WorldWideScience

Sample records for air quality guidelines

  1. Air quality model guideline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Idriss, A.; Spurrell, F.

    2009-06-01

    Alberta Environment has developed a guidelines for operations and proposed operations that require approvals under the province's Environmental Protection and Enhancement Act or that operate under a code of practice for emissions to the atmosphere. In an effort to ensure consistency in the use of dispersion models for regulatory applications in Alberta, this document provided detailed guidance on suitable methods and approaches that should be employed to assess air quality from emission sources, specifically, information required to demonstrate that a source meets the Alberta ambient air quality objectives. The document outlined the statutory authority and provided an overview of the approach. It provided detailed advice on the types and uses of dispersion models with particular reference to the modelling protocol, input data, and output interpretation. Guidance on the application of regulatory models were also presented. Various models were described and their intended uses were explained. Internet addresses for different modelling resources were also offered. Last, some information about regional modelling in the province of Alberta was discussed. 40 refs., 4 tabs., 7 figs., 3 appendices.

  2. Residential indoor air quality guideline : ozone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    Ozone (O 3 ) is a colourless gas that reacts rapidly on surfaces and with other constituents in the air. Sources of indoor O 3 include devices sold as home air cleaners, and some types of office equipment. Outdoor O 3 is also an important contributor to indoor levels of O 3 , depending on the air exchange rate with indoor environments. This residential indoor air quality guideline examined factors that affect the introduction, dispersion and removal of O 3 indoors. The health effects of prolonged exposure to O 3 were discussed, and studies conducted to evaluate the population health impacts of O 3 were reviewed. The studies demonstrated that there is a significant association between ambient O 3 and adverse health impacts. Exposure guidelines for residential indoor air quality were discussed. 14 refs.

  3. Residential indoor air quality guideline : carbon monoxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) is a tasteless, odourless, and colourless gas that can be produced by both natural and anthropogenic processes, but is most often formed during the incomplete combustion of organic materials. In the indoor environment, CO occurs directly as a result of emissions from indoor sources or as a result of infiltration from outdoor air containing CO. Studies have shown that the use of specific sources can lead to increased concentrations of CO indoors. This residential indoor air quality guideline examined the factors influencing the introduction, dispersion and removal of CO indoors. The health effects of exposure to low and higher concentrations of CO were discussed. Residential maximum exposure limits for CO were presented. Sources and concentrations in indoor environments were also examined. 17 refs., 2 tabs.

  4. HVAC design guidelines for effective indoor air quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bladykas, M.P.

    1993-01-01

    Building owners, designers and occupants need to consider all the design measures that contribute to high indoor air quality. Building occupants, furnishings, equipment, and ambient air pollution all contribute to surmounting indoor air quality concerns. However, these can be minimized by following HVAC design guidelines which promote high indoor air quality while maintaining reasonable energy-efficiency. The possible liabilities and loss of business productivity due to air quality problems are too great to ignore

  5. Air quality guidelines for arenas in Nova Scotia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-05-01

    A series of guidelines have been prepared to address the quality of air in skating arena facilities in Nova Scotia. They are limited to carbon monoxide and nitrogen dioxide emissions. Average nitrogen dioxide levels should not exceed 1 part per million (ppm). Average carbon monoxide levels should not exceed 25 ppm. These guidelines do not address other contaminants such as ammonia or chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs). The guidelines are considered to be the minimum standards required for safe arena operations. These standards can be met by reducing emissions of the ice resurfacer and edger which is one of the major sources of poor air quality in arenas. Other ways to meet the standards are to ensure proper equipment operation, ventilation and monitoring of indoor air quality levels. Symptoms of exposure and potential consequences were also described. It was noted that owners and operators may be found libel for injury if a proper environment is not maintained. 6 appendices.

  6. Impact of air quality guidelines on COPD sufferers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Youcheng; Yan, Shuang; Poh, Karen; Liu, Suyang; Iyioriobhe, Emanehi; Sterling, David A

    2016-01-01

    Background COPD is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in both high- and low-income countries and a major public health burden worldwide. While cigarette smoking remains the main cause of COPD, outdoor and indoor air pollution are important risk factors to its etiology. Although studies over the last 30 years helped reduce the values, it is not very clear if the current air quality guidelines are adequately protective for COPD sufferers. Objective This systematic review was to summarize the up-to-date literature on the impact of air pollution on the COPD sufferers. Methods PubMed and Google Scholar were utilized to search for articles related to our study’s focus. Search terms included “COPD exacerbation”, “air pollution”, “air quality guidelines”, “air quality standards”, “COPD morbidity and mortality”, “chronic bronchitis”, and “air pollution control” separately and in combination. We focused on articles from 1990 to 2015. We also used articles prior to 1990 if they contained relevant information. We focused on articles written in English or with an English abstract. We also used the articles in the reference lists of the identified articles. Results Both short-term and long-term exposures to outdoor air pollution around the world are associated with the mortality and morbidity of COPD sufferers even at levels below the current air quality guidelines. Biomass cooking in low-income countries was clearly associated with COPD morbidity in adult nonsmoking females. Conclusion There is a need to continue to improve the air quality guidelines. A range of intervention measures could be selected at different levels based on countries’ socioeconomic conditions to reduce the air pollution exposure and COPD burden. PMID:27143874

  7. Impact of air quality guidelines on COPD sufferers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Y

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Youcheng Liu,1,* Shuang Yan,2,* Karen Poh,1 Suyang Liu,3 Emanehi Iyioriobhe,1 David A Sterling1 1Department of Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences, School of Public Health, University of North Texas Health Science Center, Fort Worth, TX, USA; 2Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Fourth Affiliated Hospital, Harbin Medical University, Harbin, Heilongjiang Province, People’s Republic of China; 3Epidemiology, Human Genetics & Environmental Sciences, School of Public Health, The University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston, Houston, TX, USA *These authors contributed equally to this work Background: COPD is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in both high- and low-income countries and a major public health burden worldwide. While cigarette smoking remains the main cause of COPD, outdoor and indoor air pollution are important risk factors to its etiology. Although studies over the last 30 years helped reduce the values, it is not very clear if the current air quality guidelines are adequately protective for COPD sufferers. Objective: This systematic review was to summarize the up-to-date literature on the impact of air pollution on the COPD sufferers. Methods: PubMed and Google Scholar were utilized to search for articles related to our study’s focus. Search terms included “COPD exacerbation”, “air pollution”, “air quality guidelines”, “air quality standards”, “COPD morbidity and mortality”, “chronic bronchitis”, and “air pollution control” separately and in combination. We focused on articles from 1990 to 2015. We also used articles prior to 1990 if they contained relevant information. We focused on articles written in English or with an English abstract. We also used the articles in the reference lists of the identified articles. Results: Both short-term and long-term exposures to outdoor air pollution around the world are associated with the mortality and morbidity of COPD

  8. Update and revision of WHO air quality guidelines for Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Younes, M [WHO European Centre for Environment and Health, Bilthoven (Netherlands). Bilthoven Div.

    1996-12-31

    The WHO Air Quality Guidelines for Europe (AQG), published in 1987, have provided a uniform basis for the development of strategies for the control of air pollution, and have contributed to the maintenance and improvement of public health in several countries. The aim of the guidelines is to provide a basis for protecting public health from adverse effects of air pollutants, and for eliminating or reducing to a minimum, those contaminants that are known or likely to be hazardous to human health and wellbeing. Since the publication of the first edition of the AQG, new scientific data in the fields of air pollution toxicology and epidemiology have accumulated and new developments in risk assessment methodologies have taken place, requiring updating and/or revision of the existing guidelines. This fact was recognized during the preparation of the initial work plan of the European Centre for Environment and Health, and it was recommended that the Centre undertake any necessary amendments and extensions to the Air Quality Guidelines. The updating procedure is being carried out in cooperation with the International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS) and the Commission of the European Communities (CEC) and will be implemented through working group meetings which require the preparation of working documents on specific air pollutants or mixtures and a final consultation to discuss the updated document.It was initiated by a Planning Meeting which was organized in January 1993. The purpose of the planning meeting was to set the framework for the updating and revision process, in particular to discuss the scope and purpose, the contents and the format of the revised AQG publication, to define the details of and the time schedule for the updating process and to identify the working groups needed and their way of operation. (author)

  9. Update and revision of WHO air quality guidelines for Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Younes, M. [WHO European Centre for Environment and Health, Bilthoven (Netherlands). Bilthoven Div.

    1995-12-31

    The WHO Air Quality Guidelines for Europe (AQG), published in 1987, have provided a uniform basis for the development of strategies for the control of air pollution, and have contributed to the maintenance and improvement of public health in several countries. The aim of the guidelines is to provide a basis for protecting public health from adverse effects of air pollutants, and for eliminating or reducing to a minimum, those contaminants that are known or likely to be hazardous to human health and wellbeing. Since the publication of the first edition of the AQG, new scientific data in the fields of air pollution toxicology and epidemiology have accumulated and new developments in risk assessment methodologies have taken place, requiring updating and/or revision of the existing guidelines. This fact was recognized during the preparation of the initial work plan of the European Centre for Environment and Health, and it was recommended that the Centre undertake any necessary amendments and extensions to the Air Quality Guidelines. The updating procedure is being carried out in cooperation with the International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS) and the Commission of the European Communities (CEC) and will be implemented through working group meetings which require the preparation of working documents on specific air pollutants or mixtures and a final consultation to discuss the updated document.It was initiated by a Planning Meeting which was organized in January 1993. The purpose of the planning meeting was to set the framework for the updating and revision process, in particular to discuss the scope and purpose, the contents and the format of the revised AQG publication, to define the details of and the time schedule for the updating process and to identify the working groups needed and their way of operation. (author)

  10. Quality Guidelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: https://medlineplus.gov/criteria.html MedlinePlus Quality Guidelines To use the sharing features on this ... materials must also meet our existing quality guidelines. Quality, authority and accuracy of health content The organization's ...

  11. [European community guidelines and standards in indoor air quality: what proposals for Italy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Settimo, Gaetano; D'Alessandro, Daniela

    2014-01-01

    Indoor air quality is an issue on which to focus because of the increasing number of exposed population and in view of the strong public feeling on this issue. This paper reports the rules of EU and several European countries about indoor air quality, focusing on the initiatives performed in Italy to respond to WHO recommendations. Several EU countries have introduced in their legislation rules relating to indoor air quality. At the moment, in Italy, a reference rule has not been issued. For this reason, up to date main informations concerning some guidelines or reference values in indoor air, to be used for a first comparison, are those obtained by the scientific literature, or by the guidelines issued by other European countries or, for analogy, by other standard values such as limit or reference values regarding outdoor air. Even the EU, while reaffirming the priority of energy efficiency measures, recommends healthier indoor environments and the development of a specific European strategy on the issue of indoor air quality. The National Study Group on indoor pollution of the Italian National Health Institute (ISS), is working for the development of shared technical and scientific documents, in order to provide greater uniformity of actions at national level, waiting for a legal framework for indoor air quality, in the light of the indication already produced by the WHO.

  12. The air quality in ventilation installations. Practical guidelines; Qualite de l'air dans les installations aerauliques. Guide pratique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Angeli, L. [France Air, 91 - Chilly Mazarin (France); Bianchina, M. [Unelvent, 93 - Le Bourget (France); Blazy, M. [Anjos, 01 - Torcieu (France); Boulanger, X. [Aldes, 21 - Chenove (France); Chiesa, M. [Atlantic (France); Duclos, M. [Groupe Titanair, 69 - Lyon (France); Hubert, D.; Kridorian, O. [Groupe Astato, Blanc Mesnil (France); Josserand, O. [Carrier (Belgium); Lancieux, C. [Camfil, 60 - Saint Martin Longueau (France); Lemaire, J.C. [Agence de l' Environnement et de la Maitrise de l' Energie, ADEME, 75 - Paris (France); Petit, Ph. [Compagnie Industrielle d' Applications Thermiques ( CIAT ), 75 - Paris (France); Ribot, B. [Electricite de France (EDF), 75 - Paris (France); Tokarek, S. [Gaz de France (GDF), 75 - Paris (France); Bernard, A.M.; Tissot, A. [Centre Technique des Industries Aerauliques et Thermiques (CETIAT), 69 - Villeurbanne (France)

    2004-07-01

    The present guide aims to provide design departments, maintenance companies and builders with practical guidelines and recommendations for the installation of ventilation and air-conditioning systems. The objective is to ensure good Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) and to safeguard the health and well-being of the occupants. The guide deals with aspects of design, dimensioning, installation and servicing, all of which play a major role in guaranteeing IAQ and duct-work hygiene. These steps are reviewed for the principal ventilation systems met in both residential and commercial premises. The first part presents the system and draws the attention of the user to specific points which require particular care in term of IAQ. The second part details recommended practice component by component, in respect of design, installation and servicing. Application of these simple guidelines during the various project stages is essential, in order to ensure a good IAQ in ventilation systems. Content: introduction; good ventilation; systems: exhaust ventilation, balanced ventilation, air handling unit, terminal ventilation units, impact of systems on indoor air quality, components: air inlet, air filter, heat recovery unit, heating or cooling coil, humidifier, mechanical fan unit, cowl and hybrid ventilation fan, mixing box, ventilation duct-work, air outlet and air terminal device; references.

  13. Air quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    This chapter of the 'Assessment of the state of the environment in Lebanon' describes the air quality and identifies the most important air quality issues. Baseline information about the factors affecting dispersion and the climate of Lebanon presents as well and overall estimation of total emissions in Lebanon. Emissions from vehicles, electricity and power plants generation are described. Industrial emitters of air pollutants are described for each kind of industry i.e.cement plants, Selaata fertilizer factory, sugar-beet factory, refineries and for those derived from the use of leaded fuel . Impact of economic and human activities on air quality in Lebanon (especially in Beirut and Tripoli) are quantified by quantities of CO 2 , SO 2 , NO x , total suspended particulates(TSP), deposition and their environmental effects on health. In abscence of emissions monitoring, data available are expressed in terms of fuel use, output and appropriate empirical factors, national output and workfores sizes. Finally key issues and some potential mitigation /management approaches are presented

  14. Strategic guidelines for street canyon geometry to achieve sustainable street air quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chan, Andy T.; So, Ellen S.P.; Samad, Subash C. [Hong Kong Univ., Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Hong Kong (China)

    2001-08-01

    This paper is concerned with the motion of air within the urban street canyon and is directed towards a deeper understanding of pollutant dispersion with respect to various simple canyon geometries and source positions. Taking into account the present days typical urban configurations, three principal flow regimes 'isolated roughness flow', 'skimming flow' and 'wake interference flow' (Boundary Layer Climates, 2nd edition, Methuen, London) and their corresponding pollutant dispersion characteristics are studied for various canopies aspect ratios, namely relative height (h{sub 2}/H{sub 1}), canyon height to width ratio (h/w) and canyon length to height ratio (l/h). A field-size canyon has been analysed through numerical simulations using the standard k-{sup {epsilon}} turbulence closure model. It is found that the pollutant transport and diffusion is strongly dependent upon the type of flow regime inside the canyon and exchange between canyon and the above roof air. Some rules of thumbs have been established to get urban canyon geometries for efficient dispersion of pollutants. (Author)

  15. Measure Guideline: Guide to Attic Air Sealing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lstiburek, Joseph [Building Science Corporation, Westford, MA (United States)

    2014-09-01

    The purpose of this measure guideline is to provide information and recommendations for the preparation work necessary prior to adding attic insulation. Even though the purpose of this guide is to save energy, health, safety, and durability should not be compromised by energy efficiency. Accordingly, combustion safety and ventilation for indoor air quality are addressed first. Durability and attic ventilation then follow. Finally, to maximize energy savings, air sealing is completed prior to insulating. The guide is intended for home remodelers, builders, insulation contractors, mechanical contractors, general contractors who have previously done remodeling and homeowners as a guide to the work that needs to be done.

  16. Total quality management implementation guidelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-12-01

    These Guidelines were designed by the Energy Quality Council to help managers and supervisors in the Department of Energy Complex bring Total Quality Management to their organizations. Because the Department is composed of a rich mixture of diverse organizations, each with its own distinctive culture and quality history, these Guidelines are intended to be adapted by users to meet the particular needs of their organizations. For example, for organizations that are well along on their quality journeys and may already have achieved quality results, these Guidelines will provide a consistent methodology and terminology reference to foster their alignment with the overall Energy quality initiative. For organizations that are just beginning their quality journeys, these Guidelines will serve as a startup manual on quality principles applied in the Energy context.

  17. Measure Guideline: Guide to Attic Air Sealing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lstiburek, J.

    2014-09-01

    The Guide to Attic Air Sealing was completed in 2010 and although not in the standard Measure Guideline format, is intended to be a Measure Guideline on Attic Air Sealing. The guide was reviewed during two industry stakeholders meetings held on December 18th, 2009 and January 15th, 2010, and modified based on the comments received. Please do not make comments on the Building America format of this document. The purpose of the Guide to Attic Air Sealing is to provide information and recommendations for the preparation work necessary prior to adding attic insulation. Even though the purpose of this guide is to save energy - health, safety and durability should not be compromised by energy efficiency. Accordingly, combustion safety and ventilation for indoor air quality are addressed first. Durability and attic ventilation then follow. Finally, to maximize energy savings, air sealing is completed prior to insulating. The guide is intended for home remodelers, builders, insulation contractors, mechanical contractors, general contractors who have previously done remodeling and homeowners as a guide to the work that needs to be done.

  18. Air quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1996-01-01

    The anthropic pollution sources are essentially industrial or bound to transport. A phenomenon of these last twenty years is the decreasing of the industrial pollution and the increasing of pollution coming from automobiles. Emissions of furans and dioxines coming from municipal wastes are measured. A special attention is mentioned for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons coming from incomplete combustions. A last aspect of air pollution is studied with the effect on man, ecosystems and materials, by modeling or direct measurements. (N.C.)

  19. Air quality

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Thambiran, Tirusha

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available ., Blaikie, P., Cannon, T. & Davis, I. 2004. At risk: Natural hazards, people’s vulnerability, and disasters (2nd edition). London: Routledge. Ziervogel, G. & Calder R. 2003. Climate variability and rural livelihoods: Assessing the impact of seasonal... Julia Mambo Kristy Faccer 4 | Global Change Global Change Global Change Global Change | i the quality of research being conducted in South Africa. In addition, South African academics occupy key positions in the Future Earth initiative...

  20. Indoor Air Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... protect yourself and your family. Learn more Air Quality at Work Workers should breathe easy while on the job, but worksites with poor air quality put employees at risk. Healthy air is essential ...

  1. Air Quality System (AQS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Air Quality System (AQS) database contains measurements of air pollutant concentrations from throughout the United States and its territories. The measurements include both criteria air pollutants and hazardous air pollutants.

  2. Overview of Green Building Material (GBM Policies and Guidelines with Relevance to Indoor Air Quality Management in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Tien Tsai

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper was to offer a preliminary overview of Taiwan’s success in green building material (GBM efforts through legal systems and promotion measures, which are relevant to the contribution to indoor air quality (IAQ due to sustainability and health issues. In the first part of the paper, the IAQ regulations are summarized to highlight the second nation (i.e., Taiwan around the world in IAQ management by the law. In addition, the permissible exposure limits (PEL in Taiwan for airborne hazardous substances were first promulgated in 1974 to deal with occupational health issues in the workplace environment. In the second part of the paper, the developing status of the GBM in Taiwan is analyzed to unravel its connection with the Indoor Air Quality Management Act (IAQMA, promulgated on 23 November 2011. By the end of September 2017, a total of 645 GBM labels have been conferred, covering over 5000 green products. Due to the effectiveness of source control, the healthy GBM occupies most of the market, accounting for about 75%. The IAQMA, which took force in November 2012, is expected to significantly increase the use of healthy GBM in new building construction and remodeling, especially in low formaldehyde (HCHO/volatile organic compound (VOC-emitting products.

  3. Allegheny County Air Quality

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Air quality data from Allegheny County Health Department monitors throughout the county. Air quality monitored data must be verified by qualified individuals before...

  4. Air quality and disease

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Climate change is an important determinant of air quality. Climate change is an important determinant of air quality. Poor air quality associated with higher levels of respiratory and cardiovascular disease. Exposure to high levels of ground-level ozone associated with ...

  5. Air quality dispersion models from energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazarevska, Ana

    1996-01-01

    Along with the continuing development of new air quality models that cover more complex problems, in the Clean Air Act, legislated by the US Congress, a consistency and standardization of air quality model applications were encouraged. As a result, the Guidelines on Air Quality Models were published, which are regularly reviewed by the Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards, EPA. These guidelines provide a basis for estimating the air quality concentrations used in accessing control strategies as well as defining emission limits. This paper presents a review and analysis of the recent versions of the models: Simple Terrain Stationary Source Model; Complex Terrain Dispersion Model; Ozone,Carbon Monoxide and Nitrogen Dioxide Models; Long Range Transport Model; Other phenomenon Models:Fugitive Dust/Fugitive Emissions, Particulate Matter, Lead, Air Pathway Analyses - Air Toxic as well as Hazardous Waste. 8 refs., 4 tabs., 2 ills

  6. Indoor Air Quality Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin Union Free School District, NY.

    This manual identifies ways to improve a school's indoor air quality (IAQ) and discusses practical actions that can be carried out by school staff in managing air quality. The manual includes discussions of the many sources contributing to school indoor air pollution and the preventive planning for each including renovation and repair work,…

  7. Current Indoor Air Quality in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jinno, Hideto

    2016-01-01

    People spend more than two thirds of their daily time indoors. Hence, maintaining a healthy indoor environment is indispensable for the prevention of building related illness. In Japan, guidelines for indoor air quality have been established for 13 volatile/semi-volatile organic compounds (VOCs/SVOCs). These guidelines are now under revision by the Committee on Sick House Syndrome: Indoor Air Pollution. In order to gain information on the current indoor air pollutants and their levels, we carried out a nation-wide survey of VOCs and aldehydes in indoor residential air during 2012-2013. In this review, I concisely summarized the current indoor air quality of Japan.

  8. Air Quality System (AQS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Air Quality System (AQS) database contains measurements of air pollutant concentrations from throughout the United States and its territories. The measurements...

  9. Strategy Guideline. Compact Air Distribution Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burdick, Arlan [IBACOS, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2013-06-01

    This guideline discusses the benefits and challenges of using a compact air distribution system to handle the reduced loads and reduced air volume needed to condition the space within an energy efficient home. The decision criteria for a compact air distribution system must be determined early in the whole-house design process, considering both supply and return air design. However, careful installation of a compact air distribution system can result in lower material costs from smaller equipment, shorter duct runs, and fewer outlets; increased installation efficiencies, including ease of fitting the system into conditioned space; lower loads on a better balanced HVAC system, and overall improved energy efficiency of the home.

  10. 40 CFR 240.205 - Air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Air quality. 240.205 Section 240.205 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES GUIDELINES FOR THE THERMAL PROCESSING OF SOLID WASTES Requirements and Recommended Procedures § 240.205 Air quality. ...

  11. Air quality indices : a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hewings, J.

    2001-10-01

    Pollution Probe presents some background information that will help in the development of a national Air Quality Index (AQI) in Canada. This report examines the issues that should be addressed in revising the national Index of the Quality of Air (IQUA) or creating a new national Air Quality Index. The IQUA was devised in 1976 and provides Canadians with real-time information on the state of community air quality by including major pollutants and their synergies. It is currently being used for air quality management plans and air quality alert systems. At the same time that the IQUA was devised, the United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) produced a parallel air quality index known as the Pollution Standard Index (PSI) which incorporated 5 criteria pollutants (particulate matter, sulphur dioxide, carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxide and ground level ozone) for which national health-based standards were devised. In 1999, the US EPA renamed their index the Air Quality Index (AQI) and made revisions to the primary health-based national ambient air quality standards for ground-level ozone and particulate matter. Separate values for PM2.5 and PM10 were incorporated and mandatory reporting was required for metropolitan areas with populations of 350,000 or more. Similarly, the IQUA has undergone major developments that affect the validity of the index, including: rejection by the Working Group on Air Quality Objectives and Guidelines of the previous maximum desirable and maximum acceptable air quality criteria, recognition that standards for many of the contaminants are outdated, developing more sensitive instrumentation for real-time monitoring of contaminants. This report also describes the use of the national short term Air Quality Index by provincial, territorial and local authorities in Canada. Pollution Probe recommends setting up a mechanism to review and revise IQUA on a regular basis that would incorporate governments, the medical profession, special

  12. Air quality in Europe - 2011 report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guerreiro, C.; Larssen, S. (Norsk Inst. for Luftforskning (NILU), Lillestroem (Norway)); Leeuw, F. de (RIVM, Bilthoven (Netherlands)); Foltescu, V. (EEA, Copenhagen (Denmark))

    2011-11-15

    The annual report 'Air quality in Europe' summarises the most recent evaluation of Europe's air quality status. It is mainly based on air quality measurement data that have been made available officially by 32 EEA member countries as well as 6 EEA cooperating countries. The report includes maps and analyses of air quality status over the calendar year 2009. It also analyses air quality trends over the past years. The evaluation of the status and trends of air quality is based on ambient air measurements, in conjunction with reported anthropogenic emissions. The report summarizes the main effects of different air pollutants on human health, the environment and the climate. An overview of policies and measures at European level is also given for each pollutant. This report reviews progress towards meeting the requirements of the two air quality directives in force as well as the air quality guidelines set by the World Health Organization (WHO). The report is produced in support of European and national policy development and implementation in the field of air quality. It also supports air quality management and informs the general public on the current status and trends of air quality in Europe. (Author)

  13. Indoor air quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Trine Susanne; Recevska, Ieva

     The objective of the 35th specific agreement is to provide support to the EEA activities in Environment and Health (E&H) on the topic of indoor air quality. The specific objectives have been to provide an overview of indoor air related projects in EU and indoor air related policies as well...... as idenfiying "good practices" to reduce health impact of indoor air exposure and suggest areas for future improvements....

  14. Strategy Guideline: Compact Air Distribution Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burdick, A.

    2013-06-01

    This Strategy Guideline discusses the benefits and challenges of using a compact air distribution system to handle the reduced loads and reduced air volume needed to condition the space within an energy efficient home. Traditional systems sized by 'rule of thumb' (i.e., 1 ton of cooling per 400 ft2 of floor space) that 'wash' the exterior walls with conditioned air from floor registers cannot provide appropriate air mixing and moisture removal in low-load homes. A compact air distribution system locates the HVAC equipment centrally with shorter ducts run to interior walls, and ceiling supply outlets throw the air toward the exterior walls along the ceiling plane; alternatively, high sidewall supply outlets throw the air toward the exterior walls. Potential drawbacks include resistance from installing contractors or code officials who are unfamiliar with compact air distribution systems, as well as a lack of availability of low-cost high sidewall or ceiling supply outlets to meet the low air volumes with good throw characteristics. The decision criteria for a compact air distribution system must be determined early in the whole-house design process, considering both supply and return air design. However, careful installation of a compact air distribution system can result in lower material costs from smaller equipment, shorter duct runs, and fewer outlets; increased installation efficiencies, including ease of fitting the system into conditioned space; lower loads on a better balanced HVAC system, and overall improved energy efficiency of the home.

  15. Transportation and air quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roseland, M.

    1992-01-01

    In the greater Vancouver regional district (GVRD), some 80% of the annual production of 600,000 tonnes of air pollutants come from motor vehicles. Three critical air quality issues in the GVRD are discussed: local air pollution, ozone layer depletion, and greenhouse gas emissions, all of which are fundamentally linked to transportation. Overall air quality in the GVRD has been judged acceptable by current federal standards, but ground-level ozone has exceeded maximum tolerable levels at some locations and concentrations of suspended particulates are above maximum acceptable levels. Serious deterioration in air quality has been predicted unless a concerted effort is made to manage air quality on an airshed-wide basis. The GVRD is developing Canada's first Air Management Plan with the goal of halving atmospheric emissions by 2000. GVRD transportation priorities stress public transit, walking, cycling, car pooling, and reducing of travel demand; however, the viability of such strategies depends on decisions made outside the transportation sector. Restricted authority and jurisdiction also hinder GVRD goals; the regional level of government has no authority over highways or transit and only has authority for pollution control in some parts of the Fraser Valley. Airshed quality management, using the Los Angeles example, is seen as a possible direction for future GVRD policymaking in the transportation sector. A single regional planning agency with responsibility for transportation, land use, and air quality management appears as the best option for an integrated approach to solve multiple problems. 19 refs

  16. Good air quality in offices improves productivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fanger, Povl Ole

    2000-01-01

    Three recent independent studies have documented that the quality of indoor air has a significant and positive influence or? the productivity of office workers. A combined analysis of the results of the three studies shows a significant relationship between productivity and perceived indoor air...... quality. The impact on productivity justifies a much higher indoor air quality than the minimum levels prescribed in present standards and guidelines. One way of providing air of high quality for people to breathe, without involving excessive ventilation rates and energy use, is to provide "personalized...

  17. Good air quality in offices improves productivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fanger, Povl Ole

    2000-01-01

    Three recent independent studies have documented that the quality of indoor air has a significant and positive influence on the productivity of office workers. A combined analysis of the results of the three studies shows a significant relationship between productivity and perceived indoor air...... quality. The impact on productivity justifies a much higher indoor air quality than the minimum levels prescribed in present standards and guidelines. One way of providing air of high quality for people to breathe, without involving excessive ventilation rates and energy use, is to provide "personalized...

  18. Air Quality Monitoring Programme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kemp, K.; Palmgren, F.

    The air quality in Danish cities has been monitored continuously since 1982 within the Danish Air Quality (LMP) network. The aim has been to follow the concentration levels of toxic pollutants in the urban atmosphere and to provide the necessary knowledge to assess the trends, to perform source...... apportionment, and to evaluate the chemical reactions and the dispersion of the pollutants in the atmosphere. In 2002 the air quality was measured in four Danish cities and at two background sites. NO2 and PM10 were at several stations found in concentrations above the new EU limit values, which the Member...

  19. WHO indoor air quality guidelines on household fuel combustion: Strategy implications of new evidence on interventions and exposure-risk functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce, Nigel; Pope, Dan; Rehfuess, Eva; Balakrishnan, Kalpana; Adair-Rohani, Heather; Dora, Carlos

    2015-04-01

    Background: 2.8 billion people use solid fuels as their primary cooking fuel; the resulting high levels of household air pollution (HAP) were estimated to cause more than 4 million premature deaths in 2012. The people most affected are among the world's poorest, and past experience has shown that securing adoption and sustained use of effective, low-emission stove technologies and fuels in such populations is not easy. Among the questions raised by these challenges are (i) to what levels does HAP exposure need to be reduced in order to ensure that substantial health benefits are achieved, and (ii) what intervention technologies and fuels can achieve the required levels of HAP in practice? New WHO air quality guidelines are being developed to address these issues. Aims: To address the above questions drawing on evidence from new evidence reviews conducted for the WHO guidelines. Methods: Discussion of key findings from reviews covering (i) systematic reviews of health risks from HAP exposure, (ii) newly developed exposure-response functions which combine combustion pollution risk evidence from ambient air pollution, second-hand smoke, HAP and active smoking, and (iii) a systematic review of the impacts of solid fuel and clean fuel interventions on kitchen levels of, and personal exposure to, PM2.5 and carbon monoxide (CO). Findings: Evidence on health risks from HAP suggest that controlling this exposure could reduce the risk of multiple child and adult health outcomes by 20-50%. The new integrated exposure-response functions (IERs) indicate that in order to secure these benefits, HAP levels require to be reduced to the WHO IT-1 annual average level (35 μg/m3 PM2.5), or below. The second review found that, in practice, solid fuel 'improved stoves' led to large percentage and absolute reductions, but post-intervention kitchen levels were still very high, at several hundreds of μg/m3 of PM2.5, although most solid fuel stove types met the WHO 24-hr average guideline

  20. Ozone - Current Air Quality Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    GO! Local Air Quality Conditions Zip Code: State : My Current Location Current AQI Forecast AQI Loop More Maps AQI: Good (0 - 50) ... resources for Hawaii residents and visitors more announcements Air Quality Basics Air Quality Index | Ozone | Particle Pollution | Smoke ...

  1. Regional Air Quality Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This asset provides data on regional air quality, including trace level SO2, nitric acid, ozone, carbon monoxide, and NOy; and particulate sulfate, nitrate, and...

  2. Improving Indoor Air Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usually the most effective way to improve indoor air quality is to eliminate individual sources of pollution or to reduce their emissions. Some sources, like those that contain asbestos, can be sealed or enclosed.

  3. State Air Quality Standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollution Engineering, 1978

    1978-01-01

    This article presents in tabular form the air quality standards for sulfur dioxide, carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, photochemicals, non-methane hydrocarbons and particulates for each of the 50 states and the District of Columbia. (CS)

  4. Process air quality data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, C. M.; Hogge, J. E.

    1978-01-01

    Air quality sampling was conducted. Data for air quality parameters, recorded on written forms, punched cards or magnetic tape, are available for 1972 through 1975. Computer software was developed to (1) calculate several daily statistical measures of location, (2) plot time histories of data or the calculated daily statistics, (3) calculate simple correlation coefficients, and (4) plot scatter diagrams. Computer software was developed for processing air quality data to include time series analysis and goodness of fit tests. Computer software was developed to (1) calculate a larger number of daily statistical measures of location, and a number of daily monthly and yearly measures of location, dispersion, skewness and kurtosis, (2) decompose the extended time series model and (3) perform some goodness of fit tests. The computer program is described, documented and illustrated by examples. Recommendations are made for continuation of the development of research on processing air quality data.

  5. Introduction to Indoor Air Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Offices Regional Offices Labs and Research Centers Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) Contact Us Share Introduction to Indoor Air Quality Health Effects Primary Causes Identifying Problems Improving IAQ ...

  6. Quality of evidence-based pediatric guidelines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boluyt, Nicole; Lincke, Carsten R.; Offringa, Martin

    2005-01-01

    Objective. To identify evidence-based pediatric guidelines and to assess their quality. Methods. We searched Medline, Embase, and relevant Web sites of guideline development programs and national pediatric societies to identify evidence-based pediatric guidelines. A list with titles of identified

  7. Local Air Quality Conditions and Forecasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Monitor Location Archived Maps by Region Canada Air Quality Air Quality on Google Earth Links A-Z About AirNow AirNow International Air Quality Action Days / Alerts AirCompare Air Quality Index (AQI) ...

  8. Air filtration and indoor air quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bekö, Gabriel

    2006-01-01

    Demands for better indoor air quality are increasing, since we spend most of our time indoors and we are more and more aware of indoor air pollution. Field studies in different parts of the world have documented that high percentage of occupants in many offices and buildings find the indoor air...... decent ventilation and air cleaning/air filtration, high indoor air quality cannot be accomplished. The need for effective air filtration has increased with increasing evidence on the hazardous effects of fine particles. Moreover, the air contains gaseous pollutants, removal of which requires various air...... cleaning techniques. Supply air filter is one of the key components in the ventilation system. Studies have shown that used ventilation filters themselves can be a significant source of indoor air pollution with consequent impact on perceived air quality, sick building syndrome symptoms and performance...

  9. Energy and air quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-12-01

    This is one of a series of handbooks designed to provide nontechnical readers with a general understanding of the interaction between energy development and environmental media and to provide a rudimentary data base from which estimates of potential future impacts can be made. This handbook describes the air quality impacts of energy development and summarizes the major federal legislation which regulates the potential air quality impacts of energy facilities and can thus influence the locations and timing of energy development. In addition, this report describes and presents the data which can be used as the basis for measurement, and in some cases, prediction of the potential conflicts between energy development and achieving and maintaining clean air. Energy utilization is the largest emission source of man-made air pollutants. Choices in energy resource development and utilization generate varying emissions or discharges into the atmosphere, the emissions are affected by the assimilative character of the atmosphere, and the resultant air pollutant concentrations have biological and aesthetic effects. This handbook describes the interrelationships of energy-related air emissions under various methods of pollution control, the assimilative character of the air medium, and the effects of air pollution. The media book is divided into three major sections: topics of concern relating to the media and energy development, descriptions of how to use available data to quantify and examine energy/environmental impacts, and the data

  10. Methodological quality of guidelines in gastroenterology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malheiro, Rui; de Monteiro-Soares, Matilde; Hassan, Cesare; Dinis-Ribeiro, Mário

    2014-06-01

    Clinical guidelines are a common feature in modern endoscopy practice and they are being produced faster than ever. However, their methodological quality is rarely assessed. This study evaluated the methodological quality of current clinical guidelines in the field of gastroenterology, with an emphasis on endoscopy. Practice guidelines published by the American College of Gastroenterology (ACG), American Gastroenterological Association (AGA), American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy (ASGE), European Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy (ESGE), British Society of Gastroenterology (BSG), National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE), and the Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network (SIGN) were searched between September and October 2012 and evaluated using the AGREE II (Appraisal of Guidelines for Research and Evaluation) instrument (23 items, scores 1 - 7 for each item; higher scores mean better quality). A total of 100 guidelines were assessed. The mean number of items scoring 6 or 7 per guideline was 9.2 (out of 23 items). Overall, 99 % of guidelines failed to include the target population in the development process, and 96 % did not report facilitators and barriers to guideline application. In addition, 86 % did not include advice or tools, and 94 % did not present monitoring or auditing criteria. The global methodological quality of clinical guidelines in the field of gastroenterology is poor, particularly regarding involvement of the target population in the development of guidelines and in the provision of clear suggestions to practitioners. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  11. Indoor air quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    Indoor Air Quality is rapidly becoming a major environmental concern because a significant amount of people spend a substantial amount of time in a variety of different indoor environments. Health effects from indoor pollutants fall into two categories: those that are experienced immediately after exposure and those that do not show up until years later. They are: radon, formaldehyde, asbestos, lead and household organic chemicals. The authors presented a source-by-source look at the most common indoor air pollutants, their potential health effects, and ways to reduce their levels in the home. There are three basic strategies to improve indoor air quality: one method is source control, another is through ventilation improvements, and the third is the utilization of some sort of mechanical device such as air cleaners

  12. Formalising medical quality indicators to improve guidelines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Gendt, Marjolein; Ten Teije, Annette; Serban, Radu; Van Harmelen, Frank

    2005-01-01

    Medical guidelines can significantly improve quality of medical care and reduce costs. But how do we get sound and well-structured guidelines? This paper investigates the use of quality indicators that are formulated by medical institutions to evaluate medical care. The main research questions are

  13. Air Quality Guide for Ozone

    Science.gov (United States)

    GO! Local Air Quality Conditions Zip Code: State : My Current Location Air Quality Guide for Ozone Ground-level ozone is one of our nation’s most common air pollutants. Use the chart below to help reduce ...

  14. Air Quality Management Process Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Air quality management are activities a regulatory authority undertakes to protect human health and the environment from the harmful effects of air pollution. The process of managing air quality can be illustrated as a cycle of inter-related elements.

  15. 40 CFR 52.60 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.60 Section 52.60 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) All applications and other information required pursuant to § 52.21 from... “Guideline on Air Quality Models (Revised)” or other models approved by EPA. [42 FR 22869, May 5, 1977, as...

  16. Air quality risk management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Martin L

    2008-01-01

    Rather than attempt to provide a comprehensive account of air quality risk assessment, as might be found in a textbook or manual, this article discusses some issues that are of current importance in the United Kingdom and the rest of Europe, with special emphasis on risk assessment in the context of policy formulation, and emerging scientific knowledge. There are two pollutants of particular concern and that both pose challenges for risk assessment and policy, and they are particulate matter (PM) and ozone. The article describes some issues for health risk assessment and finally some forward-looking suggestions for future approaches to air quality management.

  17. Reporting guidelines and journal quality in otolaryngology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, A H; Upile, T; Pilavakis, Y; Patel, N N

    2016-10-01

    Journals increasingly use reporting guidelines to standardise research papers, partly to improve quality. Although defining journal quality is difficult, various calculated metrics are used. This study investigates guideline adoption by otolaryngology journals and whether a relationship exists between this and journal quality. Retrospective MEDLINE database review for English language, Index Medicus, journals of interest to otolaryngologists (October 2013). The resulting journals were examined for the number of guidelines endorsed and then tabulated against surrogate measures of journal quality (Impact factor, Eigenfactor, SCImago, Source-Normalised rank). The primary outcome measure was the number of recognised reporting guidelines endorsed per journal. This was then correlated against journal quality scores. For comparison, a further small sample correlation was performed with 6 randomly selected and 6 high-profile clinical non-otolaryngology journals. 37 otolaryngology journals were identified. Number of guidelines used and quality scores were not normally distributed. Mean guideline usage was 1.0 for otolaryngology journals, 1.5 for randomly selected, and 5.5 for the high-profile journals. Only 18/37 (49%) otolaryngology journals endorsed any guidelines, compared with 11/12 non-otolaryngology journals. Within otolaryngology, Eigenfactor positively correlated with guideline use (r = 0.4, n = 44, p otolaryngology journals is low. Although it might be expected that use of reporting guidelines improved quality, this is not reflected in the derived quality scores in otolaryngology. This may reflect low levels of use/enforcement, that quality indicators are inherently flawed, or that generalised guidelines are not always appropriate or valued by editors. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Air Pollution Monitoring | Air Quality Planning & Standards ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-08

    The basic mission of the Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards is to preserve and improve the quality of our nation's air. To accomplish this, OAQPS must be able to evaluate the status of the atmosphere as compared to clean air standards and historical information.

  19. Indoor Air Quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Selman, Ayser Dawod; Heiselberg, Per

    Overall purpose of the research is to provide an overview of the relevance and importance of various defined Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) parameters in a European perspective. Based on the report it should be possible to prioritize which countries to target for further activities as well as it should...

  20. Air Quality Monitoring Programme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kemp, K.; Palmgren, F.

    The Danish Air Quality Monitoring Programme (LMP IV) has been revised in accordance with the Framework Directive and the first three daughter directives of SO2, NOx/NO2, PM10, lead, benzene, CO and ozone. PM10 samplers are under installation and the installation will be completed during 2002...

  1. Indoor air quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hollowell, C.D.

    1981-06-01

    Rising energy prices, among other factors, have generated an incentive to reduce ventilation rates and thereby reduce the cost of heating and cooling buildings. Reduced ventilation in buildings may significantly increase exposure to indoor air pollution and perhaps have adverse effects on occupant health and comfort. Preliminary findings suggest that reduced ventilation may adversely affect indoor air quality unless appropriate control strategies are undertaken. The strategies used to control indoor air pollution depend on the specific pollutant or class of pollutants encountered, and differ somewhat depending on whether the application is to an existing building or a new building under design and construction. Whenever possible, the first course of action is prevention or reduction of pollutant emissions at the source. In most buildings, control measures involve a combination of prevention, removal, and suppression. Common sources of indoor air pollution in buildings, the specific pollutants emitted by each source, the potential health effects, and possible control techniques are discussed

  2. Air quality indicators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clench-Aas, Jocelyn; Guerreiro, Cristina; Bartonova, Alena

    1999-06-01

    This report proposes and describes in detail several air quality indicators that may be used to describe population exposure. The suggested indicators account for temporal and spatial patterns of pollution and movements of individuals between different micro-environments. The Air Quality Indicator /AQI) should represent both the spatial and temporal aspects of pollution exposure that may have important effects on health. Two indicators are needed, the Population Air Quality Indicator and the Individual Air Quality Indicator. Mean concentrations, 98th percentile and maximum values are the traditional indicators for estimating exposure. the temporal variability of PM-10 and NO 2 , however, is here described by means of: 1) The rate of change of pollution as the difference between two consecutive hourly values and of 2) episodes, described in terms of number, duration and winter episode period, maximum concentration in the episode and integrated episode exposure (episode AOT50/100). The spatial variation of AQIs can be described in several ways, e.g.: 1) Concentrations in neighbouring grid squares can be compared as an indication of spatial variation and 2) point estimates can be compared to grid values for a description of variation within a grid. Both methods are presented here. A test of the representativity of static point estimates for pollution exposure is to compare them to an estimate of air pollution exposure accounting for movements between different locations, obtained using diaries. The ultimate aim of AQIs is to describe the population exposure to ambient pollution. This is done by estimating the number of people exposed using different characteristics of AQIs. The data used to describe these indicators originates from dispersion modelling of short-term air pollution concentrations in Oslo. Two series of data are used. One represents hour-for hour concentrations in the 1 km 2 grid system covering the city of Oslo, winter 1994/95, calculated by the grid

  3. Quality Control Guidelines for SAM Biotoxin Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learn more about quality control guidelines and recommendations for the analysis of samples using the pathogen methods listed in EPA's Selected Analytical Methods for Environmental Remediation and Recovery (SAM).

  4. Quality Control Guidelines for SAM Radiochemical Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learn more about quality control guidelines and recommendations for the analysis of samples using the radiochemistry methods listed in EPA's Selected Analytical Methods for Environmental Remediation and Recovery (SAM).

  5. Quality Control Guidelines for SAM Pathogen Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learn more about quality control guidelines and recommendations for the analysis of samples using the biotoxin methods listed in EPA's Selected Analytical Methods for Environmental Remediation and Recovery (SAM).

  6. Quality Control Guidelines for SAM Chemical Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learn more about quality control guidelines and recommendations for the analysis of samples using the chemistry methods listed in EPA's Selected Analytical Methods for Environmental Remediation and Recovery (SAM).

  7. Sandia software guidelines: Software quality planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-08-01

    This volume is one in a series of Sandia Software Guidelines intended for use in producing quality software within Sandia National Laboratories. In consonance with the IEEE Standard for Software Quality Assurance Plans, this volume identifies procedures to follow in producing a Software Quality Assurance Plan for an organization or a project, and provides an example project SQA plan. 2 figs., 4 tabs.

  8. Agriculture: Agriculture and Air Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Information on air emissions from agricultural practices, types of agricultural burning, air programs that may apply to agriculture, reporting requirements, and links to state and other federal air-quality information.

  9. Ambient Air Quality Data Inventory

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Office of Air and Radiation's (OAR) Ambient Air Quality Data (Current) contains ambient air pollution data collected by EPA, other federal agencies, as well as...

  10. [Essential guidelines for Quality Management System].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daunizeau, A

    2013-06-01

    The guidelines describe the essential parts of the quality management system to fulfil the requirements of the standard EN ISO 15 189. It includes mainly the organisation, the definition of responsibilities, training of personnel, the document control, the quality control, identification and control of nonconformities, corrective actions, preventive actions and evaluation, as audits and the management review.

  11. Indoor Air Quality in Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Vincent M.

    Asserting that the air quality inside schools is often worse than outdoor pollution, leading to various health complaints and loss of productivity, this paper details factors contributing to schools' indoor air quality. These include the design, operation, and maintenance of heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems; building…

  12. Biomonitoring of air quality using plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mulgrew, A.; Williams, P. [King' s Coll., London (United Kingdom). Monitoring and Assessment Research Centre - WHO Collaborating Centre for Monitoring and Assessment

    2000-02-01

    This report is an update of the MARC Report No. 32 'Biological Monitoring' and a first volume referring to a WHO project on biological monitoring. The monograph reviews comprehensively the existing literature on biological monitoring of air quality with plants. This review includes consideration of all plant species that are currently, or have a potential of, being used as bioindicators of air pollution. This review is intended to serve as a background paper for the derivation of guidelines for the use of biological monitors in air pollution control. (orig.)

  13. Biomonitoring of air quality using plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mulgrew, A; Williams, P [King' s Coll., London (United Kingdom). Monitoring and Assessment Research Centre - WHO Collaborating Centre for Monitoring and Assessment

    2000-02-01

    This report is an update of the MARC Report No. 32 'Biological Monitoring' and a first volume referring to a WHO project on biological monitoring. The monograph reviews comprehensively the existing literature on biological monitoring of air quality with plants. This review includes consideration of all plant species that are currently, or have a potential of, being used as bioindicators of air pollution. This review is intended to serve as a background paper for the derivation of guidelines for the use of biological monitors in air pollution control. (orig.)

  14. Do Clinical Practice Guidelines Improve Quality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldassari, Cristina M

    2017-07-01

    Controversy exists surrounding how to best define and assess quality in the health care setting. Clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) have been developed to improve the quality of medical care by highlighting key clinical recommendations based on recent evidence. However, data linking CPGs to improvements in outcomes in otolaryngology are lacking. Numerous barriers contribute to difficulties in translating CPGs to improvements in quality. Future initiatives are needed to improve CPG adherence and define the impact of CPG recommendations on the quality of otolaryngologic care provided to our patients.

  15. Guidelines for radriopharmaceutical quality control in hospitals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Welsh, W.J.

    1982-01-01

    This document has been prepared to assist hospital administrators in ensuring that adequate quality control is performed on radiopharmaceuticals administered to their patients. Three sets of guidelines are presented, the degree of sophistication being dependent on the amount of hospital involvement in the radiopharmaceutical preparation

  16. Indoor Air Quality in Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    This web site will educate the public about indoor environmental issues specific to educational facilities and the importance of developing and sustaining comprehensive indoor air quality management programs.

  17. Provide good air quality for people and improve their productivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fanger, Povl Ole

    2000-01-01

    Three recent independent studies have documented that the quality of indoor air has a significant and positive influence on the productivity of office workers. A combined analysis of the results of the three studies shows a significant relationship between productivity and perceived indoor air...... quality. The impact on productivity justifies a much higher indoor air quality than the minimum levels prescribed in present standards and guidelines. One way of providing air of high quality for people to breathe, without involving excessive ventilation rates and energy use, is to provide "personalized...... air" to each individual. The application of this concept is discussed....

  18. Air Quality and Climate Change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colette, A.; Rouil, L.; Bessagnet, B.; Schucht, S.; Szopa, S.; Vautard, R.; Menut, L.

    2013-01-01

    Climate change and air quality are closely related: through the policy measures implemented to mitigate these major environmental threats but also through the geophysical processes that drive them. We designed, developed and implemented a comprehensive regional air quality and climate modeling System to investigate future air quality in Europe taking into account the combined pressure of future climate change and long range transport. Using the prospective scenarios of the last generation of pathways for both climate change (emissions of well mixed greenhouse gases) and air pollutants, we can provide a quantitative view into the possible future air quality in Europe. We find that ozone pollution will decrease substantially under the most stringent scenario but the efforts of the air quality legislation will be adversely compensated by the penalty of global warming and long range transport for the business as usual scenario. For particulate matter, the projected reduction of emissions efficiently reduces exposure levels. (authors)

  19. Air Quality at Your Street

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Steen Solvang; Becker, Thomas; Ketzel, Matthias

    Citizens are frequently concerned about the air quality where they live, where they go to work, where their children go to kindergarten or where they want to move to. Municipalities may also have an interest in location based air quality information e.g. in relation to screening of complaints from...... concerned citizents, or in the context of localization of institutions, etc. The purpose of the project ‘Air Quality at Your Street’ is to create interactive air quality maps on the internet using webGIS to illustrate the geographical variation of air quality in Denmark for selected health related air...... pollutants. The maps show annual means of NO2, PM2.5 or PM10 for 2012. The user interface presents modelled air quality data on a map where the user can select map view, pan, zoom in and out, etc. It is also possible to get the air quality for a particular address by entering a specific address. Air quality...

  20. Air quality monitoring in Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghauri, B.; Lodhi, A.

    2005-01-01

    Clean air is an important prerequisite for sustainable economic development and is a basic requirement for human health and welfare. The baseline information helps the policy maker in decision making and future planning such as industrial and economic development, establishment and implementation of environmental guidelines etc. Pakistan is a developing country and is confronted with a number of severe environmental problems, such as degradation of natural resources, industrial and vehicle related pollution, degradation of human health etc. SUPARCO has conducted a year long (2003-2004) baseline air quality study in the major urban areas of the country including Karachi, Lahore, Quetta, Rawalpindi, Islamabad and Peshawar in collaboration with ENERCON/ UNDP. The objectives of this study were to establish baseline levels and behavior of ambient airborne pollutants in urban centers with temporal and spatial parameters. Our study reveals that the maximum concentrations of CO were observed at Quetta (38 ppm) while other pollutants like SO/sub 2/, (52.5 ppb), NO/sub x/ (60.75 ppb), and 03 (44.8) were higher at Lahore compared to other urban areas of the country like Karachi, Peshawar etc. Maximum levels of all these pollutants were found in summer months. Comparatively lower concentrations of these pollutants were observed in Islamabad/Rawalpindi including CO (13.6 ppm), NO/sub x/ (41 ppb), SO/sub 2/ (32 ppb) and 03 (24.7 ppb). The maximum Particulate (TSP) and PM 10 levels were observed at Lahore (990,372 micro g/m3), Karachi (410, 306 micro g/m3), and in Quetta (778, 290 micro g/m3) etc. Airborne trace/ toxic metals including Pb, along with noise level were also determined. The existing levels of these pollutants were correlated with meteorological data (temperature, humidity, wind speed, wind direction) to assess the pollutant dispersion, as well as source apportionment. A data bank of the study will be prepared for air pollution impact studies. (author)

  1. Air movement and perceived air quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melikov, Arsen Krikor; Kaczmarczyk, J.

    2012-01-01

    The impact of air movement on perceived air quality (PAQ) and sick building syndrome (SBS) symptoms was studied. In total, 124 human subjects participated in four series of experiments performed in climate chambers at different combinations of room air temperature (20, 23, 26 and 28 °C), relative...... and the humidity of the room air. At a low humidity level of 30% an increased velocity could compensate for the decrease in perceived air quality due to an elevated temperature ranging from 20 °C to 26 °C. In a room with 26 °C, increased air movement was also able to compensate for an increase in humidity from 30...... humidity (30, 40 and 70%) and pollution level (low and high). Most of the experiments were performed with and without facially applied airflow at elevated velocity. The importance of the use of recirculated room air and clean, cool and dry outdoor air was studied. The exposures ranged from 60. min to 235...

  2. Air Quality Facilities

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — Facilities with operating permits for Title V of the Federal Clean Air Act, as well as facilities required to submit an air emissions inventory, and other facilities...

  3. Guidelines for comprehensive quality assurance in brachytherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldson, A.L.; Nibhanupudy, J.R.

    1984-01-01

    Brachytherapy treatment techniques can provide significant improvement in local control and overall survival, but only when quality assurance can be guaranteed. To establish brachytherapy quality assurance, basic requirements for three predetermined subdivisions of clinical institutions will be forwarded. These are: (1) centers having minimum requirements to provide brachytherapy, (2) intermediate centers such as regional or community hospitals, and (3) optimal centers such as university hospital and cancer centers. This presentation will highlight personnel needs, equipment requirements, academic activities, clinical experience with these systems and proposed quality assurance guidelines

  4. Air quality and future energy system planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobral Mourao, Zenaida; Konadu, Dennis; Lupton, Rick

    2016-04-01

    Ambient air pollution has been linked to an increasing number of premature deaths throughout the world. Projected increases in demand for food, energy resources and manufactured products will likely contribute to exacerbate air pollution with an increasing impact on human health, agricultural productivity and climate change. Current events such as tampering emissions tests by VW car manufacturers, failure to comply with EU Air Quality directives and WHO guidelines by many EU countries, the problem of smog in Chinese cities and new industrial emissions regulations represent unique challenges but also opportunities for regulators, local authorities and industry. However current models and practices of energy and resource use do not consider ambient air impacts as an integral part of the planing process. Furthermore the analysis of drivers, sources and impacts of air pollution is often fragmented, difficult to understand and lacks effective visualization tools that bring all of these components together. This work aims to develop a model that links impacts of air quality on human health and ecosystems to current and future developments in the energy system, industrial and agricultural activity and patterns of land use. The model will be added to the ForeseerTM tool, which is an integrated resource analysis platform that has been developed at the University of Cambridge initially with funding from BP and more recently through the EPSRC funded Whole Systems Energy Modeling (WholeSEM) project. The basis of the tool is a set of linked physical models for energy, water and land, including the technologies that are used to transform these resources into final services such as housing, food, transport and household goods. The new air quality model will explore different feedback effects between energy, land and atmospheric systems with the overarching goal of supporting better communication about the drivers of air quality and to incorporate concerns about air quality into

  5. Improving and monitoring air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DuPont, André

    2018-05-01

    Since the authorization of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990, the air quality in the USA has significantly improved because of strong public support. The lessons learned over the last 25 years are being shared with the policy analysts, technical professionals, and scientist who endeavor to improve air quality in their communities. This paper will review how the USA has achieved the "high" standard of air quality that was envisioned in the early 1990s. This document will describe SO 2 gas emission reduction technology and highlight operation of emission monitoring technology. This paper describes the basic process operation of an air pollution control scrubber. A technical review of measures required to operate and maintain a large-scale pollution control system will be described. Also, the author explains how quality assurance procedures in performance of continuous emission monitoring plays a significant role in reducing air pollution.

  6. Indoor Air Quality and Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Cincinelli

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In the last few decades, Indoor Air Quality (IAQ has received increasing attention from the international scientific community, political institutions, and environmental governances for improving the comfort, health, and wellbeing of building occupants.[...

  7. Indoor Air Quality Test House

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Description:In order to enable studies of a range of indoor air quality and ventilation issues, EL maintains a highly instrumented three-bedroom test house. Previous...

  8. Measure Guideline. Air Sealing Attics in Multifamily Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Otis, Casey [Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB), Norwalk, CT (United States); Maxwell, Sean [Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB), Norwalk, CT (United States)

    2012-06-01

    This Building America Measure Guideline is intended for owners, builders, contractors, homeowners, and other stakeholders in the multifamily building industry, and focuses on challenges found in existing buildings for a variety of housing types. It explains why air sealing is desirable, explores related health and safety issues, and identifies common air leakage points in multifamily building attics. In addition, it also gives an overview of materials and techniques typically used to perform air sealing work.

  9. Mind Your Indoor Air Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mak, Lily

    2012-01-01

    When it comes to excelling in the classroom, it turns out the air students are breathing is just as important as the lessons they are learning. Studies show poor indoor air quality (IAQ) can lessen the comfort of students as well as staff--affecting concentration, attendance and student performance. It can even lead to lower IQs. What's more, poor…

  10. The Effects of Disease Management on Glycemic Control and Adherence to American Diabetes Association Guidelines in an Air Force Population

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Aase, Lauren

    2001-01-01

    ...) published practice guidelines for diabetic care. To improve patient care, the United States Air Force, as well as many civilian medical care facilities, have implemented a primary care approach to diabetes care based upon continuous quality...

  11. Air quality conformity appendix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-01

    Under the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA), because of the 8-hour ozone standard, Franklin, Delaware, Licking, Madison, Fairfield and Knox counties were designated as a basic nonattainment area for ozone in 2004. As a result of the PM 2.5 standar...

  12. Indoor air quality research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    The various types of pollutant found in indoor air are introduced and the effects on the health of the occupants of buildings summarized. The ''sick'' building syndrome is described in detail and the need for further investigation into its causes and remedies is stressed. 8 tabs

  13. The air quality impact of the port of Amsterdam on its environment: Development of an air quality tool

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klok, L.; Breemen, T. van; Hulskotte, J.

    2011-01-01

    Due to the expansion of the Port of Amsterdam, Urban development and the construction of new highways, air pollution levels are about to exceed European guidelines in and around the port region of Amsterdam. To assess the air quality in this region and the impact of theport emissions on its

  14. Manual on indoor air quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diamond, R.C.; Grimsrud, D.T.

    1983-12-01

    This reference manual was prepared to assist electric utilities in helping homeowners, builders, and new home buyers to understand a broad range of issues related to indoor air quality. The manual is directed to technically knowledgeable persons employed by utility companies - the customer service or marketing representative, applications engineer, or technician - who may not have specific expertise in indoor air quality issues. In addition to providing monitoring and control techniques, the manual summarizes the link between pollutant concentrations, air exchange, and energy conservation and describes the characteristics and health effects of selected pollutants. Where technical information is too lengthy or complex for inclusion in this volume, reference sources are given. Information for this manual was gathered from technical studies, manufacturers' information, and other materials from professional societies, institutes, and associations. The aim has been to provide objective technical and descriptive information that can be used by utility personnel to make informed decisions about indoor air quality issues

  15. Manual on indoor air quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diamond, R.C.; Grimsrud, D.T.

    1983-12-01

    This reference manual was prepared to assist electric utilities in helping homeowners, builders, and new home buyers to understand a broad range of issues related to indoor air quality. The manual is directed to technically knowledgeable persons employed by utility companies - the customer service or marketing representative, applications engineer, or technician - who may not have specific expertise in indoor air quality issues. In addition to providing monitoring and control techniques, the manual summarizes the link between pollutant concentrations, air exchange, and energy conservation and describes the characteristics and health effects of selected pollutants. Where technical information is too lengthy or complex for inclusion in this volume, reference sources are given. Information for this manual was gathered from technical studies, manufacturers' information, and other materials from professional societies, institutes, and associations. The aim has been to provide objective technical and descriptive information that can be used by utility personnel to make informed decisions about indoor air quality issues.

  16. Aeromicrobiology/air quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Gary L.; Frisch, A.S.; Kellogg, Christina A.; Levetin, E.; Lighthart, Bruce; Paterno, D.

    2009-01-01

    The most prevalent microorganisms, viruses, bacteria, and fungi, are introduced into the atmosphere from many anthropogenic sources such as agricultural, industrial and urban activities, termed microbial air pollution (MAP), and natural sources. These include soil, vegetation, and ocean surfaces that have been disturbed by atmospheric turbulence. The airborne concentrations range from nil to great numbers and change as functions of time of day, season, location, and upwind sources. While airborne, they may settle out immediately or be transported great distances. Further, most viable airborne cells can be rendered nonviable due to temperature effects, dehydration or rehydration, UV radiation, and/or air pollution effects. Mathematical microbial survival models that simulate these effects have been developed.

  17. Urban air quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fenger, J.

    1999-01-01

    Since 1950 the world population has more than doubled, and the global number of cars has increased by a factor of 10. In the same period the fraction of people living in urban areas has increased by a factor of 4. In year 2000 this will amount to nearly half of the world population. About 20 urban regions will each have populations above 10 million people. Seen over longer periods, pollution in major cities tends to increase during the built up phase, they pass through a maximum and are then again reduced, as abatement strategies are developed. In the industrialised western world urban air pollution is in some respects in the last stage with effectively reduced levels of sulphur dioxide and soot. In recent decades however, the increasing traffic has switched the attention to nitrogen oxides, organic compounds and small particles. In some cities photochemical air pollution is an important urban problem, but in the northern part of Europe it is a large-scale phenomenon, with ozone levels in urban streets being normally lower than in rural areas. Cities in Eastern Europe have been (and in many cases still are) heavily polluted. After the recent political upheaval, followed by a temporary recession and a subsequent introduction of new technologies, the situation appears to improve. However, the rising number of private cars is an emerging problem. In most developing countries the rapid urbanisation has so far resulted in uncontrolled growth and deteriorating environment. Air pollution levels are here still rising on many fronts. Apart from being sources of local air pollution, urban activities are significant contributors to transboundary pollution and to the rising global concentrations of greenhouse gasses. Attempts to solve urban problems by introducing cleaner, more energy-efficient technologies will generally have a beneficial impact on these large-scale problems. Attempts based on city planning with a spreading of the activities, on the other hand, may generate

  18. Alberta's air quality index : facts at your fingertip

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-06-01

    Alberta Environment measures the airborne concentrations of carbon dioxide, fine particulate matter, nitrogen dioxide, ozone and sulphur dioxide on a continuous basis at air quality monitoring stations in Edmonton, Calgary, Red Deer and Beaverlodge. Every hour, the readings are converted to an Air Quality Index (AQI) number to report on Alberta's outdoor air quality as either good, fair, poor or very poor. The categories relate to guidelines under Alberta's Environmental Protection and Enhancement Act and reflect the maximum acceptable levels specified by the National Ambient Air Quality Objectives. Current air quality conditions are available to the public through Alberta Environment's web site or by phoning a toll free number. Both Edmonton and Calgary report good air quality at least 90 per cent of the time. Occasionally, air quality in the two cities may reach the fair category, but it is seldom poor. Fair, poor or very poor air quality occurs with strong temperature inversion and light winds. Under these conditions, air pollutants, usually from automobiles, are trapped in a layer of stagnant air. Fair and poor air quality can also be caused by summer heat when photochemical smog forms by chemical reactions with oxides of nitrogen and volatile hydrocarbons. 1 ref., 1 tab., 1 fig

  19. Measure Guideline: Air Conditioner Diagnostics, Maintenance, and Replacement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Springer, D.; Dakin, B.

    2013-03-01

    This guideline responds to the need for an efficient means of identifying, diagnosing, and repairing faults in air conditioning systems in existing homes that are undergoing energy upgrades. Inadequate airflow due to constricted ducts or undersized filters, improper refrigerant charge, and other system defects can be corrected at a fraction of the cost of equipment replacement and can yield significant savings. The guideline presents a two-step approach to diagnostics and repair.

  20. Measure Guideline. Air Conditioner Diagnostics, Maintenance, and Replacement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Springer, David [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI), Davis, CA (United States); Dakin, Bill [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI), Davis, CA (United States)

    2013-03-01

    This guideline responds to the need for an efficient means of identifying, diagnosing, and repairing faults in air conditioning systems in existing homes that are undergoing energy upgrades. Inadequate airflow due to constricted ducts or undersized filters, improper refrigerant charge, and other system defects can be corrected at a fraction of the cost of equipment replacement and can yield significant savings. The guideline presents a two-step approach to diagnostics and repair.

  1. Indoor air quality and the law in Singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, P

    1999-12-01

    With the greater use of air-conditioned offices in Singapore, achieving good indoor air quality has become an important issue. The laws that impose duties upon designers and contractors with respect to the design and construction of air-conditioning and mechanical ventilation (ACMV) systems are set out in the Building Control Regulations and the Singapore Standard Code of Practice for Mechanical Ventilation and Air-conditioning in Buildings (hereinafter "SS CP 13:1980"). ACMV maintenance is governed by the Environmental Public Health Act, the Building and Common Property (Maintenance and Management) Act, and the Land Titles (Strata) Act, as well as by lease or tenancy agreements. Designers, contractors, developers, building owners and management corporations may also be liable to the workers, occupants and other premises users for indoor air quality (IAQ)-related injuries under the general principles of contract and tort. Recently, the Guidelines for Good Indoor Air Quality in Office Premises was issued by the Ministry of Environment to complement SS CP 13:1980 toward improving the indoor air quality of air-conditioned office premises. Although the Guidelines have no statutory effect, they may be adopted as contractual requirements in construction, lease and maintenance contracts. They may also be used to determine the relevant standard of duty of care required to discharge tortious liability. This paper looks at the existing laws and rules affecting the design, construction and maintenance of air-conditioned offices in light of Part III of the Ministry's Guidelines.

  2. A new method for calculation of an air quality index

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ilvessalo, P. [Finnish Meteorological Inst., Helsinki (Finland). Air Quality Dept.

    1995-12-31

    Air quality measurement programs in Finnish towns have expanded during the last few years. As a result of this it is more and more difficult to make use of all the measured concentration data. Citizens of Finnish towns are nowadays taking more of an interest in the air quality of their surroundings. The need to describe air quality in a simplified form has increased. Air quality indices permit the presentation of air quality data in such a way that prevailing conditions are more easily understandable than when using concentration data as such. Using an air quality index always means that some of the information about concentrations of contaminants in the air will be lost. How much information is possible to extract from a single index number depends on the calculation method. A new method for the calculation of an air quality index has been developed. This index always indicates the overstepping of an air quality guideline level. The calculation of this air quality index is performed using the concentrations of all the contaminants measured. The index gives information both about the prevailing air quality and also the short-term trend. It can also warn about the expected exceeding of guidelines due to one or several contaminants. The new index is especially suitable for the real-time monitoring and notification of air quality values. The behaviour of the index was studied using material from a measurement period in the spring of 1994 in Kaepylae, Helsinki. Material from a pre-operational period in the town of Oulu was also available. (author)

  3. A new method for calculation of an air quality index

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ilvessalo, P [Finnish Meteorological Inst., Helsinki (Finland). Air Quality Dept.

    1996-12-31

    Air quality measurement programs in Finnish towns have expanded during the last few years. As a result of this it is more and more difficult to make use of all the measured concentration data. Citizens of Finnish towns are nowadays taking more of an interest in the air quality of their surroundings. The need to describe air quality in a simplified form has increased. Air quality indices permit the presentation of air quality data in such a way that prevailing conditions are more easily understandable than when using concentration data as such. Using an air quality index always means that some of the information about concentrations of contaminants in the air will be lost. How much information is possible to extract from a single index number depends on the calculation method. A new method for the calculation of an air quality index has been developed. This index always indicates the overstepping of an air quality guideline level. The calculation of this air quality index is performed using the concentrations of all the contaminants measured. The index gives information both about the prevailing air quality and also the short-term trend. It can also warn about the expected exceeding of guidelines due to one or several contaminants. The new index is especially suitable for the real-time monitoring and notification of air quality values. The behaviour of the index was studied using material from a measurement period in the spring of 1994 in Kaepylae, Helsinki. Material from a pre-operational period in the town of Oulu was also available. (author)

  4. Global Air Quality and Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiore, Arlene M.; Naik, Vaishali; Steiner, Allison; Unger, Nadine; Bergmann, Dan; Prather, Michael; Righi, Mattia; Rumbold, Steven T.; Shindell, Drew T.; Skeie, Ragnhild B.; hide

    2012-01-01

    Emissions of air pollutants and their precursors determine regional air quality and can alter climate. Climate change can perturb the long-range transport, chemical processing, and local meteorology that influence air pollution. We review the implications of projected changes in methane (CH4), ozone precursors (O3), and aerosols for climate (expressed in terms of the radiative forcing metric or changes in global surface temperature) and hemispheric-to-continental scale air quality. Reducing the O3 precursor CH4 would slow near-term warming by decreasing both CH4 and tropospheric O3. Uncertainty remains as to the net climate forcing from anthropogenic nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions, which increase tropospheric O3 (warming) but also increase aerosols and decrease CH4 (both cooling). Anthropogenic emissions of carbon monoxide (CO) and non-CH4 volatile organic compounds (NMVOC) warm by increasing both O3 and CH4. Radiative impacts from secondary organic aerosols (SOA) are poorly understood. Black carbon emission controls, by reducing the absorption of sunlight in the atmosphere and on snow and ice, have the potential to slow near-term warming, but uncertainties in coincident emissions of reflective (cooling) aerosols and poorly constrained cloud indirect effects confound robust estimates of net climate impacts. Reducing sulfate and nitrate aerosols would improve air quality and lessen interference with the hydrologic cycle, but lead to warming. A holistic and balanced view is thus needed to assess how air pollution controls influence climate; a first step towards this goal involves estimating net climate impacts from individual emission sectors. Modeling and observational analyses suggest a warming climate degrades air quality (increasing surface O3 and particulate matter) in many populated regions, including during pollution episodes. Prior Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) scenarios (SRES) allowed unconstrained growth, whereas the Representative

  5. Air quality management in Botswana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Modupe O. Akinola

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines air pollution situation and the history of air quality management in Botswana. The current air quality management in Botswana is still largely underpinned by the Atmospheric Pollution Prevention Act of 1971, supplemented by the more recently enacted legislations such as the Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA Act of 2010 and the Ambient Air Quality - Limits for Common Pollutants of 2012 published by the Botswana Bureau of Standards. Though commendable efforts have been made toward legislating against air and other forms of pollution, these have not yielded expected results in view of the prevailing levels of air pollutants like sulphur dioxide and fine particulate matters in the country’s atmospheric environment. Legislation as a sole measure may not be effective in tackling this challenge. Rather, government should also address some root-causes of the problem by making policies and programmes that will reduce unemployment and increase the earning capacity of citizenry. This will, among other things, effectively check poverty-induced biomass burning in the country. The paper looks at some other challenges of air pollution management and suggestions are made to tackle the identified problems.

  6. Urban air quality in the Asian region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hopke, Philip K. [Center for Air Resources Engineering and Science, Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Clarkson University, Potsdam, NY 13699-5708 (United States)], E-mail: hopkepk@clarkson.edu; Cohen, David D. [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO), Physics Division, Private Mail Bag 1, Menai 2234, NSW (Australia); Begum, Bilkis A.; Biswas, Swapan K. [Bangladesh Atomic Energy Commission (BAEC), Atomic Energy Centre, Dhaka (AECD), P.O. Box 164, Dhaka (Bangladesh); Ni Bangfa [China Institute of Atomic Energy (CIAE), China National Nuclear Corp. (CNNC), P.O. Box 275-50, Beijing 102413 (China); Pandit, Gauri Girish [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai 400085 (India); Santoso, Muhayatun [Center for Nuclear Technology of Material and Radiometry, National Nuclear Energy Agency (BATAN), Jl. Tamansari 71, Bandung 40132 (Indonesia); Chung, Yong-Sam [Hanaro Center, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI), 150 Dukjin-dong, Yusung-ku, P.O. Box 105, Daejon 305-600 (Korea, Republic of); Davy, Perry; Markwitz, Andreas [Institute of Geological and Nuclear Sciences (GNS), 30 Gracefield Road, P.O. Box 31-312, Lower Hutt (New Zealand); Waheed, Shahida; Siddique, Naila [Division of Nuclear Chemistry, PINSTECH, Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC), P.O. Box 1482, Nilore, Islamabad (Pakistan); Santos, Flora L.; Pabroa, Preciosa Corazon B. [Philippine Nuclear Research Institute (PNRI), Commonwealth Avenue, Diliman, P.O. Box 213, Quezon City 1101 (Philippines); Seneviratne, Manikkuwadura Consy Shirani [Atomic Energy Authority, 60/460, Baseline Road, Orugodawatta, Wellampitiya (Sri Lanka); Wimolwattanapun, Wanna; Bunprapob, Supamatthree [Thailand Institute of Nuclear Technology (TINT), 16 Vibhavadi Rangsit Road, Bangkok 10900 (Thailand); Thu Bac Vuong [Centre for Radiation Protection, Institute of Nuclear Sciences and Technology, P.O. Box 5T-160, Cau Giay (Viet Nam)] (and others)

    2008-10-01

    Over the past decade, member states of the Regional Co-operation Agreement (RCA), an intergovernmental agreement for the East Asia and Pacific region under the auspices of the IAEA with the assistance of international organizations and financial institutions such as the World Bank and the Asian Development Bank, have started to set in place policies and legislation for air pollution abatement. To support planning and evaluate the effectiveness of control programs, data are needed that characterizes urban air quality. The focus of this measurement program describe in this report is on size segregated particulate air pollution. Such airborne particulate matter can have a significant impact on human health and urban visibility. These data provide the input to receptor models that may permit the mitigation of these impacts by identification and quantitative apportionment of the particle sources. The aim of this report is to provide an overview of the measurements of concentrations and composition of particulate air pollution in two size fractions across the participating countries. For many of the large cities in this region, the measured particulate matter concentrations are greater than air quality standards or guidelines that have been adopted in developed countries.

  7. Urban air quality in the Asian region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hopke, Philip K.; Cohen, David D.; Begum, Bilkis A.; Biswas, Swapan K.; Ni Bangfa; Pandit, Gauri Girish; Santoso, Muhayatun; Chung, Yong-Sam; Davy, Perry; Markwitz, Andreas; Waheed, Shahida; Siddique, Naila; Santos, Flora L.; Pabroa, Preciosa Corazon B.; Seneviratne, Manikkuwadura Consy Shirani; Wimolwattanapun, Wanna; Bunprapob, Supamatthree; Thu Bac Vuong

    2008-01-01

    Over the past decade, member states of the Regional Co-operation Agreement (RCA), an intergovernmental agreement for the East Asia and Pacific region under the auspices of the IAEA with the assistance of international organizations and financial institutions such as the World Bank and the Asian Development Bank, have started to set in place policies and legislation for air pollution abatement. To support planning and evaluate the effectiveness of control programs, data are needed that characterizes urban air quality. The focus of this measurement program describe in this report is on size segregated particulate air pollution. Such airborne particulate matter can have a significant impact on human health and urban visibility. These data provide the input to receptor models that may permit the mitigation of these impacts by identification and quantitative apportionment of the particle sources. The aim of this report is to provide an overview of the measurements of concentrations and composition of particulate air pollution in two size fractions across the participating countries. For many of the large cities in this region, the measured particulate matter concentrations are greater than air quality standards or guidelines that have been adopted in developed countries

  8. Indoor air quality environmental information handbook: Building system characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    This manual, the third in a series, focuses on residential building system characteristics and their effects on indoor air quality. The manual addresses: residential indoor air pollutants by source, indoor concentrations, health effects, source control and mitigation techniques, standards and guidelines; building system characteristics of air exchange, pollutant source strength, residence volume, site characteristics, structural design, construction, and operation, infiltration and ventilation system, building occupancy; and monitoring methods

  9. British Columbia water quality guidelines (criteria): 1998 edition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagpal, N.K.; Pommen, L.W.; Swain, L.G.

    1998-08-01

    British Columbia has developed water quality guidelines in order that water quality data can be assessed and site-specific water quality objectives can be prepared. The guidelines provide benchmarks for the assessment of water quality and setting water quality objectives. Guidelines are provided to protect the following six major water uses: drinking water, aquatic life, wildlife, recreation/aesthetics, agriculture, and industrial. Water quality encompasses the physical, chemical and biological quality of the water, sediment and biota. Among other quality criteria the guide provides maximum approved concentrations for nitrogen, aluminum, copper, cyanide, lead, mercury, and molybdenum. 30 tabs.

  10. Methodological Quality of Consensus Guidelines in Implant Dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faggion, Clovis Mariano; Apaza, Karol; Ariza-Fritas, Tania; Málaga, Lilian; Giannakopoulos, Nikolaos Nikitas; Alarcón, Marco Antonio

    2017-01-01

    Consensus guidelines are useful to improve clinical decision making. Therefore, the methodological evaluation of these guidelines is of paramount importance. Low quality information may guide to inadequate or harmful clinical decisions. To evaluate the methodological quality of consensus guidelines published in implant dentistry using a validated methodological instrument. The six implant dentistry journals with impact factors were scrutinised for consensus guidelines related to implant dentistry. Two assessors independently selected consensus guidelines, and four assessors independently evaluated their methodological quality using the Appraisal of Guidelines for Research & Evaluation (AGREE) II instrument. Disagreements in the selection and evaluation of guidelines were resolved by consensus. First, the consensus guidelines were analysed alone. Then, systematic reviews conducted to support the guidelines were included in the analysis. Non-parametric statistics for dependent variables (Wilcoxon signed rank test) was used to compare both groups. Of 258 initially retrieved articles, 27 consensus guidelines were selected. Median scores in four domains (applicability, rigour of development, stakeholder involvement, and editorial independence), expressed as percentages of maximum possible domain scores, were below 50% (median, 26%, 30.70%, 41.70%, and 41.70%, respectively). The consensus guidelines and consensus guidelines + systematic reviews data sets could be compared for 19 guidelines, and the results showed significant improvements in all domain scores (p dentistry journals is needed. The findings of the present study may help researchers to better develop consensus guidelines in implant dentistry, which will improve the quality and trust of information needed to make proper clinical decisions.

  11. Historical Ambient Air Quality Data Inventory

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Historical Ambient Air Quality Data Inventory contains measured and estimated data on ambient air pollution for use in assessing air quality, assisting in...

  12. 78 FR 53270 - Revision of Air Quality Implementation Plan; California; Sacramento Metropolitan Air Quality...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-29

    ... Quality Implementation Plan; California; Sacramento Metropolitan Air Quality Management District... to the Sacramento Metropolitan Air Quality Management District (SMAQMD or District) portion of the..., Sacramento Metropolitan Air Quality Management District, Rule 214 (Federal New Source Review), Rule 203...

  13. Pilot study on indoor air quality: Managing indoor air-quality risks. Report on a meeting held in St. Michaels, Maryland on October 25-27, 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-06-01

    Included in this study are the following: quantifying future trends of indoor air quality as a basis for government policy plans; assessing indoor air quality risks of pesticides; formaldehyde emission standards in the Federal Republic of Germany; orientations and actions of the European Community in the assessment and prevention of indoor air pollution; EPA and indoor air quality; the non-regulatory approach to reducing risks from radon exposure; U.S. consumer product safety commission; a builders guide to healthy homes; WHO air quality guidelines for Europe; the approach to control indoor air quality in Italy; guidelines - ventilation classes; energy consequences of upgrading indoor air quality; Canada's guidelines for residential indoor air quality: rationale and scope; Canadian ventilation and venting standards; indoor air quality building surveys case studies; design of indoor air quality studies; summary findings of inter-ministerial committee on indoor air quality (Ontario); the Quebec approach; employee survey EPA headquarters; pollution in closed spaces and its consequences in conservation of works of art; and how Norwegian health authorities will handle indoor air quality problems

  14. Air quality management planning (AQMP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sivertsen Bjarne

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In most urban areas of the world, particulate matter (PM levels pose severe problems, addressed in several policy areas (air quality, climate change, and human health. PM presents multiple challenges due to the multitude of its sources, spanning many sectors of economic activity as well as nature, and due to the complexity of atmospheric processes involved in its transport and secondary formation. For the authorities, the goal is to assure minimal impacts of atmospheric PM levels, in practice represented by compliance with existing regulations and standards. This may be achieved through an air quality management plan (AQMP. In Northern America and in parts of Europe, comprehensive research programs have guided development of AQMP over the last forty years. This cumulated experience can be utilized by others who face the same problems, but have yet to develop their own substantial research base. The main purpose of the AQMP development process is to establish an effective and sound basis for planning and management of air quality in a selected area. This type of planning will ensure that significant sources of impacts are identified and controlled in a most cost-effective manner. The choice of tools, methods and input information is often dictated by their availability, and should be evaluated against current best practices. Important elements of the AQMP are the identification of sources and development of a complete emission inventory, the development and operation of an air quality monitoring programme, and the development and application of atmospheric dispersion models. Major task is to collect the necessary input data. The development of the AQMP will take into account: - Air Quality Management System (AQMS requirements; - Operational and functional structure requirements; - Source identification through emission inventories; - Source reduction alternatives, which may be implemented; - Mechanisms for facilitating interdepartmental

  15. COMPARISON OF INDOOR AIR QUALITY IN RESTAURANT KITCHENS IN TEHRAN WITH AMBIENT AIR QUALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ghasemkhani, F. Naseri

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The indoor air quality of 131 restaurant kitchens in Tehran was investigated from May to September 2006. Gas stoves use in restaurant kitchens is a major source of indoor combustion, product carbon monoxide and nitrogen dioxide. The study focused on one of the busy zones located in the southwest and central part of the city. Measurements were done for indoor and outdoor air pollutants, carbon monoxide and nitrogen dioxide; ambient temperature and relative humidity were also measured. Result indicated that the mean levels of CO and NO2 in restaurant kitchens were below the recommended limit of 25 and 3ppm, respectively. Correlations between indoor and outdoor air quality were performed consequently. Results of the mean ambient temperature and relative humidity were above the guideline. In this study the mean levels of CO and NO2 gas cooking in restaurant kitchens were found to be lower compared with the similar studies.

  16. Ambient air quality predictions in the Athabasca oil sands region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    This report presents dispersion modelling predictions for SO 2 , NOx, CO, HC and particulate matter (PM), which complement regional monitoring observations. The air quality simulation models provide a scientific means of relating industrial emissions to changes in ambient air quality. The four models applied to the emission sources in the region were: (1) SCREEN3, (2) ISC3BE, (3) ADEPT2, and (4) the box model. Model predictions were compared to air quality guidelines. It was concluded that the largest SO 2 concentrations were associated with intermittent flaring, and with the Suncor Powerhouse whose emissions are continuous. 45 refs., 36 tabs., 40 figs

  17. Compliance with air quality regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steen, D.V.; Tackett, D.L.

    1990-01-01

    Due to the probable passage of Clean Air Act Amendments in 1990, electric utilities throughout the United States are faced with numerous choices to comply with the new acid rain regulations, expected in 1991. The choice of a compliance plan is not a simple task. Every compliance option will be costly. At Ohio Edison, deliberations are quite naturally influenced by past compliance with air quality regulations. This paper discusses compliance with air quality regulations in the 1970's, clean coal technologies and advanced scrubbers, and compliance with air quality regulations in 1995 - 2000. The choice of a compliance strategy for many utilities will involve serving customer loads through some combination of scrubbers, clean coal technologies, fuel switching, fuel blending, redispatch of units, and emissions trading. Whatever the final choice, it must be economic while providing sufficient flexibility to accommodate the critical uncertainties of load growth, state regulatory treatment, markets for emission allowances, advancements in control technologies, additional federal requirements for air emissions, equipment outages and fuel supply disruptions.s

  18. Trading emissions improve air quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lents, J.M.

    1993-01-01

    While admitting sharply contrasting views exist, James M. Lents of the South Coast Air Quality Management District in southern California sees emissions trading open-quotes as a lifesaver for our troubled planet.close quotes He explains: open-quotes If political support for the environment is to be maintained, we must seek the most economical and flexible means of pursuing cleanup. At present, market incentives and emissions trading represent our best hope.close quotes Lents is putting his money where his pen is. The air quality management district he heads plans to use market incentives, including emissions trading, to reduce air pollution in the notoriously dirty southern California area. When the system goes into operation in 1994, he estimates it will save southern California businesses more than $400 million a year in compliance costs, while also making major improvements in the region's air quality. If the idea works there, why won't it work elsewhere, even on a global scale, Lents asks? He believes it will. But open-quotes the ultimate success of emissions-trading programs, whether regional, national, or international in scope, lies in the proof that they're actually achieving reductions in harmful emissions,close quotes he emphasizes. open-quotes These reductions must be real and verifiable to satisfy the Clean Air Act and a skeptical public.close quotes

  19. 77 FR 30087 - Air Quality Designations for the 2008 Ozone National Ambient Air Quality Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-21

    ... and 81 Air Quality Designations for the 2008 Ozone National Ambient Air Quality Standards; Implementation of the 2008 National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone: Nonattainment Area Classifications...-9668-2] RIN 2060-AP37 Air Quality Designations for the 2008 Ozone National Ambient Air Quality...

  20. Urban air quality in Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viana, Mar (ed.) [Spanish Research Council - CSIC, Barcelona (Spain). Inst. for Environmental Assessment and Water Research

    2013-07-01

    This book provides an overview of air quality in urban environments in Europe, focusing on air pollutant emission sources and formation mechanisms, measurement and modeling strategies, and future perspectives. The emission sources described are biomass burning, vehicular traffic, industry and agriculture, but also African dust and long-range transport of pollutants across the European regions. The impact of these emission sources and processes on atmospheric particulate matter, ozone, nitrogen oxides and volatile and semi-volatile organic compounds is discussed and critical areas for particulate matter and nitrogen dioxide in Europe are identified. Finally, this volume presents future perspectives, mainly regarding upcoming air quality monitoring strategies, metrics of interest, such as submicron and nanoparticles, and indoor and outdoor exposure scenarios.

  1. Indoor Air Quality Management Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anne Arundel County Public Schools, Annapolis, MD.

    In an effort to provide Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) management guidance, Anne Arundel County Public Schools was selected by the Maryland State Department of Education to develop a program that could be used by other school systems. A major goal was to produce a handbook that was "user friendly." Hence, its contents are a mix of history,…

  2. General Quality Control (QC) Guidelines for SAM Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learn more about quality control guidelines and recommendations for the analysis of samples using the methods listed in EPA's Selected Analytical Methods for Environmental Remediation and Recovery (SAM).

  3. 32 CFR 989.30 - Air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Air quality. 989.30 Section 989.30 National... ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ANALYSIS PROCESS (EIAP) § 989.30 Air quality. Section 176(c) of the Clean Air Act..., Air Quality Compliance. 10 10 See footnote 1 to § 989.1. ...

  4. Wood energy and air quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-12-01

    This publication first recalls the main benefits of the use of wood, the first source of renewable energy in France: abundant and local resource, low CO 2 emission, competitiveness, job creation. It comments the relationship between the use of this source of energy and the compliance with air quality standards as they are notably defined by European directives, as the use of wood as heating source is one of the recommended lever to improve air quality. The publication comments emissions generated by this type of heating (mainly in the housing sector, with some critical meteorological periods). Levers for actions are discussed: fleet renewal to promote the best performing equipment, practice improvements (fuel quality, apparatus maintenance). Actions undertaken by the ADEME are briefly reviewed: support to individual equipment fleet modernisation, support to R and D, support to the sector, and information and communication

  5. Visual air quality simulation techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molenar, John V.; Malm, William C.; Johnson, Christopher E.

    Visual air quality is primarily a human perceptual phenomenon beginning with the transfer of image-forming information through an illuminated, scattering and absorbing atmosphere. Visibility, especially the visual appearance of industrial emissions or the degradation of a scenic view, is the principal atmospheric characteristic through which humans perceive air pollution, and is more sensitive to changing pollution levels than any other air pollution effect. Every attempt to quantify economic costs and benefits of air pollution has indicated that good visibility is a highly valued and desired environmental condition. Measurement programs can at best approximate the state of the ambient atmosphere at a few points in a scenic vista viewed by an observer. To fully understand the visual effect of various changes in the concentration and distribution of optically important atmospheric pollutants requires the use of aerosol and radiative transfer models. Communication of the output of these models to scientists, decision makers and the public is best done by applying modern image-processing systems to generate synthetic images representing the modeled air quality conditions. This combination of modeling techniques has been under development for the past 15 yr. Initially, visual air quality simulations were limited by a lack of computational power to simplified models depicting Gaussian plumes or uniform haze conditions. Recent explosive growth in low cost, high powered computer technology has allowed the development of sophisticated aerosol and radiative transfer models that incorporate realistic terrain, multiple scattering, non-uniform illumination, varying spatial distribution, concentration and optical properties of atmospheric constituents, and relative humidity effects on aerosol scattering properties. This paper discusses these improved models and image-processing techniques in detail. Results addressing uniform and non-uniform layered haze conditions in both

  6. 78 FR 63934 - Approval of Air Quality Implementation Plans; California; El Dorado County Air Quality Management...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-25

    ...] Approval of Air Quality Implementation Plans; California; El Dorado County Air Quality Management District... California for the El Dorado County Air Quality Management District (EDAQMD) portion of the California SIP... 24, 1987 Federal Register, May 25, 1988, U.S. EPA, Air Quality Management Division, Office of Air...

  7. REVIEW OF CONCENTRATION STANDARDS AND GUIDELINES FOR FUNGI IN INDOOR AIR

    Science.gov (United States)

    The paper reviews and compares existing guidelines for indoor airborne fungi, discusses limitations of existing guidelines, and identifies research needs that should contribute to the development of realistic and useful guidelines for these important air pollutants. (NOTE: Exposu...

  8. Ventilation, good indoor air quality and rational use of energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Geo; Fernandes, E. D. O.; DeGids, W.

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this report is to provide information and advice to policy and decission makers, researchers, architects, designers, and manufacturers on strategies for achieving a good balance between good indoor air quality (IAQ) and the rational use of Energy in buildings, available guidelines...

  9. Air quality inside passenger cars

    OpenAIRE

    Joanna Faber; Krzysztof Brodzik

    2017-01-01

    Vehicle interior is a specific environment of relatively small volume, with variety of materials placed inside, including hard and soft plastics, adhesives, paints, lubricants and many others. As a result, particularly in case of newly produced vehicles, large amounts and numbers of volatile species, especially volatile organic compounds (VOCs), may be emitted and have influence vehicle interior air quality (VIAQ). Despite the fact that many of these compounds may not be harmful for human hea...

  10. Guidelines for indoor air hygiene in school buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moriske, Heinz-Joern; Szewzyk, Regine (eds.)

    2008-08-15

    The new guidelines for indoor air hygiene in school buildings are intended as a response to current requirements in school practice. The recommendations aim to help to avoid mistakes in modernising school buildings and to provide hygiene-specific support in planning of new school buildings. The guidelines are laid out as follows: (a) In the general section the targets of the guidelines and the target groups are addressed. The current indoor hygiene situation in German schools is described, followed by the parameters with regard to peripheral issues which will not be dealt with further; (b) Part A deals with the hygiene requirements in the practical running of schools. Besides general requirements for maintenance and operation the important issues of cleaning and ventilation are considered, as well as minor building works; (c) Part B provides an overview of important chemical and biological contaminants in schools; (d) Part C looks at building and air conditioning requirements. The important issues of acoustic requirements is also addressed; (e) Part D shows how to deal practically with problem cases and list case studies with 'typical' procedures; (f) Part E provides a brief overview of existing renovation guidelines.

  11. Guidelines for indoor air hygiene in school buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moriske, Heinz-Joern; Szewzyk, Regine [eds.

    2008-08-15

    The new guidelines for indoor air hygiene in school buildings are intended as a response to current requirements in school practice. The recommendations aim to help to avoid mistakes in modernising school buildings and to provide hygiene-specific support in planning of new school buildings. The guidelines are laid out as follows: (a) In the general section the targets of the guidelines and the target groups are addressed. The current indoor hygiene situation in German schools is described, followed by the parameters with regard to peripheral issues which will not be dealt with further; (b) Part A deals with the hygiene requirements in the practical running of schools. Besides general requirements for maintenance and operation the important issues of cleaning and ventilation are considered, as well as minor building works; (c) Part B provides an overview of important chemical and biological contaminants in schools; (d) Part C looks at building and air conditioning requirements. The important issues of acoustic requirements is also addressed; (e) Part D shows how to deal practically with problem cases and list case studies with 'typical' procedures; (f) Part E provides a brief overview of existing renovation guidelines.

  12. Air quality inside passenger cars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Faber

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Vehicle interior is a specific environment of relatively small volume, with variety of materials placed inside, including hard and soft plastics, adhesives, paints, lubricants and many others. As a result, particularly in case of newly produced vehicles, large amounts and numbers of volatile species, especially volatile organic compounds (VOCs, may be emitted and have influence vehicle interior air quality (VIAQ. Despite the fact that many of these compounds may not be harmful for human health, some of them may be toxic, and this is the reason for increasing concern of vehicle manufacturers and users recently. The level of contamination varies from one vehicle to another and may be influenced by atmospheric conditions, external pollution, user habits, quality of materials used and others. The main aim of this paper was to present current knowledge status on VIAQ, with indication of main air pollutants and their concentrations. Vehicle interior air quality is discussed on the basis of studies on new and used cars in different conditions and locations. Main sources of VOCs presence inside car cabin are discussed in this paper with additional information regarding materials emissions. Differences in sampling and analytical methodologies were not debated, however, since the results differs largely in the scope of both number and amount of VOCs, a need of testing methods harmonization is indicated. Presented data may be helpful for legislative requirements introduction.

  13. Actinic Keratosis Clinical Practice Guidelines: An Appraisal of Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joslyn S. Kirby

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Actinic keratosis (AK is a common precancerous skin lesion and many AK management guidelines exist, but there has been limited investigation into the quality of these documents. The objective of this study was to assess the strengths and weaknesses of guidelines that address AK management. A systematic search for guidelines with recommendations for AK was performed. The Appraisal of Guidelines for Research and Evaluation (AGREE II was used to appraise the quality of guidelines. Multiple raters independently reviewed each of the guidelines and applied the AGREE II tool and scores were calculated. Overall, 2,307 citations were identified and 7 fulfilled the study criteria. The Cancer Council of Australia/Australian Cancer Network guideline had the highest mean scores and was the only guideline to include a systematic review, include an evidence rating for recommendations, and report conflicts of interest and funding sources. High-quality, effective guidelines are evidence-based with recommendations that are concise and organized, so practical application is facilitated. Features such as concise tables, pictorial diagrams, and explicit links to evidence are helpful. However, the rigor and validity of some guidelines were weak. So, it is important for providers to be aware of the features that contribute to a high-quality, practical document.

  14. Standards for securing adequate indoor air quality across Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wargocki, Pawel; Carrer, P.; de Oliveira Fernandes, E.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Inadequate IAQ causes a loss of 2 million healthy life years annually in the EU. Europeans spend typically over 85–90% of their time indoors and the main factors that affect negatively the characteristics of the air they breathe are outdoor air used to ventilate indoor spaces and indoor...... effects of IAQ into different components: exposures to indoor and outdoor air pollutants, association with different morbidities and the way ventilation based approaches could minimise their impact. Disability adjusted life years (DALYs), a common metric to allow comparability of impacts on various types...... and is determined mainly considering the metabolic CO2 production. It is only applicable if all other pollutants meet WHO guidelines for ambient and indoor air quality. If they do not meet these guidelines after applying source control and when air used for ventilation is clean health-based ventilation rate should...

  15. Federal Interagency Committee on Indoor Air Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Federal Interagency Committee on Indoor Air Quality (CIAQ), which meets three times a year, was established by Congress to coordinate the activities of the Federal Government on issues relating to Indoor Air Quality.

  16. Helping air quality managers identify vulnerable communities

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Wright, C

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available population exposure and vulnerability risk prioritisation model is proposed for potential use by air quality managers in conjunction with their air quality management plans. The model includes factors such as vulnerability caused by poverty, respiratory...

  17. 30 CFR 75.321 - Air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Air quality. 75.321 Section 75.321 Mineral... SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Ventilation § 75.321 Air quality. (a)(1) The air in areas where... air current in these areas shall be sufficient to dilute, render harmless, and carry away flammable...

  18. Air quality in Europe - 2012 report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-09-15

    This report presents an overview and analysis of the status and trends of air quality in Europe based on concentration measurements in ambient air and data on anthropogenic emissions and trends from 2001 - when mandatory monitoring of ambient air concentrations of selected pollutants first produced reliable air quality information - to 2010. (Author)

  19. ASPECTS REGARDING AIR QUALITY IN DEVA AREA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CARMEN DRAGOTA

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Aspects regarding air quality in Deva area. The attenuation of air quality in the urban environment is determined by artificial warming, a result of the radiation emitted by constructions, economic activities, as well as the climatic elements characteristics. In the survey regarding air quality in Deva we will analyse the concentrations of NO2, O3, SO2 and their implications on air quality.

  20. Workshop on indoor air quality research needs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-01-01

    Workshop participants report on indoor air quality research needs including the monitoring of indoor air quality, report of the instrumentation subgroup of indoor air quality, health effects, and the report of the control technology session. Risk analysis studies addressing indoor environments were also summarized. (DLS)

  1. Indoor Air Quality in Chemistry Laboratories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hays, Steve M.

    This paper presents air quality and ventilation data from an existing chemical laboratory facility and discusses the work practice changes implemented in response to deficiencies in ventilation. General methods for improving air quality in existing laboratories are presented and investigation techniques for characterizing air quality are…

  2. Workshop on indoor air quality research needs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    Workshop participants report on indoor air quality research needs including the monitoring of indoor air quality, report of the instrumentation subgroup of indoor air quality, health effects, and the report of the control technology session. Risk analysis studies addressing indoor environments were also summarized

  3. 78 FR 19990 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Ohio; Ohio Ambient Air Quality...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-03

    ... Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Ohio; Ohio Ambient Air Quality Standards; Correction AGENCY... approved revisions to Ohio regulations that consolidated air quality standards in a new chapter of rules... State's air quality standards into Ohio Administrative Code (OAC) 3745-25 and modifying an assortment of...

  4. 75 FR 65572 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Ohio; Ohio Ambient Air Quality...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-26

    ... Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Ohio; Ohio Ambient Air Quality Standards AGENCY... Ohio Administrative Code (OAC) relating to the consolidation of Ohio's Ambient Air Quality Standards... apply to Ohio's SIP. Incorporating the air quality standards into Ohio's SIP helps assure that...

  5. 76 FR 72097 - Air Quality Designations for the 2008 Lead (Pb) National Ambient Air Quality Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-22

    ... Air Quality Designations for the 2008 Lead (Pb) National Ambient Air Quality Standards AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This rule establishes air quality designations for most areas in the United States for the 2008 lead (Pb) National Ambient Air Quality Standards...

  6. 77 FR 12482 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Indiana; Lead Ambient Air Quality...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    ... Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Indiana; Lead Ambient Air Quality Standards AGENCY... incorporates the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for Pb promulgated by EPA in 2008. DATES: This... FR 66964) and codified at 40 CFR 50.16, ``National primary and secondary ambient air quality...

  7. Toward improved guideline quality: using the COGS statement with GEM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiffman, Richard N; Michel, Georges

    2004-01-01

    The Conference on Guideline Standardization (COGS) was convened to create a standardized documentation checklist for clinical practice guidelines in an effort to promote guideline quality and facilitate implementation. The statement was created by a multidisciplinary panel using a rigorous consensus development methodology. The Guideline Elements Model (GEM) provides a standardized approach to representing guideline documents using XML. In this work, we demonstrate the sufficiency of GEM for describing COGS components. Using the mapping between COGS and GEM elements we built an XSLT application to examine a guideline's adherence (or non-adherence) to the COGS checklist. Once a guideline has been marked up according to the GEM hierarchy, its knowledge content can be reused in multiple ways.

  8. Estimation of air quality by air pollution indices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liblik, Valdo; Kundel, Helmut

    1999-01-01

    A novel system for estimating the quality of atmospheric air in the over-ground air layer with the help of air pollution indices was developed. The method is based on a comparison of measured or calculated maximum short-term concentrations and average annual concentrations of pollutants with maximum permissible concentrations (with regard to human beings and vegetation). Special air quality estimation scales for residential areas and natural systems are presented. On the basis of the concentration of the substance under study zones of very high, high, rather high, moderate, low and very low air pollution were distinguished in the over-ground layer of the atmosphere. These are projected to land surface for landscape zonation. The application of the system of indices is demonstrated in the analysis of air quality for the towns of Kohtla-Jarve, Johvi and Kivioli (in 1997-1998). A comparative analysis of the air pollution zones distinguished on the basis of emissions and data from bio monitoring yielded satisfactory results. The system of air pollution indices developed enables to process the results of air monitoring in case of pollution fields of complicated composition so that the result for estimating the quality of ambient air in a residential area is easily understood by inhabitants and interpretable with the help of a special scale; analyse temporal changes in the quality of the air in towns, villages and other residential areas and use the results as basis for developing measures for reducing the pollution of ambient air; carry out zonation of large territories on the basis of air pollution levels (spatial air pollution zones are projected on the ground surface) and estimate air quality in places where air monitoring is lacking to forecast the possible effect of air pollution on natural systems (author)

  9. Air quality management in China: issues, challenges, and options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shuxiao; Hao, Jiming

    2012-01-01

    This article analyzed the control progress and current status of air quality, identified the major air pollution issues and challenges in future, proposed the long-term air pollution control targets, and suggested the options for better air quality in China. With the continuing growth of economy in the next 10-15 years, China will face a more severe situation of energy consumption, electricity generation and vehicle population leading to increase in multiple pollutant emissions. Controlling regional air pollution especially fine particles and ozone, as well as lowering carbon emissions from fossil fuel consumption will be a big challenge for the country. To protect public health and the eco-system, the ambient air quality in all Chinese cities shall attain the national ambient air quality standards (NAAQS) and ambient air quality guideline values set by the World Health Organization (WHO). To achieve the air quality targets, the emissions of SO2, NOx, PM10, and volatile organic compounds (VOC) should decrease by 60%, 40%, 50%, and 40%, respectively, on the basis of that in 2005. A comprehensive control policy focusing on multiple pollutants and emission sources at both the local and regional levels was proposed to mitigate the regional air pollution issue in China. The options include development of clean energy resources, promotion of clean and efficient coal use, enhancement of vehicle pollution control, implementation of synchronous control of multiple pollutants including SO2, NOx, VOC, and PM emissions, joint prevention and control of regional air pollution, and application of climate friendly air pollution control measures.

  10. Representativeness of air quality monitoring networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duyzer, J.; Hout, D. van den; Zandveld, P.; Ratingen, S. van

    2015-01-01

    The suitability of European networks to check compliance with air quality standards and to assess exposure of the population was investigated. An air quality model (URBIS) was applied to estimate and compare the spatial distribution of the concentration of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) in ambient air in

  11. Air Quality Criteria for Particulate Matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Air Pollution Control Administration (DHEW), Washington, DC.

    To assist states in developing air quality standards, this book offers a review of literature related to atmospheric particulates and the development of criteria for air quality. It not only summarizes the current scientific knowledge of particulate air pollution, but points up the major deficiencies in that knowledge and the need for further…

  12. 77 FR 12524 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Indiana; Lead Ambient Air Quality...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    ... Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Indiana; Lead Ambient Air Quality Standards AGENCY... Indiana State Implementation Plan (SIP) for lead (Pb) under the Clean Air Act (CAA). This submittal incorporates the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for Pb promulgated by EPA in 2008. DATES...

  13. 75 FR 65594 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Ohio; Ohio Ambient Air Quality...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-26

    ... Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Ohio; Ohio Ambient Air Quality Standards AGENCY... the Ohio Administrative Code (OAC) relating to the consolidation of Ohio's Ambient Air Quality Standards (AAQS) into Ohio's State Implementation Plan (SIP) under the Clean Air Act. On April 8, 2009, and...

  14. Air quality strategy for Hong Kong

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alex, N.K.Y. [Air Policy Group, Wanchai (Hong Kong). Environmental Protection Dept.

    1995-12-31

    Hong Kong has experienced unimpeded economic growth for four decades but at the same time has suffered from growing air pollution. A new look at the air quality strategy is therefore required to bring about sustainable development. (author)

  15. Air quality strategy for Hong Kong

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alex, N K.Y. [Air Policy Group, Wanchai (Hong Kong). Environmental Protection Dept.

    1996-12-31

    Hong Kong has experienced unimpeded economic growth for four decades but at the same time has suffered from growing air pollution. A new look at the air quality strategy is therefore required to bring about sustainable development. (author)

  16. 76 FR 79537 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Delaware; Adhesives and Sealants Rule

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-22

    ... Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Delaware; Adhesives and Sealants Rule AGENCY: Environmental..., sale, use, or application of adhesives, sealants, primers, and solvents. EPA is approving this SIP... miscellaneous industrial adhesives control techniques guideline (CTG) category in accordance with the...

  17. Quality of air in Asuncion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-12-01

    The quality of the air in the city of Asuncion was evaluated, studying the distribution of the main chemical elements that are present in the sampling sites, using Bio monitors Tillandsia Meridionalis Baker and Tillandsia Recurvata L. and analyzed by of the ray-x florescence, technique the data were analyzed by means of the AXIL software and the results were a statistically analyzed by the SPSS Software for the creation of the maps of concentration distribution of the different elements from interest. The project was carried out multidisciplinary group integrated by the CNEA as Coordinator and executor; the Facultad de Ciencias Agrarias; the Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas; the Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales of the Universidad Nacional de Asuncion, as well as the Municipalidad de Asuncion.The material was done by specialists in the field and with the financial support of the IAEA [es

  18. Urban air quality management. V. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    This is the first in a series of reports commissioned by the International Petroleum Industry Environmental Conservation Association (IPIECA) to represent members' views on the management of urban air quality in the growing cities in developing countries. In this report, a general, science based framework is provided as a basis for understanding the nature of the problem in any specific urban area, the range of solutions that might be available, and the potential impact of each solution and its least cost privatisation. The topics covered are: a process for urban air quality management; setting air quality targets; a structured approach to the assessment of current and future air quality modelling methodologies; identification and collation of air quality model input data; development of socio-economic scenarios -long-term trend forecasting; cost effectiveness studies; the IPIECA approach to urban air quality management - development of partnerships; encouraging commitment to implementation of programme recommendations. (7 figures; 2 tables; 18 references). (UK)

  19. 78 FR 10589 - Revision of Air Quality Implementation Plan; California; Sacramento Metropolitan Air Quality...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-14

    ... Quality Implementation Plan; California; Sacramento Metropolitan Air Quality Management District... Sacramento Metropolitan Air Quality Management District (SMAQMD or District) portion of the California State... sources within the areas covered by the plan as necessary to assure that the National Ambient Air Quality...

  20. 77 FR 73320 - Approval of Air Quality Implementation Plans; California; South Coast Air Quality Management...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-10

    ... Quality Implementation Plans; California; South Coast Air Quality Management District; Prevention of... Implementation Plan (SIP) revision for the South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD or District... in a August 15, 2012 letter from the South Coast Air Quality Management District regarding specific...

  1. Air Quality Assessment Using Interpolation Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Awkash Kumar

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Air pollution is increasing rapidly in almost all cities around the world due to increase in population. Mumbai city in India is one of the mega cities where air quality is deteriorating at a very rapid rate. Air quality monitoring stations have been installed in the city to regulate air pollution control strategies to reduce the air pollution level. In this paper, air quality assessment has been carried out over the sample region using interpolation techniques. The technique Inverse Distance Weighting (IDW of Geographical Information System (GIS has been used to perform interpolation with the help of concentration data on air quality at three locations of Mumbai for the year 2008. The classification was done for the spatial and temporal variation in air quality levels for Mumbai region. The seasonal and annual variations of air quality levels for SO2, NOx and SPM (Suspended Particulate Matter have been focused in this study. Results show that SPM concentration always exceeded the permissible limit of National Ambient Air Quality Standard. Also, seasonal trends of pollutant SPM was low in monsoon due rain fall. The finding of this study will help to formulate control strategies for rational management of air pollution and can be used for many other regions.

  2. Interpretation of PAMZ air quality data and assessment of the PAMZ air quality monitoring program January 2000 to December 2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    Since December 1999, passive monitors have been in use to support the Air Quality Monitoring Program begun that year. It currently includes 33 passive stations throughout the zone, which measure nitrogen dioxide, sulphur dioxide and ozone. There are also four continuous monitoring stations, two stations operated by Parkland Airshed Management Zone (PAMZ) (Caroline and portable), one operated by Alberta Environment at Red Deer, as well as one station operated by West Central Airshed Society at Hightower Ridge. In 2000 and 2001, the portable station was operated at seven locations within the zone. There were four objectives to this study: (1) provide a summary of the PAMZ air quality monitoring data for the period January 2000 to December 2001, (2) provide an interpretation of that data with regard to emission sources and PAMZ's high priority issues, (3) provide an assessment of the PAMZ Air Quality Monitoring Program performance with respect to the primary objective of the program, and (4) make recommendations on improving or expanding the Air Quality Program. It was found that the ambient concentrations of the different compounds and parameters were below the guidelines established by the Alberta Ambient Air Quality Guidelines (AAAQG) and Canada-wide Standards, with some exceptions which were listed. Ozone concentrations proved to be higher in the Foothills, rather than in an east-west pattern, and lower in the vicinity of transportation corridors (Highway 2). Nitrogen dioxide concentrations were also high in the transportation corridor. The eastern half of the zone was exposed to higher concentrations of sulphur dioxide due to the more dense population and the presence of industries and major highways. Most of the terms of reference of the Technical Working Group appear to be met by the PAMZ Air Quality Monitoring Program. Some recommendations were included in the report, such as the addition of a fifth continuous Air Quality Monitoring station that is portable

  3. Ozone, air quality and climatic change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Noije, T.

    2008-01-01

    Changes in climate due to increased greenhouse gas emissions differ per region. Regional climate changes can also be caused by regional changes in air quality, though. On the other hand, global and regional changes in climate also lead to changes in air quality without any changes in sources of pollution. This article discusses the various aspects of the interaction between air quality and climate change with extra focus on the role of ozone. [mk] [nl

  4. Future Air Quality in Danish Cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, S. S.; Berkowicz, R.; Winther, M.

    The impact of new EU vehicle emission and fuel quality directives on the future air quality in Danish cities has been modelled for comparison with new limit values in the new EU directive on assessment and management of urban air quality. Nested modelling was applied using a set of air quality...... and emission models to predict concentration levels in the regional background, urban background and at street level. Air pollution levels were predicted to decrease for NO2, CO and benzene (ozone increased slightly) and the results show that the levels will not exceed the new EU limit values in 2010 despite...

  5. Postprocessing for Air Quality Predictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delle Monache, L.

    2017-12-01

    In recent year, air quality (AQ) forecasting has made significant progress towards better predictions with the goal of protecting the public from harmful pollutants. This progress is the results of improvements in weather and chemical transport models, their coupling, and more accurate emission inventories (e.g., with the development of new algorithms to account in near real-time for fires). Nevertheless, AQ predictions are still affected at times by significant biases which stem from limitations in both weather and chemistry transport models. Those are the result of numerical approximations and the poor representation (and understanding) of important physical and chemical process. Moreover, although the quality of emission inventories has been significantly improved, they are still one of the main sources of uncertainties in AQ predictions. For operational real-time AQ forecasting, a significant portion of these biases can be reduced with the implementation of postprocessing methods. We will review some of the techniques that have been proposed to reduce both systematic and random errors of AQ predictions, and improve the correlation between predictions and observations of ground-level ozone and surface particulate matter less than 2.5 µm in diameter (PM2.5). These methods, which can be applied to both deterministic and probabilistic predictions, include simple bias-correction techniques, corrections inspired by the Kalman filter, regression methods, and the more recently developed analog-based algorithms. These approaches will be compared and contrasted, and strength and weaknesses of each will be discussed.

  6. OpenAIRE Guidelines: Supporting Interoperability for Literature Repositories, Data Archives and CRIS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Príncipe, Pedro; Rettberg, Najla; Rodrigues, Eloy

    2014-01-01

    OpenAIRE – Open Access Infrastructure for Research in Europe – is moving from a publication infrastructure to a more comprehensive infrastructure that covers all types of scientific output. To put this into practice an integrated suite of guidelines were developed with specific requirements suppo...... supporting the goal of OpenAIRE and the European Commission. This poster outlines the OpenAIRE Guidelines, highlighting the set of guidelines for Literature Repository Managers, for Data Archive Managers and for CRIS Managers....

  7. How Will Air Quality Change in South Asia by 2050?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Rajesh; Barth, Mary C.; Pfister, G. G.; Delle Monache, L.; Lamarque, J. F.; Archer-Nicholls, S.; Tilmes, S.; Ghude, S. D.; Wiedinmyer, C.; Naja, M.; Walters, S.

    2018-02-01

    Exposure to unhealthy air causes millions of premature deaths and damages crops sufficient to feed a large portion of the South Asian population every year. However, little is known about how future air quality in South Asia will respond to changing human activities. Here we examine the combined effect of changes in climate and air pollutant emissions projected by the Representative Concentration Pathways (RCP) 8.5 and RCP6.0 on air quality of South Asia in 2050 using a state-of-the-science Nested Regional Climate model with Chemistry (NRCM-Chem). RCP8.5 and RCP6.0 are selected to represent scenarios of highest and lowest air pollution in South Asia by 2050. NRCM-Chem shows the ability to capture observed key features of variability in meteorological parameters, ozone and related gases, and aerosols. NRCM-Chem results show that surface ozone and particulate matter of less than 2.5 μm in diameter will increase significantly by midcentury in South Asia under the RCP8.5 but remain similar to present day under RCP6.0. No RCP suggest an improvement in air pollution in South Asia by midcentury. Under RCP8.5, the frequency of air pollution events is predicted to increase by 20-120 days per year in 2050 compared to the present-day conditions, with particulate matter of less than 2.5 μm in diameter predicted to breach the World Health Organization ambient air quality guidelines on an almost daily basis in many parts of South Asia. These results indicate that while the RCP scenarios project a global improvement in air quality, they generally result in degrading air quality in South Asia.

  8. Biodiversity, air quality and human health

    Science.gov (United States)

    David J. Nowak; Sarah Jovan; Christina Branquinho; Sofia Augusto; Manuel C. Ribeiro; Conor E. Kretsch

    2015-01-01

    Air pollution is a significant problem in cities across the world. It affects human health and well-being, ecosystem health, crops, climate, visibility and human-made materials. Health effects related to air pollution include its impact on the pulmonary, cardiac, vascular and neurological systems (Section 2). Trees affect air quality through a number of means (Section...

  9. Air quality on biomass harvesting operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dana Mitchell

    2011-01-01

    The working environment around logging operations can be very dusty. But, air quality around logging operations is not well documented. Equipment movements and trafficking on the landing can cause dust to rise into the air. The addition of a biomass chipper creates different air flow patterns and may stir up additional dust. This project addresses two topics related to...

  10. Selected Malaysia air quality pollutants assessment using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Analysis of PCA, FA, KMO and Bartlett's test were done on five main air quality pollutants (O3, NO2, SO2, CO and PM10) from all around Malaysia. From the data analysis obtained, the concentrations of air quality pollutants all around Malaysia starting from 2008 to 2011 were acceptable and the most dominant major ...

  11. Indoor Air Quality: Maryland Public Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maryland State Dept. of Education, College Park. Office of Administration and Finance.

    Less than adequate indoor air quality in schools can lead to a higher risk of health problems, an increase in student and teacher absenteeism, diminished learning, and even hazardous conditions. An indoor air quality program that addresses the planning, design, maintenance, and operation of public school buildings should be implemented at the…

  12. Indoor Air Quality: A Guide for Educators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    California State Dept. of Education, Sacramento.

    Indoor air quality is a major concern for educators involved in the development of new school facilities, or the remodeling and maintenance of existing ones. This guide addresses the issue of air quality, the health concerns involved, and procedures for minimizing the impact of pollutants in the school environment. It defines common indoor air…

  13. Data Assimilation and Air Quality Forecasting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eskes, H.; Timmermans, R.; Curier, L.; Ruyter de Wildt, M. de; Segers, A.; Sauter, F.; Schaap, M.

    2014-01-01

    Lotos-Euros is a chemistry transportmodel developed in the Netherlands, and is used for air quality assessments and forecasts. Operational air quality forecasts for the Netherlands concerning ozone and PM10 are made available on the RIVM webpage (http://www.lml.rivm.nl/verw.html) and are used to

  14. Air Quality Monitoring: Risk-Based Choices

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, John T.

    2009-01-01

    Air monitoring is secondary to rigid control of risks to air quality. Air quality monitoring requires us to target the credible residual risks. Constraints on monitoring devices are severe. Must transition from archival to real-time, on-board monitoring. Must provide data to crew in a way that they can interpret findings. Dust management and monitoring may be a major concern for exploration class missions.

  15. Air quality and urban management in Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alberti, M. [Stanford Univ. (United States). Center for Conservation Biology; Joffre, S. [Finnish Meteorological Inst., Helsinki (Finland)

    1995-12-31

    Important changes in the quality of urban air have occurred in Europe during the last 20 years. Urban air quality trends are clearly correlated to changes in production and consumption processes which have occurred in European cities during the last decades. However, the way these trends are linked with the changes in the urban structure is not yet fully appreciated. A set of indicators is proposed to examine the relationships between air quality, energy consumption and transportation trends. On this basis is argued that the current decentralization of the urban structure and specialization of land use are major driving forces in current urban air pollution. The range of actions and tools to improve urban air quality should include: (1) land use planning, (2) efficient urban management, and (3) measures directed to protecting the quality of the urban environment. (author)

  16. Air quality and urban management in Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alberti, M [Stanford Univ. (United States). Center for Conservation Biology; Joffre, S [Finnish Meteorological Inst., Helsinki (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    Important changes in the quality of urban air have occurred in Europe during the last 20 years. Urban air quality trends are clearly correlated to changes in production and consumption processes which have occurred in European cities during the last decades. However, the way these trends are linked with the changes in the urban structure is not yet fully appreciated. A set of indicators is proposed to examine the relationships between air quality, energy consumption and transportation trends. On this basis is argued that the current decentralization of the urban structure and specialization of land use are major driving forces in current urban air pollution. The range of actions and tools to improve urban air quality should include: (1) land use planning, (2) efficient urban management, and (3) measures directed to protecting the quality of the urban environment. (author)

  17. Enhancing indoor air quality -The air filter advantage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayan, Vannan Kandi; Paramesh, Haralappa; Salvi, Sundeep Santosh; Dalal, Alpa Anil Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Air pollution has become the world's single biggest environmental health risk, linked to around 7 million deaths in 2012 according to a recent World Health Organisation (WHO) report. The new data further reveals a stronger link between, indoor and outdoor air pollution exposure and cardiovascular diseases, such as strokes and ischemic heart disease, as well as between air pollution and cancer. The role of air pollution in the development of respiratory diseases, including acute respiratory infections and chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases, is well known. While both indoor and outdoor pollution affect health, recent statistics on the impact of household indoor pollutants (HAP) is alarming. The WHO factsheet on HAP and health states that 3.8 million premature deaths annually - including stroke, ischemic heart disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and lung cancer are attributed to exposure to household air pollution. Use of air cleaners and filters are one of the suggested strategies to improve indoor air quality. This review discusses the impact of air pollutants with special focus on indoor air pollutants and the benefits of air filters in improving indoor air quality.

  18. Air Quality | Air Quality Planning & Standards | US EPA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-08

    Air pollution comes from many different sources: stationary sources such as factories, power plants, and smelters and smaller sources such as dry cleaners and degreasing operations; mobile sources such as cars, buses, planes, trucks, and trains; and naturally occurring sources such as windblown dust, and volcanic eruptions, all contribute to air pollution.

  19. Towards an integrative approach of improving indoor air quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bluyssen, Philomena M. [TNO Built Environment and Geosciences, P.O. Box 49, 2600 AA Delft (Netherlands)

    2009-09-15

    There seems to be a discrepancy between current Indoor Air Quality standards and end-users wishes and demands. Indoor air quality can be approached from three points of view: the human, the indoor air of the space and the sources contributing to indoor air pollution. Standards currently in use mainly address the indoor air of the space. ''Other or additional'' recommendations and guidelines are required to improve indoor air quality. Even though we do not fully understand the mechanisms behind the physical, chemical, physiological and psychological processes, it is still possible to identify the different ways to be taken regulatory, politically-socially (awareness), technically (process and product) and scientifically. Besides the fact that there is an urgent need to involve medicine and neuro-psychology in research to investigate the mechanisms behind dose-response, health effects and interactions between and with the other factors and parameters of the indoor environment and the human body and mind, a holistic approach is required including the sources, the air and last but not least the human beings (occupants) themselves. This paper mainly focuses on the European situation. (author)

  20. Status of ambient air quality at Barauni

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kannan, G.K.

    1993-01-01

    Due to industrialization, Barauni has become a well developed industrial estate to be considered as industrial hub of Bihar. Contemporary to the industrial growth, the environmental quality also gradually deteriorated. Hence a need was felt to know the status of ambient air quality for proper planning of the future growth of industries. The ambient air quality was monitored at 16 stations in and around Barauni industrial estate during 3 major seasons for the period of one year. The results are discussed as to the status of the ambient air quality and suggestion have also been made for improvement. (author). 5 refs., 2 figs., 7 tabs

  1. Managing Air Quality - Control Strategies to Achieve Air Pollution Reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Considerations in designing an effective control strategy related to air quality, controlling pollution sources, need for regional or national controls, steps to developing a control strategy, and additional EPA resources.

  2. Clearing the air. Air quality modelling for policy support

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriks, C.

    2017-01-01

    The studies presented in this thesis were performed to provide policy makers with more accurate information about the sources of air pollution and the possible consequences of future developments on air quality. This enables policy makers to make better informed decisions when formulating policies

  3. California Air Resources board's mobil source emission reduction credit guidelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunwoody Lentz, C.; Werner, B.

    1993-01-01

    The California Air Resources Board has developed guidance for the generation and use of mobil source emission reduction credits. Mobil source credits can be used to improve air quality, or to mitigate increases in emissions associated with industrial and non-industrial sources. They are created by programs which reduce mobile source emission beyond the reductions required by federal, state, and local laws or air quality attainment plans. Significant amounts of credit can be generated by some types of programs which reduce mobile source emissions of oxides of nitrogen (NO x ) and reactive organic gases (ROG). Mobile source credit programs must be carefully structured to ensure that emission reductions are real, accurately quantified, enforceable, and have a defined life. Three potentially feasible programs for the creation of mobile source credits include accelerated retirement of older vehicles, purchase of low-emission buses, and purchase of zero-emission vehicles. These programs are evaluated for their ability to generate credit and to assess their cost effectiveness. Based on the examples presented, two methods of generating mobile source credits, the accelerated retirement of older vehicles and the purchase of low-emission buses, appear to be cost-effective when compared to other emission control measures

  4. Air quality assessment in Salim Slam Tunnel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Fadel, M.; Hashisho, Z.; Saikaly, P.

    1999-01-01

    Full text.Vehicle emissions constitute a serious occupational environmental hazard particularly in confined spaces such as tunnels and underground parking garages. these emissions at elevated concentrations, can cause adverse health effects, which range from nausea and eye irritation to mutagenicity, carcinogenicity and even death. This paper presents an environmental air quality assessment in a tunnel located in a highly congested urban area. For this purpose, air samples were collected and analyzed for the presence of primary air pollutants, priority metals, and volatile organic carbons. Air quality modeling was conducted to simulate variations of pollutant concentrations in the tunnel under worst case scenarios including traffic congestion and no air ventilation. Field measurements and mathematical simulation results were used to develop a strategy for proper air quality management in tunnels

  5. Investigating the air quality in aircraft cabins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nilsen, Steinar K.

    2002-01-01

    In recent years, there has been increasing concern about the air quality in aircraft cabins and its effects on health and safety for crew and passengers. Some of the major worries are risk of communication of infectious diseases, high incidence of respiratory diseases caused by low air moisture, and increased concentration of carbon dioxide from exhaled air due to the cabin air being recirculated. It also happens that fumes and gases enter the cabin by way of the ventilation system. This article describes the EU-funded research programme called CabinAir. The project aims to: (1) establish the current level of air quality in aircraft cabins, (2) establish the relationship between cabin air quality and the performance of environmental control and filtration systems, the air distribution, the energy consumption and the environmental impact of fuel burn. (3) develop new designs and technical solutions to improve the environmental control system and cabin air distribution/control systems, (4) optimise air quality in the cabin and minimise fuel consumption and environmental impacts, (5) develop performance specifications for the components, (6) draft European Pre-Normative Standards

  6. Which points deserve special attention in the new guidelines on X-ray use (testing guidelines for experts and quality assurance guidelines)?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ewen, K.; Lauber, I.

    2004-01-01

    Two important guidelines for the application of X-rays in medicine became effective on 1 October 2003 and 1 December 2003. These are testing guidelines for experts and quality assurance guidelines. Both guidelines are very extensive and not always easy to interpret. In the present paper the authors try to explain in detail some chapters important for radiology and to make the necessary technical background transparent. Both authors took an essential part in forming the guidelines. (orig.) [de

  7. Hygiene guideline for the planning, installation, and operation of ventilation and air-conditioning systems in health-care settings – Guideline of the German Society for Hospital Hygiene (DGKH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Külpmann, Rüdiger

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Since the publication of the first “Hospital Hygiene Guideline for the implementation and operation of air conditioning systems (HVAC systems in hospitals” ( in 2002, it was necessary due to the increase in knowledge, new regulations, improved air-conditioning systems and advanced test methods to revise the guideline. Based on the description of the basic features of ventilation concepts, its hygienic test and the usage-based requirements for ventilation, the DGKH section “Ventilation and air conditioning technology” attempts to provide answers for the major air quality issues in the planning, design and the hygienically safe operation of HVAC systems in rooms of health care.

  8. [Air quality control systems: heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellucci Sessa, R; Riccio, G

    2004-01-01

    After a brief illustration of the principal layout schemes of Heating, Ventilating, and Air Conditioning (HVAC), the first part of this paper summarizes the standards, both voluntary and compulsory, regulating HVAC facilities design and installation with regard to the question of Indoor Air Quality (IAQ). The paper then examines the problem of ventilation systems maintenance and the essential hygienistic requirements in whose absence HVAC facilities may become a risk factor for people working or living in the building. Lastly, the paper deals with HVAC design strategies and methods, which aim not only to satisfy comfort and air quality requirements, but also to ensure easy and effective maintenance procedures.

  9. Systematic Review of International Colposcopy Quality Improvement Guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayeaux, Edward J; Novetsky, Akiva P; Chelmow, David; Choma, Kim; Garcia, Francisco; Liu, Angela H; Papasozomenos, Theognosia; Einstein, Mark H

    2017-10-01

    The American Society for Colposcopy and Cervical Pathology Colposcopy Standards Committee organized multiple working groups to draft colposcopy standards for the United States. As part of this project, international quality assurance and improvement measures were examined. The quality improvement working group performed a systematic review of the literature to collate international guidelines related to quality improvement. Source guidelines were collected using searches in Medline, Google Scholar, the International Federation of Cervical Pathology and Colposcopy Web site, other regional colposcopy group's Web sites, and communications with International Federation of Cervical Pathology and Colposcopy board of directors' members and other expert members of various national groups. Once identified, the sources were reviewed by multiple workgroup members for potential guideline materials. Fifty-six unique documents were identified, of which 18 met inclusion criteria and contributed data to the analysis. Information was abstracted and grouped by related subject. Wide variation exists in colposcopy guidance and quality indicators from regional and national colposcopy societies. Abstracted international guidelines are presented.

  10. The State of Ambient Air Quality of Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, M. M.; Aburizaiza, O. S.; Khwaja, H. A.; Siddique, A.; Nayebare, S. R.; Zeb, J.; Blake, D. R.

    2014-12-01

    Ambient air pollution in major cities of Saudi Arabia is a substantial environmental and health concern. A study was undertaken to assess the air quality of Jeddah, Saudi Arabia by the analysis of respirable particulate matter (PM2.5), black carbon (BC), trace metals (Na, Mg, Al, Si, S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Br, Sr, Cd, Sb, and Pb), and water-soluble ions (F-, Cl-, NO3-, SO42-, C2O42-, and NH42+). Sulfur and BC mass concentration ranged 0.99 - 7.39 μg/m3 and 0.70 - 3.09 μg/m3, respectively, while the PM2.5 mass concentration ranged 23 - 186 μg/m3. Maximum BC contribution to PM2.5 was 5.6%. Atmospheric PM2.5 concentrations were well above the 24 h WHO guideline of 20 μg/m3. Air Quality Index (AQI) indicates that there were 8% days of moderate air quality, 28% days of unhealthy air quality for sensitive groups, 55% days of unhealthy air quality, and 9% days of very unhealthy air quality during the study period. Sulfate SO42- dominated the identifiable components. The major contributors to PM2.5 were soil and crustal material; vehicle emissions (black carbon factor); and fuel oil combustion in industries (sulfur factor), according to the Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF). This study highlights the importance of focusing control strategies not only on reducing PM concentration, but also on the reduction of toxic components of the PM, to most effectively protect human health and the environment.

  11. Toronto air quality index health links analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pengelly, D [McMaster Inst. of Environment and Health, Hamilton, ON (Canada); Campbell, M; Macfarlane, R; Li-Muller, A [Toronto Public Health, ON (Canada)

    2001-10-01

    Based on data acquired in the year 1995, Toronto Public Health published a report called Air Pollution Burden of Illness in Toronto. In that report, it was estimated that up to 1000 Toronto residents die prematurely each year while another 5500 are admitted to hospitals due to six smog-related air pollutants. In the present document, the authors examined the air quality classifications of the Ontario Air Quality Index (AQI) in an attempt to determine whether the values adequately reflect the state of air quality and the associated burden of illness in Toronto. After careful examination of the results, it became apparent that 92 per cent of the premature mortality and hospitalization took place at times when the Air Quality Index was in the very good or good range. At times when the Air Quality Index was in the moderate or poor-very poor range, an estimated 8 per cent of the burden of illness occurred. These results indicate that the concentration range of a pollutant used to classify the good and very good categories is not always in agreement with the pollutant levels responsible for the adverse health effects. As demonstrated by this study, the air quality associated with the very good or good range described by the AQI is responsible for negative health effects in Toronto, and are lower than the provincial criteria of Ontario. The air quality conditions that may have an impact on health are not always correctly identified by the current AQI system. The authors are recommending a review of the provincial criteria for several air pollutants, and the current AQI system needs to be modified. 16 refs., tabs., figs.

  12. Ambient air pollution and semen quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobles, Carrie J; Schisterman, Enrique F; Ha, Sandie; Kim, Keewan; Mumford, Sunni L; Buck Louis, Germaine M; Chen, Zhen; Liu, Danping; Sherman, Seth; Mendola, Pauline

    2018-05-01

    Ambient air pollution is associated with systemic increases in oxidative stress, to which sperm are particularly sensitive. Although decrements in semen quality represent a key mechanism for impaired fecundability, prior research has not established a clear association between air pollution and semen quality. To address this, we evaluated the association between ambient air pollution and semen quality among men with moderate air pollution exposure. Of 501 couples in the LIFE study, 467 male partners provided one or more semen samples. Average residential exposure to criteria air pollutants and fine particle constituents in the 72 days before ejaculation was estimated using modified Community Multiscale Air Quality models. Generalized estimating equation models estimated the association between air pollutants and semen quality parameters (volume, count, percent hypo-osmotic swollen, motility, sperm head, morphology and sperm chromatin parameters). Models adjusted for age, body mass index, smoking and season. Most associations between air pollutants and semen parameters were small. However, associations were observed for an interquartile increase in fine particulates ≤2.5 µm and decreased sperm head size, including -0.22 (95% CI -0.34, -0.11) µm 2 for area, -0.06 (95% CI -0.09, -0.03) µm for length and -0.09 (95% CI -0.19, -0.06) µm for perimeter. Fine particulates were also associated with 1.03 (95% CI 0.40, 1.66) greater percent sperm head with acrosome. Air pollution exposure was not associated with semen quality, except for sperm head parameters. Moderate levels of ambient air pollution may not be a major contributor to semen quality. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. Determination and evaluation of air quality control. Manual of ambient air quality control in Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lahmann, E.

    1997-07-01

    Measurement of air pollution emissions and ambient air quality are essential instruments for air quality control. By undertaking such measurements, pollutants are registered both at their place of origin and at the place where they may have an effect on people or the environment. Both types of measurement complement each other and are essential for the implementation of air quality legislation, particularly, in compliance with emission and ambient air quality limit values. Presented here are similar accounts of measurement principles and also contains as an Appendix a list of suitability-tested measuring devices which is based on information provided by the manufacturers. In addition, the guide of ambient air quality control contains further information on discontinuous measurement methods, on measurement planning and on the assessment of ambient air quality data. (orig./SR)

  14. Air Quality Case Studies Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-08-01

    The Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) recognizes that many metropolitan areas are struggling with how to respond adequately to the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) and the 1991 Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act (ISTEA), particu...

  15. Air quality management in Riga area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leitass, A. [Riga City Council (Latvia). Air Monitoring Dept.

    1995-12-31

    The present Air Quality Management System was started in 1992 as a result of co-operation between two cities - Riga and Norrkoping (Sweden) supported by BITS (The Swedish Agency for International Technical and Economic Co-operation). Lots of Swedish companies were involved in different parts of this project. The strategy is designed by INDIC company developing the AIRVIRO which is a computer based system for all aspects of air quality management. Air pollution in Riga is a serious problem affecting health and damaging valuable buildings of historic value. The majority of the city`s air pollution is the result of emission sources inside the city. The traffic is the predominant source of pollution now. The fossil fuel power stations in the country are not considered to affect the air quality situation in Riga. (author)

  16. Air quality management in Riga area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leitass, A [Riga City Council (Latvia). Air Monitoring Dept.

    1996-12-31

    The present Air Quality Management System was started in 1992 as a result of co-operation between two cities - Riga and Norrkoping (Sweden) supported by BITS (The Swedish Agency for International Technical and Economic Co-operation). Lots of Swedish companies were involved in different parts of this project. The strategy is designed by INDIC company developing the AIRVIRO which is a computer based system for all aspects of air quality management. Air pollution in Riga is a serious problem affecting health and damaging valuable buildings of historic value. The majority of the city`s air pollution is the result of emission sources inside the city. The traffic is the predominant source of pollution now. The fossil fuel power stations in the country are not considered to affect the air quality situation in Riga. (author)

  17. Indoor air quality/air infiltration in selected low-energy houses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shohl Wagner, B.; Phillips, T.J.

    1984-01-01

    Indoor air quality and air infiltration were measured in 16 low-energy California houses. Eleven has gas stoves; all had average infiltration rates of 0.5 h -1 of less, recent construction dates, low natural ventilation, and no mechanical ventilation. HCHO levels in 12 houses and radon-222 and NO 2 levels in all houses were measured using passive monitors. Blower door measurements and local weather data were used to calculate average infiltration rates during the monitoring period. Correlation of pollutant concentrations with infiltration rates and building characteristics indicate that new houses with average heating season infiltration rates less than 0.5 h -1 do not necessarily experience poor indoor air quality, HCHO and radon-222 levels in new houses exceeded the lowest currently proposed standards or guidelines, and much higher levels probably exist elsewhere. Therefore, some strategy for identifying 'problem' houses is needed. We recommend an approach for future research in this area. (Author)

  18. Air quality information system (AQIS) for Gauteng: defining best practice

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kganyago, P

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available The National Environmental Management: Air Quality Act, 2004 (Act No 39 of 2004), need for national framework. The national framework will include the norms and standards for air quality information management. NAQIS (National Air Quality...

  19. Air pollution and urban air quality management in Indonesia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santosa, Sri J. [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Gadjah Mada University, Yogyakarta (Indonesia); Okuda, Tomoaki; Tanaka, Shigeru [Department of Applied Chemistry, Faculty of Science and Technology, Keio University, Yokohama (Japan)

    2008-06-15

    The trade-led industry and economic development after the Asian financial crisis a decade ago has been accelerated in Indonesia to improve the quality of life of its population. This rapid development of Indonesia was in fact heavily fueled by fossil fuels, especially oil, followed by natural gas and coal. The exploitation of fossil fuel in fueling the development resulted in significant environmental quality degradation. Air pollution is perhaps Indonesia's most severe environmental problem. Industry and transportation were the typical main sources of urban air pollutants. Moreover, Indonesia also failed to reach its original 2005 target for a complete phase-out of leaded gasoline. As a result, the level of Pb together with other pollutants such as CO, NO{sub x}, SO{sub 2}, and total suspended particulates has exceeded or at least approached the designated ambient air quality standards. The urban air pollution will not be lesser in extent, but surely will be more severe in the future. Unfortunately, the capability of the Indonesian authorities to manage the urban air quality is still very limited and the portion of the budget allocated to the improvement of urban air quality is still remarkably low, typically 1% of total. This is why the efforts to enhance the capability to manage the urban air quality could not be handled by the environmental authorities in Indonesia's cities themselves, but outside stimulation in the form of man power, consultant and equipment assistance along with financial support has been very important. (Abstract Copyright [2008], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  20. Publications about Indoor Air Quality in Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Publications and resources that relate to indoor air quality in schools, and design tools for schools. These publications cover a wide range of issues, including IAQ management, student performance, asthma, mold and moisture, and radon.

  1. EMC: Air Quality Forecast Home page

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modeling with NCEP NMMB ( Z. Janjic) ECMWF GEMS Project WMO Sand and Dust Storm Warning and Advisory System Air Quality Forecast Links U.S. AQ Forecast Products Canadian AQ Forecastsp Navy Aerosol Prediction

  2. Cooperative Agreement Funding for Indoor Air Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Indoor Environments Division has created partnership with public and private sector entities to help encourage the public to take action to minimize their risk and mitigate indoor air quality problems.

  3. Strategy Guideline: Quality Management in Existing Homes; Cantilever Floor Example

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taggart, J.; Sikora, J.; Wiehagen, J.; Wood, A.

    2011-12-01

    This guideline is designed to highlight the QA process that can be applied to any residential building retrofit activity. The cantilevered floor retrofit detailed in this guideline is included only to provide an actual retrofit example to better illustrate the QA activities being presented. The goal of existing home high performing remodeling quality management systems (HPR-QMS) is to establish practices and processes that can be used throughout any remodeling project. The research presented in this document provides a comparison of a selected retrofit activity as typically done versus that same retrofit activity approached from an integrated high performance remodeling and quality management perspective. It highlights some key quality management tools and approaches that can be adopted incrementally by a high performance remodeler for this or any high performance retrofit. This example is intended as a template and establishes a methodology that can be used to develop a portfolio of high performance remodeling strategies.

  4. Air quality information system for Gauteng

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Nkuna, J

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Air pollution is one of the challenges for sustainable development (Johannesburg being rated fifth worst in the world) One of nine agreed strategies: “Improvement of Air Quality (reduce emissions from vehicles, industry, mines/tailing dams...

  5. Assessing air quality impacts of managed lanes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-01

    Impacts on transit bus performance and air quality were investigated for a case study high-occupancy / toll (HOT) lane project on a corridor of I-95 near Miami. Trends in air pollutant concentration monitoring data in the study area first were analyz...

  6. Indoor Climate and Air Quality Problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valbjørn, O.; Hagen, H.; Kukkonen, E.

    This report presents a stepwise method for the investigation of and remedial actions for indoor climate and air quality problems. The report gives the basis for evaluation of the prevalence and causes of building related symptoms like mucosal irritation and headache. The report adresses members...... of occupational health and safety organisations, consulting engineers and architects, and also the people responsible for the operation of buildings and installations which is essential for the indoor climate and air quality....

  7. Air quality management: challenges and solutions in delivering air quality action plans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beattie, C.I.; Longhurst, J.W.S.; Woodfield, N.K.

    2000-07-01

    The Air Quality Strategy for England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland (DETR, 2001) has the aim of showing how improved local air quality in the UK may be delivered. Through a process of reviewing and assessing local air quality in both urban and rural localities, a clear picture is emerging of areas of the UK where air quality objectives are not likely to be met. The next challenge will be the identification of the required actions and new ways of working to achieve specific air quality objectives. The declaration of air quality management areas, where objectives are not predicted to be met by their target years, involves co-ordinated local action and collaborative working, which can only be effective with support across local authority departments and external stake holders. This paper provides a background to the relevant legislation underpinning, local air quality management and summarises the review and assessment process. It then comments on future directions in relation to the designation of Air Quality Management Areas and considers the requirements of action plans to deliver the goal of cleaner air in the UK. It is concluded that the UK has developed a highly sophisticated system of air quality management over a relatively short period of time, and with it has brought a new way of local authority working. The challenge of the next stage of the process is likely to be in implementing cost effective and proportional solutions to identified problems at the local level. (Author)

  8. Air Quality of Beijing and Impacts of the New Ambient Air Quality Standard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Chen

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Beijing has been publishing daily reports on its air quality since 2000, and while the air pollution index (API shows that the air quality has improved greatly since 2000, this is not the perception of Beijing’s residents. The new national ambient air quality standard (NAAQS-2012, which includes the monitoring of PM2.5, has posed stricter standards for evaluating air quality. With the new national standard, the air quality in Beijing is calculated using both NAAQS-2012 and the previous standard. The annual attainment rate has dropped from 75.5% to 50.7%. The spatial analysis of air quality shows that only a background station could attain the national standard, while urban and suburban stations exceed the national standard. Among the six pollutants included in the NAAQS-2012, PM2.5 is the major contributor to the air quality index (AQI comparing with the five other pollutants. The results indicate that under previous NAAQS without PM2.5 monitoring, the air quality has improved greatly in the past decade.  By considering PM2.5, the air quality attainment has dropped greatly. Furthermore, a great effort is needed for local government to bring down the PM2.5 concentration.

  9. 77 FR 52277 - Approval of Air Quality Implementation Plans; California; South Coast Air Quality Management...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-29

    ... Quality Implementation Plans; California; South Coast Air Quality Management District; Prevention of... rule. SUMMARY: EPA is proposing approval of a permitting rule submitted for the South Coast Air Quality Management District (District) portion of the California State Implementation Plan (SIP). The State is...

  10. 40 CFR 52.1165 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1165 Section 52.1165 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulation for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The...

  11. 40 CFR 52.2729 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2729 Section 52.2729 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The...

  12. 40 CFR 52.1689 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1689 Section 52.1689 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The...

  13. 40 CFR 52.1234 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1234 Section 52.1234 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The...

  14. 40 CFR 52.2827 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2827 Section 52.2827 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The...

  15. 40 CFR 52.1603 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1603 Section 52.1603 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The...

  16. 40 CFR 52.1180 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1180 Section 52.1180 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The...

  17. 40 CFR 52.2779 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2779 Section 52.2779 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The...

  18. 40 CFR 52.2676 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2676 Section 52.2676 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The...

  19. 40 CFR 52.499 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.499 Section 52.499 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The...

  20. 40 CFR 52.2497 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2497 Section 52.2497 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The...

  1. 40 CFR 52.738 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.738 Section 52.738 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air Act are not met... air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The provisions...

  2. 40 CFR 52.96 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.96 Section 52.96 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) The State of Alaska Department of Environmental Conservation Air Quality... deterioration of air quality. (b) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air Act are not met...

  3. 40 CFR 52.793 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.793 Section 52.793 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air Act are not met... air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The provisions...

  4. 40 CFR 52.1884 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1884 Section 52.1884 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The...

  5. 40 CFR 52.432 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.432 Section 52.432 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air Act are not met... air quality. (b) Regulation for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The provisions of...

  6. 40 CFR 52.632 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.632 Section 52.632 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air Act are not met... air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The provisions...

  7. Long-term pavement performance compliance with Department of Transportation information dissemination quality guidelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-11-01

    This document provides information on the compliance of the LTPP program with the guidelines the Department of Transportation (DOT) issued Information Dissemination Quality Guidelines (IDQG). These guidelines were developed in response to requirement...

  8. Setting priorities for ambient air quality objectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-10-01

    Alberta has ambient air quality objectives in place for several pollutants, toxic substances and other air quality parameters. A process is in place to determine if additional air quality objectives are required or if existing objectives should be changed. In order to identify the highest priority substances that may require an ambient air quality objective to protect ecosystems and public health, a rigorous, transparent and cost effective priority setting methodology is required. This study reviewed, analyzed and assessed successful priority setting techniques used by other jurisdictions. It proposed an approach for setting ambient air quality objective priorities that integrates the concerns of stakeholders with Alberta Environment requirements. A literature and expert review were used to examine existing priority-setting techniques used by other jurisdictions. An analysis process was developed to identify the strengths and weaknesses of various techniques and their ability to take into account the complete pathway between chemical emissions and damage to human health or the environment. The key strengths and weaknesses of each technique were identified. Based on the analysis, the most promising technique was the tool for the reduction and assessment of chemical and other environmental impacts (TRACI). Several considerations for using TRACI to help set priorities for ambient air quality objectives were also presented. 26 refs, 8 tabs., 4 appendices

  9. Petroleum refining and air quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raimbault, C.

    1992-01-01

    This paper studies the methods which may be developed in petroleum refineries or during petroleum products using for air pollution abatement: petroleum products desulfurization, lead elimination in gasoline and catalytic converters to reduce sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides in exhaust gases. Investments and costs estimation to adapt petroleum refineries for environment protection is also given. 1 ref., 6 figs., 6 tabs

  10. The Danish Air Quality Monitoring Programme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kemp, K.; Palmgren, F.; Manscher, O. H.

    The Danish Air Quality Monitoring Programme (LMP) was started in 1982 as the first nation-wide urban air pollution monitoring programme in Denmark. The programme has been adjusted to the pollution pattern by two revisions. The present phase (LMP III) was started in 1992. This report presents...... Copenhagen the same program is con-ducted as at the street stations with the inclusion of O3. Only NO, NO2 and O3 are reported from the other rural site. Air quality limit values have been implemented in Den-mark for NO2, SO2, TSP in order to protect human health. All limit values are based on EU limit...

  11. Indoor air quality: a UK perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wadge, A.

    1995-01-01

    Outdoor air quality has generally improved in the UK over the last 2 decades but during this period changing conditions within the home have tended to reduce ventilation and increase the opportunity for accumulation of undesirable levels of indoor air pollutants. Information obtained from laboratory and epidemiological studies suggest that indoor air pollutants are an important cause of avoidable morbidity and mortality in the UK. This paper reviews the major indoor air pollutants of concern in the UK and considers some of the special issues relevant to indoor environment. (author) 3 figs., 37 refs

  12. Air Quality and Indoor Environmental Exposures: Clinical ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indoor air quality (IAQ) is a term which refers to the air quality within and around buildings and homes as it relates to the health and comfort of the occupants. Many ambient (outdoor) air pollutants readily permeate indoor spaces. Because indoor air can be considerably more polluted than ambient air, the USEPA lists poor IAQ as a major environmental concern. In the sections that follow, health effects associated with commonly encountered ambient air pollutants and indoor contaminants will be broken down by agent class. In some cases, exposure may be acute, with one or more pets (and owners) experiencing signs within a relatively short period. However, most exposures are episodic or chronic, making it difficult to definitively link poor IAQ to respiratory or other adverse health outcomes. Age or underlying immunologic, cardiac, or respiratory disease may further complicate the clinical picture, as those patients may be more sensitive to (and affected by) lower concentrations than prove problematic for healthy housemates. Because pets, like their owners, spend most of their lives indoors, we will discuss how certain home conditions can worsen indoor air quality and will briefly discuss measures to improve IAQ for owners and their pets. In this overview presentation, health effects associated with commonly encountered ambient air pollutants and indoor contaminants will be broken down by agent class. Because pets, like their owners, spend most of their lives indoo

  13. Guidelines for the use of biological monitors in air pollution control (plants). Pt. 1. Methodological guidance for the drawing-up of biomonitoring guidelines (plants)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zimmermann, R.D. [Buero fuer Konzeptionelle Bioindikation, Jockgrim (Germany); Wagner, G. [Universitaet des Saarlandes, Saarbruecken (Germany). Inst. fuer Biogeographie; Finck, M.

    2000-04-01

    The main objective of this study is to encourage and promote further development of the methodological basis for a broader and more effective use of biological methods for monitoring the effects of air pollution on plants. It is not intended here to explain or discuss general criteria for the design of environmental monitoring studies and principal statistical methods for dealing with heterogeneously distributed spatial phenomena in detail. A further objective of this study is to give general guidance on how to - select suitable bioindicators, - develop, optimise and validate specific guidelines for the use of these bioindicators, - plan, design and employ biomonitoring studies for different purposes, - develop case-specific study plans determining how to apply an appropriate bioindicator (method-specific guideline) to a given task, case and area, - adapt principles of quality assurance and quality control to biomonitoring studies, - increase the importance and reliability of results obtained by bioindicators with respect to administrative measures. (orig.)

  14. Indoor Air Quality and Asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Golden

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Numerous contaminants in indoor air and their potential to cause or exacerbate asthma continue to be a subject of public health concern. Many agents are causally associated with or can exacerbate asthma, particularly in children. For formaldehyde, an established respiratory irritant based on numerous studies, the evidence for an association with asthma is still considered only limited or suggestive. However, there is no evidence that indicates increased sensitivity to sensory irritation to formaldehyde in people often regarded as susceptible such as asthmatics. Acrolein, but not formaldehyde, was significantly associated with asthma in a large cohort of children. This prompted an evaluation of this highly irritating chemical that had never previously been considered in the context of the indoor air/childhood asthma issue. Because acrolein is more potent than formaldehyde as a respiratory irritant and ubiquitous in indoor air, it is plausible that previous studies on potential risk factors and childhood asthma may be confounded by formaldehyde acting as an unrecognized proxy for acrolein.

  15. Evaluation of air quality and noise impact assessments, Davis Canyon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-05-01

    In this report, several issues are identified regarding the air quality and noise assessments presented in the final salt repository environmental assessment (EA) prepared by the US Department of Energy for the Davis Canyon, Utah, site. Necessary revisions to the data and methods used to develop the EA impact assessment are described. Then, a comparative evaluation is presented in which estimated impacts based upon the revised data and methods are compared with the impacts published in the EA. The evaluation indicates that the conclusions of the EA air quality and noise impact sections would be unchanged. Consequently, the guideline findings presented in Chapter 6 of the EA are also unchanged by the revised analysis. 50 refs., 16 tabs

  16. Indoor air humidity, air quality, and health - An overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolkoff, Peder

    2018-04-01

    There is a long-standing dispute about indoor air humidity and perceived indoor air quality (IAQ) and associated health effects. Complaints about sensory irritation in eyes and upper airways are generally among top-two symptoms together with the perception "dry air" in office environments. This calls for an integrated analysis of indoor air humidity and eye and airway health effects. This overview has reviewed the literature about the effects of extended exposure to low humidity on perceived IAQ, sensory irritation symptoms in eyes and airways, work performance, sleep quality, virus survival, and voice disruption. Elevation of the indoor air humidity may positively impact perceived IAQ, eye symptomatology, and possibly work performance in the office environment; however, mice inhalation studies do not show exacerbation of sensory irritation in the airways by low humidity. Elevated humidified indoor air appears to reduce nasal symptoms in patients suffering from obstructive apnea syndrome, while no clear improvement on voice production has been identified, except for those with vocal fatigue. Both low and high RH, and perhaps even better absolute humidity (water vapor), favors transmission and survival of influenza virus in many studies, but the relationship between temperature, humidity, and the virus and aerosol dynamics is complex, which in the end depends on the individual virus type and its physical/chemical properties. Dry and humid air perception continues to be reported in offices and in residential areas, despite the IAQ parameter "dry air" (or "wet/humid air") is semantically misleading, because a sensory organ for humidity is non-existing in humans. This IAQ parameter appears to reflect different perceptions among other odor, dustiness, and possibly exacerbated by desiccation effect of low air humidity. It is salient to distinguish between indoor air humidity (relative or absolute) near the breathing and ocular zone and phenomena caused by moisture

  17. Analysis of hospital interior air quality audits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Lee-Kuo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In general, people spent more than 80∼90% of living time in the indoor every day, human health and indoor environmental quality are closely related. The hospital has a complex and unique environmental characteristics, medical personnel and patients are prolonged exposed to risk factors in a variety of environments. Therefore, the merits of indoor air quality in the hospital, not only has a threat to the health of medical personnel and patients, but also will directly affect the quality and efficiency of health care work. A regular monitoring can, improve and maintain a well of indoor air quality, thus ensuring the safety maintenance of medical personnel and patients in hospital, it has become an important issue for hospital. This study has literatures review to collate and analyse that are related issues with indoor air quality. Then measures the indoor air quality test with direct-reading instruments. In selected hospital of this study were field-tested, then use the measured data in the field, discussion and analysis of the causes of air pollutants and the establishment of the sensing area of pollutants Concentration empirical mode.

  18. Effects of political institutions on air quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernauer, Thomas; Koubi, Vally

    2009-01-01

    We empirically test existing theories on the provision of public goods, in particular air quality, using data on sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ) concentrations from the Global Environment Monitoring Projects for 107 cities in 42 countries from 1971 to 1996. The results are as follows: First, we provide additional support for the claim that the degree of democracy has an independent positive effect on air quality. Second, we find that among democracies, presidential systems are more conducive to air quality than parliamentary ones. Third, in testing competing claims about the effect of interest groups on public goods provision in democracies we establish that labor union strength contributes to lower environmental quality, whereas the strength of green parties has the opposite effect. (author)

  19. Biomass and air quality the UK experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dearnley, E.

    2009-01-01

    Policies to encourage the use of biomass in the UK can perhaps be held up as an example of how not to develop integrated environmental policy. The UK has considered the air quality effects of biomass burning only after putting in place policies that will hugely increase the amount of biomass burning plant that will be installed. Whilst these issues are now being addressed, it will be some time before a satisfactory framework will be in place. The current situation is not a positive one for all involved - air quality practitioners, climate change policy makers and the wider biomass industry. For clean air organisations such as Environmental Protection UK and our European counterparts there are essentially two lessons to take away. The first is that we have to raise our sights to look for potential threats to air quality from wider policy measures, and flag up potential concerns at the earliest opportunity. It is easy to focus on the job in hand (for example emissions from vehicles) and miss developments further afield. Secondly, and most importantly, we have to offer our own solutions to wider environmental challenges. Climate change is likely to remain the dominant global environmental issue for decades to come; clean air agencies need to understand this and put forward low carbon solutions that offer strong synergies with air quality. The alternative is for policy makers to see air i quality standards and clean air agencies as a barrier t to progress towards a low carbon economy, rather than a positive source of solutions. (N.C.)

  20. 40 CFR 52.683 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.683 Section 52.683 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) The State of Idaho Rules for Control of Air Pollution in Idaho, specifically... the Clean Air Act for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. (b) The requirements of...

  1. 30 CFR 250.302 - Definitions concerning air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Definitions concerning air quality. 250.302... Definitions concerning air quality. For purposes of §§ 250.303 and 250.304 of this part: Air pollutant means..., pursuant to section 109 of the Clean Air Act, national primary or secondary ambient air quality standards...

  2. 76 FR 76048 - Air Quality Designations for the 2008 Lead (Pb) National Ambient Air Quality Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-06

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Part 81 [EPA-HQ-OAR-2009-0443; FRL-9492-3] RIN 2060-AR17 Air Quality Designations for the 2008 Lead (Pb) National Ambient Air Quality Standards Correction In rule document 2011-29460 appearing on pages 72097-72120 in the issues of Tuesday, November 22, 2011...

  3. Indoor air quality in Brazilian universities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurado, Sonia R; Bankoff, Antônia D P; Sanchez, Andrea

    2014-07-11

    This study evaluated the indoor air quality in Brazilian universities by comparing thirty air-conditioned (AC) (n = 15) and naturally ventilated (NV) (n = 15) classrooms. The parameters of interest were indoor carbon dioxide (CO2), temperature, relative humidity (RH), wind speed, viable mold, and airborne dust levels. The NV rooms had larger concentration of mold than the AC rooms (1001.30 ± 125.16 and 367.00 ± 88.13 cfu/m3, respectively). The average indoor airborne dust concentration exceeded the Brazilian standards (indoor air quality in Brazilian university classrooms affects the health of students. Therefore, indoor air pollution needs to be considered as an important public health problem.

  4. 40 CFR 52.931 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.931 Section 52.931 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The..., the Kentucky Division for Air Quality has determined that the application complies with the applicable...

  5. 40 CFR 52.2451 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2451 Section 52.2451 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... Quality Deterioration. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The...

  6. 40 CFR 52.2528 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2528 Section 52.2528 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of Sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... Quality Deterioration. (b) Regulations for Preventing Significant Deterioration of Air Quality, the...

  7. Clean Air Act Guidelines and Standards for Waste Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page contains the stationary sources of air pollution for the waste management industries, and their corresponding air pollution regulations. To learn more about the regulations for each industry, just click on the links below.

  8. Clean Air Act Standards and Guidelines for Electric Utilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page contains the stationary sources of air pollution for theelectric utilitiesr industries, and their corresponding air pollution regulations. To learn more about the regulations for each industry, just click on the links below.

  9. Clean Air Act Standards and Guidelines for Sterilizers

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page contains the stationary sources of air pollution for the sterilizer industries, and their corresponding air pollution regulations. To learn more about the regulations for each industry, just click on the links below.

  10. Clean Air Act Standards and Guidelines for Mineral Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page contains the stationary sources of air pollution for the mineral processing industries, and their corresponding air pollution regulations. To learn more about the regulations for each industry, just click on the links below.

  11. Outdoor air pollution and sperm quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafuente, Rafael; García-Blàquez, Núria; Jacquemin, Bénédicte; Checa, Miguel Angel

    2016-09-15

    Exposure to air pollution has been clearly associated with a range of adverse health effects, including reproductive toxicity, but its effects on male semen quality are still unclear. We performed a systematic review (up to June 2016) to assess the impact of air pollutants on sperm quality. We included 17 semi-ecological, panel, and cohort studies, assessing outdoor air pollutants, such as PM2.5, PM10, NOx, SO2, and O3, and their effects on DNA fragmentation, sperm count, sperm motility, and sperm morphology. Thirteen studies assessed air pollution exposure measured environmentally, and six used biomarkers of air pollution exposure (two did both). We rated the studies using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale and assessed with the exposure method. Taking into account these factors and the number of studies finding significant results (positive or negative), the evidence supporting an effect of air pollution on DNA fragmentation is weak but suggestive, on sperm motility is limited and probably inexistent, on lower sperm count is inconclusive, and on sperm morphology is very suggestive. Because of the diversity of air pollutants and sperm parameters, and the studies' designs, we were unable to perform a meta-analysis. In summary, most studies concluded that outdoor air pollution affects at least one of the four semen quality parameters included in the review. However, results lack consistency, and furthermore, studies were not comparable. Studies using standardized air pollution and semen measures are required to obtain more reliable conclusions. CRD42015007175. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. The effect of air quality on sleep

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strøm-Tejsen, Peter; Wargocki, Pawel; Wyon, David Peter

    2014-01-01

    The effect of air quality on sleep was examined for occupants of 14 identical single-occupancy dormitory rooms. The subjects, half women, were exposed to two conditions (open/closed window), each for one week, resulting in night-time average CO2 levels of 660 and 2585 ppm, and air temperatures...... performance. Although no significant effects on the sleep quality scale or on next-day performance could be shown, there were significant and positive effects of a higher ventilation rate (open window) on the actigraph measured sleep latency and on the subjects’ assessment of the freshness of the air...... of 24.7 and 23.9°C, respectively. Sleep was assessed from movement data recorded on wristwatch-type actigraphs and from online morning questionnaires, including the Groningen Sleep Quality scale, questions about the sleep environment, next-day well-being, SBS symptoms, and two tests of mental...

  13. An objective methodology for the evaluation of the air quality stations positioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benassi, A.; Marson, G.; Baraldo, E.; Dalan, F.; Lorenzet, K.; Bellasio, R.; Bianconi, R.

    2006-01-01

    This work describes a methodology for the evaluation of the correct positioning of the monitoring stations of an air quality network. The methodology is based on the Italian legislation, the European Directives and on some technical documents used as guidelines at European level. The paper describes all the assumption on which the methodology is based and the results of its application to the air quality network of Region Veneto (Italy) [it

  14. Air quality monitoring Edson and Hinton area September 1999 to June 2000 : Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    The Edson and Hinton areas of Alberta were the subject of a mobile, ambient air quality monitoring survey. The monitoring involved four surveys of a week each, over four seasons, for one year. This area had been selected for monitoring to meet three major objectives: the determination of concentrations of air pollutants representative of the monitored locations in the survey area, to establish a comparison of air pollutant levels to data from other locations in the province of Alberta, and to provide a comparison of air pollutant levels to Alberta's air quality guidelines. These surveys formed an integral part of the air quality monitoring program of Alberta Environment. Using the Mobile Air Monitoring Laboratory (MAML), personnel from Alberta Environment appear on location unannounced. Carbon monoxide, oxides of nitrogen, ozone, particulates, hydrocarbons, sulphur dioxide, hydrogen sulphide, total reduced sulphur and ammonia are the substances measured and monitored. Eighteen sites in the Edson and Hinton area were selected, as well as downwind of industrial facilities in the Edson area, and air quality was monitored using the mobile lab for twenty days. To allow comparison to the air quality guidelines, monitoring was conducted for a minimum of one hour at each location. As a result, approximately 152 hours of air quality monitoring information was obtained, providing data in the vicinity of both populated and industrial areas. The periods comprised September 13-16, 1999 (Fall), February 7-9, 2000 (Winter), April 18-19, 25-27, 2000 (Spring), and June 4-5, 13-16, 2000 (Summer). The results were provided in this report. Most results were below the Alberta Ambient Air Quality Guidelines. refs., 16 tabs., 18 figs

  15. Mobile Air Quality Studies (MAQS-an international project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudik Claudia

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Due to an increasing awareness of the potential hazardousness of air pollutants, new laws, rules and guidelines have recently been implemented globally. In this respect, numerous studies have addressed traffic-related exposure to particulate matter using stationary technology so far. By contrast, only few studies used the advanced technology of mobile exposure analysis. The Mobile Air Quality Study (MAQS addresses the issue of air pollutant exposure by combining advanced high-granularity spatial-temporal analysis with vehicle-mounted, person-mounted and roadside sensors. The MAQS-platform will be used by international collaborators in order 1 to assess air pollutant exposure in relation to road structure, 2 to assess air pollutant exposure in relation to traffic density, 3 to assess air pollutant exposure in relation to weather conditions, 4 to compare exposure within vehicles between front and back seat (children positions, and 5 to evaluate "traffic zone"-exposure in relation to non-"traffic zone"-exposure. Primarily, the MAQS-platform will focus on particulate matter. With the establishment of advanced mobile analysis tools, it is planed to extend the analysis to other pollutants including NO2, SO2, nanoparticles and ozone.

  16. Investigation of infiltration and indoor air quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-03-01

    A multitask study was performed in the State of New York to provide information for guiding home energy conservation programs while maintaining acceptable indoor air quality. During the study, the statistical distribution of radon concentrations inside 2,400 homes was determined. The relationships among radon levels, house characteristics, and sources were also investigated. The direct impact that two specific air infiltration reduction measures--caulking and weatherstripping of windows and doors, and installation of storm windows and storm doors--have on house air leakage was investigated in 60 homes. The effect of house age on the impact of weatherization was also evaluated. Indoor and outdoor measurements of NO 2 , CO, SO 2 , and respirable suspended particulates (RSP) were made for 400 homes to determine the effect of combustion sources on indoor air quality and to characterize the statistical distribution of the concentrations. Finally, the combustion source data were combined with the information on air infiltration reduction measures to estimate the potential impact of these measures on indoor air quality

  17. Research on Air Quality Evaluation based on Principal Component Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xing; Wang, Zilin; Guo, Min; Chen, Wei; Zhang, Huan

    2018-01-01

    Economic growth has led to environmental capacity decline and the deterioration of air quality. Air quality evaluation as a fundamental of environmental monitoring and air pollution control has become increasingly important. Based on the principal component analysis (PCA), this paper evaluates the air quality of a large city in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei Area in recent 10 years and identifies influencing factors, in order to provide reference to air quality management and air pollution control.

  18. Air Quality Monitoring System and Benchmarking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Xiufeng; Nielsen, Per Sieverts

    2017-01-01

    Air quality monitoring has become an integral part of smart city solutions. This paper presents an air quality monitoring system based on Internet of Things (IoT) technologies, and establishes a cloud-based platform to address the challenges related to IoT data management and processing capabilit...... capabilities, including data collection, storage, analysis, and visualization. In addition, this paper also benchmarks four state-of-the-art database systems to investigate the appropriate technologies for managing large-scale IoT datasets....

  19. Weather and Air Quality Data of Helsinki

    OpenAIRE

    Bhuiyan, Fairuz

    2016-01-01

    The topic of this thesis is “Weather and air quality data of Helsinki” and the main objective was researching, analyzing and classifying the contents and of the weather and air quality data for the Cityzer project. The final objective was to map and understand the data and the business ecosystem around it, and then classify the data and paint a picture of the whole ecosystem around the data. The aim was to work with the weather companies and partners, such as Vaisala, Pegasor, The Finnish...

  20. Advanced Strategy Guideline: Air Distribution Basics and Duct Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burdick, A.

    2011-12-01

    This report discusses considerations for designing an air distribution system for an energy efficient house that requires less air volume to condition the space. Considering the HVAC system early in the design process will allow adequate space for equipment and ductwork and can result in cost savings. Principles discussed that will maximize occupant comfort include delivery of the proper amount of conditioned air for appropriate temperature mixing and uniformity without drafts, minimization of system noise, the impacts of pressure loss, efficient return air duct design, and supply air outlet placement, as well as duct layout, materials, and sizing.

  1. A state of the art regarding urban air quality prediction models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croitoru, Cristiana; Nastase, Ilinca

    2018-02-01

    Urban pollution represents an increasing risk to residents of urban regions, particularly in large, over-industrialized cities knowing that the traffic is responsible for more than 25% of air gaseous pollutants and dust particles. Air quality modelling plays an important role in addressing air pollution control and management approaches by providing guidelines for better and more efficient air quality forecasting, along with smart monitoring sensor networks. The advances in technology regarding simulations, forecasting and monitoring are part of the new smart cities which offers a healthy environment for their occupants.

  2. A state of the art regarding urban air quality prediction models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Croitoru Cristiana

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Urban pollution represents an increasing risk to residents of urban regions, particularly in large, over-industrialized cities knowing that the traffic is responsible for more than 25% of air gaseous pollutants and dust particles. Air quality modelling plays an important role in addressing air pollution control and management approaches by providing guidelines for better and more efficient air quality forecasting, along with smart monitoring sensor networks. The advances in technology regarding simulations, forecasting and monitoring are part of the new smart cities which offers a healthy environment for their occupants.

  3. A novel, fuzzy-based air quality index (FAQI) for air quality assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sowlat, Mohammad Hossein; Gharibi, Hamed; Yunesian, Masud; Tayefeh Mahmoudi, Maryam; Lotfi, Saeedeh

    2011-04-01

    The ever increasing level of air pollution in most areas of the world has led to development of a variety of air quality indices for estimation of health effects of air pollution, though the indices have their own limitations such as high levels of subjectivity. Present study, therefore, aimed at developing a novel, fuzzy-based air quality index (FAQI ) to handle such limitations. The index developed by present study is based on fuzzy logic that is considered as one of the most common computational methods of artificial intelligence. In addition to criteria air pollutants (i.e. CO, SO 2, PM 10, O 3, NO 2), benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylene, and 1,3-butadiene were also taken into account in the index proposed, because of their considerable health effects. Different weighting factors were then assigned to each pollutant according to its priority. Trapezoidal membership functions were employed for classifications and the final index consisted of 72 inference rules. To assess the performance of the index, a case study was carried out employing air quality data at five different sampling stations in Tehran, Iran, from January 2008 to December 2009, results of which were then compared to the results obtained from USEPA air quality index (AQI). According to the results from present study, fuzzy-based air quality index is a comprehensive tool for classification of air quality and tends to produce accurate results. Therefore, it can be considered useful, reliable, and suitable for consideration by local authorities in air quality assessment and management schemes. Fuzzy-based air quality index (FAQI).

  4. 78 FR 47191 - Air Quality Designations for the 2010 Sulfur Dioxide (SO2) Primary National Ambient Air Quality...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-05

    ... Air Quality Designations for the 2010 Sulfur Dioxide (SO[bdi2]) Primary National Ambient Air Quality... air quality designations for certain areas in the United States for the 2010 primary Sulfur Dioxide (SO 2 ) National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS). The EPA is issuing this rule to identify areas...

  5. IIW guidelines on weld quality in relationship to fatigue strength

    CERN Document Server

    Jonsson, Bertil; Hobbacher, A F; Kassner, M; Marquis, G

    2016-01-01

    This book presents guidelines on quantitative and qualitative measures of the geometric features and imperfections of welds to ensure that it meets the fatigue strength requirements laid out in the recommendations of the IIW (International Institute of Welding). Welds that satisfy these quality criteria can be assessed in accordance with existing IIW recommendations based on nominal stress, structural stress, notch stress or linear fracture mechanics. Further, the book defines more restrictive acceptance criteria based on weld geometry features and imperfections with increased fatigue strength. Fatigue strength for these welds is defined as S-N curves expressed in terms of nominal applied stress or hot spot stress. Where appropriate, reference is made to existing quality systems for welds.In addition to the acceptance criteria and fatigue assessment curves, the book also provides guidance on their inspection and quality control. The successful implementation of these methods depends on adequate training for o...

  6. The AirQuality SenseBox

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demuth, Dustin; Nuest, Daniel; Bröring, Arne; Pebesma, Edzer

    2013-04-01

    In the past year, a group of open hardware enthusiasts and citizen scientists had large success in the crowd-funding of an open hardware-based sensor platform for air quality monitoring, called the Air Quality Egg. Via the kickstarter platform, the group was able to collect triple the amount of money than needed to fulfill their goals. Data generated by the Air Quality Egg is pushed to the data logging platform cosm.com, which makes the devices a part of the Internet of Things. The project aims at increasing the participation of citizens in the collection of data, the development of sensors, the operation of sensor stations, and, as data on cosm is publicly available, the sharing, visualization and analysis of data. Air Quality Eggs can measure NO2 and CO concentrations, as well as relative humidity and temperature. The chosen sensors are low-cost and have limited precision and accurracy. The Air Quality Egg consists of a stationary outdoor and a stationary indoor unit. Each outdoor unit will wirelessly transmit air quality measurements to the indoor unit, which forwards the data to cosm. Most recent versions of the Air Quality Egg allow a rough calibration of the gas sensors and on-the-fly conversion from raw sensor readings (impedance) to meaningful air quality data expressed in units of parts per billion. Data generated by these low-cost platforms are not intended to replace well-calibrated official monitoring stations, but rather augment the density of the total monitoring network with citizen sensors. To improve the usability of the Air Quality Egg, we present a new and more advanced concept, called the AirQuality SenseBox. We made the outdoor platform more autonomous and location-aware by adding solarpanels and rechargeable batteries as a power source. The AirQuality SenseBox knows its own position from a GPS device attached to the platform. As a mobile sensor platform, it can for instance be attached to vehicles. A low-cost and low-power wireless chipset

  7. Air quality and human welfare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sundseth K.

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Human welfare is generally referring to allocation of resources to fit the well being of humans. If high standard of well-being is to be maintained, the concerns for a healthy environment must be balanced against requirements of economic growth. In a natural capital system, human welfare is best served by improving the quality and flow of desired services delivered rather than merely increasing the total money flow. An ecosystem based management of living and natural resource use will steer this progress to the best of human welfare while the efficiency of ecosystem based management depends strongly on the availability of integrated assessment tools that will combine environmental models and monitoring data with ecological economic valuation methods. In applied welfare economics, the methodological approach to assess resource allocations towards societal optimality and thereby establish criteria for government intervention is often linked to tools as Cost-ffectiveness Analysis (CEA, Cost-Benefit Assessment (CBA or Multi-criteria Analysis (MCA. By illustrating an assessment on costs and benefits of the implementation of Hg emission reduction measures in the coal sector, it becomes obvious that for a full analysis of societal costs and benefits, several aspects of Hg pollution, sources, impacts and co-benefits need to be considered.

  8. Integrating air-related health surveillance into air quality management: perceptions and practicalities

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Wright, C

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Health surveillance is presently not an integral part of air quality management in South Africa, although ambient air pollution standards are derived from health effects of personal exposure. In a survey to air quality officials and environmental...

  9. Assessment of indoor air quality in office buildings across Europe - The OFFICAIR study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandin, Corinne; Trantallidi, Marilena; Cattaneo, Andrea; Canha, Nuno; Mihucz, Victor G; Szigeti, Tamás; Mabilia, Rosanna; Perreca, Erica; Spinazzè, Andrea; Fossati, Serena; De Kluizenaar, Yvonne; Cornelissen, Eric; Sakellaris, Ioannis; Saraga, Dikaia; Hänninen, Otto; De Oliveira Fernandes, Eduardo; Ventura, Gabriela; Wolkoff, Peder; Carrer, Paolo; Bartzis, John

    2017-02-01

    The European project OFFICAIR aimed to broaden the existing knowledge regarding indoor air quality (IAQ) in modern office buildings, i.e., recently built or refurbished buildings. Thirty-seven office buildings participated in the summer campaign (2012), and thirty-five participated in the winter campaign (2012-2013). Four rooms were investigated per building. The target pollutants were twelve volatile organic compounds, seven aldehydes, ozone, nitrogen dioxide and particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter indoor air concentrations of formaldehyde and ozone did not exceed their respective WHO air quality guidelines, and those of acrolein, α-pinene, and d-limonene were lower than their estimated thresholds for irritative and respiratory effects. PM 2.5 indoor concentrations were higher than the 24-h and annual WHO ambient air quality guidelines. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Impact of power generation on air quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisher, B.E.A.

    1999-01-01

    The article discusses the impact of the electric power industry on air quality. Much of the data are presented in chronological order starting with the London smogs in the late nineteenth century and the Clean Air Act of 1956. With the building of bigger and bigger coal-fired power stations, apparatus to restrict emissions of dust became common and a Royal Commission reported on the progress of smoke control in 1974 and 1976. The article is presented under the sub-headings of (i) role of Local Authorities; (ii) weather and smog; (iii) trends in emissions; (iv) dispersal and dilution; (v) smoke and sulfur dioxide exported; (vi) atmospheric lifetime of sulfur dioxide; (vii) proportionality between emissions and deposition; (viii) critical loads; (ix) international agreements on transboundary pollution; (x) road transport pollution; (xi) local air quality management and (xii) climate change

  11. Equivalence in Ventilation and Indoor Air Quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sherman, Max; Walker, Iain; Logue, Jennifer

    2011-08-01

    We ventilate buildings to provide acceptable indoor air quality (IAQ). Ventilation standards (such as American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air-Conditioning Enginners [ASHRAE] Standard 62) specify minimum ventilation rates without taking into account the impact of those rates on IAQ. Innovative ventilation management is often a desirable element of reducing energy consumption or improving IAQ or comfort. Variable ventilation is one innovative strategy. To use variable ventilation in a way that meets standards, it is necessary to have a method for determining equivalence in terms of either ventilation or indoor air quality. This study develops methods to calculate either equivalent ventilation or equivalent IAQ. We demonstrate that equivalent ventilation can be used as the basis for dynamic ventilation control, reducing peak load and infiltration of outdoor contaminants. We also show that equivalent IAQ could allow some contaminants to exceed current standards if other contaminants are more stringently controlled.

  12. Assessing future trends in indoor air quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    van de Wiel, H.J.; Lebret, E.; van der Lingen, W.K.; Eerens, H.C.; Vaas, L.H.; Leupen, M.J.

    1990-01-01

    Several national and international health organizations have derived concentration levels below which adverse effects on men are not expected or levels below which the excess risk for individuals is less than a specified value. For every priority pollutant indoor concentrations below this limit are considered healthy. The percentage of Dutch homes exceeding such a limit is taken as a measure of indoor air quality for that component. The present and future indoor air quality of the Dutch housing stock is described for fourteen air pollutants. The highest percentages are scored by radon, environmental tobacco smoke, nitrogen dioxide from unvented combustion, and the potential presence of housedust mite and mould allergen in damp houses. Although the trend for all priority pollutants is downward the most serious ones remain high in the coming decades if no additional measures will be instituted

  13. AIR POLLUTION EFFECTS ON SEMEN QUALITY

    Science.gov (United States)

    The potential impact of exposure to periods of high air pollution on male reproductive health was examined within the framework of an international project conducted in the Czech Republic. Semen quality was evaluated in young men (age 18) living in the Teplice District who are ex...

  14. Flood Cleanup to Protect Indoor Air Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    During a flood cleanup, the indoor air quality in your home or office may appear to be the least of your problems. However, failure to remove contaminated materials and to reduce moisture and humidity can present serious long-term health risks.

  15. Data assimilation for air quality models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Silver, Jeremy David

    2014-01-01

    -dimensional optimal interpolation procedure (OI), an Ensemble Kalman Filter (EnKF), and a three-dimensional variational scheme (3D-var). The three assimilation procedures are described and tested. A multi-faceted approach is taken for the verification, using independent measurements from surface air-quality...

  16. Lichens as bioindicators of air quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    K. Stolte; D. Mangis; R. Doty; K. Tonnessen; Laurie S.  Huckaby

    1993-01-01

    This report is the result of a workshop held in Denver, Colorado on April 9-11, 1991. It summarizes the current literature and techniques for using lichens to monitor air quality. Experts in lichenology and ecology contributed information on lichen floristics, characterization of monitoring sites, lichen species and communities, identifying lichen species...

  17. Managing Indoor Air Quality in Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolums, Jennifer

    This publication examines the causes and effects of poor indoor air quality and provides information for reducing exposure to indoor contaminants in schools. It discusses the various indoor pollutants found in schools, including dust, chemical agents, gases, and volatile organic compounds; where they are found in schools; and their health effects…

  18. OpenAIRE Guidelines for CRIS Managers: Supporting Interoperability of Open Research Information through Established Standards

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Houssos, Nikos; Jörg, Brigitte; Dvořák, Jan

    2014-01-01

    their information in a way that is compatible with OpenAIRE. This contribution focuses on a specific type of data source, CRIS systems, and the respective OpenAIRE guidelines, based on CERIF XML. A range of issues, spanning different aspects of information representation and exchange, needed to be addressed...

  19. Advanced Strategy Guideline. Air Distribution Basics and Duct Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arlan Burdick

    2011-12-01

    This report discusses considerations for designing an air distribution system for an energy efficient house that requires less air volume to condition the space. Considering the HVAC system early in the design process will allow adequate space for equipment and ductwork and can result in cost savings.

  20. Building America Top Innovations 2012: Attic Air Sealing Guidelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2013-01-01

    This Building America Top Innovations profile describes the DOE-sponsored Guide to Attic Air Sealing by Building America research partner Building Science Corporation, which provides best practices for attic air sealing. The guide has had 21,000 views and 13,000 downloads since it was posted.

  1. 40 CFR 52.1929 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1929 Section 52.1929 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) Regulation for preventing significant deterioration of air... preventing significant deterioration of air quality. [56 FR 5656, Feb. 12, 1991, as amended at 68 FR 11324...

  2. 40 CFR 52.343 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.343 Section 52.343 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air Act are not met for the following categories of sources for preventing the significant deterioration of air quality...

  3. 40 CFR 52.833 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.833 Section 52.833 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air Act are met... for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The provisions of § 52.21 except paragraph (a...

  4. 40 CFR 52.1116 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1116 Section 52.1116 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) The following provisions of 40 CFR 52.21 are hereby incorporated and made a...

  5. 40 CFR 52.1485 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1485 Section 52.1485 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... include approvable procedures for preventing the significant deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulation...

  6. 40 CFR 52.2303 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2303 Section 52.2303 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The plan submitted by Texas is approved as meeting the requirements of part C, Clean Air Act for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The plan...

  7. A new air quality monitoring and early warning system: Air quality assessment and air pollutant concentration prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhongshan; Wang, Jian

    2017-10-01

    Air pollution in many countries is worsening with industrialization and urbanization, resulting in climate change and affecting people's health, thus, making the work of policymakers more difficult. It is therefore both urgent and necessary to establish amore scientific air quality monitoring and early warning system to evaluate the degree of air pollution objectively, and predict pollutant concentrations accurately. However, the integration of air quality assessment and air pollutant concentration prediction to establish an air quality system is not common. In this paper, we propose a new air quality monitoring and early warning system, including an assessment module and forecasting module. In the air quality assessment module, fuzzy comprehensive evaluation is used to determine the main pollutants and evaluate the degree of air pollution more scientifically. In the air pollutant concentration prediction module, a novel hybridization model combining complementary ensemble empirical mode decomposition, a modified cuckoo search and differential evolution algorithm, and an Elman neural network, is proposed to improve the forecasting accuracy of six main air pollutant concentrations. To verify the effectiveness of this system, pollutant data for two cities in China are used. The result of the fuzzy comprehensive evaluation shows that the major air pollutants in Xi'an and Jinan are PM 10 and PM 2.5 respectively, and that the air quality of Xi'an is better than that of Jinan. The forecasting results indicate that the proposed hybrid model is remarkably superior to all benchmark models on account of its higher prediction accuracy and stability. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. 76 FR 44535 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Northern Sierra Air Quality Management...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-26

    ... the California State Implementation Plan, Northern Sierra Air Quality Management District, Sacramento Metropolitan Air Quality Management District, and South Coast Air Quality Management District AGENCY... the Northern Sierra Air Quality Management District (NSAQMD), Sacramento Metropolitan Air Quality...

  9. Design and implementation air quality monitoring robot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yuanhua; Li, Jie; Qi, Chunxue

    2017-01-01

    Robot applied in environmental protection can break through the limitations in working environment, scope and mode of the existing environmental monitoring and pollution abatement equipments, which undertake the innovation and improvement in the basin, atmosphere, emergency and pollution treatment facilities. Actually, the relevant technology is backward with limited research and investment. Though the device companies have achieved some results in the study on the water quality monitoring, pipeline monitoring and sewage disposal, this technological progress on the whole is still much slow, and the mature product has not been formed. As a result, the market urges a demand of a new type of device which is more suitable for environmental protection on the basis of robot successfully applied in other fields. This paper designs and realizes a tracked mobile robot of air quality monitoring, which can be used to monitor air quality for the pollution accident in industrial parks and regular management.

  10. Uncertainty in air quality observations using low-cost sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castell, Nuria; Dauge, Franck R.; Dongol, Rozina; Vogt, Matthias; Schneider, Philipp

    2016-04-01

    Air pollution poses a threat to human health, and the WHO has classified air pollution as the world's largest single environmental health risk. In Europe, the majority of the population lives in areas where air quality levels frequently exceed WHO's ambient air quality guidelines. The emergence of low-cost, user-friendly and very compact air pollution platforms allowing observations at high spatial resolution in near real-time, provides us with new opportunities to simultaneously enhance existing monitoring systems as well as enable citizens to engage in more active environmental monitoring (citizen science). However the data sets generated by low-cost sensors show often questionable data quality. For many sensors, neither their error characteristics nor how their measurement capability holds up over time or through a range of environmental conditions, have been evaluated. We have conducted an exhaustive evaluation of the commercial low-cost platform AQMesh (measuring NO, NO2, CO, O3, PM10 and PM2.5) in laboratory and in real-world conditions in the city of Oslo (Norway). Co-locations in field of 24 platforms were conducted over a 6 month period (April to September 2015) allowing to characterize the temporal variability in the performance. Additionally, the field performance included the characterization on different monitoring urban monitoring sites characteristic of both traffic and background conditions. All the evaluations have been conducted against CEN reference method analyzers maintained according to the Norwegian National Reference Laboratory quality system. The results show clearly that a good performance in laboratory does not imply similar performance in real-world outdoor conditions. Moreover, laboratory calibration is not suitable for subsequent measurements in urban environments. In order to reduce the errors, sensors require on-site field calibration. Even after such field calibration, the platforms show a significant variability in the performance

  11. What is IAQ? [Indoor Air Quality]; Wat is IAQ? [Indoor Air Quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fanger, P.O. [International Centre for Inoor Environment and Energy, Technical University of Denmark, Lyngby (Denmark)

    2007-07-15

    Indoor air quality (IAQ) is often defined as the extent to which human requirements are met. The air should be fresh and pleasant, not have a negative impact on health, that it not effects productivity. Present ventilation standards and guidelines do not include productivity and only require that the indoor air must be 'acceptable'. With such a modest aim it is not surprising that comprehensive field studies in many countries in buildings in which ventilation standards are met show high percentages of dissatisfied persons and of those suffering from Sick Building Syndrome. Recent studies show that improvement of IAQ by a factor of 2-7 compared with existing standards increases office productivity and school learning significantly, while decreasing the risk of allergic symptoms and asthma in homes. To make indoor air acceptable, even for the most sensitive persons, an improvement of 1-2 orders of magnitude may be required. The paper will discuss the development of new methods that can provide such substantial improvements of IAQ while maintaining or even decreasing ventilation end energy usage. [Dutch] In ruimtes die bestemd zijn voor menselijke bezetting wordt de binnenluchtkwaliteit (indoor Air Quality - IAQ) vaak gedefinieerd als de mate waarin aan menselijke behoeften wordt voldaan. Maar welke behoeften hebben mensen van de binnenlucht? Het is wenselijk dat de lucht wordt ervaren als zuiver en aangenaam. Dit betekent dat de lucht geen negatieve invloed mag hebben op de gezondheid en dat de lucht het werken moet stimuleren. De binnenlucht zou de productiviteit van werknemers en de schoolprestaties van kinderen moeten verhogen. In de huidige normen en richtlijnen voor ventilatie worden deze laatste twee aspecten niet meegenomen, er wordt uitgegaan van de bescheiden eis dat de binnenluchtkwaliteit 'acceptabel' dient te zijn. Dit houdt in dat de meest gevoelige groep personen (doorgaans 20%) de lucht als onacceptabel zal beoordelen en dat de

  12. Ambient air quality in Lower Town Quebec

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sebez, S.

    2007-01-01

    A municipal waste incinerator near Lower Town Quebec has been identified as a major source of air pollution, notably emissions of dioxins, furans, nitrogen oxides (NOx), volatile organic matter (VOC) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). Combustion fumes contain gases such as carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) and sulphur dioxide (SO 2 ), as well as dusts, fly ash and particulate matter that is easily airborne. The risks associated with poor air quality have been evaluated along with the effects of pollutants on young children, pregnant women, senior citizens and those with cardiac problems. Some studies have reported that exposure to NOx may cause lung cancer and certain VOCs can irritate the respiratory tract system. Air quality tests have also revealed the presence of mercury. In combination, all these pollutants create smog. The concrete actions that have been taken to address smog issues were discussed. The distance between the incinerator and different residential areas within Lower Town Quebec have been measured along with air quality. Health risks were found to be higher in areas closer to the incinerator. Major modifications have been recommended in order to reduce pollution emissions from the incinerator. These include modernizing the equipment, installing proper scrubbers, and to ultimately the close the incinerator if it continues to underperform. refs., tabs., figs

  13. The Danish Air Quality Monitoring Programme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kemp, K.; Palmgren, F.

    The Danish Air Quality Monitoring Programme (LMP) was started in 1982 as the first nation-wide urban air pollution monitoring programme in Denmark. The programme has been adjusted to the pollution pattern by two revisions. The present phase (LMP III) was started in 1992. From 2000 a new phase...... continuously in order to improve the knowledge about the NO, NO2 and O3 problem complex. At the rural site outside Copenhagen the same program is conducted as at the street stations with the inclusion of O3. Only NO, NO2 and O3 are reported from the other rural site. Air quality limit values have been...... and plants. The new EU Directives introduce revised standards for NO2, SO2, particles (PM10) and Pb. They are implemented through the first "daughter" Directive to the Air Quality Framework Directive. It was adopted by the EU council in April 1999. The new limit values shall be in force from January 2001 (18...

  14. AIRPACT Air Quality Forecasting for August 2001

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughan, J. K.; Lamb, B. K.; Westberg, H. H.; Fritz, B. G.; Bamesberger, L.; Bowman, C.; Figueroa-Kaminsky, C.; Otterson, S.; Wilson, R.; Arnold, J. R.; Mass, C.; Albright, M.; Jaffe, D. A.; Barrie, L. A.; Barchet, W. R.; Fast, J. D.; Jobson, B. T.

    2002-12-01

    The AIRPACT air-quality forecasting system was operational during the month of August, 2001, and provided daily forecasts of ozone and associated species throughout the PNW2001 period. The AIRPACT (air indicator report for public awareness and community tracking) project was supported by the U.S. EPA through the EMPACT program. The modeling effort within this project resulted in the assembly of a highly automated air quality forecasting system using MM5 meteorology coupled with a regional emissions sub-system, which both drove the CALMET-CALGRID Eulerian air-quality model. Results were posted to the project web-site and distributed via ftp each morning before operations decisions were finalized. Modeling outputs included 24-hour animations of estimated gridded area emissions and predicted gridded hourly average mixing ratios for ozone, among other species. A verification system for comparing AIRPACT results against the Washington Department of Ecology telemetered surface monitor data was in development during PNW2001. The various measurement components of PNW2001, in combination with the Ecology monitoring network, provided an excellent opportunity to compare AIRPACT ozone predictions with ozone observations from multiple measurement schemes, including surface monitors, aircraft sampling, and ozonesondes. The AIRPACT prediction verification against surface monitors at six downwind sites near Seattle, WA for August 2001 resulted in a normalized bias of 15% and a normalized gross error of 51%. Comparisons of AIRPACT predictions against ozonesondes and aircraft measurements are presented graphically in this poster.

  15. Indoor air quality and health in schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Ana Maria da Conceição; Cardoso, Massano

    2014-01-01

    To determine whether indoor air quality in schools is associated with the prevalence of allergic and respiratory diseases in children. We evaluated 1,019 students at 51 elementary schools in the city of Coimbra, Portugal. We applied a questionnaire that included questions regarding the demographic, social, and behavioral characteristics of students, as well as the presence of smoking in the family. We also evaluated the indoor air quality in the schools. In the indoor air of the schools evaluated, we identified mean concentrations of carbon dioxide (CO2) above the maximum reference value, especially during the fall and winter. The CO2 concentration was sometimes as high as 1,942 ppm, implying a considerable health risk for the children. The most prevalent symptoms and respiratory diseases identified in the children were sneezing, rales, wheezing, rhinitis, and asthma. Other signs and symptoms, such as poor concentration, cough, headache, and irritation of mucous membranes, were identified. Lack of concentration was associated with CO2 concentrations above the maximum recommended level in indoor air (p = 0.002). There were no other significant associations. Most of the schools evaluated presented with reasonable air quality and thermal comfort. However, the concentrations of various pollutants, especially CO2, suggest the need for corrective interventions, such as reducing air pollutant sources and improving ventilation. There was a statistically significant association between lack of concentration in the children and exposure to high levels of CO2. The overall low level of pollution in the city of Coimbra might explain the lack of other significant associations.

  16. Surface Flux Modeling for Air Quality Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Limei Ran

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available For many gasses and aerosols, dry deposition is an important sink of atmospheric mass. Dry deposition fluxes are also important sources of pollutants to terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. The surface fluxes of some gases, such as ammonia, mercury, and certain volatile organic compounds, can be upward into the air as well as downward to the surface and therefore should be modeled as bi-directional fluxes. Model parameterizations of dry deposition in air quality models have been represented by simple electrical resistance analogs for almost 30 years. Uncertainties in surface flux modeling in global to mesoscale models are being slowly reduced as more field measurements provide constraints on parameterizations. However, at the same time, more chemical species are being added to surface flux models as air quality models are expanded to include more complex chemistry and are being applied to a wider array of environmental issues. Since surface flux measurements of many of these chemicals are still lacking, resistances are usually parameterized using simple scaling by water or lipid solubility and reactivity. Advances in recent years have included bi-directional flux algorithms that require a shift from pre-computation of deposition velocities to fully integrated surface flux calculations within air quality models. Improved modeling of the stomatal component of chemical surface fluxes has resulted from improved evapotranspiration modeling in land surface models and closer integration between meteorology and air quality models. Satellite-derived land use characterization and vegetation products and indices are improving model representation of spatial and temporal variations in surface flux processes. This review describes the current state of chemical dry deposition modeling, recent progress in bi-directional flux modeling, synergistic model development research with field measurements, and coupling with meteorological land surface models.

  17. Ecoflex: Improving air quality with green dynamic traffic management based on real time air quality measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baalen, J. van; Koning, A. de; Voogt, M.; Stelwagen, U.; Turksma, S.

    2011-01-01

    Across the world, air quality regulations are breached due to localized high pollution episodes in specific locations, or "hotspots". Advances in air pollution monitoring techniques enable hotspots to be identified more effectively; however challenges remain as to how best to reduce the incidence

  18. The health benefits of attaining and strengthening air quality standards in Cape Town

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha Keen

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The link between pollution and poor health and mortality has been established globally. Developing countries carry most of the burden of ill health from air pollution, and urban centres like the City of Cape Town even more so. Effective air quality management to protect human health relies on the attainment of air quality standards. This study uses the Benefits Mapping and Analysis Program (BenMAP along with a locally derived exposure-response function and air quality monitor data to investigate whether the consistent attainment of current or more stringent air quality standards would avoid loss of life. The results show that attaining the PM10 24-hour mean South Africa National Standard limit and the PM10 and SO2 24-hour mean World Health Organisation guidelines in Cape Town reduces levels of pollutants and does reduce excess risk of mortality in Cape Town.

  19. 40 CFR 93.160 - Mitigation of air quality impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Mitigation of air quality impacts. 93... quality impacts. (a) Any measures that are intended to mitigate air quality impacts must be identified and..., the revised text is set forth as follows: § 93.160 Mitigation of air quality impacts. (e) When...

  20. 40 CFR 52.1987 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1987 Section 52.1987 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The Oregon Department of Environmental Quality rules for the prevention of significant deterioration of air quality (provisions of OAR chapter 340, Divisions 200, 202...

  1. [Quality indicators for National Disease Management Guidelines using the example of the National Disease Management Guideline for "Chronic Heart Failure"].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nothacker, Monika Judith; Langer, Thomas; Weinbrenner, Susanne

    2011-01-01

    Together with an expert committee a structured approach to determining quality indicators for National Disease Management Guidelines has been developed. The key steps of this approach include: introducing guideline authors to the methodology at an early stage of the process of guideline development, pre-selecting recommendations of the guideline which are potentially measurable by means of quality indicators, assessing the potentially measurable quality indicators in written form using five criteria (including their importance for the health care system and clarity of definitions) and approving them in a formal consensus process. For lack of a database these quality indicators must be regarded as preliminary. For the National Disease Management Guideline "Chronic Heart Failure" nine rate-based indicators have been chosen. The indicators correspond to important strong recommendations (grade of recommendation: A) from the fields of diagnosis (two), general therapeutic strategy (two), specific treatment (three), clinical monitoring (one) and co-ordination of care (one). In a second step, the quality indicators have to be validated within a pilot project. The determination and assessment of the potential quality indicators have revealed room for improvement of guideline development. In particular, there is a need for more health care data and for specification of recommendations.

  2. Rural southeast Texas air quality measurements during the 2006 Texas Air Quality Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schade, Gunnar W; Khan, Siraj; Park, Changhyoun; Boedeker, Ian

    2011-10-01

    The authors conducted air quality measurements of the criteria pollutants carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, and ozone together with meteorological measurements at a park site southeast of College Station, TX, during the 2006 Texas Air Quality Study II (TexAQS). Ozone, a primary focus of the measurements, was above 80 ppb during 3 days and above 75 ppb during additional 8 days in summer 2006, suggestive of possible violations of the ozone National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) in this area. In concordance with other air quality measurements during the TexAQS II, elevated ozone mixing ratios coincided with northerly flows during days after cold front passages. Ozone background during these days was as high as 80 ppb, whereas southerly air flows generally provided for an ozone background lower than 40 ppb. Back trajectory analysis shows that local ozone mixing ratios can also be strongly affected by the Houston urban pollution plume, leading to late afternoon ozone increases of as high as 50 ppb above background under favorable transport conditions. The trajectory analysis also shows that ozone background increases steadily the longer a southern air mass resides over Texas after entering from the Gulf of Mexico. In light of these and other TexAQS findings, it appears that ozone air quality is affected throughout east Texas by both long-range and regional ozone transport, and that improvements therefore will require at least a regionally oriented instead of the current locally oriented ozone precursor reduction policies.

  3. Policy Implications of Air Quality Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheinbaum, C.

    2004-12-01

    While an integrated assessment approach will be required to achieve and sustain improvements in the air quality of Mexico City Metropolitan Area's (MCMA), policy strategies must be based on a solid understanding of the pollutant emissions and atmospheric processes that lead to unacceptable levels of air pollution. The required level of understanding can only be achieved by comprehensive atmospheric measurements followed by a coordinated atmospheric modeling program. The innovative, two-phase atmospheric measurement program, which was a collaborative effort between Massachusetts Institute of Technology and the Mexican Metropolitan Environmental Commission, with exploratory measurements in February 2002 and extensive measurements from late March through early May of 2003, was an important step towards meeting these requirements. Although the extensive data sets from the two measurement programs are still being analyzed by the investigators, their preliminary analysis efforts have yielded important insights into the nature and extent of air pollution problem in the MCMA, which in turn will have important policy implications.

  4. Air Quality – monitoring and modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius DEACONU

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Air pollution is a major concern for all nations, regardless of their development. The rapid growth of the industrial sector and urban development have lead to significant quantities of substances and toxic materials, mostly discharged into the atmosphere and having adverse effects both on human health and environment in general. Human society has to recognize that environment has only a limited capacity to process all of its waste without major changes. Each of us is a pollutant but also a victim of pollution. If monitoring of air pollutants is particularly important for assessing the air quality at any moment, by modelling the monitoring data spectacular results are obtained both through the factor analysis and identification of potential pollution mitigation measures. Latest equipment and techniques come and support these problems giving medium and long term solutions.

  5. Indoor air quality – buildings design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juhásová Šenitková Ingrid

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Growing attention is being paid to indoor air quality as one of the main health and well-being factors. The indoor research is concerned mostly to indoor air chemicals within indoor engineering related to building design. The providing good indoor air quality can be achieved effectively by avoiding or reducing indoor air pollution sources and by selecting low-polluting building materials, both being low-cost and energyefficient solutions. On the base of the last large experimental monitoring results, it was possible to know the level of selected indoor chemicals occurrence, rank them as well as to predict the tendencies of occurrence and establish the priorities for the future. There has been very limited attention to rigorous analysis of buildings actual environmental impacts to date. Healthy/green/sustainable building practices are typically applied in unsystematic and inconsistent ways often without resolution of inherent conflicts between and among such practices. Designers, products manufacturers, constructors, and owners declare their buildings and the applied technologies to be beneficial to the environment without validating those claims.

  6. Indoor Air Quality in Brazilian Universities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia R. Jurado

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the indoor air quality in Brazilian universities by comparing thirty air-conditioned (AC (n = 15 and naturally ventilated (NV (n = 15 classrooms. The parameters of interest were indoor carbon dioxide (CO2, temperature, relative humidity (RH, wind speed, viable mold, and airborne dust levels. The NV rooms had larger concentration of mold than the AC rooms (1001.30 ± 125.16 and 367.00 ± 88.13 cfu/m3, respectively. The average indoor airborne dust concentration exceeded the Brazilian standards (<80 µg/m3 in both NV and AC classrooms. The levels of CO2 in the AC rooms were significantly different from the NV rooms (1433.62 ± 252.80 and 520.12 ± 37.25 ppm, respectively. The indoor air quality in Brazilian university classrooms affects the health of students. Therefore, indoor air pollution needs to be considered as an important public health problem.

  7. Indoor Air Quality Building Education and Assessment Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Indoor Air Quality Building Education and Assessment Model (I-BEAM), released in 2002, is a guidance tool designed for use by building professionals and others interested in indoor air quality in commercial buildings.

  8. Indoor Air Quality Building Education and Assessment Model Forms

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Indoor Air Quality Building Education and Assessment Model (I-BEAM) is a guidance tool designed for use by building professionals and others interested in indoor air quality in commercial buildings.

  9. Overview of ambient air quality monitoring in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Naidoo, M

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Air quality data is currently collected, processed and archived by a number of independent institutes. No collaboration exists between these organisations and there is no provincial or national air quality data information system or archive...

  10. Air Quality System (AQS) Monitoring Network, EPA OAR OAQPS

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This GIS dataset contains points which depict air quality monitors within EPA's Air Quality System (AQS) monitoring network. This dataset is updated weekly to...

  11. Indoor air quality in cold climates: hazards and abatement measures

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Walkinshaw, D. S

    1986-01-01

    The first APCA Conference on Indoor Air Quality, held April 29, 30 and May 1, 1985 in Ottawa, featured some 67 presentations covering many aspects of indoor air quality, with the focus on cold climate...

  12. Air quality and climate change co-benefits in Durban

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Thambiran, Tirusha

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between air quality and climate change provides a scientific basis for developing integrative policies. Emission control measures implemented can have varying counteracting influences, simultaneously affecting air quality pollutants...

  13. Air Quality Modelling and the National Emission Database

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, S. S.

    The project focuses on development of institutional strengthening to be able to carry out national air emission inventories based on the CORINAIR methodology. The present report describes the link between emission inventories and air quality modelling to ensure that the new national air emission...... inventory is able to take into account the data requirements of air quality models...

  14. 40 CFR 52.1436 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Significant deterioration of air quality. 52.1436 Section 52.1436 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air Act...

  15. 40 CFR 52.884 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Significant deterioration of air quality. 52.884 Section 52.884 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of section 160 through 165 of the Clean Air Act, as amended...

  16. 40 CFR 52.382 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Significant deterioration of air quality. 52.382 Section 52.382 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air Act are not met...

  17. Air Quality and Indoor Environmental Exposures: Clinical Impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indoor air quality (IAQ) is a term which refers to the air quality within and around buildings and homes as it relates to the health and comfort of the occupants. Many ambient (outdoor) air pollutants readily permeate indoor spaces. Because indoor air can be considerably more pol...

  18. Parent's Guide to School Indoor Air Quality. Revised

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healthy Schools Network, Inc., 2012

    2012-01-01

    Air pollution is air pollution, indoors or out. Good indoor air quality (IAQ) contributes to a favorable learning environment for students, protects health, and supports the productivity of school personnel. In schools in poor repair, leaky roofs and crumbling walls have caused additional indoor air quality problems, including contamination with…

  19. Content and quality of workplace guidelines developed to prevent mental health problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nexø, Mette Andersen; Kristensen, Josefine Vejlby; Grønvad, Majbritt Thorhauge

    2018-01-01

    Objectives A wide range of guidelines have been developed to prevent work-related mental health problems (MHP), but little is known about the quality of such guidelines. We systematically reviewed the content and quality of workplace guidelines aiming to prevent, detect, and/or manage work......-related MHP. Methods We conducted systematic online and database searches (MEDLINE; Web of Science; PsychNET; occupational safety and health databases) to identify guidelines. Eligibility criteria included guidelines recommending primary, secondary, or tertiary preventive interventions to be implemented...... at the workplace by employers, employees or organizational staff. A minimum of minimum three independent reviewers assessed the quality of guidelines using the Guidelines for Research and Evaluation (AGREE II). Guidelines rated ≥65% with regards to domain I, II, and III were considered to be of good developmental...

  20. Administrative law judge as a watchdog for air quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schutte-Postma, L.; Van Wee, B.

    2005-01-01

    Insight is given on the correctness of judgements of the judge for the administrative law in the Netherlands with regard to air quality and the discontinuation of related spatial planning and building and construction projects. Also attention is paid to the new Decree on Air Quality, including the regulation on balancing. This regulation implies that deteriorated air quality in one place must be compensated by improved air quality somewhere else [nl

  1. New Zealand traffic and local air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irving, Paul; Moncrieff, Ian

    2004-12-01

    Since 1996 the New Zealand Ministry of Transport (MOT) has been investigating the effects of road transport on local air quality. The outcome has been the government's Vehicle Fleet Emissions Control Strategy (VFECS). This is a programme of measures designed to assist with the improvement in local air quality, and especially in the appropriate management of transport sector emissions. Key to the VFECS has been the development of tools to assess and predict the contribution of vehicle emissions to local air pollution, in a given urban situation. Determining how vehicles behave as an emissions source, and more importantly, how the combined traffic flows contribute to the total emissions within a given airshed location was an important element of the programme. The actual emissions output of a vehicle is more than that determined by a certified emission standard, at the point of manufacture. It is the engine technology's general performance capability, in conjunction with the local driving conditions, that determines its actual emissions output. As vehicles are a mobile emissions source, to understand the effect of vehicle technology, it is necessary to work with the average fleet performance, or "fleet-weighted average emissions rate". This is the unit measure of performance of the general traffic flow that could be passing through a given road corridor or network, as an average, over time. The flow composition can be representative of the national fleet population, but also may feature particular vehicle types in a given locality, thereby have a different emissions 'signature'. A summary of the range of work that has been completed as part of the VFECS programme is provided. The NZ Vehicle Fleet Emissions Model and the derived data set available in the NZ Traffic Emission Rates provide a significant step forward in the consistent analysis of practical, sustainable vehicle emissions policy and air-quality management in New Zealand.

  2. Hygiene guideline for the planning, installation, and operation of ventilation and air-conditioning systems in health-care settings - Guideline of the German Society for Hospital Hygiene (DGKH).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Külpmann, Rüdiger; Christiansen, Bärbel; Kramer, Axel; Lüderitz, Peter; Pitten, Frank-Albert; Wille, Frank; Zastrow, Klaus-Dieter; Lemm, Friederike; Sommer, Regina; Halabi, Milo

    2016-01-01

    Since the publication of the first "Hospital Hygiene Guideline for the implementation and operation of air conditioning systems (HVAC systems) in hospitals" (http://www.krankenhaushygiene.de/informationen/fachinformationen/leitlinien/12) in 2002, it was necessary due to the increase in knowledge, new regulations, improved air-conditioning systems and advanced test methods to revise the guideline. Based on the description of the basic features of ventilation concepts, its hygienic test and the usage-based requirements for ventilation, the DGKH section "Ventilation and air conditioning technology" attempts to provide answers for the major air quality issues in the planning, design and the hygienically safe operation of HVAC systems in rooms of health care.

  3. Medication and monitoring in palliative sedation therapy: a systematic review and quality assessment of published guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schildmann, Eva Katharina; Schildmann, Jan; Kiesewetter, Isabel

    2015-04-01

    Palliative sedation therapy (PST) is increasingly used in patients at the end of life. However, consensus about medications and monitoring is lacking. To assess published PST guidelines with regard to quality and recommendations on drugs and monitoring. We searched CINAHL, the Cochrane Library, Embase, PsycINFO, PubMed, and references of included articles until July 2014. Search terms included "palliative sedation" or "sedation" and "guideline" or "policy" or "framework." Guideline selection was based on English or German publications that included a PST guideline. Two investigators independently assessed the quality of the guidelines according to the Appraisal of Guidelines for Research and Evaluation II instrument (AGREE II) and extracted information on drug selection and monitoring. Nine guidelines were eligible. Eight guidelines received high quality scores for the domain "scope and purpose" (median 69%, range 28-83%), whereas in the other domains the guidelines' quality differed considerably. The majority of guidelines suggest midazolam as drug of first choice. Recommendations on dosage and alternatives vary. The guidelines' recommendations regarding monitoring of PST show wide variation in the number and details of outcome parameters and methods of assessment. The published guidelines on PST vary considerably regarding their quality and content on drugs and monitoring. Given the need for clear guidance regarding PST in patients at the end of life, this comparative analysis may serve as a starting point for further improvement. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Hospice and Palliative Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. 40 CFR 51.860 - Mitigation of air quality impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Mitigation of air quality impacts. 51... Federal Actions to State or Federal Implementation Plans § 51.860 Mitigation of air quality impacts. Link... mitigate air quality impacts must be identified and the process for implementation and enforcement of such...

  5. On Regional Modeling to Support Air Quality Policies (book chapter)

    Science.gov (United States)

    We examine the use of the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model in simulating the changes in the extreme values of air quality that are of interest to the regulatory agencies. Year-to-year changes in ozone air quality are attributable to variations in the prevailing meteo...

  6. Characterising air quality risk in the City of Johannesburg

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ngwenya, NS

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available of the National Environmental Management: Air Quality Act (AQA). Air quality data that were obtained from the South African Air Quality Information System (SAAQIS) were averaged such that the diurnal, seasonal and annual trends could be identified. Geographic...

  7. South Coast Air Quality Management District Truck Testing | Transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Research | NREL South Coast Air Quality Management District Truck Evaluation South Coast Air Quality Management District Truck Evaluation Photo of heavy-duty truck cab. Electric drayage truck Cargo Transportation project, conducted in partnership with the South Coast Air Quality Management

  8. 40 CFR 52.2233 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2233 Section 52.2233 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a)(1) Paragraph 1200-3-9-.01(4)-(0)-2. of Tennessee's regulations... requesting innovative technology waivers which would significantly impact air quality in adjacent states. (2...

  9. 40 CFR 52.270 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.270 Section 52.270 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) With the exception of the areas listed in paragraph (b) of this section: (1... plan does not include approvable procedures for preventing the significant deterioration of air quality...

  10. 40 CFR 52.144 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.144 Section 52.144 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Act are not met... lands does not include approvable procedures for preventing the significant deterioration of air quality...

  11. 40 CFR 52.2581 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2581 Section 52.2581 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a)-(c) [Reserved] (d) The requirements of sections 160 through 165... provisions for prevention of significant deterioration of air quality at 40 CFR 52.21 are applicable to the...

  12. 40 CFR 52.986 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.986 Section 52.986 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) The plan submitted by the Governor of Louisiana on August 14, 1984 (as adopted... preventing significant deterioration of air quality. (b) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the...

  13. 40 CFR 52.1634 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1634 Section 52.1634 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The plan submitted by the Governor of New Mexico on February 21... adopted by the NMEID on March 9, 1990), Air Quality Control Regulation 707—Permits, Prevention of...

  14. 40 CFR 52.2346 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2346 Section 52.2346 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The Utah plan, as submitted, is approved as meeting the... construct on Indian Reservations. (b) Regulation for prevention of significant deterioration of air quality...

  15. 40 CFR 52.1778 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1778 Section 52.1778 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a)-(b) [Reserved] (c) All applications and other information... Resources, Division of Air Quality, 1641 Mail Service Center, Raleigh, North Carolina 27699-1641 or local...

  16. 40 CFR 52.2178 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2178 Section 52.2178 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The South Dakota plan, as submitted, is approved as meeting the... on Indian reservations; (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The...

  17. Perceived Air Quality in a Displacement Ventilated Room

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brohus, Henrik; Knudsen, Henrik Nellemose; Nielsen, Peter V.

    in a displacement ventilated room was determined directly by asking humans about how they perceived the air quality. A trained sensory panel comprising 12 subjects assessed the perceived air quality immediately after entering a climate chamber. The experiments showed that the perceived air quality...

  18. Carrageenan drying with dehumidified air: drying characteristics and product quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Djaeni, M.; Sasongko, S.B.; Prasetyaningrum, Aji A A.A.; Jin, X.; Boxtel, van A.J.B.

    2012-01-01

    Applying dehumidified air is considered as an option to retain quality in carrageenan drying. This work concerns the effects of operational temperature, air velocity, and carrageenan thickness on the progress of drying and product quality when using dehumidified air. Final product quality and

  19. Investigating air quality and air-related complaints in the City of Tshwane, South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Wright, C

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available To determine the impact of implemented air quality interventions beyond ambient air pollution reductions, indicators need to be identified and appropriate health data need to be routinely collected to track air-related health. Presently, the only...

  20. Global Scenarios of Air Pollution until 2030: Combining Air Quality, Climate Change and Energy Access Policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, S.; Dentener, F. J.; Klimont, Z.; Riahi, K.

    2011-12-01

    Outdoor air pollution is increasingly recognized as a significant contributor to global health outcomes. This has led to the implementation of a number of air quality policies worldwide, with total air pollution control costs in 2005 estimated at US$195 billion. More than 80% of the world's population is still found to be exposed to PM2.5 concentrations exceeding WHO air quality guidelines and health impacts resulting from these exposures estimated at around 2-5% of the global disease burden. Key questions to answer are 1) How will pollutant emissions evolve in the future given developments in the energy system and how will energy and environmental policies influence such emission trends. 2) What implications will this have for resulting exposures and related health outcomes. In order to answer these questions, varying levels of stringency of air quality legislation are analyzed in combination with policies on universal access to clean cooking fuels and limiting global temperature change to 2°C in 2100. Bottom-up methodologies using energy emissions modeling are used to derive sector-based pollutant emission trajectories until 2030. Emissions are spatially downscaled and used in combination with a global transport chemistry model to derive ambient concentrations of PM2.5. Health impacts of these exposures are further estimated consistent with WHO data and methodology. The results indicate that currently planned air quality legislation combined with rising energy demand will be insufficient in controlling future emissions growth in developing countries. In order to achieve significant reductions in pollutant emissions of the order of more than 50% from 2005 levels and reduce exposures to levels consistent with WHO standards, it will be necessary to increase the stringency of such legislations and combine them with policies on energy access and climate change. Combined policies also result in reductions in air pollution control costs as compared to those associated

  1. Air quality in the Carlsbad cavern

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, Yung-Seng; Chen, Tou-Rong; Wasiolek, P.T.

    1994-01-01

    The air quality in the Carlsbad Cavern has been investigated, but there are no reports on radon progeny and aerosols. The purpose of this experiment was to determine the activity size distribution of radon progeny and the air exchange rate inside the Cavern. Teams from ITRI and New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology (NMT) conducted the field study in July 1994. The ITRI graded diffusion battery (GDB) was used to determine the activity size distribution, progeny concentration, equilibrium factor, and unattached fraction of the radon progeny. The design, calibration, and performance of the GDB have been described. For this study, each stage of the GDB contained one stainless steel screen, with the mesh sizes arranged in a series of 30, 50, 145, 200, and 635 mesh from the air inlet to the outlet. A 47-nm type A/E glass fiber filter was used to collect all particles that penetrated the screens. The flow rate was 5 L/min. The average ventilation rate in the cavern is 0.0026 V/hr. Our results showed that the cavern atmosphere may be quite different from other underground environments. The atmosphere in the summer is stable and relatively free of airborne particles, partly due to the extremely slow air exchange rate

  2. Impacts Of Passive Removal Materials On Indoor Air Quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Darling, Erin; Cros, Clement; Wargocki, Pawel

    2011-01-01

    Indoor air quality (IAQ) was determined in the presence of eight combinations of building materials with and without ozone. Air samples were collected in twin 30 m3 chambers to assess the C5 to C10 aldehyde content of the air while a panel of 18 to 23 human subjects assessed air quality using...... a continuous acceptability scale. Materials were either new carpet that was aired out for three weeks, clay plaster applied to gypsum wallboard that was aired out for up to one month, both materials, or neither. Perceived Air Quality (PAQ) assessed by the panel was most acceptable and concentrations...

  3. Ambient air quality trends in Alberta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    This document provided an overview of ambient air pollutant trends in Alberta. The report discussed the following pollutants having effect on human and environmental health: carbon monoxide (CO), hydrogen sulphide (H2 S ), nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ), sulphur dioxide (SO 2 ), ozone (O 3 ), fine particulate matter (PM 2 .5), benzene, and benzopyrene. Each of these pollutants was described. The report provided data on annual average concentration trends and annual 99th percentile concentration as an indicator of peak concentrations. A map illustrating air quality monitoring stations in 2006 was also provided. The findings revealed that mean annual CO levels were the lowest they have been since 1990; hydrogen sulphide concentrations have fluctuated in time since 1990; most Edmonton and Calgary area stations showed significant decreasing trends in annual average NO 2 levels since 1990; and higher SO 2 concentrations have been found in the industrial areas of Alberta, such as the Redwater and Scotford oil sands locations. tabs., figs

  4. Phase II Recommendations by the Air Quality Management Subcommittee to the Clean Air Act Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    The primary charge of the AQM Subcommittee was to develop recommendations to improve the air quality management system and address the air quality challenges in this country expected over the next 10 to 20 years. This report addresses those challenges.

  5. Air quality measurements for site characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carter, M.W.; Conklin, W.C.

    1982-01-01

    Effective and timely site characterization is an important part of selecting a site for low-level waste disposal. Parameters measured can be compared with pertinent regulatory requirements, used for a reference base, helpful in evaluating environmental impacts, utilized in documenting changes in control programs, of value in modeling studies and other data uses, and beneficial in providing relevant sampling and methodology training. This paper will focus on specific air quality measurements which should be an inherent part of the site characterization program. The program is designed to measure, quantify, and identify contributions from site uses (operational procedures), atmospheric fallout, natural radioactivity, and vicinity and regional applications of radionuclides. The recommended air quality measurements program will be described in association with a reference site developd by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Particular attention will be devoted to the type and quality of information which is needed, the scope of sampling and measurements, the frequency of measurements, locations and numbers of sampling stations, the period of time needed for site characterization, and the proper uses of the information once it has been obtained. Adequate characterization of the site will be most important in final site selection and in the operation of the site as to periodically assessing environmental impacts and helping guide any remedial control efforts designed to meet regulatory requirements

  6. A novel method to construct an air quality index based on air pollution profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thach, Thuan-Quoc; Tsang, Hilda; Cao, Peihua; Ho, Lai-Ming

    2018-01-01

    Air quality indices based on the maximum of sub-indices of pollutants are easy to produce and help quantify the degree of air pollution. However, they discount the additive effects of multiple pollutants and are only sensitive to changes in highest sub-index. We propose a simple and concise method to construct an air quality index that takes into account additive effects of multiple pollutants and evaluate the extent to which this index predicts health effects. We obtained concentrations of four criteria pollutants: particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter ≤ 10μm (PM 10 ), sulphur dioxide (SO 2 ), nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ) and ozone (O 3 ) and daily admissions to Hong Kong hospitals for cardiovascular and respiratory diseases for all ages and those 65 years or older for years 2001-2012. We derived sub-indices of the four criteria pollutants, calculated by normalizing pollutant concentrations to their respective short-term WHO Air Quality Guidelines (WHO AQG). We aggregated the sub-indices using the root-mean-power function with an optimal power to form an overall air quality index. The optimal power was determined by minimizing the sum of over- and under-estimated days. We then assessed associations between the pollution bands of the index and cardiovascular and respiratory admissions using a time-stratified case-crossover design adjusted for ambient temperature, relative humidity and influenza epidemics. Further, we conducted case-crossover analyses using the Hong Kong air quality data with the respective standards and classification of pollution bands of the China Air Quality Index (AQI), the United Kingdom Daily AQI (DAQI), and the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) AQI. The mean concentrations of PM 10 and SO 2 based on maximum 3-h mean exceeded the WHO AQG by 37% and 50%, respectively. We identified the combined condition of observed high-pollution days as either at least one pollutant > 1.5×WHO AQG or at least two pollutants > 1.0

  7. Guidelines on Thermal Comfort of Air Conditioned Indoor Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miura, Toyohiko

    The thermal comfort of air conditioned indoor environment for workers depended, of course, on metabolic rate of work, race, sex, age, clothing, climate of the district and state of acclimatization. The attention of the author was directed to the seasonal variation and the sexual difference of comfortable temperature and a survey through a year was conducted on the thermal comfort, and health conditions of workers engaged in light work in a precision machine factory, in some office workers. Besides, a series of experiments were conducted for purpose of determinning the optimum temperature of cooling in summer time in relation to the outdoor temperature. It seemed that many of workers at present would prefer somewhat higher temperature than those before the World War II. Forty years ago the average homes and offices were not so well heated as today, and clothing worn on the average was considerably heavier.

  8. Richton Dome air quality analysis: Revision 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-11-01

    Detailed supporting calculations, methodology and results of the air quality analysis performed for the Richton Dome Environmental Assessment are presented in this report. Maximum emission rates during site characterization and repository construction and operation are analyzed and reported. The major source of emissions is fugitive dust from construction activities. Modeling was performed primarily with the US Environmental Protection Agency Industrial Source Complex (ISC) Model and meteorological data from Jackson, Mississippi. Predicted maximum ground level concentrations off site are presented. Supporting calculations and computer model runs are presented in appendixes. Salt deposition around the site was predicted and results and supporting analyses are presented. 4 refs., 1 fig., 21 tabs

  9. The Gap in Knowledge of Clinical Practice Guidelines by Mental Health Residents in Buenos Aires (Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Fabrissin

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this pilot study was to evaluate if the residents of psychiatry and clinical psychology from the city of Buenos Aires knew any of the existing mental health Clinical Practice and Treatment Guidelines (CPTGs. We asked residents their opinion about CPTGs and, also, if they followed their recommendations in clinical practice. We asked 59 mental health residents (28 physicians and 29 psychologists with different years of clinical training to fill a questionnaire to know their opinion about CPTGs and also if they follow the CPTG recommendations in their clinical practice. We found that 79.31% of residents did not know any CPTG. Eighty percent of the residents who did know any CPTG have a positive opinion about CPTGs. Finally, the American Psychiatric Association Guidelines were the most known CPTGs. The authors emphasize the need for a clinical guidelines diffusion policy in Buenos Aires city and particularly as a clinical and training resource for mental health residents.

  10. A preliminary investigation of indoor air quality in a naturally ventilated house

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shahrani, S.; Ahmed, A.Z.; Abdul Rahman, S.

    2006-01-01

    Continuous monitoring of indoor air quality was conducted in a naturally ventilated Malaysian house. CO 2 , CO, temperature and relative air humidity measurements were performed in the bathroom, bedroom, family room, kitchen and living room at 15-minute intervals over a 24-hour monitoring period. The measurement data were supplemented with time activity diaries detailing the occupants time of occupancy in each room, activities undertaken in each room and cooling and/or ventilation techniques used in each room. Indoor air quality was found to be generally satisfactory in all five rooms. However, levels of CO in the family room exceeded the USEPA, WHO and Singapore guidelines. Additionally, levels of relative humidity in the kitchen, living room and family room temperature in all five rooms exceeded the ASHRAE and Singapore guidelines, and suggest the like hood of condensation and mould growth

  11. Indoor air quality of environments used for physical exercise and sports practice: Systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Alexandro; Dominski, Fábio Hech

    2018-01-15

    Systematic reviews have the potential to contribute substantially to environmental health and risk assessment. This study aimed to investigate indoor air quality of environments used for physical exercise and sports practice through a systematic review. The systematic review followed the PRISMA guidelines and was recorded in the PROSPERO registry (CRD42016036057). The search was performed using the SciELO, Science Direct, Scopus, LILACS, MEDLINE via PubMed, and SPORTDiscus databases, from their inception through April 2017. The search terms used in the databases were {air pollution" OR "air pollutants" OR "air quality"} AND {"physical exercise" OR "physical activity" OR "sport"}. The results of selected studies were divided into 5 categories for analysis: monitoring of air quality in the environment according to international guidelines, indoor-to-outdoor ratio (I/O), air quality during physical exercise, impact of air quality on health, and interventions to improve indoor air quality. Among 1281 studies screened, 34 satisfied the inclusion criteria. The monitoring of pollutants was conducted in 20 studies. CO and NO 2 were the most investigated pollutants, and guidelines were discussed in most studies. The I/O ratio was investigated in 12 studies, of which 9 showed a higher concentration of some pollutants in indoor rather than outdoor environments. Among the 34 studies selected, only 7 investigated the impact of indoor air pollution on human health. The population in most of these studies consisted of hockey players. Most studies conducted monitoring of pollutants in indoor environments used for physical exercise and sports practice. The earliest studies were conducted in ice skating rinks and the most recent evaluated gymnasiums, fitness centers, and sports centers. The CO, particulate matter, and NO 2 concentrations were the most investigated and have the longest history of investigation. These pollutants were within the limits established by guidelines in most

  12. Design an Indoor Air Quality Controller Based on LPC2478

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi Shuheng

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Indoor air quality is very important to our lives, because we spend most of our time indoor. In order to improve the air quality of indoor, this paper designs an indoor environment quality monitoring and controlling system based on ARM microcontroller LPC2478. It will do a real-time monitoring work for detecting the indoor environmental factors and comprehensively evaluate its air quality level. While the indoor air quality status is "poor", this intelligent system will automatically start the heat exchange ventilator for indoor environmental quality improvement. The results compared to traditional natural ventilation method show the better performance of proposed system.

  13. Comparison of Quality And Content of Violence Guidelines For The Health Care Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rabia Kahveci

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available More than 50% of the employees in health sector are exposed to violence at any time. This study investigated international workplace violence guidelines for the health care sector to compare their quality and content and explore whether these guidelines could be used in different settings. We ran a broad review to identify international guidelines for violence in health care. After identification of the guidelines, the quality of the guidelines was assessed by personal experience and views of the authors, also taking AGREE domains into consideration as a guidance. The identified guidelines were later qualitatively analyzed for the content by two researchers and compared to each other. Canada, New Zealand, USA, UK and Turkey’s guidelines were involved in the study. Definitions of workplace violence, risk factors, objectives of the guideline, legal requirements, responsible stakeholders, target population, strategies recommended, physical environment, training and staffing were assessed in the content of the violence guidelines. It was found that current guidelines need improvement in both quality and content, but it is possible to have an international guidance that could be applicable in different settings. The development of violence guidelines should be the first and most strategic step for better protection of the health care workers. We expect our results to be useful in preparation of new guidelines for different settings.

  14. Advances in Air Quality Monitoring via Nanotechnology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baraton, Marie-Isabelle; Merhari, Lhadi

    2004-01-01

    Urban air pollution has become an inescapable issue due to its serious consequences on public health and, therefore, needs more accurate tracking through denser networks of air quality monitoring (AQM) stations. A higher density of these networks can be afforded by cities only if the costs of future individual AQM stations decrease. We review here the outcome of two European projects where our objective was to provide an alternative approach consisting in the development of cost-effective mobile microstations based on semiconductor sensors and capable of complementing the expensive and bulky current AQM stations. Improvement of the sensor sensitivity to detect very low levels of pollutants (CO, NO, NO 2 , O 3 ) in air was the major challenge to take up. This was achieved by using metal oxide nanosized particles with both controlled size and surface chemistry, and by adapting the screen-printing process to the nanometer size specificity. The detection thresholds for NO 2 , NO and O 3 of our nanoparticles-based sensors have been decreased by a factor of 3-5 compared to currently commercialized sensors. The lowest detectable concentration of CO has been reduced from 5 to 3 ppm without affecting the selectivity. In terms of sensitivity performance, our sensor prototypes can now meet the criteria for outdoor AQM whereas the commercial semiconductor and electrochemical sensors still cannot. As for the implementation of the network as a whole, our technological approach is outlined

  15. Environmental quality model in centralised radiopharmacy units: Guidelines from French Society of Radiopharmacy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruel, D.; Duez, C.; Ebel-Lao, S.; Garrigue, H.; Le Meur, C.

    2011-01-01

    The preparation of radiopharmaceutical drugs refers to the assessment of both pharmaceutical drugs and radionuclides preparations regulations. It should avoid microbiological contamination while ensuring staff as well as environmental protection from radioactive exposure. Therefore, in order to warranty sterility of injected doses, the environmental quality, specifically units indoor air quality and surfaces quality must be guaranteed. The aim of this work is to propose guidelines pertaining to environmental quality monitoring in the special field of radiopharmacy. These propositions are based on available guidances, including regulations, treating about methodology to apply for evaluation and control of hospital's environment. Throughout this report, the French College of Radiopharmacy proposals both improve the methodology for control and data analysis (targeted grade of environment, threshold for notification and corrective actions) and ensure follow-up and management of nonconformities. These recommendations represent a model for harmonization of radio-pharmacists practices with regards to frequency of environmental quality controls for facilities and equipments in their centralised radiopharmacy units. (authors)

  16. QUALITY ASSURANCE GUIDELINES FOR LABORATORIES PERFORMING FORENSIC ANALYSIS OF CHEMICAL TERRORISM

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Scientific Working Group on Forensic Analysis of Chemical Terrorism (SWGFACT) has developed the following quality assurance guidelines to provide laboratories engaged in forensic analysis of chemical evidence associated with terrorism a framework to implement a quality assura...

  17. Air quality in the Netherlands in 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beijk, R.; Mooibroek, D.; Hoogerbrugge, R.

    2009-01-01

    Results from the Dutch National Air Quality Monitoring Network (LML) show that in 2008 some exceedances of a few European air quality limit values were measured in the Netherlands. However,similar to 2007, the exceedances were less high and frequent than some years before due to more favorable weather conditions. incidently, high concentrations did occur this year. Especially during both the 2007th and 2008th New Year's Eve, when a very high level of PM10 occurred inside, and even outside, many urban areas due to a combination of fireworks, mist and low windspeeds. Ozone concentrations above the alert threshold (smog alert) were not observed in 2008. Exceedance of limit values for nitrogen dioxide occurred especially at traffic dominated monitoring sites. Nitrogen dioxide concentrations at rural background locations remained fairly stable during the last few years and are lower than the limit value. The maximum number of days with PM10-concentrations above the limit value is not exceeded at any of the monitoring sites in 2008. On average, the 2008 year average concentrations PM10 declined with approximately 2 μg/m 3 compared to 2007. [nl

  18. Measurements and prediction of inhaled air quality with personalized ventilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cermak, Radim; Majer, M.; Melikov, Arsen Krikor

    2002-01-01

    the room air) at flow rates ranging from less than 5 L/s up to 23 L/s. The air quality assessment was based on temperature measurements of the inhaled air and on the portion of the personalized air inhaled. The percentage of dissatisfied with the air quality was predicted. The results suggest......This paper examines the performance of five different air terminal devices for personalized ventilation in relation to the quality of air inhaled by a breathing thermal manikin in a climate chamber. The personalized air was supplied either isothermally or non-isothermally (6 deg.C cooler than...... that regardless of the temperature combinations, personalized ventilation may decrease significantly the number of occupants dissatisfied with the air quality. Under non-isothermal conditions the percentage of dissatisfied may decrease up to 4 times....

  19. Fire in the forest: The air quality dilemma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Core, J.E.

    1992-01-01

    Fire has long been an important tool of forest land managers. Air regulators responsible for assuring that the provisions of the Clean Air Act are met, see smoke from forest land burning as just another source of air pollution. From an air quality standpoint, pollutants released by forestry burning practices are no different than those emitted from other sources since smoke is smoke, regardless of whether it comes from a woodstove, a wood products industry stack, agricultural burning, or forestry land management. This paper discusses the dilemma that air quality and forest land managers face when balancing air quality protection with the role of fire in the forest

  20. Prediction of lake surface temperature using the air2water model: guidelines, challenges, and future perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastiano Piccolroaz

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Water temperature plays a primary role in controlling a wide range of physical, geochemical and ecological processes in lakes, with considerable influences on lake water quality and ecosystem functioning. Being able to reliably predict water temperature is therefore a desired goal, which stimulated the development of models of different type and complexity, ranging from simple regression-based models to more sophisticated process-based numerical models. However, both types of models suffer of some limitations: the first are not able to address some fundamental physical processes as e.g., thermal stratification, while the latter generally require a large amount of data in input, which are not always available. In this work, lake surface temperature is simulated by means of air2water, a hybrid physically-based/statistical model, which is able to provide a robust, predictive understanding of LST dynamics knowing air temperature only. This model showed performances that are comparable with those obtained by using process based models (a root mean square error on the order of 1°C, at daily scale, while retaining the simplicity and parsimony of regression-based models, thus making it a good candidate for long-term applications.The aim of the present work is to provide the reader with useful and practical guidelines for proper use of the air2water model and for critical analysis of results. Two case studies have been selected for the analysis: Lake Superior and Lake Erie. These are clear and emblematic examples of a deep and a shallow temperate lake characterized by markedly different thermal responses to external forcing, thus are ideal for making the results of the analysis the most general and comprehensive. Particular attention is paid to assessing the influence of missing data on model performance, and to evaluating when an observed time series is sufficiently informative for proper model calibration or, conversely, data are too scarce thus

  1. Teacher evaluation system, institutions of technology higher education: quality guidelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Belkis Parada Romero

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the globalization of education, it has become prevalent to strengthen the quality systems to ensure that educational actors in higher education institutions are the best. In this context teachers are given a main role since they are cornerstones in educational processes. Currently, teacher quality is assessed through an assessment or evaluation system. Almost every university evaluates its teachers, but there is no legal regulation on how to do it, in most institutions there is a professional in charge of designing and applying assessment instruments according to the authors he/she prefers. In most universities, on the one hand, it is used a traditional questionnaire aiming to collect data about dimensions associated with teaching, on the other hand, there is another option in which assessment models include self-evaluation, as in some cases in Chile. That’s why one of the concerns of this research is to propose guidelines for a more qualitative and formative assessment not exclusively following political parameters –based on administrative decisions–, but following emerging proposals with a deeper analysis. Nowadays the main actors in teacher evaluation are teachers, students and administrative staff, every six months these actors are evaluated by using an assessment tool that they usually do not know. The research investigates the perception actors in teacher evaluation have regarding its objectives, methods and stages, so they put forward ideas on how to restructure the current institutional assessment and propose improvements aiming at both the quantitative aspect and the qualitative analysis of performances and skills.

  2. Indoor air-quality measurements in energy-efficient residential buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berk, J.V.; Hollowell, C.D.; Pepper, J.H.; Young, R.

    1980-05-01

    The potential impact on indoor air quality of energy-conserving measures that reduce ventilation is being assessed in a field-monitoring program conducted by the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. Using a mobile laboratory, on-site monitoring of infiltration rate, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, nitric oxide, ozone, sulfur dioxide, formaldehyde, total aldehydes, and particulates was conducted in three houses designed to be energy-efficient. Preliminary results show that energy-conserving design features that reduce air-exchange rates compromise indoor air quality; specifically, indoor levels of several pollutants were found to exceed levels detected outdoors. Although the indoor levels of most pollutants are within limits established by present outdoor air-quality standards, considerable work remains to be accomplished before health-risk effects can be accurately assessed and broad-scale regulatory guidelines revised to comply with energy-conservation goals.

  3. Development of quality indicators based on a multidisciplinary, evidence-based guideline on pediatric constipation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stienen, J.J.C.; Tabbers, M.M.; Benninga, M.A.; Harmsen, M.; Ouwens, M.M.T.J.

    2011-01-01

    Several clinical guidelines for childhood functional constipation have been developed, but none of them is accompanied by a set of quality indicators. It is important to gain insight into the quality of care in daily practice in order to improve the implementation of clinical guidelines. This can be

  4. Common issues raised during the quality assurance process of WHO guidelines: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porgo, Teegwendé V; Ferri, Mauricio; Norris, Susan L

    2018-02-07

    In 2007, WHO established the Guidelines Review Committee (GRC) to ensure that WHO guidelines adhere to the highest international standards. The GRC reviews guideline proposals and final guidelines. The objectives of this study were to examine the rates of and reasons for conditional approval and non-approval of documents submitted for the first time to the GRC, and calculate the time intervals and numbers of submissions to achieve approval for documents conditionally approved or not approved at first submission. All initial submissions to the GRC between 2014 and 2017 were examined. Data were extracted from the GRC's records of written comments and discussions. Of a total of 85 proposals and 88 final guidelines, 32 (37.6%) proposals and 37 (42.0%) final guidelines were conditionally approved, and 15 (17.6%) proposals and 28 (31.8%) final guidelines were not. For both conditionally approved and not approved proposals, the most frequent reasons were suboptimal composition or inadequate description of the guideline contributor groups (in all proposals), followed by inadequate formulation of key questions (in 90.6% of conditionally approved proposals and all not approved proposals). For both conditionally approved and not approved final guidelines, the most frequent reasons were problems with recommendations (in all final guidelines), followed by inappropriate methods for evidence retrieval or an inadequate description thereof (in all conditionally approved final guidelines and 75.0% of not approved final guidelines). The median time to achieve approval was 2 months for proposals and 1-2 months for final guidelines. The median number of submissions was 2 for proposals and 2-2.5 for final guidelines. The GRC implements a rigorous quality assurance process and identifies problems with a significant percentage of initial submissions. WHO needs to continuously evaluate its guideline development processes to inform effective quality improvement measures and optimise the

  5. Air Quality Impacts of Petroleum Refining and Petrochemical Industries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aiswarya Ragothaman

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Though refineries and petrochemical industries meet society’s energy demands and produce a range of useful chemicals, they can also affect air quality. The World Health Organization (WHO has identified polluted air as the single largest environmental risk, and hence it is necessary to strive for and maintain good air quality. To manage potential health impacts, it is important to implement proper air quality management by understanding the link between specific pollutant sources and resulting population exposures. These industries release pollutants such as Volatile Organic Compounds, greenhouse gases and particulate matter, from various parts of their operations. Air quality should be monitored and controlled more meticulously in developing nations where increased energy demands, industrialization and overpopulation has led to more emissions and lower air quality. This paper presents a review of findings and highlights from various studies on air quality impacts of petroleum refining and petrochemical plants in many regions in the world.

  6. 40 CFR 52.2131 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Significant deterioration of air quality. 52.2131 Section 52.2131 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a)-(b) [Reserved] (c) All applications and other information...

  7. 40 CFR 52.2380 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Significant deterioration of air quality. 52.2380 Section 52.2380 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. The program to review the construction and operation of new and...

  8. 40 CFR 52.181 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Significant deterioration of air quality. 52.181 Section 52.181 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) The plan submitted by the Governor of Arkansas as follows: (1) April 23, 1981...

  9. 40 CFR 52.581 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Significant deterioration of air quality. 52.581 Section 52.581 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) All applications and other information required pursuant to § 52.21 of this...

  10. 40 CFR 52.530 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Significant deterioration of air quality. 52.530 Section 52.530 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) EPA approves the Florida Prevention of Significant Deterioration program, as...

  11. 40 CFR 52.2083 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Significant deterioration of air quality. 52.2083 Section 52.2083 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The Rhode Island plan, as submitted, is approved as meeting the...

  12. 40 CFR 52.1280 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Significant deterioration of air quality. 52.1280 Section 52.1280 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) All applications and other information required pursuant to § 52...

  13. 40 CFR 52.1029 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Significant deterioration of air quality. 52.1029 Section 52.1029 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. The program to review operation and construction of new and modified...

  14. 40 CFR 52.1529 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Significant deterioration of air quality. 52.1529 Section 52.1529 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. New Hampshire's Part Env-A 623, “Requirements for Prevention of...

  15. Forest fires and air quality issues in southern Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ana Isabel Miranda; Enrico Marchi; Marco Ferretti; Millán M. Millán

    2009-01-01

    Each summer forest fires in southern Europe emit large quantities of pollutants to the atmosphere. These fires can generate a number of air pollution episodes as measured by air quality monitoring networks. We analyzed the impact of forest fires on air quality of specific regions of southern Europe. Data from several summer seasons were studied with the aim of...

  16. Indoor Air Quality Tools for Schools Program: Benefits of Improving Air Quality in the School Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. Office of Radiation and Indoor Air.

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) developed the Indoor Air Quality Tools for Schools (IAQ TfS) Program to help schools prevent, identify, and resolve their IAQ problems. This publication describes the program and its advantages, explaining that through simple, low-cost measures, schools can: reduce IAQ-related health risks and…

  17. Incident reviews in UK maternity units: a systematic appraisal of the quality of local guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Anjali; Mohamed-Ahmed, Olaa; Peirsegaele, Philippe; McClymont, Charlotte; Knight, Marian

    2015-03-14

    Maternity care is recognised as a particularly high-risk speciality that is subject to investigation and inquiry, and improvements in risk management have been recommended. However, the quality of guidelines for local reviews of maternity incidents is unknown. The aim of the study is to appraise the quality of local guidance on conducting reviews of severe maternity incidents in the National Health Service. Guidelines for incident reviews were requested from all 211 consultant-led maternity units in the UK during 2012. The Appraisal of Guidelines for Research and Evaluation Instrument (AGREE II) was used to evaluate the quality of guidelines. The methods used for reviewing an incident, the people involved in the review and the methods for disseminating the outcomes of the reviews were also examined. Guidelines covering 148 (70%) of all NHS maternity units in the UK were received for evaluation. Most guidelines (55%) received were of good or high quality. The median score on 'scope and purpose' (86%), concerned with the aims and target population of the guideline, was higher than for other domains. Median scores were: 'stakeholder involvement' (representation of users' views) 56%, 'rigour of development' (process used to develop guideline) 34%, 'clarity of presentation' 78%, 'applicability' (organisational and cost implications of applying guideline) 56% and 'editorial independence' 0%. Most guidelines (81%) recommended a range of health professionals review serious maternity incidents using root cause analysis. Findings were most often disseminated at meetings, in reports and in newsletters. Many guidelines (69%) stated lessons learnt from incidents would be audited. Overall, local guidance for the review of maternity incidents was mostly of good or high quality. Stakeholder participation in guideline development could be widened, and editorial independence more clearly stated. It was unclear in over a quarter of guidelines whether changes in practice in response

  18. Microbiological assessment of indoor air quality at different hospital sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabo Verde, Sandra; Almeida, Susana Marta; Matos, João; Guerreiro, Duarte; Meneses, Marcia; Faria, Tiago; Botelho, Daniel; Santos, Mateus; Viegas, Carla

    2015-09-01

    Poor hospital indoor air quality (IAQ) may lead to hospital-acquired infections, sick hospital syndrome and various occupational hazards. Air-control measures are crucial for reducing dissemination of airborne biological particles in hospitals. The objective of this study was to perform a survey of bioaerosol quality in different sites in a Portuguese Hospital, namely the operating theater (OT), the emergency service (ES) and the surgical ward (SW). Aerobic mesophilic bacterial counts (BCs) and fungal load (FL) were assessed by impaction directly onto tryptic soy agar and malt extract agar supplemented with antibiotic chloramphenicol (0.05%) plates, respectively using a MAS-100 air sampler. The ES revealed the highest airborne microbial concentrations (BC range 240-736 CFU/m(3) CFU/m(3); FL range 27-933 CFU/m(3)), exceeding, at several sampling sites, conformity criteria defined in national legislation [6]. Bacterial concentrations in the SW (BC range 99-495 CFU/m(3)) and the OT (BC range 12-170 CFU/m(3)) were under recommended criteria. While fungal levels were below 1 CFU/m(3) in the OT, in the SW (range 1-32 CFU/m(3)), there existed a site with fungal indoor concentrations higher than those detected outdoors. Airborne Gram-positive cocci were the most frequent phenotype (88%) detected from the measured bacterial population in all indoor environments. Staphylococcus (51%) and Micrococcus (37%) were dominant among the bacterial genera identified in the present study. Concerning indoor fungal characterization, the prevalent genera were Penicillium (41%) and Aspergillus (24%). Regular monitoring is essential for assessing air control efficiency and for detecting irregular introduction of airborne particles via clothing of visitors and medical staff or carriage by personal and medical materials. Furthermore, microbiological survey data should be used to clearly define specific air quality guidelines for controlled environments in hospital settings. Copyright

  19. Air quality measurements in urban green areas - a case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuttler, W.; Strassburger, A.

    The influence of traffic-induced pollutants (e.g. CO, NO, NO 2 and O 3) on the air quality of urban areas was investigated in the city of Essen, North Rhine-Westphalia (NRW), Germany. Twelve air hygiene profile measuring trips were made to analyse the trace gas distribution in the urban area with high spatial resolution and to compare the air hygiene situation of urban green areas with the overall situation of urban pollution. Seventeen measurements were made to determine the diurnal concentration courses within urban parks (summer conditions: 13 measurements, 530 30 min mean values, winter conditions: 4 measurements, 128 30 min mean values). The measurements were carried out during mainly calm wind and cloudless conditions between February 1995 and March 1996. It was possible to establish highly differentiated spatial concentration patterns within the urban area. These patterns were correlated with five general types of land use (motorway, main road, secondary road, residential area, green area) which were influenced to varying degrees by traffic emissions. Urban parks downwind from the main emission sources show the following typical temporal concentration courses: In summer rush-hour-dependent CO, NO and NO 2 maxima only occurred in the morning. A high NO 2/NO ratio was established during weather conditions with high global radiation intensities ( K>800 W m -2), which may result in a high O 3 formation potential. Some of the values measured found in one of the parks investigated (Gruga Park, Essen, area: 0.7 km 2), which were as high as 275 μg m -3 O 3 (30-min mean value) were significantly higher than the German air quality standard of 120 μg m -3 (30-min mean value, VDI Guideline 2310, 1996) which currently applies in Germany and about 20% above the maximum values measured on the same day by the network of the North Rhine-Westphalian State Environment Agency. In winter high CO and NO concentrations occur in the morning and during the afternoon rush-hour. The

  20. QUANTIFYING SUBGRID POLLUTANT VARIABILITY IN EULERIAN AIR QUALITY MODELS

    Science.gov (United States)

    In order to properly assess human risk due to exposure to hazardous air pollutants or air toxics, detailed information is needed on the location and magnitude of ambient air toxic concentrations. Regional scale Eulerian air quality models are typically limited to relatively coar...

  1. U.S. EPA Environmental Quality Index - Air Domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    This is an invited presentation by Region 5, Air Office, who asked me to provide an overview of the Air Domain and health results associated with the Air Domain of the Environmental Quality Index. Region 5 is hosting an Air Toxics meeting for its member states (Ohio, Michigan, I...

  2. 76 FR 44493 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Northern Sierra Air Quality Management...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-26

    ... California State Implementation Plan, Northern Sierra Air Quality Management District, Sacramento Metropolitan Air Quality Management District, and South Coast Air Quality Management District AGENCY... approve revisions to the Northern Sierra Air Quality Management District (NSAQMD), Sacramento Metropolitan...

  3. 75 FR 40726 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Sacramento Metropolitan Air Quality...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-14

    ... the California State Implementation Plan, Sacramento Metropolitan Air Quality Management District and South Coast Air Quality Management District AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION... Metropolitan Air Quality Management District (SMAQMD) and South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD...

  4. Guidelines for Quality Management of Apallic Syndrome / Vegetative State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Wild, Klaus; Gerstenbrand, Franz; Dolce, Giuliano; Binder, Heinrich; Vos, Pieter E; Saltuari, Leopold; Alekseenko, Yuri; Formisano, Rita; Ritz, Annegret; Ortega-Suhrkamp, Erika; Jörg, Johannes R; Potapov, Alexander A; León-Carrión, José; Vilcinis, Rimantas; Zitnay, George A

    2007-06-01

    Epidemiology in Europe shows constantly increasing figures for the apallic syndrome (AS)/vegetative state (VS) as a consequence of advanced rescue, emergency services, intensive care treatment after acute brain damage and high-standard activating home nursing for completely dependent end-stage cases secondary to progressive neurological disease. Management of patients in irreversible permanent AS/VS has been the subject of sustained scientific and moral-legal debate over the past decade. A task force on guidelines for quality management of AS/VS was set up under the auspices of the Scientific Panel Neurotraumatology of the European Federation of Neurological Societies to address key issues relating to AS/VS prevalence and quality management. Collection and analysis of scientific data on class II (III) evidence from the literature and recommendations based on the best practice as resulting from the task force members' expertise are in accordance with EFNS Guidance regulations. The overall incidence of new AS/VS full stage cases all etiology is 0.5-2/100.000 population per year. About one third are traumatic and two thirds non traumatic cases. Increasing figures for hypoxic brain damage and progressive neurological disease have been noticed. The main conceptual criticism is based on the assessment and diagnosis of all different AS/VS stages based solely on behavioural findings without knowing the exact or uniform pathogenesis or neuropathological findings and the uncertainty of clinical assessment due to varying inclusion criteria. No special diagnostics, no specific medical management can be recommended for class II or III AS treatment and rehabilitation. This is why sine qua non diagnostics of the clinical features and appropriate treatment of AS/VS patients of "AS full, remission, defect and end stages" require further professional training and expertise for doctors and rehabilitation personnel. Management of AS aims at the social reintegration of patients or has

  5. Strategy Guideline: Quality Management in Existing Homes - Cantilever Floor Example

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taggart, J. [NAHB Research Center Industry Partnership, Upper Marlboro, MD (United States); Sikora, J. [NAHB Research Center Industry Partnership, Upper Marlboro, MD (United States); Wiehagen, J. [NAHB Research Center Industry Partnership, Upper Marlboro, MD (United States); Wood, A. [NAHB Research Center Industry Partnership, Upper Marlboro, MD (United States)

    2011-12-01

    This guideline is designed to highlight the QA process that can be applied to any residential building retrofit activity. The cantilevered floor retrofit detailed in this guideline is included only to provide an actual retrofit example to better illustrate the QA activities being presented.

  6. Indoor Air Quality Analysis Using Deep Learning with Sensor Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaehyun Ahn

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Indoor air quality analysis is of interest to understand the abnormal atmospheric phenomena and external factors that affect air quality. By recording and analyzing quality measurements, we are able to observe patterns in the measurements and predict the air quality of near future. We designed a microchip made out of sensors that is capable of periodically recording measurements, and proposed a model that estimates atmospheric changes using deep learning. In addition, we developed an efficient algorithm to determine the optimal observation period for accurate air quality prediction. Experimental results with real-world data demonstrate the feasibility of our approach.

  7. Neck Pain: Clinical Practice Guidelines Help Ensure Quality Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-07-01

    In 2008, physical therapists published the first neck pain clinical practice guidelines. These guidelines have been updated and are now available in the July 2017 issue of JOSPT. To update these guidelines, physical therapists teamed with the International Collaboration on Neck Pain to identify leading practices. These revised guidelines provide direction to clinicians as they screen, evaluate, diagnose, and make treatment-based classifications of neck pain. They also outline the best nonsurgical treatment options based on the published literature. At the end of the day, the best care is a combination of the leading science, the clinical expertise of your health care provider, and your input as the patient. These guidelines help inform the first step in this process. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2017;47(7):513. doi:10.2519/jospt.2017.0508.

  8. LINKING PUBLIC HEALTH AND AIR QUALITY DATA FOR ACCOUNTABILITY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Program Area: Environmental HealthTopic Area: Linking Public Health Data into ActionTitle of Presentation: Linking Public Health and Air Quality Data for AccountabilityBackground and Significance Tracking environmental exposures to air pollutan...

  9. Research on Health and Environmental Effects of Air Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Research has linked regulated air pollutants such as ozone and particulate matter, to lung, heart disease and other health problems. Further investigation is needed to understand the role poor air quality plays on health and disease

  10. Air quality assessment of carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tumwitike

    Technology ... Biochemical Sciences Department, University of Malawi, Private Bag 303, Blantyre 3 ... urban air quality monitoring in Blantyre and all urban areas in Malawi. ... Key words: Air pollutants, principal component analysis, developing ...

  11. A Breath of Fresh Air: Addressing Indoor Air Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palliser, Janna

    2011-01-01

    Indoor air pollution refers to "chemical, biological, and physical contamination of indoor air," which may result in adverse health effects (OECD 2003). The causes, sources, and types of indoor air pollutants will be addressed in this article, as well as health effects and how to reduce exposure. Learning more about potential pollutants in home…

  12. Measure Guideline: Combustion Safety for Natural Draft Appliances Using Indoor Air

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brand, L.

    2014-04-01

    This measure guideline covers how to assess and carry out the combustion safety procedures for appliances and heating equipment that uses indoor air for combustion in low-rise residential buildings. Only appliances installed in the living space, or in an area freely communicating with the living space, vented alone or in tandem with another appliance are considered here. A separate measure guideline addresses combustion appliances located either within the living space in enclosed closets or side rooms or outside the living space in an adjacent area like an attic or garage that use outdoor air for combustion. This document is for inspectors, auditors, and technicians working in homes where energy upgrades are being conducted whether or not air infiltration control is included in the package of measures being applied. In the indoor combustion air case, guidelines summarized here are based on language provided in several of the codes to establish minimum requirements for the space using simplified prescriptive measures. In addition, building performance testing procedures are provided by testing agencies. The codes in combination with the test procedures offer comprehensive combustion safety coverage to address safety concerns, allowing inexperienced residential energy retrofit inspectors to effectively address combustion safety issues and allow energy retrofits to proceed.

  13. Mexico City air quality: Progress of an international collaborative project to define air quality management options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Streit, G.E.

    1992-01-01

    Mexico City, faces a severe air pollution problem due to a combination of circumstances. The city is in a high mountain basin at a subtropical latitude. The basin setting inhibits dispersion of pollution and contributes to frequent wintertime thermal inversions which further trap pollutants near the surface. The elevation and latitude combine to provide plentiful sunshine which, in comparison to more northern latitudes, is enhanced in the UV radiation which drives atmospheric photochemistry to produce secondary pollutants such as ozone. The Area Metropolitana de la Ciudad de Mexico AMCW is defined to include the 16 delegations of the Federal District (D.F.) and 17 highly urbanized municipalities in the State of Mexico which border the D.F. The 1990 census (XI Censo General de Poblacion y Vivienda de 1990) records that slightly over 15 million people live in the AMCM. There are numerous other nearby communities which are in the airshed region of Mexico City, but which are not included in the definition and population of the AMCM. The Mexico City Air Quality Research Initiative is one project that is examining the complex relationship between air pollution, economic growth, societal values, and air quality management policies. The project utilizes a systems approach including computer modeling, comprehensive measurement studies of Mexico City's air pollutants, environmental chemical reaction studies and socioeconomic analysis. Los Alamos National Laboratory (USA) and the Mexican Petroleum Institute are the designated lead institutions

  14. Hold Your Breath: A New Index of Air Quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bühn, A.; Farzanega, M.R.

    2011-01-01

    Environmental quality and climate change have long attracted attention in policy debates. Recently, air quality has emerged on the policy agenda. We calculate a new index of air quality using CO2and SO2 emissions per capita as indicators and provide a ranking for 122 countries from 1985 to 2005.The

  15. Quality babies. China's "eugenics" guidelines are as old as civilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-12

    Inaccurate translations inadvertently misrepresent policy directives from China. Professional moralizers respond to the new laws with indignation. For example, an editorial in a US newspaper said that Americans objected to China's eugenic guidelines to prevent inferior quality infants. Yet, in the US and other developed countries, parents, and adult siblings do no allow their mentally retarded family members to procreate. Quiet abortions occur. In the US, deformed newborns are classified as stillborns. In the 1950s in the US, state governments allowed sterilization of handicapped people and even alcoholics. The moralizers expect China to accomplish in 10 years what developed countries did in 100 years. China has a one-child policy to which many so-called human rights advocates object. Yet, China cannot sustain a population of 2 billion with the living standards to which it aspires. Granted, however, that China does create its own image problems. It needs to invest more in public relations, maybe employ image-building professionals from the US and Europe to circumvent the unintentional use of emotionally charged, historically loaded, or inappropriate terms and, therefore, to prevent the international media from overreacting. Nevertheless, moral dilemmas do exist with eugenics policies. Genetic markers can detect chromosomal abnormalities leading to mental retardation as well as later-life abnormalities; e.g., colon cancer. Markers may perhaps someday detect a propensity to criminal behavior, homosexuality, or alcoholism. Governments could forbid all genetic testing, resulting in families accepting whatever nature sends, but with the advancement of science, this is unrealistic. If it is banned in one country, people will go to a country where it is available. Since parents in both the US and China want healthy, good-looking and intelligent children US editorialists should not moralize about China while US couples have access to the most up-to-date genetic technology.

  16. Indoor air quality analysis based on Hadoop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuo, Wang; Liang, Yu; Weihong, Cui; Yunhua, Sun; Song, Tian

    2014-01-01

    The air of the office environment is our research object. The data of temperature, humidity, concentrations of carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide and ammonia are collected peer one to eight seconds by the sensor monitoring system. And all the data are stored in the Hbase database of Hadoop platform. With the help of HBase feature of column-oriented store and versioned (automatically add the time column), the time-series data sets are bulit based on the primary key Row-key and timestamp. The parallel computing programming model MapReduce is used to process millions of data collected by sensors. By analysing the changing trend of parameters' value at different time of the same day and at the same time of various dates, the impact of human factor and other factors on the room microenvironment is achieved according to the liquidity of the office staff. Moreover, the effective way to improve indoor air quality is proposed in the end of this paper

  17. Indoor air quality analysis based on Hadoop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuo, Wang; Yunhua, Sun; Song, Tian; Liang, Yu; Weihong, Cui

    2014-03-01

    The air of the office environment is our research object. The data of temperature, humidity, concentrations of carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide and ammonia are collected peer one to eight seconds by the sensor monitoring system. And all the data are stored in the Hbase database of Hadoop platform. With the help of HBase feature of column-oriented store and versioned (automatically add the time column), the time-series data sets are bulit based on the primary key Row-key and timestamp. The parallel computing programming model MapReduce is used to process millions of data collected by sensors. By analysing the changing trend of parameters' value at different time of the same day and at the same time of various dates, the impact of human factor and other factors on the room microenvironment is achieved according to the liquidity of the office staff. Moreover, the effective way to improve indoor air quality is proposed in the end of this paper.

  18. Annual survey air quality 2003-2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beijk, R.; Mooibroek, D.; Hoogerbrugge, R.

    2007-01-01

    Results from the Dutch National Air Quality Monitoring Network (LML) show that several European air quality limit values were exceeded in the Netherlands between 2003 and 2006. This applied mainly to nitrogen dioxide, particulate matter (PM10) and ozone. The number of exceedances was especially high in 2003, partly due to weather conditions such as enduring dry episodes. Ozone concentration levels above the alert threshold (smog alert) were measured in 2003 and 2006, with concentration levels above the alert threshold occurring mostly during heat episodes. Measurements for nitrogen dioxide showed a yearly average concentration at city street locations above the European limit value at approximately half the measuring sites between 2003 and 2006. Yearly average concentrations measured at regional locations have changed relatively little in the past four years, remaining below the limit value for this entire period. Particulate matter concentrations have been relatively constant in the past few three years, after peaking in 2003. There is an EU standard for particulate matter for short- and long-term exposure of the population, which is represented by year and day average concentrations, with a maximum number of exceedances per year allowed. The year averages for the 2003 to 2006 period are less than the standard for long-term exposure. The maximum number of days showing average concentrations above the limit value was violated at several locations in 2006. Both nitrogen dioxide and particulate matter are characterized by a clear downward trend when measured over a long period of time (15 and 14 years, respectively). However, it is not possible to determine from the past seven years whether this trend is still valid [nl

  19. Assessing air quality in Aksaray with time series analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadilar, Gamze Özel; Kadilar, Cem

    2017-04-01

    Sulphur dioxide (SO2) is a major air pollutant caused by the dominant usage of diesel, petrol and fuels by vehicles and industries. One of the most air-polluted city in Turkey is Aksaray. Hence, in this study, the level of SO2 is analyzed in Aksaray based on the database monitored at air quality monitoring station of Turkey. Seasonal Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average (SARIMA) approach is used to forecast the level of SO2 air quality parameter. The results indicate that the seasonal ARIMA model provides reliable and satisfactory predictions for the air quality parameters and expected to be an alternative tool for practical assessment and justification.

  20. ANALYSIS OF AIR QUALITY IN SELECTED AREAS OF A POULTRY PROCESSING PLANT WITH THE USE OF A MICROBIOLOGICAL AIR SAMPLER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Konieczny

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The aim of the study was to analyze the air quality in selected production facilities specified as the so-called "high-risk zones". Air samples were analyzed using either the sedimentation or the impaction methods. The impaction method showed the applicability of the air sampler in in-situ measurements. An increase in the numbers of aerobic bacteria was observed in most air sample collection sites as the duration of the production time increased. At the three successive dates, it amounted to 163 cfu/m3, 205 cfu/m3, and 324 cfu/m3, respectively. Such dependence was not observed by the of sedimentation method. It was stated that the impaction technique is better to precisely determine numbers of bacteria, yeast, and molds in the air of poultry processing areas. Analyses showed a high level of microbial air contamination in the examined production areas in relation to the guidelines applied in the assessment of indoor air contamination. Based on the recorded results, it was recommended to undertake immediate corrective actions, consisting in the replacement of filters in the refrigeration and air conditioning equipment, as well as to provide comprehensive training for the employees working in the selected facilities.

  1. Life satisfaction and air quality in London

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacKerron, George; Mourato, Susana

    2009-01-01

    A growing body of research in economics concerns self-reported happiness, or life satisfaction (LS), and its relationship to a wide range of other variables. The findings of this research tend to highlight the importance of non-income aspects of individuals' life conditions. These findings are strongly complementary to themes within the sustainable development discourse. Firstly, they suggest ways in which we might consume less without compromising on our current levels of LS. And secondly, they help demonstrate the immediate LS benefits that could be gained from higher levels of environmental quality (EQ). However, the empirical evidence for the link between EQ and LS is, to date, somewhat weak, due in part to a lack of EQ data at a level of detail to match the individual-by-individual resolution of LS measures. This small, exploratory study therefore seeks to assess how the use of EQ data at very high spatial resolution could advance the empirical literature examining connections between LS and EQ levels, focusing on air quality in particular. It collects original survey data for approximately 400 Londoners, and uses geographical information system (GIS) software to calculate pollutant concentrations in the immediate vicinity of their homes. It uses this data to estimate maximum likelihood regression models explaining LS ratings in terms of a range of individual, household and local variables. Both perceived and measured air pollution levels are significantly negatively associated with the LS of the survey respondents, even when controlling for a wide range of other effects. An increase of 10 μg/m 3 in annual mean nitrogen dioxide concentration appears to correspond on average to a drop of nearly half a point of LS on an 11-point rating scale. These findings cannot yet be generalised with confidence. However, if they were confirmed by larger future studies, they would appear to strengthen and extend existing arguments in favour of policies to reduce urban air

  2. Life satisfaction and air quality in London

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacKerron, George; Mourato, Susana [Department of Geography and Environment, and Grantham Research Institute on Climate Change and the Environment, London School of Economics and Political Science, Houghton Street, London WC2A 2AE (United Kingdom)

    2009-03-15

    A growing body of research in economics concerns self-reported happiness, or life satisfaction (LS), and its relationship to a wide range of other variables. The findings of this research tend to highlight the importance of non-income aspects of individuals' life conditions. These findings are strongly complementary to themes within the sustainable development discourse. Firstly, they suggest ways in which we might consume less without compromising on our current levels of LS. And secondly, they help demonstrate the immediate LS benefits that could be gained from higher levels of environmental quality (EQ). However, the empirical evidence for the link between EQ and LS is, to date, somewhat weak, due in part to a lack of EQ data at a level of detail to match the individual-by-individual resolution of LS measures. This small, exploratory study therefore seeks to assess how the use of EQ data at very high spatial resolution could advance the empirical literature examining connections between LS and EQ levels, focusing on air quality in particular. It collects original survey data for approximately 400 Londoners, and uses geographical information system (GIS) software to calculate pollutant concentrations in the immediate vicinity of their homes. It uses this data to estimate maximum likelihood regression models explaining LS ratings in terms of a range of individual, household and local variables. Both perceived and measured air pollution levels are significantly negatively associated with the LS of the survey respondents, even when controlling for a wide range of other effects. An increase of 10 {mu}g/m{sup 3} in annual mean nitrogen dioxide concentration appears to correspond on average to a drop of nearly half a point of LS on an 11-point rating scale. These findings cannot yet be generalised with confidence. However, if they were confirmed by larger future studies, they would appear to strengthen and extend existing arguments in favour of policies to reduce

  3. Systematic Review of the Methodology Quality in Lung Cancer Screening Guidelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang LI

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective Lung cancer is the most common malignancy and screening can decrease the mortality. High quality screening guideline is necessary and important for effective work. Our study is to review and evaluate the basic characteristics and methodology quality of the current global lung cancer screening guidelines so as to provide useful information for domestic study in the future. Methods Electronic searches were done in English and Chinese databases including PubMed, the Cochrane Library, Web of Science, Embase, CNKI, CBM, Wanfang, and some cancer official websites. Articles were screened according to the predefined inclusion and exclusion criteria by two researchers. The quality of guidelines was assessed by AGREE II. Results At last, a total of 11 guidelines with methodology were included. The guidelines were issued mainly by USA (81%. Canada and China developed one, respectively. As for quality, the average score in the “Scale and objective” of all guidelines was 80, the average score in the “Participants” was 52, the average score in the “rigorism” was 50, the average score in the “clarity” was 76, the average score in the “application” was 43 and the average score in the “independence” was 59. The highest average score was found in 2013 and 2015. Canada guideline had higher quality in six domains. 7 guidelines were evaluated as A level. Conclusion The number of clinical guidelines showed an increasing trend. Most guidelines were issued by developed countries with heavy burden. Multi-country contribution to one guideline was another trend. Evidence-based methodology was accepted globally in the guideline development.

  4. Impact of individually controlled facially applied air movement on perceived air quality at high humidity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skwarczynski, M.A. [Faculty of Environmental Engineering, Institute of Environmental Protection Engineering, Department of Indoor Environment Engineering, Lublin University of Technology, Lublin (Poland); International Centre for Indoor Environment and Energy, Department of Civil Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, Copenhagen (Denmark); Melikov, A.K.; Lyubenova, V. [International Centre for Indoor Environment and Energy, Department of Civil Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, Copenhagen (Denmark); Kaczmarczyk, J. [Faculty of Energy and Environmental Engineering, Department of Heating, Ventilation and Dust Removal Technology, Silesian University of Technology, Gliwice (Poland)

    2010-10-15

    The effect of facially applied air movement on perceived air quality (PAQ) at high humidity was studied. Thirty subjects (21 males and 9 females) participated in three, 3-h experiments performed in a climate chamber. The experimental conditions covered three combinations of relative humidity and local air velocity under a constant air temperature of 26 C, namely: 70% relative humidity without air movement, 30% relative humidity without air movement and 70% relative humidity with air movement under isothermal conditions. Personalized ventilation was used to supply room air from the front toward the upper part of the body (upper chest, head). The subjects could control the flow rate (velocity) of the supplied air in the vicinity of their bodies. The results indicate an airflow with elevated velocity applied to the face significantly improves the acceptability of the air quality at the room air temperature of 26 C and relative humidity of 70%. (author)

  5. Opportunities to Improve Air Quality through Transportation Pricing Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document is intended to give state and local air quality and transportation planners,elected government officials, and other interested parties background information on transportation pricing programs.

  6. Approved Air Quality Implementation Plans in Region 10

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landing page for information about EPA-approved air quality State Implementation Plans (SIPs), Tribal Implementation Plans (TIPs), and Federal Implementation Plans (FIPs) in Alaska, Idaho, Oregon, Washington.

  7. Air quality estimation by computational intelligence methodologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ćirić Ivan T.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The subject of this study is to compare different computational intelligence methodologies based on artificial neural networks used for forecasting an air quality parameter - the emission of CO2, in the city of Niš. Firstly, inputs of the CO2 emission estimator are analyzed and their measurement is explained. It is known that the traffic is the single largest emitter of CO2 in Europe. Therefore, a proper treatment of this component of pollution is very important for precise estimation of emission levels. With this in mind, measurements of traffic frequency and CO2 concentration were carried out at critical intersections in the city, as well as the monitoring of a vehicle direction at the crossroad. Finally, based on experimental data, different soft computing estimators were developed, such as feed forward neural network, recurrent neural network, and hybrid neuro-fuzzy estimator of CO2 emission levels. Test data for some characteristic cases presented at the end of the paper shows good agreement of developed estimator outputs with experimental data. Presented results are a true indicator of the implemented method usability. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III42008-2/2011: Evaluation of Energy Performances and br. TR35016/2011: Indoor Environment Quality of Educational Buildings in Serbia with Impact to Health and Research of MHD Flows around the Bodies, in the Tip Clearances and Channels and Application in the MHD Pumps Development

  8. AsMA Medical Guidelines for Air Travel: Fitness to Fly and Medical Clearances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thibeault, Claude; Evans, Anthony D; Dowdall, Nigel P

    2015-07-01

    Medical Guidelines for Airline Travel provide information that enables healthcare providers to properly advise patients who plan to travel by air. Not everyone is fit to travel by air and physicians should advise their patients accordingly. They should review the passenger's medical condition, giving special consideration to the dosage and timing of any medications, contagiousness, and the need for special assistance during travel. In general, an individual with an unstable medical condition should not fly; cabin altitude, duration of exposure, and altitude of the destination airport are all considerations when recommending a passenger for flight.

  9. AsMA Medical Guidelines for Air Travel: Reported In-Flight Medical Events and Death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thibeault, Claude; Evans, Anthony D

    2015-06-01

    Medical Guidelines for Airline Travel provide information that enables healthcare providers to properly advise patients who plan to travel by air. Although there are no publicly available databases providing information on the number of in-flight medical emergencies, the few studies published in the literature indicate that they are uncommon. Minor illnesses such as near-fainting, dizziness, and hyperventilation occur more frequently. However, serious illnesses, such as seizures and myocardial infarction, also occur. In-flight deaths are also rare.

  10. AsMA Medical Guidelines for Air Travel: In-Flight Medical Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thibeault, Claude; Evans, Anthony D; Pettyjohn, Frank S; Alves, Paulo M

    2015-06-01

    Medical Guidelines for Airline Travel provide information that enables healthcare providers to properly advise patients who plan to travel by air. All airlines are required to provide first aid training for cabin crew, and the crew are responsible for managing any in-flight medical events. There are also regulatory requirements for the carriage of first aid and medical kits. AsMA has developed recommendations for first aid kits, emergency medical kits, and universal precaution kits.

  11. Assessment of the Air Quality of Isfahan City, Iran, Using Selected Air Quality Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borhan Mansouri

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Today, air pollution is one of the major problems in large cities including Isfahan. Methods: The objective of this study was to investigate the variations of ozone (O3, carbon monoxide (CO, nitric oxide (NO, nitrogen dioxide (NO2, nitrogen oxides (NOx, sulphur dioxide (SO2, and particulate matter (PM10 concentrations in different months at three stations and also to explore the correlations between pollutants. Monthly averages of air pollutant concentrations recorded in three pollution monitoring stations (Bozorgmehr, Azadi, and Laleh were obtained in 2008 and 2009. Results: There were significant monthly variations in the concentrations of air quality parameters. Results showed that there was a correlation between ozone and particle matter (p<0.05, and between nitric oxide and nitrogen oxides (p<0.01. The statistical analysis indicated that there were significant differences in the O3, NO, NOx and PM10 concentrations. Conclusion: The air quality monitoring data collected in city center of Isfahan showed seasonal variations for O3, CO, NO, NO2, NOx, SO2, and PM10.

  12. Air pollution assessment in the Slovak Republic in 2005. Measurement stations of air quality monitoring network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon

    2006-05-01

    In this Appendix to the report 'Air pollution assessment in the Slovak Republic in 2005' the main characteristics of measurement stations of air quality monitoring network of the Slovak Republic are presented

  13. Heating, Ventilation and Air-Conditioning Systems, Part of Indoor Air Quality Design Tools for Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    The main purposes of a Heating, Ventilation, and Air-Conditioning system are to help maintain good indoor air quality through adequate ventilation with filtration and provide thermal comfort. HVAC systems are among the largest energy consumers in schools.

  14. Air pollution assessment in the Slovak Republic in 2004. Measurement stations of air quality monitoring network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon

    2005-07-01

    In this Appendix to the report 'Air pollution assessment in the Slovak Republic in 2004' the main characteristics of measurement stations of air quality monitoring network of the Slovak Republic are presented

  15. Assessment of air quality benefits from national air pollution control policies in China. Part II: Evaluation of air quality predictions and air quality benefits assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Litao; Jang, Carey; Zhang, Yang; Wang, Kai; Zhang, Qiang; Streets, David; Fu, Joshua; Lei, Yu; Schreifels, Jeremy; He, Kebin; Hao, Jiming; Lam, Yun-Fat; Lin, Jerry; Meskhidze, Nicholas; Voorhees, Scott; Evarts, Dale; Phillips, Sharon

    2010-09-01

    Following the meteorological evaluation in Part I, this Part II paper presents the statistical evaluation of air quality predictions by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA)'s Community Multi-Scale Air Quality (Models-3/CMAQ) model for the four simulated months in the base year 2005. The surface predictions were evaluated using the Air Pollution Index (API) data published by the China Ministry of Environmental Protection (MEP) for 31 capital cities and daily fine particulate matter (PM 2.5, particles with aerodiameter less than or equal to 2.5 μm) observations of an individual site in Tsinghua University (THU). To overcome the shortage in surface observations, satellite data are used to assess the column predictions including tropospheric nitrogen dioxide (NO 2) column abundance and aerosol optical depth (AOD). The result shows that CMAQ gives reasonably good predictions for the air quality. The air quality improvement that would result from the targeted sulfur dioxide (SO 2) and nitrogen oxides (NO x) emission controls in China were assessed for the objective year 2010. The results show that the emission controls can lead to significant air quality benefits. SO 2 concentrations in highly polluted areas of East China in 2010 are estimated to be decreased by 30-60% compared to the levels in the 2010 Business-As-Usual (BAU) case. The annual PM 2.5 can also decline by 3-15 μg m -3 (4-25%) due to the lower SO 2 and sulfate concentrations. If similar controls are implemented for NO x emissions, NO x concentrations are estimated to decrease by 30-60% as compared with the 2010 BAU scenario. The annual mean PM 2.5 concentrations will also decline by 2-14 μg m -3 (3-12%). In addition, the number of ozone (O 3) non-attainment areas in the northern China is projected to be much lower, with the maximum 1-h average O 3 concentrations in the summer reduced by 8-30 ppb.

  16. Columbia River final environmental impact statement. Appendix B: Air quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-11-01

    The System Operation Review (SOR) is a study and environmental compliance process being used by the three Federal agencies to analyze future operations of the system and river use issues. The goal of the SOR is to achieve a coordinated system operation strategy for the river that better meets the needs of all river users. This technical appendix addresses only the effects of alternative system operating strategies for managing the Columbia River system. This appendix consists of eight chapters. Chapter 1 describes the air quality issues that were raised in the SOR scoping process and provides an overview of the study process used to evaluate air quality effects from various system operation alternatives. Chapter 2 describes the Federal, state, and local programs that regulate air quality and discusses the air quality standards that are relevant to the analysis. It also gives an overview of the limatology of the region and the existing air quality in the Columbia River Basin, including areas of non-attainment for relevant air quality standards. Chapter 3 presents the methods this study uses for the analysis of air quality and for the evaluation of human health effects from air pollutants. Chapter 4 provides the study results for the System Operating Strategy (SOS) alternatives and potential mitigation measures. Chapter 5 compares impacts on air quality and human health across alternatives, and discusses mitigation measures and cumulative effects. Chapters 6, 7, and 8 contain the list of preparers, glossary, and references, respectively. Technical exhibits supporting the analysis are also included

  17. Assessment of indoor air quality in comparison using air conditioning and fan system in printing premise

    OpenAIRE

    Ramlan Nazirah; Nurhalimatul Husna Ahmad Siti; Aminuddin Eeydzah; Abdul Hamid Hazrul; Khalijah Yaman Siti; Halid Abdullah Abd

    2017-01-01

    Printers contribute to various emissions consist with chemical contaminants. High concentration of the particulate matter can cause serious health problems. This study focuses on the indoor air quality in printing premise unit in Universiti Tun Hussein Onn, Malaysia. Field testing involving air sampling methods were taken from 900 hours to 1600 hours, for every 30 minutes using physical measurement which is Multi-Channel Air Quality Monitor (YESAIR), E-Sampler and Ozone Meter. Air sampling wa...

  18. Biofuels, vehicle emissions, and urban air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallington, Timothy J; Anderson, James E; Kurtz, Eric M; Tennison, Paul J

    2016-07-18

    Increased biofuel content in automotive fuels impacts vehicle tailpipe emissions via two mechanisms: fuel chemistry and engine calibration. Fuel chemistry effects are generally well recognized, while engine calibration effects are not. It is important that investigations of the impact of biofuels on vehicle emissions consider the impact of engine calibration effects and are conducted using vehicles designed to operate using such fuels. We report the results of emission measurements from a Ford F-350 fueled with either fossil diesel or a biodiesel surrogate (butyl nonanoate) and demonstrate the critical influence of engine calibration on NOx emissions. Using the production calibration the emissions of NOx were higher with the biodiesel fuel. Using an adjusted calibration (maintaining equivalent exhaust oxygen concentration to that of the fossil diesel at the same conditions by adjusting injected fuel quantities) the emissions of NOx were unchanged, or lower, with biodiesel fuel. For ethanol, a review of the literature data addressing the impact of ethanol blend levels (E0-E85) on emissions from gasoline light-duty vehicles in the U.S. is presented. The available data suggest that emissions of NOx, non-methane hydrocarbons, particulate matter (PM), and mobile source air toxics (compounds known, or suspected, to cause serious health impacts) from modern gasoline and diesel vehicles are not adversely affected by increased biofuel content over the range for which the vehicles are designed to operate. Future increases in biofuel content when accomplished in concert with changes in engine design and calibration for new vehicles should not result in problematic increases in emissions impacting urban air quality and may in fact facilitate future required emissions reductions. A systems perspective (fuel and vehicle) is needed to fully understand, and optimize, the benefits of biofuels when blended into gasoline and diesel.

  19. ASVCP quality assurance guidelines: control of general analytical factors in veterinary laboratories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flatland, Bente; Freeman, Kathy P; Friedrichs, Kristen R; Vap, Linda M; Getzy, Karen M; Evans, Ellen W; Harr, Kendal E

    2010-09-01

    Owing to lack of governmental regulation of veterinary laboratory performance, veterinarians ideally should demonstrate a commitment to self-monitoring and regulation of laboratory performance from within the profession. In response to member concerns about quality management in veterinary laboratories, the American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology (ASVCP) formed a Quality Assurance and Laboratory Standards (QAS) committee in 1996. This committee recently published updated and peer-reviewed Quality Assurance Guidelines on the ASVCP website. The Quality Assurance Guidelines are intended for use by veterinary diagnostic laboratories and veterinary research laboratories that are not covered by the US Food and Drug Administration Good Laboratory Practice standards (Code of Federal Regulations Title 21, Chapter 58). The guidelines have been divided into 3 reports on 1) general analytic factors for veterinary laboratory performance and comparisons, 2) hematology and hemostasis, and 3) clinical chemistry, endocrine assessment, and urinalysis. This report documents recommendations for control of general analytical factors within veterinary clinical laboratories and is based on section 2.1 (Analytical Factors Important In Veterinary Clinical Pathology, General) of the newly revised ASVCP QAS Guidelines. These guidelines are not intended to be all-inclusive; rather, they provide minimum guidelines for quality assurance and quality control for veterinary laboratory testing. It is hoped that these guidelines will provide a basis for laboratories to assess their current practices, determine areas for improvement, and guide continuing professional development and education efforts. ©2010 American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology.

  20. 78 FR 45114 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Antelope Valley Air Quality Management...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-26

    ... the California State Implementation Plan, Antelope Valley Air Quality Management District AGENCY... the Antelope Valley Air Quality Management District (AVAQMD) portion of the California State... for the South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD). The Antelope Valley Air Pollution...

  1. Quality Primary Care and Family Planning Services for LGBT Clients: A Comprehensive Review of Clinical Guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, David A; Malcolm, Nikita M; Berry-Bibee, Erin N; Paradise, Scott L; Coulter, Jessica S; Keglovitz Baker, Kristin; Schvey, Natasha A; Rollison, Julia M; Frederiksen, Brittni N

    2018-04-01

    LGBT clients have unique healthcare needs but experience a wide range of quality in the care that they receive. This study provides a summary of clinical guideline recommendations related to the provision of primary care and family planning services for LGBT clients. In addition, we identify gaps in current guidelines, and inform future recommendations and guidance for clinical practice and research. PubMed, Cochrane, and Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality electronic bibliographic databases, and relevant professional organizations' websites, were searched to identify clinical guidelines related to the provision of primary care and family planning services for LGBT clients. Information obtained from a technical expert panel was used to inform the review. Clinical guidelines meeting the inclusion criteria were assessed to determine their alignment with Institute of Medicine (IOM) standards for the development of clinical practice guidelines and content relevant to the identified themes. The search parameters identified 2,006 clinical practice guidelines. Seventeen clinical guidelines met the inclusion criteria. Two of the guidelines met all eight IOM criteria. However, many recommendations were consistent regarding provision of services to LGBT clients within the following themes: clinic environment, provider cultural sensitivity and awareness, communication, confidentiality, coordination of care, general clinical principles, mental health considerations, and reproductive health. Guidelines for the primary and family planning care of LGBT clients are evolving. The themes identified in this review may guide professional organizations during guideline development, clinicians when providing care, and researchers conducting LGBT-related studies.

  2. ITC Guidelines on Quality Control in Scoring, Test Analysis, and Reporting of Test Scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allalouf, Avi

    2014-01-01

    The Quality Control (QC) Guidelines are intended to increase the efficiency, precision, and accuracy of the scoring, analysis, and reporting process of testing. The QC Guidelines focus on large-scale testing operations where multiple forms of tests are created for use on set dates. However, they may also be used for a wide variety of other testing…

  3. Interpretation of drinking water quality guidelines – The case of arsenic

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... both in the creation of sound drinking water quality guidelines or standards, and in the problem of how to interpret the risk to human health when guideline values are exceeded. In this paper this problem is discussed using the case of arsenic, where the definition of the boundaries of the grey area is particularly uncertain.

  4. EAACI Food Allergy and Anaphylaxis Guidelines : Food allergy health-related quality of life measures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muraro, A.; Dubois, Anthony; DunnGalvin, A.; Hourihane, J. O'B.; de Jong, N. W.; Meyer, R.; Panesar, S. S.; Roberts, G.; Salvilla, S.; Sheikh, A.; Worth, A.; Flokstra-de Blok, B. M. J.

    Instruments have been developed and validated for the measurement of health-related quality of life in patients with food allergy. This guideline has been prepared by the European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology's (EAACI) Guidelines for Food Allergy and Anaphylaxis Group. It draws on a

  5. Innovations in governance: balancing air quality and road development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Busscher, T.; Tillema, T.; Arts, E.J.M.M.

    2012-01-01

    Research shows that air pollution poses a considerable threat to human health. In addition to this, in the Netherlands, air quality issues were especially a hot topic because they held back spatial and infrastructure projects. Many stand-alone infrastructure projects could not comply with air

  6. Quality assurance and quality control for radiotherapy/medical oncology in Europe: guideline development and implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentini, V; Glimelius, B; Frascino, V

    2013-09-01

    The past two decades have brought tremendous changes to the practice of radiation oncology and medical oncology. To manage all the complexities related to the new technologies and the new drugs, the radiation and medical oncologists have to enhance their clinical action and professional skill profile. To accomplish this they have to find reliable tools in the quality of their medical practice and in future research activities. Quality assurance (QA) and quality control (QC) for radiation and medical oncologists mean to clarify the different components of the clinical decision, to supervise with proper methodology the required steps needed to accomplish the agreed outcomes and to control them. Quality for radiation and medical oncology means to supervise each clinical and technical component of the whole process to guarantee that all steps together will arrive at the final and best possible outcome. Key components are guidelines, specialization and a multidisciplinary approach. The research of global quality could represent a further complexity, but it is the best tool to give a perspective and a chance to further improvements of our disciplines and to promote better outcome in all cancer patients. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Assessing air quality index awareness and use in Mexico City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borbet, Timothy C; Gladson, Laura A; Cromar, Kevin R

    2018-04-23

    The Mexico City Metropolitan Area has an expansive urban population and a long history of air quality management challenges. Poor air quality has been associated with adverse pulmonary and cardiac health effects, particularly among susceptible populations with underlying disease. In addition to reducing pollution concentrations, risk communication efforts that inform behavior modification have the potential to reduce public health burdens associated with air pollution. This study investigates the utilization of Mexico's IMECA risk communication index to inform air pollution avoidance behavior among the general population living in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area. Individuals were selected via probability sampling and surveyed by phone about their air quality index knowledge, pollution concerns, and individual behaviors. The results indicated reasonably high awareness of the air quality index (53% of respondents), with greater awareness in urban areas, among older and more educated individuals, and for those who received air quality information from a healthcare provider. Additionally, behavior modification was less influenced by index reports as it was by personal perceptions of air quality, and there was no difference in behavior modification among susceptible and non-susceptible groups. Taken together, these results suggest there are opportunities to improve the public health impact of risk communication through an increased focus on susceptible populations and greater encouragement of public action in response to local air quality indices.

  8. Air quality in Malaysia: impacts, management issues and future challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awang, M B; Jaafar, A B; Abdullah, A M; Ismail, M B; Hassan, M N; Abdullah, R; Johan, S; Noor, H

    2000-06-01

    Observations have been made on the long-term trends of major air pollutants in Malaysia including nitrogen dioxide, carbon monoxide, the ozone and total suspended particulate matter (particularly PM10), and sulfur dioxide, emitted from industrial and urban areas from early 1970s until late 1998. The data show that the status of atmospheric environment in Malaysia, in particular in highly industrialized areas such as Klang Valley, was determined both by local and transboundary emissions and could be described as haze and non-haze periods. During the non-haze periods, vehicular emissions accounted for more than 70% of the total emissions in the urban areas and have demonstrated two peaks in the diurnal variations of the aforementioned air pollutants, except ozone. The morning 'rush-hour' peak was mainly due to vehicle emissions, while the late evening peak was mainly attributed to meteorological conditions, particularly atmospheric stability and wind speed. Total suspended particulate matter was the main pollutant with its concentrations at few sites often exceeding the Recommended Malaysia Air Quality Guidelines. The levels of other pollutants were generally within the guidelines. Since 1980, six major haze episodes were officially reported in Malaysia: April 1983, August 1990, June 1991, October 1991, August to October 1994, and July to October 1997. The 1997 haze episode was the worst ever experienced by the country. Short-term observations using continuous monitoring systems during the haze episodes during these periods clearly showed that suspended particulate matter (PM10) was the main cause of haze and was transboundary in nature. Large forest fires in parts of Sumatra and Kalimantan during the haze period, clearly evident in satellite images, were identified as the probable key sources of the widespread heavy haze that extended across Southeast Asia from Indonesia to Singapore, Malaysia and Brunei. The results of several studies have also provided strong

  9. The development of effects-based air quality management regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longhurst, J. W. S.; Irwin, J. G.; Chatterton, T. J.; Hayes, E. T.; Leksmono, N. S.; Symons, J. K.

    This paper considers the evolution of attempts to control and manage air pollution, principally but not exclusively focussing upon the challenge of managing air pollution in urban environments. The development and implementation of a range of air pollution control measures are considered. Initially the measures implemented primarily addressed point sources, a small number of fuel types and a limited number of pollutants. The adequacy of such a source-control approach is assessed within the context of a changing and challenging air pollution climate. An assessment of air quality management in the United Kingdom over a 50-year timeframe exemplifies the range of issues and challenges in contemporary air quality management. The need for new approaches is explored and the development and implementation of an effects-based, risk management system for air quality regulation is evaluated.

  10. Increased office productivity through improved indoor air quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fanger, Povl Ole

    2002-01-01

    Control of indoor pollution sources and ventilation are both means of improving indoor air quality. Three independent experiments have recently documented that removing a pollution source or increasing the ventilation rate will improve perceived air quality, reduce the intensity of several Sick...... with the air quality was reduced by either measure. The quantitative relationsh8ip was 1.1% change in performance per 10% dissatisfied, in the range 25-70% dissatisifed, or 0.5% change in performance per 1 decipol (dp), in the range 2-13 dp. Significant improvements in performance occurred only when......, future developments in HVCAC technology may include "personalized air ", new ways of improving the quality of supply air (e.g., by filtration), more extensive use of heat recovery from exhaust air and systematic selection of low-polluting building and furnishing materials....

  11. 77 FR 4808 - Conference on Air Quality Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-31

    ... Modeling AGENCY: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice of conference. SUMMARY: The EPA will be hosting the Tenth Conference on Air Quality Modeling on March 13-15, 2012. Section 320 of the... First, Second, and Third Conferences on Air Quality Modeling as required by CAA Section 320 to help...

  12. Strategy for good perceived air quality in sustainable buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Henrik N; Wargocki, Pawel

    2010-01-01

    Source control has been shown to be an effective strategy for improving air quality. The objective of the present study was to investigate and compare the potential for achieving an improved perceived indoor air quality by selecting less-polluting building materials or by increasing the ventilati...

  13. Outdoor Air Quality Level Inference via Surveillance Cameras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Air pollution is a universal problem confronted by many developing countries. Because there are very few air quality monitoring stations in cities, it is difficult for people to know the exact air quality level anytime and anywhere. Fortunately, large amount of surveillance cameras have been deployed in the cities and can capture image densely and conveniently in the cities. In this case, this provides the possibility to utilize surveillance cameras as sensors to obtain data and predict the air quality level. To this end, we present a novel air quality level inference approach based on outdoor images. Firstly, we explore several features extracted from images as the robust representation for air quality prediction. Then, to effectively fuse these heterogeneous and complementary features, we adopt multikernel learning to learn an adaptive classifier for air quality level inference. In addition, to facilitate the research, we construct an Outdoor Air Quality Image Set (OAQIS dataset, which contains high quality registered and calibrated images with rich labels, that is, concentration of particles mass (PM, weather, temperature, humidity, and wind. Extensive experiments on the OAQIS dataset demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

  14. Reference Guide. Indoor Air Quality Tools for Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    US Environmental Protection Agency, 2009

    2009-01-01

    Understanding the importance of good indoor air quality (IAQ) in schools is the backbone of developing an effective Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) program. Poor IAQ can lead to a large variety of health problems and potentially affect comfort, concentration, and staff/student performance. In recognition of tight school budgets, this guidance is designed…

  15. INDOOR AIR QUALITY AND INHALATION EXPOSURE - SIMULATION TOOL KIT

    Science.gov (United States)

    A Microsoft Windows-based indoor air quality (IAQ) simulation software package is presented. Named Simulation Tool Kit for Indoor Air Quality and Inhalation Exposure, or IAQX for short, this package complements and supplements existing IAQ simulation programs and is desi...

  16. School Policies and Practices that Improve Indoor Air Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Sherry Everett; Smith, Alisa M.; Wheeler, Lani S.; McManus, Tim

    2010-01-01

    Background: To determine whether schools with a formal indoor air quality management program were more likely than schools without a formal program to have policies and practices that promote superior indoor air quality. Methods: This study analyzed school-level data from the 2006 School Health Policies and Programs Study, a national study of…

  17. Characterizing Air Quality in a Rapidly Changing World

    Science.gov (United States)

    The purpose of this paper is to 1) highlight projects collecting large volumes of unique air quality data; 2) explore how the collection of big data fits into the overall picture of air quality management and characterization; 3) provide an update on the E-Enterprise advanced mon...

  18. Impact of inherent meteorology uncertainty on air quality model predictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    It is well established that there are a number of different classifications and sources of uncertainties in environmental modeling systems. Air quality models rely on two key inputs, namely, meteorology and emissions. When using air quality models for decision making, it is impor...

  19. DOT report for implementing OMB’s information dissemination quality guidelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-08-01

    Consistent with The Office of Management and Budgets (OMB) Guidelines (for Ensuring and Maximizing the Quality, Objectivity, Utility, and Integrity of Information Disseminated by Federal Agencies) implementing Section 515 of the Treasury and Gener...

  20. Air quality monitoring in the Bow Corridor : final report December 1999 to August 2001. On-line ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    Alberta Environment monitored the air quality of the Bow Corridor and the Cochrane area from December 1999 to August 2001 in an effort to address recent concerns about particulate emissions from industrial, natural and domestic sources as well as concerns about air pollution from traffic along Highway 1 and in communities in the corridor. The Mobile Air Monitoring Laboratory (MAML) monitored air quality at 22 sites in the Cochrane, Exshaw, Canmore and Banff areas. The work included monitoring for sulphur dioxide, particulates, oxides of nitrogen, ozone, hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, hydrogen sulphide and ammonia using continuous analyzers. In addition, a stationary particulate sampler was used to monitor very small, respirable particulates (PM2.5) as well as larger, inhalable particulates (PM10). Weather parameters such as wind, temperature and relative humidity were also monitored. A passive (no power required) air quality monitoring network was also set up to collect monthly samples of sulphur dioxide at 7 sites and nitrogen dioxide and ozone at 11 different sites. The pollutant levels were compared with air quality levels to Alberta's Ambient Air Quality Guidelines which are some of the most stringent in North America. Maximum one-hour concentrations were : 53 per cent of the one-hour guideline for sulphur dioxide; 15 per cent of the one-hour guideline for nitrogen dioxide; 68 per cent of the one-hour guideline for ozone; 8 per cent of the one-hour guideline for carbon monoxide; 20 per cent of the one-hour guideline for hydrogen sulphide; and 2 per cent of the one-hour guideline for ammonia. These air quality levels were compared to other locations in Alberta. The sources of airborne particulates were wind-blown dust from natural sources, limestone mining operations, manufacturing plants (cement, lime and magnesia), vehicle exhaust from local traffic and Highway 1, and smoke from recreational burning and forest fires. The sources of oxides of nitrogen are

  1. Methods for the guideline-based development of quality indicators--a systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Quality indicators (QIs) are used in many healthcare settings to measure, compare, and improve quality of care. For the efficient development of high-quality QIs, rigorous, approved, and evidence-based development methods are needed. Clinical practice guidelines are a suitable source to derive QIs from, but no gold standard for guideline-based QI development exists. This review aims to identify, describe, and compare methodological approaches to guideline-based QI development. Methods We systematically searched medical literature databases (Medline, EMBASE, and CINAHL) and grey literature. Two researchers selected publications reporting methodological approaches to guideline-based QI development. In order to describe and compare methodological approaches used in these publications, we extracted detailed information on common steps of guideline-based QI development (topic selection, guideline selection, extraction of recommendations, QI selection, practice test, and implementation) to predesigned extraction tables. Results From 8,697 hits in the database search and several grey literature documents, we selected 48 relevant references. The studies were of heterogeneous type and quality. We found no randomized controlled trial or other studies comparing the ability of different methodological approaches to guideline-based development to generate high-quality QIs. The relevant publications featured a wide variety of methodological approaches to guideline-based QI development, especially regarding guideline selection and extraction of recommendations. Only a few studies reported patient involvement. Conclusions Further research is needed to determine which elements of the methodological approaches identified, described, and compared in this review are best suited to constitute a gold standard for guideline-based QI development. For this research, we provide a comprehensive groundwork. PMID:22436067

  2. Quality assurance in X-ray mammography. Comparison of proposed EUREF guidelines with relevant German regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaers, J.; Brix, G.; Woudenberg, S. van

    1997-01-01

    The Program 'Europe against Cancer' published the 2nd edition of quality assurance guidelines for breast cancer screening in June 1996. For the enforcement of these guidelines, a European network of reference centres (EUREF) is being established. Although the EUREF protocol contains guidelines for all disciplines involved in breast cancer screening, this article concentrates on the physical and technical aspect. The comparison with the German regulations (DIN Norms) demonstrates the high requirements requested by the EUREF guidelines with its tighter limits and more extensive and more frequent tests. (orig.) [de

  3. 78 FR 21540 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Butte County Air Quality Management...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-11

    ... the California State Implementation Plan, Butte County Air Quality Management District and Sacramento Metropolitan Air Quality Management District AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Direct... Quality Management District (BCAQMD) and Sacramento Metropolitan Air Quality Management District (SMAQMD...

  4. Using AGREE II to Evaluate the Quality of Traditional Medicine Clinical Practice Guidelines in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Wei; Li, Le; Wang, Zixia; Chang, Xiaonan; Li, Rui; Fang, Ziye; Wei, Dang; Yao, Liang; Wang, Xiaoqin; Wang, Qi; An, Guanghui

    2016-03-15

    To evaluate/assess the quality of the Clinical Practice Guidelines (CPGs) of traditional medicine in China. We systematically searched the literature databases WanFang Data, VIP, CNKI and CBM for studies published between 1978 and 2012 to identify and select CPGs of traditional medicine. We used the Appraisal of Guidelines for Research and Evaluation II (AGREE II) instrument to evaluate these guidelines. A total of 75 guidelines were included, of which 46 guidelines (62%) were on Traditional Chinese Medicine, 19 (25%) on Chinese Integrated Medicine, and 10 (13%) on Uyghur Medicine. Most traditional medicine CPGs published in domestic journals scored medicine. In each domain of AGREE II, traditional Medicine CPGs performed clearly better than international CPGs. The same trend was seen in guidelines of Modern Medicine. An increasing amount of CPGs are being published, but their quality is low. Referring to the key points of international guidelines development, supervision through AGREE II, cooperating with international groups and exploring the strategy of guideline development could improve the quality of CPGs on traditional medicine. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  5. The impacts of road traffic management on urban air quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oduyemi, K.O.K. [School of Construction and Environment, University of Abertay Dundee, Dundee (United Kingdom); Davidson, B. [Department of Environmental Health and Consumer Protection, Dundee City Council, Tayside House, Crichton Street, Dundee (United Kingdom)

    1998-07-11

    The effects of road traffic emissions on urban air quality are investigated, using long-term nitrogen dioxide (NO{sub 2}) data. The effectiveness of the several traffic management measures that have been made in Dundee city centre, UK, within the last 5 years in relation to urban air quality is discussed. The information assessed during this study indicates that the annual mean NO{sub 2} levels at all the study sites are, at present, below the current EC and WHO (long-term) air quality standards for NO{sub 2} concentration in the ambient air. Traffic restrictions appear to be effective in protecting urban air quality. The annual mean NO{sub 2} concentration at two of the study sites is currently close to 40 {mu}g/m{sup 3}, a value published in the Air Quality Regulations 1997 for the air quality objective to be achieved by the year 2005. Proactive traffic management mitigation measures are proposed for these sites and a methodology for the consideration of traffic management alternatives, based upon traffic flow modal split, is described. Some measures proposed are based upon a survey of vehicle occupancy rates, carried out at the busiest of the four study sites. The methodology and assessment procedures presented should be invaluable to assessors of traffic management and local air quality management in a small city, both at the planning and at the auditing stage

  6. Educational Intervention Improves Compliance With AAN Guidelines for Return Epilepsy Visits: A Quality Improvement Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Gary R; Filloux, Francis M; Kerr, Lynne M

    2016-10-01

    In 2011, the American Academy of Neurology (AAN) released guidelines for return seizure visits detailing 8 points that should be addressed during such visits. These guidelines are designed to improve routine follow-up care for epilepsy patients. The authors performed a quality improvement project aimed at increasing compliance with these guidelines after educating providers about them. The authors performed a chart review before and after an intervention which included: education regarding the guidelines, providing materials to remind providers of the guidelines, and templates to facilitate compliance. The authors reviewed charts at 2 and 6 months after the intervention. Significant improvement in documentation of 4 of the 8 measures was observed after this educational intervention. This suggests that simple educational interventions may help providers change practice and can improve compliance with new guidelines while requiring minimal time and resources to implement. © The Author(s) 2016.

  7. The UK National Air Quality Strategy: the effects of the proposed changes on Local Air Quality Management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beattie, C.I.; Ling, K.; Longhurst, J.W.S. [Univ. of the West of England, Faculty of Applied Sciences, Bristol (GB)] [and others

    1999-07-01

    The UK has implemented a system of Local Air Quality Management (LAQM) to tackle the many contemporary sources of air pollution, notably transport, industry and domestic fuel burning, in a holistic manner. The current legislation stems from the Environment Act 1995, which required a National Air Quality Strategy (NAQS) to be published outlining the Governments policies with respect to the assessment and management of air quality. The NAQS, originally published in March 1997, is on a rolling programme of reviews in order to reflect developments in European legislation, technological and scientific advances, improved air pollution modelling techniques and an increasingly better understanding of the economic and social issues involved. Following the first review (currently at consultation state), this paper will comment on how the proposed changes may affect the LAQM process. The proposed changes will also be summarised and discussed in the context of European Union air quality objectives and the economic analysis of NAQS.

  8. Phase I Recommendations by the Air Quality Management Work Group to the Clean Air Act Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recommendations to the Clean Air Act Advisory Committee by Air Quality Management Work Group addressing the recommendations made by the National Research Council to improve the U.S. air quality management system.

  9. Canadian Association of Gastroenterology Consensus Guidelines on Safety and Quality Indicators in Endoscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Armstrong

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Several organizations worldwide have developed procedure-based guidelines and/or position statements regarding various aspects of quality and safety indicators, and credentialing for endoscopy. Although important, they do not specifically address patient needs or provide a framework for their adoption in the context of endoscopy services. The consensus guidelines reported in this article, however, aimed to identify processes and indicators relevant to the provision of high-quality endoscopy services that will support ongoing quality improvement across many jurisdictions, specifically in the areas of ethics, facility standards and policies, quality assurance, training and education, reporting standards and patient perceptions.

  10. Air Quality in Lanzhou, a Major Industrial City in China: Characteristics of Air Pollution and Review of Existing Evidence from Air Pollution and Health Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yaqun; Li, Min; Bravo, Mercedes A.; Jin, Lan; Nori-Sarma, Amruta; Xu, Yanwen; Guan, Donghong; Wang, Chengyuan; Chen, Mingxia; Wang, Xiao; Tao, Wei; Qiu, Weitao; Zhang, Yawei

    2015-01-01

    Air pollution contributes substantially to global health burdens; however, less is known about pollution patterns in China and whether they differ from those elsewhere. We evaluated temporal and spatial heterogeneity of air pollution in Lanzhou, an urban Chinese city (April 2009–December 2012), and conducted a systematic review of literature on air pollution and health in Lanzhou. Average levels were 141.5, 42.3, and 47.2 µg/m3 for particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter ≤10 µm (PM10), NO2, and SO2, respectively. Findings suggest some seasonality, particularly for SO2, with higher concentrations during colder months relative to warmer months, although a longer time frame of data is needed to evaluate seasonality fully. Correlation coefficients generally declined with distance between monitors, while coefficients of divergence increased with distance. However, these trends were not statistically significant. PM10 levels exceeded Chinese and other health-based standards and guidelines. The review identified 13 studies on outdoor air pollution and health. Although limited, the studies indicate that air pollution is associated with increased risk of health outcomes in Lanzhou. These studies and the high air pollution levels suggest potentially serious health consequences. Findings can provide guidance to future epidemiological studies, monitor placement programs, and air quality policies. PMID:25838615

  11. Chemical Characterization of the Indoor Air Quality of a University Hospital: Penetration of Outdoor Air Pollutants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheepers, P.T.J.; Wel, L. van; Beckmann, G.; Anzion, R.B.M.

    2017-01-01

    For healthcare centers, local outdoor sources of air pollution represent a potential threat to indoor air quality (IAQ). The aim of this study was to study the impact of local outdoor sources of air pollution on the IAQ of a university hospital. IAQ was characterized at thirteen indoor and two

  12. Chemical Characterization of the Indoor Air Quality of a University Hospital : Penetration of Outdoor Air Pollutants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheepers, Paul T J; Van Wel, Luuk; Beckmann, Gwendolyn; Anzion, Rob B M

    2017-01-01

    For healthcare centers, local outdoor sources of air pollution represent a potential threat to indoor air quality (IAQ). The aim of this study was to study the impact of local outdoor sources of air pollution on the IAQ of a university hospital. IAQ was characterized at thirteen indoor and two

  13. MANAGING MANURE TO IMPROVE AIR AND WATER QUALITY

    OpenAIRE

    Aillery, Marcel P.; Gollehon, Noel R.; Johansson, Robert C.; Kaplan, Jonathan D.; Key, Nigel D.; Ribaudo, Marc

    2005-01-01

    Animal waste from confined animal feeding operations is a potential source of air and water quality degradation from evaporation of gases, runoff to surface water, and leaching to ground water. This report assesses the potential economic and environmental tradeoffs between water quality policies and air quality policies that require the animal agriculture sector to take potentially costly measures to abate pollution. A farm-level analysis of hog farms estimates the economic and environmental ...

  14. Efficient clinical evaluation of guideline quality: development and testing of a new tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Evaluating the methodological quality of clinical practice guidelines is essential before deciding which ones which could best inform policy or practice. One current method of evaluating clinical guideline quality is the research-focused AGREE II instrument. This uses 23 questions scored 1–7, arranged in six domains, which requires at least two independent testers, and uses a formulaic weighted domain scoring system. Following feedback from time-poor clinicians, policy-makers and managers that this instrument did not suit clinical need, we developed and tested a simpler, shorter, binary scored instrument (the iCAHE Guideline Quality Checklist) designed for single users. Methods Content and construct validity, inter-tester reliability and clinical utility were tested by comparing the new iCAHE Guideline Quality Checklist with the AGREE II instrument. Firstly the questions and domains in both instruments were compared. Six randomly-selected guidelines on a similar theme were then assessed by three independent testers with different experience in guideline quality assessment, using both instruments. Per guideline, weighted domain and total AGREE II scores were calculated, using the scoring rubric for three testers. Total iCAHE scores were calculated per guideline, per tester. The linear relationship between iCAHE and AGREE II scores was assessed using Pearson r correlation coefficients. Score differences between testers were assessed for the iCAHE Guideline Quality Checklist. Results There were congruent questions in each instrument in four domains (Scope & Purpose, Stakeholder involvement, Underlying evidence/Rigour, Clarity). The iCAHE and AGREE II scores were moderate to strongly correlated for the six guidelines. There was generally good agreement between testers for iCAHE scores, irrespective of their experience. The iCAHE instrument was preferred by all testers, and took significantly less time to administer than the AGREE II instrument. However

  15. COMP report: CPQR technical quality control guidelines for low-dose-rate permanent seed brachytherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaulieu, Luc; Radford, Dee-Ann; Eduardo Villarreal-Barajas, J

    2018-03-14

    The Canadian Organization of Medical Physicists (COMP), in close partnership with the Canadian Partnership for Quality Radiotherapy (CPQR) has developed a series of Technical Quality Control (TQC) guidelines for radiation treatment equipment. These guidelines outline the performance objectives that equipment should meet in order to ensure an acceptable level of radiation treatment quality. The TQC guidelines have been rigorously reviewed and field tested in a variety of Canadian radiation treatment facilities. The development process enables rapid review and update to keep the guidelines current with changes in technology. This article contains detailed performance objectives and safety criteria for low-dose-rate (LDR) permanent seed brachytherapy. © 2018 The Authors. Journal of Applied Clinical Medical Physics published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

  16. Report. no. 20. Sensory evaluation of indoor air quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berglund, Birgitta; Bluyssen, Philomena; Clausen, Geo

    Human subjects are indispensable in the measurement of perceived indoor air quality. Chemical and physical methods of characterisation often are insensitive to odorous and sensory irritating air pollutants, or do not take account of combinations of singular pollutants in a biologically meaningful...... way. Therefore, sensory methods many times are the only or the preferred tool for evaluation of perceived indoor air quality. This report presents background to and advice on methodologies for sensory evaluation of perceived indoor air quality. It proposes methods which apply to source assessments...... as well as field investigations. The methods will assist in labelling of building materials, characterising air quality in indoor spaces, controlling ventilation performance, and measuring occupant responses in questionnaire field studies of the sick building syndrome. The proposed methods will enable...

  17. Updated ozone absorption cross section will reduce air quality compliance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. D. Sofen

    2015-12-01

    et al. (2015 as 1.8 % smaller than the accepted value (Hearn, 1961 used for the preceding 50 years. Thus, ozone measurements that applied the older cross section systematically underestimate the amount of ozone in air. We correct the reported historical surface data from North America and Europe and find that this modest change in cross section has a significant impact on the number of locations that are out of compliance with air quality regulations if the air quality standards remain the same. We find 18, 23, and 20 % increases in the number of sites that are out of compliance with current US, Canadian, and European ozone air quality health standards for the year 2012. Should the new cross-section value be applied, it would impact attainment of air quality standards and compliance with relevant clean air acts, unless the air quality target values themselves were also changed proportionately. We draw attention to how a small change in gas metrology has a global impact on attainment and compliance with legal air quality standards. We suggest that further laboratory work to evaluate the new cross section is needed and suggest three possible technical and policy responses should the new cross section be adopted.

  18. New Brunswick air quality monitoring results for the year 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hughes, R.

    2002-01-01

    Monitoring data for air quality in New Brunswick in 2000 is presented in this document. Designed for the general public, it summarizes the air quality results for 2000 and focuses on air quality assessment as it relates to existing air quality standards and objectives. The report also contains the long term trend data for representative sites. The New Brunswick Air Quality Regulation of the Clean Air Act specifies the air quality standards applicable for carbon monoxide, sulphur dioxide, hydrogen sulphide, nitrogen dioxide and total suspended particulate. The monitoring was conducted at 58 sites in 8 regional monitoring networks throughout the province. Thirteen additional sites were selected for the measurement of acid rain. Despite the fact that no standards were in effect in 2000 in New Brunswick for several substances, including inhalable particulate matter, ground-level ozone, volatile organic compounds, selected semi-volatile organic compounds, trace elements in particulate matter and mercury in air and precipitation, their levels were measured at some locations. The results indicate that emissions trends, variations in industrial output, changing process or emission control technologies, and weather conditions throughout the year explain most of the variations in results between regions. As a rule, compliance with standards is good. Acid rain continued to impact, especially in the southwestern districts of the province. Since 1996, the levels of mercury in precipitation has slightly declined. 39 refs., 43 figs

  19. Air quality inside subway metro indoor environment worldwide: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Bin; Hao, Jinliang

    2017-10-01

    The air quality in the subway metro indoor microenvironment has been of particular public concern. With specific reference to the growing demand of green transportation and sustainable development, subway metro systems have been rapidly developed worldwide in last decades. The number of metro commuters has continuously increased over recent years in metropolitan cities. In some cities, metro system has become the primary public transportation mode. Although commuters typically spend only 30-40min in metros, the air pollutants emitted from various interior components of metro system as well as air pollutants carried by ventilation supply air are significant sources of harmful air pollutants that could lead to unhealthy human exposure. Commuters' exposure to various air pollutants in metro carriages may cause perceivable health risk as reported by many environmental health studies. This review summarizes significant findings in the literature on air quality inside metro indoor environment, including pollutant concentration levels, chemical species, related sources and health risk assessment. More than 160 relevant studies performed across over 20 countries were carefully reviewed. These comprised more than 2000 individual measurement trips. Particulate matters, aromatic hydrocarbons, carbonyls and airborne bacteria have been identified as the primary air pollutants inside metro system. On this basis, future work could focus on investigating the chronic health risks of exposure to various air pollutants other than PM, and/or further developing advanced air purification unit to improve metro in-station air quality. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Indoor Air Quality Science and Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Understand indoor air in homes, schools, and offices. Most of us spend much of our time indoors. The air that we breathe in our homes, in schools, and in offices can put us at risk for health problems. Some pollutants can be chemicals, gases, and living or

  1. 40 CFR 81.77 - Puerto Rico Air Quality Control Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Puerto Rico Air Quality Control Region... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.77 Puerto Rico Air Quality Control Region. The Puerto Rico Air Quality Control Region...

  2. 40 CFR 81.76 - State of Hawaii Air Quality Control Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false State of Hawaii Air Quality Control... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.76 State of Hawaii Air Quality Control Region. The State of Hawaii Air Quality...

  3. Ambient air quality observations in the Athabasca oil sands region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    Both Syncrude and Suncor have plans to develop new oil sands leases and to increase crude oil and bitumen recovery in the Athabasca oil sands region. In recognition of the effects that this will have on the environment, Suncor has proposed modifications to reduce SO 2 emissions to the atmosphere, while Syncrude plans to develop additional ambient air quality, sulphur deposition and biomonitoring programs. This report discussed the ambient air quality monitoring that was undertaken in the Fort McMurray-Fort McKay airshed. Twelve continuous ambient air quality stations and 76 passive monitoring stations are maintained in the region. Environment Canada maintains eight precipitation monitoring stations in northern Alberta and Saskatchewan. Source characterization, ambient air quality and meteorology observations, air quality monitoring, and air quality data from continuous sulphur dioxide, hydrogen sulphide, nitrogen oxides, ozone, carbon monoxide, hydrocarbon, acid rain and particulates analyzers were reviewed. The documentation of all computer files used for the analysis of the air quality data is discussed in the Appendix. 47 refs., 39 tabs., 53 figs

  4. Correlation of gravestone decay and air quality 1960-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mooers, H. D.; Carlson, M. J.; Harrison, R. M.; Inkpen, R. J.; Loeffler, S.

    2017-03-01

    Evaluation of spatial and temporal variability in surface recession of lead-lettered Carrara marble gravestones provides a quantitative measure of acid flux to the stone surfaces and is closely related to local land use and air quality. Correlation of stone decay, land use, and air quality for the period after 1960 when reliable estimates of atmospheric pollution are available is evaluated. Gravestone decay and SO2 measurements are interpolated spatially using deterministic and geostatistical techniques. A general lack of spatial correlation was identified and therefore a land-use-based technique for correlation of stone decay and air quality is employed. Decadally averaged stone decay is highly correlated with land use averaged spatially over an optimum radius of ≈7 km even though air quality, determined by records from the UK monitoring network, is not highly correlated with gravestone decay. The relationships among stone decay, air-quality, and land use is complicated by the relatively low spatial density of both gravestone decay and air quality data and the fact that air quality data is available only as annual averages and therefore seasonal dependence cannot be evaluated. However, acid deposition calculated from gravestone decay suggests that the deposition efficiency of SO2 has increased appreciably since 1980 indicating an increase in the SO2 oxidation process possibly related to reactions with ammonia.

  5. Development of fuzzy air quality index using soft computing approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandal, T; Gorai, A K; Pathak, G

    2012-10-01

    Proper assessment of air quality status in an atmosphere based on limited observations is an essential task for meeting the goals of environmental management. A number of classification methods are available for estimating the changing status of air quality. However, a discrepancy frequently arises from the quality criteria of air employed and vagueness or fuzziness embedded in the decision making output values. Owing to inherent imprecision, difficulties always exist in some conventional methodologies like air quality index when describing integrated air quality conditions with respect to various pollutants parameters and time of exposure. In recent years, the fuzzy logic-based methods have demonstrated to be appropriated to address uncertainty and subjectivity in environmental issues. In the present study, a methodology based on fuzzy inference systems (FIS) to assess air quality is proposed. This paper presents a comparative study to assess status of air quality using fuzzy logic technique and that of conventional technique. The findings clearly indicate that the FIS may successfully harmonize inherent discrepancies and interpret complex conditions.

  6. Clinical practice guidelines within the Southern African development community: a descriptive study of the quality of guideline development and concordance with best evidence for five priority diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Reducing the burden of disease relies on availability of evidence-based clinical practice guidelines (CPGs). There is limited data on availability, quality and content of guidelines within the Southern African Development Community (SADC). This evaluation aims to address this gap in knowledge and provide recommendations for regional guideline development. Methods We prioritised five diseases: HIV in adults, malaria in children and adults, pre-eclampsia, diarrhoea in children and hypertension in primary care. A comprehensive electronic search to locate guidelines was conducted between June and October 2010 and augmented with email contact with SADC Ministries of Health. Independent reviewers used the AGREE II tool to score six quality domains reporting the guideline development process. Alignment of the evidence-base of the guidelines was evaluated by comparing their content with key recommendations from accepted reference guidelines, identified with a content expert, and percentage scores were calculated. Findings We identified 30 guidelines from 13 countries, publication dates ranging from 2003-2010. Overall the 'scope and purpose' and 'clarity and presentation' domains of the AGREE II instrument scored highest, median 58%(range 19-92) and 83%(range 17-100) respectively. 'Stakeholder involvement' followed with median 39%(range 6-75). 'Applicability', 'rigour of development' and 'editorial independence' scored poorly, all below 25%. Alignment with evidence was variable across member states, the lowest scores occurring in older guidelines or where the guideline being evaluated was part of broader primary healthcare CPG rather than a disease-specific guideline. Conclusion This review identified quality gaps and variable alignment with best evidence in available guidelines within SADC for five priority diseases. Future guideline development processes within SADC should better adhere to global reporting norms requiring broader consultation of stakeholders

  7. Review and comparison of quality standards, guidelines and regulations for laboratories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tjeerd A.M. Datema

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The variety and number of laboratory quality standards, guidelines and regulations (hereafter: quality documents makes it difficult to choose the most suitable one for establishing and maintaining a laboratory quality management system. Objectives: There is a need to compare the characteristics, suitability and applicability of quality documents in view of the increasing efforts to introduce quality management in laboratories, especially in clinical diagnostic laboratories in low income and middle income countries. This may provide valuable insights for policy makers developing national laboratory policies, and for laboratory managers and quality officers in choosing the most appropriate quality document for upgrading their laboratories. Method: We reviewed the history of quality document development and then selected a subset based on their current use. We analysed these documents following a framework for comparison of quality documents that was adapted from the Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute guideline GP26 Quality management system model for clinical laboratory services. Results: Differences were identified between national and international, and non-clinical and clinical quality documents. The most salient findings were the absence of provisions on occurrence management and customer service in almost all non-clinical quality documents, a low number of safety requirements aimed at protecting laboratory personnel in international quality documents and no requirements regarding ethical behaviour in almost all quality documents. Conclusion: Each laboratory needs to investigate whether national regulatory standards are present. These are preferred as they most closely suit the needs of laboratories in the country. A laboratory should always use both a standard and a guideline: a standard sums up the requirements to a quality management system, a guideline describes how quality management can be integrated in the laboratory

  8. Long-term Changes in Extreme Air Pollution Meteorology and the Implications for Air Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Pei; Wu, Shiliang

    2016-03-31

    Extreme air pollution meteorological events, such as heat waves, temperature inversions and atmospheric stagnation episodes, can significantly affect air quality. Based on observational data, we have analyzed the long-term evolution of extreme air pollution meteorology on the global scale and their potential impacts on air quality, especially the high pollution episodes. We have identified significant increasing trends for the occurrences of extreme air pollution meteorological events in the past six decades, especially over the continental regions. Statistical analysis combining air quality data and meteorological data further indicates strong sensitivities of air quality (including both average air pollutant concentrations and high pollution episodes) to extreme meteorological events. For example, we find that in the United States the probability of severe ozone pollution when there are heat waves could be up to seven times of the average probability during summertime, while temperature inversions in wintertime could enhance the probability of severe particulate matter pollution by more than a factor of two. We have also identified significant seasonal and spatial variations in the sensitivity of air quality to extreme air pollution meteorology.

  9. Clinical practice guidelines and consensus statements in oncology--an assessment of their methodological quality.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmel Jacobs

    Full Text Available Consensus statements and clinical practice guidelines are widely available for enhancing the care of cancer patients. Despite subtle differences in their definition and purpose, these terms are often used interchangeably. We systematically assessed the methodological quality of consensus statements and clinical practice guidelines published in three commonly read, geographically diverse, cancer-specific journals. Methods Consensus statements and clinical practice guidelines published between January 2005 and September 2013 in Current Oncology, European Journal of Cancer and Journal of Clinical Oncology were evaluated. Each publication was assessed using the Appraisal of Guidelines for Research and Evaluation II (AGREE II rigour of development and editorial independence domains. For assessment of transparency of document development, 7 additional items were taken from the Institute of Medicine's standards for practice guidelines and the Journal of Clinical Oncology guidelines for authors of guidance documents.Consensus statements and clinical practice guidelines published between January 2005 and September 2013 in Current Oncology, European Journal of Cancer and Journal of Clinical Oncology were evaluated. Each publication was assessed using the Appraisal of Guidelines for Research and Evaluation II (AGREE II rigour of development and editorial independence domains. For assessment of transparency of document development, 7 additional items were taken from the Institute of Medicine's standards for practice guidelines and the Journal of Clinical Oncology guidelines for authors of guidance documents.Thirty-four consensus statements and 67 clinical practice guidelines were evaluated. The rigour of development score for consensus statements over the three journals was 32% lower than that of clinical practice guidelines. The editorial independence score was 15% lower for consensus statements than clinical practice guidelines. One journal scored

  10. Implementation and translation: from European standards and guidelines for quality assurance to education quality work in higher education institutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerheijden, Donald F.; Kohoutek, Jan; Eggins, Heather

    2014-01-01

    The Standards and Guidelines for Quality Assurance in the European Higher Education Area (ESG for short) have been part of the regulative infrastructure of the European Higher Education Area (EHEA) since 2005 (European Association for Quality Assurance in Higher Education, 2009).

  11. Hold Your Breath. A New Index of Air Quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buehn, A. [Utrecht School of Economics, Utrecht University, Utrecht (Netherlands); Reza Farzanega, M. [Dresden University of Technology and ZEW Mannheim, Mannheim (Germany)

    2011-12-15

    Environmental quality and climate change have long attracted attention in policy debates. Recently, air quality has emerged on the policy agenda. We calculate a new index of air quality using CO2 and SO2 emissions per capita as indicators and provide a ranking for 122 countries from 1985 to 2005.The empirical analysis supports the EKC hypothesis (Environmental Kuznets Curve) and shows a significant influence of determinants such as energy efficiency, industrial production, electricity produced from coal sources, and urbanization on air quality. According to our index, Luxemburg, Norway, Iceland, Switzerland, and Japan are among the top 5 countries in terms of air quality performance. The Democratic Republic of Congo, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Togo, and Nepal performed worst in 2005.

  12. Hold Your Breath. A New Index of Air Quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buehn, A.; Reza Farzanega, M.

    2011-01-01

    Environmental quality and climate change have long attracted attention in policy debates. Recently, air quality has emerged on the policy agenda. We calculate a new index of air quality using CO2 and SO2 emissions per capita as indicators and provide a ranking for 122 countries from 1985 to 2005.The empirical analysis supports the EKC hypothesis (Environmental Kuznets Curve) and shows a significant influence of determinants such as energy efficiency, industrial production, electricity produced from coal sources, and urbanization on air quality. According to our index, Luxemburg, Norway, Iceland, Switzerland, and Japan are among the top 5 countries in terms of air quality performance. The Democratic Republic of Congo, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Togo, and Nepal performed worst in 2005.

  13. The Assessment of Air Pollutant Concentrations and Air Quality Index in Shiraz during 2011-2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monireh Majlesi Nasr

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Exposure to air pollutants can cause many problems, including the health effects in humans and animals. The aim of this study was to assay the air quality in the Shiraz city during 2011-2013. Methods: In this descriptive-analytical study, the air pollutant data during the study period were taken from Air Quality Co. for two main stations i.e. Darvazeh Kazeroun and Imam Hossein and then were analysed to determine air quality index. Results: The maximum (0.018 ppm and minimum (0.015 ppm annual concentration of SO2 were determined in 2011 and 2013, respectively. The maximum NO2 concentration was measured in summer 2011 with a value of 0.025 ppm. Regarding ozone, the highest average concentration was measured in the summer season of 2013 with the concentration of 0.068 ppm. In terms of air quality, the worst situation was experienced in 2011, which about 31 percent of the days have been marked as unhealthy, but during the last years of the study, the air quality get better. Conclusion: In general, the results of the study showed that SO2 concentration has been decreased during recent years due to strengthen of air pollution regulation but NO2 concentration was increased because the number of gas fuel automobile was also increased. With regard to air quality, it has an improving trend during the study period.

  14. Development and validation of an international appraisal instrument for assessing the quality of clinical practice guidelines: the AGREE project.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cluzeau, F.A.; Burgers, J.S.; Brouwers, M.M.; Grol, R.P.T.M.; et al.,

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: International interest in clinical practice guidelines has never been greater but many published guidelines do not meet the basic quality requirements. There have been renewed calls for validated criteria to assess the quality of guidelines. OBJECTIVE: To develop and validate an

  15. Research review: Indoor air quality control techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisk, W.J.

    1986-10-01

    Techniques for controlling the concentration of radon, formaldehyde, and combustion products in the indoor air are reviewed. The most effective techniques, which are generally based on limiting or reducing indoor pollutant source strengths, can decrease indoor pollutant concentrations by a factor of 3 to 10. Unless the initial ventilation rate is unusually low, it is difficult to reduce indoor pollutant concentrations more than approximately 50% by increasing the ventilation rate of an entire building. However, the efficiency of indoor pollutant control by ventilation can be enhanced through the use of local exhaust ventilation near concentrated sources of pollutants, by minimizing short circuiting of air from supply to exhaust when pollutant sources are dispersed and, in some situations, by promoting a displacement flow of air and pollutants toward the exhaust. Active air cleaning is also examined briefly. Filtration and electrostatic air cleaning for removal of particles from the indoor air are the most practical and effective currently available techniques of air cleaning. 49 refs., 7 figs

  16. THE ASSESSMENT OF MICROBIOLOGICAL INDOOR AIR QUALITY IN BAKERIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elżbieta Wołejko

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess microbiological indoor air quality of selected bakeries located in the region of Podlasie. The microbiological studies were conducted in autumn in 2014 in three selected bakeries. Microbiological air counts were measured by impaction using an air sampler MAS-100 NT. The microbiological air studies, comprised the determination of the total number of psychrophilic and mesophilic bacteria, namely indicator bacteria such as: bacteria of the species Pseudomonas fluorescens, mannitol-positive and mannitol-negative Staphylococc, the total number of bacteria from the Enterobacteriaceae family and fungi found in atmospheric air. The results of the study of indoor air polluted with the analyzed groups of microorganisms differed depending on the type of test air and the location of the manufacturing plant. In the plants, the concentration of mesophilic bacteria and mannitol–positive and mannitol-negative Staphylococcus exceeded the limit values of unpolluted air, according to the Polish Standard recommendations.

  17. Ventilation, indoor air quality, and human health and comfort in dwellings and day-care centers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruotsalainen, R.

    1995-12-31

    The objective of the study was to assess the actual ventilation and indoor air quality in the Finnish building stock (dwellings and day-care centers) with special reference to the existing guideline values. Furthermore, the objective was to evaluate the occurrence of symptoms and perceptions among occupants (adult residents, children, workers) in relation to ventilation system, ventilation rate and dampness. The measurements of ventilation and indoor air quality in the dwellings and day-care centers included ventilation rate, CO{sub 2} concentration, and temperature and humidity. Self- and parent-administered questionnaires were distributed to the occupants inquiring their personal characteristics, occurrence of symptoms of interest, perceived indoor air quality and details of their home and work environments. Airflows and air change rates varied remarkably both in the dwellings and day-care centers. In the majority of the dwellings and day-care centers, the Finnish guideline values of ventilation rates were not achieved. No consistent associations were observed between the magnitude of mechanical ventilation rates and the occurrence of eye, respiratory, skin and general symptoms, that is, symptoms of sick building syndrome (SBS) among the day-care workers. The results indicate that there is much room for improvement in the ventilation and indoor air quality of Finnish dwellings and day-care centers. The control of ventilation, temperature and humidity and the prevention of water damage are important issues on which to concentrate in the future. There is need to improve the quality in all phases of construction: design, installation, adjustment, operation, and maintenance

  18. Ventilation, indoor air quality, and human health and comfort in dwellings and day-care centers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruotsalainen, R

    1996-12-31

    The objective of the study was to assess the actual ventilation and indoor air quality in the Finnish building stock (dwellings and day-care centers) with special reference to the existing guideline values. Furthermore, the objective was to evaluate the occurrence of symptoms and perceptions among occupants (adult residents, children, workers) in relation to ventilation system, ventilation rate and dampness. The measurements of ventilation and indoor air quality in the dwellings and day-care centers included ventilation rate, CO{sub 2} concentration, and temperature and humidity. Self- and parent-administered questionnaires were distributed to the occupants inquiring their personal characteristics, occurrence of symptoms of interest, perceived indoor air quality and details of their home and work environments. Airflows and air change rates varied remarkably both in the dwellings and day-care centers. In the majority of the dwellings and day-care centers, the Finnish guideline values of ventilation rates were not achieved. No consistent associations were observed between the magnitude of mechanical ventilation rates and the occurrence of eye, respiratory, skin and general symptoms, that is, symptoms of sick building syndrome (SBS) among the day-care workers. The results indicate that there is much room for improvement in the ventilation and indoor air quality of Finnish dwellings and day-care centers. The control of ventilation, temperature and humidity and the prevention of water damage are important issues on which to concentrate in the future. There is need to improve the quality in all phases of construction: design, installation, adjustment, operation, and maintenance

  19. ISO 9000. Guidelines to increased costs and reduced product quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reedy, R.F.

    1994-01-01

    Many US companies are considering being registered to the provisions of ISO 9000, International Standards for Quality Management. One important problem with the document is that ISO 9000 is not focused on control of product quality. The quality assurance rules established in ISO 9000 have been used in the US for more than 25 years with disastrous financial consequences and little, if any, improvement in quality and safety. These rules are so reliant on documentation and strict compliance that ensuring products comply with specifications has become a secondary issues. That is not what was intended, but it is the result. ISO 9000 program can work effectively only when the top executive responsible for engineering or production takes full responsibility for interpretation and implementation of the quality assurance program. 3 refs., 1 tab

  20. Quality appraisal of clinical practice guidelines on the use of physiotherapy in rheumatoid arthritis: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurkmans, Emalie J; Jones, Anamaria; Li, Linda C; Vliet Vlieland, Theodora P M

    2011-10-01

    To assess the quality of guidelines published in peer-reviewed literature concerning the role of physiotherapy in the management of patients with RA. A systematic literature search for clinical practice guidelines that included physiotherapy interventions was performed in four electronic databases. We assessed the quality of the selected guidelines using the appraisal of guidelines for research and evaluation (AGREE) instrument. In addition, the recommendations of guidelines with the highest quality scores were summarized. Eight clinical practice guidelines fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Scope/purpose was the most often adequately addressed AGREE domain (in seven of the eight guidelines) and applicability the least (in two of the eight guidelines). Based on the AGREE domain scores, six guidelines could be recommended or strongly recommended for clinical use. Five out of these six (strongly) recommended guidelines included a recommendation on exercise therapy and/or patient education, with these interventions being recommended in every case. Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation and thermotherapy were recommended in four of these six guidelines. US, thermotherapy, low-level laser therapy, massage, passive mobilization and balneotherapy were addressed in one or two of these six guidelines. Six of eight clinical practice guidelines addressing physiotherapy interventions were recommended or strongly recommended according to the AGREE instrument. In general, guideline recommendations on physiotherapy intervention, from both the recommended guidelines as well as from the not recommended guidelines, lacked detail concerning mode of delivery, intensity, frequency and duration.

  1. Standards and laws for indoor air quality in Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bitkolov, N.; Musijchuk, Y.

    1997-01-01

    The air quality of indoor air in Russia, including the special problems of air quality with regard to radioactive contamination, is determined by a number of statutes, standards and regulations. All these are based on the biological principles that the maximum allowable concentrations of pollutants (MAC) and the prescribed radioactive safety dose limits should not be exceeded. The standards cover the air in the working zones of all ministries and departments, and are for trade unions, public and cooperative organisations and foundations. The basic Russian law for air quality is 'The Law on Environmental Nature Protection' (19.2.1991) which assures the right to health protection from adverse environmental effects. In the field of radioactive safety 'The Federal Law on Radioactive Safety' (9.1.1996) is the primary law and in accordance with it, every citizen living in Russia has the right to protection for the present and future generations from health-related deleterious effects of atomic radiation. The laws on air quality are part of the Russian Federation legal system and are secured in the Constitution. The air quality must be controlled by the Goscomgidromet and the Sunepidnadzor of Russia. In compliance with these laws everybody has the right to a favourable environment and the duty to protect, preserve and maintain it. The air environment is unique and common to all, thus economic cooperation dictates that a dedicated approach to air quality and air quality regulations would be the most appropriate way to preserve it. It appears judicious to join forces in the name of European ecological safety. To do this, it is necessary to combine the national means and secure. (author) 4 figs

  2. Air quality monitoring using mobile microscopy and machine learning

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Yi-Chen; Shiledar, Ashutosh; Li, Yi-Cheng; Wong, Jeffrey; Feng, Steve; Chen, Xuan; Chen, Christine; Jin, Kevin; Janamian, Saba; Yang, Zhe; Ballard, Zachary Scott; Gö rö cs, Zoltá n; Feizi, Alborz; Ozcan, Aydogan

    2017-01-01

    Rapid, accurate and high-throughput sizing and quantification of particulate matter (PM) in air is crucial for monitoring and improving air quality. In fact, particles in air with a diameter of ≤2.5 μm have been classified as carcinogenic by the World Health Organization. Here we present a field-portable cost-effective platform for high-throughput quantification of particulate matter using computational lens-free microscopy and machine-learning. This platform, termed c-Air, is also integrated with a smartphone application for device control and display of results. This mobile device rapidly screens 6.5 L of air in 30 s and generates microscopic images of the aerosols in air. It provides statistics of the particle size and density distribution with a sizing accuracy of ~93%. We tested this mobile platform by measuring the air quality at different indoor and outdoor environments and measurement times, and compared our results to those of an Environmental Protection Agency–approved device based on beta-attenuation monitoring, which showed strong correlation to c-Air measurements. Furthermore, we used c-Air to map the air quality around Los Angeles International Airport (LAX) over 24 h to confirm that the impact of LAX on increased PM concentration was present even at >7 km away from the airport, especially along the direction of landing flights. With its machine-learning-based computational microscopy interface, c-Air can be adaptively tailored to detect specific particles in air, for example, various types of pollen and mold and provide a cost-effective mobile solution for highly accurate and distributed sensing of air quality.

  3. Air quality monitoring using mobile microscopy and machine learning

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Yi-Chen

    2017-09-08

    Rapid, accurate and high-throughput sizing and quantification of particulate matter (PM) in air is crucial for monitoring and improving air quality. In fact, particles in air with a diameter of ≤2.5 μm have been classified as carcinogenic by the World Health Organization. Here we present a field-portable cost-effective platform for high-throughput quantification of particulate matter using computational lens-free microscopy and machine-learning. This platform, termed c-Air, is also integrated with a smartphone application for device control and display of results. This mobile device rapidly screens 6.5 L of air in 30 s and generates microscopic images of the aerosols in air. It provides statistics of the particle size and density distribution with a sizing accuracy of ~93%. We tested this mobile platform by measuring the air quality at different indoor and outdoor environments and measurement times, and compared our results to those of an Environmental Protection Agency–approved device based on beta-attenuation monitoring, which showed strong correlation to c-Air measurements. Furthermore, we used c-Air to map the air quality around Los Angeles International Airport (LAX) over 24 h to confirm that the impact of LAX on increased PM concentration was present even at >7 km away from the airport, especially along the direction of landing flights. With its machine-learning-based computational microscopy interface, c-Air can be adaptively tailored to detect specific particles in air, for example, various types of pollen and mold and provide a cost-effective mobile solution for highly accurate and distributed sensing of air quality.

  4. Air quality and Atmospheric resources: Phase 1: Background document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    The Environment and Sustainable Development Indicators (ESDI) initiative, under the umbrella of the National Round Table on the Environment and the Economy (NRTEE), commissioned a study for the evaluation and the development of sustainable development indicators (SDIs) in the field of air quality and atmospheric resources. The report contained key information with regard to each indicator or indicator set, and no comprehensive comparative analysis was performed. The report was designed to be used as a technical reference. Where appropriate, SDIs developed by foreign organizations were included. The emphasis of the report was: (1) ambient air quality and human health effects, (2) air emissions having transboundary or global implications for ecosystem health and human health, and (3) demand on the atmosphere for environmental services. The bulk of the research was conducted on the Internet. The report was divided into three sections. A review of the availability of SDIs based on ambient air quality measures was discussed in the first section, while the second section was devoted to the availability of SDIs based on pollutant emission levels. The last section contained a systematic review of those SDIs used or being proposed along with the supporting data available to calculate SDI values. Some observations were also made touching on topics such as the abundance of ambient air quality information, the abundance of pollutant emissions information, the linkages between emissions and ambient air quality, the absence of forecasting, the indoor air quality gap, and the connections to human health. refs., 1 fig

  5. Lead's Impact on Indoor Air Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lead has long been recognized as a harmful environmental pollutant. There are many ways in which humans are exposed to lead: through air, drinking water, food, contaminated soil, deteriorating paint, and dust.

  6. Health and air quality 2005 : phase 2 : valuation of health impacts from air quality in the Lower Fraser Valley airshed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furberg, M.; Preston, K. [RWDI West Inc., Vancouver, BC (Canada); Sawyer, D. [Marbek Resource Consultants Ltd., Ottawa, ON (Canada); Brauer, M. [British Columbia Univ., Vancouver, BC (Canada). School of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene; Hanvelt, R. [British Columbia Univ., Vancouver, BC (Canada). Dept. of Health Care and Epidemiology

    2005-07-15

    This study provided estimates the health benefits and costs associated with specified changes in ambient air concentrations of particulate matter (PM) and ozone in the Lower Fraser Valley (LFV). Estimates were developed on a regional level. The study focused on PM and ozone, as current air quality monitoring data and scientific findings have indicated that these are the air contaminants of greatest concern in the region. Known air quality health outcome relationships were applied in a spreadsheet model to predict changes in health outcomes associated with 6 ambient air quality scenarios for 3 sub-regions within the LFV airshed. Concentration response functions based on epidemiological studies were used to estimate the number of health events associated with changes in air quality. For each scenario, the model calculated the expected number of the following health outcomes: mortality; chronic bronchitis; respiratory hospital admissions; cardiac hospital admissions; emergency room visits; child acute bronchitis; restricted activity days; asthma symptom days; minor restricted activity days and acute respiratory symptom days. The model also produced the dollar value of the health outcomes. A dollar metric was used so that the health outcomes could be aggregated and compared with other air quality management actions such the costs of improving ambient air quality. Results indicated that improving ambient air quality in the LFV will produce valued and socially desirable benefits, including reduced mortality and morbidity. The measures contemplated by decision-makers to maintain and improve air quality in the LFV will trigger benefits that are likely to be significant. 101 refs., 7 tabs., 7 figs.

  7. Air quality: evolution of monitoring methods at its height

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Legros, E.J.

    1996-01-01

    In the context of the forthcoming enforcement of the new air law in France, the INERIS (the French National Institute for Industrial Environment and Risks) made a statement at the end of June 1996 about the problems of air quality monitoring and the evolution of measurement tools. This short paper recalls first the historical evolution of the French urban air quality monitoring and its legal aspects, and the recent studies about the cost of air pollution and the impact of diesel particulates, benzene and aromatic hydrocarbons on human health. Then it describes the INERIS works concerning the identification and characterization of pollutants (NOx, CO, CO 2 , SO 2 , lead, ozone, particulates, organic volatile compounds) and the modeling of their dispersion. The monitoring of air quality in France is performed by 31 associations, from which Airparif is devoted to Paris city. (J.S.)

  8. Energy use, air infiltration, and indoor air quality in well-insulated residences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koontz, M.D.; Nagda, N.L.

    1989-01-01

    This paper reports two unoccupied bilevel houses of identical design and construction studied to determine the relationships among air exchange, energy consumption, and indoor air quality. The experimental house was retrofitted to increase building tightness and was equipped with an air-to-air heat exchanger; the control house was kept in its initial state of construction. Infiltration, energy, indoor air quality, and environmental parameters were monitored in both houses before and after the retrofit. It was found that the retrofit decreased air infiltration rates by nearly 25 percent, heating energy savings of 12 to 20 percent were achieved through the retrofit, and among the pollutants monitored, only radon and radon progeny increased in proportion to the reduced infiltration. Similarly, when the heat exchanger was operated, radon and radon progeny were the only pollutants reduced in proportion to the added air exchange

  9. EAACI Food Allergy and Anaphylaxis Guidelines. Food allergy health-related quality of life measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muraro, A; Dubois, A E J; DunnGalvin, A; Hourihane, J O'B; de Jong, N W; Meyer, R; Panesar, S S; Roberts, G; Salvilla, S; Sheikh, A; Worth, A; Flokstra-de Blok, B M J

    2014-07-01

    Instruments have been developed and validated for the measurement of health-related quality of life in patients with food allergy. This guideline has been prepared by the European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology's (EAACI) Guidelines for Food Allergy and Anaphylaxis Group. It draws on a systematic review of the literature on quality of life instruments for food allergy and the Appraisal of Guidelines for Research & Evaluation (AGREE II) guideline development process. Guidance is provided on the use of such instruments in research, and the current limitations of their use in clinical practice are described. Gaps in current knowledge as well as areas of future interest are also discussed. This document is relevant to healthcare workers dealing with food-allergic patients, scientists engaging in food allergy research and policy makers involved in regulatory aspects concerning food allergy and safety. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. 77 FR 2469 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Antelope Valley Air Quality Management...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-18

    ... the California State Implementation Plan, Antelope Valley Air Quality Management District and Imperial... Quality Management District (AVAQMD) and Imperial County Air Pollution Control District (ICAPCD) portions... Technology (RACT),'' adopted on February 23, 2010. * * * * * (G) Antelope Valley Air Quality Management...

  11. 75 FR 61367 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, South Coast Air Quality Management District

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-05

    ... the California State Implementation Plan, South Coast Air Quality Management District AGENCY... the South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD) portion of the California State... Measure for Architectural Coatings,'' CARB, October 2007. 4. ``Improving Air Quality with Economic...

  12. 77 FR 65133 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Mojave Desert Air Quality Management District

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-25

    ... the California State Implementation Plan, Mojave Desert Air Quality Management District AGENCY... limited disapproval of revisions to the Mojave Desert Air Quality Management District (MDAQMD) portion of.... * * * * * (c) * * * (379) * * * (i) * * * (E) Mojave Desert Air Quality Management District. (1) Rule 1159...

  13. 78 FR 21582 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Butte County Air Quality Management...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-11

    ... the California State Implementation Plan, Butte County Air Quality Management District and Sacramento Metropolitan Air Quality Management District AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: EPA is proposing to approve revisions to the Butte County Air Quality Management...

  14. 78 FR 59840 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Antelope Valley Air Quality Management...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-30

    ...] Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Antelope Valley Air Quality Management District... of plan. * * * * * (c) * * * (428) * * * (i) * * * (B) Antelope Valley Air Quality Management...) * * * (i) * * * (B) Antelope Valley Air Quality Management District. (1) Rule 431.1, ``Sulfur Content of...

  15. 77 FR 66780 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, South Coast Air Quality Management District

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-07

    ... the California State Implementation Plan, South Coast Air Quality Management District AGENCY... the South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD) portion of the California State... Control Measure for Architectural Coatings,'' CARB, October 2007. 4. ``Improving Air Quality with Economic...

  16. 75 FR 40762 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Sacramento Metropolitan Air Quality...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-14

    ... the California State Implementation Plan, Sacramento Metropolitan Air Quality Management District and South Coast Air Quality Management District AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: EPA is proposing to approve revisions to the Sacramento Metropolitan Air Quality...

  17. Computer Prediction of Air Quality in Livestock Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svidt, Kjeld; Bjerg, Bjarne

    In modem livestock buildings the design of ventilation systems is important in order to obtain good air quality. The use of Computational Fluid Dynamics for predicting the air distribution makes it possible to include the effect of room geometry and heat sources in the design process. This paper...... presents numerical prediction of air flow in a livestock building compared with laboratory measurements. An example of the calculation of contaminant distribution is given, and the future possibilities of the method are discussed....

  18. APPLICATION OF SEDIMENT QUALITY GUIDELINES IN THE ASSESSMENT OF MANGROVE SURFACE SEDIMENT IN MENGKABONG LAGOON, SABAH, MALAYSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Praveena, M. Radojevic, M. H. Abdullah, A. Z. Aris

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available There have been numerous sediment quality guidelines developed to monitor the sediments. Sediment quality guidelines are very useful to screen sediment contamination by comparing sediment contaminant concentration with the corresponding quality guideline, provide useful tools for screening sediment chemical data to identify pollutants of concern and prioritise problem sites and relatively good predictors of contaminations. However, these guidelines are chemical specific and do not include biological parameters. Aquatic ecosystems, including sediments, must be assessed in multiple components (biological data, toxicity, physicochemistry by using intregrated approaches in order to establish a complete and comprehensive set of sediment quality guidelines. Numerous sediment quality guidelines Washington Department of Ecology Sediment Quality Guideline, Australian and New Zealand Environment and Conservation Council, Swedish Environmental Sediment Quality, Screening Quick Reference Table, Portuguese Legislation on the Classification of Dredged Materials in Coastal Zones and Interim Sediment Quality Guideline for Hong Kong have been applied to the Mengkabong lagoon mangrove sediment and discussed. The most appropriate guideline that meets the prioritization criteria consistent with international initiatives and regulations is interim sediment quality values for Hong Kong. The guideline verifies that all the metals are below the Interim Sediment Quality Value-low. However, site-specific, biological testing and ecological analysis of exisiting benthics community structure related to sediment contamination are needed for final decision making in the case of Mengkabong lagoon.

  19. Local air quality management: some evidence of current practices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beattie, Clare; Newton, Alex; Longhurst, Jim [University of the West of England, Air Quality Research Group, Bristol (United Kingdom)

    1998-12-01

    The recent legislative changes, notably the Environment Act 1995 and resultant National Air Quality Strategy have brought new powers and obligations to local authorities to reach specified air quality standards and objectives. Initially this will involve local authorities carrying out a review and assessment of air quality in their locality by December 1999. This paper will outline a project currently being undertaken within the University of the West of England investigating how this legislation is being put into practice and present the results from a nation-wide questionnaire survey of environmental health officers. The study found that local authorities are still at an early stage of the process. It seems probable that one possible barrier to the implementation of Air Quality Management will be communication and cooperation within local authorities. (Author)

  20. A resource allocation model to support efficient air quality ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Efficient implementation of policies and strategies require that ... †Graduate School of Business Leadership, University of South Africa, P.O. Box 392, Pretoria, 0003, .... and source, emissions, air quality and meteorological data reporting.