WorldWideScience

Sample records for air quality index

  1. Ozone - Current Air Quality Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... more announcements Air Quality Basics Air Quality Index | Ozone | Particle Pollution | Smoke from fires | What You Can ... Partners Kids Movies NAQ Conferences NOAA Older Adults Ozone Particle Pollution (PM2.5, PM10) Publications Publicaciones (En ...

  2. A new method for calculation of an air quality index

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ilvessalo, P. [Finnish Meteorological Inst., Helsinki (Finland). Air Quality Dept.

    1995-12-31

    Air quality measurement programs in Finnish towns have expanded during the last few years. As a result of this it is more and more difficult to make use of all the measured concentration data. Citizens of Finnish towns are nowadays taking more of an interest in the air quality of their surroundings. The need to describe air quality in a simplified form has increased. Air quality indices permit the presentation of air quality data in such a way that prevailing conditions are more easily understandable than when using concentration data as such. Using an air quality index always means that some of the information about concentrations of contaminants in the air will be lost. How much information is possible to extract from a single index number depends on the calculation method. A new method for the calculation of an air quality index has been developed. This index always indicates the overstepping of an air quality guideline level. The calculation of this air quality index is performed using the concentrations of all the contaminants measured. The index gives information both about the prevailing air quality and also the short-term trend. It can also warn about the expected exceeding of guidelines due to one or several contaminants. The new index is especially suitable for the real-time monitoring and notification of air quality values. The behaviour of the index was studied using material from a measurement period in the spring of 1994 in Kaepylae, Helsinki. Material from a pre-operational period in the town of Oulu was also available. (author)

  3. Hold Your Breath: A New Index of Air Quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bühn, A.; Farzanega, M.R.

    2011-01-01

    Environmental quality and climate change have long attracted attention in policy debates. Recently, air quality has emerged on the policy agenda. We calculate a new index of air quality using CO2and SO2 emissions per capita as indicators and provide a ranking for 122 countries from 1985 to 2005.The

  4. A novel, fuzzy-based air quality index (FAQI) for air quality assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sowlat, Mohammad Hossein; Gharibi, Hamed; Yunesian, Masud; Tayefeh Mahmoudi, Maryam; Lotfi, Saeedeh

    2011-04-01

    The ever increasing level of air pollution in most areas of the world has led to development of a variety of air quality indices for estimation of health effects of air pollution, though the indices have their own limitations such as high levels of subjectivity. Present study, therefore, aimed at developing a novel, fuzzy-based air quality index (FAQI ) to handle such limitations. The index developed by present study is based on fuzzy logic that is considered as one of the most common computational methods of artificial intelligence. In addition to criteria air pollutants (i.e. CO, SO 2, PM 10, O 3, NO 2), benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylene, and 1,3-butadiene were also taken into account in the index proposed, because of their considerable health effects. Different weighting factors were then assigned to each pollutant according to its priority. Trapezoidal membership functions were employed for classifications and the final index consisted of 72 inference rules. To assess the performance of the index, a case study was carried out employing air quality data at five different sampling stations in Tehran, Iran, from January 2008 to December 2009, results of which were then compared to the results obtained from USEPA air quality index (AQI). According to the results from present study, fuzzy-based air quality index is a comprehensive tool for classification of air quality and tends to produce accurate results. Therefore, it can be considered useful, reliable, and suitable for consideration by local authorities in air quality assessment and management schemes. Fuzzy-based air quality index (FAQI).

  5. Hold Your Breath. A New Index of Air Quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buehn, A. [Utrecht School of Economics, Utrecht University, Utrecht (Netherlands); Reza Farzanega, M. [Dresden University of Technology and ZEW Mannheim, Mannheim (Germany)

    2011-12-15

    Environmental quality and climate change have long attracted attention in policy debates. Recently, air quality has emerged on the policy agenda. We calculate a new index of air quality using CO2 and SO2 emissions per capita as indicators and provide a ranking for 122 countries from 1985 to 2005.The empirical analysis supports the EKC hypothesis (Environmental Kuznets Curve) and shows a significant influence of determinants such as energy efficiency, industrial production, electricity produced from coal sources, and urbanization on air quality. According to our index, Luxemburg, Norway, Iceland, Switzerland, and Japan are among the top 5 countries in terms of air quality performance. The Democratic Republic of Congo, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Togo, and Nepal performed worst in 2005.

  6. Air quality health index variation across British Columbia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasselback, P. [Interior Health Authority, Kelowna, BC (Canada); Taylor, E. [British Columbia Ministry of Health Living and Sport, Vancouver, BC (Canada)

    2010-09-15

    The new Air Quality Health Index (AQHI) is a tool aiming to present the health risks related to air pollution in Canada. This index can be used by individuals to help them reduce their health risk resulting from poor air quality. An assessment of the short term health risk induced by poor air quality is provided to Canadians through the AQHI. The AQHI is based on three factors: ambient concentrations of nitrogen dioxide, fine particulate matter and ozone, the local air quality information being presented on an hourly and daily basis and being calculated each hour for several locations across Canada. Pulmonary disorders and impacts on cardiac function are the more significant short term health risks. Longer term exposure to poor air quality is associated with increased rates of allergies and asthma, low birth weight, atherosclerosis, poorer lung development in children, lung cancer and ear infections. Information on the AQHI and on the variation across British Columbia of the health risk associated with this index are presented in this document. 19 refs., 5 tabs., 5 figs.

  7. Assessment of Effects of Air Pollution on Daily Outpatient Visits using the Air Quality Index

    OpenAIRE

    Mu, Haosheng; Otani, Shinji; Okamoto,Mikizo; Yokoyama, Yae; Tokushima, Yasuko; Onishi, Kazunari; Hosoda, Takenobu; KUROZAWA, Youichi

    2014-01-01

    Background The air quality index (AQI) is widely used to characterize the quality of ambient air. Chinese cities officially report the AQI on a daily basis. To assess the possible effects of air pollution on daily outpatient visits, we examined the association between AQI and the daily outpatient count. Methods Daily data on outpatient visits to each clinical department were collected from the Z county hospital of Datong City, China. The collection period was between 5 April and 30 June, 2012...

  8. Assessment of Effects of Air Pollution on Daily Outpatient Visits using the Air Quality Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Haosheng; Otani, Shinji; Okamoto, Mikizo; Yokoyama, Yae; Tokushima, Yasuko; Onishi, Kazunari; Hosoda, Takenobu; Kurozawa, Youichi

    2014-01-01

    Background The air quality index (AQI) is widely used to characterize the quality of ambient air. Chinese cities officially report the AQI on a daily basis. To assess the possible effects of air pollution on daily outpatient visits, we examined the association between AQI and the daily outpatient count. Methods Daily data on outpatient visits to each clinical department were collected from the Z county hospital of Datong City, China. The collection period was between 5 April and 30 June, 2012. Daily AQI data and meteorological information were simultaneously recorded. We compared outpatient counts between the index days and comparison days, and calculated Pearson’s product moment correlation coefficient between outpatient counts and AQI levels. Results The average AQI level for index days was significantly higher than that for comparison days. No significant difference was observed in temperature or relative humidity between index days and comparison days. The outpatient counts for pediatrics were significantly higher on index days than on comparison days, and no significant difference was noted in other clinical departments. The outpatient counts for pediatrics positively correlated with the AQI level, and no correlation was noted in other clinical departments. Conclusion The present study assessed the association between daily outpatient visits and air pollution using AQI. The results obtained suggest that air pollution could increase the outpatient count for pediatrics. PMID:25901100

  9. An index to measure depreciation in air quality in some coal mining areas of Korba industrial belt of Chhattisgarh, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Gurdeep

    2006-11-01

    The comparison with National Ambient Air Quality Standards does not always depict a true picture of the Air Quality Status of a study area. As an alternative an index that measures depreciation in Air Quality on more realistic terms has been proposed and applied to the ambient air monitoring data collected from some areas of Korba Coalfields in India. Results have been discussed in detail to illustrate the application of the proposed index and utility in bringing out more realistic air quality assessment.

  10. AIR QUALITY MONITORING WITH THE LICHEN BIODIVERSITY INDEX (LBI IN THE DISTRICT OF FAENZA (ITALY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuela Cioffi

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The Lichen Biodiversity Index (LBI is a method for monitoring air pollution. This method employs lichens living on lime trees because they are sensitive to NOx and SOx, and it considers the variations in their communities. This study was performed in 16 stations located in the suburbs of Faenza city town and the result shows a more than acceptable air quality although in some stations the air was affected by the polluting effects of the vehicle traffic.

  11. Image quality and volume computed tomography air kerma index (Cvol) evaluation in Recife

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Computed Tomography (CT) is an important diagnostic imaging method, widely used. However, in spite of all the advantages and technologic advances within the CT scanners, the tomographic procedures result in high absorbed doses to patients. The main objective of this work was to perform a dosimetric study of CT scanners located at Recife and to evaluate the image quality on CT examinations in these equipment. The volume CT air kerma index (CVOL) and air kerma length product (PKL,CT) were estimated. These values were calculated using normalized weighted air kerma indexes in CT standard dosimetry phantoms (nCW), supplied by ImPACT group for several CT scanners, and the scan parameters of routine head, routine chest and hi-resolution chest CT exams performed at 20 institutions. The irradiation parameters of 15 adult patients for each CT procedure were registered at six participating centres, at which the phantom from the American College of Radiology (ACR) CT accreditation protocol was used for the image quality measurements. For routine head exams, the CVOL values varied between 12 and 58 mGy (at the posterior fossa) and 15 to 58 mGy (at the cerebrum) and the PKL,CT, from 150 to 750 mGy·cm. The CVOL values for routine chest procedures varied from 3 to 26 mGy and the PKL,CT, between 120 and 460 mGy·cm. In relation to Hi-resolution chest exams, CVOL values were from 1.0 to 2.7 mGy and the PKL,CT values varied between 24 and 67 mGy·cm. The image quality evaluations results showed that almost all scanners presented at least one inadequacy. One of the equipment presented faults at 70% of the tests. With regard to the image noise, only two scanners presented acceptable results. From these results, it is possible to conclude that the volume CT air kerma index values are lower than the European reference levels. However, the image quality of these CT scanners does not attend the ACR requirements, suggesting the need to implement quality assurance programs at the

  12. Air quality trends and potential health effects - Development of an aggregate risk index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sicard, Pierre; Lesne, Olivia; Alexandre, Nicolas; Mangin, Antoine; Collomp, Rémy

    2011-02-01

    The "Provence Alpes Côte d'Azur" (PACA) region, in the South East of France, is one of Europe's regions most influenced by the atmospheric pollution. During the last 15 years, the industrial emissions decrease caused an evolution of the atmospheric pollution nature. Nowadays, atmospheric pollution is more and more influenced by the road traffic, the dominating pollution source in urban zones for the PACA region. Combined with this intense road traffic, the strong hot season of the Mediterranean climate contributes to the region bad air quality; it is known to be one of the worse in Europe. The recognized air pollution effects over public health include increased risk of hospital admissions and mortality by respiratory or cardiovascular diseases. The combination of these serious pollution related health hazards with senior and children vulnerabilities leads to serious sanitary concerns. Over the 1990-2005 period, we obtained, using the non-parametric Mann-Kendall test from annual mortality dataset (CépiDC), decreasing trends for Asthma (-5.00% year -1), Cardiovascular (-0.73% year -1), Ischemic (-0.69% year -1) and cerebrovascular diseases (-3.10% year -1). However, for "Other heart diseases" (+0.10% year -1) and "Respiratory" (+0.10% year -1) an increase was observed. The development of an adequate tool to understand impacts of pollution levels is of utmost importance. Different pollutants have different health endpoints, information may be lost through the use of a single index consequently, in this study we present the modified formula of air quality index, based on Cairncross's concept the Aggregate Risk Index (ARI). ARI is based on the relative risk of the well-established increased daily mortality, or morbidity, enabling an assessment of additive effects of short-term exposure to the main air pollutants: PM 2.5, PM 10, SO 2, O 3 and NO 2 in order to account for the reality of the multiple exposures impacts of chemical agents. The ARI, developed per pathology

  13. The air quality health index and emergency department visits for urticaria in Windsor, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kousha, Termeh; Valacchi, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    Ambient air pollution exposure has been associated with several health conditions, limited not only to respiratory and cardiovascular systems but also to cutaneous tissues. However, few epidemiological studies examined pollution exposure on skin problems. Basically, the common mechanism by which pollution may affect skin physiology is by induction of oxidative stress and inflammation. Urticaria is among the skin pathologies that have been associated with pollution. Based on the combined effects of three ambient air pollutants, ozone (O₃), nitrogen dioxide (NO₂), and fine particulate matter (PM) with a median aerodynamic diameter of less than 2.5 μm (PM(2.5)), on mortality, the Air Quality Health Index (AQHI) in Canada was developed. The aim of this study was to examine the associations of short-term changes in AQHI with emergency department (ED) visits for urticaria in Windsor-area hospitals in Canada. Diagnosed ED visits were retrieved from the National Ambulatory Care Reporting System (NACRS). A time-stratified case-crossover design was applied to 2905 ED visits (males = 1215; females = 1690) for urticaria from April 2004 through December 2010. Odds ratios (OR) and their corresponding 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) for ED visits associated with increase by one unit of risk index were calculated employing conditional logistic regression. Positive and significant results were observed between AQHI levels and OR for ED visits for urticaria in Windsor for lags 2 and 3 days. A distributed lag nonlinear model technique was applied to daily counts of ED visits for lags 0 to 10 and significant results were obtained from lag 2 to lag 5 and for lag 9. These findings demonstrated associations between ambient air pollution and urticarial confirming that air pollution affects skin conditions.

  14. [Analysis on Regional Characteristics of Air Quality Index and Weather Situation in Beijing and Its Surrounding Cities During the APEC].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Qing-xian; Lu, Jun-rong; Wang, Ning; Li, Wen-tao; Gao, Wen-kang; Su, Bu-da

    2015-11-01

    Analysis on the revolution and regional characteristics of air quality by hourly monitored readings from 1 to 15 November 2014 released by Environmental Monitoring Station of China and research of the impacts of weather situation and meteorological elements released by China Meteorological Administration towards air quality of Beijing and its surrounding cities during the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) indicated that: (1) The air quality was good because of the implementation of mitigation measures, while the Air Quality Index (AQI) increased along with the termination of mitigation measures. Thus it can be seen that mitigation measures made a great contribution to the improvement of air quality of Beijing and its surrounding cities. (2) Affected by thermal inversion layer, AQI of Beijing and its surrounding cities increased quickly during the initial of the implemental of reducing measures which proved that pollutants would accumulate in the context of unfavourable weather, hence the influence of weather situation towards air quality could not be ignored. (3) Although affected by thermal inversion layer, the concentration of pollutants of Beijing was not accumulated to a high degree at the end period of reducing measures, while Tianjin, Tangshan, Baoding and Xingtai suffered from moderate and severe pollution at the same time which further illustrated that the implementation of mitigation measures have made a great contribution to the improvement of air quality in Beijing during APEC.

  15. Using Social Media to Detect Outdoor Air Pollution and Monitor Air Quality Index (AQI: A Geo-Targeted Spatiotemporal Analysis Framework with Sina Weibo (Chinese Twitter.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Jiang

    Full Text Available Outdoor air pollution is a serious problem in many developing countries today. This study focuses on monitoring the dynamic changes of air quality effectively in large cities by analyzing the spatiotemporal trends in geo-targeted social media messages with comprehensive big data filtering procedures. We introduce a new social media analytic framework to (1 investigate the relationship between air pollution topics posted in Sina Weibo (Chinese Twitter and the daily Air Quality Index (AQI published by China's Ministry of Environmental Protection; and (2 monitor the dynamics of air quality index by using social media messages. Correlation analysis was used to compare the connections between discussion trends in social media messages and the temporal changes in the AQI during 2012. We categorized relevant messages into three types, retweets, mobile app messages, and original individual messages finding that original individual messages had the highest correlation to the Air Quality Index. Based on this correlation analysis, individual messages were used to monitor the AQI in 2013. Our study indicates that the filtered social media messages are strongly correlated to the AQI and can be used to monitor the air quality dynamics to some extent.

  16. Diet quality assessment indexes

    OpenAIRE

    Kênia Mara Baiocchi de Carvalho; Eliane Said Dutra; Nathalia Pizato; Nádia Dias Gruezo; Marina Kiyomi Ito

    2014-01-01

    Various indices and scores based on admittedly healthy dietary patterns or food guides for the general population, or aiming at the prevention of diet-related diseases have been developed to assess diet quality. The four indices preferred by most studies are: the Diet Quality Index; the Healthy Eating Index; the Mediterranean Diet Score; and the Overall Nutritional Quality Index. Other instruments based on these indices have been developed and the words 'adapted', 'revised', or 'new version I...

  17. A Visualization Approach to Air Pollution Data Exploration—A Case Study of Air Quality Index (PM2.5 in Beijing, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huan Li

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, frequent occurrences of significant air pollution events in China have routinely caused panic and are a major topic of discussion by the public and air pollution experts in government and academia. Therefore, this study proposed an efficient visualization method to represent directly, quickly, and clearly the spatio-temporal information contained in air pollution data. Data quality check and cleansing during a preliminary visual analysis is presented in tabular form, heat matrix, or line chart, upon which hypotheses can be deduced. Further visualizations were designed to verify the hypotheses and obtain useful findings. This method was tested and validated in a year-long case study of the air quality index (AQI of PM2.5 in Beijing, China. We found that PM2.5, PM10, and NO2 may be emitted by the same sources, and strong winds may accelerate the spread of pollutants. The average concentration of PM2.5 in Beijing was greater than the AQI value of 50 over the six-year study period. Furthermore, arable lands exhibited considerably higher concentrations of air pollutants than vegetation-covered areas. The findings of this study showed that our visualization method is intuitive and reliable through data quality checking and information sharing with multi-perspective air pollution graphs. This method allows the data to be easily understood by the public and inspire or aid further studies in other fields.

  18. PLAM - a meteorological pollution index for air quality and its applications in fog-haze forecasts in North China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Y. Q.; Wang, J. Z.; Gong, S. L.; Zhang, X. Y.; Wang, H.; Wang, Y. Q.; Wang, J.; Li, D.; Guo, J. P.

    2016-02-01

    Using surface meteorological observation and high-resolution emission data, this paper discusses the application of the PLAM/h index (Parameter Linking Air-quality to Meteorological conditions/haze) in the prediction of large-scale low visibility and fog-haze events. Based on the two-dimensional probability density function diagnosis model for emissions, the study extends the diagnosis and prediction of the meteorological pollution index PLAM to the regional visibility fog-haze intensity. The results show that combining the influence of regular meteorological conditions and emission factors together in the PLAM/h parameterization scheme is very effective in improving the diagnostic identification ability of the fog-haze weather in North China. The determination coefficients for four seasons (spring, summer, autumn, and winter) between PLAM/h and visibility observation are 0.76, 0.80, 0.96, and 0.86, respectively, and all of their significance levels exceed 0.001, showing the ability of PLAM/h to predict the seasonal changes and differences of fog-haze weather in the North China region. The high-value correlation zones are located in Jing-Jin-Ji (Beijing, Tianjin, Hebei), Bohai Bay rim, and southern Hebei-northern Henan, indicating that the PLAM/h index is related to the distribution of frequent heavy fog-haze weather in North China and the distribution of emission high-value zone. Through comparative analysis of the heavy fog-haze events and large-scale clear-weather processes in winter and summer, it is found that PLAM/h index 24 h forecast is highly correlated with the visibility observation. Therefore, the PLAM/h index has good capability in identification, analysis, and forecasting.

  19. Diet quality assessment indexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kênia Mara Baiocchi de Carvalho

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Various indices and scores based on admittedly healthy dietary patterns or food guides for the general population, or aiming at the prevention of diet-related diseases have been developed to assess diet quality. The four indices preferred by most studies are: the Diet Quality Index; the Healthy Eating Index; the Mediterranean Diet Score; and the Overall Nutritional Quality Index. Other instruments based on these indices have been developed and the words 'adapted', 'revised', or 'new version I, II or III' added to their names. Even validated indices usually find only modest associations between diet and risk of disease or death, raising questions about their limitations and the complexity associated with measuring the causal relationship between diet and health parameters. The objective of this review is to describe the main instruments used for assessing diet quality, and the applications and limitations related to their use and interpretation.

  20. Indoor Air Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... protect yourself and your family. Learn more Air Quality at Work Workers should breathe easy while on the job, but worksites with poor air quality put employees at risk. Healthy air is essential ...

  1. Life quality index revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ditlevsen, Ove Dalager

    2004-01-01

    The derivation of the life quality index (LQI) is revisited for a revision. This revision takes into account the unpaid but necessary work time needed to stay alive in clean and healthy conditions to be fit for effective wealth producing work and to enjoyable free time. Dimension analysis...... at birth should not vary between countries. Finally the distributional assumptions are relaxed as compared to the assumptions made in an earlier work by the author. These assumptions concern the calculation of the life expectancy change due to the removal of an accident source. Moreover a simple public...... consistency problems with the standard power function expression of the LQI are pointed out. It is emphasized that the combination coefficient in the convex differential combination between the relative differential of the gross domestic product per capita and the relative differential of the expected life...

  2. Allegheny County Air Quality

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Air quality data from Allegheny County Health Department monitors throughout the county. Air quality monitored data must be verified by qualified individuals...

  3. Is Human Development Index (HDI) a reflector of quality of air? a comparative study on developed and developing countries

    OpenAIRE

    Santra, Swarup

    2014-01-01

    Economic Indicators alone cannot capture the totality of ‘Quality of Life’ (QOL). The Most acceptable Measure of QOL is the ‘Human Development Index’ (HDI) of UNDP. HDI is a composite Index of three Indicators of three essential dimensions of life. These three indicators are of per capita GDP adjusted to purchasing power, life expectancy at birth, and adult literacy rate(including the gross school enrollment ratios). While, the measurement of HDI is considered as a measure of Human well-be...

  4. Indoor Air Quality Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin Union Free School District, NY.

    This manual identifies ways to improve a school's indoor air quality (IAQ) and discusses practical actions that can be carried out by school staff in managing air quality. The manual includes discussions of the many sources contributing to school indoor air pollution and the preventive planning for each including renovation and repair work,…

  5. Air Quality System (AQS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Air Quality System (AQS) database contains measurements of air pollutant concentrations from throughout the United States and its territories. The measurements...

  6. Indoor air quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Trine Susanne; Recevska, Ieva

     The objective of the 35th specific agreement is to provide support to the EEA activities in Environment and Health (E&H) on the topic of indoor air quality. The specific objectives have been to provide an overview of indoor air related projects in EU and indoor air related policies as well...... as idenfiying "good practices" to reduce health impact of indoor air exposure and suggest areas for future improvements....

  7. Air Quality Monitoring Programme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kemp, K.; Palmgren, F.

    The air quality in Danish cities has been monitored continuously since 1982 within the Danish Air Quality (LMP) network. The aim has been to follow the concentration levels of toxic pollutants in the urban atmosphere and to provide the necessary knowledge to assess the trends, to perform source...... apportionment, and to evaluate the chemical reactions and the dispersion of the pollutants in the atmosphere. In 2002 the air quality was measured in four Danish cities and at two background sites. NO2 and PM10 were at several stations found in concentrations above the new EU limit values, which the Member...

  8. Transportation and Air Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... factors research. - Modeling & Inventories - Testing & Measuring Emissions - Clean Automotive Technologies - Emission Factors Research This page is maintained by EPA's Office of Transportation and Air Quality (OTAQ) . For more: About Us | Get E-mail ...

  9. Regional Air Quality Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This asset provides data on regional air quality, including trace level SO2, nitric acid, ozone, carbon monoxide, and NOy; and particulate sulfate, nitrate, and...

  10. Air Quality in Lithuania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pietilae, P. [Tampere University of Technology / ECAT-Lithuania (Lithuania); Kliucininkas, L. [Department for Environmental Engineering, Kaunas University of Technology (Lithuania)

    2000-07-01

    Sustainable monitoring of the ambient air is the major preventive measure of ensuring its proper quality. Only with a monitoring procedure going-on a continuous basis it is possible to make an objective evaluation of air pollution trends, of the efficiency of air protection measures and, partially, to a certain extent of the impact the pollution exerts on a human health. The information stemming from the monitoring procedure must be reliable, sustainable and efficient. (orig.)

  11. Introduction to Indoor Air Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... US Environmental Protection Agency Search Search Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) Share Facebook Twitter Google+ Pinterest Contact Us ... Indoor Air Quality An Introduction to Indoor Air Quality IAQ & Health Causes of IAQ Problems Identifying IAQ ...

  12. Energy and air quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is one of a series of handbooks designed to provide nontechnical readers with a general understanding of the interaction between energy development and environmental media and to provide a rudimentary data base from which estimates of potential future impacts can be made. This handbook describes the air quality impacts of energy development and summarizes the major federal legislation which regulates the potential air quality impacts of energy facilities and can thus influence the locations and timing of energy development. In addition, this report describes and presents the data which can be used as the basis for measurement, and in some cases, prediction of the potential conflicts between energy development and achieving and maintaining clean air. Energy utilization is the largest emission source of man-made air pollutants. Choices in energy resource development and utilization generate varying emissions or discharges into the atmosphere, the emissions are affected by the assimilative character of the atmosphere, and the resultant air pollutant concentrations have biological and aesthetic effects. This handbook describes the interrelationships of energy-related air emissions under various methods of pollution control, the assimilative character of the air medium, and the effects of air pollution. The media book is divided into three major sections: topics of concern relating to the media and energy development, descriptions of how to use available data to quantify and examine energy/environmental impacts, and the data

  13. Air filtration and indoor air quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bekö, Gabriel

    2006-01-01

    Demands for better indoor air quality are increasing, since we spend most of our time indoors and we are more and more aware of indoor air pollution. Field studies in different parts of the world have documented that high percentage of occupants in many offices and buildings find the indoor air...... decent ventilation and air cleaning/air filtration, high indoor air quality cannot be accomplished. The need for effective air filtration has increased with increasing evidence on the hazardous effects of fine particles. Moreover, the air contains gaseous pollutants, removal of which requires various air...... cleaning techniques. Supply air filter is one of the key components in the ventilation system. Studies have shown that used ventilation filters themselves can be a significant source of indoor air pollution with consequent impact on perceived air quality, sick building syndrome symptoms and performance...

  14. Air Quality Guide for Ozone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Local Air Quality Conditions Zip Code: State : My Current Location Air Quality Guide for Ozone Ground-level ozone is one of our nation’s most common air pollutants. Use the chart below to help reduce ...

  15. The air pollution index system in Hong Kong

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, F.Y.P.; Gervat, G.P. [Hong Kong Government, Wanchai (Hong Kong). Environmental Protection Dept.

    1995-12-31

    The Hong Kong Environmental Protection Department (EPD) is currently operating an air quality monitoring network in the territory. There are nine monitoring stations, each with air quality monitoring equipment, meteorological instruments and a data logger. Five minute averaged data are transmitted through telephone lines to the central computer at the EPD Air Laboratory and are also stored in the data logger on site, as backup. At present, the EPD releases its air quality measurements to the public via monthly and special press releases, and annual reports. However, as public awareness of air pollution problems has increased, there has been an urgent need for timely and simpler information about air pollution levels. The development and operation of an Air Pollution Index (API) system has addressed that need. This presentation discusses the API computation, the information and advice released to the general public and how they can access the API information. Some API results are also presented. (author)

  16. Air Quality Monitoring Programme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kemp, K.; Palmgren, F.

    The Danish Air Quality Monitoring Programme (LMP IV) has been revised in accordance with the Framework Directive and the first three daughter directives of SO2, NOx/NO2, PM10, lead, benzene, CO and ozone. PM10 samplers are under installation and the installation will be completed during 2002...

  17. Indoor Air Quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Selman, Ayser Dawod; Heiselberg, Per

    Overall purpose of the research is to provide an overview of the relevance and importance of various defined Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) parameters in a European perspective. Based on the report it should be possible to prioritize which countries to target for further activities as well as it should...

  18. Measuring environmental quality. An index of pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper develops an index of pollution based on the epidemiological dose-response function associated with each pollutant, and the welfare losses due to exposure to pollution. The probability of damage is translated into welfare losses, which provides the common metric required for aggregation. Isopollution surfaces may then be used to compare environmental quality over time and space. An Air Pollution Index (API) is computed using 1997 data for the criteria pollutants under the Clean Air Act (CAA). The results are compared with the EPA's Pollutant Standards Index (PSI). Two significant differences emerge: unlike the PSI, the API facilitates a detailed ranking of regions by air quality and API values may contradict PSI results. Some regions with PSI values of 100-200 are considered less polluted under the proposed methodology than those with PSI values between 50 and 100. The key reason for the difference is that PSI values are determined entirely by the gas with the highest relative concentration whereas the API value is based on the ambient concentrations of all pollutants. 14 refs

  19. Indoor air quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rising energy prices, among other factors, have generated an incentive to reduce ventilation rates and thereby reduce the cost of heating and cooling buildings. Reduced ventilation in buildings may significantly increase exposure to indoor air pollution and perhaps have adverse effects on occupant health and comfort. Preliminary findings suggest that reduced ventilation may adversely affect indoor air quality unless appropriate control strategies are undertaken. The strategies used to control indoor air pollution depend on the specific pollutant or class of pollutants encountered, and differ somewhat depending on whether the application is to an existing building or a new building under design and construction. Whenever possible, the first course of action is prevention or reduction of pollutant emissions at the source. In most buildings, control measures involve a combination of prevention, removal, and suppression. Common sources of indoor air pollution in buildings, the specific pollutants emitted by each source, the potential health effects, and possible control techniques are discussed

  20. Ambient Air Quality Data Inventory

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Office of Air and Radiation's (OAR) Ambient Air Quality Data (Current) contains ambient air pollution data collected by EPA, other federal agencies, as well as...

  1. Ambient Air Quality Data Inventory

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Office of Air and Radiation??s (OAR) Ambient Air Quality Data (Current) contains ambient air pollution data collected by EPA, other federal agencies, as well as...

  2. Cultural and Political Determinants of Air Quality

    OpenAIRE

    Francisca Guedes de Oliveira; Alexandra Leitão

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigates empirically the determinants of air quality in a large cross-section of countries. We assess air quality by sulfur emissions and, following the literature, we consider three different groups of determinants: economic, political and cultural. We confirm the existence of an EKC for sulfur (inverted-U shaped relation between wealth and pollution). Political determinants are proxied by ethnic or religious fractionalization indexes and the country’s legal origin (we conside...

  3. Air Quality of Beijing and Impacts of the New Ambient Air Quality Standard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Chen

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Beijing has been publishing daily reports on its air quality since 2000, and while the air pollution index (API shows that the air quality has improved greatly since 2000, this is not the perception of Beijing’s residents. The new national ambient air quality standard (NAAQS-2012, which includes the monitoring of PM2.5, has posed stricter standards for evaluating air quality. With the new national standard, the air quality in Beijing is calculated using both NAAQS-2012 and the previous standard. The annual attainment rate has dropped from 75.5% to 50.7%. The spatial analysis of air quality shows that only a background station could attain the national standard, while urban and suburban stations exceed the national standard. Among the six pollutants included in the NAAQS-2012, PM2.5 is the major contributor to the air quality index (AQI comparing with the five other pollutants. The results indicate that under previous NAAQS without PM2.5 monitoring, the air quality has improved greatly in the past decade.  By considering PM2.5, the air quality attainment has dropped greatly. Furthermore, a great effort is needed for local government to bring down the PM2.5 concentration.

  4. The Economic Value of Air Quality Forecasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson-Sumo, Tasha

    Both long-term and daily air quality forecasts provide an essential component to human health and impact costs. According the American Lung Association, the estimated current annual cost of air pollution related illness in the United States, adjusted for inflation (3% per year), is approximately $152 billion. Many of the risks such as hospital visits and morality are associated with poor air quality days (where the Air Quality Index is greater than 100). Groups such as sensitive groups become more susceptible to the resulting conditions and more accurate forecasts would help to take more appropriate precautions. This research focuses on evaluating the utility of air quality forecasting in terms of its potential impacts by building on air quality forecasting and economical metrics. Our analysis includes data collected during the summertime ozone seasons between 2010 and 2012 from air quality models for the Washington, DC/Baltimore, MD region. The metrics that are relevant to our analysis include: (1) The number of times that a high ozone or particulate matter (PM) episode is correctly forecasted, (2) the number of times that high ozone or PM episode is forecasted when it does not occur and (3) the number of times when the air quality forecast predicts a cleaner air episode when the air was observed to have high ozone or PM. Our collection of data included available air quality model forecasts of ozone and particulate matter data from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)'s AIRNOW as well as observational data of ozone and particulate matter from Clean Air Partners. We evaluated the performance of the air quality forecasts with that of the observational data and found that the forecast models perform well for the Baltimore/Washington region and the time interval observed. We estimate the potential amount for the Baltimore/Washington region accrues to a savings of up to 5,905 lives and 5.9 billion dollars per year. This total assumes perfect compliance with

  5. Air movement and perceived air quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melikov, Arsen Krikor; Kaczmarczyk, J.

    2012-01-01

    The impact of air movement on perceived air quality (PAQ) and sick building syndrome (SBS) symptoms was studied. In total, 124 human subjects participated in four series of experiments performed in climate chambers at different combinations of room air temperature (20, 23, 26 and 28 °C), relative...... humidity (30, 40 and 70%) and pollution level (low and high). Most of the experiments were performed with and without facially applied airflow at elevated velocity. The importance of the use of recirculated room air and clean, cool and dry outdoor air was studied. The exposures ranged from 60. min to 235....... min. Acceptability of PAQ and freshness of the air improved when air movement was applied. The elevated air movement diminished the negative impact of increased air temperature, relative humidity and pollution level on PAQ. The degree of improvement depended on the pollution level, the temperature...

  6. Public health risks of prolonged fine particle events associated with stagnation and air quality index based on fine particle matter with a diameter <2.5 μm in the Kaoping region of Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Li-Wei

    2016-04-01

    The increasing frequency of droughts in tropical and sub-tropical areas since 1970 due to climate change requires a better understanding of the relationship between public health and long-duration fine particle events (FPE; defined as a day with an average PM2.5 ≥ 35.5 μg/m3) associated with rainfall and wind speed. In the Kaoping region of Taiwan, 94.46 % of the daily average PM2.5 in winter exceeds the limit established by 2005 World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines. This study investigated the differences in winter weather characteristics and health effects between non-FPE and FPE days, and the performance of air quality indexes on FPE days. Z-statistics for one-tailed tests, multiplicative decomposition models, logarithmic regression, and product-moment correlations were used for the analysis. The results indicate that mean wind speeds, rainfall hours, and air temperature were significantly decreased on FPE days. Daily mean PM2.5 concentrations were positively correlated to the duration of FPE days. The duration of FPE days was positively related to the length of drought (r = 0.97, P 15 years experienced the largest average reduction in asthma admissions on lag-days. Compared to the pollutant standard index (PSI) and revised air quality index (RAQI), the PM2.5 index is more representative and sensitive to changes in PM2.5 concentrations.

  7. Air Quality Monitoring Using CCD/ CMOS Devices

    OpenAIRE

    Low, Khee Lam; Joanna, Tan Choay Ee; Sim, Keat; Jafri, Mohd Zubir Mat; and, Khiruddin Abdullah

    2010-01-01

    In this chapter, we showed a method for measuring of the air quality index by using the CCD/CMOS sensor. We showed two examples to obtain index values by using webcam and CCTV. Both devices provided a high correlation between the measured and estimated PM10. So, the imaging method is capable to measure PM10 values in the environment. Futher application can be conducted using different devices.

  8. ATMOSPHERIC AIR QUALITY IN CALARASI TOWN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia NEAGU

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper seeks to highlight the appearance of air pollution in Calarasi region on the basis of the annual reports of the environment in recent years and of the integrated air quality management for Cǎlǎraşi (data are presented about current and future emissions and concentrations of pollutants I tried to mark out the impurity of the atmospheric air from this area.Emission data interpretation was made on the basis of the inventory of emissions of pollutants in the air made for fixed and mobile sources in Calarasi town in recent years using the program Corinvent and Corinair emission factors, and imissions data were used to monitor the air quality monitoring network air quality. The index of the quality of the air showed the highest values in winter.There have been occasional instances of the limit provided by law for particulate matter PM10, Calarasi, or being the intense traffic, the topoclimate in summer periods with high temperatures and deficient pluviometric regime, but also because housing fuel winter warming solid. There major problems of environmental pollution of air quality in Calarasi town that falls within the limits imposed by the legislation in force. This is due especially to the fact that many industrial centres have been closed.

  9. Air Quality Facilities

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — Facilities with operating permits for Title V of the Federal Clean Air Act, as well as facilities required to submit an air emissions inventory, and other...

  10. CDC WONDER: Daily Air Temperatures and Heat Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Daily Air Temperature and Heat Index data available on CDC WONDER are county-level daily average air temperatures and heat index measures spanning the years...

  11. Diet quality index for healthy food choices

    OpenAIRE

    Simone Caivano; Semíramis Martins Álvares Domene

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To present a Diet Quality Index proper for dietary intake studies of Brazilian adults. METHODS: A diet quality index to analyze the incorporation of healthy food choices was associated with a digital food guide. This index includes moderation components, destined to indicate foods that may represent a risk when in excess, and adequacy components that include sources of nutrients and bioactive compounds in order to help individuals meet their nutritional requirements. The diet quali...

  12. Developing a fuzzy model for Tehran's air quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nafiseh Tokhmehchi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to offer a fuzzy approach for calculating Tehran's air pollution index. The method is based on fuzzy analysis model, and uses the information about air quality index (AQI, included on the website of Tehran’s Air Quality Monitoring And Supervision Bureau. The contrived fuzzy logic is considered a powerful tool for demonstrating the information associated with uncertainty. In the end, several graphs visualize this inferential system in various levels of pollution.

  13. Universal availability of the air quality index formulae based on the normalized transformation principle%基于规范变换的空气质量指数公式的广义普适性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李祚泳; 张小丽; 汪嘉杨

    2016-01-01

    This paper aims to work out a few index formulae for assessing the environmental quality of the inside and outside the atmospheric conditions,which are characteristic of the features of being simple in form,easy in calculation and universal in application.Thus,it is on such a basis of the indoor air quality standards (GB/T 18883-2002) that we have proposed the essential formulae of the air quality so as to make the varied ranges of the normalized index systems consisting of 15 indexes in one single grade standard of the indoor air,which should be in conformity with those of the normalized index values of 7 ones for the same gradation standards of the open-air space,so that it can properly be set up as a reference to the normalized transformation form.In so doing,it would be easy and logic to make the formulae into a normalized transformation in accordance with the grade standards for each index of the indoor air.Thus,it is also possible to optimize the 6 universal index formulae by means of the monkey-king genetic algorithm with immune evolutionary (MKGAIEA),which are also suitable for environmental quality assessment of 7 normalized index values of the outdoor air.What is more,the formulae can also be made fit for the environmental quality assessment,consisting of 15 normalized indexes of the indoor air by means of the gauge symmetry principle.Based on the aforementioned study of the formulae,we have applied them to the air quality assessment practice of the indoor air for the two cases of the residential areas in Handan,Hebei,as well as for the public places of Guangzhou City,Guangdong,in hoping to test the practical effectiveness of the 6 index formulae.And,the assessment results of the aforementioned 6 universal index formulae for the 2 cases prove to be well in accord with the results assessed by using the traditional methods and consistent with each other.Thus,it can be concluded that the 6 index formulae can be taken as the up-to-date most convenient and

  14. Indoor Air Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazaki, Takeji

    The reduction of intake of outdoor air volume in air conditioned buildings, adopted as the strategy for saving energy, has caused sick building syndrome abroad. Such symptoms of sick building as headache, stimuli of eye and nose and lethargy, appears to result from cigarette smoke, folmaldehyde and volatile organic carbons. On the other hand, in airtight residences not only carbon monoxide and nitrogen oxides from domestic burning appliances but also allergens of mite, fungi, pollen and house dust, have become a subject of discussion. Moreover, asbestos and radon of carcinogen now attract a great deal of attention. Those indoor air pollutants are discussed.

  15. Air Quality at Your Street

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Steen Solvang; Becker, Thomas; Ketzel, Matthias;

    concerned citizents, or in the context of localization of institutions, etc. The purpose of the project ‘Air Quality at Your Street’ is to create interactive air quality maps on the internet using webGIS to illustrate the geographical variation of air quality in Denmark for selected health related air...... pollutants. The maps show annual means of NO2, PM2.5 or PM10 for 2012. The user interface presents modelled air quality data on a map where the user can select map view, pan, zoom in and out, etc. It is also possible to get the air quality for a particular address by entering a specific address. Air quality...... is calculated with a model system consisting of a regional model (DEHM), an urban background model (UBM) and a street model (OSPM) with associated meteorology and emissions data etc. Recently updated input data has been used for the road network and traffic data based on the national traffic model (LTM) from...

  16. Mind Your Indoor Air Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mak, Lily

    2012-01-01

    When it comes to excelling in the classroom, it turns out the air students are breathing is just as important as the lessons they are learning. Studies show poor indoor air quality (IAQ) can lessen the comfort of students as well as staff--affecting concentration, attendance and student performance. It can even lead to lower IQs. What's more, poor…

  17. Index to the AEC/ERDA/DOE Air Cleaning Conferences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A comprehensive index to the papers in the second through sixteenth AEC/ERDA/DOE Nuclear Air Cleaning Conference is discussed. The index will be published in early 1981 and will be designated as Volume 3 of the proceeding of the sixteenth conference. The index has three parts, a straight numeric tabulation, an author index, and a key word in context (KWIC) index

  18. A quality index for patent systems

    OpenAIRE

    VAN POTTELSBERGHE Bruno; de Saint-Georges, Matthis

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a quality index for patent systems. The index is composed of nine operational design components that help shape the transparency of patent systems and affect the extent to which they comply with patentability conditions. Seven factors are related to rules and regulations (e.g., grace period, opposition process and continuation-inparts), while two factors measure patent offices’ resource allocation (i.e., workload per examiner and incentives). The index is computed for 32 n...

  19. Index and reference levels for Power Quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The JWG C4.07 CIGRE/CIRED have the goal in quantification of index and reference levels of general character for being able to carry out analysis of Power Quality in the actual scenario of market liberalization

  20. Image quality and volume computed tomography air kerma index (C{sub vol}) evaluation in Recife; Avaliacao da qualidade de imagem e do indice volumetrico de Kerma ar em tomografia computadorizada (C{sub vol}) em Recife

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrade, Marcos Ely Almeida

    2008-07-01

    The Computed Tomography (CT) is an important diagnostic imaging method, widely used. However, in spite of all the advantages and technologic advances within the CT scanners, the tomographic procedures result in high absorbed doses to patients. The main objective of this work was to perform a dosimetric study of CT scanners located at Recife and to evaluate the image quality on CT examinations in these equipment. The volume CT air kerma index (C{sub VOL}) and air kerma length product (P{sub KL,CT}) were estimated. These values were calculated using normalized weighted air kerma indexes in CT standard dosimetry phantoms ({sub n}C{sub W}), supplied by ImPACT group for several CT scanners, and the scan parameters of routine head, routine chest and hi-resolution chest CT exams performed at 20 institutions. The irradiation parameters of 15 adult patients for each CT procedure were registered at six participating centres, at which the phantom from the American College of Radiology (ACR) CT accreditation protocol was used for the image quality measurements. For routine head exams, the C{sub VOL} values varied between 12 and 58 mGy (at the posterior fossa) and 15 to 58 mGy (at the cerebrum) and the P{sub KL,CT}, from 150 to 750 mGy{center_dot}cm. The C{sub VOL} values for routine chest procedures varied from 3 to 26 mGy and the P{sub KL,CT}, between 120 and 460 mGy{center_dot}cm. In relation to Hi-resolution chest exams, C{sub VOL} values were from 1.0 to 2.7 mGy and the P{sub KL,CT} values varied between 24 and 67 mGy{center_dot}cm. The image quality evaluations results showed that almost all scanners presented at least one inadequacy. One of the equipment presented faults at 70% of the tests. With regard to the image noise, only two scanners presented acceptable results. From these results, it is possible to conclude that the volume CT air kerma index values are lower than the European reference levels. However, the image quality of these CT scanners does not attend the

  1. Aeromicrobiology/air quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Gary L.; Frisch, A.S.; Kellogg, Christina A.; Levetin, E.; Lighthart, Bruce; Paterno, D.

    2009-01-01

    The most prevalent microorganisms, viruses, bacteria, and fungi, are introduced into the atmosphere from many anthropogenic sources such as agricultural, industrial and urban activities, termed microbial air pollution (MAP), and natural sources. These include soil, vegetation, and ocean surfaces that have been disturbed by atmospheric turbulence. The airborne concentrations range from nil to great numbers and change as functions of time of day, season, location, and upwind sources. While airborne, they may settle out immediately or be transported great distances. Further, most viable airborne cells can be rendered nonviable due to temperature effects, dehydration or rehydration, UV radiation, and/or air pollution effects. Mathematical microbial survival models that simulate these effects have been developed.

  2. Manual on indoor air quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This reference manual was prepared to assist electric utilities in helping homeowners, builders, and new home buyers to understand a broad range of issues related to indoor air quality. The manual is directed to technically knowledgeable persons employed by utility companies - the customer service or marketing representative, applications engineer, or technician - who may not have specific expertise in indoor air quality issues. In addition to providing monitoring and control techniques, the manual summarizes the link between pollutant concentrations, air exchange, and energy conservation and describes the characteristics and health effects of selected pollutants. Where technical information is too lengthy or complex for inclusion in this volume, reference sources are given. Information for this manual was gathered from technical studies, manufacturers' information, and other materials from professional societies, institutes, and associations. The aim has been to provide objective technical and descriptive information that can be used by utility personnel to make informed decisions about indoor air quality issues

  3. Urban air quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenger, Jes

    Since 1950 the world population has more than doubled, and the global number of cars has increased by a factor of 10. In the same period the fraction of people living in urban areas has increased by a factor of 4. In year 2000 this will amount to nearly half of the world population. About 20 urban regions will each have populations above 10 million people. Seen over longer periods, pollution in major cities tends to increase during the built up phase, they pass through a maximum and are then again reduced, as abatement strategies are developed. In the industrialised western world urban air pollution is in some respects in the last stage with effectively reduced levels of sulphur dioxide and soot. In recent decades however, the increasing traffic has switched the attention to nitrogen oxides, organic compounds and small particles. In some cities photochemical air pollution is an important urban problem, but in the northern part of Europe it is a large-scale phenomenon, with ozone levels in urban streets being normally lower than in rural areas. Cities in Eastern Europe have been (and in many cases still are) heavily polluted. After the recent political upheaval, followed by a temporary recession and a subsequent introduction of new technologies, the situation appears to improve. However, the rising number of private cars is an emerging problem. In most developing countries the rapid urbanisation has so far resulted in uncontrolled growth and deteriorating environment. Air pollution levels are here still rising on many fronts. Apart from being sources of local air pollution, urban activities are significant contributors to transboundary pollution and to the rising global concentrations of greenhouse gasses. Attempts to solve urban problems by introducing cleaner, more energy-efficient technologies will generally have a beneficial impact on these large-scale problems. Attempts based on city planning with a spreading of the activities, on the other hand, may generate

  4. Global Air Quality and Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiore, Arlene M.; Naik, Vaishali; Steiner, Allison; Unger, Nadine; Bergmann, Dan; Prather, Michael; Righi, Mattia; Rumbold, Steven T.; Shindell, Drew T.; Skeie, Ragnhild B.; Sudo, Kengo; Szopa, Sophie; Horowitz, Larry W.; Takemura, Toshihiko; Zeng, Guang; Cameron-Smith, Philip J.; Cionni, Irene; Collins, William J.; Dalsoren, Stig; Eyring, Veronika; Folberth, Gerd A.; Ginoux, Paul; Josse, Batrice; Lamarque, Jean-Francois; OConnor, Fiona M.; Mackenzie, Ian A.; Nagashima, Tatsuya; Shindell, Drew Todd; Spracklen, Dominick V.

    2012-01-01

    Emissions of air pollutants and their precursors determine regional air quality and can alter climate. Climate change can perturb the long-range transport, chemical processing, and local meteorology that influence air pollution. We review the implications of projected changes in methane (CH4), ozone precursors (O3), and aerosols for climate (expressed in terms of the radiative forcing metric or changes in global surface temperature) and hemispheric-to-continental scale air quality. Reducing the O3 precursor CH4 would slow near-term warming by decreasing both CH4 and tropospheric O3. Uncertainty remains as to the net climate forcing from anthropogenic nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions, which increase tropospheric O3 (warming) but also increase aerosols and decrease CH4 (both cooling). Anthropogenic emissions of carbon monoxide (CO) and non-CH4 volatile organic compounds (NMVOC) warm by increasing both O3 and CH4. Radiative impacts from secondary organic aerosols (SOA) are poorly understood. Black carbon emission controls, by reducing the absorption of sunlight in the atmosphere and on snow and ice, have the potential to slow near-term warming, but uncertainties in coincident emissions of reflective (cooling) aerosols and poorly constrained cloud indirect effects confound robust estimates of net climate impacts. Reducing sulfate and nitrate aerosols would improve air quality and lessen interference with the hydrologic cycle, but lead to warming. A holistic and balanced view is thus needed to assess how air pollution controls influence climate; a first step towards this goal involves estimating net climate impacts from individual emission sectors. Modeling and observational analyses suggest a warming climate degrades air quality (increasing surface O3 and particulate matter) in many populated regions, including during pollution episodes. Prior Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) scenarios (SRES) allowed unconstrained growth, whereas the Representative

  5. Air quality management planning (AQMP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sivertsen Bjarne

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In most urban areas of the world, particulate matter (PM levels pose severe problems, addressed in several policy areas (air quality, climate change, and human health. PM presents multiple challenges due to the multitude of its sources, spanning many sectors of economic activity as well as nature, and due to the complexity of atmospheric processes involved in its transport and secondary formation. For the authorities, the goal is to assure minimal impacts of atmospheric PM levels, in practice represented by compliance with existing regulations and standards. This may be achieved through an air quality management plan (AQMP. In Northern America and in parts of Europe, comprehensive research programs have guided development of AQMP over the last forty years. This cumulated experience can be utilized by others who face the same problems, but have yet to develop their own substantial research base. The main purpose of the AQMP development process is to establish an effective and sound basis for planning and management of air quality in a selected area. This type of planning will ensure that significant sources of impacts are identified and controlled in a most cost-effective manner. The choice of tools, methods and input information is often dictated by their availability, and should be evaluated against current best practices. Important elements of the AQMP are the identification of sources and development of a complete emission inventory, the development and operation of an air quality monitoring programme, and the development and application of atmospheric dispersion models. Major task is to collect the necessary input data. The development of the AQMP will take into account: - Air Quality Management System (AQMS requirements; - Operational and functional structure requirements; - Source identification through emission inventories; - Source reduction alternatives, which may be implemented; - Mechanisms for facilitating interdepartmental

  6. Historical Ambient Air Quality Data Inventory

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Historical Ambient Air Quality Data Inventory contains measured and estimated data on ambient air pollution for use in assessing air quality, assisting in...

  7. Wood energy and air quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This publication first recalls the main benefits of the use of wood, the first source of renewable energy in France: abundant and local resource, low CO2 emission, competitiveness, job creation. It comments the relationship between the use of this source of energy and the compliance with air quality standards as they are notably defined by European directives, as the use of wood as heating source is one of the recommended lever to improve air quality. The publication comments emissions generated by this type of heating (mainly in the housing sector, with some critical meteorological periods). Levers for actions are discussed: fleet renewal to promote the best performing equipment, practice improvements (fuel quality, apparatus maintenance). Actions undertaken by the ADEME are briefly reviewed: support to individual equipment fleet modernisation, support to R and D, support to the sector, and information and communication

  8. Quality Indexing with Computer-Aided Lexicography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchan, R. L.

    1992-01-01

    Discussion of computer-aided indexing activity focuses on examples from projects at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). Standardization and quality in providing subject access to databases are considered; and computer-aided lexicography, including thesaurus construction, access vocabulary, definitions preparation,…

  9. 32 CFR 989.30 - Air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Air quality. 989.30 Section 989.30 National... ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ANALYSIS PROCESS (EIAP) § 989.30 Air quality. Section 176(c) of the Clean Air Act..., Air Quality Compliance. 10 10 See footnote 1 to § 989.1....

  10. Proceedings of the upwind downwind air quality conference 2004 : a practical conference on improving air quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This conference provided a forum for policy makers, environmental managers, urban designers and citizens to discuss current air quality issues. It provided information on urban sprawl and the resulting human health impacts. Many presentations described efforts that are currently underway to improve local air quality through smart growth initiatives, new urban design approaches, successful airshed management and planning legislation. The roles that industry, community groups and governments play in achieving air quality improvements were also highlighted. The mitigation efforts relate to both natural areas and industrial corridors and involve reducing waste, consuming less energy, changing our modes of transportation, and wise land use in urban areas. Sixteen presentations were indexed separately for inclusion in this database. refs., tabs., figs

  11. Detection and estimation trends linked to air quality and mortality on French Riviera over the 1990-2005 period to develop a prediction model of an aggregate risk index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sicard, P.; Mangin, A.; Hebel, P.; Lesne, O.; Malléa, P.

    2009-04-01

    There is a profound relation between human health and well being from the one side and air pollution levels from the other. Air quality in South of France and more specifically in Nice, is known to be bad, especially in summer. The main objectives are to establish correlations between air pollution, exposure of people and reactivity of these people to this aggression, to validate a risk index built from air quality and pollen data in the area of Nice and to construct a prediction model of this sanitary index. The spatial extent of the experiment will be mainly the territory of "Alpes Maritimes". All the tasks are performed in collaboration with the "Heath-Environment Network" of the "Centre Hospitalier Universitaire" of Nice. The development of an adequate tool for observation (health index and/or indices per pathology) to understand impacts of pollution levels in an area is of utmost importance. These indexes should take into account the possible adverse effects associated with the coexistence of all the pollutants and environmental parameters. This tool must be able to inform the citizens about the levels of pollution in an adequate and understandable way but also to be used by relevant authorities to take a series of predetermined measures to protect the health of the population. This paper describes the first step to construct a prediction model of this sanitary index with a confidence interval 99% (and 95%): detection and estimation trends observed in concentrations of pollutants, emissions and mortality over the 1990-2005 period in the "Alpes Maritimes" area. The non-parametric Mann-Kendall test has been developed for detecting and estimating monotonic trends in the time series and applied in our study at annual values of pollutants air concentrations. An important objective of many environmental monitoring programs is to detect changes or trends in pollution levels over time. Over the period 1990-2005, concerning the emissions of the main pollutants, we

  12. Metrics for the Evaluation the Utility of Air Quality Forecasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumo, T. M.; Stockwell, W. R.

    2013-12-01

    Global warming is expected to lead to higher levels of air pollution and therefore the forecasting of both long-term and daily air quality is an important component for the assessment of the costs of climate change and its impact on human health. Some of the risks associated with poor air quality days (where the Air Pollution Index is greater than 100), include hospital visits and mortality. Accurate air quality forecasting has the potential to allow sensitive groups to take appropriate precautions. This research builds metrics for evaluating the utility of air quality forecasting in terms of its potential impacts. Our analysis of air quality models focuses on the Washington, DC/Baltimore, MD region over the summertime ozone seasons between 2010 and 2012. The metrics that are relevant to our analysis include: (1) The number of times that a high ozone or particulate matter (PM) episode is correctly forecasted, (2) the number of times that high ozone or PM episode is forecasted when it does not occur and (3) the number of times when the air quality forecast predicts a cleaner air episode when the air was observed to have high ozone or PM. Our evaluation of the performance of air quality forecasts include those forecasts of ozone and particulate matter and data available from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)'s AIRNOW. We also examined observational ozone and particulate matter data available from Clean Air Partners. Overall the forecast models perform well for our region and time interval.

  13. Future Air Quality in Danish Cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, S. S.; Berkowicz, R.; Winther, M.;

    The impact of new EU vehicle emission and fuel quality directives on the future air quality in Danish cities has been modelled for comparison with new limit values in the new EU directive on assessment and management of urban air quality. Nested modelling was applied using a set of air quality...

  14. 78 FR 10589 - Revision of Air Quality Implementation Plan; California; Sacramento Metropolitan Air Quality...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-14

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Revision of Air Quality Implementation Plan; California; Sacramento Metropolitan Air Quality Management District; Stationary Source Permits AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency... by California as a revision to the Sacramento Metropolitan Air Quality Management District (SMAQMD...

  15. 78 FR 53270 - Revision of Air Quality Implementation Plan; California; Sacramento Metropolitan Air Quality...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-29

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Revision of Air Quality Implementation Plan; California; Sacramento Metropolitan Air Quality Management District; Stationary Source Permits AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency... permitting rules submitted by California as a revision to the Sacramento Metropolitan Air Quality...

  16. A Critical Review of Air Pollution Index Systems in the United States and Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ott, Wayne R.; Thom, Gary C.

    1976-01-01

    An extensive survey of air pollution indices reveals great diversity in calculation and descriptor categories. This lack of uniformity creates confusion, suggests questionable technical validity, and discourages a national picture. The authors recombined indices currently in use to develop a Standardized Urban Air Quality Index for national use.…

  17. Urban Air Quality Forecasting in Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlovic, Radenko; Menard, Sylvain; Cousineau, Sophie; Stroud, Craig; Moran, Michael

    2016-04-01

    Environment and Climate Change Canada has been providing air quality (AQ) forecasts for major Canadian urban centers since 2001. Over this period, the Canadian AQ Forecast Program has expanded and evolved. It currently uses the Regional Air Quality Deterministic Prediction System (RAQDPS) modelling framework. At the heart of the RAQDPS is the GEM-MACH model, an on-line coupled meteorology‒chemistry model configured for a North American domain with 10 km horizontal grid spacing and 80 vertical levels. A statistical post-processing model (UMOS-AQ) is then applied to the RAQDPS hourly forecasts for locations with AQ monitors to reduce point forecast bias and error. These outputs provide the primary guidance from which operational meteorologists disseminate Air Quality Health Index (AQHI) forecasts to the public for major urban centres across Canada. During the 2015 summer Pan Am and Parapan Am Games, which were held in Ontario, Canada, an experimental version of the RAQDPS at 2.5 km horizontal grid spacing was run for a domain over the greater Toronto area. Currently, there is ongoing research to develop and assess AQ systems run at 1 km resolution. This presentation will show analyses of operational AQ forecast performance for several pollutants over the last few years in major Canadian urban centres such as Toronto, Montreal, Vancouver, Ottawa, and Calgary. Trends in observed pollution along with short- and long-term development plans for urban AQ forecasting will also be presented.

  18. Air quality in Europe - 2012 report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-09-15

    This report presents an overview and analysis of the status and trends of air quality in Europe based on concentration measurements in ambient air and data on anthropogenic emissions and trends from 2001 - when mandatory monitoring of ambient air concentrations of selected pollutants first produced reliable air quality information - to 2010. (Author)

  19. 30 CFR 75.321 - Air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Air quality. 75.321 Section 75.321 Mineral... SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Ventilation § 75.321 Air quality. (a)(1) The air in areas where... air current in these areas shall be sufficient to dilute, render harmless, and carry away...

  20. Air quality in Europe - 2011 report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guerreiro, C.; Larssen, S. (Norsk Inst. for Luftforskning (NILU), Lillestroem (Norway)); Leeuw, F. de (RIVM, Bilthoven (Netherlands)); Foltescu, V. (EEA, Copenhagen (Denmark))

    2011-11-15

    The annual report 'Air quality in Europe' summarises the most recent evaluation of Europe's air quality status. It is mainly based on air quality measurement data that have been made available officially by 32 EEA member countries as well as 6 EEA cooperating countries. The report includes maps and analyses of air quality status over the calendar year 2009. It also analyses air quality trends over the past years. The evaluation of the status and trends of air quality is based on ambient air measurements, in conjunction with reported anthropogenic emissions. The report summarizes the main effects of different air pollutants on human health, the environment and the climate. An overview of policies and measures at European level is also given for each pollutant. This report reviews progress towards meeting the requirements of the two air quality directives in force as well as the air quality guidelines set by the World Health Organization (WHO). The report is produced in support of European and national policy development and implementation in the field of air quality. It also supports air quality management and informs the general public on the current status and trends of air quality in Europe. (Author)

  1. Workshop on indoor air quality research needs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-01-01

    Workshop participants report on indoor air quality research needs including the monitoring of indoor air quality, report of the instrumentation subgroup of indoor air quality, health effects, and the report of the control technology session. Risk analysis studies addressing indoor environments were also summarized. (DLS)

  2. Workshop on indoor air quality research needs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Workshop participants report on indoor air quality research needs including the monitoring of indoor air quality, report of the instrumentation subgroup of indoor air quality, health effects, and the report of the control technology session. Risk analysis studies addressing indoor environments were also summarized

  3. Indoor air quality and health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, A. P.

    During the last two decades there has been increasing concern within the scientific community over the effects of indoor air quality on health. Changes in building design devised to improve energy efficiency have meant that modern homes and offices are frequently more airtight than older structures. Furthermore, advances in construction technology have caused a much greater use of synthetic building materials. Whilst these improvements have led to more comfortable buildings with lower running costs, they also provide indoor environments in which contaminants are readily produced and may build up to much higher concentrations than are found outside. This article reviews our current understanding of the relationship between indoor air pollution and health. Indoor pollutants can emanate from a range of sources. The health impacts from indoor exposure to combustion products from heating, cooking, and the smoking of tobacco are examined. Also discussed are the symptoms associated with pollutants emitted from building materials. Of particular importance might be substances known as volatile organic compounds (VOCs), which arise from sources including paints, varnishes, solvents, and preservatives. Furthermore, if the structure of a building begins to deteriorate, exposure to asbestos may be an important risk factor for the chronic respiratory disease mesothelioma. The health effects of inhaled biological particles can be significant, as a large variety of biological materials are present in indoor environments. Their role in inducing illness through immune mechanisms, infectious processes, and direct toxicity is considered. Outdoor sources can be the main contributors to indoor concentrations of some contaminants. Of particular significance is Radon, the radioactive gas that arises from outside, yet only presents a serious health risk when found inside buildings. Radon and its decay products are now recognised as important indoor pollutants, and their effects are

  4. Uncertainty in Air Quality Modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Douglas G.

    1984-01-01

    Under the direction of the AMS Steering Committee for the EPA Cooperative Agreement on Air Quality Modeling, a small group of scientists convened to consider the question of uncertainty in air quality modeling. Because the group was particularly concerned with the regulatory use of models, its discussion focused on modeling tall stack, point source emissions.The group agreed that air quality model results should be viewed as containing both reducible error and inherent uncertainty. Reducible error results from improper or inadequate meteorological and air quality data inputs, and from inadequacies in the models. Inherent uncertainty results from the basic stochastic nature of the turbulent atmospheric motions that are responsible for transport and diffusion of released materials. Modelers should acknowledge that all their predictions to date contain some associated uncertainty and strive also to quantify uncertainty.How can the uncertainty be quantified? There was no consensus from the group as to precisely how uncertainty should be calculated. One subgroup, which addressed statistical procedures, suggested that uncertainty information could be obtained from comparisons of observations and predictions. Following recommendations from a previous AMS workshop on performance evaluation (Fox. 1981), the subgroup suggested construction of probability distribution functions from the differences between observations and predictions. Further, they recommended that relatively new computer-intensive statistical procedures be considered to improve the quality of uncertainty estimates for the extreme value statistics of interest in regulatory applications.A second subgroup, which addressed the basic nature of uncertainty in a stochastic system, also recommended that uncertainty be quantified by consideration of the differences between observations and predictions. They suggested that the average of the difference squared was appropriate to isolate the inherent uncertainty that

  5. Clearing the air : report 2 : air quality trends in Sudbury 1998 to 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report highlighted key trends in air pollutant concentrations in the Greater Sudbury region between 1998 and 2007. Air pollutant concentrations were compared with ambient air quality criteria for Ontario as well as federal standards. The study measured levels of sulfur dioxide (SO2); ground-level ozone (O3); particulate matter (PM); and metals. An air quality index was used to rate overall air quality based on hourly measurements of up to 6 air pollutants. Air quality monitoring stations were placed throughout the Greater Sudbury region to record the amounts of pollutants in the air. The study showed that average SO2 concentrations continued to decrease across the monitoring network. O3 concentrations met the provincial 1-hour criterion except when long-range O3 was transported into the region from the United States under specific meteorological conditions. Coarse fractions of particulates were less than the annual criterion at stations. Average PM concentrations met the Canada Wide Standard, while the 24-hour criteria for metals were met for most of the year. Sudbury's air quality was then compared to air quality data obtained from other Ontario cities. It was concluded that Sudbury's air quality will continue to improve in the future. 9 figs.

  6. HPCN and air quality modeling

    OpenAIRE

    Blom, Joke; Lioen, W.M.; Verwer, Jan

    1998-01-01

    We discuss the implementation of an off-line air quality model (AQM). More precisely, how to design a code for an AQM that runs efficiently on a variety of computer platforms. We implemented our ideas in an AQM benchmark and we show the performance of this benchmark on the different architectural paradigms. A second subject of the paper is the I/O performance of the Cray~T3E for an off-line model. We implemented the required I/O in different ways and show that none of these results in a truly...

  7. Meteorological determinants of air quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turoldo, F.; Del Frate, S.; Gallai, I.; Giaiotti, D. B.; Montanari, F.; Stel, F.; Goi, D.

    2010-09-01

    Air quality is the result of complex phenomena, among which the major role is played by human emissions of pollutants. Atmospheric processes act as determinants, e.g., modulating, dumping or amplifying the effects of emissions as an orchestra's director does with musical instruments. In this work, a series of small-scale and meso-scale meteorological determinants of air-quality are presented as they are observed in an area characterized by complex orography (Friuli Venezia Giulia, in the north-eastern side of Italy). In particular, attention is devoted to: i) meso-scale flows favouring the persistence of high concentrations of particulate matter; ii) meso-scale periodic flows (breezes) favouring high values of particulate matter; iii) local-scale thermodynamic behaviour favouring high atmospheric values of nitrogen oxides. The effects of these different classes of determinants are shown through comparisons between anthropic emissions (mainly traffic) and ground-based measurements. The relevance of complex orography (relatively steep relieves near to the sea) is shown for the meso-scale flows and, in particular, for local-scale periodic flows, which favour the increase of high pollutants concentrations mainly in summer, when the breezes regime is particularly relevant. Part of these results have been achieved through the ETS - Alpine Space EU project iMONITRAF!

  8. A groundwater quality index map for Namibia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergmann, Thomas; Schulz, Oliver; Wanke, Heike; Püttmann, Wilhelm

    2016-04-01

    Groundwater quality and contamination is a huge concern for the population of Namibia, especially for those living in remote areas. There, most farmers use their own wells to supply themselves and their animals with drinking water. In many cases, except for a few studies that were done in some areas, the only groundwater quality measurements that took place were taken at the time the well was drilled. These data were collected and are available through the national GROWAS-Database. Information on measurements determining the amount of contaminants such as fluoride, TDS, other major ions and nitrate for several thousand wells are provided there. The aim of this study was I) to check the database for its reliability by comparing it to results from different studies and statistical analysis, II) to analyze the database on groundwater quality using different methods (statistical-, pattern- and correlation analysis) and III) to embed our own field work that took place within a selected Namibian region into that analysis. In order to get a better understanding of the groundwater problems in different areas of Namibia, a groundwater quality index map based on GROWAS was created using GIS processing techniques. This map uses several indicators for groundwater quality in relation to selected guidelines and combines them into an index, thus enabling the assessment of groundwater quality with regard to more than one pollutant. The goal of the groundwater quality map is to help identify where the overall groundwater quality is problematic and to communicate these problems. Additionally, suggestions for an enhancement of the database and for new field surveys will be given. The field work was focusing on three farms within an area known for its problematic nitrate concentration in groundwater. There, 23 wells were probed. In order to identify the sources of the contamination, isotopic measurements were executed for three of these wells with high nitrate concentrations

  9. 77 FR 30087 - Air Quality Designations for the 2008 Ozone National Ambient Air Quality Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-21

    ... for the 2008 Ozone National Ambient Air Quality Standards; Implementation of the 2008 National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone: Nonattainment Area Classifications Approach, Attainment Deadlines and... Quality Standards AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This...

  10. Good air quality in offices improves productivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fanger, Povl Ole

    2000-01-01

    Three recent independent studies have documented that the quality of indoor air has a significant and positive influence on the productivity of office workers. A combined analysis of the results of the three studies shows a significant relationship between productivity and perceived indoor air...... quality. The impact on productivity justifies a much higher indoor air quality than the minimum levels prescribed in present standards and guidelines. One way of providing air of high quality for people to breathe, without involving excessive ventilation rates and energy use, is to provide "personalized...... air" to each individual. The application of this concept is discussed....

  11. Good air quality in offices improves productivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fanger, Povl Ole

    2000-01-01

    Three recent independent studies have documented that the quality of indoor air has a significant and positive influence or? the productivity of office workers. A combined analysis of the results of the three studies shows a significant relationship between productivity and perceived indoor air...... quality. The impact on productivity justifies a much higher indoor air quality than the minimum levels prescribed in present standards and guidelines. One way of providing air of high quality for people to breathe, without involving excessive ventilation rates and energy use, is to provide "personalized...... air" to each individual. The application of this concept is discussed in this paper: (C) 2000 Journal of Mechanical Engineering. All rights reserved....

  12. Representativeness of air quality monitoring networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duyzer, J.; Hout, D. van den; Zandveld, P.; Ratingen, S. van

    2015-01-01

    The suitability of European networks to check compliance with air quality standards and to assess exposure of the population was investigated. An air quality model (URBIS) was applied to estimate and compare the spatial distribution of the concentration of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) in ambient air in fo

  13. 77 FR 12482 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Indiana; Lead Ambient Air Quality...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Indiana; Lead Ambient Air Quality Standards AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Direct final rule... Clean Air Act (CAA). This submittal incorporates the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS)...

  14. 77 FR 12524 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Indiana; Lead Ambient Air Quality...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Indiana; Lead Ambient Air Quality Standards AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Proposed rule...) under the Clean Air Act (CAA). This submittal incorporates the National Ambient Air Quality...

  15. Air quality strategy for Hong Kong

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alex, N.K.Y. [Air Policy Group, Wanchai (Hong Kong). Environmental Protection Dept.

    1995-12-31

    Hong Kong has experienced unimpeded economic growth for four decades but at the same time has suffered from growing air pollution. A new look at the air quality strategy is therefore required to bring about sustainable development. (author)

  16. Air Quality Assessment Using Interpolation Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Awkash Kumar

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Air pollution is increasing rapidly in almost all cities around the world due to increase in population. Mumbai city in India is one of the mega cities where air quality is deteriorating at a very rapid rate. Air quality monitoring stations have been installed in the city to regulate air pollution control strategies to reduce the air pollution level. In this paper, air quality assessment has been carried out over the sample region using interpolation techniques. The technique Inverse Distance Weighting (IDW of Geographical Information System (GIS has been used to perform interpolation with the help of concentration data on air quality at three locations of Mumbai for the year 2008. The classification was done for the spatial and temporal variation in air quality levels for Mumbai region. The seasonal and annual variations of air quality levels for SO2, NOx and SPM (Suspended Particulate Matter have been focused in this study. Results show that SPM concentration always exceeded the permissible limit of National Ambient Air Quality Standard. Also, seasonal trends of pollutant SPM was low in monsoon due rain fall. The finding of this study will help to formulate control strategies for rational management of air pollution and can be used for many other regions.

  17. A fat quality index (FQI proposal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cobos-Murcia, J. A.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the concept of the fat quality index (FQI, which is based and established in pursuancet of the current food regulations. It is a numerical value representing the correlated information of all parameters that provide the definition of fat according to the international guidelines. With the implementation of this index, it is possible to compare different types of fats using a single numerical value, which facilitates the elucidation of the effects of treatment processes or origins of fats. The FQI includes all the parameters considered in the regulations by incorporating a sub-index for each parameter and using the minimum and maximum limit values to model and adjust an equation describing the quality of fat according to the standard. Finally, the procedure is used to obtain indices based on other experimental works that assessed the quality of fat samples produced under different operating conditions, treatment, origin or processes, allowing for better comparison and evaluation. Therefore, this index is an excellent analytical tool for assessing the quality of fats from different origins for human consumption.En este artículo se presenta el concepto de índice de calidad de una grasa (ICG, que se basa y se establece en virtud de los reglamentos alimentarios actuales. Es un valor numérico que representa la información correlacionada de todos los parámetros que proporcionan la definición de la grasa de acuerdo con las directrices internacionales. Con la implementación de este índice es posible comparar los diferentes tipos de grasas usando un único valor numérico, lo que facilita la elucidación de los efectos de los procesos de tratamiento u orígenes de las grasas. El ICG incluye todos los parámetros considerados en la normativa mediante la incorporación de un sub-índice para cada parámetro y utilizando el valor límite máximo y mínimo para componer y ajustar una ecuación que describe la calidad de la grasa de

  18. Groundwater quality and water quality index at Bhandara District.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajankar, Prashant N; Tambekar, Dilip H; Wate, Satish R

    2011-08-01

    The present investigation reports the results of a monitoring study focusing on groundwater quality of Bhandara District of central India. Since, remediation of groundwater is very difficult, knowledge of the existing nature, magnitude, and sources of the various pollution loads is a prerequisite to assessing groundwater quality. The water quality index (WQI) value as a function of various physicochemical and bacteriological parameters was determined for groundwater obtained from a total of 21 locations. The WQI during pre-monsoon season varied from 68 to 83, while for post-monsoon, it was between 56 and 76. Significantly (P < 0.01) lower WQI for the post-monsoon season was observed, indicating deterioration of the groundwater overall in corresponding season. The study revealed that groundwater from only 19% locations was fit for domestic use, thus indicating the need of proper treatment before use.

  19. 78 FR 925 - Air Quality Designations for the 2008 Ozone National Ambient Air Quality Standards: Notice of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-07

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 81 Air Quality Designations for the 2008 Ozone National Ambient Air Quality Standards... air quality designations for the 2008 ozone national ambient air quality standards for all areas in... Ambient Air Quality Standards,'' and ``Air Quality Designations for the 2008 Ozone National Ambient...

  20. Assessment of Ambient Air Quality in Riyadh City, Saudi Arabia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. H. Alharbi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Concentrations of airborne particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter less than 10 µm (PM10 and five gaseous air pollutants (O3, CO, NO2, SO2 and H2S were measured over a period of approximately six years (October 1999-June 2004 at five air quality monitoring network stations of King Abulaziz City for Science and Technology (KACST in Riyadh city, Saudi Arabia. The main objective of this study is to evaluate the quality of ambient air in relation to its possible effects on human health in the urban area of Riyadh city using the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA Air Quality Index (AQI and break down analysis of five criteria pollutants (O3, CO, NO2 and SO2 and PM10 and Hydrogen Sulphide (H2S. The concentrations of selected pollutants in ambient air has shown upward trends except for sulfur dioxide (SO2 and hydrogen sulfide (H2S, which exhibited decreasing trends over the time. Using the AQI based on a health perspective, a breakdown analysis was conducted. The results confirmed that 71% of the time Riyadh city air is of “Good” quality using the AQI and causes almost no health impacts on city inhabitants. The remaining 29% of more problematic air quality is caused by PM10 (74% and SO2 (~24%. The study has revealed that both ozone (O3 and carbon monoxide (CO have little contribution to Riyadh air pollution at 2% and 0.52%, respectively.

  1. 40 CFR 52.1929 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1929 Section 52.1929 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) Regulation for preventing significant deterioration of air... preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  2. Data Assimilation and Air Quality Forecasting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eskes, H.; Timmermans, R.; Curier, L.; Ruyter de Wildt, M. de; Segers, A.; Sauter, F.; Schaap, M.

    2014-01-01

    Lotos-Euros is a chemistry transportmodel developed in the Netherlands, and is used for air quality assessments and forecasts. Operational air quality forecasts for the Netherlands concerning ozone and PM10 are made available on the RIVM webpage (http://www.lml.rivm.nl/verw.html) and are used to war

  3. Air quality and industry [in the Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It sometimes happens that environmental permits for industry or businesses are reversed because assessment and motivation of the decision has been inaccurate. Therefore, the Interregional Consultation (IPO in Dutch) drafted an air quality examination as a tool to test the air quality aspect in licensing procedures of the Environmental Protection Law in the Netherlands

  4. 40 CFR 240.205 - Air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Air quality. 240.205 Section 240.205 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES GUIDELINES FOR THE THERMAL PROCESSING OF SOLID WASTES Requirements and Recommended Procedures § 240.205 Air quality....

  5. 78 FR 30829 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Illinois; Air Quality Standards...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-23

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Illinois; Air Quality Standards Revision AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY... current national ambient air quality standards (NAAQS) for ozone, lead, and particulate matter. EPA...

  6. 78 FR 19990 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Ohio; Ohio Ambient Air Quality...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-03

    ... the relocated air quality standard rules. This action was published at 75 FR 65572 as a direct final... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Ohio; Ohio Ambient Air Quality Standards; Correction AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Final...

  7. 75 FR 65572 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Ohio; Ohio Ambient Air Quality...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-26

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Ohio; Ohio Ambient Air Quality Standards AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Direct final rule... of Ohio's Ambient Air Quality Standards (AAQS) into Ohio's State Implementation Plan (SIP) under...

  8. Air quality and urban management in Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alberti, M. [Stanford Univ. (United States). Center for Conservation Biology; Joffre, S. [Finnish Meteorological Inst., Helsinki (Finland)

    1995-12-31

    Important changes in the quality of urban air have occurred in Europe during the last 20 years. Urban air quality trends are clearly correlated to changes in production and consumption processes which have occurred in European cities during the last decades. However, the way these trends are linked with the changes in the urban structure is not yet fully appreciated. A set of indicators is proposed to examine the relationships between air quality, energy consumption and transportation trends. On this basis is argued that the current decentralization of the urban structure and specialization of land use are major driving forces in current urban air pollution. The range of actions and tools to improve urban air quality should include: (1) land use planning, (2) efficient urban management, and (3) measures directed to protecting the quality of the urban environment. (author)

  9. Indoor Air Quality in Primary Schools

    OpenAIRE

    Freitas, Maria do Carmo; Canha, Nuno; Martinho, Maria; Almeida-Silva, Marina; Almeida, Susana Marta; Pegas, Priscilla; Alves, Célia; Pio, Casimiro; Trancoso, Maria; Sousa, Rita; Mouro, Filomena; Contreiras, Teresa

    2011-01-01

    Clean air is a basic requirement of life (World Health Organization, 2010). The Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) has been the object of several studies due to an increasing concern within the scientific community on the effects of indoor air quality upon health, especially as people tend to spend more time indoors than outdoors (Franck et al., 2011; Canha et al., 2010; WHO, 2010; Environmental Protection Agency, 2010; Saliba et al., 2009; Fraga et al., 2008; Fromme et al., 2007; Guo et al., 2004; ...

  10. Air Quality Monitoring: Risk-Based Choices

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, John T.

    2009-01-01

    Air monitoring is secondary to rigid control of risks to air quality. Air quality monitoring requires us to target the credible residual risks. Constraints on monitoring devices are severe. Must transition from archival to real-time, on-board monitoring. Must provide data to crew in a way that they can interpret findings. Dust management and monitoring may be a major concern for exploration class missions.

  11. [Air quality control systems: heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellucci Sessa, R; Riccio, G

    2004-01-01

    After a brief illustration of the principal layout schemes of Heating, Ventilating, and Air Conditioning (HVAC), the first part of this paper summarizes the standards, both voluntary and compulsory, regulating HVAC facilities design and installation with regard to the question of Indoor Air Quality (IAQ). The paper then examines the problem of ventilation systems maintenance and the essential hygienistic requirements in whose absence HVAC facilities may become a risk factor for people working or living in the building. Lastly, the paper deals with HVAC design strategies and methods, which aim not only to satisfy comfort and air quality requirements, but also to ensure easy and effective maintenance procedures.

  12. Norma Primaria de calidad del aire AIR QUALITY STANDARD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PATRICIA MATUS C.

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Las normas primarias de calidad del aire tienen por finalidad proteger la salud de la población de la contaminación atmosférica. Ellas establecen un nivel de riesgo socialmente aceptado. Este artículo describe los antecedentes considerados durante el proceso de actualización de la regulación vigente en Chile. Detalla conceptos sobre la calidad del aire, describe los efectos en la salud de los contaminantes, y el procedimiento seguido para fijar los nuevos estándares Finaliza enumerando la norma primaria de calidad del aire, sus valores y los limites definidos para ser considerados en el ámbito de la gestión de los episodios críticos o de alta contaminaciónThe main purpose of air quality standards is to protect people health from air pollution. They establish a socially accepted level of risk. This article describes the background information considered during the process for updating the current Chilean regulation. Concepts about quality of air, and the effects of the pollutants on the health are described. The procedure followed to fix the new standards is detailed. Finally we state the primary air quality norm, its values as well as the critical limits in order to control critical events of high air pollution

  13. Evaluation of ambient air quality in Guangzhou, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Kai; YE You-hua; LIU Qiang; LIU Ai-jun; PENG Shao-lin

    2007-01-01

    On the basis of the reported air quality index (API) and air pollutant monitoring data provided by the Guangzhou Environment Monitoring Stations over the last twenty-five years, the characteristics of air quality, prominent pollutants, and variation of the average annual concentrations of SO2, NO2, total suspended particulate(TSP), fine particulates (PM10), CO and dustfall in Guangzhou City were analyzed. Results showed that TSP was the prominent pollutant in the ambient air environment of Guangzhou City. Of the prominent pollutants, TSP accounted for nearly 62%, SO2 12.3%, and NOx 6.4%, respectively. The average API of Guangzhou over 6 years was higher than that of Beijing, Tianjin, Nanjing, Hangzhou, Suzhou and Shanghai, and lower than that of Shenzhen, Zhuhai and Shantou. Concentrations of air pollutants have shown an downward trend in recent years, but they are generally worse than ambient air quality standards for USA, Hong Kong and EU. SO2 and NOx pollution were still serious, impling that waste gas pollution from all kinds of vehicles had become a significant problem for environmental protection in Guangzhou. The possible causes of worsening air quality were also discussed in this paper.

  14. Refractive Index of Humid Air in the Infrared: Model Fits

    CERN Document Server

    Mathar, R J

    2006-01-01

    The theory of summation of electromagnetic line transitions is used to tabulate the Taylor expansion of the refractive index of humid air over the basic independent parameters (temperature, pressure, humidity, wavelength) in five separate infrared regions from the H to the Q band at a fixed percentage of Carbon Dioxide. These are least-squares fits to raw, highly resolved spectra for a set of temperatures from 10 to 25 C, a set of pressures from 500 to 1023 hPa, and a set of relative humidities from 5 to 60%. These choices reflect the prospective application to characterize ambient air at mountain altitudes of astronomical telescopes.

  15. Northwest Territories air quality report 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    Four air quality monitoring stations located in the Northwest Territories (NWT) make up the NWT air quality monitoring network. This report summarized air quality information collected in 2006 at these stations located in Yellowknife, Fort Liard, Norman Wells, and Inuvik. Monitoring is done by the Department of Environment and Natural Resources (ENR). ENR also monitors acid precipitation at Snare Rapids and conducts seasonal particulate sampling at Daring Lake. Each station samples, analyses, and monitors a variety of air pollutants and meteorological conditions. The report also discussed air pollution trends, network operations, air pollutants monitored and air quality standards used in assessing monitoring results. The monitored pollutants include total suspended particulates or dust; arsenic; sulphur dioxide (SO{sub 2}); hydrogen sulphide (H{sub 2}S); fine particulate (PM{sub 2}.5); particulate (PM{sub 1}0); ground level ozone (O{sub 3}); carbon monoxide (CO); and nitrogen oxides (NOx). Conditions that are monitored include wind speed, wind direction and temperature. The report listed the different government affiliations involved with all of the monitoring stations and discussed developments in 2006. Future plans include database related modifications to the air quality monitoring network website as well as web design improvements. 3 tabs., 26 figs., 2 appendices.

  16. Retinal image quality assessment through a visual similarity index

    OpenAIRE

    Pérez Rodríguez, Jorge; Espinosa Tomás, Julián; Vázquez Ferri, Carmen; Mas Candela, David

    2013-01-01

    Retinal image quality is commonly analyzed through parameters inherited from instrumental optics. These parameters are defined for ‘good optics’ so they are hard to translate into visual quality metrics. Instead of using point or artificial functions, we propose a quality index that takes into account properties of natural images. These images usually show strong local correlations that help to interpret the image. Our aim is to derive an objective index that quantifies the quality of vision ...

  17. Relation between Grape Wine Quality and Related Physicochemical Indexes

    OpenAIRE

    Zi-Yue Chen; Yuan-Biao Zhang; Qiu-Ye Qian

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate grape wine quality more objectively by reducing the error of traditional grape-wine-quality evaluation. On combining grape wine quality and physicochemical index of grapevine, we provided a grape-wine-quality evaluation model by grapevine’s physicochemical index in this study. Firstly, evaluations of the tasters are analyzed, for eliminating the disturbance caused by their individual difference. Then, relationship between grape wine and grapevines are anal...

  18. Determination and evaluation of air quality control. Manual of ambient air quality control in Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lahmann, E.

    1997-07-01

    Measurement of air pollution emissions and ambient air quality are essential instruments for air quality control. By undertaking such measurements, pollutants are registered both at their place of origin and at the place where they may have an effect on people or the environment. Both types of measurement complement each other and are essential for the implementation of air quality legislation, particularly, in compliance with emission and ambient air quality limit values. Presented here are similar accounts of measurement principles and also contains as an Appendix a list of suitability-tested measuring devices which is based on information provided by the manufacturers. In addition, the guide of ambient air quality control contains further information on discontinuous measurement methods, on measurement planning and on the assessment of ambient air quality data. (orig./SR)

  19. 77 FR 52277 - Approval of Air Quality Implementation Plans; California; South Coast Air Quality Management...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-29

    ... submitted for the South Coast Air Quality Management District (District) portion of the California State... Management and Budget under Executive Order 12866 (58 FR 51735, October 4, 1993); Does not impose an... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Approval of Air Quality Implementation Plans; California; South Coast Air...

  20. Air quality management in Riga area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leitass, A. [Riga City Council (Latvia). Air Monitoring Dept.

    1995-12-31

    The present Air Quality Management System was started in 1992 as a result of co-operation between two cities - Riga and Norrkoping (Sweden) supported by BITS (The Swedish Agency for International Technical and Economic Co-operation). Lots of Swedish companies were involved in different parts of this project. The strategy is designed by INDIC company developing the AIRVIRO which is a computer based system for all aspects of air quality management. Air pollution in Riga is a serious problem affecting health and damaging valuable buildings of historic value. The majority of the city`s air pollution is the result of emission sources inside the city. The traffic is the predominant source of pollution now. The fossil fuel power stations in the country are not considered to affect the air quality situation in Riga. (author)

  1. Air quality and future energy system planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobral Mourao, Zenaida; Konadu, Dennis; Lupton, Rick

    2016-04-01

    Ambient air pollution has been linked to an increasing number of premature deaths throughout the world. Projected increases in demand for food, energy resources and manufactured products will likely contribute to exacerbate air pollution with an increasing impact on human health, agricultural productivity and climate change. Current events such as tampering emissions tests by VW car manufacturers, failure to comply with EU Air Quality directives and WHO guidelines by many EU countries, the problem of smog in Chinese cities and new industrial emissions regulations represent unique challenges but also opportunities for regulators, local authorities and industry. However current models and practices of energy and resource use do not consider ambient air impacts as an integral part of the planing process. Furthermore the analysis of drivers, sources and impacts of air pollution is often fragmented, difficult to understand and lacks effective visualization tools that bring all of these components together. This work aims to develop a model that links impacts of air quality on human health and ecosystems to current and future developments in the energy system, industrial and agricultural activity and patterns of land use. The model will be added to the ForeseerTM tool, which is an integrated resource analysis platform that has been developed at the University of Cambridge initially with funding from BP and more recently through the EPSRC funded Whole Systems Energy Modeling (WholeSEM) project. The basis of the tool is a set of linked physical models for energy, water and land, including the technologies that are used to transform these resources into final services such as housing, food, transport and household goods. The new air quality model will explore different feedback effects between energy, land and atmospheric systems with the overarching goal of supporting better communication about the drivers of air quality and to incorporate concerns about air quality into

  2. Indoor Climate and Air Quality Problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valbjørn, O.; Hagen, H.; Kukkonen, E.;

    This report presents a stepwise method for the investigation of and remedial actions for indoor climate and air quality problems. The report gives the basis for evaluation of the prevalence and causes of building related symptoms like mucosal irritation and headache. The report adresses members...... of occupational health and safety organisations, consulting engineers and architects, and also the people responsible for the operation of buildings and installations which is essential for the indoor climate and air quality....

  3. 78 FR 30770 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Illinois; Air Quality Standards...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-23

    ... Quality Standards Revision AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Direct final rule... National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for ozone and particulate matter (PM). EPA is approving a... Pollution; Chapter I: Pollution Control Board; Subchapter l: Air Quality Standards And Episodes; Part...

  4. 78 FR 63934 - Approval of Air Quality Implementation Plans; California; El Dorado County Air Quality Management...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-25

    ... Quality Management District; Reasonably Available Control Technology for Ozone AGENCY: Environmental... Plan (SIP) revision submitted by California for the El Dorado County Air Quality Management District... 24, 1987 Federal Register, May 25, 1988, U.S. EPA, Air Quality Management Division, Office of...

  5. An innovative index for evaluating water quality in streams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Said, Ahmend; Stevens, David K; Sehlke, Gerald

    2004-09-01

    A water quality index expressed as a single number is developed to describe overall water quality conditions using multiple water quality variables. The index consists of water quality variables: dissolved oxygen, specific conductivity, turbidity, total phosphorus, and fecal coliform. The objectives of this study were to describe the preexisting indices and to define a new water quality index that has advantages over these indices. The new index was applied to the Big Lost River Watershed in Idaho, and the results gave a quantitative picture for the water quality situation. If the new water quality index for the impaired water is less than a certain number, remediation-likely in the form of total maximum daily loads or changing the management practices-may be needed. The index can be used to assess water quality for general beneficial uses. Nevertheless, the index cannot be used in making regulatory decisions, indicate water quality for specific beneficial uses, or indicate contamination from trace metals, organic contaminants, and toxic substances. PMID:15520897

  6. 75 FR 65594 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Ohio; Ohio Ambient Air Quality...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-26

    .... Hand Delivery: Jay Bortzer, Chief, Air Programs Branch (AR-18J), U.S. Environmental Protection Agency... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... Air Quality Standards AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Proposed rule....

  7. 40 CFR 52.2497 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2497 Section 52.2497 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  8. 40 CFR 52.1603 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1603 Section 52.1603 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  9. 40 CFR 52.2676 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2676 Section 52.2676 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  10. 40 CFR 52.738 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.738 Section 52.738 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air Act are not met... air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The...

  11. 40 CFR 52.2729 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2729 Section 52.2729 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  12. 40 CFR 52.96 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.96 Section 52.96 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) The State of Alaska Department of Environmental Conservation Air Quality... deterioration of air quality. (b) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air Act are not...

  13. 40 CFR 52.793 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.793 Section 52.793 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air Act are not met... air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The...

  14. 40 CFR 52.1165 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1165 Section 52.1165 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulation for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  15. 40 CFR 52.1234 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1234 Section 52.1234 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  16. 40 CFR 52.1689 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1689 Section 52.1689 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  17. 40 CFR 52.2779 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2779 Section 52.2779 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  18. 40 CFR 52.632 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.632 Section 52.632 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air Act are not met... air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The...

  19. 40 CFR 52.432 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.432 Section 52.432 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air Act are not met... air quality. (b) Regulation for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The provisions...

  20. 40 CFR 52.1884 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1884 Section 52.1884 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  1. 40 CFR 52.499 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.499 Section 52.499 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  2. 40 CFR 52.1180 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1180 Section 52.1180 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  3. 40 CFR 52.2827 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2827 Section 52.2827 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  4. Frontiers in air quality modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Colette

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The first pan-European kilometre-scale atmospheric chemistry simulation is introduced. The continental-scale air pollution episode of January 2009 is modelled with the CHIMERE offline chemistry-transport model with a massive grid of 2 million horizontal points, performed on 2000 CPU of a high performance computing system hosted by the Research and Technology Computing Center at the French Alternative Energies and Atomic Energy Commission (CCRT/CEA. Besides the technical challenge, we find that model biases are significantly reduced, especially over urban areas. The high resolution grid also allows revisiting the contribution of individual city plumes to the European burden of pollution, providing new insights for designing air pollution control strategies.

  5. ATMOSPHERIC AIR QUALITY IN CALARASI TOWN

    OpenAIRE

    Cecilia NEAGU

    2013-01-01

    The present paper seeks to highlight the appearance of air pollution in Calarasi region on the basis of the annual reports of the environment in recent years and of the integrated air quality management for Cǎlǎraşi (data are presented about current and future emissions and concentrations of pollutants) I tried to mark out the impurity of the atmospheric air from this area.Emission data interpretation was made on the basis of the inventory of emissions of pollutants in the air made for fixed ...

  6. Effects of political institutions on air quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We empirically test existing theories on the provision of public goods, in particular air quality, using data on sulfur dioxide (SO2) concentrations from the Global Environment Monitoring Projects for 107 cities in 42 countries from 1971 to 1996. The results are as follows: First, we provide additional support for the claim that the degree of democracy has an independent positive effect on air quality. Second, we find that among democracies, presidential systems are more conducive to air quality than parliamentary ones. Third, in testing competing claims about the effect of interest groups on public goods provision in democracies we establish that labor union strength contributes to lower environmental quality, whereas the strength of green parties has the opposite effect. (author)

  7. WATER QUALITY INDEX – AN INSTRUMENT FOR WATER RESOURCES MANAGEMENT

    OpenAIRE

    PAIU MĂDĂLINA; BREABĂN IULIANA GABRIELA

    2014-01-01

    Water quality status assessment can be defined as the evaluation of physical, chemical, biological state of the water in relation with the natural state, anthropogenic effects and future uses. Water quality index reduces the number of parameters used in monitoring water quality to a simple expression in order to facilitate interpretation of the data, allowing public access to water quality data. This study is a summary of an interdisciplinary research program on surface water quality monit...

  8. 奥运空气质量保障措施对北京城市空气污染指数的影响及持续效应研究%The impact and durative effect of the measures of securing quality air for the Beijing Olympic and Paralympics Games 2008 on air pollution index in Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马宁; 刘民

    2009-01-01

    目的 分析奥运空气质量保障措施对北京城市空气污染指数(air pollution index,API)的影响,预测奥运会后的持续效应.方法 描述2004-2008年北京城市API的时间分布状况,对2008年API进行时间序列分析,采用自回归求和滑动平均模型(autoregressive integrated movingaverage model,ARIMA)法建立预测模型,预测2008年12月空气质量.结果 2004-2008年月平均API以3、11月最高,分别为120±66、116±72;7、8月最低,分别为83±28、77±27.2004-2008年各年空气质量类别中"优"、"良"天数所占比例分别为9.56%(35/366)、54.37%(199/366),8.49%(31/365)、54.52%(199/365),7.12%(26/365)、58.90%(215/365),8.77%(32/365)、58.63%(214/365),16.67%(61/366)、58.20%(213/366),有逐年增加的趋势(X2趋势=11.397,P=0.001).建立ARIMA(1,0,0)模型可以较好拟合API时间序列,奥运期间干预措施可使API下降37.1%,用模型预测北京市2008年12月月平均API为82.结论 奥运会期间北京市空气质量提升明显,临时干预措施效果显著.奥运会后空气质量仍维持在较好水平.%Objective To analyze the impact of the measures for securing quality air for the 2008 Beijing Olympic and Paralympics Games on air pollution index (API) in Beijing and forecast the aftereffects. Methods The time-distribution of API in Beijing from 2004 to 2008 was described. The time sequence analysis was used and the autoregressive integrated moving average model (ARIMA) was chosen to establish an API forecasting model to predict the API in December ,2008. Results From 2004 to 2008, the average API in March(120±66) was the highest followed by November(116±72) and the average API in July (83±28) was the lowest followed by August(77±27). The proportion of "excellent" and "good" days from 2004 to 2008 were 9.56% (35/366), 54.37% (199/366), 8.49% (31/365), 54.52% (199/365), 7.12% (26/365), 58.90% (215/365), 8.77% (32/365), 58.63% (214/365), 16.67% (61/366), 58.20% (213/366) respectively, with

  9. Environmental Quality Index and Childhood Mental Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childhood mental disorders affect between 13%-20% of children in the United States (US) annually and impact the child, family, and community. Literature suggests associations exist between environmental and children’s mental health such as air pollution with autism and ADHD...

  10. Independent validation of the Sleep Apnoea Quality of Life Index

    OpenAIRE

    Lacasse, Y; Godbout, C; Series, F

    2002-01-01

    Background: Obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) affects important domains of quality of life which remain unexplored by conventional sleep recordings. The objective of this study was to examine the measurement properties (both discriminative and evaluative) of the Sleep Apnoea Quality of Life Index (SAQLI), a new OSA specific quality of life questionnaire.

  11. Distributional Benefit Analysis of a National Air Quality Rule

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Huang

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Under Executive Order 12898, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA must perform environmental justice (EJ reviews of its rules and regulations. EJ analyses address the hypothesis that environmental disamenities are experienced disproportionately by poor and/or minority subgroups. Such analyses typically use communities as the unit of analysis. While community-based approaches make sense when considering where polluting sources locate, they are less appropriate for national air quality rules affecting many sources and pollutants that can travel thousands of miles. We compare exposures and health risks of EJ-identified individuals rather than communities to analyze EPA’s Heavy Duty Diesel (HDD rule as an example national air quality rule. Air pollutant exposures are estimated within grid cells by air quality models; all individuals in the same grid cell are assigned the same exposure. Using an inequality index, we find that inequality within racial/ethnic subgroups far outweighs inequality between them. We find, moreover, that the HDD rule leaves between-subgroup inequality essentially unchanged. Changes in health risks depend also on subgroups’ baseline incidence rates, which differ across subgroups. Thus, health risk reductions may not follow the same pattern as reductions in exposure. These results are likely representative of other national air quality rules as well.

  12. Pesticides in Air: New Challenges in Agricultural Air Quality Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    As agricultural and urban communities have become more intertwined, and the average size of agricultural production operations have increased substantially, issues of air quality have emerged as an area of increasing regulatory pressure for farmers in many countries. The science of measuring emissi...

  13. SELFAS2 : radio emission from cosmic ray air showers. Effect of realistic air refractive index

    CERN Document Server

    Marin, Vincent

    2012-01-01

    Using the simulation code SELFAS2, we present predictions of the radio signal emitted by extensive air showers (EAS) during their development in the atmosphere. The radio emission in the MHz range coming from air showers is the superposition of two mechanisms: the variation of the transverse current due to the systematic opposite drift of electrons and positrons in the Earth's magnetic field and the variation of the charge excess due to the electrons in excess in the shower front. In this paper, we stress particularly the effect of the realistic air refractive index on the radio signal predicted by SELFAS2.

  14. 76 FR 76048 - Air Quality Designations for the 2008 Lead (Pb) National Ambient Air Quality Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Part 81 RIN 2060-AR17 Air Quality Designations for the 2008 Lead (Pb) National Ambient Air Quality Standards Correction In rule document 2011-29460 appearing on pages 72097-72120 in the issues...

  15. 30 CFR 250.302 - Definitions concerning air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Definitions concerning air quality. 250.302... Definitions concerning air quality. For purposes of §§ 250.303 and 250.304 of this part: Air pollutant means..., pursuant to section 109 of the Clean Air Act, national primary or secondary ambient air quality...

  16. 40 CFR 52.683 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.683 Section 52.683 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) The State of Idaho Rules for Control of Air Pollution in Idaho, specifically... the Clean Air Act for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. (b) The requirements...

  17. The effect of air quality on sleep

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strøm-Tejsen, Peter; Wargocki, Pawel; Wyon, David Peter;

    2014-01-01

    The effect of air quality on sleep was examined for occupants of 14 identical single-occupancy dormitory rooms. The subjects, half women, were exposed to two conditions (open/closed window), each for one week, resulting in night-time average CO2 levels of 660 and 2585 ppm, and air temperatures...... of 24.7 and 23.9°C, respectively. Sleep was assessed from movement data recorded on wristwatch-type actigraphs and from online morning questionnaires, including the Groningen Sleep Quality scale, questions about the sleep environment, next-day well-being, SBS symptoms, and two tests of mental...... performance. Although no significant effects on the sleep quality scale or on next-day performance could be shown, there were significant and positive effects of a higher ventilation rate (open window) on the actigraph measured sleep latency and on the subjects’ assessment of the freshness of the air...

  18. Emerging Latin American air quality regulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hosmer, A.W.; Vitale, E.M.; Guerrero, C.R.; Solorzano-Vincent, L. [ICF Kaiser International, Fairfax, VA (United States)

    1998-12-31

    Latin America is the most urbanized region in the developing world. In recent years, significant economic growth has resulted in population migration from rural areas to urban centers, as well as in a substantial rise in the standard of living within the Region. These changes have impacted the air quality of Latin American countries as increased numbers of industrial facilities and motor vehicles release pollutants into the air. With the advent of new free trade agreements such as MERCOSUR and NAFTA, economic activity and associated pollutant levels can only be expected to continue to expand in the future. In order to address growing air pollution problems, many Latin America countries including Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Columbia, Costa Rica, and Mexico have passed, or will soon pass, new legislation to develop and strengthen their environmental frameworks with respect to air quality. As a first step toward understanding the impacts that this increased environmental regulation will have, this paper will examine the regulatory systems in six Latin American countries with respect to ambient air quality and for each of these countries: review a short history of the air quality problems within the country; outline the legal and institutional framework including key laws and implementing institutions; summarize in brief the current status of the country in terms of program development and implementation; and identify projected future trends. In addition, the paper will briefly review the international treaties that have bearing on Latin American air quality. Finally, the paper will conclude by identifying and exploring emerging trends in individual countries and the region as a whole.

  19. Retinal image quality assessment through a visual similarity index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, Jorge; Espinosa, Julián; Vázquez, Carmen; Mas, David

    2013-04-01

    Retinal image quality is commonly analyzed through parameters inherited from instrumental optics. These parameters are defined for 'good optics' so they are hard to translate into visual quality metrics. Instead of using point or artificial functions, we propose a quality index that takes into account properties of natural images. These images usually show strong local correlations that help to interpret the image. Our aim is to derive an objective index that quantifies the quality of vision by taking into account the local structure of the scene, instead of focusing on a particular aberration. As we show, this index highly correlates with visual acuity and allows inter-comparison of natural images around the retina. The usefulness of the index is proven through the analysis of real eyes before and after undergoing corneal surgery, which usually are hard to analyze with standard metrics.

  20. 40 CFR 52.2451 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2451 Section 52.2451 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... Quality Deterioration. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  1. 40 CFR 52.2528 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2528 Section 52.2528 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of Sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... Quality Deterioration. (b) Regulations for Preventing Significant Deterioration of Air Quality,...

  2. 40 CFR 52.931 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.931 Section 52.931 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The..., the Kentucky Division for Air Quality has determined that the application complies with the...

  3. 40 CFR 51.320 - Annual air quality data report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Annual air quality data report. 51.320... REQUIREMENTS FOR PREPARATION, ADOPTION, AND SUBMITTAL OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Reports Air Quality Data Reporting § 51.320 Annual air quality data report. The requirements for reporting air quality data...

  4. Biomonitoring of air quality using plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mulgrew, A.; Williams, P. [King' s Coll., London (United Kingdom). Monitoring and Assessment Research Centre - WHO Collaborating Centre for Monitoring and Assessment

    2000-02-01

    This report is an update of the MARC Report No. 32 'Biological Monitoring' and a first volume referring to a WHO project on biological monitoring. The monograph reviews comprehensively the existing literature on biological monitoring of air quality with plants. This review includes consideration of all plant species that are currently, or have a potential of, being used as bioindicators of air pollution. This review is intended to serve as a background paper for the derivation of guidelines for the use of biological monitors in air pollution control. (orig.)

  5. The AirQuality SenseBox

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demuth, Dustin; Nuest, Daniel; Bröring, Arne; Pebesma, Edzer

    2013-04-01

    In the past year, a group of open hardware enthusiasts and citizen scientists had large success in the crowd-funding of an open hardware-based sensor platform for air quality monitoring, called the Air Quality Egg. Via the kickstarter platform, the group was able to collect triple the amount of money than needed to fulfill their goals. Data generated by the Air Quality Egg is pushed to the data logging platform cosm.com, which makes the devices a part of the Internet of Things. The project aims at increasing the participation of citizens in the collection of data, the development of sensors, the operation of sensor stations, and, as data on cosm is publicly available, the sharing, visualization and analysis of data. Air Quality Eggs can measure NO2 and CO concentrations, as well as relative humidity and temperature. The chosen sensors are low-cost and have limited precision and accurracy. The Air Quality Egg consists of a stationary outdoor and a stationary indoor unit. Each outdoor unit will wirelessly transmit air quality measurements to the indoor unit, which forwards the data to cosm. Most recent versions of the Air Quality Egg allow a rough calibration of the gas sensors and on-the-fly conversion from raw sensor readings (impedance) to meaningful air quality data expressed in units of parts per billion. Data generated by these low-cost platforms are not intended to replace well-calibrated official monitoring stations, but rather augment the density of the total monitoring network with citizen sensors. To improve the usability of the Air Quality Egg, we present a new and more advanced concept, called the AirQuality SenseBox. We made the outdoor platform more autonomous and location-aware by adding solarpanels and rechargeable batteries as a power source. The AirQuality SenseBox knows its own position from a GPS device attached to the platform. As a mobile sensor platform, it can for instance be attached to vehicles. A low-cost and low-power wireless chipset

  6. Air quality and human welfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundseth, K.; Pacyna, J. M.; Pacyna, E. G.

    2009-02-01

    Human welfare is generally referring to allocation of resources to fit the well being of humans. If high standard of well-being is to be maintained, the concerns for a healthy environment must be balanced against requirements of economic growth. In a natural capital system, human welfare is best served by improving the quality and flow of desired services delivered rather than merely increasing the total money flow. An ecosystem based management of living and natural resource use will steer this progress to the best of human welfare while the efficiency of ecosystem based management depends strongly on the availability of integrated assessment tools that will combine environmental models and monitoring data with ecological economic valuation methods. In applied welfare economics, the methodological approach to assess resource allocations towards societal optimality and thereby establish criteria for government intervention is often linked to tools as Cost-ffectiveness Analysis (CEA), Cost-Benefit Assessment (CBA) or Multi-criteria Analysis (MCA). By illustrating an assessment on costs and benefits of the implementation of Hg emission reduction measures in the coal sector, it becomes obvious that for a full analysis of societal costs and benefits, several aspects of Hg pollution, sources, impacts and co-benefits need to be considered.

  7. Air quality and human welfare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sundseth K.

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Human welfare is generally referring to allocation of resources to fit the well being of humans. If high standard of well-being is to be maintained, the concerns for a healthy environment must be balanced against requirements of economic growth. In a natural capital system, human welfare is best served by improving the quality and flow of desired services delivered rather than merely increasing the total money flow. An ecosystem based management of living and natural resource use will steer this progress to the best of human welfare while the efficiency of ecosystem based management depends strongly on the availability of integrated assessment tools that will combine environmental models and monitoring data with ecological economic valuation methods. In applied welfare economics, the methodological approach to assess resource allocations towards societal optimality and thereby establish criteria for government intervention is often linked to tools as Cost-ffectiveness Analysis (CEA, Cost-Benefit Assessment (CBA or Multi-criteria Analysis (MCA. By illustrating an assessment on costs and benefits of the implementation of Hg emission reduction measures in the coal sector, it becomes obvious that for a full analysis of societal costs and benefits, several aspects of Hg pollution, sources, impacts and co-benefits need to be considered.

  8. Lichen communities as bioindicators of the Aburra Valley air quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lichens have been used as bioindicators of air quality. They are sensitive to changes in air composition at any given site affecting their abundance, biomass and vitality.This study evaluated lichen affectation as a consequence of air pollution. Two study areas within the Aburra Valley and the RedAire network were selected: Miguel Aguinaga (high pollution station) and the Medellin University (low pollution station). Four phorophytic tree species were chosen at each site Terminalia catappa Linneaus, Eritrina fusca Loureiro, Mangifera indica Linneaus y Fraxinus chinensis Roxb. The lichen cover by species, the vitality and the fructification were used to analyze the effect of air pollution. Finally, the lichen cover information was used to calculate the index of atmospheric purity (IAP) and the Q factor determination. Total qualitative and quantitative information obtained made evident that Canoparmelia sp. and Parmotrema austrosinensis (Zahlbr) Hale. lichen species are the most sensitive, and therefore appropriate to assess air quality. Additionally, the statistical analysis carried out using the relative abundances by phorophytic trees, showed that Fraxinus chinensis Roxb is the most appropriate tree species for bioindicator lichens studies into the Aburra valley.

  9. Uncertainty in Regional Air Quality Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Digar, Antara

    Effective pollution mitigation is the key to successful air quality management. Although states invest millions of dollars to predict future air quality, the regulatory modeling and analysis process to inform pollution control strategy remains uncertain. Traditionally deterministic ‘bright-line’ tests are applied to evaluate the sufficiency of a control strategy to attain an air quality standard. A critical part of regulatory attainment demonstration is the prediction of future pollutant levels using photochemical air quality models. However, because models are uncertain, they yield a false sense of precision that pollutant response to emission controls is perfectly known and may eventually mislead the selection of control policies. These uncertainties in turn affect the health impact assessment of air pollution control strategies. This thesis explores beyond the conventional practice of deterministic attainment demonstration and presents novel approaches to yield probabilistic representations of pollutant response to emission controls by accounting for uncertainties in regional air quality planning. Computationally-efficient methods are developed and validated to characterize uncertainty in the prediction of secondary pollutant (ozone and particulate matter) sensitivities to precursor emissions in the presence of uncertainties in model assumptions and input parameters. We also introduce impact factors that enable identification of model inputs and scenarios that strongly influence pollutant concentrations and sensitivity to precursor emissions. We demonstrate how these probabilistic approaches could be applied to determine the likelihood that any control measure will yield regulatory attainment, or could be extended to evaluate probabilistic health benefits of emission controls, considering uncertainties in both air quality models and epidemiological concentration-response relationships. Finally, ground-level observations for pollutant (ozone) and precursor

  10. Characterizing air quality data from complex network perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Xinghua; Wang, Li; Xu, Huihui; Li, Shasha; Tian, Lixin

    2016-02-01

    Air quality depends mainly on changes in emission of pollutants and their precursors. Understanding its characteristics is the key to predicting and controlling air quality. In this study, complex networks were built to analyze topological characteristics of air quality data by correlation coefficient method. Firstly, PM2.5 (particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 μm) indexes of eight monitoring sites in Beijing were selected as samples from January 2013 to December 2014. Secondly, the C-C method was applied to determine the structure of phase space. Points in the reconstructed phase space were considered to be nodes of the network mapped. Then, edges were determined by nodes having the correlation greater than a critical threshold. Three properties of the constructed networks, degree distribution, clustering coefficient, and modularity, were used to determine the optimal value of the critical threshold. Finally, by analyzing and comparing topological properties, we pointed out that similarities and difference in the constructed complex networks revealed influence factors and their different roles on real air quality system.

  11. Characterizing multi-pollutant air pollution in China: Comparison of three air quality indices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jianlin; Ying, Qi; Wang, Yungang; Zhang, Hongliang

    2015-11-01

    Multi-pollutant air pollution (i.e., several pollutants reaching very high concentrations simultaneously) frequently occurs in many regions across China. Air quality index (AQI) is used worldwide to inform the public about levels of air pollution and associated health risks. The current AQI approach used in China is based on the maximum value of individual pollutants, and does not consider the combined health effects of exposure to multiple pollutants. In this study, two novel alternative indices--aggregate air quality index (AAQI) and health-risk based air quality index (HAQI)--were calculated based on data collected in six megacities of China (Beijing, Shanghai, Guangzhou, Shjiazhuang, Xi'an, and Wuhan) during 2013 to 2014. Both AAQI and HAQI take into account the combined health effects of various pollutants, and the HAQI considers the exposure (or concentration)-response relationships of pollutants. AAQI and HAQI were compared to AQI to examine the effectiveness of the current AQI in characterizing multi-pollutant air pollution in China. The AAQI and HAQI values are higher than the AQI on days when two or more pollutants simultaneously exceed the Chinese Ambient Air Quality Standards (CAAQS) 24-hour Grade II standards. The results of the comparison of the classification of risk categories based on the three indices indicate that the current AQI approach underestimates the severity of health risk associated with exposure to multi-pollutant air pollution. For the AQI-based risk category of 'unhealthy', 96% and 80% of the days would be 'very unhealthy' or 'hazardous' if based on AAQI and HAQI, respectively; and for the AQI-based risk category of 'very unhealthy', 67% and 75% of the days would be 'hazardous' if based on AAQI and HAQI, respectively. The results suggest that the general public, especially sensitive population groups such as children and the elderly, should take more stringent actions than those currently suggested based on the AQI approach during

  12. AIR QUALITY IMPACTS OF LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS IN THE SOUTH COAST AIR BASIN OF CALIFORNIA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carerras-Sospedra, Marc; Brouwer, Jack; Dabdub, Donald; Lunden, Melissa; Singer, Brett

    2011-07-01

    The effects of liquefied natural gas (LNG) on pollutant emission inventories and air quality in the South Coast Air Basin of California were evaluated using recent LNG emission measurements by Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and the Southern California Gas Company (SoCalGas), and with a state-of-the-art air quality model. Pollutant emissions can be affected by LNG owing to differences in composition and physical properties, including the Wobbe index, a measure of energy delivery rate. This analysis uses LNG distribution scenarios developed by modeling Southern California gas flows, including supplies from the LNG receiving terminal in Baja California, Mexico. Based on these scenarios, the projected penetratino of LNG in the South Coast Air Basin is expected to be limited. In addition, the increased Wobbe index of delivered gas (resulting from mixtures of LNG and conventional gas supplies) is expected to cause increases smaller than 0.05 percent in overall (area-wide) emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx). BAsed on the photochemical state of the South Coast Air Basin, any increase in NOx is expected to cause an increase in the highest local ozone concentrations, and this is reflected in model results. However, the magnitude of the increase is well below the generally accepted accuracy of the model and would not be discernible with the existing monitoring network. Modeling of hypothetical scenarios indicates that discernible changes to ambient ozone and particulate matter concentrations would occur only at LNG distribution rates that are not achievable with current or planned infrastructure and with Wobbe index vlaues that exceed current gas quality tariffs. Results of these hypothetical scenarios are presented for consideration of any proposed substantial expansion of LNG supply infrastructure in Southern California.

  13. Air quality measurements in laying hens housing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirko Prodanov

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Ensuring good environmental conditions of the poultry houses can be costly for the farmers, but without it losses due to poor bird health and performance due to poor air quality can be much more detrimental to net returns. The goal of this study was to investigate the variations in air quality in various areas inside the laying hen houses. Ten houses with laying hen conventional battery cages were measured for O2, H2S, CO, NH3, temperature, relative humidity, CO2, airflow and luminance. The results of the physical measures showed that temperatures in the houses were between 15.31–25.6°C, the relative humidity 48.03-81.12%, while the luminance rarely exceeded 8 lux. As for the gasses, the values for NH3 rarely exceeded 8 ppm, although at some measuring points it reached 26 ppm. O2 was generally at 20.9 %, and the levels of CO2 were very low. No presence of H2S and CO was detected. In this study it was concluded that the measurement of the air quality in a house can vary depending of the places this measures are taken. Multiple measurement points are important because they may make the staff aware of the problems connected to low ventilation and culmination of harmful gases. The air quality in different positions in the houses is of great importance not only for the animal welfare, but also for the safety of the staff.

  14. Urban Air Quality Assessment Model UAQAM

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Pul WAJ; van Zantvoort EDG; de Leeuw FAAM; Sluyter RJCF; LLO

    1996-01-01

    Het Urban Air Quality Assessment Model (UAQAM) berekent de concentratie van luchtverontreiniging in stedelijk gebied veroorzaakt door emissies uit de stad zelf. In een werkversie van dit model werden 3 beschrijvingen van de verspreiding bestudeerd: een Box-model, het Gifford-Hanna (GH)-model en een

  15. Urban Air Quality Assessment Model UAQAM

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pul WAJ van; Zantvoort EDG van; Leeuw FAAM de; Sluyter RJCF; LLO

    1996-01-01

    The Urban Air Quality Assessment Model (UAQAM) calculates the city concentration caused by city emissions themselves, the so-called city background concentration. Three versions of the model for describing the dispersion were studied: Box, Gifford Hanna (GH) and a combined form of these two (the Box

  16. The Bottom Line For Air Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Tom

    2000-01-01

    Discusses how the right type of flooring can help schools reduce indoor-air-quality problems. Using vinyl composition flooring to handle moisture and reduce fungi growth is examined as are the benefits of vinyl cushion tufted textile flooring for cost effectiveness, learning environment improvement, installation, and effectiveness in emergencies.…

  17. Equivalence in Ventilation and Indoor Air Quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sherman, Max; Walker, Iain; Logue, Jennifer

    2011-08-01

    We ventilate buildings to provide acceptable indoor air quality (IAQ). Ventilation standards (such as American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air-Conditioning Enginners [ASHRAE] Standard 62) specify minimum ventilation rates without taking into account the impact of those rates on IAQ. Innovative ventilation management is often a desirable element of reducing energy consumption or improving IAQ or comfort. Variable ventilation is one innovative strategy. To use variable ventilation in a way that meets standards, it is necessary to have a method for determining equivalence in terms of either ventilation or indoor air quality. This study develops methods to calculate either equivalent ventilation or equivalent IAQ. We demonstrate that equivalent ventilation can be used as the basis for dynamic ventilation control, reducing peak load and infiltration of outdoor contaminants. We also show that equivalent IAQ could allow some contaminants to exceed current standards if other contaminants are more stringently controlled.

  18. A Comprehensive Real-Time Indoor Air-Quality Level Indicator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jungho Kang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The growing concern about Indoor Air-Quality has accelerated the development of small, low-cost air-quality monitoring systems. These systems are capable of monitoring various indoor air pollutants in real time, notifying users about the current air-quality status and gathering the information to the central server. However, most Internet of Things (IoT-based air-quality monitoring systems numerically present the sensed value per pollutant, making it difficult for general users to identify how polluted the air is. Therefore, in this paper, we first introduce a tiny air-quality monitoring system that we developed and, based on the system, we also test the applicability of the comprehensive Air-Quality Index (AQI, which is widely used all over the world, in terms of its capacity for a comprehensive indoor air-quality indication. We also develop design considerations for an IoT-based air-quality monitoring system and propose a real-time comprehensive indoor air-quality level indication method, which effectively copes with dynamic changes and is efficient in terms of processing and memory overhead.

  19. 40 CFR 52.2303 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2303 Section 52.2303 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The plan submitted by Texas is approved as meeting the requirements of part C, Clean Air Act for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The...

  20. 40 CFR 52.1485 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1485 Section 52.1485 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... include approvable procedures for preventing the significant deterioration of air quality. (b)...

  1. 40 CFR 52.833 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.833 Section 52.833 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air Act are met... for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The provisions of § 52.21 except paragraph...

  2. Assessing the state of environmental quality in cities - A multi-component urban performance (EMCUP) index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stossel, Zeev; Kissinger, Meidad; Meir, Avinoam

    2015-11-01

    Urban environmental quality indices can provide policy makers and the public with valuable information. However, common assessment tools have several shortcomings: most indices do leave out some important components of the state of urban environmental quality; they use a relative assessment in which urban environmental performance is evaluated relative to other cities, not against established environmental benchmarks; and only a few assessment tools compare urban performance to environmental quality standards. This paper presents a new multi component urban performance (EMCUP) index aiming to tackle those shortcomings. It analyses the overall state of urban environmental quality by using a list of indicators to evaluate key urban environmental quality topics such as air, water, open space, sanitation and solid waste. It presents an absolute score calculated in relation to both the standard and desired optimum levels. The use of the index is demonstrated by three Israeli cities.

  3. Assessing the state of environmental quality in cities - A multi-component urban performance (EMCUP) index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stossel, Zeev; Kissinger, Meidad; Meir, Avinoam

    2015-11-01

    Urban environmental quality indices can provide policy makers and the public with valuable information. However, common assessment tools have several shortcomings: most indices do leave out some important components of the state of urban environmental quality; they use a relative assessment in which urban environmental performance is evaluated relative to other cities, not against established environmental benchmarks; and only a few assessment tools compare urban performance to environmental quality standards. This paper presents a new multi component urban performance (EMCUP) index aiming to tackle those shortcomings. It analyses the overall state of urban environmental quality by using a list of indicators to evaluate key urban environmental quality topics such as air, water, open space, sanitation and solid waste. It presents an absolute score calculated in relation to both the standard and desired optimum levels. The use of the index is demonstrated by three Israeli cities. PMID:26334706

  4. Ambient air quality in Lower Town Quebec

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A municipal waste incinerator near Lower Town Quebec has been identified as a major source of air pollution, notably emissions of dioxins, furans, nitrogen oxides (NOx), volatile organic matter (VOC) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). Combustion fumes contain gases such as carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2) and sulphur dioxide (SO2), as well as dusts, fly ash and particulate matter that is easily airborne. The risks associated with poor air quality have been evaluated along with the effects of pollutants on young children, pregnant women, senior citizens and those with cardiac problems. Some studies have reported that exposure to NOx may cause lung cancer and certain VOCs can irritate the respiratory tract system. Air quality tests have also revealed the presence of mercury. In combination, all these pollutants create smog. The concrete actions that have been taken to address smog issues were discussed. The distance between the incinerator and different residential areas within Lower Town Quebec have been measured along with air quality. Health risks were found to be higher in areas closer to the incinerator. Major modifications have been recommended in order to reduce pollution emissions from the incinerator. These include modernizing the equipment, installing proper scrubbers, and to ultimately the close the incinerator if it continues to underperform. refs., tabs., figs

  5. Urban air quality in the Asian region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hopke, Philip K. [Center for Air Resources Engineering and Science, Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Clarkson University, Potsdam, NY 13699-5708 (United States)], E-mail: hopkepk@clarkson.edu; Cohen, David D. [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO), Physics Division, Private Mail Bag 1, Menai 2234, NSW (Australia); Begum, Bilkis A.; Biswas, Swapan K. [Bangladesh Atomic Energy Commission (BAEC), Atomic Energy Centre, Dhaka (AECD), P.O. Box 164, Dhaka (Bangladesh); Ni Bangfa [China Institute of Atomic Energy (CIAE), China National Nuclear Corp. (CNNC), P.O. Box 275-50, Beijing 102413 (China); Pandit, Gauri Girish [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai 400085 (India); Santoso, Muhayatun [Center for Nuclear Technology of Material and Radiometry, National Nuclear Energy Agency (BATAN), Jl. Tamansari 71, Bandung 40132 (Indonesia); Chung, Yong-Sam [Hanaro Center, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI), 150 Dukjin-dong, Yusung-ku, P.O. Box 105, Daejon 305-600 (Korea, Republic of); Davy, Perry; Markwitz, Andreas [Institute of Geological and Nuclear Sciences (GNS), 30 Gracefield Road, P.O. Box 31-312, Lower Hutt (New Zealand); Waheed, Shahida; Siddique, Naila [Division of Nuclear Chemistry, PINSTECH, Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC), P.O. Box 1482, Nilore, Islamabad (Pakistan); Santos, Flora L.; Pabroa, Preciosa Corazon B. [Philippine Nuclear Research Institute (PNRI), Commonwealth Avenue, Diliman, P.O. Box 213, Quezon City 1101 (Philippines); Seneviratne, Manikkuwadura Consy Shirani [Atomic Energy Authority, 60/460, Baseline Road, Orugodawatta, Wellampitiya (Sri Lanka); Wimolwattanapun, Wanna; Bunprapob, Supamatthree [Thailand Institute of Nuclear Technology (TINT), 16 Vibhavadi Rangsit Road, Bangkok 10900 (Thailand); Thu Bac Vuong [Centre for Radiation Protection, Institute of Nuclear Sciences and Technology, P.O. Box 5T-160, Cau Giay (Viet Nam)] (and others)

    2008-10-01

    Over the past decade, member states of the Regional Co-operation Agreement (RCA), an intergovernmental agreement for the East Asia and Pacific region under the auspices of the IAEA with the assistance of international organizations and financial institutions such as the World Bank and the Asian Development Bank, have started to set in place policies and legislation for air pollution abatement. To support planning and evaluate the effectiveness of control programs, data are needed that characterizes urban air quality. The focus of this measurement program describe in this report is on size segregated particulate air pollution. Such airborne particulate matter can have a significant impact on human health and urban visibility. These data provide the input to receptor models that may permit the mitigation of these impacts by identification and quantitative apportionment of the particle sources. The aim of this report is to provide an overview of the measurements of concentrations and composition of particulate air pollution in two size fractions across the participating countries. For many of the large cities in this region, the measured particulate matter concentrations are greater than air quality standards or guidelines that have been adopted in developed countries.

  6. Spatial and temporal characteristics of air quality and air pollutants in 2013 in Beijing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Shujun; Cao, Hui; Chen, Ying; Wu, Chengzhen; Hong, Tao; Fan, Hailan

    2016-07-01

    Air pollution has become an ever more critical issue in Beijing in more recent years. In this study, we use the air quality index (AQI), corresponding primary pollutant types and meteorological data which are collected at 16 monitoring stations in Beijing between January 2013 and December, 2013 studying the spatial and temporal variations of air quality and air pollutants. The results show that PM2.5 was the most serious pollutant, followed by O3. The average PM2.5 mass concentration was 119.5 ± 13.8 μg m(-3) in Beijing. In addition, the air quality varies across different seasons. More specifically, winter season showed the worst air quality. Moreover, while particulate matter (PM2.5 and PM10) concentrations were relatively higher in the spring and winter seasons, gaseous pollutants (O3 and NO2) were more serious in the summer and autumn. In terms of spatial heterogeneity, the findings showed that AQI and PM2.5 concentrations were higher in south and lower in the north of the city, and the O3 showed exactly a pattern with the opposite direction-higher in the north and lower in the south. NO2 was found to have a greater impact on the central region compared with that in other regions. Furthermore, PM2.5 was found to be positively correlated with the relative humidity, but negatively correlated with wind speed and atmospheric pressure (P air pollution in Beijing.

  7. 76 FR 44535 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Northern Sierra Air Quality Management...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-26

    ... Management District, Sacramento Metropolitan Air Quality Management District, and South Coast Air Quality... proposing to approve revisions to the Northern Sierra Air Quality Management District (NSAQMD), Sacramento Metropolitan Air Quality Management District (SMAQMD), and South Coast Air Quality Management District......

  8. Surface Flux Modeling for Air Quality Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Limei Ran

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available For many gasses and aerosols, dry deposition is an important sink of atmospheric mass. Dry deposition fluxes are also important sources of pollutants to terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. The surface fluxes of some gases, such as ammonia, mercury, and certain volatile organic compounds, can be upward into the air as well as downward to the surface and therefore should be modeled as bi-directional fluxes. Model parameterizations of dry deposition in air quality models have been represented by simple electrical resistance analogs for almost 30 years. Uncertainties in surface flux modeling in global to mesoscale models are being slowly reduced as more field measurements provide constraints on parameterizations. However, at the same time, more chemical species are being added to surface flux models as air quality models are expanded to include more complex chemistry and are being applied to a wider array of environmental issues. Since surface flux measurements of many of these chemicals are still lacking, resistances are usually parameterized using simple scaling by water or lipid solubility and reactivity. Advances in recent years have included bi-directional flux algorithms that require a shift from pre-computation of deposition velocities to fully integrated surface flux calculations within air quality models. Improved modeling of the stomatal component of chemical surface fluxes has resulted from improved evapotranspiration modeling in land surface models and closer integration between meteorology and air quality models. Satellite-derived land use characterization and vegetation products and indices are improving model representation of spatial and temporal variations in surface flux processes. This review describes the current state of chemical dry deposition modeling, recent progress in bi-directional flux modeling, synergistic model development research with field measurements, and coupling with meteorological land surface models.

  9. Air quality and air quality related values in Chassahowitzka National Wildlife Refuge and Wilderness Area

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Chassahowitzka Wilderness Area is a Class I air quality area administered by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. Despite the special protection mandated for...

  10. Environmental Monitoring, Air Quality - MO 2011 Air Quality Standards Nonattainment Areas (SHP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — The St. Louis air quality nonattainment areas geospatial data layer contains regions representing the geographic extent of areas that are estimated to be out of...

  11. 40 CFR 52.1987 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1987 Section 52.1987 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The Oregon Department of Environmental Quality rules for the prevention of significant deterioration of air quality (provisions of OAR chapter 340, Divisions 200,...

  12. 40 CFR 93.160 - Mitigation of air quality impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Mitigation of air quality impacts. 93... quality impacts. (a) Any measures that are intended to mitigate air quality impacts must be identified and..., the revised text is set forth as follows: § 93.160 Mitigation of air quality impacts. (e)...

  13. 40 CFR 51.115 - Air quality data and projections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Air quality data and projections. 51... quality data and projections. (a) Each plan must contain a summary of data showing existing air quality. (b) Each plan must: (1) Contain a summary of air quality concentrations expected to result...

  14. Ecoflex: Improving air quality with green dynamic traffic management based on real time air quality measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baalen, J. van; Koning, A. de; Voogt, M.; Stelwagen, U.; Turksma, S.

    2011-01-01

    Across the world, air quality regulations are breached due to localized high pollution episodes in specific locations, or "hotspots". Advances in air pollution monitoring techniques enable hotspots to be identified more effectively; however challenges remain as to how best to reduce the incidence an

  15. Constant-Quality House Price Indexes for Switzerland

    OpenAIRE

    Steven C. Bourassa; Hoesli, Martin E.; Scognamiglio, D.; Sormani, P.

    2008-01-01

    The measurement of house price movements is a vital topic from both academic and practical perspectives and hence has been the focus of much research. There is almost unanimous consensus of the literature that house price indexes should control for the quality of properties; the most widely used methods to attain this aim are the hedonic and repeat sales approaches. The objective of this paper is to compare that Swiss house prices indexes published by the Swiss National Bank (SNB), which are ...

  16. Quality screening for air quality monitoring data in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jianzheng; Li, Weifeng; Li, Jie

    2016-09-01

    Particulate matter data obtained from the national air quality monitoring network in China has become an essential and critical data source for many current and forthcoming studies as well as the formulation and implementation of air pollution regulatory policies on particulate matter (PM2.5 and PM10). However, the quality control of this data is dubitable and can affect many future studies and policies. This study identifies and elucidates two significant quality control issues with the data. They are PM2.5 levels exceeding concurrent co-located PM10 levels and the registration of same concentrations for consecutive hours at some stations. Future studies utilizing particulate matter data need to acknowledge and address these issues to ensure accurate and reliable results.

  17. Assessment and prediction of air quality using fuzzy logic and autoregressive models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbajal-Hernández, José Juan; Sánchez-Fernández, Luis P.; Carrasco-Ochoa, Jesús A.; Martínez-Trinidad, José Fco.

    2012-12-01

    In recent years, artificial intelligence methods have been used for the treatment of environmental problems. This work, presents two models for assessment and prediction of air quality. First, we develop a new computational model for air quality assessment in order to evaluate toxic compounds that can harm sensitive people in urban areas, affecting their normal activities. In this model we propose to use a Sigma operator to statistically asses air quality parameters using their historical data information and determining their negative impact in air quality based on toxicity limits, frequency average and deviations of toxicological tests. We also introduce a fuzzy inference system to perform parameter classification using a reasoning process and integrating them in an air quality index describing the pollution levels in five stages: excellent, good, regular, bad and danger, respectively. The second model proposed in this work predicts air quality concentrations using an autoregressive model, providing a predicted air quality index based on the fuzzy inference system previously developed. Using data from Mexico City Atmospheric Monitoring System, we perform a comparison among air quality indices developed for environmental agencies and similar models. Our results show that our models are an appropriate tool for assessing site pollution and for providing guidance to improve contingency actions in urban areas.

  18. STUDY OF POND WATER QUALITY BY THE ASSESSMENT OF PHYSICOCHEMICAL PARAMETERS AND WATER QUALITY INDEX

    OpenAIRE

    Vinod Jena; Satish Dixit; Ravi ShrivastavaSapana Gupta; Sapana Gupta

    2013-01-01

    Water quality index (WQI) is a dimensionless number that combines multiple water quality factors into a single number by normalizing values to subjective rating curves. Conventionally it has been used for evaluating the quality of water for water resources suchas rivers, streams and lakes, etc. The present work is aimed at assessing the Water Quality Index (W.Q.I) ofpond water and the impact of human activities on it. Physicochemical parameters were monitored for the calculation of W.Q.I for ...

  19. ENZYME DIGEST AND ACID HYDROLYZED INDEX OF PROTEIN QUALITY EVALUATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.Mohammadiha P. Mostafavi

    1984-08-01

    Full Text Available A pancreatopeptidase (Elastase digest index was devised for a rapid and accurate estimation of protein quality. This index was calculated on the basis of all the amino acids released by an in-vitro Elastase digestion, acid hydrolyses of same sample and the residue of enzyme hydrolyzed. The amino acids were determined by Thin-Layer Chromatography. Samples used were cooked white kidneybeans, cooked and over-heated soybean powder, and skimmed milk powder. Good correlation was observed between elastase index value and their biological values reported in the literature from feeding trials. The pattern of aminoacids released by acid and by enzyme hydrolysis was about the same.

  20. Air Quality – monitoring and modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius DEACONU

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Air pollution is a major concern for all nations, regardless of their development. The rapid growth of the industrial sector and urban development have lead to significant quantities of substances and toxic materials, mostly discharged into the atmosphere and having adverse effects both on human health and environment in general. Human society has to recognize that environment has only a limited capacity to process all of its waste without major changes. Each of us is a pollutant but also a victim of pollution. If monitoring of air pollutants is particularly important for assessing the air quality at any moment, by modelling the monitoring data spectacular results are obtained both through the factor analysis and identification of potential pollution mitigation measures. Latest equipment and techniques come and support these problems giving medium and long term solutions.

  1. Air quality estimation by computational intelligence methodologies

    OpenAIRE

    Ćirić Ivan T.; Ćojbašić Žarko M.; Nikolić Vlastimir D.; Živković Predrag M.; Tomić Mladen A.

    2012-01-01

    The subject of this study is to compare different computational intelligence methodologies based on artificial neural networks used for forecasting an air quality parameter - the emission of CO2, in the city of Niš. Firstly, inputs of the CO2 emission estimator are analyzed and their measurement is explained. It is known that the traffic is the single largest emitter of CO2 in Europe. Therefore, a proper treatment of this component of pollution is very important for precise estimation o...

  2. Indoor Air Quality in Brazilian Universities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia R. Jurado

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the indoor air quality in Brazilian universities by comparing thirty air-conditioned (AC (n = 15 and naturally ventilated (NV (n = 15 classrooms. The parameters of interest were indoor carbon dioxide (CO2, temperature, relative humidity (RH, wind speed, viable mold, and airborne dust levels. The NV rooms had larger concentration of mold than the AC rooms (1001.30 ± 125.16 and 367.00 ± 88.13 cfu/m3, respectively. The average indoor airborne dust concentration exceeded the Brazilian standards (<80 µg/m3 in both NV and AC classrooms. The levels of CO2 in the AC rooms were significantly different from the NV rooms (1433.62 ± 252.80 and 520.12 ± 37.25 ppm, respectively. The indoor air quality in Brazilian university classrooms affects the health of students. Therefore, indoor air pollution needs to be considered as an important public health problem.

  3. Protein Solubility as Quality Index for Processed Soybean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodica Căpriţă

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Protein quality of soybean meal (SBM is linked to both the reduction of antinutritional factors (ANFs, and the optimization of protein digestibility. Both insufficient- and over-heating result in poor quality SBM. Inadequate heating fails to completely destroy the ANFs, which may have a detrimental impact on animal performance, while excessive heating reduces the availability of lysine via the Maillard reaction and possibly, to a lesser extent, of other amino acids. The objective of our study was to compare some biochemical laboratory procedures for assessing quality of SBM: urease index (UI, protein dispersibility index (PDI, KOH protein solubility (PS, and nitrogen solubility index (NSI. The experimental data reveal that UI is not useful to determine excessive heat treatment since additional heating has no effect on the urease index. KOH protein solubility remains high, during initial heat treatment. In marked contrast, the PDI and NSI decreased incrementally from 78% to 20% and from 97% to 60%, respectively, when heating 0 to 30 minutes. Combing the PDI test with the urease test could be useful to monitor soybean quality. SBM containing low UI (0.3 or below and high PDI (40 to 45% may indicate that the sample is definitely high quality because it has been adequately heat processed, but not overprocessed.

  4. 77 FR 73320 - Approval of Air Quality Implementation Plans; California; South Coast Air Quality Management...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-10

    ... Quality Management District (SCAQMD or District) portion of the California State Implementation Plan (SIP... action'' subject to review by the Office of Management and Budget under Executive Order 12866 (58 FR... Air Quality Management District regarding specific implementation of parts of the Prevention...

  5. Depreciation in Ambient Air Quality in Iron Ore Mining Region of Goa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurdeep Singh

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Goa is one of the most famous international tourist destinations of the world. Export of Iron ore extracted from the midland of Goa is a major economic activity. However, there is a serious concern of air pollution due to iron ore mining activities. In order to assess the impact of mining activities on the environmental regime, the air quality depreciation index was adopted for this study due to its realistic and meaningful presentation of deterioration in ambient air quality. The index had been applied to the ambient air quality monitoring results of thirty four locations in the iron ore mining region of Goa. To envisage upon the deterioration in air quality due to various activities, eight stations were selected around mines, twelve in the buffer zone (within 4 Km radius of the core mining activities and fourteen along the ore transportation routes for monitoring of SPM, PM10, SO2 and NOX. The deterioration of air quality in the iron ore mining region of Goa is clearly apparent as the depreciation in air quality was found < -1 from the most desired value of 0 at all the stations. In general, the air quality was found most depreciated along the ore transportation routes, which is also evidenced by a considerable load of particulate matters observed. This infers that ore transportation is the most devastating activity in the iron ore mining region of Goa and accordingly mitigation plan should be adopted.

  6. A ranking index for quality assessment of forensic DNA profiles

    OpenAIRE

    Ansell Ricky; Hedman Johannes; Nordgaard Anders

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Assessment of DNA profile quality is vital in forensic DNA analysis, both in order to determine the evidentiary value of DNA results and to compare the performance of different DNA analysis protocols. Generally the quality assessment is performed through manual examination of the DNA profiles based on empirical knowledge, or by comparing the intensities (allelic peak heights) of the capillary electrophoresis electropherograms. Results We recently developed a ranking index ...

  7. Measurements and prediction of inhaled air quality with personalized ventilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cermak, Radim; Majer, M.; Melikov, Arsen Krikor

    2002-01-01

    This paper examines the performance of five different air terminal devices for personalized ventilation in relation to the quality of air inhaled by a breathing thermal manikin in a climate chamber. The personalized air was supplied either isothermally or non-isothermally (6 deg.C cooler than...... the room air) at flow rates ranging from less than 5 L/s up to 23 L/s. The air quality assessment was based on temperature measurements of the inhaled air and on the portion of the personalized air inhaled. The percentage of dissatisfied with the air quality was predicted. The results suggest...

  8. Air Quality System (AQS) Monitoring Network, EPA OAR OAQPS

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This GIS dataset contains points which depict air quality monitors within EPA's Air Quality System (AQS) monitoring network. This dataset is updated weekly to...

  9. Urban growth and air quality in Kuala Lumpur city, Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    O. H. L. Ling

    2010-01-01

    Urban developments, land use patterns and activities not only influence the volume of emissions into the ambient air environment but also affect the ability of the urban ecosystem to purify the air. Therefore, urbanisation affects the quality of air in urban areas. However, urban air quality is also affected by global, regional or trans-boundary pollutants. The objectives of this paper are to understand the trend of air quality level and urban growth in Kuala Lumpur city (KL), and examine the...

  10. Air Quality Modelling and the National Emission Database

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, S. S.

    The project focuses on development of institutional strengthening to be able to carry out national air emission inventories based on the CORINAIR methodology. The present report describes the link between emission inventories and air quality modelling to ensure that the new national air emission...... inventory is able to take into account the data requirements of air quality models...

  11. 40 CFR 52.1436 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Significant deterioration of air quality. 52.1436 Section 52.1436 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air...

  12. Air Quality and Indoor Environmental Exposures: Clinical Impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indoor air quality (IAQ) is a term which refers to the air quality within and around buildings and homes as it relates to the health and comfort of the occupants. Many ambient (outdoor) air pollutants readily permeate indoor spaces. Because indoor air can be considerably more pol...

  13. 40 CFR 52.884 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Significant deterioration of air quality. 52.884 Section 52.884 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of section 160 through 165 of the Clean Air Act, as...

  14. 40 CFR 52.343 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.343 Section 52.343 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air Act are not met for the following categories of sources for preventing the significant deterioration of air...

  15. 40 CFR 52.382 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Significant deterioration of air quality. 52.382 Section 52.382 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air Act are not...

  16. Parent's Guide to School Indoor Air Quality. Revised

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healthy Schools Network, Inc., 2012

    2012-01-01

    Air pollution is air pollution, indoors or out. Good indoor air quality (IAQ) contributes to a favorable learning environment for students, protects health, and supports the productivity of school personnel. In schools in poor repair, leaky roofs and crumbling walls have caused additional indoor air quality problems, including contamination with…

  17. Indexes of overall diet quality - A review of the literature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waijers PMCM; Feskens EJM; CVG

    2005-01-01

    A total diet approach provides an appealing way to evaluate the diet of the Dutch population. We have reviewed the existing literature and found that currently used methods contain several drawbacks and limitations and therefore propose to construct a diet quality index specific for the Netherlands

  18. Identification of Dysfunctional Cooperative Learning Teams Using Taguchi Quality Indexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiung, Chin-Min

    2011-01-01

    In this study, dysfunctional cooperative learning teams are identified by comparing the Taguchi "larger-the-better" quality index for the academic achievement of students in a cooperative learning condition with that of students in an individualistic learning condition. In performing the experiments, 42 sophomore mechanical engineering students…

  19. 76 FR 44493 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Northern Sierra Air Quality Management...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-26

    ... Management District, Sacramento Metropolitan Air Quality Management District, and South Coast Air Quality... taking direct final action to approve revisions to the Northern Sierra Air Quality Management District (NSAQMD), Sacramento Metropolitan Air Quality Management District (SMAQMD), and South Coast Air...

  20. 75 FR 2938 - National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-19

    ... the air quality criteria and standards for O 3 in September 2000 with a call for information (65 FR... CFR Parts 50 and 58 RIN 2060-AP98 National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone AGENCY... primary and secondary national ambient air quality standards (NAAQS) for ozone (O 3 ) set in March...

  1. Carrageenan drying with dehumidified air: drying characteristics and product quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Djaeni, M.; Sasongko, S.B.; Prasetyaningrum, Aji A A.A.; Jin, X.; Boxtel, van A.J.B.

    2012-01-01

    Applying dehumidified air is considered as an option to retain quality in carrageenan drying. This work concerns the effects of operational temperature, air velocity, and carrageenan thickness on the progress of drying and product quality when using dehumidified air. Final product quality and progre

  2. 40 CFR 52.1116 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... deterioration of air quality. (b) The following provisions of 40 CFR 52.21 are hereby incorporated and made a... quality. 52.1116 Section 52.1116 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean...

  3. 40 CFR 52.2178 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2178 Section 52.2178 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The South Dakota plan, as submitted, is approved as meeting the... on Indian reservations; (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  4. 40 CFR 52.60 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.60 Section 52.60 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) All applications and other information required pursuant to § 52.21 from... “Guideline on Air Quality Models (Revised)” or other models approved by EPA....

  5. 40 CFR 52.2581 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... provisions for prevention of significant deterioration of air quality at 40 CFR 52.21 are applicable to the... quality. 52.2581 Section 52.2581 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a)-(c) (d) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of...

  6. 40 CFR 52.986 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.986 Section 52.986 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) The plan submitted by the Governor of Louisiana on August 14, 1984 (as adopted... preventing significant deterioration of air quality. (b) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of...

  7. 40 CFR 52.1778 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1778 Section 52.1778 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a)-(b) (c) All applications and other information required pursuant... Air Quality, 1641 Mail Service Center, Raleigh, North Carolina 27699-1641 or local agencies,...

  8. 40 CFR 52.2233 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2233 Section 52.2233 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a)(1) Paragraph 1200-3-9-.01(4)-(0)-2. of Tennessee's regulations... requesting innovative technology waivers which would significantly impact air quality in adjacent states....

  9. 40 CFR 52.1634 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1634 Section 52.1634 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The plan submitted by the Governor of New Mexico on February 21... adopted by the NMEID on March 9, 1990), Air Quality Control Regulation 707—Permits, Prevention...

  10. 77 FR 4808 - Conference on Air Quality Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-31

    ... AGENCY Conference on Air Quality Modeling AGENCY: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice of conference. SUMMARY: The EPA will be hosting the Tenth Conference on Air Quality Modeling on... preferred air quality models and to provide a forum for public review and comment on how the...

  11. 40 CFR 51.860 - Mitigation of air quality impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Mitigation of air quality impacts. 51... Federal Actions to State or Federal Implementation Plans § 51.860 Mitigation of air quality impacts. Link... mitigate air quality impacts must be identified and the process for implementation and enforcement of...

  12. 40 CFR 52.2682 - Air quality surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Air quality surveillance. 52.2682... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Guam § 52.2682 Air quality... Pollution Control Standards and Regulations” (buffer zones—air quality sampling) are not in conformance...

  13. 40 CFR 51.190 - Ambient air quality monitoring requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ambient air quality monitoring... PROGRAMS REQUIREMENTS FOR PREPARATION, ADOPTION, AND SUBMITTAL OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Ambient Air Quality Surveillance § 51.190 Ambient air quality monitoring requirements. The requirements for monitoring ambient...

  14. 40 CFR 52.346 - Air quality monitoring requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Air Quality Monitoring plan as identified at 40 CFR 52.320 (c)(17). The revisions updated the plan to bring it into conformance with the Federal requirements for air quality monitoring as found in 40 CFR... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Air quality monitoring requirements....

  15. Air Quality in the Central Ontario Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gbor, P. K.; Meng, F.; Singh, R.; Galvez, O.; Sloan, J. J.

    2004-12-01

    The Central Ontario Region (COR) is the most densely populated area in Canada. With a population of 7.3 million, it contains 23% of the total population of Canada. It extends from the extreme south west end of Ontario to the eastern end of the Greater Toronto Area (GTA) and includes the Niagara, Hamilton and Waterloo Regions,. The air quality of this region is frequently severely impaired in the summer months. In the larger metropolitan areas (Toronto and Hamilton) air pollution is a concern throughout the year. Local health authorities attribute about 1000 premature deaths per year in the GTA alone to air pollution. Average air pollution levels in Ontario have decreased significantly during the past 30 years, despite significant growth in both population and industry. The concentrations of SO2 and CO have decreased by over 80% and the concentration of NOX has decreased by about 50% over the past 26 years. Currently, the concentrations of NOX, CO, SO2 and VOCs in the COR are well below the Provincial and Federal air quality criteria. Ozone, PM2.5 and PM10, however, remain above the Provincial guidelines, so smog still remains a problem. The pollutants in the atmosphere of the COR are caused by both local emissions and long range transport. The COR contributes over 50% of the NOx, VOC and CO emissions in Ontario. Over 58% of NOX and CO emissions in the COR are due to mobile sources while about 50% of VOC and PM emissions are due to area sources. The proximity of the COR to the Canada-U.S. border makes it vulnerable to long range transport of pollutants stemming from the much larger population in the United States. The Canadian government, industries and non-governmental organizations are all taking steps to help reduce the level of pollution in Canada. The Canadian federal government also participates in extensive consultations and cooperative programs with the United States designed to reduce the mutually detrimental effects of cross-border pollution. These

  16. Can the Air Pollution Index be used to communicate the health risks of air pollution?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li; Lin, Guo-Zhen; Liu, Hua-Zhang; Guo, Yuming; Ou, Chun-Quan; Chen, Ping-Yan

    2015-10-01

    The validity of using the Air Pollution Index (API) to assess health impacts of air pollution and potential modification by individual characteristics on air pollution effects remain uncertain. We applied distributed lag non-linear models (DLNMs) to assess associations of daily API, specific pollution indices for PM10, SO2, NO2 and the weighted combined API (APIw) with mortality during 2003-2011 in Guangzhou, China. An increase of 10 in API was associated with a 0.88% (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.50, 1.27%) increase of non-accidental mortality at lag 0-2 days. Harvesting effects appeared after 2 days' exposure. The effect estimate of API over lag 0-15 days was statistically significant and similar with those of pollutant-specific indices and APIw. Stronger associations between API and mortality were observed in the elderly, females and residents with low educational attainment. In conclusion, the API can be used to communicate health risks of air pollution. PMID:26057478

  17. The Danish Air Quality Monitoring Programme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kemp, K.; Palmgren, F.; Manscher, O. H.

    The Danish Air Quality Monitoring Programme (LMP) was started in 1982 as the first nation-wide urban air pollution monitoring programme in Denmark. The programme has been adjusted to the pollution pattern by two revisions. The present phase (LMP III) was started in 1992. This report presents...... direction, wind speed, tem-perature, relative humidity and global radiation are measured at the roof sites. Additional measurements of CO at street and NO and NO2 at roof sites are performed in campaigns in order to improve the knowledge about the NO, NO2 and O3 problem complex. At the rural site outside...... factor for the formation of NO2 at street level and it remains to be seen to what extent the NO2 concentrations will be reduced at highly polluted places as result of the TWC's. Some of the threshold values for O3 were frequently exceeded. The average O3 concentrations are almost the same at all sites...

  18. Exploring EKC, trends of growth patterns and air pollutants concentration level in Malaysia: A Nemerow Index Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekhet, Hussain A.; >Tahira Yasmin,

    2013-06-01

    The present study examines an Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC) hypothesis by analyzing annual data of air pollutants concentartion and per capita GDP as economic indicator over the (1996-2010) period in Malaysia. Nemerow Index Approach (I) used to generate a measures of air pollution. The results show that ambient air quality indicators supports the EKC hypothesis which stated that pollution levels increase as a country develops, but begin to decrease as rising incomes pass beyond a turning poin. Also, the I result is justifying that most pollutants are showing value less than 1.

  19. Life quality time allocation index-an equilibrium economy consistent version of the current life quality index

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ditlevsen, Ove; Friis-Hansen, Peter

    2005-01-01

    The definition the Life Quality Index for a country as originally suggested by Nathwani, Lind and Pandey is based on the gross domestic product (GDP), the expected life in good health at birth, and the fraction of life time the anonymous citizen of the country is occupied with money making work...... definition this equilibrium economy principle is applied under the assumption that the GDP is directly proportional to the work time fraction. This direct proportionality has been relaxed by the author in two earlier papers with an essential effect on the combination parameter. The present paper presents...... a further development casting the definition into dimensionless quantities that make the index get a pure unit of time and not the somewhat obscure unit as a power product of a money unit and a time unit. To avoid confusion, this new variant of the LQI is called the Life Quality Time Allocation Index (LQTAI...

  20. COMPARISON OF INDOOR AIR QUALITY IN RESTAURANT KITCHENS IN TEHRAN WITH AMBIENT AIR QUALITY

    OpenAIRE

    M. Ghasemkhani, F. Naseri

    2008-01-01

    The indoor air quality of 131 restaurant kitchens in Tehran was investigated from May to September 2006. Gas stoves use in restaurant kitchens is a major source of indoor combustion, product carbon monoxide and nitrogen dioxide. The study focused on one of the busy zones located in the southwest and central part of the city. Measurements were done for indoor and outdoor air pollutants, carbon monoxide and nitrogen dioxide; ambient temperature and relative humidity were also measured. Result i...

  1. Co-benefits of air quality and climate change policies on air quality of the Mediterranean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozzoli, Luca; Mert Gokturk, Ozan; Unal, Alper; Kindap, Tayfun; Janssens-Maenhout, Greet

    2015-04-01

    The Mediterranean basin is one of the regions of the world where significant impacts due to climate changes are predicted to occur in the future. Observations and model simulations are used to provide to the policy makers scientifically based estimates of the necessity to adjust national emission reductions needed to achieve air quality objectives in the context of a changing climate, which is not only driven by GHGs, but also by short lived climate pollutants, such as tropospheric ozone and aerosols. There is an increasing interest and need to design cost-benefit emission reduction strategies, which could improve both regional air quality and global climate change. In this study we used the WRF-CMAQ air quality modelling system to quantify the contribution of anthropogenic emissions to ozone and particulate matter concentrations in Europe and the Eastern Mediterranean and to understand how this contribution could change in different future scenarios. We have investigated four different future scenarios for year 2050 defined during the European Project CIRCE: a "business as usual" scenario (BAU) where no or just actual measures are taken into account; an "air quality" scenario (BAP) which implements the National Emission Ceiling directive 2001/81/EC member states of the European Union (EU-27); a "climate change" scenario (CC) which implements global climate policies decoupled from air pollution policies; and an "integrated air quality and climate policy" scenario (CAP) which explores the co-benefit of global climate and EU-27 air pollution policies. The BAP scenario largely decreases summer ozone concentrations over almost the entire continent, while the CC and CAP scenarios similarly determine lower decreases in summer ozone but extending all over the Mediterranean, the Middle East countries and Russia. Similar patterns are found for winter PM concentrations; BAP scenario improves pollution levels only in the Western EU countries, and the CAP scenario determines

  2. 78 FR 47191 - Air Quality Designations for the 2010 Sulfur Dioxide (SO2) Primary National Ambient Air Quality...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-05

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 81 RIN 2060-AR18 Air Quality Designations for the 2010 Sulfur Dioxide (SO ) Primary National Ambient Air Quality Standard AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This rule establishes air quality designations for certain areas in the United States for...

  3. An air quality model for Central Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jazcilevich, D. Aron; Garcia, R. Agustin; Suarez, Gerardo Ruiz; Magana, R. Victor; Perez, L. Jose Luis [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Centro de Ciencias de la Atmosfera, Mexico City (Mexico); Fuentes-Gea, Vicente [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Div. de Estudios del Posgrado, Mexico City (Mexico)

    1999-07-01

    A computational air quality model for Central Mexico that includes the Basin of the Valley of Mexico, the Valleys of Toluca, Puebla and Cuernavaca already in experimental operation, is presented. The meteorology of the region is obtained combining two non-hydrostatic models: a model designed for synoptic scales called MM5 provides initial and boundary data to a model specially designed for urban environments and scales called MEMO. The transport model used numerical techniques developed by the authors that eliminate numerical diffusion and dispersion. For the photochemical model several ODE's integrators were tested. The emissions model developed uses the latest inventory data gathered in the region. (Author)

  4. Perceived Air Quality in a Displacement Ventilated Room

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brohus, Henrik; Knudsen, Henrik Nellemose; Nielsen, Peter V.;

    In a displacement ventilated room the non-uniform contaminant distribution causes an improved indoor air quality in the occupied zone compared with conventional mixing ventilation. This has been demonstrated in numerous studies by chemical measurements. In this study the air quality...... in a displacement ventilated room was determined directly by asking humans about how they perceived the air quality. A trained sensory panel comprising 12 subjects assessed the perceived air quality immediately after entering a climate chamber. The experiments showed that the perceived air quality...

  5. Comprehensive national database of tree effects on air quality and human health in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirabayashi, Satoshi; Nowak, David J

    2016-08-01

    Trees remove air pollutants through dry deposition processes depending upon forest structure, meteorology, and air quality that vary across space and time. Employing nationally available forest, weather, air pollution and human population data for 2010, computer simulations were performed for deciduous and evergreen trees with varying leaf area index for rural and urban areas in every county in the conterminous United States. The results populated a national database of annual air pollutant removal, concentration changes, and reductions in adverse health incidences and costs for NO2, O3, PM2.5 and SO2. The developed database enabled a first order approximation of air quality and associated human health benefits provided by trees with any forest configurations anywhere in the conterminous United States over time. Comprehensive national database of tree effects on air quality and human health in the United States was developed. PMID:27176764

  6. Comprehensive national database of tree effects on air quality and human health in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirabayashi, Satoshi; Nowak, David J

    2016-08-01

    Trees remove air pollutants through dry deposition processes depending upon forest structure, meteorology, and air quality that vary across space and time. Employing nationally available forest, weather, air pollution and human population data for 2010, computer simulations were performed for deciduous and evergreen trees with varying leaf area index for rural and urban areas in every county in the conterminous United States. The results populated a national database of annual air pollutant removal, concentration changes, and reductions in adverse health incidences and costs for NO2, O3, PM2.5 and SO2. The developed database enabled a first order approximation of air quality and associated human health benefits provided by trees with any forest configurations anywhere in the conterminous United States over time. Comprehensive national database of tree effects on air quality and human health in the United States was developed.

  7. 78 FR 63878 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Virginia; Revised Ambient Air...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-25

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Virginia; Revised Ambient Air Quality Standards for Fine Particulate Matter AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA... Commonwealth of Virginia State Implementation Plan (SIP). The revisions add ambient air quality standards...

  8. 78 FR 23492 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Indiana; Particulate Matter Air...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-19

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Indiana; Particulate Matter Air Quality Standards AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Direct final rule... Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) promulgated by EPA in 2006, and removes the annual coarse...

  9. Measurement of air refractive index fluctuation based on a laser synthetic wavelength interferometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A novel method for measuring air refractive index fluctuation based on a laser synthetic wavelength interferometer is proposed. The change of air refractive index is regarded as an equivalent measured displacement in the measurement arm, which can be realized by tracking a large compensative displacement of the reference mirror in the reference arm of the laser synthetic wavelength interferometer. The merit of the proposed method is that the slight air refractive index fluctuation is magnified to a large displacement on the order of millimeters or micrometers. To verify the feasibility of the proposed method, the correlation experiment between the displacement of the reference mirror and the air refractive index fluctuation and the comparison experiments with Edlén equations both in short time and long time were performed. Experimental results show that the measurement accuracy of the air refractive index fluctuation is better than 3.7 × 10–8. (paper)

  10. Interaction between heterogeneous environmental quality domains (air, water, land, socio-demographic and built environment) on preterm birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental exposures are often measured individually, though many occur in tandem. To address aggregate exposures, a county-level Environmental Quality Index (EQI) representing five environmental domains (air, water, land, built and sociodemographic) was constructed. Recent st...

  11. COMPARISON OF INDOOR AIR QUALITY IN RESTAURANT KITCHENS IN TEHRAN WITH AMBIENT AIR QUALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ghasemkhani, F. Naseri

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The indoor air quality of 131 restaurant kitchens in Tehran was investigated from May to September 2006. Gas stoves use in restaurant kitchens is a major source of indoor combustion, product carbon monoxide and nitrogen dioxide. The study focused on one of the busy zones located in the southwest and central part of the city. Measurements were done for indoor and outdoor air pollutants, carbon monoxide and nitrogen dioxide; ambient temperature and relative humidity were also measured. Result indicated that the mean levels of CO and NO2 in restaurant kitchens were below the recommended limit of 25 and 3ppm, respectively. Correlations between indoor and outdoor air quality were performed consequently. Results of the mean ambient temperature and relative humidity were above the guideline. In this study the mean levels of CO and NO2 gas cooking in restaurant kitchens were found to be lower compared with the similar studies.

  12. Provide good air quality for people and improve their productivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fanger, Povl Ole

    2000-01-01

    Three recent independent studies have documented that the quality of indoor air has a significant and positive influence on the productivity of office workers. A combined analysis of the results of the three studies shows a significant relationship between productivity and perceived indoor air...... quality. The impact on productivity justifies a much higher indoor air quality than the minimum levels prescribed in present standards and guidelines. One way of providing air of high quality for people to breathe, without involving excessive ventilation rates and energy use, is to provide "personalized...... air" to each individual. The application of this concept is discussed....

  13. 40 CFR 52.2131 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Significant deterioration of air quality. 52.2131 Section 52.2131 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a)-(b) (c) All applications and other information required...

  14. 40 CFR 52.144 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.144 Section 52.144 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Act are not met... lands does not include approvable procedures for preventing the significant deterioration of air...

  15. 40 CFR 52.581 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Significant deterioration of air quality. 52.581 Section 52.581 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) All applications and other information required pursuant to § 52.21 of...

  16. 40 CFR 52.530 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Significant deterioration of air quality. 52.530 Section 52.530 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) EPA approves the Florida Prevention of Significant Deterioration program,...

  17. 40 CFR 52.1529 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Significant deterioration of air quality. 52.1529 Section 52.1529 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. New Hampshire's Part Env-A 623, “Requirements for Prevention...

  18. 40 CFR 52.2083 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Significant deterioration of air quality. 52.2083 Section 52.2083 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The Rhode Island plan, as submitted, is approved as meeting...

  19. 40 CFR 52.2346 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2346 Section 52.2346 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The Utah plan, as submitted, is approved as meeting the... construct on Indian Reservations. (b) Regulation for prevention of significant deterioration of air...

  20. 40 CFR 52.2380 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Significant deterioration of air quality. 52.2380 Section 52.2380 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. The program to review the construction and operation of new...

  1. 40 CFR 52.270 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.270 Section 52.270 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) With the exception of the areas listed in paragraph (b) of this section: (1... plan does not include approvable procedures for preventing the significant deterioration of air...

  2. 40 CFR 52.1280 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Significant deterioration of air quality. 52.1280 Section 52.1280 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) All applications and other information required pursuant to §...

  3. 40 CFR 52.181 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Significant deterioration of air quality. 52.181 Section 52.181 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) The plan submitted by the Governor of Arkansas as follows: (1) April 23,...

  4. 40 CFR 52.1029 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Significant deterioration of air quality. 52.1029 Section 52.1029 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. The program to review operation and construction of new and...

  5. 40 CFR 52.995 - Enhanced ambient air quality monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Enhanced ambient air quality monitoring. 52.995 Section 52.995 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... air quality monitoring. (a) The Governor of the State of Louisiana submitted the...

  6. Water Quality Index for Assessment of Rudrasagar Lake Ecosystem, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joyanta pal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Water quality of lakes, rivers and reservoirs in developing countries like India is being degraded because of the contaminated inflows and surrounding influence. There is a serious need for appropriate water quality monitoring for future planning and management of Lake and other type of water resources. Quality of water in Rudrasagar Lake, Tripura, India has been investigated in this paper. Water Quality Index (WQI was applied in Rudrasagar Lake India using water quality parameters like pH, Turbidity, Conductivity, Hardness, Alkalinity, Dissolved Oxygen, Biochemical Oxygen Demand and Nitrate. Based on the importance of the parameter for aquatic life the relative weight is assigned to each water quality parameter ranged from 1 to 4. Tests were performed on site using electronic measuring device as well as on Laboratory with samples of water collected from different locations of Rudrasagar Lake. It shows that water quality of Rudrasagar Lake falls within the ‗good water‘ category but marginally. Continuous monitoring of Rudrasagar lake is suggested for proper management.

  7. 75 FR 40726 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Sacramento Metropolitan Air Quality...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-14

    ... Quality Management District and South Coast Air Quality Management District AGENCY: Environmental... revisions to the Sacramento Metropolitan Air Quality Management District (SMAQMD) and South Coast Air... Reference. (A) South Coast Air Quality Management District. ] (1) Rule 1144, ``Vanishing Oils and...

  8. 75 FR 40762 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Sacramento Metropolitan Air Quality...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-14

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Sacramento Metropolitan Air Quality Management District and South Coast Air Quality Management District AGENCY: Environmental... Sacramento Metropolitan Air Quality Management District (SMAQMD) and South Coast Air Quality...

  9. K-type geomagnetic index nowcast with data quality control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    René Warnant

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available

    A nowcast system for operational estimation of a proxy K-type geomagnetic index is presented. The system is based on a fully automated computer procedure for real-time digital magnetogram data acquisition that includes screening of the dataset and removal of the outliers, estimation of the solar regular variation (SR of the geomagnetic field, calculation of the index, and issuing of an alert if storm-level activity is indicated. This is a time-controlled (rather than event-driven system that delivers the regular output of: the index value, the estimated quality flag, and eventually, an alert. The novel features provided are first, the strict control of the data input and processing, and second, the increased frequency of production of the index (every 1 h. Such quality control and increased time resolution have been found to be of crucial importance for various applications, e.g. ionospheric monitoring, that are of particular interest to us and to users of our service. The nowcast system operability, accuracy and precision have been tested with instantaneous measurements from recent years. A statistical comparison between the nowcast and the definitive index values shows that the average root-mean-square error is smaller than 1 KU. The system is now operational at the site of the Geophysical Centre of the Royal Meteorological Institute in Dourbes (50.1ºN, 4.6ºE, and it is being used for alerting users when geomagnetic storms take place.

  10. Mexico City air quality: Progress of an international collaborative project to define air quality management options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mexico City, faces a severe air pollution problem due to a combination of circumstances. The city is in a high mountain basin at a subtropical latitude. The basin setting inhibits dispersion of pollution and contributes to frequent wintertime thermal inversions which further trap pollutants near the surface. The elevation and latitude combine to provide plentiful sunshine which, in comparison to more northern latitudes, is enhanced in the UV radiation which drives atmospheric photochemistry to produce secondary pollutants such as ozone. The Area Metropolitana de la Ciudad de Mexico AMCW is defined to include the 16 delegations of the Federal District (D.F.) and 17 highly urbanized municipalities in the State of Mexico which border the D.F. The 1990 census (XI Censo General de Poblacion y Vivienda de 1990) records that slightly over 15 million people live in the AMCM. There are numerous other nearby communities which are in the airshed region of Mexico City, but which are not included in the definition and population of the AMCM. The Mexico City Air Quality Research Initiative is one project that is examining the complex relationship between air pollution, economic growth, societal values, and air quality management policies. The project utilizes a systems approach including computer modeling, comprehensive measurement studies of Mexico City's air pollutants, environmental chemical reaction studies and socioeconomic analysis. Los Alamos National Laboratory (USA) and the Mexican Petroleum Institute are the designated lead institutions

  11. 40 CFR 52.14 - State ambient air quality standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false State ambient air quality standards. 52... quality standards. Any ambient air quality standard submitted with a plan which is less stringent than a national standard is not considered part of the plan....

  12. Dynamic evaluation of air quality models over European regions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thunis, P.; Pisoni, E.; Degraeuwe, B.; Kranenburg, R.; Schaap, M.; Clappier, A.

    2015-01-01

    Chemistry-transport models are increasingly used in Europe for estimating air quality or forecasting changes in pollution levels. But with this increased use of modeling arises the need of harmonizing the methodologies to determine the quality of air quality model applications. This is complex for p

  13. Patient's experiences with quality of hospital care: the Dutch Consumer Quality Index Cataract Questionnaire.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stubbe, J.H.; Brouwer, W.; Delnoij, D.M.J.

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Patients' feedback is of great importance in health care policy decisions. The Consumer Quality Index Cataract Questionnaire (CQI Cataract) was used to measure patients' experiences with quality of care after a cataract operation. This study aims to evaluate the reliability and the dimen

  14. A Breath of Fresh Air: Addressing Indoor Air Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palliser, Janna

    2011-01-01

    Indoor air pollution refers to "chemical, biological, and physical contamination of indoor air," which may result in adverse health effects (OECD 2003). The causes, sources, and types of indoor air pollutants will be addressed in this article, as well as health effects and how to reduce exposure. Learning more about potential pollutants in home…

  15. A practical quality index based on the octahedral manipulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The octahedral manipulator is a 3-3 device that is fully in parallel. It has a linear actuator on each of its six legs. The legs connect an equilateral platform triangle to a similar base triangle in a zigzag pattern between vertices. The proposed quality index takes a maximum value of 1 at a central symmetrical configuration that is shown to correspond to the maximum value of the determinant of the 6 x 6 Jacobian matrix of the manipulator. This matrix is none other than that of the normalized line coordinates of the six leg-lines; for its determinant to be a maximum, the platform triangle is found to be half of the size of the base triangle, and the perpendicular distance between platform and base is equal to the side of the platform triangle. When the manipulator is actuated so that the octahedron departs from this central configuration, the determinant always diminishes, and, as is well known, it becomes zero when a special configuration is reached (the platform then gaining one or more uncontrollable freedoms). The quality index λ, 0 ≤ λ ≤ 1, is a constructive measure of acceptable design proportions. The double-spherical joints (there are six) are the source of the critical practical difficulties. Kinematic substitutions can circumvent this problem, but often there is no reasonable alternative to accepting a reduction of maximum quality index through separation by fairly short distances of some or all of the double-ball joints. Too great a separation easily leads too far toward generality; any fully-in-parallel manipulator of more general proportions should be tested for quality against the octahedral form simply because no different form can be superior to a well-designed octahedron from the points of view of structural soundness and ability to apply both forces and controlled displacements to the end-effector platform

  16. Indoor air quality analysis based on Hadoop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The air of the office environment is our research object. The data of temperature, humidity, concentrations of carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide and ammonia are collected peer one to eight seconds by the sensor monitoring system. And all the data are stored in the Hbase database of Hadoop platform. With the help of HBase feature of column-oriented store and versioned (automatically add the time column), the time-series data sets are bulit based on the primary key Row-key and timestamp. The parallel computing programming model MapReduce is used to process millions of data collected by sensors. By analysing the changing trend of parameters' value at different time of the same day and at the same time of various dates, the impact of human factor and other factors on the room microenvironment is achieved according to the liquidity of the office staff. Moreover, the effective way to improve indoor air quality is proposed in the end of this paper

  17. Indoor air quality analysis based on Hadoop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuo, Wang; Yunhua, Sun; Song, Tian; Liang, Yu; Weihong, Cui

    2014-03-01

    The air of the office environment is our research object. The data of temperature, humidity, concentrations of carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide and ammonia are collected peer one to eight seconds by the sensor monitoring system. And all the data are stored in the Hbase database of Hadoop platform. With the help of HBase feature of column-oriented store and versioned (automatically add the time column), the time-series data sets are bulit based on the primary key Row-key and timestamp. The parallel computing programming model MapReduce is used to process millions of data collected by sensors. By analysing the changing trend of parameters' value at different time of the same day and at the same time of various dates, the impact of human factor and other factors on the room microenvironment is achieved according to the liquidity of the office staff. Moreover, the effective way to improve indoor air quality is proposed in the end of this paper.

  18. Generating scenarios to predict air quality impact in public health

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, J.M.; Coelho, L.M.R.; Gouveia, C.; Cerdeira, R. [Escola Superior de Tecnologia de Setubal (EST-IPS), Setubal (Portugal); Ferreira, T.; Baptista, M.N. [Hospital Na. Sa. do Rosario, Servico de Pediatria, Barreiro (Portugal)

    2004-07-01

    This study intends to associate air quality with public health by generating air quality scenarios, under different future perspectives in Barreiro. This city is located in middle south of Portugal nearby Lisbon and it has a large resident population, an important industrial area and intense traffic. In this study ADMS-urban was used to simulate the possible scenarios of future air quality in this city, taking into consideration the probable city development and future activities. Special attention was given to the future evolutions of traffic, industrial activities, demographical and geographical expansion. The new EU directives about air quality and the CAFE program were also considered. To correlate the impact of the future air quality of the city and public health, a children population sample was used. This study team is also composed by paediatric doctors from Hospital N{sup a}. S{sup a}. do Rosario that contribute with public health information and helped to identify air quality related diseases. (orig.)

  19. Evaluating NOx emission inventories for regulatory air quality modeling using satellite and air quality model data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemball-Cook, Susan; Yarwood, Greg; Johnson, Jeremiah; Dornblaser, Bright; Estes, Mark

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the accuracy of NOx emissions in the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality's (TCEQ) State Implementation Plan (SIP) modeling inventories of the southeastern U.S. We used retrieved satellite tropospheric NO2 columns from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) together with NO2 columns from the Comprehensive Air Quality Model with Extensions (CAMx) to make top-down NOx emissions estimates using the mass balance method. Two different top-down NOx emissions estimates were developed using the KNMI DOMINO v2.0 and NASA SP2 retrievals of OMI NO2 columns. Differences in the top-down NOx emissions estimates made with these two operational products derived from the same OMI radiance data were sufficiently large that they could not be used to constrain the TCEQ NOx emissions in the southeast. The fact that the two available operational NO2 column retrievals give such different top-down NOx emissions results is important because these retrievals are increasingly being used to diagnose air quality problems and to inform efforts to solve them. These results reflect the fact that NO2 column retrievals are a blend of measurements and modeled data and should be used with caution in analyses that will inform policy development. This study illustrates both benefits and challenges of using satellite NO2 data for air quality management applications. Comparison with OMI NO2 columns pointed the way toward improvements in the CAMx simulation of the upper troposphere, but further refinement of both regional air quality models and the NO2 column retrievals is needed before the mass balance and other emission inversion methods can be used to successfully constrain NOx emission inventories used in U.S. regulatory modeling.

  20. WATER QUALITY INDEX AS AN TOOL FOR RIVER ASSESSMENT IN AGRICULTURAL AREAS IN THE PAMPEAN PLAINS OF ARGENTINA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Moscuzza

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The contributions of nutrients and xenobiotics by anthropogenic activities developed in riverside deteriorate water quality. In this context, the impact of different agroindustry effluents on the water quality of Salado River in Buenos Aires Province (Argentina was analyzed applying water quality indexes (WQI. Water quality index is an efficient a simple monitoring tool to instrument corrective and remediation policies. Winter and summer samplings were performed. A minimal water quality index (WQImin was calculated using only two parameters which can be easy determined in situ. The use of WQImin may be a useful methodology for river management. Meat industry appears as the most pollutant source. Since it is considered as point pollution source, effluents should be treated previous to its disposal with the available technologies.

  1. Air Quality in Mexico City: Policies Implemented for its Improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paramo, V.

    2007-12-01

    Ozone and suspended particles (PM) are two pollutants in the atmosphere of Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) that still exceed the recommended Mexican health standards. The other criteria pollutants very seldom exceed their corresponding standards. In 2006, the maximum ozone concentrations were above the health standard (0.11 ppm in 1 hour) during 59 percent of the days for an average of 2.2 hours and 130 points of the Air Quality Index (Índice Metropolitano de la Calidad del Aire - IMECA). In contrast, in 1991, 98 percent of the days exceeded the ozone health standard for an average of 6.6 hours and 200 IMECA points. With regards to PM10, in 2006, 80 percent of the sampled concentrations were below the health standard of 120 µg/m3 in 24 hours. However, the annual health standard of 50 µg/m3 is still exceeded. The air quality management in the MCMA is a difficult task due to several adverse factors. The main one is the large population that increased from nearly 15 million in 1992 to more than 18 million at present. As a result, the urban area grows in the adjoined municipalities of the State of Mexico. The vehicular fleet increases also to almost 4 million and the number of industrial facilities is at present 50,000. Consequently, the fuel consumption is very high. The daily energy consumption is estimated to be 44 million liters of equivalent of gasoline. Despite the fact that the air quality has improved in recent years, the related health standards are still exceeded and therefore it is necessary to continue applying the most cost-effective actions to improve the environment quality. Some actions that have contributed most to the reduction of pollutant emissions are the following: Continuous update of the inspection and maintenance program of the vehicular fleet; substitution of the catalytic converters at the end of their useful life; self-regulation of the diesel fleet; use of alternative fuels; update the No-Driving-Day program; establishment of more

  2. Air quality estimation by computational intelligence methodologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ćirić Ivan T.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The subject of this study is to compare different computational intelligence methodologies based on artificial neural networks used for forecasting an air quality parameter - the emission of CO2, in the city of Niš. Firstly, inputs of the CO2 emission estimator are analyzed and their measurement is explained. It is known that the traffic is the single largest emitter of CO2 in Europe. Therefore, a proper treatment of this component of pollution is very important for precise estimation of emission levels. With this in mind, measurements of traffic frequency and CO2 concentration were carried out at critical intersections in the city, as well as the monitoring of a vehicle direction at the crossroad. Finally, based on experimental data, different soft computing estimators were developed, such as feed forward neural network, recurrent neural network, and hybrid neuro-fuzzy estimator of CO2 emission levels. Test data for some characteristic cases presented at the end of the paper shows good agreement of developed estimator outputs with experimental data. Presented results are a true indicator of the implemented method usability. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III42008-2/2011: Evaluation of Energy Performances and br. TR35016/2011: Indoor Environment Quality of Educational Buildings in Serbia with Impact to Health and Research of MHD Flows around the Bodies, in the Tip Clearances and Channels and Application in the MHD Pumps Development

  3. Groundwater Quality Assessment Based on Improved Water Quality Index in Pengyang County, Ningxia, Northwest China

    OpenAIRE

    Li Pei-Yue; Qian Hui; Wu Jian-Hua

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this work is to assess the groundwater quality in Pengyang County based on an improved water quality index. An information entropy method was introduced to assign weight to each parameter. For calculating WQI and assess the groundwater quality, total 74 groundwater samples were collected and all these samples subjected to comprehensive physicochemical analysis. Each of the groundwater samples was analyzed for 26 parameters and for computing WQI 14 parameters were chosen including c...

  4. Air quality impact of sponge iron industries in central India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Padma S; Kumar, A; Ansari, M F; Pipalatkar, P; Chakrabarti, T

    2009-02-01

    Emission load of particulate matter from 42 sponge iron industrial units located in clusters in the Indian State of Chhattisgarh was estimated to be 1,361 TPD. US EPA air pollution dispersion model ISCST-3 applied to predict the impact of the sponge iron industry emissions on ambient air quality showed contribution up to 546 microg/m(3) to the surrounding air basin causing the air quality exceeding the national ambient air quality standards. Electrostatic precipitator (ESP) has been suggested to all the above industrial units that would bring down the contribution to as low as 27 microg/m(3). PMID:18784898

  5. Canada-wide standards and innovative transboundary air quality initiatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Jane

    2008-01-01

    Canada's approach to air quality management is one that has brought with it opportunities for the development of unique approaches to risk management. Even with Canada's relatively low levels of pollution, science has demonstrated clearly that air quality and ecosystem improvements are worthwhile. To achieve change and address air quality in Canada, Canadian governments work together since, under the constitution, they share responsibility for the environment. At the same time, because air pollution knows no boundaries, working with the governments of other nations is essential to get results. International cooperation at all levels provides opportunities with potential for real change. Cooperation within transboundary airsheds is proving a fruitful source of innovative opportunities to reduce cross-border barriers to air quality improvements. In relation to the NERAM Colloquium objective to establish principles for air quality management based on the identification of international best practice in air quality policy development and implementation, Canada has developed, both at home and with the United States, interesting air management strategies and initiatives from which certain lessons may be taken that could be useful in other countries with similar situations. In particular, the Canada-wide strategies for smog and acid rain were developed by Canadian governments, strategies that improve and protect air quality at home, while Canada-U.S. transboundary airshed projects provide examples of international initiatives to improve air quality. PMID:18080897

  6. Comparison Between Water Quality Index (WQI) and Biological Water Quality Index (BWQI) for Water Quality Assessment: Case Study of Melana River, Johor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study of water quality in Melana River, Johor was carried out in three consecutive months (March - May 2012). This study aims to determine the comparative results through biological monitoring as well as conventional method (physical and chemical analysis). Assessment is carried out through collection and identification of the biological indicator which comprises of macro benthos based on Biological Water Quality Index (BWQI). Comparison was done based on two methods namely invertebrate analysis and also laboratory analysis. For invertebrate analysis, Melana River consist of three types of Family groups namely Nymphs, Larvae and Molluscs. The result for Water Quality Index (WQI) and also Biological Water Quality Index (BWQI) analysis showed that the level of Melana River is polluted and classified in Class III. This study shows that even though different methods were used, the similar results were obtained for both rivers and can be applied to any river to identify their level of cleanliness. (author)

  7. Air quality in Spain 1990. Calidad del aire en Espaa 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-01-01

    This monograph studies air quality in Spain. It is articulated into 7 chapters: - Air pollution in the world - Air pollution in regions (regional areas) - Air pollution in villages (local areas) - Local networks in Spain - Meteorological characteristics in 1990 - Events - Atmospheric chemistry.

  8. Assessment of the Air Quality of Isfahan City, Iran, Using Selected Air Quality Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borhan Mansouri

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Today, air pollution is one of the major problems in large cities including Isfahan. Methods: The objective of this study was to investigate the variations of ozone (O3, carbon monoxide (CO, nitric oxide (NO, nitrogen dioxide (NO2, nitrogen oxides (NOx, sulphur dioxide (SO2, and particulate matter (PM10 concentrations in different months at three stations and also to explore the correlations between pollutants. Monthly averages of air pollutant concentrations recorded in three pollution monitoring stations (Bozorgmehr, Azadi, and Laleh were obtained in 2008 and 2009. Results: There were significant monthly variations in the concentrations of air quality parameters. Results showed that there was a correlation between ozone and particle matter (p<0.05, and between nitric oxide and nitrogen oxides (p<0.01. The statistical analysis indicated that there were significant differences in the O3, NO, NOx and PM10 concentrations. Conclusion: The air quality monitoring data collected in city center of Isfahan showed seasonal variations for O3, CO, NO, NO2, NOx, SO2, and PM10.

  9. Air quality monitoring system using lichens as bioindicators in Central Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrabou, Cecilia; Filippini, Edith; Soria, Juan Pablo; Schelotto, Gabriel; Rodriguez, Juan Manuel

    2011-11-01

    Air quality studies with bioindicators have not been well developed in South America. In the city of Córdoba, there are not permanent air pollutant measurements by equipment. In order to develop an air quality biomonitoring system using lichens, we applied a systematic sampling in the city of Córdoba, Argentina. A total of 341 plots were sampled in the area of the city which is a square of 24 × 24 km. In each sample plot we selected three phorophytes and estimated the frequency and cover of lichen species growing at 1.5 m on trunks. We also calculated the Index of Atmospheric Purity (IAP) using lichen frequencies. Maps with number of lichen species, cover values, and IAP were performed. The lichen community was described with nine species where Physcia undulata and Physcia endochryscea were the most frequent. Moreover, these two species were dominant in the community with the highest cover index. The central area of the city is considered a lichen desert with poor air quality. The southeast and northwest areas of the city showed the highest IAP values and number of species. In general, the city shows fair air quality and few areas with good and very good air quality. PMID:21336488

  10. Impact of individually controlled facially applied air movement on perceived air quality at high humidity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skwarczynski, M.A. [Faculty of Environmental Engineering, Institute of Environmental Protection Engineering, Department of Indoor Environment Engineering, Lublin University of Technology, Lublin (Poland); International Centre for Indoor Environment and Energy, Department of Civil Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, Copenhagen (Denmark); Melikov, A.K.; Lyubenova, V. [International Centre for Indoor Environment and Energy, Department of Civil Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, Copenhagen (Denmark); Kaczmarczyk, J. [Faculty of Energy and Environmental Engineering, Department of Heating, Ventilation and Dust Removal Technology, Silesian University of Technology, Gliwice (Poland)

    2010-10-15

    The effect of facially applied air movement on perceived air quality (PAQ) at high humidity was studied. Thirty subjects (21 males and 9 females) participated in three, 3-h experiments performed in a climate chamber. The experimental conditions covered three combinations of relative humidity and local air velocity under a constant air temperature of 26 C, namely: 70% relative humidity without air movement, 30% relative humidity without air movement and 70% relative humidity with air movement under isothermal conditions. Personalized ventilation was used to supply room air from the front toward the upper part of the body (upper chest, head). The subjects could control the flow rate (velocity) of the supplied air in the vicinity of their bodies. The results indicate an airflow with elevated velocity applied to the face significantly improves the acceptability of the air quality at the room air temperature of 26 C and relative humidity of 70%. (author)

  11. An amalgamation of 3D city models in urban air quality modelling for improving visual impact analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ujang, U.; Anton, F.; Ariffin, A.;

    2015-01-01

    Geographical Information Systems (GISs) can be seen as a common tool to map and visualize the air quality index based on geographical locations. However, in urban areas, the area resolution for air quality models is less than 2 kilometres.Since the main emissions agent in urban areas...... as physical data input. The Level of Details (LoD) in 3D city models (i.e. LoD1 and LoD2) ascertains the potentials of implementing air quality modelling for urban areas. Therefore, this research is focused towards investigating the integration of 3D city models in air quality modelling for urban areas....... The results presented show the simplicity of using 3D city models as a physical data input in air quality modelling and the 3D air quality will improve insight for visual impact analysis (i.e. analysing the immersion of are circulation zone). The results are advantageous for city planners, architects...

  12. Biofuels, vehicle emissions, and urban air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallington, Timothy J; Anderson, James E; Kurtz, Eric M; Tennison, Paul J

    2016-07-18

    Increased biofuel content in automotive fuels impacts vehicle tailpipe emissions via two mechanisms: fuel chemistry and engine calibration. Fuel chemistry effects are generally well recognized, while engine calibration effects are not. It is important that investigations of the impact of biofuels on vehicle emissions consider the impact of engine calibration effects and are conducted using vehicles designed to operate using such fuels. We report the results of emission measurements from a Ford F-350 fueled with either fossil diesel or a biodiesel surrogate (butyl nonanoate) and demonstrate the critical influence of engine calibration on NOx emissions. Using the production calibration the emissions of NOx were higher with the biodiesel fuel. Using an adjusted calibration (maintaining equivalent exhaust oxygen concentration to that of the fossil diesel at the same conditions by adjusting injected fuel quantities) the emissions of NOx were unchanged, or lower, with biodiesel fuel. For ethanol, a review of the literature data addressing the impact of ethanol blend levels (E0-E85) on emissions from gasoline light-duty vehicles in the U.S. is presented. The available data suggest that emissions of NOx, non-methane hydrocarbons, particulate matter (PM), and mobile source air toxics (compounds known, or suspected, to cause serious health impacts) from modern gasoline and diesel vehicles are not adversely affected by increased biofuel content over the range for which the vehicles are designed to operate. Future increases in biofuel content when accomplished in concert with changes in engine design and calibration for new vehicles should not result in problematic increases in emissions impacting urban air quality and may in fact facilitate future required emissions reductions. A systems perspective (fuel and vehicle) is needed to fully understand, and optimize, the benefits of biofuels when blended into gasoline and diesel. PMID:27112132

  13. Air pollution assessment in the Slovak Republic in 2005. Measurement stations of air quality monitoring network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this Appendix to the report 'Air pollution assessment in the Slovak Republic in 2005' the main characteristics of measurement stations of air quality monitoring network of the Slovak Republic are presented

  14. Air-Microfluidics: Creating Small, Low-cost, Portable Air Quality Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Air-microfluidics shows great promise in dramatically reducing the size, cost, and power requirements of future air quality sensors without compromising their accuracy. Microfabrication provides a suite of relatively new tools for the development of micro electro mechanical syste...

  15. Estimating the Impact of Urbanization on Air Quality in China Using Spatial Regression Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuanglin Fang

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Urban air pollution is one of the most visible environmental problems to have accompanied China’s rapid urbanization. Based on emission inventory data from 2014, gathered from 289 cities, we used Global and Local Moran’s I to measure the spatial autorrelation of Air Quality Index (AQI values at the city level, and employed Ordinary Least Squares (OLS, Spatial Lag Model (SAR, and Geographically Weighted Regression (GWR to quantitatively estimate the comprehensive impact and spatial variations of China’s urbanization process on air quality. The results show that a significant spatial dependence and heterogeneity existed in AQI values. Regression models revealed urbanization has played an important negative role in determining air quality in Chinese cities. The population, urbanization rate, automobile density, and the proportion of secondary industry were all found to have had a significant influence over air quality. Per capita Gross Domestic Product (GDP and the scale of urban land use, however, failed the significance test at 10% level. The GWR model performed better than global models and the results of GWR modeling show that the relationship between urbanization and air quality was not constant in space. Further, the local parameter estimates suggest significant spatial variation in the impacts of various urbanization factors on air quality.

  16. Human Use Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Human land uses may have major impacts on ecosystems, affecting biodiversity, habitat, air and water quality. The human use index (also known as U-index) is the...

  17. Human Use Index (Future)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Human land uses may have major impacts on ecosystems, affecting biodiversity, habitat, air and water quality. The human use index (also known as U-index) is the...

  18. Pasture quality and cheese traceability index of Ragusano PDO cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venera Copani

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In the Iblei plateau (Sicily, Southern Italy the native dairy cattle breed Modicana during the spring season grazes exclusively on natural pastures for the production of the Ragusano protected denomination of origin cheese. Along the grazing season, herbage undergoes to changes on protein, fibre and moisture content, affecting quality parameters such as plant carotenoids concentration, involved in the colour and nutritional characteristics of dairy products and potential biomarkers for authenticating fed green pasture-based diets. The aim of this work was to assess whether the cheese traceability index, based on the carotenoids spectra data elaboration, could be related to seasonal variations of floral composition and pasture quality. Four herbage and cheese samples were collected every two weeks in two representative farms of this area, from March to May 2013. Pasture characteristics as pastoral vegetation composition and pastoral value were analysed using the methodology developed for pastoral resources studies. Traceability index showed a significant positive correlation with pasture moisture and crude protein content (r=0.729* and 0.853**, respectively, while it was negatively correlated with fibre content (r=–0.719*.

  19. Physico-chemical quality parameters and overall quality index of apple during storage

    OpenAIRE

    Jha, Shyam Narayan; Rai, D. R.; Shrama, Rajiv

    2011-01-01

    Physico-chemical quality parameters of apple were measured during storage using standard techniques and fitted to model expressions for developing an overall quality index (Iq). Predicted Iq was validated with the trends of sensory scores. Total Soluble Solids (TSS) and acidity varied from 13.2 to 12.3 ºBrix and 0.161 to 0.079%, respectively whereas, Hunter colour values L, a, b and yellowness index were 48.7–56.1, 11.0–19.4, 18.8–20.2 and 84.6–98.2, respectively. The gloss at 45 and 60º inci...

  20. Improving Air Quality Forecasts with AURA Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newchurch, M. J.; Biazer, A.; Khan, M.; Koshak, W. J.; Nair, U.; Fuller, K.; Wang, L.; Parker, Y.; Williams, R.; Liu, X.

    2008-01-01

    Past studies have identified model initial and boundary conditions as sources of reducible errors in air-quality simulations. In particular, improving the initial condition improves the accuracy of short-term forecasts as it allows for the impact of local emissions to be realized by the model and improving boundary conditions improves long range transport through the model domain, especially in recirculating anticyclones. During the August 2006 period, we use AURA/OMI ozone measurements along with MODIS and CALIPSO aerosol observations to improve the initial and boundary conditions of ozone and Particulate Matter. Assessment of the model by comparison of the control run and satellite assimilation run to the IONS06 network of ozonesonde observations, which comprise the densest ozone sounding campaign ever conducted in North America, to AURA/TES ozone profile measurements, and to the EPA ground network of ozone and PM measurements will show significant improvement in the CMAQ calculations that use AURA initial and boundary conditions. Further analyses of lightning occurrences from ground and satellite observations and AURA/OMI NO2 column abundances will identify the lightning NOx signal evident in OMI measurements and suggest pathways for incorporating the lightning and NO2 data into the CMAQ simulations.

  1. Air quality standards must protect public health

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norman Edelman [American Lung Association (ALA) (United States)

    2006-06-15

    Leading medical and public health organizations are deeply concerned about the proposed revisions to the National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) that the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) announced in December 2005. Led by the American Lung Association (ALA), these groups are fighting to force EPA to finalize stricter standards for fine and coarse particles when the final decision is announced in September 2006. The ALA disagrees strongly with the proposal to exempt coarse particles from agriculture and mining sources, and to exclude communities with populations fewer than 100,000 from protection and monitoring requirements. ALA urges EPA to set the following health-based NAAQS for PM: Annual average PM2.5 standard of 12 {mu}mg/m{sup 3}; 24 hour average PM2.5 standard of 25 {mu}mg.m{sup 3} (99th percentile); 24-hour average PM10-2.5 standard of 25-30 {mu}g/m{sup 3} (99th percentile), applied equally to all areas of the country and to all types of particles. 72 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  2. The Danish Air Quality Monitoring Programme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kemp, K.; Palmgren, F.

    and plants. The new EU Directives introduce revised standards for NO2, SO2, particles (PM10) and Pb. They are implemented through the first "daughter" Directive to the Air Quality Framework Directive. It was adopted by the EU council in April 1999. The new limit values shall be in force from January 2001 (18....... Further EU standards are prepared for O3, Benzene and the heavy metals Ni, As and Cd. The measured NO2 concentrations were about a factor of two lower than the limit value, while they are close to the values in the new EU Directive. The trend for NO2 indicates the latest years a weak decrease...... the measured concentrations in Denmark. The measured concentrations for Ni, As and Cd are well below the expected new limit values. The traffic is no longer then main source for Pb, but other heavy metals as Cr and Cu, are mainly traffic related in urban areas. The main source is probably dust from brake pads...

  3. 78 FR 58459 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Antelope Valley Air Quality Management...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-24

    ... Management District, Santa Barbara County Air Pollution Control District, South Coast Air Quality Management... Management District (AVAQMD), Santa Barbara County Air Pollution Control District (SBCAPCD), South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD) and Ventura County Air Pollution Control District (VCAPCD)...

  4. The Assessment of Mangrove Sediment Quality in Mengkabong Lagoon: An Index Analysis Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Praveena, Sarva M.; Radojevic, Miroslav; Abdullah, Mohd H.

    2007-01-01

    The objectives of this study are to use different types of indexes to assess the current pollution status in Mengkabong lagoon and select the best index to describe the Mengkabong sediment quality. The indexes used in this study were Enrichment Factor (EF), Geo-accumulation Index (Igeo), Pollution Load Index (PLI) and Marine Sediment Pollution…

  5. Impact of individually controlled facially applied air movement on perceived air quality at high humidity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skwarczynski, Mariusz; Melikov, Arsen Krikor; Kaczmarczyk, J.;

    2010-01-01

    The effect of facially applied air movement on perceived air quality (PAQ) at high humidity was studied. Thirty subjects (21 males and 9 females) participated in three, 3-h experiments performed in a climate chamber. The experimental conditions covered three combinations of relative humidity...... and local air velocity under a constant air temperature of 26 degrees C, namely: 70% relative humidity without air movement, 30% relative humidity without air movement and 70% relative humidity with air movement under isothermal conditions. Personalized ventilation was used to supply room air from the front...... toward the upper part of the body (upper chest, head). The subjects could control the flow rate (velocity) of the supplied air in the vicinity of their bodies. The results indicate an airflow with elevated velocity applied to the face significantly improves the acceptability of the air quality...

  6. A retrospective look at air quality management in Los Angeles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The history of air quality management in Los Angeles is discussed. Successful as well as unsuccessful programs and control measures are described. Specific air pollutants discussed are sulfur dioxide, lead, carbon monoxide, particulate matter, nitrogen oxides, ozone, and toxic air contaminants

  7. UNDERSTANDING THE RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN AIR QUALITY AND HUMAN HEALTH

    Science.gov (United States)

    This issue of EM presents a series of articles that focus on air quality and human health--what we know so far and the challenges that remain. The first article provides an overview of the problem at hand and approaches to properly address air quality and human health issues. Fo...

  8. Improving Indoor Air Quality in St. Cloud Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forer, Mike; Haus, El

    2000-01-01

    Describes how the St. Cloud Area School District (Minnesota), using Tools for Schools provided by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, managed the improvement of their school building indoor air quality (IAQ). The district goals of the IAQ Management Committee and the policy elements used to maintain high classroom air quality are…

  9. AIR QUALITY CRITERIA FOR CARBON MONOXIDE (2000) Final Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) promulgates national ambient air quality standards (NAAQS) on the basis of scientific information contained in integrated science assessments (ISAs), formerly known as air quality criteria documents (AQCDs). The ISA is a concise rev...

  10. Air Quality Criteria for Carbon Monoxide 1991 (Final Report)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) promulgates national ambient air quality standards (NAAQS) on the basis of scientific information contained in integrated science assessments (ISAs), formerly known as air quality criteria documents (AQCDs). The ISA is a concise rev...

  11. Outdoor Air Quality Level Inference via Surveillance Cameras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Air pollution is a universal problem confronted by many developing countries. Because there are very few air quality monitoring stations in cities, it is difficult for people to know the exact air quality level anytime and anywhere. Fortunately, large amount of surveillance cameras have been deployed in the cities and can capture image densely and conveniently in the cities. In this case, this provides the possibility to utilize surveillance cameras as sensors to obtain data and predict the air quality level. To this end, we present a novel air quality level inference approach based on outdoor images. Firstly, we explore several features extracted from images as the robust representation for air quality prediction. Then, to effectively fuse these heterogeneous and complementary features, we adopt multikernel learning to learn an adaptive classifier for air quality level inference. In addition, to facilitate the research, we construct an Outdoor Air Quality Image Set (OAQIS dataset, which contains high quality registered and calibrated images with rich labels, that is, concentration of particles mass (PM, weather, temperature, humidity, and wind. Extensive experiments on the OAQIS dataset demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

  12. Impact of inherent meteorology uncertainty on air quality model predictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    It is well established that there are a number of different classifications and sources of uncertainties in environmental modeling systems. Air quality models rely on two key inputs, namely, meteorology and emissions. When using air quality models for decision making, it is impor...

  13. Strategy for good perceived air quality in sustainable buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Henrik N; Wargocki, Pawel

    2010-01-01

    Source control has been shown to be an effective strategy for improving air quality. The objective of the present study was to investigate and compare the potential for achieving an improved perceived indoor air quality by selecting less-polluting building materials or by increasing the ventilati...

  14. School Policies and Practices that Improve Indoor Air Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Sherry Everett; Smith, Alisa M.; Wheeler, Lani S.; McManus, Tim

    2010-01-01

    Background: To determine whether schools with a formal indoor air quality management program were more likely than schools without a formal program to have policies and practices that promote superior indoor air quality. Methods: This study analyzed school-level data from the 2006 School Health Policies and Programs Study, a national study of…

  15. Auditing and assessing nutrient management for air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The potential adverse effects of concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFO) on the environment are a growing concern. Until recently, the effects of CAFO on air quality have received little attention. The air quality concerns of CAFO vary with the location, type of operation, and other factors....

  16. Problems and perspectives of border-zone air quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tolivia, E.

    1982-10-01

    The Saneamiento Atmosferico of Mexico with the United States Environmental Protection Agency has formulated an agreement elaborating programs to address the problems of border-zone air quality according to the specific problems of particular trans-national areas. Industries and power plants affect air quality on both sides of the border. In areas especially suffering from vehicle emissions, the agreement provides for the monitoring of air quality through an air-meter system. Vehicle maintenance and inspection programs are now being put into effect.

  17. Soil Quality Index Determination Models for Restinga Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonilha, R. M.; Casagrande, J. C.; Soares, R. M.

    2012-04-01

    The Restinga Forest is a set of plant communities in mosaic, determined by the characteristics of their substrates as a result of depositional processes and ages. In this complex mosaic are the physiognomies of restinga forests of high-stage regeneration (high restinga) and middle stage of regeneration (low restinga), each with its plant characteristics that differentiate them. Located on the coastal plains of the Brazilian coast, suffering internal influences both the continental slopes, as well as from the sea. Its soils come from the Quaternary and are subject to constant deposition of sediments. The climate in the coastal type is tropical (Köppen). This work was conducted in four locations: (1) Anchieta Island, Ubatuba, (2) Juréia-Itatins Ecological Station, Iguape, (3) Vila das Pedrinhas, Comprida Island; and (4) Cardoso Island, Cananeia. The soil samples were collect at a depths of 0 to 5, 0-10, 0-20, 20-40 and 40 to 60cm for the chemical and physical analysis. Were studied the additive and pondering additive models to evaluate soil quality. It was concluded: a) the comparative additive model produces quantitative results and the pondering additive model quantitative results; b) as the pondering additive model, the values of Soil Quality Index (SQI) for soils under forest of restinga are low and realistic, demonstrating the small plant biomass production potential of these soils, as well as their low resilience; c) the values of SQI similar to areas with and without restinga forest give quantitative demonstration of the restinga be considered as soil phase; d) restinga forest, probably, is maintained solely by the cycling of nutrients in a closed nutrient cycling; e) for the determination of IQS for soils under restinga vegetation the use of routine chemical analysis is adequate. Keywords: Model, restinga forest, Soil Quality Index (SQI).

  18. Impacts Of Passive Removal Materials On Indoor Air Quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Darling, Erin; Cros, Clement; Wargocki, Pawel;

    2011-01-01

    Indoor air quality (IAQ) was determined in the presence of eight combinations of building materials with and without ozone. Air samples were collected in twin 30 m3 chambers to assess the C5 to C10 aldehyde content of the air while a panel of 18 to 23 human subjects assessed air quality using...... a continuous acceptability scale. Materials were either new carpet that was aired out for three weeks, clay plaster applied to gypsum wallboard that was aired out for up to one month, both materials, or neither. Perceived Air Quality (PAQ) assessed by the panel was most acceptable and concentrations...... of aldehydes were lowest when only clay plaster or both clay plaster and carpet were in the chambers without ozone. The least acceptable PAQ and the highest concentrations of aldehydes were observed when carpet and ozone were present together; addition of clay plaster for this condition improved PAQ...

  19. Quality assurance: using the exposure index and the deviation index to monitor radiation exposure for portable chest radiographs in neonates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, Mervyn D. [Indiana University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Riley Children' s Hospital, Indianapolis, IN (United States); Riley Hospital for Children, Department of Radiology, Indianapolis, IN (United States); Cooper, Matt L.; Piersall, Kelly [Indiana University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Riley Children' s Hospital, Indianapolis, IN (United States); Apgar, Bruce K. [Agfa HealthCare Corporation, Greenville, SC (United States)

    2011-05-15

    Many methods are used to track patient exposure during acquisition of plain film radiographs. A uniform international standard would aid this process. To evaluate and describe a new, simple quality-assurance method for monitoring patient exposure. This method uses the ''exposure index'' and the ''deviation index,'' recently developed by the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) and American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM). The deviation index measures variation from an ideal target exposure index value. Our objective was to determine whether the exposure index and the deviation index can be used to monitor and control exposure drift over time. Our Agfa workstation automatically keeps a record of the exposure index for every patient. The exposure index and deviation index were calculated on 1,884 consecutive neonatal chest images. Exposure of a neonatal chest phantom was performed as a control. Acquisition of the exposure index and calculation of the deviation index was easily achieved. The weekly mean exposure index of the phantom and the patients was stable and showed <10% change during the study, indicating no exposure drift during the study period. The exposure index is an excellent tool to monitor the consistency of patient exposures. It does not indicate the exposure value used, but is an index to track compliance with a pre-determined target exposure. (orig.)

  20. Outdoor Air Quality Level Inference via Surveillance Cameras

    OpenAIRE

    Zheng Zhang; Huadong Ma; Huiyuan Fu; Liang Liu; Cheng Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Air pollution is a universal problem confronted by many developing countries. Because there are very few air quality monitoring stations in cities, it is difficult for people to know the exact air quality level anytime and anywhere. Fortunately, large amount of surveillance cameras have been deployed in the cities and can capture image densely and conveniently in the cities. In this case, this provides the possibility to utilize surveillance cameras as sensors to obtain data and predict the a...

  1. Assessment of Air Quality Status in Wuhan, China

    OpenAIRE

    Jiabei Song; Wu Guang; Linjun Li; Rongbiao Xiang

    2016-01-01

    In this study, air quality characteristics in Wuhan were assessed through descriptive statistics and Hierarchical Cluster Analysis (HCA). Results show that air quality has slightly improved over the recent years. While the NO2 concentration is still increasing, the PM10 concentration shows a clearly downward trend with some small fluctuations. In addition, the SO2 concentration has steadily decreased since 2008. Nevertheless, the current level of air pollutants is still quite high, with the P...

  2. Cabin environment and air quality in civil transport aircraft

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Weiguo

    2012-01-01

    The cabin environment of a commercial aircraft, including cabin layout and the quality of air supply, is crucial to the airline operators. These aspects directly affect the passengers’ experience and willing to travel. This aim of this thesis is to design the cabin layout for flying wing aircraft as part of cabin environment work, followed by the air quality work, which is to understand what effect the ECS can have in terms of cabin air contamination. The project, initially, focuses on the...

  3. Development and Application of a Next Generation Air Sensor Network for the Hong Kong Marathon 2015 Air Quality Monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Li; Wong, Ka Chun; Wei, Peng; Ye, Sheng; Huang, Hao; Yang, Fenhuan; Westerdahl, Dane; Louie, Peter K K; Luk, Connie W Y; Ning, Zhi

    2016-01-01

    This study presents the development and evaluation of a next generation air monitoring system with both laboratory and field tests. A multi-parameter algorithm was used to correct for the impact of environmental conditions on the electrochemical sensors for carbon monoxide (CO) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) pollutants. The field evaluation in an urban roadside environment in comparison to designated monitors showed good agreement with measurement error within 5% of the pollutant concentrations. Multiple sets of the developed system were then deployed in the Hong Kong Marathon 2015 forming a sensor-based network along the marathon route. Real-time air pollution concentration data were wirelessly transmitted and the Air Quality Health Index (AQHI) for the Green Marathon was calculated, which were broadcast to the public on an hourly basis. The route-specific sensor network showed somewhat different pollutant patterns than routine air monitoring, indicating the immediate impact of traffic control during the marathon on the roadside air quality. The study is one of the first applications of a next generation sensor network in international sport events, and it demonstrated the usefulness of the emerging sensor-based air monitoring technology in rapid network deployment to supplement existing air monitoring.

  4. Development and Application of a Next Generation Air Sensor Network for the Hong Kong Marathon 2015 Air Quality Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Li; Wong, Ka Chun; Wei, Peng; Ye, Sheng; Huang, Hao; Yang, Fenhuan; Westerdahl, Dane; Louie, Peter K.K.; Luk, Connie W.Y.; Ning, Zhi

    2016-01-01

    This study presents the development and evaluation of a next generation air monitoring system with both laboratory and field tests. A multi-parameter algorithm was used to correct for the impact of environmental conditions on the electrochemical sensors for carbon monoxide (CO) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) pollutants. The field evaluation in an urban roadside environment in comparison to designated monitors showed good agreement with measurement error within 5% of the pollutant concentrations. Multiple sets of the developed system were then deployed in the Hong Kong Marathon 2015 forming a sensor-based network along the marathon route. Real-time air pollution concentration data were wirelessly transmitted and the Air Quality Health Index (AQHI) for the Green Marathon was calculated, which were broadcast to the public on an hourly basis. The route-specific sensor network showed somewhat different pollutant patterns than routine air monitoring, indicating the immediate impact of traffic control during the marathon on the roadside air quality. The study is one of the first applications of a next generation sensor network in international sport events, and it demonstrated the usefulness of the emerging sensor-based air monitoring technology in rapid network deployment to supplement existing air monitoring. PMID:26861336

  5. Development and Application of a Next Generation Air Sensor Network for the Hong Kong Marathon 2015 Air Quality Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Sun

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This study presents the development and evaluation of a next generation air monitoring system with both laboratory and field tests. A multi-parameter algorithm was used to correct for the impact of environmental conditions on the electrochemical sensors for carbon monoxide (CO and nitrogen dioxide (NO2 pollutants. The field evaluation in an urban roadside environment in comparison to designated monitors showed good agreement with measurement error within 5% of the pollutant concentrations. Multiple sets of the developed system were then deployed in the Hong Kong Marathon 2015 forming a sensor-based network along the marathon route. Real-time air pollution concentration data were wirelessly transmitted and the Air Quality Health Index (AQHI for the Green Marathon was calculated, which were broadcast to the public on an hourly basis. The route-specific sensor network showed somewhat different pollutant patterns than routine air monitoring, indicating the immediate impact of traffic control during the marathon on the roadside air quality. The study is one of the first applications of a next generation sensor network in international sport events, and it demonstrated the usefulness of the emerging sensor-based air monitoring technology in rapid network deployment to supplement existing air monitoring.

  6. Air Quality and Land Use in Urban Region of Petaling Jaya, Shah Alam and Klang, Malaysia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver Ling Hoon Leh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In line with the global trend of urbanisation, large population are staying in urban areas as compared to rural. However, urban area /region is always related to higher air pollution level as compared to less developed area/region. The major contributors of air pollution are mobile sources (transportation and stationary sources (e.g. industry and power plant. Thus, the issue of air pollution is potentially caused by human choices and activities, and potentially affecting the human health. Therefore, the relationship between the urban activities (land use coverage/distribution and air quality level should be well understood. It helps the urban managers, planners and all parties in constructing healthier urban policies. A study of air quality and the relationship with urban land uses was carried out in Malaysia�s urban growth region of Klang-Shah Alam-Petaling Jaya. Air quality data was analysed in Air Pollution Index (API with the classification of good, moderate, unhealthy, very unhealthy and hazardous levels. The urban land uses were mainly divided into two categories, i.e. pollution-prone land uses (transportation, industrial, and infrastructure, and green land uses. This study found that urban area with higher coverage of transportation, industrial and infrastructure land uses are potentially unhealthier in term of the air quality than the area with less coverage of these land uses. Strategic proposal was discussed in line with the findings.

  7. An assessment of groundwater quality using water quality index in Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Nanda Balan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Context : Water, the elixir of life, is a prime natural resource. Due to rapid urbanization in India, the availability and quality of groundwater have been affected. According to the Central Groundwater Board, 80% of Chennai′s groundwater has been depleted and any further exploration could lead to salt water ingression. Hence, this study was done to assess the groundwater quality in Chennai city. Aim : To assess the groundwater quality using water quality index in Chennai city. Materials and Methods: Chennai city was divided into three zones based on the legislative constituency and from these three zones three locations were randomly selected and nine groundwater samples were collected and analyzed for physiochemical properties. Results: With the exception of few parameters, most of the water quality assessment parameters showed parameters within the accepted standard values of Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS. Except for pH in a single location of zone 1, none of the parameters exceeded the permissible values for water quality assessment as prescribed by the BIS. Conclusion: This study demonstrated that in general the groundwater quality status of Chennai city ranged from excellent to good and the groundwater is fit for human consumption based on all the nine parameters of water quality index and fluoride content.

  8. Improving the indoor air quality using water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The article briefly describes the principle of a Danish air cleaning device called the Aqua-Wall. This is a clear acrylic wall with filters and pump and liquid that ripples down the vertical wall. The liquid is cleaned water to which is added harmless chemicals that prevent bacteria and algal growth. By means of this falling water and a patent that makes the water bind microorganisms and dust particles the system cleans the air and creates a natural air humidity

  9. GROUNDWATER QUALITY AND CONTAMINATION INDEX MAPPING IN CHANGCHUN CITY, CHINA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hamadoun BOKAR; TANG Jie; LIN Nian-feng

    2004-01-01

    Groundwater in Changchun City, Jilin Province of China tends to be influenced by human activities.Chemical types of groundwater were detected in both shallow and deep groundwater were: HCO3- - Ca2+ and HCO3-of groundwater quality due to the increase of TDS, NO3- + NO2 (as Nitrogen) and TH contents have been observed from 1991 to 1998. Scatter analyses showed strong positive correlations between Ca2+, Cl- and NO3- ions and weak negative correlations between the depth of water table and Ca2+, 8O42-. C1- and NO3-ions. A mapping of contaminant index based on Chinese standard of groundwater showed that a large proportion of the groundwater in 1998 was deteriorated by human process. Despite their low values of sodium adsorption ratio (SAR), the most of the sampled wells were not suitable for drinking and agriculture purposes due to higher contents of NO3-, NO2 and Mn2+ ions.

  10. Life Quality Index – an empirical or a normative concept?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ditlevsen, Ove Dalager; Friis-Hansen, Peter

    2007-01-01

    The Life Quality Index introduced by Nathwani, Lind and Pandey is a social indicator that by invariance serves the purpose of allocating a balanced and ethically reasonable part of the Gross Domestic Product of a country to life saving initiatives. In the attempts to understand the reasoning behind...... the construction of the LQI one may ask whether the LQI is built on empirical evidence of social behavior that implies the modeled balance between the free time and the work time. Even if so, one may ask whether the invariance principle is a fact of social life or a normative principle of ethical social behavior....... By using a dimensionless representation of the work time value production and the free time and an optimal balancing of the two against each other, it is demonstrated that there is a specific mathematical formula that connects work time and value productivity. Moreover, comparisons of the theory...

  11. Norma Primaria de calidad del aire AIR QUALITY STANDARD

    OpenAIRE

    PATRICIA MATUS C.; RODRIGO LUCERO CH.

    2002-01-01

    Las normas primarias de calidad del aire tienen por finalidad proteger la salud de la población de la contaminación atmosférica. Ellas establecen un nivel de riesgo socialmente aceptado. Este artículo describe los antecedentes considerados durante el proceso de actualización de la regulación vigente en Chile. Detalla conceptos sobre la calidad del aire, describe los efectos en la salud de los contaminantes, y el procedimiento seguido para fijar los nuevos estándares Finaliza enumerando la nor...

  12. Comparison of soil quality index using three methods.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atanu Mukherjee

    Full Text Available Assessment of management-induced changes in soil quality is important to sustaining high crop yield. A large diversity of cultivated soils necessitate identification development of an appropriate soil quality index (SQI based on relative soil properties and crop yield. Whereas numerous attempts have been made to estimate SQI for major soils across the World, there is no standard method established and thus, a strong need exists for developing a user-friendly and credible SQI through comparison of various available methods. Therefore, the objective of this article is to compare three widely used methods to estimate SQI using the data collected from 72 soil samples from three on-farm study sites in Ohio. Additionally, challenge lies in establishing a correlation between crop yield versus SQI calculated either depth wise or in combination of soil layers as standard methodology is not yet available and was not given much attention to date. Predominant soils of the study included one organic (Mc, and two mineral (CrB, Ko soils. Three methods used to estimate SQI were: (i simple additive SQI (SQI-1, (ii weighted additive SQI (SQI-2, and (iii statistically modeled SQI (SQI-3 based on principal component analysis (PCA. The SQI varied between treatments and soil types and ranged between 0-0.9 (1 being the maximum SQI. In general, SQIs did not significantly differ at depths under any method suggesting that soil quality did not significantly differ for different depths at the studied sites. Additionally, data indicate that SQI-3 was most strongly correlated with crop yield, the correlation coefficient ranged between 0.74-0.78. All three SQIs were significantly correlated (r = 0.92-0.97 to each other and with crop yield (r = 0.65-0.79. Separate analyses by crop variety revealed that correlation was low indicating that some key aspects of soil quality related to crop response are important requirements for estimating SQI.

  13. Can the Air Pollution Index be used to communicate the health risks of air pollution?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The validity of using the Air Pollution Index (API) to assess health impacts of air pollution and potential modification by individual characteristics on air pollution effects remain uncertain. We applied distributed lag non-linear models (DLNMs) to assess associations of daily API, specific pollution indices for PM10, SO2, NO2 and the weighted combined API (APIw) with mortality during 2003–2011 in Guangzhou, China. An increase of 10 in API was associated with a 0.88% (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.50, 1.27%) increase of non-accidental mortality at lag 0–2 days. Harvesting effects appeared after 2 days’ exposure. The effect estimate of API over lag 0–15 days was statistically significant and similar with those of pollutant-specific indices and APIw. Stronger associations between API and mortality were observed in the elderly, females and residents with low educational attainment. In conclusion, the API can be used to communicate health risks of air pollution. - Highlights: • The cumulative effects of API on mortality over lag 0–15 days remained significant. • The indices for three specific pollutants had similar associations with mortality. • The effects of API were modified by age, gender and educational attainment. • Our findings can help to communicate health risks of air pollution to the public. - The Air Pollution Index communicates health risks of air pollution

  14. Urban growth and air quality in Kuala Lumpur city, Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. H. L. Ling

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Urban developments, land use patterns and activities not only influence the volume of emissions into the ambient air environment but also affect the ability of the urban ecosystem to purify the air. Therefore, urbanisation affects the quality of air in urban areas. However, urban air quality is also affected by global, regional or trans-boundary pollutants. The objectives of this paper are to understand the trend of air quality level and urban growth in Kuala Lumpur city (KL, and examine the relationship between these variables. Results of analysis show a significant and strong relationship between the number of unhealthy/hazardous days and urban land uses. The finding is contrary to the argument that the high concentration of air pollutants (unhealthy level in the Malaysian city is contributed by the forest fire in a neighbouring country (haze.

  15. Perception of Cabin Air Quality among Drivers and Passengers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doru Constantin

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Air analysis inside vehicles is a problem that can be interpreted from several perspectives. This research is oriented towards the perception of air quality within a car, regarding a situation of cars in stationary traffic. Carbon dioxide measurements were made using a Trotec Data Logger Air Quality CO2 BZ30 machine inside different standing vehicles with up to five occupants, with and without circulating air. The perception of the air quality was measured on a Likert-type scale with seven levels on a sample group of 60 students. The results highlight, on the one hand, the conditions under which the CO2 in the cabin air can reach concentrations which are, according to new data, considered to influence the cognitive capacity of occupants in the car, and on the other hand, they present a global assessment of the air quality in the vehicle when critical values of CO2 have been reached. If the air exchange rates inside a car are low, this degrades the air quality in such a way that it affects the concentration and reactions necessary for safe driving without perceiving any discomfort that would put the drivers or the passengers on alert.

  16. How one should perform sensory measurements of perceived air quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wargocki, Pawel; Knudsen, Henrik N; Krzyzanowska, Justyna

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the present experiment was to study different aspects of sensory evaluations of air quality made by human subjects. The sensory panel of 40 subjects assessed the quality of the air polluted by 6 different building materials commonly used indoors. Both low- and high polluting...... and with 3 inhalations of unpolluted air between assessments; and 4. There were no changes in the sensory assessments of the same exposure during the 3-week of experiments. The relationship between acceptability and the percentage of dissatisfied with the air quality as well as odor intensity...... and the percentage of dissatisfied with air quality. They were developed using independent assessments on the continuous acceptability scale and category intensity scale, as well as dichotomous (yes/no) acceptability scale; the ratings on the latter were used to estimate the percentage of dissatisfied...

  17. Are Ventilation Filters Degrading Indoor Air Quality in California Classrooms?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisk, William J.; Destaillats, H.; Apte, M.G.; Destaillats,, Hugo; Fisk, Michael G. Apte and William J.

    2008-10-01

    Heating, ventilating, and cooling classrooms in California consume substantial electrical energy. Indoor air quality (IAQ) in classrooms affects studenthealth and performance. In addition to airborne pollutants that are emitted directly by indoor sources and those generated outdoors, secondary pollutants can be formed indoors by chemical reaction of ozone with other chemicals and materials. Filters are used in nearly all classroom heating, ventilation and air?conditioning (HVAC) systems to maintain energy-efficient HVAC performance and improve indoor air quality; however, recent evidence indicates that ozone reactions with filters may, in fact, be a source of secondary pollutants. This project quantitatively evaluated ozone deposition in HVAC filters and byproduct formation, and provided a preliminary assessment of the extent towhich filter systems are degrading indoor air quality. The preliminary information obtained will contribute to the design of subsequent research efforts and the identification of energy efficient solutions that improve indoor air quality in classrooms and the health and performance of students.

  18. Perceived air quality, thermal comfort, and SBS symptoms at low air temperature and increased radiant temperature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toftum, Jørn; Reimann, Gregers Peter; Foldbjerg, P.;

    2002-01-01

    This study investigated if low air temperature, which is known to improve the perception of air quality, also can reduce the intensity of some SBS symptoms. In a low-polluting office, human subjects were exposed to air at two temperatures 23 deg.C and 18 deg.C both with and without a pollution so...

  19. Groundwater Quality Assessment Based on Geographical Information System and Groundwater Quality Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Derakhshan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Iran is located in an arid and semi-arid part of the world. Accordingly, the management of the water resources in the country is a priority. In this regard, determining the quality and pollution of surface water and groundwater is very important, especially in areas where groundwater resources are used for drinking. Groundwater quality index (GQI checks the components of the available water with various quality levels. To assess the quality of drinking groundwater of Yazd-Ardakan plain according to GQI in geographical information system (GIS environment, the electrical conductivity, sodium, calcium, magnesium, chlorine, pH, sodium adsorption ratio, bicarbonate, sulfate, potassium, water hardness, and all substances dissolved in the waters of 80 wells were determined. The samples were obtained from Yazd Regional Water Organization from 2005 to 2014. Using this data, the map components were plotted by Kriging geostatistical method. Then, the map of GQI was prepared after normalizing each map component, switching to a rating map, and extracting the weight of each component from the rating map. Based on the GQI index map, the index point which was 87 in 2005 has increased to 81 in 2014. These maps show a decline in groundwater quality from west to the east region. This decline in groundwater quality is due to the existence of Neogene Organizations in the east and geomorphologic unit of the bare epandage pediment in the west. The map removal and single-parameter sensitivity analysis showed that GQI index in Yazd-Ardakan plain is more sensitive to the components of electrical conductivity (EC, total dissolved solids (TDS, and total hardness (TH. Therefore, these components should be monitored more carefully and repeatedly.

  20. Air quality management in China: Issues, challenges, and options

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shuxiao Wang; Jiming Hao

    2012-01-01

    This article analyzed the control progress and current status of air quality,identified the major air pollution issues and challenges in future,proposed the long-term air pollution control targets,and suggested the options for better air quality in China.With the continuing growth of economy in the next 10-15 years,China will face a more severe situation of energy consumption,electricity generation and vehicle population leading to increase in multiple pollutant emissions.Controlling regional air pollution especially fine particles and ozone,as well as lowering carbon emissions from fossil fuel consumption will be a big challenge for the country.To protect public health and the eco-system,the ambient air quality in all Chinese cities shall attain the national ambient air quality standards (NAAQS)and ambient air quality guideline values set by the World Health Organization (WHO).To achieve the air quality targets,the emissions of SO2,NOx,PM10,and volatile organic compounds (VOC) should decrease by 60%,40%,50%,and 40%,respectively,on the basis of that in 2005.A comprehensive control policy focusing on multiple pollutants and emission sources at both the local and regional levels was proposed to mitigate the regional air pollution issue in China.The options include development of clean energy resources,promotion of clean and efficient coal use,enhancement of vehicle pollution control,implementation of synchronous control of multiple pollutants including SO2,NOx,VOC,and PM emissions,joint prevention and control of regional air pollution,and application of climate friendly air pollution control measures.

  1. Three-Dimensional Air Quality System (3D-AQS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel-Cox, J.; Hoff, R.; Weber, S.; Zhang, H.; Prados, A.

    2007-12-01

    The 3-Dimensional Air Quality System (3DAQS) integrates remote sensing observations from a variety of platforms into air quality decision support systems at the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), with a focus on particulate air pollution. The decision support systems are the Air Quality System (AQS) / AirQuest database at EPA, Infusing satellite Data into Environmental Applications (IDEA) system, the U.S. Air Quality weblog (Smog Blog) at UMBC, and the Regional East Atmospheric Lidar Mesonet (REALM). The project includes an end user advisory group with representatives from the air quality community providing ongoing feedback. The 3DAQS data sets are UMBC ground based LIDAR, and NASA and NOAA satellite data from MODIS, OMI, AIRS, CALIPSO, MISR, and GASP. Based on end user input, we are co-locating these measurements to the EPA's ground-based air pollution monitors as well as re-gridding to the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model grid. These data provide forecasters and the scientific community with a tool for assessment, analysis, and forecasting of U.S Air Quality. The third dimension and the ability to analyze the vertical transport of particulate pollution are provided by aerosol extinction profiles from the UMBC LIDAR and CALIPSO. We present examples of a 3D visualization tool we are developing to facilitate use of this data. We also present two specific applications of 3D-AQS data. The first is comparisons between PM2.5 monitor data and remote sensing aerosol optical depth (AOD) data, which show moderate agreement but variation with EPA region. The second is a case study for Baltimore, Maryland, as an example of 3D-analysis for a metropolitan area. In that case, some improvement is found in the PM2.5 /LIDAR correlations when using vertical aerosol information to calculate an AOD below the boundary layer.

  2. Ambient air quality observations in the Athabasca oil sands region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Both Syncrude and Suncor have plans to develop new oil sands leases and to increase crude oil and bitumen recovery in the Athabasca oil sands region. In recognition of the effects that this will have on the environment, Suncor has proposed modifications to reduce SO2 emissions to the atmosphere, while Syncrude plans to develop additional ambient air quality, sulphur deposition and biomonitoring programs. This report discussed the ambient air quality monitoring that was undertaken in the Fort McMurray-Fort McKay airshed. Twelve continuous ambient air quality stations and 76 passive monitoring stations are maintained in the region. Environment Canada maintains eight precipitation monitoring stations in northern Alberta and Saskatchewan. Source characterization, ambient air quality and meteorology observations, air quality monitoring, and air quality data from continuous sulphur dioxide, hydrogen sulphide, nitrogen oxides, ozone, carbon monoxide, hydrocarbon, acid rain and particulates analyzers were reviewed. The documentation of all computer files used for the analysis of the air quality data is discussed in the Appendix. 47 refs., 39 tabs., 53 figs

  3. Summary findings from the border air quality study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-03-15

    The Border Air Quality Study (BAQS) is an ongoing study which supports the development of an international strategy for the Georgia Basin-Puget Sound airshed. The study investigates the association of health risks with the exposure to a range of air pollutants. It identified links between air pollutants and several health impacts ranging from asthma to birthweight. The tools developed for studying air quality provide greater spatial resolution, thus enabling the identification of pollution hot spots that require monitoring and intervention. The tools also provide spatially accurate exposure data for future research and enable land-use decisions that reduce risk to the most vulnerable populations, including children and the elderly. The study found that traffic-related air pollution is an additional risk factor for disease, such as bronchiolitis, asthma and middle ear infections in children. Although air pollution is a known risk factor for cardiovascular disease, relatively few studies have evaluated the effects of chronic exposures. Therefore, the BAQS is currently assessing the relationship between air quality and cardiovascular diseases in the Metro Vancouver area, with particular attention to the combined effects of traffic-related air pollution and noise pollution. Wood smoke was also found to be an important source of air pollution, even in urban centres. The study showed that building design and ventilation can help reduce infiltration of air pollutants into buildings. It was concluded that despite some concerns, the air quality in the Georgia-Basin-Puget Sound region is good compared to other major metropolitan areas. Air quality managers can use the study to evaluate different policy scenarios and the associated economic costs of air pollution. 5 figs.

  4. Quality Index Method - An objective tool for determination of sensory quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hyldig, Grethe; Green-Petersen, Ditte

    2004-01-01

    Sensory evaluation is one of the most important methods for assessing freshness and quality in the fish sector and in fish-inspection services. Sensory methods performed in a proper way are a rapid and accurate tool providing unique information about food. Traditionally, sensory methods have been...... seen as a subjective assessment of quality. However, sensory methods can be turned into an objective tool. European fisheries research institutes have developed such a tool, by which sensory assessment is performed in a systematic way with an objective quality assessment method called the Quality Index...... Method (QIM). It is foreseen that the QIM will be useful to give feedback to fishermen concerning the quality of their catch, which may in turn influence better handling on board. The QIM is a promising method for quick and reliable assessment of the freshness of fish. It is expected to become...

  5. 40 CFR 81.77 - Puerto Rico Air Quality Control Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Puerto Rico Air Quality Control Region... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.77 Puerto Rico Air Quality Control Region. The Puerto Rico Air Quality Control...

  6. Research review: Indoor air quality control techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Techniques for controlling the concentration of radon, formaldehyde, and combustion products in the indoor air are reviewed. The most effective techniques, which are generally based on limiting or reducing indoor pollutant source strengths, can decrease indoor pollutant concentrations by a factor of 3 to 10. Unless the initial ventilation rate is unusually low, it is difficult to reduce indoor pollutant concentrations more than approximately 50% by increasing the ventilation rate of an entire building. However, the efficiency of indoor pollutant control by ventilation can be enhanced through the use of local exhaust ventilation near concentrated sources of pollutants, by minimizing short circuiting of air from supply to exhaust when pollutant sources are dispersed and, in some situations, by promoting a displacement flow of air and pollutants toward the exhaust. Active air cleaning is also examined briefly. Filtration and electrostatic air cleaning for removal of particles from the indoor air are the most practical and effective currently available techniques of air cleaning. 49 refs., 7 figs

  7. Long-term Changes in Extreme Air Pollution Meteorology and the Implications for Air Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Pei; Wu, Shiliang

    2016-03-31

    Extreme air pollution meteorological events, such as heat waves, temperature inversions and atmospheric stagnation episodes, can significantly affect air quality. Based on observational data, we have analyzed the long-term evolution of extreme air pollution meteorology on the global scale and their potential impacts on air quality, especially the high pollution episodes. We have identified significant increasing trends for the occurrences of extreme air pollution meteorological events in the past six decades, especially over the continental regions. Statistical analysis combining air quality data and meteorological data further indicates strong sensitivities of air quality (including both average air pollutant concentrations and high pollution episodes) to extreme meteorological events. For example, we find that in the United States the probability of severe ozone pollution when there are heat waves could be up to seven times of the average probability during summertime, while temperature inversions in wintertime could enhance the probability of severe particulate matter pollution by more than a factor of two. We have also identified significant seasonal and spatial variations in the sensitivity of air quality to extreme air pollution meteorology.

  8. Improving Air Quality with Solar Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-04-01

    This fact sheet series highlights how renewable energy and energy efficiency technologies can and are being used to reduce air emissions and meet environmental goals, showcasing case studies and technology-specific topics. This one focus on solar energy technologies.

  9. Ozone, Air Quality, and Asthma (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... with chemicals produced by cars, power plants, and factories. That's why ground-level ozone, a main component ... Lung Association included not only ozone but particle pollution levels in its annual "State of the Air" ...

  10. Improving Air Quality with Solar Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2008-04-01

    This fact sheet series highlights how renewable energy and energy efficiency technologies can and are being used to reduce air emissions and meet environmental goals, showcasing case studies and technology-specific topics.

  11. Air quality and Atmospheric resources: Phase 1: Background document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Environment and Sustainable Development Indicators (ESDI) initiative, under the umbrella of the National Round Table on the Environment and the Economy (NRTEE), commissioned a study for the evaluation and the development of sustainable development indicators (SDIs) in the field of air quality and atmospheric resources. The report contained key information with regard to each indicator or indicator set, and no comprehensive comparative analysis was performed. The report was designed to be used as a technical reference. Where appropriate, SDIs developed by foreign organizations were included. The emphasis of the report was: (1) ambient air quality and human health effects, (2) air emissions having transboundary or global implications for ecosystem health and human health, and (3) demand on the atmosphere for environmental services. The bulk of the research was conducted on the Internet. The report was divided into three sections. A review of the availability of SDIs based on ambient air quality measures was discussed in the first section, while the second section was devoted to the availability of SDIs based on pollutant emission levels. The last section contained a systematic review of those SDIs used or being proposed along with the supporting data available to calculate SDI values. Some observations were also made touching on topics such as the abundance of ambient air quality information, the abundance of pollutant emissions information, the linkages between emissions and ambient air quality, the absence of forecasting, the indoor air quality gap, and the connections to human health. refs., 1 fig

  12. Air quality indication in Blace (Southeastern Serbia using lichens as bioindicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stamenković S.M.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Air quality investigations have not been undertaken in Blace until now. Identifying the presence of different types of epiphytic lichens was performed in the summer 2012 in Blace (southeastern Serbia, and selected rural settlements around Blace, in order to establish the air quality of the area. The analysis of samples from described localities indicated the presence of 25 lichen taxa from 19 genera. Using the Index of Atmospheric Purity (IAP, it was found that there are 2 different air pollution zones in Blace: “lichen desert” and “transitional” or “struggle zone”, which includes the periphery of the city. In these zones the air is moderately polluted. In the urban area of Blace there is no “normal” zone, but one was detected in the surrounding rural areas. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. OI 171025 i br. III 41018

  13. THE ASSESSMENT OF MICROBIOLOGICAL INDOOR AIR QUALITY IN BAKERIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elżbieta Wołejko

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess microbiological indoor air quality of selected bakeries located in the region of Podlasie. The microbiological studies were conducted in autumn in 2014 in three selected bakeries. Microbiological air counts were measured by impaction using an air sampler MAS-100 NT. The microbiological air studies, comprised the determination of the total number of psychrophilic and mesophilic bacteria, namely indicator bacteria such as: bacteria of the species Pseudomonas fluorescens, mannitol-positive and mannitol-negative Staphylococc, the total number of bacteria from the Enterobacteriaceae family and fungi found in atmospheric air. The results of the study of indoor air polluted with the analyzed groups of microorganisms differed depending on the type of test air and the location of the manufacturing plant. In the plants, the concentration of mesophilic bacteria and mannitol–positive and mannitol-negative Staphylococcus exceeded the limit values of unpolluted air, according to the Polish Standard recommendations.

  14. Suppression of Air Refractive Index Variations in High-Resolution Interferometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdeněk Buchta

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The influence of the refractive index of air has proven to be a major problem on the road to improvement of the uncertainty in interferometric displacement measurements. We propose an approach with two counter-measuring interferometers acting as a combination of tracking refractometer and a displacement interferometer referencing the wavelength of the laser source to a mechanical standard made of a material with ultra-low thermal expansion. This technique combines length measurement within a specified range with measurement of the refractive index fluctuations in one axis. Errors caused by different position of the interferometer laser beam and air sensors are thus eliminated. The method has been experimentally tested in comparison with the indirect measurement of the refractive index of air in a thermal controlled environment. Over a 1 K temperature range an agreement on the level of 5 × 10−8 has been achieved.

  15. Health and air quality 2005 : phase 2 : valuation of health impacts from air quality in the Lower Fraser Valley airshed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furberg, M.; Preston, K. [RWDI West Inc., Vancouver, BC (Canada); Sawyer, D. [Marbek Resource Consultants Ltd., Ottawa, ON (Canada); Brauer, M. [British Columbia Univ., Vancouver, BC (Canada). School of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene; Hanvelt, R. [British Columbia Univ., Vancouver, BC (Canada). Dept. of Health Care and Epidemiology

    2005-07-15

    This study provided estimates the health benefits and costs associated with specified changes in ambient air concentrations of particulate matter (PM) and ozone in the Lower Fraser Valley (LFV). Estimates were developed on a regional level. The study focused on PM and ozone, as current air quality monitoring data and scientific findings have indicated that these are the air contaminants of greatest concern in the region. Known air quality health outcome relationships were applied in a spreadsheet model to predict changes in health outcomes associated with 6 ambient air quality scenarios for 3 sub-regions within the LFV airshed. Concentration response functions based on epidemiological studies were used to estimate the number of health events associated with changes in air quality. For each scenario, the model calculated the expected number of the following health outcomes: mortality; chronic bronchitis; respiratory hospital admissions; cardiac hospital admissions; emergency room visits; child acute bronchitis; restricted activity days; asthma symptom days; minor restricted activity days and acute respiratory symptom days. The model also produced the dollar value of the health outcomes. A dollar metric was used so that the health outcomes could be aggregated and compared with other air quality management actions such the costs of improving ambient air quality. Results indicated that improving ambient air quality in the LFV will produce valued and socially desirable benefits, including reduced mortality and morbidity. The measures contemplated by decision-makers to maintain and improve air quality in the LFV will trigger benefits that are likely to be significant. 101 refs., 7 tabs., 7 figs.

  16. LOCAL LEVEL IMPLEMENTATION OF THE EU AIR QUALITY POLICY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oana-Maria TUCALIUC

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Air pollution is one of the domains in which the European Union has been most active by controlling the emissions of harmful substances into the atmosphere. Although it has one of the world’s highest environmental standards, European Union is still far from achieving levels of air quality that is acceptable to humans and the environment. The effect of air pollution on health has considerable economic impacts, cutting lives short, increasing medical costs and reducing productivity through working days. This study analyzes the air quality legislation that Member States have to implement in order to maintain the best environmental conditions and presents Iasi County’s air quality monitoring system as a part of the national and European monitoring network.

  17. Towards an agent based traffic regulation and recommendation system for the on-road air quality control

    OpenAIRE

    Sadiq, Abderrahmane; El Fazziki, Abdelaziz; Ouarzazi, Jamal; Sadgal, Mohamed

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents an integrated and adaptive problem-solving approach to control the on-road air quality by modeling the road infrastructure, managing traffic based on pollution level and generating recommendations for road users. The aim is to reduce vehicle emissions in the most polluted road segments and optimizing the pollution levels. For this we propose the use of historical and real time pollution records and contextual data to calculate the air quality index on road networks and gen...

  18. 77 FR 2469 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Antelope Valley Air Quality Management...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-18

    ... Management District and Imperial County Air Pollution Control District AGENCY: Environmental Protection... to the Antelope Valley Air Quality Management District (AVAQMD) and Imperial County Air Pollution.... * * * * * (G) Antelope Valley Air Quality Management District. (1) Rule 1134, ``Stationary Gas...

  19. An Innovative Reactor Technology to Improve Indoor Air Quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rempel, Jane [TIAX LLC., Lexington, MA (United States)

    2013-03-30

    As residential buildings achieve tighter envelopes in order to minimize energy used for space heating and cooling, accumulation of indoor air pollutants such as volatile organic compounds (VOCs), becomes a major concern causing poor air quality and increased health risks. Current VOC removal methods include sorbents, ultraviolet photocatalytic oxidation (UVPCO), and increased ventilation, but these methods do not capture or destroy all VOCs or are prohibitively expensive to implement. TIAX's objective in this program was to develop a new VOC removal technology for residential buildings. This novel air purification technology is based on an innovative reactor and light source design along with UVPCO properties of the chosen catalyst to purify indoor air and enhance indoor air quality (IAQ). During the program we designed, fabricated and tested a prototype air purifier to demonstrate its feasibility and effectiveness. We also measured kinetics of VOC destruction on photocatalysts, providing deep insight into reactor design.

  20. Optimization model for air quality analysis in energy facility siting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emanuel, W. R.; Murphy, B. D.; Huff, D. D.; Begovich, C. L.; Hurt, J. F.

    1977-09-01

    The siting of energy facilities on a regional scale is discussed with particular attention to environmental planning criteria. A multiple objective optimization model is proposed as a framework for the analysis of siting problems. Each planning criterion (e.g., air quality, water quality, or power demand) is treated as an objective function to be minimized or maximized subject to constraints in this optimization procedure. The formulation of the objective functions is illustrated by the development of a siting model for the minimization of human exposure to air pollutants. This air quality siting model takes the form of a linear programming problem. A graphical analysis of this type of problem, which provides insight into the nature of the siting model, is given. The air quality siting model is applied to an illustrative siting example for the Tennessee Valley area.

  1. Cabin Air Quality Dynamics On Board the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, J. L.; Peterson, B. V.

    2003-01-01

    Spacecraft cabin air quality is influenced by a variety of factors. Beyond normal equipment offgassing and crew metabolic loads, the vehicle s operational configuration contributes significantly to overall air quality. Leaks from system equipment and payload facilities, operational status of the atmospheric scrubbing systems, and the introduction of new equipment and modules to the vehicle all influence air quality. The dynamics associated with changes in the International Space Station's (ISS) configuration since the launch of the U.S. Segment s laboratory module, Destiny, is summarized. Key classes of trace chemical contaminants that are important to crew health and equipment performance are emphasized. The temporary effects associated with attaching each multi-purpose logistics module (MPLM) to the ISS and influence of in-flight air quality on the post-flight ground processing of the MPLM are explored.

  2. Application of water quality index for groundwater quality assessment: Thirumanimuttar sub-basin, Tamilnadu, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasanthavigar, M; Srinivasamoorthy, K; Vijayaragavan, K; Ganthi, R Rajiv; Chidambaram, S; Anandhan, P; Manivannan, R; Vasudevan, S

    2010-12-01

    An attempt has been made to understand the hydrogeochemical parameters to develop water quality index in Thirumanimuttar sub-basin. A total of 148 groundwater samples were collected and analyzed for major cations and anions. The domination of cations and anions was in the order of Na>Mg>Ca>K for cations and Cl>HCO(3) >SO(4) in anions. The hydrogeochemical facies indicate alkalis (Na and K) exceed alkaline earths (Ca and Mg) and strong acids (Cl and SO(4)) exceed weak acid (HCO(3)). Water quality index rating was calculated to quantify overall water quality for human consumption. The PRM samples exhibit poor quality in greater percentage when compared with POM due to effective leaching of ions, over exploitation of groundwater, direct discharge of effluents and agricultural impact. The overlay of WQI with chloride and EC correspond to the same locations indicating the poor quality of groundwater in the study area. SAR, Na%, and TH were noted higher during both the seasons indicating most of the groundwater locations not suitable for irrigation purposes. PMID:20091344

  3. STUDY OF POND WATER QUALITY BY THE ASSESSMENT OF PHYSICOCHEMICAL PARAMETERS AND WATER QUALITY INDEX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinod Jena

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Water quality index (WQI is a dimensionless number that combines multiple water quality factors into a single number by normalizing values to subjective rating curves. Conventionally it has been used for evaluating the quality of water for water resources suchas rivers, streams and lakes, etc. The present work is aimed at assessing the Water Quality Index (W.Q.I ofpond water and the impact of human activities on it. Physicochemical parameters were monitored for the calculation of W.Q.I for the rainy, winter and summer seasons. The parameters namely pH, Total hardness, TDS,Calcium, Chloride, Sulphate, Sodium, Potassium, EC and DO values were within the permissible limits on the other hand total alkalinities and magnesium values were exceeding the permissible limits as prescribed by IndianStandards. However, the W.Q.I values in the present investigation were reported to be 83.43, 76.598 and 91.52 for different season indicating that the pond water quality is very poor and not totally safe for human consumption.

  4. Tradeoffs between Price and Quality: How a Value Index Affects Preference Formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creyer, Elizabeth H.; Ross, William T., Jr.

    1997-01-01

    Some of a group of 143 consumers were given a choice between higher-priced, higher-quality items and items with lower price and quality but higher value index (benefit/cost tradeoff); others were given price and quality information only. Consumers were more likely to choose lower-priced, higher-value options when the index information was…

  5. Transportation and Air Quality in California: A Policy Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Deakin, Elizabeth

    1991-01-01

    Significant accomplishments in air pollution emissions control have occurred over the past twenty years. Emissions have been substantially reduced by both industrial and transportation sources; over the ten year period 1977-86, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) reports improvements in each of the six air pollutants for which health-based national ambient air quality standards (NAAQS) exist -- lead, sulfur dioxide, ozone, carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, and particulates. Yet ma...

  6. Use of sorbents in air quality control systems

    OpenAIRE

    Gallego Piñol, Eva; Roca Mussons, Francisco Javier; Perales Lorente, José Francisco; Guardino Solà, Xavier

    2009-01-01

    Sorbent based methods have been successfully used in the collection of air samples to determine air quality. The complexity of the occurrence in air samples of several compounds in terms of composition (polar to non-polar compounds, very volatile to semi-volatile compounds) and abundance (below detection limit to over detector saturation limit) are topics that have to be taken into account when analytical methods are developed, especially in terms of sorbent choosing. An important amount o...

  7. Aircraft Recirculation Filter for Air-Quality and Incident Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Eckels, Steven J.; Jones, Byron; Mann, Garrett; Mohan, Krishnan R.; Weisel, Clifford P.

    2014-01-01

    The current research examines the possibility of using recirculation filters from aircraft to document the nature of air-quality incidents on aircraft. These filters are highly effective at collecting solid and liquid particulates. Identification of engine oil contaminants arriving through the bleed air system on the filter was chosen as the initial focus. A two-step study was undertaken. First, a compressor/bleed air simulator was developed to simulate an engine oil leak, and samples were an...

  8. Indoor air quality environmental information handbook: Building system characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This manual, the third in a series, focuses on residential building system characteristics and their effects on indoor air quality. The manual addresses: residential indoor air pollutants by source, indoor concentrations, health effects, source control and mitigation techniques, standards and guidelines; building system characteristics of air exchange, pollutant source strength, residence volume, site characteristics, structural design, construction, and operation, infiltration and ventilation system, building occupancy; and monitoring methods

  9. LOCAL LEVEL IMPLEMENTATION OF THE EU AIR QUALITY POLICY

    OpenAIRE

    Oana-Maria TUCALIUC; Verestiuc, Paul-Cristinel

    2015-01-01

    Air pollution is one of the domains in which the European Union has been most active by controlling the emissions of harmful substances into the atmosphere. Although it has one of the world’s highest environmental standards, European Union is still far from achieving levels of air quality that is acceptable to humans and the environment. The effect of air pollution on health has considerable economic impacts, cutting lives short, increasing medical costs and reducing productivity through work...

  10. Computer Prediction of Air Quality in Livestock Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svidt, Kjeld; Bjerg, Bjarne

    In modem livestock buildings the design of ventilation systems is important in order to obtain good air quality. The use of Computational Fluid Dynamics for predicting the air distribution makes it possible to include the effect of room geometry and heat sources in the design process. This paper...... presents numerical prediction of air flow in a livestock building compared with laboratory measurements. An example of the calculation of contaminant distribution is given, and the future possibilities of the method are discussed....

  11. Caenorhabditis elegans: a model to monitor bacterial air quality.

    OpenAIRE

    Duclairoir Poc Cécile; Groboillot Anne; Lesouhaitier Olivier; Morin Jean-Paul; Orange Nicole; Feuilloley Marc JG

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Low environmental air quality is a significant cause of mortality and morbidity and this question is now emerging as a main concern of governmental authorities. Airborne pollution results from the combination of chemicals, fine particles, and micro-organisms quantitatively or qualitatively dangerous for health or for the environment. Increasing regulations and limitations for outdoor air quality have been decreed in regards to chemicals and particles contrary to micro-orga...

  12. Sandia National Laboratories, California Air Quality Program : annual report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shih, Richard (ERM, Walnut Creek, CA); Gardizi, Leslee P.

    2007-05-01

    The annual program report provides detailed information about all aspects of the SNL/CA Air Quality Program. It functions as supporting documentation to the SNL/CA Environmental Management System Program Manual. The program report describes the activities undertaken during the past year, and activities planned in future years to implement the Air Quality Program, one of six programs that supports environmental management at SNL/CA.

  13. Sandia National Laboratories, California Air Quality Program annual report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gardizi, Leslee P.; Smith, Richard (ERM, Walnut Creek, CA)

    2009-06-01

    The annual program report provides detailed information about all aspects of the SNL/CA Air Quality Program. It functions as supporting documentation to the SNL/CA Environmental Management System Program Manual. The program report describes the activities undertaken during the past year, and activities planned in future years to implement the Air Quality Program, one of six programs that supports environmental management at SNL/CA.

  14. 78 FR 34177 - Implementation of the 2008 National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone: State Implementation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-06

    ... the 2008 National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone: State Implementation Plan Requirements... Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone: State Implementation Plan Requirements AGENCY: Environmental... 2008 ozone national ambient air quality standards (NAAQS) (the ``2008 ozone NAAQS'') that...

  15. 78 FR 21540 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Butte County Air Quality Management...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-11

    ... Management District and Sacramento Metropolitan Air Quality Management District AGENCY: Environmental... revisions to the Butte County Air Quality Management District (BCAQMD) and Sacramento Metropolitan Air Quality Management District (SMAQMD) portions of the California State Implementation Plan (SIP)....

  16. DANIDA; Air Quality Monitoring Programme. Mission 3 Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sivertsen, B.; Marsteen, L.

    1996-12-31

    In the development of the Environmental Information and Monitoring Programme for the Arab Republic of Egypt (EIMP), NILU is responsible for the establishment of an air pollution monitoring system. This report summarizes the third mission to Egypt and includes meetings and site visit reports. Air quality sites in Alexandria are described and comments are given to earlier selected sites in Cairo

  17. 78 FR 16630 - Clean Air Act Grant: South Coast Air Quality Management District; Opportunity for Pubic Hearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-18

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 35 Clean Air Act Grant: South Coast Air Quality Management District; Opportunity for... Quality Management District (SCAQMD) in support of its continuing air program under section 105 of the... expenditures in the programs of the South Coast Air Quality Management District. The shortfall stems from...

  18. Assessment of Variation in Water Quality Index (WQI) of Groundwater in North Goa, India

    OpenAIRE

    Gopal Krishan; C.P. Kumar; Purandara, B. K.; Surjeet Singh; N.C. Ghosh; Suman Gurjar; A. G. Chachadi

    2016-01-01

    A water quality index (WQI) is a tool which numerically summarizes the information from multiple water quality parameters into a single value and this information can be used to assess spatial and temporal variations in overall water quality. However, these indices are time and region specific and may be influenced by local factors. In the present study, water quality index has been worked out to assess the spatial and temporal variation of groundwater quality status for future planning and m...

  19. A Parameterized Method for Air-Quality Diagnosis and Its Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Z. Wang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A parameterized method is developed to diagnose the air quality in Beijing and other cities with an index termed (parameters linking air-quality to meteorological elements PLAM derived from a correlation between PM10 and relevant weather elements based on the data between 2000 and 2007. Key weather factors for diagnosing the air pollution intensity are identified and included in PLAM that include atmospheric condensation of water vapour, wet potential equivalent temperature, and wind velocity. It is found that the poor air quality days with elevated PM10 are usually associated with higher PLAM values, featuring higher temperature, humidity, lower wind velocity, and higher stability compared to the averaged values in the same period. Both 24 h and 72 h forecasts provided useful services for the day of the opening ceremony of the Beijing Olympic Games and subsequent sport events. A correlation coefficient of 0.82 was achieved between the forecasts and (air pollution index API and 0.59 between the forecasts and observed PM10, all reaching the significant level of 0.001, for the summer period. A correction factor was also introduced to enable the PLAM to diagnose the observed PM10 concentrations all year round.

  20. Evaluation of entrance surface air kerma from exposure index in computed radiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, A. M.; Pelegrino, M. S.

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this study was to establish an indirect method to calculate the values of entrance surface air kerma in patients undergoing diagnostic examinations in X-ray systems with computed radiography based on the exposure index. The entrance surface air kerma values were compared with values obtained also indirectly based on measurements of X-ray tube output. The mean±standard deviation (1σ) and third quartile for entrance surface air kerma calculated from the exposure index were 2.1±1.0 mGy and 3.0 mGy, respectively. For entrance surface air kerma based on measurements of the X-ray tube output, the mean±standard deviation (1σ) and third quartile were respectively 3.1±1.9 mGy and 5.5 mGy. The observed values of entrance surface air kerma are smaller than the reference level adopted in Brazil (10 mGy). The results obtained with both methods were similar when taking into account the estimated uncertainties in the determination of air kerma values, although the reproducibility of the determinations based on the exposure index is better.

  1. Swelling Index of Glutenin (SIG) Related to Protein Quality,Dough Characters and Noodle Quality

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Xin-zhong; WEI Yi-min; M I P Kovacs; WANG Chun

    2004-01-01

    The swelling index of glutenin (SIG) and the protein fraction of 25 Chinese wheat varieties were studied with new protein fractions extracting method. The protein fractions compose of monomeric protein, soluble glutenin and insoluble glutenin. The relations between other protein index, dough character, and fresh noodle quality were also discussed. The SIG results at different time is positively and highly significantly related to the insoluble glutenin content (r=0.808 -0.867, P< 0.01). The SIG result can reflect the insoluble glutenin content. The protein content, gluten index, farinograph stability time, extensibility length and extensigramenergy were positively and significantly correlated with SIG5 and SIG20 (r=0.516- 0.734, P<0.05, 0.01).SIG proved to be applicable in Chinese wheat dough evaluation. Fresh noodle making quality parameters were evaluated by fresh noodle length, thickness, maximum resistance to extension, extension area and extension distance, while cooked noodle texture was determined by cutting firmness, compression recovery, surface firmness and TPA by using a texture analyzer of TA.XT2i.The noodle cooking quality was significantly correlated with SIG value. The surface firmness and cutting firmness were more desirable for predicating the quality difference than TPA test and compression. Cooking loss and water absorption were negatively related to SIG value and insoluble content (r=-0.556 - - 0.787, P< 0.05, 0.01) . The results showed that SIG test was also suitable in evaluating noodle making and cooking quality in very small sample size, which was very important in wheat breeding programs. Therefore,SIG test, as a small scale test, is suitable to evaluate dough rheological properties for Chinese wheat varieties, and will be helpful in cereal research and wheat breeding program, especially, in early generations.

  2. 40 CFR 81.54 - Cook Inlet Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cook Inlet Intrastate Air Quality...) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.54 Cook Inlet Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Cook...

  3. 40 CFR 81.32 - Puget Sound Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Puget Sound Intrastate Air Quality...) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.32 Puget Sound Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Puget...

  4. 40 CFR 81.75 - Metropolitan Charlotte Interstate Air Quality Control Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.75 Metropolitan Charlotte Interstate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan Charlotte Interstate Air Quality Control Region (North Carolina-South Carolina) has been...

  5. 40 CFR 81.51 - Portland Interstate Air Quality Control Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Portland Interstate Air Quality...) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.51 Portland Interstate Air Quality Control Region. The Portland...

  6. 40 CFR 81.23 - Southwest Pennsylvania Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.23 Southwest Pennsylvania Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Southwest Pennsylvania Intrastate Air Quality Control Region is redesignated to consist of the...

  7. 40 CFR 81.20 - Metropolitan Cincinnati Interstate Air Quality Control Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.20 Metropolitan Cincinnati Interstate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan Cincinnati Interstate Air Quality Control Region (Ohio-Kentucky-Indiana) is revised to consist...

  8. 40 CFR 81.24 - Niagara Frontier Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.24 Niagara Frontier Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Niagara Frontier Intrastate Air Quality Control Region (New York) consists of the territorial...

  9. 40 CFR 81.35 - Louisville Interstate Air Quality Control Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Louisville Interstate Air Quality...) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.35 Louisville Interstate Air Quality Control Region. The...

  10. 40 CFR 81.14 - Metropolitan Chicago Interstate Air Quality Control Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.14 Metropolitan Chicago Interstate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan Chicago Interstate Air Quality Control Region (Illinois-Indiana) is revised to consist of...

  11. 40 CFR 81.29 - Metropolitan Indianapolis Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Air Quality Control Region. 81.29 Section 81.29 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.29 Metropolitan Indianapolis Intrastate Air Quality...

  12. 40 CFR 81.48 - Champlain Valley Interstate Air Quality Control Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.48 Champlain Valley Interstate Air Quality Control Region. The Champlain Valley Interstate Air Quality Control Region (Vermont-New York) has been revised to consist of...

  13. 40 CFR 81.16 - Metropolitan Denver Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.16 Metropolitan Denver Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan Denver Intrastate Air Quality Control Region (Colorado) consists of the territorial...

  14. 40 CFR 81.45 - Metropolitan Atlanta Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.45 Metropolitan Atlanta Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan Atlanta Intrastate Air Quality Control Region (Georgia) has been revised to consist of...

  15. 40 CFR 81.41 - Metropolitan Birmingham Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.41 Metropolitan Birmingham Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan Birmingham Intrastate Air Quality Control Region (Alabama) has been revised to consist of...

  16. 40 CFR 81.47 - Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.47 Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region has been renamed the Central Oklahoma...

  17. 40 CFR 81.59 - Cumberland-Keyser Interstate Air Quality Control Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.59 Cumberland-Keyser Interstate Air Quality Control Region. The Cumberland-Keyser Interstate Air Quality Control Region (Maryland-West Virginia) has been revised to...

  18. 40 CFR 81.34 - Metropolitan Dayton Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.34 Metropolitan Dayton Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan Dayton Intrastate Air Quality Control Region consists of the territorial area encompassed by...

  19. 40 CFR 81.17 - Metropolitan Los Angeles Air Quality Control Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Metropolitan Los Angeles Air Quality...) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.17 Metropolitan Los Angeles Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan...

  20. 40 CFR 81.43 - Metropolitan Toledo Interstate Air Quality Control Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.43 Metropolitan Toledo Interstate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan Toledo Interstate Air Quality Control Region (Ohio-Michigan) consists of the territorial...

  1. 40 CFR 81.49 - Southeast Florida Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.49 Southeast Florida Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Southeast Florida Intrastate Air Quality Control Region is redesignated to consist of the territorial...

  2. 40 CFR 81.28 - Metropolitan Baltimore Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.28 Metropolitan Baltimore Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan Baltimore Intrastate Air Quality Control Region (Maryland) consists of the territorial...

  3. 40 CFR 81.52 - Wasatch Front Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Wasatch Front Intrastate Air Quality...) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.52 Wasatch Front Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Wasatch...

  4. 40 CFR 81.19 - Metropolitan Boston Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.19 Metropolitan Boston Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan Boston Intrastate Air Quality Control Region (Massachusetts) consists of the territorial...

  5. 40 CFR 81.44 - Metropolitan Memphis Interstate Air Quality Control Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.44 Metropolitan Memphis Interstate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan Memphis Interstate Air Quality Control Region (Arkansas-Mississippi-Tennessee) consists of...

  6. 40 CFR 81.76 - State of Hawaii Air Quality Control Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false State of Hawaii Air Quality Control... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.76 State of Hawaii Air Quality Control Region. The State of Hawaii Air...

  7. 40 CFR 81.42 - Chattanooga Interstate Air Quality Control Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Chattanooga Interstate Air Quality...) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.42 Chattanooga Interstate Air Quality Control Region. The...

  8. 40 CFR 81.36 - Maricopa Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Maricopa Intrastate Air Quality...) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.36 Maricopa Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The...

  9. 40 CFR 81.62 - Northeast Mississippi Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.62 Northeast Mississippi Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Alabama-Mississippi-Tennessee Interstate Air Quality Control Region has been renamed the...

  10. 40 CFR 81.30 - Southeastern Wisconsin Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.30 Southeastern Wisconsin Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan Milwaukee Intrastate Air Quality Control Region (Wisconsin) has been renamed the...

  11. 40 CFR 81.31 - Metropolitan Providence Interstate Air Quality Control Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.31 Metropolitan Providence Interstate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan Providence Interstate Air Quality Control Region (Rhode Island-Massachusetts) consists of...

  12. 40 CFR 81.67 - Lake Michigan Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Lake Michigan Intrastate Air Quality...) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.67 Lake Michigan Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The...

  13. Modelling urban air quality using artificial neural network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagendra, S.M. Shiva; Khare, Mukesh [Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, Department of Civil Engineering, New Delhi (India)

    2005-05-01

    This paper describes the development of artificial neural network-based vehicular exhaust emission models for predicting 8-h average carbon monoxide concentrations at two air quality control regions (AQCRs) in the city of Delhi, India, viz. a typical traffic intersection (AQCR1) and a typical arterial road (AQCR2). Maximum of ten meteorological and six traffic characteristic variables have been used in the models' formulation. Three scenarios were considered - considering both meteorological and traffic characteristics input parameters; only meteorological inputs; and only traffic characteristics input data. The performance of all the developed models was evaluated on the basis of index of agreement (d) and other statistical parameters, viz. the mean and the deviations of the observed and predicted concentrations, mean bias error, mean square error, systematic and unsystematic root mean square error, coefficient of determination and linear best fit constant and gradient (Willmott in B Am Meteorol Soc 63:1309, 1982). The forecast performance of the developed models, with meteorological and traffic characteristics (d=0.78 for AQCR1 and d=0.69 for AQCR2) and with only meteorological inputs (d=0.77 for AQCR1 and d=0.67 for AQCR2), were comparable with the measured data. (orig.)

  14. Air quality assessment related to traffic congestion at Sarnia's Blue Water Bridge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parker, M.; Diamond, G.

    2005-12-15

    In addition to a significant increase in security at the Canada-United States border, traffic across the Blue Water Bridge in Sarnia, Ontario between Canada and the United States has substantially increased over the past few years. This has led to long truck delays ranging from minutes up to several hours, causing truck queues several kilometres long along Highway 402, the highway leading to the bridge. Slow moving queues cause trucks to sit with their engines idling for long periods of time, creating a long source of particulate and other pollutants running through a mainly residential section of north Sarnia, in turn causing concerns about air quality in these areas. A study was conducted to examine the air quality impacts of the traffic emissions along the 402 Highway using special short term air quality surveys conducted for this purpose during select days in the summer of 2004. This report presented the context for the study and discussed air quality monitoring. It also provided the results of the particulate monitoring surveys and mobile particulate surveys. It discussed the zone of immediate influence and provided a summary and conclusions. Several appendices were also provided, including levels of concern for particulate matter; an overview of the air quality index; noise barriers along the highway; linear regression and excel; monitoring surveys graphs and tables; and modelling results. 3 refs., 4 tabs., 68 figs., 6 appendices.

  15. Assessment of Ambient Air Quality in Riyadh City, Saudi Arabia.

    OpenAIRE

    B. H. Alharbi; M. J. Pasha; N. Tapper

    2014-01-01

    Concentrations of airborne particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter less than 10 µm (PM10) and five gaseous air pollutants (O3, CO, NO2, SO2 and H2S) were measured over a period of approximately six years (October 1999-June 2004) at five air quality monitoring network stations of King Abulaziz City for Science and Technology (KACST) in Riyadh city, Saudi Arabia. The main objective of this study is to evaluate the quality of ambient air in relation to its possible effects on human healt...

  16. New air quality guidelines: framework directive and daughter directive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosalía Fernández Patier

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available The old Directives about air quality had some problems in their application, both in the management of ambient air quality and in the lack of public information. The new Directives, based in 96/62/EC Directive about assesment and management of ambient air resolve these problems. They are more strict in permited limit values of pollutants and establish new Directives for new pollutants. The new Directives have been transposed the national legislation in RD 1073/2002 of 18 October.

  17. On-Road Air Quality and the Effect of Partial Recirculation on In-Cabin Air Quality for Vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Grady, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The California Air Resource Board (CARB) recently reported that due to exposure to particle emissions, 9,000 people die annually in California alone [11]. A method for quantifying the exposure during a daily commute as well as reducing the exposure for the passengers has been developed. A fractional recirculation of cabin air was proposed and studied to improve cabin air quality by reducing cabin particle concentrations. Vehicle tests were run with differing number of passengers (1, 2, 3,...

  18. Seasonal variations of ground water quality and its agglomerates by water quality index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Sharma

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Water is a unique natural resource among all sources available on earth. It plays an important role in economic development and the general well-being of the country. This study aimed at using the application of water quality index in evaluating the ground water quality innorth-east area of Jaipur in pre and post monsoon for public usage. Total eleven physico–chemical characteristics; total dissolved solids, total hardness,chloride, nitrate, electrical conductance, sodium, fluorideand potassium, pH, turbidity, temperature were analyzed and observed values were compared with standard values recommended by Indian standard and World Health Organization. Most of parameter show higher value than permissible limit in pre and post monsoon. Water quality index study showed that drinking water in Amer (221.58,277.70, Lalawas (362.74,396.67, Jaisinghpura area (286.00,273.78 were found to be highly contaminated due to high value of total dissolved solids, electrical conductance, total hardness, chloride, nitrate and sodium.Saipura (122.52, 131.00, Naila (120.25, 239.86, Galta (160.9, 204.1 were found to be moderately contaminated for both monsoons. People dependent on this water may prone to health hazard. Therefore some effective measures are urgently required to enhance the quality of water in these areas.

  19. The air quality impact of the port of Amsterdam on its environment: Development of an air quality tool

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klok, L.; Breemen, T. van; Hulskotte, J.

    2011-01-01

    Due to the expansion of the Port of Amsterdam, Urban development and the construction of new highways, air pollution levels are about to exceed European guidelines in and around the port region of Amsterdam. To assess the air quality in this region and the impact of theport emissions on its environm

  20. The Aeroflex: A Bicycle for Mobile Air Quality Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bart Elen

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Fixed air quality stations have limitations when used to assess people's real life exposure to air pollutants. Their spatial coverage is too limited to capture the spatial variability in, e.g., an urban or industrial environment. Complementary mobile air quality measurements can be used as an additional tool to fill this void. In this publication we present the Aeroflex, a bicycle for mobile air quality monitoring. The Aeroflex is equipped with compact air quality measurement devices to monitor ultrafine particle number counts, particulate mass and black carbon concentrations at a high resolution (up to 1 second. Each measurement is automatically linked to its geographical location and time of acquisition using GPS and Internet time. Furthermore, the Aeroflex is equipped with automated data transmission, data pre-processing and data visualization. The Aeroflex is designed with adaptability, reliability and user friendliness in mind. Over the past years, the Aeroflex has been successfully used for high resolution air quality mapping, exposure assessment and hot spot identification. 

  1. Air quality as respiratory health indicator: a critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moshammer, Hanns; Wallner, Peter

    2011-09-01

    As part of the European Public Health project IMCA II validity and practicability of "air pollution" as a respiratory health indicator were analyzed. The definitions of air quality as an indicator proposed by the WHO project ECOEHIS and by IMCA I were compared. The public availability of the necessary data was checked through access to web-based data-bases. Practicability and interpretation of the indicator were discussed with project partners and external experts. Air quality serves as a kind of benchmark for the good health-related environmental policy. In this sense, it is a relevant health indicator. Although air quality is not directly in the responsibility of health policy, its vital importance for the population's health should not be neglected. In principle, data is available to calculate this IMCA indicator for any chosen area in Europe. The indicator is relevant and informative, but calculation and interpretation need input from local expert knowledge. The European health policy is well advised to take air quality into account. To that end, an interdisciplinary approach is warranted. The proposed definition of air quality as a (respiratory) health indicator is workable, but correct interpretation depends on expert and local knowledge.

  2. The Aeroflex: A Bicycle for Mobile Air Quality Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elen, Bart; Peters, Jan; Van Poppel, Martine; Bleux, Nico; Theunis, Jan; Reggente, Matteo; Standaert, Arnout

    2013-01-01

    Fixed air quality stations have limitations when used to assess people's real life exposure to air pollutants. Their spatial coverage is too limited to capture the spatial variability in, e.g., an urban or industrial environment. Complementary mobile air quality measurements can be used as an additional tool to fill this void. In this publication we present the Aeroflex, a bicycle for mobile air quality monitoring. The Aeroflex is equipped with compact air quality measurement devices to monitor ultrafine particle number counts, particulate mass and black carbon concentrations at a high resolution (up to 1 second). Each measurement is automatically linked to its geographical location and time of acquisition using GPS and Internet time. Furthermore, the Aeroflex is equipped with automated data transmission, data pre-processing and data visualization. The Aeroflex is designed with adaptability, reliability and user friendliness in mind. Over the past years, the Aeroflex has been successfully used for high resolution air quality mapping, exposure assessment and hot spot identification. PMID:23262484

  3. Metro Vancouver air quality management plan : progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Greater Vancouver Regional District (GVRD) developed an air quality management plan (AQMP) in 2005 as a means of addressing air quality issues in the region. The plan required progress reports every 2 years as well as a comprehensive review every 5 years. The AQMP established goals to minimize risk to public health from air pollution, improve visibility, and minimize the region's contributions to global climatic change by reducing emissions; implementing local air quality management programs; and enhancing air quality information and public awareness. The AQMP also included a sustainability framework for GVRD's policies and regulations related to regional growth, service delivery and political leadership. Regional strategies for solid waste and liquid waste management were developed in 2008. The sustainability framework has developed 3 priority goals: (1) to reduce diesel particulates by 75 per cent from Metro Vancouver corporate sources by 2012, (2) to be carbon neutral by 2012 excluding solid waste operations, and (3) to reduce regional GHGs by 15 per cent by 2015, and 33 per cent by 2020. Progress updates on regional planning efforts for the AQMP were presented. The report also outlined trends and performance measures used by the GVRD, and discussed changes in air quality issues and priorities that have occurred since the AQMP was adopted in 2005. 1 tab., 8 figs

  4. Atmospheric Aerosols: Air Quality and Climate Change Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shabana Manzoor

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Recently, air quality has become a matter of concern of everyone. According to the reports, atmospheric aerosols play very crucial role in air quality. PM10 and PM2.5 aerosols are integral parts of total suspended particulate matter which affect our health. Often air quality has been reported very poor due to violation of National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS limits. PM10 and PM2.5 limits are crossed for both residential as well as sensitive sites. This is one of the major reasons of increasing cases of respiratory diseases in urban areas. However, aerosol loadings alone are not the factor for deciding or predicting toxic and harmful effects of aerosols. Chemical composition and size ranges do matter. Aerosol loadings can be due to three major source categories viz. marine, crustal and anthropogenic. Since, marine and crustal content of aerosols are generally non-toxic and hence, degree of toxicity of air needs to be decided on the basis of anthropogenic fraction having metals, PAHs and other harmful content. Apart from air quality and health, atmospheric aerosols play vital role in other atmospheric processes such as cloud formation, radiative transfer and monsoon etc. Though there are several studies reported on different aspects of atmospheric aerosols, but most of the findings are sort of data reporting based on short term observations. Hence, there is need to investigate the atmospheric aerosols in order to demonstrate local and regional phenomenon on the basis of long term datasets.

  5. Providing and maintaining quality air in the plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, D. [Aercology, Inc., Old Saybrook, CT (United States)

    1997-10-01

    A number of issues motivate plant and facilities engineers to be concerned about inplant air quality and to seek methods for cleaning up the air. First, airborne contaminants in manufacturing plants can significantly damage sensitive electronic controls, servo motors, and drives on such capital equipment as grinding machines, lasers, and robotics. Dust and smoke collect on lighting fixtures, and paint overspray particles land almost anywhere. Such conditions decrease productivity and increase maintenance costs. Second is the constant potential for lawsuits. Plant engineers must address workers` health concerns about the quality of inplant air. This first article in a two-part series on inplant air quality looks at contaminant control -- assessing airborne pollutants and understanding the terminology and regulations that govern them.

  6. Air Quality – monitoring and modelling

    OpenAIRE

    Marius DEACONU; Cretu, Mihaiella

    2012-01-01

    Air pollution is a major concern for all nations, regardless of their development. The rapid growth of the industrial sector and urban development have lead to significant quantities of substances and toxic materials, mostly discharged into the atmosphere and having adverse effects both on human health and environment in general. Human society has to recognize that environment has only a limited capacity to process all of its waste without major changes. Each of us is a pollutant but also a v...

  7. Indoor air quality at Salarjung Museum, Hyderabad, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, M K; Suneela, M; Sumathi, M; Reddy, R C

    2005-06-01

    Deterioration of art objects at Salarjung Museum has been noticed such as blackening of white and pink pigments of Indian miniature paintings and other objects like pigments, paints, varnishes, coatings, silver ware, zari works, textiles, which are displayed in museum galleries. The cause of deterioration of the artifacts is attributed to air pollution. The outdoor air pollution levels with respect to suspended particulate matter, sulphur dioxide, oxides of nitrogen, ammonia, aldehydes and oxidants are observed to be high when compared with background environment and ambient air quality standards for sensitive areas. The indoor air quality levels in terms of various parameters including temperature and relative humidity (RH) observed to be more than the threshold limits. The climatic conditions coupled with polluted indoor air are the main causes for the deterioration of art objects. Hence remedial measures are suggested to avoid further deterioration of objects.

  8. The implementation challenge of urban air quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lint, R.J.T. van; Buitenkamp, S.; Zebregs, M. [Ministry of Housing, The Hague (Netherlands). Air Quality and Acidification Abatement Div.

    1995-12-31

    In recent years, the policy followed has booked some significant successes in the structural reduction of the emissions by a number of air polluting substances (e.g. sulphur dioxide and lead). However, the Third Environmental Outlook 1993-2015 has determined that the policy goals for a number of other air polluting substances will not be achieved, particularly in urban areas. This concerns fine dust (PM-10) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), nitrogen dioxide, benzene and black smoke. The policy goals for the above priority substances have been set so as to protect the population against the negative effects on health from too high concentrations of these substances. Forty-six per cent of the Dutch population live in cities of more than 100,000 inhabitants, and, hence, many people are exposed to (too) high concentrations. For this reason, the Netherlands` Second National Environmental Policy Plan lays down that government, provinces and municipalities will together develop a plan of action to reduce urban air pollution to acceptable levels. The formulated strategy is presented in the document here. To that end, the problem analysis and current policy related to the issue are considered in more detail below. On the basis of this, the additional policy strategy is formulated. (author)

  9. Spatial and temporal analysis of Air Pollution Index and its timescale-dependent relationship with meteorological factors in Guangzhou, China, 2001–2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is an increasing interest in spatial and temporal variation of air pollution and its association with weather conditions. We presented the spatial and temporal variation of Air Pollution Index (API) and examined the associations between API and meteorological factors during 2001–2011 in Guangzhou, China. A Seasonal-Trend Decomposition Procedure Based on Loess (STL) was used to decompose API. Wavelet analyses were performed to examine the relationships between API and several meteorological factors. Air quality has improved since 2005. APIs were highly correlated among five monitoring stations, and there were substantial temporal variations. Timescale-dependent relationships were found between API and a variety of meteorological factors. Temperature, relative humidity, precipitation and wind speed were negatively correlated with API, while diurnal temperature range and atmospheric pressure were positively correlated with API in the annual cycle. Our findings should be taken into account when determining air quality forecasts and pollution control measures. - Highlights: • Air pollution is still serious in Guangzhou, China. • Air Pollution Index was associated with a variety of meteorological parameters. • The temporal relationships were timescale-dependent. • The findings should be taken into account in air quality forecasts and pollution control. - Spatial and temporal variation of API and its timescale-dependent relationship with meteorological factors in Guangzhou were demonstrated

  10. Establishment of Track Quality Index Standard Recommendations for Beijing Metro

    OpenAIRE

    Reng-Kui Liu; Peng Xu; Zhuang-Zhi Sun; Ce Zou; Quan-Xin Sun

    2015-01-01

    Since 2007, Beijing Metro started to use track geometry car to measure quality of its tracks under wheel loading conditions. The track quality measurement data from the track geometry car were only used to assess local track quality by means of scoring 1000 m long track segments based on track exceptions. Track quality management experience of national railroads of China shows that, in addition to local track quality assessment, an overall track quality assessment method should be employed. T...

  11. The effect of a photocatalytic air purifier on indoor air quality quantified using different measuring methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolarik, Barbara; Wargocki, Pawel; Skorek-Osikowska, A.;

    2010-01-01

    , additional measurements were made with no pollution sources present in the office. All conditions were tested with the photocatalytic air purifier turned on and off. The results show that operation of the air purifier in the presence of pollutants emitted by building materials and furniture improves indoor......The effect on indoor air quality of an air purifier based on photocatalytic oxidation (PCO) was determined by different measuring techniques: sensory assessments of air quality made by human subjects, Proton-Transfer-Reaction Mass Spectrometry (PTR-MS) and chromatographic methods (Gas...... Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry and High-Pressure Liquid Chromatography with UV detection). The experiment was conducted in a simulated office, ventilated with 0.6 h(-1), 2.5 h(-1) and 6 h(-1), in the presence of additional pollution sources (carpet, chipboard and linoleum). At the lowest air change rate...

  12. 78 FR 63933 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Virginia; Revised Ambient Air...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-25

    .... Environmental Protection Agency, Region III, 1650 Arch Street, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19103. D. Hand... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... Ambient Air Quality Standards for Fine Particulate Matter AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency...

  13. The Air Sensor Citizen Science Toolbox: A Collaboration in Community Air Quality Monitoring and Mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Research in Action: Collect air quality data to characterize near-road/near-source hotspots; Determine potential impact on nearby residences & roadways; Case study of successful use of such data; Relationship between distance to roadways and industrial sources, exposure to...

  14. Aggregate Indices Method in Soil Quality Evaluation Using the Relative Soil Quality Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ho Ngoc Pham

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new approach to assess the soil quality by aggregate indices using the Relative Soil Quality Index (RSQI proposed by Ho Ngoc Pham. RSQI is integrated from the individual indices into a simple formula for overall assessment of the soil quality. RSQI is different from other approaches. Particularly, the individual indices and the weighting factors of Pham are calculated from the analytical laboratory data and the environmental standards, respectively, and not self-regulated as in methods of some other authors. In this paper, the authors applied the RSQI to assess the Soil Environmental Quality of rice intensive cultivation areas through a case study in Haiduong province in 2013. The RSQI is calculated for sampling points in 12 districts and simulated the Soil Environmental Quality on GIS map. The results show that the Soil Environmental Quality of rice intensive cultivation areas in Haiduong is predominantly divided into three levels: good, moderate, and poor. According to the report of General Statistics Office for Haiduong province, rice intensive cultivation areas in 2013 achieved a relatively high average rice yield of 5.90 tonnes per hectare; it means actual soil properties are in line with results of the research.

  15. Combating the 'Sick Building Syndrome' by Improving Indoor Air Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pongchai Nimcharoenwon

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Research indicates that many of symptoms attributed to the Sick Building Syndrome in air-conditioned office buildings are a result of considerably reduced negative ions in the internal atmosphere and that replacing the depleted negative ions can improve indoor air quality. This paper describes a method used to develop a formula (DOF-NIL formula for calculating the amount of negative ions to be added to air-conditioned buildings, to improve air quality. The formula enables estimates to be made based on how negative ions in the air are reduced by three main factors namely, Video Display Terminals (VDT; heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC and Building Contents (BC. Calculations for a typical air-conditioned office, are compared with an Air Ion Counter instrument. The results show that the formula, when applied to a typical air-conditioned office, provides an accurate estimate for design purposes. The typical rate of additional negative-ions (ion-generating for a negative ion condition is found to be approximately 12.0 billion ions/hr for at least 4 hour ion-generating.

  16. CityAir app: Mapping air-quality perception using people as sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castell, Nuria; Fredriksen, Mirjam; Cole-Hunter, Thomas; Robinson, Johanna; Keune, Hans; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark; Bartonova, Alena

    2016-04-01

    Outdoor air pollution is a major environmental health problem affecting all people in developed and developing countries alike. Ambient (outdoor) air pollution in both cities and rural areas was estimated to cause 3.7 million premature deaths worldwide in 2012. In modern society, people are expending an increasing amount of time in polluted urban environments, thus increasing their exposure and associated health responses. Some cities provide information about air pollution levels to their citizens using air quality monitoring networks. However, due to their high cost and maintenance, the density of the monitoring networks is very low and not capable to capture the high temporal and spatial variability of air pollution. Thus, the citizen lacks a specific answer to the question of "how the air quality is in our surroundings". In the framework of the EU-funded CITI-SENSE project the innovative concept of People as Sensors is being applied to the field of outdoor air pollution. This is being done in eight European cities, including Barcelona, Belgrade, Edinburgh, Haifa, Ljubljana, Oslo, Ostrava and Vienna. People as Sensors defines a measurement model, in which measurements are not only taken by hardware sensors, but in which also humans can contribute with their individual "measurements" such as their subjective perception of air quality and other personal observations. In order to collect the personal observations a mobile app, CityAir, has been developed. CityAir allows citizens to rate the air quality in their surroundings with colour at their current location: green if air quality is very good, yellow if air quality is good, orange if air quality is poor and red if air quality is very poor. The users have also the possibility of indicating the source of pollution (i.e. traffic, industry, wood burning) and writing a comment. The information is on-line and accessible for other app users, thus contributing to create an air-quality map based on citizens' perception

  17. The microbiological quality of air improves when using air conditioning systems in cars

    OpenAIRE

    Holdack-Janssen Hinrich; Kenneweg Björn; Gastmeier Petra; Vonberg Ralf-Peter; Sohr Dorit; Chaberny Iris F

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Because of better comfort, air conditioning systems are a common feature in automobiles these days. However, its impact on the number of particles and microorganisms inside the vehicle - and by this its impact on the risk of an allergic reaction - is yet unknown. Methods Over a time period of 30 months, the quality of air was investigated in three different types of cars (VW Passat, VW Polo FSI, Seat Alhambra) that were all equipped with a automatic air conditioning system...

  18. The impact of periodic air pollution peaks in Beijing on air quality governance in China

    OpenAIRE

    Schwabe, Julian; Hassler, Markus

    2016-01-01

    During the month of January 2013, Beijing suffered air pollution of unprecedented intensity. This event, which was named “airpocalypse” in international media, was followed by vibrant media reporting and public discussion on the topic and prompted the central government to issue unusually ambitious measures to contain air pollution more effectively. This paper explores the impact of the airpocalypse on China’s air quality governance by conducting a qualitative analysis of pollution control po...

  19. Summary Day 1: Second AirMonTech Workshop, Current and Future Air Quality Monitoring

    OpenAIRE

    Querol, Xavier

    2012-01-01

    Presentación resumen de las ponencias del primer día de las Second AirMonTech Workshop, Current and Future Air Quality Monitoring. Estas jornadas tuvieron lugar en Barcelona del 25 al 26 de abril de 2012.

  20. Attached garages and indoor air quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many homes have attached garages which can be a source of indoor air pollution such as carbon monoxide (CO) benzene, and other volatile organic compounds. The problem with CO in the home usually occurs in winter months because vehicles tend to be warmed in the garage for longer periods and air exchange to the outside is limited. The rate of CO emission from a typical gasoline engine is between 30,000 to 100,000 ppm, making it difficult to provide adequate ventilation and equally difficult to develop a truly gas-tight barrier. Studies have shown that from 5 to 85 per cent of the outdoor air leaking into a house comes through the garage, carrying with it CO and other pollutants. Houses with attached garages typically have gasoline concentrations that are 10 times higher than outdoor levels. Starting a cold car in a garage can send CO levels to more than 80,000 ppm. Also, the car will offgas a wide range of fumes as it cools down after use, leaving CO concentrations in the home at unsafe levels for several hours at a time. The Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation and the American Lung Association suggest that the safest way to ensure protection against CO and other pollutants from entering a house is to build a garage detached from the house. Alternatively, walls and doors to the house should be sealed tightly and an exhaust fan venting outdoors should be used in the garage to prevent CO from entering the house. It was cautioned that since fans could depressurize a house, vented appliance such as furnaces, water heaters and boilers, should be checked for proper operation after a garage fan is installed. 1 fig

  1. Solutions Network Formulation Report. NASA's Potential Contributions for Using Solar Ultraviolet Radiation in Conjunction with Photocatalysis for Urban Air Pollution Mitigation and Increasing Air Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Underwood, Lauren; Ryan, Robert E.

    2007-01-01

    This Candidate Solution is based on using NASA Earth science research on atmospheric ozone and aerosols data as a means to predict and evaluate the effectiveness of photocatalytically created surfaces (building materials like glass, tile and cement) for air pollution mitigation purposes. When these surfaces are exposed to near UV light, organic molecules, like air pollutants and smog precursors, will degrade into environmentally friendly compounds. U.S. EPA (Environmental Protection Agency) is responsible for forecasting daily air quality by using the Air Quality Index (AQI) that is provided by AIRNow. EPA is partnered with AIRNow and is responsible for calculating the AQI for five major air pollutants that are regulated by the Clean Air Act. In this Solution, UV irradiance data acquired from the satellite mission Aura and the OMI Surface UV algorithm will be used to help understand both the efficacy and efficiency of the photocatalytic decomposition process these surfaces facilitate, and their ability to reduce air pollutants. Prediction models that estimate photocatalytic function do not exist. NASA UV irradiance data will enable this capability, so that air quality agencies that are run by state and local officials can develop and implement programs that utilize photocatalysis for urban air pollution control and, enable them to make effective decisions about air pollution protection programs.

  2. The air quality in Danish urban areas.

    OpenAIRE

    Jensen, F P; Fenger, J.

    1994-01-01

    The Danish air pollution abatement is based by and large on emission control. Since the ratification of the international sulfur protocol of 1985, there has been a continuous tightening of the permissible sulfur content in fuels and of the maximum emissions from power plants. As a consequence, the total annual emission of sulfur dioxide (SO2) has been reduced from 450,000 tons in the seventies to 180,000 tons in 1990. This has had a pronounced effect on the SO2 levels in Danish urban areas. T...

  3. Lichen bioindication of air quality in the Mt. Amiata geothermal area (Tuscany, Italy)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of a lichen bioindication survey of air quality performed in the Mt. Amiata geothermal area (Tuscany, central Italy) are reported. On the basis of 153 Index of Atmospheric Purity (IAP) samplings, an air quality zonal map of the area was drawn. The lowest IAP values were recorded in an area encompassing the geothermal power plants, up to a distance of about 500 m. The overall pattern of rising IAP values with increasing distance from the geothermal power plants suggested that air pollution from the geothermal installations is the main cause of the observed zonation of lichen communities. It is suggest that hydrogen sulphide is the main contaminant responsible for lichen decline around geothermal power plants. (Author)

  4. Air quality concerns of unconventional oil and natural gas production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, R A; Soltis, J; Murphy, S

    2014-05-01

    Increased use of hydraulic fracturing ("fracking") in unconventional oil and natural gas (O & NG) development from coal, sandstone, and shale deposits in the United States (US) has created environmental concerns over water and air quality impacts. In this perspective we focus on how the production of unconventional O & NG affects air quality. We pay particular attention to shale gas as this type of development has transformed natural gas production in the US and is set to become important in the rest of the world. A variety of potential emission sources can be spread over tens of thousands of acres of a production area and this complicates assessment of local and regional air quality impacts. We outline upstream activities including drilling, completion and production. After contrasting the context for development activities in the US and Europe we explore the use of inventories for determining air emissions. Location and scale of analysis is important, as O & NG production emissions in some US basins account for nearly 100% of the pollution burden, whereas in other basins these activities make up less than 10% of total air emissions. While emission inventories are beneficial to quantifying air emissions from a particular source category, they do have limitations when determining air quality impacts from a large area. Air monitoring is essential, not only to validate inventories, but also to measure impacts. We describe the use of measurements, including ground-based mobile monitoring, network stations, airborne, and satellite platforms for measuring air quality impacts. We identify nitrogen oxides, volatile organic compounds (VOC), ozone, hazardous air pollutants (HAP), and methane as pollutants of concern related to O & NG activities. These pollutants can contribute to air quality concerns and they may be regulated in ambient air, due to human health or climate forcing concerns. Close to well pads, emissions are concentrated and exposure to a wide range of

  5. Classifying Sources Influencing Indoor Air Quality (IAQ Using Artificial Neural Network (ANN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaharil Mad Saad

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring indoor air quality (IAQ is deemed important nowadays. A sophisticated IAQ monitoring system which could classify the source influencing the IAQ is definitely going to be very helpful to the users. Therefore, in this paper, an IAQ monitoring system has been proposed with a newly added feature which enables the system to identify the sources influencing the level of IAQ. In order to achieve this, the data collected has been trained with artificial neural network or ANN—a proven method for pattern recognition. Basically, the proposed system consists of sensor module cloud (SMC, base station and service-oriented client. The SMC contain collections of sensor modules that measure the air quality data and transmit the captured data to base station through wireless network. The IAQ monitoring system is also equipped with IAQ Index and thermal comfort index which could tell the users about the room’s conditions. The results showed that the system is able to measure the level of air quality and successfully classify the sources influencing IAQ in various environments like ambient air, chemical presence, fragrance presence, foods and beverages and human activity.

  6. Health effects of air quality regulations in Delhi, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Andrew; Kumar, Naresh

    2011-03-01

    This, the first systematic study, quantifies the health effects of air quality regulations in Delhi, which adopted radical measures to improve air quality, including, for example, the conversion of all commercial vehicles to compressed natural gas (CNG), and the closure of polluting industries in residential areas from 2000 to 2002. Air pollution data, collected at 113 sites (spread across Delhi and its neighboring areas) from July-December 2003, were used to compute exposure at the place of residence of 3989 subjects. A socio-economic and respiratory health survey was administered in 1576 households. This survey collected time-use, residence histories, demographic information, and direct measurements of lung function with subjects. The optimal interpolation methods were used to link air pollution and respiratory health data at the place of their residence. Resident histories, in combination with secondary data, were used to impute cumulative exposure prior to the air-quality interventions, and the effects of recent air quality measures on lung function were then evaluated. Three important findings emerge from the analysis. First, the interventions were associated with a significant improvement in respiratory health. Second, the effect of these interventions varied significantly by gender and income. Third, consistent with a causal interpretation of these results, effects were the strongest among those individuals who spend a disproportionate share of their time out-of-doors.

  7. Discussion paper : air quality and official plan policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-11-14

    This document presents an outline of the issues that must be considered when addressing air quality issues within the Region of Halton, Ontario. Data from the Ontario Ministry of Environment suggest that Halton's air quality is generally worse than that of Hamilton or Toronto. For that reason, the Ecological Environmental Advisory Committee recommends that general policies and implementation permitting policies respecting air quality and climate change be considered as part of the Region's Directions Report toward enacting amendments to the Region's Official Plan. The main reason for the region to be concerned about air quality is the public health of its citizens. The main sources of air pollution include fossil-fueled power plants, transportation, and the impacts of urban sprawl. Other industrial activities and residential heating also make significant contributions. Addressing any single issue at source could result in many benefits for all issues. Since municipalities do not have the resources to monitor clean air (as they do for clean water), the Region is advised to establish appropriate policies to meet these challenges. It is suggested that Halton should adopt the Federation of Canadian Municipalities' plan to achieve 20 per cent of the Kyoto Target, and reduce its total emission tonnage of greenhouse gases by 20 - 25 per cent. It is also suggested that the Region should adopt the province's anti-smog action plan regarding nitrous oxide and sulphur dioxide emissions. 4 tabs.

  8. A two-stage inexact joint-probabilistic programming method for air quality management under uncertainty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Y; Huang, G H; Li, Y P; Yang, Z F; Sun, W

    2011-03-01

    A two-stage inexact joint-probabilistic programming (TIJP) method is developed for planning a regional air quality management system with multiple pollutants and multiple sources. The TIJP method incorporates the techniques of two-stage stochastic programming, joint-probabilistic constraint programming and interval mathematical programming, where uncertainties expressed as probability distributions and interval values can be addressed. Moreover, it can not only examine the risk of violating joint-probability constraints, but also account for economic penalties as corrective measures against any infeasibility. The developed TIJP method is applied to a case study of a regional air pollution control problem, where the air quality index (AQI) is introduced for evaluation of the integrated air quality management system associated with multiple pollutants. The joint-probability exists in the environmental constraints for AQI, such that individual probabilistic constraints for each pollutant can be efficiently incorporated within the TIJP model. The results indicate that useful solutions for air quality management practices have been generated; they can help decision makers to identify desired pollution abatement strategies with minimized system cost and maximized environmental efficiency. PMID:21067860

  9. Modeling air quality over China: Results from the Panda project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katinka Petersen, Anna; Bouarar, Idir; Brasseur, Guy; Granier, Claire; Xie, Ying; Wang, Lili; Wang, Xuemei

    2015-04-01

    China faces strong air pollution problems related to rapid economic development in the past decade and increasing demand for energy. Air quality monitoring stations often report high levels of particle matter and ozone all over the country. Knowing its long-term health impacts, air pollution became then a pressing problem not only in China but also in other Asian countries. The PANDA project is a result of cooperation between scientists from Europe and China who joined their efforts for a better understanding of the processes controlling air pollution in China, improve methods for monitoring air quality and elaborate indicators in support of European and Chinese policies. A modeling system of air pollution is being setup within the PANDA project and include advanced global (MACC, EMEP) and regional (WRF-Chem, EMEP) meteorological and chemical models to analyze and monitor air quality in China. The poster describes the accomplishments obtained within the first year of the project. Model simulations for January and July 2010 are evaluated with satellite measurements (SCIAMACHY NO2 and MOPITT CO) and in-situ data (O3, CO, NOx, PM10 and PM2.5) observed at several surface stations in China. Using the WRF-Chem model, we investigate the sensitivity of the model performance to emissions (MACCity, HTAPv2), horizontal resolution (60km, 20km) and choice of initial and boundary conditions.

  10. Ambient air quality and the effects of air pollutants on otolaryngology in Beijing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fengying; Xu, Jin; Zhang, Ziying; Meng, Haiying; Wang, Li; Lu, Jinmei; Wang, Wuyi; Krafft, Thomas

    2015-08-01

    To investigate temporal patterns, pollution concentrations and the health effects of air pollutants in Beijing we carried out time-series analyses on daily concentrations of ambient air pollutants and daily numbers of outpatient visits for otolaryngology over 2 years (2011-2012) to identify possible health effects of air pollutants. The results showed that PM10 was the major air pollutant in Beijing and that air quality was slightly better in 2012 than in 2011. Seasonal differences were apparent for SO2 and NO2. Both the background and urban areas of Beijing experienced particulate matter pollution in 2011. In addition to local air pollution, Beijing was also affected by pollutants transported from other regions, especially during heavy air pollution episodes. PM10, NO2, and SO2 concentrations showed positive associations with numbers of outpatient visits for otolaryngology during winter. NO2 and SO2 also had adverse ear, nose, and throat health effects outside of winter. The ear, nose, and throat health risks caused by air pollutants were higher during the winter than during the summer. NO2 had stronger influence on increased the likelihood of outpatient visits than SO2. The findings provide additional information about air quality and health effects of air pollution in Beijing.

  11. The role of open-air inhalatoria in the air quality improvement in spa towns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Burkowska-But

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The present study was aimed at evaluating microbiological contamination of air in Ciechocinek and Ino­wro­cław – Polish lowland spa towns. Additionally, the impact of open-air inhalatoria on the quality of air was evaluated. Material and Methods: Air samples were collected seasonally in the urban areas, in the recreation areas and in the vicinity of inhalatoria in both towns using impaction. The numbers of mesophilic bacteria, staphylococci, hemolytic bacteria and actinomycetes were determined on media according to the Polish Standard PN-86/Z-04111/02. The number of moulds was determined on media according to the Polish Standard PN-86/Z-04111/03. Results: While the highest numbers of microorganisms were noted at the sites located in the urban areas, the lowest numbers were noted in the vicinity of the open-air inhalatoria. In all the investigated air samples the values of bioaerosol concentrations were below the recommended TLVs (≤ 5000 CFU×m–3 for both bacteria and fungi in outdoor environments. Location of the sampling site was invariably a decisive factor in determining the number of microorganisms in the air. Conclusions: The aerosol which is formed in the open-air inhalatoria has a positive influence on microbiological air quality. Owing to a unique microclimate and low air contamination, Ciechocinek and Inowrocław comply with all necessary requirements set for health resorts specializing in treating upper respiratory tract infections.

  12. Thermal conditions and perceived air quality in an air-conditioned auditorium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polednik, Bernard; Guz, Łukasz; Skwarczyński, Mariusz; Dudzińska, Marzenna R.

    2016-07-01

    The study reports measurements of indoor air temperature (T) and relative humidity (RH), perceived air quality (PAQ) and CO2, fine aerosol particle number (PN) and mass (PM1) concentrations in an air conditioned auditorium. The measurements of these air physical parameters have been carried out in the unoccupied auditorium with the air conditioning system switched off (AC off mode) and in the unoccupied and occupied auditorium with the air conditioning system switched off during the night and switched on during the day (AC on/off mode). The average indoor air thermal parameters, CO2 concentration and the PAQ value (in decipols) were elevated, while average PM1 concentration was lower in the AC on/off mode. A statistically significant (p PAQ values and CO2 concentrations (r = 0.66 and r = 0.59, respectively) in that AC mode. A significant negative correlation has been observed between T and PN and PM1 concentrations (r = -0.38 and r = -0.49, respectively). In the AC off mode the above relations between T and the particle concentrations were not that unequivocal. These findings may be of importance as they indicate that in certain AC operation modes the indoor air quality deteriorates along with the variation of the indoor air microclimate and room occupation. This, in turn, may adversely affect the comfort and productivity of the users of air conditioned premises.

  13. Air Quality Research and Applications Using AURA OMi Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhartia, P.K.; Gleason, J.F.; Torres, O.; Levelt, P.; Liu, X.; Ziemke, J.; Chandra, S.; Krotkov, N.

    2007-01-01

    The Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) on EOS Aura is a new generation of satellite remote sensing instrument designed to measure trace gas and aerosol absorption at the UV and blue wavelengths. These measurements are made globally at urban scale resolution with no inter-orbital gaps that make them potentially very useful for air quality research, such as the determination of the sources and processes that affect global and regional air quality, and to develop applications such as air quality forecast. However, the use of satellite data for such applications is not as straight forward as satellite data have been for stratospheric research. There is a need for close interaction between the satellite product developers, in-situ measurement programs, and the air quality research community to overcome some of the inherent difficulties in interpreting data from satellite-based remote sensing instruments. In this talk we will discuss the challenges and opportunities in using OMI products for air quality research and applications. A key conclusion of this work is that to realize the full potential of OMI measurements it will be necessary to combine OMI data with data from instruments such as MLS, MODIS, AIRS, and CALIPSO that are currently flying in the "A-train" satellite constellation. In addition similar data taken by satellites crossing the earth at different local times than the A-train (e.g., the recently MetOp satellite) would need to be processed in a consistent manner to study diurnal variability, and to capture the effects on air quality of rapidly changing events such as wild fires.

  14. Reproducibility and validity of a diet quality index for children assessed using a FFQ

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huybrechts, I.; Vereecken, C.; Bacquer, De D.; Vandevijvere, S.; Oyen, van H.; Maes, L.; Vanhauwaert, E.; Temme, E.H.M.; Backer, De G.; Henauw, de S.

    2010-01-01

    The diet quality index (DQI) for preschool children is a new index developed to reflect compliance with four main food-based dietary guidelines for preschool children in Flanders. The present study investigates: (1) the validity of this index by comparing DQI scores for preschool children with nutri

  15. Evaluating Journal Quality: Is the H-Index a Better Measure than Impact Factors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodge, David R.; Lacasse, Jeffrey R.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: This study evaluates the utility of a new measure--the h-index--that may provide a more valid approach to evaluating journal quality in the social work profession. Method: H-index values are compared with Thomson ISI 5-year impact factors and expert opinion. Results: As hypothesized, the h-index correlates highly with ISI 5-year impact…

  16. Application of the Benthic Ecosystem Quality Index 2 to benthos in Dutch transitional and coastal waters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loon, van W.M.G.M.; Boon, A.R.; Gittenberger, A.; Walvoort, D.J.J.; Lavaleye, M.; Duineveld, G.C.A.; Verschoor, A.J.

    2015-01-01

    The Benthic Ecosystem Quality Index 2 (BEQI2) is the Dutch multi-metric index (MMI) for assessing the status and trend of benthic invertebrates in transitional and coastal waters for the Water Framework Directive (WFD). It contains the same indicators, i.e. species richness, Shannon index and AMB

  17. Application of the Benthic Ecosystem Quality Index 2 to benthos in Dutch transitional and coastal waters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Loon, W.M.G.M.; Boon, A.R.; Gittenberger, A.; Walvoort, D.J.J.; Lavaleye, M.S.S.; Duineveld, G.C.A.; Verschoor, A.J.

    2015-01-01

    The Benthic Ecosystem Quality Index 2 (BEQI2) is the Dutch multi-metric index (MMI) for assessing the status and trend of benthic invertebrates in transitional and coastal waters for the Water Framework Directive (WFD). It contains the same indicators, i.e. species richness, Shannon index and AMBI,

  18. Subscribing to Databases: How Important Is Depth and Quality of Indexing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delong, Linwood

    2007-01-01

    This paper compares the subject indexing on articles pertaining to Immanuel Kant, agriculture, and aging that are found simultaneously in Humanities Index, Academic Search Elite (EBSCO) and Periodicals Research II (Micromedia ProQuest), in order to show that there are substantial variations in the depth and quality of indexing in these databases.…

  19. Analysis of Groundwater Quality of Aligarh City, (India: Using Water Quality Index.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khwaja M. Anwar

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Water is essential for all living organisms for their existence and metabolic process. Unethical human intervention in natural system and over exploitation of groundwater resources induces degradation of its quality. In many instances groundwater is used directly for drinking as well as for other purposes, hence the evaluation of groundwater quality is extremely important. The present study is aimed to analyze the underground water quality at Aligarh. In this study 80 water samples were collected from 40 places and analyzed for 14 water quality parameters for pre-monsoon and post-monsoon seasons (2012. The water quality index of these samples ranges from 18.92 to 74.67 pre-monsoon and 16.82 to 70.34 during post-monsoon. The study reveals that 50 % of the area under study falls in moderately polluted category. The ground water of Aligarh city needs some treatment before consumption and it also needs to be protected from contamination.

  20. Overview of NASA's Observations for Global Air Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaye, J. A.

    2015-12-01

    Observations of pollutants are central to the study of air quality. Much focus has been placed on local-scale observations that can help specific geographic areas document their air quality issues, plan abatement strategies, and understand potential impacts. In addition, long-range atmospheric transport of pollutants can cause downwind regions to not meet attainment standards. Satellite observations have shed significant light on air quality from local to regional to global scales, especially for pollutants such as ozone, aerosols, carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, and nitrogen dioxide. These observations have made use of multiple techniques and in some cases multiple satellite sensors. The satellite observations are complemented by surface observations, as well as atmospheric (in situ) observations typically made as part of focused airborne field campaigns. The synergy between satellite observations and field campaigns has been an important theme for recent and upcoming activities and plans. In this talk, a review of NASA's investments in observations relevant to global air quality will be presented, with examples given for a range of pollutants and measurement approaches covering the last twenty-five years. These investments have helped build national and international collaborations such that the global satellite community is now preparing to deploy a constellation of satellites that together will provide fundamental advances in global observations for air quality.

  1. ‘The air that we breathe’: assessment of laser and electrosurgical dissection devices on operating theater air quality

    OpenAIRE

    Brace, Matthew D; Stevens, Elizabeth; Taylor, S Mark; Butt, Sarah; Sun, Zhennan; Hu, Licai; Borden, Megan; Khanna, Neeraj; Kuchta, James; Trites, Jonathan; HART, Robert; Gibson, Mark D.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To measure changes in air quality during surgery. Methods Operating room (OR) and hallway air quality was continuously monitored over a 3-month period. Rooftop monitoring was used to control for environmental changes and to account for the infiltration of outdoor air pollutants. Air quality measurements were correlated with operative times and electro-dissection equipment used. Results OR air is cooler and drier compared to the adjacent hallway. Volatile organic compounds and other...

  2. Attribute Mathematical Model for Comprehensive Index System' Quality Evaluation for Natural Science Academic Journals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YongLi; QunLi

    2004-01-01

    Journal evaluation is a compliated engineering system, how to evaluate academic journals more scientifically in scientific methods have becomes a problem of great concerns. This paper presents attribute mathematical model for comprehensive index system' quality evaluation for natural science academic journals, aiming to make comprehensive index system' quality evaluation for academic journals more objective and reasonable compared with other quantitative evaluation ways.

  3. Plant air quality following accidental radioactive releases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radionuclides exhausted to the atmosphere through vent stacks may contaminate the immediate building structure and/or nearby adjacent buildings resulting in hazardous contaminants entering the intake air. The objective of the work reported here was to obtain an overview of the analytical and experimental tools available to evaluate the transport and diffusion of vented effluents, and the nature of flows about structures, in order to predict the concentrations adjacent to an subsequently inside the immediate and nearby structures. A scaling analysis established the requirements for physical modelling of flows about structures in wind and/or water tunnels. Subsequently, a series of test model studies were conducted in a water tunnel in the Mechanical Engineering Department of the University of Waterloo. The expected result that increased stack height and structure separation have on reducing recirculation and interference is clearly illustrated. Interference was still significant on the downstream structure when the vent stack height was increased to its maximum of one model cube height above the cube. A literature survey was conducted to establish the nature and mathematical modelling of flows about structures. Also, mathematical modelling of the concentration field from roof-top vent effluents and subsequently the models for predicting concentrations within structures was investigated. No specific data on concentrations within structures were found. There is a strong need for well documented test on the concentration fields about model structures, with which more generic models may be developed. Very little data is available on multiple structures. It is recommended that physical model studies be conducted, that simulate realistic exhaust and intake air vents with measurement of both the inside and the outside concentration fields. (59 refs., 21 figs., 2 tabs.)

  4. Soil Quality Indexing Strategies for Evaluating Sugarcane Expansion in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherubin, Maurício R; Karlen, Douglas L; Cerri, Carlos E P; Franco, André L C; Tormena, Cássio A; Davies, Christian A; Cerri, Carlos C

    2016-01-01

    Increasing demand for biofuel has intensified land-use change (LUC) for sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum) expansion in Brazil. Assessments of soil quality (SQ) response to this LUC are essential for quantifying and monitoring sustainability of sugarcane production over time. Since there is not a universal methodology for assessing SQ, we conducted a field-study at three sites within the largest sugarcane-producing region of Brazil to develop a SQ index (SQI). The most common LUC scenario (i.e., native vegetation to pasture to sugarcane) was evaluated using six SQI strategies with varying complexities. Thirty eight soil indicators were included in the total dataset. Two minimum datasets were selected: one using principal component analysis (7 indicators) and the other based on expert opinion (5 indicators). Non-linear scoring curves were used to interpret the indicator values. Weighted and non-weighted additive methods were used to combine individual indicator scores into an overall SQI. Long-term conversion from native vegetation to extensive pasture significantly decreased overall SQ. In contrast, conversion from pasture to sugarcane had no significant impact on overall SQ at the regional scale, but site-specific responses were found. In general, sugarcane production improved chemical attributes (i.e., higher macronutrient levels and lower soil acidity); however it has negative effects on physical and biological attributes (i.e., higher soil compaction and structural degradation as well as lower soil organic carbon (SOC), abundance and diversity of macrofauna and microbial activity). Overall, we found that simple, user-friendly strategies were as effective as more complex ones for identifying SQ changes. Therefore, as a protocol for SQ assessments in Brazilian sugarcane areas, we recommend using a small number of indicators (e.g., pH, P, K, Visual Evaluation of Soil Structure -VESS scores and SOC concentration) and proportional weighting to reflect chemical

  5. A STUDY OF INDOOR AIR QUALITY IN UNIVERSITY LABORATORY BUILDINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ADE ASMI

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a study of Indoor Air Quality (IAQ of laboratory in university buildings at faculty of civil and environmental engineering, Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia (UTHM. This study assessed the existing indoor air quality in two selected laboratory buildings, which equipped with natural ventilation. The importantIAQ parameters considered in this study are temperature, relative humidity, air movement, and airborne particles. However, airborne particles were categorized based on its size characterization concentration of particles ≥ 0.3 μm and particles ≥ 5.0 μm. The measurements were carried out during the peak hours within these laboratories using Met One GT-521 particle counter and Anemometer. Ultimately, area, time of measurement conducted, the number of activities, ventilation, air movement, and materials, were found as the major contributors to the IAQ performance in these laboratories.

  6. The Air Connectivity Index : Measuring Integration in the Global Air Transport Network

    OpenAIRE

    Arvis, Jean-François; Shepherd, Ben

    2011-01-01

    The authors construct a new measure of connectivity in the global air transport network, covering 211 countries and territories for the year 2007. It is grounded in network analysis methods, and is based on a gravity-like model that is familiar from the international trade and regional science literatures. It is a global measure of connectivity, in the sense that it captures the full range...

  7. Can a photocatalytic air purifier be used to improve the perceived air quality indoors?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolarik, Jakub; Wargocki, Pawel

    2010-01-01

    The effect of a photocatalytic air purifier on perceived air quality(PAQ) was examined in rooms polluted by typical sources of indoor pollution.The rooms were ventilated at three different outdoor air supply rates. The air quality was assessed by a sensory panel when the purifier was in operation...... as well as when it was off. Operation of the purifier significantly improved PAQ in the rooms polluted by building materials (used carpet, old linoleum, and old chip-board), and a used ventilation filter as well as a mixture of building materials, used ventilation filter and cathode-ray tube computer...... monitors. The effect cor-responded to approximately doubling the outdoor air supply rate. Operation of the purifier significantly worsened the PAQ in rooms with human bioeffluents, probably due to incomplete oxidation of alcohols which are one of the main pollutants emitted by humans. Present results show...

  8. 40 CFR 50.8 - National primary ambient air quality standards for carbon monoxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS NATIONAL PRIMARY AND SECONDARY AMBIENT AIR QUALITY STANDARDS § 50.8 National primary ambient air quality standards for carbon monoxide. (a) The national primary ambient air quality standards... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false National primary ambient air...

  9. The Danish air quality monitoring programme. Annual summary for 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The air quality in Danish cities has been monitored continuously since 1982 within the Danish Air Quality (LMP) network. The aim has been to follow the concentration levels of toxic pollutants in the urban atmosphere and to provide the necessary knowledge to assess the trends, to perform source apportionment, and to evaluate the chemical reactions and the dispersion of the pollutants in the atmosphere. In 2005 the air quality was measured in four Danish cities and at two background sites. NO2 and PM10 were at several stations found in concentrations above EU limit values, which the Member States have to comply with in 2005 and 2010. While the concentrations for most other pollutants have been strongly decreasing since 1982, only a slight decrease has been observed for NO2. (au)

  10. The Danish air quality monitoring programme. Annual summary for 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kemp, K.; Ellemann, T.; Brandt, J.; Christensen, Jesper; Ketzel, M.; Solvang Jensen, S.

    2010-06-15

    The air quality in Danish cities has been monitored continuously since 1982 within the Danish Air Quality Monitoring (LMP) network. The aim has been to follow the concentration levels of toxic pollutants in the urban atmosphere and to provide the necessary knowledge to assess the trends, to perform source apportionment, and to evaluate the chemical reactions and the dispersion of the pollutants in the atmosphere. In 2007 the air quality was measured in four Danish cities and at two background sites. Model calculations were also carried out to supplement the measurements. At several stations NO{sub 2} and PM{sub 10} were found in concentrations above EU limit values, which the Member States have to comply with in 2005 and 2010. The concentrations for most pollutants have been strongly decreasing since 1982, however, only a slight decrease has been observed for NO{sub 2} and O{sub 3}. (author)

  11. The Danish air quality monitoring programme. Annual Summary for 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kemp, K.; Ellemann, T.; Brandt, J.; Christensen, Jesper; Ketzel, M.; Solvang Jensen, S.

    2008-07-15

    The air quality in Danish cities has been monitored continuously since 1982 within the Danish Air Quality Monitoring (LMP) network. The aim has been to follow the concentration levels of toxic pollutants in the urban atmosphere and to provide the necessary knowledge to assess the trends, to perform source apportionment, and to evaluate the chemical reactions and the dispersion of the pollutants in the atmosphere. In 2007 the air quality was measured in four Danish cities and at two background sites. Model calculations were also carried out to supplement the measurements. At several stations NO{sub 2} and PM{sub 10} were found in concentrations above EU limit values, which the Member States have to comply with in 2005 and 2010. The concentrations for most pollutants have been strongly decreasing since 1982, however, only a slight decrease has been observed for NO{sub 2} and O{sub 3}. (au)

  12. Air quality monitoring programme. Annual summary for 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kemp, K.; Ellermann, T.; Palmgren, F.; Waehlin, P.; Berkowicz, R. Brandt. j.

    2005-07-15

    The air quality in Danish cities has been monitored continuously since 1982 within the Danish Air Quality (LMP) network. The aim has been to follow the concentration levels of toxic pollutants in the urban atmosphere and to provide the necessary knowledge to assess the trends, to perform source apportionment, and to evaluate the chemical reactions and the dispersion of the pollutants in the atmosphere. In 2004 the air quality was measured in four Danish cities and at two background sites. NO{sup 2} and PM10 were at several stations found in concentrations above EU limit values, which the Member States have to comply with in 2005 and 2010. While the concentrations for most other pollutants have been strongly decreasing since 1982, only a slight decrease has been observed for NO{sup 2}. The measurement has been supplemented with dispersion models for a number of streets in Copenhagen and Aalborg. (au)

  13. Predictive Techniques for Spacecraft Cabin Air Quality Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, J. L.; Cromes, Scott D. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    As assembly of the International Space Station (ISS) proceeds, predictive techniques are used to determine the best approach for handling a variety of cabin air quality challenges. These techniques use equipment offgassing data collected from each ISS module before flight to characterize the trace chemical contaminant load. Combined with crew metabolic loads, these data serve as input to a predictive model for assessing the capability of the onboard atmosphere revitalization systems to handle the overall trace contaminant load as station assembly progresses. The techniques for predicting in-flight air quality are summarized along with results from early ISS mission analyses. Results from groundbased analyses of in-flight air quality samples are compared to the predictions to demonstrate the technique's relative conservatism.

  14. Air quality on bus routes in Umea, Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandberg, H.; Forsberg, B. [Dept. of Environmental Health and Dept. of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Umea University SE, Umea (Sweden)

    2000-07-01

    Bus traffic in some local streets with up to 650 buses per day has resulted in complaints about air pollution and suggestions from residents that the bus routes should be changed to other streets. We have studied nitrogen dioxide and benzene concentrations at five exposed sites and at two representative control sites without bus traffic, and found no general differences in air quality. However, the site and temperature adjusted concentrations fell significantly during a strike among bus drivers. (authors)

  15. DANIDA; Air Quality Monitoring Programme. Mission 4 Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sivertsen, B.

    1997-12-31

    In the development of the Environmental Information and Monitoring Programme for the Arab Republic of Egypt (EIMP), NILU is responsible for the establishment of an air pollution monitoring system. This report summarizes the fourth mission to Egypt, including planning of the second phase meetings and site visits. Additional air quality sites in Cairo have been described. A project group meeting and a visit to Egypt Meteorological Service have been reported

  16. 77 FR 65310 - Additional Air Quality Designations for the 2006 24-Hour Fine Particle National Ambient Air...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-26

    ... the 2006 24-hour Fine Particle (PM 2.5 ) National Ambient Air Quality Standards,'' 74 FR 58688... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 81 Additional Air Quality Designations for the 2006 24-Hour Fine Particle National Ambient Air Quality Standards AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION:...

  17. [Study on air quality and pollution meteorology conditions of Guangzhou during the 2010 Asian games].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ting-Yuan; Deng, Xue-Jiao; Fan, Shao-Jia; Wu, Dui; Li, Fei; Deng, Tao; Tan, Hao-Bo; Jiang, De-Hai

    2012-09-01

    Based on the monitoring data of NO2, O3, SO2, PM, visibility, regional air quality index (RAQI) and the atmospheric transport and diffusion data from Nov. 4, 2010 to Dec. 10, 2010 in Guangzhou area, the variations of air quality and meteorological conditions during the Guangzhou Asian Games were analyzed. It was found that, during the Asian Games, the air quality was better than the air quality before or after the Asian Games. The visibility was greater than the visibility before or after the Asian Games, while the concentrations of PM1 and PM2.5 were lower. The correlation coefficient between visibility and the concentrations of PM1, PM2.5 indicated anti-correlation relationships. Daily and hourly concentrations of NO2 and SO2 met the primary ambient air quality standards, whereas the daily concentration of PM10 and hourly concentration of O3 met the secondary ambient air quality standards. Pollutants had been well controlled during the Asian Games. The concentration of SO2 in Guangzhou was influenced by local sources and long distance transmission, while the concentration of NO2 was significantly influenced by local sources. The emissions of NO2, SO2 and PM10 surrounding Guangzhou had a trend to affect the concentrations in Guangzhou, but the situation of O3 was opposite, the relatively high concentration of O3 in Guangzhou had tendency to be transported to the surrounding areas. The pollution meteorology conditions in the period of Asian Games were better than the conditions before or after the Asian Games. The decrease in the concentrations during the Asian Games did not only benefit from the emission control by the government, but also from the good meteorological conditions.

  18. Human perception, productivity and symptoms related to indoor air quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wargocki, P.

    1998-08-01

    Three objectives of the present study are formulated: (1) to investigate whether total sensory pollution load on the air in space can be estimated by adding sensory pollution loads from the individual pollution sources; (2) to develop alternative reference exposures which can be used to calibrate sensory evaluations of the air quality indoors made by trained subjects; and (3) to investigate whether decreasing the pollution loads on the air indoors is an effective measure for improving the perceived air quality, reducing the prevalence of health symptoms and increasing people`s productivity. Limited data exist on the addition of families of sensory pollution, sources, i.e., building materials, people and tobacco smoke (research was mainly performed on building materials), and that no field study on addition has been carried out previously. Consequently, laboratory and field experiments on the addition of families of sensory pollution sources were undertaken. Reducing the sensory pollution load on the air indoors proved to be an effective and energy-efficient measure to improve the perceived quality of air, to lower the prevalence of symptoms and to improve productivity. Suggestions for future experiments are made including, i.a., using other sub-populations of subjects stratified for age, sensitivity and type of work, other pollution sources, as well as the independent measures design and repeated exposures to the same environmental conditions. (EG) 209 refs.

  19. An investigation of infiltration and indoor air quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-09-01

    A multitask study was performed in the State of New York to provide information for guiding home energy conservation programs while maintaining acceptable indoor air quality. During this study, the statistical distribution of radon concentrations inside 2400 homes was determined. The relationships among radon levels, house characteristics, and sources were also investigated. The direct impact that two specific air infiltration reduction measures -- caulking and weatherstripping of windows and doors, and installation of storm windows and storm doors -- have on house air leakage was investigated in 60 homes. The effect of house age on the impact of weatherization was also evaluated. Indoor and outdoor measurements of NO{sub 2}, CO, SO{sub 2}, and respirable suspended particulates (RSP) were made for 400 homes to determine the effect of combustion sources on indoor air quality and to characterize the statistical distribution of the concentrations. Finally, the combustion source data were combined with the information on air infiltration reduction measures to estimate the potential impact of these measures on indoor air quality. 87 tabs.

  20. Air quality report 1999; Lufthygienischer Jahresbericht 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    The Bavarian State Office of Environmental Protection (LfU) operates a fully automatic air monitoring system for Bavaria which comprised a total of 65 measuring stations in late 1999. Most of the stations are located in the specified monitoring areas, i.e. Aschaffenburg, Augsburg, Burghausen, Erlangen-Fuerth-Nuremberg, Ingolstadt-Neustadt-Kelheim, Munich, Regensburg and Wuerzburg. Measured components are carbon dioxide, hydrogen sulphide, carbon monoxide, nitric oxides, ozone, hydrocarbons, benzene, toluene, o-xylene, dust, wind directions and wind velocities, temperatures, humidity, atmopsheric pressure and global radiation. The measured data are presented in summary form. [German] Das Bayerische Landesamt fuer Umweltschutz (LfU) betreibt im Rahmen der lufthygienischen kontinuierlichen Ueberwachung das vollautomatische Lufthygienische Landesueberwachungssystem Bayern, an das Ende 1999 insgesamt 65 Messtationen angeschlossen waren. Die Mehrzahl der Stationen befindet sich in den durch die Verordnung ueber die Festsetzung von Belastungsgebieten nach dem BImSchG festgesetzten Untersuchungsgebieten Aschaffenburg, Augsburg, Burghausen, Erlangen-Fuerth-Nuernberg, Ingolstadt-Neustadt-Kelheim, Muenchen, Regensburg und Wuerzburg. Messkomponenten sind Schwefeldioxid, Schwefelwasserstoff, Kohlenmonoxid, Stickoxide, Ozon, Kohlenwasserstoffe, Benzol, Toluol, o-Xylol, Staub, Windrichtung und Windgeschwindigkeit, Temperatur, Luftfeuchte, Luftdruck und Globalstrahlung. Der Jahresbericht 1999 enthaelt die Zusammenfassung der erfassten Werte.

  1. Assessment of Air Quality Status in Wuhan, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiabei Song

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, air quality characteristics in Wuhan were assessed through descriptive statistics and Hierarchical Cluster Analysis (HCA. Results show that air quality has slightly improved over the recent years. While the NO2 concentration is still increasing, the PM10 concentration shows a clearly downward trend with some small fluctuations. In addition, the SO2 concentration has steadily decreased since 2008. Nevertheless, the current level of air pollutants is still quite high, with the PM10 and NO2 levels exceeding the air quality standard. Seasonal variation exists consistently for all the pollutants, with the highest concentration in winter and the lowest in summer. Cluster analysis evidenced that nine urban monitoring sites could be classified into three clusters. Cluster I consists of only the LY site, which is located in the famous East Lake scenic area with the best air quality. Cluster II corresponds to three monitoring sites with heavily trafficked roads nearby, where relatively severe NO2 pollution occurred. Cluster III is comprised of the remaining five sites, characterized by PM10 and SO2 pollution.

  2. Episodic air quality impacts of plug-in electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razeghi, Ghazal; Carreras-Sospedra, Marc; Brown, Tim; Brouwer, Jack; Dabdub, Donald; Samuelsen, Scott

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, the Spatially and Temporally Resolved Energy and Environment Tool (STREET) is used in conjunction with University of California Irvine - California Institute of Technology (UCI-CIT) atmospheric chemistry and transport model to assess the impact of deploying plug-in electric vehicles and integrating wind energy into the electricity grid on urban air quality. STREET is used to generate emissions profiles associated with transportation and power generation sectors for different future cases. These profiles are then used as inputs to UCI-CIT to assess the impact of each case on urban air quality. The results show an overall improvement in 8-h averaged ozone and 24-h averaged particulate matter concentrations in the South Coast Air Basin (SoCAB) with localized increases in some cases. The most significant reductions occur northeast of the region where baseline concentrations are highest (up to 6 ppb decrease in 8-h-averaged ozone and 6 μg/m3 decrease in 24-h-averaged PM2.5). The results also indicate that, without integration of wind energy into the electricity grid, the temporal vehicle charging profile has very little to no effect on urban air quality. With the addition of wind energy to the grid mix, improvement in air quality is observed while charging at off-peak hours compared to the business as usual scenario.

  3. 78 FR 9593 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Maryland; Amendments to Maryland's...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-11

    ..., Air pollution control, Carbon monoxide, Incorporation by reference, Intergovernmental relations, Lead... to Maryland's Ambient Air Quality Standards AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION... reference of the national ambient air quality standards (NAAQS) by the State of Maryland. EPA is...

  4. DANIDA; Air Quality Monitoring Programme. Mission 2 Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sivertsen, B.

    1996-06-01

    The report deals with the EIMP (Environmental Information and Monitoring Programme for the Arab Republic of Egypt). The programme is funded by Danida which is a cooperation project between Norway and Denmark. The programme covers the monitoring of air pollution, coastal water monitoring, and the monitoring of pollution sources and emissions. This report pays the attention to the Norwegian part of the programme executed by NILU (Norwegian Institute for Air Research) which covers the development air quality monitoring network. 14 refs., 51 figs., 18 tabs.

  5. Fuzzy Logic Water Quality Index and Importance of Water Quality Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raman Bai. V

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Determination of status of water quality of a river or any other water sources is highly indeterminate. It is necessary to have a competent model to predict the status of water quality and to advice for type of water treatment for meeting different demands. One such model (UNIQ2007 is developed as an application software in water quality engineering. The unit operates in a fuzzy logic mode including a fuzzification engine receiving a plurality of input variables on its input and being adapted to compute membership function parameters. A processor engine connected downstream of the fuzzification unit will produce fuzzy set, based on fuzzy variable viz. DO, BOD, COD, AN, SS and pH. It has a defuzzification unit operative to translate the inference results into a discrete crisp value of WQI. The UNIQ2007 contains a first memory device connected to the fuzzification unit and containing the set of membership functions, a secondary memory device connected to the defuzzification unit and containing the set of crisp value which appear in the THEN part of the fuzzy rules and an additional memory device connected to the defuzzification unit. More advantageously, UINQ2007 is constructed with control elements having dynamic fuzzy logic properties wherein target non-linearity can be input to result in a perfect evaluation of water quality. The development of the fuzzy model with one river system is explained in this paper. Further the model has been evaluated with the data from few rivers in Malaysia, India and Thailand. This water quality assessor probe can provide better quality index or identify the status of river with 90% perfection. Presently, WQI in most of the countries is referring to physic-chemical parameters only due to great efforts needed to quantify the biological parameters. This study ensures a better method to include pathogens into WQI due to superior capabilities of fuzzy logic in dealing with non-linear, complex and uncertain systems.

  6. AIRQino, a low-cost air quality mobile platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaldei, Alessandro; Vagnoli, Carolina; Di Lonardo, Sara; Gioli, Beniamino; Gualtieri, Giovanni; Toscano, Piero; Martelli, Francesca; Matese, Alessandro

    2015-04-01

    Recent air quality regulations (Directive 2008/50/EC) enforce the transition from point-based monitoring networks to new tools that must be capable of mapping and forecasting air quality on the totality of land area, and therefore the totality of citizens. This implies new technologies such as models and additional indicative measurements, are needed in addition to accurate fixed air quality monitoring stations, that until now have been taken as reference by local administrators for the enforcement of various mitigation strategies. However, due to their sporadic spatial distribution, they cannot describe the highly resolved spatial pollutant variations within cities. Integrating additional indicative measurements may provide adequate information on the spatial distribution of the ambient air quality, also allowing for a reduction of the required minimum number of fixed sampling points, whose high cost and complex maintenance still remain a crucial concern for local administrators. New low-cost and small size sensors are becoming available, that could be employed in air quality monitoring including mobile applications. However, accurate assessment of their accuracy and performance both in controlled and real monitoring conditions is crucially needed. Quantifying sensor response is a significant challenge due to the sensitivity to ambient temperature and humidity and the cross-sensitivity to others pollutant species. This study reports the development of an Arduino compatible electronic board (AIRQino) which integrates a series of low-cost metal oxide and NDIR sensors for air quality monitoring, with sensors to measure air temperature, relative humidity, noise, solar radiation and vertical acceleration. A comparative assessment was made for CO2, CO, NO2, CH4, O3, VOCs concentrations, temperature and relative humidity. A controlled climatic chamber study (-80°C / +80°C) was performed to verify temperature and humidity interference using reference gas cylinders and

  7. Increased office productivity through improved indoor air quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fanger, Povl Ole

    2002-01-01

    Control of indoor pollution sources and ventilation are both means of improving indoor air quality. Three independent experiments have recently documented that removing a pollution source or increasing the ventilation rate will improve perceived air quality, reduce the intensity of several Sick...... the intensity of general SBS symptoms such as headache and difficulty in thinking clearly were significantly reduced, which implies that this was the mechanism of causation. The performance of simulated office work increased monotonically with decreasing pollution load by a 1.6% increase in performance for each...

  8. CFD simulation research on residential indoor air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Li; Ye, Miao; He, Bao-Jie

    2014-02-15

    Nowadays people are excessively depending on air conditioning to create a comfortable indoor environment, but it could cause some health problems in a long run. In this paper, wind velocity field, temperature field and air age field in a bedroom with wall-hanging air conditioning running in summer are analyzed by CFD numerical simulation technology. The results show that wall-hanging air conditioning system can undertake indoor heat load and conduct good indoor thermal comfort. In terms of wind velocity, air speed in activity area where people sit and stand is moderate, most of which cannot feel wind flow and meet the summer indoor wind comfort requirement. However, for air quality, there are local areas without ventilation and toxic gases not discharged in time. Therefore it is necessary to take effective measures to improve air quality. Compared with the traditional measurement method, CFD software has many advantages in simulating indoor environment, so it is hopeful for humans to create a more comfortable, healthy living environment by CFD in the future. PMID:24365517

  9. The air we breathe : an international comparison of air quality standards and guidelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyd, D.R. [British Columbia Univ., Vancouver, BC (Canada). Inst. for Resources, Environment and Sustainability]|[Simon Fraser Univ., Burnaby, BC (Canada). School of Resource and Environmental Management]|[Victoria Univ., BC (Canada). POLIS Project on Ecological Governance

    2006-08-15

    This document compared Canada's voluntary air quality guidelines with the legally binding national standards in the United States, Europe and Australia, as well as guidelines of the World Health Organization. It was prepared in response to Canada's need for strong national standards for air quality and long-term targets for reducing air pollution to prevent negative health effects. Even low-level contamination of food, drinking water and outdoor air presents a chemical stress to which all people are vulnerable. Adequate laws, policies and commitments by government are needed to guarantee a healthy environment. This comparison revealed that Canada's voluntary guidelines lag behind most western industrialized nations including the United States, Australia, and all members of the European Union. Studies have shown that Canada ranks among the 3 worst industrialized nations for per capita sulphur dioxide and nitrogen dioxide emissions as well as emissions of volatile organic compounds, carbon monoxide and greenhouse gases. The author argued that the key reason for why these emissions continue to be a problem can be attributed to weak laws and guidelines. He argued that unless laws and regulations are strengthened and additional actions taken, pressures from population and economic growth will result in increasing hazardous air emissions. According to the Ontario Medical Association, the direct and indirect costs of air pollution on the health of Canadians are estimated to be in the billions of dollars in lost productivity and work time; direct health care costs; pain and suffering due to non-fatal illness; and, social welfare loss due to premature death. The comparison of air quality standards and guidelines focused on the health effects and sources of ozone, particulate matter, sulphur oxides, nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide, and lead. The author suggested that in order to provide an adequate level of health protection for Canadians, the federal

  10. Hospital-acquired infections associated with poor air quality in air-conditioned environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Pinheiro da Silva

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Backgound and Objectives: Individuals living in cities increasingly spend more time indoors in air-conditioned environments. Air conditioner contamination can be caused by the presence of aerosols from the external or internal environment, which may be associated with disease manifestations in patients present in this type of environment. Therefore, the aim of this review was to assess the air quality in air-conditioned hospital environments as a risk factor for hospital-acquired infections – HAI – as the air can be a potential source of infection, as well as assess the exposure of professionals and patients to different pollutants. Material and Methods: A literature review was performed in the LILACS, MEDLINE, SCIELO, SCIENCE DIRECT databases, CAPES thesis database and Ministry of Health – Brazil, including studies published between 1982 and 2008. The literature search was grouped according to the thematic focus, as follows: ventilation, maintenance and cleaning of systems that comprehend the environmental quality standard. Discussion and Conclusion: Outbreaks of hospital-acquired infections associated with Aspergillus, Acinetobacter, Legionella, and other genera such as Clostridium and Nocardia, which were found in air conditioners, were observed, thus indicating the need for air-conditioning quality control in these environments.

  11. Caenorhabditis elegans: a model to monitor bacterial air quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duclairoir Poc Cécile

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Low environmental air quality is a significant cause of mortality and morbidity and this question is now emerging as a main concern of governmental authorities. Airborne pollution results from the combination of chemicals, fine particles, and micro-organisms quantitatively or qualitatively dangerous for health or for the environment. Increasing regulations and limitations for outdoor air quality have been decreed in regards to chemicals and particles contrary to micro-organisms. Indeed, pertinent and reliable tests to evaluate this biohazard are scarce. In this work, our purpose was to evaluate the Caenorhaditis elegans killing test, a model considered as an equivalent to the mouse acute toxicity test in pharmaceutical industry, in order to monitor air bacterial quality. Findings The present study investigates the bacterial population in dust clouds generated during crop ship loading in harbor installations (Rouen harbor, Normandy, France. With a biocollector, airborne bacteria were impacted onto the surface of agar medium. After incubation, a replicate of the colonies on a fresh agar medium was done using a velvet. All the replicated colonies were pooled creating the "Total Air Sample". Meanwhile, all the colonies on the original plate were isolated. Among which, five representative bacterial strains were chosen. The virulence of these representatives was compared to that of the "Total Air Sample" using the Caenorhaditis elegans killing test. The survival kinetic of nematodes fed with the "Total Air Sample" is consistent with the kinetics obtained using the five different representatives strains. Conclusions Bacterial air quality can now be monitored in a one shot test using the Caenorhaditis elegans killing test.

  12. Megacities, air quality and climate: Seamless prediction approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baklanov, Alexander; Molina, Luisa T.; Gauss, Michael

    2016-04-01

    The rapid urbanization and growing number of megacities and urban complexes requires new types of research and services that make best use of science and available technology. With an increasing number of humans now living in urban sprawls, there are urgent needs of examining what the rising number of megacities means for air pollution, local climate and the effects these changes have on global climate. Such integrated studies and services should assist cities in facing hazards such as storm surge, flooding, heat waves, and air pollution episodes, especially in changing climates. While important advances have been made, new interdisciplinary research studies are needed to increase our understanding of the interactions between emissions, air quality, and regional and global climates. Studies need to address both basic and applied research and bridge the spatial and temporal scales connecting local emissions and air pollution and local weather, global atmospheric chemistry and climate. This paper reviews the current status of studies of the complex interactions between climate, air quality and megacities, and identifies the main gaps in our current knowledge as well as further research needs in this important field of research. Highlights • Climate, air quality and megacities interactions: gaps in knowledge, research needs. • Urban hazards: pollution episodes, storm surge, flooding, heat waves, public health. • Global climate change affects megacities' climate, environment and comfort. • Growing urbanization requires integrated weather, environment and climate monitoring systems. • New generation of multi-scale models and seamless integrated urban services are needed. Reference Baklanov, A., L.T. Molina, M. Gauss (2016) Megacities, air quality and climate. Atmospheric Environment, 126: 235-249. doi:10.1016/j.atmosenv.2015.11.059

  13. Tolerance Levels of Roadside Trees to Air Pollutants Based on Relative Growth Rate and Air Pollution Tolerance Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SULISTIJORINI

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Motor vehicles release carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, sulphur dioxide, and particulate matters to the air as pollutants. Vegetation can absorb these pollutants through gas exchange processes. The objective of this study was to examine the combination of the relative growth rate (RGR and physiological responses in determining tolerance levels of plant species to air pollutants. Physiological responses were calculated as air pollution tolerance index (APTI. Eight roadside tree species were placed at polluted (Jagorawi highway and unpolluted (Sindangbarang field area. Growth and physiological parameters of the trees were recorded, including plant height, leaf area, total ascorbate, total chlorophyll, leaf-extract pH, and relative water content. Scoring criteria for the combination of RGR and APTI method was given based on means of the two areas based on two-sample t test. Based on the total score of RGR and APTI, Lagerstroemia speciosa was categorized as a tolerant species; and Pterocarpus indicus, Delonix regia, Swietenia macrophylla were categorized as moderately tolerant species. Gmelina arborea, Cinnamomum burmanii, and Mimusops elengi were categorized as intermediate tolerant species. Lagerstroemia speciosa could be potentially used as roadside tree. The combination of RGR and APTI value was better to determinate tolerance level of plant to air pollutant than merely APTI method.

  14. Compressed Air Energy Storage System Control and Performance Assessment Using Energy Harvested Index

    OpenAIRE

    Hanif SedighNejad; Tariq Iqbal; John Quaicoe

    2014-01-01

    In this paper a new concept for control and performance assessment of compressed air energy storage (CAES) systems in a hybrid energy system is introduced. The proposed criterion, based on the concept of energy harvest index (HEI), measures the capability of a storage system to capture renewable energy. The overall efficiency of the CAES system and optimum control and design from the technical and economic point of view is presented. A possible application of this idea is an isolated communit...

  15. A pilot study of indoor air quality in screen golf courses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goung, Sun-Ju Nam; Yang, Jinho; Kim, Yoon Shin; Lee, Cheol Min

    2015-05-01

    The aims of this study were to provide basic data for determining policies on air quality for multi-user facilities, including the legal enrollment of the indoor air quality regulation as designated by the Ministry of Environment, and to establish control plans. To this end, concentrations of ten pollutants (PM10, carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), formaldehyde (HCHO), total volatile organic compounds (TVOCs), radon (Rn), oxone (O3), total bacteria counts (TBC), and asbestos) in addition to nicotine, a smoking index material used to determine the impact of smoking on the air quality, were investigated in indoor game rooms and lobbies of 64 screen golf courses. The average concentration of none of the ten pollutants in the game rooms and lobbies of screen golf courses was found to exceed the limit set by the law. There were, however, pollutant concentrations exceeding limits in some screen golf courses, in order to establish a control plan for the indoor air quality of screen golf courses, a study on the emission sources of each pollutant was conducted. The major emission sources were found to be facility users' activities such as smoking and the use of combustion appliances, building materials, and finishing materials. PMID:25510613

  16. SAMIRA - SAtellite based Monitoring Initiative for Regional Air quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Philipp; Stebel, Kerstin; Ajtai, Nicolae; Diamandi, Andrei; Horalek, Jan; Nicolae, Doina; Stachlewska, Iwona; Zehner, Claus

    2016-04-01

    Here, we present a new ESA-funded project entitled Satellite based Monitoring Initiative for Regional Air quality (SAMIRA), which aims at improving regional and local air quality monitoring through synergetic use of data from present and upcoming satellites, traditionally used in situ air quality monitoring networks and output from chemical transport models. Through collaborative efforts in four countries, namely Romania, Poland, the Czech Republic and Norway, all with existing air quality problems, SAMIRA intends to support the involved institutions and associated users in their national monitoring and reporting mandates as well as to generate novel research in this area. Despite considerable improvements in the past decades, Europe is still far from achieving levels of air quality that do not pose unacceptable hazards to humans and the environment. Main concerns in Europe are exceedances of particulate matter (PM), ground-level ozone, benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2). While overall sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions have decreased in recent years, regional concentrations can still be high in some areas. The objectives of SAMIRA are to improve algorithms for the retrieval of hourly aerosol optical depth (AOD) maps from SEVIRI, and to develop robust methods for deriving column- and near-surface PM maps for the study area by combining satellite AOD with information from regional models. The benefit to existing monitoring networks (in situ, models, satellite) by combining these datasets using data fusion methods will be tested for satellite-based NO2, SO2, and PM/AOD. Furthermore, SAMIRA will test and apply techniques for downscaling air quality-related EO products to a spatial resolution that is more in line with what is generally required for studying urban and regional scale air quality. This will be demonstrated for a set of study sites that include the capitals of the four countries and the highly polluted areas along the border of Poland and the

  17. Canada-United States air quality agreement : progress report 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    This biennial progress report highlighted actions undertaken by Canada and the United States in the last 2 years to address transboundary air pollution within the context of the Air Quality Agreement regarding acid rain and ground-level ozone. The report was divided into 3 sections. The first section provided information concerning commitments to emission reductions in acid rain and ozone annexes. Section 2 provided details of related air quality efforts. Section 3 presented information on scientific and technical cooperation and research, which included details of health effects and acid deposition effects, recovery efforts and critical loads and exceedances. The progress report also included the third 5-year comprehensive review of the Air Quality Agreement, which was organized in a question and answer format to address requirements in the agreement and public comments on the 2004 progress report. In October 2006, Canada's federal government tabled the Clean Air Act as a new legislation that would expand the government's authorities to take action to reduce air emissions of greenhouse gases and other air pollutants. The Notice of Intent to develop and implement regulations and other measures to reduce air emissions was also revealed. The regulations would address anthropogenic sources of air pollution, including fossil-fuel electricity production, petroleum industry, smelters, forest products, chemicals production and transportation. The report showed that over the last 2 years, both countries have reduced their emissions of sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) and nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}), and have made progress in meeting the requirements of the Ozone Annex to reduce emissions of NO{sub x} and volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Actions have focused on reducing emissions from major sources such as electric generating units, industrial sources, and on-road and nonroad transportation. It was concluded that to date, the agreement has provided opportunities for

  18. Air trapping on computed tomography images of healthy individuals: effects of respiration and body mass index

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hashimoto, M.; Tate, E.; Watarai, J.; Sasaki, M

    2006-10-15

    Aim: To evaluate the relationships of changes in the lung area during respiration and of individual body mass index (BMI) to air trapping on expiratory computed tomography (CT) in young non-smoking adults of either gender. Methods: The volunteers were 10 women and 10 men (mean age 25.7 years) who were healthy lifelong non-smokers. We obtained both end-inspiratory and end-expiratory CT images at three levels: the upper, middle and lower lung. The ratio of cross-sectional lung area upon expiration to cross-sectional lung area upon inspiration (lung area ratio) was determined for each lung at each of the three levels. In cases showing air trapping, we calculated the percentage of area of air in relation to the total lung area in each section. BMI was calculated for each participant. Results: Air trapping was present in dependent areas of the lungs of 6 women and 5 men. The mean percentage of area of air trapped was statistically greater for men (9.8 {+-} 9.2%) than for women (4.9 {+-} 5.2%). The mean lung area ratio was 0.52 {+-} 0 14 among volunteers with air trapping (66 sections) and 0.69 {+-} 0.12 among those without air trapping (54 sections) (p < 0.001). At each lung level, the mean lung area ratio was greater in individuals with air trapping than in those without. Mean BMI was also greater in these people (p = 0.009). Conclusion: Change in the respiratory lung area and BMI contribute to development of air trapping.

  19. Potential impact of a US climate policy and air quality regulations on future air quality and climate change

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Y. H; D. T. Shindell; Faluvegi, G.; R. W. Pinder

    2015-01-01

    We have investigated how future air quality and climate change are influenced by the US air quality regulations that existed or were proposed in 2013 and a hypothetical climate mitigation policy that reduces 2050 CO2 emissions to be 50 % below 2005 emissions. Using NASA GISS ModelE2, we look at the impacts in year 2030 and 2055. The US energy-sector emissions are from the GLIMPSE project (GEOS-Chem LIDORT Integrated with MARKAL for the Purpose of Scenario Exploration...

  20. Hydrogeochemistry and Water Quality Index in the Assessment of Groundwater Quality for Drinking Uses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batabyal, Asit Kumar; Chakraborty, Surajit

    2015-07-01

    The present investigation is aimed at understanding the hydrogeochemical parameters and development of a water quality index (WQI) to assess groundwater quality of a rural tract in the northwest of Bardhaman district of West Bengal, India. Groundwater occurs at shallow depths with the maximum flow moving southeast during pre-monsoon season and south in post-monsoon period. The physicochemical analysis of groundwater samples shows the major ions in the order of HCO3>Ca>Na>Mg>Cl>SO4 and HCO3>Ca>Mg>Na>Cl>SO4 in pre- and post-monsoon periods, respectively. The groundwater quality is safe for drinking, barring the elevated iron content in certain areas. Based on WQI values, groundwater falls into one of three categories: excellent water, good water, and poor water. The high value of WQI is because of elevated concentration of iron and chloride. The majority of the area is occupied by good water in pre-monsoon and poor water in post-monsoon period. PMID:26163496