid production. Results indicated that superior O3 tolerance in the Hood soybean cultivar (compared with Hark) was associated with a greater increase in endogenous levels of ascorbic acid. Ascorbic acid may scavenge free radicals and thereby protect cells from injury by O3 or other oxyradical products. Plants defend themselves against photochemical oxidant stress, such as O3, by several mechanisms. Experimental evidence indicates that antioxidant defense systems existing in plant tissues may function to protect cellular components from deleterious effects of photochemical oxidants through endogenous and exogenous controls.

  4. 42 CFR 84.157 - Airflow resistance test; Type C supplied-air respirator, pressure-demand class; minimum... (United States)


    ... respirator, pressure-demand class; minimum requirements. 84.157 Section 84.157 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH... ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Supplied-Air Respirators § 84.157 Airflow resistance test; Type C supplied-air respirator, pressure-demand class; minimum requirements. (a) The...

  5. Measured anisotropic air flow resistivity and sound attenuation of glass wool

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarnow, Viggo


    Department of Mechanical Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, Bygning 358, DK 2800 Lyngby, Denmark The air flow resistivity of glass wool has been measured in different directions. The glass wool was delivered from the manufacturer as slabs measuring 100×600×900 mm3, where the surface 600......×900 mm2 was parallel with the conveyor belt used in the manufacturing. Directions in the glass wool are described by a coordinate system with the X axis perpendicular to the conveyor belt, the Z axis in the direction the conveyor belt moves, and the Y axis perpendicular to the two other axes...

  6. Extreme Air Pollution Conditions Adversely Affect Blood Pressure and Insulin Resistance: The Air Pollution and Cardiometabolic Disease Study. (United States)

    Brook, Robert D; Sun, Zhichao; Brook, Jeffrey R; Zhao, Xiaoyi; Ruan, Yanping; Yan, Jianhua; Mukherjee, Bhramar; Rao, Xiaoquan; Duan, Fengkui; Sun, Lixian; Liang, Ruijuan; Lian, Hui; Zhang, Shuyang; Fang, Quan; Gu, Dongfeng; Sun, Qinghua; Fan, Zhongjie; Rajagopalan, Sanjay


    Mounting evidence supports that fine particulate matter adversely affects cardiometabolic diseases particularly in susceptible individuals; however, health effects induced by the extreme concentrations within megacities in Asia are not well described. We enrolled 65 nonsmoking adults with metabolic syndrome and insulin resistance in the Beijing metropolitan area into a panel study of 4 repeated visits across 4 seasons since 2012. Daily ambient fine particulate matter and personal black carbon levels ranged from 9.0 to 552.5 µg/m(3) and 0.2 to 24.5 µg/m(3), respectively, with extreme levels observed during January 2013. Cumulative fine particulate matter exposure windows across the prior 1 to 7 days were significantly associated with systolic blood pressure elevations ranging from 2.0 (95% confidence interval, 0.3-3.7) to 2.7 (0.6-4.8) mm Hg per SD increase (67.2 µg/m(3)), whereas cumulative black carbon exposure during the previous 2 to 5 days were significantly associated with ranges in elevations in diastolic blood pressure from 1.3 (0.0-2.5) to 1.7 (0.3-3.2) mm Hg per SD increase (3.6 µg/m(3)). Both black carbon and fine particulate matter were significantly associated with worsening insulin resistance (0.18 [0.01-0.36] and 0.22 [0.04-0.39] unit increase per SD increase of personal-level black carbon and 0.18 [0.02-0.34] and 0.22 [0.08-0.36] unit increase per SD increase of ambient fine particulate matter on lag days 4 and 5). These results provide important global public health warnings that air pollution may pose a risk to cardiometabolic health even at the extremely high concentrations faced by billions of people in the developing world today.

  7. The Mathematics and Physics of Diderot. I. On Pendulums and Air Resistance

    CERN Document Server

    Dahmen, Silvio R


    In this article Denis Diderot's Fifth Memoir of 1748 on the problem of a pendulum damped by air resistance is discussed. Diderot wrote the Memoir in order to clarify an assumption Newton made without further justification in the first pages of the Principia in connection with an experiment to verify the Third Law of Motion using colliding pendulums. To explain the differences between experimental and theoretical values of momentum in the collision experiments he conducted Newton assumed that the bob was retarded by an air resistance $F_R$ proportional to the velocity $v$. By giving Newton's arguments a mathematical scaffolding and recasting his geometrical reasoning in the language of differential calculus, Diderot provides a step-by-step solution guide to the problem and proposes experiments to settle the question about the appropriate form of $F_R$, which for Diderot quadratic in $v$, that is $F_R \\sim v^2$. The solution of Diderot is presented in full detail and his results are compared to those obtained f...

  8. Low-Resistance Dual-Purpose Air Filter Releasing Negative Ions and Effectively Capturing PM2.5. (United States)

    Zhao, Xinglei; Li, Yuyao; Hua, Ting; Jiang, Pan; Yin, Xia; Yu, Jianyong; Ding, Bin


    The fatal danger of pollution due to particulate matter (PM) calls for both high-efficiency and low-resistance air purification materials, which also provide healthcare. This is however still a challenge. Herein, a low-resistance air filter capable of releasing negative ions (NIs) and efficiently capturing PM2.5 was prepared by electrospinning polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) fibers doped with negative ions powder (NIPs). The air-resistance of fibrous membranes decreased from 9.5 to 6 Pa (decrease of 36%) on decreasing the average fiber diameter from 1.16 to 0.41 μm. Moreover, the lower rising rate of air-resistance with reduction in pore size, for fibrous membranes with thinner fiber diameter was verified. In addition, a single PVDF/NIPs fiber was provided with strong surface potentials, due to high fluorine electronegativity, and tested using atomic force microscopy. This strong surface potential resulted in higher releasing amounts of NIs (RANIs). Interestingly, reduction of fiber diameter favored the alleviation of the shielding effects on electric field around fibers and promoted the RANIs from 798 to 1711 ions cc(-1). Moreover, by regulating the doping contents of NIPs, the RANIs increased from 1711 to 2818 ions cc(-1). The resultant fibrous membranes showed low air resistance of 40.5 Pa. Field-tests conducted in Shanghai showed stable PM2.5 purification efficiency of 99.99% at high RANIs, in the event of haze.

  9. Root-soil air gap and resistance to water flow at the soil-root interface of Robinia pseudoacacia. (United States)

    Liu, X P; Zhang, W J; Wang, X Y; Cai, Y J; Chang, J G


    During periods of water deficit, growing roots may shrink, retaining only partial contact with the soil. In this study, known mathematical models were used to calculate the root-soil air gap and water flow resistance at the soil-root interface, respectively, of Robinia pseudoacacia L. under different water conditions. Using a digital camera, the root-soil air gap of R. pseudoacacia was investigated in a root growth chamber; this root-soil air gap and the model-inferred water flow resistance at the soil-root interface were compared with predictions based on a separate outdoor experiment. The results indicated progressively greater root shrinkage and loss of root-soil contact with decreasing soil water potential. The average widths of the root-soil air gap for R. pseudoacacia in open fields and in the root growth chamber were 0.24 and 0.39 mm, respectively. The resistance to water flow at the soil-root interface in both environments increased with decreasing soil water potential. Stepwise regression analysis demonstrated that soil water potential and soil temperature were the best predictors of variation in the root-soil air gap. A combination of soil water potential, soil temperature, root-air water potential difference and soil-root water potential difference best predicted the resistance to water flow at the soil-root interface.

  10. Multidrug-resistant Enterobacteriaceae from indoor air of an urban wastewater treatment plant. (United States)

    Teixeira, Juliana V; Cecílio, Pedro; Gonçalves, Daniela; Vilar, Vítor J P; Pinto, Eugénia; Ferreira, Helena N


    Wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) have been recognized as sources of bioaerosols that may act as vehicles for dissemination of pathogens and multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacteria. The occurrence of MDR Enterobacteriaceae in indoor air of an urban WWTP was investigated. A possible airborne contamination with extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) and carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae was also explored. Fourteen of 39 Enterobacteriaceae isolates were MDR. These isolates were found at all sampling sites, mainly at the secondary sedimentation settings. The highest levels of resistance were detected in three different species: Enterobacter cloacae, Escherichia coli, and Citrobacter freundii. Furthermore, one of the airborne E. coli isolates was phenotypically characterized as an ESBL producer. Additionally, five isolates showed non-susceptibility to at least one carbapenem tested. The presence of genes encoding relevant beta-lactamase types in these ESBL-producing and carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae isolates was investigated by PCR. Results showed amplification for bla CTX-M and bla OXA. These findings are relevant both in terms of occupational/public health and of environmental dissemination of MDR bacteria.

  11. 汽车空气滤清器进气阻力分析%Analysis on Air Intake Resistance of Automotive Air Filter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁志群; 黄飞健; 刘金武; 许西安


    To reduce the air intake resistance of automotive air filter,a coupled numerical model of shell and filter ele-ment was established by using computational fluid dynamics technique.The influence of the inlet and outlet structure pa-rameters on air intake resistance was analyzed by orthogonal analyses method,and the relationship between the air intake resistance and the mass flow rate was summarized.The reliability of the numerical calculation method is verified by the experiment of flow rate versus pressure drop in the filter element.The results showed that the air intake resistance in-creased at parabola trend with the increasing mass flow rate.Under rated flow conditions,the air intake resistance de-creased with the increasing outlet area and the maximum drop was 37.2% under load conditions.The air intake resistance decreased with the increasing inlet and outlet fillet radius,the maximum drop was 16.6% and 36.2% under load condi-tions .%为了降低汽车空气滤清器进气阻力,应用计算流体动力学方法建立壳体和滤芯的耦合数值计算模型.利用正交分析方法研究进出气口结构参数对进气阻力的影响规律,总结进气阻力随流量变化的关系式,通过滤芯的流量-压降实验验证数值计算方法的可靠性.结果表明:进气阻力随着流量的增加呈抛物线趋势增加;在额定流量工况下,进气阻力随着出气口面积的增加而减小,负载时最大降幅达到37.2%;进出气口圆角半径越大,进气阻力越小,负载时最大降幅分别达到16.6%和36.2%.

  12. Sea Keeping Analysis of Air Cushion Vehicle with Different Wave Angles under the Operation Resistance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Jia; TANG Wen-yong; ZHANG Sheng-kun


    The air cushion vehicle (ACV) sea keeping characteristic under different wave directions with the operation resistance is discussed with the couples of the heave, pitch roll motion and the pressure of the cushion.In previous researches, only wave and cross wave direction were discussed. Then a Matlab program is made to calculate the united frequency responses of heave, pitch and roll amplitude of the craft, under different wave frequencies and different wave directions. The results of the research depict some dangerous situations under which the sympathetic vibration happens in heave, pitch and roll motion and the amplitudes are extremely higher than those under the ordinary conditions. These results will be helpful in ACV design and operation.

  13. Measurement of air distribution and void fraction of an upwards air-water flow using electrical resistance tomography and a wire-mesh sensor (United States)

    Olerni, Claudio; Jia, Jiabin; Wang, Mi


    Measurements on an upwards air-water flow are reported that were obtained simultaneously with a dual-plane electrical resistance tomograph (ERT) and a wire-mesh sensor (WMS). The ultimate measurement target of both ERT and WMS is the same, the electrical conductivity of the medium. The ERT is a non-intrusive device whereas the WMS requires a net of wires that physically crosses the flow. This paper presents comparisons between the results obtained simultaneously from the ERT and the WMS for evaluation and calibration of the ERT. The length of the vertical testing pipeline section is 3 m with an internal diameter of 50 mm. Two distinct sets of air-water flow rate scenarios, bubble and slug regimes, were produced in the experiments. The fast impedance camera ERT recorded the data at an approximate time resolution of 896 frames per second (fps) per plane in contrast with the 1024 fps of the wire-mesh sensor WMS200. The set-up of the experiment was based on well established knowledge of air-water upwards flow, particularly the specific flow regimes and wall peak effects. The local air void fraction profiles and the overall air void fraction were produced from two systems to establish consistency for comparison of the data accuracy. Conventional bulk flow measurements in air mass and electromagnetic flow metering, as well as pressure and temperature, were employed, which brought the necessary calibration to the flow measurements. The results show that the profiles generated from the two systems have a certain level of inconsistency, particularly in a wall peak and a core peak from the ERT and WMS respectively, whereas the two tomography instruments achieve good agreement on the overall air void fraction for bubble flow. For slug flow, when the void fraction is over 30%, the ERT underestimates the void fraction, but a linear relation between ERT and WMS is still observed.

  14. On pendulums and air resistance. The mathematics and physics of Denis Diderot (United States)

    Dahmen, Sílvio R.


    In this article Denis Diderot's Fifth Memoir of 1748 on the problem of a pendulum damped by air resistance is discussed in its historical as well as mathematical aspects. Diderot wrote the Memoir in order to clarify an assumption Newton made without further justification in the first pages of the Principia in connection with an experiment to verify the Third Law of Motion using colliding pendulums. To explain the differences between experimental and theoretical values, Newton assumed the bob was traversed. By giving Newton's arguments a mathematical scaffolding and recasting his geometrical reasoning in the language of differential calculus, Diderot provided a step-by-step solution guide to the problem. He also showed that Newton's assumption was equivalent to having assumed F R proportional the bob's velocity v, when in fact he believed it should be replaced by F R ˜ v 2. His solution is presented in full detail and his results are compared to those obtained from a Lindstedt-Poincaré approximation for an oscillator with quadratic damping. It is shown that, up to a prefactor, both results coincide. Some results that follow from his approach are presented and discussed for the first time. Experimental evidence to support Diderot's or Newton's claims is discussed together with the limitations of their solutions. Some misprints in the original memoir are pointed out.

  15. Corrosion Resistance of Zn and Cu Coated Steel Pipes as a Substitute for Cu Pipe in an Air Conditioner System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Jae Gyeong; Park, Chan Jin; Hong, Sung Kil [Chonnam National University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)


    We investigated the corrosion resistance of Zn and Cu coated steel pipes as a substitute for Cu pipe in an air-conditioner system. In addition, the galvanic corrosion tendency between two dissimilar metal parts was studied. The corrosion resistance of the Cu electroplated steel was similar to that of Cu, while the corrosion rate of the Zn electro-galvanized and the galvalume (Zn-55 % Al) coated steels was much higher and not suitable for Cu substitute in artificial sea water and acidic rain environments. Furthermore, the galvanic difference between Cu electroplated steel and Cu was so small that the Cu coated steel pipe can be used as a substitute for Cu pipe in an air-conditioner system.

  16. Analgesic efficacy using loss of resistance to air vs. saline in combined spinal epidural technique for labour analgesia. (United States)

    Leo, S; Lim, Y; Sia, A T H


    Identification of the epidural space is often performed using the loss of resistance technique to either air or saline. We sought to investigate if the medium used affected the quality of analgesia obtained by parturients who received labour epidurals. We conducted a retrospective audit of labour epidurals performed on nulliparous parturients in our institution from May 2003 to March 2005. All epidural catheters were inserted by senior obstetric anaesthetists using a combined spinal epidural technique. The following information was recorded: parturients' demographic data, loss of resistance technique used, type and amount of local anaesthetic solution administered, complications encountered during procedure, pre-block and post-block pain scores, incidence of breakthrough pain requiring supplemental medication and post-block side-effects. Data from 2848 patients were collected and analysed; 56% of patients made up the saline group and 44% the air group. Patients in both groups had similar demographic profiles and similar incidences of complications and post-block side-effects. However patients in the air group had a higher incidence of recurrent breakthrough pain P = 0.023). We also identified three other factors that were associated with an increased incidence of recurrent breakthrough pain; administration of pre-block oxytocin, sitting position of the parturient during the procedure and the use of intrathecal bupivacaine for induction of analgesia. Our findings suggest that a loss of resistance to air is associated with a higher incidence of recurrent breakthrough pain among parturients who received combined spinal epidural analgesia for labour than a loss of resistance to saline.

  17. Highly Bactericidal Polyurethane Effective Against Both Normal and Drug-Resistant Bacteria: Potential Use as an Air Filter Coating. (United States)

    Taylor, Matthew; McCollister, Bruce; Park, Daewon


    The battle against the prevalence of hospital-acquired infections has underscored the importance of identifying and maintaining the cleanliness of possible infection transmission sources in the patient's environment. One of the most crucial lines of defense for mitigating the spread of pathogens in a healthcare facility is the removal of microorganisms from the environment by air filtration systems. After removing the pathogenic microorganisms, the filters used in these systems can serve as reservoirs for the pathogens and pose a risk for secondary infection. This threat, combined with the ever-growing prevalence of drug-resistant bacterial strains, substantiates the need for an effective bactericidal air filter. To this end, a broad-spectrum bactericidal polyurethane incorporating immobilized quaternary ammonium groups was developed for use as an air filter coating. In this study, the bactericidal activity of the polymer coating on high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter samples was quantified against eight bacterial strains commonly responsible for nosocomial infection-including drug-resistant strains, and confirmed when applied as a filter coating in conditions mimicking those of its intended application. The coated HEPA filter samples exhibited high bactericidal activity against all eight strains, and the polyurethane was concluded to be an effective coating in rendering HEPA filters bactericidal.

  18. Pollution resistance assessment of existing landscape plants on Beijing streets based on air pollution tolerance index method. (United States)

    Zhang, Peng-Qian; Liu, Yan-Ju; Chen, Xing; Yang, Zheng; Zhu, Ming-Hao; Li, Yi-Ping


    Various plant species of green belt in urban traffic area help to reduce air pollution and beautify the city environment. Those plant species growing healthily under long-term atmospheric pollution environment are considered to be resilient. This study aims to identify plant species that are more tolerant to air pollution from traffic and to give recommendations for future green belt development in urban areas. Leaf samples of 47 plant species were collected from two heavy traffic roadside sites and one suburban site in Beijing during summer 2014. Four parameters in leaves were separately measured including relative water content (RWC), total chlorophyll content (TCH), leaf-extract pH (pH), and ascorbic acid (AA). The air pollution tolerance index (APTI) method was adopted to assess plants' resistance ability based on the above four parameters. The tolerant levels of plant species were classified using two methods, one by comparing the APTI value of individual plant to the average of all species and another by using fixed APTI values as standards. Tolerant species were then selected based on combination results from both methods. The results showed that different tolerance orders of species has been found at the three sampling sites due to varied air pollution and other environmental conditions. In general, plant species Magnolia denudata, Diospyros kaki, Ailanthus altissima, Fraxinus chinensis and Rosa chinensis were identified as tolerant species to air pollution environment and recommend to be planted at various location of the city, especially at heavy traffic roadside.

  19. 高速列车空气阻力测量分析方法%Measurement Method for the Air Resistance of High Speed Train

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    康熊; 曾宇清; 张波


    To decouple air resistance and other resistance from the resistance of high speed train, based on the assumption that air resistance is independent of train mass while other resistance is proportional to train mass, correlation equations were built among air resistance, other resistance, train mass and speed u-sing the resistance measurement data of idling condition under the full and empty load of train. Such restrictions as zero crossing point and monotone increasing were imposed on air resistance term, and accordingly the formula was obtained for calculating air resistance and other resistance of high speed train. The air resistance of CRH3 EMU was analyzed using speed-acceleration fitting method and time-speed curve based train resistance optimization method. The results show that, based on the engineering assumption that air resistance is independent of train mass while other resistance is proportional to train mass, can a-chieve the decoupling of the air resistance from other resistance and coupling analysis. Both the quadratic term and linear term related to train speed are included in the equations for the air resistance and other resistance of CRH3 EMU. However, the linear term related to train speed in air resistance equation is rather small and can be ignored. For high speed train, train total resistance can describe the characteristics of train's resistance more accurately than unit basic resistance.%为从高速列车阻力中分离出空气阻力和其他阻力,基于空气阻力与列车质量基本无关、其他阻力与列车质量成正比的假设,以及列车满载和空载状态下的惰行工况阻力测量数据,建立列车空气阻力、其他阻力、质量和速度的关联方程组,并对空气阻力项施加过零点且单调递增的约束,从而得到高速列车的空气阻力及其他阻力的计算公式;然后采用速度加速度拟合和基于时间一速度曲线的列车阻力优化2种方法对CRH3型高速动车组的空

  20. Air Pollution and Insulin Resistance: Do All Roads Lead to Rome? (United States)

    The World Health Organization estimates that worldwide in 2012, nearly 7 million deaths occurred prematurely due to air pollution (1). In addition to respiratory and cardiovascular diseases, air pollution exposure is also linked to increased incidence of diabetes (2). Notably, th...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Rendulić


    Full Text Available Specific resistance (R100 for underground mine rooms can he calculated by the constant (C. Constant (C enables defining of the resistance for any relation of dimensions F3/U in similar mine rooms. Considerable anomalies were found by comparison of the resistance factor calculated from measurement data with estimated value of the factor from specialized literature on planning similar ventilation structures (the paper is published in Croatian.

  2. Neutrophil oxidative metabolism and killing of P. brasiliensis after air pouch infection of susceptible and resistant mice. (United States)

    Meloni-Bruneri, L H; Campa, A; Abdalla, D S; Calich, V L; Lenzi, H L; Burger, E


    The oxidative burst of polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN) and their ability to inhibit Paracoccidioides brasiliensis growth was studied in susceptible (B10.A) and resistant (A/J) mice. The cells were obtained after subcutaneous inoculation in air pouches, yielding highly pure PMN preparations; the number of cells was similar for both strains at 24 h and five times higher in the resistant strain at 15 days. The oxidative metabolism of these PMN was evaluated by the luminol and lucigen-enhanced chemiluminescence upon stimulation with PMA or killed P. brasiliensis (Pb). At 24 h of infection PMN from both strains showed similar responses. However, at 15 days a great enhancement of the Pb-stimulated luminol-enhanced chemiluminescence was observed only in PMN from resistant mice. Such increase was markedly inhibited by the addition of catalase. Independent of the mouse strain or time of infection of lucigen-enhanced chemiluminescence showed the same intensity. The lucigen-enhanced chemiluminescence of PMN without stimuli from resistant mice did not change with the time of infection, however, after 15 days of infection a significantly lower chemiluminescence was detected with PMN from susceptible mice. At 15 days of infection the PMN from B10.A were unable to kill P. brasiliensis yeast cells in vitro. Because the lucigenin- and luminol-enhanced chemiluminescence detects, respectively, the O2- production and the myeloperoxidase/hydrogen peroxide halide system, the present data show parallels between deficiency in the production of oxygen-reactive species by PMN and lower fungicidal activity.

  3. Air-adapted Methanosarcina acetivorans shows high methane production and develops resistance against oxygen stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Jasso-Chávez

    Full Text Available Methanosarcina acetivorans, considered a strict anaerobic archaeon, was cultured in the presence of 0.4-1% O2 (atmospheric for at least 6 months to generate air-adapted cells; further, the biochemical mechanisms developed to deal with O2 were characterized. Methane production and protein content, as indicators of cell growth, did not change in air-adapted cells respect to cells cultured under anoxia (control cells. In contrast, growth and methane production significantly decreased in control cells exposed for the first time to O2. Production of reactive oxygen species was 50 times lower in air-adapted cells versus control cells, suggesting enhanced anti-oxidant mechanisms that attenuated the O2 toxicity. In this regard, (i the transcripts and activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase and peroxidase significantly increased; and (ii the thiol-molecules (cysteine + coenzyme M-SH + sulfide and polyphosphate contents were respectively 2 and 5 times higher in air-adapted cells versus anaerobic-control cells. Long-term cultures (18 days of air-adapted cells exposed to 2% O2 exhibited the ability to form biofilms. These data indicate that M. acetivorans develops multiple mechanisms to contend with O2 and the associated oxidative stress, as also suggested by genome analyses for some methanogens.

  4. Convective air warming is more effective than resistive heating in an experimental model with a water dummy. (United States)

    Ittner, Karl Peter; Bachfischer, Markus; Zimmermann, Markus; Taeger, Kai


    Trauma patients with accidental hypothermia have adverse outcomes when compared with normothermic patients. Studies with a small number of mild hypothermic volunteers suggested that convective warming is more effective than warming with 12 volt resistive heating blankets. In a laboratory study, we compared the warming effectiveness of two electric blankets and convective air warming. The average speed of convective rewarming during anaesthesia in patients is approximately 0.6 degree C per hour. Accordingly, calibration of the dummy was performed with increasing amounts of water during convective warming until we reached a temperature gain of 0.6 degree C per hour. The following warming experiments were performed: 12 volt electric warming blanket (SH6012, Hella); 12 volt electric warming blanket (Thermamed, whole-body blanket); convective air warming (Warm Touch, Mallinckrodt, whole-body blanket). Each experiment was repeated four times. The temperature development was measured and recorded online. Convective warming increased the dummy temperature 0.6 degree C per hour, Thermamed 0.3 degree C per hour (Pconvective warming) and two Hella blankets 0.2 degree C per hour (Pconvective warming). Our laboratory investigation confirmed the superiority of convective warming over resistive heating. Efforts should be made to incorporate convective warming into the out-of-hospital treatment of trauma patients.

  5. Air resistance and its influence on the biomechanics and energetics of sprinting at sea level and at altitude. (United States)

    Ward-Smith, A J


    Following an examination of the processes by which chemical energy is converted into useful work during running, a mathematical model of the energetics of sprinting is constructed. This is used in conjunction with a careful analysis of Olympic records, in particular those obtained in the 1968 Games at Mexico City, to determine the magnitude of the rate of working against air resistance during running. It is established that times in the 100 m, 200 m and 400 m events at the Mexico Olympics were approximately 1.7% lower than they would otherwise have been if the races had been run at sea level. This information is used to deduce that the external work done per unit time against air resistance is about 7.5-9% of the total power output of a sprinter, running at maximum speed at sea level. These figures compare well with the value of 7.8% obtained independently by Davies (J. appl. Physiol 48, 702-709, 1980). The analysis provides evidence that a linear relation exists between running speed and the rate of degradation of mechanical energy into thermal energy up to the highest sprinting speeds attainable. The maximum power generated by a sprinter is approximately 3 kW.

  6. Resistance modulation in VO2 nanowires induced by an electric field via air-gap gates (United States)

    Kanki, Teruo; Chikanari, Masashi; Wei, Tingting; Tanaka, Hidekazu; The Institute of Scientific; Industrial Research Team

    Vanadium dioxide (VO2) shows huge resistance change with metal-insulator transition (MIT) at around room temperature. Controlling of the MIT by applying an electric field is a topical ongoing research toward the realization of Mott transistor. In this study, we have successfully switched channel resistance of VO2 nano-wire channels by a pure electrostatic field effect using a side-gate-type field-effect transistor (SG-FET) viaair gap and found that single crystalline VO2 nanowires and the channels with narrower width enhance transport modulation rate. The rate of change in resistance ((R0-R)/R, where R0 and R is the resistance of VO2 channel with off state and on state gate voltage (VG) , respectively) was 0.42 % at VG = 30 V in in-plane poly-crystalline VO2 channels on Al2O3(0001) substrates, while the rate in single crystalline channels on TiO2 (001) substrates was 3.84 %, which was 9 times higher than that using the poly-crystalline channels. With reducing wire width from 3000 nm to 400 nm of VO2 on TiO2 (001) substrate, furthermore, resistance modulation ratio enhanced from 0.67 % to 3.84 %. This change can not be explained by a simple free-electron model. In this presentation, we will compare the electronic properties between in-plane polycrystalline VO2 on Al2O3 (0001) and single crystalline VO2 on TiO2 (001) substrates, and show experimental data in detail..

  7. [Frequency and antimicrobial resistance of Acinetobacter species in a university hospital of Buenos Aires City]. (United States)

    Rodríguez, Carlos Hernán; Nastro, Marcela; Dabos, Laura; Vay, Carlos; Famiglietti, Angela


    Two-hundred Acinetobacter isolates belonging to 200 patients admitted to Hospital de Clínicas José de San Martín during the period March 2013-June 2014 were analyzed. The identification was performed by mass spectrometry and was confirmed by molecular methods. Susceptibility to antimicrobials was studied by the Vitek-2 system. A 94% correlation of both identification methods was found. Multidrug resistant Acinetobacter baumannii was the predominant genomic species (92.6%) in hospital-acquired infections, whereas Acinetobacter pitti and Acinetobacter nosocomialis accounted for 3.5% and 0.5% of the isolates recovered, respectively. In community-acquired infections a major predominance of the different genomic species was observed. Acinetobacter johnsonii and A. baumannii are the most frequent species, accounting for 45.9% of the isolates recovered. Resistance to carbapenems and minocycline was only observed in A. baumannii. Mass spectrophotometry was an effective tool for the identification of the different genomic species.

  8. Thermal resistances of air in cavity walls and their effect upon the thermal insulation performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. A. Bekkouche, T. Benouaz, M. K. Cherier, M. Hamdani, M.R. Yaiche, N. Benamrane


    Full Text Available The optimum thickness in cavity walls in buildings is determined under steady conditions; the heat transfer has been calculated according to ISO 15099:2003. Two forms of masonry units are investigated to conclude the advantage of high thermal emissivity. The paper presents also some results from a study of the thermal insulation performance of air cavities bounded by thin reflective material layer "ε = 0.05". The results show that the most economical cavity configuration depends on the thermal emissivity and the insulation material used.

  9. Thermal resistances of air in cavity walls and their effect upon the thermal insulation performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bekkouche, S.M.A.; Cherier, M.K.; Hamdani, M.; Benamrane, N. [Application of Renewable Energies in Arid and Semi Arid Environments /Applied Research Unit on Renewable Energies/ EPST Development Center of Renewable Energies, URAER and B.P. 88, ZI, Gart Taam Ghardaia (Algeria); Benouaz, T. [University of Tlemcen, BP. 119, Tlemcen R.p. 13000 (Algeria); Yaiche, M.R. [Development Center of Renewable Energies, CDER and B.P 62, 16340, Route de l' Observatoire, Bouzareah, Algiers (Algeria)


    The optimum thickness in cavity walls in buildings is determined under steady conditions; the heat transfer has been calculated according to ISO 15099:2003. Two forms of masonry units are investigated to conclude the advantage of high thermal emissivity. The paper presents also some results from a study of the thermal insulation performance of air cavities bounded by thin reflective material layer 'eta = 0.05'. The results show that the most economical cavity configuration depends on the thermal emissivity and the insulation material used.

  10. Assessing Resistance to Change During Shifting from Legacy to Open Web-Based Systems in the Air Transport Industry (United States)

    Brewer, Denise

    The air transport industry (ATI) is a dynamic, communal, international, and intercultural environment in which the daily operations of airlines, airports, and service providers are dependent on information technology (IT). Many of the IT legacy systems are more than 30 years old, and current regulations and the globally distributed workplace have brought profound changes to the way the ATI community interacts. The purpose of the study was to identify the areas of resistance to change in the ATI community and the corresponding factors in change management requirements that minimize product development delays and lead to a successful and timely shift from legacy to open web-based systems in upgrading ATI operations. The research questions centered on product development team processes as well as the members' perceived need for acceptance of change. A qualitative case study approach rooted in complexity theory was employed using a single case of an intercultural product development team dispersed globally. Qualitative data gathered from questionnaires were organized using Nvivo software, which coded the words and themes. Once coded, themes emerged identifying the areas of resistance within the product development team. Results of follow-up interviews with team members suggests that intercultural relationship building prior to and during project execution; focus on common team goals; and, development of relationships to enhance interpersonal respect, understanding and overall communication help overcome resistance to change. Positive social change in the form of intercultural group effectiveness evidenced in increased team functioning during major project transitions is likely to result when global managers devote time to cultural understanding.

  11. Wear and friction of oxidation-resistant mechanical carbon graphites at 650 C in air (United States)

    Allen, G. P.; Wisnader, D. W.


    Studies were conducted to determine the friction and wear properties of experimental carbon-graphites. Hemispherically tipped carbon-graphite rider specimens were tested in sliding contact with rotating Inconel X-750 disks in air. A surface speed of 1.33 m/sec, a load of 500 g, and a specimen temperature of 650 C were used. Results indicate: (1) hardness is not a major factor in determining friction and wear under the conditions of these studies. (2) Friction and wear as low as or lower than those observed for a good commercial seal material were attained with some of the experimental materials studied. (3) The inclusion of boron carbide (as an oxidation inhibitor) has a strong influence on wear rate. (4) Phosphate treatment reduces the friction coefficient when boron carbide is not present in the base material.

  12. Analysis of Air Resistance and Automobile Styling Development%空气阻力与汽车外形发展分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王红云; 曾祥坤


    The influences of air resistance on the performance of automobile are introduced. The influence factors of air resistance are described. The fact that the air resistance is changing with the development of vehicle styling is expounded. It is points that the development of the automobile styling and the social scientific and technological level and material conditions have closely related. Moreover, the development of the automobile styling is the result to continuously pursue to reduce air resistance on the premise of improving the automobile dynamic characteristics.%空气阻力对汽车性能有影响且有几个影响空气阻力的因素.通过研究汽车外形发展中空气阻力的变化,指出汽车外形发展除与当时社会科技水平和物质条件有关外,还是在提高汽车动力性前提下不断追求降低空气阻力的结果.

  13. Influence of Surface Resistivity and Temperature on Variation with Time of Current Pulses in Air at Optimum Pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.G. Pimpale


    Full Text Available The variation of discharge current pulses with the surface nature of electrodes has been investigated by producing discharge in the intense ionizing zone of two ozonizers (A&B containing pure, dry air at a pressure of 4 & 10mm of mercury respectively. The course of reaction in the tube A showed that the periodic rise and fall of discharge counts through a series of recurrences whose amplitude varied randomly. During this reaction, steady potential, temperature of the electrolytic bath, counting time and pulse height were kept fixed. The phenomenon obtained for both the tubes is produced within a critical range of conditions. The results have been interpreted on the basis of activated adsorption at a temperature of 90 degree and 100 degree Centigrade and discussed on the theoretical grounds of change of surface resistivity upon the glass walls. Use of different coatings on annular surface in the same system with appropriate levels of electrolytic solution for a definite value of height-pulses and temperature, etc. shows significant variations in the discharge counts.

  14. Effect of sodium bicarbonate air abrasive polishing on resistance to sliding during tooth alignment and leveling: An in vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge C. B. L. Filho


    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the Resistance to Sliding (RS provided by metallic brackets and 3 types of orthodontic wires (TMA, SS and NiTi, before and after the use of sodium bicarbonate airborne particle abrasion, in an experimental model with 3 non leveled brackets. Materials and Methods: The bicarbonate airborne abrasion was applied perpendicularly to the bracket slots at a distance of 2 mm, for 5 seconds (T2 and 10 seconds (T3 on each bracket slot. In a universal testing machine, the wires were pulled through a set of 3 non leveled brackets at a cross head speed of 50 mm/min for a distance of 10 mm, and static and kinetic friction readings were registered at T1 (no airborne abrasion, T2 and T3. Results: For all tested wires, a significant RS increase between T1 and T3 (P<0.001 was seen. For SS and TMA wires, there was a statistically significant RS increase between T1 and T2 (P<0.001. Between T2 and T3, RS increase was significant for TMA (P<0.001 and NiTiwires (P<0.05. Conclusions: Sodium bicarbonate air abrasive polishing during orthodontic treatment is not recommended, once this procedure promoted a significant RS increase between the metallic brackets and all the three types of wires tested.

  15. Comparison of air samples, nasal swabs, ear-skin swabs and environmental dust samples for detection of Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in pig herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agersø, Yvonne; Vigre, Håkan; Cavaco, Lina;


    To identify a cost-effective and practical method for detection of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in pig herds, the relative sensitivity of four sample types: nasal swabs, ear-skin (skin behind the ears) swabs, environmental dust swabs and air was compared. Moreover, dependency...... detection by air sampling is easy to perform, reduces costs and analytical time compared to existing methods, and is recommended for initial testing of herds. Ear-skin swab sampling may be more sensitive for MRSA detection than air sampling or nasal swab sampling.......-herd prevalence ⩾25%]. The results indicate that taking swabs of skin behind the ears (ten pools of five) was even more sensitive than taking nasal swabs (ten pools of five) at the herd level and detected significantly more positive samples. spa types t011, t034 and t4208 were observed. In conclusion, MRSA...

  16. Assessing Resistance to Change during Shifting from Legacy to Open Web-Based Systems in the Air Transport Industry (United States)

    Brewer, Denise


    The air transport industry (ATI) is a dynamic, communal, international, and intercultural environment in which the daily operations of airlines, airports, and service providers are dependent on information technology (IT). Many of the IT legacy systems are more than 30 years old, and current regulations and the globally distributed workplace have…

  17. Modelling of flashover performance of an ice-covered resistive glazed post station insulator in presence of an air gap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaiswal, Vinay [NSERC/Hydro-Quebec/UQAC Industrial Chair on Atmospheric Icing of Power Network Equipment (CIGELE) and Canada Research Chair on Engineering of Power Network Atmospheric Icing (INGIVRE), Universite du Quebec a Chicoutimi, Quebec, G7H 2B1 (Canada); Farzaneh, Masoud [NSERC/Hydro-Quebec/UQAC Industrial Chair on Atmospheric Icing of Power Network Equipment (CIGELE) and Canada Research Chair on Engineering of Power Network Atmospheric Icing (INGIVRE), Universite du Quebec a Chicoutimi, Quebec, G7H 2B1 (Canada)


    The main objective of this paper is to study the electric field distributions around a standard post insulator for the power frequency, lightning impulse (1.2/50 {mu}s) and switching impulse (250/2500 {mu}s) voltages under icing conditions, and these were computed numerically using the finite element method. Thin glaze coating on the insulator requires a very large number of elements for finite element analysis because of the open boundary around the ice-covered insulator. To reduce the number of elements and hence computation time, the region between the domain of interest and infinity was modelled by a form of Kelvin transformation. The simulation results, confirmed by laboratory experiments, show that while a lightning impulse is the limiting factor in the design of a resistive glazed insulator under clean conditions, a switching impulse is the limiting factor under icing conditions.

  18. The experimental effect of artificial air ionizer on some nonspecific resistance parameters and immune system atWistar rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simionca Iuri


    Full Text Available A large number of subsequent research have confirmed the link between this electrical paramater of air and a large biological effects manifested at various stages in world living organization, from cellular level to the body. These influences are possible because living organisms manifests itself a very large number of phenomena such as electricity, with essential biological role (e.g, biochemical reactions, transmembrane transport of the substance, the nervous impulse propagation and others. However, based on these findings, it was concluded that under the artificially ionized atmosphere by controlled exposure, can provide relatively easy conditions for recovery of these environmental factors by induction a favorable therapeutic treatment on body . The ions influence start mainly from alveloi and in a lesser extent from skin. The excess of negative electric charges carried by ions interact with both sensory nerveendings in the alveoli, and a series of blood components (RBC, some colloids, changing directly their electrical properties and stability and indirectly affecting other properties of various organi

  19. Computational Simulation of Air Resistant Coefficient for S-blades%S形叶片空气阻力系数的仿真计算

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁猷; 张玉华


    The CFD model based on the structure and motion of a S-blade is built to determine performance parameters of a double-blade wind turbine. The distributions of velocity and pressure of the air around the blade are computed for a given oriehtation of S-blade. An expression for calculating air resistance coefficients based on pressure curve of front and back surface of blades is given. According to the simulation results, the aerodynamic performance variation of the blade are found at different wind speed.%为确定双叶片立轴风力机的性能参数,根据S形叶片结构和运动特点,建立S形叶片与流场的有限元模型,对给定位姿叶片周围的流场进行CFD仿真计算与分析,揭示S形叶片周围流场的速度和压力分布规律.基于叶片迎风面和背风面的压力分布曲线,给出叶片凹、凸面的空气阻力系数的计算方法.根据模拟结果对不同风速下叶片凹、凸面的空气阻力系数进行分析和比较,得出该叶片气动性能随风速变化的规律.

  20. 高层建筑防烟楼梯间前室送风联动控制可靠性研究%Reliability of air supply linkage control systems in smoke resistance lobby of high-rise building

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈继斌; 张贵林


    Based on the fire risk of high-rise building and importance of smoke resistance lobby, the reliability of air supply linkage control system in smoke resistance lobby or combination lobby was analysed, as well as the influencing factors.%根据高层建筑的火灾危险性及防烟楼梯间前室的重要性,研究了高层建筑防烟楼梯间前室或合用前室防烟送风系统的联动控制可靠性,分析了影响可靠性的因素.

  1. Theoretical Investigation into Friction Resistance Calculation of Van Body Surface in the Presence of Air Film%气膜条件下车厢表面摩擦阻力计算理论研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢小鹏; 曹立峰; 曾建豪


    According to the friction resistance decrease of van body surface observed by experiments in the presence of air film, three theories, namely the thickened boundary layer theory , the mixed deceleration theory and the thickened boundary layer-mixed deceleration theory , are put forward to explore the mechanism of air-film drag re-duction , and a model to calculate the friction resistance of van body surface in the presence of air film is estab -lished .Then , the friction resistances of van body surface with and without air film are qualitatively compared and analyzed , respectively .The results show that the friction resistance decreases in the presence of air film , which is consistent with the previous experimental results obtained by the authors .This research provides a theoretical foun-dation for the practical application of air-film drag reduction of van body surface .%针对气膜条件下厢式运输车厢体表面摩擦阻力减小的实验结果,分别提出边界层加厚理论、混合降速理论、边界层加厚-混合降速理论3种理论来研究空气介质中空气膜的减阻机理,建立了气膜条件下厢式运输车厢体表面气流摩擦阻力计算模型,定性对比分析了厢体表面在有气膜和无气膜条件下各自所受到的气流摩擦阻力。结果表明,有气膜时摩擦阻力减小,这一结果与笔者前期的实验研究结果趋于一致,为气膜减阻在厢体表面减阻中的实际应用提供了理论基础。

  2. Simulation of flow field in symmetric multi-vane wear-resistant air flow regulating valve%对称多叶片式耐磨风量调节阀流场模拟

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟康; 陈旺生; 梅丹


    针对现有蝶阀存在易磨损、使用寿命短等问题,研制出一种对称多叶片式耐磨风量调节阀。利用标准κ-ε模型对该阀的流场进行了数值模拟,并与蝶阀进行了对比研究,结果表明,该阀流场分布比较均匀,无偏流现象,阀体边壁处流体速度较小,结构合理,具有较好的耐磨性能。%To solve the problems of current butterfly valves such as easiness of wearing and short service lifespan etc.,a kind of symmetric multi-vane wear-resistant air flow regulating valve was developed.The standard κ-ε model was applied to carry out the numerical simulation of the flow field,and then the simulation results was compared with that of the butterfly valve.The simulation results showed that the flow field of the symmetric multi-vane wear-resistant air flow regulating valve was distributed uniformly without flow deviation,and the flow velocity at the valve wall was low;the structure and the wear-resistance performance of the new valve were excellent.

  3. Research method and progress on antibiotics resistance genes(ARGs) in air%空气中抗性基因(ARGs)的研究方法及研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贺小萌; 曹罡; 邵明非; 李继


    The long-term overuse of antibiotics lead to the emergence of antibiotic resistant bacteria and accelerate the transport and the spread of antibiotic resistance genes ( ARGs ) in different environmental matrix, which poses potential health risks to humans and animals. As a new category of environmental contaminants, ARGs have been one of the hot topics in the area of environmental research in recent years. Most research, however, focuses on AGRs in water, soil and sediment. There have been only a few studies on ARGs in air. This paper summarizes the research progress of ARGs in air and discusses the methods that can be used for collecting and detecting ARGs samples in air. The aim of this paper is to provide the scientific basis and technical strategies to support the development of studies on ARGs in air.%抗生素的长期滥用导致大量耐药菌的出现,并加剧抗生素抗性基因( ARGs)在不同环境介质中传播扩散,对人类和动物健康造成潜在威胁。作为一种新型污染物,ARGs已经成为近年来环境研究领域的热点之一。然而目前多数研究关注的是水、土壤和沉积物中的ARGs,国内外对空气中ARGs的研究相对较少且零散。本文综述了空气中ARGs的国内外研究现状,并探讨了空气中ARGs样品的采集和检测方法,旨在为空气中ARGs的研究提供科学依据和技术策略。

  4. 中央空调换热器铜管防震方法分析%Analysis on the Shock-resistance Method for Copper Tube of Heat Exchanger in Central Air-conditioning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    This paper compares and analyzes the advantages and disadvantages of the shock-resistance method for copper tube of heat exchanger in central air-conditioner from the perspectives of the theory and the practical applica-tion. Finally, its selection and use conditions are determined.%对中央空调换热器铜管防震方法将进行探讨,原理和实际应用进行优劣对比分析,并确定其选用条件。

  5. 螺旋型机械加工部件对空气阻力特性的影响分析%Spiral Machining Components Analysis on the Influence of Air Resistance Characteristics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Put forward a kind of heart spiral machining component analysis method of the air resistance, the swirl marks spacing as feature sizes operation thread between Reynolds number of flow channel, to establish an average air resistance and the Reynolds number by using the laminar flow model and turbulent model, the air resistance of spiral machining simulation and optimization of structural parameters for machining components to provide reliable analysis basis. Experi-mental result shows that the method of spiral machining parts can accurate analysis of air resistance, and can adjust parts inside diameter, pitch, and the thickness of the machining parts of reducing vibration and noise reduction is of great sig-nificance.%当前的零件空气阻力特性分析方法,主要面向标准几何机械加工部件结构进行分析,缺乏对非几何部件结构尤其是螺旋型加工部件结构的准确分析,具有一定的局限性。为此,提出一种新的螺旋型机械加工部件空气阻力特性的分析方法,将螺旋纹间距作为特征尺寸运算螺纹间流道的雷诺数,建立平均空气阻力以及雷诺数采用层流模型和湍流模型,对螺旋型机械加工部件的空气阻力进行模拟分析,为机械加工部件的结构参数优化提供可靠的分析依据。实验结果说明,该种方法能够对螺旋型机械加工部件的空气阻力进行准确地分析,并且可以适当调整部件内径、螺距以及厚度,对机械加工部件的减振、降噪具有重要意义。

  6. 弹丸空气阻力定律超音速段有理式经验公式%Rational Empirical Formulas for Air Resistance Law of Projectile at Supersonic Section

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘鹏; 王雨时; 闻泉; 张志彪


    In order to lay foundation for approximate analytical expression of low trajectory equation , Matlab software was used to simulate 1943 resistance law and siacci resistance law which describe projectile ’ s air resistance characteristics by rational curve at supersonic sec-tion, the empirical formulas with higher accuracy were obtained .Application of this kind of experience formula can facilitate ballistic nu-merical solution when processing the table value resistance law programming , and possibly to solve approximate analytical expression of low trajectory equations .%为了给低伸弹道方程近似解析解提供基础,应用Matlab软件对描述弹丸空气阻力特性的1943年阻力定律和西亚切阻力定律超音速段进行了有理式函数数值拟合,得到了具有较高精度的经验公式。应用这类经验公式,不但可以用于外弹道数值求解时表值阻力定律的编程处理,而且有助于获取低伸弹道方程的近似解析解。

  7. The influence of antimicrobial peptides and mucolytics on the integrity of biofilms consisting of bacteria and yeasts as affecting voice prosthetic air flow resistances

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosterhof, JJH; Elving, GJ; Stokroos, [No Value; Amerongen, AV; van der Mei, HC; Busscher, HJ; van Weissenbruch, R; Albers, FWJ


    The integrity of biofilms on voice prostheses used to rehabilitate speech in laryngectomized patients causes unwanted increases in airflow resistance, impeding speech. Biofilm integrity is ensured by extracellular polymeric substances (EPS). This study aimed to determine whether synthetic salivary p

  8. Air Pollution (United States)

    Air pollution is a mixture of solid particles and gases in the air. Car emissions, chemicals from factories, dust, ... a gas, is a major part of air pollution in cities. When ozone forms air pollution, it's ...

  9. 高速气泡艇阻力数值模拟及气泡减阻效果分析%Numerical evaluation of the resistance reduction effect for three-dimensional high-speed air cavity craft

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐桂林; 倪其军; 王丽艳; 李胜忠


    The total resistance of high-speed air cavity craft in different speeds is numerically simulated by solving RANS equations with SST k-ωturbulence models. VOF method is used to deal with free surface and gas-liquid flow field of the craft bottom. Computed results including free surface wave and pressure distri-bution are presented. The effect of artificial cavity shape and air-jet velocity on resistance is analyzed. The drag reduction efficiency in different conditions is compared. The results are helpful for understanding the complex flow phenomenon of air cavity craft and optimizing the artificial cavity shape geometry shape.%考虑到复杂界面流动的需要,基于三维非稳态的Navier-Stokes方程,采用有限体积法进行数值离散,VOF方法处理自由面和艇底喷气后的气液流场,在应用分区结构化网格划分技术的基础上,建立了高速气泡艇阻力数值模拟方法。应用该方法对不同气泡艇方案的阻力进行了数值模拟,详细分析了不同气腔形式、不同喷气量、喷口位置及数量对减阻效果、气泡覆盖、压力分布和自由面兴波情况的影响规律,为高速气泡艇方案的进一步优化设计提供了技术支撑。

  10. Experimental Platform Design on Flowing Resistance of Air Vents for Bullet Train%高速动车换气口流动阻力实验台设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何忠韬; 方海容


    探讨了高速动车换气口流动阻力实验台相关问题,根据流体力学相关原理,提出用低速风洞模拟列车外界风速场,换气口试件置于风洞试验段中,将列车外界风速、流经换气口的风量模拟量都设计成可调控的实验参数,搭建了用于换气口流动阻力及其影响因素的实验平台。实验实例表明,本文方法建立的高速动车换气口流动阻力实验台方案是可行的,测量结果是可信的。%Problems about an experimental platform are discussed,recurring to which,the flowing resistance of air vents on the bullet train can be researched.According to the principle of fluid mechanics,it is put forward that the train wind field outside can be simulated by the low speed wind tunnel,the ventilation test piece is placed in the test section of wind tunnel,the wind speed outside and the flowing rate through the air vents are tunable,then a experimental platform for flowing resistance of air vents is built.The experimental results show that the scheme of the experimental platform is feasible,and the measurement results are credible.

  11. Effect of a disinfectant powder on methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in pigs, bedding and air samples under simulated farm conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gongora, Carmen Espinosa; Damborg, Peter Panduro; Nielsen, Søren Saxmose


    Livestock-associated methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (LA-MRSA) is an emerging zoonotic agent that can be transmitted to people exposed to contaminated farms. This study was performed to evaluate the efficacy of a commercial farm disinfectant in reducing LA-MRSA contamination under con...

  12. La aerotermia como alternativa para el control de Triatoma infestans (Hemiptera, Reduviidae resistentes a deltametrina Air temperature elevation as an alternative for the control of deltamethrin-resistant Triatoma infestans (Hemiptera, Reduviidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto G. Gentile


    Full Text Available Se exploraron los efectos de la elevación artificial de la temperatura del aire sobre las formas embrionarias, ninfales y adultas de Triatoma infestansresistentes a Deltametrina. En laboratorio, se expuso a temperaturas crecientes del aire la progenie completa de T. infestans, para determinar viabilidad de huevos y supervivencia en ninfas y adultos; sobre el terreno, la experimentación se llevó a cabo en una vivienda tipo rancho previamente evaluada como colonizada. Durante la fase de laboratorio se comprobó la inviabilidad del 100% de los huevos y la mortalidad del 100% de las ninfas y adultos expuestos a temperaturas del aire estanco de entre 45ºC y 55ºC, mientras que en la fase de terreno se logró reproducir el efecto ovicida del calor, como así también la negativización de las evaluaciones entomológicas de la vivienda de experimentación, llevadas a cabo a las 72 horas, a los 30, 60 y 90 días. La elevación artificial de la temperatura del aire estanco en las habitaciones resultó ser un método de control de eficacia aceptable, inocuo y técnicamente sencillo.This study explores the effects of artificial air temperature elevation on the embryonic, nymphal, and adult forms of deltamethrin-resistant Triatoma infestans. In the laboratory, complete offspring of T. infestanswere exposed to increasing air temperatures to determine the viability of eggs and survival of nymphs and adults; in the field, the experiment was conducted in a poor rural dwelling previously identified as infested with the vector. The laboratory phase showed 100% non-viability of eggs and 100% mortality of nymphs and adults exposed to airtight temperatures from 45ºC to 55ºC, while the field phase succeeded in reproducing the heat's ovicidal effect and negative conversion of entomological assays in the experimental dwelling, as conducted over the course of 72 hours at 30, 60, and 90 days from the baseline evaluation. Artificial elevation of airtight temperature

  13. Oxidation Resistance of Inconel 740 in Static Air or Air-Steam Mixture%Inconel 740合金在空气和含有水蒸气的空气中的氧化研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵双群; 谢锡善; 董建新


    利用热重分析法、X射线衍射仪和扫描电镜与能谱分析仪研究了Inconel 740合金在空气和含有水蒸气的空气中的高温氧化行为,并分析了该合金的氧化机制.结果表明:Inconel 740合金在950℃的静态空气中氧化时,氧化动力学遵循抛物线规律,氧化膜黏附性能良好,表面氧化膜完整,外层由Cr2O3和少量的(Ni,Co)Cr2O4、TiO2组成,中间层为SiO2和Al2O3,内层氧化物为Al2O3和TiO2;合金在750℃含有10%水蒸气的空气中的腐蚀动力学也近似遵从抛物线规律,表面氧化膜很薄且致密性较差,表面氧化层主要为Cr2O3,内层氧化物为Al2O3和TiO2.%By means of TGA,XRD,SEM and EDX,high temperature oxidation behavior of nickel base superalloy,Inconel 740,was investigated in static air or air-steam mixture,while its oxidation mechanism analyzed.Results indicate that the oxidation kinetic curve of Alloy 740 at 950 ℃ in static air obeys the parabolic rate law;the oxidation film is adhesive and compact;the surface layer consists of Cr2O3 mainly and small amount of(Ni,Co)Cr2O4 and TiO2;the medium layer is made up of SiO2 and Al2O3,and the internal layer consists of TiO2 and Al2O3.The oxidation kinetic curve of the alloy at 750 ℃ in air with 10 % water vapor also obeys the parabolic rate law;the oxidation film is thin and poor;the surface layer is mainly composed of Cr2O3 and the internal oxides are Al2O3 and TiO2.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王擎; 孙东红; 孙键; 骆仲泱; 岑可法; 秦裕琨


    By using a cold CFB model, the effect of horizontal orifice areas of Loop Seal with side aeration air on operational property was studied in detail.The results showed that the horizontal orifice area had a great effect on its stable operation and regulation of the recirculation rate.Under a certain range of the horizontal orifice area,the stable flow of solid particles through Loop Seal could be obtained and recirculation rate of solid particles could be well regulated and controlled through changing external aeration.The flow resistance properties across the horizontal orifice were given and an empirical equation of the pressure drop of horizontal orifice and solid circulating flow rate was proposed and a new orifice discharge coefficient was defined.The expression's were in good agreement with the experimental data.

  15. Conceptual resistance in the disciplines of the mind: the Leipzig-Buenos Aires connection at the beginning of the 20th century. (United States)

    Taiana, Cecilia


    Personal correspondence written by Prof. Felix Krueger from Argentina in 1906-1907 to his teacher and mentor Wilhelm Wundt in Leipzig is situated in the historical context of the theoretical debates taking place at the University of Buenos Aires at the beginning of the 20th century. A critical survey of the transatlantic migration of psychological theories and their reception in Argentina raises the broader issues of the nature of the cultural and social roots of local interpretations induced by the circulation of theories across national fields of scientific inquiry. It is argued that national intellectual fields and the historicity of their categories of interpretation mediate in the foreign trade of theories.

  16. 针对跑道侵入开展空管系统抵御%Against the runway intrusion to carry out air traffic control system to resist

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Along with the prosperity and development of the social economy,air traffic was also people make full use of and global civil aviation transportation is more and more frequent,resulting in airport ground traffic becomes congested.The runway incursion is becoming increasingly serious,the slightest mistake will cause the plane crash tragedy.This paper introduces the definition and types of the intrusion runway, analyzes the reasons of the intrusion of the runway,and puts forward the technology leading of the air traffic control system to prevent runway intrusion and improve the safety operation level of airport runway..%随着社会经济的繁荣发展,空中交通也被人们充分地利用,全球民航业的运输交通也越来越频繁,造成机场的地面交通也随之拥挤不堪。跑道侵入的现象日益严重,稍有不慎就会会造成机毁人亡的悲剧。本文介绍侵入跑道的定义及种类,分析侵入跑道产生的原因,提出空管系统对预防跑道侵入的技术主导,改善机场跑道的安全运行水平。

  17. Research on Efficiency Evaluation Model That Air Defense Missile and Artillery Resist Multiple Targets in Coordination%舰空导弹与火炮武器协同抗击多目标的效能评估

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    由大德; 徐德民; 张发强


    In order to make the air defense and artillery weapon are used significantly, and improve the operational efficiency that resisting the multiple targets, on base analyzing the emitter region of the missile and artillery weapon, by means of studying the shooting times of multiple air defense weapon shooting tunnels and shooting mode and shooting times of the artillery weapon, it established the optimal model efficiency evaluation,at last it defined the optimal firepower distribution schemes by means of an example based on the model, it verified the use of the model.%为使水面舰艇防空导弹与火炮武器有效协同使用,提高抗击空袭多目标的作战效能,在分析防空导弹和近防炮武器发射区的基础上,通过研究防空导弹多个射击通道的射击次数、火炮武器的射击方式和射击次数等,建立了协同抗击多目标的效能评估模型,并运用该模型对确定最优火力分配方案的使用方法进行了举例分析,验证了模型的可用性.

  18. 基于冠层上下部温差的冠层阻力计算%Calculation of canopy resistance using air temperature difference between canopy top and bottom

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李彩霞; 周新国; 孙景生


    In order to investigate the calculation method of maize canopy resistance under alternative furrow irrigation with water deficit, field experiments were carried out at the experiment field of crop water requirement of Farmland Irrigation Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences in 2009 and 2010 seasons. Leaf stomatal conductivity, solar radiation, air temperature, canopy temperature and humidity, and wind speed were measured simultaneously on sunny day at maize growing stage of seeding, jointing, heading, and filling. Three models of canopy resistance, including the model of Jarvis (1976), Ortega-Farias et al (2004), and Brisson et al (1998), were introduced. The temperature difference between canopy top and bottom (∆Tc) was determined as an environmental factor representing the response of leaf resistance to soil moisture with the relationship between maize leaf resistance and the temperature difference between canopy top and bottom (∆Tc) with different soil moisture at different growing stages. Therefore, with improving the multi-factors model of Jarvis (1976), the canopy resistance of maize under alternative furrow irrigation with water deficit was developed by introducing a variable of ∆Tc, i.e. the canopy stomatal model based on ∆Tc. There were four response functions of canopy resistance to environmental factors, i.e. solar radiation, vapor press deficit, air temperature, and temperature difference between canopy top and bottom. These response functions was determined with the relationship between the stomatal conductivity of maize leaf and four environmental factors. Parameters of the environmental stress function of the canopy resistance model developed in this study were optimized using the iterative calculation of the least square method. Parameters of b1, b2, c1, d1, g1, and g2 in the model were 1.12, 380,-0.387, 0.0048, -0.236, and 1.087, respectively. The canopy resistance model was validated with comparison with the model

  19. Resistance-resistant antibiotics. (United States)

    Oldfield, Eric; Feng, Xinxin


    New antibiotics are needed because drug resistance is increasing while the introduction of new antibiotics is decreasing. We discuss here six possible approaches to develop 'resistance-resistant' antibiotics. First, multitarget inhibitors in which a single compound inhibits more than one target may be easier to develop than conventional combination therapies with two new drugs. Second, inhibiting multiple targets in the same metabolic pathway is expected to be an effective strategy owing to synergy. Third, discovering multiple-target inhibitors should be possible by using sequential virtual screening. Fourth, repurposing existing drugs can lead to combinations of multitarget therapeutics. Fifth, targets need not be proteins. Sixth, inhibiting virulence factor formation and boosting innate immunity may also lead to decreased susceptibility to resistance. Although it is not possible to eliminate resistance, the approaches reviewed here offer several possibilities for reducing the effects of mutations and, in some cases, suggest that sensitivity to existing antibiotics may be restored in otherwise drug-resistant organisms.

  20. Molecular typing of Treponema pallidum isolates from Buenos Aires, Argentina: Frequent Nichols-like isolates and low levels of macrolide resistance (United States)

    Gallo Vaulet, Lucía; Grillová, Linda; Mikalová, Lenka; Casco, Ricardo; Rodríguez Fermepin, Marcelo; Pando, María A.; Šmajs, David


    A total of 54 clinical samples, including genital lesion swabs, whole blood and cerebrospinal fluid from patients diagnosed with syphilis were collected in 2006 and in 2013 in Buenos Aires, Argentina. Treponemal DNA was detected in 43 of the analyzed samples (79.6%) and further analyzed using Sequencing-based molecular typing (SBMT) and Enhanced CDC-typing (ECDCT). By SBMT, 10 different Treponema pallidum subsp. pallidum (TPA) genotypes were found, of which six were related to the TPA SS14 strain, and four to the TPA Nichols strain. The 23S rRNA gene was amplified in samples isolated from 42 patients, and in six of them (14.3%), either the A2058G (four patients, 9.5%) or the A2059G (two patients, 4.8%) mutations were found. In addition to Taiwan, Madagascar and Peru, Argentina is another country where the prevalence of Nichols-like isolates (26.8%) is greater than 10%. PMID:28235102

  1. Calculation and analysis on resistance characteristics of heavy duty vehicular air rilter in plateau area%高原环境重型车用空气滤清器阻力特性计算与分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王宪成; 郭猛超; 范格华; 路峰; 王青峰


    根据准稳态流动统一化压降方程,考虑传热对压降影响,建立重型车用空气滤清器一维流动模型,将滤清嚣模型与发动机工作过程模型联合,计算实车运行时,平原环境、高原环境滤清器阻力特性,实车试验验证,模型误差在3.6%以内.计算分别给出了平原和4000m海拔滤清器达到容灰极限时的转速-负荷-压降MPa;通过改变滤清嚣结构参数降低其阻力.结果表明:滤清器阻力与进气质量流量近似成二次曲线关系,这种关系不因海拔高度的变化而发生明显改变;从平原到4000m海拔,滤清器极限压降从9.9kPa下降到5.8kPa,高原压降上升速度较平原快;丝网直径的微小差异引起整个滤清器压降较大变化.论文研究为重型车用空气滤清器高原环境确定清灰周期、故障监测和寿命预警提供了基本依据.%According to the uniform equations on channel flow and wall thermal which are based on ; Quasi-Steady,The CKD model is proposed to simulate a one-dimension flow of Air filter.Then the integrated model is formulate dThe resistance characteristics of the air filter in plain are a,plaleau area are calculated respectively. The calculation results are validated by road test data in 3700m altitude, the errors between s emulation and experiment are within 3.6% The practical resistance map of air filter which the dust achieves the high-point over a full operating condition range in plain and 4000m altitude area are showed The results show: when the altitude from 0m to 4000m,thie maximum pressure drop reduce from 9.9kPa to 5.8kPa,the increase rate of pressure drop gets fasierithe slender change of diameter of metal silk has an great effect on the pressure dropThe research is served for the maintain period diagnoses and life forecast of Armored Vehicle air filter in plateau area.

  2. Research on Abrasive Wear Resistance of Ni-Ti Coating Prepared by High Velocity Air-fuel Arc Spraying%超音速电弧喷涂Ni-Ti涂层的磨粒磨损性能研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张健; 周勇; 张志萍


    采用超音速电弧喷涂工艺在2Cr13马氏体不锈钢基体上制备了Ni-Ti涂层.用X射线衍射研究了涂层的相组成,用扫描电镜对涂层的显微结构和磨损后形貌进行了分析,测试了涂层的显微硬度,在橡胶轮磨粒磨损试验机上研究了涂层的耐磨粒磨损性能.结果表明,Ni-Ti涂层主要组织为NiTi(B2)相和一定量的TiO、NiO等氧化物,该涂层不仅有较高的硬度,而且较2Cr13基体有更加良好的耐磨粒磨损性能.%Ni-Ti coating was prepared on 2Crl3 martensitic stainless steel substrate by high velocity air-fuel arc spraying. The phase composition of the coating was investigated by XRD; the microstructure and the worn surface morphology of the coating were analyzed by SEM; the microhardness of the coating was determined; the abrasive resistance of the coating was studied by rubber wheel abrasion tester. The results show that Ni-Ti coating is mainly composed of NiTi (B2) phase and some oxides such as TiO and NiO. The coating is of higher hardness and has much better abrasive wear resistance than 2Crl3 substrate.

  3. 冻融环境下引气混凝土的抗钢筋锈蚀能力研究%Study on Ability of Resistance to Steel Corrosion of Air Entraining Concrete Under Freeze-thaw Environment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马志鸣; 赵铁军; 巴光忠; 管庭


    对带钢筋的普通混凝土及引气混凝土试件进行抗冻融循环试验,在不同冻融损伤程度下对试件进行氯离子侵蚀试验。利用半电池电位法和线性极化法分别测定经过不同冻融循环次数下混凝土试件内部钢筋的电位和腐蚀电流密度,从而定量地确定混凝土内部钢筋的锈蚀情况。研究结果表明:向混凝土内部掺入一定比例引气剂,可以提高混凝土的抗冻性能,从而增强其在腐蚀环境下抗钢筋锈蚀能力,提高了混凝土的耐久性能;对试件进行劈裂试验后,钢筋的实际锈蚀情况与利用由化学方法测定结果一致。%The freeze-thaw cycle tests of the ordinary concrete specimen and the air entraining concrete specimen with steel were carried out ,and the chloride corrosion tests under different freeze-thaw damage degrees were done . The potential values and corrosion current density of steel in concrete specimens were determined under different freeze-thaw cycle times by using half-cell potential method and linear polarization method ,then the steel corrosion condition in concrete was qualitatively determined . The study results show that adding air entraining agent can improve the anti-freeze property of concrete ,promote the ability of resistance to steel corrosion , and prolong the durability of concrete structure .After specimen splitting test ,the actual steel corrosion condition has the same result with the result by chemical approach .

  4. Drug Resistance (United States)

    HIV Treatment Drug Resistance (Last updated 3/2/2017; last reviewed 3/2/2017) Key Points As HIV multiplies in the ... the risk of drug resistance. What is HIV drug resistance? Once a person becomes infected with HIV, ...

  5. Antibiotic Resistance (United States)

    ... lives. But there is a growing problem of antibiotic resistance. It happens when bacteria change and become able ... resistant to several common antibiotics. To help prevent antibiotic resistance Don't use antibiotics for viruses like colds ...

  6. 空调铝箔用高耐水性含氟丙烯酸疏水涂料的研制%Preparation of highly water-resistant fluoroacrylic hydrophobic coating for aluminum foils for air conditioner

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    聂建华; 周志盛; 霍泽荣


    A fluoroacrylic resin solution was synthesized by radical polymerization based on methyl methacrylate (MMA), butyl acrylate (BA), and stearyl acrylate (SA) as materials with 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA) as hydroxy functional monomer and fluorinated acrylate monomer as organic fluorine modifier, and then blended with curing agent to prepare a hydrophobic coating with high water resistance. The effects of different fluoroacrylate monomers on water contact angle and water dissolution rate of the coating were studied. The influence of the dosages of perfluoroalkyl ethyl methacrylate (PFMA) and HEMA on hydrophobicity and water resistance of the coating was discussed. The optimal reaction formulation was determined as follows: MMA 57%, BA 12%, SA 4%, PFMA 20%, and HEMA 7%. The coating prepared with the optimal formulation was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectrometry,and tested for comparison of the comprehensive performance with a commercially available product. The results indicated that the coating has a water contact angle 132.7° and a water dissolution rate of 4.1%, being matchable to the comprehensive performance of the superhydrophobic coating formed from the Ultra AC series transparent vanish (a product of the Ultratech Ltd., USA, used for aluminum foils of air conditioner). The coating meets the requirement of surface treatment of aluminum foils for air conditioner.%以甲基丙烯酸甲酯(MMA)、丙烯酸丁酯(BA)以及丙烯酸十八酯(SA)为原料,甲基丙烯酸-β-羟乙酯(HEMA)为羟基功能单体,含氟丙烯酸酯单体为有机氟改性剂,通过溶液自由基聚合反应制备了含氟丙烯酸树脂溶液,再与固化剂配合使用制得高耐水性疏水涂膜。研究了不同含氟丙烯酸酯单体对涂膜的水接触角和水溶率的影响,讨论了甲基丙烯酸全氟烷基乙酯(PFMA)与HEMA不同用量对涂膜的疏水性和耐水性的影响,获得了最佳反应配方:MMA 57%,BA 12%,SA 4%

  7. On the Correlation between Air Content and Air Bubble Parameters Frost Resistance Performance of High Fly Ash Content Concrete%关于大掺量粉煤灰混凝土含气量、气泡参数表征抗冻能力相关性的探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    艾红梅; 戴碧琳; 郭建华; 杨晨光


    鉴于冻融作用对大掺量粉煤灰混凝土( High Fly ash Content Concrete,HFCC)造成的破坏较为严重,对国内外的研究情况进行了分析,总结了现阶段大掺量粉煤灰混凝土抗冻性能的研究进展。主要对混凝土拌合物含气量和硬化混凝土气泡参数表征HFCC抗冻性的科学性和可行性进行了分析,并且对二者的相关性进行探讨。%Given the freeze-thaw effect on high fly ash content concrete ( HFCC ) is relatively serious,the paper analyzes the domestic and foreign research and summarizes the present research progress of antifreeze performance of concrete with high volume of fly ash. This paper mainly analyzes the science and feasibility of concrete mixture air content and hardened concrete bubble parameters HFCC frost resistance and explores the correlation between the two.

  8. Comparative Study on UNDEX Resistance of the Air-backed Stiffened Plate with Various Covering Layers%覆盖层加筋板结构水下抗爆性能对比试验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖锋; 谌勇; 黄修长; 朱大巍; 华宏星


    为提高潜艇的隐身性能,潜艇壳体表面常敷设声学覆盖层结构。声学覆盖层常设有各类空腔等特殊结构形式,在受到水下爆炸冲击波时空腔产生变形并吸收能量,对潜艇的抗冲击性能产生影响。分别对不同覆盖层及无覆盖层的加筋平板试件开展水下抗爆炸性能对比性试验研究。通过试验获取各加筋平板试件典型部位的加速度、应变响应。比较不同覆盖层对加筋平板结构的实际抗冲效果,为今后声学覆盖层的抗冲设计和研究提供参考。%In order to improve stealthy capacity of a submarine, acoustic layers with special hollow structures are usually covered on hull surfaces of the submarine. The hollow structures can deform and absorb energy when they are subjected to underwater explosion (UNDEX), which can greatly raise the submarine’s anti-shock performance. In this paper, comparative study on UNDEX resistance of the air-backed stiffened plate with various covering layers was carried out. The acceleration and strain responses of the typical positions of the stiffened plate were obtained by the testing. And the anti-shock effects of the stiffened plate with various covering layers were compared. The results may provide a guideline for the design and study of the acoustic covering layers against UNDEX.

  9. Air Pollution (United States)

    ... to view this content or go to source URL . What NIEHS is Doing on Air Pollution Who ... Junction Last Reviewed: February 06, 2017 This page URL: NIEHS website: Email ...

  10. Oxidation Resistant Graphite Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    W. Windes; R. Smith


    The Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) Graphite Research and Development Program is investigating doped nuclear graphite grades exhibiting oxidation resistance. During a oxygen ingress accident the oxidation rates of the high temperature graphite core region would be extremely high resulting in significant structural damage to the core. Reducing the oxidation rate of the graphite core material would reduce the structural effects and keep the core integrity intact during any air-ingress accident. Oxidation testing of graphite doped with oxidation resistant material is being conducted to determine the extent of oxidation rate reduction. Nuclear grade graphite doped with varying levels of Boron-Carbide (B4C) was oxidized in air at nominal 740°C at 10/90% (air/He) and 100% air. The oxidation rates of the boronated and unboronated graphite grade were compared. With increasing boron-carbide content (up to 6 vol%) the oxidation rate was observed to have a 20 fold reduction from unboronated graphite. Visual inspection and uniformity of oxidation across the surface of the specimens were conducted. Future work to determine the remaining mechanical strength as well as graphite grades with SiC doped material are discussed.

  11. 带斜截半椭圆柱面空冷器的传热和流阻特性数值模拟%Numerical simulations on characteristics of heat transfer and flow resistance in air cooler with oblique-cut semi-elliptic cylinder shell

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高猛; 周国兵


    在Re=400~2200范围内,对管后分别布置一对斜截半椭圆柱面和三角形小翼涡流发生器的顺排和叉排翅片圆管空冷器气侧传热和流阻性能进行数值模拟.结果表明两涡流发生器强化传热效果相当.由于流线型设计,斜截半椭圆柱面在顺排管和叉排管空冷器中产生的流阻分别比三角形小翼低0.07%~2.53%和1.51%~5.31%,在叉排管空冷器中,两涡流发生器在较高Re下均具有流动减阻效果,斜截半椭圆柱面最多可减阻6.40%,三角形小翼最多可减阻4.39%.顺排管空冷器中斜截半椭圆柱面综合性能R=(j/j)/(f/f)值在Re>700时比三角形小翼高0.68%~4.36%,叉排管空冷器中斜截半椭圆柱面综合性能R值比三角形小翼高0.79%~4.78%;斜截半椭圆柱面在叉排管空冷器中的综合性能R值比其在顺排管空冷器中高3.11%~28.38%.%The characteristics of heat transfer and flow resistance on the air side in a finned circular-tube air-cooler with a pair of oblique-cut semi-elliptic cylinder shells or delta winglets behind circular-tubes were investigated numerically. In-line and staggered arrangements of two rows of circular-tubes in the air cooler were considered, separately. The Reynolds number of the air flow ranged from 400 to 2200. The heat transfer enhancement and flow resistance of these two vortex generators were compared by using the comprehensive performance factor R = (j/j0) / (f/f0). The results show that the two vortex generators have almost the same heat transfer enhancement performance. However, due to the streamlined design of oblique-cut semi-elliptic cylinder shells, the corresponding flow resistances in the air coolers with in-line and staggered tubes are 0.07%-2.53% and 1.51%-5.31% lower than those of delta winglets,respectively. The two vortex generators have better effect on flow resistance reduction in the air cooler with staggered tubes at higher Reynolds numbers. The reduction of oblique

  12. Air surveillance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patton, G.W.


    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the air surveillance and monitoring programs currently in operation at that Hanford Site. Atmospheric releases of pollutants from Hanford to the surrounding region are a potential source of human exposure. For that reason, both radioactive and nonradioactive materials in air are monitored at a number of locations. The influence of Hanford emissions on local radionuclide concentrations was evaluated by comparing concentrations measured at distant locations within the region to concentrations measured at the Site perimeter. This section discusses sample collection, analytical methods, and the results of the Hanford air surveillance program. A complete listing of all analytical results summarized in this section is reported separately by Bisping (1995).

  13. Improving air handler efficiency in houses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, Iain S.


    Although furnaces, air conditioners and heat pumps have become significantly more efficient over the last couple of decades, residential air handlers have typical efficiencies of only 10% to 15% due to poor electric motor performance and aerodynamically poor fans and fan housings. Substantial increases in performance could be obtained through improved air handler design and construction. A prototype residential air handler intended to address these issues has recently been developed. The prototype and a standard production fan were tested in a full-scale duct system and test chamber at LBNL specifically designed for testing heating, ventilation, and air conditioning systems. The laboratory tests compared efficiency, total airflow, sensitivity to duct system flow resistance, and the effects of installation in a smaller cabinet. The test results showed that the prototype air handler had about twice the efficiency of the standard air handler (averaged over a wide range of operating conditions) and was less sensitive to duct system flow resistance changes. The performance of both air handlers was significantly reduced by reducing the clearance between the air handler and cabinet it was placed in. These test results showed that in addition to the large scope for performance improvement, air handler fans need to be tested in the cabinets they operate in.

  14. Antimicrobial Resistance (United States)

    ... emergence and spread of antibacterial resistance, including optimal use of antibiotics in both humans and animals. A global action plan on antimicrobial resistance was adopted by Member States at the ...

  15. 空气与液体阻力消失法定位硬膜外间隙效果的比较:Meta分析%Effects of air versus liquid in a loss of resistance technique for identification of the epidural space: a Meta-analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫雨苗; 余剑波


    目的 采用Meta分析法比较气体或液体阻力消失法定位硬膜外间隙的效果.方法 检索Cochrane图书馆、PubMed、EMBASE、中国生物医学文献数据库、中国期刊全文数据库、维普中文科技期刊、万方数字化期刊群等数据库,分别收集空气或液体阻力消失法定位硬膜外间隙的前瞻性临床随机对照研究.采用Cochrane系统评价法评价纳入文献的质量.收集两组患者资料采用RevMan 5.0.1软件进行Meta分析.结果 共纳入7项研究,包括5183例患者.分为空气阻力消失法组(A组)和液体阻力消失法组(L组).与A组比较,L组困难置管发生率、置管误入血管发生率、阻滞不全发生率和术后头痛发生率降低(P<0.05),一过性异感发生率和穿破硬膜发生率差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).结论 与空气阻力消失法比较,液体阻力消失法可更准确地定位硬膜外间隙,阻滞效果更好,且并发症较少.%Objective To systematically review the effects of air or liquid in a loss of resistance technique for identification of the epidural space. Methods We searched the Cochrane Library, PubMed, EMBASE, Chinese Biomedical Database (CBM), CNKI, VIP and ChinaInfo for studies on the effects of air versus liquid in a loss of resistance technique for identification of the epidural space. The quality of the studies was evaluated by the method recommended by Cochrane Collaboration. Meta-analysis was conducted using the Cochrane Collaboration's RevMan 5.0.1 software. Results Seven prospective randomized controlled trials involving 5183 patients were included in our meta-analysis. The patients were randomly allocated into 2 groups according to the technique by which the epidural space was identified: loss of resistance with air group (group air, n = 2534) and loss of resistance with liquid group (group lidocaine, n = 2649). The results showed that the incidences of difficult catheterization, intravascular catheter insertion

  16. Royal Danish Air Force. Air Operations Doctrine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørby, Søren

    This brief examines the development of the first Danish Air Force Air Operations Doctrine, which was officially commissioned in October 1997 and remained in effect until 2010. The development of a Danish air power doctrine was heavily influenced by the work of Colonel John Warden (USAF), both...... through his book ”The Air Campaign” and his subsequent planning of the air campaign against Iraq in 1990-1991. Warden’s ideas came to Denmark and the Danish Air Force by way of Danish Air Force students attending the United States Air Force Air University in Alabama, USA. Back in Denmark, graduates from...... the Air University inspired a small number of passionate airmen, who then wrote the Danish Air Operations Doctrine. The process was supported by the Air Force Tactical Command, which found that the work dovetailed perfectly with the transformation process that the Danish Air Force was in the midst...

  17. Molecular epidemiology of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Buenos Aires, Argentina. (United States)

    Gonzalo, Ximena; Ambroggi, Marta; Cordova, Ezequiel; Brown, Tim; Poggi, Susana; Drobniewski, Francis


    To analyze the molecular epidemiology of Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains at a hospital in Buenos Aires, Argentina, and mutations related to multidrug-resistant and extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis, we conducted a prospective case-control study. Our findings reinforce the value of incorporating already standardized molecular methods for rapidly detecting resistance.

  18. Efeito de ciclos de umidade relativa e temperatura do ar na resistência de juntas colodas com lâminas de Eucalyptus grandis W. Hill ex Maiden, Eucalyptus saligna Smith e chapas de fibra de densidade média (MDF Air relative humidity and temperature cycle effects on the resistence of glued joints between bords of Eucalyptus grandis, Eucalyptus saligna and medium density fiberbord (MDF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benedito Rocha Vital


    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o efeito de ciclos de umidade relativa e temperatura do ar na resistência da linha de cola, em juntas coladas entre lâminas de madeira de Eucalyptus grandis, Eucalyptus saligna e lâminas de chapa de fibras de média densidade (MDF cujas densidades foram iguais a 0,60, 0,66, e 0,72g/cm³, respectivamente. Foram empregados adesivos de poliacetato de média viscosidade e uréia-formaldeído nas gramaturas de 150,0g/m² e 180,0g/m², respectivamente, em face simples. O teor médio de umidade no momento da colagem foi igual a 14%. Foram observadas diferenças significativas tanto na resistência da linha de cola quanto na percentagem de falha na madeira provocada pela composição das amostras, etapa de equilíbrio e tipo de adesivo. Os valores mais elevados de resistência foram observados nas juntas coladas com madeira de Eucalyptus saligna após a primeira etapa de equilíbrio, enquanto os menores valores ocorreram nas juntas combinando lâminas de eucalipto e MDF. Considerando apenas as lâminas de madeira, os valores mais elevados de falha na madeira foram observados nas juntas coladas entre lâminas de Eucalyptus grandis. Nas amostras compostas de madeira de eucalipto e lâminas de MDF, a porcentagem de falha foi total e o rompimento ocorreu exclusivamente no interior da chapa de MDF. Observou-se interação significativa entre a composição das amostras lâminas e o tipo de adesivo, em que os valores mais altos de resistência ocorreram nas juntas coladas com madeira de Eucalyptus saligna e adesivo à base de uréia-formaldeído.The objectives of this work was to evaluate the effect of air relative humidity and air temperature cycles on glue line resistance of glued veneer joints of Eucalyptus grandis, Eucalyptus saligna and medium density fiberboard (MDF. Densities of Eucalyptus grandis, Eucalyptus saligna wood and MDF were equal to 0,60, 0.66, e 0.72g/cm³ respectively. Medium viscosity

  19. GSPEL - Air Filtration Laboratory (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Evaluation capabilities for air filtration devices The Air Filtration Lab provides testing of air filtration devices to demonstrate and validate new or legacy system...

  20. Air-to-Air Missile Vector Scoring (United States)


    64 4.6. Unscented Kalman Filter Performance in Air-to-Air Missile Scor - ing Application with Continuous Velocity Dynamics Model (Tar- get...Filter Performance in Air-to-Air Missile Scor - ing Application with Continuous Velocity Dynamics Model (Tar- get Aircraft Executing a Vertical Climb...Kalman Filter Performance in Air-to-Air Missile Scor - ing Application with Continuous Velocity Dynamics Model (Tar- get Aircraft Non-maneuvering

  1. Camptothecin resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brangi, M; Litman, Thomas; Ciotti, M;


    The mitoxantrone resistance (MXR) gene encodes a recently characterized ATP-binding cassette half-transporter that confers multidrug resistance. We studied resistance to the camptothecins in two sublines expressing high levels of MXR: S1-M1-80 cells derived from parental S1 colon cancer cells...... and MCF-7 AdVp3,000 isolated from parental MCF-7 breast cancer cells. Both cell lines were 400- to 1,000-fold more resistant to topotecan, 9-amino-20(S)-camptothecin, and the active metabolite of irinotecan, 7-ethyl-10-hydroxycamptothecin (SN-38), than their parental cell lines. The cell lines...... demonstrated much less resistance to camptothecin and to several camptothecin analogues. Reduced accumulation and energy-dependent efflux of topotecan was demonstrated by confocal microscopy. A significant reduction in cleavable complexes in the resistant cells could be observed after SN-38 treatment...

  2. R9 Air Districts (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Region 9 Air Districts layer is a compilation of polygons representing the California Air Pollution Control and Air Quality Management Districts, Arizona Air...

  3. AirData (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The AirData site provides access to yearly summaries of United States air pollution data, taken from EPA's air pollution databases. AirData has information about...

  4. California Air Basins (United States)

    California Department of Resources — Air ResourcesCalifornia Air Resources BoardThe following datasets are from the California Air Resources Board: * arb_california_airbasins - California Air BasinsThe...

  5. Membrane-based air conditioning. Decentral desiccant cooling; Membranbasierte Raumklimatisierung. Dezentrale sorptionsgestuetzte Klimatisierung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenbaum, Hannes [Institut fuer Luft- und Kaeltetechnik gGmbH, Dresden (Germany)


    Semipermeable membranes have a considerable potential use in air conditioning systems due to their properties. As water resistant but water vapor permeable functional separation layers, they allow desiccant air-conditioning processes in decentral air conditioning systems and a condensate-free air dehumidification at cooling ceiling elements. (orig.)

  6. Air Warfare (United States)


    undoubtedly begat the shield; poisonous gases were countered by the mask. Surely men on the surface of the earth will not have to submit to violent air, production methods and cost of helium are given in “Balloon and Airship Gases ,” a volume of the Ronald Aeronautic Library. 5 More complete...becomes and more inse - cure. We shall see later that even some of the men who were advancing in the path prescribed by the principle of mass

  7. Reactive Air Aluminization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Jung-Pyung; Chou, Y. S.; Stevenson, Jeffry W.


    Ferritic stainless steels and other alloys are of great interest to SOFC developers for applications such as interconnects, cell frames, and balance of plant components. While these alloys offer significant advantages (e.g., low material and manufacturing cost, high thermal conductivity, and high temperature oxidation resistance), there are challenges which can hinder their utilization in SOFC systems; these challenges include Cr volatility and reactivity with glass seals. To overcome these challenges, protective coatings and surface treatments for the alloys are under development. In particular, aluminization of alloy surfaces offers the potential for mitigating both evaporation of Cr from the alloy surface and reaction of alloy constituents with glass seals. Commercial aluminization processes are available to SOFC developers, but they tend to be costly due to their use of exotic raw materials and/or processing conditions. As an alternative, PNNL has developed Reactive Air Aluminization (RAA), which offers a low-cost, simpler alternative to conventional aluminization methods.

  8. Antibiotic Resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munck, Christian

    morbidity and mortality as well as an increase in the cost of treatment. Understanding how bacteria respond to antibiotic exposure gives the foundations for a rational approach to counteract antimicrobial resistance. In the work presented in this thesis, I explore the two fundamental sources...... of antimicrobial resistance: (1) adaptive mutations and (2) horizontal acquisition of resistance genes from antibiotic gene reservoirs. By studying the geno- and phenotypic changes of E. coli in response to single and drug-pair exposures, I uncover the evolutionary trajectories leading to adaptive resistance. I...... to rationally design drug combinations that limit the evolution of antibiotic resistance due to counteracting evolutionary trajectories. My results highlight that an in-depth knowledge about the genetic responses to the individual antimicrobial compounds enables the prediction of responses to drug combinations...

  9. 40 CFR 63.5350 - How do I distinguish between the water-resistant/specialty and nonwater-resistant leather product... (United States)


    ...-resistant/specialty and nonwater-resistant leather product process operations? 63.5350 Section 63.5350... Hazardous Air Pollutants for Leather Finishing Operations Compliance Requirements § 63.5350 How do I distinguish between the water-resistant/specialty and nonwater-resistant leather product process...

  10. Air filtration and indoor air quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bekö, Gabriel


    decent ventilation and air cleaning/air filtration, high indoor air quality cannot be accomplished. The need for effective air filtration has increased with increasing evidence on the hazardous effects of fine particles. Moreover, the air contains gaseous pollutants, removal of which requires various air....... These contradictions should motivate manufacturers and researchers to develop new efficient filtration techniques and/or improve the existing ones. Development of low polluting filtration techniques, which are at the same time easy and inexpensive to maintain is the way forward in the future....

  11. Lantibiotic resistance. (United States)

    Draper, Lorraine A; Cotter, Paul D; Hill, Colin; Ross, R Paul


    The dramatic rise in the incidence of antibiotic resistance demands that new therapeutic options will have to be developed. One potentially interesting class of antimicrobials are the modified bacteriocins termed lantibiotics, which are bacterially produced, posttranslationally modified, lanthionine/methyllanthionine-containing peptides. It is interesting that low levels of resistance have been reported for lantibiotics compared with commercial antibiotics. Given that there are very few examples of naturally occurring lantibiotic resistance, attempts have been made to deliberately induce resistance phenotypes in order to investigate this phenomenon. Mechanisms that hinder the action of lantibiotics are often innate systems that react to the presence of any cationic peptides/proteins or ones which result from cell well damage, rather than being lantibiotic specific. Such resistance mechanisms often arise due to altered gene regulation following detection of antimicrobials/cell wall damage by sensory proteins at the membrane. This facilitates alterations to the cell wall or changes in the composition of the membrane. Other general forms of resistance include the formation of spores or biofilms, which are a common mechanistic response to many classes of antimicrobials. In rare cases, bacteria have been shown to possess specific antilantibiotic mechanisms. These are often species specific and include the nisin lytic protein nisinase and the phenomenon of immune mimicry.

  12. Developing Air Force Strategic Leadership - A Career Long Process (United States)


    describes Air Force resistance to co-fund RPAs with Central Intelligence Agency in 1992. He also notes continued service resistance to building...experience, the Air Force as an organization is more prone to parochialism, myopia and monistic thinking. 27 Besides providing a historical record of... myopia and monistic thinking.” 120 Worden also claims the uniformity of perspective hindered strategic leaders from understanding or recognizing the

  13. Air pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    Air pollution conditions in Iwakuni city were monitored at 9 monitoring stations, and 21 locations where sulfur oxides were measured by the lead peroxide candle method, and 13 locations where particulates concentrations were determined by the deposit cage method. The average SO/sub x/ concentrations in 1973 measured by the lead peroxide candle method ranged from 0.17 mg sulfur trioxide/day/100 sq cm at the Miso Office to 0.58 mg SO/sub 3//day/100 sq cm at Mitsui Sekiyu Shataku. The average SO/sub x/ concentrations measured by the conductivity method ranged from 0.021 ppM at Kazuki Kominkan to 0.037 ppM at the Higashi Fire Department. Only 58% of a total of 264 measurement days gave hourly average concentrations below the environmental standard of 0.04 ppM at the Higashi Fire Deparment. The average airborne particulate concentrations ranged from 0.050 mg/cu m at Totsu Kominkan to 0.056 mg/cu at the Higashi Fire Department. The average nitrogen oxides concentrations measured by the Saltzman method ranged from 0.007 ppM to 0.061 ppM. The average oxidant concentrations at the Iwakuni Municipal Office and Kazuki Kominkan were 0.028 ppM and 0.037 ppM, respectively.

  14. Air Sensor Toolbox (United States)

    Air Sensor Toolbox provides information to citizen scientists, researchers and developers interested in learning more about new lower-cost compact air sensor technologies and tools for measuring air quality.

  15. HEPA air filter (image) (United States)

    ... pet dander and other irritating allergens from the air. Along with other methods to reduce allergens, such ... controlling the amount of allergens circulating in the air. HEPA filters can be found in most air ...

  16. GSPEL - Air Filtration Laboratory (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Evaluation capabilities for air filtration devicesThe Air Filtration Lab provides testing of air filtration devices to demonstrate and validate new or legacy system...

  17. Lead (Pb) Air Pollution (United States)

    ... States Environmental Protection Agency Search Search Lead (Pb) Air Pollution Share Facebook Twitter Google+ Pinterest Contact Us As ... and protect aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. Lead (Pb) Air Pollution Lead Air Pollution Basics How does lead get ...

  18. AirPEx: Air Pollution Exposure Model


    Freijer JI; Bloemen HJTh; de Loos S; Marra M; Rombout PJA; Steentjes GM; Veen MP van; LBO


    Analysis of inhalatory exposure to air pollution is an important area of investigation when assessing the risks of air pollution for human health. Inhalatory exposure research focuses on the exposure of humans to air pollutants and the entry of these pollutants into the human respiratory tract. The principal grounds for studying the inhalatory exposure of humans to air pollutants are formed by the need for realistic exposure/dose estimates to evaluate the health effects of these pollutants. T...

  19. AirPEx: Air Pollution Exposure Model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Freijer JI; Bloemen HJTh; Loos S de; Marra M; Rombout PJA; Steentjes GM; Veen MP van; LBO


    Analysis of inhalatory exposure to air pollution is an important area of investigation when assessing the risks of air pollution for human health. Inhalatory exposure research focuses on the exposure of humans to air pollutants and the entry of these pollutants into the human respiratory tract. The

  20. Air Pollution Monitoring | Air Quality Planning & Standards ... (United States)


    The basic mission of the Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards is to preserve and improve the quality of our nation's air. To accomplish this, OAQPS must be able to evaluate the status of the atmosphere as compared to clean air standards and historical information.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张斌; 丁献文; 张桃林; 赵其国


    Estimation of hydraulic resistances of soil-plant-climate continuum (SPAC) is important both for describing water movement in the continuum and for adopting practical water-saving measures in agriculture to find the solutions to seasonal drought in the area of Red Soil of China. The diurnal variation of stomatal resistance of crops in dry season was observed and its relation to transpiration rate and water potentials of crop leaf and soil in different farming systems was also studied. Results indicated that stomatal resistance and transpiration rate were different for each crop in different farming systems. Stomatal resistance was related to soil water potentials within the soil layers of 70cm. The hydraulic resistances of the leaf-air interface in SPACs ranged from 109 to 1010 S, which was 1000 times higher than those of crop body. The resistance of crop body was 100 times as much as that within the soil layer of 70cm. In dry season, soil resistance increased with the depletion of soil water.Resistance of crop body fell in the order: soybean>peanut>corn>sweet potato, which experienced dramatically diurnal variation except that of sweet potato. Resistance of crop also varied with cropping systems.%确定水流阻力不仅有助于定量土壤栕魑飽大气连续体(SPAC)描述的水分传输过程,而且对建立减少水流阻力的节水农业措施,解决红壤区季节性干旱有重要意义。本文研究了不同耕作制度下作物气孔阻力日变化及其与蒸腾速率、土壤基质势、作物叶水势的关系,并分析了水流阻力的分布及其日变化规律。结果表明气孔阻力和蒸腾速率受作物种类和耕作制度影响,气孔阻力随着70cm土层以上土壤基质势的变化而变化;SPAC中叶气系统水流阻力为109~1010 S,是作物体水流阻力的1000倍,而后者又是70cm以上土层土壤水流阻力的100倍;作物体水流阻力大小顺序为:大豆>花生>玉米>甘薯,

  2. Androgen resistance. (United States)

    Hughes, Ieuan A; Deeb, Asma


    Androgen resistance causes the androgen insensitivity syndrome in its variant forms and is a paradigm of clinical syndromes associated with hormone resistance. In its complete form, the syndrome causes XY sex reversal and a female phenotype. Partial resistance to androgens is a common cause of ambiguous genitalia of the newborn, but a similar phenotype may result from several other conditions, including defects in testis determination and androgen biosynthesis. The biological actions of androgens are mediated by a single intracellular androgen receptor encoded by a gene on the long arm of the X chromosome. Mutations in this gene result in varying degrees of androgen receptor dysfunction and phenotypes that often show poor concordance with the genotype. Functional characterization and three-dimensional modelling of novel mutant receptors has been informative in understanding the mechanism of androgen action. Management issues in syndromes of androgen insensitivity include decisions on sex assignment, timing of gonadectomy in relation to tumour risk, and genetic and psychological counselling.

  3. Anticoagulant Resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heiberg, Ann-Charlotte

    Although sewer rat control is carried out in more than 80 % of all Danish municipalities, with usage of large amounts of anticoagulant rodenticides, knowledge on anticoagulant resistance among rats living in the sewers is limited. As rat problems in urban areas are believed to be related to sewer...... problems (70-90 % in UK and DK) unawareness of resistance amongst these populations of Brown rats may constitute a future control problem and knowledge on this issue has become crucial. Rats were captured in sewers from seven different locations in the suburban area of Copenhagen. Locations was chosen...... to represent different sewer rat management strategies i) no anticoagulants for approx. 20 years ii) no anticoagulants for the last 5 years and iii) continuous control for many years. Animals were tested for resistance to bromadiolone by Blood-Clotting Response test, as bromadiolone is the most frequently used...

  4. C-130J Breathing Resistance Study (United States)


    flows used in the study . The simulated workloads were: 1) 60 ALPM: Rest; 2) 90 ALPM: Light Work ; 3) 125 ALPM: Moderate Work ; and 4) 150 ALPM...AFRL-RH-WP-TR-2016-0040 C-130J BREATHING RESISTANCE STUDY George W. Miller Air Force Research Laboratory Wright-Patterson Air...ASSIGNED DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT. //signed// //signed// GEORGE W. MILLER SCOTT M. GALSTER Work Unit Manager Chief, Applied

  5. Drug resistance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gorter, J.A.; Potschka, H.; Noebels, J.L.; Avoli, M.; Rogawski, M.A.; Olsen, R.W.; Delgado-Escueta, A.V.


    Drug resistance remains to be one of the major challenges in epilepsy therapy. Identification of factors that contribute to therapeutic failure is crucial for future development of novel therapeutic strategies for difficult-to-treat epilepsies. Several clinical studies have shown that high seizure f

  6. REACH. Air Conditioning Units. (United States)

    Garrison, Joe; And Others

    As a part of the REACH (Refrigeration, Electro-Mechanical, Air-Conditioning, Heating) electromechanical cluster, this student manual contains individualized instructional units in the area of air conditioning. The instructional units focus on air conditioning fundamentals, window air conditioning, system and installation, troubleshooting and…

  7. Statistical air quality mapping

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kassteele, van de J.


    This thesis handles statistical mapping of air quality data. Policy makers require more and more detailed air quality information to take measures to improve air quality. Besides, researchers need detailed air quality information to assess health effects. Accurate and spatially highly resolved maps

  8. Measurement of Thermal Resistance of Heat-resistant Fabrics with a Guarded-hot-box

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Fang-long; ZHANG Wei-yuan


    A novel analytical method with the guarded-hot-box (GHB) in investigating the thermal resistance of heat-resistant fabrics is described and the analytical method is also presented in this paper. The new apparatus is capable of measure thermal resistance of the fabrics in high temperature up to an average applied temperature of 250℃.The maximum measurement error of the apparatus is 6.5%and relative error is less than 2.8% between the introduced method and standard given value. In the GHB method, air layer thickness is the most important factor that influences measurement value of thermal resistance of heat-resistant fabrics. Results show that the method is more accurate and efficient than GB11048-89 one in measuring thermal resistance of heat-resistant fabrics.

  9. 氦-氧混合气降低气道阻力和提高肺有效通气的实验研究%The experimental studies of Heliox decreasing air way resistance and improving pulmonary effective ventilation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    解立新; 刘又宁; 马迎民


    AIM: The study evaluated the effects of breathing helium-oxygen(79% helioxand 21% oxygen) on respiratory insufficiency by way of experimental andclinical observations. METHODS: Six mongrel dogs were randomly inspiredair or heiox after dripping 2% methacholine in tracheas controlled by 900Cventilator. During the experimental course, respiratory mechanical limits,hemodynamic index and blood gas values were observed. Six ventilated pa-tients with COPD in the respiratory intensive care unit inspired heliox, and thedata of respiratory mechanics were recorded. RESULTS: The results demon-strate that heliox can reduce airway resistance, airway pressure, and work ofbreathing, improve lung effective compliance, but heliox has no side effects onpulmonary circulation and systemic circulation. Heliox improves oxygen dif-fusion and CO2 climinating. CONCLUSION: Breathing heliox is one of theeffective ways for patients with severe obstructive pulmonary diseases.

  10. Anthelmintic resistance. (United States)

    Waller, P J


    Since the first reports of resistance to the broad spectrum anthelmintics were made some three decades ago, this phenomenon has changed from being considered merely as a parasitological curiosity to a state of industry crisis in certain livestock sectors. This extreme situation exists with the small ruminant industry of the tropical/sub-tropical region of southern Latin America where resistance to the entire broad spectrum anthelmintic arsenal now occurs. In contrast, the cattle industry does not appear to be threatened--or so it seems. Although field reports of resistance have been made to the range of broad spectrum anthelmintics in nematode parasites of cattle, it appears that the evolution of resistance in cattle parasites is not as dramatic as for sheep worms. However, one cannot remain confident that this state of affairs will remain static. Concern is shared amongst parasitologists that we have not looked closely enough. In regions of the world where internal parasites are considered a problem in cattle and drenching occurs frequently, no widespread surveys have been carried out. It appears that because of the very high costs and risks associated with taking a new active drug down the development track to marketing, that the pharmaceutical industry has, in general, turned away from this activity. By implication, the international small ruminant industry is too small for these companies to make the necessary investment. This begs two questions: What is the fate of the sheep (and goat) industries in those parts of the world where resistance is rampant and immediate ameliorative parasite control options are required? What will be the response if significant resistance is found in cattle parasites? There is a body of opinion which suggests that if resistance becomes an issue in the control of cattle parasites then the pharmaceutical industry will find it commercially attractive to re-enter the anthelmintic discovery and development business. This is based on the

  11. Air movement and perceived air quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melikov, Arsen Krikor; Kaczmarczyk, J.


    The impact of air movement on perceived air quality (PAQ) and sick building syndrome (SBS) symptoms was studied. In total, 124 human subjects participated in four series of experiments performed in climate chambers at different combinations of room air temperature (20, 23, 26 and 28 °C), relative...... and the humidity of the room air. At a low humidity level of 30% an increased velocity could compensate for the decrease in perceived air quality due to an elevated temperature ranging from 20 °C to 26 °C. In a room with 26 °C, increased air movement was also able to compensate for an increase in humidity from 30...

  12. Antibiotic Resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Malene Plejdrup; Hoffmann, Tammy C; McCullough, Amanda R


    Numerous opportunities are available in primary care for alleviating the crisis of increasing antibiotic resistance. Preventing patients from developing an acute respiratory infection (ARI) will obviate any need for antibiotic use downstream. Hygiene measures such as physical barriers and hand...... wrong. Shared decision making might be a solution, as it enables clinician and patient to participate jointly in making a health decision, having discussed the options together with the evidence for their harms as well as benefits. Furthermore, GPs' diagnostic uncertainty - often leading...... will greatly improve the use of antibiotics for ARIs. However, used in concert, combinations are likely to enable clinicians and health care systems to implement the strategies that will reduce antimicrobial resistance in the future....

  13. Resistant starches. (United States)

    Jenkins, D J; Kendall, C W


    Initially, it was hoped that resistant starches (ie, starches that enter the colon) would have clear advantages in the reduction of colon cancer risk and possibly the treatment of ulcerative colitis. Recent studies have confirmed the ability of resistant starch to increase fecal bulk, to increase the molar ratio of butyrate in relation to other short-chain fatty acids, and to dilute fecal bile acids. However, reduction in fecal ammonia, phenols, and N-nitroso compounds have not been achieved. At this point the picture from the standpoint of colon cancer risk reduction is not clear. Nevertheless, there is a fraction of what has been termed resistant starch (RS1), which enters the colon and acts as slowly digested, or lente, carbohydrate. Foods in this class are low glycemic index and have been shown to reduce the risk of chronic disease. They have been associated with systemic physiologic effects such as reduced postprandial insulin levels and higher high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels. Consumption of low glycemic index foods has been shown to be related to a reduced risk of type 2 diabetes. Type 2 diabetes has in turn been related to a higher risk of colon cancer, especially colon cancer deaths. If carbohydrate has a protective role in colon cancer prevention, it may lie in the systemic effects of low glycemic index foods. The colonic advantages of different carbohydrates, therefore, remain to be documented. However, there is reason for optimism about the possible health advantages of so-called resistant starches that are slowly digested in the small intestine.

  14. Airborne chemical contamination of a chemically amplified resist (United States)

    MacDonald, Scott A.; Clecak, Nicholas J.; Wendt, H. R.; Willson, C. Grant; Snyder, Clinton D.; Knors, C. J.; Deyoe, N. B.; Maltabes, John G.; Morrow, James R.; McGuire, Anne E.; Holmes, Steven J.


    We have found that the performance of the t-BOC/onium salt resist system is severely degraded by vapor from organic bases. This effect is very pronounced and can be observed when the coated wafers stand for 15 minutes in air containing as little as 15 parts per billion (ppb) of an organic base. The observed effect, caused by this chemical contamination, depends on the tone of the resist system. For negative tone systems the UV exposure dose, required to obtain the correct linewidth, increases. While for the positive tone system, one observes the generation of a skin at the resist-air interface. Both effects are caused by the photogenerated acid being neutralized by the airborne organic base. There are a wide variety of commonly used materials which can liberate trace amounts of volatile amines and degrade resist performance. For example, fresh paint on a laboratory wall can exhibit this detrimental effect. These effects can be minimized by storing and processing the resist coated wafers in air that has passed through a specially designed, high efficiency carbon filter. The implementation of localized air filtration, to bathe the resist in chemically pure air, enabled this resist system to operate in a manufacturing environment at a rate of 100 wafers/hour.

  15. Connectable solar air collectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oestergaard Jensen, S.; Bosanac, M.


    The project has proved that it is possible to manufacture solar air collector panels, which in an easy way can be connected into large collector arrays with integrated ducting without loss of efficiency. The developed connectable solar air collectors are based on the use of matrix absorbers in the form of perforated metal sheets. Three interconnected solar air collectors of the above type - each with an transparent area of approx. 3 m{sup 2} - was tested and compared with parallel tests on two single solar air collectors also with a transparent area of approx. 3 m{sup 2} One of the single solar air collectors has an identical absorber as the connectable solar air collectors while the absorber of the other single solar air collector was a fibre cloth. The efficiency of the three solar air collectors proved to be almost identical in the investigated range of mass flow rates and temperature differences. The solar air collectors further proved to be very efficient - as efficient as the second most efficient solar air collectors tested in the IEA task 19 project Solar Air Systems. Some problems remain although to be solved: the pressure drop across especially the connectable solar air collectors is too high - mainly across the inlets of the solar air collectors. It should, however, be possible to considerably reduce the pressure losses with a more aerodynamic design of the inlet and outlet of the solar air collectors; The connectable solar air collectors are easy connectable but the air tightness of the connections in the present form is not good enough. As leakage leads to lower efficiencies focus should be put on making the connections more air tight without loosing the easiness in connecting the solar air collectors. As a spin off of the project a simple and easy way to determine the efficiency of solar, air collectors for pre-heating of fresh air has been validated. The simple method of determining the efficiency has with success been compared with an advance method

  16. 高密度电阻率法探测地下人防巷道装置类型选择与异常识别%unit type ChoSen for hiGh denSity reSiStivity method uSed in deteCtion of underGround Civil Air defenSe workS And reCoGnition of AnomAly

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭厚军; 张国鸿


    Based on Wenner arrangement and tri-pole unit test over known underground civil air defense works, and analysis of anomalous features, this paper introduced the use of right unit type of high density resistivity method that tells difference in resistivity of underground media and how to recognize the anomalous marker correctly.%通过在已知在已揭露的地下人防巷道上方高密度电阻率法中温纳装置、三极装置的试验以及异常特征分析,说明利用地下介质的电阻率差异,采用高密度电阻率法探测地下人防巷道工作时,应选择好装置类型,且要正确地识别其异常标志。

  17. Insulin Resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Benjamin Anderschou Holbech

    Insulin resistance (IR) is escalating with alarming pace and is no longer restricted to westernized countries. As a forerunner for some of the most serious threats to human health including metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular diseases, and type 2-diabetes, the need for new treatment modalities...... interventions. We further show that improving the inflammatory toning, using fish oil as fat source, protects mice against diet induced obesity and -inflammation while preserving insulin sensitivity, even in the absence of free fatty acid receptor 4. Conversely, HFD-induced intestinal dysbiosis is associated...

  18. AirCompare (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — AirCompare contains air quality information that allows a user to compare conditions in different localities over time and compare conditions in the same location...

  19. Allegheny County Air Quality (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Air quality data from Allegheny County Health Department monitors throughout the county. Air quality monitored data must be verified by qualified individuals before...

  20. Air Quality Facilities (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — Facilities with operating permits for Title V of the Federal Clean Air Act, as well as facilities required to submit an air emissions inventory, and other facilities...

  1. Indoor Air Pollution (United States)

    We usually think of air pollution as being outdoors, but the air in your house or office could also be polluted. Sources of indoor pollution include Mold and pollen Tobacco smoke Household products ...

  2. Air Quality System (AQS) (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Air Quality System (AQS) database contains measurements of air pollutant concentrations from throughout the United States and its territories. The measurements...

  3. Improving air handler efficiency in residential HVAC applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, Iain S.; Mingee, Michael D.; Brenner, Douglas E.


    In continuing the development of energy efficiency standards, consideration has turned to air handlers used for heating and air conditioning of consumer residences. These air handlers have typical efficiencies of about 10% to 15% due to poor electric motor performance and aerodynamically poor fans and fan housings. This study was undertaken to examine some of these performance issues, under carefully controlled laboratory conditions, to support potential regulatory changes. In addition, this study examined the performance of a prototype air handler fan assembly that offers the potential for substantial increases in performance. This prototype and a standard production fan were tested in a full-scale duct system and test chamber at LBNL which was specifically designed for testing heating, ventilation, and air conditioning systems. The laboratory tests compared efficiency, total airflow, sensitivity to duct system flow resistance, and the effects of installation in a smaller cabinet. The test results showed that, averaged over a wide range of operating conditions, the prototype air handler had about twice the efficiency of the standard air handler and was less sensitive to duct system flow resistance changes. The performance of both air handlers was significantly reduced by reducing the space between the air handler and the cabinet it was installed in. Therefore any fan rating needs to be performed using the actual cabinet it will be used in.

  4. Air Power and Warfare (United States)


    Memorial, 1963. (T) 767.8 A3 ser .3, V.4) Air war against Germany and Italy, 1939-1943. Canberra: Australian War Memorial, 1954. (D 767.8 A3 Ser .3, al. Air poder indivisible Air University Ouarterly Review 2:5-18, Fall 1950. Spaatz, Crrl. Air-power odds against us. Readers Digest 58:11-14, June

  5. Indoor air quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Trine Susanne; Recevska, Ieva

     The objective of the 35th specific agreement is to provide support to the EEA activities in Environment and Health (E&H) on the topic of indoor air quality. The specific objectives have been to provide an overview of indoor air related projects in EU and indoor air related policies as well...... as idenfiying "good practices" to reduce health impact of indoor air exposure and suggest areas for future improvements....

  6. We Pollute the Air

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    1.Clean air is important to good health.If the aircontains impurities,they may be absorbed by ourbodies and make us ill.We need clean air,butunfortunately,air pollution is generally present,especially in cities. 2.Our cities have many factories,which we need tomake food products,clothing and many other things.

  7. Air Pollution Training Programs. (United States)

    Public Health Service (DHEW), Rockville, MD.

    This catalog lists the universities, both supported and not supported by the Division of Air Pollution, which offer graduate programs in the field of air pollution. The catalog briefly describes the programs and their entrance requirements, the requirements, qualifications and terms of special fellowships offered by the Division of Air Pollution.…

  8. Resistance welding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bay, Niels; Zhang, Wenqi; Rasmussen, Mogens H.


    Resistance welding comprises not only the well known spot welding process but also more complex projection welding operations, where excessive plastic deformation of the weld point may occur. This enables the production of complex geometries and material combinations, which are often not possible...... to weld by traditional spot welding operations. Such joining processes are, however, not simple to develop due to the large number of parameters involved. Development has traditionally been carried out by large experimental investigations, but the development of a numerical programme system has changed...... this enabling prediction of the welding performance in details. The paper describes the programme in short and gives examples on industrial applications. Finally investigations of causes for failure in a complex industrial joint of two dissimilar metals are carried out combining numerical modelling...

  9. Manual for THOR-AirPAS - air pollution assessment system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Steen Solvang; Ketzel, Matthias; Brandt, Jørgen

    The report provides an outline of the THOR-AirPAS - air pollution assessment system and a brief manual for getting started with the air quality models and input data included in THOR-AirPAS.......The report provides an outline of the THOR-AirPAS - air pollution assessment system and a brief manual for getting started with the air quality models and input data included in THOR-AirPAS....

  10. Transpulmonary passage of venous air emboli (United States)

    Butler, B. D.; Hills, B. A.


    Twenty-seven paralyzed anesthetized dogs were embolized with venous air to determine the effectiveness of the pulmonary vasculature for bubble filtration or trapping. Air doses ranged from 0.05 to 0.40 ml/kg min in 0.05-ml increments with ultrasonic Doppler monitors placed over arterial vessels to detect any microbubbles that crossed the lungs. Pulmonary vascular filtration of the venous air infusions was complete for the lower air doses ranging from 0.05 to 0.30 ml/kg min. When the air doses were increased to 0.35 ml/kg min, the filtration threshold was exceeded with arterial spillover of bubbles occurring in 50 percent of the animals and reaching 71 percent for 0.40 ml/kg min. Significant elevations were observed in pulmonary arterial pressure and pulmonary vascular resistance. Systemic blood pressure and cardiac output decreased, whereas left ventricular end-diastolic pressure remained unchanged. The results indicate that the filtration of venous bubbles by the pulmonary vasculature was complete when the air infusion rates were kept below a threshold value of 0.30 ml/kg min.

  11. Air Flow and Gassing Potential in Micro-injection Moulding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Griffithsa, C.A.; Dimova, S.S.; Scholz, S.


    Process monitoring of micro injection moulding (μ-IM) is of crucial importance in understanding the effects of different parameter settings on the process, especially on its performance and consistency in regards to parts’ quality. Quality factors related to mould cavity air evacuation can provide...... valuable information about the process dynamics and also about the filling of a cavity by a polymer melt. In this paper, a novel experimental set-up is proposed to monitor maximum air flow and air flow work as an integral of the air flow over time by employing a MEMS gas sensor mounted inside the mould....... The influence of four μIM parameters, melt temperature, mould temperature, injection speed, and resistance to air evacuation, on two air flow-related output parameters is investigated by carrying out a design of experiment study. The results provide empirical evidence about the effects of process parameters...

  12. Cavity air flow behavior during filling in microinjection molding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Griffiths, C.A.; Dimov, S.S.; Scholz, S.


    Process monitoring of microinjection molding (μ-IM) is of crucial importance in understanding the effects of different parameter settings on the process, especially on its performance and consistency with regard to parts' quality. Quality factors related to mold cavity air evacuation can provide...... valuable information about the process dynamics and also about the filling of a cavity by a polymer melt. In this paper, a novel experimental setup is proposed to monitor maximum air flow and air flow work as an integral of the air flow over time by employing a microelectromechanical system gas sensor...... mounted inside the mold. The influence of four μIM parameters, melt temperature, mold temperature, injection speed, and resistance to air evacuation, on two air flow-related output parameters is investigated by carrying out a design of experiment study. The results provide empirical evidences about...

  13. Air Conditioning Does Reduce Air Pollution Indoors (United States)

    Healy, Bud


    Report of the winter meeting of the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers. Subjects covered are--(1) title subject, (2) predictions for the human habitat in 1994, (3) fans, and (4) fire safety in buildings. (JW)

  14. Gas chromatography using resistive heating technology. (United States)

    Wang, Anzi; Tolley, H Dennis; Lee, Milton L


    Air bath ovens are standard in conventional gas chromatography (GC) instruments because of their simplicity and reliability for column temperature control. However, their low heating rates, high power consumption and bulky size are in conflict with the increasing demands for fast separation and portable instrumentation. The deficiencies of air bath ovens can be eliminated using resistive heating technology, as the column is conductively heated by compact resistive heaters with low thermal mass. Resistive heating methods were employed in the early years of GC history, and they are emerging again as instrumentation is becoming more compact and sophisticated. Numerous designs have been tested and some have been successfully commercialized. Development of portable GC systems, including lab-on-a-chip devices, greatly benefits from the use of small, low-power resistive heating hardware. High speed GC separations using conventional instruments also can be best achieved with resistive heating modules. Despite some of its own inherent disadvantages, including efficiency loss, complex manufacturing and inconvenient column maintenance, resistive heating is expected to rapidly become a mature technology and even replace oven heating in the not-to-distant future.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The applied problems of SINS/GPS integration navigation system existing in midcourse guidance of air-to-air missiles have been investigated recently. In comparison with those investigations existing in current publications, a new tightly coupled SINS/GPS integration navigation system for air-to-air missiles, based on the decorrelated pseudo-range approach, is presented in this paper. Because of high jamming and dynamic of air-to-air missiles, inertial velocity aiding GPS receiver is used to provide a more accurate, jam-resistant measurement for midcourse guidance systems. A tracking error estimator is designed to distinguish the correlation that existed between pseudo-range measurements and inertial information. It is found better to regard inertial velocity aiding errors as the noise of which statistical properties are unknown. So using mixed Kalman/minimax filtering theory, one can obtain the new tracking error estimator with simple and robust algorithm through constructing a composite filter consisting of two parts: Kalman filter for the noise of known statistics and minimax filter for the unknown. In order to ensure this simple estimator stability, a new method is proposed to choose its parameters, based on Khargonekars work. Moreover, it is demonstrated that the given method also ensures the proposed estimator optimality. All the work mentioned above is involved in the tightly coupled SINS/GPS integration midcourse system design in which a set of low-accuracy inertial components is shared by SINS and autopilot. Simulation results of a certain type of air-to-air missile are presented. Due to decorrelation by the tracking error estimator, only small white noise of pseudo-range measurements remains. So it is shown that application of the new midcourse guidance system results in better guidance accuracy, higher jam-resistance.

  16. Frost resistance of building materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ernst Jan De Place

    In this thesis it is shown that the critical degree of saturation is suitable as parameter for the frost resistance of porous building materials. A numerical model for prediction of critical degrees of saturation based on fracture mechanics and phase geometry of two-phase materials, e.g. porous...... materials, has been developed.The importance of the pore structure on the development of stresses in the material during freezing is emphasized. To verify the model, experimental investigations are made on various concretes without air-entrainment and brick tiles with different porosities...

  17. Synthetic fiber air collectors for agricultural uses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulz, H.

    Details are given on an innovative air collector system made of porous black synthetic fibers to take in air and absorb solar radiation to heat it. Synthetic fiber collectors are unexpensive, they are characterized by their efficient heat transfers, good working properties, and wind resistance. Excessive heating, condensates, and dusts are avoided using them. Schematic sketches facilitate access to the fibrous structure, uses, design and construction of solar air collectors made of Nicolon fibers. Temperature and collector capacity measuring results are shown in a diagram. Details are given on a small-scale solar drier drying herbs (solar collector system with a 36 m/sup 2/ fibrous absorber surface) as well as on experiences gained in the operation of more than 20 solar driers of the kind described. (HWJ).

  18. Influence of the ambient air temperature on the electrical contact reliability of electromagnetic relay

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAO Fang; ZHENG Jian-rong; HUANG Zhang-wu


    The dynamic contact resistances of HH52P electromagnetic relays are measured under different ambient air temperature. Their diagnostic parameters are extracted and determined. It is found that the ambient air temperature obviously influences some parameters. In order to research its influence on the electrical contact reliability of electromagnetic relay, the statistic analysis is applied to study the static contact resistance, the max of the dynamic contact resistance and the bounce time. It is found that the ambient air temperature regularly influences the three parameters. Thoroughly, the phenomenon is studied and analyzed in the point of material science so as to probe into the essential matter of it.

  19. Air filtration in HVAC systems

    CERN Document Server

    Ginestet, Alain; Tronville, Paolo; Hyttinen, Marko


    Air filtration Guidebook will help the designer and user to understand the background and criteria for air filtration, how to select air filters and avoid problems associated with hygienic and other conditions at operation of air filters. The selection of air filters is based on external conditions such as levels of existing pollutants, indoor air quality and energy efficiency requirements.

  20. Mechanisms of drug resistance: quinolone resistance. (United States)

    Hooper, David C; Jacoby, George A


    Quinolone antimicrobials are synthetic and widely used in clinical medicine. Resistance emerged with clinical use and became common in some bacterial pathogens. Mechanisms of resistance include two categories of mutation and acquisition of resistance-conferring genes. Resistance mutations in one or both of the two drug target enzymes, DNA gyrase and DNA topoisomerase IV, are commonly in a localized domain of the GyrA and ParE subunits of the respective enzymes and reduce drug binding to the enzyme-DNA complex. Other resistance mutations occur in regulatory genes that control the expression of native efflux pumps localized in the bacterial membrane(s). These pumps have broad substrate profiles that include quinolones as well as other antimicrobials, disinfectants, and dyes. Mutations of both types can accumulate with selection pressure and produce highly resistant strains. Resistance genes acquired on plasmids can confer low-level resistance that promotes the selection of mutational high-level resistance. Plasmid-encoded resistance is due to Qnr proteins that protect the target enzymes from quinolone action, one mutant aminoglycoside-modifying enzyme that also modifies certain quinolones, and mobile efflux pumps. Plasmids with these mechanisms often encode additional antimicrobial resistances and can transfer multidrug resistance that includes quinolones. Thus, the bacterial quinolone resistance armamentarium is large.

  1. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Veterinary Home Animal & Veterinary Safety & Health Antimicrobial Resistance Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it ... Veterinary Medicine is cited as the corporate author. Animation Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance (WMV - 19.2MB) 9: ...

  2. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance (United States)

    ... Veterinary Safety & Health Antimicrobial Resistance Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... produced a nine-minute animation explaining how antimicrobial resistance both emerges and proliferates among bacteria. Over time, ...

  3. 走近Air

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    @@ 大家对air这个单词并不陌生,它通常用作名词,表示"空气".例如: 1.Better let in fresh air. 最好让新鲜空气进来. 2.The air smells of paint. 空气里散发着油漆味. 3.The air was heavy with perfume of the flowers. 空气里弥漫着花朵的芳香.

  4. Contact air abrasion. (United States)

    Porth, R


    The advantages of contact air abrasion techniques are readily apparent. The first, of course, is the greatly increased ease of use. Working with contact also tends to speed the learning curve by giving the process a more natural dental feel. In addition, as one becomes familiar with working with a dust stream, the potential for misdirecting the air flow is decreased. The future use of air abrasion for deep decay removal will make this the treatment of choice for the next millennium.

  5. Olefin metathesis in air. (United States)

    Piola, Lorenzo; Nahra, Fady; Nolan, Steven P


    Since the discovery and now widespread use of olefin metathesis, the evolution of metathesis catalysts towards air stability has become an area of significant interest. In this fascinating area of study, beginning with early systems making use of high oxidation state early transition metal centers that required strict exclusion of water and air, advances have been made to render catalysts more stable and yet more functional group tolerant. This review summarizes the major developments concerning catalytic systems directed towards water and air tolerance.

  6. Resistance to antibiotics



    The antibiotics represent the most important therapeutic arsenal in the fight against pathogen microorganisms. Even in the beginning of their use, there was registered bacterial resistance, phenomenon thatbecame an alarming subject in the last decades. There are some types of resistance to antibiotics that are influenced by many factors. The resistance term can be used as microbiological resistance and clinical resistance. The resistance to antibiotics can be a natural phenomenon or a gained ...

  7. Aspects of blast resistant masonry design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Volkman, D.E.


    Blast resistant design should be examined for building code incorporation, due to the potential of explosions occurring in an industrial society. Specifically, public and commercial structures of concrete masonry construction need additional building code criteria, since these buildings have high density populations to protect. Presently, blast resistant design is accomplished by using government published manuals, but these do not address industry standard construction. A design air blast load of 4.54 kg (10 lbs) of TNT, located 0.91 m (3 ft) above ground surface and 30.48 m (100 ft) from a structure should be considered standard criteria. This loading would be sufficient to protect against blast, resist progressive failure, and yet not be an economic impediment. Design details and adequate inspection must be observed to ensure blast resistant integrity. 10 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Test Method for Determination of Thermal Shock resistance(Air Quenching)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIYong-gang; ZHANGYong-fang; 等


    On the basis of the theory of thermal shock resistance in the science of materials and the test method of air quenching which is generally rec-ognized internationally,especially in Europe,the present test methods for determination of thermal shock resistance in China have been analysed,Experiment study on thermal shock resis-tance of silica and basic refractory products has been conducted,and a new test method of thermal shock resistance-air quenching method has been put forward.

  9. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... More in Antimicrobial Resistance National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring ... Note: If you need help accessing information in different file formats, see Instructions for Downloading ...

  10. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Resistance National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System 2014 NARMS ... Note: If you need help accessing information in different file formats, see Instructions for Downloading ...

  11. Antibiotic resistance in Chlamydiae. (United States)

    Sandoz, Kelsi M; Rockey, Daniel D


    There are few documented reports of antibiotic resistance in Chlamydia and no examples of natural and stable antibiotic resistance in strains collected from humans. While there are several reports of clinical isolates exhibiting resistance to antibiotics, these strains either lost their resistance phenotype in vitro, or lost viability altogether. Differences in procedures for chlamydial culture in the laboratory, low recovery rates of clinical isolates and the unknown significance of heterotypic resistance observed in culture may interfere with the recognition and interpretation of antibiotic resistance. Although antibiotic resistance has not emerged in chlamydiae pathogenic to humans, several lines of evidence suggest they are capable of expressing significant resistant phenotypes. The adept ability of chlamydiae to evolve to antibiotic resistance in vitro is demonstrated by contemporary examples of mutagenesis, recombination and genetic transformation. The isolation of tetracycline-resistant Chlamydia suis strains from pigs also emphasizes their adaptive ability to acquire antibiotic resistance genes when exposed to significant selective pressure.


    Bradshaw, R.L.; Thomas, J.W.


    The monitor is designed to minimize undesirable background buildup. It consists of an elongated column containing peripheral electrodes in a central portion of the column, and conduits directing an axial flow of radioactively contaminated air through the center of the column and pure air through the annular portion of the column about the electrodes. (AEC)

  13. Air-Conditioning Mechanic. (United States)

    Marine Corps Inst., Washington, DC.

    This student guide, one of a series of correspondence training courses designed to improve the job performance of members of the Marine Corps, deals with the skills needed by air conditioning mechanics. Addressed in the four chapters, or lessons, of the manual are the following topics: principles of air conditioning, refrigeration components as…

  14. The Air We Breathe (United States)

    Davila, Dina


    Topics discussed include NASA mission to pioneer the future in space exploration, scientific discovery and aeronautics research; the role of Earth's atmosphere, atmospheric gases, layers of the Earth's atmosphere, ozone layer, air pollution, effects of air pollution on people, the Greenhouse Effect, and breathing on the International Space Station.

  15. Air/liquid collectors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Søren Østergaard; Olesen, Ole; Kristiansen, Finn Harken


    This report determine efficiency equations for combined air/liquid solar collectors by measurements on to different air/liquid collectors. Equations which contain all relevant informations on the solar collectors. A simulation program (Kviksol) has been modified in order to be able to handle...

  16. Bad Air For Children (United States)

    Kane, Dorothy Noyes


    Children are especially sensitive to air pollution and consequences to them maybe of longer duration than to adults. The effects of low-level pollution on children are the concern of this article. The need for research on the threat of air pollution to childrens' health is emphasized. (BT)

  17. Air pollution and society


    Brimblecombe P.


    Air pollution is as much a product of our society as it is one of chemistry and meteorology. Social variables such as gender, age, health status and poverty are often linked with our exposure to air pollutants. Pollution can also affect our behaviour, while regulations to improve the environment can often challenge of freedom.

  18. Over the air test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)


    [1] This invention relates to over-the-air testing of a device in an anechoic chamber. In particular, the invention is suitable for simulating both uplink and downlink over-the-air communication with a device under test even when the anechoic chamber has different numbers of uplink and downlink...

  19. Air Pollution, Teachers' Edition. (United States)

    Lavaroni, Charles W.; O'Donnell, Patrick A.

    One of three in a series about pollution, this teacher's guide for a unit on air pollution is designed for use in junior high school grades. It offers suggestions for extending the information and activities contained in the textual material for students. Chapter 1 discusses the problem of air pollution and involves students in processes of…

  20. Air Pollution and Industry. (United States)

    Ross, R. D., Ed.

    This book is an authoritative reference and practical guide designed to help the plant engineer identify and solve industrial air pollution problems in order to be able to meet current air pollution regulations. Prepared under the editorial supervision of an experienced chemical engineer, with each chapter contributed by an expert in his field,…

  1. Bearings Only Air-to-Air Ranging (United States)


    sensor, observer and target parameters still remain. In order to reduce the number of cases to a manageable one, while preserving the geometric...perforance of variotu. ulro-air passive ranging tecnique has been examined as a fimn- tiam of uarget location andi motiom, observer motion. and length

  2. Restoran Buenos Aires = Restaurant Buenos Aires

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae


    Restorani Buenos Aires (Narva mnt. 5, Tallinn) sisekujundusest. Sisearhitektid: Janno Roos ja Andres Labi (Ruumilabor OÜ). Laudu eraldavad 400 vardasse aetud puukuuli. Sisearhitektidest, nende tähtsamad tööd. I-III korruse plaan, 12 värv. vaadet, fotod sisearhitektidest

  3. Surface Flux Modeling for Air Quality Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Limei Ran


    Full Text Available For many gasses and aerosols, dry deposition is an important sink of atmospheric mass. Dry deposition fluxes are also important sources of pollutants to terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. The surface fluxes of some gases, such as ammonia, mercury, and certain volatile organic compounds, can be upward into the air as well as downward to the surface and therefore should be modeled as bi-directional fluxes. Model parameterizations of dry deposition in air quality models have been represented by simple electrical resistance analogs for almost 30 years. Uncertainties in surface flux modeling in global to mesoscale models are being slowly reduced as more field measurements provide constraints on parameterizations. However, at the same time, more chemical species are being added to surface flux models as air quality models are expanded to include more complex chemistry and are being applied to a wider array of environmental issues. Since surface flux measurements of many of these chemicals are still lacking, resistances are usually parameterized using simple scaling by water or lipid solubility and reactivity. Advances in recent years have included bi-directional flux algorithms that require a shift from pre-computation of deposition velocities to fully integrated surface flux calculations within air quality models. Improved modeling of the stomatal component of chemical surface fluxes has resulted from improved evapotranspiration modeling in land surface models and closer integration between meteorology and air quality models. Satellite-derived land use characterization and vegetation products and indices are improving model representation of spatial and temporal variations in surface flux processes. This review describes the current state of chemical dry deposition modeling, recent progress in bi-directional flux modeling, synergistic model development research with field measurements, and coupling with meteorological land surface models.

  4. AIRE-Linux (United States)

    Zhou, Jianfeng; Xu, Benda; Peng, Chuan; Yang, Yang; Huo, Zhuoxi


    AIRE-Linux is a dedicated Linux system for astronomers. Modern astronomy faces two big challenges: massive observed raw data which covers the whole electromagnetic spectrum, and overmuch professional data processing skill which exceeds personal or even a small team's abilities. AIRE-Linux, which is a specially designed Linux and will be distributed to users by Virtual Machine (VM) images in Open Virtualization Format (OVF), is to help astronomers confront the challenges. Most astronomical software packages, such as IRAF, MIDAS, CASA, Heasoft etc., will be integrated into AIRE-Linux. It is easy for astronomers to configure and customize the system and use what they just need. When incorporated into cloud computing platforms, AIRE-Linux will be able to handle data intensive and computing consuming tasks for astronomers. Currently, a Beta version of AIRE-Linux is ready for download and testing.

  5. Airing 'clean air' in Clean India Mission. (United States)

    Banerjee, T; Kumar, M; Mall, R K; Singh, R S


    The submission explores the possibility of a policy revision for considering clean air quality in recently launched nationwide campaign, Clean India Mission (CIM). Despite of several efforts for improving availability of clean household energy and sanitation facilities, situation remain still depressing as almost half of global population lacks access to clean energy and proper sanitation. Globally, at least 2.5 billion people do not have access to basic sanitation facilities. There are also evidences of 7 million premature deaths by air pollution in year 2012. The situation is even more disastrous for India especially in rural areas. Although, India has reasonably progressed in developing sanitary facilities and disseminating clean fuel to its urban households, the situation in rural areas is still miserable and needs to be reviewed. Several policy interventions and campaigns were made to improve the scenario but outcomes were remarkably poor. Indian census revealed a mere 31% sanitation coverage (in 2011) compared to 22% in 2001 while 60% of population (700 million) still use solid biofuels and traditional cook stoves for household cooking. Further, last decade (2001-2011) witnessed the progress decelerating down with rural households without sanitation facilities increased by 8.3 million while minimum progress has been made in conversion of conventional to modern fuels. To revamp the sanitation coverage, an overambitious nationwide campaign CIM was initiated in 2014 and present submission explores the possibility of including 'clean air' considerations within it. The article draws evidence from literatures on scenarios of rural sanitation, energy practises, pollution induced mortality and climatic impacts of air pollution. This subsequently hypothesised with possible modification in available technologies, dissemination modes, financing and implementation for integration of CIM with 'clean air' so that access to both sanitation and clean household energy may be

  6. A survey of perfluoroalkyl sulfonamides in indoor and outdoor air using passive air samplers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shoeib, M.; Harner, T. [Meteorological Service of Canada, Environment Canada (Canada); Wilford, B.; Jones, K. [Lancaster Univ. (United Kingdom). Environmental Science; Zhu, J. [Chemistry Research Division, Health Canada, Tunney' s Pasture, Ottawa (Canada)


    Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) has recently emerged as a priority environmental pollutant due to its widespread detection in biological samples from remote regions including the Arctic and the Mid-North Pacific Ocean. Because PFOS is fairly involatile, it is hypothesized that its occurrence in remote regions is the result of atmospheric transport of more volatile precursor compounds such as the perfluoroalkyl sulfonamides (PFASs). PFASs are used in variety of consumer products for water and oil resistance including surface treatments for fabric, upholstery, carpet, paper and leather. In a recent pilot study employing high volume air samples, indoor air concentrations of PFASs were approximately 100 times greater than outdoor levels. This is of significance because people typically spend about 90% of their time indoors 5 and this exposure may serve as an important uptake pathway. Indoor air also serves as a source of PFASs to the outside where PFASs are ultimately transported and distributed throughout the environment. The current study is intended to be a more comprehensive survey of indoor and outdoor air allowing more confident conclusions to be made. Passive air samplers comprised of polyurethane foam (PUF) disks were used. These are quiet, non-intrusive samplers that operate without the aid of a pump or electricity. Air movement delivers chemical to the sampler which has a high retention capacity for persistent organic pollutants (POPs). PUF disks samplers have been previously used successfully to monitor different classes of hydrophobic persistent organic pollutants POPs.

  7. Facts about Antibiotic Resistance (United States)

    ... Cost References Español: Datos breves Facts about Antibiotic Resistance Antibiotic resistance is one of the world’s most pressing public ... antibiotic use is a key strategy to control antibiotic resistance. Antibiotic resistance in children and older adults are ...

  8. Location Problem of Air Materials Supply Center for Air Force

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王涛; 何亚群; 陶学禹


    Based on the analysis of three influencing factors on the air material supply center location, the location model of air material supply center was established. By solving the model, the rational supply center of air materials was also determined.

  9. Air Baltic: Estonian Air on nurka surutud / Teele Tammeorg

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tammeorg, Teele


    Air Balticu asepresidendi Janis Vanagsi hinnangul on Estonian Air aastaid jätnud tähelepanuta oma peamised turismiturud ning on praegu halvas seisus. Air Baltic on endiselt huvitatud Estonian Airi ostust. Majandus- ja kommunikatsiooniminister Juhan Partsi seisukoht

  10. Resistance of a water spark.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warne, Larry Kevin; Jorgenson, Roy Eberhardt; Lehr, Jane Marie


    The later time phase of electrical breakdown in water is investigated for the purpose of improving understanding of the discharge characteristics. One dimensional simulations in addition to a zero dimensional lumped model are used to study the spark discharge. The goal is to provide better electrical models for water switches used in the pulse compression section of pulsed power systems. It is found that temperatures in the discharge channel under representative drive conditions, and assuming small initial radii from earlier phases of development, reach levels that are as much as an order of magnitude larger than those used to model discharges in atmospheric gases. This increased temperature coupled with a more rapidly rising conductivity with temperature than in air result in a decreased resistance characteristic compared to preceding models. A simple modification is proposed for the existing model to enable the approximate calculation of channel temperature and incorporate the resulting conductivity increase into the electrical circuit for the discharge channel. Comparisons are made between the theoretical predictions and recent experiments at Sandia. Although present and past experiments indicated that preceding late time channel models overestimated channel resistance, the calculations in this report seem to underestimate the resistance relative to recent experiments. Some possible reasons for this discrepancy are discussed.


    Kittel, J.H.


    A method of making a uranium alloy of improved corrosion resistance and dimensional stability is described. The alloy contains from 0-9 weight per cent of an additive of zirconium and niobium in the proportions by weight of 5 to 1 1/ 2. The alloy is cold rolled, heated to two different temperatures, air-cooled, heated to a third temperature, and quenched in water. (AEC)

  12. Air Cleaning Technologies (United States)


    Executive Summary Objective This health technology policy assessment will answer the following questions: When should in-room air cleaners be used? How effective are in-room air cleaners? Are in-room air cleaners that use combined HEPA and UVGI air cleaning technology more effective than those that use HEPA filtration alone? What is the Plasmacluster ion air purifier in the pandemic influenza preparation plan? The experience of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) locally, nationally, and internationally underscored the importance of administrative, environmental, and personal protective infection control measures in health care facilities. In the aftermath of the SARS crisis, there was a need for a clearer understanding of Ontario’s capacity to manage suspected or confirmed cases of airborne infectious diseases. In so doing, the Walker Commission thought that more attention should be paid to the potential use of new technologies such as in-room air cleaning units. It recommended that the Medical Advisory Secretariat of the Ontario Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care evaluate the appropriate use and effectiveness of such new technologies. Accordingly, the Ontario Health Technology Advisory Committee asked the Medical Advisory Secretariat to review the literature on the effectiveness and utility of in-room air cleaners that use high-efficiency particle air (HEPA) filters and ultraviolet germicidal irradiation (UVGI) air cleaning technology. Additionally, the Ontario Health Technology Advisory Committee prioritized a request from the ministry’s Emergency Management Unit to investigate the possible role of the Plasmacluster ion air purifier manufactured by Sharp Electronics Corporation, in the pandemic influenza preparation plan. Clinical Need Airborne transmission of infectious diseases depends in part on the concentration of breathable infectious pathogens (germs) in room air. Infection control is achieved by a combination of administrative, engineering

  13. Emission Facilities - Air Emission Plants (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — Represents the Primary Facility type Air Emission Plant (AEP) point features. Air Emissions Plant is a DEP primary facility type related to the Air Quality Program....

  14. Air Quality Management Process Cycle (United States)

    Air quality management are activities a regulatory authority undertakes to protect human health and the environment from the harmful effects of air pollution. The process of managing air quality can be illustrated as a cycle of inter-related elements.

  15. Ambient Air Quality Data Inventory (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Office of Air and Radiation??s (OAR) Ambient Air Quality Data (Current) contains ambient air pollution data collected by EPA, other federal agencies, as well as...

  16. Ambient Air Quality Data Inventory (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Office of Air and Radiation's (OAR) Ambient Air Quality Data (Current) contains ambient air pollution data collected by EPA, other federal agencies, as well as...

  17. Bicycle Freewheeling with Air Drag as a Physics Experiment (United States)

    Janssen, Paul; Janssens, Ewald


    To familiarize first-year students with the important ingredients of a physics experiment, we offer them a project close to their daily life: measuring the effect of air resistance on a bicycle. Experiments are done with a bicycle freewheeling on a downhill slope. The data are compared with equations of motions corresponding to different models…

  18. Olefin metathesis in air

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzo Piola


    Full Text Available Since the discovery and now widespread use of olefin metathesis, the evolution of metathesis catalysts towards air stability has become an area of significant interest. In this fascinating area of study, beginning with early systems making use of high oxidation state early transition metal centers that required strict exclusion of water and air, advances have been made to render catalysts more stable and yet more functional group tolerant. This review summarizes the major developments concerning catalytic systems directed towards water and air tolerance.

  19. Air/Water Purification (United States)


    After 18 years of research into air/water pollution at Stennis Space Center, Dr. B. C. Wolverton formed his own company, Wolverton Environmental Services, Inc., to provide technology and consultation in air and water treatment. Common houseplants are used to absorb potentially harmful materials from bathrooms and kitchens. The plants are fertilized, air is purified, and wastewater is converted to clean water. More than 100 U.S. communities have adopted Wolverton's earlier water hyacinth and artificial marsh applications. Catfish farmers are currently evaluating the artificial marsh technology as a purification system.

  20. Olefin metathesis in air (United States)

    Piola, Lorenzo; Nahra, Fady


    Summary Since the discovery and now widespread use of olefin metathesis, the evolution of metathesis catalysts towards air stability has become an area of significant interest. In this fascinating area of study, beginning with early systems making use of high oxidation state early transition metal centers that required strict exclusion of water and air, advances have been made to render catalysts more stable and yet more functional group tolerant. This review summarizes the major developments concerning catalytic systems directed towards water and air tolerance. PMID:26664625

  1. Clean Air and Water

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts


    The air we breathe and the water we drink are both vital components of our health. Nevertheless, bacteria, pollutants, and other contaminates can alter life-giving air and water into health-threatening hazards. Learn about how scientists at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention work to protect the public from air and water-related health risks.  Created: 4/10/2007 by CDC National Center for Environmental Health.   Date Released: 4/13/2007.

  2. Air Quality Monitoring Programme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kemp, K.; Palmgren, F.

    The air quality in Danish cities has been monitored continuously since 1982 within the Danish Air Quality (LMP) network. The aim has been to follow the concentration levels of toxic pollutants in the urban atmosphere and to provide the necessary knowledge to assess the trends, to perform source...... apportionment, and to evaluate the chemical reactions and the dispersion of the pollutants in the atmosphere. In 2002 the air quality was measured in four Danish cities and at two background sites. NO2 and PM10 were at several stations found in concentrations above the new EU limit values, which the Member...

  3. Mid-air Acrobatics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    On September 1 two new aerobatic demonstration teams,theSky Wing and the Red Falcon,debuted at an air show held in Changchun,capital of northeast China's Jilin Province.The show was staged at a ceremony held by the Aviation University of the People's Liberation Army (PLA) Air Force.Also performing at the show was the 50-year-old Bayi aerobatic demonstration team.The teams demonstrated their superlative flying skills,which showcase the quality of the air force's rigorous pilot training.

  4. Tinted Blue: Air Force Culture and American Civil-Military Relations (United States)


    debates of 2007–08—providing spectral variation on the depen- dent variable of cooperation or resistance. This variation creates a useful array for...roles and missions among the services spawned fractious debate and bureaucratic wrangling.48 These dynamics imbued the Air Force with a sensitivity to...among the services. In fact, the Air Force was eager to cooperate. As the following analysis highlights, the Air Force formed a unique en- clave of

  5. Radioactive air sampling methods

    CERN Document Server

    Maiello, Mark L


    Although the field of radioactive air sampling has matured and evolved over decades, it has lacked a single resource that assimilates technical and background information on its many facets. Edited by experts and with contributions from top practitioners and researchers, Radioactive Air Sampling Methods provides authoritative guidance on measuring airborne radioactivity from industrial, research, and nuclear power operations, as well as naturally occuring radioactivity in the environment. Designed for industrial hygienists, air quality experts, and heath physicists, the book delves into the applied research advancing and transforming practice with improvements to measurement equipment, human dose modeling of inhaled radioactivity, and radiation safety regulations. To present a wide picture of the field, it covers the international and national standards that guide the quality of air sampling measurements and equipment. It discusses emergency response issues, including radioactive fallout and the assets used ...

  6. Natural Air Purifier (United States)


    NASA environmental research has led to a plant-based air filtering system. Dr. B.C. Wolverton, a former NASA engineer who developed a biological filtering system for space life support, served as a consultant to Terra Firma Environmental. The company is marketing the BioFilter, a natural air purifier that combines activated carbon and other filter media with living plants and microorganisms. The filter material traps and holds indoor pollutants; plant roots and microorganisms then convert the pollutants into food for the plant. Most non-flowering house plants will work. After pollutants have been removed, the cleansed air is returned to the room through slits in the planter. Terra Firma is currently developing a filter that will also disinfect the air.

  7. Advanced air distribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melikov, Arsen Krikor


    The aim of total volume air distribution (TVAD) involves achieving uniform temperature and velocity in the occupied zone and environment designed for an average occupant. The supply of large amounts of clean and cool air are needed to maintain temperature and pollution concentration at acceptable...... levels in the entire space, leading to increased energy consumption and the use of large and costly HVAC and duct systems. The performance of desk installed PV combined with background TVAD used for room temperature control has been studied in an office building located in a hot and humid climate....... Ventilation in hospitals is essential to decrease the risk of airborne cross-infection. At present, mixing air distribution at a minimum of 12 ach is used in infection wards. Advanced air distribution has the potential to aid in achieving healthy, comfortable and productive indoor environments at levels...

  8. Regional Air Quality Data (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This asset provides data on regional air quality, including trace level SO2, nitric acid, ozone, carbon monoxide, and NOy; and particulate sulfate, nitrate, and...

  9. Temporal solitons in air (United States)

    Voronin, A. A.; Zheltikov, A. M.


    Analysis of the group-velocity dispersion (GVD) of atmospheric air with a model that includes the entire manifold of infrared transitions in air reveals a remarkably broad and continuous anomalous-GVD region in the high-frequency wing of the carbon dioxide rovibrational band from approximately 3.5 to 4.2 μm where atmospheric air is still highly transparent and where high-peak-power sources of ultrashort midinfrared pulses are available. Within this range, anomalous dispersion acting jointly with optical nonlinearity of atmospheric air is shown to give rise to a unique three-dimensional dynamics with well-resolved soliton features in the time domain, enabling a highly efficient whole-beam soliton self-compression of such pulses to few-cycle pulse widths.

  10. Air Data Calibration Facility (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This facility is for low altitude subsonic altimeter system calibrations of air vehicles. Mission is a direct support of the AFFTC mission. Postflight data merge is...

  11. Investigating Air Pollution (United States)

    Carter, Edward J.


    Describes an experiment using live plants and cigarette smoke to demonstrate the effects of air pollution on a living organism. Procedures include growth of the test plants in glass bottles, and construction and operation of smoking machine. (CS)

  12. Indoor Air Pollution


    Smith, Kirk R.


    Outdoor air pollution in developing-country cities is difficult to overlook. Indoor air pollution caused by burning such traditional fuels as wood, crop residues, and dung is less evident, yet it is responsible for a significant part of country and global disease burdens. The main groups affected are poor women and children in rural areas and urban slums as they go about their daily activi...

  13. Air Superiority Fighter Characteristics. (United States)


    many a dispute could have been deflated into a single paragraph if the disputants had just dared to define their terms.7 Aristotle ...meaningful. This section will expand on some key ideology concepts. The phrase "air superiority fighter" may bring to mind visions of fighter... biographies are useful in garnering airpower advocate theories as well as identifying key characteristics. Air campaign results, starting with World

  14. Nuclear air cushion vehicles. (United States)

    Anderson, J. L.


    This paper serves several functions. It identifies the 'state-of-the-art' of the still-conceptual nuclear air cushion vehicle, particularly the nuclear powerplant. Using mission studies and cost estimates, the report describes some of the advantages of nuclear power for large air cushion vehicles. The paper also summarizes the technology studies on mobile nuclear powerplants and conceptual ACV systems/missions studies that have been performed at NASA Lewis Research Center.



    Wang, Xin


    With the development of modern architecture, one of the building's interior decoration, furnishings, appliances and equipment have become increasingly demanding, making construction of the indoor environment of increasing pollution, increasing pollution, indoor environmental pollution hazards to human is also a growing the greater. This thesis summarizes the major indoor air pollution sources and major pollutants. Indoor air pollutants are formaldehyde, radon, ammonia, total volatile org...

  16. Multipollutant air quality management. (United States)

    Hidy, George M; Pennell, William T


    On the basis of a recent NARSTO assessment, this review discusses the factors involved in the implementation of a risk- and results-based multipollutant air quality management strategy applicable to North America. Such a strategy could evolve from current single-pollutant regulatory practices using a series of steps that would seek to minimize risk of exposure for humans and ecosystems while providing for a quantitative evaluation of the effectiveness of the management process. The tools needed to support multipollutant air quality management are summarized. They include application of a formal risk analysis, accounting for atmospheric processes, ambient measurements, emissions characterization, air quality modeling of emissions to ambient concentrations, and characterization of human and ecological responses to ambient pollutant exposure. The new management strategy would expand the current practice of accountability that relates emission reductions and attainment of air quality derived from air quality criteria and standards. Conceptually, achievement of accountability would establish goals optimizing risk reduction associated with pollution management. This expanded approach takes into account the sequence of processes from emissions reduction to resulting changes in ambient concentration. Using ambient concentration as a proxy for exposure, the resulting improvement in human and ecosystem health is estimated. The degree to which this chain of processes and effects can be achieved in current practice is examined in a multipollutant context exemplified by oxidants, as indicated by ozone, particulate matter, and some hazardous air pollutants. Achievement of a multipollutant management strategy will mostly depend on improving knowledge about human and ecosystem response to pollutant exposure.

  17. Resistive MHD jet simulations with large resistivity

    CERN Document Server

    Cemeljic, Miljenko; Vlahakis, Nektarios; Tsinganos, Kanaris


    Axisymmetric resistive MHD simulations for radially self-similar initial conditions are performed, using the NIRVANA code. The magnetic diffusivity could occur in outflows above an accretion disk, being transferred from the underlying disk into the disk corona by MHD turbulence (anomalous turbulent diffusivity), or as a result of ambipolar diffusion in partially ionized flows. We introduce, in addition to the classical magnetic Reynolds number Rm, which measures the importance of resistive effects in the induction equation, a new number Rb, which measures the importance of the resistive effects in the energy equation. We find two distinct regimes of solutions in our simulations. One is the low-resistivity regime, in which results do not differ much from ideal-MHD solutions. In the high-resistivity regime, results seem to show some periodicity in time-evolution, and depart significantly from the ideal-MHD case. Whether this departure is caused by numerical or physical reasons is of considerable interest for nu...

  18. Universality in legged locomotion on low-resistance ground (United States)

    Qian, Feifei; Korff, Wyatt; Umbanhowar, Paul; Full, Robert; Goldman, Daniel


    Natural substrates like sand, snow, leaf litter and soil vary widely in penetration resistance, but little is known about how legged locomotors respond to this variation. To address this deficit, we built an air-fluidized trackway filled with granular material to control ground resistance. Resistance can be reduced to zero by increasing the upward flow of air through the bed. Using a hexapedal robot as our model locomotor, we systematically study how locomotion performance varies with penetration resistance, limb kinematics and foot morphology. A universal model, which combines robot kinematics and ground parameters, determines robot speed for all penetration resistances and captures the dependence of performance sensitivity on foot pressure and ground resistance. Expanding the scope of locomotors to include five organisms, we find that their performance on low-resistance ground is also well captured by the universal model. The model suggests that both increasing foot size and decreasing gait frequency reduce the performance loss as ground resistance decreases. Organisms may minimize the inertial effects of the granular media by maintaining maximum foot impact shear stresses through passive structures, e.g. long flexible toes, and active mechanisms, e.g. gait frequency control.

  19. Relationship between Pulmonary Airflow and Resistance in Patients with Airway Narrowing Using An 1-D Network Resistance and Compliance Model (United States)

    Choi, Sanghun; Choi, Jiwoong; Hoffman, Eric; Lin, Ching-Long


    To predict the proper relationship between airway resistance and regional airflow, we proposed a novel 1-D network model for airway resistance and acinar compliance. First, we extracted 1-D skeletons at inspiration images, and generated 1-D trees of CT unresolved airways with a volume filling method. We used Horsfield order with random heterogeneity to create diameters of the generated 1-D trees. We employed a resistance model that accounts for kinetic energy and viscous dissipation (Model A). The resistance model is further coupled with a regional compliance model estimated from two static images (Model B). For validation, we applied both models to a healthy subject. The results showed that Model A failed to provide airflows consistent with air volume change, whereas Model B provided airflows consistent with air volume change. Since airflows shall be regionally consistent with air volume change in patients with normal airways, Model B was validated. Then, we applied Model B to severe asthmatic subjects. The results showed that regional airflows were significantly deviated from air volume change due to airway narrowing. This implies that airway resistance plays a major role in determining regional airflows of patients with airway narrowing. Support for this study was provided, in part, by NIH Grants U01 HL114494, R01 HL094315, R01 HL112986, and S10 RR022421.

  20. Fluidized Bed Air-to-Air Heat Pump Evaporator Evaluation. (United States)


    Frost formation of air-to-air heat pump evaporator surfaces reduces unit efficiency and restricts application. The use of a fluidized bed heat...exchanger as an air-to- heat pump evaporator was investigated to determine if frost accumulation could be eliminated. Experimental investigations were...evaluated, with no practical solution being developed. The use of a fluidized bed heat exchanger for air-to-air heat pump evaporators was determined not feasible. (Author)

  1. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... how antimicrobial resistance both emerges and proliferates among bacteria. Over time, the use of antimicrobial drugs will result in the development of resistant strains of bacteria, complicating clinician's efforts to select the appropriate antimicrobial ...

  2. Selection of Air Terminal Device

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter V.

    This paper discusses the selection of the air terminal device for the experiments and numerical prediction in the International Energy Agency Annex 20 work: Air Flow Pattern within Buildings,......This paper discusses the selection of the air terminal device for the experiments and numerical prediction in the International Energy Agency Annex 20 work: Air Flow Pattern within Buildings,...

  3. Resisting Mind Control. (United States)

    Anderson, Susan M.; Zimbardo, Philip G.


    Provides conceptual analyses of mind control techniques along with practical advice on how to resist these techniques. The authors stress that effective mind control stems more from everyday social relations than from exotic technological gimmicks. Suggestions are given for resisting persuasion, resisting systems, and challenging the system.…

  4. Effective graph resistance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ellens, W.; Spieksma, F.M.; Mieghem, P. van; Jamakovic, A.; Kooij, R.E.


    This paper studies an interesting graph measure that we call the effective graph resistance. The notion of effective graph resistance is derived from the field of electric circuit analysis where it is defined as the accumulated effective resistance between all pairs of vertices. The objective of the

  5. Overcoming resistance to change. (United States)

    McKay, L


    The pace of change in health care organizations challenges nursing administrators at all levels of management to be effective change agents. As resistance is an inevitable element in the process of planned change, inclusion of interventions to overcome resistance is critical to the change agent role. The author presents five theoretically-based strategies for reducing the levels of resistance to planned change.

  6. Computers in Air Defence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. V.S. Rao


    Full Text Available With man's mastery over the third dimension - the near atmosphere and space- it has become increasingly necessary to protect oneself not merely from attacks from land and the sea but, more importantly, from attacks from the air. This was recognised even during the World War II and a rudimentary air defence capability was sought to be established; by the manul (visual surveillance and the anti-aircraft guns. The advent of radar signified a major advance in air defence technology and techniques. Rather than depend on visual observation and the hazards and limitations thereof, it became possible with radar to detect the presence of flying objects at much great distances. The PPI display of a conventional air-surveillance radar permits an operator to scan the sky for several hundreds of kilometers all around. Early radar-based air defence systems were dependent on human observation and decision making for detecting targets, identifying them, deciding on interception strategy and for recovering the interceptor after completion of his mission. This was feasible because, with a radar of between 200 to 400 kilometers and aircraft speeds in the range of 500 kilometers per hour, upto 30 minutes warning was available before the target was overhead.

  7. Urban Air Pollution in India


    Narain, Urvashi


    This article describes the main efforts undertaken to stem the growth of air pollution in Indian cities. We begin by examining trends in air quality across the country. This is followed by a description of the legal and institutional framework and policies for controlling air pollution in India. Next we report on efforts to improve air quality in Delhi. We conclude by describing recent actions to control air pollution in cities other than Delhi.

  8. Resistance of Lasioderma serricorne (Coleoptera: Anobiidae) to Fumigation with Phosphine. (United States)

    Sağlam, Özgür; Edde, Peter A; Phillips, Thomas W


    Lasioderma serricorne (F.) is a serious pest of stored products that is known to be resistant to the fumigant pesticide gas phosphine. This study investigated resistance in populations from the southeastern United States, and determined if a recommended treatment schedule could kill resistant insects. A laboratory assay for adult insects was developed that used a discriminating concentration of 50 ppm phosphine applied to insects for 20 h at 25°C followed by 7 d of recovery in air. Survivors were classified as resistant. L. serricorne from six different field populations associated with stored tobacco were surveyed with the assay and all had resistant individuals. Four populations had greater than 90% of their insects resistant. Two industry-recommended treatment schedules were evaluated in laboratory fumigations against mixed life stage cultures of the four most resistant populations: the first at 200 ppm for 4 d at 25°C for controlling phosphine-susceptible L. serricorne and the second at 600 ppm for 6 d at 25°C intended to control phosphine-resistant beetles. The four populations with the highest frequency of resistant individuals from the field sampling study were not controlled by the "normal" treatment intended for susceptible insects. The higher concentration treatment greatly reduced beetle progeny from mixed-stage colony jars, but there were substantial numbers of surviving adults from all four highly resistant populations that represented unacceptable levels of control.

  9. Resisting Organizational Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunnar Andersson


    Full Text Available We are continuously reminded of how change induces controversy and resistance, regardless of support. We repeatedly experience resistance in difficulties of implementation, little progress, and poor results, rather than increased productivity as anticipated. In a detailed account of how change plays out, a mosaic of what resistance looks like emerges. The picture is both familiar and absolutely concrete, and challenges the structural assumptions and dichotomies on support and resistance in an organization. The findings invite technologies, people, actions, practices and materiality to the discussions on support and resistance.

  10. AirPort Extreme

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    AirPort Extreme是基于IEEE802.11g无线通讯协议的54Mbps的无线路由机站,它提供了比802.11b标准几乎快5倍以上的连接速率。AirPort Extreme基站可以同时为50台Mac和PC机用户服务。它支持从无线打印至带有USB接口或以太网接口的打印机,支持无线桥接技术,并同时提供了一整套强大的管理工具。除此之外,AirPort Extreme基站还配有一个内建防火墙,

  11. Urban Air Pollution Problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sivertsen, B.


    This document focuses on the specific problems of urban air pollution related to emissions, urban climate, meteorology, smog potential, specific locations, air pollution measurements and trends. Examples are given with cases from European cities in particular. The north south differences, coastal and inland problems and data from various parts of Europe are presented. Global trends and results from the UNEP programme are used to illustrate the magnitude of the problem. Special emphasis is placed on the impact of different sources and their importance in selected cities. Different types of atmospheric dispersion models, their development and use, is outlined. The importance of local and regional meteorological data for explanation purposes and for estimating and forecasting urban air quality is presented. Finally, monitoring programmes, mapping, impact assessment and optimum abatement strategy planning are illustrated with examples from different areas in the world. 9 refs., 56 figs., 1 table

  12. Air the excellent canopy

    CERN Document Server

    Fahy, F


    We take it for granted, but without it we perish and if we continue to abuse it, it may kill us in the end. This fascinating text provides an understanding and appreciation of the role that air plays in our environment and its importance in relation to human life and technology. Aimed at those who are scientifically curious but who have no specialist training, it contains no mathematical equations and relies upon the qualitative descriptions and analogies to explain the more technical parts of the text together with simple home experiments to illustrate a range of air-based phenomena. Liberall

  13. Multidrug resistance associated proteins in multidrug resistance


    Sodani, Kamlesh; Patel, Atish; Kathawala, Rishil J.; Chen, Zhe-Sheng


    Multidrug resistance proteins (MRPs) are members of the C family of a group of proteins named ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters. These ABC transporters together form the largest branch of proteins within the human body. The MRP family comprises of 13 members, of which MRP1 to MRP9 are the major transporters indicated to cause multidrug resistance in tumor cells by extruding anticancer drugs out of the cell. They are mainly lipophilic anionic transporters and are reported to transport fr...

  14. Air movement - good or bad?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toftum, Jørn


    Air movement - good or bad? The question can only be answered by those who are exposed when they are exposed. Human perception of air movement depends on environmental factors including air velocity, air velocity fluctuations, air temperature, and personal factors such as overall thermal sensation...... and activity level. Even for the same individual, sensitivity to air movement may change from day to day as a result of e.g. different levels of fatigue. Based on existing literature, the current paper summarizes factors influencing the human perception of air movement and attempts to specify in general terms...... influences the subjective perception of air movement. With occupants feeling warmer than neutral, at temperatures above 23oC or at raised activity levels, humans generally do not feel draught at air velocities typical for indoor environments (up to around 0.4 m/s). In the higher temperature range, very high...

  15. Russia air management program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pace, T.G. [U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, NC (United States); Markin, S. [Ministry of Environmental Protection and Natural Resources, Moscow (Sweden); Kosenkova, S.V. [Volgograd Environmental Services Administration, Volgograd (Russian Federation)


    The Russia Air Management Program is in the second year of a four-year cooperative program between the Russian Ministry of Environmental Protection and Natural Resources (MEPNR) and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to improve national institutions, policies, and practices for air quality management in Russia. This program is part of the Environmental Policy and Technology project being conducted by the U.S. Agency for International Development. The Russia Air Management Program will pilot the application of potential air program improvements in the important industrial City of Volgograd which will enable the development, practical demonstration and evaluation of alternative approaches for improving AQM policies and practices in Russia. Volgograd has a progressive and environmentally enlightened local government, a diverse industrial base and a relatively healthy economy. It is located south of Moscow on the Volga River and was proposed by the Ministry of Environmental Protection and Natural Resources. It was selected after a site visit and a series of discussions with the Ministry, Volgograd officials, the World Bank and the EPA. Following the pilot, RAMP will work to facilitate implementation of selected parts of the pilot in other areas of Russia using training, technology transfer, and public awareness. (author)

  16. Air Structures: Inflatable Alternatives (United States)

    Valerio, Joseph M.; And Others


    Describes and evaluates several avant garde'' examples of air structures. Included are a soft'' child's playpen, a pneudome that employs a water ballast for anchoring, a one-acre enclosed campus, an instant city'' constructed for an industrial design conference, and the Fuji Pavilion, at Expo '70 in Osaka, Japan, that was large enough to cover…

  17. Mid-air Acrobatics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Two new aerobatic demonstration teams take to the skies On September 1,two new aerobatic demonstration teams,the Sky Wing and the Red Falcon,debuted at an air show held in Changchun,capital of northeast China’s Jilin Province.

  18. Hexane Air Combustion

    CERN Document Server

    Boettcher, Philipp A; Shepherd, Joseph E


    Hot surface ignition and subsequent flame propagation of premixed n-hexane air mixtures are shown in this fluid dynamics video. High speed schlieren photography revealed 3 distinct behaviors of ignition and propagation as a function of mixture composition and initial pressure.

  19. Images in the Air (United States)

    Riveros, H. G.; Rosenberger, Franz


    This article discusses two "magic tricks" in terms of underlying optical principles. The first trick is new and produces a "ghost" in the air, and the second is the classical real image produced with two parabolic mirrors. (Contains 2 figure and 6 photos.)

  20. Air Blast Calculations (United States)


    gauges at this point are still inside the explosive fireball (where the pressure time histories are dramatically influenced by the propagating...outside of the explosive fireball (since no evidence of an air-product interface is detected in any of the pressure time histories at this point

  1. Learning AirWatch

    CERN Document Server

    Dunkerley, Mark


    If you are a technical professional who wants to dive deeper into the functionality offered by AirWatch or manage the solution, then this book will help you choose the best set of configuration, device management, and monitoring options that you can use to effectively manage your EMM implementation.

  2. Tribal Air Quality Monitoring. (United States)

    Wall, Dennis


    The Institute for Tribal Environmental Professionals (ITEP) (Flagstaff, Arizona) provides training and support for tribal professionals in the technical job skills needed for air quality monitoring and other environmental management tasks. ITEP also arranges internships, job placements, and hands-on training opportunities and supports an…

  3. Indoor Air Quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Selman, Ayser Dawod; Heiselberg, Per

    Overall purpose of the research is to provide an overview of the relevance and importance of various defined Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) parameters in a European perspective. Based on the report it should be possible to prioritize which countries to target for further activities as well as it should...

  4. Air Distribution in Rooms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter V.

    The research on air distribution in rooms is often done as full-size investigations, scale-model investigations or by Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD). New activities have taken place within all three areas and this paper draws comparisons between the different methods. The outcome of the l...

  5. Air-sea transfer of gas phase controlled compounds (United States)

    Yang, M.; Bell, T. G.; Blomquist, B. W.; Fairall, C. W.; Brooks, I. M.; Nightingale, P. D.


    Gases in the atmosphere/ocean have solubility that spans several orders of magnitude. Resistance in the molecular sublayer on the waterside limits the air-sea exchange of sparingly soluble gases such as SF6 and CO2. In contrast, both aerodynamic and molecular diffusive resistances on the airside limit the exchange of highly soluble gases (as well as heat). Here we present direct measurements of air-sea methanol and acetone transfer from two open cruises: the Atlantic Meridional Transect in 2012 and the High Wind Gas Exchange Study in 2013. The transfer of the highly soluble methanol is essentially completely airside controlled, while the less soluble acetone is subject to both airside and waterside resistances. Both compounds were measured concurrently using a proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometer, with their fluxes quantified by the eddy covariance method. Up to a wind speed of 15 m s-1, observed air-sea transfer velocities of these two gases are largely consistent with the expected near linear wind speed dependence. Measured acetone transfer velocity is ∼30% lower than that of methanol, which is primarily due to the lower solubility of acetone. From this difference we estimate the “zero bubble” waterside transfer velocity, which agrees fairly well with interfacial gas transfer velocities predicted by the COARE model. At wind speeds above 15 m s-1, the transfer velocities of both compounds are lower than expected in the mean. Air-sea transfer of sensible heat (also airside controlled) also appears to be reduced at wind speeds over 20 m s-1. During these conditions, large waves and abundant whitecaps generate large amounts of sea spray, which is predicted to alter heat transfer and could also affect the air-sea exchange of soluble trace gases. We make an order of magnitude estimate for the impacts of sea spray on air-sea methanol transfer.

  6. Ceramic membrane defouling (cleaning) by air Nano Bubbles. (United States)

    Ghadimkhani, Aliasghar; Zhang, Wen; Marhaba, Taha


    Ceramic membranes are among the most promising technologies for membrane applications, owing to their excellent resistance to mechanical, chemical, and thermal stresses. However, membrane fouling is still an issue that hampers the applications at large scales. Air Nano Bubbles (NBs), due to high mass transfer efficiency, could potentially prevent fouling of ceramic membrane filtration processes. In this study, bench and pilot scale ceramic membrane filtration was performed with air NBs to resist fouling. To simulate fouling, humic acid, as an organic foulant, was applied to the membrane flat sheet surface. Complete membrane clogging was achieved in less than 6 h. Membrane defouling (cleaning) was performed by directly feeding of air NBs to the membrane cells. The surface of the ceramic membrane was superbly cleaned by air NBs, as revealed by atomic force microscope (AFM) images before and after the treatment. The permeate flux recovered to its initial level (e.g., 26.7 × 10(-9) m(3)/m(2)/s at applied pressure of 275.8 kPa), which indicated that NBs successfully unclogged the pores of the membrane. The integrated ceramic membrane and air NBs system holds potential as an innovative sustainable technology.

  7. Dynamics of a solid sphere bouncing on or penetrating through a liquid-air interface (United States)

    Kim, Seong Jin; Jung, Sunghwan; Lee, Sungyon


    In this study, we investigate the dynamics of a solid particle moving from liquid to air through a liquid-air interface. The experimental setup consists of an air-piston system that shoots a solid particle into water towards the free surface from below. Experimental results indicate that the particle either penetrates or bounces back depending on the particle size, impact speed, and surface tension. In particular, the particle needs to overcome the resistive interfacial forces in order to penetrate through the liquid-air interface. This transition from bouncing to penetration regimes is captured theoretically by conducting a simple force balance and is further compared with experiments.

  8. Comparing toxic air pollutant programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hawkins, S.C. [ECKENFELDER Inc., Greenville, SC (United States)


    This article compares state and federal toxic air pollutant programs. The Clean Air Act Ammendments created a program for the control of Hazardous Air Pollutants based on the establishment of control technology standards. State toxic programs can be classified into two categories: control technology-based and ambient concentration-based. Many states have opened to implement the MACT standards while enforcing their own state air toxics programs. Specific topics discussed include the following: the Federal air toxics program; existing state regulations; New Jersey Air Toxic Program; New York Toxics program.

  9. 42 CFR 84.1149 - Airflow resistance tests; all dust, fume, and mist respirators; minimum requirements. (United States)


    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Airflow resistance tests; all dust, fume, and mist... RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Dust, Fume, and Mist; Pesticide; Paint Spray; Powered Air-Purifying High Efficiency Respirators and Combination Gas Masks § 84.1149 Airflow resistance tests; all dust, fume, and...

  10. Void structure of concrete with superabsorbent polymers and its relation to frost resistance of concrete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasholt, Marianne Tange; Jensen, Ole Mejlhede; Laustsen, Sara


    the difference between poor and satisfactory frost-resistance. Furthermore, the results indicate that voids created directly by SAP protect concrete against frost deterioration just like other air voids; if the concrete contains enough SAP voids, these alone can provide sufficient frost resistance. © 2013 RILEM....

  11. An experimental investigation on air-side performances of finned tube heat exchangers for indirect air-cooling tower

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Du Xueping


    Full Text Available A tremendous quantity of water can be saved if the air cooling system is used, comparing with the ordinary water-cooling technology. In this study, two kinds of finned tube heat exchangers in an indirect air-cooling tower are experimentally studied, which are a plain finned oval-tube heat exchanger and a wavy-finned flat-tube heat exchanger in a cross flow of air. Four different air inlet angles (90°, 60 °, 45°, and 30° are tested separately to obtain the heat transfer and resistance performance. Then the air-side experimental correlations of the Nusselt number and friction factor are acquired. The comprehensive heat transfer performances for two finned tube heat exchangers under four air inlet angles are compared. For the plain finned oval-tube heat exchanger, the vertical angle (90° has the worst performance while 45° and 30° has the best performance at small ReDc and at large ReDc, respectively. For the wavy-finned flat-tube heat exchanger, the worst performance occurred at 60°, while the best performance occurred at 45° and 90° at small ReDc and at large ReDc, respectively. From the comparative results, it can be found that the air inlet angle has completely different effects on the comprehensive heat transfer performance for the heat exchangers with different structures.

  12. Molecular Air Data Clear Air Turbulence Sensor: MADCAT Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Clear air turbulence (CAT), often referred to as "air pockets," is attributed to Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities at altitudes generally above 18,000ft, often in the...

  13. Nitrogen fluorescence in air for observing extensive air showers

    CERN Document Server

    Keilhauer, B; Fraga, M; Matthews, J; Sakaki, N; Tameda, Y; Tsunesada, Y; Ulrich, A


    Extensive air showers initiate the fluorescence emissions from nitrogen molecules in air. The UV-light is emitted isotropically and can be used for observing the longitudinal development of extensive air showers in the atmosphere over tenth of kilometers. This measurement technique is well-established since it is exploited for many decades by several cosmic ray experiments. However, a fundamental aspect of the air shower analyses is the description of the fluorescence emission in dependence on varying atmospheric conditions. Different fluorescence yields affect directly the energy scaling of air shower reconstruction. In order to explore the various details of the nitrogen fluorescence emission in air, a few experimental groups have been performing dedicated measurements over the last decade. Most of the measurements are now finished. These experimental groups have been discussing their techniques and results in a series of \\emph{Air Fluorescence Workshops} commenced in 2002. At the 8$^{\\rm{th}}$ Air Fluoresc...

  14. Molecular Air Data Clear Air Turbulence Sensor: MADCAT Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Clear air turbulence (CAT), often referred to as "air pockets," is attributed to Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities at altitudes usually above 18,000ft, often without...

  15. Air-Coupled Vibrometry (United States)

    Döring, D.; Solodov, I.; Busse, G.

    Sound and ultrasound in air are the products of a multitude of different processes and thus can be favorable or undesirable phenomena. Development of experimental tools for non-invasive measurements and imaging of airborne sound fields is of importance for linear and nonlinear nondestructive material testing as well as noise control in industrial or civil engineering applications. One possible solution is based on acousto-optic interaction, like light diffraction imaging. The diffraction approach usually requires a sophisticated setup with fine optical alignment barely applicable in industrial environment. This paper focuses on the application of the robust experimental tool of scanning laser vibrometry, which utilizes commercial off-the-shelf equipment. The imaging technique of air-coupled vibrometry (ACV) is based on the modulation of the optical path length by the acoustic pressure of the sound wave. The theoretical considerations focus on the analysis of acousto-optical phase modulation. The sensitivity of the ACV in detecting vibration velocity was estimated as ~1 mm/s. The ACV applications to imaging of linear airborne fields are demonstrated for leaky wave propagation and measurements of ultrasonic air-coupled transducers. For higher-intensity ultrasound, the classical nonlinear effect of the second harmonic generation was measured in air. Another nonlinear application includes a direct observation of the nonlinear air-coupled emission (NACE) from the damaged areas in solid materials. The source of the NACE is shown to be strongly localized around the damage and proposed as a nonlinear "tag" to discern and image the defects.

  16. Development of Air-cooled Engines with Blower Cooling (United States)

    Lohner, Kurt


    With the aid of a heating device, the heat transfer to cylinders with conical fins of various forms is determined both for shrouded and exposed cylinders. Simultaneously the pressure drop for overcoming the resistance to the motion of air between the fins of the enclosed cylinder is measured. Thus the relations between the heat transfer and the energy required for cooling are discovered. The investigations show that the heat transfer in a conducted air flow is much greater than in a free current and that further improvement, as compared with free exposure, is possible through narrower spaces between the fins.

  17. Treatment-Resistant Schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Howes, Oliver D; McCutcheon, Rob; Agid, Ofer;


    OBJECTIVE: Research and clinical translation in schizophrenia is limited by inconsistent definitions of treatment resistance and response. To address this issue, the authors evaluated current approaches and then developed consensus criteria and guidelines. METHOD: A systematic review of randomized...... antipsychotic clinical trials in treatment-resistant schizophrenia was performed, and definitions of treatment resistance were extracted. Subsequently, consensus operationalized criteria were developed through 1) a multiphase, mixed methods approach, 2) identification of key criteria via an online survey, and 3...... responsive from treatment-resistant patients. CONCLUSIONS: There is considerable variation in current approaches to defining treatment resistance in schizophrenia. The authors present consensus guidelines that operationalize criteria for determining and reporting treatment resistance, adequate treatment...

  18. Challenges to Resistance Welding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Song, Quanfeng

    This report originates from the compulsory defense during my Ph.D. study at the Technical University of Denmark. Resistance welding is an old and well-proven technology. Yet the emergence of more and more new materials, new designs, invention off new joining techniques, and more stringent...... requirement in quality have imposed challenges to the resistance welding. More some research and development have to be done to adapt the old technology to the manufacturing industry of the 21st century. In the 1st part of the report, the challenging factors to the resistance welding are reviewed. Numerical...... simulation of resistance welding has been under development for many years. Yet it is no easy to make simulation results reliable and accurate because of the complexity of resistance welding process. In the 2nd part of the report numerical modeling of resistance welding is reviewed, some critical factors...

  19. Air-cooled, hydrogen-air fuel cell (United States)

    Shelekhin, Alexander B. (Inventor); Bushnell, Calvin L. (Inventor); Pien, Michael S. (Inventor)


    An air-cooled, hydrogen-air solid polymer electrolyte (SPE) fuel cell with a membrane electrode assembly operatively associated with a fluid flow plate having at least one plate cooling channel extending through the plate and at least one air distribution hole extending from a surface of the cathode flow field into the plate cooling channel.

  20. Nightfall: Machine Autonomy in Air-to-Air Combat (United States)


    Debashis Chanda et al., “Large-Area Flexible 3D Optical Negative Index Metamaterial Formed by Nanotransfer Printing,” Nature Nanotechnology 6, no. 7 (July...article restricts the discussion to air-to-air applications because they present an extremely sterile environment compared to the air-to-ground (surface

  1. A Breath of Fresh Air: Addressing Indoor Air Quality (United States)

    Palliser, Janna


    Indoor air pollution refers to "chemical, biological, and physical contamination of indoor air," which may result in adverse health effects (OECD 2003). The causes, sources, and types of indoor air pollutants will be addressed in this article, as well as health effects and how to reduce exposure. Learning more about potential pollutants in home…

  2. EN EL AIRE / In the air

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés López Fernández


    Full Text Available RESUMEN En el aire es un viaje a la primera mitad del siglo XX que nos tratará de acercar la frescura y oportunidad de las calles corredor y los jardines en la ciudad vertical. Se inicia en 1909 en Nueva York, con la publicación por la revista Life de La Torre del Globo, se acerca al Inmueble-Villas y al Plan Obus para Argel de Le Corbusier, y finaliza en 1952 con el proyecto para el conjunto residencial de Golden Lane en Londres de A. y P. Smithson. Fragmentos para la ciudad vertical que se construía sobre papel, tras el espejo, paralela en el tiempo, pero muy distinta a la ciudad real, con el objetivo entre otros de integrar arquitectura y naturaleza. Esas propuestas siguen teniendo hoy un gran valor, en un panorama en que el espacio público ligado a la vivienda colectiva, prácticamente ha desaparecido, y el esfuerzo que se demanda al arquitecto se centra, en tejer a modo de encaje de bolillos, una fachada que envuelva un programa de vivienda, funcional y espacialmente obsoleto.SUMMARY In the air, is a journey to the first half of the twentieth century that will try to bring us to the freshness and opportunity of the corridor streets and gardens in the vertical city. It begins in 1909 in New York, with the publication in Life magazine of the Globe Tower, it approaches the Immeubles-Villas and Plan Obus for Algiers by Le Corbusier, and ends in 1952 with the project for the Golden Lane Estate residential complex in London, by A. and P. Smithson. Fragments for the vertical city that was constructed on paper, behind the mirror, parallel in time, but was very different from the real city, with the aim, inter alia, of integrating architecture and nature. These proposals continue to have great value today, in a scenario where the public space linked to the collective home has virtually disappeared, and the effort that is demanded of the architect focuses on weaving a facade like bobbin lace around a functionally and spatially obsolete housing

  3. Hexagonal Boron Nitride Nanosheets as High-Performance Binder-Free Fire-Resistant Wood Coatings. (United States)

    Liu, Juanjuan; Kutty, Rajendrannair Govindan; Zheng, Qingshen; Eswariah, Varrla; Sreejith, Sivaramapanicker; Liu, Zheng


    Hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) nanosheets are synthesized through a facile shear force liquid phase exfoliation method and their use as a binder-free oxidation and fire-resistant wood coating is demonstrated. Characterized by intrinsic low thermal diffusivity and thermal effusivity, h-BN nanosheet coatings show an excellent fire resistance and oxidation resistance up to 900 °C in air.

  4. Studies efficiency solar air collector




    The article presents an analysis of the existing solar air collectors. A description of the design and the results of experimental studies on the effectiveness of the solar air collector with an absorber of from metal shavings.

  5. Air Compliance Complaint Database (ACCD) (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — THIS DATA ASSET NO LONGER ACTIVE: This is metadata documentation for the Region 7 Air Compliance Complaint Database (ACCD) which logs all air pollution complaints...

  6. Introduction to Indoor Air Quality (United States)

    Jump to main content US EPA United States Environmental Protection Agency Search Search Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) Share ... indoor air pollution. For this reason, it is important to pay attention to the time and place ...

  7. Air Markets Program Data (AMPD) (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Air Markets Program Data tool allows users to search EPA data to answer scientific, general, policy, and regulatory questions about industry emissions. Air...

  8. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... more understandable to non-scientists by showing how bacterial antimicrobial resistance can develop and spread. All FDA CVM ... Education Inspections & Compliance Federal, State & Local ...

  9. Regicide and Resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flohr, Mikkel


    This article examines the role of resistance in Michel Foucault’s political thought. The article recovers this otherwise obscured aspect of Foucault’s thought through a systematic analysis of his theoretical regicide and consequent reconceptualization of power, agency and resistance. It is argued...... that Foucault developed a highly original account of resistance, which was, and should continue to be considered, central to his thought and its critical potential. It is shown how Foucault’s concept of resistance overcomes the limitation of voluntarism and determinism, which continue to mare contemporary...

  10. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance (United States)

    ... Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products Animal & ... antimicrobial resistance both emerges and proliferates among bacteria. Over time, the use of antimicrobial drugs will result in the development ...

  11. Evidence for using air or fluid when identifying the epidural space. (United States)

    Sanford, Curtis L; Rodriguez, Ricardo E; Schmidt, James; Austin, Paul N


    Lumbar epidural analgesia is frequently employed to provide pain relief for women during labor. Anesthesia providers use various methods to identify the epidural space. Some providers use air, some use fluid, and others use a combination of air and fluid during the loss of resistance technique. Loss of resistance to air has been speculated to result in a lesser quality of analgesia compared with loss of resistance to only fluid. A search strategy focusing on preappraised sources was used to locate evidence from interventional and observational studies. Four evidence sources were located, including a systematic review with meta-analysis of 4 older studies. The evidence reviewed was inconclusive in determining whether a difference in analgesia quality results from the use of air or fluid during the loss of resistance technique. Future studies should include an adequate number of subjects and address other problems such as operator experience, observer blinding, equivalence of subject characteristics, outcomes definition and measurement, and composition of epidural solution. Providers should consider other factors when selecting loss of resistance medium, such as the reported complications of large amounts of air injected into the epidural space and surrounding structures.

  12. Study on Air-Aided Transport Means of Cutter-Suction Dredger

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting Xiong


    Full Text Available This study proves the effectiveness of air-aided transport in reducing pipeline resistance and lengthening transport distance. The adopted experimental apparatus is unique in its chosen pipes (120 mm, transmission mediums (including clean water and slurries concentrated at 10, 20 and 30%, respectively and experiment comparisons between air-aided transport and traditional relay pump transport. Factors such as resistance, transport distance and energy consumption are compared through the data from laboratory experiments, thus proving the evident advantages from air-aided transport. The total energy consumption in air-aided transport is less than that of relay pump, especially within its resistance reducing scope, where slurry flow ranges from 65m3/h to 90 m3/h. It also exists within resistance reducing scope where slurry flow of air-aided transport is less than that of relay pump transport and may reach its limited effective distance. Thus, the findings of this study can provide valuable insight for the optimization design of air-aided transport of cutter-suction dredger.

  13. Aluminum/air electrochemical cells


    Wang, Lei; 王雷


    Aluminum (Al) is a very promising energy carrier given its high capacity and energy density, low cost, earth abundance and environmental benignity. The Al/air battery as a kind of metal/air electrochemical cell attracts tremendous attention. Traditional Al/air batteries suffer from the self-corrosion and related safety problems. In this work, three new approaches were investigated to tackle these challenges and to develop high-performance Al/air cells: (1) incorporate an additional hydrogen/a...

  14. Iron-Air Rechargeable Battery (United States)

    Narayan, Sri R. (Inventor); Prakash, G.K. Surya (Inventor); Kindler, Andrew (Inventor)


    Embodiments include an iron-air rechargeable battery having a composite electrode including an iron electrode and a hydrogen electrode integrated therewith. An air electrode is spaced from the iron electrode and an electrolyte is provided in contact with the air electrode and the iron electrodes. Various additives and catalysts are disclosed with respect to the iron electrode, air electrode, and electrolyte for increasing battery efficiency and cycle life.

  15. Hot Air Engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Stouffs


    Full Text Available Invented in 1816, the hot-air engines have known significant commercial success in the nineteenth century, before falling into disuse. Nowadays they enjoy a renewed interest for some specific applications. The "hot-air engines" family is made up of two groups: Stirling engines and Ericsson engines. The operating principle of Stirling and Ericsson engines, their troubled history, their advantages and their niche applications are briefly presented, especially in the field of micro-combined heat and power, solar energy conversion and biomass energy conversion. The design of an open cycle Ericsson engine for solar application is proposed. A first prototype of the hot part of the engine has been built and tested. Experimental results are presented.

  16. Air transport system

    CERN Document Server

    Schmitt, Dieter


    The book addresses all major aspects to be considered for the design and operation of aircrafts within the entire transportation chain. It provides the basic information about the legal environment, which defines the basic requirements for aircraft design and aircraft operation. The interactions between  airport, air traffic management and the airlines are described. The market forecast methods and the aircraft development process are explained to understand the very complex and risky business of an aircraft manufacturer. The principles of flight physics as basis for aircraft design are presented and linked to the operational and legal aspects of air transport including all environmental impacts. The book is written for graduate students as well as for engineers and experts, who are working in aerospace industry, at airports or in the domain of transport and logistics.

  17. Aeromicrobiology/air quality (United States)

    Andersen, Gary L.; Frisch, A.S.; Kellogg, Christina A.; Levetin, E.; Lighthart, Bruce; Paterno, D.


    The most prevalent microorganisms, viruses, bacteria, and fungi, are introduced into the atmosphere from many anthropogenic sources such as agricultural, industrial and urban activities, termed microbial air pollution (MAP), and natural sources. These include soil, vegetation, and ocean surfaces that have been disturbed by atmospheric turbulence. The airborne concentrations range from nil to great numbers and change as functions of time of day, season, location, and upwind sources. While airborne, they may settle out immediately or be transported great distances. Further, most viable airborne cells can be rendered nonviable due to temperature effects, dehydration or rehydration, UV radiation, and/or air pollution effects. Mathematical microbial survival models that simulate these effects have been developed.

  18. Pupils' Understanding of Air Pollution (United States)

    Dimitriou, Anastasia; Christidou, Vasilia


    This paper reports on a study of pupils' knowledge and understanding of atmospheric pollution. Specifically, the study is aimed at identifying: 1) the extent to which pupils conceptualise the term "air pollution" in a scientifically appropriate way; 2) pupils' knowledge of air pollution sources and air pollutants; and 3) pupils' knowledge of air…

  19. Overview of Emerging Air Sensors (United States)

    These slides will be presented at the 2014 National Ambient Air Monitoring Conference in Atlanta, GA during August 11-15, 2014. The goal is to provide an overview of air sensor technology and the audience will be primarily state air monitoring agencies and EPA Regions.

  20. Improving IAQ Via Air Filtration. (United States)

    Monk, Brian


    Provides tips on using air filtration to control indoor air quality in educational facilities, including dedicated spaces with unique air quality conditions such as in libraries, museums and archival storage areas, kitchens and dining areas, and laboratories. The control of particulate contaminants, gaseous contaminants, and moisture buildup are…

  1. Air Pollution Primer. Revised Education. (United States)

    Corman, Rena

    This revised and updated book is written to inform the citizens on the nature, causes, and effects of air pollution. It is written in terms familiar to the layman with the purpose of providing knowledge and motivation to spur community action on clean air policies. Numerous charts and drawings are provided to support discussion of air pollution…

  2. Fast Air Temperature Sensors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hendricks, Elbert


    The note documents briefly work done on a newly developed sensor for making fast temperature measurements on the air flow in the intake ports of an SI engine and in the EGR input line. The work reviewed has been carried out in close cooperation with Civ. Ing. Michael Føns, the author (IAU......) and Spencer C. Sorenson (ET). The theory which decribes in detail the overall dynamic chracteristics of the sensor was developed at IAU, DTU....

  3. Air Conditioning Overflow Sensor (United States)


    The Technology Transfer Office at Stennis Space Center helped a local inventor develop a prototype of an attachment for central air conditioners and heat pumps that helps monitor water levels to prevent condensation overflow. The sensor will indicate a need for drain line maintenance and prevent possible damage caused by drain pan water spillover. An engineer in the Stennis Space Center prototype Development Laboratory used SSC sensor technology in the development of the sensor.

  4. Air Cargo Security (United States)


    passenger and all-cargo aircraft. The air cargo system consists of a large, complex distribution network linking manufacturers and shippers to transportation to San Jose, California. His only luggage was a guitar case that concealed hammers, mallets, a knife, and a spear gun. At the...authorities and airplane manufacturers study methods to mitigate the effects of in-flight explosions.76 The FAA has had a active research program in blast

  5. Dental Compressed Air Systems. (United States)


    compressor ex- cept that the piston rings are made of a low friction material (usually a Teflon- composite ) The piston walls are oil-less and all friction... descal - ing. The water-cooled models are smaller, more efficient, and cause less heating of room air. Water-cooled aftercoolers must have an...dry to a dew point of -400C (-400 F). It has high adsorption capacity. (b) Silica Gel , which must be protected from liquid (usually by a layer of

  6. Clearing the Air

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    On November 8,seven Beijing residents,including a representative from a local environmental organization,were invited by the Beijing Municipal Environmental Protection Bureau (BMEPB)to visit its air-quality monitoring center,The visit was the first of a regular program of visits that will take 40 visitors to the center every Tuesday in hopes of giving them a betttr understanding of how airquality data are collected and analyzed.

  7. Transposons and integrons in colistin-resistant clones of Klebsiella pneumoniae and Acinetobacter baumannii with epidemic or sporadic behaviour. (United States)

    Arduino, Sonia M; Quiroga, María Paula; Ramírez, María Soledad; Merkier, Andrea Karina; Errecalde, Laura; Di Martino, Ana; Smayevsky, Jorgelina; Kaufman, Sara; Centrón, Daniela


    Multiple transposons, integrons and carbapenemases were found in Klebsiella pneumoniae colistin-resistant isolates as well as a genomic resistance island of the AbaR type in Acinetobacter baumannii colistin-resistant isolates from different hospitals from Buenos Aires City. PFGE analysis showed a polyclonal dissemination of antimicrobial resistance mechanisms among K. pneumoniae isolates, while in A. baumannii isolates the epidemic clone 1 from South America was found. Resistance determinants associated with horizontal gene transfer are contributing to the evolution to pandrug resistance in both epidemic and sporadic clones.

  8. Air Consumption Analysis of Air-Jet Weaving

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available In Textile industry, production is mostly key concern for Industry owner. This always has attracted researchers and machines manufacturers to make new developments in process and machines. Air-jet is one of the leading and successful highest productive weaving machines. However, it is now well established that due to add of charges of compressed air, manufacturing cost of air-jet weaving machine is higher as compared with rapier and projectile weaving machines. This is why countries having energy issues do not prefer air-jet weaving machines comparing projectile weaving machines. In this regard, several researchers and machine manufacturers have continuously been working to improve the efficiency of air-jet weft insertion. However, industry practice is as important as design made by researchers. The aim of this research is to investigate the air consumption of air-jet weaving on industrial scale practice. In this study, five weaving machine of same manufacturer and model were selected. It was observed that despite of manufacturing same quality of fabric, air consumption was varying almost in all weaving machines. Conventionally, mill workers adopt hit and trial practice in weaving industry including airpressure setting which leads to variation of nozzle pressure. Main reason of disparity of air consumption in air-jet weaving machines may be variation of distance from compressor to weaving machines, number of joints, un-necessary valve opening and pipes leakages cause an increase of compressed air consumption.

  9. Enhancing indoor air quality –The air filter advantage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vannan Kandi Vijayan


    Full Text Available Air pollution has become the world's single biggest environmental health risk, linked to around 7 million deaths in 2012 according to a recent World Health Organisation (WHO report. The new data further reveals a stronger link between, indoor and outdoor air pollution exposure and cardiovascular diseases, such as strokes and ischemic heart disease, as well as between air pollution and cancer. The role of air pollution in the development of respiratory diseases, including acute respiratory infections and chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases, is well known. While both indoor and outdoor pollution affect health, recent statistics on the impact of household indoor pollutants (HAP is alarming. The WHO factsheet on HAP and health states that 3.8 million premature deaths annually - including stroke, ischemic heart disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD and lung cancer are attributed to exposure to household air pollution. Use of air cleaners and filters are one of the suggested strategies to improve indoor air quality. This review discusses the impact of air pollutants with special focus on indoor air pollutants and the benefits of air filters in improving indoor air quality.

  10. Air System Information Management (United States)

    Filman, Robert E.


    I flew to Washington last week, a trip rich in distributed information management. Buying tickets, at the gate, in flight, landing and at the baggage claim, myriad messages about my reservation, the weather, our flight plans, gates, bags and so forth flew among a variety of travel agency, airline and Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) computers and personnel. By and large, each kind of information ran on a particular application, often specialized to own data formats and communications network. I went to Washington to attend an FAA meeting on System-Wide Information Management (SWIM) for the National Airspace System (NAS) ( NAS (and its information infrastructure, SWIM) is an attempt to bring greater regularity, efficiency and uniformity to the collection of stovepipe applications now used to manage air traffic. Current systems hold information about flight plans, flight trajectories, weather, air turbulence, current and forecast weather, radar summaries, hazardous condition warnings, airport and airspace capacity constraints, temporary flight restrictions, and so forth. Information moving among these stovepipe systems is usually mediated by people (for example, air traffic controllers) or single-purpose applications. People, whose intelligence is critical for difficult tasks and unusual circumstances, are not as efficient as computers for tasks that can be automated. Better information sharing can lead to higher system capacity, more efficient utilization and safer operations. Better information sharing through greater automation is possible though not necessarily easy.

  11. Air transparent soundproof window

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang-Hoon Kim


    Full Text Available A soundproof window or wall which is transparent to airflow is presented. The design is based on two wave theories: the theory of diffraction and the theory of acoustic metamaterials. It consists of a three-dimensional array of strong diffraction-type resonators with many holes centered on each individual resonator. The negative effective bulk modulus of the resonators produces evanescent wave, and at the same time the air holes with subwavelength diameter existed on the surfaces of the window for macroscopic air ventilation. The acoustic performance levels of two soundproof windows with air holes of 20mm and 50mm diameters were measured. The sound level was reduced by about 30 - 35dB in the frequency range of 400 - 5,000Hz with the 20mm window, and by about 20 - 35dB in the frequency range of 700 - 2,200Hz with the 50mm window. Multi stop-band was created by the multi-layers of the window. The attenuation length or the thickness of the window was limited by background noise. The effectiveness of the soundproof window with airflow was demonstrated by a real installation.

  12. Procedure for Balancing an Air Distribution System with Decentralised Fans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gunner, Amalie; Hultmark, Göran; Vorre, Anders;


    This paper presents results from an on-going project concerning new design procedures for mechanical ventilation systems with low energy use. Conventional constant air volume (CAV) systems are usually balanced using flat plate dampers. The purpose of using balancing dampers is to intentionally...... flawed. This paper presents a new procedure for balancing of CAV systems in combination with decentralised fans. The new system was based on replacing the balancing dampers with decentralised fans. By replacing the balancing dampers with decentralised fans, airflows can be balanced by adjusting the speed...... of the fans. In conventional air distribution systems the fan provides the necessary pressure to overcome the resistance in the branch with the highest pressure resistance. This gives an unnecessary overpressure in the remaining branches that does not provide any useful purpose. In order to decrease the fan...

  13. The comparison study of diagnostics of light filaments in air

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAO; Zuoqiang; ZHANG; Jie; YU; Jin; ZHENG; Zhiyuan; YUAN; Xiaohui; ZHANG; Zhe; LI; Yutong; WANG; Zhaohua; LING; Weijun; WEI; Zhiyi


    Long plasma channels in air induced by femtosecond laser pulses are investigated using three different methods, including the cross-section imaging, resistivity measuring and acoustic diagnostics. These methods are based on different properties of the light filaments. A comparison of the three diagnostics shows that the imaging method is the most precise one in studying the filaments distribution and evolution, that the sonographic method is the most convenient approach to detecting long plasma channels by detecting the acoustic wave generation, and that the resistivity measurement can only be applied for giving a rough estimate. The diagnostics of filaments allow us to choose appropriate detecting methods and provide further insight into the dynamic evolution of the light filaments in air.

  14. Glycosphingolipids and insulin resistance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Langeveld; J.F.M.G. Aerts


    Obesity is associated with an increased risk for insulin resistance, a state characterized by impaired responsiveness of liver, muscle and adipose tissue to insulin. One class of lipids involved in the development of insulin resistance are the (glyco)sphingolipids. Ceramide, the most simple sphingol

  15. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... CVM produced material may be copied, reproduced, and distributed as long as FDA's Center for Veterinary Medicine ... More in Antimicrobial Resistance National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring ... Note: If you need help accessing information in different file formats, see Instructions for Downloading ...

  16. Engineered plant virus resistance. (United States)

    Galvez, Leny C; Banerjee, Joydeep; Pinar, Hasan; Mitra, Amitava


    Virus diseases are among the key limiting factors that cause significant yield loss and continuously threaten crop production. Resistant cultivars coupled with pesticide application are commonly used to circumvent these threats. One of the limitations of the reliance on resistant cultivars is the inevitable breakdown of resistance due to the multitude of variable virus populations. Similarly, chemical applications to control virus transmitting insect vectors are costly to the farmers, cause adverse health and environmental consequences, and often result in the emergence of resistant vector strains. Thus, exploiting strategies that provide durable and broad-spectrum resistance over diverse environments are of paramount importance. The development of plant gene transfer systems has allowed for the introgression of alien genes into plant genomes for novel disease control strategies, thus providing a mechanism for broadening the genetic resources available to plant breeders. Genetic engineering offers various options for introducing transgenic virus resistance into crop plants to provide a wide range of resistance to viral pathogens. This review examines the current strategies of developing virus resistant transgenic plants.

  17. Resistance to change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dow, J.; Perotti, E.


    Established firms often fail to maintain leadership following disruptive market shifts. We argue that such firms are more prone to internal resistance. A radical adjustment of assets affects the distribution of employee rents, creating winners and losers. Losers resist large changes when strong cust

  18. Resistance to change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dow, J.; Perotti, E.


    Established firms often fail to maintain leadership following disrup tive market shifts. We argue that such firms are more prone to internal resistance. A radical adjustment of assets affects the distribution of employee rents, creating winners and losers. Losers resist large changes when strong cus

  19. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Skip to common links HHS U.S. Department of Health and Human Services U.S. Food and Drug Administration ... Tobacco Products Animal & Veterinary Home Animal & Veterinary Safety & Health Antimicrobial Resistance Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance Share Tweet ...

  20. African Women Writing Resistance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jennifer Browdy de Hernandez; Pauline Dongala; Omotayo; Jolaosho; Anne Serafin


    AFRICAN Women Writing Resistance is the first transnational anthology to focus on women's strategies of resistance to the challenges they face in Africa today.The anthology brings together personal narratives,testimony,interviews,short stories,poetry,performance scripts,folktales and lyrics.

  1. Antimicrobial Resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Khanal


    Full Text Available Introduction: Pneumococcal infections are important cause of morbidity and mortality. Knowledge of antimicrobial susceptibility patterns plays important role in the selection of appropriate therapy. Present study was undertaken to analyze the susceptibility patterns of pneumococcal isolates against commonly used antimicrobials with special reference to determination of minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC of penicillin in a tertiary care hospital in eastern Nepal. Methods: Twenty-six strains of S. pneumoniae isolated from various clinical specimens submitted to microbiology laboratory were evaluated. All isolates were tested for antimicrobial susceptibility by disk diffusion method. MIC of penicillin was tested by broth dilution method. Results: Of the total isolates 19 (73% were from invasive infections. Seven isolates were resistant to cotrimoxazole. No resistance to penicillin was seen in disk diffusion testing. Less susceptibility to penicillin (MIC 0.1-1.0 mg/L was observed in five (17% isolates. High level resistance to penicillin was not detected. One isolate was multidrug resistant. Conclusions: S. pneumoniaeisolates with intermediate resistance to penicillin prevail in Tertiary Care Hospital in eastern Nepal, causing invasive and noninvasive infections. As intermediate resistance is not detected in routine susceptibility testing, determination of MIC is important. It helps not only in the effective management of life threatening infections but is also essential in continuous monitoring and early detection of resistance. In addition, further study on pneumococcal infections, its antimicrobial resistance profile and correlation with clinical and epidemiological features including serotypes and group prevalence is recommended in future. Keywords: antimicrobial susceptibility pattern, penicillin, Streptococcus pneumoniae.

  2. Drug resistance in malaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S C Parija


    Full Text Available Antimalarial chemotherapy is an important component of all malaria control programmes throughout the world. This is especially so in light of the fact that there are no antimalarial vaccines which are available for clinical use at present. Emergence and spread of malaria parasites which are resistant to many of the available antimalarials today is, therefore, a major cause for concern. Till date, resistance to all groups of antimalarials excluding artemisinin has been reported. In recent years, in vitro resistance to even artemisinin has been described. While resistance to antibacterial agents has come to prominence as a clinical problem in recent years, antiparasitic resistance in general and antimalarial resistance in particular has not received much attention, especially in the Indian scenario. The present review deals with commonly used antimalarial drugs and the mechanisms of resistance to them. Various methods of detecting antimalarial resistance and avoiding the same have also been dealt with. Newer parasite targets which can be used in developing newer antimalarial agents and antimalarials obtained from plants have also been mentioned.

  3. Thermal and radiation resistance of stabilized LDPE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaharescu, T., E-mail: [INCDIE ICPE CA, Department of Radiation Processing, 313 Splaiul Unirii, P.O. Box 149, Bucharest 030138 (Romania); Jipa, S. [INCDIE ICPE CA, Department of Radiation Processing, 313 Splaiul Unirii, P.O. Box 149, Bucharest 030138 (Romania); ' Valahia' University of Targoviste, Faculty of Sciences, Targoviste 130024 (Romania); Henderson, D. [Trinity College, Hartford, CT 06106 (United States); Kappel, W. [INCDIE ICPE CA, Department of Radiation Processing, 313 Splaiul Unirii, P.O. Box 149, Bucharest 030138 (Romania); Maris, D.A.; Maris, M. [' Ovidius' University, 7 Ilarie Voronca St, P.O. Box 8700, Constanta (Romania)


    The effect of capsaicin on the radiation stability of low density polyethylene was accomplished by applying the chemiluminescence procedure. The neat and modified polymer with 0.25% and 0.50% (w/w) capsaicin were exposed to gamma-irradiation in air receiving 10, 20 and 30 kGy. The synergistic effect due to the presence of metallic selenium was demonstrated. The significant improvement in oxidation induction time was obtained demonstrating the efficient antioxidant activity of capsaicin in LDPE. The simultaneous protection action of metallic selenium in LDPE/capsaicin systems brought about a supplementary enhancement in the oxidation resistance of irradiated samples.

  4. Solid-Sorbent Air Sampler (United States)

    Galen, T. J.


    Portable unit takes eight 24-hour samples. Volatile organic compounds in air collected for analysis by portable, self-contained sampling apparatus. Sampled air drawn through sorbent material, commercial porous polymer of 2, 3-diphenyl-p-phenylene oxide. High-boiling-point organic compounds adsorbed onto polymer, while low-boiling-point organics pass through and returned to atmosphere. Sampler includes eight sample tubes filled with polymeric sorbent. Organic compounds in atmosphere absorbed when air pumped through sorbent. Designed for checking air in spacecraft, sampler adaptable to other applications as leak detection, gas-mixture analysis, and ambient-air monitoring.

  5. Air Risk Information Support Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shoaf, C.R.; Guth, D.J. [Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC (United States)


    The Air Risk Information Support Center (Air RISC) was initiated in early 1988 by the US Environmental Protection Agency`s (EPA) Office of Health and Environmental Assessment (OHEA) and the Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards (OAQPS) as a technology transfer effort that would focus on providing information to state and local environmental agencies and to EPA Regional Offices in the areas of health, risk, and exposure assessment for toxic air pollutants. Technical information is fostered and disseminated by Air RISCs three primary activities: (1) a {open_quotes}hotline{close_quotes}, (2) quick turn-around technical assistance projects, and (3) general technical guidance projects. 1 ref., 2 figs.

  6. Structural concrete elements subjected to air blast loading


    Magnusson, Johan


    In the design of structures to resist the effects of air blast loading or other severe dynamic loads it is vital to have large energy absorbing capabilities, and structural elements with large plastic deformation capacities are therefore desirable. Structures need to be designed for ductile response in order to prevent partial or total collapse due to locally failed elements. The research in this thesis considers experimental and theoretical studies on concrete beams of varying concrete stren...

  7. The Influence of Furniture on Air Velocity in a Room

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, J. R.; Nielsen, Peter V.; Svidt, Kjeld

    Using isothermal full-scale experiments and 3-dimensional CFD simulations it is investigated how normal office furniture influences the air movements in a mixing ventilated room. Two different types of inlets are used in the experiments and a set-up with normal office furniture is made. The set......-up is simulated with one of the inlets where a volume resistance represents the furniture....

  8. HIV resistance to raltegravir. (United States)

    Clavel, Francois


    Similar to all antiretroviral drugs, failure of raltegravir-based treatment regimens to fully supress HIV replication almost invariably results in emergence of HIV resistance to this new drug. HIV resistance to raltegravir is the consequence of mutations located close to the integrase active site, which can be divided into three main evolutionary pathways: the N155H, the Q148R/H/K and the Y143R/C pathways. Each of these primary mutations can be accompanied by a variety of secondary mutations that both increase resistance and compensate for the variable loss of viral replicative capacity that is often associated with primary resistance mutations. One unique property of HIV resistance to raltegravir is that each of these different resistance pathways are mutually exclusive and appear to evolve separately on distinct viral genomes. Resistance is frequently initiated by viruses carrying mutations of the N155H pathway, followed by emergence and further dominance of viral genomes carrying mutations of the Q148R/H/K or of the Y143R/C pathways, which express higher levels of resistance. Even if some natural integrase polymorphisms can be part of this evolution process, these polymorphisms do not affect HIV susceptibility in the absence of primary mutations. Therefore, all HIV-1 subtypes and groups, together with HIV-2, are naturally susceptible to raltegravir. Finally, because interaction of integrase strand transfer inhibitors with the HIV integrase active site is comparable from one compound to another, raltegravir-resistant viruses express significant cross resistance to most other compounds of this new class of antiretroviral drugs.

  9. HIV resistance to raltegravir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clavel François


    Full Text Available Abstract Similar to all antiretroviral drugs, failure of raltegravirbased treatment regimens to fully supress HIV replication almost invariably results in emergence of HIV resistance to this new drug. HIV resistance to raltegravir is the consequence of mutations located close to the integrase active site, which can be divided into three main evolutionary pathways: the N155H, the Q148R/H/K and the Y143R/C pathways. Each of these primary mutations can be accompanied by a variety of secondary mutations that both increase resistance and compensate for the variable loss of viral replicative capacity that is often associated with primary resistance mutations. One unique property of HIV resistance to raltegravir is that each of these different resistance pathways are mutually exclusive and appear to evolve separately on distinct viral genomes. Resistance is frequently initiated by viruses carrying mutations of the N155H pathway, followed by emergence and further dominance of viral genomes carrying mutations of the Q148R/H/K or of the Y143R/C pathways, which express higher levels of resistance. Even if some natural integrase polymorphisms can be part of this evolution process, these polymorphisms do not affect HIV susceptibility in the absence of primary mutations. Therefore, all HIV-1 subtypes and groups, together with HIV-2, are naturally susceptible to raltegravir. Finally, because interaction of integrase strand transfer inhibitors with the HIV integrase active site is comparable from one compound to another, raltegravir-resistant viruses express significant cross resistance to most other compounds of this new class of antiretroviral drugs.

  10. Air Quality at Your Street

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Steen Solvang; Becker, Thomas; Ketzel, Matthias

    DTU Transport as well as data on travel speeds based on GPS data from SpeedMap from the Danish Road Directorate. Modelled concentrations have been compared to fixed regional, urban background and street air quality monitoring stations to assess uncertainties, and to model results from about 30 streets......Citizens are frequently concerned about the air quality where they live, where they go to work, where their children go to kindergarten or where they want to move to. Municipalities may also have an interest in location based air quality information e.g. in relation to screening of complaints from...... concerned citizents, or in the context of localization of institutions, etc. The purpose of the project ‘Air Quality at Your Street’ is to create interactive air quality maps on the internet using webGIS to illustrate the geographical variation of air quality in Denmark for selected health related air...

  11. Indoor Air Pollution (Environmental Health Student Portal) (United States)

    Skip Navigation National Library of Medicine Environmental Health Student Portal Connecting Middle School Students to Environmental Health Information Menu Home Air Pollution Air Pollution Home Indoor Air Pollution Outdoor Air ...

  12. Accident resistant transport container (United States)

    Andersen, John A.; Cole, James K.


    The invention relates to a container for the safe air transport of plutonium having several intermediate wood layers and a load spreader intermediate an inner container and an outer shell for mitigation of shock during a hypothetical accident.

  13. Airshuffler implementation at freezer air outlets for heat transfer enhancement (United States)

    Ćerezci, Gökhan; Darka, Murat; Şenman, Ozan


    A study which is composed of computational simulation and experimental validation has been conducted for implementation of small, vane type geometries at freezer air outlets, similar to microvortex generators used in aircraft wings, in order to improve the heat transfer efficiency inside the freezer compartment by decreasing airside thermal resistance and improving the air distribution. Both simulation and experimental validation were performed in a loaded condition which was prepared according to `Household refrigerating appliances - characteristics and test methods - IEC 62552 [1]. Solutions for the incompressible K-epsilon (k-ɛ) turbulence model obtained for Bosch KDN 49 refrigerator freezer both with and without airshufflers at air outlets, which are similar to vane type microvortex generators with different geometric dimensions. The airshuffler dimensions were chosen with design of experiment (DOE) principles for finding the optimum geometry. The best combinations were tested according to cooling rate inside freezer compartment. Results were evaluated for feasibility of implementing of vortex generating surfaces (airshufflers) for cooling appliances.

  14. Impingement heat sinks for air cooled high power electronic modules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, S.S.; Holahan, M.F. [IBM Corp., Rochester, MN (United States)


    The subject of the present work is a parallel plate heat sink that is designed so that the air flow impinges at the fin tips and exhausts over the two open side faces. This type of design attempts to achieve an air flow direction that is substantially opposite to the heat flow direction within the fins so as to exploit the greater heat transfer effectiveness of counterflow heat exchange. A one dimensional model of the heat sink was developed with the assumption of air flow from the fin tips to the fin base. This simplified model was used to identify an initial heat sink geometry to cool a specific multichip module. Computational Fluid Dynamics models that account for the actual flow pattern within the heat sink were used to study a range of variations to the initial geometry and to identify the best geometry over the range examined. Experimental heat transfer and pressure drop data is reported for two heat sink prototypes. The test data is in good agreement with CFD predictions. Suitable correlations for the heat sink thermal resistance and pressure drop versus the air flow rate are developed. The developed heat sink demonstrated an area specific thermal resistance better than 8.7 C (W/cm{sup 2}).

  15. Linezolid Resistance in Staphylococci

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefania Stefani


    Full Text Available Linezolid, the first oxazolidinone to be used clinically, is effective in the treatment of infections caused by various Gram-positive pathogens, including multidrug resistant enterococci and methicillin-resistant Staphylococus aureus. It has been used successfully for the treatment of patients with endocarditis and bacteraemia, osteomyelitis, joint infections and tuberculosis and it is often used for treatment of complicated infections when other therapies have failed. Linezolid resistance in Gram-positive cocci has been encountered clinically as well as in vitro, but it is still a rare phenomenon. The resistance to this antibiotic has been, until now, entirely associated with distinct nucleotide substitutions in domain V of the 23S rRNA genes. The number of mutated rRNA genes depends on the dose and duration of linezolid exposure and has been shown to influence the level of linezolid resistance. Mutations in associated ribosomal proteins also affect linezolid activity. A new phenicol and clindamycin resistance phenotype has recently been found to be caused by an RNA methyltransferase designated Cfr. This gene confers resistance to lincosamides, oxazolidinones, streptogramin A, phenicols and pleuromutilins, decrease the susceptibility of S. aureus to tylosin, to josamycin and spiramycin and thus differs from erm rRNA methylase genes. Research into new oxazolidinones with improved characteristics is ongoing. Data reported in patent applications demonstrated that some oxazolidinone derivatives, also with improved characteristics with respect to linezolid, are presently under study: at least three of them are in an advanced phase of development.

  16. Comparison between Different Air Distribution Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter V.

    The aim of an air conditioning system is to remove excess heat in a room and replace room air with fresh air to obtain a high air quality. It is not sufficient to remove heat and contaminated air, it is also necessary to distribute and control the air movement in the room to create thermal comfort...

  17. Extensive air showers

    CERN Document Server

    Rao, M V S


    Ultrahigh energy cosmic rays carry information about their sources and the intervening medium apart from providing a beam of particles for studying certain features of high energy interactions currently inaccessible at man-made accelerators. They can at present be studied only via the extensive air showers (EAS's) they generate while passing through the Earth's atmosphere, since their fluxes are too low for the experiments of limited capability flown in balloons and satellites. The EAS is generated by a series of interactions of the primary cosmic ray and its progeny with the atmospheric nucle

  18. Solid sorbent air sampler (United States)

    Galen, T. J.


    A fluid sampler for collecting a plurality of discrete samples over separate time intervals is described. The sampler comprises a sample assembly having an inlet and a plurality of discreet sample tubes each of which has inlet and outlet sides. A multiport dual acting valve is provided in the sampler in order to sequentially pass air from the sample inlet into the selected sample tubes. The sample tubes extend longitudinally of the housing and are located about the outer periphery thereof so that upon removal of an enclosure cover, they are readily accessible for operation of the sampler in an analysis mode.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    During the last twenty years there has been rapid progress in the use of automation in a wide range of industries,as well as in military, scientific application. However, the progress in the application of automatic control is often hindered by the lack of accurate, reliable measuring apparatus. An economic thermal couple air flow sensor with better linearity (accuracy is ±5% of full scale) has been successfully made at Trolex Ltd. Many other existing sensors fail in the application of industries because of non-linearity.

  20. Teatro al aire libre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Canac


    Full Text Available Siendo cada vez más frecuentes y numerosas las peregrinaciones a la basílica de Notre Dame, de Laus (Altos Alpes, su capacidad resultaba hace tiempo insuficiente para acoger a sus peregrinos. Este fue el motivo de crear, en un terreno situado ante el atrio de la basílica, un conjunto, que permitiese celebrar misas al aire libre, ceremonias litúrgicas o representaciones de teatro religioso y que dispusiese de todas las posibilidades para conseguir la libertad del juego escénico.

  1. Air Quality Monitoring Programme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kemp, K.; Palmgren, F.

    The Danish Air Quality Monitoring Programme (LMP IV) has been revised in accordance with the Framework Directive and the first three daughter directives of SO2, NOx/NO2, PM10, lead, benzene, CO and ozone. PM10 samplers are under installation and the installation will be completed during 2002....... The PM10 results from 2000 are spares, only TSP are thus included in this report. The data sets for year 2000 is complete for many stations. The monitoring programme consists of 10 stations plus 2 extra stations under the Municipality of Copenhagen. The SO2 and lead levels are still decreasing and far...

  2. Ag-Air Service (United States)


    Econ, Inc.'s agricultural aerial application, "ag-air," involves more than 10,000 aircraft spreading insecticides, herbicides, fertilizer, seed and other materials over millions of acres of farmland. Difficult for an operator to estimate costs accurately and decide what to charge or which airplane can handle which assignment most efficiently. Computerized service was designed to improve business efficiency in choice of aircraft and determination of charge rates based on realistic operating cost data. Each subscriber fills out a detailed form which pertains to his needs and then receives a custom-tailored computer printout best suited to his particular business mix.

  3. Genetics Home Reference: clopidogrel resistance (United States)

    ... Me Understand Genetics Home Health Conditions clopidogrel resistance clopidogrel resistance Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. Download PDF Open All Close All Description Clopidogrel resistance is a condition in which the drug ...

  4. Air gun wounding and current UK laws controlling air weapons. (United States)

    Bruce-Chwatt, Robert Michael


    Air weapons whether rifles or pistols are, potentially, lethal weapons. The UK legislation is complex and yet little known to the public. Hunting with air weapons and the laws controlling those animals that are permitted to be shot with air weapons is even more labyrinthine due to the legal power limitations on the possession of air weapons. Still relatively freely available by mail order or on the Internet, an increasing number of deaths have been reported from the misuse of air weapons or accidental discharges. Ammunition for air weapons has become increasingly sophisticated, effective and therefore increasingly dangerous if misused, though freely available being a mere projectile without a concomitant cartridge containing a propellant and an initiator.

  5. Resistance to Powdery Mildews

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siwoszek, Agnieszka Izabela

    how the basic resistance components contribute to resistance against powdery mildews. Furthermore, I propose an alternative strategy of achieving resistance to barley powdery mildew by application of peptide aptamers. Peptide aptamers are small proteins selected to specifically target conserved Yx......C motif of barley powdery mildew effectors. I present a proof-of-concept study in Arabidopsis, where overexpression of peptide aptamers significantly reduced the susceptibility to barley powdery mildew. Moreover, I set the discovery in a bigger context by summarizing genetic engineering technologies...

  6. Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McNerney Ruth


    Full Text Available Abstract Background With almost 9 million new cases each year, tuberculosis remains one of the most feared diseases on the planet. Led by the STOP-TB Partnership and WHO, recent efforts to combat the disease have made considerable progress in a number of countries. However, the emergence of mutated strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis that are resistant to the major anti-tuberculosis drugs poses a deadly threat to control efforts. Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB has been reported in all regions of the world. More recently, extensively drug resistant-tuberculosis (XDR-TB that is also resistant to second line drugs has emerged in a number of countries. To ensure that adequate resources are allocated to prevent the emergence and spread of drug resistance it is important to understand the scale of the problem. In this article we propose that current methods of describing the epidemiology of drug resistant tuberculosis are not adequate for this purpose and argue for the inclusion of population based statistics in global surveillance data. Discussion Whereas the prevalence of tuberculosis is presented as the proportion of individuals within a defined population having disease, the prevalence of drug resistant tuberculosis is usually presented as the proportion of tuberculosis cases exhibiting resistance to anti-tuberculosis drugs. Global surveillance activities have identified countries in Eastern Europe, the former Soviet Union and regions of China as having a high proportion of MDR-TB cases and international commentary has focused primarily on the urgent need to improve control in these settings. Other regions, such as sub-Saharan Africa have been observed as having a low proportion of drug resistant cases. However, if one considers the incidence of new tuberculosis cases with drug resistant disease in terms of the population then countries of sub-Saharan Africa have amongst the highest rates of transmitted MDR-TB in the world. We propose

  7. Hydraulic resistance of biofilms

    KAUST Repository

    Dreszer, C.


    Biofilms may interfere with membrane performance in at least three ways: (i) increase of the transmembrane pressure drop, (ii) increase of feed channel (feed-concentrate) pressure drop, and (iii) increase of transmembrane passage. Given the relevance of biofouling, it is surprising how few data exist about the hydraulic resistance of biofilms that may affect the transmembrane pressure drop and membrane passage. In this study, biofilms were generated in a lab scale cross flow microfiltration system at two fluxes (20 and 100Lm-2h-1) and constant cross flow (0.1ms-1). As a nutrient source, acetate was added (1.0mgL-1 acetate C) besides a control without nutrient supply. A microfiltration (MF) membrane was chosen because the MF membrane resistance is very low compared to the expected biofilm resistance and, thus, biofilm resistance can be determined accurately. Transmembrane pressure drop was monitored. As biofilm parameters, thickness, total cell number, TOC, and extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) were determined, it was demonstrated that no internal membrane fouling occurred and that the fouling layer actually consisted of a grown biofilm and was not a filter cake of accumulated bacterial cells. At 20Lm-2h-1 flux with a nutrient dosage of 1mgL-1 acetate C, the resistance after 4 days reached a value of 6×1012m-1. At 100Lm-2h-1 flux under the same conditions, the resistance was 5×1013m-1. No correlation of biofilm resistance to biofilm thickness was found; Biofilms with similar thickness could have different resistance depending on the applied flux. The cell number in biofilms was between 4×107 and 5×108 cellscm-2. At this number, bacterial cells make up less than a half percent of the overall biofilm volume and therefore did not hamper the water flow through the biofilm significantly. A flux of 100Lm-2h-1 with nutrient supply caused higher cell numbers, more biomass, and higher biofilm resistance than a flux of 20Lm-2h-1. However, the biofilm thickness

  8. Multidrug resistance associated proteins in multidrug resistance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kamlesh Sodani; Atish Patel; Rishil J. Kathawala; Zhe-Sheng Chen


    Multidrug resistance proteins (MRPs) are members of the C family of a group of proteins named ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters.These ABC transporters together form the largest branch of proteins within the human body.The MRP family comprises of 13 members,of which MRP1 to MRP9 are the major transporters indicated to cause multidrug resistance in tumor cells by extruding anticancer drugs out of the cell.They are mainly lipophilic anionic transporters and are reported to transport free or conjugates of glutathione (GSH),glucuronate,or sulphate.In addition,MRP1 to MRP3 can transport neutral organic drugs in free form in the presence of free GSH.Collectively,MRPs can transport drugs that differ structurally and mechanistically,including natural anticancer drugs,nucleoside analogs,antimetabolites,and tyrosine kinase inhibitors.Many of these MRPs transport physiologically important anions such as leukotriene C4,bilirubin glucuronide,and cyclic nucleotides.This review focuses mainly on the physiological functions,cellular resistance characteristics,and probable in vivo role of MRP1 to MRP9.

  9. Mechanisms of drug resistance: daptomycin resistance. (United States)

    Tran, Truc T; Munita, Jose M; Arias, Cesar A


    Daptomycin (DAP) is a cyclic lipopeptide with in vitro activity against a variety of Gram-positive pathogens, including multidrug-resistant organisms. Since its introduction into clinical practice in 2003, DAP has become an important key frontline antibiotic for severe or deep-seated infections caused by Gram-positive organisms. Unfortunately, DAP resistance (DAP-R) has been extensively documented in clinically important organisms such as Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus spp., and Streptococcus spp. Studies on the mechanisms of DAP-R in Bacillus subtilis and other Gram-positive bacteria indicate that the genetic pathways of DAP-R are diverse and complex. However, a common phenomenon emerging from these mechanistic studies is that DAP-R is associated with important adaptive changes in cell wall and cell membrane homeostasis with critical changes in cell physiology. Findings related to these adaptive changes have provided novel insights into the genetics and molecular mechanisms of bacterial cell envelope stress response and the manner in which Gram-positive bacteria cope with the antimicrobial peptide attack and protect vital structures of the cell envelope, such as the cell membrane. In this review, we will examine the most recent findings related to the molecular mechanisms of resistance to DAP in relevant Gram-positive pathogens and discuss the clinical implications for therapy against these important bacteria.

  10. Nitrogen fluorescence in air for observing extensive air showers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsunesada Y.


    Full Text Available Extensive air showers initiate the fluorescence emissions from nitrogen molecules in air. The UV-light is emitted isotropically and can be used for observing the longitudinal development of extensive air showers in the atmosphere over tenth of kilometers. This measurement technique is well-established since it is exploited for many decades by several cosmic ray experiments. However, a fundamental aspect of the air shower analyses is the description of the fluorescence emission in dependence on varying atmospheric conditions. Different fluorescence yields affect directly the energy scaling of air shower reconstruction. In order to explore the various details of the nitrogen fluorescence emission in air, a few experimental groups have been performing dedicated measurements over the last decade. Most of the measurements are now finished. These experimental groups have been discussing their techniques and results in a series of Air Fluorescence Workshops commenced in 2002. At the 8th Air Fluorescence Workshop 2011, it was suggested to develop a common way of describing the nitrogen fluorescence for application to air shower observations. Here, first analyses for a common treatment of the major dependences of the emission procedure are presented. Aspects like the contributions at different wavelengths, the dependence on pressure as it is decreasing with increasing altitude in the atmosphere, the temperature dependence, in particular that of the collisional cross sections between molecules involved, and the collisional de-excitation by water vapor are discussed.

  11. Nitrogen fluorescence in air for observing extensive air showers (United States)

    Keilhauer, B.; Bohacova, M.; Fraga, M.; Matthews, J.; Sakaki, N.; Tameda, Y.; Tsunesada, Y.; Ulrich, A.


    Extensive air showers initiate the fluorescence emissions from nitrogen molecules in air. The UV-light is emitted isotropically and can be used for observing the longitudinal development of extensive air showers in the atmosphere over tenth of kilometers. This measurement technique is well-established since it is exploited for many decades by several cosmic ray experiments. However, a fundamental aspect of the air shower analyses is the description of the fluorescence emission in dependence on varying atmospheric conditions. Different fluorescence yields affect directly the energy scaling of air shower reconstruction. In order to explore the various details of the nitrogen fluorescence emission in air, a few experimental groups have been performing dedicated measurements over the last decade. Most of the measurements are now finished. These experimental groups have been discussing their techniques and results in a series of Air Fluorescence Workshops commenced in 2002. At the 8th Air Fluorescence Workshop 2011, it was suggested to develop a common way of describing the nitrogen fluorescence for application to air shower observations. Here, first analyses for a common treatment of the major dependences of the emission procedure are presented. Aspects like the contributions at different wavelengths, the dependence on pressure as it is decreasing with increasing altitude in the atmosphere, the temperature dependence, in particular that of the collisional cross sections between molecules involved, and the collisional de-excitation by water vapor are discussed.

  12. Health risks associated with the presence of antibiotic resistant bacteria in greywater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Moretton


    Full Text Available The removal and disposal of waste from domestic activities is a major health problem in densely populated urban areas. In many areas of Greater Buenos Aires, greywater is disposed in open ditches and risk potential of this has not been adequately quantified. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria and its resistance profile present in raw greywater obtained from a channel located in the area of Ingeniero Budge Buenos Aires Province. Thus, the prevalence of heterotrophic bacteria, Gram-negative bacteria resistant to beta-lactam antibiotics and vancomycin-resistant enterococci in greywater, their typing, and resistance to other antibiotics were determined. The prevalence of resistant bacteria was determined by the agar dilution method. Of all the antibiotics tested, the highest prevalence of resistant heterotrophic bacteria was detected with cephalothin (19% and ampicillin (8%. With regard to Gram-negative bacteria, the highest prevalence of resistance was given by coliforms ampicillin (34% and cephalothin (17%. A total of 38% of enterococci with low level resistance to vancomycin was detected. The multiresistant isolates were identified as Escherichia coli, Alcaligenes faecalis y Stenotrophomonas maltophilia. These results indicate that greywater can be considered as a reservoir of bacteria resistant to antibiotics, thus increasing their health risk.

  13. Air Traffic Flow Management

    CERN Document Server

    Ganu, Hrishikesh V


    Air Traffic Flow Management is the regulation of air traffic in order to avoid exceeding airport or flight sector capacity in handling traffic, and to ensure that available capacity is used efficiently. We have tried to explore the logic behind the claims by Bertsimas about integral solutions to the LP relaxation of the Traffic Flow Management Problem(TFMP). Polyhedral theory only indicates that the stronger TFMP formulation of Bertsimas might lead to integral solutions in some cases. Our computations indicate that the encouraging results reported by Bertsimas are not merely fortuitous or due to their specific data set. Indeed, we found that the TFMP had integral solutions even in case of artificial data sets generated to include severe conflicts in the flight schedules. In our limited tests with 4-5 scenarios, we obtained non-integral solutions only once. This is of significant practical importance because, the LP relaxation can be solved even on small machines with low memory and processor...

  14. Environmental Assessment: Proposed Seat and Canopy Staging Building, Hill Air Force Base, Utah (United States)


    obtained. Restoration planting (of any areas not occupied by structures, pavements , or irrigated turf) would include fire resistant plants, native...potential for historic properties is extremely low . However, if any are found during construction, ground-disturbing activities in the immediate vicinity...and abrasive blasting operations (in compliance with the base’s Title V air quality permit). Emission estimates are available for criteria air

  15. Antibiotic / Antimicrobial Resistance Glossary (United States)

    ... Submit Search The CDC Get Smart: Know When Antibiotics Work Note: Javascript is disabled or is not ... What Everyone Should Know What You Can Do Antibiotic Resistance Q&As Fast Facts Antibiotics Quiz Glossary ...

  16. Tetracycline Antibiotics and Resistance. (United States)

    Grossman, Trudy H


    Tetracyclines possess many properties considered ideal for antibiotic drugs, including activity against Gram-positive and -negative pathogens, proven clinical safety, acceptable tolerability, and the availability of intravenous (IV) and oral formulations for most members of the class. As with all antibiotic classes, the antimicrobial activities of tetracyclines are subject to both class-specific and intrinsic antibiotic-resistance mechanisms. Since the discovery of the first tetracyclines more than 60 years ago, ongoing optimization of the core scaffold has produced tetracyclines in clinical use and development that are capable of thwarting many of these resistance mechanisms. New chemistry approaches have enabled the creation of synthetic derivatives with improved in vitro potency and in vivo efficacy, ensuring that the full potential of the class can be explored for use against current and emerging multidrug-resistant (MDR) pathogens, including carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae, MDR Acinetobacter species, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

  17. Glucocorticoid feedback resistance. (United States)

    De Kloet, E R; Vreugdenhil, E; Oitzl, M S; Joëls, M


    Glucocorticoid feedback resistance can be inherited or locally acquired. The implications of these two forms of resistance for disease are strikingly different. The inherited form is characterized by enhanced adrenocortical function and hypercorticism to compensate for a generalized deficit in the glucocorticoid receptor gene, but these individuals lack symptoms of Cushing's syndrome. By contrast, resistance acquired at the level of the hypothalamic corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) neurons is linked to hypercorticism, which is not compensatory but overexposes the rest of the body and the brain to glucocorticoids. This cell-specific glucocorticoid resistance can be acquired by genetically predisposed individuals failing to cope with (early) life events and causes enhanced vulnerability to disease-specific actions of glucocorticoids. (c) 1997, Elsevier Science Inc. (Trends Endocrinol Metab 1997; 8:26-33).

  18. Steroid resistant asthma. (United States)

    Luhadia, S K


    Inspite of very safe and effective treatment, Bronchial asthmatics do not respond well in 5-10% of cases which are labelled as Refractory Asthma. Besides compliance, presence of psychogenic and trigger factors and comorbid illness, steroid insensitiveness or resistance may play a significant role in the poorly controlled/responding asthmatics. Type I Steroid resistance is due to lack of binding affinity of steroids to glucocorticoid receptors and may respond to higher doses of steroids while type II steroid resistance is because of reduced number of cells with glucocorticoid receptors, which is very rare and do not respond to even higher doses of systemic steroids and these cases require alternative/novel therapies. Future treatment of steroid resistant and severe refractory asthma is likely to be targeted towards cytokines and Bronchial Thermoplasty.

  19. Antibiotics and Resistance: Glossary (United States)

    ... chromosomes and plasmids. Transposons often carry genes specifying antimicrobial resistance. Virus An extremely small infective agent, visible only with an electron microscope. Viruses can cause disease in humans, animals and plants. Viruses consist of a protein coat ...

  20. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products Animal & ... antimicrobial resistance both emerges and proliferates among bacteria. Over time, the use of antimicrobial drugs will result in the development ...

  1. Rolling resistance of tires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Junio, M.; Roesgen, A.; Corvasce, F. [Goodyear Technical Center Luxembourg, Colmar-Berg (Luxembourg)


    After a review of the contribution of tire rolling resistance to fuel economy, the tire rolling resistance is defined and measurement methods discussed. The significant effects of the 'external' factors such as load, inflation, temperature, speed, etc. that are not controlled by the tire developers, are reviewed. Tire construction changes that reduce deformations and compound changes reducing hysteresis are discussed and information is provided on what has been achieved so far and what might be done in the future. (orig.)

  2. Stab resistant body armour


    Horsfall, Ian


    There is now a widely accepted need for stab resistant body armour for the police in the UK. However, very little research has been done on knife resistant systems and the penetration mechanics of sharp projectiles are poorly understood. This thesis explores the general background to knife attack and defence with a particular emphasis on the penetration mechanics of edged weapons. The energy and velocity that can be achieved in stabbing actions has been determined for a numb...

  3. Managing Air in Olympic Cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing W. Tian


    Full Text Available The 21st century Olympic Agenda aims to align itself with the concept of sustainable development and has driven improved environmental quality in host cities, such as the Green Games in Sydney 2000 and the planned Beijing 2008 Games and in London 2012 as the Low Carbon Games. Air quality has long been a concern of Olympic mega-cities, although the air quality plans and strategies have often seemed short-lived and unsustainable in the long term. We have explored air quality data and air pollution control from seven Olympic cities: Mexico City, Los Angeles, Atlanta, Sydney and Athens and also Beijing and London which will host Olympic Games in near future. The study shows that despite a high altitude and air pollution problems, Mexico City had no clear environmental policy in place for the 1968 games. The characteristic smog of Los Angeles raised concerns about athletic performance at the Olympic Games of 1984, but there were limited efforts to tackle the ozone concentration during these games. The 1996 Atlanta Games represents a case where temporary public transport changes were used as a tactic to reduce air pollution. In Sydney a well planned sustainable strategy reduced air pollutants and CO2 emissions in 2000, but Athens' long efforts to improve air quality for the 2004 games were not wholly effective. Even where strategies proved successful the improvements in air quality seem short-lived. Current host cities Beijing and London are developing emission reduction plans. These have clear air quality objectives and are well intentioned. However, the improvements may be too narrow and may not be sustainable in the long term. Our analysis looks at the origins of success and failure and how more coherent improvements might be achieved and what would promote sustainable plans for air quality management at future games. The study illustrates the feedback between air pollution science and policy awareness.

  4. Material Transport with Air Jet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    István Patkó


    Full Text Available In the field of industry, there are only a very few examples of material transportwith air jet, and one of these is the air jet loom. In this weaving technology, the weft (thetransversal yarn of the fabric is shot by air jet. This paper will set up the mathematicalmodel of yarn end movement. For a special case, I will specify a solution of the model.

  5. The Cost of Air Pollution


    World Bank; Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation


    The Cost of Air Pollution: Strengthening the economic case for action, a joint study of the World Bank and the Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation (IHME), seeks to estimate the costs of premature deaths related to air pollution, to strengthen the case for action and facilitate decision making in the context of scarce resources. An estimated 5.5 million lives were lost in 2013 to diseases associated with outdoor and household air pollution, causing human suffering and reducing economic...

  6. Air and metal hydride battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lampinen, M.; Noponen, T. [Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Otaniemi (Finland). Lab. of Applied Thermodynamics


    The main goal of the air and metal hydride battery project was to enhance the performance and manufacturing technology of both electrodes to such a degree that an air-metal hydride battery could become a commercially and technically competitive power source for electric vehicles. By the end of the project it was possible to demonstrate the very first prototype of the air-metal hydride battery at EV scale, achieving all the required design parameters. (orig.)

  7. Water-resistant gypsum binder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panchenko Alexander I.


    Full Text Available The authors developed a multi-component gypsum binder (MGB with an improved (by 1.8 to 2.2 times water resistance value in comparison with the initial gypsum and a softening factor value within the range of 0.85 to 0.91 through the introduction of a complex additive containing carbide mud and bio-silica. The use of a complex additive provides for the formation of a denser structure due to the formation of low-base calcium hydrated silicates at early stages of the hardening process under wet or dry air conditions. The developed binding agent has a lower (by 2.5 to 3 times open porosity, a greater compressive strength (by 1.4 to 1.6 times for a dry state and by 2.6 times in a water-saturated state and does not require any special curing conditions in contrast to the other multi-component gypsum binders. The authors show the influence of mud-and-silica additive on the properties of hardened MGB and suggest a method of computation of the optimum MGB composition for given components.

  8. Motion behavior of particles in air-solid magnetically stabilized fluidized beds for separation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Song Shulei; Zhao Yuemin; Luo Zhenfu; Tang Ligang


    In order to study the settling mechanism of particles in an air-solid magnetically stabilized fluidized bed (MSFB) for separation,we carried out free settling and quasi-zero settling tests on the tracing particles.The results show that the main resistance forces as the tracing particles settled in an air-solid MSFB were motion resistance force and yield force.The motion resistance and yield forces greatly hindered the free settling of the particles by greatly decreasing the acceleration for settling process of the particles.The acceleration decreased from 3022.62 cm/s2 to zero in 0.1 s,and in the end,the particles stopped in the air-solid MSFB.The yield force on particles increased with increasing the magnetic field intensity,resulting in decrease of the quasi-zero settling displacement.However,the yield force on particles decreased with increasing the fluidized air velocity,leading to increase of the quasi-zero settling displacement.When the structure and operating parameters of the air-solid MSFB were set up,the yield stress on particles stopped in an air-solid MSFB was a function of diameter and density of particles.The settling displacements of equal diameter particles increased with increasing their densities,and the settling displacements of equal density particles increased with increasing their diameters.

  9. "Air embolism during fontan operation"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madan Mohan Maddali


    Full Text Available In patients with a right to left intracardiac shunt, air embolism results in an obligatory systemic embolization. Nonembolization of entrained air is described in a child with a single ventricle physiology who had earlier undergone bidirectional Glenn shunt construction and Damus-Kaye-Stansel anastomosis. The air entrainment was detected by intra-operative transesophageal echocardiography. The combined effect of a "diving bell" phenomenon and mild aortic valve regurgitation are suggested as the reasons for the confinement of air into the ventricle preventing catastrophic systemic embolization.

  10. [Air quality and climate change]. (United States)

    Loft, Steffen


    Air quality, health and climate change are closely connected. Ozone depends on temperature and the greenhouse gas methane from cattle and biomass. Pollen presence depends on temperature and CO2. The effect of climate change on particulate air pollution is complex, but the likely net effect is greater health risks. Reduction of greenhouse-gas emissions by reduced livestock production and use of combustion for energy production, transport and heating will also improve air quality. Energy savings in buildings and use of CO2 neutral fuels should not deteriorate indoor and outdoor air quality.

  11. Aerodynamical sealing by air curtains (United States)

    Frank, Daria; Linden, Paul


    Air curtains are artificial high-velocity plane turbulent jets which are installed in a doorway in order to reduce the heat and the mass exchange between two environments. The performance of an air curtain is assessed in terms of the sealing effectiveness E, the fraction of the exchange flow prevented by the air curtain compared to the open-door situation. The main controlling parameter for air curtain dynamics is the deflection modulus Dm representing the ratio of the momentum flux of the air curtain and the transverse forces acting on it due to the stack effect. In this talk, we examine the influence of two factors on the performance of an air curtain: the presence of an additional ventilation pathway in the room, such as a small top opening, and the effects of an opposing buoyancy force which for example arises if a downwards blowing air curtain is heated. Small-scale experiments were conducted to investigate the E (Dm) -curve of an air curtain in both situations. We present both experimental results and theoretical explanations for our observations. We also briefly illustrate how simplified models developed for air curtains can be used for more complex phenomena such as the effects of wind blowing around a model building on the ventilation rates through the openings.

  12. Modern Air Situation Picture Display for Air Surveillance Radar Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Stamatović


    Full Text Available We have developed a modern air situation picture display applicable in air surveillance radars. The display is based on commercial of-the-shelf hardware and custom software. This paper is focused on the details of the development process. Comparison with a similar commercially available product is given too.

  13. Colorado Air Quality Control Regulations and Ambient Air Quality Standards. (United States)

    Colorado State Dept. of Health, Denver. Div. of Air Pollution Control.

    Regulations and standards relative to air quality control in Colorado are defined in this publication. Presented first are definitions of terms, a statement of intent, and general provisions applicable to all emission control regulations adopted by the Colorado Air Pollution Control Commission. Following this, three regulations are enumerated: (1)…

  14. Norma Primaria de calidad del aire AIR QUALITY STANDARD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Las normas primarias de calidad del aire tienen por finalidad proteger la salud de la población de la contaminación atmosférica. Ellas establecen un nivel de riesgo socialmente aceptado. Este artículo describe los antecedentes considerados durante el proceso de actualización de la regulación vigente en Chile. Detalla conceptos sobre la calidad del aire, describe los efectos en la salud de los contaminantes, y el procedimiento seguido para fijar los nuevos estándares Finaliza enumerando la norma primaria de calidad del aire, sus valores y los limites definidos para ser considerados en el ámbito de la gestión de los episodios críticos o de alta contaminaciónThe main purpose of air quality standards is to protect people health from air pollution. They establish a socially accepted level of risk. This article describes the background information considered during the process for updating the current Chilean regulation. Concepts about quality of air, and the effects of the pollutants on the health are described. The procedure followed to fix the new standards is detailed. Finally we state the primary air quality norm, its values as well as the critical limits in order to control critical events of high air pollution

  15. Indoor air pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gold, D.R. (Channing Laboratory, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Boston, MA (United States))


    This article summarizes the health effects of indoor air pollutants and the modalities available to control them. The pollutants discussed include active and passive exposure to tobacco smoke; combustion products of carbon monoxide; nitrogen dioxide; products of biofuels, including wood and coal; biologic agents leading to immune responses, such as house dust mites, cockroaches, fungi, animal dander, and urine; biologic agents associated with infection such as Legionella and tuberculosis; formaldehyde; and volatile organic compounds. An approach to assessing building-related illness and tight building' syndrome is presented. Finally, the article reviews recent data on hospital-related asthma and exposures to potential respiratory hazards such as antineoplastic agents, anesthetic gases, and ethylene oxide.88 references.

  16. Air Composition and Chemistry (United States)

    Brimblecombe, Peter


    This book is about the atmosphere and humanity's influence on it. For this new edition, Brimblecombe has rewritten and updated much of the book. In the early chapters, he discusses the geochemical, biological and maritime sources of the trace gases. Next, he examines the chemistry of atmospheric gases, suspended particles, and rainfall. After dealing with the natural atmosphere, he examines the sources of air pollution and its effects, with all scenarios updated from the last edition. Scenarios include decline in health, damage to plants and animals, indoor pollution, and acid rain. The final chapters, also revised, are concerned with the chemistry and evolution of the atmospheres of the planets of the solar system. Students with an interest in chemistry and the environmental sciences will find this book highly valuable.

  17. de Buenos Aires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquín Linne


    Full Text Available Esta investigación explora la situación de los cibercafés en la Ciudad de Buenos Aires y de su principalpoblación, los adolescentes de sectores populares. Aunque en los últimos años millones de adolescentes abandonaronestos espacios como consecuencia de la ampliación de la Internet hogareña, en sectores popularesmuchos adolescentes aún continúan asistiendo en busca de recreación lúdico-comunicativa, información eintegración social. La metodología utilizada consiste en 40 entrevistas en profundidad, observaciones participantesy análisis de contenido de perfiles de Facebook (n: 200. Entre los resultados, se destaca que lasprincipales prácticas de estos adolescentes son comunicativas y que estos espacios funcionan para ellos comoherramientas de alfabetización digital, sociabilidad entre pares e inclusión ciudadana.

  18. Metal hydride air conditioner

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG; Ke; DU; Ping; LU; Man-qi


    The relationship among the hydrogen storage properties, cycling characteristics and thermal parameters of the metal hydride air conditioning systems was investigated. Based on a new alloy selection model, three pairs of hydrogen storage alloys, LaNi4.4 Mn0.26 Al0.34 / La0.6 Nd0.4 Ni4.8 Mn0.2 Cu0. 1, LaNi4.61Mn0. 26 Al0.13/La0.6 Nd0.4 Ni4.8 Mn0.2 Cu0. 1 and LaNi4.61 Mn0.26 Al0.13/La0.6 Y0.4 Ni4.8 Mn0. 2, were selected as the working materials for the metal hydride air conditioning system. Studies on the factors affecting the COP of the system showed that higher COP and available hydrogen content need the proper operating temperature and cycling time,large hydrogen storage capacity, flat plateau and small hysterisis of hydrogen alloys, proper original input hydrogen content and mass ratio of the pair of alloys. It also needs small conditioning system was established by using LaNi4.61 Mn0.26 Al0. 13/La0.6 Y0.4 Ni4.8 Mn0.2 alloys as the working materials, which showed that under the operating temperature of 180℃/40℃, a low temperature of 13℃ was reached, with COP =0.38 and Wnet =0.09 kW/kg.

  19. 77 FR 12524 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Indiana; Lead Ambient Air Quality... (United States)


    ... Ambient Air Quality Standards AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Proposed rule...) under the Clean Air Act (CAA). This submittal incorporates the National Ambient Air Quality...

  20. Air Leakage Rates in Typical Air Barrier Assemblies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hun, Diana E. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Atchley, Jerald Allen [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Childs, Phillip W. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)


    Estimates for 2010 indicate that infiltration in residential buildings was responsible for 2.85 quads of energy (DOE 2014), which is about 3% of the total energy consumed in the US. One of the mechanisms being implemented to reduce this energy penalty is the use of air barriers as part of the building envelope. These technologies decrease airflow through major leakage sites such as oriented strand board (OSB) joints, and gaps around penetrations (e.g., windows, doors, pipes, electrical outlets) as indicated by Hun et al. (2014). However, most air barrier materials do not properly address leakage spots such as wall-to-roof joints and wall-to-foundation joints because these are difficult to seal, and because air barrier manufacturers usually do not provide adequate instructions for these locations. The present study focuses on characterizing typical air leakage sites in wall assemblies with air barrier materials.

  1. Linezolid resistant Staphylococcus aureus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavani Gandham


    Full Text Available Linezolid is the only antibiotic available as an oral formulation for resistant staphylococcal infections. It is effective in skin and soft tissue infections, nosocomial pneumonias including VAP, infective endocarditis and MRSA meningitis. It is also effective in the eradication of both nasal and throat colonization of MRSA. Its high bioavailability and post antibiotic effect, ease of switching to oral therapy during its use and the fact that it can be used in patients of all ages, also in patients with liver disease and poor kidney function and its increased effectiveness over glycopeptides makes this drug a precious drug in the treatment of resistant staphylococcal infections. Linezolid resistance in staphylococcus is defined as a linezolid MIC of and #8805;8 mg/L. Reported Linezolid resistance in India and elsewhere is 2-20%. There is clonal dissemination of Linezolid Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (LRSA within or across health care settings which demands continuous surveillance to determine the emergent risk of resistance strains and to establish guidelines for appropriate use. Clinical laboratories should confirm any LRSA preferably by a second method, prior to using linezolid for serious infections. Effective surveillance, more judicious use of this antibiotic, avoiding linezolid usage for empiric therapy in hospital acquired staphylococcus infections, optimization of the pharmacological parameters of the antibiotics in specific clinical situation, decreasing bacterial load by timely surgical debridement or drainage of collections, use of combination therapies would prevent the emergence of resistance to linezolid in staphylococcus aureus. [Int J Res Med Sci 2014; 2(4.000: 1253-1256

  2. Resistant starches and health. (United States)

    Kendall, Cyril W C; Emam, Azadeh; Augustin, Livia S A; Jenkins, David J A


    It was initially hypothesized that resistant starches, i.e., starch that enters the colon, would have protective effects on chronic colonic diseases, including reduction of colon cancer risk and in the treatment of ulcerative colitis. Recent studies have confirmed the ability of resistant starch to increase fecal bulk, increase the molar ratio of butyrate in relation to other short-chain fatty acids, and dilute fecal bile acids. However the ability of resistant starch to reduce luminal concentrations of compounds that are damaging to the colonic mucosa, including fecal ammonia, phenols, and N-nitroso compounds, still requires clear demonstration. As such, the effectiveness of resistant starch in preventing or treating colonic diseases remains to be assessed. Nevertheless, there is a fraction of what has been termed resistant (RS1) starch, which enters the colon and acts as slowly digested or lente carbohydrate in the small intestine. Foods in this class are low glycemic index and have been shown to reduce the risk of chronic disease. They have been associated with systemic physiological effects such as reduced postprandial insulin levels and higher HDL cholesterol levels. Consumption of low glycemic index foods has been shown to be related to reductions in risk of coronary heart disease and Type 2 diabetes. Type 2 diabetes has in turn been related to a higher risk of colon cancer. If carbohydrates have a protective role in colon cancer prevention this may lie partly in the systemic effects of low glycemic index foods. The colonic advantages of different carbohydrates, varying in their glycemic index and resistant starch content, therefore, remain to be determined. However, as recent positive research findings continue to mount, there is reason for optimism over the possible health advantages of those resistant starches, which are slowly digested in the small intestine.

  3. Desiccation resistance in Arcobacter butzleri

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otth Laura


    Full Text Available The desiccation resistance of A. butzleri was studied. Two, 3 and 4 of the strains did not resist desiccation for more than 2, 12 and 36 h, respectively. Two strains resisted desiccation for > 48 h. A. butzleri seems to be more resistant to desiccation than the classical enteropathogenic Campylobacter species.

  4. Prototype Systems for Measuring Outdoor Air Intake Rates in Rooftop Air Handlers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisk, William J. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Chan, Wanyu R. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Hotchi, Toshifumi [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)


    The widespread absence of systems for real-time measurement and feedback control, of minimum outdoor air intake rates in HVAC systems contributes to the poor control of ventilation rates in commercial buildings. Ventilation rates affect building energy consumption and influence occupant health. The project designed fabricated and tested four prototypes of systems for measuring rates of outdoor air intake into roof top air handlers. All prototypes met the ±20% accuracy target at low wind speeds, with all prototypes accurate within approximately ±10% after application of calibration equations. One prototype met the accuracy target without a calibration. With two of four prototype measurement systems, there was no evidence that wind speed or direction affected accuracy; however, winds speeds were generally below usually 3.5 m s-1 (12.6 km h-1) and further testing is desirable. The airflow resistance of the prototypes was generally less than 35 Pa at maximum RTU air flow rates. A pressure drop of this magnitude will increase fan energy consumption by approximately 4%. The project did not have resources necessary to estimate costs of mass produced systems. The retail cost of components and materials used to construct prototypes ranged from approximately $1,200 to $1,700. The test data indicate that the basic designs developed in this project, particularly the designs of two of the prototypes, have considerable merit. Further design refinement, testing, and cost analysis would be necessary to fully assess commercial potential. The designs and test results will be communicated to the HVAC manufacturing community.

  5. MSMA resistance studies. (United States)

    Camper, N D; Keese, R J; Coker, P S


    Monosodium methanearsonate (MSMA)-resistant and -susceptible common cocklebur (Xanthium strumarium L.) and cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) were treated with MSMA. Plant parameters analyzed were: glutathione synthetase activity, selected amino acid (arginine, glutamic acid, alanine, citrulline, glutamine, and glutathione) content and arsenic content (MSMA, total arsenic, and arsonate). No reduction of arsenic from the parent pentavalent form present in MSMA to the trivalent form was detected. Arginine, glutamic acid, and glutamine content increased in tissue three days after MSMA treatment. Glutathione content decreased during the first three days after treatment; however, five days after treatment the resistant biotype of cocklebur and cotton had elevated glutathione levels (8-20 times greater, respectively). Glutathione Synthetase activity was higher in cotton than in either of the cocklebur biotypes; MSMA did not affect its activity in cotton or either cocklebur biotype. Resistant biotypes have a slightly higher activity than the susceptible biotype. Tolerance of cotton to MSMA may be related to glutathione synthetase activity and possibly to the presence of phytochelatins. Also, increased glutathione levels in the resistant biotype may implicate phytochelatin involvement in the resistance mechanism.

  6. Spore Resistance Properties. (United States)

    Setlow, Peter


    Spores of various Bacillus and Clostridium species are among the most resistant life forms known. Since the spores of some species are causative agents of much food spoilage, food poisoning, and human disease, and the spores of Bacillus anthracis are a major bioweapon, there is much interest in the mechanisms of spore resistance and how these spores can be killed. This article will discuss the factors involved in spore resistance to agents such as wet and dry heat, desiccation, UV and γ-radiation, enzymes that hydrolyze bacterial cell walls, and a variety of toxic chemicals, including genotoxic agents, oxidizing agents, aldehydes, acid, and alkali. These resistance factors include the outer layers of the spore, such as the thick proteinaceous coat that detoxifies reactive chemicals; the relatively impermeable inner spore membrane that restricts access of toxic chemicals to the spore core containing the spore's DNA and most enzymes; the low water content and high level of dipicolinic acid in the spore core that protect core macromolecules from the effects of heat and desiccation; the saturation of spore DNA with a novel group of proteins that protect the DNA against heat, genotoxic chemicals, and radiation; and the repair of radiation damage to DNA when spores germinate and return to life. Despite their extreme resistance, spores can be killed, including by damage to DNA, crucial spore proteins, the spore's inner membrane, and one or more components of the spore germination apparatus.

  7. Clopidogrel Resistance: Current Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NS Neki


    Full Text Available Antiplatelet agents are mainly used in the prevention and management of atherothrombotic complications. Dual antiplatelet therapy, combining aspirin and clopidogrel, is the standard care for patients having acute coronary syndromes or undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention according to the current ACC/AHA and ESC guidelines. But in spite of administration of dual antiplatelet therapy, some patients develop recurrent cardiovascular ischemic events especially stent thrombosis which is a serious clinical problem. Antiplatelet response to clopidogrel varies widely among patients based on ex vivo platelet function measurements. Clopidogrel is an effective inhibitor of platelet activation and aggregation due to its selective and irreversible blockade of the P2Y12 receptor. Patients who display little attenuation of platelet reactivity with clopidogrel therapy are labeled as low or nonresponders or clopidogrel resistant. The mechanism of clopidogrel resistance remains incompletely defined but there are certain clinical, cellular and genetic factors including polymorphisms responsible for therapeutic failure. Currently there is no standardized or widely accepted definition of clopidogrel resistance. The future may soon be realised in the routine measurement of platelet activity in the same way that blood pressure, cholesterol and blood sugar are followed to help guide the therapy, thus improving the care for millions of people. This review focuses on the methods used to identify patients with clopidogrel resistance, the underlying mechanisms, metabolism, clinical significance and current therapeutic strategies to overcome clopidogrel resistance. J Enam Med Col 2016; 6(1: 38-46

  8. Air Pollution Control, Part I. (United States)

    Strauss, Werner, Ed.

    Authoritative reviews in seven areas of current importance in air pollution control are supplied in this volume, the first of a two-part set. Titles contained in this book are: "Dispersion of Pollutants Emitted into the Atmosphere,""The Formation and Control of Oxides of Nitrogen in Air Pollution,""The Control of Sulfur Emissions from Combustion…

  9. Screening in humid air plasmas (United States)

    Filippov, Anatoly; Derbenev, Ivan; Dyatko, Nikolay; Kurkin, Sergey


    Low temperature air plasmas containing H2O molecules are of high importance for atmospheric phenomena, climate control, biomedical applications, surface processing, and purification of air and water. Humid air plasma created by an external ionization source is a good model of the troposphere where ions are produced by the galactic cosmic rays and decay products of air and soil radioactive elements such as Rn222. The present paper is devoted to study the ionic composition and the screening in an ionized humid air at atmospheric pressure and room temperature. The ionization rate is varied in the range of 101 -1018 cm-3s-1. The humid air with 0 - 1 . 5 % water admixture that corresponds to the relative humidity of 0 - 67 % at the air temperature equal to 20°C is considered. The ionic composition is determined on the analysis of more than a hundred processes. The system of 41 non-steady state particle number balance equations is solved using the 4th order Runge-Kutta method. The screening of dust particle charge in the ionized humid air are studied within the diffusion-drift approach. The screening constants are well approximated by the inverse Debye length and characteristic lengths of recombination and attachment processes. This work was supported by the Russian Science Foundation, Project No. 16-12-10424.

  10. Ozone as an air pollutant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, Rolf W.


    A Danish new book on ozone as an air pollutant has been reviewed. The Book is "Ozon som luftforurening" by Jes Fenger, Published by "Danmarks Miljøundersøgelser, 1995.......A Danish new book on ozone as an air pollutant has been reviewed. The Book is "Ozon som luftforurening" by Jes Fenger, Published by "Danmarks Miljøundersøgelser, 1995....

  11. Human preference for air movement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toftum, Jørn; Melikov, Arsen Krikor; Tynel, A.;


    Human preference for air movement was studied at slightly cool, neutral, and slightly warm overall thermal sensations and at temperatures ranging from 18 deg.C to 28 deg.C. Air movement preference depended on both thermal sensation and temperature, but large inter-individual differences existed...

  12. A Breath of Fresh Air (United States)

    Belew, Rachel


    One of the most important aspects of a healthy school--and one that, unfortunately, often falls by the wayside--is indoor air quality. The U.S. Government Accountability Office estimates that more than 15,000 schools nationwide report suffering from poor indoor air quality. According to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, schools with poor…

  13. Mind Your Indoor Air Quality (United States)

    Mak, Lily


    When it comes to excelling in the classroom, it turns out the air students are breathing is just as important as the lessons they are learning. Studies show poor indoor air quality (IAQ) can lessen the comfort of students as well as staff--affecting concentration, attendance and student performance. It can even lead to lower IQs. What's more, poor…

  14. Vehicles and Particulate Air Pollution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The current scene relating to particles and vehicular emissions in UK is reviewed. The active research topics are health effects of particles, particle size and composition, modeling the fate of particles and assessing individual exposure. There is a National Air Quality Strategy combined with local air quality management which includes monitoring and assessment, dispersion modeling and development of management plans.

  15. Cylindrical air flow reversal barrier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woznica, C.; Rodziewicz, M.


    Describes an innovative design introduced in the ZMP mine in Zory for quick reversal of ventilation air flow. Geologic mining conditions at the 705 m deep horizon, where the barrier was built, are described. According to the design used until now, a reversal system consisted of safety barriers, ventilation air locks, a ventilation bridge and stopping needed in case of a fire when air flow direction must be reversed. Nine air locks and an expensive concrete ventilation bridge were needed and the air locks had to be operated at 8 points of the region to effect reversal. The new design consists of a 2-storey cylindrical barrier which also fulfills the function of a ventilation bridge. It can be manually or remotely operated by a mechanical or pneumatic system. Tests showed that the new barrier permits immediate air flow reversal while retaining 60% of the original air, which is important in the case of fire and methane hazards. It permits improved seam panelling and splitting of pillars and brings an economy of about 40 million zlotys in construction cost. Design and operation of the barrier is illustrated and ventilation air circulation is explained. 7 figs.

  16. Protective supplied breathing air garment (United States)

    Childers, Edward L.; von Hortenau, Erik F.


    A breathing air garment for isolating a wearer from hostile environments containing toxins or irritants includes a suit and a separate head protective enclosure or hood engaging a suit collar in sealing attachment. The hood and suit collar are cylindrically shaped and dimensioned to enable the wearer to withdraw his hands from the suit sleeves to perform manual tasks within the hood interior. Breathing air is supplied from an external air line with an air delivery hose attached to the hood interior. The hose feeds air into an annular halo-like fiber-filled plenum having spaced discharge orifices attached to the hood top wall. A plurality of air exhaust/check valves located at the suit extremities cooperate with the hood air delivery system to provide a cooling flow of circulating air from the hood throughout the suit interior. A suit entry seal provided on the suit rear torso panel permits access into the suit and is sealed with an adhesive sealing flap.

  17. Change in carbon nanofiber resistance from ambient to vacuum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shusaku Maeda


    Full Text Available The electrical properties of carbon nanofibers (CNFs can be affected by adsorbed gas species. In this study, we compare the resistance values of CNF devices in a horizontal configuration in air and under vacuum. CNFs in air are observed to possess lower current capacities compared to those in vacuum. Further, Joule heating due to current stressing can result in desorption of gas molecules responsible for carrier trapping, leading to lower resistances and higher breakdown currents in vacuum, where most adsorbed gaseous species are evacuated before any significant re-adsorption can occur. A model is proposed to describe these observations, and is used to estimate the number of adsorbed molecules on a CNF device.

  18. Resistance to Insecticides in Insects



    In recent years, the frequent usage of insecticides in struggle aganist insects, has caused development of resistance to those chemicals in insects. The increase in dosage of insecticide used due to development of resistance in insects, causes important problems in terms of environment and human health. This study includes topics such as insecticides which are used frequently in insect struggle, insecticide resistant types, genetic changes posing resistance, enzymes of resistance and resistan...

  19. Biological improvement of radiation resistance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chun, K. J.; Lee, Y. K.; Kim, J. S.; Kim, J. K.; Lee, S. J


    To investigate the mechanisms of gene action related to the radiation resistance in microorganisms could be essentially helpful for the development of radiation protectants and hormeric effects of low dose radiation. This book described isolation of radiation-resistant microorganisms, induction of radiation-resistant and functionally improved mutants by gamma-ray radiation, cloning and analysis of the radiation resistance related genes and analysis of the expressed proteins of the radiation resistant related genes.

  20. `Energy storage` using liquid air

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, K.C. [Melbourne Univ., Parkville, VIC (Australia)


    Storage of liquid air is relatively simple, and the work needed to manufacture it is, at least in principle, entirely recoverable. Available energy densities seem excellent. Unfortunately the technology to use liquid air for energy storage has never been developed. The Phillips-Stirling and McMahon and Gifford air liquefiers, and a previous proposal by Smith, provide leads as to the form which the technology might take. This paper introduces the concept of `Exergy`, and how it can be utilized in the storage of liquid air. It concludes that liquid air seems to present some real advantages over batteries for energy storage. The development presents a challenge. Since battery technology is not making the huge advances promised, it could be time to take a more serious look at this alternative. (author). 4 figs., 14 refs.

  1. Picosecond laser filamentation in air (United States)

    Schmitt-Sody, Andreas; Kurz, Heiko G.; Bergé, Luc; Skupin, Stefan; Polynkin, Pavel


    The propagation of intense picosecond laser pulses in air in the presence of strong nonlinear self-action effects and air ionization is investigated experimentally and numerically. The model used for numerical analysis is based on the nonlinear propagator for the optical field coupled to the rate equations for the production of various ionic species and plasma temperature. Our results show that the phenomenon of plasma-driven intensity clamping, which has been paramount in femtosecond laser filamentation, holds for picosecond pulses. Furthermore, the temporal pulse distortions in the picosecond regime are limited and the pulse fluence is also clamped. In focused propagation geometry, a unique feature of picosecond filamentation is the production of a broad, fully ionized air channel, continuous both longitudinally and transversely, which may be instrumental for many applications including laser-guided electrical breakdown of air, channeling microwave beams and air lasing.

  2. Lithium-Air Cell Development (United States)

    Reid, Concha M.; Dobley, Arthur; Seymour, Frasier W.


    Lithium-air (Li-air) primary batteries have a theoretical specific capacity of 11,400 Wh/kg, the highest of any common metal-air system. NASA is developing Li-air technology for a Mobile Oxygen Concentrator for Spacecraft Emergencies, an application which requires an extremely lightweight primary battery that can discharge over 24 hours continuously. Several vendors were funded through the NASA SBIR program to develop Li-air technology to fulfill the requirements of this application. New catalysts and carbon cathode structures were developed to enhance the oxygen reduction reaction and increase surface area to improve cell performance. Techniques to stabilize the lithium metal anode surface were explored. Experimental results for prototype laboratory cells are given. Projections are made for the performance of hypothetical cells constructed from the materials that were developed.

  3. Atmospheric Chemistry and Air Pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey S. Gaffney


    Full Text Available Atmospheric chemistry is an important discipline for understanding air pollution and its impacts. This mini-review gives a brief history of air pollution and presents an overview of some of the basic photochemistry involved in the production of ozone and other oxidants in the atmosphere. Urban air quality issues are reviewed with a specific focus on ozone and other oxidants, primary and secondary aerosols, alternative fuels, and the potential for chlorine releases to amplify oxidant chemistry in industrial areas. Regional air pollution issues such as acid rain, long-range transport of aerosols and visibility loss, and the connections of aerosols to ozone and peroxyacetyl nitrate chemistry are examined. Finally, the potential impacts of air pollutants on the global-scale radiative balances of gases and aerosols are discussed briefly.

  4. Population Dynamics and Air Pollution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flachs, Esben Meulengracht; Sørensen, Jan; Bønløkke, Jacob


    Objective. To explore how three different assumptions on demographics affect the health impact of Danish emitted air pollution in Denmark from 2005 to 2030, with health impact modeled from 2005 to 2050. Methods. Modeled air pollution from Danish sources was used as exposure in a newly developed......) a static year 2005 population, (2) morbidity and mortality fixed at the year 2005 level, or (3) an expected development. Results. The health impact of air pollution was estimated at 672,000, 290,000, and 280,000 lost life years depending on demographic assumptions and the corresponding social costs at 430.......4 M€, 317.5 M€, and 261.6 M€ through the modeled years 2005–2050. Conclusion. The modeled health impact of air pollution differed widely with the demographic assumptions, and thus demographics and assumptions on demographics played a key role in making health impact assessments on air pollution....

  5. 22 CFR 228.22 - Air transportation. (United States)


    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Air transportation. 228.22 Section 228.22... for USAID Financing § 228.22 Air transportation. (a) The eligibility of air transportation is... U.S. flag air carriers for all international air travel and transportation, unless such service...

  6. Pyrethroid resistance in mosquitoes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Repeated blood feedings throughout their life span have made mosquitoes ideal transmitters of a wide variety of disease agents. Vector control is a very important part of the current global strategy for the control of mosquito-associated diseases and insecticide application is the most important component in this effort. Pyrethroids, which account for 25% of the world insecticide market, are currently the most widely used insecticides for the indoor control of mosquitoes and are the only chemical recommended for the treatment of mosquito nets, the main tool for preventing malaria in Africa. However, mosquito-borne diseases are now resurgent, largely because of insecticide resistance that has developed in mosquito vectors and the anti-parasite drug resistance of parasites. This paper reviews our current knowledge of the molecular mechanisms governing metabolic detoxification and the development of target site insensitivity that leads to pyrethroid resistance in mosquitoes.

  7. Heat-resistant materials

    CERN Document Server


    This handbook covers the complete spectrum of technology dealing with heat-resistant materials, including high-temperature characteristics, effects of processing and microstructure on high-temperature properties, materials selection guidelines for industrial applications, and life-assessment methods. Also included is information on comparative properties that allows the ranking of alloy performance, effects of processing and microstructure on high-temperature properties, high-temperature oxidation and corrosion-resistant coatings for superalloys, and design guidelines for applications involving creep and/or oxidation. Contents: General introduction (high-temperature materials characteristics, and mechanical and corrosion properties, and industrial applications); Properties of Ferrous Heat-Resistant Alloys (carbon, alloy, and stainless steels; alloy cast irons; and high alloy cast steels); Properties of superalloys (metallurgy and processing, mechanical and corrosion properties, degradation, and protective coa...

  8. Viscous, Resistive Magnetorotational Modes

    CERN Document Server

    Pessah, Martin E


    We carry out a comprehensive analysis of the behavior of the magnetorotational instability (MRI) in viscous, resistive plasmas. We find exact, non-linear solutions of the non-ideal magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equations describing the local dynamics of an incompressible, differentially rotating background threaded by a vertical magnetic field when disturbances with wavenumbers perpendicular to the shear are considered. We provide a geometrical description of these viscous, resistive MRI modes and show how their physical structure is modified as a function of the Reynolds and magnetic Reynolds numbers. We demonstrate that when finite dissipative effects are considered, velocity and magnetic field disturbances are no longer orthogonal (as it is the case in the ideal MHD limit) unless the magnetic Prandtl number is unity. We generalize previous results found in the ideal limit and show that a series of key properties of the mean Reynolds and Maxwell stresses also hold for the viscous, resistive MRI. In particular, ...

  9. Air Safety Spinoffs (United States)


    Weight saving-even a matter of a few pounds-is an important consideration in airplane design and . construction. Boeing saved 200 pounds simply by substituting a new type of compressed gas cylinder on their 747 commercial airliners. For quickly evacuating passengers in the event of a ground emergency the 747 escape chutes allow ' passengers to slide to safety from the two-story height of the cabin deck. The chutes pop out of exitways and are automatically inflated in seconds by compressed air stored in pressure vessels. Boeing's weight saving resulted from a recent changeover to a new type of pressure vessel built by Structural Composites Industries Inc. of Azusa, Cal. The company employs technology originally developed for rocket motor casings; the cylinders are constructed by winding fibers around an aluminum liner. This technique offers high strength for very low weight-in this case 60 percent less than the pressure vessels earlier used on the 747. Another contribution to improved air safety is an underwater locator device. Called the "Pinger," it uses sonar techniques to locate aircraft crashed in water-or, more specifically, to recover the flight recorder aboard the airplane. Its recovery provides clues as to what caused the accident and suggests measures to prevent similar future occurrences. Until recently, there was no way to recover flight recorders aboard aircraft lost in water crashes. The Pinger, now serving 95 percent of the airline industry, provides an answer. Key element of the Pinger system is a small, battery-powered transmitter, or homing beacon, included as part of the recorder package. For as long as 30 days, the transmitter sends out an acoustic signal from water depths up to 20,000 feet. The other element of the system is a receiver, used by search crews to home in on the transmitter's signal. Originating as a U.S. Navy project, this device was refined and further developed by NASA's Langley Research Center to retrieve submerged nose cones

  10. Emergence and Spread of Plasmid-Borne tet(B)::ISCR2 in Minocycline-Resistant Acinetobacter baumannii Isolates


    Vilacoba, Elisabet; Almuzara, Marisa; Gulone, Lucía; Traglia, German Matias; Figueroa, Silvia A.; Sly, Gabriela Edith; Fernandez, Analia; Centron, Daniela; Ramirez, Maria Soledad


    Resistance to minocycline has emerged in multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii isolates from Buenos Aires Hospitals. Few reports about the description and dispersion of tet genes were published in this species. We observed the presence of tet(B) in all minocycline resistant isolates. This gene was found associated to the ISCR2 mobile element, which could in part explain its dispersion. Fil: Vilacoba, Elisabet. Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas. Oficina de Co...

  11. Air Leakage and Air Transfer Between Garage and Living Space

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudd, A.


    This research project focused on evaluation of air transfer between the garage and living space in a single-family detached home constructed by a production homebuilder in compliance with the 2009 International Residential Code and the 2009 International Energy Conservation Code. The project gathered important information about the performance of whole-building ventilation systems and garage ventilation systems as they relate to minimizing flow of contaminated air from garage to living space. A series of 25 multi-point fan pressurization tests and additional zone pressure diagnostic testing characterized the garage and house air leakage, the garage-to-house air leakage, and garage and house pressure relationships to each other and to outdoors using automated fan pressurization and pressure monitoring techniques. While the relative characteristics of this house may not represent the entire population of new construction configurations and air tightness levels (house and garage) throughout the country, the technical approach was conservative and should reasonably extend the usefulness of the results to a large spectrum of house configurations from this set of parametric tests in this one house. Based on the results of this testing, the two-step garage-to-house air leakage test protocol described above is recommended where whole-house exhaust ventilation is employed. For houses employing whole-house supply ventilation (positive pressure) or balanced ventilation (same pressure effect as the Baseline condition), adherence to the EPA Indoor airPLUS house-to-garage air sealing requirements should be sufficient to expect little to no garage-to-house air transfer.

  12. Heat transfer characteristics of air cross-flow for in-line arrangement of spirally corrugated tube and smooth tube bundles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Guo-dong; ZHOU Qiang-tai; TIAN Mao-cheng; CHENG Lin; YU Xiao-li


    An experimental study on heat transfer and resistance coefficients of linearly arranged smooth and spirally corrugated tube bundles in cross-flow was performed. The heat transfer and resistance coefficients are presented in this paper with transverse and longitudinal tube-pitch and tube geometries taken into account. The experiment's results can provide technical guidelines for application to horizontal air preheater with arranged in-line spirally corrugated tube bundles, especially to the air preheater for CFBCBs (Circulating Fluidized Bed Combustion Boilers).

  13. Generalized effective medium resistivity model for low resistivity reservoir

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    With the advancement in oil exploration,producible oil and gas are being found in low resistivity reservoirs,which may otherwise be erroneously thought as water zones from their resistivity.However,the evaluation of low resistivity reservoirs remains difficult from log interpretation.Since low resistivity in hydrocarbon bearing sands can be caused by dispersed clay,laminated shale,conductive matrix grains,microscopic capillary pores and high saline water,a new resistivity model is required for more accurate hydrocarbon saturation prediction for low resistivity formations.Herein,a generalized effective medium resistivity model has been proposed for low resistivity reservoirs,based on experimental measurements on artificial low resistivity shaly sand samples,symmetrical anisotropic effective medium theory for resistivity interpretations,and geneses and conductance mechanisms of low resistivity reservoirs.By analyzing effects of some factors on the proposed model,we show theoretically the model can describe conductance mechanisms of low resistivity reservoirs with five geneses.Also,shale distribution largely affects water saturation predicted by the model.Resistivity index decreases as fraction and conductivity of laminated shale,or fraction of dispersed clay,or conductivity of rock matrix grains increases.Resistivity index decreases as matrix percolation exponent,or percolation rate of capillary bound water increases,and as percolation exponent of capillary bound water,or matrix percolation rate,or free water percolation rate decreases.Rock sample data from low resistivity reservoirs with different geneses and interpretation results for log data show that the proposed model can be applied in low resistivity reservoirs containing high salinity water,dispersed clay,microscopic capillary pores,laminated shale and conductive matrix grains,and thus is considered as a generalized resistivity model for low resistivity reservoir evaluation.

  14. Generalized effective medium resistivity model for low resistivity reservoir

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONG YanJie; TANG XiaoMin


    With the advancement in oil exploration, producible oil and gas are being found in low resistivity reservoirs, which may otherwise be erroneously thought as water zones from their resistivity. However,the evaluation of low resistivity reservoirs remains difficult from log interpretation. Since low resistivity in hydrocarbon bearing sands can be caused by dispersed clay, laminated shale, conductive matrix grains, microscopic capillary pores and high saline water, a new resistivity model is required for more accurate hydrocarbon saturation prediction for low resistivity formations. Herein, a generalized effective medium resistivity model has been proposed for low resistivity reservoirs, based on experimental measurements on artificial low resistivity shaly sand samples, symmetrical anisotropic effective medium theory for resistivity interpretations, and geneses and conductance mechanisms of low resistivity reservoirs. By analyzing effects of some factors on the proposed model, we show theoretically the model can describe conductance mechanisms of low resistivity reservoirs with five geneses. Also,shale distribution largely affects water saturation predicted by the model. Resistivity index decreases as fraction and conductivity of laminated shale, or fraction of dispersed clay, or conductivity of rock matrix grains increases. Resistivity index decreases as matrix percolation exponent, or percolation rate of capillary bound water increases, and as percolation exponent of capillary bound water, or matrix percolation rate, or free water percolation rate decreases. Rock sample data from low resistivity reservoirs with different geneses and interpretation results for log data show that the proposed model can be applied in low resistivity reservoirs containing high salinity water, dispersed clay, microscopic capillary pores, laminated shale and conductive matrix grains, and thus is considered as a generalized resistivity model for low resistivity reservoir evaluation.

  15. Kinetically Controlled Drug Resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, Xin E.; Hansen, Bjarne Gram; Hedstrom, Lizbeth


    The filamentous fungus Penicillium brevicompactum produces the immunosuppressive drug mycophenolic acid (MPA), which is a potent inhibitor of eukaryotic IMP dehydrogenases (IMPDHs). IMPDH catalyzes the conversion of IMP to XMP via a covalent enzyme intermediate, E-XMP*; MPA inhibits by trapping E...... of resistance is not apparent. Here, we show that, unlike MPA-sensitive IMPDHs, formation of E-XMP* is rate-limiting for both PbIMPDH-A and PbIMPDH-B. Therefore, MPA resistance derives from the failure to accumulate the drug-sensitive intermediate....

  16. 78 FR 12267 - Revision of Air Quality Implementation Plan; California; Placer County Air Pollution Control... (United States)


    ... Pollution Control District and Feather River Air Quality Management District; Stationary Source Permits... County Air Pollution Control District (PCAPCD) and Feather River Air Quality Management District (FRAQMD... of Subjects in 40 CFR Part 52 Environmental protection, Air pollution control, Incorporation...

  17. Community Multi-scale Air Quality (CMAQ) Modeling System for Air Quality Management (United States)

    CMAQ simultaneously models multiple air pollutants including ozone, particulate matter and a variety of air toxics to help air quality managers determine the best air quality management scenarios for their communities, regions and states.

  18. [Air quality control systems: heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC)]. (United States)

    Bellucci Sessa, R; Riccio, G


    After a brief illustration of the principal layout schemes of Heating, Ventilating, and Air Conditioning (HVAC), the first part of this paper summarizes the standards, both voluntary and compulsory, regulating HVAC facilities design and installation with regard to the question of Indoor Air Quality (IAQ). The paper then examines the problem of ventilation systems maintenance and the essential hygienistic requirements in whose absence HVAC facilities may become a risk factor for people working or living in the building. Lastly, the paper deals with HVAC design strategies and methods, which aim not only to satisfy comfort and air quality requirements, but also to ensure easy and effective maintenance procedures.

  19. Radioxenon spiked air. (United States)

    Watrous, Matthew G; Delmore, James E; Hague, Robert K; Houghton, Tracy P; Jenson, Douglas D; Mann, Nick R


    Four of the radioactive xenon isotopes ((131m)Xe, (133m)Xe, (133)Xe and (135)Xe) with half-lives ranging from 9 h to 12 days are produced from nuclear fission and can be detected from days to weeks following their production and release. Being inert gases, they are readily transported through the atmosphere. Sources for release of radioactive xenon isotopes include operating nuclear reactors via leaks in fuel rods, medical isotope production facilities, and nuclear weapons' detonations. They are not normally released from fuel reprocessing due to the short half-lives. The Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty has led to creation of the International Monitoring System. The International Monitoring System, when fully implemented, will consist of one component with 40 stations monitoring radioactive xenon around the globe. Monitoring these radioactive xenon isotopes is important to the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty in determining whether a seismically detected event is or is not a nuclear detonation. A variety of radioactive xenon quality control check standards, quantitatively spiked into various gas matrices, could be used to demonstrate that these stations are operating on the same basis in order to bolster defensibility of data across the International Monitoring System. This paper focuses on Idaho National Laboratory's capability to produce three of the xenon isotopes in pure form and the use of the four xenon isotopes in various combinations to produce radioactive xenon spiked air samples that could be subsequently distributed to participating facilities.

  20. Airing Out Anthrax (United States)


    The AiroCide TiO2 is an air-purifier that kills 93.3 percent of airborne pathogens that pass through it, including Bacillus anthraci, more commonly known as anthrax. It is essentially a spinoff of KES Science & Technology, Inc.'s Bio-KES system, a highly effective device used by the produce industry for ethylene gas removal to aid in preserving the freshness of fruits, vegetables, and flowers. The TiO2-based ethylene removal technology that is incorporated into the company's AiroCide TiO2 and Bio-KES products was first integrated into a pair of plant-growth chambers known as ASTROCULTURE(TM) and ADVANCED ASTROCULTURE(TM). Both chambers have housed commercial plant growth experiments in space on either the Space Shuttle or the International Space Station. The AiroCide TiO2 also has a proven record of destroying 98 percent of other airborne pathogens, such as microscopic dust mites, molds, and fungi. Moreover, the device is a verified killer of Influenza A (flu), E. coli, Staphylococcus aureas, Streptococcus pyogenes, and Mycoplasma pneumoniae, among many other harmful viruses.

  1. Breathe the air!

    CERN Multimedia


    Feeling a bit cooped up in your office? Want to share your interest in science and technology with others but your computer's heard it all before and your colleagues won't even listen anymore? Then here's the answer - come and get some fresh air with the Education and Communication Group. The Visits Service and the Press Office offer you the opportunity to come into contact with CERN visitors. - Be a guide! In becoming a guide you get the opportunity to introduce the Laboratory to vast array of visitors of all nationalities and ages and communicate to them your passion for science and technology. You can get involved as a CERN guide on various levels - giving presentations and tours of the Laboratory, but also leading a «Drôle de Physique» workshop and giving tours of Microcosm. Guides receive training. If you're interested, take a look at the Guides Homepage where all the relevant information and formalities are explained: See also the article in the Bulletin n°25/2002. - Fa...

  2. Measurement of Dynamic Resistance in Resistance Spot Welding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Pei; Zhang, Wenqi; Bay, Niels

    Through years, the dynamic resistance across the electrodes has been used for weld quality estimation and contact resistance measurement. However, the previous methods of determining the dynamic resistance were mostly based on measuring the voltage and current on the secondary side...... of the transformer in resistance welding machines, implying defects from induction noise and interference with the leads connected to the electrodes for measuring the voltage. In this study, the dynamic resistance is determined by measuring the voltage on the primary side and the current on the secondary side......, as another application, the proposed method is used to measure the faying surface contact resistance....

  3. Advances in pneumococcal antibiotic resistance. (United States)

    Song, Jae-Hoon


    Antimicrobial resistance and serotypes in Streptococcus pneumoniae have been evolving with the widespread use of antibiotics and the introduction of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCV). Particularly, among various types of antimicrobial resistance, macrolide resistance has most remarkably increased in many parts of the world, which has been reported to be >70% among clinical isolates from Asian countries. Penicillin resistance has dramatically decreased among nonmeningeal isolates due to the changes in resistance breakpoints, although resistance to other β-lactams such as cefuroxime has increased. Multidrug resistance became a serious concern in the treatment of invasive pneumococcal diseases, especially in Asian countries. After PCV7 vaccination, serotype 19A has emerged as an important cause of invasive pneumococcal diseases which was also associated with increasing prevalence of multidrug resistance in pneumococci. Widespread use of PCV13, which covers additional serotypes 3, 6A and 19A, may contribute to reduce the clonal spread of drug-resistant 19A pneumococci.

  4. Solar air systems - built examples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hastings, S.R. [ed.] [Solararchitektur, ETH-Hoenggerberg, Zurich (Switzerland)


    Active solar systems for air heating are a straightforward yet efficient way of using solar energy to heat spaces, ventilation air and even domestic hot water. They offer important advantages over solar water systems, improved comfort and fuller use of solar gains compared with many passive solar systems and are a natural fit with mechanically ventilated buildings. Solar air systems become more economical when they serve multiple functions such as providing a sound barrier, a weatherskin, sunshading, inducing cooling and even electricity supply (hybrid PV/air). Thirty-five different buildings with successfully installed exemplary solar air systems in climates ranging from Canada and Norway to Italy are described and documented. The building types cover single family houses, apartment buildings, schools, sports halls, and industrial commercial buildings with six different configurations of solar air systems used. Each building is described over several pages, with plans, performance details and illustrations provided. An accompanying product catalogue identifies suppliers of the necessary equipment and offers advice on product selection. As well as giving architects and designers invaluable advice based on the experience from these projects, this book also illustrates clearly the wide range of applications and the many benefits of solar air systems. (author)

  5. Air Sensor Toolbox: Resources and Funding (United States)

    EPA’s Air Sensor Toolbox provides information and guidance on new low-cost compact technologies for measuring air quality. It provides information to help citizens more effectively and accurately collect air quality data in their community.

  6. Profit goal set for airBaltic

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae


    Latvijas Krajbanka president arvab, et airBalticu olukorra stabiliseerimiseks läheb vähemalt aasta. AirBalticu senine juht Bertolt Flick võib hakata uue Vilniuse lennukompanii investoriks. AirBalticu uuest juhatusest

  7. Historical Ambient Air Quality Data Inventory (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Historical Ambient Air Quality Data Inventory contains measured and estimated data on ambient air pollution for use in assessing air quality, assisting in...

  8. National Air Toxic Assessments (NATA) Results (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The National Air Toxics Assessment was conducted by EPA in 2002 to assess air toxics emissions in order to identify and prioritize air toxics, emission source types...

  9. High Altitude Clear Air Turbulence Project (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Air Force Flight Dynamics Laboratory conducted the High Altitude Clear Air Turbulence Project in the mid 1960s with the intention of better understanding air...

  10. Transportation, Air Pollution, and Climate Change (United States)

    ... Share Facebook Twitter Google+ Pinterest Contact Us Transportation, Air Pollution, and Climate Change Accomplishments & Successes View successes from ... reduce carbon pollution. Carbon pollution from transportation Other Air Pollution Learn about smog, soot, ozone, and other air ...

  11. Air Pollution, Climate, and Heart Disease (United States)

    ... of the American Heart Association Cardiology Patient Page Air Pollution, Climate, and Heart Disease Diane R. Gold , Jonathan ... . 7 What Is Air Pollution? Air pollution is a mixture of gases and ...


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C. S. Staley; M. L. Abbott; P. D. Ritter


    Various laws stemming from the Clean Air Act of 1970 and the Clean Air Act amendments of 1990 require air emissions modeling. Modeling is used to ensure that air emissions from new projects and from modifications to existing facilities do not exceed certain standards. For radionuclides, any new airborne release must be modeled to show that downwind receptors do not receive exposures exceeding the dose limits and to determine the requirements for emissions monitoring. For criteria and toxic pollutants, emissions usually must first exceed threshold values before modeling of downwind concentrations is required. This document was prepared to provide guidance for performing environmental compliance-driven air modeling of emissions from Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory facilities. This document assumes that the user has experience in air modeling and dose and risk assessment. It is not intended to be a "cookbook," nor should all recommendations herein be construed as requirements. However, there are certain procedures that are required by law, and these are pointed out. It is also important to understand that air emissions modeling is a constantly evolving process. This document should, therefore, be reviewed periodically and revised as needed. The document is divided into two parts. Part A is the protocol for radiological assessments, and Part B is for nonradiological assessments. This document is an update of and supersedes document INEEL/INT-98-00236, Rev. 0, INEEL Air Modeling Protocol. This updated document incorporates changes in some of the rules, procedures, and air modeling codes that have occurred since the protocol was first published in 1998.

  13. Resistive Effects in EXTRAP (United States)

    Tendler, M.


    Theoretical studies of the resistive equilibrium and stability of an EXTRAP Z-pinch are reported. Extending the previous analysis we reassess properties of the resistive equilibrium in EXTRAP with the emphasis on the time dependence of the latter. We also qualitatively consider the role of resistive instabilities in EXTRAP, showing that the typical timescale of the filamentation of the discharge (i.e., the non-linear development of the tearing instability) is comparable, at present, to the discharge duration. On the other hand, we emphasize that this phenomenon may still be consistent with the experimental observation of the Bennet's equilibrium. The processes of the current start-up and ramp-up are also analysed for EXTRAP and it is shown that the peculiarities of these processes may lead to the compression oscillations around an evolving rather stable equilibrium. Finally, some consequences of the average minimum-B concept for EXTRAP are discussed and it is shown that this issue virtually reduces to the appearance of the negative curvature of the magnetic field at the periphery. The maximum attainable value of β at the periphery of the pinch is obtained, as required by the ballooning stability criterion. The influence of the finite resistivity on the ballooning mode is also estimated.

  14. Oseltamivir-Resistant Flu

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts


    Dr. Aaron Storms, an Epidemic Intelligence Service (EIS) officer at CDC, discusses his paper about oseltamivir-resistant H1N1flu.  Created: 4/13/2012 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 4/17/2012.


    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beukers, A.; De Jong, T.


    Abstract of WO 9717570 (A1) The invention is directed to a wheel-shaped pressure-resistant vessel for gaseous, liquid or liquefied material having a substantially rigid shape, said vessel comprising a substantially continuous shell of a fiber-reinforced resin having a central opening, an inner l

  16. Insulin Resistance and Prediabetes (United States)

    ... symptoms. Scientists have found that complex interactions in fat tissue draw immune cells to the area and trigger low-level chronic inflammation. This inflammation can contribute to the development of insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes, and CVD. Studies show that losing ...

  17. Fluoroquinolone resistance in Campylobacter (United States)

    Fluoroquinolone-resistant Campylobacter jejuni and C. coli are common in animals because of the use of fluoroquinolones as therapeutic agents in animal husbandry, particularly in chickens and other poultry. Campylobacter is a commensal in poultry, and therefore, poultry and poultry products are the...

  18. Impact resistant electrolytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veith, Gabriel M.; Armstrong, Beth L.; Tenhaeff, Wyatt E.; Dudney, Nancy J.


    A passively impact resistant composite electrolyte composition includes an electrolyte solvent, up to 2M of an electrolyte salt, and shear thickening ceramic particles having a polydispersity index of no greater than 0.1, an average particle size of in a range of 50 nm to 1 .mu.m, and an absolute zeta potential of greater than .+-.40 mV.

  19. Antibiotic Resistance and Fungus

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts


    Dr. David Denning, President of the Global Action Fund for Fungal Infections and an infectious diseases clinician, discusses antimicrobial resistance and fungus.  Created: 2/28/2017 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 2/28/2017.

  20. Viscous, Resistive Magnetorotational Modes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pessah, Martin Elias; Chan, Chi-kwan


    We carry out a comprehensive analysis of the behavior of the magnetorotational instability (MRI) in viscous, resistive plasmas. We find exact, non-linear solutions of the non-ideal magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equations describing the local dynamics of an incompressible, differentially rotating...

  1. Antibiotic-Resistant Bacteria. (United States)

    Longenecker, Nevin E.; Oppenheimer, Dan


    A study conducted by high school advanced bacteriology students appears to confirm the hypothesis that the incremental administration of antibiotics on several species of bacteria (Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus epidermis, Bacillus sublitus, Bacillus megaterium) will allow for the development of antibiotic-resistant strains. (PEB)

  2. Supporting IDP resistance strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poe Shan K Phan


    Full Text Available Whether in hiding or living under military control, displacedvillagers of Karen State and other areas of rural Burmahave shown themselves to be innovative and courageousin responding to and resisting military abuse. Theyurgently need increased assistance but it is they whoshould determine the direction of any such intervention.

  3. Mathematical model of a closed hot air engine cycle using MATLAB Simulink (United States)

    Oršanský, Pavol; Ftorek, Branislav; Durčanský, Peter


    In our work we present a model of a closed hot air engine, which we simulate in MATLAB®Simulink® environment. That gives us many opportunities of investigating the influence of extreme demanding conditions on the stability and functionality of the device. We were also able to try the conditions that would real device cannot resist as high temperature or pressure.

  4. Transmission through air as a possible route of exposure for MRSA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, Marian E.H.; Verstappen, Koen M.; Cleef, Van Brigitte A.G.L.; Dohmen, Wietske; Dorado-García, Alejandro; Graveland, Haitske; Duim, Birgitta; Wagenaar, Jaap A.; Kluytmans, Jan A.J.W.; Heederik, Dick J.J.


    Livestock-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (LA-MRSA) is highly prevalent in pigs and veal calves. The environment and air in pig and veal calf barns is often contaminated with LA-MRSA, and can act as a transmission source for humans. This study explores exposure-response rel

  5. 77 FR 6627 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions: Hard and Decorative Chromium... (United States)


    ... aluminum to provide resistance to corrosion. The chromium anodizing process is used to coat aircraft parts... Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions: Hard and Decorative Chromium Electroplating and Chromium Anodizing Tanks... Pollutant Emissions: Hard and Decorative Chromium Electroplating and Chromium Anodizing Tanks; and...

  6. Evaluation and Comparison of Freeze-Thaw Tests and Air Void Analysis of Pervious Concrete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Mia Schou Møller; Hansen, Kurt Kielsgaard; Kevern, John T.;


    to eval-uate the freeze-thaw resistance of fresh or hardened pervious concrete and correspondingly what constitutes acceptable freeze-thaw durability. A greater understanding of the correlation between the freeze-thaw performance and the air void structure of pervious concrete is needed. In the present...... effectively relieve the pressure when water freezes....

  7. The Application of Heat and Corrosion Resistant Phosphate Coatings Under Steam Pressure (United States)


    August 1955. Bessey, R. E. and W. M. Kisner , "Heat Resistance of Phos- phate Protective Coatings," Technical Report SA-MR18- 1026, Springfield Armory...phosphate coatings heated in the absence of air lose their corrosion resistance between 400°F and 425’F. Bessey and Kisner ’ determined the weight loss...tests. These coatings had been heated in air at 212F, 300 0 F, and at 100-degree in- tervals up to 14000F. Bessey and Kisner reported that the corrosion

  8. Korean Air Excellence in Flight

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    @@ Korean Air with a fleet of 119 aircraft, is one of the world's top 20 airlines, and oper-ates almost 400 flights everyday to 90 cities in 33 countries. The airline has about 50 flights per week between the US and Asia from nine US gateways: New York, Los Angeles, Washington,Chicago, Dallas, San Francisco, Atlanta, Anchorage and Honolulu.The carrier is a founding member of SkyTeam, the global airline alliance partnering AeroMexico, Air France, Alitalia, CSA Czech Airlines, Continental Airlines, Delta Air Lines, KLM and Northwest Airlines to provide customers with extensive worldwide destina-tions, flights and services.

  9. Steerable percussion air drilling system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bui, H.D.; Gray, M.A.; Oliver, M.S.


    In the Steerable Percussion Air Drilling System (SPADS), air percussion is used to drill directionally in hard formations. Compared to mud or air powered PDM motors, SPADS offers directional drilling at high penetration rate, reduced mud costs, negligible formation damage, and immediate indication of hole productivity. Field tests turned up problems ranging from tool design to operation procedures; remedies were developed. There is an optimum WOB (weight on bit) at which torque is reasonably low. The hammer was tested at three different line pressures (200, 300, 350 psig) at optimum WOB in granite, limestone, and sandstone.

  10. Air Parity: Re-Discovering Contested Air Operations (United States)


    maritime theories to war fighting strategy in the air domain, specific to the air control spectrum. The author assesses the importance of translating...effort to accomplish strategic 11 National Security Strategy , 12. 12 Office of the Secretary of...Defense, Sustaining U.S. Global Leadership: Priorities for 21st Century Defense (2012), 4. 13 Office of the Chairman, Joint Chiefs of Staff, The

  11. Tandil, Buenos Aires, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María L. Bakker


    Full Text Available Se coleccionaron hojas maduras de ejemplares adultos de Populus alba, Populus deltoides, Robinia pseudoacacia, Ulmus pumila y Fraxinus americana del Campus Universitario, Tandil, Buenos Aires, Argentina (37° 19’S, 59° 08’O en febrero de 2004. La cera cuticular fue extraída, purificada, y el contenido y proporción relativa de n-alcanos de número impar de carbonos (C23C35 fue cuantificado mediante cromatografía gas-líquido capilar. La concentración total de n-alcanos (mg/kg MS fue P. alba (6935 > Robinia (1571 > P. deltoides (1379 > Ulmus (880 > Fraxinus (467. Los n-alcanos más abundantes en todas las especies fueron C27 y C29 que constituyeron entre 10 y 51% y entre 35 y 76% del total respectivamente, excepto en Fraxinus donde los más abundantes fueron C29 y C31 que constituyeron el 31 y 49% del total respectivamente. P. alba y P. deltoides difirieron no solo en la concentración total de n-alcanos sino también en la proporción relativa de C27 y C29, siendo C29 el n-alcano más abundante en la segunda especie (76% igual que en Robinia (75%. La presencia de nalcanos de número par de carbonos no fue detectable o resultó muy baja en general en todas las especies, con excepción de C26, C28 y C30, este último se destacó particularmente en Fraxinus.

  12. Rooftop Unitary Air Conditioner with Integral Dedicated Outdoor Air System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiax Llc


    Energy use of rooftop and other unitary air-conditioners in commercial applications accounts for about 1 quad (10{sup 15} Btu) of primary energy use annually in the U.S. [Reference 7]. The realization that this cooling equipment accounts for the majority of commercial building cooled floorspace and the majority also of commercial building energy use has spurred development of improved-efficiency equipment as well as development of stricter standards addressing efficiency levels. Another key market driver affecting design of rooftop air-conditioning equipment has been concern regarding comfort and the control of humidity. Trends for increases in outdoor air ventilation rates in certain applications, and the increasing concern about indoor air quality problems associated with humidity levels and moisture in buildings points to a need for improved dehumidification capability in air-conditioning equipment of all types. In many cases addressing this issue exacerbates energy efficiency, and vice versa. The integrated dedicated outdoor air system configuration developed in this project addresses both energy and comfort/humidity issues.

  13. Air Leakage and Air Transfer Between Garage and Living Space

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudd, Armin [Building Science Corporation, Westford, MA (United States)


    This research project focused on evaluation of air transfer between the garage and living space in a single-family detached home constructed by a production homebuilder in compliance with the 2009 International Residential Code and the 2009 International Energy Conservation Code. The project gathered important information about the performance of whole-building ventilation systems and garage ventilation systems as they relate to minimizing flow of contaminated air from garage to living space. A series of 25 multi-point fan pressurization tests and additional zone pressure diagnostic testing characterized the garage and house air leakage, the garage-to-house air leakage, and garage and house pressure relationships to each other and to outdoors using automated fan pressurization and pressure monitoring techniques. While the relative characteristics of this house may not represent the entire population of new construction configurations and air tightness levels (house and garage) throughout the country, the technical approach was conservative and should reasonably extend the usefulness of the results to a large spectrum of house configurations from this set of parametric tests in this one house. Based on the results of this testing, the two-step garage-to-house air leakage test protocol described above is recommended where whole-house exhaust ventilation is employed.

  14. A fundamentally new approach to air-cooled heat exchangers.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koplow, Jeffrey P.


    We describe breakthrough results obtained in a feasibility study of a fundamentally new architecture for air-cooled heat exchangers. A longstanding but largely unrealized opportunity in energy efficiency concerns the performance of air-cooled heat exchangers used in air conditioners, heat pumps, and refrigeration equipment. In the case of residential air conditioners, for example, the typical performance of the air cooled heat exchangers used for condensers and evaporators is at best marginal from the standpoint the of achieving maximum the possible coefficient of performance (COP). If by some means it were possible to reduce the thermal resistance of these heat exchangers to a negligible level, a typical energy savings of order 30% could be immediately realized. It has long been known that a several-fold increase in heat exchanger size, in conjunction with the use of much higher volumetric flow rates, provides a straight-forward path to this goal but is not practical from the standpoint of real world applications. The tension in the market place between the need for energy efficiency and logistical considerations such as equipment size, cost and operating noise has resulted in a compromise that is far from ideal. This is the reason that a typical residential air conditioner exhibits significant sensitivity to reductions in fan speed and/or fouling of the heat exchanger surface. The prevailing wisdom is that little can be done to improve this situation; the 'fan-plus-finned-heat-sink' heat exchanger architecture used throughout the energy sector represents an extremely mature technology for which there is little opportunity for further optimization. But the fact remains that conventional fan-plus-finned-heat-sink technology simply doesn't work that well. Their primary physical limitation to performance (i.e. low thermal resistance) is the boundary layer of motionless air that adheres to and envelops all surfaces of the heat exchanger. Within this

  15. Air Pollution: Current and Future Challenges (United States)

    Despite the dramatic progress to date, air pollution continues to threaten Americans’ health and welfare. The main obstacles are climate change, conventional air pollution, and ozone layer depletion.

  16. The influence of Si on oxidation resistance of aluminide coatings on TiAl alloy


    M. Goral; G. Moskal; L. Swadzba


    Purpose: Increasing oxidation resistance of TiAl intermetallic alloy by depositing aluminide coating by slurrymethod and investigation of the influence of Si addition on isothermal oxidation of TiAlNb intermetallic alloy.Design/methodology/approach: : The isothermal oxidation resistance tests were done in the chamber furnaceat 900ºC for 500h time in the air atmosphere. The structure of coatings was investigated by light and scanningmicroscopy. The chemical composition of coatings and scales w...

  17. Air-stable silver-coated copper particles of sub-micrometer size. (United States)

    Jung, D S; Lee, H M; Kang, Y C; Park, S B


    Silver-coated copper particles with various silver loading were prepared by a direct liquid-to-particle conversion process in spray pyrolysis reactor system. The prepared particles were completely densified at 900°C within a residence time of 2.1 s and had core-shell structure, of which formation mechanism was proposed. The mean diameter of particles was 0.45 μm. Copper particles of 20 wt.% of silver loading were stable under air and 95% of copper remained as metallic copper even after 1 month of exposure to air. This enhanced air-stability contributed to the enhanced electrical property of conductive film obtained from the coated particles. The conductive film obtained from 15 wt.% of silver-coated copper particles had a sheet resistance of 1.2 mΩ square(-1). This low resistance resulted from the lack of oxide layer and low sintering temperature of silver layer.

  18. Personal Air Vehicle Research Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The innovation is a low aspect ratio all-lifting configuration for personal air vehicles. This configuration uses an architecture fundamentally different from...

  19. A Martian Air Battery Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This project will investigate an entirely new battery chemistry by developing A Martian Air Battery. Specifically the project will explore the concept of a Martian...

  20. Ozone - Current Air Quality Index (United States)

    Local Air Quality Conditions Zip Code: State : My Current Location Forecast Current AQI AQI Loop More Maps AQI: Good (0 - ... About the Highest 5 Today's Forecasts Tomorrow's Forecasts Current AQI Metropolitan Baltimore, MD 101 Metropolitan Washington, DC ...

  1. 2011 NATA - Air Toxics Monitors (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This dataset includes annual (2005 - 2013) statistics of measured ambient air toxics concentrations (in micrograms per cubic meter) and associated risk estimates for...

  2. US Air Force Balloon Observations (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Worksheets containing pilot balloon data computed from releases at Air Force stations in the western United States. Elevation and azimuth angles are used to compute...

  3. US Air Force Base Observations (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Hourly observations taken by U.S. Air Force personnel at bases in the United States and around the world. Foreign observations concentrated in the Middle East and...

  4. Reverse Ballistic Air Gun Facility (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This custom-designed facility houses a suite of three air guns capable of generating accelerations up to 100,000 Gs and velocities up to 2,000 ft/s. In addition to...

  5. Air Pollution Affects Community Health (United States)

    Shy, Carl M.; Finklea, John F.


    Community Health and Environmental Surveillance System (CHESS), a nationwide program relating community health to environmental quality, is designed to evaluate existing environmental standards, obtain health intelligence for new standards, and document health benefits of air pollution control. (BL)

  6. Reverse Ballistic Air Gun Facility (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This custom-designed facility houses a suite of three air guns capable of generating accelerations up to 100,000 Gs and velocities up to 2,000 ft/s. In addition to a...

  7. Indoor Air Quality Test House (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Description:In order to enable studies of a range of indoor air quality and ventilation issues, EL maintains a highly instrumented three-bedroom test house. Previous...

  8. Quality and Indoor Air treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cécile HORT


    Full Text Available In developed countries, between 70% and 90% of the life time are spent in confined spaces (housing, transport, etc.. Air quality in these closed spaces is generally inferior than outside. Our lifestylesand the growing use of new products and materials create cocktails of chemicals compounds (COV, CIV... that can cause an increase of worrying diseases such as asthma, allergies or even cancer. These pollutants are particularly present in indoor air. These increasing public health problems gives rise to the development of devices for the treatment of indoor air. However, indoor air contains a lot of chemical substances showing very different physicochemical properties. The “Laboratoire de Thermique, Energétique et Procédés” (LaTEP studies the coupling of treatment processes, such as biofiltration coupled to adsorption.

  9. Air cushion vehicles: A briefing (United States)

    Anderson, J. L.; Finnegan, P. M.


    Experience and characteristics; the powering, uses, and implications of large air cushion vehicles (ACV); and the conceptual design and operation of a nuclear powered ACV freighter and supporting facilities are described.

  10. Quantitative measurement of resist outgassing during exposure (United States)

    Maxim, Nicolae; Houle, Frances A.; Huijbregtse, Jeroen; Deline, Vaughn R.; Truong, Hoa; van Schaik, Willem


    differ significantly, however, and we show that the discrepancy is due to photo-induced reactions at the polymer surface with the gas atmosphere present above the resist during exposure. For example, photolytic oxidation of the C-Si bonds in air causes volatile Si-containing products to be formed from an otherwise stable polymer, showing it is important to take the gas environment during exposure into account when designing resist polymers for low Si outgassing.

  11. Are Sewage Treatment Plants Promoting Antibiotic Resistance? (United States)

    1. Introduction 1.1. How bacteria exhibit resistance 1.1.1. Resistance to -lactams 1.1.2. Resistance to sulphonamides and trimethoprim 1.1.3. Resistance to macrolides 1.1.4. Resistance to fluoroquinolones 1.1.5. Resistance to tetracyclines 1.1.6. Resistance to nitroimidaz...

  12. Global air quality and climate. (United States)

    Fiore, Arlene M; Naik, Vaishali; Spracklen, Dominick V; Steiner, Allison; Unger, Nadine; Prather, Michael; Bergmann, Dan; Cameron-Smith, Philip J; Cionni, Irene; Collins, William J; Dalsøren, Stig; Eyring, Veronika; Folberth, Gerd A; Ginoux, Paul; Horowitz, Larry W; Josse, Béatrice; Lamarque, Jean-François; MacKenzie, Ian A; Nagashima, Tatsuya; O'Connor, Fiona M; Righi, Mattia; Rumbold, Steven T; Shindell, Drew T; Skeie, Ragnhild B; Sudo, Kengo; Szopa, Sophie; Takemura, Toshihiko; Zeng, Guang


    Emissions of air pollutants and their precursors determine regional air quality and can alter climate. Climate change can perturb the long-range transport, chemical processing, and local meteorology that influence air pollution. We review the implications of projected changes in methane (CH(4)), ozone precursors (O(3)), and aerosols for climate (expressed in terms of the radiative forcing metric or changes in global surface temperature) and hemispheric-to-continental scale air quality. Reducing the O(3) precursor CH(4) would slow near-term warming by decreasing both CH(4) and tropospheric O(3). Uncertainty remains as to the net climate forcing from anthropogenic nitrogen oxide (NO(x)) emissions, which increase tropospheric O(3) (warming) but also increase aerosols and decrease CH(4) (both cooling). Anthropogenic emissions of carbon monoxide (CO) and non-CH(4) volatile organic compounds (NMVOC) warm by increasing both O(3) and CH(4). Radiative impacts from secondary organic aerosols (SOA) are poorly understood. Black carbon emission controls, by reducing the absorption of sunlight in the atmosphere and on snow and ice, have the potential to slow near-term warming, but uncertainties in coincident emissions of reflective (cooling) aerosols and poorly constrained cloud indirect effects confound robust estimates of net climate impacts. Reducing sulfate and nitrate aerosols would improve air quality and lessen interference with the hydrologic cycle, but lead to warming. A holistic and balanced view is thus needed to assess how air pollution controls influence climate; a first step towards this goal involves estimating net climate impacts from individual emission sectors. Modeling and observational analyses suggest a warming climate degrades air quality (increasing surface O(3) and particulate matter) in many populated regions, including during pollution episodes. Prior Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) scenarios (SRES) allowed unconstrained growth, whereas

  13. Global Air Quality and Climate (United States)

    Fiore, Arlene M.; Naik, Vaishali; Steiner, Allison; Unger, Nadine; Bergmann, Dan; Prather, Michael; Righi, Mattia; Rumbold, Steven T.; Shindell, Drew T.; Skeie, Ragnhild B.; Sudo, Kengo; Szopa, Sophie; Horowitz, Larry W.; Takemura, Toshihiko; Zeng, Guang; Cameron-Smith, Philip J.; Cionni, Irene; Collins, William J.; Dalsoren, Stig; Eyring, Veronika; Folberth, Gerd A.; Ginoux, Paul; Josse, Batrice; Lamarque, Jean-Francois; OConnor, Fiona M.; Mackenzie, Ian A.; Nagashima, Tatsuya; Shindell, Drew Todd; Spracklen, Dominick V.


    Emissions of air pollutants and their precursors determine regional air quality and can alter climate. Climate change can perturb the long-range transport, chemical processing, and local meteorology that influence air pollution. We review the implications of projected changes in methane (CH4), ozone precursors (O3), and aerosols for climate (expressed in terms of the radiative forcing metric or changes in global surface temperature) and hemispheric-to-continental scale air quality. Reducing the O3 precursor CH4 would slow near-term warming by decreasing both CH4 and tropospheric O3. Uncertainty remains as to the net climate forcing from anthropogenic nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions, which increase tropospheric O3 (warming) but also increase aerosols and decrease CH4 (both cooling). Anthropogenic emissions of carbon monoxide (CO) and non-CH4 volatile organic compounds (NMVOC) warm by increasing both O3 and CH4. Radiative impacts from secondary organic aerosols (SOA) are poorly understood. Black carbon emission controls, by reducing the absorption of sunlight in the atmosphere and on snow and ice, have the potential to slow near-term warming, but uncertainties in coincident emissions of reflective (cooling) aerosols and poorly constrained cloud indirect effects confound robust estimates of net climate impacts. Reducing sulfate and nitrate aerosols would improve air quality and lessen interference with the hydrologic cycle, but lead to warming. A holistic and balanced view is thus needed to assess how air pollution controls influence climate; a first step towards this goal involves estimating net climate impacts from individual emission sectors. Modeling and observational analyses suggest a warming climate degrades air quality (increasing surface O3 and particulate matter) in many populated regions, including during pollution episodes. Prior Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) scenarios (SRES) allowed unconstrained growth, whereas the Representative

  14. Call for improving air quality (United States)

    Showstack, Randy


    The European Environmental Bureau (EEB), a federation of citizen organizations, has called for stricter policies in Europe to protect human health and the environment. "Air pollution emanates from sources all around us, be they cars, industrial plants, shipping, agriculture, or waste. The [European Union] must propose ambitious legislation to address all of these sources if it is to tackle the grave public health consequences of air pollution," EEB secretary general Jeremy Wates said on 8 January.

  15. Cognitive abilities and air pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raufhon Salahodjaev


    Full Text Available The link between intelligence and air pollution is subject to controversy. Some studies report that intelligence has insignificant effect in reducing the greenhouse gas emissions. By using carbon dioxide (CO2 emissions for a large set of countries we present further novel empirical evidence on the relation between level of intelligence and air pollution. Our findings suggest that the relation follows a U-shape pattern and resembles environmental Kuznets curve.

  16. Autonomy of the Air Arm (United States)


    Lewis, and Maj. Gen. George Simonds. Standing, left to right: Brig. Gen. John Gulik, James Doolittle (at that time a civilian), Edgar Gorrell, Brig...official sanction of the War Department, was submitted by Representative John M. Morin ." 56 CREATION OF THE ARmy AIR CORPS The initial stages of the...reality was a revision of the Morin air bill. 47 A quick summary at this point should clarify the major issues under review. Through the medium of various

  17. The lithium air battery fundamentals

    CERN Document Server

    Imanishi, Nobuyuki; Bruce, Peter G


    Lithium air rechargeable batteries are the best candidate for a power source for electric vehicles, because of their high specific energy density. In this book, the history, scientific background, status and prospects of the lithium air system are introduced by specialists in the field. This book will contain the basics, current statuses, and prospects for new technologies. This book is ideal for those interested in electrochemistry, energy storage, and materials science.

  18. Retroviral superinfection resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van der Kuyl Antoinette C


    Full Text Available Abstract The retroviral phenomenon of superinfection resistance (SIR defines an interference mechanism that is established after primary infection, preventing the infected cell from being superinfected by a similar type of virus. This review describes our present understanding of the underlying mechanisms of SIR established by three characteristic retroviruses: Murine Leukaemia Virus (MuLV, Foamy Virus (FV, and Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV. In addition, SIR is discussed with respect to HIV superinfection of humans. MuLV resistant mice exhibit two genetic resistance traits related to SIR. The cellular Fv4 gene expresses an Env related protein that establishes resistance against MuLV infection. Another mouse gene (Fv1 mediates MuLV resistance by expression of a sequence that is distantly related to Gag and that blocks the viral infection after the reverse transcription step. FVs induce two distinct mechanisms of superinfection resistance. First, expression of the Env protein results in SIR, probably by occupancy of the cellular receptors for FV entry. Second, an increase in the concentration of the viral Bet (Between-env-and-LTR-1-and-2 protein reduces proviral FV gene expression by inhibition of the transcriptional activator protein Tas (Transactivator of spumaviruses. In contrast to SIR in FV and MuLV infection, the underlying mechanism of SIR in HIV-infected cells is poorly understood. CD4 receptor down-modulation, a major characteristic of HIV-infected cells, has been proposed to be the main mechanism of SIR against HIV, but data have been contradictory. Several recent studies report the occurrence of HIV superinfection in humans; an event associated with the generation of recombinant HIV strains and possibly with increased disease progression. The role of SIR in protecting patients from HIV superinfection has not been studied so far. The phenomenon of SIR may also be important in the protection of primates that are vaccinated with live

  19. Mission Critical: Preventing Antibiotic Resistance (United States)

    ... Button Past Emails CDC Features Mission Critical: Preventing Antibiotic Resistance Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Can you ... spp. So, what can we do to prevent antibiotic resistance in healthcare settings? Patients, healthcare providers, healthcare facility ...

  20. Antibiotic-Resistant Gonorrhea (ARG) (United States)

    ... Twitter STD on Facebook Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs) Antibiotic-Resistant Gonorrhea Basic Information Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... Page Surveillance Trends and Treatment Challenges Laboratory Issues Antibiotic resistance (AR) is the ability of bacteria to ...

  1. Metabolic Resistance in Bed Bugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omprakash Mittapalli


    Full Text Available Blood-feeding insects have evolved resistance to various insecticides (organochlorines, pyrethroids, carbamates, etc. through gene mutations and increased metabolism. Bed bugs (Cimex lectularius are hematophagous ectoparasites that are poised to become one of the major pests in households throughout the United States. Currently, C. lectularius has attained a high global impact status due to its sudden and rampant resurgence. Resistance to pesticides is one factor implicated in this phenomenon. Although much emphasis has been placed on target sensitivity, little to no knowledge is available on the role of key metabolic players (e.g., cytochrome P450s and glutathione S-transferases towards pesticide resistance in C. lectularius. In this review, we discuss different modes of resistance (target sensitivity, penetration resistance, behavioral resistance, and metabolic resistance with more emphasis on metabolic resistance.

  2. Helping Teens Resist Sexual Pressure (United States)

    ... Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Helping Teens Resist Sexual Pressure Page Content Article Body Teens ... younger the first time they had intercourse. Helping Teens Resist Sexual Pressure “The pressure on teenagers to ...

  3. Galileo's Trajectory with Mild Resistance (United States)

    Groetsch, C. W.


    An aspect of Galileo's classical trajectory that persists in a simple resistance model is noted. The resistive model provides a case study for the classroom analysis of limiting behaviour of an implicitly defined function. (Contains 1 note.)

  4. Small Break Air Ingress Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang Oh; Eung Soo Kim


    The small break air-ingress experiment, described in this report, is designed to investigate air-ingress phenomena postulated to occur in pipes in a very high temperature gas-cooled reactor (VHTRs). During this experiment, air-ingress rates were measured for various flow and break conditions through small holes drilled into a pipe of the experimental apparatus. The holes were drilled at right angles to the pipe wall such that a direction vector drawn from the pipe centerline to the center of each hole was at right angles with respect to the pipe centerline. Thus the orientation of each hole was obtained by measuring the included angle between the direction vector of each hole with respect to a reference line anchored on the pipe centerline and pointing in the direction of the gravitational force. Using this reference system, the influence of several important parameters on the air ingress flow rate were measured including break orientation, break size, and flow velocity . The approach used to study the influence of these parameters on air ingress is based on measuring the changes in oxygen concentrations at various locations in the helium flow circulation system as a function of time using oxygen sensors (or detectors) to estimate the air-ingress rates through the holes. The test-section is constructed of a stainless steel pipe which had small holes drilled at the desired locations.

  5. Solar air heaters and their applications (United States)

    Selcuk, M. K.


    The solar air heater appears to be the most logical choice, as far as the ultimate application of heating air to maintain a comfortable environment is concerned. One disadvantage of solar air heaters is the need for handling larger volumes of air than liquids due to the low density of air as a working substance. Another disadvantage is the low thermal capacity of air. In cases where thermal storage is needed, water is superior to air. Design variations of solar air heaters are discussed along with the calculation of the efficiency of a flat plate solar air heater, the performance of various collector types, and the applications of solar air heaters. Attention is given to collectors with nonporous absorber plates, collectors with porous absorbers, the performance of flat plate collectors with finned absorbers, a wire mesh absorber, and an overlapped glass plate air heater.

  6. Slip-Effect Functional Air Filter for Efficient Purification of PM2.5 (United States)

    Zhao, Xinglei; Wang, Shan; Yin, Xia; Yu, Jianyong; Ding, Bin


    Fabrication of air filtration materials (AFM) that allow air to easily flow through while retaining particles is a significant and urgent need due to the harmful airborne particulate matter pollution; however, this is still a challenging research area. Herein, we report novel slip-effect functional nanofibrous membranes with decreased air resistance (reduction rate of 40%) due to the slip flow of air molecules on the periphery of nanofibers. This was achieved through careful control over the diameters of electrospun polyacrylonitrile fibers and aperture size of fiber assembly. Fiber assembly with 86% of fiber diameters between 60–100 nm was found to be most effective for slip flow, as these diameters are close to the mean free path of air molecules (65.3 nm). Significantly, an equilibrium factor τ = df/d2 has been introduced to elucidate the effect of distance of adjacent fibers on the drag force of airflow. Furthermore, the most effective aperture size (>3.5 μm) for slip-effect has been determined. Ultimately, the new material displayed low air resistance of 29.5 Pa, high purification efficiency of 99.09%, good transmittance of 77%, and long service life. The successful fabrication of such materials can facilitate the development of high-performance AFMs for various applications.

  7. Bacterial vaccines and antibiotic resistance


    Henriques-Normark, Birgitta; Normark, Staffan


    Spread of antibiotic resistance is mediated by clonal lineages of bacteria that besides being resistant also possess other properties promoting their success. Some vaccines already in use, such as the pneumococcal conjugate vaccines, have had an effect on these successful clones, but at the same time have allowed for the expansion and resistance evolution of previously minor clones not covered by the vaccine. Since resistance frequently is horizontally transferred it will be difficult to gene...

  8. Clopidogrel resistance: The way forward


    Ray, Shuvanan


    Clopidogrel, a second generation thienopyridine has been the mainstay of ACS (Acute Coronary Syndrome) treatment for more than a decade. Clopidogrel Resistance has been associated with increased mortality in ACS patients with an increase in number of Stent Thrombosis. This review article tries to find out the causes of Clopidogrel Resistance, the main factors involving it, Laboratory evaluation of Clopidogrel Resistance. The overall incidence of Clopidogrel Resistance across the Globe & India...

  9. Antibacterial resistance: an emerging 'zoonosis'? (United States)

    Labro, Marie-Thérèse; Bryskier, Jean-Marie


    Antibacterial resistance is a worldwide threat, and concerns have arisen about the involvement of animal commensal and pathogenic bacteria in the maintenance and spread of resistance genes. However, beyond the facts related to the occurrence of resistant microorganisms in food, food-producing animals and companion animals and their transmission to humans, it is important to consider the vast environmental 'resistome', the selective pathways underlying the emergence of antibacterial resistance and how we can prepare answers for tomorrow.

  10. Corrosion-resistant metal surfaces (United States)

    Sugama, Toshifumi


    The present invention relates to metal surfaces having thereon an ultrathin (e.g., less than ten nanometer thickness) corrosion-resistant film, thereby rendering the metal surfaces corrosion-resistant. The corrosion-resistant film includes an at least partially crosslinked amido-functionalized silanol component in combination with rare-earth metal oxide nanoparticles. The invention also relates to methods for producing such corrosion-resistant films.

  11. Flow characteristics of an inclined air-curtain range hood in a draft. (United States)

    Chen, Jia-Kun


    The inclined air-curtain technology was applied to build an inclined air-curtain range hood. A draft generator was applied to affect the inclined air-curtain range hood in three directions: lateral (θ=0°), oblique (θ=45°), and front (θ=90°). The three suction flow rates provided by the inclined air-curtain range hood were 10.1, 10.9, and 12.6 m(3)/min. The laser-assisted flow visualization technique and the tracer-gas test method were used to investigate the performance of the range hood under the influence of a draft. The results show that the inclined air-curtain range hood has a strong ability to resist the negative effect of a front draft until the draft velocity is greater than 0.5 m/s. The oblique draft affected the containment ability of the inclined air-curtain range hood when the draft velocity was larger than 0.3 m/s. When the lateral draft effect was applied, the capture efficiency of the inclined air-curtain range hood decreased quickly in the draft velocity from 0.2 m/s to 0.3 m/s. However, the capture efficiencies of the inclined air-curtain range hood under the influence of the front draft were higher than those under the influence of the oblique draft from 0.3 m/s to 0.5 m/s.

  12. Optimization of air injection parameters toward optimum fuel saving effect for ships (United States)

    Lee, Inwon; Park, Seong Hyeon


    Air lubrication method is the most promising commercial strategy for the frictional drag reduction of ocean going vessels. Air bubbles are injected through the array of holes or the slots installed onto the flat bottom surface of vessel and a sufficient supply of air is required to ensure the formation of stable air layer by the by the coalescence of the bubbles. The air layer drag reduction becomes economically meaningful when the power gain through the drag reduction exceeds the pumping power consumption. In this study, a model ship of 50k medium range tanker is employed to investigate air lubrication method. The experiments were conducted in the 100m long towing tank facility at the Pusan National University. To create the effective air lubrication with lower air flow rate, various configurations including the layout of injection holes, employment of side fences and static trim have been tested. In the preliminary series of model tests, the maximum 18.13%(at 15kts) of reduction of model resistance was achieved. This research was supported by the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) Grant funded by the Korea government (MEST) through GCRC-SOP (Grant No. 2011-0030013).


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    In this work, we investigate the effect of air convection on laser-beam pointing noise essential for the long trace profiler (LTP). We describe this pointing error with noise power density (NPD) frequency distributions. It is shown that the NPD spectra due to air convection have a very characteristic form. In the range of frequencies from {approx}0.05 Hz to {approx}0.5 Hz, the spectra can be modeled with an inverse-power-law function. Depending on the intensity of air convection that is controlled with a resistive heater of 100 to 150 mW along a one-meter-long optical path, the power index lies between 2 and 3 at an overall rms noise of {approx}0.5 to 1 microradian. The efficiency of suppression of the convection noise by blowing air across the beam optical path is also discussed. Air-blowing leads to a white-noise-like spectrum. Air blowing was applied to the reference channel of an LTP allowing demonstration of the contribution of air convection noise to the LTP reference beam. The ability to change (with the blowing technique presented) the spectral characteristics of the beam pointing noise due to air convection allows one to investigate the contribution of the convection effect, and thus make corrections to the power spectral density spectra measured with the LTP.

  14. Air convection noise of pencil-beam interferometer for long traceprofiler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yashchuk, Valeriy V.; Irick, Steve C.; MacDowell, Alastair A.; McKinney, Wayne R.; Takacs, Peter Z.


    In this work, we investigate the effect of air convection onlaser-beam pointing noise essential for the long trace profiler (LTP). Wedescribe this pointing error with noise power density (NPD) frequencydistributions. It is shown that the NPD spectra due to air convectionhave a very characteristic form. In the range of frequencies from ~;0.05Hz to ~;0.5 Hz, the spectra can be modeled with an inverse-power-lawfunction. Depending on the intensity of air convection that is controlledwith a resistive heater of 100 to 150 mW along a one-meter-long opticalpath, the power index lies between 2 and 3 at an overall rms noise of~;0.5 to 1 microradian. The efficiency of suppression of the convectionnoise by blowing air across the beam optical path is also discussed.Air-blowing leads to a white-noise-like spectrum. Air blowing was appliedto the reference channel of an LTP allowing demonstration of thecontribution of air convection noise to the LTP reference beam. Theability to change (with the blowing technique presented) the spectralcharacteristics of the beam pointing noise due to air convection allowsone to investigate the contribution of the convection effect, and thusmake corrections to the power spectral density spectra measured with theLTP.

  15. Electrical Resistance Tomography imaging of concrete

    KAUST Repository

    Karhunen, Kimmo


    We apply Electrical Resistance Tomography (ERT) for three dimensional imaging of concrete. In ERT, alternating currents are injected into the target using an array of electrodes attached to the target surface, and the resulting voltages are measured using the same electrodes. These boundary measurements are used for reconstructing the internal (3D) conductivity distribution of the target. In reinforced concrete, the metallic phases (reinforcing bars and fibers), cracks and air voids, moisture gradients, and the chloride distribution in the matrix carry contrast with respect to conductivity. While electrical measurements have been widely used to characterize the properties of concrete, only preliminary results of applying ERT to concrete imaging have been published so far. The aim of this paper is to carry out a feasibility evaluation with specifically cast samples. The results indicate that ERT may be a feasible modality for non-destructive evaluation of concrete. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Resistance patterns, prevalence, and predictors of fluoroquinolones resistance in multidrug resistant tuberculosis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nafees Ahmad


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fluoroquinolones are the backbone of multidrug resistant tuberculosis treatment regimens. Despite the high burden of multidrug resistant tuberculosis in the country, little is known about drug resistance patterns, prevalence, and predictors of fluoroquinolones resistance among multidrug resistant tuberculosis patients from Pakistan. Objective To evaluate drug resistance patterns, prevalence, and predictors of fluoroquinolones resistance in multidrug resistant tuberculosis patients. Methods This was a cross-sectional study conducted at a programmatic management unit of drug resistant tuberculosis, Lady Reading Hospital Peshawar, Pakistan. Two hundred and forty-three newly diagnosed multidrug resistant tuberculosis patients consecutively enrolled for treatment at study site from January 1, 2012 to July 28, 2013 were included in the study. A standardized data collection form was used to collect patients’ socio-demographic, microbiological, and clinical data. SPSS 16 was used for data analysis. Results High degree of drug resistance (median 5 drugs, range 2–8 was observed. High proportion of patients was resistant to all five first-line anti-tuberculosis drugs (62.6%, and more than half were resistant to second line drugs (55.1%. The majority of the patients were ofloxacin resistant (52.7%. Upon multivariate analysis previous tuberculosis treatment at private (OR = 1.953, p = 0.034 and public private mix (OR = 2.824, p = 0.046 sectors were predictors of ofloxacin resistance. Conclusion The high degree of drug resistance observed, particularly to fluoroquinolones, is alarming. We recommend the adoption of more restrictive policies to control non-prescription sale of fluoroquinolones, its rational use by physicians, and training doctors in both private and public–private mix sectors to prevent further increase in fluoroquinolones resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains.

  17. Chemical Countermeasures for Antibiotic Resistance (United States)


    SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14.ABSTRACT New approaches are required to control multi-drug resistant (MDR) bacterial infections in military medical facilities ...New approaches are required to control multi-drug resistant (MDR) bacterial infections in military medical facilities , as injured Warfighters...current position: postdoc in the Disney lab TSRI Florida 15 CONCLUSION: New approaches are desperately required to control multi-drug resistant

  18. Biotechnology: herbicide-resistant crops (United States)

    Transgenic, herbicide-resistant (HR) crops are planted on about 80% of the land covered by transgenic crops. More than 90% of HR crios are glyphosate-resistant (GR) crops, the others being resistant to glufosinate. The wide-scale adoption of HR crops, largely for economic reasons, has been the mos...

  19. Investigating the Antibiotic Resistance Problem. (United States)

    Lawson, Michael; Lawson, Amy L.


    Seeks to give teachers useful information on the extent of the problem of antibiotic-resistant bacteria, mechanisms bacteria use to resist antibiotics, the causes of the emergence of antibiotic-resistant organisms, and practices that can prevent or reverse this trend. Contains 19 references. (DDR)

  20. Driving Resistance from Railroad Trains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindgreen, Erik Bjørn Grønning; Sorenson, Spencer C


    This report methods and parameters for calculating the driving resistance of railroad trains. Calculations and comparisons are presented for aerodynamic, rolling and total resistance for a variety of freight trains under different loading conditions, operating speed and configuration. Simplified...... methods are presented for the estimation of the driving resistance for passenger trains. This report is a supplement to the ARTEMIS rail emissions model....

  1. Studying Resistance: Some Cautionary Notes (United States)

    Dimitriadis, Greg


    The question of "resistance" has oriented the field of critical ethnography for several generations now. Indeed, the reproduction-resistance binary has animated much of the most important, critical work in educational studies over the last 30 years. Yet, this reproduction-resistance binary has perhaps calcified in recent years. Such work often…

  2. Testing Tools for Glyphosate Resistance (United States)

    There are multiple tools available for testing for glyphosate resistance. Whole plant screens, whether in the field or greenhouse, should be used as an initial method to determine if a biotype is glyphosate resistant. Screening for resistance using seedling assays such as in Petri plates, sand cul...

  3. Studying Resistance: Some Cautionary Notes (United States)

    Dimitriadis, Greg


    The question of "resistance" has oriented the field of critical ethnography for several generations now. Indeed, the reproduction-resistance binary has animated much of the most important, critical work in educational studies over the last 30 years. Yet, this reproduction-resistance binary has perhaps calcified in recent years. Such work…

  4. Thermal computations for electronics conductive, radiative, and convective air cooling

    CERN Document Server

    Ellison, Gordon


    IntroductionPrimary mechanisms of heat flowConductionApplication example: Silicon chip resistance calculationConvectionApplication example: Chassis panel cooled by natural convectionRadiationApplication example: Chassis panel cooled only by radiation 7Illustrative example: Simple thermal network model for a heat sinked power transistorIllustrative example: Thermal network circuit for a printed circuit boardCompact component modelsIllustrative example: Pressure and thermal circuits for a forced air cooled enclosureIllustrative example: A single chip package on a printed circuit board-the proble

  5. First detection of extensive air showers with the EEE experiment (United States)

    Moro, R.


    The Extreme Energy Events (EEE) Project is devoted to the study of extremely high energy cosmic rays by means of an array of particle detectors distributed all over the Italian territory. Each element of the array (called telescope in the following) is installed in a High School, with the further goal to introduce students to particle and astroparticle physics, and consists of three Multigap Resistive Plate Chambers (MRPC), that have excellent time resolution and good tracking capability. In this paper the first results on the detection of extensive air showers by means of time coincidences between two telescopes are presented.

  6. First detection of extensive air showers with the EEE experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Abbrescia, M; Fabbri, F L; Bressan, E; Librizzi, F; Sartorelli, G; Piragino, G; Ferroli, R Baldini; Maggiora, A; Siddi, E; Zuyeuski, R; Frolov, V; Serci, S; Selvi, M; Zichichi, A; Romano, F; La Rocca, P; Williams, M C S; Cicalo, C; D'Incecco, M; Panareo, M; Menghetti, H; Garbini, M; Moro, R; Cifarelli, L; Riggi, F; Hatzifotiadou, D; Scapparone, E; Chiavassa, A; Gustavino, C; De Gruttola, D; Coccetti, F; Bencivenni, C; Miozzi, S; De Pasquale, S


    The Extreme Energy Events (EEE) Project is devoted to the study of extremely high energy cosmic rays by means of an array of particle detectors distributed all over the Italian territory. Each element of the array (called telescope in the following) is installed in a High School, with the further goal to introduce students to particle and astroparticle physics, and consists of three Multigap Resistive Plate Chambers (MRPC), that have excellent time resolution and good tracking capability. In this paper the first results on the detection of extensive air showers by means of time coincidences between two telescopes are presented.

  7. Insecticide Resistance Management (United States)


    thuringiensis var. membranes israeknsis A2 Bacillus sphaencus Inhibitocs of chitin biosynthesis type 0 15 Benzaylureas Diflubenzuron, triflnmuron...resistance can detoxify or destroy the pesticide toxins at a faster rate, break down the toxins inside the body, and/or prevent the pesticide from entering...hocmone analogues MethOJre!le, hydorpene Juvenile hormone mimics 7 c Pyri proxyfen Pyriproxyfen Microbial disrupters of insect midgut 11 AI Bacillus

  8. Insulin and Insulin Resistance


    Wilcox, Gisela


    As obesity and diabetes reach epidemic proportions in the developed world, the role of insulin resistance and its consequences are gaining prominence. Understanding the role of insulin in wide-ranging physiological processes and the influences on its synthesis and secretion, alongside its actions from the molecular to the whole body level, has significant implications for much chronic disease seen in Westernised populations today. This review provides an overview of insulin, its history, stru...

  9. Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts


    In this podcast, Dr. Oeltmann discusses multidrug-resistant tuberculosis. An outbreak occurred in Thailand, which led to 45 cases in the U.S. This serious illness can take up to 2 years to treat. MDR TB is a real threat and a serious condition.  Created: 10/28/2008 by Emerging Infectious Diseases.   Date Released: 10/28/2008.

  10. Engineering disease resistant cattle. (United States)

    Donovan, David M; Kerr, David E; Wall, Robert J


    Mastitis is a disease of the mammary gland caused by pathogens that find their way into the lumen of the gland through the teat canal. Mammary gland infections cost the US dairy industry approximately $2 billion dollars annually and have a similar impact in Europe. In the absence of effective treatments or breeding strategies to enhance mastitis resistance, we have created transgenic dairy cows that express lysostaphin in their mammary epithelium and secrete the antimicrobial peptide into milk. Staphylococcus aureus, a major mastitis pathogen, is exquisitely sensitive to lysostaphin. The transgenic cattle resist S. aureus mammary gland challenges, and their milk kills the bacteria, in a dose dependent manner. This first step in protecting cattle against mastitis will be followed by introduction of other genes to deal with potential resistance issues and other mastitis causing organisms. Care will be taken to avoid altering milk's nutritional and manufacturing properties. Multi-cistronic constructs may be required to achieve our goals as will other strategies possibly involving RNAi and gene targeting technology. This work demonstrates the possibility of using transgenic technology to address disease problems in agriculturally important species.

  11. Herbicide resistance screening assay. (United States)

    Peterson, Joan M


    Herbicide resistance screening is a method that can be used not only to determine presence of the enzyme, phosphinothricin acetyltransferase, encoded by either the Bar or the Pat gene in transgenic maize, but also to assess the inheritance ratio of those genes in a segregating population. Herbicide screening can also be used to study linkage of a transgene of interest that was cotransformed with the herbicide resistance marker gene. By combining the herbicide screen assay with a PCR-based screen of leaf tissue DNA for the presence of both the Bar or the Pat gene marker and a cotransformed transgene of interest from the same seedling tissue and maintaining that seedling identity, the researcher can identify linkage or the possible breakdown in linkage of the marker gene and the transgene of interest. Further, the occurrence of "DNA silencing" can be evaluated if an individual seedling that was susceptible to the applied herbicide nonetheless gave PCR data that indicated presence of the gene responsible for herbicide resistance. Similarly, "DNA silencing" of the gene of interest may be investigated if the seeds can be screened and scored for that phenotypic trait in a nondestructive manner prior to planting.

  12. Do Fish Resist?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinesh Joseph Wadiwel


    Full Text Available There have been a number of scientific studies on the question of whether fish feel pain. Some have suggested that some fish indeed do feel pain and that this has significant welfare implications (2003. Others have argued that fish do not have the brain development necessary to feel pain. In terms of number of animals killed, the slaughter of sea animals for human consumption significantly exceeds that of any land animals that we use for food, and sea animal slaughter practices frequently lack any basic welfare protections. If fish can be shown to feel pain—or more importantly, if humans can agree that fish feel pain—then this would place a significant question mark over many contemporary fishing practices.  This article substitutes the question 'Do Fish Feel Pain?' with an alternative: 'Do Fish Resist?' It explores the conceptual problems of understanding fish resistance, and the politics of epistemology that surrounds and seeks to develop a conceptual framework for understanding fish resistance to human capture by exploring the development of fishing technologies - the hook, the net and contemporary aquaculture.

  13. Resistant Hypertension and Chronotherapy (United States)

    Prkacin, Ingrid; Balenovic, Diana; Djermanovic-Dobrota, Vesna; Lukac, Iva; Drazic, Petra; Pranjic, Iva-Klara


    Resistant hypertension is defined as blood pressure that remains above 140/90 mmHg in spite of the continuous use of three antihypertensive agents in optimal dose, including diuretic, and lifestyle changes. According to data from United States of America and Europe, the prevalence ranges from 10 up to 30% in patients with hypertension. Numerous biological and lifestyle factors can contribute to the development of resistant hypertension: medications, volume overload, obesity, diabetes mellitus, older age, renal parenchymal and renovascular disease, primary aldosteronism, obstructive sleep apnea, pheochormocytoma, Cushing’s syndrome, thyroid diseases, aortic coarctation. For diagnosing patient’s history is important, assessing compliance, regular blood pressure measurement, physical examination, biochemical evaluation and noninvasive imaging. The evaluation including 24h ambulatory monitoring of blood pressure (ABPM) in the identification of “non-dipper” hypertension. Non-dipper has particular importance and the prevalence of abnormally high sleep blood pressure is very often in chronic kidney patients. Therapeutic restoration of normal physiologic blood pressure reduction during night-time sleep (circadial variation) is the most significant independent predictor of decreased risk and the basis for the chronotherapy. The resistant hypertension treatment is achieved with nonpharmacological and pharmacological approach, treating secondary hypertension causes and invasive procedures. PMID:26005390

  14. Breast Cancer Resistance Protein Expression and 5-Fluorouracil Resistance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    To filtrate breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP)-mediated resistant agents and to investigate clinical relationship between BCRP expression and drug resistance. Methods MTT assay was performed to filtrate BCRP-mediated resistant agents with BCRP expression cell model and to detect chemosensitivity of breast cancer tissue specimens to these agents. A high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) assay was established, and was used to measure the relative dose of intracellular retention resistant agents. RT-PCR and immununohistochemistry (IHC) were employed to investigate the BCRP expression in breast cancer tissue specimens. Results MTT assay showed that the expression of BCRP increased with the increasing resistance of 5-fluorouracil (5-Fu) (P=0.8124, P<0.01). Condusion Resistance to 5-Fu can be mediated by BCRP. Clinical chemotherapy for breast cancer patients can be optimized based on BCRP-positive expression.

  15. A mixed air/air and air/water heat pump system ensures the air-conditioning of a cinema; Un systeme mixte PAC air/air et air/eau climatise un cinema

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This article presents the air conditioning system of a new cinema complex of Boulogne (92, France) which comprises a double-flux air processing plant and two heat pumps. Each heat pump has two independent refrigerating loops: one with a air condenser and the other with a water condenser. This system allows to limit the power of the loop and to reduce the size of the cooling tower and of the vertical ducts. This article describes the technical characteristics of the installation: thermodynamic units, smoke clearing, temperature control, air renewing. (J.S.)

  16. Air quality in Europe - 2012 report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This report presents an overview and analysis of the status and trends of air quality in Europe based on concentration measurements in ambient air and data on anthropogenic emissions and trends from 2001 - when mandatory monitoring of ambient air concentrations of selected pollutants first produced reliable air quality information - to 2010. (Author)

  17. Ozone, Air Quality, and Asthma (For Parents) (United States)

    ... gases can also affect lung function. continue How Poor Air Quality Affects People With Asthma Air pollution is a problem for ... to evening. In cities larger than 350,000 people, state and local agencies are ... days when air quality is poor, run the air conditioning and limit your child's ...

  18. Solid Waste, Air Pollution and Health (United States)

    Kupchik, George J.; Franz, Gerald J.


    This article examines the relationships among solid waste disposal, air pollution, and human disease. It is estimated that solid waste disposal contributes 9.7 percent of the total air pollution and 9.9 percent of the total air pollution health effect. Certain disposal-resource recovery systems can be implemented to meet air quality standards. (MR)

  19. 29 CFR 1917.154 - Compressed air. (United States)


    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Compressed air. 1917.154 Section 1917.154 Labor Regulations...) MARINE TERMINALS Related Terminal Operations and Equipment § 1917.154 Compressed air. Employees shall be... this part during cleaning with compressed air. Compressed air used for cleaning shall not exceed...

  20. 30 CFR 75.321 - Air quality. (United States)


    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Air quality. 75.321 Section 75.321 Mineral... SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Ventilation § 75.321 Air quality. (a)(1) The air in areas where... air current in these areas shall be sufficient to dilute, render harmless, and carry away...