WorldWideScience

Sample records for air quality standards

  1. Norma Primaria de calidad del aire AIR QUALITY STANDARD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PATRICIA MATUS C.

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Las normas primarias de calidad del aire tienen por finalidad proteger la salud de la población de la contaminación atmosférica. Ellas establecen un nivel de riesgo socialmente aceptado. Este artículo describe los antecedentes considerados durante el proceso de actualización de la regulación vigente en Chile. Detalla conceptos sobre la calidad del aire, describe los efectos en la salud de los contaminantes, y el procedimiento seguido para fijar los nuevos estándares Finaliza enumerando la norma primaria de calidad del aire, sus valores y los limites definidos para ser considerados en el ámbito de la gestión de los episodios críticos o de alta contaminaciónThe main purpose of air quality standards is to protect people health from air pollution. They establish a socially accepted level of risk. This article describes the background information considered during the process for updating the current Chilean regulation. Concepts about quality of air, and the effects of the pollutants on the health are described. The procedure followed to fix the new standards is detailed. Finally we state the primary air quality norm, its values as well as the critical limits in order to control critical events of high air pollution

  2. 78 FR 30829 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Illinois; Air Quality Standards...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-23

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Illinois; Air Quality Standards Revision AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY... current national ambient air quality standards (NAAQS) for ozone, lead, and particulate matter. EPA...

  3. Air Quality of Beijing and Impacts of the New Ambient Air Quality Standard

    OpenAIRE

    Wei Chen; Fusheng Wang; Guofeng Xiao; Kai Wu; Shixuan Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Beijing has been publishing daily reports on its air quality since 2000, and while the air pollution index (API) shows that the air quality has improved greatly since 2000, this is not the perception of Beijing’s residents. The new national ambient air quality standard (NAAQS-2012), which includes the monitoring of PM2.5, has posed stricter standards for evaluating air quality. With the new national standard, the air quality in Beijing is calculated using both NAAQS-2012 and the previous stan...

  4. Air quality standards must protect public health

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norman Edelman [American Lung Association (ALA) (United States)

    2006-06-15

    Leading medical and public health organizations are deeply concerned about the proposed revisions to the National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) that the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) announced in December 2005. Led by the American Lung Association (ALA), these groups are fighting to force EPA to finalize stricter standards for fine and coarse particles when the final decision is announced in September 2006. The ALA disagrees strongly with the proposal to exempt coarse particles from agriculture and mining sources, and to exclude communities with populations fewer than 100,000 from protection and monitoring requirements. ALA urges EPA to set the following health-based NAAQS for PM: Annual average PM2.5 standard of 12 {mu}mg/m{sup 3}; 24 hour average PM2.5 standard of 25 {mu}mg.m{sup 3} (99th percentile); 24-hour average PM10-2.5 standard of 25-30 {mu}g/m{sup 3} (99th percentile), applied equally to all areas of the country and to all types of particles. 72 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  5. 40 CFR 52.14 - State ambient air quality standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... quality standards. Any ambient air quality standard submitted with a plan which is less stringent than a national standard is not considered part of the plan. ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false State ambient air quality standards....

  6. Air Quality of Beijing and Impacts of the New Ambient Air Quality Standard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Chen

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Beijing has been publishing daily reports on its air quality since 2000, and while the air pollution index (API shows that the air quality has improved greatly since 2000, this is not the perception of Beijing’s residents. The new national ambient air quality standard (NAAQS-2012, which includes the monitoring of PM2.5, has posed stricter standards for evaluating air quality. With the new national standard, the air quality in Beijing is calculated using both NAAQS-2012 and the previous standard. The annual attainment rate has dropped from 75.5% to 50.7%. The spatial analysis of air quality shows that only a background station could attain the national standard, while urban and suburban stations exceed the national standard. Among the six pollutants included in the NAAQS-2012, PM2.5 is the major contributor to the air quality index (AQI comparing with the five other pollutants. The results indicate that under previous NAAQS without PM2.5 monitoring, the air quality has improved greatly in the past decade.  By considering PM2.5, the air quality attainment has dropped greatly. Furthermore, a great effort is needed for local government to bring down the PM2.5 concentration.

  7. 76 FR 76048 - Air Quality Designations for the 2008 Lead (Pb) National Ambient Air Quality Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Part 81 RIN 2060-AR17 Air Quality Designations for the 2008 Lead (Pb) National Ambient Air Quality Standards Correction In rule document 2011-29460 appearing on pages 72097-72120 in the issues...

  8. 75 FR 2938 - National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-19

    ... 1997 (62 FR 38856) by setting the primary standard at a level of 0.08 ppm, based on the annual fourth... the air quality criteria and standards for O 3 in September 2000 with a call for information (65 FR..., and form, respectively, of the primary O 3 standard (73 FR 16472- 16475). For these reasons,...

  9. Standards and laws for indoor air quality in Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The air quality of indoor air in Russia, including the special problems of air quality with regard to radioactive contamination, is determined by a number of statutes, standards and regulations. All these are based on the biological principles that the maximum allowable concentrations of pollutants (MAC) and the prescribed radioactive safety dose limits should not be exceeded. The standards cover the air in the working zones of all ministries and departments, and are for trade unions, public and cooperative organisations and foundations. The basic Russian law for air quality is 'The Law on Environmental Nature Protection' (19.2.1991) which assures the right to health protection from adverse environmental effects. In the field of radioactive safety 'The Federal Law on Radioactive Safety' (9.1.1996) is the primary law and in accordance with it, every citizen living in Russia has the right to protection for the present and future generations from health-related deleterious effects of atomic radiation. The laws on air quality are part of the Russian Federation legal system and are secured in the Constitution. The air quality must be controlled by the Goscomgidromet and the Sunepidnadzor of Russia. In compliance with these laws everybody has the right to a favourable environment and the duty to protect, preserve and maintain it. The air environment is unique and common to all, thus economic cooperation dictates that a dedicated approach to air quality and air quality regulations would be the most appropriate way to preserve it. It appears judicious to join forces in the name of European ecological safety. To do this, it is necessary to combine the national means and secure. (author) 4 figs

  10. Indoor air quality standards of performance applications guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linder, R.J.; Dorgan, C.B.; Dorgan, C.E.

    1999-07-01

    This paper discusses the development and application of standards of performance (SOPs) for HVAC and R equipment, plumbing systems, and building envelope systems in relation to maintaining acceptable indoor air quality (IAQ) in buildings. The utilization of the SOP procedure, developed in ASHRAE Research Project 853, will aid in the proper operation of systems and verify that acceptable building IAQ levels are obtained.

  11. Nocturnal stomatal conductance and ambient air quality standards for ozone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musselman, Robert C.; Minnick, Tamera J.

    Vegetation response to ozone depends on ozone conductance into leaves and the defensive action inside the leaf. Ozone parameters currently used for air quality standards do not incorporate conductance or defensive components. Nighttime flux has often been ignored in ozone metrics relating to plant response, since ozone concentration and conductance are considered to be minimal at night. However, ozone concentration can remain relatively high at night, particularly in mountainous areas. Although conductance is lower at night than during the day for most plants, nocturnal conductance can result in considerable ozone flux into plants. Further, plants can be more susceptible to ozone exposure at night than during the daytime, a result of lower plant defenses at night. Any ozone metric used to relate air quality to plant response should use a 24 h ozone exposure period to include the nighttime exposures. It should also incorporate plant defensive mechanisms or their surrogate.

  12. Deriving air quality standards on the basis of risk assessments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A concept is proposed for deriving air quality standards on the basis of risk-dose-relationships. Five different risks are shown to be a part of any decision on the value of a definite standard. Three of these arise from the generalisation of statements on samples of objects, effects, boundary and state conditions of objects to those valid for the respective populations. These risks cannot be quantified. The remaining two risks are the risk of the incidence of effects and the risk of wrong measurements. The former risk has to be fixed by the administration while the latter results from the quality of the measurement technique. The consequences of combining these risks to a total risk are discussed. (orig.) 891 HP

  13. 77 FR 38760 - National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Particulate Matter; Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-29

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Parts 50, 51, 52, 53, and 58 RIN 2060-AO47 National Ambient Air Quality Standards for... revise the national ambient air quality standards (NAAQS) for particulate matter (PM). This action...: Questions concerning the ``National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Particulate Matter'' proposed...

  14. 75 FR 35519 - Primary National Ambient Air Quality Standard for Sulfur Dioxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-22

    ... Protection Agency 40 CFR Parts 50, 53, and 58 Primary National Ambient Air Quality Standard for Sulfur... Ambient Air Quality Standard for Sulfur Dioxide AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION... primary national ambient air quality standard (NAAQS) for oxides of sulfur as measured by sulfur...

  15. Environmental Monitoring, Air Quality - MO 2011 Air Quality Standards Nonattainment Areas (SHP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — The St. Louis air quality nonattainment areas geospatial data layer contains regions representing the geographic extent of areas that are estimated to be out of...

  16. 40 CFR 50.8 - National primary ambient air quality standards for carbon monoxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... ambient air quality standards for carbon monoxide. (a) The national primary ambient air quality standards... carbon monoxide in the ambient air shall be measured by: (1) A reference method based on appendix C and... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false National primary ambient air......

  17. Limitations of ambient air quality standards in evaluating indoor environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Analysis of the kinds of data used for the derivation of ambient air quality standards (AAQSs) for carbon monoxide and ozone shows that these values are based on the toxicology of the materials and thus are suitable for evaluating potential health effects of indoor environments, especially on the very young, the aged, and the infirm. A similar analysis shows that the AAQSs for suspended particulate matter, nitrogen dioxide, and sulfur dioxide are strictly empirical and that they should not be used for any but their first, intended purpose. The AAQSs for non-methane hydrocarbons are based on photochemical smog production, not injury of any kind, and have no utility for indoor environment evaluation

  18. Standards for securing adequate indoor air quality across Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wargocki, Pawel; Carrer, P.; de Oliveira Fernandes, E.;

    2013-01-01

    human bioeffluents and is determined mainly considering the metabolic CO2 production. It is only applicable if all other pollutants meet WHO guidelines for ambient and indoor air quality. If they do not meet these guidelines after applying source control and when air used for ventilation is clean health...

  19. Acidic precipitation: considerations for an air-quality standard

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, L.S.; Hendrey, G.R.; Stensland, G.J.; Johnson, D.W.; Francis, A.J.

    1980-01-01

    Acidic precipitation, wet or frozen deposition with a hydrogen ion concentration greatern than 2.5 ..mu..eq l/sup -1/ is a significant air pollution problem in the United States. The chief anions accounting for the hydrogen ions in rainfall are nitrate and sulfate. Agricultural systems are more likely to derive net nutritional benefits from increasing inputs of acidic rain than are forest systems when soils alone are considered. Agricultural soils may benefit because of the high N and S requirements of agricultural plants. Detrimental effects to forest soils may result if atmospheric H/sup +/ inputs significantly add to or exceed H/sup +/ production by soils. Acidification of fresh waters of southern Scandinavia, southwestern Scotland, southeastern Canada, and northeastern United States is caused by acid deposition. Areas of these regions in which this acidification occurs have in common, highly acidic precipitation with volume weighted mean annual H/sup +/ concentrations of 25 ..mu..eq l/sup -1/ or higher and slow weathering granitic or precambrian bedrock with thin soils deficient in minerals which would provide buffer capacity. Biological effects of acidification of fresh waters are detectable below pH 6.0. As lake and stream pH levels decrease below pH. 6.0, many species of plants, invertebrates, and vertebrates are progressively eliminated. Generally, fisheries are impacted below pH 5.0 and are completely destroyed below pH 4.8. There are few studies that document effects of acidic precipitation on terrestrial vegetation to establish an air quality standard. It must be demonstrated that current levels of precipitation acidity alone significantly injure terrestrial vegetation. In terms of documented damanges, current research indicates that establishing a standard for precipitation for the volume weighted annual H/sup +/ concentration at 25 ..mu..eq l/sup -1/ may protect the most sensitive areas from permanent lake acidification.

  20. 77 FR 30087 - Air Quality Designations for the 2008 Ozone National Ambient Air Quality Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-21

    ... Columbia EPA Environmental Protection Agency FR Federal Register NAAQS National Ambient Air Quality... ppm NAAQS set in 1997, but is set at a more protective level. \\2\\ See 73 FR 16436; March 27, 2008. For... 6, 2010. (See 75 FR 2938; January 19, 2010.) Because of the significant uncertainty the ozone...

  1. 78 FR 3085 - National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Particulate Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-15

    ... the original air quality criteria document (DHEW, 1969; 36 FR 8186, April 30, 1971). The reference... review of the air quality criteria and NAAQS for PM (62 FR 55201, October 23, 1997). After CASAC and... the 24-hour PM 2.5 standard at a level of 35 g/m\\3\\. The EPA is revising the Air Quality Index...

  2. Standards for securing adequate indoor air quality across Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wargocki, Pawel; Carrer, P.; de Oliveira Fernandes, E.; Hanninen, O.; Popov, T.

    Background: Inadequate IAQ causes a loss of 2 million healthy life years annually in the EU. Europeans spend typically over 85–90% of their time indoors and the main factors that affect negatively the characteristics of the air they breathe are outdoor air used to ventilate indoor spaces and indoor...... studies improperly characterised exposures and because of their inhomogenity. Risk modelling simulations of different strategies resulting in reduction of DALYs suggested that healthbased ventilation requirements should be combined with source control strategies and if necessary cleaning of outdoor air in...... human bioeffluents and is determined mainly considering the metabolic CO2 production. It is only applicable if all other pollutants meet WHO guidelines for ambient and indoor air quality. If they do not meet these guidelines after applying source control and when air used for ventilation is clean health...

  3. 40 CFR 50.17 - National primary ambient air quality standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). 50.17 Section 50.17 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....17 National primary ambient air quality standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). (a) The level of the national primary 1-hour annual ambient air quality standard for oxides of sulfur is 75...

  4. The role of Health Impact Assessment in the setting of air quality standards: An Australian perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The approaches used for setting or reviewing air quality standards vary from country to country. The purpose of this research was to consider the potential to improve decision-making through integration of HIA into the processes to review and set air quality standards used in Australia. To assess the value of HIA in this policy process, its strengths and weaknesses were evaluated aligned with review of international processes for setting air quality standards. Air quality standard setting programmes elsewhere have either used HIA or have amalgamated and incorporated factors normally found within HIA frameworks. They clearly demonstrate the value of a formalised HIA process for setting air quality standards in Australia. The following elements should be taken into consideration when using HIA in standard setting. (a) The adequacy of a mainly technical approach in current standard setting procedures to consider social determinants of health. (b) The importance of risk assessment criteria and information within the HIA process. The assessment of risk should consider equity, the distribution of variations in air quality in different locations and the potential impacts on health. (c) The uncertainties in extrapolating evidence from one population to another or to subpopulations, especially the more vulnerable, due to differing environmental factors and population variables. (d) The significance of communication with all potential stakeholders on issues associated with the management of air quality. In Australia there is also an opportunity for HIA to be used in conjunction with the NEPM to develop local air quality standard measures. The outcomes of this research indicated that the use of HIA for air quality standard setting at the national and local levels would prove advantageous. -- Highlights: • Health Impact Assessment framework has been applied to a policy development process. • HIA process was evaluated for application in air quality standard setting.

  5. The role of Health Impact Assessment in the setting of air quality standards: An Australian perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spickett, Jeffery, E-mail: J.Spickett@curtin.edu.au [WHO Collaborating Centre for Environmental Health Impact Assessment (Australia); Faculty of Health Sciences, School of Public Health, Curtin University, Perth, Western Australia (Australia); Katscherian, Dianne [WHO Collaborating Centre for Environmental Health Impact Assessment (Australia); Faculty of Health Sciences, School of Public Health, Curtin University, Perth, Western Australia (Australia); Harris, Patrick [CHETRE — UNSW Research Centre for Primary Health Care and Equity, University of New South Wales (Australia)

    2013-11-15

    The approaches used for setting or reviewing air quality standards vary from country to country. The purpose of this research was to consider the potential to improve decision-making through integration of HIA into the processes to review and set air quality standards used in Australia. To assess the value of HIA in this policy process, its strengths and weaknesses were evaluated aligned with review of international processes for setting air quality standards. Air quality standard setting programmes elsewhere have either used HIA or have amalgamated and incorporated factors normally found within HIA frameworks. They clearly demonstrate the value of a formalised HIA process for setting air quality standards in Australia. The following elements should be taken into consideration when using HIA in standard setting. (a) The adequacy of a mainly technical approach in current standard setting procedures to consider social determinants of health. (b) The importance of risk assessment criteria and information within the HIA process. The assessment of risk should consider equity, the distribution of variations in air quality in different locations and the potential impacts on health. (c) The uncertainties in extrapolating evidence from one population to another or to subpopulations, especially the more vulnerable, due to differing environmental factors and population variables. (d) The significance of communication with all potential stakeholders on issues associated with the management of air quality. In Australia there is also an opportunity for HIA to be used in conjunction with the NEPM to develop local air quality standard measures. The outcomes of this research indicated that the use of HIA for air quality standard setting at the national and local levels would prove advantageous. -- Highlights: • Health Impact Assessment framework has been applied to a policy development process. • HIA process was evaluated for application in air quality standard setting.

  6. 75 FR 6473 - Primary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Nitrogen Dioxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-09

    ... parts per million (ppm) (53 ppb), annual average (36 FR 8186). EPA completed reviews of the air quality criteria and NO 2 standards in 1985 and 1996 with decisions to retain the standard (50 FR 25532, June 19, 1985; 61 FR 52852, October 8, 1996). EPA initiated the current review of the air quality criteria...

  7. 75 FR 65594 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Ohio; Particulate Matter Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Ohio; Particulate... have been necessary to attain and maintain the 2006 National Ambient Air Quality Standards for PM...

  8. 40 CFR 50.5 - National secondary ambient air quality standard for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... standard for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). 50.5 Section 50.5 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....5 National secondary ambient air quality standard for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). (a) The level... than 0.05 ppm shall be rounded up). (b) Sulfur oxides shall be measured in the ambient air as...

  9. 77 FR 51798 - First Draft Documents Related to the Review of the National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-27

    ... AGENCY First Draft Documents Related to the Review of the National Ambient Air Quality Standards for... of the Ozone National Ambient Air Quality Standards: First External Review Draft. The Agency is... titled, Policy Assessment for the Review of the Ozone National Ambient Air Quality Standards:...

  10. 76 FR 46083 - Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Oxides of Nitrogen and Sulfur

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-01

    ... million (ppm) as an annual average (36 FR 8186). In 1982, EPA published Air Quality Criteria Document for... received on the proposal (61 FR 52852; October 8, 1996). While the primary NO 2 standard was revised in... NAAQS for SO 2 in April 1971 (36 FR 8186). The secondary standards included a standard set at 0.02...

  11. Controlled clinical studies of air pollutant exposure: evaluating scientific information in relation to air quality standards.

    OpenAIRE

    Hackney, J D; Linn, W S

    1983-01-01

    In controlled clinical studies, volunteers are deliberately exposed to specific air pollutants under conditions simulating ambient exposures, and health-related responses are documented. Studies of the health risks of air pollution need to be scientifically rigorous and clearly relevant to "real-world" pollution exposures. Their results should be confirmed by independent replication if they are to be used as a basis for air quality regulations. Well-designed controlled clinical studies readil...

  12. 40 CFR Appendix S to Part 50 - Interpretation of the Primary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Oxides of Nitrogen...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Ambient Air Quality Standards for Oxides of Nitrogen (Nitrogen Dioxide) S Appendix S to Part 50 Protection... SECONDARY AMBIENT AIR QUALITY STANDARDS Pt. 50, App. S Appendix S to Part 50—Interpretation of the Primary... be submitted to EPA's Air Quality System (AQS), or otherwise available to EPA, meeting...

  13. 76 FR 8157 - National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Carbon Monoxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-11

    ... be effectively mitigated by setting more stringent ambient air quality standards (59 FR 38914). Apart... average, neither to be exceeded more than once per year (36 FR 8186). In the 1971 decision, the... criteria and standards for CO (50 FR 37484). In that review, EPA updated the scientific criteria upon...

  14. 40 CFR 50.4 - National primary ambient air quality standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). 50.4 Section 50.4 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....4 National primary ambient air quality standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). Link to an... to or greater than 0.005 ppm shall be rounded up). (c) Sulfur oxides shall be measured in the...

  15. 75 FR 67361 - Release of Final Document Related to the Review of the National Ambient Air Quality Standards for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-02

    ... final document titled Policy Assessment for the Review of the Carbon Monoxide National Ambient Air... the Plan for Review of the National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Carbon Monoxide (EPA 452R-08-005... AGENCY Release of Final Document Related to the Review of the National Ambient Air Quality Standards...

  16. Ambient air quality standards and guidelines in some countries. Ilmanlaadun ohjearvot ja normit muissa maissa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mroueh, U.M.; Laukkarinen, A.

    1987-01-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) initiated in 1973 the WHO Environmental Health Criteria Programme, the result of which is a series of criteria documents concerning most significant air pollutants (sulfur dioxide, suspended particulate matter, nitrogen dioxide, carbon monoxide, photochemical oxidants and ozone). The objective of the programme was to provide national authorities guidelines for setting exposure limits consistent with the protection of public health. Most national standards are based on the WHO guidelines when health effects are concerned. One important aspect when evaluating standards and guidelines applied in different countries, is the capability of the authorities to monitor and manage the quality of ambient air. In some standards whole the assessment system (monitoring stations, sampling frequency, instrumentation, data evaluation etc.) is precisely specified whereas others define only the measuring methods. For the present only European Communities have attempted to harmonize both air quality regulations and the assessment system throughout the territory of member states. The most significant member states have issued also air quality standards of their own differing from EC values, and according to some international experts the effects of EC limit values are minor so far.

  17. 76 FR 20347 - Release of Draft Integrated Review Plan for the National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Lead

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-12

    ... (75 FR 8934). The draft IRP is being made available for consultation with CASAC and for public comment... AGENCY Release of Draft Integrated Review Plan for the National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Lead... National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Lead (draft IRP). This document contains the plans for...

  18. 75 FR 32178 - Release of Final Document Related to the Review of the National Ambient Air Quality Standards for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-07

    ... titled, Carbon Monoxide National Ambient Air Quality Standards: Scope and Methods Plan for Health Risk... AGENCY Release of Final Document Related to the Review of the National Ambient Air Quality Standards for... describes ] quantitative analyses that have been conducted as part of the review of the National Ambient...

  19. 75 FR 11877 - Review of the Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Oxides of Nitrogen and Oxides...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-12

    ... AGENCY Review of the Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Oxides of Nitrogen and Oxides... Ambient Air Quality Standards for Oxides of Nitrogen and Oxides of Sulfur: First External Review Draft... (welfare-based) NAAQS for oxides of nitrogen (NO X ) and oxides of sulfur (SO X ). Because NO X , SO...

  20. 75 FR 57463 - Review of the Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Oxides of Nitrogen and Oxides...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-21

    ... AGENCY Review of the Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Oxides of Nitrogen and Oxides... Ambient Air Quality Standards for Oxides of Nitrogen and Oxides of Sulfur: Second External Review Draft... for oxides of nitrogen (NO X ) and oxides of sulfur (SO X ). Because NO X , SO X , and...

  1. 40 CFR 50.10 - National 8-hour primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false National 8-hour primary and secondary....10 National 8-hour primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone. (a) The level of the national 8-hour primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone, measured by...

  2. Air Quality Standards for Particulate Matter (PM) at high altitude cities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Air Quality Standards for Particulate Matter (PM) at high altitude urban areas in different countries, must consider the pressure and temperature due to the effect that these parameters have on the breath volume. This paper shows the importance to correct Air Quality Standards for PM considering pressure and temperature at different altitudes. Specific factors were suggested to convert the information concerning PM, from local to standard conditions, and adjust the Air Quality Standards for different high altitudes cities. The correction factors ranged from: 1.03 for Santiago de Chile to 1.47 for El Alto Bolivia. Other cities in this study include: Mexico City, México; La Paz, Bolivia; Bogota, Cali and Medellin, Colombia; Quito, Ecuador and Cuzco, Peru. If these corrections are not considered, the atmospheric concentrations will be underestimated. - Highlights: ► AQS for particulate matter concentrations adjusted by pressure and temperature. ► Particulate matter concentrations can be underestimated in high altitude Cities. ► Particulate matter concentrations must be compared under the same conditions. - In order to compare high altitude atmospheric PM concentrations with AQS, one must consider T and P of the sampling site.

  3. Study on an Air Quality Evaluation Model for Beijing City Under Haze-Fog Pollution Based on New Ambient Air Quality Standards

    OpenAIRE

    Li Li(State Key Laboratory of Theoretical Physics, Institute of Theoretical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190, China); Dong-Jun Liu

    2014-01-01

    Since 2012, China has been facing haze-fog weather conditions, and haze-fog pollution and PM2.5 have become hot topics. It is very necessary to evaluate and analyze the ecological status of the air environment of China, which is of great significance for environmental protection measures. In this study the current situation of haze-fog pollution in China was analyzed first, and the new Ambient Air Quality Standards were introduced. For the issue of air quality evaluation, a comprehensive eval...

  4. 77 FR 38889 - National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Particulate Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-29

    ... the original air quality criteria document (DHEW, 1969; 36 FR 8186, April 30, 1971). The reference... plans for the next periodic review of the air quality criteria and NAAQS for PM (62 FR 55201, October 23... respect to visual air quality. The EPA solicits comment on all aspects of the proposed secondary...

  5. Air quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This chapter of the 'Assessment of the state of the environment in Lebanon' describes the air quality and identifies the most important air quality issues. Baseline information about the factors affecting dispersion and the climate of Lebanon presents as well and overall estimation of total emissions in Lebanon. Emissions from vehicles, electricity and power plants generation are described. Industrial emitters of air pollutants are described for each kind of industry i.e.cement plants, Selaata fertilizer factory, sugar-beet factory, refineries and for those derived from the use of leaded fuel . Impact of economic and human activities on air quality in Lebanon (especially in Beirut and Tripoli) are quantified by quantities of CO2, SO2, NOx, total suspended particulates(TSP), deposition and their environmental effects on health. In abscence of emissions monitoring, data available are expressed in terms of fuel use, output and appropriate empirical factors, national output and workfores sizes. Finally key issues and some potential mitigation /management approaches are presented

  6. 75 FR 61486 - Review of the Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Oxides of Nitrogen and Oxides...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-05

    ... an atmospheric chemistry perspective as well as from an environmental effects perspective, and... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Review of the Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Oxides of Nitrogen and...

  7. 40 CFR Appendix T to Part 50 - Interpretation of the Primary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Oxides of Sulfur (Sulfur...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Ambient Air Quality Standards for Oxides of Sulfur (Sulfur Dioxide) T Appendix T to Part 50 Protection of... Ambient Air Quality Standards for Oxides of Sulfur (Sulfur Dioxide) 1. General (a) This appendix explains... ambient air quality standards for Oxides of Sulfur as measured by Sulfur Dioxide (“SO2 NAAQS”)...

  8. 76 FR 54293 - Review of National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Carbon Monoxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-31

    ... Act concerning CASAC review of air quality criteria. See 71 FR 61144, 61148 (October 17, 2006) (final... supplement the pertinent air quality criteria so the studies can be taken into account (58 FR at 13013-13014... average, and 35 ppm, as a 1-hour average, neither to be exceeded more than once per year (36 FR 8186)....

  9. 78 FR 34964 - Implementation of the 2008 National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone: State Implementation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-11

    ... Federal Register on June 6, 2013, (78 FR 34178) and is available at: http://www.epa.gov/air/ozonepollution... on June 6, 2013, (78 FR 34178) and is available at http://www.epa.gov/air/ozonepollution/actions.html... AGENCY 40 CFR Parts 50, 51, 70 and 71 Implementation of the 2008 National Ambient Air Quality...

  10. Ozone flux to vegetation and its relationship to plant response and ambient air quality standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musselman, Robert C.; Massman, William J.

    The National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) for ozone is based on occurrences of the maximum 8 h average ambient ozone concentration. However, biologists have recommended a cumulative ozone exposure parameter to protect vegetation. In this paper we propose a third alternative which uses quantifiable flux-based numerical parameters as a replacement for cumulative ambient parameters. Herein we discuss the concept of ozone flux as it relates to plant response and the NAAQS, and document information needed before a flux-based ozone NAAQS for vegetation can be implemented. Additional research is needed in techniques for determining plant uptake and in the quantification of plant defensive mechanisms to ozone. Models which include feedback mechanisms should be developed to relate ozone flux, loading, and detoxification with photosynthesis and plant productivity.

  11. A spatial cost-effectiveness study of transport policy measures aimed iat achieving air quality standards in the European Union.

    OpenAIRE

    Degraeve, Zeger; Koopman, GJ; Denis, C.; Teunen, L

    1996-01-01

    This paper develops a methodology to select a least cost mix of policy measures in different regions of the European Union to reach air quality standards by the year 2010. Two fundamental characteristics of air quality problems in Europe are addressed : their variation across regions and the interregional linkages induced by ozone. We answer the questions which policies should be introduced where in order to arrive at a least cost solution for the Union as a whole satisfying the emission redu...

  12. Role of science and judgment in setting national ambient air quality standards: how low is low enough?

    OpenAIRE

    McClellan, Roger O.

    2011-01-01

    The Clean Air Act (CAA) requires listing as criteria air pollutants those pollutants that arise from multiple sources and are found across the United States. The original list included carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, sulfur oxides, particulate matter, photochemical oxidants (later regulated as ozone), and hydrocarbons. Later, the listing of hydrocarbons was revoked and lead was listed. The CAA requires the EPA Administrator to set National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for these pol...

  13. 40 CFR 50.9 - National 1-hour primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...-hour standards are codified in 40 CFR part 81. (c) EPA's authority under paragraph (b) of this section... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false National 1-hour primary and secondary....9 National 1-hour primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone. (a) The level...

  14. Development, enhancement, and evaluation of aircraft measurement techniques for national ambient air quality standard criteria pollutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brent, Lacey Cluff

    The atmospheric contaminants most harmful to human health are designated Criteria Pollutants. To help Maryland attain the national ambient air quality standards (NAAQS) for Criteria Pollutants, and to improve our fundamental understanding of atmospheric chemistry, I conducted aircraft measurements in the Regional Atmospheric Measurement Modeling Prediction Program (RAMMPP). These data are used to evaluate model simulations and satellite observations. I developed techniques for improving airborne observation of two NAAQS pollutants, particulate matter (PM) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2). While structure and composition of organic aerosol are important for understanding PM formation, the molecular speciation of organic ambient aerosol remains largely unknown. The spatial distribution of reactive nitrogen is likewise poorly constrained. To examine water-soluble organic aerosol (WSOA) during an air pollution episode, I designed and implemented a shrouded aerosol inlet system to collect PM onto quartz fiber filters from a Cessna 402 research aircraft. Inlet evaluation conducted during a side-by-side flight with the NASA P3 demonstrated agreement to within 30%. An ion chromatographic mass spectrometric method developed using the NIST Standard Reference Material (SRM) 1649b Urban Dust, as a surrogate material resulted in acidic class separation and resolution of at least 34 organic acids; detection limits approach pg/g concentrations. Analysis of aircraft filter samples resulted in detection of 8 inorganic species and 16 organic acids of which 12 were quantified. Aged, re-circulated metropolitan air showed a greater number of dicarboxylic acids compared to air recently transported from the west. While the NAAQS for NO2 is rarely exceeded, it is a precursor molecule for ozone, America's most recalcitrant pollutant. Using cavity ringdown spectroscopy employing a light emitting diode (LED), I measured vertical profiles of NO2 (surface to 2.5 km) west (upwind) of the Baltimore

  15. Exceedances of air quality standard level of PM2.5 in Japan caused by Siberian wildfires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We revisited long-term observations of PM2.5 at ground-based stations in Japan during 2001–2012 to examine possible impacts of Siberian wildfires on regional air quality. Exceedances of Japan’s air quality standard for daily mean concentration (35 μg m−3) were observed several times at Rishiri Island in northern Japan in the spring of 2003 and 2008 when intense wildfires occurred in Siberia. Satellite observations showed that aerosols and CO originating from biomass burning were transported from Siberia toward Japan. The regional chemical transport model also demonstrated that the PM2.5 enhancements during high PM2.5 days (>35 μg m−3) were attributed to Siberian wildfires, suggesting that the contribution from Siberian biomass burning had a critical impact on exceedances of air quality standard level. The monthly (May) and annual mean PM2.5 concentrations in 2003 were about twice and 20% higher, respectively, than those of the long-term average at Rishiri Island, where the influence of Siberian wildfires was the largest in Japan. Except for 2003 and 2008, a high PM2.5 day due to Siberian wildfires was not identified. Although Siberian biomass burning does not affect the air quality standard of PM2.5 for the years without strong fires, it causes exceedance of the air quality standard level when intense fires occur. (letter)

  16. Transportation and air quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the greater Vancouver regional district (GVRD), some 80% of the annual production of 600,000 tonnes of air pollutants come from motor vehicles. Three critical air quality issues in the GVRD are discussed: local air pollution, ozone layer depletion, and greenhouse gas emissions, all of which are fundamentally linked to transportation. Overall air quality in the GVRD has been judged acceptable by current federal standards, but ground-level ozone has exceeded maximum tolerable levels at some locations and concentrations of suspended particulates are above maximum acceptable levels. Serious deterioration in air quality has been predicted unless a concerted effort is made to manage air quality on an airshed-wide basis. The GVRD is developing Canada's first Air Management Plan with the goal of halving atmospheric emissions by 2000. GVRD transportation priorities stress public transit, walking, cycling, car pooling, and reducing of travel demand; however, the viability of such strategies depends on decisions made outside the transportation sector. Restricted authority and jurisdiction also hinder GVRD goals; the regional level of government has no authority over highways or transit and only has authority for pollution control in some parts of the Fraser Valley. Airshed quality management, using the Los Angeles example, is seen as a possible direction for future GVRD policymaking in the transportation sector. A single regional planning agency with responsibility for transportation, land use, and air quality management appears as the best option for an integrated approach to solve multiple problems. 19 refs

  17. CITY DEVELOPMENT FOR KEEPING POLLUTANT CONCENTRATIONS FROM MOTOR VEHICLES IN RESIDENTIAL AREAS IN ACCORDANCE WITH AIR QUALITY STANDARDS

    OpenAIRE

    Владимир Васильевич Балакин

    2016-01-01

    The dependency of carbon monoxide concentrations on wind speed has been obtained in the field studies. It is used in determining optimum ventilation modes for street space to ensure keeping the content of the toxic components from automobile exhaust in accordance with public health standards.Environmental basis for development optimization for busy primary streets has been provided to avoid dangerous levels of ambient air pollution with automobile emissions.Positive effect on air quality from...

  18. 76 FR 76972 - Release of Final Integrated Review Plan for the National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Lead

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-09

    ... available for public comment (76 FR 20347). The final IRP announced today has been prepared after... was issued on February 26, 2010 (75 FR 8934). Dated: December 5, 2011. Mary E. Henigin, Acting... AGENCY Release of Final Integrated Review Plan for the National Ambient Air Quality Standards for...

  19. Workshop in Support of the Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Nitrogen (NOx) and Sulfur Oxides (SOx)

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA is announcing a workshop to discuss policy-relevant science to Inform EPA’s "Review of the Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for Oxides of Nitrogen and Sulfur" report. The workshop is being organized by EPA’s Office of Research and Development’s, Nation...

  20. 75 FR 20595 - Review of the Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Oxides of Nitrogen and Oxides...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-20

    ...The EPA is announcing an extension of the public comment period for a draft assessment document titled, Policy Assessment for the Review of the Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Oxides of Nitrogen and Oxides of Sulfur: First External Review Draft (75 FR 11877; March 12, 2010). The comment period was originally scheduled to end on April 29, 2010. The extended comment period......

  1. Air quality assessment for Portugal

    OpenAIRE

    Monteiro, A; Miranda, A. I.; C. Borrego; R. Vautard

    2007-01-01

    According to the Air Quality Framework Directive, air pollutant concentration levels have to be assessed and reported annually by each European Union member state, taking into consideration European air quality standards. Plans and programmes should be implemented in zones and agglomerations where pollutant concentrations exceed the limit and target values. The main objective of this study is to perform a long-term air quality simulation for Portugal, using the CHIMERE chemistry-transport mod...

  2. Impact of NOx vehicle emission standards failure on Air Quality in Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Borken-Kleefeld, J.; Kiesewetter, G.; Papageorgiou, T.; Ntziachristos, L.

    2012-01-01

    Vehicle exhaust emission standards have been tightened in the EU for several decades now, in order to protect health and the environment. This has led to a substantial decrease in total pollutant emissions, despite the growing volumes of passenger and freight transport. However, national emissions, particularly of NOx, exceed the ceilings accorded under the Gothenburg Protocol of the UNECE's Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution (LRTAP) (EEA 2012) in twelve EU Member States. T...

  3. Indoor Air Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... protect yourself and your family. Learn more Air Quality at Work Workers should breathe easy while on the job, but worksites with poor air quality put employees at risk. Healthy air is essential ...

  4. CITY DEVELOPMENT FOR KEEPING POLLUTANT CONCENTRATIONS FROM MOTOR VEHICLES IN RESIDENTIAL AREAS IN ACCORDANCE WITH AIR QUALITY STANDARDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Владимир Васильевич Балакин

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The dependency of carbon monoxide concentrations on wind speed has been obtained in the field studies. It is used in determining optimum ventilation modes for street space to ensure keeping the content of the toxic components from automobile exhaust in accordance with public health standards.Environmental basis for development optimization for busy primary streets has been provided to avoid dangerous levels of ambient air pollution with automobile emissions.Positive effect on air quality from belt roads, bypass roads and pedestrian areas situated in city centers is noted.

  5. Technical comments on EPA`s proposed revisions to the National Ambient Air Quality Standard for particulate matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lipfert, F.W.

    1997-03-01

    The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has proposed new ambient air quality standards specifically for fine particulate matter, regulating concentrations of particles with median aerodynamic diameters less than 2.5 {mu}m (PM{sub 2.5}). Two new standards have been proposed: a maximum 24-hr concentration that is intended to protect against acute health effects, and an annual concentration limit that is intended to protect against longer-term health effects. EPA has also proposed a slight relaxation of the 24-hr standard for inhalable particles (PM{sub 10}), by allowing additional exceedances each year. Fine particles are currently being indirectly controlled by means of regulations for PM{sub 10} and TSP, under the Clean Air Act of 1970 and subsequent amendments. Although routine monitoring of PM{sub 2.5} is rare and data are sparse, the available data indicate that ambient concentrations have been declining at about 6% per year under existing regulations.

  6. Nonattainment of national ambient air quality standards: implications for energy policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garvey, D.B.; Streets, D.G.; Kotecki, R.; Senew, M.

    1979-10-01

    In accordance with the 1977 Clean Air Act Amendments, EPA established regulations governing new and existing sources of emissions in areas where the NAAQS are being exceeded. These requirements may constrain the implementation of a national energy policy to increase the use of coal in utilities and industries. The states designated the nonattainment areas and prepared State Implementation Plans, outlining strategies for attaining the standards by the deadline of December 31, 1982. This report contains maps of nonattainment areas for all pollutants and summaries of the attainment strategies for those pollutants most likely to affect fossil-fueled energy development - SO/sub 2/, TSP, and NO/sub x/. The review of SIPs indicates that attainment of SO/sub 2/ standards should be relatively easy. Attainment of TSP standards may be more difficult since point sources are already well controlled and further reductions in emissions will require controls on fugitive sources. NO/sub x/ nonattainment is currently limited to three small areas. The report also contains an examination of emission limitations in nonattainment areas and a national assessment of the potential constraints of nonattainment on energy development in 1985 to 1990. The assessment concludes that constraints on projected new coal-fired utilities should not be significant. Constraints on expanded industrial coal use from TSP nonattainment may be significant but the effects of SO/sub 2/ nonattainment should be limited.

  7. Quality standards for ventilation devices and air conditioners; Qualitaetsstandards fuer Lueftungs- und Klimageraete

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Backes, C. [DSD-Lufttechnik, St. Ingbert (Germany); Baumeister, R.L. [Robatherm, Burgau (Germany); Boehm, P. [TUEV Bayern-Sachsen, Muenchen (Germany); Lorenz, W. [Fachgemeinschaft Allgemeine Lufttechnik im VDMA, Frankfurt am Main (Germany)

    1995-07-01

    In Germany the requirements and testing of ventilation devices/space HVAC systems have not been standardised yet. In this work a report is given on the European standardisation activities and on the activities of the private industry with respect to quality assessment, both of which are setting new standards. This will have major effects on the market for these devices. (orig.) [Deutsch] Anforderungen und Pruefungen von raumlufttechnischen Geraeten sind in Deutschland bisher nicht standardisiert. Die europaeische Normung und privatwirtschaftliche Aktivitaeten zur Guetesicherung, ueber die in diesem Beitrag berichtet wird, setzen neue Massstaebe. Dies wird grundlegende Auswirkungen auf den Geraetemarkt haben. (orig.)

  8. Allegheny County Air Quality

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Air quality data from Allegheny County Health Department monitors throughout the county. Air quality monitored data must be verified by qualified individuals...

  9. Indoor Air Quality In Maine Schools: Report of the Task Force To Examine the Establishment and Implementation of State Standards for Indoor Air Quality in Maine Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malcolm, Judith

    Asserting that in Maine and across the nation, school buildings are becoming increasingly plagued with indoor air quality (IAQ) problems which contribute to a variety of illnesses in children and adults, this report from a Maine state legislative task force identifies appropriate policies and identifies actions necessary for the prevention and…

  10. Indoor Air Quality

    OpenAIRE

    Korlakunta Divya #1, M.Anil Kumar

    2013-01-01

    The main aim of our project is to maintain the indoor air quality.The analysis is done on different parameters like temperature,relativehumidity,CO2,lights,sens ors and air conditioners to maintain the indoor environment.This report provides overview on importance of indoor air quality in an office or any other closed structure. It also discusses about the effects of poor indoor air quality, the various factors that affect the indoor air quality and various methods to assess indoor air qualit...

  11. Indoor Air Quality Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin Union Free School District, NY.

    This manual identifies ways to improve a school's indoor air quality (IAQ) and discusses practical actions that can be carried out by school staff in managing air quality. The manual includes discussions of the many sources contributing to school indoor air pollution and the preventive planning for each including renovation and repair work,…

  12. Addition of PM2.5 into the National Ambient Air Quality Standards of China and the Contribution to Air Pollution Control: The Case Study of Wuhan, China

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    PM2.5 has gradually become a major environmental problem of China with its rapid economic development, urbanization, and increasing of motor vehicles. Findings and awareness of serious PM2.5 pollution make the PM2.5 a new criterion pollutant of the Chinese National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) revised in 2012. The 2012 NAAQS sets the PM2.5 concentrate limitation with the 24-hour average value and the annual mean value. Wuhan is quite typical among central and southern China in climate...

  13. Air Quality System (AQS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Air Quality System (AQS) database contains measurements of air pollutant concentrations from throughout the United States and its territories. The measurements...

  14. Air quality indices : a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pollution Probe presents some background information that will help in the development of a national Air Quality Index (AQI) in Canada. This report examines the issues that should be addressed in revising the national Index of the Quality of Air (IQUA) or creating a new national Air Quality Index. The IQUA was devised in 1976 and provides Canadians with real-time information on the state of community air quality by including major pollutants and their synergies. It is currently being used for air quality management plans and air quality alert systems. At the same time that the IQUA was devised, the United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) produced a parallel air quality index known as the Pollution Standard Index (PSI) which incorporated 5 criteria pollutants (particulate matter, sulphur dioxide, carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxide and ground level ozone) for which national health-based standards were devised. In 1999, the US EPA renamed their index the Air Quality Index (AQI) and made revisions to the primary health-based national ambient air quality standards for ground-level ozone and particulate matter. Separate values for PM2.5 and PM10 were incorporated and mandatory reporting was required for metropolitan areas with populations of 350,000 or more. Similarly, the IQUA has undergone major developments that affect the validity of the index, including: rejection by the Working Group on Air Quality Objectives and Guidelines of the previous maximum desirable and maximum acceptable air quality criteria, recognition that standards for many of the contaminants are outdated, developing more sensitive instrumentation for real-time monitoring of contaminants. This report also describes the use of the national short term Air Quality Index by provincial, territorial and local authorities in Canada. Pollution Probe recommends setting up a mechanism to review and revise IQUA on a regular basis that would incorporate governments, the medical profession, special

  15. Reference and Equivalent Methods Used to Measure National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) Criteria Air Pollutants - Volume I

    Science.gov (United States)

    There are a number of Federal Reference Method (FRM) and Federal Equivalent Method (FEM) systems used to monitor the six criteria air pollutants (Lead [Pb], Carbon Monoxide [CO], Sulfur Dioxide [SO2], Nitrogen Dioxide [NO2], Ozone [O3], Particulate Matter [PM]) to determine if an...

  16. 77 FR 20217 - Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Oxides of Nitrogen and Sulfur

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-03

    ... concentrations of oxides of sulfur and such public welfare effects (38 FR 25679). In 1979, the EPA announced that... 1971. These standards were set at a level of 0.053 parts per million (ppm) as an annual average (36 FR... EPA proposed to retain the standards set in 1971 (49 FR 6866). After taking into account...

  17. Indoor air quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Trine Susanne; Recevska, Ieva

     The objective of the 35th specific agreement is to provide support to the EEA activities in Environment and Health (E&H) on the topic of indoor air quality. The specific objectives have been to provide an overview of indoor air related projects in EU and indoor air related policies as well...

  18. 75 FR 10252 - Release of Draft Documents Related to the Review of the National Ambient Air Quality Standards...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-05

    ... Exposure Assessment to Support the Review of the Carbon Monoxide Primary National Ambient Air Quality... draft assessment document: Policy Assessment for the Review of the Carbon Monoxide National Ambient Air... Risk and Exposure Assessment to Support the Review of the Carbon Monoxide Primary National Ambient......

  19. 75 FR 65594 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Ohio; Ohio Ambient Air Quality...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-26

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Ohio; Ohio Ambient Air Quality Standards AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY... consolidation of Ohio's Ambient Air Quality Standards (AAQS) into Ohio's State Implementation Plan (SIP)...

  20. Air Quality Monitoring Programme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kemp, K.; Palmgren, F.

    The air quality in Danish cities has been monitored continuously since 1982 within the Danish Air Quality (LMP) network. The aim has been to follow the concentration levels of toxic pollutants in the urban atmosphere and to provide the necessary knowledge to assess the trends, to perform source...... apportionment, and to evaluate the chemical reactions and the dispersion of the pollutants in the atmosphere. In 2002 the air quality was measured in four Danish cities and at two background sites. NO2 and PM10 were at several stations found in concentrations above the new EU limit values, which the Member...

  1. 77 FR 12524 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Indiana; Lead Ambient Air Quality...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Indiana; Lead Ambient Air Quality Standards AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Proposed rule...) under the Clean Air Act (CAA). This submittal incorporates the National Ambient Air Quality...

  2. Transportation and Air Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... factors research. - Modeling & Inventories - Testing & Measuring Emissions - Clean Automotive Technologies - Emission Factors Research This page is maintained by EPA's Office of Transportation and Air Quality (OTAQ) . For more: About Us | Get E-mail ...

  3. Regional Air Quality Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This asset provides data on regional air quality, including trace level SO2, nitric acid, ozone, carbon monoxide, and NOy; and particulate sulfate, nitrate, and...

  4. Air Quality in Lithuania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pietilae, P. [Tampere University of Technology / ECAT-Lithuania (Lithuania); Kliucininkas, L. [Department for Environmental Engineering, Kaunas University of Technology (Lithuania)

    2000-07-01

    Sustainable monitoring of the ambient air is the major preventive measure of ensuring its proper quality. Only with a monitoring procedure going-on a continuous basis it is possible to make an objective evaluation of air pollution trends, of the efficiency of air protection measures and, partially, to a certain extent of the impact the pollution exerts on a human health. The information stemming from the monitoring procedure must be reliable, sustainable and efficient. (orig.)

  5. Introduction to Indoor Air Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... US Environmental Protection Agency Search Search Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) Share Facebook Twitter Google+ Pinterest Contact Us ... Indoor Air Quality An Introduction to Indoor Air Quality IAQ & Health Causes of IAQ Problems Identifying IAQ ...

  6. 30 CFR 75.321 - Air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Air quality. 75.321 Section 75.321 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Ventilation § 75.321 Air quality. (a)(1) The air in areas...

  7. Representativeness of air quality monitoring networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duyzer, J.; Hout, D. van den; Zandveld, P.; Ratingen, S. van

    2015-01-01

    The suitability of European networks to check compliance with air quality standards and to assess exposure of the population was investigated. An air quality model (URBIS) was applied to estimate and compare the spatial distribution of the concentration of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) in ambient air in fo

  8. 40 CFR Appendix H to Part 50 - Interpretation of the 1-Hour Primary and Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... waiver of the ozone monitoring requirement would be handled under provisions of 40 CFR, part 58. Some... year unless the appropriate Regional Administrator has granted a waiver under the provisions of 40 CFR... and Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone H Appendix H to Part 50 Protection...

  9. 40 CFR Appendix I to Part 50 - Interpretation of the 8-Hour Primary and Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Interpretation of the 8-Hour Primary... AIR QUALITY STANDARDS Pt. 50, App. I Appendix I to Part 50—Interpretation of the 8-Hour Primary and... handling conventions and computations necessary for determining whether the national 8-hour primary...

  10. Energy and air quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is one of a series of handbooks designed to provide nontechnical readers with a general understanding of the interaction between energy development and environmental media and to provide a rudimentary data base from which estimates of potential future impacts can be made. This handbook describes the air quality impacts of energy development and summarizes the major federal legislation which regulates the potential air quality impacts of energy facilities and can thus influence the locations and timing of energy development. In addition, this report describes and presents the data which can be used as the basis for measurement, and in some cases, prediction of the potential conflicts between energy development and achieving and maintaining clean air. Energy utilization is the largest emission source of man-made air pollutants. Choices in energy resource development and utilization generate varying emissions or discharges into the atmosphere, the emissions are affected by the assimilative character of the atmosphere, and the resultant air pollutant concentrations have biological and aesthetic effects. This handbook describes the interrelationships of energy-related air emissions under various methods of pollution control, the assimilative character of the air medium, and the effects of air pollution. The media book is divided into three major sections: topics of concern relating to the media and energy development, descriptions of how to use available data to quantify and examine energy/environmental impacts, and the data

  11. Good air quality in offices improves productivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fanger, Povl Ole

    2000-01-01

    quality. The impact on productivity justifies a much higher indoor air quality than the minimum levels prescribed in present standards and guidelines. One way of providing air of high quality for people to breathe, without involving excessive ventilation rates and energy use, is to provide "personalized...

  12. Indoor air quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Indoor Air Quality is rapidly becoming a major environmental concern because a significant amount of people spend a substantial amount of time in a variety of different indoor environments. Health effects from indoor pollutants fall into two categories: those that are experienced immediately after exposure and those that do not show up until years later. They are: radon, formaldehyde, asbestos, lead and household organic chemicals. The authors presented a source-by-source look at the most common indoor air pollutants, their potential health effects, and ways to reduce their levels in the home. There are three basic strategies to improve indoor air quality: one method is source control, another is through ventilation improvements, and the third is the utilization of some sort of mechanical device such as air cleaners

  13. 77 FR 21690 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plan for 1997 8-Hour Ozone Standard; Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-11

    ... lung disease. Ozone exposure also increases the risk of premature death from heart or lung disease... document, ``we'', ``us'' and ``our'' refer to EPA. I. The 1997 8-Hour Ozone Standard and the Phoenix-Mesa..., particularly in children and adults with lung disease. Breathing air containing ozone can reduce lung...

  14. Air filtration and indoor air quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bekö, Gabriel

    2006-01-01

    Demands for better indoor air quality are increasing, since we spend most of our time indoors and we are more and more aware of indoor air pollution. Field studies in different parts of the world have documented that high percentage of occupants in many offices and buildings find the indoor air...... decent ventilation and air cleaning/air filtration, high indoor air quality cannot be accomplished. The need for effective air filtration has increased with increasing evidence on the hazardous effects of fine particles. Moreover, the air contains gaseous pollutants, removal of which requires various air...... cleaning techniques. Supply air filter is one of the key components in the ventilation system. Studies have shown that used ventilation filters themselves can be a significant source of indoor air pollution with consequent impact on perceived air quality, sick building syndrome symptoms and performance...

  15. Air Quality Guide for Ozone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Local Air Quality Conditions Zip Code: State : My Current Location Air Quality Guide for Ozone Ground-level ozone is one of our nation’s most common air pollutants. Use the chart below to help reduce ...

  16. Air Quality Monitoring Programme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kemp, K.; Palmgren, F.

    The Danish Air Quality Monitoring Programme (LMP IV) has been revised in accordance with the Framework Directive and the first three daughter directives of SO2, NOx/NO2, PM10, lead, benzene, CO and ozone. PM10 samplers are under installation and the installation will be completed during 2002...

  17. Indoor Air Quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Selman, Ayser Dawod; Heiselberg, Per

    Overall purpose of the research is to provide an overview of the relevance and importance of various defined Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) parameters in a European perspective. Based on the report it should be possible to prioritize which countries to target for further activities as well as it should...

  18. Indoor air quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rising energy prices, among other factors, have generated an incentive to reduce ventilation rates and thereby reduce the cost of heating and cooling buildings. Reduced ventilation in buildings may significantly increase exposure to indoor air pollution and perhaps have adverse effects on occupant health and comfort. Preliminary findings suggest that reduced ventilation may adversely affect indoor air quality unless appropriate control strategies are undertaken. The strategies used to control indoor air pollution depend on the specific pollutant or class of pollutants encountered, and differ somewhat depending on whether the application is to an existing building or a new building under design and construction. Whenever possible, the first course of action is prevention or reduction of pollutant emissions at the source. In most buildings, control measures involve a combination of prevention, removal, and suppression. Common sources of indoor air pollution in buildings, the specific pollutants emitted by each source, the potential health effects, and possible control techniques are discussed

  19. Air quality management planning (AQMP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sivertsen Bjarne

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In most urban areas of the world, particulate matter (PM levels pose severe problems, addressed in several policy areas (air quality, climate change, and human health. PM presents multiple challenges due to the multitude of its sources, spanning many sectors of economic activity as well as nature, and due to the complexity of atmospheric processes involved in its transport and secondary formation. For the authorities, the goal is to assure minimal impacts of atmospheric PM levels, in practice represented by compliance with existing regulations and standards. This may be achieved through an air quality management plan (AQMP. In Northern America and in parts of Europe, comprehensive research programs have guided development of AQMP over the last forty years. This cumulated experience can be utilized by others who face the same problems, but have yet to develop their own substantial research base. The main purpose of the AQMP development process is to establish an effective and sound basis for planning and management of air quality in a selected area. This type of planning will ensure that significant sources of impacts are identified and controlled in a most cost-effective manner. The choice of tools, methods and input information is often dictated by their availability, and should be evaluated against current best practices. Important elements of the AQMP are the identification of sources and development of a complete emission inventory, the development and operation of an air quality monitoring programme, and the development and application of atmospheric dispersion models. Major task is to collect the necessary input data. The development of the AQMP will take into account: - Air Quality Management System (AQMS requirements; - Operational and functional structure requirements; - Source identification through emission inventories; - Source reduction alternatives, which may be implemented; - Mechanisms for facilitating interdepartmental

  20. Standards and quality

    CERN Document Server

    El-Tawil, Anwar

    2015-01-01

    The book brings together a number of subjects of prime importance for any practicing engineer and, students of engineering. The book explains the concepts and functions of voluntary standards, mandatory technical regulations, conformity assessment (testing and measurement of products), certification, quality and quality management systems as well as other management systems such as environmental, social responsibility and food safety management systems.The book also gives a comprehensive description of the role of metrology systems that underpin conformity assessment. A description is given of typical national systems of standards, quality and metrology and how they relate directly or through regional structures to international systems. The book also covers the relation between standards and trade and explains the context and stipulations of the Technical Barriers to Trade Agreement of the World Trade Organization (WTO).

  1. Air quality indicators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report proposes and describes in detail several air quality indicators that may be used to describe population exposure. The suggested indicators account for temporal and spatial patterns of pollution and movements of individuals between different micro-environments. The Air Quality Indicator /AQI) should represent both the spatial and temporal aspects of pollution exposure that may have important effects on health. Two indicators are needed, the Population Air Quality Indicator and the Individual Air Quality Indicator. Mean concentrations, 98th percentile and maximum values are the traditional indicators for estimating exposure. the temporal variability of PM-10 and NO2, however, is here described by means of: 1) The rate of change of pollution as the difference between two consecutive hourly values and of 2) episodes, described in terms of number, duration and winter episode period, maximum concentration in the episode and integrated episode exposure (episode AOT50/100). The spatial variation of AQIs can be described in several ways, e.g.: 1) Concentrations in neighbouring grid squares can be compared as an indication of spatial variation and 2) point estimates can be compared to grid values for a description of variation within a grid. Both methods are presented here. A test of the representativity of static point estimates for pollution exposure is to compare them to an estimate of air pollution exposure accounting for movements between different locations, obtained using diaries. The ultimate aim of AQIs is to describe the population exposure to ambient pollution. This is done by estimating the number of people exposed using different characteristics of AQIs. The data used to describe these indicators originates from dispersion modelling of short-term air pollution concentrations in Oslo. Two series of data are used. One represents hour-for hour concentrations in the 1 km2 grid system covering the city of Oslo, winter 1994/95, calculated by the grid

  2. Wood energy and air quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This publication first recalls the main benefits of the use of wood, the first source of renewable energy in France: abundant and local resource, low CO2 emission, competitiveness, job creation. It comments the relationship between the use of this source of energy and the compliance with air quality standards as they are notably defined by European directives, as the use of wood as heating source is one of the recommended lever to improve air quality. The publication comments emissions generated by this type of heating (mainly in the housing sector, with some critical meteorological periods). Levers for actions are discussed: fleet renewal to promote the best performing equipment, practice improvements (fuel quality, apparatus maintenance). Actions undertaken by the ADEME are briefly reviewed: support to individual equipment fleet modernisation, support to R and D, support to the sector, and information and communication

  3. The A&WMA 2007 Critical Review. Will the circle be unbroken: a history of the U.S. national ambient air quality standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John Bachmann [Vision Air Consulting, Chapel Hill, NC (United States)

    2007-06-15

    In celebration of the 100th anniversary of the Air & Waste Management Association, this review examines the history of air quality management (AQM) in the United States over the last century, with an emphasis on the programs established by the 1970 Clean Air Act (CAA) Amendments. The current CAA system is a hybrid of several distinct air pollution control philosophies. The paper looks at several periods in the history of the U.S. program, including: (1) 1900-1970, spanning the early smoke abatement and smog control programs, the first federal involvement, and the development of a hybrid AQM approach in the 1970 CAA; (2) 1971-1976, when the first National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) were set and implemented; (3) 1977-1993, a period of the first revisions to the standards, new CAA Amendments, delays in implementation and decision-making, and key science/policy/legislative developments that would alter both the focus and scale of air pollution programs and how they are implemented; and (4) 1993-2006, the second and third wave of NAAQS revisions and their implementation in the context of the 1990 CAA. This discussion examines where NAAQS have helped drive implementation programs and how improvements in both effects and air quality/control sciences influenced policy and legislation to enhance the effectiveness of the system over time. The review concludes with a look toward the future of AQM, emphasizing challenges and ways to meet them. Supplemental tables 1 to 7, available to subscribers at www.awma.org/journals/pdfs/2007/6/10.3155-1047-3289.57.6.652_supplmat erial.pdf present detailed chronology and commentary on the development of criteria and establishing, reviewing, and revising the NAAQS for each of the seven pollutants that were listed and regulated under Sections 108 and 109 between 1971 and 2006. 250 refs., 11 figs., 6 tabs.

  4. Good air quality in offices improves productivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fanger, Povl Ole

    2000-01-01

    quality. The impact on productivity justifies a much higher indoor air quality than the minimum levels prescribed in present standards and guidelines. One way of providing air of high quality for people to breathe, without involving excessive ventilation rates and energy use, is to provide "personalized......Three recent independent studies have documented that the quality of indoor air has a significant and positive influence on the productivity of office workers. A combined analysis of the results of the three studies shows a significant relationship between productivity and perceived indoor air...

  5. ETS levels in hospitality environments satisfying ASHRAE standard 62-1989: "ventilation for acceptable indoor air quality"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moschandreas, D. J.; Vuilleumier, K. L.

    Prior to this study, indoor air constituent levels and ventilation rates of hospitality environments had not been measured simultaneously. This investigation measured indoor Environmental Tobacco Smoke-related (ETS-related) constituent levels in two restaurants, a billiard hall and a casino. The objective of this study was to characterize ETS-related constituent levels inside hospitality environments when the ventilation rates satisfy the requirements of the ASHRAE 62-1989 Ventilation Standard. The ventilation rate of each selected hospitality environment was measured and adjusted. The study advanced only if the requirements of the ASHRAE 62-1989 Ventilation Standard - the pertinent standard of the American Society of Heating, Refrigeration and Air Conditioning Engineers - were satisfied. The supply rates of outdoor air and occupant density were measured intermittently to assure that the ventilation rate of each facility satisfied the standard under occupied conditions. Six ETS-related constituents were measured: respirable suspended particulate (RSP) matter, fluorescent particulate matter (FPM, an estimate of the ETS particle concentrations), ultraviolet particulate matter (UVPM, a second estimate of the ETS particle concentrations), solanesol, nicotine and 3-ethenylpyridine (3-EP). ETS-related constituent levels in smoking sections, non-smoking sections and outdoors were sampled daily for eight consecutive days at each hospitality environment. This study found that the difference between the concentrations of ETS-related constituents in indoor smoking and non-smoking sections was statistically significant. Differences between indoor non-smoking sections and outdoor ETS-related constituent levels were identified but were not statistically significant. Similarly, differences between weekday and weekend evenings were identified but were not statistically significant. The difference between indoor smoking sections and outdoors was statistically significant. Most

  6. Ozone - Current Air Quality Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... more announcements Air Quality Basics Air Quality Index | Ozone | Particle Pollution | Smoke from fires | What You Can ... Partners Kids Movies NAQ Conferences NOAA Older Adults Ozone Particle Pollution (PM2.5, PM10) Publications Publicaciones (En ...

  7. Ambient Air Quality Data Inventory

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Office of Air and Radiation??s (OAR) Ambient Air Quality Data (Current) contains ambient air pollution data collected by EPA, other federal agencies, as well as...

  8. Ambient Air Quality Data Inventory

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Office of Air and Radiation's (OAR) Ambient Air Quality Data (Current) contains ambient air pollution data collected by EPA, other federal agencies, as well as...

  9. Minimum quality standards and exports

    OpenAIRE

    Birg, Laura; Voßwinkel, Jan S.

    2015-01-01

    This paper studies the interaction of a minimum quality standard and exports in a vertical product differentiation model when firms sell global products. If exante quality of foreign firms is lower (higher) than the quality of exporting firms, a mild minimum quality standard in the home market hinders (supports) exports. The minimum quality standard increases quality in both markets. A welfare maximizing minimum quality standard is always lower under trade than under autarky. A Minimum qualit...

  10. Standards for air monitoring calibration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The US Department of Energy and the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission initiated a joint program to test the applicability of a performance-type testing standard. Draft American National Standards Institute (ANSI) Standard N42.17a was, because of difficulty in application, divided into three parts: (a) portable instruments, (b) air monitors, and (c) extended range. This new testing program used the criteria listed in parts a, b, and c to determine whether they could be used as the basis of an instrument qualification testing program. The results of the test were then provided to the standards committee, and appropriate changes were made in the standard. The detailed results of this testing program will be documented in the future. The purpose of this presentation is to discuss the current draft of the air monitoring standard, general test procedures, results of some of the tests, and the means by which the testing program could be implemented in the United States

  11. Air filtration and indoor air quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bekö, Gabriel

    decent ventilation and air cleaning/air filtration, high indoor air quality cannot be accomplished. The need for effective air filtration has increased with increasing evidence on the hazardous effects of fine particles. Moreover, the air contains gaseous pollutants, removal of which requires various air...... contradictions should motivate manufacturers and researchers to develop new efficient filtration techniques and/or improve the existing ones. Development of low polluting filtration techniques, which are at the same time easy and inexpensive to maintain is the way forward in the future....

  12. Air movement and perceived air quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melikov, Arsen Krikor; Kaczmarczyk, J.

    2012-01-01

    The impact of air movement on perceived air quality (PAQ) and sick building syndrome (SBS) symptoms was studied. In total, 124 human subjects participated in four series of experiments performed in climate chambers at different combinations of room air temperature (20, 23, 26 and 28 °C), relative...... humidity (30, 40 and 70%) and pollution level (low and high). Most of the experiments were performed with and without facially applied airflow at elevated velocity. The importance of the use of recirculated room air and clean, cool and dry outdoor air was studied. The exposures ranged from 60. min to 235....... min. Acceptability of PAQ and freshness of the air improved when air movement was applied. The elevated air movement diminished the negative impact of increased air temperature, relative humidity and pollution level on PAQ. The degree of improvement depended on the pollution level, the temperature and...

  13. Air Quality Assessment Using Interpolation Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Awkash Kumar

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Air pollution is increasing rapidly in almost all cities around the world due to increase in population. Mumbai city in India is one of the mega cities where air quality is deteriorating at a very rapid rate. Air quality monitoring stations have been installed in the city to regulate air pollution control strategies to reduce the air pollution level. In this paper, air quality assessment has been carried out over the sample region using interpolation techniques. The technique Inverse Distance Weighting (IDW of Geographical Information System (GIS has been used to perform interpolation with the help of concentration data on air quality at three locations of Mumbai for the year 2008. The classification was done for the spatial and temporal variation in air quality levels for Mumbai region. The seasonal and annual variations of air quality levels for SO2, NOx and SPM (Suspended Particulate Matter have been focused in this study. Results show that SPM concentration always exceeded the permissible limit of National Ambient Air Quality Standard. Also, seasonal trends of pollutant SPM was low in monsoon due rain fall. The finding of this study will help to formulate control strategies for rational management of air pollution and can be used for many other regions.

  14. 2007 Critical Review Discussion -- Will the circle be unbroken: a history of the U.S. national ambient air quality standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Judith C. Chow; John G. Watson; Howard J. Feldman (and others) [Desert Research Institute, Reno, NV (United States)

    2007-10-15

    In the review, John D. Bachmann traces the regulatory history of U.S. air pollution from the beginning of the 20th century to the present. The review divides this progress into four segments: (1) 1900-1970, from smoke abatement to federal involvement and the establishment of air quality management (AQM) in the 1970 Clean Air Act (CAA); (2) 1971-1976, when the first National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) were promulgated and implemented; (3) 1977-1993, which included the first NAAQS revisions, major CAA amendments, and the evolution of AQM; and (4) 1993-2006, the second and third waves of NAAQS revisions and their implementation in the context of the 1990 CAA amendments. A discussant's commentary does not necessarily reflect the position of his or her respective organization. This Critical Review Discussion was compiled from written submissions and presentation transcripts. The invited discussants are as follows: Mr. Howard J. Feldman, director of regulatory and scientific affairs for the American Petroleum Institute; Ms. Janice E. Nolen, assistant vice president of national policy and advocacy for the American Lung Association; Dr. Barry Wallerstein, executive officer at the South Coast Air Quality Management District; Dr. John G. Watson, research professor in the Division of Atmospheric Sciences at the Desert Research Institute; Dr. George M. Hidy of Envair/Aerochem; Dr. Paul J. Lioy, Department of Environmental and Occupational Medicine; Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, University of Medicine and Dentistry, New Jersey; Dr. Herbert McKee, environmental consultant; Mr. David Mobley of the Atmospheric Modeling Division of the EPA's Office of Research and Development; and Mr. Keith Baugues, P.E., of air services for KERAMIDA Environmental. 127 refs.

  15. Quality measurement of semantic standards

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Folmer, E.J.A.; Oude Luttighuis, P.H.W.M.; Hillegersberg, J. van

    2010-01-01

    Quality of semantic standards is unadressed in current research while there is an explicit need from standard developers. The business importance is evident since quality of standards will have impact on its diffusion and achieved interoperability in practice. An instrument to measure the quality of

  16. Quality measurement of semantic standards

    OpenAIRE

    Folmer, E.J.A.; Oude Luttighuis, P.H.W.M.; Hillegersberg, van, R.

    2010-01-01

    Quality of semantic standards is unadressed in current research while there is an explicit need from standard developers. The business importance is evident since quality of standards will have impact on its diffusion and achieved interoperability in practice. An instrument to measure the quality of semantic standards is designed to contribute to the knowledge domain, standards developers and might ultimo lead to improved interoperability. This instrument is iteratively designed with multiple...

  17. Overview of ozone human exposure and health risk analyses used in the U.S. EPA's review of the ozone air quality standard.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitfield, R. G.

    1999-03-04

    This paper presents an overview of the ozone human exposure and health risk analyses developed under sponsorship of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). These analyses are being used in the current review of the national ambient air quality standards (NAAQS) for ozone. The analyses consist of three principal steps: (1) estimating short-term ozone exposure for particular populations (exposure model); (2) estimating population response to exposures or concentrations (exposure-response or concentration-response models); and (3) integrating concentrations or exposure with concentration-response or exposure-response models to produce overall risk estimates (risk model). The exposure model, called the probabilistic NAAQS exposure model for ozone (pNEM/03), incorporates the following factors: hourly ambient ozone concentrations; spatial distribution of concentrations; ventilation state of individuals at time of exposure; and movement of people through various microenvironments (e.g., outdoors, indoors, inside a vehicle) of varying air quality. Exposure estimates are represented by probability distributions. Exposure-response relationships have been developed for several respiratory symptom and lung function health effects, based on the results of controlled human exposure studies. These relationships also are probabilistic and reflect uncertainties associated with sample size and variability of response among subjects. The analyses also provide estimates of excess hospital admissions in the New York City area based on results from an epidemiology study. Overall risk results for selected health endpoints and recently analyzed air quality scenarios associated with alternative 8-hour NAAQS and the current 1-hour standard for outdoor children are used to illustrate application of the methodology.

  18. Air Quality and Climate Change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Climate change and air quality are closely related: through the policy measures implemented to mitigate these major environmental threats but also through the geophysical processes that drive them. We designed, developed and implemented a comprehensive regional air quality and climate modeling System to investigate future air quality in Europe taking into account the combined pressure of future climate change and long range transport. Using the prospective scenarios of the last generation of pathways for both climate change (emissions of well mixed greenhouse gases) and air pollutants, we can provide a quantitative view into the possible future air quality in Europe. We find that ozone pollution will decrease substantially under the most stringent scenario but the efforts of the air quality legislation will be adversely compensated by the penalty of global warming and long range transport for the business as usual scenario. For particulate matter, the projected reduction of emissions efficiently reduces exposure levels. (authors)

  19. Air Quality Facilities

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — Facilities with operating permits for Title V of the Federal Clean Air Act, as well as facilities required to submit an air emissions inventory, and other...

  20. 75 FR 70258 - Review of the Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Oxides of Nitrogen and Oxides...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-17

    ... to: Air and Radiation Docket and Information Center, Environmental Protection Agency, Mailcode: 2822T... an atmospheric chemistry perspective as well as from an environmental effects perspective, and... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL...

  1. Investigating the air quality in aircraft cabins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In recent years, there has been increasing concern about the air quality in aircraft cabins and its effects on health and safety for crew and passengers. Some of the major worries are risk of communication of infectious diseases, high incidence of respiratory diseases caused by low air moisture, and increased concentration of carbon dioxide from exhaled air due to the cabin air being recirculated. It also happens that fumes and gases enter the cabin by way of the ventilation system. This article describes the EU-funded research programme called CabinAir. The project aims to: (1) establish the current level of air quality in aircraft cabins, (2) establish the relationship between cabin air quality and the performance of environmental control and filtration systems, the air distribution, the energy consumption and the environmental impact of fuel burn. (3) develop new designs and technical solutions to improve the environmental control system and cabin air distribution/control systems, (4) optimise air quality in the cabin and minimise fuel consumption and environmental impacts, (5) develop performance specifications for the components, (6) draft European Pre-Normative Standards

  2. 75 FR 1566 - Public Hearings for Reconsideration of the 2008 National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-12

    ... the following Web site: http://www.epa.gov/ttn/naaqs/standards/ozone/s_o3_cr_fr.html for the addresses.../standards/ozone/s_o3_cr_fr.html . FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: If you would like to speak at the public... proposal at http://www.epa.gov/ttn/naaqs/standards/ozone/s_o3_cr_fr.html prior to the hearings....

  3. Equivalence in Ventilation and Indoor Air Quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sherman, Max; Walker, Iain; Logue, Jennifer

    2011-08-01

    We ventilate buildings to provide acceptable indoor air quality (IAQ). Ventilation standards (such as American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air-Conditioning Enginners [ASHRAE] Standard 62) specify minimum ventilation rates without taking into account the impact of those rates on IAQ. Innovative ventilation management is often a desirable element of reducing energy consumption or improving IAQ or comfort. Variable ventilation is one innovative strategy. To use variable ventilation in a way that meets standards, it is necessary to have a method for determining equivalence in terms of either ventilation or indoor air quality. This study develops methods to calculate either equivalent ventilation or equivalent IAQ. We demonstrate that equivalent ventilation can be used as the basis for dynamic ventilation control, reducing peak load and infiltration of outdoor contaminants. We also show that equivalent IAQ could allow some contaminants to exceed current standards if other contaminants are more stringently controlled.

  4. Air Quality at Your Street

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Steen Solvang; Becker, Thomas; Ketzel, Matthias;

    concerned citizents, or in the context of localization of institutions, etc. The purpose of the project ‘Air Quality at Your Street’ is to create interactive air quality maps on the internet using webGIS to illustrate the geographical variation of air quality in Denmark for selected health related air...... is calculated with a model system consisting of a regional model (DEHM), an urban background model (UBM) and a street model (OSPM) with associated meteorology and emissions data etc. Recently updated input data has been used for the road network and traffic data based on the national traffic model...... (LTM) from DTU Transport as well as data on travel speeds based on GPS data from SpeedMap from the Danish Road Directorate. Modelled concentrations have been compared to fixed regional, urban background and street air quality monitoring stations to assess uncertainties, and to model results from about...

  5. 40 CFR Appendix K to Part 50 - Interpretation of the National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Particulate Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... particulate matter data to determine attainment of the 24-hour standards specified in 40 CFR 50.6. For the... Determinations 2.124-Hour Primary and Secondary Standards (a) Under 40 CFR 50.6(a) the 24-hour primary and....1, which is the lowest rate for nonattainment). 2.2Reserved 2.3Data Requirements (a) 40 CFR...

  6. 78 FR 9593 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Maryland; Amendments to Maryland's...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-11

    ..., Air pollution control, Carbon monoxide, Incorporation by reference, Intergovernmental relations, Lead... to Maryland's Ambient Air Quality Standards AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION... reference of the national ambient air quality standards (NAAQS) by the State of Maryland. EPA is...

  7. INDOOR AIR QUALITY ANALYSIS

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Xin

    2010-01-01

    With the development of modern architecture, one of the building's interior decoration, furnishings, appliances and equipment have become increasingly demanding, making construction of the indoor environment of increasing pollution, increasing pollution, indoor environmental pollution hazards to human is also a growing the greater. This thesis summarizes the major indoor air pollution sources and major pollutants. Indoor air pollutants are formaldehyde, radon, ammonia, total volatile org...

  8. 76 FR 48073 - Public Hearing for Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Oxides of Nitrogen and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-08

    ... the notice of proposed rulemaking published in the Federal Register on August 1, 2011, (76 FR 46084....epa.gov/ttn/naaqs/standards/no2so2sec/cr_fr.html . FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: If you would like... published in the Federal Register on August 1, 2011, (76 FR 46084) and is available on the following...

  9. Mind Your Indoor Air Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mak, Lily

    2012-01-01

    When it comes to excelling in the classroom, it turns out the air students are breathing is just as important as the lessons they are learning. Studies show poor indoor air quality (IAQ) can lessen the comfort of students as well as staff--affecting concentration, attendance and student performance. It can even lead to lower IQs. What's more, poor…

  10. Indoor air quality research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The various types of pollutant found in indoor air are introduced and the effects on the health of the occupants of buildings summarized. The ''sick'' building syndrome is described in detail and the need for further investigation into its causes and remedies is stressed. 8 tabs

  11. Aeromicrobiology/air quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Gary L.; Frisch, A.S.; Kellogg, Christina A.; Levetin, E.; Lighthart, Bruce; Paterno, D.

    2009-01-01

    The most prevalent microorganisms, viruses, bacteria, and fungi, are introduced into the atmosphere from many anthropogenic sources such as agricultural, industrial and urban activities, termed microbial air pollution (MAP), and natural sources. These include soil, vegetation, and ocean surfaces that have been disturbed by atmospheric turbulence. The airborne concentrations range from nil to great numbers and change as functions of time of day, season, location, and upwind sources. While airborne, they may settle out immediately or be transported great distances. Further, most viable airborne cells can be rendered nonviable due to temperature effects, dehydration or rehydration, UV radiation, and/or air pollution effects. Mathematical microbial survival models that simulate these effects have been developed.

  12. Urban air quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since 1950 the world population has more than doubled, and the global number of cars has increased by a factor of 10. In the same period the fraction of people living in urban areas has increased by a factor of 4. In year 2000 this will amount to nearly half of the world population. About 20 urban regions will each have populations above 10 million people. Seen over longer periods, pollution in major cities tends to increase during the built up phase, they pass through a maximum and are then again reduced, as abatement strategies are developed. In the industrialised western world urban air pollution is in some respects in the last stage with effectively reduced levels of sulphur dioxide and soot. In recent decades however, the increasing traffic has switched the attention to nitrogen oxides, organic compounds and small particles. In some cities photochemical air pollution is an important urban problem, but in the northern part of Europe it is a large-scale phenomenon, with ozone levels in urban streets being normally lower than in rural areas. Cities in Eastern Europe have been (and in many cases still are) heavily polluted. After the recent political upheaval, followed by a temporary recession and a subsequent introduction of new technologies, the situation appears to improve. However, the rising number of private cars is an emerging problem. In most developing countries the rapid urbanisation has so far resulted in uncontrolled growth and deteriorating environment. Air pollution levels are here still rising on many fronts. Apart from being sources of local air pollution, urban activities are significant contributors to transboundary pollution and to the rising global concentrations of greenhouse gasses. Attempts to solve urban problems by introducing cleaner, more energy-efficient technologies will generally have a beneficial impact on these large-scale problems. Attempts based on city planning with a spreading of the activities, on the other hand, may generate

  13. Urban air quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenger, Jes

    Since 1950 the world population has more than doubled, and the global number of cars has increased by a factor of 10. In the same period the fraction of people living in urban areas has increased by a factor of 4. In year 2000 this will amount to nearly half of the world population. About 20 urban regions will each have populations above 10 million people. Seen over longer periods, pollution in major cities tends to increase during the built up phase, they pass through a maximum and are then again reduced, as abatement strategies are developed. In the industrialised western world urban air pollution is in some respects in the last stage with effectively reduced levels of sulphur dioxide and soot. In recent decades however, the increasing traffic has switched the attention to nitrogen oxides, organic compounds and small particles. In some cities photochemical air pollution is an important urban problem, but in the northern part of Europe it is a large-scale phenomenon, with ozone levels in urban streets being normally lower than in rural areas. Cities in Eastern Europe have been (and in many cases still are) heavily polluted. After the recent political upheaval, followed by a temporary recession and a subsequent introduction of new technologies, the situation appears to improve. However, the rising number of private cars is an emerging problem. In most developing countries the rapid urbanisation has so far resulted in uncontrolled growth and deteriorating environment. Air pollution levels are here still rising on many fronts. Apart from being sources of local air pollution, urban activities are significant contributors to transboundary pollution and to the rising global concentrations of greenhouse gasses. Attempts to solve urban problems by introducing cleaner, more energy-efficient technologies will generally have a beneficial impact on these large-scale problems. Attempts based on city planning with a spreading of the activities, on the other hand, may generate

  14. Management Aspects of Implementing the New Effluent Air Monitoring Standard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The revision to ANSI/HPS N13.1,'Sampling and Monitoring Releases of Airborne Radioactive substances From the Stacks and Ducts of Nuclear Facilities,' went into effect in January 1999 - replacing the 1969 version of the standard. There are several significant changes from the old version of the standard. The revised standard provides a new paradigm where representative air samples can be collected by extracting the sample from a single point in air streams where the contaminants are well mixed. The revised standard provides specific performance criteria and requirements for the various air sampling processes - program structure, sample extraction, transport, collection, effluent and sample flow measurement, and quality assurance. A graded approach to sampling is recommended with more stringent requirements for stacks with a greater potential to emit. These significant changes in the standard will impact the air monitoring programs at some sites and facilities. The impacts on the air monitor design, operation, maintenance, and quality control processes are discussed.

  15. Manual on indoor air quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diamond, R.C.; Grimsrud, D.T.

    1983-12-01

    This reference manual was prepared to assist electric utilities in helping homeowners, builders, and new home buyers to understand a broad range of issues related to indoor air quality. The manual is directed to technically knowledgeable persons employed by utility companies - the customer service or marketing representative, applications engineer, or technician - who may not have specific expertise in indoor air quality issues. In addition to providing monitoring and control techniques, the manual summarizes the link between pollutant concentrations, air exchange, and energy conservation and describes the characteristics and health effects of selected pollutants. Where technical information is too lengthy or complex for inclusion in this volume, reference sources are given. Information for this manual was gathered from technical studies, manufacturers' information, and other materials from professional societies, institutes, and associations. The aim has been to provide objective technical and descriptive information that can be used by utility personnel to make informed decisions about indoor air quality issues.

  16. Manual on indoor air quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This reference manual was prepared to assist electric utilities in helping homeowners, builders, and new home buyers to understand a broad range of issues related to indoor air quality. The manual is directed to technically knowledgeable persons employed by utility companies - the customer service or marketing representative, applications engineer, or technician - who may not have specific expertise in indoor air quality issues. In addition to providing monitoring and control techniques, the manual summarizes the link between pollutant concentrations, air exchange, and energy conservation and describes the characteristics and health effects of selected pollutants. Where technical information is too lengthy or complex for inclusion in this volume, reference sources are given. Information for this manual was gathered from technical studies, manufacturers' information, and other materials from professional societies, institutes, and associations. The aim has been to provide objective technical and descriptive information that can be used by utility personnel to make informed decisions about indoor air quality issues

  17. Provide good air quality for people and improve their productivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fanger, Povl Ole

    2000-01-01

    quality. The impact on productivity justifies a much higher indoor air quality than the minimum levels prescribed in present standards and guidelines. One way of providing air of high quality for people to breathe, without involving excessive ventilation rates and energy use, is to provide "personalized...

  18. Historical Ambient Air Quality Data Inventory

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Historical Ambient Air Quality Data Inventory contains measured and estimated data on ambient air pollution for use in assessing air quality, assisting in...

  19. Biomass and air quality the UK experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Policies to encourage the use of biomass in the UK can perhaps be held up as an example of how not to develop integrated environmental policy. The UK has considered the air quality effects of biomass burning only after putting in place policies that will hugely increase the amount of biomass burning plant that will be installed. Whilst these issues are now being addressed, it will be some time before a satisfactory framework will be in place. The current situation is not a positive one for all involved - air quality practitioners, climate change policy makers and the wider biomass industry. For clean air organisations such as Environmental Protection UK and our European counterparts there are essentially two lessons to take away. The first is that we have to raise our sights to look for potential threats to air quality from wider policy measures, and flag up potential concerns at the earliest opportunity. It is easy to focus on the job in hand (for example emissions from vehicles) and miss developments further afield. Secondly, and most importantly, we have to offer our own solutions to wider environmental challenges. Climate change is likely to remain the dominant global environmental issue for decades to come; clean air agencies need to understand this and put forward low carbon solutions that offer strong synergies with air quality. The alternative is for policy makers to see air i quality standards and clean air agencies as a barrier t to progress towards a low carbon economy, rather than a positive source of solutions. (N.C.)

  20. Trading emissions improve air quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    While admitting sharply contrasting views exist, James M. Lents of the South Coast Air Quality Management District in southern California sees emissions trading open-quotes as a lifesaver for our troubled planet.close quotes He explains: open-quotes If political support for the environment is to be maintained, we must seek the most economical and flexible means of pursuing cleanup. At present, market incentives and emissions trading represent our best hope.close quotes Lents is putting his money where his pen is. The air quality management district he heads plans to use market incentives, including emissions trading, to reduce air pollution in the notoriously dirty southern California area. When the system goes into operation in 1994, he estimates it will save southern California businesses more than $400 million a year in compliance costs, while also making major improvements in the region's air quality. If the idea works there, why won't it work elsewhere, even on a global scale, Lents asks? He believes it will. But open-quotes the ultimate success of emissions-trading programs, whether regional, national, or international in scope, lies in the proof that they're actually achieving reductions in harmful emissions,close quotes he emphasizes. open-quotes These reductions must be real and verifiable to satisfy the Clean Air Act and a skeptical public.close quotes

  1. Urban air quality in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book provides an overview of air quality in urban environments in Europe, focusing on air pollutant emission sources and formation mechanisms, measurement and modeling strategies, and future perspectives. The emission sources described are biomass burning, vehicular traffic, industry and agriculture, but also African dust and long-range transport of pollutants across the European regions. The impact of these emission sources and processes on atmospheric particulate matter, ozone, nitrogen oxides and volatile and semi-volatile organic compounds is discussed and critical areas for particulate matter and nitrogen dioxide in Europe are identified. Finally, this volume presents future perspectives, mainly regarding upcoming air quality monitoring strategies, metrics of interest, such as submicron and nanoparticles, and indoor and outdoor exposure scenarios.

  2. Megacities, air quality and climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baklanov, Alexander; Molina, Luisa T.; Gauss, Michael

    2016-02-01

    The rapid urbanization and growing number of megacities and urban complexes requires new types of research and services that make best use of science and available technology. With an increasing number of humans now living in urban sprawls, there are urgent needs of examining what the rising number of megacities means for air pollution, local climate and the effects these changes have on global climate. Such integrated studies and services should assist cities in facing hazards such as storm surge, flooding, heat waves, and air pollution episodes, especially in changing climates. While important advances have been made, new interdisciplinary research studies are needed to increase our understanding of the interactions between emissions, air quality, and regional and global climates. Studies need to address both basic and applied research and bridge the spatial and temporal scales connecting local emissions and air pollution and local weather, global atmospheric chemistry and climate. This paper reviews the current status of studies of the complex interactions between climate, air quality and megacities, and identifies the main gaps in our current knowledge as well as further research needs in this important field of research.

  3. Indoor Air Quality and Academic Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Tess Stafford

    2013-01-01

    I examine the effect of school indoor air quality (IAQ) on academic outcomes. I utilize a quasi-natural experiment, in which IAQ-renovations were completed at virtually every school in a single Texas school district at different points in time, combined with a panel of student-level data to control for many confounding factors and thereby uncover the causal effect of IAQ-renovations on academic outcomes. Results indicate that performance on standardized tests significantly improves while atte...

  4. Indoor Air Quality in Schools: Clean Air Is Good Business.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guarneiri, Michele A.

    2003-01-01

    Describes the effect of poor indoor air quality (IAQ) on student health, the cost of safeguarding good IAQ, the cause of poor IAQ in schools, how to tell whether a school has an IAQ problem, and how the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency can help schools improve indoor air quality though the use of their free "Indoor Air Quality Tools for…

  5. Diurnal, weekly and monthly spatial variations of air pollutants and air quality of Beijing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei; Tang, Hongzhao; Zhao, Haimeng

    2015-10-01

    Under the National Ambient Air Quality Standard released in 2012 (NAAQS-2012), Beijing began to publicize hourly Air Quality Index as well as real time concentrations of 6 pollutants in its web platform to provide detailed information for air quality assessment from 2013. In this study, hourly air quality monitoring data from May 2014 to April 2015 were collected for all 35 monitoring stations in Beijing to analyze the temporal and spatial variations of air pollutants and air quality. It is found that in spatial pattern, the air qualities in southern and northern Beijing are totally different. The association between heavy pollution concentrations and wind situations suggested that neighboring area's air quality has an important role in the air quality of Beijing combining with air quality attainment rates in all 35 monitoring stations and northern China. For temporal variations, late night and early morning are the most polluted time while afternoon is the least polluted time for all pollutants except O3 with most polluted time in afternoon. Summer time in Beijing has the best air quality while winter time has the worst air quality coinciding with the heating season in the winter.

  6. 21 CFR 900.12 - Quality standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Quality standards. 900.12 Section 900.12 Food and... QUALITY STANDARDS ACT MAMMOGRAPHY Quality Standards and Certification § 900.12 Quality standards. (a..., including the production, processing, and interpretation of mammograms and related quality...

  7. AIR QUALITY CRITERIA FOR CARBON MONOXIDE (2000) Final Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) promulgates national ambient air quality standards (NAAQS) on the basis of scientific information contained in integrated science assessments (ISAs), formerly known as air quality criteria documents (AQCDs). The ISA is a concise rev...

  8. Air Quality Criteria for Carbon Monoxide 1991 (Final Report)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) promulgates national ambient air quality standards (NAAQS) on the basis of scientific information contained in integrated science assessments (ISAs), formerly known as air quality criteria documents (AQCDs). The ISA is a concise rev...

  9. 78 FR 19990 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Ohio; Ohio Ambient Air Quality...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-03

    ... the relocated air quality standard rules. This action was published at 75 FR 65572 as a direct final... previously approved, most notably including revisions that EPA had proposed to disapprove (see 70 FR 36901... Register on October 26, 2010 (75 FR 65572), on page 65574 in the second column, the paragraph numbered...

  10. Quality and standards in electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Tricker, Ray

    1997-01-01

    A manufacturer or supplier of electronic equipment or components needs to know the precise requirements for component certification and quality conformance to meet the demands of the customer. This book ensures that the professional is aware of all the UK, European and International necessities, knows the current status of these regulations and standards, and where to obtain them.

  11. Environmental Management Department Quality Assurance Project Plan for Radionuclide Emission Measurements Project for compliance with National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Quality Assurance Project Plan (QAPP) satisfies the quality assurance (QA) requirements in 40 CFR Part 61, Method 114, for ensuring that the radionuclide air emission measurements from the Y-12 Plant are representative; of a known precision and accuracy; and include administrative controls to ensure prompt response when emission measurements indicate an increase over normal radionuclide emissions. The QAPP ensures the quality of the Y-12 Plant radionuclide emission measurements data from the continuous samplers, breakthrough monitors, and minor radionuclide release points. The plan specifies the procedures for the management of the activities affecting the quality of the data for the Y-12 Plant Environmental Management Department (EMD) within the Health, Safety, Environment, and Accountability Division (HSEA)

  12. Uncertainty in Regional Air Quality Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Digar, Antara

    Effective pollution mitigation is the key to successful air quality management. Although states invest millions of dollars to predict future air quality, the regulatory modeling and analysis process to inform pollution control strategy remains uncertain. Traditionally deterministic ‘bright-line’ tests are applied to evaluate the sufficiency of a control strategy to attain an air quality standard. A critical part of regulatory attainment demonstration is the prediction of future pollutant levels using photochemical air quality models. However, because models are uncertain, they yield a false sense of precision that pollutant response to emission controls is perfectly known and may eventually mislead the selection of control policies. These uncertainties in turn affect the health impact assessment of air pollution control strategies. This thesis explores beyond the conventional practice of deterministic attainment demonstration and presents novel approaches to yield probabilistic representations of pollutant response to emission controls by accounting for uncertainties in regional air quality planning. Computationally-efficient methods are developed and validated to characterize uncertainty in the prediction of secondary pollutant (ozone and particulate matter) sensitivities to precursor emissions in the presence of uncertainties in model assumptions and input parameters. We also introduce impact factors that enable identification of model inputs and scenarios that strongly influence pollutant concentrations and sensitivity to precursor emissions. We demonstrate how these probabilistic approaches could be applied to determine the likelihood that any control measure will yield regulatory attainment, or could be extended to evaluate probabilistic health benefits of emission controls, considering uncertainties in both air quality models and epidemiological concentration-response relationships. Finally, ground-level observations for pollutant (ozone) and precursor

  13. Balancing energy conservation and occupant needs in ventilation rate standards for Big Box stores and other commercial buildings in California. Issues related to the ASHRAE 62.1 Indoor Air Quality Procedure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendell, Mark J. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Apte, Mike G. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2010-10-31

    This report considers the question of whether the California Energy Commission should incorporate the ASHRAE 62.1 ventilation standard into the Title 24 ventilation rate (VR) standards, thus allowing buildings to follow the Indoor Air Quality Procedure. This, in contrast to the current prescriptive standard, allows the option of using ventilation rate as one of several strategies, which might include source reduction and air cleaning, to meet specified targets of indoor air concentrations and occupant acceptability. The research findings reviewed in this report suggest that a revised approach to a ventilation standard for commercial buildings is necessary, because the current prescriptive ASHRAE 62.1 Ventilation Rate Procedure (VRP) apparently does not provide occupants with either sufficiently acceptable or sufficiently healthprotective air quality. One possible solution would be a dramatic increase in the minimum ventilation rates (VRs) prescribed by a VRP. This solution, however, is not feasible for at least three reasons: the current need to reduce energy use rather than increase it further, the problem of polluted outdoor air in many cities, and the apparent limited ability of increasing VRs to reduce all indoor airborne contaminants of concern (per Hodgson (2003)). Any feasible solution is thus likely to include methods of pollutant reduction other than increased outdoor air ventilation; e.g., source reduction or air cleaning. The alternative 62.1 Indoor Air Quality Procedure (IAQP) offers multiple possible benefits in this direction over the VRP, but seems too limited by insufficient specifications and inadequate available data to provide adequate protection for occupants. Ventilation system designers rarely choose to use it, finding it too arbitrary and requiring use of much non-engineering judgment and information that is not readily available. This report suggests strategies to revise the current ASHRAE IAQP to reduce its current limitations. These

  14. The AirQuality SenseBox

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demuth, Dustin; Nuest, Daniel; Bröring, Arne; Pebesma, Edzer

    2013-04-01

    In the past year, a group of open hardware enthusiasts and citizen scientists had large success in the crowd-funding of an open hardware-based sensor platform for air quality monitoring, called the Air Quality Egg. Via the kickstarter platform, the group was able to collect triple the amount of money than needed to fulfill their goals. Data generated by the Air Quality Egg is pushed to the data logging platform cosm.com, which makes the devices a part of the Internet of Things. The project aims at increasing the participation of citizens in the collection of data, the development of sensors, the operation of sensor stations, and, as data on cosm is publicly available, the sharing, visualization and analysis of data. Air Quality Eggs can measure NO2 and CO concentrations, as well as relative humidity and temperature. The chosen sensors are low-cost and have limited precision and accurracy. The Air Quality Egg consists of a stationary outdoor and a stationary indoor unit. Each outdoor unit will wirelessly transmit air quality measurements to the indoor unit, which forwards the data to cosm. Most recent versions of the Air Quality Egg allow a rough calibration of the gas sensors and on-the-fly conversion from raw sensor readings (impedance) to meaningful air quality data expressed in units of parts per billion. Data generated by these low-cost platforms are not intended to replace well-calibrated official monitoring stations, but rather augment the density of the total monitoring network with citizen sensors. To improve the usability of the Air Quality Egg, we present a new and more advanced concept, called the AirQuality SenseBox. We made the outdoor platform more autonomous and location-aware by adding solarpanels and rechargeable batteries as a power source. The AirQuality SenseBox knows its own position from a GPS device attached to the platform. As a mobile sensor platform, it can for instance be attached to vehicles. A low-cost and low-power wireless chipset

  15. Air quality in Europe - 2012 report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-09-15

    This report presents an overview and analysis of the status and trends of air quality in Europe based on concentration measurements in ambient air and data on anthropogenic emissions and trends from 2001 - when mandatory monitoring of ambient air concentrations of selected pollutants first produced reliable air quality information - to 2010. (Author)

  16. Air quality in Europe - 2011 report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guerreiro, C.; Larssen, S. (Norsk Inst. for Luftforskning (NILU), Lillestroem (Norway)); Leeuw, F. de (RIVM, Bilthoven (Netherlands)); Foltescu, V. (EEA, Copenhagen (Denmark))

    2011-11-15

    The annual report 'Air quality in Europe' summarises the most recent evaluation of Europe's air quality status. It is mainly based on air quality measurement data that have been made available officially by 32 EEA member countries as well as 6 EEA cooperating countries. The report includes maps and analyses of air quality status over the calendar year 2009. It also analyses air quality trends over the past years. The evaluation of the status and trends of air quality is based on ambient air measurements, in conjunction with reported anthropogenic emissions. The report summarizes the main effects of different air pollutants on human health, the environment and the climate. An overview of policies and measures at European level is also given for each pollutant. This report reviews progress towards meeting the requirements of the two air quality directives in force as well as the air quality guidelines set by the World Health Organization (WHO). The report is produced in support of European and national policy development and implementation in the field of air quality. It also supports air quality management and informs the general public on the current status and trends of air quality in Europe. (Author)

  17. Indoor Air Quality in Chemistry Laboratories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hays, Steve M.

    This paper presents air quality and ventilation data from an existing chemical laboratory facility and discusses the work practice changes implemented in response to deficiencies in ventilation. General methods for improving air quality in existing laboratories are presented and investigation techniques for characterizing air quality are…

  18. Workshop on indoor air quality research needs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-01-01

    Workshop participants report on indoor air quality research needs including the monitoring of indoor air quality, report of the instrumentation subgroup of indoor air quality, health effects, and the report of the control technology session. Risk analysis studies addressing indoor environments were also summarized. (DLS)

  19. Workshop on indoor air quality research needs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Workshop participants report on indoor air quality research needs including the monitoring of indoor air quality, report of the instrumentation subgroup of indoor air quality, health effects, and the report of the control technology session. Risk analysis studies addressing indoor environments were also summarized

  20. Quality Criteria for Propolis Standardization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Stan

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Propolis is a natural resine produced by honeybees with high biological value for human kind. Although propolis is intensively used in medicine, cosmetics and lately in food industry also, there is no quality standard (Romanian or European for this specific beeproduct. This article presents the quality criteria for Romanian raw propolis (56 samples as a collection of data obtained along the years through extensive qualitative and quantitative analysis. Data obtained for extraction yield (59%±8%, wax content (35%±8%, total flavonoids (9£±3% and total phenolics (28%±7%, antioxidant activity against DPPH are presented.

  1. Urban air quality in the Asian region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hopke, Philip K. [Center for Air Resources Engineering and Science, Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Clarkson University, Potsdam, NY 13699-5708 (United States)], E-mail: hopkepk@clarkson.edu; Cohen, David D. [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO), Physics Division, Private Mail Bag 1, Menai 2234, NSW (Australia); Begum, Bilkis A.; Biswas, Swapan K. [Bangladesh Atomic Energy Commission (BAEC), Atomic Energy Centre, Dhaka (AECD), P.O. Box 164, Dhaka (Bangladesh); Ni Bangfa [China Institute of Atomic Energy (CIAE), China National Nuclear Corp. (CNNC), P.O. Box 275-50, Beijing 102413 (China); Pandit, Gauri Girish [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai 400085 (India); Santoso, Muhayatun [Center for Nuclear Technology of Material and Radiometry, National Nuclear Energy Agency (BATAN), Jl. Tamansari 71, Bandung 40132 (Indonesia); Chung, Yong-Sam [Hanaro Center, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI), 150 Dukjin-dong, Yusung-ku, P.O. Box 105, Daejon 305-600 (Korea, Republic of); Davy, Perry; Markwitz, Andreas [Institute of Geological and Nuclear Sciences (GNS), 30 Gracefield Road, P.O. Box 31-312, Lower Hutt (New Zealand); Waheed, Shahida; Siddique, Naila [Division of Nuclear Chemistry, PINSTECH, Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC), P.O. Box 1482, Nilore, Islamabad (Pakistan); Santos, Flora L.; Pabroa, Preciosa Corazon B. [Philippine Nuclear Research Institute (PNRI), Commonwealth Avenue, Diliman, P.O. Box 213, Quezon City 1101 (Philippines); Seneviratne, Manikkuwadura Consy Shirani [Atomic Energy Authority, 60/460, Baseline Road, Orugodawatta, Wellampitiya (Sri Lanka); Wimolwattanapun, Wanna; Bunprapob, Supamatthree [Thailand Institute of Nuclear Technology (TINT), 16 Vibhavadi Rangsit Road, Bangkok 10900 (Thailand); Thu Bac Vuong [Centre for Radiation Protection, Institute of Nuclear Sciences and Technology, P.O. Box 5T-160, Cau Giay (Viet Nam)] (and others)

    2008-10-01

    Over the past decade, member states of the Regional Co-operation Agreement (RCA), an intergovernmental agreement for the East Asia and Pacific region under the auspices of the IAEA with the assistance of international organizations and financial institutions such as the World Bank and the Asian Development Bank, have started to set in place policies and legislation for air pollution abatement. To support planning and evaluate the effectiveness of control programs, data are needed that characterizes urban air quality. The focus of this measurement program describe in this report is on size segregated particulate air pollution. Such airborne particulate matter can have a significant impact on human health and urban visibility. These data provide the input to receptor models that may permit the mitigation of these impacts by identification and quantitative apportionment of the particle sources. The aim of this report is to provide an overview of the measurements of concentrations and composition of particulate air pollution in two size fractions across the participating countries. For many of the large cities in this region, the measured particulate matter concentrations are greater than air quality standards or guidelines that have been adopted in developed countries.

  2. Urban air quality in the Asian region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Over the past decade, member states of the Regional Co-operation Agreement (RCA), an intergovernmental agreement for the East Asia and Pacific region under the auspices of the IAEA with the assistance of international organizations and financial institutions such as the World Bank and the Asian Development Bank, have started to set in place policies and legislation for air pollution abatement. To support planning and evaluate the effectiveness of control programs, data are needed that characterizes urban air quality. The focus of this measurement program describe in this report is on size segregated particulate air pollution. Such airborne particulate matter can have a significant impact on human health and urban visibility. These data provide the input to receptor models that may permit the mitigation of these impacts by identification and quantitative apportionment of the particle sources. The aim of this report is to provide an overview of the measurements of concentrations and composition of particulate air pollution in two size fractions across the participating countries. For many of the large cities in this region, the measured particulate matter concentrations are greater than air quality standards or guidelines that have been adopted in developed countries

  3. Columbia River final environmental impact statement. Appendix B: Air quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The System Operation Review (SOR) is a study and environmental compliance process being used by the three Federal agencies to analyze future operations of the system and river use issues. The goal of the SOR is to achieve a coordinated system operation strategy for the river that better meets the needs of all river users. This technical appendix addresses only the effects of alternative system operating strategies for managing the Columbia River system. This appendix consists of eight chapters. Chapter 1 describes the air quality issues that were raised in the SOR scoping process and provides an overview of the study process used to evaluate air quality effects from various system operation alternatives. Chapter 2 describes the Federal, state, and local programs that regulate air quality and discusses the air quality standards that are relevant to the analysis. It also gives an overview of the limatology of the region and the existing air quality in the Columbia River Basin, including areas of non-attainment for relevant air quality standards. Chapter 3 presents the methods this study uses for the analysis of air quality and for the evaluation of human health effects from air pollutants. Chapter 4 provides the study results for the System Operating Strategy (SOS) alternatives and potential mitigation measures. Chapter 5 compares impacts on air quality and human health across alternatives, and discusses mitigation measures and cumulative effects. Chapters 6, 7, and 8 contain the list of preparers, glossary, and references, respectively. Technical exhibits supporting the analysis are also included

  4. Updated ozone absorption cross section will reduce air quality compliance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sofen, E. D.; Evans, M. J.; Lewis, A. C.

    2015-12-01

    Photometric ozone measurements rely upon an accurate value of the ozone absorption cross section at 253.65 nm. This has recently been re-evaluated by Viallon et al. (2015) as 1.8 % smaller than the accepted value (Hearn, 1961) used for the preceding 50 years. Thus, ozone measurements that applied the older cross section systematically underestimate the amount of ozone in air. We correct the reported historical surface data from North America and Europe and find that this modest change in cross section has a significant impact on the number of locations that are out of compliance with air quality regulations if the air quality standards remain the same. We find 18, 23, and 20 % increases in the number of sites that are out of compliance with current US, Canadian, and European ozone air quality health standards for the year 2012. Should the new cross-section value be applied, it would impact attainment of air quality standards and compliance with relevant clean air acts, unless the air quality target values themselves were also changed proportionately. We draw attention to how a small change in gas metrology has a global impact on attainment and compliance with legal air quality standards. We suggest that further laboratory work to evaluate the new cross section is needed and suggest three possible technical and policy responses should the new cross section be adopted.

  5. Clearing the air : report 2 : air quality trends in Sudbury 1998 to 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report highlighted key trends in air pollutant concentrations in the Greater Sudbury region between 1998 and 2007. Air pollutant concentrations were compared with ambient air quality criteria for Ontario as well as federal standards. The study measured levels of sulfur dioxide (SO2); ground-level ozone (O3); particulate matter (PM); and metals. An air quality index was used to rate overall air quality based on hourly measurements of up to 6 air pollutants. Air quality monitoring stations were placed throughout the Greater Sudbury region to record the amounts of pollutants in the air. The study showed that average SO2 concentrations continued to decrease across the monitoring network. O3 concentrations met the provincial 1-hour criterion except when long-range O3 was transported into the region from the United States under specific meteorological conditions. Coarse fractions of particulates were less than the annual criterion at stations. Average PM concentrations met the Canada Wide Standard, while the 24-hour criteria for metals were met for most of the year. Sudbury's air quality was then compared to air quality data obtained from other Ontario cities. It was concluded that Sudbury's air quality will continue to improve in the future. 9 figs.

  6. HPCN and air quality modeling

    OpenAIRE

    Blom, Joke; Lioen, W.M.; Verwer, Jan

    1998-01-01

    We discuss the implementation of an off-line air quality model (AQM). More precisely, how to design a code for an AQM that runs efficiently on a variety of computer platforms. We implemented our ideas in an AQM benchmark and we show the performance of this benchmark on the different architectural paradigms. A second subject of the paper is the I/O performance of the Cray~T3E for an off-line model. We implemented the required I/O in different ways and show that none of these results in a truly...

  7. Association between air quality and quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darçın, Murat

    2014-02-01

    Air quality-or its converse, air pollution-is a significant risk factor for human health. Recent studies have reported association between air pollution and human health. There are numerous diseases that may be caused by air pollution such as respiratory infection, lung cancer, cardiovascular disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and asthma. In this study, the relationship between air quality and quality of life was examined by using canonical correlation analysis. Data of this study was collected from 27 countries. WHO statistics were used as the main source of quality of life data set (Y variables set). European Environment Agency statistics and (for outdoor air-PM10) WHO statistics were used as the main source of air quality data set (X variables set). It is found that there are significant positive correlation between air quality and quality of life. PMID:24014226

  8. Mexico City Air Quality Research Initiative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Mexico City Air Quality Research Initiative is one project that is examining the complex relationship between air pollution, economic growth, societal values, and air quality policies. This paper describes the programs that are being used to fulfill the three tasks of the project: air pollution modeling and simulation, air pollution monitoring, and strategic evaluation. The two lead institutions for this project are the Mexican Petroleum Institute and Los Alamos National Laboratory

  9. The use of scientific information in setting ambient air standards.

    OpenAIRE

    Jordan, B C; Richmond, H M; McCurdy, T

    1983-01-01

    The Clean Air Act, as amended in 1977, requires periodic review and revision of all national ambient air quality standards (NAAQS) to insure that they are based on the latest scientific information. This article presents an overview of how EPA currently reviews and establishes NAAQS. The role of scientific information and expertise in the process is illustrated by a review of several key issues faced in the development of the proposed revisions to the carbon monoxide NAAQS. Finally, a risk an...

  10. Meteorological determinants of air quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turoldo, F.; Del Frate, S.; Gallai, I.; Giaiotti, D. B.; Montanari, F.; Stel, F.; Goi, D.

    2010-09-01

    Air quality is the result of complex phenomena, among which the major role is played by human emissions of pollutants. Atmospheric processes act as determinants, e.g., modulating, dumping or amplifying the effects of emissions as an orchestra's director does with musical instruments. In this work, a series of small-scale and meso-scale meteorological determinants of air-quality are presented as they are observed in an area characterized by complex orography (Friuli Venezia Giulia, in the north-eastern side of Italy). In particular, attention is devoted to: i) meso-scale flows favouring the persistence of high concentrations of particulate matter; ii) meso-scale periodic flows (breezes) favouring high values of particulate matter; iii) local-scale thermodynamic behaviour favouring high atmospheric values of nitrogen oxides. The effects of these different classes of determinants are shown through comparisons between anthropic emissions (mainly traffic) and ground-based measurements. The relevance of complex orography (relatively steep relieves near to the sea) is shown for the meso-scale flows and, in particular, for local-scale periodic flows, which favour the increase of high pollutants concentrations mainly in summer, when the breezes regime is particularly relevant. Part of these results have been achieved through the ETS - Alpine Space EU project iMONITRAF!

  11. 76 FR 59338 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Montana; Revisions to the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-26

    ... Part 52 Environmental protection, Air pollution control, Carbon monoxide, Intergovernmental relations... new rule will not interfere with compliance with the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) or... NAAQS, even within nonattainment areas. Since there are no ambient air quality standards for air...

  12. Indoor Air Quality in Brazilian Universities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia R. Jurado

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the indoor air quality in Brazilian universities by comparing thirty air-conditioned (AC (n = 15 and naturally ventilated (NV (n = 15 classrooms. The parameters of interest were indoor carbon dioxide (CO2, temperature, relative humidity (RH, wind speed, viable mold, and airborne dust levels. The NV rooms had larger concentration of mold than the AC rooms (1001.30 ± 125.16 and 367.00 ± 88.13 cfu/m3, respectively. The average indoor airborne dust concentration exceeded the Brazilian standards (<80 µg/m3 in both NV and AC classrooms. The levels of CO2 in the AC rooms were significantly different from the NV rooms (1433.62 ± 252.80 and 520.12 ± 37.25 ppm, respectively. The indoor air quality in Brazilian university classrooms affects the health of students. Therefore, indoor air pollution needs to be considered as an important public health problem.

  13. Air kerma standardization for diagnostic radiology in a secondary standard laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The demand for calibration services and quality control in diagnostic radiology has grown in the country since the publication of the governmental regulation 453, issued by the Brazilian Ministry of Health in 1998. At that time, to produce results facing the new legislation, many laboratories used different standards and radiation qualities, some of which could be inadequate. The international standards neither supplied consistent radiation qualities and standardization for the different types of equipment available. This situation changed with the publication of the new edition of the IEC 61267 standard, published in 2005. The objective of this work was to implement the standardization of the air kerma for the unatenuated qualities (RQR) of IEC 61267 in the National Laboratory of Metrology of the Ionizing Radiations (LNMRI) of the Institute of Radiation Protection and Dosimetry (IRD). Technical procedures were developed together with uncertainty budget. Results of interlaboratory comparisons demonstrate that the quantity is standardized and internationally traceable. (author)

  14. Air quality and communication. Special issue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In six articles Attention is paid to mainly the practical appliances of communication in relation to the aspects of air quality: the perceptions of air pollution of those people who are affected by it; the tuning of information on air quality to the wishes and needs of citizens; tools enabling visualisation of future situations in the living environment in various scenarios; results of a study of the need for information on air quality among citizens and general practitioners; experiences with websites on air quality obtained in two European projects. (mk)

  15. Minimum quality standards and non-compliance

    OpenAIRE

    Voßwinkel, Jan; Birg, Laura

    2015-01-01

    This paper studies the effect of non-compliance with a minimum quality standard on prices, quality, and welfare in a vertical differentiation model. Non-compliance with a minimum quality standard by a low-quality firm reduces quality levels of both firms, increases the price for the high-quality product, decreases the price for the low-quality product, and shifts demand from the low-quality to the high-quality firm. Under non-compliance, an increase in the standard increases the quality diffe...

  16. 32 CFR 989.30 - Air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... been implemented by regulation, 40 CFR 93, Subpart B. All EIAP documents must address applicable... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Air quality. 989.30 Section 989.30 National... ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ANALYSIS PROCESS (EIAP) § 989.30 Air quality. Section 176(c) of the Clean Air...

  17. Quality of air in Asuncion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The quality of the air in the city of Asuncion was evaluated, studying the distribution of the main chemical elements that are present in the sampling sites, using Bio monitors Tillandsia Meridionalis Baker and Tillandsia Recurvata L. and analyzed by of the ray-x florescence, technique the data were analyzed by means of the AXIL software and the results were a statistically analyzed by the SPSS Software for the creation of the maps of concentration distribution of the different elements from interest. The project was carried out multidisciplinary group integrated by the CNEA as Coordinator and executor; the Facultad de Ciencias Agrarias; the Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas; the Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales of the Universidad Nacional de Asuncion, as well as the Municipalidad de Asuncion.The material was done by specialists in the field and with the financial support of the IAEA

  18. 75 FR 59090 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans and Designation of Areas for Air Quality...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-27

    ... the Las Vegas Valley nonattainment area for the carbon monoxide national ambient air quality standard... protection, Air pollution control, Carbon monoxide, Incorporation by reference, Intergovernmental relations... for the Carbon Monoxide Standard AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Final...

  19. Air quality strategy for Hong Kong

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alex, N.K.Y. [Air Policy Group, Wanchai (Hong Kong). Environmental Protection Dept.

    1995-12-31

    Hong Kong has experienced unimpeded economic growth for four decades but at the same time has suffered from growing air pollution. A new look at the air quality strategy is therefore required to bring about sustainable development. (author)

  20. Urban air quality management. V. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is the first in a series of reports commissioned by the International Petroleum Industry Environmental Conservation Association (IPIECA) to represent members' views on the management of urban air quality in the growing cities in developing countries. In this report, a general, science based framework is provided as a basis for understanding the nature of the problem in any specific urban area, the range of solutions that might be available, and the potential impact of each solution and its least cost privatisation. The topics covered are: a process for urban air quality management; setting air quality targets; a structured approach to the assessment of current and future air quality modelling methodologies; identification and collation of air quality model input data; development of socio-economic scenarios -long-term trend forecasting; cost effectiveness studies; the IPIECA approach to urban air quality management - development of partnerships; encouraging commitment to implementation of programme recommendations. (7 figures; 2 tables; 18 references). (UK)

  1. National Water Quality Standards Database (NWQSD)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The National Water Quality Standards Database (WQSDB) provides access to EPA and state water quality standards (WQS) information in text, tables, and maps. This...

  2. Methods for sulfate air quality management

    OpenAIRE

    Cass, Glen R.; McMurry, Pamela S.; Houseworth, James E

    1980-01-01

    Executive Summary Abstract: A study of methods for sulfate air quality control strategy design has been conducted. Analytical tools developed were tested within a case study of the nature and causes of the high sulfate concentrations observed in the Los Angeles area. A principal objective was to investigate the least costly means for sulfate air quality improvement in that locale. A long-run average emissions to air quality model was derived which computes pollutant concentrations fr...

  3. The Economic Value of Air Quality Forecasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson-Sumo, Tasha

    Both long-term and daily air quality forecasts provide an essential component to human health and impact costs. According the American Lung Association, the estimated current annual cost of air pollution related illness in the United States, adjusted for inflation (3% per year), is approximately $152 billion. Many of the risks such as hospital visits and morality are associated with poor air quality days (where the Air Quality Index is greater than 100). Groups such as sensitive groups become more susceptible to the resulting conditions and more accurate forecasts would help to take more appropriate precautions. This research focuses on evaluating the utility of air quality forecasting in terms of its potential impacts by building on air quality forecasting and economical metrics. Our analysis includes data collected during the summertime ozone seasons between 2010 and 2012 from air quality models for the Washington, DC/Baltimore, MD region. The metrics that are relevant to our analysis include: (1) The number of times that a high ozone or particulate matter (PM) episode is correctly forecasted, (2) the number of times that high ozone or PM episode is forecasted when it does not occur and (3) the number of times when the air quality forecast predicts a cleaner air episode when the air was observed to have high ozone or PM. Our collection of data included available air quality model forecasts of ozone and particulate matter data from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)'s AIRNOW as well as observational data of ozone and particulate matter from Clean Air Partners. We evaluated the performance of the air quality forecasts with that of the observational data and found that the forecast models perform well for the Baltimore/Washington region and the time interval observed. We estimate the potential amount for the Baltimore/Washington region accrues to a savings of up to 5,905 lives and 5.9 billion dollars per year. This total assumes perfect compliance with

  4. Future Air Quality in Danish Cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, S. S.; Berkowicz, R.; Winther, M.;

    The impact of new EU vehicle emission and fuel quality directives on the future air quality in Danish cities has been modelled for comparison with new limit values in the new EU directive on assessment and management of urban air quality. Nested modelling was applied using a set of air quality and...... emission models to predict concentration levels in the regional background, urban background and at street level. Air pollution levels were predicted to decrease for NO2, CO and benzene (ozone increased slightly) and the results show that the levels will not exceed the new EU limit values in 2010 despite...

  5. 50 CFR 270.15 - Quality standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... approved charter. Any quality standard developed under this paragraph must be consistent with the purposes of the Act. (b) A quality standard developed under paragraph (a) of this section may be adopted by a... participants of the concerned sector(s). In order for a quality standard to be brought before Council...

  6. Transportation and Air Quality in California: A Policy Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Deakin, Elizabeth

    1991-01-01

    Significant accomplishments in air pollution emissions control have occurred over the past twenty years. Emissions have been substantially reduced by both industrial and transportation sources; over the ten year period 1977-86, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) reports improvements in each of the six air pollutants for which health-based national ambient air quality standards (NAAQS) exist -- lead, sulfur dioxide, ozone, carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, and particulates. Yet ma...

  7. Indoor air quality environmental information handbook: Building system characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This manual, the third in a series, focuses on residential building system characteristics and their effects on indoor air quality. The manual addresses: residential indoor air pollutants by source, indoor concentrations, health effects, source control and mitigation techniques, standards and guidelines; building system characteristics of air exchange, pollutant source strength, residence volume, site characteristics, structural design, construction, and operation, infiltration and ventilation system, building occupancy; and monitoring methods

  8. 40 CFR 240.205 - Air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Air quality. 240.205 Section 240.205 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES GUIDELINES FOR THE THERMAL PROCESSING OF SOLID WASTES Requirements and Recommended Procedures § 240.205 Air quality....

  9. Air quality and industry [in the Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It sometimes happens that environmental permits for industry or businesses are reversed because assessment and motivation of the decision has been inaccurate. Therefore, the Interregional Consultation (IPO in Dutch) drafted an air quality examination as a tool to test the air quality aspect in licensing procedures of the Environmental Protection Law in the Netherlands

  10. REGIONAL AIR POLLUTION STUDY, QUALITY ASSURANCE AUDITS

    Science.gov (United States)

    RAPS Quality Assurance audits were conducted under this Task Order in continuation of the audit program previously conducted under Task Order No. 58. Quantitative field audits were conducted of the Regional Air Monitoring System (RAMS) Air Monitoring Stations, Local Air Monitorin...

  11. 78 FR 44884 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; West Virginia; Update to Materials...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-25

    ... * * * * * * * Series 8 Ambient Air Quality Standards Section 45-8-1 General 6/1/12 10/29/12, 77 FR 65493 Filing and... CFR Part 52 Environmental protection, Air pollution control, Carbon monoxide, Incorporation by... 8 (Ambient Air Quality Standards), sections 45-8-1 through 45-8-4. 2. 45 CSR 14 (Permits...

  12. 77 FR 65493 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; West Virginia; Amendments to West...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-29

    ... Subjects in 40 CFR Part 52 Environmental protection, Air pollution control, Carbon monoxide, Incorporation...; Amendments to West Virginia's Ambient Air Quality Standards AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA... Legislative Rule, 45 CSR 8- Ambient Air Quality Standards. The amendments change the effective date of...

  13. Air quality and urban management in Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alberti, M. [Stanford Univ. (United States). Center for Conservation Biology; Joffre, S. [Finnish Meteorological Inst., Helsinki (Finland)

    1995-12-31

    Important changes in the quality of urban air have occurred in Europe during the last 20 years. Urban air quality trends are clearly correlated to changes in production and consumption processes which have occurred in European cities during the last decades. However, the way these trends are linked with the changes in the urban structure is not yet fully appreciated. A set of indicators is proposed to examine the relationships between air quality, energy consumption and transportation trends. On this basis is argued that the current decentralization of the urban structure and specialization of land use are major driving forces in current urban air pollution. The range of actions and tools to improve urban air quality should include: (1) land use planning, (2) efficient urban management, and (3) measures directed to protecting the quality of the urban environment. (author)

  14. Indoor Air Quality in Primary Schools

    OpenAIRE

    Freitas, Maria do Carmo; Canha, Nuno; Martinho, Maria; Almeida-Silva, Marina; Almeida, Susana Marta; Pegas, Priscilla; Alves, Célia; Pio, Casimiro; Trancoso, Maria; Sousa, Rita; Mouro, Filomena; Contreiras, Teresa

    2011-01-01

    Clean air is a basic requirement of life (World Health Organization, 2010). The Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) has been the object of several studies due to an increasing concern within the scientific community on the effects of indoor air quality upon health, especially as people tend to spend more time indoors than outdoors (Franck et al., 2011; Canha et al., 2010; WHO, 2010; Environmental Protection Agency, 2010; Saliba et al., 2009; Fraga et al., 2008; Fromme et al., 2007; Guo et al., 2004; ...

  15. Misleading Advertising and Minimum Quality Standards

    OpenAIRE

    Keisuke Hattori; Keisaku Higashida

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the relationship between misinformation about product quality and quality standards, such as minimum quality standards and certi cation criteria, when products are vertically di erentiated in their health/safety aspects. We investigate the welfare e ect of regulating misinformation and strengthening MQSs. We nd that when the amount of misinformation on both low- and high-quality products is small, regulating misinformation on low-quality products reduces welfare, although ...

  16. 78 FR 8485 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-06

    ... of Subjects in 40 CFR Part 52 Environmental protection, Air pollution control, Carbon monoxide... National Ambient Air Quality Standards. III. Statutory and Executive Order Reviews Under the Clean Air Act... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Michigan...

  17. THE ASSESSMENT OF MICROBIOLOGICAL INDOOR AIR QUALITY IN BAKERIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elżbieta Wołejko

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess microbiological indoor air quality of selected bakeries located in the region of Podlasie. The microbiological studies were conducted in autumn in 2014 in three selected bakeries. Microbiological air counts were measured by impaction using an air sampler MAS-100 NT. The microbiological air studies, comprised the determination of the total number of psychrophilic and mesophilic bacteria, namely indicator bacteria such as: bacteria of the species Pseudomonas fluorescens, mannitol-positive and mannitol-negative Staphylococc, the total number of bacteria from the Enterobacteriaceae family and fungi found in atmospheric air. The results of the study of indoor air polluted with the analyzed groups of microorganisms differed depending on the type of test air and the location of the manufacturing plant. In the plants, the concentration of mesophilic bacteria and mannitol–positive and mannitol-negative Staphylococcus exceeded the limit values of unpolluted air, according to the Polish Standard recommendations.

  18. A new quality standard in nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The new quality standard in nuclear industry named NSQ 100 is based upon ISO 9001:2008 structure (for an industry consensus quality standard ensuring the integration of Nuclear Quality Assurance requirements in well-known industrial quality practices) and involves 2 major reference nuclear codes: IAEA GS-R-3:2006 and ASME NQA-1-2008. The implementation of this quality standard will allow higher quality and in-time delivery for the supply chain. NSQ 100 is a joint AREVA and Bureau Veritas initiative and it will be beneficial for the whole nuclear industry

  19. Air quality and human welfare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sundseth K.

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Human welfare is generally referring to allocation of resources to fit the well being of humans. If high standard of well-being is to be maintained, the concerns for a healthy environment must be balanced against requirements of economic growth. In a natural capital system, human welfare is best served by improving the quality and flow of desired services delivered rather than merely increasing the total money flow. An ecosystem based management of living and natural resource use will steer this progress to the best of human welfare while the efficiency of ecosystem based management depends strongly on the availability of integrated assessment tools that will combine environmental models and monitoring data with ecological economic valuation methods. In applied welfare economics, the methodological approach to assess resource allocations towards societal optimality and thereby establish criteria for government intervention is often linked to tools as Cost-ffectiveness Analysis (CEA, Cost-Benefit Assessment (CBA or Multi-criteria Analysis (MCA. By illustrating an assessment on costs and benefits of the implementation of Hg emission reduction measures in the coal sector, it becomes obvious that for a full analysis of societal costs and benefits, several aspects of Hg pollution, sources, impacts and co-benefits need to be considered.

  20. Air quality and human welfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundseth, K.; Pacyna, J. M.; Pacyna, E. G.

    2009-02-01

    Human welfare is generally referring to allocation of resources to fit the well being of humans. If high standard of well-being is to be maintained, the concerns for a healthy environment must be balanced against requirements of economic growth. In a natural capital system, human welfare is best served by improving the quality and flow of desired services delivered rather than merely increasing the total money flow. An ecosystem based management of living and natural resource use will steer this progress to the best of human welfare while the efficiency of ecosystem based management depends strongly on the availability of integrated assessment tools that will combine environmental models and monitoring data with ecological economic valuation methods. In applied welfare economics, the methodological approach to assess resource allocations towards societal optimality and thereby establish criteria for government intervention is often linked to tools as Cost-ffectiveness Analysis (CEA), Cost-Benefit Assessment (CBA) or Multi-criteria Analysis (MCA). By illustrating an assessment on costs and benefits of the implementation of Hg emission reduction measures in the coal sector, it becomes obvious that for a full analysis of societal costs and benefits, several aspects of Hg pollution, sources, impacts and co-benefits need to be considered.

  1. Quality model for semantic IS standards

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Folmer, E.J.A.

    2011-01-01

    Semantic IS (Information Systems) standards are essential for achieving interoperability between organizations. However a recent survey suggests that not the full benefits of standards are achieved, due to the quality issues. This paper presents a quality model for semantic IS standards, that should

  2. STANDARDIZATION AND ITS ROLE IN PRESCRIBING QUALITY

    OpenAIRE

    Radu Catalin Criveanu; Natalita Maria Sperdea

    2014-01-01

    Standardization activity which by its applications, has an important impact on the economy and society, is the main tool for regulating the quality of products. Products' standardization must pursue simultaneously the requirements of producers, traders and consumers. The paper presents some aspects of standardization issues lead us to understand its importance in prescribing quality.

  3. Enhancing indoor air quality –The air filter advantage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vannan Kandi Vijayan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Air pollution has become the world's single biggest environmental health risk, linked to around 7 million deaths in 2012 according to a recent World Health Organisation (WHO report. The new data further reveals a stronger link between, indoor and outdoor air pollution exposure and cardiovascular diseases, such as strokes and ischemic heart disease, as well as between air pollution and cancer. The role of air pollution in the development of respiratory diseases, including acute respiratory infections and chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases, is well known. While both indoor and outdoor pollution affect health, recent statistics on the impact of household indoor pollutants (HAP is alarming. The WHO factsheet on HAP and health states that 3.8 million premature deaths annually - including stroke, ischemic heart disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD and lung cancer are attributed to exposure to household air pollution. Use of air cleaners and filters are one of the suggested strategies to improve indoor air quality. This review discusses the impact of air pollutants with special focus on indoor air pollutants and the benefits of air filters in improving indoor air quality.

  4. Enhancing indoor air quality -The air filter advantage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayan, Vannan Kandi; Paramesh, Haralappa; Salvi, Sundeep Santosh; Dalal, Alpa Anil Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Air pollution has become the world's single biggest environmental health risk, linked to around 7 million deaths in 2012 according to a recent World Health Organisation (WHO) report. The new data further reveals a stronger link between, indoor and outdoor air pollution exposure and cardiovascular diseases, such as strokes and ischemic heart disease, as well as between air pollution and cancer. The role of air pollution in the development of respiratory diseases, including acute respiratory infections and chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases, is well known. While both indoor and outdoor pollution affect health, recent statistics on the impact of household indoor pollutants (HAP) is alarming. The WHO factsheet on HAP and health states that 3.8 million premature deaths annually - including stroke, ischemic heart disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and lung cancer are attributed to exposure to household air pollution. Use of air cleaners and filters are one of the suggested strategies to improve indoor air quality. This review discusses the impact of air pollutants with special focus on indoor air pollutants and the benefits of air filters in improving indoor air quality. PMID:26628762

  5. Pilot study on indoor air quality: Managing indoor air-quality risks. Report on a meeting held in St. Michaels, Maryland on October 25-27, 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Included in this study are the following: quantifying future trends of indoor air quality as a basis for government policy plans; assessing indoor air quality risks of pesticides; formaldehyde emission standards in the Federal Republic of Germany; orientations and actions of the European Community in the assessment and prevention of indoor air pollution; EPA and indoor air quality; the non-regulatory approach to reducing risks from radon exposure; U.S. consumer product safety commission; a builders guide to healthy homes; WHO air quality guidelines for Europe; the approach to control indoor air quality in Italy; guidelines - ventilation classes; energy consequences of upgrading indoor air quality; Canada's guidelines for residential indoor air quality: rationale and scope; Canadian ventilation and venting standards; indoor air quality building surveys case studies; design of indoor air quality studies; summary findings of inter-ministerial committee on indoor air quality (Ontario); the Quebec approach; employee survey EPA headquarters; pollution in closed spaces and its consequences in conservation of works of art; and how Norwegian health authorities will handle indoor air quality problems

  6. Air quality management in China: Issues, challenges, and options

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shuxiao Wang; Jiming Hao

    2012-01-01

    This article analyzed the control progress and current status of air quality,identified the major air pollution issues and challenges in future,proposed the long-term air pollution control targets,and suggested the options for better air quality in China.With the continuing growth of economy in the next 10-15 years,China will face a more severe situation of energy consumption,electricity generation and vehicle population leading to increase in multiple pollutant emissions.Controlling regional air pollution especially fine particles and ozone,as well as lowering carbon emissions from fossil fuel consumption will be a big challenge for the country.To protect public health and the eco-system,the ambient air quality in all Chinese cities shall attain the national ambient air quality standards (NAAQS)and ambient air quality guideline values set by the World Health Organization (WHO).To achieve the air quality targets,the emissions of SO2,NOx,PM10,and volatile organic compounds (VOC) should decrease by 60%,40%,50%,and 40%,respectively,on the basis of that in 2005.A comprehensive control policy focusing on multiple pollutants and emission sources at both the local and regional levels was proposed to mitigate the regional air pollution issue in China.The options include development of clean energy resources,promotion of clean and efficient coal use,enhancement of vehicle pollution control,implementation of synchronous control of multiple pollutants including SO2,NOx,VOC,and PM emissions,joint prevention and control of regional air pollution,and application of climate friendly air pollution control measures.

  7. ATMOSPHERIC AIR QUALITY IN CALARASI TOWN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia NEAGU

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper seeks to highlight the appearance of air pollution in Calarasi region on the basis of the annual reports of the environment in recent years and of the integrated air quality management for Cǎlǎraşi (data are presented about current and future emissions and concentrations of pollutants I tried to mark out the impurity of the atmospheric air from this area.Emission data interpretation was made on the basis of the inventory of emissions of pollutants in the air made for fixed and mobile sources in Calarasi town in recent years using the program Corinvent and Corinair emission factors, and imissions data were used to monitor the air quality monitoring network air quality. The index of the quality of the air showed the highest values in winter.There have been occasional instances of the limit provided by law for particulate matter PM10, Calarasi, or being the intense traffic, the topoclimate in summer periods with high temperatures and deficient pluviometric regime, but also because housing fuel winter warming solid. There major problems of environmental pollution of air quality in Calarasi town that falls within the limits imposed by the legislation in force. This is due especially to the fact that many industrial centres have been closed.

  8. Determination and evaluation of air quality control. Manual of ambient air quality control in Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lahmann, E.

    1997-07-01

    Measurement of air pollution emissions and ambient air quality are essential instruments for air quality control. By undertaking such measurements, pollutants are registered both at their place of origin and at the place where they may have an effect on people or the environment. Both types of measurement complement each other and are essential for the implementation of air quality legislation, particularly, in compliance with emission and ambient air quality limit values. Presented here are similar accounts of measurement principles and also contains as an Appendix a list of suitability-tested measuring devices which is based on information provided by the manufacturers. In addition, the guide of ambient air quality control contains further information on discontinuous measurement methods, on measurement planning and on the assessment of ambient air quality data. (orig./SR)

  9. Air quality management in Riga area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leitass, A. [Riga City Council (Latvia). Air Monitoring Dept.

    1995-12-31

    The present Air Quality Management System was started in 1992 as a result of co-operation between two cities - Riga and Norrkoping (Sweden) supported by BITS (The Swedish Agency for International Technical and Economic Co-operation). Lots of Swedish companies were involved in different parts of this project. The strategy is designed by INDIC company developing the AIRVIRO which is a computer based system for all aspects of air quality management. Air pollution in Riga is a serious problem affecting health and damaging valuable buildings of historic value. The majority of the city`s air pollution is the result of emission sources inside the city. The traffic is the predominant source of pollution now. The fossil fuel power stations in the country are not considered to affect the air quality situation in Riga. (author)

  10. Air quality and future energy system planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobral Mourao, Zenaida; Konadu, Dennis; Lupton, Rick

    2016-04-01

    Ambient air pollution has been linked to an increasing number of premature deaths throughout the world. Projected increases in demand for food, energy resources and manufactured products will likely contribute to exacerbate air pollution with an increasing impact on human health, agricultural productivity and climate change. Current events such as tampering emissions tests by VW car manufacturers, failure to comply with EU Air Quality directives and WHO guidelines by many EU countries, the problem of smog in Chinese cities and new industrial emissions regulations represent unique challenges but also opportunities for regulators, local authorities and industry. However current models and practices of energy and resource use do not consider ambient air impacts as an integral part of the planing process. Furthermore the analysis of drivers, sources and impacts of air pollution is often fragmented, difficult to understand and lacks effective visualization tools that bring all of these components together. This work aims to develop a model that links impacts of air quality on human health and ecosystems to current and future developments in the energy system, industrial and agricultural activity and patterns of land use. The model will be added to the ForeseerTM tool, which is an integrated resource analysis platform that has been developed at the University of Cambridge initially with funding from BP and more recently through the EPSRC funded Whole Systems Energy Modeling (WholeSEM) project. The basis of the tool is a set of linked physical models for energy, water and land, including the technologies that are used to transform these resources into final services such as housing, food, transport and household goods. The new air quality model will explore different feedback effects between energy, land and atmospheric systems with the overarching goal of supporting better communication about the drivers of air quality and to incorporate concerns about air quality into

  11. Effect of Climate Change on Air Quality

    OpenAIRE

    Jacob, Daniel J.; Winner, Darrel A.

    2009-01-01

    Air quality is strongly dependent on weather and is therefore sensitive to climate change. Recent studies have provided estimates of this climate effect through correlations of air quality with meteorological variables, perturbation analyses in chemical transport models (CTMs), and CTM simulations driven by general circulation model (GCM) simulations of 21st-century climate change. We review these different approaches and their results. The future climate is expected to be more stagnant, due ...

  12. Cultural and Political Determinants of Air Quality

    OpenAIRE

    Francisca Guedes de Oliveira; Alexandra Leitão

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigates empirically the determinants of air quality in a large cross-section of countries. We assess air quality by sulfur emissions and, following the literature, we consider three different groups of determinants: economic, political and cultural. We confirm the existence of an EKC for sulfur (inverted-U shaped relation between wealth and pollution). Political determinants are proxied by ethnic or religious fractionalization indexes and the country’s legal origin (we conside...

  13. Indoor air quality. Exploring policy options to reduce human exposures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deciding between the different policy approaches available for reducing human exposures to indoor pollutants in an exceptionally complex task. These options can range from waiting until more definitive information is available to enacting regulatory standards, with many variations in between. This paper presents some of the factors policy-makers must consider in establishing indoor air quality policies, and the role researchers should play in ensuring that indoor air policies are based on the best available scientific information. (au) (22 refs.)

  14. 76 FR 1525 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Texas; Revisions to Rules and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-11

    ... CFR Part 52 Environmental protection, Air pollution control, Carbon monoxide, Incorporation by... ensure attainment and continued maintenance of the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for... but for a severable portion that allows collateral emissions increases of carbon monoxide (CO)...

  15. Quality and Standards in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Quality and standards in higher education is a tricky topic, but one that will not go away. Everyone has a view, but it is rarely informed by fact. The subject is particularly difficult for several reasons. Perhaps the most important of these is the lack of any generally agreed definition of what quality and standards are. In this article, the…

  16. The role of open-air inhalatoria in the air quality improvement in spa towns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Burkowska-But

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The present study was aimed at evaluating microbiological contamination of air in Ciechocinek and Ino­wro­cław – Polish lowland spa towns. Additionally, the impact of open-air inhalatoria on the quality of air was evaluated. Material and Methods: Air samples were collected seasonally in the urban areas, in the recreation areas and in the vicinity of inhalatoria in both towns using impaction. The numbers of mesophilic bacteria, staphylococci, hemolytic bacteria and actinomycetes were determined on media according to the Polish Standard PN-86/Z-04111/02. The number of moulds was determined on media according to the Polish Standard PN-86/Z-04111/03. Results: While the highest numbers of microorganisms were noted at the sites located in the urban areas, the lowest numbers were noted in the vicinity of the open-air inhalatoria. In all the investigated air samples the values of bioaerosol concentrations were below the recommended TLVs (≤ 5000 CFU×m–3 for both bacteria and fungi in outdoor environments. Location of the sampling site was invariably a decisive factor in determining the number of microorganisms in the air. Conclusions: The aerosol which is formed in the open-air inhalatoria has a positive influence on microbiological air quality. Owing to a unique microclimate and low air contamination, Ciechocinek and Inowrocław comply with all necessary requirements set for health resorts specializing in treating upper respiratory tract infections.

  17. Recent developments and current status of air kerma standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    -rays and since 1975 for medium-energy x-rays and 60Co-γ radiation the results represent an invaluable database which can be regarded as an indicator of the status of the air kerma standards operated worldwide. Consequently, this database and the reports of the NMIs to the CCRI(I) meetings which take place periodically every two years were used for the current status report as an essential source of information. Because different techniques are used to measure the air kerma rate of kilovoltage x-rays and 137Cs- and 60Co-γ radiation this status report is divided in this two parts. Undoubtedly, the most important new development was the re-evaluation of several correction factors required for cavity ionization chamber standards. However, there were also interesting developments using Monte Carlo techniques and spectrometry for the determination of x-ray quality dependent correction factors of FACs

  18. A proposed risk management framework for the air standard setting process in Ontario : a discussion paper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper described the implementation of Ontario's new or revised air quality standards relating to Ontario Regulation 346 under the Environmental Protection Act. With clean air as a high priority, the Ontario Ministry of the Environment is striving to find solutions to problems that pose the greatest risk to human health and the environment. Their most recent initiatives in the development of better air quality standards have included the use of the latest scientific information to develop protective, effects-based air standards and the development of a risk management framework to implement the new standards while allowing for time, technology and economic issues to be considered. An update of Regulation 346 air dispersion models ensures that the latest scientific tools are being used to asses compliance with air standards. The phasing out of the existing air dispersion models means that they will be replaced by a series of models from the United States Environmental Protection Agency (in particular AERMOD and ISC-PRIME). This will promote the use of the most modern scientific tools available to assess compliance with air quality standards. The major advantage of introducing new air dispersion models is the ability to use effects-based standards with appropriate averaging times to assess compliance. This makes it possible to better assess the health and environmental impacts from air emissions. 3 tabs., 3 figs

  19. GENERIC QUALITY STANDARDS VS. SPECIFIC QUALITY STANDARDS: THE CASE OF HIGHER EDUCATION

    OpenAIRE

    Laila El Abbadi; Aboubakr Bouayad; Mohamed Lamrini

    2011-01-01

    Quality as a new requirement for the field of higher education leads institutions to seek to satisfy generic or specific quality standards imposed directly or indirectly by its customers. The aim of this study is to compare between ISO9001, as a generic quality standard, and the Code of Practice of the Quality Assurance Agency for Higher Education (QAA), as a specific quality standard. A correlation matrix is drawn and correlation rates are calculated to show similarities and differences betw...

  20. Indoor air quality: radon and formaldehyde

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The WHO Regional Office for Europe has taken a leading role at the international level in reviewing and stimulating research and action on the potential health hazards of indoor air pollutants. A subject is given on page vi. It is now much more generally recognized than even five years ago that the use of particular materials for construction of buildings or for furniture and fittings is accompanied by certain risks, especially in view of the ''tightening'' of buildings to reduce energy costs, and increased reliance on central heating and air conditioning. For the last three years, the Regional Office, with the support of the Government of the Netherlands, has been developing a set of air quality guidelines for Europe. In addition to major air pollutants such as sulfur dioxide and particulates, these guidelines cover some 25 other inorganic and organic substances, including radon and formaldehyde. In 1985, a working group reviewed the latter two substances in relation to the ongoing indoor air quality programme of the Regional Office and also as part of the air quality guidelines. In view of the importance of these substances, it was decided to issue a separate report in the Environmental Health Series. The complete air quality guidelines will be published in mid-1987. (author)

  1. Frontiers in air quality modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Colette

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The first pan-European kilometre-scale atmospheric chemistry simulation is introduced. The continental-scale air pollution episode of January 2009 is modelled with the CHIMERE offline chemistry-transport model with a massive grid of 2 million horizontal points, performed on 2000 CPU of a high performance computing system hosted by the Research and Technology Computing Center at the French Alternative Energies and Atomic Energy Commission (CCRT/CEA. Besides the technical challenge, we find that model biases are significantly reduced, especially over urban areas. The high resolution grid also allows revisiting the contribution of individual city plumes to the European burden of pollution, providing new insights for designing air pollution control strategies.

  2. Residential indoor air quality guideline : ozone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozone (O3) is a colourless gas that reacts rapidly on surfaces and with other constituents in the air. Sources of indoor O3 include devices sold as home air cleaners, and some types of office equipment. Outdoor O3 is also an important contributor to indoor levels of O3, depending on the air exchange rate with indoor environments. This residential indoor air quality guideline examined factors that affect the introduction, dispersion and removal of O3 indoors. The health effects of prolonged exposure to O3 were discussed, and studies conducted to evaluate the population health impacts of O3 were reviewed. The studies demonstrated that there is a significant association between ambient O3 and adverse health impacts. Exposure guidelines for residential indoor air quality were discussed. 14 refs.

  3. Indoor air quality: a UK perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Outdoor air quality has generally improved in the UK over the last 2 decades but during this period changing conditions within the home have tended to reduce ventilation and increase the opportunity for accumulation of undesirable levels of indoor air pollutants. Information obtained from laboratory and epidemiological studies suggest that indoor air pollutants are an important cause of avoidable morbidity and mortality in the UK. This paper reviews the major indoor air pollutants of concern in the UK and considers some of the special issues relevant to indoor environment. (author) 3 figs., 37 refs

  4. ATMOSPHERIC AIR QUALITY IN CALARASI TOWN

    OpenAIRE

    Cecilia NEAGU

    2013-01-01

    The present paper seeks to highlight the appearance of air pollution in Calarasi region on the basis of the annual reports of the environment in recent years and of the integrated air quality management for Cǎlǎraşi (data are presented about current and future emissions and concentrations of pollutants) I tried to mark out the impurity of the atmospheric air from this area.Emission data interpretation was made on the basis of the inventory of emissions of pollutants in the air made for fixed ...

  5. Effects of political institutions on air quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We empirically test existing theories on the provision of public goods, in particular air quality, using data on sulfur dioxide (SO2) concentrations from the Global Environment Monitoring Projects for 107 cities in 42 countries from 1971 to 1996. The results are as follows: First, we provide additional support for the claim that the degree of democracy has an independent positive effect on air quality. Second, we find that among democracies, presidential systems are more conducive to air quality than parliamentary ones. Third, in testing competing claims about the effect of interest groups on public goods provision in democracies we establish that labor union strength contributes to lower environmental quality, whereas the strength of green parties has the opposite effect. (author)

  6. Monitoring activities in the Dutch National Air Quality Monitoring Network in 2000 and 2001

    OpenAIRE

    Elzakker BG van; LLO

    2001-01-01

    The Dutch National Air Quality Monitoring Network (LML in Dutch) is one of the responsibilities of the Air Research Laboratory of the National Institute of Public Health and the Environment. The main objectives of the LML are to monitor ambient air quality, facilitate implementation of air quality standards, alert authorities and the public to pollution episodes, support validation of model results, support diagnosis using model simulation, support short-term model prognosis and assist in qua...

  7. Evaluation of ambient air quality in Guangzhou, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Kai; YE You-hua; LIU Qiang; LIU Ai-jun; PENG Shao-lin

    2007-01-01

    On the basis of the reported air quality index (API) and air pollutant monitoring data provided by the Guangzhou Environment Monitoring Stations over the last twenty-five years, the characteristics of air quality, prominent pollutants, and variation of the average annual concentrations of SO2, NO2, total suspended particulate(TSP), fine particulates (PM10), CO and dustfall in Guangzhou City were analyzed. Results showed that TSP was the prominent pollutant in the ambient air environment of Guangzhou City. Of the prominent pollutants, TSP accounted for nearly 62%, SO2 12.3%, and NOx 6.4%, respectively. The average API of Guangzhou over 6 years was higher than that of Beijing, Tianjin, Nanjing, Hangzhou, Suzhou and Shanghai, and lower than that of Shenzhen, Zhuhai and Shantou. Concentrations of air pollutants have shown an downward trend in recent years, but they are generally worse than ambient air quality standards for USA, Hong Kong and EU. SO2 and NOx pollution were still serious, impling that waste gas pollution from all kinds of vehicles had become a significant problem for environmental protection in Guangzhou. The possible causes of worsening air quality were also discussed in this paper.

  8. 76 FR 49391 - Approval, Disapproval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Colorado; Smoke...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-10

    ... of Subjects in 40 CFR Part 52 Environmental protection, Air pollution control, Carbon monoxide... of Significant Deterioration and the initials NAAQS mean or refer to National Ambient Air Quality... Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) or the SO 2 increments. The State responded to EPA's concern...

  9. 75 FR 54805 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Minnesota; Carbon Monoxide (CO...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-09

    ...) for carbon monoxide (CO) under the Clean Air Act (CAA). The State has submitted a limited maintenance plan for CO showing continued attainment of the CO National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) in the... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Minnesota;...

  10. 76 FR 71881 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Virginia; Update to Materials...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-21

    ..., Air pollution control, Carbon monoxide, Incorporation by reference, Intergovernmental relations, Lead... Regulations 1. 9VAC5 Chapter 30 (Ambient Air Quality Standards), Sections 5-30-15, 5-30-56, and 5-30-66. 2... 10 (General Definitions), Section 5-10-20. 2. 9VAC5 Chapter 30 (Ambient Air Quality...

  11. Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) Schools and Universities: Overview of Indoor Air Quality Issues, and Preliminary Design Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healthy Buildings International, Inc., Fairfax, VA.

    This guide is intended to help the building design, engineering, and maintenance staff of school buildings maintain a common standard of high indoor air quality (IAQ) and a productive and comfortable workplace for students and staff. The report defines the four basic classifications of indoor environmental pollution, lists the factors impacting…

  12. Quality Standards in Interpreting: Theory and Application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Franz P(o)chhacker

    2007-01-01

    This paper explores the issue of quality in interpreting from two main perspectives-the profession and academic research.Following a review and illustration of conference interpreters'original aspiration to equate quality with professional status,I will examine the contribution of academic research to the issue of quality,with particular emphasis on survey research into interpreters'quality criteria and end-users'expectations.It will be shown that quality can and must be approached from multiple perspectives and with reference to a complex set of criteria relating to both the service aspects and the product features of an interpreter'sperformance.Against the background of this comprehensive view of quality,I will take the notion of quality standards in its specific technical sense and discuss recent efforts at drafting national standards for interpreting services,including the ASTM Standard Guide,the draft Chinese standard,and Austrian Standards 1202and 1203.I will argue that standard-setting for professional interpreting services must be informed by insights from theoretical and empirical research if standards of practice are to reflect the full complexity and variety of professional reality.

  13. 76 FR 27908 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Massachusetts; Revised Carbon...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-13

    ... National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) for nearly 25 years, and in recent years, maximum measured... the federal 1-hour or 8-hour national ambient air quality standard for CO, Massachusetts will, within...; Revised Carbon Monoxide Maintenance Plan for Lowell AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)....

  14. 78 FR 45114 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Antelope Valley Air Quality Management...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-26

    ... regulations that control the primary and secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS), which... 2 NAAQS, and California points out that for the 2010 SO 2 primary standard, ambient air quality... respiratory effects and can contribute to fine particle pollution. Carbon Monoxide (CO) contributes to...

  15. Key Comparison APMP.RI(I)-K2 of air kerma standards for the CCRI reference radiation qualities for low-energy x-rays, including a supplementary comparison for the ISO 4037 narrow spectrum series

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An indirect comparison was performed between nine national standards for air kerma for the CCRI radiation qualities from 10 kV to 50 kV (APMP.RI(I)-K2) and for the ISO 4037 narrow spectrum series (15 kV and 40 kV). Among the nine institutes that participated in the comparison, seven institutes were APMP member laboratories. Three commercially available thin window parallel plate ionization chambers were used as transfer instruments and circulated among the participants. The pilot laboratory, the NMIJ/AIST, served also as the link to the corresponding BIPM.RI(I)-K2 comparison. The results show general agreement within the combined uncertainties, although certain results for Nuclear Malaysia, the BARC and the OAP show larger differences. (authors)

  16. Status of air kerma and absorbed dose standards in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    maintained as primary standards for protection level and brachytherapy measurements of Ir-192, Cs-137 and Co-60 sources. These chambers are made of high purity reactor-grade graphite of density 1700 kg/m3. The three chambers have different wall thickness, the external diameters of all the chambers being equal. A reference standard in the form of a re-entrant chamber developed at BARC, calibrated against this primary standard was intercompared with a reference standard from M.D Anderson Centre, Houston, U.S.A and the results showed a good agreement. Recently one of the chambers was used for the Cs-137 intercomparison with IAEA and showed an agreement of better than ± 1%. 3. Primary Standard for X-rays - the free air chamber (FAC): This facility is utilized in conjunction with a Philips RT-250 X-ray machine for calibrating secondary standard dosemeters at different X-ray qualities in the 75 to 250 kV range. The total uncertainty in the realization of air kerma is around ±1% using the free air chamber. Accuracy of calibration of the secondary standards is estimated to be better than ±2%. The FAC has been intercompared via transferable transfer standards with FACs at BIPM (1971), BNM (France) RCL (Canada) and Kriss (Korea), which showed good agreement within ±1% after necessary correction for the spectral differences in X-ray beams. BARC is just now taking part in intercomparisons of X-ray air kerma calibration factors organised by Institute of Nuclear Energy Research (INER), Taiwan under Asia Pacific Metrology Programme. In addition to the above-mentioned primary standards, the SSDL is also maintaining the following secondary standards. For air kerma measurements at Co-60 gamma energy, ionisation chambers of Exradin A3, NE2571, NE2577 and Victoreen 415 types are calibrated and maintained. For Co-60 radiation dose to water measurements, NE 2571 and NE 2577 chambers calibrated at BIPM in terms of ND,W are maintained. For air kerma at medium energy x-rays, chambers of the type

  17. Pesticides in Air: New Challenges in Agricultural Air Quality Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    As agricultural and urban communities have become more intertwined, and the average size of agricultural production operations have increased substantially, issues of air quality have emerged as an area of increasing regulatory pressure for farmers in many countries. The science of measuring emissi...

  18. Final Report Balancing energy conservation and occupant needs in ventilation rate standards for Big Box stores in California. Predicted indoor air quality and energy consumption using a matrix of ventilation scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apte, Michael G. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Mendell, Mark J. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Sohn, Michael D. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Dutton, Spencer M. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Berkeley, Pam M. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Spears, Michael [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2011-02-01

    Through mass-balance modeling of various ventilation scenarios that might satisfy the ASHRAE 62.1 Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) Procedure, we estimate indoor concentrations of contaminants of concern (COCs) in California “big box” stores, compare estimates to available thresholds, and for selected scenarios estimate differences in energy consumption. Findings are intended to inform decisions on adding performance-based approaches to ventilation rate (VR) standards for commercial buildings. Using multi-zone mass-balance models and available contaminant source rates, we estimated concentrations of 34 COCs for multiple ventilation scenarios: VRmin (0.04 cfm/ft2 ), VRmax (0.24 cfm/ft2 ), and VRmid (0.14 cfm/ft2 ). We compared COC concentrations with available health, olfactory, and irritant thresholds. We estimated building energy consumption at different VRs using a previously developed EnergyPlus model. VRmax did control all contaminants adequately, but VRmin did not, and VRmid did so only marginally. Air cleaning and local ventilation near strong sources both showed promise. Higher VRs increased indoor concentrations of outdoor air pollutants. Lowering VRs in big box stores in California from VRmax to VRmid would reduce total energy use by an estimated 6.6% and energy costs by 2.5%. Reducing the required VRs in California’s big box stores could reduce energy use and costs, but poses challenges for health and comfort of occupants. Source removal, air cleaning, and local ventilation may be needed at reduced VRs, and even at current recommended VRs. Also, alternative ventilation strategies taking climate and season into account in ventilation schedules may provide greater energy cost savings than constant ventilation rates, while improving IAQ.

  19. 76 FR 57845 - Approval of Air Quality Implementation Plans; California; San Joaquin Valley; Attainment Plan for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-16

    ... exposure. See ``Fact Sheet, Proposal to Revise the National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone... to measures and reductions by the SJV Air Pollution Control District and the California Air Resources... Valley Air Pollution Control District, 1990 E. Gettysburg, Fresno, California 93726. The SIP...

  20. Lessons from Innovation: Quality Management Standards

    OpenAIRE

    Inter-American Development Bank (IDB)

    2004-01-01

    Quality management systems offer companies a practical approach to organizing their productive processes to ensure ongoing adherence to these standards, as well as fostering a culture of continuous improvement.

  1. 30 CFR 250.302 - Definitions concerning air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Definitions concerning air quality. 250.302... Definitions concerning air quality. For purposes of §§ 250.303 and 250.304 of this part: Air pollutant means..., pursuant to section 109 of the Clean Air Act, national primary or secondary ambient air quality...

  2. The effect of air quality on sleep

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strøm-Tejsen, Peter; Wargocki, Pawel; Wyon, David Peter;

    2014-01-01

    The effect of air quality on sleep was examined for occupants of 14 identical single-occupancy dormitory rooms. The subjects, half women, were exposed to two conditions (open/closed window), each for one week, resulting in night-time average CO2 levels of 660 and 2585 ppm, and air temperatures of...... 24.7 and 23.9°C, respectively. Sleep was assessed from movement data recorded on wristwatch-type actigraphs and from online morning questionnaires, including the Groningen Sleep Quality scale, questions about the sleep environment, next-day well-being, SBS symptoms, and two tests of mental...... performance. Although no significant effects on the sleep quality scale or on next-day performance could be shown, there were significant and positive effects of a higher ventilation rate (open window) on the actigraph measured sleep latency and on the subjects’ assessment of the freshness of the air, their...

  3. Indoor Climate and Air Quality Problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valbjørn, O.; Hagen, H.; Kukkonen, E.; Sundell, J.

    This report presents a stepwise method for the investigation of and remedial actions for indoor climate and air quality problems. The report gives the basis for evaluation of the prevalence and causes of building related symptoms like mucosal irritation and headache. The report adresses members o...... occupational health and safety organisations, consulting engineers and architects, and also the people responsible for the operation of buildings and installations which is essential for the indoor climate and air quality.......This report presents a stepwise method for the investigation of and remedial actions for indoor climate and air quality problems. The report gives the basis for evaluation of the prevalence and causes of building related symptoms like mucosal irritation and headache. The report adresses members of...

  4. 76 FR 38592 - Phosphorus Water Quality Standards for Florida Everglades

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-01

    ... water quality standard in 1999. The Legislature enacted amendments to the EFA in 2003. EPA reviewed the... quality standards for the purposes of the CWA), or are not a water quality standard subject to EPA review... revised state water quality standard, ``such standard shall thereafter be the water quality standard...

  5. Surface Flux Modeling for Air Quality Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Limei Ran; Jonathan Pleim

    2011-01-01

    For many gasses and aerosols, dry deposition is an important sink of atmospheric mass. Dry deposition fluxes are also important sources of pollutants to terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. The surface fluxes of some gases, such as ammonia, mercury, and certain volatile organic compounds, can be upward into the air as well as downward to the surface and therefore should be modeled as bi-directional fluxes. Model parameterizations of dry deposition in air quality models have been represented by...

  6. Status and Roadmap of the Global Air Quality Data Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, M. G.; Husar, R. B.

    2012-04-01

    With the recognition of air quality as a transboundary problem the need for harmonizing, harvesting and synthesizing air quality data on the continental and global scale has grown. Observational data from urban, rural and remote surface sites, from regular aircraft flights and from satellites are made available together with numerical analyses and forecasts of the atmospheric chemical composition through various databases, which are for historic reasons only loosely connected and rarely allow for a seamless, interoperable and easy access across different networks and data centers. A number of pilot services have been established under the auspices of the GEO Air Quality Community of Practice, and a meeting of this community in 2011 discussed the technical and semantic challenges for linking these services together and expanding the existing air quality data network. Key issues that were identified are the capability of existing server software to translate data formats and metadata requirements, the lack of a community-wide coherent set of metadata tags to identify data sets in catalogue applications, the need for clear rules to define the granularity of data sets in catalogues, the requirement of data traceability and information needs on calibration and modification records, and the ambiguities in the interpretation of current information exchange standards such as WCS and netcdf-CF. Particular challenges for exchanging air quality data result from the need for near-realtime information and from the necessity to obtain concurrent meteorological data in order to assess and interpret the air quality information. This presentation will summarize the present status of the air quality data network and provide a draft roadmap for the future development.

  7. Experimental research in the use of electrets in measuring effluents from rocket exhaust and a review of standard air quality measuring devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susko, M.

    1976-01-01

    Seven standard types of measuring devices used to obtain the chemical composition of rocket exhaust effluents were discussed. The electrets, a new measuring device, are investigated and compared with established measuring techniques. The preliminary results obtained show that electrets have multipollutant measuring capabilities, simplicity of deployment, speed of assessment or analysis, and may be an important and valuable tool in measuring pollutants from space vehicle rocket exhaust.

  8. Information draft on the development of air standards for chloroform

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-01-01

    Chloroform is used as a grain fumigant and a solvent for pesticides, adhesives, fats, oils, rubbers, alkaloids and waxes. It is also a chemical intermediate for dyes and pesticides, a component of cough syrups, toothpastes, and liniments. It is used in fire extinguishers, in the manufacture of refrigerants, propellants, plastics, anesthetics and pharmaceuticals. Of the releases into the air in 1996 in Ontario (36.7 tonnes), over 96 per cent was attributed to the pulp and paper industry. Chloroform is well absorbed in exposed animals and humans through ingestion, inhalation, and dermal contact. Once absorbed, the chloroform distributes throughout the entire body. Metabolism of chloroform involves cytochrome P-450 in an oxidative biotransformation to produce trichloromethanol with phosgene as its intermediate product and finally hydrochloric acid and carbon dioxide. Chloroform is a central nervous system depressant and a gastrointestinal irritant. Exposure to chloroform can cause fainting, vomiting, dizziness, nausea, fatique and headache. Its most universally observed toxic effect is liver damage. Chloroform is not known to be carcinogenic in humans, but there is sufficient evidence to suggest that it is an animal carcinogen. The current Ontario air quality standard and criterion for chloroform was established in 1979. The half-hour interim POI standard is 1,500 microgram/cubic meter, and the 24-hour AAQC is 500 microgram/cubic meter. This document reviews the scientific and technical information relevant to setting an ambient air quality standard for chloroform in Ontario. The information is gathered from standards and guidelines developed by the federal government, the US Environmental Protection Agency, the World Health Organization, Scandinavia, the Netherlands, and various American states. 59 refs., 1 tab., appendix.

  9. Investigation of infiltration and indoor air quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A multitask study was performed in the State of New York to provide information for guiding home energy conservation programs while maintaining acceptable indoor air quality. During the study, the statistical distribution of radon concentrations inside 2,400 homes was determined. The relationships among radon levels, house characteristics, and sources were also investigated. The direct impact that two specific air infiltration reduction measures--caulking and weatherstripping of windows and doors, and installation of storm windows and storm doors--have on house air leakage was investigated in 60 homes. The effect of house age on the impact of weatherization was also evaluated. Indoor and outdoor measurements of NO2, CO, SO2, and respirable suspended particulates (RSP) were made for 400 homes to determine the effect of combustion sources on indoor air quality and to characterize the statistical distribution of the concentrations. Finally, the combustion source data were combined with the information on air infiltration reduction measures to estimate the potential impact of these measures on indoor air quality

  10. Air quality measurements in laying hens housing

    OpenAIRE

    Mirko Prodanov; Miroslav Radeski; Vlatko Ilieski

    2016-01-01

    Ensuring good environmental conditions of the poultry houses can be costly for the farmers, but without it losses due to poor bird health and performance due to poor air quality can be much more detrimental to net returns. The goal of this study was to investigate the variations in air quality in various areas inside the laying hen houses. Ten houses with laying hen conventional battery cages were measured for O2, H2S, CO, NH3, temperature, relative humidity, CO2, airflow and luminance. The r...

  11. Indoor Air Quality: Is Increased Ventilation the Answer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Shirley

    1989-01-01

    Explains how indoor air quality is affected by pollutants in the air and also by temperature, humidity, and ventilation. Increased ventilation alone seldom solves the "sick building syndrome." Lists ways to improve indoor air quality and optimize energy efficiency. (MLF)

  12. Biomonitoring of air quality using plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mulgrew, A.; Williams, P. [King' s Coll., London (United Kingdom). Monitoring and Assessment Research Centre - WHO Collaborating Centre for Monitoring and Assessment

    2000-02-01

    This report is an update of the MARC Report No. 32 'Biological Monitoring' and a first volume referring to a WHO project on biological monitoring. The monograph reviews comprehensively the existing literature on biological monitoring of air quality with plants. This review includes consideration of all plant species that are currently, or have a potential of, being used as bioindicators of air pollution. This review is intended to serve as a background paper for the derivation of guidelines for the use of biological monitors in air pollution control. (orig.)

  13. Quality and Standards: Clarity, Comparability and Responsibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brink, Chris

    2010-01-01

    This paper discusses three central issues relating to quality and standards: clarity, comparability and responsibility. The issue of clarity is that we have reached a point of disjunction between the questions being asked by the public and the answers being provided by quality assurance professionals. The issue of comparability comes in two forms:…

  14. Interpretation of PAMZ air quality data and assessment of the PAMZ air quality monitoring program January 2000 to December 2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since December 1999, passive monitors have been in use to support the Air Quality Monitoring Program begun that year. It currently includes 33 passive stations throughout the zone, which measure nitrogen dioxide, sulphur dioxide and ozone. There are also four continuous monitoring stations, two stations operated by Parkland Airshed Management Zone (PAMZ) (Caroline and portable), one operated by Alberta Environment at Red Deer, as well as one station operated by West Central Airshed Society at Hightower Ridge. In 2000 and 2001, the portable station was operated at seven locations within the zone. There were four objectives to this study: (1) provide a summary of the PAMZ air quality monitoring data for the period January 2000 to December 2001, (2) provide an interpretation of that data with regard to emission sources and PAMZ's high priority issues, (3) provide an assessment of the PAMZ Air Quality Monitoring Program performance with respect to the primary objective of the program, and (4) make recommendations on improving or expanding the Air Quality Program. It was found that the ambient concentrations of the different compounds and parameters were below the guidelines established by the Alberta Ambient Air Quality Guidelines (AAAQG) and Canada-wide Standards, with some exceptions which were listed. Ozone concentrations proved to be higher in the Foothills, rather than in an east-west pattern, and lower in the vicinity of transportation corridors (Highway 2). Nitrogen dioxide concentrations were also high in the transportation corridor. The eastern half of the zone was exposed to higher concentrations of sulphur dioxide due to the more dense population and the presence of industries and major highways. Most of the terms of reference of the Technical Working Group appear to be met by the PAMZ Air Quality Monitoring Program. Some recommendations were included in the report, such as the addition of a fifth continuous Air Quality Monitoring station that is portable

  15. FAIRMODE: A FORUM FOR AIR QUALITY MODELLING IN EUROPE

    OpenAIRE

    N. Moussiopoulos; Dilara, P.; Lükewille, A.; B. Denby; Douros, J.; Fragkou, E.; Larssen, S.; Cuvelier, K.

    2008-01-01

    Abstract: FAIRMODE (Forum for AIR quality MODelling in Europe) is an air quality modelling network that was established as a joint initiative of the European Environment Agency (EEA) and European Commission’s Joint Research Centre (JRC). In a common effort EEA and JRC aim at responding to the requirements of the new Air Quality Directive, with particular focus on the introduction of modelling as a necessary tool for air quality assessment and air quality management. The main aim of t...

  16. Everything according to plan? Achieving environmental quality standards by a programmatic approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groothuijse, Frank; Uylenburg, R.

    2014-01-01

    European environmental directives often include environmental quality standards. An environmental quality standard (EQS) is a value or quality, generally defined by regulation, which specifies the status of a specific component of the environment such as air, soil or water, which has to be achieved

  17. Indoor air quality investigation at air-conditioned and non-air-conditioned markets in Hong Kong

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To characterize indoor air quality at the markets in Hong Kong, three non-air-conditioned and two air-conditioned markets were selected for this study. The indoor air pollutants measured included PM10 (particulate matters with aerodynamic diameter less than 10 μm), total bacteria count (TBC), carbon monoxide (CO), nitric oxide (NO), nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and sulfur dioxide (SO2). The indoor and outdoor concentrations of these target air pollutants at these markets were measured and compared. The effects of air conditioning, temperature/relative humidity variation and different stalls on the indoor air quality were also investigated. The results indicated that all of the average indoor concentrations of PM10, TBC, CO and NO2 at the markets were below the Hong Kong Indoor Air Quality Objectives (HKIAQO) standards with a few exceptions for PM10 and TBC. The elevated PM10 concentrations at Hung Hom, Ngau Tau Kok and Wan Chai markets were probably due to the air filtration of outdoor airborne particulates emitted from vehicular exhaust, whereas high concentrations of airborne bacteria at Sai Ying Pun and Tin Shing markets were linked to the use of air conditioning. Correlation analysis demonstrated that indoor bacteria concentrations were correlated with temperature and relative humidity. The operation of air conditioning did not significantly reduce the levels of air pollutants at the markets. However, the higher indoor/outdoor ratios demonstrated that the operation of air conditioning had influence on the levels of bacteria at the markets. It was found that average PM10 concentration at poultry stalls was higher than the HKIAQO standard of 180 μg/m3, and was over two times that measured at vegetable, fish and meat stalls. Furthermore, the concentration of airborne bacteria at the poultry stalls was as high as 1031 CFU/m3, which was above the HKIAQO standard of 1000 CFU/m3. The bacteria levels at other three stalls were all below the HKIAQO standard. Statistical

  18. GENERIC QUALITY STANDARDS VS. SPECIFIC QUALITY STANDARDS: THE CASE OF HIGHER EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laila El Abbadi

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Quality as a new requirement for the field of higher education leads institutions to seek to satisfy generic or specific quality standards imposed directly or indirectly by its customers. The aim of this study is to compare between ISO9001, as a generic quality standard, and the Code of Practice of the Quality Assurance Agency for Higher Education (QAA, as a specific quality standard. A correlation matrix is drawn and correlation rates are calculated to show similarities and differences between them. This paper shows, first, that ISO9001 and QAA Code of Practice are compatible. Second, implementing a quality management system in accordance with ISO9001 requirements can constitute an adequate framework for the application of the QAA Code of Practice requirements. Third, to make the ISO9001 requirements closer to a specific quality standard in the field of higher education, it is recommended to complete these standards by specific requirements to the field of higher education.

  19. Indoor Air Quality Guidelines for Pennsylvania Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Robert S., Jr.

    This report provides information and practical guidance on how to prevent indoor air quality (IAQ) problems in schools, and it describes how to implement a practical plan of action using a minimal amount of resources. It includes general guidelines to prevent or help resolve IAQ problems, guidelines on specific indoor contaminants, recommendations…

  20. Managing Indoor Air Quality in Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolums, Jennifer

    This publication examines the causes and effects of poor indoor air quality and provides information for reducing exposure to indoor contaminants in schools. It discusses the various indoor pollutants found in schools, including dust, chemical agents, gases, and volatile organic compounds; where they are found in schools; and their health effects…

  1. Alternative transportation fuels and air quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper discusses the air quality impact of the following alternative fuels: reformulated gasoline, methanol, ethanol, diesel, compressed natural gas, liquid petroleum gases, hydrogen, and electric power. Emissions of NOx, CO, and toxic compounds, as well as global climatic change impacts are described

  2. Ensemble Filtering in Air Quality Models

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Eben, Kryštof; Juruš, Pavel; Resler, Jaroslav; Belda, M.; Pelikán, Emil

    Brno : Masaryk University, 2007 - (Horová, I.; Hřebíček, J.) ISBN 978-80-210-4333-6. [ TIES 2007. Annual Meeting of the International Environmental Society /18./. 16.08.2007-20.08.2007, Mikulov] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : air quality models * data assimilation * ensemble filtering

  3. Air quality management in Denver, Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The state of Colorado is addressing a number of air quality problems. In addition to carbon monoxide, ozone, particulates, nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide, and lead, they are also designing programs to deal with visibility, acid deposition, ozone depletion, and global warming. Programs for controlling carbon monoxide, particulates, vehicle emissions, and programs for achieving lifestyle changes are discussed in particular

  4. The Bottom Line For Air Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Tom

    2000-01-01

    Discusses how the right type of flooring can help schools reduce indoor-air-quality problems. Using vinyl composition flooring to handle moisture and reduce fungi growth is examined as are the benefits of vinyl cushion tufted textile flooring for cost effectiveness, learning environment improvement, installation, and effectiveness in emergencies.…

  5. Air quality measurements in laying hens housing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirko Prodanov

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Ensuring good environmental conditions of the poultry houses can be costly for the farmers, but without it losses due to poor bird health and performance due to poor air quality can be much more detrimental to net returns. The goal of this study was to investigate the variations in air quality in various areas inside the laying hen houses. Ten houses with laying hen conventional battery cages were measured for O2, H2S, CO, NH3, temperature, relative humidity, CO2, airflow and luminance. The results of the physical measures showed that temperatures in the houses were between 15.31–25.6°C, the relative humidity 48.03-81.12%, while the luminance rarely exceeded 8 lux. As for the gasses, the values for NH3 rarely exceeded 8 ppm, although at some measuring points it reached 26 ppm. O2 was generally at 20.9 %, and the levels of CO2 were very low. No presence of H2S and CO was detected. In this study it was concluded that the measurement of the air quality in a house can vary depending of the places this measures are taken. Multiple measurement points are important because they may make the staff aware of the problems connected to low ventilation and culmination of harmful gases. The air quality in different positions in the houses is of great importance not only for the animal welfare, but also for the safety of the staff.

  6. Boundaries for Air Quality; Grenzen voor Luchtkwaliteit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heistek, J. [Stichting CropEye, Bleiswijk (Netherlands); Dueck, T. [Wageningen UR Glastuinbouw, Bleiswijk (Netherlands); Boerman, K.J. [EMS, Sint Annaland (Netherlands); Van der Sar, P. [Achmea Interpolis, Zoetermeer (Netherlands)

    2011-11-15

    Practical knowledge and tips are given to control air quality in greenhouses. A checklist has been set up to dose carbon dioxide into greenhouses in a safe way [Dutch] In het rapport vindt u praktijkkennis en tips om de luchtkwaliteit in kassen te beheersen. Er is een Checklist opgesteld voor veilig CO2 doseren.

  7. Standardized quality in MOOC based learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maiorescu Irina

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Quality in the field of e-learning and, particularly, in the field of MOOC( Massive Open Online Courses, is a topic of growing importance in both academic institutions and in the private sector as it has generally been proved that quality management can contribute to improving the performance of organizations, regardless of their object of activity. Despite the fact that there are standards relating to quality management in a general manner, professionals, academic staff, specialists and bodies felt the need for having a standardized approach of the quality in the sector of e-learning. Therefore, in the last years, in different countries quality guidelines have been developed and used for e-Learning or distance education (for example the ASTD criteria for e- Learning, the BLA Quality Mark, Quality Platform Learning by D-ELAN etc.. The current paper aims to give insights to this new form of online education provided by MOOC platforms using the specific quality standard approach.

  8. Assessing future trends in indoor air quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several national and international health organizations have derived concentration levels below which adverse effects on men are not expected or levels below which the excess risk for individuals is less than a specified value. For every priority pollutant indoor concentrations below this limit are considered healthy. The percentage of Dutch homes exceeding such a limit is taken as a measure of indoor air quality for that component. The present and future indoor air quality of the Dutch housing stock is described for fourteen air pollutants. The highest percentages are scored by radon, environmental tobacco smoke, nitrogen dioxide from unvented combustion, and the potential presence of housedust mite and mould allergen in damp houses. Although the trend for all priority pollutants is downward the most serious ones remain high in the coming decades if no additional measures will be instituted

  9. Assessment of Air Quality Status in Wuhan, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiabei Song

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, air quality characteristics in Wuhan were assessed through descriptive statistics and Hierarchical Cluster Analysis (HCA. Results show that air quality has slightly improved over the recent years. While the NO2 concentration is still increasing, the PM10 concentration shows a clearly downward trend with some small fluctuations. In addition, the SO2 concentration has steadily decreased since 2008. Nevertheless, the current level of air pollutants is still quite high, with the PM10 and NO2 levels exceeding the air quality standard. Seasonal variation exists consistently for all the pollutants, with the highest concentration in winter and the lowest in summer. Cluster analysis evidenced that nine urban monitoring sites could be classified into three clusters. Cluster I consists of only the LY site, which is located in the famous East Lake scenic area with the best air quality. Cluster II corresponds to three monitoring sites with heavily trafficked roads nearby, where relatively severe NO2 pollution occurred. Cluster III is comprised of the remaining five sites, characterized by PM10 and SO2 pollution.

  10. Observing System Simulation Experiments for air quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmermans, R. M. A.; Lahoz, W. A.; Attié, J.-L.; Peuch, V.-H.; Curier, R. L.; Edwards, D. P.; Eskes, H. J.; Builtjes, P. J. H.

    2015-08-01

    This review paper provides a framework for the application of the Observing System Simulation Experiment (OSSE) methodology to satellite observations of atmospheric constituents relevant for air quality. The OSSEs are experiments used to determine the potential benefit of future observing systems using an existing monitoring or forecasting system and by this can help to define optimal characteristics of future instruments. To this end observations from future instruments are simulated from a model representing the realistic state of the atmosphere and an instrument simulator. The added value of the new observations is evaluated through assimilation into another model or model version and comparison with the simulated true state and a control run. This paper provides an overview of existing air quality OSSEs focusing on ozone, CO and aerosol. Using illustrative examples from these studies we present the main elements of an air quality OSSE and associated requirements based on evaluation of the existing studies and experience within the meteorological community. The air quality OSSEs performed hitherto provide evidence of their usefulness for evaluation of future observations although most studies published do not meet all the identified requirements. Especially the evaluation of the OSSE set-up requires more attention; the differences between the assimilation model and the simulated truth should approximate differences between models and real observations. Although this evaluation is missing in many studies, it is required to ensure realistic results. Properly executed air quality OSSEs are a valuable and cost effective tool to space agencies and instrument builders when applied at the start of the development stage to ensure future observations provide added value to users of Earth Observation data.

  11. Hospital-acquired infections associated with poor air quality in air-conditioned environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Pinheiro da Silva

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Backgound and Objectives: Individuals living in cities increasingly spend more time indoors in air-conditioned environments. Air conditioner contamination can be caused by the presence of aerosols from the external or internal environment, which may be associated with disease manifestations in patients present in this type of environment. Therefore, the aim of this review was to assess the air quality in air-conditioned hospital environments as a risk factor for hospital-acquired infections – HAI – as the air can be a potential source of infection, as well as assess the exposure of professionals and patients to different pollutants. Material and Methods: A literature review was performed in the LILACS, MEDLINE, SCIELO, SCIENCE DIRECT databases, CAPES thesis database and Ministry of Health – Brazil, including studies published between 1982 and 2008. The literature search was grouped according to the thematic focus, as follows: ventilation, maintenance and cleaning of systems that comprehend the environmental quality standard. Discussion and Conclusion: Outbreaks of hospital-acquired infections associated with Aspergillus, Acinetobacter, Legionella, and other genera such as Clostridium and Nocardia, which were found in air conditioners, were observed, thus indicating the need for air-conditioning quality control in these environments.

  12. Air quality in Swedish cities; Luftkvalitet i taetorter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sjoeberg, Karin; Persson, Karin; Lagerstroem, Malin [Swedish Environmental Research Inst., Goeteborg (Sweden); Brodin, Yngve [Swedish Environmental Protection Agency, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2004-02-01

    Air quality in Swedish cities has improved considerably over the last decades as a result of reduced emissions from traffic, industrial activity and households. The situation is however far from acceptable, and no further improvement is seen during recent years. Urban air pollution is considered to contribute to the death of more than a thousand people in Sweden each year. Measurements of air quality in Swedish cities are carried out since many years. The measurements have shown that concentrations of all serious air pollutants but ozone have decreased strongly since the 1980s. The improvement is attributed to reduced emissions from motor traffic by means of catalytic converters and cleaner fuels as well as decreased emissions from industrial activity and energy production in Sweden and neighbouring countries. The present report does however show no further downward trend for concentrations of air pollutants in Swedish cities since the late 1990s, and the concentrations of the winter 2002/2003 were higher than several previous winters. This information is gained from measurements done by around forty municipalities and gathered within the so called URBAN-measurement-net managed by the IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute, and additional information from around ten municipalities which perform own measurements. Climatic variability may play an important role for the increase seen in the winter of 2002/2003, but it is also probable that continuously increasing traffic have counteracted some of the ameliorative environmental effects of improved exhaust emission control and cleaner petrol and diesel fuels. Measurements of the winter 2002/2003 show that air quality conditions are unacceptable in perhaps half of the Swedish cities, and that they run the risk of not being able to attain environmental quality standards for one or more substances. The standards for particulate matter and nitrogen dioxide are those most difficult to manage within the time limits set

  13. Comparison of the NIST and ENEA air kerma standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A comparison was made between the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) and Ente per le Nuov Tecnologie l'Energia e l'Ambiente (ENEA) air kerma standards for medium energy x rays and 60Co gamma rays. The comparison took place at ENEA in June 1994. Two different transfer chambers from NIST were used for the comparison. The measurements were made at radiation qualities similar to those used at the Bureau International des Poids et Mesures (BIPM) (generating voltages of 100 kV, 135 kV, 180 kV and 250 kV, respectively) and with 60Co gamma radiation. The transfer chamber calibration factors obtained at the NIST and at the ENEA agreed with one another to 0.03% for 60Co gamma radiation and between 0.1% to 0.8% for the medium energy x-ray beam codes

  14. Coordination of energy and air quality management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-12-01

    The project had two goals: first, to demonstrate industrial firms can improve plant energy efficiency as air pollution emissions are reduced; second, to demonstrate that both Seattle City Light and PSAPCA could more effectively accomplish their individual objectives through mutual cooperation, even though the two agencies have very different missions. The cooperative efforts promised benefits for all the parties involved. Seattle City Light hoped that PSAPCA`s knowledge of the likely developments in air pollution controls would help the utility better target energy conservation opportunities among its industrial customers. PSAPCA hoped that the financial assistance offer by Seattle City Light through its conservation programs would make industry less resistant to PSAPCA enforcement of new air pollution control regulations. Finally, individual industrial firms could mitigate some of the cost of meeting the new air pollution control standards. The results of the project were mixed. CEAM did demonstrate that industrial plants can improve energy efficiency as they reduce air pollution emissions, but the relationship between air pollution reduction and energy consumption is complicated; and the project was less successful in meeting its second goal. The project design did not include a measure by which results could be compared against what the two agencies would have accomplished had they not collaborated. Moreover, the project could have benefited substantially from a more complete implementation plan and the production of data quantifying the energy conservation potential resulting from the development of more stringent air pollution control regulations for each of Seattle`s major industries.

  15. 77 FR 73544 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; West Virginia; The 2002 Base Year...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-11

    ...).) List of Subjects in 40 CFR Part 52 Environmental protection, Air pollution control, Carbon monoxide... Fine Particulate Matter National Ambient Air Quality Standard AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency..., WV-KY-OH nonattainment area for the 1997 PM 2.5 National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS). EPA...

  16. Ambient air quality in Lower Town Quebec

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A municipal waste incinerator near Lower Town Quebec has been identified as a major source of air pollution, notably emissions of dioxins, furans, nitrogen oxides (NOx), volatile organic matter (VOC) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). Combustion fumes contain gases such as carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2) and sulphur dioxide (SO2), as well as dusts, fly ash and particulate matter that is easily airborne. The risks associated with poor air quality have been evaluated along with the effects of pollutants on young children, pregnant women, senior citizens and those with cardiac problems. Some studies have reported that exposure to NOx may cause lung cancer and certain VOCs can irritate the respiratory tract system. Air quality tests have also revealed the presence of mercury. In combination, all these pollutants create smog. The concrete actions that have been taken to address smog issues were discussed. The distance between the incinerator and different residential areas within Lower Town Quebec have been measured along with air quality. Health risks were found to be higher in areas closer to the incinerator. Major modifications have been recommended in order to reduce pollution emissions from the incinerator. These include modernizing the equipment, installing proper scrubbers, and to ultimately the close the incinerator if it continues to underperform. refs., tabs., figs

  17. HVAC design guidelines for effective indoor air quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Building owners, designers and occupants need to consider all the design measures that contribute to high indoor air quality. Building occupants, furnishings, equipment, and ambient air pollution all contribute to surmounting indoor air quality concerns. However, these can be minimized by following HVAC design guidelines which promote high indoor air quality while maintaining reasonable energy-efficiency. The possible liabilities and loss of business productivity due to air quality problems are too great to ignore

  18. Surface Flux Modeling for Air Quality Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Limei Ran

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available For many gasses and aerosols, dry deposition is an important sink of atmospheric mass. Dry deposition fluxes are also important sources of pollutants to terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. The surface fluxes of some gases, such as ammonia, mercury, and certain volatile organic compounds, can be upward into the air as well as downward to the surface and therefore should be modeled as bi-directional fluxes. Model parameterizations of dry deposition in air quality models have been represented by simple electrical resistance analogs for almost 30 years. Uncertainties in surface flux modeling in global to mesoscale models are being slowly reduced as more field measurements provide constraints on parameterizations. However, at the same time, more chemical species are being added to surface flux models as air quality models are expanded to include more complex chemistry and are being applied to a wider array of environmental issues. Since surface flux measurements of many of these chemicals are still lacking, resistances are usually parameterized using simple scaling by water or lipid solubility and reactivity. Advances in recent years have included bi-directional flux algorithms that require a shift from pre-computation of deposition velocities to fully integrated surface flux calculations within air quality models. Improved modeling of the stomatal component of chemical surface fluxes has resulted from improved evapotranspiration modeling in land surface models and closer integration between meteorology and air quality models. Satellite-derived land use characterization and vegetation products and indices are improving model representation of spatial and temporal variations in surface flux processes. This review describes the current state of chemical dry deposition modeling, recent progress in bi-directional flux modeling, synergistic model development research with field measurements, and coupling with meteorological land surface models.

  19. 76 FR 44535 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Northern Sierra Air Quality Management...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-26

    ... Management District, Sacramento Metropolitan Air Quality Management District, and South Coast Air Quality... proposing to approve revisions to the Northern Sierra Air Quality Management District (NSAQMD), Sacramento Metropolitan Air Quality Management District (SMAQMD), and South Coast Air Quality Management District......

  20. Air quality and air quality related values in Chassahowitzka National Wildlife Refuge and Wilderness Area

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Chassahowitzka Wilderness Area is a Class I air quality area administered by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. Despite the special protection mandated for...

  1. Deriving Chesapeake Bay Water Quality Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tango, Peter J.; Batiuk, Richard A.

    2013-01-01

    Achieving and maintaining the water quality conditions necessary to protect the aquatic living resources of the Chesapeake Bay and its tidal tributaries has required a foundation of quantifiable water quality criteria. Quantitative criteria serve as a critical basis for assessing the attainment of designated uses and measuring progress toward meeting water quality goals of the Chesapeake Bay Program partnership. In 1987, the Chesapeake Bay Program partnership committed to defining the water quality conditions necessary to protect aquatic living resources. Under section 303(c) of the Clean Water Act, States and authorized tribes have the primary responsibility for adopting water quality standards into law or regulation. The Chesapeake Bay Program partnership worked with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency to develop and publish a guidance framework of ambient water quality criteria with designated uses and assessment procedures for dissolved oxygen, water clarity, and chlorophyll a for Chesapeake Bay and its tidal tributaries in 2003. This article reviews the derivation of the water quality criteria, criteria assessment protocols, designated use boundaries, and their refinements published in six addendum documents since 2003 and successfully adopted into each jurisdiction's water quality standards used in developing the Chesapeake Bay Total Maximum Daily Load.

  2. Indoor air quality control; Sisaeilman laadun hallinta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villberg, K.; Saarela, K.; Tirkkonen, T. [VTT Building and Transport, Espoo (FI)] [and others

    2004-06-01

    Indoor Air Quality Control-project (Dno 188/401/00, 40724/00), one part of the Finnish Research Programme on Environmental Health (SYTTY), was consisted of three parts. In part one the objective was to establish a causal connection between indoor air quality, perceived comfort and diagnosed health effects. The indoor air quality was measured with methods used today in the Finnish classification, but complementary new methods were applied and tested for their relevance in attaining a better coverage of different chemical substances in indoor air. The health and comprehensive indoor air data were collected from subjects, which were chosen among the patients treated in Helsinki University Central Hospital because of building related symptoms. Additionally control families were randomly selected from Helsinki area. All participants were interviewed for their residential conditions and any building related problems using modified Oerebro and Tuohilampi questionnaires. Clinical data was only collected from the patients in medical examination. All these data was used as additional information in drafting conclusions and recommendations for the improvement of characterising indoor air quality and the classification procedure. In the second part the aim was to develop procedures to evaluate the irritating and odorous chemical compounds of material emissions and the perceived air quality. The causative relationships between sensory assessment method used in the present Finnish Classification of Building Materials, olfactometry and emission measurements in chemical terms were determined. Another objective of this project was to investigate irritation properties of building material emissions and chemical mixtures by the mouse bioassay. In addition the indicator value of human evaluation was clarified for estimating irritancy of building material emission and for studying an impact of ageing of materials on odour and irritation responses. Finally a model was developed for

  3. Indoor Air Quality in Brazilian Universities

    OpenAIRE

    Jurado, Sonia R.; Bankoff, Antônia D. P.; Andrea Sanchez

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluated the indoor air quality in Brazilian universities by comparing thirty air-conditioned (AC) (n = 15) and naturally ventilated (NV) (n = 15) classrooms. The parameters of interest were indoor carbon dioxide (CO2), temperature, relative humidity (RH), wind speed, viable mold, and airborne dust levels. The NV rooms had larger concentration of mold than the AC rooms (1001.30 ± 125.16 and 367.00 ± 88.13 cfu/m3, respectively). The average indoor airborne dust concentration exceed...

  4. The Gulf of Mexico air quality study: An industry perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Section 328 of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 required the EPA to promulgate a rule establishing air pollution control requirements for Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) sources. Congress exempted Gulf of Mexico OCS sources west of 87.5 degrees longitude (near the border of Alabama and Florida) pending the results of a ''three year'' study conducted by the Department of Interior (DOI) - Minerals Management Service (MMS). The study required an examination of the impacts of emissions from OCS activities in such areas that fail to meet the National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) for either ozone or nitrogen dioxide. This paper reviews the MMS Gulf of Mexico Air Quality Study's (GMAQS) emission inventory development, historical ozone episode modeling, field sampling, and preliminary photochemical modeling results. Industry has developed a standardized spreadsheet to calculate emissions and a software package to allow operators to figure out the cost to control OCS sources for NOx and VOCs under the EPA's OCS Air Regulations (40 CFR Part 55). Cost estimates are provided for various regulatory scenarios currently being reviewed by the EPA and MMS

  5. The influence of ocean going ships on air quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this report we conclude that ocean going ships in the Netherlands contribute significantly to the emission of sulphur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, fine particulate matter and nickel compounds into the air. In spite of this, increased levels of nitrogen dioxide concentrations have only been found in the direct vicinity of major waterways and harbours in the Netherlands. Furthermore, the emission of fine particulate matter by ocean ships could also have a negative effect on human health. Both nitrogen dioxide and fine particulate matter can have negative health effects on people suffering from respiratory symptoms. The above is concluded by the National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM) in an exploratory study into the effects of shipping on air quality. The VROM-Inspectorate was the commissioning body. The reason for this study was the absence of complete understanding of the influence of ocean going ships on air quality and environment. Ocean ships are one of the least regulated types of air pollution sources. Standards for desired substance levels have only been set for sulphur in the Fuel (Sulphur Content) Decree. In the Netherlands only a few studies on this subject have been conducted. A complete picture on the influence of ocean going ships on air quality and environment is lacking. In order to gain more insight into the exact influence of ocean going vessels on the environment, a specific measuring campaign or thorough analysis of measured data is recommended

  6. Quality Safety Standards of Organic Mango

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kui; LIN; Riji; WEI; Zheng; ZHANG; Zhaojun; HUANG; Yankun; PAN; Daoping; HUANG

    2013-01-01

    This article conducts a brief analysis of the factors that affect the quality safety of organic mango, and discusses the organic production measures for improving the quality and quality safety of mango, including the choice of environment of place of origin, varieties and seedlings, fertilizers and fertilization, plant protection products and other production inputs. A test is carried out in 0.667 hm2 of base in Tianyang County, Baise City. Content of lead, arsenic and 14 kinds of pesticide residue such as BHC in the mango are not detected; the content of heavy metal such as mercury and cadmium is 0.001-0.006 mg/kg. Then the quality and quality safety indicators of organic mango are discussed, and finally the Guangxi local standards of organic mango products are developed.

  7. 78 FR 12238 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Charlotte, Raleigh/Durham and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-22

    ... Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) for the Charlotte, Raleigh/Durham and Winston-Salem Areas. The 8-hour... more than 60 days after an ambient air quality violation is monitored. NC DENR will commence an.../Durham and Winston-Salem Carbon Monoxide Limited Maintenance Plan AGENCY: Environmental Protection...

  8. 75 FR 62026 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans and Designation of Areas for Air Quality...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-07

    ... for Redesignation to Attainment of the Ozone and Carbon Monoxide (CO) National Ambient Air Quality... Submitting Requests for Redesignation to Attainment of the Ozone and Carbon Monoxide (CO) National Ambient... ozone nonattainment area to attainment for the 1997 8-hour National Ambient Air Quality Standards...

  9. 78 FR 22198 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Charlotte, Raleigh/Durham and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-15

    ... of the 8- hour carbon monoxide (CO) National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) for the Charlotte... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Charlotte, Raleigh/Durham and Winston Salem Carbon Monoxide Limited Maintenance Plan AGENCY: Environmental Protection...

  10. 77 FR 41337 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Delaware; Control Technique...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-13

    ... quality standard (NAAQS) for ozone. This action is being taken under the Clean Air Act (CAA). DATES... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Delaware; Control..., office, institutional, laboratory, hospital, public building, restaurant, barber and beauty shop,...

  11. 77 FR 45307 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans: Georgia; Control Techniques...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-31

    ... ambient air quality standards (NAAQS). See 69 FR 23858. The Atlanta Area includes the following 20... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans: Georgia; Control..., Paulding and Rockdale. See 56 FR 56694 (November 6, 1991). As such, major sources in the 13-county...

  12. 77 FR 1895 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, South Coast Air Quality Management District

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-12

    ... action, we are proposing to approve South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD) Rule 317.... South Coast Air Quality Management District There are two 1-hour ozone nonattainment areas within the... AQMA failed to attain the 1-hour ozone standard by their applicable attainment dates (76 FR...

  13. Building ventilation and indoor air quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rising energy prices, among other factors, have generated an incentive to reduce ventilation rates and thereby reduce the cost of heating and cooling buildings. Reduced infiltration and ventilation in buildings may significantly increase exposure to indoor contaminations and perhaps have adverse effects on occupant health and comfort. Four indoor air contaminants - carbon monoxide and nitrogen dioxide from gas appliances; formaldehyde from particleboard, plywood, urea-formaldehyde foam insulation, and gas appliances; and radon from building materials, soil, and ground water - are currently receiving considerable attention in the context of potential health risks associated with reduced infiltration and ventilation rates. The authors have measured and analyzed these air contaminants in conventional and energy efficient buildings with a view to assessing their potential health risks and various control strategies capable of lowering pollutant concentrations. Preliminary findings suggest that further intensive studies are needed in order to develop criteria for maintaining acceptable indoor air quality without compromising energy efficiency. (Auth.)

  14. Air Quality – monitoring and modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius DEACONU

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Air pollution is a major concern for all nations, regardless of their development. The rapid growth of the industrial sector and urban development have lead to significant quantities of substances and toxic materials, mostly discharged into the atmosphere and having adverse effects both on human health and environment in general. Human society has to recognize that environment has only a limited capacity to process all of its waste without major changes. Each of us is a pollutant but also a victim of pollution. If monitoring of air pollutants is particularly important for assessing the air quality at any moment, by modelling the monitoring data spectacular results are obtained both through the factor analysis and identification of potential pollution mitigation measures. Latest equipment and techniques come and support these problems giving medium and long term solutions.

  15. DAIRY PRODUCTION IN BELARUS: STANDARDS, REGULATIONS AND QUALITY STANDARDS

    OpenAIRE

    L. Kovalev; I. Kovalev

    2012-01-01

    The paper presents a brief analysis of the procedures and requirements for the quality and the production of milk in Belarus from the Soviet Union, and to this day, consider some areas of the dairy industry in the Republic of Belarus for 2011-2015, to look at issues and characteristics of milk production in the country. The article raised some important task of unification of Russian and Belarusian industry regulations and standards.

  16. Baseline air quality evaluation for the Venezuelan Orinoco Bitumen Belt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To achieve a harmonic relationship between oil exploration and production activities and the environment, Petroleos de Venezuela and its affiliated companies conducted environmental evaluations of the physical and bionic media in the Orinoco Bitumen Belt. This region covers an area of approximately 42000 km2 with estimated bitumen reserves on the order of 3 x 1012 barrels, one of the largest bitumen reservoirs in the world. This paper presents the results of a study of baseline air quality conditions: an emissions inventory, surface and upper layer meteorological conditions and measurements of air quality parameters of interest (CO, HC, NOx, SO2, H2S and T.S.P.) taken by a network of automated air quality stations using standard international reference techniques. The temporal (hourly and daily basis) and spatial air quality variability and the variables/activities that might determine the observed trends are discussed. NO, NO2, SO2 and H2S concentrations were lower than the detection limits of the analytical methods, while O3 and CO 1-hour average levels ranged from 5-30 ppb and 0.5-1.8 ppm, respectively, and T.S.P. daily means varied from 10-50 μg/m3, all of which is close to natural background concentrations. Maximum hourly average reactive hydrocarbon concentrations of 0.37 ppm were found near a producing oil field

  17. 75 FR 54773 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Minnesota; Carbon Monoxide (CO...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-09

    ...) for carbon monoxide (CO) under the Clean Air Act (CAA). The State has submitted a limited maintenance plan for CO showing continued attainment of the CO National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) in the... Part 52 Environmental protection, Air pollution control, Carbon monoxide, Incorporation by...

  18. 77 FR 38183 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans and Designations of Areas for Air Quality...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-27

    ... Part 52 Environmental protection, Air pollution control, Carbon monoxide, Incorporation by reference... national ambient air quality standards (NAAQS) by its applicable attainment date of April 5, 2010. This... certified ambient air monitoring data for the 2007-2009 monitoring period and thereby suspended...

  19. 75 FR 64235 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Texas; Revisions to Rules and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-19

    ... Subjects in 40 CFR Part 52 Environmental protection, Air pollution control, Carbon monoxide... ensure attainment and continued maintenance of the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for... TCEQ may require air dispersion modeling or ambient monitoring. The Texas PCP SP is not part of...

  20. 77 FR 65630 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; District of Columbia; The 2002...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-30

    ... Environmental protection, Air pollution control, Carbon monoxide, Incorporation by reference, Nitrogen dioxide... Fine Particulate Matter National Ambient Air Quality Standard AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency... nonattainment area (hereafter referred to as DC Area or Area) for the 1997 PM 2.5 National Ambient Air...

  1. Air quality forecasting system for Southeastern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Andrade, Maria de Fatima; Ynoue, Rita Y.; Freitas, Edmilson Dias; Todesco, Enzo; Vara Vela, Angel; Ibarra, Sergio; Martins, Leila Droprinchinski; Martins, Jorge Alberto; Carvalho, Vanessa Silveira Barreto

    2015-01-01

    Southeastern Brazil, the most populous and developed region of the country, faces various environmental problems associated with the growth of its population in urban areas. It is the most industrialized area in the country, comprising the metropolitan areas of São Paulo, Rio de Janeiro, Belo Horizonte, and other major cities. Air quality is a major concern, because the reported concentrations of certain regulated pollutants, typically ozone and fine particulate, have exceeded national standa...

  2. Air quality estimation by computational intelligence methodologies

    OpenAIRE

    Ćirić Ivan T.; Ćojbašić Žarko M.; Nikolić Vlastimir D.; Živković Predrag M.; Tomić Mladen A.

    2012-01-01

    The subject of this study is to compare different computational intelligence methodologies based on artificial neural networks used for forecasting an air quality parameter - the emission of CO2, in the city of Niš. Firstly, inputs of the CO2 emission estimator are analyzed and their measurement is explained. It is known that the traffic is the single largest emitter of CO2 in Europe. Therefore, a proper treatment of this component of pollution is very important for precise estimation o...

  3. Air Quality Monitoring Using CCD/ CMOS Devices

    OpenAIRE

    Low, Khee Lam; Joanna, Tan Choay Ee; Sim, Keat; Jafri, Mohd Zubir Mat; and, Khiruddin Abdullah

    2010-01-01

    In this chapter, we showed a method for measuring of the air quality index by using the CCD/CMOS sensor. We showed two examples to obtain index values by using webcam and CCTV. Both devices provided a high correlation between the measured and estimated PM10. So, the imaging method is capable to measure PM10 values in the environment. Futher application can be conducted using different devices.

  4. Incident-response monitoring technologies for aircraft cabin air quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magoha, Paul W.

    Poor air quality in commercial aircraft cabins can be caused by volatile organophosphorus (OP) compounds emitted from the jet engine bleed air system during smoke/fume incidents. Tri-cresyl phosphate (TCP), a common anti-wear additive in turbine engine oils, is an important component in today's global aircraft operations. However, exposure to TCP increases risks of certain adverse health effects. This research analyzed used aircraft cabin air filters for jet engine oil contaminants and designed a jet engine bleed air simulator (BAS) to replicate smoke/fume incidents caused by pyrolysis of jet engine oil. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) with X-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and neutron activation analysis (NAA) were used for elemental analysis of filters, and gas chromatography interfaced with mass spectrometry (GC/MS) was used to analyze used filters to determine TCP isomers. The filter analysis study involved 110 used and 90 incident filters. Clean air filter samples exposed to different bleed air conditions simulating cabin air contamination incidents were also analyzed by FESEM/EDS, NAA, and GC/MS. Experiments were conducted on a BAS at various bleed air conditions typical of an operating jet engine so that the effects of temperature and pressure variations on jet engine oil aerosol formation could be determined. The GC/MS analysis of both used and incident filters characterized tri- m-cresyl phosphate (TmCP) and tri-p-cresyl phosphate (TpCP) by a base peak of an m/z = 368, with corresponding retention times of 21.9 and 23.4 minutes. The hydrocarbons in jet oil were characterized in the filters by a base peak pattern of an m/z = 85, 113. Using retention times and hydrocarbon thermal conductivity peak (TCP) pattern obtained from jet engine oil standards, five out of 110 used filters tested had oil markers. Meanwhile 22 out of 77 incident filters tested positive for oil fingerprints. Probit analysis of jet engine oil aerosols obtained

  5. 75 FR 13710 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; Designation of Areas for Air Quality Planning...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-23

    ... areas that we also determined were attaining the standard. See 71 FR 6352 (February 8, 2006) (Ajo... air pollutants for which EPA has established a health-based standard. On July 1, 1987 (52 FR 24634... December 18, 2006. See 71 FR 61144 and 40 CFR 50.6. B. Designation, Classification and Air Quality...

  6. National Standards for Quality Online Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pape, Liz; Wicks, Matthew

    2009-01-01

    The mission of the International Association for K-12 Online Learning, iNACOL, is to ensure all students have access to a world-class education and quality online learning opportunities that prepare them for a lifetime of success. This document, the International Association for K-12 Online Learning's (iNACOL) "National Standards for Quality…

  7. National Standards of Quality for Online Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    North American Council for Online Learning, 2007

    2007-01-01

    The mission of the North American Council for Online Learning (NACOL) is to increase educational opportunities and enhance learning by providing collegial expertise and leadership in K-12 online teaching and learning. "National Standards for Online Course Quality" is designed to provide states, districts, online programs, and other organizations…

  8. National Standards for Quality Online Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    North American Council for Online Learning, 2010

    2010-01-01

    The mission of the North American Council for Online Learning (NACOL) is to increase educational opportunities and enhance learning by providing collegial expertise and leadership in K-12 online teaching and learning. "National Standards for Quality Online Teaching" is designed to provide states, districts, online programs, and other organizations…

  9. 78 FR 63934 - Approval of Air Quality Implementation Plans; California; El Dorado County Air Quality Management...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-25

    ...'' subject to review by the Office of Management and Budget under Executive Order 12866 (58 FR 51735, October... Quality Management District; Reasonably Available Control Technology for Ozone AGENCY: Environmental... Plan (SIP) revision submitted by California for the El Dorado County Air Quality Management...

  10. Indoor air quality/air infiltration in selected low-energy houses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Indoor air quality and air infiltration were measured in 16 low-energy California houses. Eleven has gas stoves; all had average infiltration rates of 0.5 h-1 of less, recent construction dates, low natural ventilation, and no mechanical ventilation. HCHO levels in 12 houses and radon-222 and NO2 levels in all houses were measured using passive monitors. Blower door measurements and local weather data were used to calculate average infiltration rates during the monitoring period. Correlation of pollutant concentrations with infiltration rates and building characteristics indicate that new houses with average heating season infiltration rates less than 0.5 h-1 do not necessarily experience poor indoor air quality, HCHO and radon-222 levels in new houses exceeded the lowest currently proposed standards or guidelines, and much higher levels probably exist elsewhere. Therefore, some strategy for identifying 'problem' houses is needed. We recommend an approach for future research in this area. (Author)

  11. Seasonal Variations of Atmospheric Pollution and Air Quality in Beijing

    OpenAIRE

    Wei Chen; Lei Yan; Haimeng Zhao

    2015-01-01

    New ambient air quality standards  were released in 2012 and implemented in 2013 with real time monitoring data publication of six atmospheric pollutants: particulate matter (PM)2.5, PM10, O3, SO2, NO2 and CO. According to the new standards, Beijing began to publicize real-time monitoring data of 35 monitoring stations in 2013. In this study, real time concentrations of all six atmospheric pollutants of all 35 monitoring stations were collected from September 2014 to August 2015 to investigat...

  12. National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants submittal -- 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report focuses on air quality at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) for 1994. A general description of the effluent sources are presented. Each potential source of NTS emissions was characterized by one of the following: (1) by monitoring methods and procedures previously developed at NTS; (2) by a yearly radionuclide inventory of the source, assuming that volatile radionuclides are released to the environment; (3) by the measurement of tritiated water concentration in liquid effluents discharged to containment ponds and assuming all the effluent evaporates over the course of the year to become an air emission; or (4) by using a combination of environmental measurements and CAP88-PC to calculate emissions. Appendices A through J describe the methods used to determine the emissions from the sources. These National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) emissions are very conservative, are used to calculate the effective dose equivalent to the Maximally Exposed Individual offsite, and exceed, in some cases, those reported in DOE's Effluent Information System (EIS). The NESHAP's worst-case emissions that exceed the EIS reported emissions are noted. Offsite environmental surveillance data are used to confirm that calculated emissions are, indeed, conservative

  13. National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants submittal -- 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Townsend, Y.E. [ed.; Black, S.C.

    1995-06-01

    This report focuses on air quality at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) for 1994. A general description of the effluent sources are presented. Each potential source of NTS emissions was characterized by one of the following: (1) by monitoring methods and procedures previously developed at NTS; (2) by a yearly radionuclide inventory of the source, assuming that volatile radionuclides are released to the environment; (3) by the measurement of tritiated water concentration in liquid effluents discharged to containment ponds and assuming all the effluent evaporates over the course of the year to become an air emission; or (4) by using a combination of environmental measurements and CAP88-PC to calculate emissions. Appendices A through J describe the methods used to determine the emissions from the sources. These National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) emissions are very conservative, are used to calculate the effective dose equivalent to the Maximally Exposed Individual offsite, and exceed, in some cases, those reported in DOE`s Effluent Information System (EIS). The NESHAP`s worst-case emissions that exceed the EIS reported emissions are noted. Offsite environmental surveillance data are used to confirm that calculated emissions are, indeed, conservative.

  14. Standardized methods for assessing the imaging quality of intraocular lenses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norrby, N. E. Sverker

    1995-11-01

    The relative merits of three standardized methods for assessing the imaging quality of intraocular lenses are discussed based on theoretical modulation-transfer-function calculations. The standards are ANSI Z80.7 1984 from the American National Standards Institute, now superseded by ANSI Z80.7 1994, and the proposed ISO 11979-2 from the International Organization for Standardization. They entail different test 60% resolution efficiency in air, 70% resolutionefficiency in aqueous humor, and 0.43 modulation at 100 line pairs/mm in a model eye. The ISO working group found that the latter corresponds to 60% resolution efficiency in air in a ring test among eight laboratories on a sample of 39 poly(methyl) methacrylate lenses and four silicone lenses spanning the power (in aqueous humor) range of 10-30 D. In both ANSI Z80.7 1994 and ISO 11979-2, a 60% resolution efficiency in air remains an optional approval limit. It is concluded that the ISO configuration is preferred, because it puts the intraocular lens into the context of the optics of the eye. Note that the ISO standard is tentative and is currently being voted on.

  15. Predicting Air Quality Impacts Associated with Oil and Gas Development in the Uinta Basin Using EPA’s Photochemical Air Quality Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rural areas with close proximity to oil and natural gas operations in Utah have experienced winter ozone levels that exceed EPA’s National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS). Through a collaborative effort, EPA Region 8 – Air Program, ORD, and OAQPS used the Commun...

  16. Air Quality System (AQS) Monitoring Network, EPA OAR OAQPS

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This GIS dataset contains points which depict air quality monitors within EPA's Air Quality System (AQS) monitoring network. This dataset is updated weekly to...

  17. Seaport-Surface Transportation Access and Air Quality

    OpenAIRE

    Shaw, Peter L.

    1993-01-01

    Seaports are dependent upon the supporting surface transportation network. Where port cargo volume is growing in already air-polluted urban areas, increased highway and rail traffic is perceived as exacerbating air quality conditions. In some seaport locations, stringent air quality control measures may impact operations and access, thereby possibly causing serious negative impacts on the economy. In still other areas, inadequate air quality controls may inadvertently foster more air pollution.

  18. Urban growth and air quality in Kuala Lumpur city, Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    O. H. L. Ling

    2010-01-01

    Urban developments, land use patterns and activities not only influence the volume of emissions into the ambient air environment but also affect the ability of the urban ecosystem to purify the air. Therefore, urbanisation affects the quality of air in urban areas. However, urban air quality is also affected by global, regional or trans-boundary pollutants. The objectives of this paper are to understand the trend of air quality level and urban growth in Kuala Lumpur city (KL), and examine the...

  19. Measurements and prediction of inhaled air quality with personalized ventilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cermak, Radim; Majer, M.; Melikov, Arsen Krikor

    2002-01-01

    This paper examines the performance of five different air terminal devices for personalized ventilation in relation to the quality of air inhaled by a breathing thermal manikin in a climate chamber. The personalized air was supplied either isothermally or non-isothermally (6 deg.C cooler than...... the room air) at flow rates ranging from less than 5 L/s up to 23 L/s. The air quality assessment was based on temperature measurements of the inhaled air and on the portion of the personalized air inhaled. The percentage of dissatisfied with the air quality was predicted. The results suggest...

  20. Challenges and Opportunities of Air Quality Management in Mexico City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paramo, V.

    2013-05-01

    The Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) is located in the central plateau of Mexico and is the capital of the country. Its natural characteristics present favorable conditions for air pollution formation and accumulation: mountains surrounding the city, frequent thermal inversions, high isolation all around the year and weak winds. To these natural conditions, a population of more than 20 million inhabitants, a fleet of 4.5 million vehicles and more than 4 thousands industries, make air quality management a real challenge for governments of the region. Intensive air quality improvement actions and programs began at the end of the 1980's and continued nowadays. Since then criteria air pollutants concentrations have decreased in such a way that currently most of pollutants meet the Mexican air quality standards, except for ozone and particulate matter. Applied measures comprised of fuel quality improvements, fuel replacements, regulations for combustion processes, closing of high polluting refineries and industries, regulations of emissions for new and on road vehicles, mandatory I/M programs for vehicles, circulation restrictions for vehicles (Day without car program), alert program for elevated air pollution episodes, improvement of public transportation, among others. Recent researches (MILAGRO 2006 campaign) found that currently it is necessary to implement emissions reduction actions for Volatile Organic Compounds, particulate matter with a diameter of less than 2.5 micrometers PM2.5 and Nitrogen Oxides, in order to reduce concentrations of ozone and fine particulate matter. Among the new measures to be implemented are: regulations for VOCs emissions in the industry and commercial sectors; regulation of the diesel fleet that includes fleets renewal, filters and particulate traps for in use vehicles and regulation of the cargo fleet; new schemes for reducing the number of vehicles circulating in the city; implementation of non-motorized mobility programs; among

  1. An Air Quality Management System for Policy Support in Cyprus

    OpenAIRE

    Nicolas Moussiopoulos; Ioannis Douros; George Tsegas; Savvas Kleanthous; Eleftherios Chourdakis

    2012-01-01

    The recent air quality directive (2008/50/EC) encourages the introduction of modelling as a necessary tool for air quality assessment and management. Towards this aim, an air quality management system (AQMS) has been developed and installed in the Department of Labour Inspection (DLI) of the Republic of Cyprus. The AQMS comprises of two operational modules, providing hourly nowcasting and daily forecasting of the air quality status, implemented as an integrated model system that performs nest...

  2. Impact of temperature and humidity on perceived indoor air quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang, Lei

    1997-11-01

    This thesis deals with the impact of temperature and humidity on the emission of pollutants from five building materials and on the perception of air polluted by the material emissions. The impact was studied in the temperature range 18-28 deg. C and the humidity range 30-70%RH, corresponding to conditions often pertaining in normal non-industrial indoor environments. The five building materials used in the study were: PVC flooring, waterborne acrylic floor varnish, loomed polyamide carpet with latex backing, waterborn acrylic wall paint and acrylic sealant; all these materials are commonly use din buildings. The effect of temperature and humidity on emission and perception of air pollutant emitted from the five building materials is described, using a specially developed exposure system. A computer-controlled exposure system was developed. The design of the system allowed the impact of temperature and humidity on the emission of pollutants from the materials to be judged separately from the impact on perception. The effect of temperature and humidity on emission and on perception was investigated at nine different combinations of three temperature levels 18 deg. C, 23 deg. C, 28 deg. C and three relative humidity levels 30%, 50%, 70%. A sensory panel assessed the acceptability of the air after facial exposure. Chemical measurements of the pollutants emitted were also made. The impact of temperature and humidity on perception of air quality during whole-body exposure is discussed. The influence of the pre-exposure temperature/humidity on perception of air quality and the time course of adaptation of air quality perception with different combinations of temperature and humidity were also investigated. It is recommended that future ventilation standards should include the effect of indoor air temperature and humidity in ventilation requirements. (EG) 86 refs.

  3. Parent's Guide to School Indoor Air Quality. Revised

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healthy Schools Network, Inc., 2012

    2012-01-01

    Air pollution is air pollution, indoors or out. Good indoor air quality (IAQ) contributes to a favorable learning environment for students, protects health, and supports the productivity of school personnel. In schools in poor repair, leaky roofs and crumbling walls have caused additional indoor air quality problems, including contamination with…

  4. Air Quality and Indoor Environmental Exposures: Clinical Impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indoor air quality (IAQ) is a term which refers to the air quality within and around buildings and homes as it relates to the health and comfort of the occupants. Many ambient (outdoor) air pollutants readily permeate indoor spaces. Because indoor air can be considerably more pol...

  5. Air quality evaluation of London Paddington train station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enclosed railway stations hosting diesel trains are at risk of reduced air quality as a result of exhaust emissions that may endanger passengers and workers. Air quality measurements were conducted inside London Paddington Station, a semi-enclosed railway station where 70% of trains are powered by diesel engines. Particulate matter (PM2.5) mass was measured at five station locations. PM size, PM number, oxides of nitrogen (NOx), and sulphur dioxide (SO2) were measured at two station locations. Paddington Station’s hourly mean PM2.5 mass concentrations averaged 16 μg m−3 [min 2, max 68]. Paddington Station’s hourly mean NO2 concentrations averaged 73 ppb [49, 120] and SO2 concentrations averaged 25 ppb [15, 37]. While UK train stations are not required to comply with air quality standards, there were five instances where the hourly mean NO2 concentrations exceeded the EU hourly mean limits (106 ppb) for outdoor air quality. PM2.5, SO2, and NO2 concentrations were compared against Marylebone, a busy London roadside 1.2 km from the station. The comparisons indicated that train station air quality was more polluted than the nearby roadside. PM2.5 for at least one measurement location within Paddington Station was shown to be statistically higher (P-value <0.05) than Marylebone on 3 out of 4 days. Measured NO2 within Paddington Station was statistically higher than Marylebone on 3 out of 5 days, while measured SO2 within Paddington Station was statistically higher than Marylebone on all 3 days. (letter)

  6. Good manufacturing practice for modelling air pollution: Quality criteria for computer models to calculate air pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekker, C. M.; Sliggers, C. J.

    To spur on quality assurance for models that calculate air pollution, quality criteria for such models have been formulated. By satisfying these criteria the developers of these models and producers of the software packages in this field can assure and account for the quality of their products. In this way critics and users of such (computer) models can gain a clear understanding of the quality of the model. Quality criteria have been formulated for the development of mathematical models, for their programming—including user-friendliness, and for the after-sales service, which is part of the distribution of such software packages. The criteria have been introduced into national and international frameworks to obtain standardization.

  7. 76 FR 44493 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Northern Sierra Air Quality Management...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-26

    ... Management District, Sacramento Metropolitan Air Quality Management District, and South Coast Air Quality... taking direct final action to approve revisions to the Northern Sierra Air Quality Management District (NSAQMD), Sacramento Metropolitan Air Quality Management District (SMAQMD), and South Coast Air...

  8. Information draft on the development of air standards for methanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-01-01

    Methanol is a clear, colourless. very mobile liquid with a slightly alcoholic odour in pure form, but a repulsive pungent odour in crude form. Methanol is the raw material in the production of many gasoline additives, is used as a solvent or antifreeze in paint strippers, aerosol spray paints, wall paints, carburetor cleaners, and car windshield washer compounds. Methanol is one of the top pollutants by release quantities in Ontario, the highest release being generated by the pulp and paper industry. Other large emissions come from the plastics and synthetic resin industry. Total release to the air in Canada was 3,668 tonnes in 1996 and the top ten methanol emitting facilities were in Ontario. Methanol is readily absorbed through inhalation, ingestion and skin exposures. Once absorbed, it is oxidized to formaldehyde and then to formic acid. Common symptoms of exposure are visual disturbances, dizziness, nausea, vertigo, pain in the extremities, and headaches. No information was found as to the carcinogenicity of methanol to humans or animals. Current Ontario half-hour POI standard for methanol is 84,000 microgram/cubic meter and the 24-hour AAQC is 28,000 microgram/cubic meter. Both values were established more than 20 years ago. Review of relevant literature, summarized in this report, indicates that five US states have promulgated air quality guidelines or reference exposure levels for methanol, based on occupational exposure limits. The US Environmental Protection Agency is currently reviewing its reference concentration value for methanol. The World Health Organization and the Canadian federal government have not set air quality guidelines for methanol. 37 refs., 1 tab., appendix.

  9. STATUS OF AMBIENT AIR QUALITY IN BELLARY CITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.A. ZAREENA BANU

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A detailed survey of air quality was carried out at important junctions in Bellary city to study the ambient air quality using high volume sampler at respirable heights of the variety of known air pollutants, suspended particulate matter(SPM, respirable particulate matter(RPM, sulphur dioxide(SO2, oxides of nitrogen(NOx, were given much importance during the study. Sampling stations were established at 8 different places in the city. It was found that the level of suspended particulate matter(SPM & respirable particulate matter(RPM, exceeds the ambient air quality standard of central pollution control board and that of sulphur dioxide(SO2 and oxides of nitrogen(NOx were well within the limits. The factors which were considered responsible for such high levels of certain pollutants in the city includes traffic congestion, increased human activities, mining activities and high rise buildings existing parallel to each other. The remedial measure suggested including banning old technology vehicles, upgrading two stroke engines to four stroke engines, using catalytic, planting more trees along the roadsides and proper traffic regulation.

  10. Quality leadership skills Standards of Leadership Behavior

    CERN Document Server

    Leatherman, Richard W

    2008-01-01

    Would you like to really know how to empower employees to take greater charge over their careers? To teach employees how to take more responsibility for their performance appraisals? To delegate work to employees? You'll get clear direction in Quality Leadership - a practical manual that addresses today's need for quality performance and gives techniques for handling a wide array of employee problems. This how-to-do-it resource for new and future leaders explains basic leadership tasks in a simple, step-by-step manner. It is full of practical advice - not theories - and outlines clear standard

  11. Quality Control of Reference Standard Source Production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The preparation techniques of sealed I-131 sources for calibrating gamma ray spectrometry were developed by gravimetric dispensing the reference I-131 solution. Following the production techniques and quality control according to IAEA-TECDOC-1512, four methods including wipe test, impact test, leakage and homogeneity test were employed to demonstrate sealed radioactive sources. The half-life was determined by imaging plate system and found to be 8.10 ± 0.02 days in agreement with the decay theory. The techniques may be useful for quality control of reference standard source production

  12. Review of urban and industrial air quality. Assessments at the Finnish meteorological institute

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pohjola, V.; Pesonen, R.; Karstastenpaeae, R.; Rantakrans, E.; Kukkonen, J.; Jokinen, J.; Maekinen, E.; Saari, H.; Hiltunen, V. [Finnish Meteorological Inst., Helsinki (Finland). Air Quality Dept.

    1995-12-31

    Air quality in urban and industrial environments has been investigated at the Finnish Meteorological Institute since the early 1970`s. The studies have included emission surveys, air quality measurements, dispersion model computations and bioindicator surveys A substantial fraction of these studies has been done as commissioned work for communities, public institutions, industrial establishments and private enterprises Major resources have also been committed to the development of methods and expertise. The studies in the 1970` s were mainly dispersion model computations and air pollution measurements In the 1980`s research activities increased rapidly due to the national Clean Air Act (coming into force in 1982) and the adoption of national ambient air quality standards (1984). Since the year 1980. About 90 separate air pollution assessments have been conducted; and model computations have been made for most Finnish cities and major communities In many of the surveys in the 1980` s and the 1990`s. Integrated studies of local air quality, which contain the results obtained with emission surveys, dispersion model computations, air quality measurements and bioindicator methods have been conducted. This integrated approach provides more versatile and reliable results on the state of the environment. For instance, the reliability and accuracy of computations can be directly analysed using simultaneous air quality measurements. An overview of the experimental and computational methods used in the air quality surveys is presented here. To illustrate the application of the methods, some selected results from an air quality investigation conducted in a major city in central Finland are discussed. (author)

  13. Microbiological Quality of Indoor Air in University Libraries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Samuel Fekadu Hayleeyesus; Abayneh Melaku Manaye

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the concentration of bacteria and fungi in the indoor environment of Jimma University libraries, so as to estimate the health hazard and to create standards for indoor air quality control.Methods:determined. The settle plate method using open Petri-dishes containing different culture media was employed to collect sample twice daily. Isolates were identified according to standard methods.Results:The concentrations of bacteria and fungi aerosols in the indoor environment of the The microbial quality of indoor air of eight libraries of Jimma University was university libraries ranged between 367-2595 CFU/m3. According to the sanitary standards classification of European Commission, almost all the libraries indoor air of Jimma University was heavily contaminated with bacteria and fungi. In spite of their major source difference, the average fungi density found in the indoor air of libraries did appear to follow the same trend with bacterial density (P=0.001). The bacteria isolates included Micrococcus sp., Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes, Bacillus sp. and Neisseria sp. while Cladosporium sp., Alternaria sp.,Penicillium sp. and Aspergillus sp. were the most isolated fungi. Conclusions: The indoor air of all libraries were in the range above highly contaminated according to European Commission classification and the most isolates are considered as potential candidates involved in the establishment of sick building syndromes and often associated with clinical manifestations like allergy, rhinitis, asthma and conjunctivitis. Thus, attention must be given to control those environmental factors which favor the growth and multiplication of microbes in indoor environment of libraries to safeguard the health of users and workers.

  14. Foliage Plants for Improving Indoor Air Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolverton, B. C.

    1988-01-01

    NASA's research with foliage houseplants during the past 10 years has produced a new concept in indoor air quality improvement. This new and exciting technology is quite simple. Both plant leaves and roots are utilized in removing trace levels of toxic vapors from inside tightly sealed buildings. Low levels of chemicals such as carbon monoxide and formaldehyde can be removed from indoor environments by plant leaves alone, while higher concentrations of numerous toxic chemicals can be removed by filtering indoor air through the plant roots surrounded by activated carbon. The activated carbon absorbs large quantities of the toxic chemicals and retains them until the plant roots and associated microorganisms degrade and assimilate these chemicals.

  15. Air quality criteria for carbon monoxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The revised air quality criteria document for CO reviews and evaluates available scientific information on the health effects associated with exposure to the concentrations of CO found in ambient air. Although the document is not intended to be an exhaustive literature review, it is intended to cover all the pertinent literature through early 1991. The references cited in the document are, therefore, reflective of the present state of knowledge on those issues relevant to the subsequent review of the NAAQS for CO, currently set at 9 ppm (10 mg/cu m) for 8 h and 35 ppm (40 mg/cu m) for 1 h. Major gaps in knowledge also are identified. Although emphasis is placed on the presentation of health effects data, other scientific data are presented and evaluated in order to provide a better understanding of the nature, sources, distribution, measurement, and concentration of CO in the environment, as well as the measurement of population exposure to CO

  16. Residential indoor air quality guideline : carbon monoxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carbon monoxide (CO) is a tasteless, odourless, and colourless gas that can be produced by both natural and anthropogenic processes, but is most often formed during the incomplete combustion of organic materials. In the indoor environment, CO occurs directly as a result of emissions from indoor sources or as a result of infiltration from outdoor air containing CO. Studies have shown that the use of specific sources can lead to increased concentrations of CO indoors. This residential indoor air quality guideline examined the factors influencing the introduction, dispersion and removal of CO indoors. The health effects of exposure to low and higher concentrations of CO were discussed. Residential maximum exposure limits for CO were presented. Sources and concentrations in indoor environments were also examined. 17 refs., 2 tabs.

  17. Ambient air quality trends in Alberta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document provided an overview of ambient air pollutant trends in Alberta. The report discussed the following pollutants having effect on human and environmental health: carbon monoxide (CO), hydrogen sulphide (H2S), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), sulphur dioxide (SO2), ozone (O3), fine particulate matter (PM2.5), benzene, and benzopyrene. Each of these pollutants was described. The report provided data on annual average concentration trends and annual 99th percentile concentration as an indicator of peak concentrations. A map illustrating air quality monitoring stations in 2006 was also provided. The findings revealed that mean annual CO levels were the lowest they have been since 1990; hydrogen sulphide concentrations have fluctuated in time since 1990; most Edmonton and Calgary area stations showed significant decreasing trends in annual average NO2 levels since 1990; and higher SO2 concentrations have been found in the industrial areas of Alberta, such as the Redwater and Scotford oil sands locations. tabs., figs

  18. Minimum quality standards and international trade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baltzer, Kenneth Thomas

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates the impact of a non-discriminating minimum quality standard (MQS) on trade and welfare when the market is characterized by imperfect competition and asymmetric information. A simple partial equilibrium model of an international Cournot duopoly is presented in which...... prefer different levels of regulation. As a result, international trade disputes are likely to arise even when regulation is non-discriminating....

  19. Proceedings of the upwind downwind air quality conference 2004 : a practical conference on improving air quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This conference provided a forum for policy makers, environmental managers, urban designers and citizens to discuss current air quality issues. It provided information on urban sprawl and the resulting human health impacts. Many presentations described efforts that are currently underway to improve local air quality through smart growth initiatives, new urban design approaches, successful airshed management and planning legislation. The roles that industry, community groups and governments play in achieving air quality improvements were also highlighted. The mitigation efforts relate to both natural areas and industrial corridors and involve reducing waste, consuming less energy, changing our modes of transportation, and wise land use in urban areas. Sixteen presentations were indexed separately for inclusion in this database. refs., tabs., figs

  20. Mexico City Air quality: Progress of an international collaborative project to define air quality management options

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streit, Gerald E.; Guzmán, Francisco

    The Mexico City Air Quality Research Initiative was a 3-yr international collaborative project to develop or adapt a set of air quality management decision analysis tools for Mexico City and make them available to Mexican policy makers. The project comprised three tasks: modeling and simulation, characterization and measurement, and strategic evaluation. A prognostic, mesoscale meteorological model was adapted to the region of Mexico City and linked to a 3-D airshed model. These were extensively tested against data from the air quality monitoring network and from three intensive field campaigns. The interaction between policy and science was promoted through the development of a formal multiattribute decision analysis model to evaluate alternative control strategies. The project benefited by having researchers from both nations working side by side as peers, by having both nations investing resources and having an interest in the success of the project, and by having an objective, not of advocacy, but of the application of science to problem solving.

  1. Co-benefits of air quality and climate change policies on air quality of the Mediterranean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozzoli, Luca; Mert Gokturk, Ozan; Unal, Alper; Kindap, Tayfun; Janssens-Maenhout, Greet

    2015-04-01

    The Mediterranean basin is one of the regions of the world where significant impacts due to climate changes are predicted to occur in the future. Observations and model simulations are used to provide to the policy makers scientifically based estimates of the necessity to adjust national emission reductions needed to achieve air quality objectives in the context of a changing climate, which is not only driven by GHGs, but also by short lived climate pollutants, such as tropospheric ozone and aerosols. There is an increasing interest and need to design cost-benefit emission reduction strategies, which could improve both regional air quality and global climate change. In this study we used the WRF-CMAQ air quality modelling system to quantify the contribution of anthropogenic emissions to ozone and particulate matter concentrations in Europe and the Eastern Mediterranean and to understand how this contribution could change in different future scenarios. We have investigated four different future scenarios for year 2050 defined during the European Project CIRCE: a "business as usual" scenario (BAU) where no or just actual measures are taken into account; an "air quality" scenario (BAP) which implements the National Emission Ceiling directive 2001/81/EC member states of the European Union (EU-27); a "climate change" scenario (CC) which implements global climate policies decoupled from air pollution policies; and an "integrated air quality and climate policy" scenario (CAP) which explores the co-benefit of global climate and EU-27 air pollution policies. The BAP scenario largely decreases summer ozone concentrations over almost the entire continent, while the CC and CAP scenarios similarly determine lower decreases in summer ozone but extending all over the Mediterranean, the Middle East countries and Russia. Similar patterns are found for winter PM concentrations; BAP scenario improves pollution levels only in the Western EU countries, and the CAP scenario determines

  2. COMPARISON OF INDOOR AIR QUALITY IN RESTAURANT KITCHENS IN TEHRAN WITH AMBIENT AIR QUALITY

    OpenAIRE

    M. Ghasemkhani, F. Naseri

    2008-01-01

    The indoor air quality of 131 restaurant kitchens in Tehran was investigated from May to September 2006. Gas stoves use in restaurant kitchens is a major source of indoor combustion, product carbon monoxide and nitrogen dioxide. The study focused on one of the busy zones located in the southwest and central part of the city. Measurements were done for indoor and outdoor air pollutants, carbon monoxide and nitrogen dioxide; ambient temperature and relative humidity were also measured. Result i...

  3. Richton Dome air quality analysis: Revision 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Detailed supporting calculations, methodology and results of the air quality analysis performed for the Richton Dome Environmental Assessment are presented in this report. Maximum emission rates during site characterization and repository construction and operation are analyzed and reported. The major source of emissions is fugitive dust from construction activities. Modeling was performed primarily with the US Environmental Protection Agency Industrial Source Complex (ISC) Model and meteorological data from Jackson, Mississippi. Predicted maximum ground level concentrations off site are presented. Supporting calculations and computer model runs are presented in appendixes. Salt deposition around the site was predicted and results and supporting analyses are presented. 4 refs., 1 fig., 21 tabs

  4. An air quality model for Central Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A computational air quality model for Central Mexico that includes the Basin of the Valley of Mexico, the Valleys of Toluca, Puebla and Cuernavaca already in experimental operation, is presented. The meteorology of the region is obtained combining two non-hydrostatic models: a model designed for synoptic scales called MM5 provides initial and boundary data to a model specially designed for urban environments and scales called MEMO. The transport model used numerical techniques developed by the authors that eliminate numerical diffusion and dispersion. For the photochemical model several ODE's integrators were tested. The emissions model developed uses the latest inventory data gathered in the region. (Author)

  5. Aqua AIRS Level 3 8-day Standard Physical Retrieval (AIRS-only) V006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The AIRS Only Level 3 8-Day Gridded Retrieval Product contains standard retrieval means, standard deviations and input counts. Each file covers an 8-day period, or...

  6. Dust and Air Quality Forecasting in the Eastern Caribbean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sealy, A. M.; Reyes, A.; Farrell, D. A.

    2015-12-01

    Significant amounts of dust travel across the northern tropical Atlantic to the Caribbean every year from the Sahara region. These dust concentrations in the Caribbean often exceed United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) standards for particulate matter of 2.5 microns or less (PM 2.5) which could have serious implications for human health in the region. Air pollution has become a major issue in the Caribbean because of urban development, increased vehicle emissions and growing industrialisation. However, the majority of territories in the Caribbean do not have routine air quality monitoring programmes and several do not have or enforce air quality standards for PM2.5 and PM10. As a result, the Caribbean Institute for Meteorology and Hydrology (CIMH) has taken the initiative to provide dust and air quality forecasts for the Eastern Caribbean using the advanced WRF-Chem modeling system. The applications of the WRF-Chem modelling system at CIMH that are currently being focused on are the coupled weather prediction/dispersion model to simulate the release and transport of constituents, especially Saharan dust transport and concentration; and as a coupled weather/dispersion/air quality model with full interaction of chemical species with prediction of particulate matter (PM2.5 and PM10). This will include future applications in the prediction of ozone (O3) and ultraviolet (UV) radiation as well as examining dust radiative forcing and effects on atmospheric precipitation and dynamics. The simulations are currently initialised at 00Z for a seven day forecast and run at 36 km resolution with a planned second domain (at 12 km) for air quality forecasts. Preliminary results from this study will be presented and compared to other dust forecast models currently used in other regions. This work also complements in situ measurements at Ragged Point, Barbados (oldest dust record since 1965), Martinique, Guadeloupe, French Guiana and Puerto Rico. The goal of this study

  7. A smart indoor air quality sensor network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Jin

    2006-03-01

    The indoor air quality (IAQ) has an important impact on public health. Currently, the indoor air pollution, caused by gas, particle, and bio-aerosol pollutants, is considered as the top five environmental risks to public health and has an estimated cost of $2 billion/year due to medical cost and lost productivity. Furthermore, current buildings are especially vulnerable for chemical and biological warfare (CBW) agent contamination because the central air conditioning and ventilation system serve as a nature carrier to spread the released agent from one location to the whole indoor environment within a short time period. To assure the IAQ and safety for either new or existing buildings, real time comprehensive IAQ and CBW measurements are needed. With the development of new sensing technologies, economic and reliable comprehensive IAQ and CBW sensors become promising. However, few studies exist that examine the design and evaluation issues related to IAQ and CBW sensor network. In this paper, relevant research areas including IAQ and CBW sensor development, demand control ventilation, indoor CBW sensor system design, and sensor system design for other areas such as water system protection, fault detection and diagnosis, are reviewed and summarized. Potential research opportunities for IAQ and CBW sensor system design and evaluation are discussed.

  8. Indoor Air Quality Assessment of the San Francisco Federal Building

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apte, Michael; Bennett, Deborah H.; Faulkner, David; Maddalena, Randy L.; Russell, Marion L.; Spears, Michael; Sullivan, Douglas P; Trout, Amber L.

    2008-07-01

    An assessment of the indoor air quality (IAQ) of the San Francisco Federal Building (SFFB) was conducted on May 12 and 14, 2009 at the request of the General Services Administration (GSA). The purpose of the assessment was for a general screening of IAQ parameters typically indicative of well functioning building systems. One naturally ventilated space and one mechanically ventilated space were studied. In both zones, the levels of indoor air contaminants, including CO2, CO, particulate matter, volatile organic compounds, and aldehydes, were low, relative to reference exposure levels and air quality standards for comparable office buildings. We found slightly elevated levels of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) including two compounds often found in"green" cleaning products. In addition, we found two industrial solvents at levels higher than typically seen in office buildings, but the levels were not sufficient to be of a health concern. The ventilation rates in the two study spaces were high by any standard. Ventilation rates in the building should be further investigated and adjusted to be in line with the building design. Based on our measurements, we conclude that the IAQ is satisfactory in the zone we tested, but IAQ may need to be re-checked after the ventilation rates have been lowered.

  9. Impacts of Mixing on Acceptable Indoor Air Quality in Homes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sherman, Max H.; Walker, Iain I.

    2010-01-01

    Ventilation reduces occupant exposure to indoor contaminants by diluting or removing them. In a multi-zone environment such as a house, every zone will have different dilution rates and contaminant source strengths. The total ventilation rate is the most important factor in determining occupant exposure to given contaminant sources, but the zone-specific distribution of exhaust and supply air and the mixing of ventilation air can play significant roles. Different types of ventilation systems will provide different amounts of mixing depending on several factors such as air leakage, air distribution system, and contaminant source and occupant locations. Most U.S. and Canadian homes have central heating, ventilation, and air conditioning systems, which tend to mix the air; thus, the indoor air in different zones tends to be well mixed for significant fractions of the year. This article reports recent results of investigations to determine the impact of air mixing on exposures of residential occupants to prototypical contaminants of concern. We summarize existing literature and extend past analyses to determine the parameters than affect air mixing as well as the impacts of mixing on occupant exposure, and to draw conclusions that are relevant for standards development and for practitioners designing and installing home ventilation systems. The primary conclusion is that mixing will not substantially affect the mean indoor air quality across a broad population of occupants, homes, and ventilation systems, but it can reduce the number of occupants who are exposed to extreme pollutant levels. If the policy objective is to minimize the number of people exposed above a given pollutant threshold, some amount of mixing will be of net benefit even though it does not benefit average exposure. If the policy is to minimize exposure on average, then mixing air in homes is detrimental and should not be encouraged. We also conclude that most homes in the US have adequate mixing

  10. 75 FR 521 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Area Source Standards for Prepared...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-05

    ... provision in 1999 in the Integrated Urban Air Toxics Strategy, (64 FR 38715, July 19, 1999). Specifically... the Integrated Urban Air Toxics Strategy (64 FR 38715, July 19, 1999). A primary goal of the Strategy... Protection Agency 40 CFR Part 63 National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Area...

  11. AGRICULTURAL PRICE, QUANTITY, AND WELFARE EFFECTS OF AIR QUALITY IMPROVEMENTS

    OpenAIRE

    Ribaudo, Marc; Shortle, James S.

    1986-01-01

    The failure to allow for significant crop quality effects in a partial-equilibrium model can lead to misleading inferences about the price, output and welfare implications of air quality improvements. It has been observed that air pollutants such as ozone, sulphur dioxide, and nitrogen dioxide affect the yield and quality of many crops. The economic benefit from improving air quality in crop producing regions has been measured using a partial-equilibrium approach which accounts only for suppl...

  12. Indoor Air Quality Tools for Schools Program: Benefits of Improving Air Quality in the School Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. Office of Radiation and Indoor Air.

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) developed the Indoor Air Quality Tools for Schools (IAQ TfS) Program to help schools prevent, identify, and resolve their IAQ problems. This publication describes the program and its advantages, explaining that through simple, low-cost measures, schools can: reduce IAQ-related health risks and…

  13. 77 FR 52277 - Approval of Air Quality Implementation Plans; California; South Coast Air Quality Management...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-29

    ... Management and Budget under Executive Order 12866 (58 FR 51735, October 4, 1993); Does not impose an... submitted for the South Coast Air Quality Management District (District) portion of the California State...); Does not have Federalism implications as specified in Executive Order 13132 (64 FR 43255, August...

  14. 40 CFR 130.3 - Water quality standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... QUALITY PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT § 130.3 Water quality standards. A water quality standard (WQS) defines... Management (WQM) plans to reflect such revisions. Specific WQS requirements are found in 40 CFR part 131. ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Water quality standards. 130.3...

  15. 77 FR 73924 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; West Virginia; The 2002 Base Year...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-12

    ... Fine Particulate Matter National Ambient Air Quality Standard AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency... 2.5 National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS). EPA is approving the 2002 base year PM 2.5..., Carbon monoxide, Incorporation by reference, Nitrogen dioxide, Particulate matter, Reporting...

  16. COMPARISON OF INDOOR AIR QUALITY IN RESTAURANT KITCHENS IN TEHRAN WITH AMBIENT AIR QUALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ghasemkhani, F. Naseri

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The indoor air quality of 131 restaurant kitchens in Tehran was investigated from May to September 2006. Gas stoves use in restaurant kitchens is a major source of indoor combustion, product carbon monoxide and nitrogen dioxide. The study focused on one of the busy zones located in the southwest and central part of the city. Measurements were done for indoor and outdoor air pollutants, carbon monoxide and nitrogen dioxide; ambient temperature and relative humidity were also measured. Result indicated that the mean levels of CO and NO2 in restaurant kitchens were below the recommended limit of 25 and 3ppm, respectively. Correlations between indoor and outdoor air quality were performed consequently. Results of the mean ambient temperature and relative humidity were above the guideline. In this study the mean levels of CO and NO2 gas cooking in restaurant kitchens were found to be lower compared with the similar studies.

  17. Assessment of air quality in Shivamoga City, Karnataka (India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Makari

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Assessment of the ambient air quality status in the selected location of Shivamoga city Karnataka State India was carried out for four years (2005 - 2009. Four stations (industrial, commercial, institutional and residential of Shivamoga city were selected purposively to spotlight an overview of the total air quality of this region. The air quality was assessed based on measuring three air pollutants namely Suspended Particulate Matter (SPM, Oxides of Nitrogen (NOx and Oxides of Sulphur (SOx. The average concentration of SPM in Amir Ahmed circle was the highest at 969.43 μg/m3 and was lowest at the Sahayadri college Campus (65.59 μg/m3. Vinobha nagar with an average of 803.46 μg/m3 is in the medium range as well as industrial area (269.00 μg/m3. The study shows that the average NO2concentration was highest in Amir Ahmed circle (6.79 μg/m3, followed by Vinobha nagar (6.06 μg/m3 ,(industrial area (2.97 μg/m3 and Sahayadri college Campus (1.97 μg/m3. The average SO2 concentration except Vinobha Nagr station (6.59 μg/m3 in all the other locations was below the detection level, i.e. 4 μg/m3Amir Ahmed circle had the second highest value (2.89 μg/m3 . followed by industrial area (1.49 μg/m3 and Sahayadri college campus (1.22 μg/m3. According to the air quality standards given by NAAQS and WHO standards, the SPM concentrations is high in Amir Ahmed circle and Industrial Area locations and SO2 and NOx pollutants values obtained are all within the standard level. Uncontrolled emission of pollutants by motorized traffic with heavy traffic jam is the main source of pollution in the urban area mainly.

  18. 77 FR 46298 - Phosphorus Water Quality Standards for Florida Everglades

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-03

    ... water quality standard in 1999. The Legislature enacted amendments to the EFA in 2003. EPA reviewed the... CWA provides that when EPA approves a new or revised state water quality standard, ``such standard shall thereafter be the water quality standard ] for the applicable waters of the State.'' CWA...

  19. 24 CFR 982.605 - SRO: Housing quality standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false SRO: Housing quality standards. 982... Types Single Room Occupancy (sro) § 982.605 SRO: Housing quality standards. (a) HQS standards for SRO...) (space and security). Since the SRO units will not house children, the housing quality standards in §...

  20. 24 CFR 982.401 - Housing quality standards (HQS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Housing quality standards (HQS...: Housing Quality Standards, Subsidy Standards, Inspection and Maintenance § 982.401 Housing quality standards (HQS). (a) Performance and acceptability requirements. (1) This section states the housing...

  1. Radon concentration as indicator for indoor air quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Energy conservation actions could cause a reduction of the air exchange rate and a degradation of the indoor air quality too. Present methods for the estimation of the indoor air quality can only be affected with limitations. In the following a method is presented, that allows an estimation of the indoor air quality under daily routine by using natural Radon as an indicator. For this via mathematical models the progression of the air exchange rate is estimated by using the Radon concentration and later the progression of several air pollutants is estimated. Via measurements in a measurement chamber the modelling could be verified. (orig.)

  2. Fire in the forest: The air quality dilemma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fire has long been an important tool of forest land managers. Air regulators responsible for assuring that the provisions of the Clean Air Act are met, see smoke from forest land burning as just another source of air pollution. From an air quality standpoint, pollutants released by forestry burning practices are no different than those emitted from other sources since smoke is smoke, regardless of whether it comes from a woodstove, a wood products industry stack, agricultural burning, or forestry land management. This paper discusses the dilemma that air quality and forest land managers face when balancing air quality protection with the role of fire in the forest

  3. Quality criteria for air pollution models, standardisation and model development in the Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Based on standards of EPA and IEEE, quality criteria have been formulated which address the development of air pollution models, the transformation towards user-friendly software and ''after-sales'' service. A Dutch standard on the description of air pollution models is being finalized. The standard formulates minimal requirements on the theoretical and practical description of models. This paper provides a survey of the quality criteria and it summarizes the standard. Further, the current practice of model development at RIVM is discussed. (au) (24 refs.)

  4. Toward the next generation of air quality monitoring: Particulate Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel-Cox, Jill; Kim Oanh, Nguyen Thi; van Donkelaar, Aaron; Martin, Randall V.; Zell, Erica

    2013-12-01

    Fine particulate matter is one of the key global pollutants affecting human health. Satellite and ground-based monitoring technologies as well as chemical transport models have advanced significantly in the past 50 years, enabling improved understanding of the sources of fine particles, their chemical composition, and their effect on human and environmental health. The ability of air pollution to travel across country and geographic boundaries makes particulate matter a global problem. However, the variability in monitoring technologies and programs and poor data availability make global comparison difficult. This paper summarizes fine particle monitoring, models that integrate ground-based and satellite-based data, and communications, then recommends steps for policymakers and scientists to take to expand and improve local and global indicators of particulate matter air pollution. One of the key set of recommendations to improving global indicators is to improve data collection by basing particulate matter monitoring design and stakeholder communications on the individual country, its priorities, and its level of development, while at the same time creating global data standards for inter-country comparisons. When there are good national networks that produce consistent quality data that is shared openly, they serve as the foundation for better global understanding through data analysis, modeling, health impact studies, and communication. Additionally, new technologies and systems should be developed to expand personal air quality monitoring and participation of non-specialists in crowd-sourced data collections. Finally, support to the development and improvement of global multi-pollutant indicators of the health and economic effects of air pollution is essential to addressing improvement of air quality around the world.

  5. Quality assurance: Importance of systems and standard operating procedures

    OpenAIRE

    Kishu Manghani

    2011-01-01

    It is mandatory for sponsors of clinical trials and contract research organizations alike to establish, manage and monitor their quality control and quality assurance systems and their integral standard operating procedures and other quality documents to provide high-quality products and services to fully satisfy customer needs and expectations. Quality control and quality assurance systems together constitute the key quality systems. Quality control and quality assurance are parts of quality...

  6. Particulate composition characteristics under different ambient air quality conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Jiun-Horng; Chang, Lisa Tzu-Chi; Huang, Yao-Sheng; Chiang, Hung-Lung

    2011-07-01

    Particulate compositions including elemental carbon (EC), organic carbon (OC), water-soluble ionic species, and elemental compositions were investigated during the period from 2004 to 2006 in southern Taiwan. The correlation between the pollutant standard index (PSI) of ambient air quality and the various particle compositions was also addressed in this study. PSI revealed a correlation with fine (r = 0.74) and coarse (r = 0.80) particulate matter (PM). PSI manifested a significant correlation with the amount of analyzed ionic species (r approximately 0.80) in coarse and fine particles and a moderate correlation with carbon content (r = 0.63) in fine particles; however, it showed no correlation with elemental content. Although the ambient air quality ranged from good to moderate, the ionic species including chloride (Cl-), nitrate (NO3-), sulfate (SO4(2-)), sodium (Na+), ammonium (NH4+), magnesium (Mg2+), and calcium (Ca2+) increased significantly (1.5-3.7 times for Daliao and 1.8-6.9 times for Tzouying) in coarse PM. For fine particles, NO3-, SO4(2-), NH4+, and potassium (K+) also increased significantly (1.3-2.4 times for Daliao and 2.8-9.6 times for Tzouying) when the air quality went from good to moderate. For meteorological parameters, temperature evidenced a slightly negative correlation with PM concentration and PSI value, which implied a high PM concentration in the low-temperature condition. This reflects the high frequency of PM episodes in winter and spring in southern Taiwan. In addition, the mixing height increase from 980 to 1450 m corresponds to the air quality condition changing from unhealthy to good. PMID:21850835

  7. 78 FR 21582 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Butte County Air Quality Management...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-11

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Butte County Air Quality Management District and Sacramento Metropolitan Air Quality Management District AGENCY: Environmental... County Air Quality Management District (BCAQMD) and Sacramento Metropolitan Air Quality...

  8. Design of wind turbines for non-standard air density

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soraperra, Giusepe

    2005-01-01

    different pitch angel setting; (iii) adoption of extendeders to the blades can also help in restraining the standard rated power at the standard rated speed for p less than pst. The power curves for the three turbine configurations, each in three different air density conformations, have been calculated...

  9. State Skill Standards: Heating, Ventilation, Air Conditioning, and Refrigeration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, Larry; Soukup, Dennis

    2006-01-01

    The Department of Education has undertaken an ambitious effort to develop statewide career and technical education skill standards. The standards in this document are for Heating, Ventilation, Air Conditioning and Refrigeration (HVAC&R) programs and are designed to clearly state what the student should know and be able to do upon completion of an…

  10. Smartphone Air Quality and Atmospheric Aerosol Characterization for Public Health Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strong, S. B.; Brown, D. M.; Brown, A.

    2014-12-01

    Air quality is a major global concern. Tracking and monitoring air quality provides individuals with the knowledge to make personal decisions about their health and investigate the environment in which they live. Satellite remote sensing and ground-based observations (e.g. Environmental Protection Agency, NASA Aerosol Robotic Network) of air quality is spatially and temporarlly limited and often neglects to provide individuals with the freedom to understand their own personal environment using their personal observations. Given the ubiquitous nature of smartphones, individuals have access to powerful processing and sensing capabilities. When coupled with the appropriate sensor parameters, filters, and algorithms, smartphones can be used both for 'citizen science' air quality applications and 'professional' scientific atmospheric investigations, alike, simplifying data analysis, processing, and improving deployment efficiency. We evaluate the validity of smartphone technology for air quality investigations using standard Cimel CE 318 sun photometry and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroradiometer (FTIR) observations at specific locations.

  11. Hold Your Breath: A New Index of Air Quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bühn, A.; Farzanega, M.R.

    2011-01-01

    Environmental quality and climate change have long attracted attention in policy debates. Recently, air quality has emerged on the policy agenda. We calculate a new index of air quality using CO2and SO2 emissions per capita as indicators and provide a ranking for 122 countries from 1985 to 2005.The

  12. Human perception of visual air quality (uniform haze)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malm, William; Kelley, Karen; Molenar, John; Daniel, Terry

    The National Park Service and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency are cooperatively conducting ongoing studies of human perception of visual air quality. Major objectives of this program include: (1) determination of the relationship between judgments of visual air quality of actual three dimensional scenes and a surrogate slide representation of that scene, (2) examination of the effect of sun angle and meteorological conditions on perceived visual air quality, (3) examination of the effect of demographic background on observer's judgments of visual air quality, (4) establishment of a functional relationship between human perception of visual air quality and various electro-optical parameters for several different scenic vistas and (5) development of a model capable of predicting the sensitivity of a park to visual air pollution impact. Preliminary results of a previous study involving one vista revealed a linear relationship between human perception and apparent vista contrast for constant vista illumination and ground cover. A more general formalism for averaging vista color contrast appeared to account for effects that snow cover and varying illumination have on the sensitivity of perceived visual air quality to air pollution. These functional relationships are re-examined using a number of southwestern vistas. A first order model capable of predicting perceived visual air quality as a function of change in air pollution is developed. In addition, the relationship between perceived visual air quality of actual three dimensional scenes and pictoral surrogates is examined.

  13. Mexico City air quality: Progress of an international collaborative project to define air quality management options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mexico City, faces a severe air pollution problem due to a combination of circumstances. The city is in a high mountain basin at a subtropical latitude. The basin setting inhibits dispersion of pollution and contributes to frequent wintertime thermal inversions which further trap pollutants near the surface. The elevation and latitude combine to provide plentiful sunshine which, in comparison to more northern latitudes, is enhanced in the UV radiation which drives atmospheric photochemistry to produce secondary pollutants such as ozone. The Area Metropolitana de la Ciudad de Mexico AMCW is defined to include the 16 delegations of the Federal District (D.F.) and 17 highly urbanized municipalities in the State of Mexico which border the D.F. The 1990 census (XI Censo General de Poblacion y Vivienda de 1990) records that slightly over 15 million people live in the AMCM. There are numerous other nearby communities which are in the airshed region of Mexico City, but which are not included in the definition and population of the AMCM. The Mexico City Air Quality Research Initiative is one project that is examining the complex relationship between air pollution, economic growth, societal values, and air quality management policies. The project utilizes a systems approach including computer modeling, comprehensive measurement studies of Mexico City's air pollutants, environmental chemical reaction studies and socioeconomic analysis. Los Alamos National Laboratory (USA) and the Mexican Petroleum Institute are the designated lead institutions

  14. Indoor air quality analysis based on Hadoop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The air of the office environment is our research object. The data of temperature, humidity, concentrations of carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide and ammonia are collected peer one to eight seconds by the sensor monitoring system. And all the data are stored in the Hbase database of Hadoop platform. With the help of HBase feature of column-oriented store and versioned (automatically add the time column), the time-series data sets are bulit based on the primary key Row-key and timestamp. The parallel computing programming model MapReduce is used to process millions of data collected by sensors. By analysing the changing trend of parameters' value at different time of the same day and at the same time of various dates, the impact of human factor and other factors on the room microenvironment is achieved according to the liquidity of the office staff. Moreover, the effective way to improve indoor air quality is proposed in the end of this paper

  15. Indoor air quality analysis based on Hadoop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuo, Wang; Yunhua, Sun; Song, Tian; Liang, Yu; Weihong, Cui

    2014-03-01

    The air of the office environment is our research object. The data of temperature, humidity, concentrations of carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide and ammonia are collected peer one to eight seconds by the sensor monitoring system. And all the data are stored in the Hbase database of Hadoop platform. With the help of HBase feature of column-oriented store and versioned (automatically add the time column), the time-series data sets are bulit based on the primary key Row-key and timestamp. The parallel computing programming model MapReduce is used to process millions of data collected by sensors. By analysing the changing trend of parameters' value at different time of the same day and at the same time of various dates, the impact of human factor and other factors on the room microenvironment is achieved according to the liquidity of the office staff. Moreover, the effective way to improve indoor air quality is proposed in the end of this paper.

  16. 76 FR 51903 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Colorado; Revised Definitions...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-19

    ... CFR Part 52 Environmental protection, Air pollution control, Carbon monoxide, Incorporation by... progress toward attainment of the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) or any other applicable..., effective October 2006: (i) Those pollutants for which the U.S. EPA has established national ambient...

  17. 76 FR 10249 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Texas; Revisions To Control...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-24

    ... pollution regulations and control strategies to ensure that air quality meets the National Ambient Air... Container rule into the SIP on February 10, 2005 (70 FR 7041). On February 26, 2007, EPA adopted Federal... about which standards they are required to comply with. \\1\\ See 72 FR 8432. EPA is approving...

  18. The economics of air quality regulation: the true costs of increased PM2.5 regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potential best available control technologies (BACT) are being considered for promulgation by the San Joaquin Valley Air Pollution Control District and other jurisdictions in response to determinations of national ambient air quality standards non-attainment for ozone and PM2.5 by writing dairy-spec...

  19. 40 CFR Appendix D to Part 58 - Network Design Criteria for Ambient Air Quality Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... be approved as part of the annual monitoring network plan required in 40 CFR 58.10. 1 Daily or with... Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) levels and forms are defined in 40 CFR part 50. 4 These minimum...) The PM2.5 NAAQS, specified in 40 CFR part 50, provides State and local air monitoring agencies with...

  20. Space-Time Fusion Under Error in Computer Model Output: An Application to Modeling Air Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the last two decades a considerable amount of research effort has been devoted to modeling air quality with public health objectives. These objectives include regulatory activities such as setting standards along with assessing the relationship between exposure to air pollutan...

  1. Enhancing indoor air quality –The air filter advantage

    OpenAIRE

    Vannan Kandi Vijayan; Haralappa Paramesh; Sundeep Santosh Salvi; Alpa Anil Kumar Dalal

    2015-01-01

    Air pollution has become the world's single biggest environmental health risk, linked to around 7 million deaths in 2012 according to a recent World Health Organisation (WHO) report. The new data further reveals a stronger link between, indoor and outdoor air pollution exposure and cardiovascular diseases, such as strokes and ischemic heart disease, as well as between air pollution and cancer. The role of air pollution in the development of respiratory diseases, including acute respiratory in...

  2. Application of ESE Data and Tools to Air Quality Management: Services for Helping the Air Quality Community use ESE Data (SHAirED)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falke, Stefan; Husar, Rudolf

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this REASoN applications and technology project is to deliver and use Earth Science Enterprise (ESE) data and tools in support of air quality management. Its scope falls within the domain of air quality management and aims to develop a federated air quality information sharing network that includes data from NASA, EPA, US States and others. Project goals were achieved through a access of satellite and ground observation data, web services information technology, interoperability standards, and air quality community collaboration. In contributing to a network of NASA ESE data in support of particulate air quality management, the project will develop access to distributed data, build Web infrastructure, and create tools for data processing and analysis. The key technologies used in the project include emerging web services for developing self describing and modular data access and processing tools, and service oriented architecture for chaining web services together to assemble customized air quality management applications. The technology and tools required for this project were developed within DataFed.net, a shared infrastructure that supports collaborative atmospheric data sharing and processing web services. Much of the collaboration was facilitated through community interactions through the Federation of Earth Science Information Partners (ESIP) Air Quality Workgroup. The main activities during the project that successfully advanced DataFed, enabled air quality applications and established community-oriented infrastructures were: develop access to distributed data (surface and satellite), build Web infrastructure to support data access, processing and analysis create tools for data processing and analysis foster air quality community collaboration and interoperability.

  3. A Breath of Fresh Air: Addressing Indoor Air Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palliser, Janna

    2011-01-01

    Indoor air pollution refers to "chemical, biological, and physical contamination of indoor air," which may result in adverse health effects (OECD 2003). The causes, sources, and types of indoor air pollutants will be addressed in this article, as well as health effects and how to reduce exposure. Learning more about potential pollutants in home…

  4. Evaluating NOx emission inventories for regulatory air quality modeling using satellite and air quality model data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemball-Cook, Susan; Yarwood, Greg; Johnson, Jeremiah; Dornblaser, Bright; Estes, Mark

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the accuracy of NOx emissions in the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality's (TCEQ) State Implementation Plan (SIP) modeling inventories of the southeastern U.S. We used retrieved satellite tropospheric NO2 columns from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) together with NO2 columns from the Comprehensive Air Quality Model with Extensions (CAMx) to make top-down NOx emissions estimates using the mass balance method. Two different top-down NOx emissions estimates were developed using the KNMI DOMINO v2.0 and NASA SP2 retrievals of OMI NO2 columns. Differences in the top-down NOx emissions estimates made with these two operational products derived from the same OMI radiance data were sufficiently large that they could not be used to constrain the TCEQ NOx emissions in the southeast. The fact that the two available operational NO2 column retrievals give such different top-down NOx emissions results is important because these retrievals are increasingly being used to diagnose air quality problems and to inform efforts to solve them. These results reflect the fact that NO2 column retrievals are a blend of measurements and modeled data and should be used with caution in analyses that will inform policy development. This study illustrates both benefits and challenges of using satellite NO2 data for air quality management applications. Comparison with OMI NO2 columns pointed the way toward improvements in the CAMx simulation of the upper troposphere, but further refinement of both regional air quality models and the NO2 column retrievals is needed before the mass balance and other emission inversion methods can be used to successfully constrain NOx emission inventories used in U.S. regulatory modeling.

  5. Generating scenarios to predict air quality impact in public health

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, J.M.; Coelho, L.M.R.; Gouveia, C.; Cerdeira, R. [Escola Superior de Tecnologia de Setubal (EST-IPS), Setubal (Portugal); Ferreira, T.; Baptista, M.N. [Hospital Na. Sa. do Rosario, Servico de Pediatria, Barreiro (Portugal)

    2004-07-01

    This study intends to associate air quality with public health by generating air quality scenarios, under different future perspectives in Barreiro. This city is located in middle south of Portugal nearby Lisbon and it has a large resident population, an important industrial area and intense traffic. In this study ADMS-urban was used to simulate the possible scenarios of future air quality in this city, taking into consideration the probable city development and future activities. Special attention was given to the future evolutions of traffic, industrial activities, demographical and geographical expansion. The new EU directives about air quality and the CAFE program were also considered. To correlate the impact of the future air quality of the city and public health, a children population sample was used. This study team is also composed by paediatric doctors from Hospital N{sup a}. S{sup a}. do Rosario that contribute with public health information and helped to identify air quality related diseases. (orig.)

  6. Life satisfaction and air quality in London

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A growing body of research in economics concerns self-reported happiness, or life satisfaction (LS), and its relationship to a wide range of other variables. The findings of this research tend to highlight the importance of non-income aspects of individuals' life conditions. These findings are strongly complementary to themes within the sustainable development discourse. Firstly, they suggest ways in which we might consume less without compromising on our current levels of LS. And secondly, they help demonstrate the immediate LS benefits that could be gained from higher levels of environmental quality (EQ). However, the empirical evidence for the link between EQ and LS is, to date, somewhat weak, due in part to a lack of EQ data at a level of detail to match the individual-by-individual resolution of LS measures. This small, exploratory study therefore seeks to assess how the use of EQ data at very high spatial resolution could advance the empirical literature examining connections between LS and EQ levels, focusing on air quality in particular. It collects original survey data for approximately 400 Londoners, and uses geographical information system (GIS) software to calculate pollutant concentrations in the immediate vicinity of their homes. It uses this data to estimate maximum likelihood regression models explaining LS ratings in terms of a range of individual, household and local variables. Both perceived and measured air pollution levels are significantly negatively associated with the LS of the survey respondents, even when controlling for a wide range of other effects. An increase of 10 μg/m3 in annual mean nitrogen dioxide concentration appears to correspond on average to a drop of nearly half a point of LS on an 11-point rating scale. These findings cannot yet be generalised with confidence. However, if they were confirmed by larger future studies, they would appear to strengthen and extend existing arguments in favour of policies to reduce urban air

  7. Air quality estimation by computational intelligence methodologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ćirić Ivan T.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The subject of this study is to compare different computational intelligence methodologies based on artificial neural networks used for forecasting an air quality parameter - the emission of CO2, in the city of Niš. Firstly, inputs of the CO2 emission estimator are analyzed and their measurement is explained. It is known that the traffic is the single largest emitter of CO2 in Europe. Therefore, a proper treatment of this component of pollution is very important for precise estimation of emission levels. With this in mind, measurements of traffic frequency and CO2 concentration were carried out at critical intersections in the city, as well as the monitoring of a vehicle direction at the crossroad. Finally, based on experimental data, different soft computing estimators were developed, such as feed forward neural network, recurrent neural network, and hybrid neuro-fuzzy estimator of CO2 emission levels. Test data for some characteristic cases presented at the end of the paper shows good agreement of developed estimator outputs with experimental data. Presented results are a true indicator of the implemented method usability. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III42008-2/2011: Evaluation of Energy Performances and br. TR35016/2011: Indoor Environment Quality of Educational Buildings in Serbia with Impact to Health and Research of MHD Flows around the Bodies, in the Tip Clearances and Channels and Application in the MHD Pumps Development

  8. User-Centric Indoor Air Quality Monitoring on Mobile Devices

    OpenAIRE

    Jiang, Yifei; University of Colorado, Boulder; Li, Kun; University of Colorado, Boulder; Piedrahita, Ricardo; University of Colorado, Boulder; Yun, Xiang; University of Michigan; Tian, Lei; University of Colorado, Boulder; Mansata, Omkar M.; University of Michigan; Lv, Qin; University of Colorado, Boulder; Dick, Robert P.; University of Michigan; Hannigan, Michael; University of Colorado, Boulder; Shang, Li; University of Colorado, Boulder

    2013-01-01

    Since people spend a majority of their time indoors, indoor air quality (IAQ) can have a significant impact on human health, safety, productivity, and comfort. Due to the diversity and dynamics of people's indoor activities, it is important to monitor IAQ for each individual. Most existing air quality sensing systems are stationary or focus on outdoor air quality. In contrast, we propose MAQS, a user-centric mobile sensing system for IAQ monitoring. MAQS users carry portable, indoor location ...

  9. Indoor air quality in ice skating rinks in Hong Kong

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Indoor air quality in ice skating rinks has become a public concern due to the use of propane- or gasoline-powered ice resurfacers and edgers. In this study, the indoor air quality in three ice rinks with different volumes and resurfacer power sources (propane and gasoline) was monitored during usual operating hours. The measurements included continuous recording of carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2), total volatile organic compounds (TVOC), particulate matter with a diameter less than 2.5 μm (PM2.5), particulate matter with diameter less than 10 μm (PM10), nitric oxide (NO), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), nitrogen oxide (NOx), and sulfur dioxide (SO2). The average CO, CO2, and TVOC concentrations ranged from 3190 to 6749 μg/m3, 851 to 1329 ppm, and 550 to 765 μg/m3, respectively. The average NO and NO2 concentrations ranged from 69 to 1006 μg/m3 and 58 to 242 μg/m3, respectively. The highest CO and TVOC levels were observed in the ice rink which a gasoline-fueled resurfacer was used. The highest NO and NO2 levels were recorded in the ice rink with propane-fueled ice resurfacers. The air quality parameters of PM2.5, PM10, and SO2 were fully acceptable in these ice rinks according to HKIAQO standards. Overall, ice resurfacers with combustion engines cause indoor air pollution in ice rinks in Hong Kong. This conclusion is similar to those of previous studies in Europe and North America

  10. Air Pollution and Quality of Sperm: A Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fathi Najafi, Tahereh; Latifnejad Roudsari, Robab; Namvar, Farideh; Ghavami Ghanbarabadi, Vahid; Hadizadeh Talasaz, Zahra; Esmaeli, Mahin

    2015-01-01

    Context: Air pollution is common in all countries and affects reproductive functions in men and women. It particularly impacts sperm parameters in men. This meta-analysis aimed to examine the impact of air pollution on the quality of sperm. Evidence Acquisition: The scientific databases of Medline, PubMed, Scopus, Google scholar, Cochrane Library, and Elsevier were searched to identify relevant articles published between 1978 to 2013. In the first step, 76 articles were selected. These studies were ecological correlation, cohort, retrospective, cross-sectional, and case control ones that were found through electronic and hand search of references about air pollution and male infertility. The outcome measurement was the change in sperm parameters. A total of 11 articles were ultimately included in a meta-analysis to examine the impact of air pollution on sperm parameters. The authors applied meta-analysis sheets from Cochrane library, then data extraction, including mean and standard deviation of sperm parameters were calculated and finally their confidence interval (CI) were compared to CI of standard parameters. Results: The CI for pooled means were as follows: 2.68 ± 0.32 for ejaculation volume (mL), 62.1 ± 15.88 for sperm concentration (million per milliliter), 39.4 ± 5.52 for sperm motility (%), 23.91 ± 13.43 for sperm morphology (%) and 49.53 ± 11.08 for sperm count. Conclusions: The results of this meta-analysis showed that air pollution reduces sperm motility, but has no impact on the other sperm parameters of spermogram. PMID:26023349

  11. Prevention of significant deterioration: implications for energy research and development. [Air quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garvey, D. B.; Streets, D. G.; Kung, S. L.; Leppert, G.

    1978-02-10

    The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1977 contain provisions designed to prevent the significcant deterioration of air quality in areas of the nation where the ambient air is cleaner than the minimum levels required to meet National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS). The legislation will affect the economic competitiveness of alternative fuel cycles for the generation of power and will have implications for the future siting of all new major sources of emissions. This paper examines the potential effects of Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) legislation on energy technologies and industrial facilities and, in particular, the possible effects on energy research and development programs of the Department of Energy (DOE).

  12. Impact of individually controlled facially applied air movement on perceived air quality at high humidity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skwarczynski, Mariusz; Melikov, Arsen Krikor; Kaczmarczyk, J.;

    2010-01-01

    The effect of facially applied air movement on perceived air quality (PAQ) at high humidity was studied. Thirty subjects (21 males and 9 females) participated in three, 3-h experiments performed in a climate chamber. The experimental conditions covered three combinations of relative humidity and...... local air velocity under a constant air temperature of 26 degrees C, namely: 70% relative humidity without air movement, 30% relative humidity without air movement and 70% relative humidity with air movement under isothermal conditions. Personalized ventilation was used to supply room air from the front...... room air temperature of 26 degrees C and relative humidity of 70%....

  13. 78 FR 12267 - Revision of Air Quality Implementation Plan; California; Placer County Air Pollution Control...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-22

    ... Pollution Control District and Feather River Air Quality Management District; Stationary Source Permits... County Air Pollution Control District (PCAPCD) and Feather River Air Quality Management District (FRAQMD... in a previous EPA rulemaking (76 FR 44809, July 27, 2011). DATES: Any comments must arrive by...

  14. 42 CFR 493.1249 - Standard: Preanalytic systems quality assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standard: Preanalytic systems quality assessment... AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION LABORATORY REQUIREMENTS Quality System for Nonwaived Testing Preanalytic Systems § 493.1249 Standard: Preanalytic systems quality assessment. (a)...

  15. 42 CFR 493.1299 - Standard: Postanalytic systems quality assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standard: Postanalytic systems quality assessment... AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION LABORATORY REQUIREMENTS Quality System for Nonwaived Testing Postanalytic Systems § 493.1299 Standard: Postanalytic systems quality assessment. (a)...

  16. Evaluating Education Quality in Terms of ISO9000 Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fengchun, Cheng; Vogel, Linda R.; Zhaoyu, Zheng

    2014-01-01

    While nations measure the quality of educational systems by different standards, many nations, such as China, have adopted the ISO9000 quality standards to assess the quality of schools. This article explores the various elements of the the ISO9000 standards and how each element relates to the various groups that are consumers or stakeholders in…

  17. 42 CFR 493.1289 - Standard: Analytic systems quality assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standard: Analytic systems quality assessment. 493... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION LABORATORY REQUIREMENTS Quality System for Nonwaived Testing Analytic Systems § 493.1289 Standard: Analytic systems quality assessment. (a)...

  18. Enabling Mobile Air Quality App Development with an AirNow API

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dye, T.; White, J. E.; Ludewig, S. A.; Dickerson, P.; Healy, A. N.; West, J. W.; Prince, L. A.

    2013-12-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) AirNow program works with over 130 participating state, local, and federal air quality agencies to obtain, quality control, and store real-time air quality observations and forecasts. From these data, the AirNow system generates thousands of maps and products each hour. Each day, information from AirNow is published online and in other media to assist the public in making health-based decisions related to air quality. However, an increasing number of people use mobile devices as their primary tool for obtaining information, and AirNow has responded to this trend by publishing an easy-to-use Web API that is useful for mobile app developers. This presentation will describe the various features of the AirNow application programming interface (API), including Representational State Transfer (REST)-type web services, file outputs, and RSS feeds. In addition, a web portal for the AirNow API will be shown, including documentation on use of the system, a query tool for configuring and running web services, and general information about the air quality data and forecasts available. Data published via the AirNow API includes corresponding Air Quality Index (AQI) levels for each pollutant. We will highlight examples of mobile apps that are using the AirNow API to provide location-based, real-time air quality information. Examples will include mobile apps developed for Minnesota ('Minnesota Air') and Washington, D.C. ('Clean Air Partners Air Quality'), and an app developed by EPA ('EPA AirNow').

  19. A new method for calculation of an air quality index

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ilvessalo, P. [Finnish Meteorological Inst., Helsinki (Finland). Air Quality Dept.

    1995-12-31

    Air quality measurement programs in Finnish towns have expanded during the last few years. As a result of this it is more and more difficult to make use of all the measured concentration data. Citizens of Finnish towns are nowadays taking more of an interest in the air quality of their surroundings. The need to describe air quality in a simplified form has increased. Air quality indices permit the presentation of air quality data in such a way that prevailing conditions are more easily understandable than when using concentration data as such. Using an air quality index always means that some of the information about concentrations of contaminants in the air will be lost. How much information is possible to extract from a single index number depends on the calculation method. A new method for the calculation of an air quality index has been developed. This index always indicates the overstepping of an air quality guideline level. The calculation of this air quality index is performed using the concentrations of all the contaminants measured. The index gives information both about the prevailing air quality and also the short-term trend. It can also warn about the expected exceeding of guidelines due to one or several contaminants. The new index is especially suitable for the real-time monitoring and notification of air quality values. The behaviour of the index was studied using material from a measurement period in the spring of 1994 in Kaepylae, Helsinki. Material from a pre-operational period in the town of Oulu was also available. (author)

  20. Connecting Water Quality With Air Quality Through Microbial Aerosols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dueker, M. Elias

    air by increasing microbial aerosol settling rates and enhancing viability of aerosolized marine microbes. Using methods developed for the non-urban site, the role of local environment and winds in mediating water-air connections was further investigated in the urban environment. The local environment, including water surfaces, was an important source of microbial aerosols at urban sites. Large portions of the urban waterfront microbial aerosol communities were aquatic and, at a highly polluted Superfund waterfront, were closely related to bacteria previously described in environments contaminated with hydrocarbons, heavy metals, sewage and other industrial waste. Culturable urban aerosols and surface waters contained bacterial genera known to include human pathogens and asthma agents. High onshore winds strengthened this water-air connection by playing both a transport and production role. The microbial connection between water and air quality outlined by this dissertation highlights the need for information on the mechanisms that deliver surface water materials to terrestrial systems on a much larger scale. Moving from point measurements to landscape-level analyses will allow for the quantitative assessment of implications for this microbial water-air-land transfer in both urban and non-urban arenas.

  1. Assessment of the Air Quality of Isfahan City, Iran, Using Selected Air Quality Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borhan Mansouri

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Today, air pollution is one of the major problems in large cities including Isfahan. Methods: The objective of this study was to investigate the variations of ozone (O3, carbon monoxide (CO, nitric oxide (NO, nitrogen dioxide (NO2, nitrogen oxides (NOx, sulphur dioxide (SO2, and particulate matter (PM10 concentrations in different months at three stations and also to explore the correlations between pollutants. Monthly averages of air pollutant concentrations recorded in three pollution monitoring stations (Bozorgmehr, Azadi, and Laleh were obtained in 2008 and 2009. Results: There were significant monthly variations in the concentrations of air quality parameters. Results showed that there was a correlation between ozone and particle matter (p<0.05, and between nitric oxide and nitrogen oxides (p<0.01. The statistical analysis indicated that there were significant differences in the O3, NO, NOx and PM10 concentrations. Conclusion: The air quality monitoring data collected in city center of Isfahan showed seasonal variations for O3, CO, NO, NO2, NOx, SO2, and PM10.

  2. Biofuels, vehicle emissions, and urban air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallington, Timothy J; Anderson, James E; Kurtz, Eric M; Tennison, Paul J

    2016-07-18

    Increased biofuel content in automotive fuels impacts vehicle tailpipe emissions via two mechanisms: fuel chemistry and engine calibration. Fuel chemistry effects are generally well recognized, while engine calibration effects are not. It is important that investigations of the impact of biofuels on vehicle emissions consider the impact of engine calibration effects and are conducted using vehicles designed to operate using such fuels. We report the results of emission measurements from a Ford F-350 fueled with either fossil diesel or a biodiesel surrogate (butyl nonanoate) and demonstrate the critical influence of engine calibration on NOx emissions. Using the production calibration the emissions of NOx were higher with the biodiesel fuel. Using an adjusted calibration (maintaining equivalent exhaust oxygen concentration to that of the fossil diesel at the same conditions by adjusting injected fuel quantities) the emissions of NOx were unchanged, or lower, with biodiesel fuel. For ethanol, a review of the literature data addressing the impact of ethanol blend levels (E0-E85) on emissions from gasoline light-duty vehicles in the U.S. is presented. The available data suggest that emissions of NOx, non-methane hydrocarbons, particulate matter (PM), and mobile source air toxics (compounds known, or suspected, to cause serious health impacts) from modern gasoline and diesel vehicles are not adversely affected by increased biofuel content over the range for which the vehicles are designed to operate. Future increases in biofuel content when accomplished in concert with changes in engine design and calibration for new vehicles should not result in problematic increases in emissions impacting urban air quality and may in fact facilitate future required emissions reductions. A systems perspective (fuel and vehicle) is needed to fully understand, and optimize, the benefits of biofuels when blended into gasoline and diesel. PMID:27112132

  3. Air quality measurements in urban green areas - a case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuttler, W.; Strassburger, A.

    The influence of traffic-induced pollutants (e.g. CO, NO, NO 2 and O 3) on the air quality of urban areas was investigated in the city of Essen, North Rhine-Westphalia (NRW), Germany. Twelve air hygiene profile measuring trips were made to analyse the trace gas distribution in the urban area with high spatial resolution and to compare the air hygiene situation of urban green areas with the overall situation of urban pollution. Seventeen measurements were made to determine the diurnal concentration courses within urban parks (summer conditions: 13 measurements, 530 30 min mean values, winter conditions: 4 measurements, 128 30 min mean values). The measurements were carried out during mainly calm wind and cloudless conditions between February 1995 and March 1996. It was possible to establish highly differentiated spatial concentration patterns within the urban area. These patterns were correlated with five general types of land use (motorway, main road, secondary road, residential area, green area) which were influenced to varying degrees by traffic emissions. Urban parks downwind from the main emission sources show the following typical temporal concentration courses: In summer rush-hour-dependent CO, NO and NO 2 maxima only occurred in the morning. A high NO 2/NO ratio was established during weather conditions with high global radiation intensities ( K>800 W m -2), which may result in a high O 3 formation potential. Some of the values measured found in one of the parks investigated (Gruga Park, Essen, area: 0.7 km 2), which were as high as 275 μg m -3 O 3 (30-min mean value) were significantly higher than the German air quality standard of 120 μg m -3 (30-min mean value, VDI Guideline 2310, 1996) which currently applies in Germany and about 20% above the maximum values measured on the same day by the network of the North Rhine-Westphalian State Environment Agency. In winter high CO and NO concentrations occur in the morning and during the afternoon rush-hour. The

  4. Quality control standards in PGD and PGS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    SenGupta, S B; Dhanjal, S; Harper, J C

    2016-03-01

    Preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) aims to test the embryo for specific conditions before implantation in couples at risk of transmitting genetic abnormality to their offspring. The couple must undergo IVF procedures to generate embryos in vitro. The embryos can be biopsied at either the zygote, cleavage or blastocyst stage. Preimplantation genetic screening uses the same technology to screen for chromosome abnormalities in embryos from patients undergoing IVF procedures as a method of embryo selection. Fluorescence in-situ hybridization was originally used for chromosome analysis, but has now been replaced by array comparative genomic hybridization or next generation sequencing. For the diagnosis of single gene defects, polymerase chain reaction is used and has become highly developed; however, single nucleotide polymorphism arrays for karyomapping have recently been introduced. A partnership between IVF laboratories and diagnostic centres is required to carry out PGD and preimplantation genetic screening. Accreditation of PGD diagnostic laboratories is important. Accreditation gives IVF centres an assurance that the diagnostic tests conform to specified standards. ISO 15189 is an international laboratory standard specific for medical laboratories. A requirement for accreditation is to participate in external quality assessment schemes. PMID:26776824

  5. 77 FR 65310 - Additional Air Quality Designations for the 2006 24-Hour Fine Particle National Ambient Air...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-26

    ... the 2006 24-hour Fine Particle (PM 2.5 ) National Ambient Air Quality Standards,'' 74 FR 58688... Federal Regulations DC District of Columbia EO Executive Order EPA Environmental Protection Agency FR... EPA finalized designations for the 2006 24-hour PM 2.5 NAAQS (74 FR 58688, November 13, 2009), the...

  6. Human requirements to the indoor air quality and the thermal environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanger, P. Ole

    Perceived air quality, general thermal sensation of the occupants and risk of draft, aspects which human comfort in a space depends upon, are reviewed separately based on European Guidelines for Ventilation Requirements in Buildings and on a modified ISO (International Standards Organization) standard 7730 on thermal comfort. The perceived air quality is expressed in decipol or percentage of dissatisfied occupants. The general thermal sensation is expressed by the PMV/PPD indices. The perception of draft is expressed by the model of draft risk. Indoor air quality is mediocre and causes complaints in many buildings. The reason for this is often hidden pollution sources in the building, hitherto ignored in previous ventilation standards. To determine the required ventilation, a method is used in the European Guidelines. The new Guidelines acknowledge all pollution sources in the building, expressed in olfs. The method is based on the desired air quality in the space, the available quality of the outdoor air, the ventilation effectiveness and on the total pollution load in the space. The model of draft risk predicts the percentage of occupants feeling draft as a function of the mean air velocity, the turbulence intensity and the air temperature.

  7. Impact of individually controlled facially applied air movement on perceived air quality at high humidity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skwarczynski, M.A. [Faculty of Environmental Engineering, Institute of Environmental Protection Engineering, Department of Indoor Environment Engineering, Lublin University of Technology, Lublin (Poland); International Centre for Indoor Environment and Energy, Department of Civil Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, Copenhagen (Denmark); Melikov, A.K.; Lyubenova, V. [International Centre for Indoor Environment and Energy, Department of Civil Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, Copenhagen (Denmark); Kaczmarczyk, J. [Faculty of Energy and Environmental Engineering, Department of Heating, Ventilation and Dust Removal Technology, Silesian University of Technology, Gliwice (Poland)

    2010-10-15

    The effect of facially applied air movement on perceived air quality (PAQ) at high humidity was studied. Thirty subjects (21 males and 9 females) participated in three, 3-h experiments performed in a climate chamber. The experimental conditions covered three combinations of relative humidity and local air velocity under a constant air temperature of 26 C, namely: 70% relative humidity without air movement, 30% relative humidity without air movement and 70% relative humidity with air movement under isothermal conditions. Personalized ventilation was used to supply room air from the front toward the upper part of the body (upper chest, head). The subjects could control the flow rate (velocity) of the supplied air in the vicinity of their bodies. The results indicate an airflow with elevated velocity applied to the face significantly improves the acceptability of the air quality at the room air temperature of 26 C and relative humidity of 70%. (author)

  8. 75 FR 958 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Maryland; 2002 Base Year Emission...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-07

    ...-road small gasoline engines, non-road diesel engines (Tier I and Tier II), marine engine standards... information on contingency measures, see the April 16, 1992 General Preamble (57 FR 13512) and the November 29... national ambient air quality standard (NAAQS) and demonstrates further progress in reducing...

  9. Air pollution assessment in the Slovak Republic in 2005. Measurement stations of air quality monitoring network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this Appendix to the report 'Air pollution assessment in the Slovak Republic in 2005' the main characteristics of measurement stations of air quality monitoring network of the Slovak Republic are presented

  10. Air-Microfluidics: Creating Small, Low-cost, Portable Air Quality Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Air-microfluidics shows great promise in dramatically reducing the size, cost, and power requirements of future air quality sensors without compromising their accuracy. Microfabrication provides a suite of relatively new tools for the development of micro electro mechanical syste...

  11. Developing effective urban air quality management systems in the United Kingdom. Case studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elsom, D.M.; Crabbe, H. [Oxford Brookes Univ. (United Kingdom). Geography Unit

    1995-12-31

    During the past few years an increasing number of local authorities have expressed concern about the ambient levels of nitrogen dioxide, carbon monoxide, benzene and fine particulates that residents may be experiencing in traffic-congested parts of towns and cities. Although recent legislation is intended to reduce vehicle emissions (e.g. stricter exhaust emission standards requiring new cars to be equipped with catalytic converters), the growth in the number of motor vehicles, their frequency of use and the congestion they are causing in urban centres have resulted in little or no improvement in air quality. Although total vehicle emissions of nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are expected to fall significantly during the next ten years, air quality will still remain a problem in some urban areas. Clearly, not all local air quality problems can be eliminated by the use of national legislation. For several years, local authorities and environmental organisations (e.g. National Society for Clean Air and Environmental Protection) have argued for local authorities to be given a statutory duty, together with appropriate funding from central government, to produce local air quality management plans which assess the seriousness of any air quality problems and which, if necessary, set out how poor air quality can be improved. This presentation examines the progress towards urban air quality management in the UK. (author)

  12. Developing effective urban air quality management systems in the United Kingdom. Case studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the past few years an increasing number of local authorities have expressed concern about the ambient levels of nitrogen dioxide, carbon monoxide, benzene and fine particulates that residents may be experiencing in traffic-congested parts of towns and cities. Although recent legislation is intended to reduce vehicle emissions (e.g. stricter exhaust emission standards requiring new cars to be equipped with catalytic converters), the growth in the number of motor vehicles, their frequency of use and the congestion they are causing in urban centres have resulted in little or no improvement in air quality. Although total vehicle emissions of nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are expected to fall significantly during the next ten years, air quality will still remain a problem in some urban areas. Clearly, not all local air quality problems can be eliminated by the use of national legislation. For several years, local authorities and environmental organisations (e.g. National Society for Clean Air and Environmental Protection) have argued for local authorities to be given a statutory duty, together with appropriate funding from central government, to produce local air quality management plans which assess the seriousness of any air quality problems and which, if necessary, set out how poor air quality can be improved. This presentation examines the progress towards urban air quality management in the UK. (author)

  13. Indoor air quality: sources and control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The nature of the indoor air quality problem is described; methods of control or reduction of indoor radon and radon progeny concentrations have been reviewed. These techniques may be categorized as radon source reduction, radon removal, and radon progeny removal. There are a number of potential sources of radon in US housing, including soil, potable water, and building materials. In most cases, it appears that flow of radon-bearing soil gas into houses, driven by a slight negative pressure differential across the building shell, is a major source of indoor radon; this pressure-driven flow appears to be the most likely source of radon that can account for the elevated radon concentrations observed in some houses. There are a number of radon source control techniques; their effectiveness will depend upon characteristics of the house substructure and the details of the specific application. While the results of such remedial measures have varied and the data base from which to generalize is small, five-to-ten-fold reductions in radon concentration have been reported. 31 references, 4 figures

  14. THE QUALITY OF AIR IN HOSPITAL ENVIRONMENTS CLIMATIZED AND ITS INFLUENCE IN THE OCCURRENCE OF INFECTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Staciarini Anders

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Climatized environment is defined as the environment where temperature and humidity are controlled.We have made a review of literature, from 1990 to 2001, through data base MEDLINE, LILACS and Ministry ofHealth – Brazil. The aim of this study was to analyze the air quality in climatized environment and the last as a riskfactor for hospital infection – HI. Twenty-three articles where analyzed and gathered by the focused theme;patterns and principles for maintaining the air quality; air quality and isolation of microorganism; air quality andoccurrence of infection. The standard of quality quotes: ventilation, maintenance and cleanness of climatizationsystems. Aspergillus, Legionella, Acinetobacter, Clostridium, Nocardia, among others where found in airconditioned devices and the first three ones being responsable for booms of HI.

  15. A cost-efficiency and health benefit approach to improve urban air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, A I; Ferreira, J; Silveira, C; Relvas, H; Duque, L; Roebeling, P; Lopes, M; Costa, S; Monteiro, A; Gama, C; Sá, E; Borrego, C; Teixeira, J P

    2016-11-01

    When ambient air quality standards established in the EU Directive 2008/50/EC are exceeded, Member States are obliged to develop and implement Air Quality Plans (AQP) to improve air quality and health. Notwithstanding the achievements in emission reductions and air quality improvement, additional efforts need to be undertaken to improve air quality in a sustainable way - i.e. through a cost-efficiency approach. This work was developed in the scope of the recently concluded MAPLIA project "Moving from Air Pollution to Local Integrated Assessment", and focuses on the definition and assessment of emission abatement measures and their associated costs, air quality and health impacts and benefits by means of air quality modelling tools, health impact functions and cost-efficiency analysis. The MAPLIA system was applied to the Grande Porto urban area (Portugal), addressing PM10 and NOx as the most important pollutants in the region. Four different measures to reduce PM10 and NOx emissions were defined and characterized in terms of emissions and implementation costs, and combined into 15 emission scenarios, simulated by the TAPM air quality modelling tool. Air pollutant concentration fields were then used to estimate health benefits in terms of avoided costs (external costs), using dose-response health impact functions. Results revealed that, among the 15 scenarios analysed, the scenario including all 4 measures lead to a total net benefit of 0.3M€·y(-1). The largest net benefit is obtained for the scenario considering the conversion of 50% of open fire places into heat recovery wood stoves. Although the implementation costs of this measure are high, the benefits outweigh the costs. Research outcomes confirm that the MAPLIA system is useful for policy decision support on air quality improvement strategies, and could be applied to other urban areas where AQP need to be implemented and monitored. PMID:27348699

  16. Auditing and assessing nutrient management for air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The potential adverse effects of concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFO) on the environment are a growing concern. Until recently, the effects of CAFO on air quality have received little attention. The air quality concerns of CAFO vary with the location, type of operation, and other factors....

  17. INDOOR AIR QUALITY AND INHALATION EXPOSURE - SIMULATION TOOL KIT

    Science.gov (United States)

    A Microsoft Windows-based indoor air quality (IAQ) simulation software package is presented. Named Simulation Tool Kit for Indoor Air Quality and Inhalation Exposure, or IAQX for short, this package complements and supplements existing IAQ simulation programs and is desi...

  18. Improving Indoor Air Quality in St. Cloud Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forer, Mike; Haus, El

    2000-01-01

    Describes how the St. Cloud Area School District (Minnesota), using Tools for Schools provided by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, managed the improvement of their school building indoor air quality (IAQ). The district goals of the IAQ Management Committee and the policy elements used to maintain high classroom air quality are…

  19. Reference Guide. Indoor Air Quality Tools for Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    US Environmental Protection Agency, 2009

    2009-01-01

    Understanding the importance of good indoor air quality (IAQ) in schools is the backbone of developing an effective Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) program. Poor IAQ can lead to a large variety of health problems and potentially affect comfort, concentration, and staff/student performance. In recognition of tight school budgets, this guidance is designed…

  20. School Policies and Practices that Improve Indoor Air Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Sherry Everett; Smith, Alisa M.; Wheeler, Lani S.; McManus, Tim

    2010-01-01

    Background: To determine whether schools with a formal indoor air quality management program were more likely than schools without a formal program to have policies and practices that promote superior indoor air quality. Methods: This study analyzed school-level data from the 2006 School Health Policies and Programs Study, a national study of…

  1. UNDERSTANDING THE RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN AIR QUALITY AND HUMAN HEALTH

    Science.gov (United States)

    This issue of EM presents a series of articles that focus on air quality and human health--what we know so far and the challenges that remain. The first article provides an overview of the problem at hand and approaches to properly address air quality and human health issues. Fo...

  2. How to adjust traffic management to air quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matrix boards are used to manage traffic speed on roads. The Dutch InnovatieProgramma Luchtkwaliteit IPL (Air Quality Innovation Programme ) has looked at the option of using matrix boards to improve the air quality along the highways. The IPL has also examined other temporary measures that can be deployed at times of peak concentrations of PM10 and/or NO2.

  3. Impact of inherent meteorology uncertainty on air quality model predictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    It is well established that there are a number of different classifications and sources of uncertainties in environmental modeling systems. Air quality models rely on two key inputs, namely, meteorology and emissions. When using air quality models for decision making, it is impor...

  4. Outdoor Air Quality Level Inference via Surveillance Cameras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Air pollution is a universal problem confronted by many developing countries. Because there are very few air quality monitoring stations in cities, it is difficult for people to know the exact air quality level anytime and anywhere. Fortunately, large amount of surveillance cameras have been deployed in the cities and can capture image densely and conveniently in the cities. In this case, this provides the possibility to utilize surveillance cameras as sensors to obtain data and predict the air quality level. To this end, we present a novel air quality level inference approach based on outdoor images. Firstly, we explore several features extracted from images as the robust representation for air quality prediction. Then, to effectively fuse these heterogeneous and complementary features, we adopt multikernel learning to learn an adaptive classifier for air quality level inference. In addition, to facilitate the research, we construct an Outdoor Air Quality Image Set (OAQIS dataset, which contains high quality registered and calibrated images with rich labels, that is, concentration of particles mass (PM, weather, temperature, humidity, and wind. Extensive experiments on the OAQIS dataset demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

  5. Stability results of a free air ionization chamber in standard mammography beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Natalia F.; Xavier, Marcos; Vivolo, Vitor; Caldas, Linda V.E., E-mail: nsilva@ipen.br, E-mail: mxavier@ipen.br, E-mail: vivolo@ipen.br, E-mail: lcaldas@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    Free air ionization chambers are absolute dosimeters, because they can measure basic physical quantities directly without the need of their calibration in a standard radiation beam. They are used for measuring exposure and air kerma in X and gamma radiation beams. The Calibration Laboratory (LCI) of IPEN has a free air ionization chamber of the cylindrical type for low energies. The characterization of this ionization chamber was already performed and reported in a previous study. After a modification in the support of the micrometers used for the movement of the internal cylinder devices, the tests were redone. The objective of this work was to present the new alignment protocol of the free air ionization chamber in low energies of X-ray beams of standard mammography qualities, assuring the positioning reproducibility, and new results of stability tests performed with the application of this protocol will be presented. (author)

  6. A retrospective look at air quality management in Los Angeles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The history of air quality management in Los Angeles is discussed. Successful as well as unsuccessful programs and control measures are described. Specific air pollutants discussed are sulfur dioxide, lead, carbon monoxide, particulate matter, nitrogen oxides, ozone, and toxic air contaminants

  7. Air Quality Modelling and the National Emission Database

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, S. S.

    The project focuses on development of institutional strengthening to be able to carry out national air emission inventories based on the CORINAIR methodology. The present report describes the link between emission inventories and air quality modelling to ensure that the new national air emission...

  8. Problems and perspectives of border-zone air quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tolivia, E.

    1982-10-01

    The Saneamiento Atmosferico of Mexico with the United States Environmental Protection Agency has formulated an agreement elaborating programs to address the problems of border-zone air quality according to the specific problems of particular trans-national areas. Industries and power plants affect air quality on both sides of the border. In areas especially suffering from vehicle emissions, the agreement provides for the monitoring of air quality through an air-meter system. Vehicle maintenance and inspection programs are now being put into effect.

  9. Report. no. 20. Sensory evaluation of indoor air quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berglund, Birgitta; Bluyssen, Philomena; Clausen, Geo;

    way. Therefore, sensory methods many times are the only or the preferred tool for evaluation of perceived indoor air quality. This report presents background to and advice on methodologies for sensory evaluation of perceived indoor air quality. It proposes methods which apply to source assessments as......Human subjects are indispensable in the measurement of perceived indoor air quality. Chemical and physical methods of characterisation often are insensitive to odorous and sensory irritating air pollutants, or do not take account of combinations of singular pollutants in a biologically meaningful...

  10. Air quality in inter-city buses : final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Various studies have suggested that air quality inside automobiles and school buses may be poorer than ambient or nearby air quality, and that concentrations of vehicle-related pollutants in city buses may be sufficiently elevated to pose concerns for vehicle occupants and operators. This paper presented the results of preliminary investigation of levels of some pollutants in inter-city buses to determine whether a fuller investigation is warranted. Another objective of the investigation was to develop methods for assessing air quality within road vehicles. Students carried monitoring equipment on 28 inter-city trips made by Greyhound Canada buses during July and August 2004. The equipment recorded average levels of carbon monoxide (CO) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2), as well as concentrations of particulate matter. Bus routes were selected that allowed for an average of 10 hours of total sampling time in a day. Data was recorded on pumps, run times and routes taken. Results indicated that levels of CO in the buses were much lower than the national standard of acceptable levels for CO. Levels of NO2 were on average lower, but 5 of the 19 recorded values exceeded acceptable levels. Average particulate levels recorded in the buses were considered acceptable, although some of the recorded levels were higher than desirable. It was concluded that further work on in-vehicle levels of NO2 and particulate matter could be warranted. Although several procedural and equipment problems were encountered, the methods used in the investigation appeared to be valid, and were thought to be suitable for further work on in-vehicle concentrations of pollutants. 21 refs

  11. Implications of a stochastic approach to air-quality regulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Witten, A.J.; Kornegay, F.C.; Hunsaker, D.B. Jr.; Long, E.C. Jr.; Sharp, R.D.; Walsh, P.J.; Zeighami, E.A.; Gordon, J.S.; Lin, W.L.

    1982-09-01

    This study explores the viability of a stochastic approach to air quality regulations. The stochastic approach considered here is one which incorporates the variability which exists in sulfur dioxide (SO/sub 2/) emissions from coal-fired power plants. Emission variability arises from a combination of many factors including variability in the composition of as-received coal such as sulfur content, moisture content, ash content, and heating value, as well as variability which is introduced in power plant operations. The stochastic approach as conceived in this study addresses variability by taking the SO/sub 2/ emission rate to be a random variable with specified statistics. Given the statistical description of the emission rate and known meteorological conditions, it is possible to predict the probability of a facility exceeding a specified emission limit or violating an established air quality standard. This study also investigates the implications of accounting for emissions variability by allowing compliance to be interpreted as an allowable probability of occurrence of given events. For example, compliance with an emission limit could be defined as the probability of exceeding a specified emission value, such as 1.2 lbs SO/sub 2//MMBtu, being less than 1%. In contrast, compliance is currently taken to mean that this limit shall never be exceeded, i.e., no exceedance probability is allowed. The focus of this study is on the economic benefits offered to facilities through the greater flexibility of the stochastic approach as compared with possible changes in air quality and health effects which could result.

  12. Air quality in inter-city buses : final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-06-29

    Various studies have suggested that air quality inside automobiles and school buses may be poorer than ambient or nearby air quality, and that concentrations of vehicle-related pollutants in city buses may be sufficiently elevated to pose concerns for vehicle occupants and operators. This paper presented the results of preliminary investigation of levels of some pollutants in inter-city buses to determine whether a fuller investigation is warranted. Another objective of the investigation was to develop methods for assessing air quality within road vehicles. Students carried monitoring equipment on 28 inter-city trips made by Greyhound Canada buses during July and August 2004. The equipment recorded average levels of carbon monoxide (CO) and nitrogen dioxide (NO{sub 2}), as well as concentrations of particulate matter. Bus routes were selected that allowed for an average of 10 hours of total sampling time in a day. Data was recorded on pumps, run times and routes taken. Results indicated that levels of CO in the buses were much lower than the national standard of acceptable levels for CO. Levels of NO{sub 2} were on average lower, but 5 of the 19 recorded values exceeded acceptable levels. Average particulate levels recorded in the buses were considered acceptable, although some of the recorded levels were higher than desirable. It was concluded that further work on in-vehicle levels of NO{sub 2} and particulate matter could be warranted. Although several procedural and equipment problems were encountered, the methods used in the investigation appeared to be valid, and were thought to be suitable for further work on in-vehicle concentrations of pollutants. 21 refs.

  13. Electricity supply. Older plants' impact on reliability and air quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Life extension of fossil fuel plants is a relatively recent phenomenon; thus, utilities have little experience to demonstrate the longer-term operating reliability of plants with an extended service life. While utility industry officials and government and industry studies express optimism that these plants will continue to operate reliably, the officials and the studies also caution that it is too soon to determine how pursuing life extension will affect the reliability of the nation's electricity supply. According to DOE, the number of fossil fuel generating units' 30 years old or older is expected to increase from about 2,500 in 1989 to roughly 3,700 in 1998, increasing such plants' share of overall generating capacity from 13 percent in 1989 to 27 percent in 1998. EPA estimates that with existing air quality requirements, fossil fuel plant emissions will increase steadily during the coming decade. Proposed acid rain control legislation, which would affect many plants that may have their service life extended, would require utilities to significantly reduce emissions by the year 2000 but would allow utilities flexibility in deciding how and where to achieve the reductions. If such legislation is enacted, utilities generally are expected to find reducing emissions from existing plants more cost-effective than replacing them and to continue extending plants' service life. Officials of DOE and utility organizations expressed concern, however, that EPA could decide, as it did for one plant in 1988, that alterations made in extending the service life of plants exempted from the Clean Air Act would result in increased emissions and thus cause the altered plants to lose their exemption. According to the officials, the additional costs of achieving the Clean Air Act's standards could discourage some life extension projects. However, such decisions by EPA could also reduce the nation's total power plant emissions by eliminating an existing incentive to retain exempt

  14. Quality assurance: Importance of systems and standard operating procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manghani, Kishu

    2011-01-01

    It is mandatory for sponsors of clinical trials and contract research organizations alike to establish, manage and monitor their quality control and quality assurance systems and their integral standard operating procedures and other quality documents to provide high-quality products and services to fully satisfy customer needs and expectations. Quality control and quality assurance systems together constitute the key quality systems. Quality control and quality assurance are parts of quality management. Quality control is focused on fulfilling quality requirements, whereas quality assurance is focused on providing confidence that quality requirements are fulfilled. The quality systems must be commensurate with the Company business objectives and business model. Top management commitment and its active involvement are critical in order to ensure at all times the adequacy, suitability, effectiveness and efficiency of the quality systems. Effective and efficient quality systems can promote timely registration of drugs by eliminating waste and the need for rework with overall financial and social benefits to the Company. PMID:21584180

  15. Outdoor Air Quality Level Inference via Surveillance Cameras

    OpenAIRE

    Zheng Zhang; Huadong Ma; Huiyuan Fu; Liang Liu; Cheng Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Air pollution is a universal problem confronted by many developing countries. Because there are very few air quality monitoring stations in cities, it is difficult for people to know the exact air quality level anytime and anywhere. Fortunately, large amount of surveillance cameras have been deployed in the cities and can capture image densely and conveniently in the cities. In this case, this provides the possibility to utilize surveillance cameras as sensors to obtain data and predict the a...

  16. Chemistry and the linkages between air quality and climate change

    OpenAIRE

    von Schneidemesser, Erika; Monks, Paul S.; Allan, James D.; Bruhwiler, Lori; Forster, Piers; Fowler, David; Lauer, Axel; Morgan, William T.; Paasonen, Pauli; Righi, Mattia; Sindelarova, Katerina; Sutton, Mark A.

    2015-01-01

    Climate change and air pollution are critical environmental issues both in the here and now and for the coming decades. Many mitigation options offer the possibility to both improve air quality and mitigate climate change, such as improvements in energy efficiency, or a switch to wind or solar power, all of which reduce emissions across the board. The atmospheric chemistry of ozone is an important context to understand the linkages between air quality and climate change, because many indirect...

  17. Cabin environment and air quality in civil transport aircraft

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Weiguo

    2012-01-01

    The cabin environment of a commercial aircraft, including cabin layout and the quality of air supply, is crucial to the airline operators. These aspects directly affect the passengers’ experience and willing to travel. This aim of this thesis is to design the cabin layout for flying wing aircraft as part of cabin environment work, followed by the air quality work, which is to understand what effect the ECS can have in terms of cabin air contamination. The project, initially, focuses on the...

  18. Studies of urban air quality using electrochemical based sensor instruments

    OpenAIRE

    Popoola, Olalekan Abdul Muiz

    2012-01-01

    Poor air quality has been projected to be the world?s top cause of environmental premature mortality by 2050 surpassing poor sanitation and dirty water (IGBP / IGAC press release, 2012 ). One of the major challenges of air quality management is how to adequately quantify both the spatial and temporal variations of pollutants for the purpose of implementing necessary mitigation measures. The work described in this thesis aims to address this problem using novel electrochemical based air qualit...

  19. Assessment of Air Quality Status in Wuhan, China

    OpenAIRE

    Jiabei Song; Wu Guang; Linjun Li; Rongbiao Xiang

    2016-01-01

    In this study, air quality characteristics in Wuhan were assessed through descriptive statistics and Hierarchical Cluster Analysis (HCA). Results show that air quality has slightly improved over the recent years. While the NO2 concentration is still increasing, the PM10 concentration shows a clearly downward trend with some small fluctuations. In addition, the SO2 concentration has steadily decreased since 2008. Nevertheless, the current level of air pollutants is still quite high, with the P...

  20. Field investigation survey of airtightness, air movement and indoor air quality of high rise apartment buildings, prairie region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gulay, B.W.; Stewart, C.D.

    1991-01-01

    A field investigation survey was conducted to determine exfiltration rates through the building envelope, inter-suite air leakage, and indoor air quality in two 13-storey high-rise apartment buildings located in Winnipeg. The survey also established the effect the heating, ventilating, and air conditioning system has on the pressure differential across the building envelope. Building residents were surveyed to establish the general environmental conditions, and five specific pollutants were identified and quantified. The applicability of procedures used was documented for use in future investigations and as candidate procedures for a standardized testing protocol.

  1. Ambient air quality and the effects of air pollutants on otolaryngology in Beijing

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Fengying; Xu, Jin; Zhang, Ziying; Meng, Haiying; Wang, Li; Lu, Jinmei; Wang, Wuyi; Kraft, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Abstract To investigate temporal patterns, pollution concentrations and the health effects of air pollutants in Beijing we carried out time-series analyses on daily concentrations of ambient air pollutants and daily numbers of outpatient visits for otolaryngology over 2 years (2011– 2012) to identify possible health effects of air pollutants. The results showed that PM10 was the major air pollutant in Beijing and that air quality was slightly better in 2012 than in 201...

  2. Moving towards cleaner air: a progress report on the air quality strategy for the City of Toronto

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The City of Toronto Environmental Plan was adapted in principle by City Council in April 2000. The Plan contains 66 recommendations on land, air, water, governance, sustainability, energy, transportation, green economic development and monitoring. As part of the actions on air, the Plan recommended that the City develop a comprehensive strategy to make Toronto's air clean and free of harmful levels of pollutants. This document reports on progress in the development of this comprehensive air quality standard. Work on the standards was undertaken by an Air Quality Strategy Interdepartmental Working Group (AQSI Working Group) consisting of city departmental representatives, which is one of several working groups reporting to the Toronto Interdepartmental Environmental Team (TIE). While the AQSI Working Group has not yet concluded its work, it is able to report a number of preliminary conclusions. Among them are: implementation of several successful city-wide programs. In this context preliminary indications are that program effectiveness will be limited by the availability of staff and appropriate funding. Policy and legal studies that will provide essential information relating to the legal/jurisdictional context are well underway. Modelling and monitoring of Toronto's air quality are in progress, and will be relied upon for information to guide policy development. Final strategy will have to be formulated in a regional context, in concert with the provincial and federal governments, and will have to take into account trans-boundary (inter-regional, inter-provincial and international) issues

  3. Air quality impacts of power plant emissions in Beijing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The CALMET/CALPUFF modeling system was applied to estimate the air quality impacts of power plants in 2000 and 2008 in Beijing, and the intake fractions (IF) were calculated to see the public health risks posed. Results show that in 2000 the high emission contribution induced a relatively small contribution to average ambient concentration and a significant impact on the urban area (9.52 μg/m3 of SO2 and 5.29 μg/m3 of NOx). The IF of SO2, NOx and PM10 are 7.4 x 10-6, 7.4 x 10-6 and 8.7 x 10-5, respectively. Control measures such as fuel substitution, flue gas desulfurization, dust control improvement and flue gas denitration planned before 2008 will greatly mitigate the SO2 and PM10 pollution, especially alleviating the pressure on the urban area to reach the National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS). NOx pollution will be mitigated with 34% decrease in concentration but further controls are still needed. - CALMET/CALPUFF modeling estimates sizeable reductions in SO2, PM10 and NOx pollution from power plants by 2008 for Beijing

  4. Indoor air quality environmental information handbook: Combustion sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-06-01

    This environmental information handbook was prepared to assist both the non-technical reader (i.e., homeowner) and technical persons (such as researchers, policy analysts, and builders/designers) in understanding the current state of knowledge regarding combustion sources of indoor air pollution. Quantitative and descriptive data addressing the emissions, indoor concentrations, factors influencing indoor concentrations, and health effects of combustion-generated pollutants are provided. In addition, a review of the models, controls, and standards applicable to indoor air pollution from combustion sources is presented. The emphasis is on the residential environment. The data presented here have been compiled from government and privately-funded research results, conference proceedings, technical journals, and recent publications. It is intended to provide the technical reader with a comprehensive overview and reference source on the major indoor air quality aspects relating to indoor combustion activities, including tobacco smoking. In addition, techniques for determining potential concentrations of pollutants in residential settings are presented. This is an update of a 1985 study documenting the state of knowledge of combustion-generated pollutants in the indoor environment. 191 refs., 51 figs., 71 tabs.

  5. Indoor air quality handbook: for designers, builders, and users of energy efficient residences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this handbook is to assist designers, builders, and users of energy efficient residences to achieve the goals of energy efficiency and maintenance of high indoor air quality simultaneously. The handbook helps in identifying and controlling potential problems of indoor air quality. It identifies sources and discusses effective ways to decrease concentrations of air contaminants. It focuses on indoor air quality in both single and multifamily energy-efficient residences. Information about commercial structures such as hospitals and office buildings is presented when it also applies to residences. Basic concepts of contaminants and their concentrations, sources and removal mechanisms, contaminant distribution, heat transfer, and air exchange are discussed. The effects of the building system on indoor air quality are examined. The effects of the external environment, building envelope, environmental control systems, interior design, furnishings, and inhabitants on the emission, dispersion, and removal of indoor air contaminants as well as direct and indirect effects of energy-efficient features are discussed. The health effects of specific air contaminants and the health standards developed for them are examined. Available methods for predicting and measuring contaminants and for evaluating human responses are discussed. Methods and equipment available for the control of indoor air pollution once the contaminants have been identified are also evaluated. The potential legal aspects, including regulatory intervention and civil lawsuits, of failure to evaluate and control indoor air pollution are discussed. A list of references, a glossary, and an index are also included

  6. An energy impact assessment of indoor air quality acceptance for air-conditioned offices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Treatment of fresh air in ventilation systems for the air-conditioning consumes a considerable amount of energy and affects the indoor air quality (IAQ). The ventilation demand is primarily related to the occupant load. In this study, the ventilation demands due to occupant load variations and occupant acceptability were examined against certain IAQ objectives using the mass balance of carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations in an air-conditioned office. In particular, this study proposed a ventilation model for the consideration of the occupant load variations and occupant acceptability based on the regional survey of typical offices (422 samples) in Hong Kong. The model was applied to evaluate the relative energy performance of different IAQ objectives in ventilation systems for typical office buildings in Hong Kong. The results showed that the energy consumption of a ventilation system would be correlated with the occupant load and acceptability in the air-conditioned office. Indicative CO2 levels of 800 ppmv, 1000 ppmv and 1200 ppmv corresponding to 83%, 97% and 99.7% survey samples were shown, corresponding to the thermal energy consumptions of 1500 MJ m-2 yr-1, 960 MJ m-2 yr-1and 670 MJ m-2 yr-1, respectively. In regards to the monetary issue, an annual value of HK$ 762 million per year in electrical consumption could be saved in all office buildings in Hong Kong when the indoor target CO2 concentration is increased from 1000 ppmv to 1200 ppmv. To achieve an excellent IAQ following the existing design standard, i.e. to decrease the CO2 level from 1000 ppmv to 800 ppmv, 56% additional energy would be consumed, corresponding to an annual value of HK$ 1,419 million, even though the occupant acceptability is only improved from 81% to 86%. The development of the models in this study would be useful for the energy performance evaluation of ventilation systems in air-conditioned offices

  7. Leveraging Standards to Promote Program Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Michelle D.; Mawhinney, Hanna; Reed, Cynthia J.

    2016-01-01

    Standards provide a foundation for thinking about leadership development and practice. This article explores three sets of standards that impact educational leadership preparation: (a) the recently revised Interstate School Leaders Licensure Consortium (ISLLC) standards, which are now known as the Practice Standards for Educational Leaders (PSEL);…

  8. The Explication of Quality Standards in Self-Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronkhorst, Larike H.; Baartman, Liesbeth K. J.; Stokking, Karel M.

    2012-01-01

    Education aiming at students' competence development asks for new assessment methods. The quality of these methods needs to be assured using adapted quality criteria and accompanying standards. As such standards are not widely available, this study sets out to examine what level of compliance with quality criteria stakeholders consider…

  9. 7 CFR 996.31 - Outgoing quality standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Outgoing quality standards. 996.31 Section 996.31... Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MINIMUM QUALITY AND HANDLING STANDARDS FOR DOMESTIC AND IMPORTED PEANUTS MARKETED IN THE UNITED STATES Quality and Handling...

  10. 24 CFR 982.614 - Group home: Housing quality standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Group home: Housing quality... Types Group Home § 982.614 Group home: Housing quality standards. (a) Compliance with HQS. The PHA may... available for use by the assisted person under the lease, meets the housing quality standards....

  11. 40 CFR 35.2111 - Revised water quality standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Revised water quality standards. 35... quality standards. After December 29, 1984, no grant can be awarded for projects that discharge into stream segments which have not, at least once since December 29, 1981, had their water quality...

  12. 7 CFR 996.30 - Incoming quality standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Incoming quality standards. 996.30 Section 996.30... Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MINIMUM QUALITY AND HANDLING STANDARDS FOR DOMESTIC AND IMPORTED PEANUTS MARKETED IN THE UNITED STATES Quality and Handling...

  13. Dynamic evaluation of air quality models over European regions

    OpenAIRE

    Thunis, P.; Pisoni, E.; Degraeuwe, B.; Kranenburg, R.; Schaap, M.; Clappier, A.

    2014-01-01

    Chemistry-transport models are increasingly used in Europe for estimating air quality or forecasting changes in pollution levels. But with this increased use of modeling arises the need of harmonizing the methodologies to determine the quality of air quality model applications. This is complex for planning applications, i.e. when models are used to assess the impact of realistic or virtual emission scenarios. In this work, the methodology based on the calculation of potencies proposed by Thun...

  14. Hold Your Breath: A New Index of Air Quality

    OpenAIRE

    Buehn, Andreas; Farzanegan, Mohammad Reza

    2011-01-01

    Environmental quality and climate change have long attracted attention in policy debates. Recently, air quality has emerged on the policy agenda. We calculate a new index of air quality using CO2 and SO2 emissions per capita as indicators and provide a ranking for 122 countries from 1985 to 2005. The empirical analysis supports the EKC hypothesis and shows a significant influence of determinants such as energy efficiency, industrial production, electricity produced from coal sources, and urba...

  15. Improving the indoor air quality using water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The article briefly describes the principle of a Danish air cleaning device called the Aqua-Wall. This is a clear acrylic wall with filters and pump and liquid that ripples down the vertical wall. The liquid is cleaned water to which is added harmless chemicals that prevent bacteria and algal growth. By means of this falling water and a patent that makes the water bind microorganisms and dust particles the system cleans the air and creates a natural air humidity

  16. 7 CFR 953.43 - Minimum standards of quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Minimum standards of quality. 953.43 Section 953.43... SOUTHEASTERN STATES Order Regulating Handling Regulations § 953.43 Minimum standards of quality. (a) Recommendation. Whenever the committee deems it advisable to establish and maintain minimum standards of...

  17. 24 CFR 982.609 - Congregate housing: Housing quality standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Congregate housing: Housing quality standards. 982.609 Section 982.609 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban... Types Congregate Housing § 982.609 Congregate housing: Housing quality standards. (a) HQS standards...

  18. 24 CFR 983.101 - Housing quality standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... applicability. Except as otherwise provided in this section, 24 CFR 982.401 (housing quality standards) applies to the PBV program. The physical condition standards at 24 CFR 5.703 do not apply to the PBV program... quality standards in 24 CFR part 982 apply to the PBV program. (Shared housing, cooperative...

  19. 78 FR 46552 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; State of Colorado; Second Ten-Year...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    ... Colorado Springs area for the carbon monoxide (CO) National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS). This... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; State of Colorado; Second Ten-Year Carbon Monoxide Maintenance Plan for Colorado Springs AGENCY: Environmental...

  20. 78 FR 46861 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; State of Colorado; Second Ten-Year...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-02

    ... carbon monoxide (CO) National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS). This limited maintenance plan (LMP... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; State of Colorado; Second Ten-Year Carbon Monoxide Maintenance Plan for Greeley AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency...

  1. 78 FR 56185 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; State of Colorado; Second Ten-Year...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-12

    ... for the carbon monoxide (CO) National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS). This limited maintenance... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; State of Colorado; Second Ten-Year Carbon Monoxide Maintenance Plan for Fort Collins AGENCY: Environmental Protection...

  2. Linking Meteorology, Air Quality Models and Observations to Characterize Human Exposures in Support of the Environmental Health Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epidemiologic studies are critical in establishing the association between exposure to air pollutants and adverse health effects. Results of epidemiologic studies are used by U.S. EPA in developing air quality standards to protect the public from the health effects of air polluta...

  3. Urban growth and air quality in Kuala Lumpur city, Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. H. L. Ling

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Urban developments, land use patterns and activities not only influence the volume of emissions into the ambient air environment but also affect the ability of the urban ecosystem to purify the air. Therefore, urbanisation affects the quality of air in urban areas. However, urban air quality is also affected by global, regional or trans-boundary pollutants. The objectives of this paper are to understand the trend of air quality level and urban growth in Kuala Lumpur city (KL, and examine the relationship between these variables. Results of analysis show a significant and strong relationship between the number of unhealthy/hazardous days and urban land uses. The finding is contrary to the argument that the high concentration of air pollutants (unhealthy level in the Malaysian city is contributed by the forest fire in a neighbouring country (haze.

  4. Perception of Cabin Air Quality among Drivers and Passengers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doru Constantin

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Air analysis inside vehicles is a problem that can be interpreted from several perspectives. This research is oriented towards the perception of air quality within a car, regarding a situation of cars in stationary traffic. Carbon dioxide measurements were made using a Trotec Data Logger Air Quality CO2 BZ30 machine inside different standing vehicles with up to five occupants, with and without circulating air. The perception of the air quality was measured on a Likert-type scale with seven levels on a sample group of 60 students. The results highlight, on the one hand, the conditions under which the CO2 in the cabin air can reach concentrations which are, according to new data, considered to influence the cognitive capacity of occupants in the car, and on the other hand, they present a global assessment of the air quality in the vehicle when critical values of CO2 have been reached. If the air exchange rates inside a car are low, this degrades the air quality in such a way that it affects the concentration and reactions necessary for safe driving without perceiving any discomfort that would put the drivers or the passengers on alert.

  5. Are Ventilation Filters Degrading Indoor Air Quality in California Classrooms?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisk, William J.; Destaillats, H.; Apte, M.G.; Destaillats,, Hugo; Fisk, Michael G. Apte and William J.

    2008-10-01

    Heating, ventilating, and cooling classrooms in California consume substantial electrical energy. Indoor air quality (IAQ) in classrooms affects studenthealth and performance. In addition to airborne pollutants that are emitted directly by indoor sources and those generated outdoors, secondary pollutants can be formed indoors by chemical reaction of ozone with other chemicals and materials. Filters are used in nearly all classroom heating, ventilation and air?conditioning (HVAC) systems to maintain energy-efficient HVAC performance and improve indoor air quality; however, recent evidence indicates that ozone reactions with filters may, in fact, be a source of secondary pollutants. This project quantitatively evaluated ozone deposition in HVAC filters and byproduct formation, and provided a preliminary assessment of the extent towhich filter systems are degrading indoor air quality. The preliminary information obtained will contribute to the design of subsequent research efforts and the identification of energy efficient solutions that improve indoor air quality in classrooms and the health and performance of students.

  6. US power plant carbon standards and clean air and health co-benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driscoll, Charles T.; Buonocore, Jonathan J.; Levy, Jonathan I.; Lambert, Kathleen F.; Burtraw, Dallas; Reid, Stephen B.; Fakhraei, Habibollah; Schwartz, Joel

    2015-06-01

    Carbon dioxide emissions standards for US power plants will influence the fuels and technologies used to generate electricity, alter emissions of pollutants such as sulphur dioxide and nitrogen oxide, and influence ambient air quality and public health. We present an analysis of how three alternative scenarios for US power plant carbon standards could change fine particulate matter and ozone concentrations in ambient air, and the resulting public health co-benefits. The results underscore that carbon standards to curb global climate change can also provide immediate local and regional health co-benefits, but the magnitude depends on the design of the standards. A stringent but flexible policy that counts demand-side energy efficiency towards compliance yields the greatest health benefits of the three scenarios analysed.

  7. Business approach to mine air quality and ventilation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A business approach to air quality and ventilation in mines was discussed in this presentation. Issues that were addressed included leadership approaches in bridging the gap between the visible culture of policies and procedures with invisible cultures such as norms, assumptions and beliefs. An overview of occupational safety was also presented in terms of measuring diesel particulate matter (DPM) and key DPM activities such as ventilation modeling; remote control of ventilation circuits; real-time diagnostics of engine performance through electronic control modules; personnel and equipment tracking systems; remote carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide monitoring; and semi-quantitative real-time DPM monitoring. Resources such as ventilation engineers and other professionals also contribute to key DPM activities as do experience and good practice sharing between sites. The purpose of the presentation was to determine if 160 μg/m3 is an achievable number for exposure to DPM and the standard by which mines should operate globally. figs.

  8. A new air quality perception scale for global assessment of air pollution health effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deguen, Séverine; Ségala, Claire; Pédrono, Gaëlle; Mesbah, Mounir

    2012-12-01

    Despite improvements in air quality in developed countries, air pollution remains a major public health issue. To fully assess the health impact, we must consider that air pollution exposure has both physical and psychological effects; this latter dimension, less documented, is more difficult to measure and subjective indicators constitute an appropriate alternative. In this context, this work presents the methodological development of a new scale to measure the perception of air quality, useful as an exposure or risk appraisal metric in public health contexts. On the basis of the responses from 2,522 subjects in eight French cities, psychometric methods are used to construct the scale from 22 items that assess risk perception (anxiety about health and quality of life) and the extent to which air pollution is a nuisance (sensorial perception and symptoms). The scale is robust, reproducible, and discriminates between subpopulations more susceptible to poor air pollution perception. The individual risk factors of poor air pollution perception are coherent with those findings in the risk perception literature. Perception of air pollution by the general public is a key issue in the development of comprehensive risk assessment studies as well as in air pollution risk management and policy. This study offers a useful new tool to measure such efforts and to help set priorities for air quality improvements in combination with air quality measurements. PMID:22852801

  9. Ambition versus feasibility. The road towards a new air quality regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 2005 negotiations started in Brussels on a new Directive for Air Quality. The European Commission wanted to speed up the improvement of air quality and therefore tighten the standards. At the same time the Netherlands, and some 23 other Member States, were already unable to meet the PM10 standard of 1 January 2005. The Netherlands therefore took a reserved stand in these negotiations. It is a good thing to accelerate but it must be feasible. The Netherlands seemed to become the scapegoat, but in the end they provided the basis for the solution, thanks to the research institutes. [mk

  10. Ambient air quality observations in the Athabasca oil sands region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Both Syncrude and Suncor have plans to develop new oil sands leases and to increase crude oil and bitumen recovery in the Athabasca oil sands region. In recognition of the effects that this will have on the environment, Suncor has proposed modifications to reduce SO2 emissions to the atmosphere, while Syncrude plans to develop additional ambient air quality, sulphur deposition and biomonitoring programs. This report discussed the ambient air quality monitoring that was undertaken in the Fort McMurray-Fort McKay airshed. Twelve continuous ambient air quality stations and 76 passive monitoring stations are maintained in the region. Environment Canada maintains eight precipitation monitoring stations in northern Alberta and Saskatchewan. Source characterization, ambient air quality and meteorology observations, air quality monitoring, and air quality data from continuous sulphur dioxide, hydrogen sulphide, nitrogen oxides, ozone, carbon monoxide, hydrocarbon, acid rain and particulates analyzers were reviewed. The documentation of all computer files used for the analysis of the air quality data is discussed in the Appendix. 47 refs., 39 tabs., 53 figs

  11. Effects of energy-efficient ventilation rates on indoor air quality at an Ohio elementary school

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berk, J. V.; Young, R.; Hollowell, C. D.; Turiel, I.; Pepper, J.

    1980-04-01

    A mobile laboratory was used to monitor air outdoors and at three indoor sites (two classrooms and a large multipurpose room); tests were made at three different ventilation rates. The parameters measured were outside air flow rates, odor perception, microbial burden, particulate mass, total aldehydes, carbon dioxide, ozone, and nitrogen oxides. The results of these measurements are given and compared with the existing outdoor air quality standards. Carbon dioxide concentrations increased as the ventilation rate decreased, but still did not exceed current standards. Odor perceptibility increased slightly at the lowest ventilation rate. Other pollutants showed very low concentrations, which did not change with reductions in ventilation rate.

  12. Summary findings from the border air quality study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-03-15

    The Border Air Quality Study (BAQS) is an ongoing study which supports the development of an international strategy for the Georgia Basin-Puget Sound airshed. The study investigates the association of health risks with the exposure to a range of air pollutants. It identified links between air pollutants and several health impacts ranging from asthma to birthweight. The tools developed for studying air quality provide greater spatial resolution, thus enabling the identification of pollution hot spots that require monitoring and intervention. The tools also provide spatially accurate exposure data for future research and enable land-use decisions that reduce risk to the most vulnerable populations, including children and the elderly. The study found that traffic-related air pollution is an additional risk factor for disease, such as bronchiolitis, asthma and middle ear infections in children. Although air pollution is a known risk factor for cardiovascular disease, relatively few studies have evaluated the effects of chronic exposures. Therefore, the BAQS is currently assessing the relationship between air quality and cardiovascular diseases in the Metro Vancouver area, with particular attention to the combined effects of traffic-related air pollution and noise pollution. Wood smoke was also found to be an important source of air pollution, even in urban centres. The study showed that building design and ventilation can help reduce infiltration of air pollutants into buildings. It was concluded that despite some concerns, the air quality in the Georgia-Basin-Puget Sound region is good compared to other major metropolitan areas. Air quality managers can use the study to evaluate different policy scenarios and the associated economic costs of air pollution. 5 figs.

  13. 2001-2012 trends on air quality in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Querol, X; Alastuey, A; Pandolfi, M; Reche, C; Pérez, N; Minguillón, M C; Moreno, T; Viana, M; Escudero, M; Orio, A; Pallarés, M; Reina, F

    2014-08-15

    This study aims at interpreting the 2001-2012 trends of major air pollutants in Spain, with a major focus on evaluating their relationship with those of the national emission inventories (NEI) and policy actions. Marked downward concentration trends were evidenced for PM10, PM2.5 and CO. Concentrations of NO2 and NOx also declined but in a lesser proportion at rural and traffic sites. At rural sites O3 has been kept constant, whereas it clearly increased at urban and industrial sites. Comparison of the air quality trends and major inflection points with those from NEIs, the National Energy Consumption and the calendar of the implementation of major policy actions allowed us to clearly identify major benefits of European directives on power generation and industrial sources (such as the Large Combustion Plants and the Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control Directives). This, together with a sharp 2007-2008 decrease of coal consumption has probably caused the marked parallel decline of SO2, NOx and for PM2.5 concentrations. Also the effect of the EURO 4 and 5 vehicle emission standards on decreasing emissions of PM and CO from vehicles is noticeable. The smooth decline in NO2-NOx levels is mostly attributed to the low efficiency of EURO 4 and 5 standards in reducing real life urban driving NO2 emissions. The low NOx decrease together with the complexity of the reactions of O3 formation is responsible for the constant O3 concentrations, or even the urban increase. The financial crisis has also contributed to the decrease of the ambient concentration of pollutants; however this caused a major reduction of the primary energy consumption from 2008 to 2009, and not from 2007 to 2008 when ambient air PM and SO2 sharply decreased. The meteorological influence was characterized by a 2008-2012 period favorable to the dispersion of pollutants when compared to the 2001-2007. PMID:24911774

  14. Hold Your Breath. A New Index of Air Quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buehn, A. [Utrecht School of Economics, Utrecht University, Utrecht (Netherlands); Reza Farzanega, M. [Dresden University of Technology and ZEW Mannheim, Mannheim (Germany)

    2011-12-15

    Environmental quality and climate change have long attracted attention in policy debates. Recently, air quality has emerged on the policy agenda. We calculate a new index of air quality using CO2 and SO2 emissions per capita as indicators and provide a ranking for 122 countries from 1985 to 2005.The empirical analysis supports the EKC hypothesis (Environmental Kuznets Curve) and shows a significant influence of determinants such as energy efficiency, industrial production, electricity produced from coal sources, and urbanization on air quality. According to our index, Luxemburg, Norway, Iceland, Switzerland, and Japan are among the top 5 countries in terms of air quality performance. The Democratic Republic of Congo, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Togo, and Nepal performed worst in 2005.

  15. Development of a Northern Continental Air Standard Reference Material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhoderick, George C; Kitzis, Duane R; Kelley, Michael E; Miller, Walter R; Hall, Bradley D; Dlugokencky, Edward J; Tans, Pieter P; Possolo, Antonio; Carney, Jennifer

    2016-03-15

    The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) recently began to develop standard mixtures of greenhouse gases as part of a broad program mandated by the 2009 United States Congress to support research in climate change. To this end, NIST developed suites of gravimetrically assigned primary standard mixtures (PSMs) comprising carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), and nitrous oxide (N2O) in a dry-natural air balance at ambient mole fraction levels. In parallel, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) in Boulder, Colorado, charged 30 aluminum gas cylinders with northern hemisphere air at Niwot Ridge, Colorado. These mixtures, which constitute NIST Standard Reference Material (SRM) 1720 Northern Continental Air, were certified by NIST for ambient mole fractions of CO2, CH4, and N2O relative to NIST PSMs. NOAA-assigned values are also provided as information in support of the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) Global Atmosphere Watch (GAW) Program for CO2, CH4, and N2O, since NOAA serves as the WMO Central Calibration Laboratory (CCL) for CO2, CH4, and N2O. Relative expanded uncertainties at the 95% confidence interval are first of its kind for a gaseous SRM developed by NIST. PMID:26890890

  16. Impact of biomass burning sources on seasonal aerosol air quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reisen, Fabienne; Meyer, C. P. (Mick); Keywood, Melita D.

    2013-03-01

    In the Huon Valley, Tasmania, current public perception is that smoke from regeneration burning is the principal cause of pollution events in autumn. These events lead to exceedences of national air quality standards and to significant health impacts on the rural population. To date there is little data on the significance of the impact. The aim of the study was to quantitatively assess the seasonal atmospheric particle loadings in the Huon Valley and determine the impact of smoke pollution. The study monitored fine (PM2.5) and coarse (PM10) particle concentrations and their chemical composition at two locations in the Huon Valley, Geeveston, an urban site and Grove, a rural site, between March 2009 and November 2010. The monitoring program clearly showed that biomass burning was a significant source of PM2.5 in the Huon Valley, leading to exceedences of the 24 h PM2.5 Ambient Air Quality National Environment Protection Measures advisory standard on a number of occasions. Significant increases of PM2.5 concentrations above background occurred during periods of prescribed burning as well as during the winter season. Although the intensity of emissions from prescribed burns (PB) and residential woodheaters (WH) was similar, emissions from WH were the largest source of PM2.5, with a contribution of 77% to the ambient PM2.5 load compared to an 11% contribution from PB. The results have also shown a greater impact on air quality at the urban site than at the rural site, indicating that PM2.5 concentrations are primarily influenced by localised sources rather than by regional pollution. The potential impact on local residents of the high PM concentrations during the PB and WH season was assessed. WH pollution is largely a persistent night-time issue in contrast to PB events which generally occur during the day and are of short duration. Due to the long persistence of high PM concentrations in winter, indoor PM concentrations are unlikely to be substantially lower than

  17. Research review: Indoor air quality control techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Techniques for controlling the concentration of radon, formaldehyde, and combustion products in the indoor air are reviewed. The most effective techniques, which are generally based on limiting or reducing indoor pollutant source strengths, can decrease indoor pollutant concentrations by a factor of 3 to 10. Unless the initial ventilation rate is unusually low, it is difficult to reduce indoor pollutant concentrations more than approximately 50% by increasing the ventilation rate of an entire building. However, the efficiency of indoor pollutant control by ventilation can be enhanced through the use of local exhaust ventilation near concentrated sources of pollutants, by minimizing short circuiting of air from supply to exhaust when pollutant sources are dispersed and, in some situations, by promoting a displacement flow of air and pollutants toward the exhaust. Active air cleaning is also examined briefly. Filtration and electrostatic air cleaning for removal of particles from the indoor air are the most practical and effective currently available techniques of air cleaning. 49 refs., 7 figs

  18. Assessment of Effects of Air Pollution on Daily Outpatient Visits using the Air Quality Index

    OpenAIRE

    Mu, Haosheng; Otani, Shinji; Okamoto,Mikizo; Yokoyama, Yae; Tokushima, Yasuko; Onishi, Kazunari; Hosoda, Takenobu; KUROZAWA, Youichi

    2014-01-01

    Background The air quality index (AQI) is widely used to characterize the quality of ambient air. Chinese cities officially report the AQI on a daily basis. To assess the possible effects of air pollution on daily outpatient visits, we examined the association between AQI and the daily outpatient count. Methods Daily data on outpatient visits to each clinical department were collected from the Z county hospital of Datong City, China. The collection period was between 5 April and 30 June, 2012...

  19. Tobacco smoking policy and indoor air quality: a case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jadud, M.A. (Kansas Univ., Lawrence, KS (United States). Architectural Engineering Dept.); Rock, B.A. (Kansas Univ., Lawrence, KS (United States). Architectural Engineering Dept.)

    1993-01-01

    Policy on environmental tobacco smoke and its effect on indoor air quality are discussed in this paper. Passive (secondhand) smoke is examined in aspects ranging from health effects to laws surrounding smoking within public buildings in the United States. Engineering and administrative solutions to these indoor air quality problems are considered. A case study of a smoking area within an institutional building is presented and potential improvements and administrative actions are discussed. The results of this study should be helpful to those faced with or anticipating technical and legal indoor air quality problems and policy decisions. (orig.)

  20. Quality Assurance Standards for Symptomatic Breast Disease Services

    OpenAIRE

    Department of Health

    2007-01-01

    Quality Assurance Standards for Symptomatic Breast Disease Services People in Ireland have a right to expect that medical care be of good quality. They expect that standards of care are consistently high. They expect that access to care is easy, speedy, effective and efficient. Society expects quality of care to measure up to international norms of good practice. Such assurance can be given by auditing the quality of activity. Click here to download PDF 606kb

  1. Study on quality standards of engineering control net

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Four quality standards of the control net for the map surveying, the control net for constructing and deformation monitoring net have been put forward in the light of the references of the classic free net distributed error and the order deficit one, i.e. precision standard, standards of the total precision and the local one, reliability standard, inner reliability and outer reliability as well as measurement, sensitivity standard and economic standard. (author)

  2. Who benefits from environmental policy? An environmental justice analysis of air quality change in Britain, 2001-2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Gordon; Norman, Paul; Mullin, Karen

    2015-10-01

    Air quality in Great Britain has improved in recent years, but not enough to prevent the European Commission (EC) taking legal action for non-compliance with limit values. Air quality is a national public health concern, with disease burden associated with current air quality estimated at 29 000 premature deaths per year due to fine particulates, with a further burden due to NO2. National small-area analyses showed that in 2001 poor air quality was much more prevalent in socio-economically deprived areas. We extend this social distribution of air quality analysis to consider how the distribution changed over the following decade (2001-2011), a period when significant efforts to meet EC air quality directive limits have been made, and air quality has improved. We find air quality improvement is greatest in the least deprived areas, whilst the most deprived areas bear a disproportionate and rising share of declining air quality including non-compliance with air quality standards. We discuss the implications for health inequalities, progress towards environmental justice, and compatibility of social justice and environmental sustainability objectives.

  3. Publication and Distribution of Chinese Standard and Quality Books

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bai Demei

    2010-01-01

    @@ 1.A Brief Introduction to SPC Standards Press of China (SPC),founded in October,1963,is the largest publisher of standard and quality products in China.It publishes national standards,trade standards,and audio,video,electronic,and network products.

  4. Assessment of Ambient Air Quality in Riyadh City, Saudi Arabia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. H. Alharbi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Concentrations of airborne particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter less than 10 µm (PM10 and five gaseous air pollutants (O3, CO, NO2, SO2 and H2S were measured over a period of approximately six years (October 1999-June 2004 at five air quality monitoring network stations of King Abulaziz City for Science and Technology (KACST in Riyadh city, Saudi Arabia. The main objective of this study is to evaluate the quality of ambient air in relation to its possible effects on human health in the urban area of Riyadh city using the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA Air Quality Index (AQI and break down analysis of five criteria pollutants (O3, CO, NO2 and SO2 and PM10 and Hydrogen Sulphide (H2S. The concentrations of selected pollutants in ambient air has shown upward trends except for sulfur dioxide (SO2 and hydrogen sulfide (H2S, which exhibited decreasing trends over the time. Using the AQI based on a health perspective, a breakdown analysis was conducted. The results confirmed that 71% of the time Riyadh city air is of “Good” quality using the AQI and causes almost no health impacts on city inhabitants. The remaining 29% of more problematic air quality is caused by PM10 (74% and SO2 (~24%. The study has revealed that both ozone (O3 and carbon monoxide (CO have little contribution to Riyadh air pollution at 2% and 0.52%, respectively.

  5. Ozone, Air Quality, and Asthma (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... with chemicals produced by cars, power plants, and factories. That's why ground-level ozone, a main component ... Lung Association included not only ozone but particle pollution levels in its annual "State of the Air" ...

  6. Improving Air Quality with Solar Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2008-04-01

    This fact sheet series highlights how renewable energy and energy efficiency technologies can and are being used to reduce air emissions and meet environmental goals, showcasing case studies and technology-specific topics.

  7. Improving Air Quality with Solar Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-04-01

    This fact sheet series highlights how renewable energy and energy efficiency technologies can and are being used to reduce air emissions and meet environmental goals, showcasing case studies and technology-specific topics. This one focus on solar energy technologies.

  8. Long-term Changes in Extreme Air Pollution Meteorology and the Implications for Air Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Pei; Wu, Shiliang

    2016-03-01

    Extreme air pollution meteorological events, such as heat waves, temperature inversions and atmospheric stagnation episodes, can significantly affect air quality. Based on observational data, we have analyzed the long-term evolution of extreme air pollution meteorology on the global scale and their potential impacts on air quality, especially the high pollution episodes. We have identified significant increasing trends for the occurrences of extreme air pollution meteorological events in the past six decades, especially over the continental regions. Statistical analysis combining air quality data and meteorological data further indicates strong sensitivities of air quality (including both average air pollutant concentrations and high pollution episodes) to extreme meteorological events. For example, we find that in the United States the probability of severe ozone pollution when there are heat waves could be up to seven times of the average probability during summertime, while temperature inversions in wintertime could enhance the probability of severe particulate matter pollution by more than a factor of two. We have also identified significant seasonal and spatial variations in the sensitivity of air quality to extreme air pollution meteorology.

  9. Fungal Air Quality in Medical Protected Environments

    OpenAIRE

    Araujo, Ricardo; Cabral, João P.

    2010-01-01

    It is probably true to say that moulds cannot be completely eliminated from indoor environments. Normal buildings contain a diversity of materials and substrates that allow growth and sporulation of many species of fungi. Some strategies can be used to reduce indoor fungal load in wards receiving high-risk patients, namely by adding air filters and a positive air flow rate, by the presence of an anteroom, the use of protective clothes and of hair and shoe covers, the implementation of regular...

  10. Air quality and Atmospheric resources: Phase 1: Background document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Environment and Sustainable Development Indicators (ESDI) initiative, under the umbrella of the National Round Table on the Environment and the Economy (NRTEE), commissioned a study for the evaluation and the development of sustainable development indicators (SDIs) in the field of air quality and atmospheric resources. The report contained key information with regard to each indicator or indicator set, and no comprehensive comparative analysis was performed. The report was designed to be used as a technical reference. Where appropriate, SDIs developed by foreign organizations were included. The emphasis of the report was: (1) ambient air quality and human health effects, (2) air emissions having transboundary or global implications for ecosystem health and human health, and (3) demand on the atmosphere for environmental services. The bulk of the research was conducted on the Internet. The report was divided into three sections. A review of the availability of SDIs based on ambient air quality measures was discussed in the first section, while the second section was devoted to the availability of SDIs based on pollutant emission levels. The last section contained a systematic review of those SDIs used or being proposed along with the supporting data available to calculate SDI values. Some observations were also made touching on topics such as the abundance of ambient air quality information, the abundance of pollutant emissions information, the linkages between emissions and ambient air quality, the absence of forecasting, the indoor air quality gap, and the connections to human health. refs., 1 fig

  11. The Standard System and Quality and Safety Standards for Banana in China

    OpenAIRE

    ZOU, Dongmei; PAN, Yongbo; Xu, Zhi; LUO, Jinhui

    2015-01-01

    Banana is an important tropical fruit and China is the world's third largest banana producer. The standardization level of banana industry not only affects the yield and quality of banana, but also plays an important role in promoting the production standardization and industrialization of other tropical crops. Through the analysis of revision, publicity and implementation of banana standard system in China as well as the study on its standard system and quality and safety standards, it is fo...

  12. Recommended concentration limits of indoor air pollution indicators for requirement of acceptable indoor air quality

    OpenAIRE

    Wang J., Zhang X.

    2010-01-01

    Object and goals of indoor air pollution control with ventilation may influence improvement of indoor air quality, building energy consumption and even carbon emissions. Indicators of indoor air pollution caused by occupants-related sources and building-related sources were chosen based on sources emitting characteristics, pollutants composition, indicator choosing principles and indoor air pollution situation in China. Then the recommended concentration limits of indicators were given for un...

  13. Health and air quality 2005 : phase 2 : valuation of health impacts from air quality in the Lower Fraser Valley airshed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furberg, M.; Preston, K. [RWDI West Inc., Vancouver, BC (Canada); Sawyer, D. [Marbek Resource Consultants Ltd., Ottawa, ON (Canada); Brauer, M. [British Columbia Univ., Vancouver, BC (Canada). School of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene; Hanvelt, R. [British Columbia Univ., Vancouver, BC (Canada). Dept. of Health Care and Epidemiology

    2005-07-15

    This study provided estimates the health benefits and costs associated with specified changes in ambient air concentrations of particulate matter (PM) and ozone in the Lower Fraser Valley (LFV). Estimates were developed on a regional level. The study focused on PM and ozone, as current air quality monitoring data and scientific findings have indicated that these are the air contaminants of greatest concern in the region. Known air quality health outcome relationships were applied in a spreadsheet model to predict changes in health outcomes associated with 6 ambient air quality scenarios for 3 sub-regions within the LFV airshed. Concentration response functions based on epidemiological studies were used to estimate the number of health events associated with changes in air quality. For each scenario, the model calculated the expected number of the following health outcomes: mortality; chronic bronchitis; respiratory hospital admissions; cardiac hospital admissions; emergency room visits; child acute bronchitis; restricted activity days; asthma symptom days; minor restricted activity days and acute respiratory symptom days. The model also produced the dollar value of the health outcomes. A dollar metric was used so that the health outcomes could be aggregated and compared with other air quality management actions such the costs of improving ambient air quality. Results indicated that improving ambient air quality in the LFV will produce valued and socially desirable benefits, including reduced mortality and morbidity. The measures contemplated by decision-makers to maintain and improve air quality in the LFV will trigger benefits that are likely to be significant. 101 refs., 7 tabs., 7 figs.

  14. 78 FR 29815 - Control of Air Pollution From Motor Vehicles: Tier 3 Motor Vehicle Emission and Fuel Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-21

    ...This action would establish more stringent vehicle emissions standards and reduce the sulfur content of gasoline beginning in 2017, as part of a systems approach to addressing the impacts of motor vehicles and fuels on air quality and public health. The proposed gasoline sulfur standard would make emission control systems more effective for both existing and new vehicles, and would enable more......

  15. The use of MODIS data and aerosol products for air quality prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchison, Keith D.; Smith, Solar; Faruqui, Shazia

    2004-09-01

    The Center for Space Research (CSR) is exploring new approaches to integrate data collected by the MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) sensor, flown on NASA's Earth Observing System (EOS) satellites, into a real-time prediction methodology to support operational air quality forecasts issued by the Monitoring Operations Division (MOD) of the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality (TCEQ). Air pollution is a widespread problem in the United States, with over 130 million individuals exposed to levels of air pollution that exceed one or more health-based standards. Texas air quality is under assault by a variety of anthropogenic sources associated with a rapidly growing population along with increases in emissions from the diesel engines that drive international trade between the US and Central America. The challenges of meeting air quality standards established by the Environmental Protection Agency are further impacted by the transport of pollution into Texas that originates from outside its borders and are cumulative with those generated by local sources. In an earlier study, CSR demonstrated the value of MODIS imagery and aerosol products for monitoring ozone-laden pollution that originated in the central US before migrating into Texas and causing TCEQ to issue a health alert for 150 counties. Now, data from this same event are re-analyzed in an attempt to predict air quality from MODIS aerosol optical thickness (AOT) observations. The results demonstrate a method to forecast air quality from remotely sensed satellite observations when the transient pollution can be isolated from local sources. These pollution sources can be separated using TCEQ's network of ground-based Continuous Air quality Monitoring (CAM) stations.

  16. Quality assurance standards for purchasing and inventory control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, D P

    1985-03-01

    A process is described for quality assurance in pharmaceutical purchasing and inventory control. A quality assurance program should ensure that quality drugs are purchased at the lowest price, drug products are available when needed, the system is managed efficiently, internal controls are provided, drug products are stored under appropriate conditions, and laws, regulations, accreditation standards, and procedures are followed. To meet these objectives, product quality, vendor performance, the department's system of internal controls, purchasing data, and storage conditions should be monitored. A checklist for evaluating purchasing and inventory practices and a sample audit form listing quality assurance criteria, standards, procedures, and recommended actions are provided. A quality assurance program for pharmaceutical purchasing and inventory control should define institution-specific criteria and standards and use these standards for continual evaluation of all aspects of the purchasing and inventory control system. Documentation of quality assurance activities should be provided for use by the purchasing department, hospital administration, and regulatory bodies. PMID:3985026

  17. Research and establishment of enterprise quality metadata standard

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jie LI; Genbao ZHANG; Han SONG

    2008-01-01

    Enabling quality managers to utilize and manage quality data efficiently under modern quality management circumstances is a primary issue for improving enterprise quality management. A concept of quality metadata is proposed in this paper, which can help quality managers gain a deeper understanding of various features of quality data and establish a more stable foundation for further use and management of such data. The procedure of establishing quality meta-data standards is emphasized in the paper, and the content structure and description scheme are given. Finally, a summary is made and future work is prospected.

  18. Doing Your Homework on Indoor Air Quality Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldwell, Rick

    2000-01-01

    Explains how administrators at the Georgia Institute of Technology were able to build a new residence hall that included a cost-effective ventilation system providing high quality indoor air. Project considerations, design solutions, and project economies are discussed. (GR)

  19. Monitoring of Indoor Air Quality in Libraries and Archives

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kouřil, M.; Ďurovič, M.; Straka, R.; Smolík, Jiří; Mašková, Ludmila

    Prague: -, 2014, s. 32. ISBN N. [International Conference Indoor Air Quality in Heritage and Historic Environments /11./. Prague (CZ), 13.04.2014-16.04.2014] Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : corrosion * classification * monitoring Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry

  20. Optimization model for air quality analysis in energy facility siting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emanuel, W. R.; Murphy, B. D.; Huff, D. D.; Begovich, C. L.; Hurt, J. F.

    1977-09-01

    The siting of energy facilities on a regional scale is discussed with particular attention to environmental planning criteria. A multiple objective optimization model is proposed as a framework for the analysis of siting problems. Each planning criterion (e.g., air quality, water quality, or power demand) is treated as an objective function to be minimized or maximized subject to constraints in this optimization procedure. The formulation of the objective functions is illustrated by the development of a siting model for the minimization of human exposure to air pollutants. This air quality siting model takes the form of a linear programming problem. A graphical analysis of this type of problem, which provides insight into the nature of the siting model, is given. The air quality siting model is applied to an illustrative siting example for the Tennessee Valley area.