WorldWideScience

Sample records for air purification

  1. Nanostructured Catalytic Reactors for Air Purification Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This SBIR Phase I project proposes the development of lightweight compact nanostructured catalytic reactors for air purification from toxic gaseous organic...

  2. Nanostructured Catalytic Reactors for Air Purification Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This SBIR Phase II project proposes the development of lightweight compact nanostructured catalytic reactors for air purification from toxic gaseous organic...

  3. Solid State Air Purification System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The purpose of this proposed research is to develop a new air purification system based on a liquid membrane, capable of purifying carbon dioxide from air in a far...

  4. The Viability of Photocatalysis for Air Purification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen O. Hay

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Photocatalytic oxidation (PCO air purification technology is reviewed based on the decades of research conducted by the United Technologies Research Center (UTRC and their external colleagues. UTRC conducted basic research on the reaction rates of various volatile organic compounds (VOCs. The knowledge gained allowed validation of 1D and 3D prototype reactor models that guided further purifier development. Colleagues worldwide validated purifier prototypes in simulated realistic indoor environments. Prototype products were deployed in office environments both in the United States and France. As a result of these validation studies, it was discovered that both catalyst lifetime and byproduct formation are barriers to implementing this technology. Research is ongoing at the University of Connecticut that is applicable to extending catalyst lifetime, increasing catalyst efficiency and extending activation wavelength from the ultraviolet to the visible wavelengths. It is critical that catalyst lifetime is extended to realize cost effective implementation of PCO air purification.

  5. Research of indoor smoke warning and air purification equipment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wangronglong; Zhaoyexing; Fuyunhua

    2015-01-01

    In order to reduce indoor smoke concentration and improve indoor air quality,we put forward the intelligent indoor smoke warning and air purification device. This device can quickly reduce the concentration of indoor smoke by the air purification and fire alarm function. It provides a suitable living environment for people.

  6. Microwave Regenerable Air Purification Device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atwater, James E.; Holtsnider, John T.; Wheeler, Richard R., Jr.

    1996-01-01

    The feasibility of using microwave power to thermally regenerate sorbents loaded with water vapor, CO2, and organic contaminants has been rigorously demonstrated. Sorbents challenged with air containing 0.5% CO2, 300 ppm acetone, 50 ppm trichloroethylene, and saturated with water vapor have been regenerated, singly and in combination. Microwave transmission, reflection, and phase shift has also been determined for a variety of sorbents over the frequency range between 1.3-2.7 GHz. This innovative technology offers the potential for significant energy savings in comparison to current resistive heating methods because energy is absorbed directly by the material to be heated. Conductive, convective and radiative losses are minimized. Extremely rapid heating is also possible, i.e., 1400 C in less than 60 seconds. Microwave powered thermal desorption is directly applicable to the needs of Advance Life Support in general, and of EVA in particular. Additionally, the applicability of two specific commercial applications arising from this technology have been demonstrated: the recovery for re-use of acetone (and similar solvents) from industrial waste streams using a carbon based molecular sieve; and the separation and destruction of trichloroethylene using ZSM-5 synthetic zeolite catalyst, a predominant halocarbon environmental contaminant. Based upon these results, Phase II development is strongly recommended.

  7. Breathing Air Purification for Hyperbaric Purposes, Part II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woźniak Arkadiusz

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Determining the efficiency of breathing air purification for hyperbaric purposes with the use of filtration systems is of a crucial importance. However, when the Polish Navy took samples of breathing air from their own filtration plant for quality purposes, these were found to not meet the required standard. The identification of this problem imposed the need to undertake actions aimed at the elimination of the identified disruptions in the process of breathing air production, with the objective of assuring its proper quality. This study presents the results of the initial tests on the air supply sources utilised by the Polish Navy, which were carried out for the purpose of setting a proper direction of future works and implementing corrective measures in order to optimise the breathing air production process. The obtained test results will be used in a subsequent publication devoted to the assessment of the level of efficiency of air purification with the use of a multifaceted approach consisting in the utilisation of various types of air supply sources and different configurations of purification systems.

  8. Photodetoxification and purification of water and air

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, M. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Blake, D.M. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)

    1996-09-01

    The scope of interest in this section is basic research in photochemistry that can remove barriers to the development of photochemical technologies for the removal of hazardous chemicals from contaminated air or water (photodetoxification). Photochemistry is be broadly interpreted to include direct photochemistry, indirect photochemistry (sensitized and photocatalytic), photochemistry of species adsorbed on inert surfaces, and complementary effects of high energy radiation photons and particles. These may occur in either homogeneous or heterogeneous media. The photon source may span the range from ionizing radiation to the near infrared.

  9. INTEGRATED PURIFICATION OF VENTILATED AIR IN AIR LAYERS OF DAMP BUILDING STRUCTURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Shitov

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement. Intensive wear of the structure bearing elements in premises with high moisture content in ventilated air is associated with cyclic changes in temperature and humidity indicators of steam-air environment; hence, the problem of ventilated air treatment in such premises is topical.Results. The design of device for integrated purification of atmospheric ventilated air from fine-dispersed pollutants in premise with high moisture content in indoor air is developed.Conclusions. The proposed device provides reliable and long-term operation of bearing building elements.

  10. Influence of Water Salinity on Air Purification from Hydrogen Sulfide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leybovych L.I.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Mathematical modeling of «sliding» water drop motion in the air flow was performed in software package FlowVision. The result of mathematical modeling of water motion in a droplet with diameter 100 microns at the «sliding» velocity of 15 m/s is shown. It is established that hydrogen sulfide oxidation occurs at the surface of phases contact. The schematic diagram of the experimental setup for studying air purification from hydrogen sulfide is shown. The results of the experimental research of hydrogen sulfide oxidation by tap and distilled water are presented. The dependence determining the share of hydrogen sulfide oxidized at the surface of phases contact from the dimensionless initial concentration of hydrogen sulfide in the air has been obtained.

  11. New research on bioregenerative air/water purification systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Anne H.; Ellender, R. D.; Watkins, Paul J.

    1991-01-01

    For the past several years, air and water purification systems have been developed and used. This technology is based on the combined activities of plants and microorganisms as they function in a natural environment. More recently, researchers have begun to address the problems associated with indoor air pollution. Various common houseplants are currently being evaluated for their abilities to reduce concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOCS) such as formaldehyde and benzene. With development of the Space Exploration Initiative, missions will increase in duration, and problems with resupply necessitates implementation of regenerative technology. Aspects of bioregenerative technology have been included in a habitat known as the BioHome. The ultimate goal is to use this technology in conjunction with physicochemical systems for air and water purification within closed systems. This study continued the risk assessment of bioregenerative technology with emphasis on biological hazards. In an effort to evaluate the risk for human infection, analyses were directed at enumeration of fecal streptococci and enteric viruses with the BioHome waste water treatment system.

  12. Air purification in a reverse-flow reactor: Model simulations vs. experiments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beld, van de L.; Westerterp, K.R.

    1996-01-01

    The behavior of a reverse-flow reactor was studied for the purification of polluted air by catalytic combustion. A heterogeneous one-dimensional model was extended with a heat balance for the reactor wall. An overall heat transport term is included to account for the small heat losses in radial dire

  13. Experimental research on photocatalytic oxidation air purification technology applied to aircraft cabins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, Yuexia; Fang, Lei; Wyon, David Peter;

    2008-01-01

    The experiment presented in this report was performed in a simulated aircraft cabin to evaluate the air cleaning effects of two air purification devices that used photocatalytic oxidation (PCO) technology. Objective physical, chemical and physiological measurements and subjective human assessments...... were used for the evaluation. Comparisons were made between conditions with and without the PCO units installed in the re-circulated air system. Four groups of 17 subjects were exposed for 7 h to each test condition. Chemical analysis indicates that ethanol, isoprene and toluene were decomposed...

  14. Experimental research on photocatalytic oxidation air purification technology applied to aircraft cabins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, Yuexia; Fang, Lei; Wyon, David P.;

    2005-01-01

    The experiment presented in this report was performed in a simulated aircraft cabin to evalu-ate the air cleaning effects of two air purification devices using Photocatalytic Oxidation (PCO) technology. Objective physical, chemical and physiological measurements and subjec-tive human assessments...... were used for the evaluation. Comparisons were made between con-ditions with and without the PCO units installed in the re-circulated air system. Four groups of 17 subjects were exposed for 7 hours to each test condition. Chemical analysis indicates that Ethanol, Isoprene and Toluene were decomposed...

  15. Carbon Nanotube Electron Sources for Air Purification Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The innovation proposed here focuses on cleansing air with high energy electrons. Bombardment by electrons has proven to be effective in removing a wide spectrum of...

  16. Modern methods of water and air purification from mercury

    OpenAIRE

    Dolina, L. F.; Chornaya, A. Yu.; Nagornaya, E. K.

    2015-01-01

    People can be exposed to mercury in any form in different circumstances. Depending on the amount of mercury and duration of exposure potential acute poisoning, chronic poisoning, micromercurialism. As of release into the environment (air, sediment, water), it undergoes a series of complex transformations. Methylmercury is the most highly toxic form of mercury, it is especially enhanced in the food chain. Extreme danger as contaminants in natural waters are heavy metals, have a toxic effect on...

  17. Experimental study of photocatalytic concrete products for air purification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huesken, G.; Hunger, M.; Brouwers, H.J.H. [Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering Technology, University of Twente, P.O. Box 217, 7500 AE Enschede (Netherlands)

    2009-12-15

    Air quality in inner-city areas is a topic which receives much attention nowadays but in the coming years, the overall interest on this topic will become even bigger. One major concern is caused by the reduction of the limiting values given by the European Council Directive 1999/30/EC [Relating to limit values for sulphur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide and oxides of nitrogen, particulate matter and lead in ambient air. Official Journal of the European Communities 1999, L 163/41-60] and increasing traffic rates especially for diesel powered passenger cars and freight vehicles. A promising approach for solving the problem of nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) is the photochemical conversion of nitrogen oxides to low concentrated nitrates due to heterogeneous photocatalytic oxidation (PCO) using titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}) as photocatalyst. A variety of products containing TiO{sub 2} are already available on the European market and their working mechanism under laboratory conditions is proven. However, there is still a lack of transforming the experimental results obtained under laboratory conditions to practical applications considering real world conditions. This paper presents the research conducted on photocatalytic concrete products with respect to the evaluation of air-purifying properties. The degradation process of nitric oxide (NO) under laboratory conditions is studied using a test setup for measuring the performance of photocatalytic active concrete products. The test setup uses the UV-A induced degradation of NO and is oriented on the ISO standard ISO 22197-1:2007. Besides the introduction of the test setup, a uniform measuring procedure is presented to the reader which allows for an evaluation and direct comparison of the performance of photocatalytic active concrete products. This kind of direct comparison was not possible so far. Furthermore, the results of a comparative study on varying photocatalytic concrete products of the European market will be discussed

  18. Recent Photocatalytic Applications for Air Purification in Belgium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elia Boonen

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Photocatalytic concrete constitutes a promising technique to reduce a number of air contaminants such as NOx and VOC’s, especially at sites with a high level of pollution: highly trafficked canyon streets, road tunnels, the urban environment, etc. Ideally, the photocatalyst, titanium dioxide, is introduced in the top layer of the concrete pavement for best results. In addition, the combination of TiO2 with cement-based products offers some synergistic advantages, as the reaction products can be adsorbed at the surface and subsequently be washed away by rain. A first application has been studied by the Belgian Road Research Center (BRRC on the side roads of a main entrance axis in Antwerp with the installation of 10.000 m² of photocatalytic concrete paving blocks. For now however, the translation of laboratory testing towards results in situ remains critical of demonstrating the effectiveness in large scale applications. Moreover, the durability of the air cleaning characteristic with time remains challenging for application in concrete roads. From this perspective, several new trial applications have been initiated in Belgium in recent years to assess the “real life” behavior, including a field site set up in the Leopold II tunnel of Brussels and the construction of new photocatalytic pavements on industrial zones in the cities of Wijnegem and Lier (province of Antwerp. This paper first gives a short overview of the photocatalytic principle applied in concrete, to continue with some main results of the laboratory research recognizing the important parameters that come into play. In addition, some of the methods and results, obtained for the existing application in Antwerp (2005 and during the implementation of the new realizations in Wijnegem and Lier (2010–2012 and in Brussels (2011–2013, will be presented.

  19. An Investigation on the Efficiency of Air Purification Using a Biofilter with Activated Bed of Different Origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zagorskis Alvydas

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies in the area of biological air treatment in filters have addressed fundamental key issues, such as a biofilter bed of different origin composed of natural zeolite granules, foam cubes and wood chips. When foam and zeolite are mixed with wood chips to remove volatile organic compounds from the air, not only biological but also adsorption air purification methods are accomplished. The use of complex purification technologies helps to improve the efficiency of a filter as well as the bed service life of the filter bed. Investigations revealed that microorganisms prevailing in biological purification, can also reproduce themselves in biofilter beds of inorganic and synthetic origin composed of natural zeolite and foam. By cultivating associations of spontaneous microorganisms in the filter bed the dependencies of the purification efficiency of filter on the origin, concentration and filtration time of injected pollutants were determined. The highest purification efficiency was obtained when air polluted with acetone vapour was supplied to the equipment at 0.1 m/s of superficial gas velocity. When cleaning air from volatile organic compounds (acetone, toluene and butanol, under the initial pollutant concentration of ~100 mg/m3, the filter efficiency reached 95 %.

  20. Air Stripping Designs and Reactive Water Purification Processes for the Lunar Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boul, Peter J.; Lange, Kevin; Conger, Bruce; Anderson, Molly

    2010-01-01

    Air stripping designs are considered to reduce the presence of volatile organic compounds in the purified water. Components of the wastewater streams are ranked by Henry's Law Constant and the suitability of air stripping in the purification of wastewater in terms of component removal is evaluated. Distillation processes are modeled in tandem with air stripping to demonstrate the potential effectiveness and utility of these methods in recycling wastewater on the Moon. Scaling factors for distillation and air stripping columns are presented to account for the difference in the lunar gravitation environment. Commercially available distillation and air stripping units which are considered suitable for Exploration Life Support are presented. The advantages to the various designs are summarized with respect to water purity levels, power consumption, and processing rates. An evaluation of reactive distillation and air stripping is presented with regards to the reduction of volatile organic compounds in the contaminated water and air. Among the methods presented, an architecture is presented for the evaluation of the simultaneous oxidation of organics in air and water. These and other designs are presented in light of potential improvements in power consumptions and air and water purities for architectures which include catalytic activity integrated into the water processor. In particular, catalytic oxidation of organics may be useful as a tool to remove contaminants that more traditional distillation and/or air stripping columns may not remove. A review of the current leading edge at the commercial level and at the research frontier in catalytically active materials is presented. Themes and directions from the engineering developments in catalyst design are presented conceptually in light of developments in the nanoscale chemistry of a variety of catalyst materials.

  1. Slip-Effect Functional Air Filter for Efficient Purification of PM2.5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xinglei; Wang, Shan; Yin, Xia; Yu, Jianyong; Ding, Bin

    2016-10-01

    Fabrication of air filtration materials (AFM) that allow air to easily flow through while retaining particles is a significant and urgent need due to the harmful airborne particulate matter pollution; however, this is still a challenging research area. Herein, we report novel slip-effect functional nanofibrous membranes with decreased air resistance (reduction rate of 40%) due to the slip flow of air molecules on the periphery of nanofibers. This was achieved through careful control over the diameters of electrospun polyacrylonitrile fibers and aperture size of fiber assembly. Fiber assembly with 86% of fiber diameters between 60–100 nm was found to be most effective for slip flow, as these diameters are close to the mean free path of air molecules (65.3 nm). Significantly, an equilibrium factor τ = df/d2 has been introduced to elucidate the effect of distance of adjacent fibers on the drag force of airflow. Furthermore, the most effective aperture size (>3.5 μm) for slip-effect has been determined. Ultimately, the new material displayed low air resistance of 29.5 Pa, high purification efficiency of 99.09%, good transmittance of 77%, and long service life. The successful fabrication of such materials can facilitate the development of high-performance AFMs for various applications.

  2. A Simple Introduction of Indoor Air Purification%浅谈净化室内空气的方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何花

    2014-01-01

    Indoor environment pollution has become a under-recognized influence to everybody’ s health nowa-days;This article introduces the harm of Indoor air pollutants to human being, the advantages and disadvantages of several method of indoor air purifications, Finally several suggestions were given in choosing air purification equip-ment according to different kinds of indoor air pollutants.%目前室内环境污染已成为影响人们健康的“隐形”杀手。本文介绍了室内空气污染物对人体的危害,对多种空气净化技术的优缺点进行了阐述,并对室内不同的污染物选择与之相应的空气净化设备给出了建议。

  3. Techniques and Products for Air Purification%室内空气净化技术及产品综述

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石芳芳; 邱利民; 于川; 张林; 宋佳; 严仁远

    2014-01-01

    Principles and characteristics of the indoor air purification techniques are introduced in this paper. The main challenges of cur-rent techniques are outlined. The combination principles of the air purification techniques are proposed by summarizing and analyzing the techniques applied in sorts of air purifiershe combination principles are: choosing the purification methods mainly based on the types of pollutants indoor and exploiting the synergistic effect between indoor air purification techniques to get the optimal and comprehensive puri-fication. his paper points out that studies on integrated purification technology exploiting synergistic effect purification techniques will be one of the most important researches in future.%如何在加快治理大气环境的同时,营造洁净健康的室内空气环境,是当前乃至今后相当长的一段时期国内外相关领域的持续热点。本文系统介绍了目前室内空气净化主要技术的原理及特点,指出现有技术存在的主要问题。通过对当前主流室内空气净化产品中应用的净化技术进行梳理,总结了空气净化技术的组合原则,即主要根据室内污染物类型进行针对性地选择,并利用净化技术间的协同效应,以使室内空气得到全面净化。本文还对未来的研发方向进行了展望,指出利用净化技术间的协同效应,研究更为有效的综合净化技术将成为未来重要的研究方向之一。

  4. TiO2-Impregnated Porous Silica Tube and Its Application for Compact Air- and Water-Purification Units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsuyoshi Ochiai

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A simple, convenient, reusable, and inexpensive air- and water-purification unit including a one-end sealed porous amorphous-silica (a-silica tube coated with TiO2 photocatalyst layers has been developed. The porous a-silica layers were formed through outside vapor deposition (OVD. TiO2 photocatalyst layers were formed through impregnation and calcination onto a-silica layers. The resulting porous TiO2-impregnated a-silica tubes were evaluated for air-purification capacity using an acetaldehyde gas decomposition test. The tube (8.5 mm e.d. × 150 mm demonstrated a 93% removal rate for high concentrations (ca. 300 ppm of acetaldehyde gas at a single-pass condition with a 250 mL/min flow rate under UV irradiation. The tube also demonstrated a water purification capacity at a rate 2.0 times higher than a-silica tube without TiO2 impregnation. Therefore, the tubes have a great potential for developing compact and in-line VOC removal and water-purification units.

  5. Patent Information Analysis on Air Purification%空气净化技术专利情报分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田军; 王晓鹏

    2014-01-01

    In this article, the basic trend of patent about air purification was analysed by year amount of patent application, areal distribu-tion and patent assignee using Thomoson Innovation. The analysis showed that application quantity of patent about air purification in-creased rapidly from 1999, and the main applicant countries were America, Japan and China. The primary patent assignees were Panason-ic, LG electronics and Donaldson. Technical constitution of air purification was analysed through International Patent Classification (IPC). The research found that major technologies in air purification were the filter and electrostatic separation of particulate matter, disin-fection and sterilization of air, and air-conditioning system. The key technology of main patent assignee was also analysed by patent the-mescape. Panasonic and LG focused on indoor air purification, but Donaldson involved industry air purification. The patent themescape al-so showed that patent layout of many research institutions and companies had related to almost all of the technology of air purification, but Chinese research institutions and companies had little patents.%利用专利情报分析工具Thomoson Innovation,分别通过每年专利申请量、区域分布、专利权人分析了空气净化领域的国际专利基本态势。通过分析得知,空气净化领域的专利申请量从1999年开始出现了迅速的增加,主要分布于美国、日本和中国,主要的专利权人为日本松下(Panasonic)、韩国乐金(LG)、美国唐纳森(Donaldson)公司。通过IPC分类分析了空气净化领域的技术构成,研究发现,空气净化涉及的主要技术领域包括颗粒物的过滤和静电分离、空气的消毒杀菌和空气的调节系统等。同时通过专利主题地形图分析了主要专利权人的技术特点,日本松下和韩国乐金主要集中于室内空气的净化,而美国唐纳森(Donaldson)的技术布局主要涉及工业空气净化。通过专

  6. An investigation of an underwater steam plasma discharge as alternative to air plasmas for water purification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gucker, Sarah N.; Foster, John E.; Garcia, Maria C.

    2015-10-01

    An underwater steam plasma discharge, in which water itself is the ionizing media, is investigated as a means to introduce advanced oxidation species into contaminated water for the purpose of water purification. The steam discharge avoids the acidification observed with air discharges and also avoids the need for a feed gas, simplifying the system. Steam discharge operation did not result in a pH changes in the processing of water or simulated wastewater, with the actual pH remaining roughly constant during processing. Simulated wastewater has been shown to continue to decompose significantly after steam treatment, suggesting the presence of long-lived plasma produced radicals. During steam discharge operation, nitrate production is limited, and nitrite production was found to be below the detection threshold of (roughly 0.2 mg L-1). The discharge was operated over a broad range of deposited power levels, ranging from approximately 30 W to 300 W. Hydrogen peroxide production was found to scale with increasing power. Additionally, the hydrogen peroxide production efficiency of the discharge was found to be higher than many of the rates reported in the literature to date.

  7. 三电极净化技术的应用研究%The Application Research of Ionic-driven Air Purification Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李军华; 陶孙华; 肖德玲

    2011-01-01

    主要分析三电极净化技术在产品上应用的可行性。首先通过各种实验测试评估此净化技术的净化性能,然后与其它净化产品进行性能对比分析,通过试验评估得出:三电离净化技术具有净化效果好,风阻低等优势,但电器安全性等方面需要进一步的评估。%The paper study the applied feasible of ionic-driven air purification technology. First, test the purification performance, Then contrast with the other purification product which is applied different purification methods. Draw a conclusion by test, purification performance is good and air resistance is low of ionic-driven air purification, but security performance need more test.

  8. APPLICATION OF AIR PURIFICATION PRODUCTS IN MEDICAL BUILDINGS%空气净化产品在医疗建筑中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    霍亭; 武兴斌; 韩莉

    2016-01-01

    The article briefly introduces the main sources of indoor polutants in public buildings; describes the types and working principle of air purification products; analyzes the requirements of medical buildings for air purification products and ranges of various air purification products applied within the hospital.%文章简单介绍了公共建筑室内污染物的主要来源;介绍了空气净化产品的种类及工作原理;分析了医疗建筑对空气净化产品的要求以及各类空气净化产品在医院内的适用范围。

  9. 室内空气污染及净化技术研究%Study of Pollution of Indoor Air and its Purification Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘育婷

    2012-01-01

    This article summarizes the sources of indoor air pollutants and the hazards to people's health. And then it analyzes the treatment effects of various purification technologies,which provides technical references for the development direction of indoor air purification technology.%综述了室内空气污染物的来源及其对人体健康的危害,通过对各种净化技术处理效果的综合分析,为室内空气净化技术的发展方向提供一些技术参考。

  10. 大型公共场所室内空气净化技术%Indoor Air Purification Technology in Large-sized Publics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈健; 王健

    2012-01-01

      The paper presents the indoor air pol ution, particularly air pol ution problems in large-sized publics, the familiar air purification technology and development. The paper puts forward some suggestions in the field of air pol ution treatment and air purification technology application by analyzing the engineering examples.%  介绍了室内空气污染特别是大型公共场所的空气污染问题,以及常见的空气净化技术及发展情况,通过分析工程实例,提出了空气污染治理及净化技术应用的一些建议。

  11. 潜艇舱可移动式快速空气净化装置研究%Discussion on Portable and Fast Air Purification Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张重杰

    2013-01-01

      The air in the hermetic cabin of the submarine has poor quality, the air needs to be rapidly replaced after the fire accident hap⁃pened. According to the situation,the paper designed portable and fast air purification device, the smoke rapid purification simulation test. The test results showed that the air purification device can removed the fire smoke quickly and effectively. Based on the author's practical ex⁃perience, the paper put forward some technical indicators based on the portable and fast air purification device.%  针对潜艇舱室内空气质量较差、舱室内发生火灾事故后需要快速进行空气净化等问题,设计了可移动式快速空气净化装置,进行了烟雾快速净化模拟试验。试验结果表明,空气净化装置的内循环过滤通风可以快速有效地清除火灾后的烟雾。根据工作实践经验,对可移动式快速空气净化装置提出了几点技术指标要求。

  12. 室内空气的调节与净化案例%Indoor Air Conditioning and Purification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方一丰

    2011-01-01

    The indoor air quality has been paid closely attention recently, for some organics as VOC endangering human health through respiration and skin contact. Utilizing the adsorption and photo-catalysis function of purification nest and air conditioning technology, the pollution air occupied 350 m2 area office has been treated for a month. The result showed the air quality dramatically improved and met the national standard requirement.%近年来室内空气环境质量引起人们关注,挥发性有机物和甲醛等有机物通过呼吸和皮肤接触等方式危害人体健康.利用净化网的吸附和光催化功能和空调的调节作用,对占地面积350 m2办公楼室内的空气污染进行治理,运行时间1个月,室内空气质量得到明显提高,满足国家相关标准要求.

  13. Ventilation and Air Conditioning Design and Lampblack Purification in Kitchen%厨房的通风空调设计与油烟的净化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石建中

    2012-01-01

    The article discussed system form,ventilation volume,airflow structure,kitchen air supply,fire smoke,exhaust purification in kitchen ventilation and air conditioning design.%主要论述了厨房的通风空调设计中系统形式、通风量、气流组织、厨房补风、防火排烟、排风净化等方面的问题。

  14. Investigation on the Effect of the Air Purification of Indoor green Wall%室内植物墙空气净化效果的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王珂

    2014-01-01

    室内植物墙由于具有极高的观赏性和空气净化能力,近年来得到了人们的重视。对利用室内植物墙实现空气净化效果进行了深入研究,在保证植物墙正常存活的前提下,通过植物的选择、空气微循环的促进等手段提高植物墙的空气净化效果。对不同空气污染物进行了净化效果检测,结果表明室内空气净化植物墙可以有效降低室内各种有害空气污染物浓度。%Indoor green wal is attracting more attention of people in recent years due to its high ornamental value and air purifying ability. This article has conducted the thorough research on the implementation of air purification effect by indoor green wal . Under the premise of ensuring the normal survival of the plants, the effect of air purification of indoor green wal is improved through the selection of plants, air microcirculation and other means. The effect purification of different air pol utants is tested, and the results show that the indoor air purification green wal can effectively reduce al sorts of indoor harmful air pol utants concentration.

  15. 空气净化技术现状及其发展趋势刍议%Discussion on Status and Development Tendency of Air Purification Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨晓平

    2015-01-01

    Firstly, the operating theory about several kinds of popular air purification technology is introduced in this paper. It also studied the advantages and disadvantages of these function in practical application. Secondly, it puts the emphasis on the new direction of air cleaning technology, and states the basic theory of water-washing air. Finally, the development trends of purification technology are discussed and summarized.%首先,介绍目前市场上流行的若干种空气净化技术工作原理,分析这些净化技术在实际应用中的优缺点。其次,重点阐述空气净化技术的新方向———“水洗空气”的基本原理,最后对净化技术发展趋势进行展望和总结。

  16. Assessment of internal contamination problems associated with bioregenerative air/water purification systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Anne H.; Bounds, B. Keith; Gardner, Warren

    1990-01-01

    The emphasis is to characterize the mechanisms of bioregenerative revitalization of air and water as well as to assess the possible risks associated with such a system in a closed environment. Marsh and aquatic plants are utilized for purposes of wastewater treatment as well as possible desalinization and demineralization. Foliage plants are also being screened for their ability to remove toxic organics from ambient air. Preliminary test results indicate that treated wastewater is typically of potable quality with numbers of pathogens such as Salmonella and Shigella significantly reduced by the artificial marsh system. Microbiological analyses of ambient air indicate the presence of bacilli as well as thermophilic actinomycetes.

  17. 煤矿避难硐室空气净化装置布局研究%Study of Air Purification Device Layout in Coal Mine Refuge Chamber

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何廷梅

    2014-01-01

    根据物质守恒定律,推导出避难硐室内有害气体浓度计算表达式,确立了避难硐室内净化需风量与有害气体控制浓度及室内避灾人数的数学关系。利用Fluent软件分析了51型避难硐室内净化装置3种不同工况下,室内的空气流速分布和CO2气体浓度分布,得出2台净化装置可将室内CO2体积分数控制在0.50%以下,满足避难硐室空气净化要求。%In this PaPer,a calculation exPression for the harmful gas concentration in the refuge chamber was deduced according to the law of conservation of matter,and the mathematical relationshiP of the required air quantity for Purification in the refuge chamber with the control of the harmful gas concentration and number of the Persons stayed in the chamber was established. With Fluent software,analysis was made on the distribution of the air flow rate and CO2 concentration in the refuge chamber under three different oPeration conditions of 51-tyPe chamber Purification device. It came to a conclusion that using two air Purification devices could control CO2 volume fraction below 0. 50% and meet the air Purification requirement in the refuge chamber.

  18. Effect of charcoal on water purification

    OpenAIRE

    Suzuki, Hirotaka; Kawahigashi, Tatsuo

    2014-01-01

    [Abstract] A natural basin system purifies water through self-purification, but the water pollution load of a river might exceed its self-purification capacity. Charcoal, which is used for other uses aside from heating, such as air purification, was evaluated experimentally for water quality purification. The experiment described herein is based on simple water quality measurements. Some experimentally obtained results are discussed.

  19. PTR-MS Assessment of Photocatalytic and Sorption-Based Purification of Recirculated Cabin Air during Simulated 7-h Flights with High Passenger Density

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wisthaler, Armin; Strøm-Tejsen, Peter; Fang, Lei;

    2007-01-01

    Four different air purification conditions were established in a simulated 3-row 21-seat section of an aircraft cabin: no air purifier; a photocatalytic oxidation unit with an adsorptive prefilter; a second photocatalytic unit with an adsorptive prefil-ter; and a two-stage sorptionbased air filter...... (gas-phase absorption and adsorption). The air purifiers placed in the cabin air recirculation system were commercial prototypes developed for use in aircraft cabin systems. The four conditions were established in balanced order on 4 successive days of each of 4 successive weeks during simulated 7-h...... were found to incompletely oxidize ethanol released by the wet wipes commonly supplied with airline meals to produce unacceptably high levels of acetaldehyde and formalde-hyde....

  20. Highly efficient indoor air purification using adsorption-enhanced-photocatalysis-based microporous TiO2 at short residence time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Jinze; Zhu, Lizhong

    2013-01-01

    A short residence time is a key design parameter for the removal of organic pollutants in catalyst-based indoor air purification systems. In this study, we synthesized a series of TiO2 with different micropore volumes and studied their removal efficiency of indoor carbonyl pollutants at a short residence time. Our results indicated that the superior adsorption capability of TiO2 with micropores improved its performance in the photocatalytic degradation of cyclohexanone, while the photocatalytic removal of the pollutant successfully kept porous TiO2 from becoming saturated. When treated with 1 mg m(-3) cyclohexanone at a relatively humidity of 18%, the adsorption amount on microporous TiO2 was 5.4-7.9 times higher than that on P25. Removal efficiency via photocatalysis followed'the same order as the adsorption amount: TiO2-5 > TiO2-20 > TiO2-60 > TiO2-180 > P25. The advantage of microporous TiO2 over P25 became more pronounced when the residence time declined from 0.072 to 0.036 s. Moreover, as the concentration of cyclohexanone deceased from 1000 ppb to 500 ppb, removal efficiency by microporous TiO2 increased more rapidly than P25.

  1. Photocatalysis for continuous air purification in wastewater treatment plants: from lab to reality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portela, R; Tessinari, R F; Suárez, S; Rasmussen, S B; Hernández-Alonso, M D; Canela, M C; Avila, P; Sánchez, B

    2012-05-01

    The photocatalytic efficiency of TiO(2)-SiMgO(x) plates to oxidize H(2)S was first evaluated in a flat laboratory reactor with 50 mL min(-1) synthetic air containing 100 ppm H(2)S in the presence of humidity. The use of the photocatalyst-adsorbent hybrid material enhanced the photocatalytic activity in terms of pollutant conversion, selectivity, and catalyst lifetime compared to previous H(2)S tests with pure TiO(2) because total H(2)S elimination was maintained for more than 30 operating hours with SO(2) appearing in the outlet as reaction product only after 18 h. Subsequently, the hybrid material was successfully tested in a photoreactor prototype to treat real polluted air in a wastewater treatment plant. For this purpose, a new tubular photocatalytic reactor that may use solar radiation in combination with artificial radiation was designed; the lamp was turned on when solar UV-A irradiance was below 20 W m(-2), which was observed to be the minimum value to ensure 100% conversion. The efficient distribution of the opaque photocatalyst inside the tubular reactor was achieved by using especially designed star-shaped structures. These structures were employed for the arrangement of groups of eight TiO(2)-SiMgO(x) plates in easy-to-handle channelled units obtaining an adequate flow regime without shading. The prototype continuously removed during one month and under real conditions the H(2)S contained in a 1 L min(-1) air current with a variable inlet concentration in the range of tens of ppmv without release of SO(2).

  2. Design approaches for a cycling adsorbent/photocatalyst system for indoor air purification: formaldehyde example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Paul; Ollis, David F

    2008-04-01

    A kinetic model for a cycling adsorbent/photocatalyst combination for formaldehyde removal in indoor air (Chin et al. J. Catalysis 2006, 237, 29-37) was previously developed in our lab, demonstrating agreement with lab-scale batch operation data of other researchers (Shiraishi et al. Chem. Engineer. Sci. 2003, 58, 929-934). Model parameters evaluated included adsorption equilibrium and rate constants for the adsorbent (activated carbon) honeycomb rotor, and catalytic rate constant for pseudo-first-order formaldehyde destruction in the titanium dioxide photoreactor. This paper explores design consequences for this novel system. In particular, the batch parameter values are used to model both adsorbent and photocatalyst behavior for continuous operation in typical residential home challenges. Design variables, including realistic make-up air fraction, adsorbent honeycomb rotation speed, and formaldehyde source emission rate, are considered to evaluate the ability of the system to achieve World Health Organization pollutant guidelines. In all circumstances, the size of the required rotating adsorbent bed and photoreactor for single-stage operation and the resultant formaldehyde concentration in the home are calculated. The ability of how well such a system might be accommodated within the typical dimensions of commercial ventilation ducts is also considered.

  3. AIR DISINFECTION EFFECT IN THE OPERATING ROOM OF HOSPITAL BY USING THE LOCAL AIR PURIFICATION DEVICE%局部空气净化装置对手术室空气的消毒效果

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈英

    2012-01-01

    目的 观察空气消毒机对医院手术室空气消毒效果,以评价其实际应用效果.方法 采用平板沉降采样和细菌培养方法,评价该多因子组合空气净化装置对手术室空气中自然菌净化效果,并与紫外线灯照射消毒作平行比较.结果 启动YKX/Y型空气消毒机和紫外线灯作用30 min,5 min后采样,手术室空气中细菌总数<200cfu/m3,随着时间的延长,空气中菌数逐渐增加,15 min后细菌总数逐渐增加到200 cfu/m3以上.在手术室有6人工作的情况下,空气消毒机持续运行,可使空气细菌继续保持在<200 cfu/m3.结论 试验用空气消毒机可以在手术期间持续消毒,可以维持手术室内空气中细菌总数< 200 cfu/m3.%Objective To observe the air disinfection effect in the operating room of hospital by using the local air purification device and evaluate the practical application effect of the device. Methods By using the methods of tablet settlement sampling and bacterial culture, to evaluate and compare the effect of air purification in the operating room by the air purification device and ultraviolet light irradiation. Results 5 mins later after using the air disinfection device of YKX / Y - type and the ultraviolet ray lamp for 30 mins, the total number of bacteria in the air of operating room was less than 200 cfu/m3. As the time prolonged to 15 min, the bacteria number increased to more than 200 cfu/m3. Under the condition of six persons working and the air disinfection device running continuously in the operating room, the bacteria in the air maintained less than 200 cfu/m3. Conclusion The air purification device can continue disinfection during surgical operation and the number of bacteria can maintain less than 200 cfu/m3.

  4. Visible Light Responsive Catalysts Using Quantum Dot-Modified Ti02 for Air and Water Purification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coutts, Janelle L.; Levine, Lanfang H.; Richards, Jeffrey T.; Hintze, paul; Clausen, Christian

    2012-01-01

    The method of photocatalysis utilizing titanium dioxide, TiO2, as the catalyst has been widely studied for trace contaminant control for both air and water applications because of its low energy consumption and use of a regenerable catalyst. Titanium dioxide requires ultraviolet light for activation due to its band gap energy of 3.2 eV. Traditionally, Hg-vapor fluorescent light sources are used in PCO reactors and are a setback for the technology for space application due to the possibility of Hg contamination. The development of a visible light responsive (VLR) TiO2-based catalyst could lead to the use of solar energy in the visible region (approx.45% of the solar spectrum lies in the visible region; > 400 nm) or highly efficient LEDs (with wavelengths > 400 nm) to make PCO approaches more efficient, economical, and safe. Though VLR catalyst development has been an active area of research for the past two decades, there are few commercially available VLR catalysts; those that are available still have poor activity in the visible region compared to that in the UV region. Thus, this study was aimed at the further development of VLR catalysts by a new method - coupling of quantum dots (QD) of a narrow band gap semiconductor (e.g., CdS, CdSe, PbS, ZnSe, etc.) to the TiO2 by two preparation methods: 1) photodeposition and 2) mechanical alloying using a high-speed ball mill. A library of catalysts was developed and screened for gas and aqueous phase applications, using ethanol and 4-chlorophenol as the target contaminants, respectively. Both target compounds are well studied in photocatalytic systems serve as model contaminants for this research. Synthesized catalysts were compared in terms of preparation method, type of quantum dots, and dosage of quantum dots.

  5. In Low Temperature Purification Workshop Air Conditioning Design Analysis%低温净化车间空调设计分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田利忠

    2012-01-01

      In some production enterprises, because of its p-roducts having a low temperature, clean requirements, there-fore, it is necessary to have the air conditioning system which can meet the needs in the production process. However, because of in the low temperature purification workshop air conditioning system requirements relatively high, and the system design difficulty oppositely bigger, in order to meet the needs of actual production, this paper puts forward a kind of low temperature purification of airconditioning system design scheme. Based on this point, this paper make research on cryogenic purification workshop air conditioning system design.%  在一些生产企业中,由于其生产的产品对环境有着低温、洁净的要求,为此需要在这样的车间中配置能够满足生产工艺需求的空调系统。然而,因为低温净化车间对空调系统的要求相对较高,致使系统的设计难度相对较大,为了满足实际生产需要,提出了一种低温净化空调系统的设计方案。基于此点,本文就低温净化车间空调系统设计展开研究。

  6. MP2.5对人体的影响及净化--浅谈 PM2.5对人体健康的影响及空调的空气净化对建筑物室内空气品质的论证%The Effection of MP2.5 on Human Body and Purification--On PM2.5 Effects on Human Health and the Argument of Air Conditioning Air Purification for Buildings Indoor Air Quality

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭晓东

    2013-01-01

      本文就中国目前糟糕的空气质量和时下最为大众关注的 PM2.5问题,以及空气质量对人体健康的影响,论证空调净化空气尤其是 PM2.5的可行性。通过分析我国空气质量现状以及空调的空气净化功能,指出空气品质对于生活工作在建筑内的人的健康的影响,提出通过空调净化空气 PM2.5值到适宜人类居住标准的方案。%This paper talks about the most popular concerned PM2.5 problem of China at present poor air quality, and the in-fluence of air quality on human health, demonstrates air puri-fycation especial y the feasibility of PM2.5. Through the ana-lysis of the status of China's air quality and air conditioning air purification function, pointes out that the impact on air qualit-y for living and working in the construction of human health, puts forward by air purification air PM2.5 value to the habitab-le standard solution.

  7. Studies on Oxygen Characteristics of YBa2Cu3O7-x and Its Applications to Air Separation and Gas Purification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Delin; Mo Jiong; Lu Hongxia; Guo Yiqun; Gao Zhishuang; Hu Xing

    2005-01-01

    Oxygen diffusion and oxygen selective adsorption properties of rare earths material YBa2Cu3O7-x (YBCO) were investigated by thermogravimetric, oxygen static adsorption and selectivity adsorption experiments. The results show that YBCO is a very good deoxidizing material. The oxygen desorption of YBCO begins remarkably at about 400 ℃, mass loss can arrive at 1.2% of its original quantity at 800 ℃. Oxygen can be completely absorbed back into the sample again when temperature descends to 400 ℃. The oxygen adsorption selectivity, reproducibility and oxygen adsorption under very low oxygen partial pressure make the material desirable for air separation and gas purification. High purity nitrogen gas was produced with the YBCO molecular sieves in the air separation and gas purification experiments. 0.017 m3 of high purity nitrogen (>99.9999%) can be obtained with 1 kg YBCO molecular sieve in one cycle. As a deoxidant, an obvious advantage of YBCO is that no hydrogen is needed in its applications.

  8. 避难硐室气体净化理论分析与试验研究%Theoretical Analysis and Experimental Study of Air Purification in Refuge Chamber

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈于金; 许凯

    2014-01-01

    根据避难硐室CO2、CO气体快速净化要求,理论分析计算了净化所需风量及空气净化装置数量。以50人避难硐室为试验平台,对CO2、CO进行了快速净化能力测试,并通过50人8 h真人试验测试,得出避难硐室有害气体浓度变化曲线及轻度劳动条件下单人代谢CO2和CO的速率。结果表明:3台空气净化装置能够满足50人避难硐室CO2快速净化及CO2、CO实际真人净化要求。对于CO快速净化,还应增加空气净化装置数量,增大空气净化风量。%Theoretical calculation and analysis were made on the air quantity and the number of air purification devices required for air purification according to the rapid purification requirements for CO2 and CO in the refuge chamber. The test of rapid purification capacity for CO2 and CO was carried out by taking a 50-person refuge chamber as the test platform, and through the test of 50 persons staying in the refuge chamber for 8 hours, the variation curve of the harmful gas concentration in the chamber and the metabolic rate of CO2 and CO by a single person under the condition of light labor intensity were obtained. The results showed that three air purification devices could meet the requirements for the rapid purification of CO2 in a 50-person refuge chamber and the purification requirements for CO2 and CO produced by real persons. For the rapid purification of CO, it should increase the number of the air purification devices and the air quantity.

  9. Air Purification of Urban Underground Space%城市地下空间空气净化处理探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈洪; 张美玲; 王嘉

    2015-01-01

    近年来空气污染严重,在室外雾霾大环境下,如何确保室内空气品质不受影响是人们密切关注的问题。以地下空间为例,分析了室内环境中的颗粒物及有害气体的主要来源,并提出了其净化处理方法,即通过中央空调系统空气净化装置来改善室内空气品质。%In recent years, air pollution is serious, under the outdoor environment of haze, ensuring indoor air quality is an crucial issue. Taking the underground space as an example, main sources of particulate matter in the indoor environment and harmful gases are analyzed, and the purification method is presented, namely through air cleaning devices of the central air conditioning system to improve indoor air quality.

  10. Controlling Points of Air Purification System in Design and Construction Process%净化空调系统在设计施工过程中的控制要点

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘静

    2014-01-01

    随着高新技术的发展,对生产环境的洁净要求也越来越严格,净化空调的应用越来越广泛。该文在阐述洁净等级的划分之后,根据实际经验提出净化空调系统设计存在的问题,并分析了系统施工过程应注意的问题。%With the development of high and new technology, requirements on production environment are getting increasingly stricter, and application of air purification system is also getting increasingly wider. The classification of purification level is elaborated, the existing problems in air purification sys-tem design are presented in accordance with actual experience and some attention worth issues in construction process are also analyzed.

  11. Experimental Study on Air Purifier's Purification Efficiency for Indoor Formaldehyde%空气净化器对室内甲醛净化效果的实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡俊; 肖江蓉; 李亮亮; 周胜银; 彭天右

    2013-01-01

    By using formaldehyde as the objective volatile pollutant, the purification efficiencies of some representative air purifiers were determined under the relatively independent and stable environmental conditions supplied by the self-made multifunctional environmental test chamber. The clean air delivery rate(CADR), purification efficiency and removal rate of formaldehyde were also calculated based on the tested results. It was found that the formaldehyde purification efficiency obviously decreased with enhancing the relative humidity, and gradually increased with enhancing the air flow rate, whereas the effect of temperature on the purification efficiency was limited. Moreover, the air purifier based on integration of manifold purification techniques showed better purification efficiency as compared to that based on single adsorption purification technique. The above results indicate that keeping indoor dryness and ventilation as well as integrated manifold purification techniques are beneficial for the improvement of purification efficiency.%利用研制的多功能环境试验舱提供相对独立和稳定的环境条件,以甲醛为挥发性目标污染物,对所选取的代表性空气净化器的甲醛净化效果进行测试,计算了空气净化器对甲醛的洁净空气量,净化效率和去除率等.结果表明,空气净化器对甲醛净化效率随着相对湿度的增大而明显降低,随着空气流速的增大而有所提高,而室内温度对其影响并不明显.采用物理和化学净化技术相结合的空气净化器的甲醛净化效率明显优于采用单一的物理吸附净化技术的空气净化器.

  12. 北京市住宅空气质量及相关能耗调查及分析%Investigation and Analysis of Indoor Air Quality and Energy Consumption of Air Purification in Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李娜; 张博; 杨红; 黄文霞

    2016-01-01

    近年来,我国北方地区空气污染问题日益严重,频频发生的雾霾现象使得人们越来越重视室内空气质量。调查了北京市部分家庭对雾霾的认知以及所采取的改善室内空气质量的措施。发现未来2~3年内将会有72.8%的家庭采用空气净化器来改善室内空气质量,并由此推算出全年北京市住宅用于空气净化的建筑能耗量。%In recent years, the problem of air pollution in northern China has become increasingly serious. Frequent occurrence of fog and haze forces people to pay more and more attention to indoor air quality. This paper investigated the cognition of haze in several families in Beijing and their methods to improve indoor air quality. This research found that, within the next two or three years, there will be 72.8%of families using the air purifier to improve indoor air quality, and thus it calculated the annual Beijing residential building energy consumption for air purification.

  13. Effects of Two Kinds of Air Purification in NICU Ward%两种不同空气净化方式对NICU病房的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    洪素蜜; 黄跃兴

    2014-01-01

    目的比较不同空气净化方式对病房医院感染的影响,探讨更适合NICU病房空气质量的管理办法。方法在同个季度的不同月份采用两种不同的空气净化方式,平板自然沉降法检测病房内空气净化后的细菌总数,监测各个月份医院感染发生情况,应用SPSS 10.0统计分析。结果采用自然通风换气与空气消毒机消毒后病房的细菌总数比较没有显著性差异(﹥0.05),两种方法而发生医院感染率同样没有显著性差异(﹥0.05)。与空气消毒机净化室内空气方式比,采用自然通风方式时病房患儿平均住院日数更短,平均少0.93d。结论在自然通风良好的状态下,做好通风时间对患儿的保暖,在NICU病房采用合理的自然通风可能对患儿的康复更有利。%Objective To compare the influence of dif erent air purification way about hospital infection, explore more suitable measures for the administration of NICU ward air quality. Methods In the same quarter of dif erent months using two dif erent ways of air purification, use the method of flat natural sedimentation to monitoring the ward air after purification, the total number of bacteria, hospital infection occurred in monitoring the situation, application of spss10.0 statistical analysis.Results After using natural ventilation and Air disinfection machine to disinfection ward of the total number of bacteria is no significant dif erence ( ﹥0.05), two methods and the hospital infection rate is also no significant dif erence( ﹥0.05). compare with air purifying indoor using air disinfection machine, natural ventilation mode can shorter average hospital stay, an average of 0.93 days.Conclusion Under the conditions of natural ventilation, keep children warm when ventilated time , employing reasonable natural ventilation in the NICU ward might be more beneficial to the patient's recovery.

  14. 某移动式空气净化消毒机对室内空气净化的效果分析%Effect Analysis of A Portable Air Purification and Disinfection Machine Indoor Air Purification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张广伟; 张濛; 胡巅; 张丁

    2012-01-01

      Objective Test the disinnfection of bacteria in indoor air for air disinfection machine, to verify its effectiveness to air disinfection. Methods According to“Technical Standard For Disinfection”(2002) 2.1.3.5“Identification of air disinfection on the spot”. Results After the air disinfection machines disinfect air 30 mins in the ICU of the hospital, the disappearance rates of natural bacteria in indoor air were 91.45%(low rank) and 99.38%(high rank) respectively. Conclusion The clearance of the natural bacteria in air of hospital classⅡenvironment for the air disinfection machine meets the requirement of"Technical Standard For Disinfection"(2002) .%  目的检测某品牌移动式空气净化消毒机对室内空气中细菌的清除作用,以验证其对空气消毒的效果.方法《消毒技术规范》(2002)2.1.3.5空气消毒效果鉴定现场试验.结果该空气净化消毒机对医院ICU病房中的空气消毒作用30min,室内空气中自然菌的消亡率分别为91.45%(低档)、99.38%(高档).结论该移动空气净化消毒机对医院Ⅱ类环境空气中自然菌的清除符合《消毒技术规范》(2002)的要求.

  15. 溶气法在糖汁(浆)气浮清净工艺中的应用%Application of the Dissolved-air Flotation Technology in the Cane Juice Purification Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许广球

    2011-01-01

    This paper introduces the dissolved-air flotation technology and the design of the key equipment, and analyses the application of the dissolved-air flotation technology in the flotating purification process of cane juice. The results showed that the best choice is to exploit the pressed dissolved-air flotation technology for the flotating purification process of diluted cane juice.%介绍了溶气上浮法的工艺流程及主要设备的设计并分析了其应用效果。生产实践表明,利用溶气法进行充气打泡是稀汁气浮清净工艺的最好选择。

  16. Study of Purification Effects of Air Cleaners with Non-thermal Plasma on Indoor Particular Matter%含NTP技术净化器对室内颗粒物的净化效果

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆海全; 丁志威; 颜凯; 梅敏花; 郭婷; 钟依均; 谢云龙

    2015-01-01

    选择几款国内含有低温等离子体( Non-thermal plasma, NTP)技术的空气净化器( air cleaner)样机,以香烟烟雾为净化对象,研究其对室内空气中颗粒物的净化效果。结果表明,所选用空气净化器对100 nm以上颗粒物有一定的去除效果,对100 nm以下的颗粒物几乎没有净化效果;单一采用低温等离子体净化技术对颗粒物的去除不理想;高效粒子过滤器( HEPA, High efficiency particulate air Filter)对颗粒物的净化起着关键作用。%Using cigarette smoke as the purification target, the purification effects of several residential air cleaners containing non-thermal plasma ( NTP) technology on indoor particulate matter in air were studied. The results showed that the selected air cleaners had a certain effect on removal of particles above 100 nm while had few effects for particles below 100 nm. Single use of NTP purification technology was not effective to remove particulate matter. HEPA technology played a key role in eliminating the particulate matter.

  17. INDOOR AIR PURIFICATION VIA LOW-ENERGY, IN-SITU REGENERATED SILICA-TITANIA COMPOSITES - PHASE I

    Science.gov (United States)

    “Sick building syndrome,” used to describe acute negative health effects linked to time spent in a building, has been related to poor indoor air quality.  Similarly, poor aircraft cabin air quality has been identified as a cause of negative health effects on pilots and fli...

  18. Fresh air purification and indoor air quality of the residential house%住宅新风净化与室内空气品质

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘飞; 刘颖

    2015-01-01

    通过对南京和上海的各两台新风机组处理段的颗粒分布和 PM10,PM2.5的浓度测试,分析了新风机组过滤器的性能以及过滤器的布置位置对新风品质的影响,并根据各处理段颗粒物浓度变化情况研究了影响室内空气品质的因素,以不断完善与优化新风空调过滤系统的性能。%Based on particle distribution and PM10 and PM2. 5 concentration testing of two new fresh air units in Nanjing and 2 fresh air units in Shanghai at various treatment phases,the paper analyzes whether the new fresh air unit filter performance meets demands and the impact of filter distribution upon new fresh air quality. According to particle concentration varying conditions at various treatment phases,it discusses factors in-fluencing indoor air quality,with a view to continuously improve and perfect new fresh-air-conditioning filtering properties.

  19. Progress on Technology of the Air Disinfection and Purification in Medical Institutions%医疗机构空气消毒净化处理技术进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    米丽娟

    2011-01-01

    In view of the airborne disease has become the top transmitting disease in the world, the air disinfection and purification is more important and urgent.The indoor air disinfection and purification is an effective and important measure for interruption of spread of respiratory infectious diseases.In order to guide the daily work, this article summarizes the technology and methods of indoor air disinfection and purification from domestic and foreign medical institutions in recent years.The technology and methods are illustrated in two conditions, including circumstance with or without people.In circumstance with people, the medical institution could adopt the following methods: high-efficiency particulate air filtering sterilization, high-voltage electrostatic adsorption sterilization, plasma technology, dynamic air disinfecting machines, air purification by nano-photocatalyst materials, air purification by artificial anion and construction laminar flow cleaning sterilization, etc.In circumstance without people, the medical institution could adopt the methods of ultraviolet irradiation and ozone disinfector.%鉴于经空气传播的疾病已占世界传播疾病的首位,凸显出空气消毒净化处理的重要性和紧迫性,而室内空气消毒净化处理是有效阻断呼吸道传染病传播的重要措施.作者重点归纳了近年来国内外有关医疗机构室内空气消毒净化处理的技术方法,意义在于更好地指导日常工作,技术方法主要对有人状态和无人状态2种情况分别进行了阐述.在有人状态下,可采用高效颗粒空气过滤净化除菌、高压静电吸附除菌、等离子体技术、动态空气消毒机、纳米光催化材料的空气净化、人工负离子空气净化和建筑型层流洁净除菌等技术方法处理.在无人状态下,可采用紫外线照射法和臭氧消毒机等技术方法处理.

  20. The purification effects of two air purificants to the volatile pollutants in tunnels%两种空气净化剂对坑道挥发性污染物的净化效果研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周东明; 郁兴明; 唐雨德

    2011-01-01

    目的 观察选取的两种空气净化剂对坑道内挥发性污染物氨气和硫化氢的净化效果.方法 将植物空气净化剂及竹炭滤料分别放入密闭的容积为1m3的小型环境舱内,用采样器往其中吹入有害气体,用风扇混匀后测定空间内有害气体的浓度,每0.5h分别观察空气净化剂对几种挥发性污染物的净化率.结果 植物空气净化剂对氨气和硫化氢的两小时最大净化率分别为50%和37.5%,竹炭滤料净化剂对氨气和硫化氢的两小时最大净化率分别为60%和62.5%.结论 选用的两种空气净化剂对坑道挥发性污染物氨气和硫化氢都有较好的净化效果,可以用于坑道内有害气体的消除.%Objective To observe the purification effects of two different air purificants on the volatile pollutants ( NH3 and H2S) in tunnels. Methods The plant air purificant and the bamboo charcoal were put into a 1 m3 box of airtight minitype environment, respectively. The harmful gases were insufflated into the box with sampling implement and mixed them. At an interval of half an hour,the concentration of harmful gases was mensurated to observe the purification rates of two air purificants. Results The maximal purification rates of the plant air purificant to NH3 and H2S in 2 h were 50% and 37.5% ,respectively. The maximal purification rates of the bamboo charcoal air purificant to NH3 and H2S in 2 h were 60% and 62.5% ,respectively. Conclusion The purification effects of two air purificants are preferable to the volatile pollutants ( NH3 and H2S) in tunnels.The air purificants can effectively eliminate the harmful gases in tunnels.

  1. The species and distribution of air purification plants in Shijiazhuang urban area%石家庄市区空气净化植物的种类及分布研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石金秋; 万五星; 宋雅丽

    2012-01-01

    By the investigation of the wild and cultivated plants in Shijiazhuang, the species, distribution and functions of the air purification plants are analyzed. Based on the results a number of recommendations about development, utilization and protection of air purification plants in Shijiazhuang urban area are provided.%通过对石家庄市区野生和栽培植物的调查,对有空气净化作用的植物种类、分布及功能进行分析,提出了石家庄市空气净化植物的开发利用和保护发展的若干建议.

  2. Effects of Gas-Phase Adsorption air purification on passengers and cabin crew in simulated 11-hour flights

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strøm-Tejsen, Peter; Zukowska, Daria; Fang, Lei;

    2006-01-01

    In a 3-row, 21-seat section of a simulated aircraft cabin that had been installed in a climate chamber, 4 groups of 17 subjects, acting as passengers and crew, took part in simulated 11-hour flights. Each group experienced 4 conditions in balanced order, defined by two outside air supply rates (2.......4 and 3.3 L/s per person), with and without a Gas-Phase Adsorption (GPA) unit in the re-circulated air system. Objective physical and physiological measurements and subjective human assessments of symptom intensity were obtained. The GPA unit provided advantages with no apparent disadvantages....

  3. Discussion on Purification Performance Evaluation Methods of Car Air Purifier%对车载空气净化器净化性能评价方法的探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨瑾; 闻真; 孙立

    2016-01-01

    30 car air purifiers (in view of family car) are selected in 3 m3 experiment module for testing, clean air delivery rate (CADR) and purification efficiency are used to evaluate the purifying effect of car air purifier on formaldehyde and particle pollutants, and the paper discusses the method differences. Testing result shows that it is proportional to both of them, when CADR formaldehyde≥12 m3/h and CADR particles≥15 m3/h, CADR can reflect the differences in purification capacity, and it can help consumers understand the real purification capacity of car air purifier in combination with purification efficiency.%选取30个车载空气净化器(针对家庭用车)在3 m3实验舱中进行测试,通过“洁净空气量(CADR)”和“净化效率”2种方法来评价车载空气净化器对甲醛及颗粒物污染物的净化效果,并就方法的差异展开探讨。检测结果表明,两者成正比关系,当CADR 甲醛≥12 m3/h、CADR 颗粒物≥15 m3/h时,CADR更能体现净化能力差异,结合净化效率,能帮助消费者了解车载空气净化器真实的净化能力。

  4. Preparation of in situ secondary synthesis of indoor air purification functional fabric at low temperature%低温原位二次合成法制备室内空气净化功能织物

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王振华; 刘保江; 何瑾馨

    2011-01-01

    Air purification functional fabric with practical value was prepared using in situ secondary synthesis method at low temperature.The surface morphology of air purification functional fabric was characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM), energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD).The good air purification ability of the treated fabric was confirmed by the degradation test of formaldehyde.In addition, the strength of TiO2 secondary synthesized cotton fabric distinctly increased,and the fabric showed excellent UV irradiation protection properties.%以低温原位二次合成法,制备了具有实用价值的空气净化功能织物.利用扫描电镜(SEM)、能谱分析(EDS)、原子力显微镜(AFM)和X射线衍射(XRD)表征空气净化功能织物表面的形态结构,并通过甲醛降解试验证明了其具有较好的空气净化能力.此外,棉织物经TiO2低温原位二次合成后强73增加明显,且具备极佳的紫外线防护特性.

  5. Application and progress on study of air purification with membrane separation process%膜分离法空气净化的应用与研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾金才

    2011-01-01

    气体膜分离技术已经成为空气净化的重要技术之一。文章全面综述了近年来的膜法空气净化技术的应用及研究进展,介绍了用于空气净化的分离膜及膜分离工艺,展望了膜法空气净化技术的发展趋势。指出,由于膜分离空气净化工艺具有连续操作、低能耗和高效等优点,有望替代或部分替代传统空气的颗粒物分离、脱湿及脱二氧化碳过程。%The gas membrane separation technology becomes one of important air purification technologies. Here, the application and progress on study of membrane air purification technology in the last years, the separation membrane used in air purification and the

  6. Visible-Light Responsive Catalysts Using Quantum Dot-Modified TiO2 for Air and Water Purification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coutts, Janelle L.; Hintze, Paul E.; Clausen, Christian A.; Richards, Jeffrey T.

    2014-01-01

    Photocatalysis, the oxidation or reduction of contaminants by light-activated catalysts, utilizing titanium dioxide (TiO2) as the catalytic substrate has been widely studied for trace contaminant control in both air and water applications. The interest in this process is due primarily to its low energy consumption and capacity for catalyst regeneration. Titanium dioxide requires ultraviolet light for activation due to its relatively large band gap energy of 3.2 eV. Traditionally, Hg-vapor fluorescent light sources are used in PCO reactors; however, the use of mercury precludes the use of this PCO technology in a spaceflight environment due to concerns over crew Hg exposure.

  7. 应用负高压脉冲技术提高植物空气净化能力的探讨%Application of Negative High-voltage Pulse Technology to Improve Air Purification Ability of Plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨运经; 习岗; 刘锴; 张晓辉

    2011-01-01

    现代城市中的室内空气污染日益严重,室内空气污染的净化与治理已成为社会发展中迫切需要解决的关键科技问题之一.为此,根据植物电信号的低频特征与电共振原理,利用极低频负高压脉冲连续刺激盆栽吊兰植物的根际土壤,使吊兰叶片产生了显著的空气负离子倍增效应.在此基础上依据评价空气质量的常用指标:单极系数q、安培空气质量评价系数CI、空气负离子系数P和森林空气离子评价指数FCI,对应用负高压脉冲技术提高植物的空气净化能力进行了计算与分析.结果表明,极低频负高压脉冲电场可以有效地提高植物的空气净化能力,提出了极低频负高压脉冲电场介导的植物空气净化新技术.%Purification of indoor air pollution has become one of the key technologies of social development. An extremely low frequency high voltage pulse generator was designed according to the characteristics of plants electrical signals and the principle of electrical resonance. The soil of potted broadleaf bracket-plant (Chlorophytum como-sum) was continuously stimulated by negative high voltage pulses with very low frequency, the high concentration of negative air ions appeared around the plant leaves, and the multiplier effect of negative air ion from leave of broadleaf bracket-plant was produced. Then, the ability of plant air purification was calculated and analyzed according to common evaluation indicators of air quality such as single polar factor q, air quality assessment coefficient CI, negative ion air coefficient P and the forest air ion evaluation index FCI. The results show that the extremely low-frequency negative high voltage pulse can enhance the ability of plant to air purification. A new technology of indoor air pollution control and restoration based on negative high-voltage pulse technology is proposed.

  8. 一种新型空气消毒净化设备的消毒效果观察%Disinfection effects of a new type of air disinfection and purification equipment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谈书勤; 罗雅丽; 谢昭聪; 胡贵方; 顾大勇

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the indoor air disinfection effects of a new type of air disinfection and purification equipment based on high - voltage pulsed electric field sterilization technology. Methods: Experiments on the disinfection effects were carried out under the laboratory simulation and field test. Results: The new high - voltage pulsed electric field sterilization technology - based air sterilization purification equipment produced an average killing rate of 98.62%, 98.65% and 97.93%, respectively for artificial simulated aerosol of Serratia marcescens, Staphylococcus albus and Candida albicans in the laboratory simulation test, and 90.58% for the natural bacteria aerosols in the port field test. Conclusion: Under specified using conditions, the new high - voltage pulsed electric field sterilization technology - based air sterilization purification equipment had a great killing effect on air microbial aerosols, and was worthy to promote as a new type of air disinfection and purification equipment.%目的:观察基于高压脉冲电场杀菌技术的新型空气消毒净化设备对室内空气的消毒效果.方法:在实验室模拟和现场两种情况下对设备的空气消毒效果进行相关试验.结果:在实验室模拟试验条件下,基于高压脉冲电场杀菌技术的新型空气消毒净化设备对人工模拟产生的粘质沙雷氏菌、白色葡萄球菌和白色念珠菌气溶胶的平均杀灭率分别为98.62%、98.65%和97.93%;在口岸现场试验条件下,设备对自然菌气溶胶的平均杀灭率为90.58%.结论:基于高压脉冲电场杀菌技术的新型空气消毒净化设备在规定的使用条件下,对空气微生物气溶胶具有良好的杀灭效果,是一种值得推广新型空气消毒净化设备.

  9. Hamiltonian purification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orsucci, Davide [Scuola Normale Superiore, I-56126 Pisa (Italy); Burgarth, Daniel [Department of Mathematics, Aberystwyth University, Aberystwyth SY23 3BZ (United Kingdom); Facchi, Paolo; Pascazio, Saverio [Dipartimento di Fisica and MECENAS, Università di Bari, I-70126 Bari (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Bari, I-70126 Bari (Italy); Nakazato, Hiromichi; Yuasa, Kazuya [Department of Physics, Waseda University, Tokyo 169-8555 (Japan); Giovannetti, Vittorio [NEST, Scuola Normale Superiore and Istituto Nanoscienze-CNR, I-56126 Pisa (Italy)

    2015-12-15

    The problem of Hamiltonian purification introduced by Burgarth et al. [Nat. Commun. 5, 5173 (2014)] is formalized and discussed. Specifically, given a set of non-commuting Hamiltonians (h{sub 1}, …, h{sub m}) operating on a d-dimensional quantum system ℋ{sub d}, the problem consists in identifying a set of commuting Hamiltonians (H{sub 1}, …, H{sub m}) operating on a larger d{sub E}-dimensional system ℋ{sub d{sub E}} which embeds ℋ{sub d} as a proper subspace, such that h{sub j} = PH{sub j}P with P being the projection which allows one to recover ℋ{sub d} from ℋ{sub d{sub E}}. The notions of spanning-set purification and generator purification of an algebra are also introduced and optimal solutions for u(d) are provided.

  10. Visible-Light-Responsive Catalysts Using Quantum Dot-Modified TiO2 for Air and Water Purification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coutts, Janelle L.; Hintze, Paul E.; Clausen, Christian; Richards, Jeffrey Todd

    2014-01-01

    Photocatalysis, the oxidation or reduction of contaminants by light-activated catalysts, utilizing titanium dioxide (TiO2) as the catalytic substrate has been widely studied for trace contaminant control in both air and water applications. The interest in this process is due primarily to its low energy consumption and capacity for catalyst regeneration. Titanium dioxide requires ultraviolet light for activation due to its relatively large band gap energy of 3.2 eV. Traditionally, Hg-vapor fluorescent light sources are used in PCO reactors; however, the use of mercury precludes the use of this PCO technology in a spaceflight environment due to concerns over crew Hg exposure. The development of a visible-light responsive (VLR) TiO2-based catalyst would eliminate the concerns over mercury contamination. Further, VLR development would allow for the use of ambient visible solar radiation or highly efficient LEDs, both of which would make PCO approaches more efficient, flexible, economical, and safe. Though VLR catalyst development has been an active area of research for the past two decades, there are few commercially available VLR catalysts. Those VLR catalysts that are commercially available do not have adequate catalytic activity, in the visible region, to make them competitive with those operating under UV irradiation. This study was initiated to develop more effective VLR catalysts through a novel method in which quantum dots (QD) consisting of narrow band gap semiconductors (e.g., CdS, CdSe, PbS, ZnSe, etc.) are coupled to TiO2 via two preparation methods: 1) photodeposition and 2) mechanical alloying using a high-speed ball mill. A library of catalysts was developed and screened for gas and aqueous phase applications using ethanol and 4-chlorophenol as the target contaminants, respectively. Both target compounds are well studied in photocatalytic systems and served as model contaminants for this research. Synthesized catalysts were compared in terms of

  11. Control Measures and Experience of Air Purification Management in PIVAS of Our Hospital%我院静脉药物配置中心的空气净化管理控制措施与体会

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邱菲; 林彩珍

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To introduce the control measures of air purification management in clean area of PIVAS in our hospital , and to ensure the safety of injection. METHODS: The control measures of air purification management in clean area were investigated in respect of equipment, personnel and operational procedure, etc. RESULTS & CONCLUSIONS: Equipment control is conducted by maintaining pressure difference of clean area at different levels, maintaining and changing filter screen. Personnel management is conducted by pre-operational preparation and matters needing attention. Operational procedure control is carried out by maintaining "openwindows", paying attention to cutting length of ampoule, disinfection and site-clearing during standardization of drug disposing and dispensing. Above control measures can ensure purification degree of air in clean area effectively.%目的:介绍我院静脉药物配置中心洁净区内空气净化管理的控制措施,保证输液的安全.方法:从设备、人员、操作过程等方面探讨洁净区空气净化的有效控制措施.结果与结论:通过维持不同级别洁净区的压力差、维护及更换过滤网进行设备控制;通过操作前准备、操作中注意事项进行人员控制;通过规范物品摆放、配药过程中保持“开放窗口”、注意安瓿的切割长度、消毒与清场进行操作过程的控制.上述控制措施可有效保证洁净区内空气洁净程度.

  12. Application Analysis of the Pharmaceutical Purification and Low Temperature Air-conditioning and Refrigeration System%医药净化低温空调制冷系统运行的应用分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王巍

    2011-01-01

    This paper introduces the structure and principle of purification and air-conditioning system, and analyzes the cooling and defrosting modes from aspects of technique application and energy saving. Defrosting is the key link of low-temperature purification air-conditioning system. The system mentioned in this paper adopted double air-conditioning boxes. Each box is equipped with separate refrigeration system and is able to cool and defrost alternately, thus to meet the demand of manufacturing technique to the environment.%本文简述了净化制冷空调系统的基本构成与制冷原理.对低温表冷器的供冷与化霜方式,从技术应用和节能方面进行了分析.低温净化空调的制冷系统关键环节是要解决好化霜,通过采用双空调箱,分别各自设有独立的制冷系统,交替制冷或化霜,不问断送风,能解决生产工艺对环境的特殊要求.

  13. 空气净化在桶装饮用水企业的应用及存在的问题%Air purification application and existing problems in bottled drinking water enterprises

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁炜; 葛锡泳

    2011-01-01

    本文主要对桶装饮用水企业的空气净化的应用、验收及存在问题进行探讨,对车间悬浮粒子浓度进行检测、分析,为有关研究提供借鉴.%This paper explored the air purification application, acceptance and other existing problems in water enterprises, detection and analysis the suspended particle suspended particles in workshops, and provide basis for the further study.

  14. Electrostatic Precipitator Technique in the Purification Process of Central Air-conditioning Systems%静电除尘技术在中央空调系统净化改造中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭继

    2013-01-01

      结合中央空调净化系统的发展和静电除尘器的优点,通过分析目前中央空调系统中存在的问题和现有空调净化方式的不足,说明静电除尘净化方式可以解决目前空调系统中造成的室内空气污染及洁净室空调运行成本高等问题,能够使人们享受到更加洁净健康舒适的室内环境,使真正意义上的洁净空调系统得到推广。%The problems existed in central air-conditioning systems are analyzed, as well as the disadvantages of the present air-condi-tioning systems purifying methods. It also expounded the current development status of central air-conditioning systems and the advantages of the electrostatic precipitators. The analysis proved that the electrostatic dust purification method can resolve the indoor air pollution problems and the high operation cost of the air-conditioning systems in clean room effectively. The method will supply a better indoor environment which is more healthy and comfortable. This work will promote the popularization of the real clean air-conditioning systems.

  15. Polonium purification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, J.D.

    1996-09-01

    Three processes for the purification of {sup 210}Po from irradiated bismuth targets are described. Safety equipment includes shielded hotcells for the initial separation from other activation products, gloveboxes for handling the volatile and highly toxic materials, and provisions for ventilation. All chemical separations must be performed under vacuum or in inerted systems. Two of the processes require large amounts of electricity; the third requires vessels made from exotic materials.

  16. Logic control of molecular sieve purification system of 65000m3· h-1 air separation plant%65000m3·h-1空分设备分子筛纯化系统逻辑控制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱玉芹

    2012-01-01

    The structure and technical process of molecular sieve purification system of 65000m3/ an air separation plant of Hebi coal and electeicity 600 ktpa methanol project are briefed, automatic valve closing / opening logical control of molecular sieve purification system, automatic / manual operation sequence control program,implementation of the sequence control program and optimized reform of the sequence control configuration program of the molecular sieve absorber in accordance with site operation conditions are described.%简介鹤壁煤电股份有限公司化工分公司空分厂65000m3·h-1空分设备分子筛纯化系统结构和工艺流程,介绍分子筛纯化系统阀门自动开关控制逻辑、顺控程序自动/手动运行、顺控程序执行过程,以及根据现场生产运行实际情况,对分子筛吸附器顺控组态程序进行的优化改进.

  17. Study on efficacy of air purification sterilizer in central sterile supply department%消毒供应中心使用空气净化消毒器的效果研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于凤玲; 黄俊云; 王华

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To study the efficacy of air purification sterilizer applied in various regions of the central sterile supply department, to explore related sterilization performance of air purification sterilizer and to promote the improvement of controllable methods. METHODS Under the normal room temperature and humidity, three methods were employed. The first method:laboratory disinfection, the second method: the on-site air disinfection assay under people absence circumstance, the third way: on-site disinfection assay under people attendance circumstance. RESULTS Laboratory disinfection: the killing rate of Staphylococcus albus in the aerosol was more than 99. 94%. The on-site air disinfection assay under people absence circumstance: the average elimination rate of natural bacteria ranged from 93. 68% to 96. 00% in each area. The on-site disinfection assay under people attendance circumstance: static disinfection group could not continue to keep air quality but the dynamic disinfection group could make the number of bacteria keep in a normal low level in each area. CONCLUSION Under the condition of each area of the central sterile supply department that remains clean, using multi-functional air purification sterilizer to disinfect persistently can not only reduce the cost of the hospital operation but also ensure the effectiveness of air disinfection and effectively prevent the hospital infections.%目的 对消毒供应中心各个区域使用空气净化消毒器效果进行研究,探讨空气净化消毒器杀菌相关性能,并促进其改良可控的方式方法.方法 在常温常湿状态下采用3种方法分别进行试验,第1种实验室消毒试验,第2种无人情况下现场空气消毒试验,第3种在有人情况下现场消毒试验.结果 在实验室消毒试验,对气雾中白色葡萄球菌杀灭率>99.94%;无人现场空气消毒试验在各个区域平均消除率在93.68%~96.00%;在有人的情况下现场消毒试验,静态消

  18. Air

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... house) Industrial emissions (like smoke and chemicals from factories) Household cleaners (spray cleaners, air fresheners) Car emissions (like carbon monoxide) *All of these things make up “particle pollution.” They mostly come from cars, trucks, buses, and ...

  19. Air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In recent years several regulations and standards for air quality and limits for air pollution were issued or are in preparation by the European Union, which have severe influence on the environmental monitoring and legislation in Austria. This chapter of the environmental control report of Austria gives an overview about the legal situation of air pollution control in the European Union and in specific the legal situation in Austria. It gives a comprehensive inventory of air pollution measurements for the whole area of Austria of total suspended particulates, ozone, volatile organic compounds, nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxide, carbon monoxide, heavy metals, benzene, dioxin, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and eutrophication. For each of these pollutants the measured emission values throughout Austria are given in tables and geographical charts, the environmental impact is discussed, statistical data and time series of the emission sources are given and legal regulations and measures for an effective environmental pollution control are discussed. In particular the impact of fossil-fuel power plants on the air pollution is analyzed. (a.n.)

  20. Analysis and treatment of trouble of molecular sieve purification system of 21000 m^3/h air separation plant%21000m^3/h空分设备分子筛纯化系统故障分析及处理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胥波; 闫伟东; 孔繁魁; 沈荣; 田现德

    2012-01-01

    In the air separation plant with molecular sieve adsorption and purification process, the work condition of molecular sieve purification system restricts the safe and stable run of the entire air separation system. For the troubles frequently occurring in molecular sieve purification system, such as mechanical trouble of switching over valve, valve action-generated program problem, and program-interlocked control of molecular sieve purification system, the judgment of the trouble causes and treatment measures are detailed.%分子筛吸附净化流程空分设备中,分子筛纯化系统的运行工况制约了整个空分系统的安全稳定运行。针对分子筛纯化系统经常出现的切换阀机械故障、阀门动作导致的程序问题以及分子筛纯化系统程序联锁控制等问题,详细介绍了故障原因判断和处理措施。

  1. 纳米二氧化钛光催化技术消毒和净化空气的应用研究%Application of nano-sized TiO2 photocatalysis to air purification and sterilization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李秉杰; 周雪媚; 钟照华; 杨德慧; 武帅钦; 李伯森; 孟浩; 姜思朋; 刘国军; 赵月辉; 崔洪波

    2008-01-01

    Objective To develop and evaluate the efficiency of air purification and sterilization instrument based on nano-sized TiO2 photocatalytic technique.Methods The nano-sized TiO2 photocatalytic air purification and sterilization instrument was designed and a sample had been prepared.The sterilization efficiencies for E.coli and Klebsiella by the nano-sized TiO2 photocatalytic instrument and ultraviolet (UV) were measured in closed labs.The on-site efficiency of the instrument was evaluated, too.Results The nano-sized TiO2 photocatalytic air purification and sterilization instrument was composed of five units: rough filter,nano-sized TiO2 photocatalytic unit,activated carbon fiber filter,negative ion generator,and programmed control unit.The E.coli killing rates by the nano-sized TiO2 photocatalytic instrument were 76.0%,81.8%,77.5%,and 80.7% at 30,60,90,and 120 minutes,respectively.There was no significant difference between the E.coli killing rates of the instrument and UV (P>0.05),except the 120 minutes timepeint.The Klebsiella killing rates by the instrument were 78.4% ,79.5% ,67.3% ,and 58.5 % at 30,60,90,and 120 minutes,respectively.The Klebsiella killing efficiencies of the instrument at 30 and 60 minutes were better than that of UV (P<0.01).There was no significant difference between the KlebsieUa killing efficiencies of the instrument and UV (P>0.05).Conclusion The air sterilization efficiency of the nano-sized TiO2 photocatalytic instrument should be equivalent or better as compared with the UV.This instrument might be used for the air purification and sterilization of the public locations.%目的 研制纳米二氧化钛(TiO2)光催化空气净化消毒器,并测试其空气消毒净化效果.方法 设计和制作纳米TiO2光催化空气净化消毒器样机.在封闭实验室将大肠埃希菌、克雷伯菌制成气雾,比较紫外线和纳米TiO2光催化空气净化消毒器消毒后残余细菌总数.在大型公共场所测试纳米TiO2光催

  2. Management and Maintenance of the Purification Air-conditioning System in PIVAS of Our Hospital%我院静脉用药调配中心净化空调系统的管理与维护

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯丽娟; 程钢; 张慜媛; 蔡琳; 夏泉; 许元宝; 许杜娟

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE:To improve the system of management and maintenance for the purification air-conditioning system in PIVAS,and to further strengthen the management of cleaning environment. METHODS:The cleanness monitoring project of purifi-cation air-conditioning system in PIVAS of our hospital was introduced in terms of temperature and humidity record,pressure differ-ence record,airborne particles detection,settling microbe monitoring report. And the monitoring results were analyzed. RESULTS:The temperature and humidity,pressure difference of clean area in PIVAS of our hospital are both in line with the standard of Phar-macy Intravenous Admixture Quality Management Specification (2010 edition),i.e. temperature at 18-26 ℃,relative humidity of 40%-65%;negative pressure difference between antibiotics,hazardous drug dispensing area and second dressing room are 5-10 Pa. The number of airborne particles (average static particle/m3) at various cleanness degrees in clean area are all in line with the standard of GMP(2010 edition),i.e. maximal allowable number of airborne particles(≥0.5 μm)were 3 520/m3(100 degree);352 000/m3 (10 000 degree);3 520 000/m3 (100 000 degree). The percentage of qualified static settling microbe detection reach 100%in clean area,which is in line with the standard of Settling Microbe Detection Method in Clean Room(Area) of Pharmaceu-tical Industry,i.e. criteria for settling microbe(90 mm)CFU/0.5 h≤1(100 degree);≤3(10 000 degree);≤10(100 000 degree). The percentage of qualified dynamic settling microbe detection is in low level,especially those of dispensing room and secondary dressing room only reaches 80%. CONCLUSIONS:It’s important for effective hospital infection control in PIVAS,the quality im-provement of intravenous injection,the safety guarantee of drug use in patients to further improve standard operation procedure of purification air-conditioning system management and maintenance,and manage and maintain the purification air

  3. 可再生纳米复合材料净化网在中央空调系统中的应用探讨%The Applied Discussion of Renewable Nanocomposites Purification Device in the Central Air Conditioning System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋宝龙∗; 李振海

    2012-01-01

      The TiO2-activated carbon composite materials with a visible regeneration performancewere prepared, and the development of an air cleaning facility with simple structure, good adsorption performance and low loss according to the adsorption and photocatalytic decomposition of decoupling functions. After measuring resistance of the purification equipment,this paper presented the problems and solutions in the central air conditioning system. Through the experiment and the calculation,this paper deduced the estimates formula of adsorption saturation time, which had important reference value.%  在制备出具有可见光再生性能的纳米 TiO2-活性炭复合材料后,本文根据吸附与光催化分解解耦的原则探讨研制结构简单、具有良好吸附性能、低压损的纳米活性炭空气净化装置。通过实验对净化网的阻力特性进行了探讨,提出了其在中央空调系统中的应用时的问题和解决方法,并根据实验、理论分析,推导出复合材料吸附饱和时间的概算公式,为此复合材料的实际应用提供了重要参考

  4. Purification process for vertically aligned carbon nanofibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Cattien V.; Delziet, Lance; Matthews, Kristopher; Chen, Bin; Meyyappan, M.

    2003-01-01

    Individual, free-standing, vertically aligned multiwall carbon nanotubes or nanofibers are ideal for sensor and electrode applications. Our plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition techniques for producing free-standing and vertically aligned carbon nanofibers use catalyst particles at the tip of the fiber. Here we present a simple purification process for the removal of iron catalyst particles at the tip of vertically aligned carbon nanofibers derived by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition. The first step involves thermal oxidation in air, at temperatures of 200-400 degrees C, resulting in the physical swelling of the iron particles from the formation of iron oxide. Subsequently, the complete removal of the iron oxide particles is achieved with diluted acid (12% HCl). The purification process appears to be very efficient at removing all of the iron catalyst particles. Electron microscopy images and Raman spectroscopy data indicate that the purification process does not damage the graphitic structure of the nanotubes.

  5. 盆栽植物对室内甲醛空气污染的净化研究进展%Research Advance in Purification of Formaldehyde-polluted Indoor Air by Potted Plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何勤勤; 周俊辉

    2014-01-01

    Formaldehyde ( FDH) is a main indoor air pollutant , and it can cause serious hazards to human ’ s physical and mental health.Therefore, it is one of today’s hot research subjects that the air pollutants from construction and decoration materials can be absorbed and removed by potted plants .Many researches showed that the indoor FDH concentration could be reduced effec -tively by many potted plants .The purification of FHD maybe included several aspects , such as assimilation by stems or leaves of potted plants , transformation and metabolism by plant cells , and degradation by the rhizospheric microorganisms .There maybe three ways for potted plants to react with FDH pollution:the first one had high absorption but weak resistance to FDH damage , showing obvious hurt external morphology;the second one had weak absorption but strong resistance to FDH damage , revealing normal exter-nal morphology through taking avoidance strategy to protect itself;the third one showed the strongest absorption and transforming a-bility to FDH with more or less hurt responses .The purification mechanism of formaldehyde -polluted indoor air by potted plants still needs for further researches .%甲醛是室内主要的空气污染物,严重影响了人们的身心健康,寻找净化空气污染的高效盆栽植物成为近年来研究的热点。许多研究表明:盆栽植物都能有效地降低室内甲醛的浓度,对甲醛的净化作用可能有通过盆栽植物的茎叶表面吸收、植物细胞转化代谢、根际微生物吸收降解等几个方面。植物对甲醛净化可能存在3种途径或机制:第1种是对甲醛吸收能力强,但抗性弱,外部形态伤害明显;第2种是植物单位干物质吸收甲醛量较少,但采取保护自己的规避策略,保持外部形态的完整;第3种是吸收并转化,这类植物单位干物质甲醛吸收量高,同时外部形态表现基本正常或正常。对盆栽植物净化甲醛空气

  6. 净化空气功能性内墙涂料的甲醛分解%Formaldehyde decomposition of air purification functional interior wall paint

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓强; 张剑平; 朱惟德; 施利毅

    2007-01-01

    A novel nano-TiO2-xNx composite was used as photocatalyst and added to the interior wall paint. The average diameter of nano-TiO2-xNx was about 20 nm. The majority crystal component of the sample was anatase and its optical absorption edge was shifted from 387 nm to 520 nm significantly. Nano-composite paint containing different dosage of nano-TiO2-xNx was investigated to study the properties of formaldehyde decomposition in the air. Testing results show that the formaldehyde decomposition ratio of that nano-paint can almost reach above 80%, especially for that of the paint containing 3% (w/w) nano-TiO2-xNx, which exceeded 90%. The primary investigation on the reaction kinetics of photocatalytic formaldehyde decomposition indicated that the experiment data well fit the model of first-order reaction kinetics.

  7. 航天器用空气净化涂层性能研究%Properties of air purification coating for spacecraft

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王磊; 贾宏; 马重芳

    2012-01-01

    The white nano-titania coating were prepared by sol-gel method. The particle size of nano-titania was range between 10 and 20nm by the analysis of XRD and TEM. In order to testify the fact that the TiO2 coating could be used to purify air within spacecraft sealed-cabin, the nano-titania coating photocatalytic oxidation experiments were carried out. The experimental results indicate that nano-titania coating can degrade the air contaminants such as formaldehyde, sulfur dioxide and nitrogen dioxide, at the same time, which can kill the bacteria and virus such as Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae.%采用溶胶-凝胶法制备了白色的纳米TiO2涂层。通过X射线衍射谱和透射电子显微镜的分析,表明TiO2粒径分布在10~20nm之间。为了验证纳米TiO2涂层对航天器密封舱内空气的净化作用,对TiO2涂层进行了实验研究,实验结果表明纳米TiO2涂层对甲醛、二氧化硫和二氧化氮污染气体有很好的净化效果。对大肠杆菌和肺炎克雷伯氏菌有很好的杀灭作用。

  8. 从分子筛纯化系统的设计及操作谈空分设备节能%Approach to energy-saving for air separation plant from the design and operation of molecular sieve purification system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张振友

    2012-01-01

    The energy-saving for molecular sieve purification system of air separation plant is analyzed from the process design of molecular sieve purification system, the design and selection of equipment, the engineering design and its operation and maintenance, and%从分子筛纯化系统的流程设计、设备的设计与选型、工程设计及其操作、维护等方面,分析空分设备分子筛纯化系统的节能问题,提出了对节能措施的一些思考和建议。

  9. INVESTIGATIONS ON BIOCHEMICAL PURIFICATION OF GROUND WATER FROM HYDROGEN SULFIDE

    OpenAIRE

    Yu. P. Sedlukho; Yu. O. Stankevich

    2015-01-01

    The paper considers problems and features of biochemical removal of hydrogen sulfide from ground water. The analysis of existing methods for purification of ground water from hydrogen sulfide has been given in the paper. The paper has established shortcomings of physical and chemical purification of ground water. While using aeration methods for removal of hydrogen sulfide formation of colloidal sulfur that gives muddiness and opalescence to water occurs due to partial chemical air oxidation....

  10. The Borexino purification system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benziger, Jay

    2014-05-01

    Purification of 278 tons of liquid scintillator and 889 tons of buffer shielding for the Borexino solar neutrino detector is performed with a system of combined distillation, water extraction, gas stripping and filtration. The purification system removed K, U and Th by distillation of the pseudocumene solvent and the PPO fluor. Noble gases, Rn, Kr and Ar were removed by gas stripping. Distillation was also employed to remove optical impurities and reduce the attenuation of scintillation light. The success of the purification system has facilitated the first time real time detection of low energy solar neutrinos.

  11. Synergistic effect of Brønsted acid and platinum on purification of automobile exhaust gases

    OpenAIRE

    Fu, Wei; Li, Xin-Hao; Bao, Hong-Liang; Wang, Kai-Xue; Wei, Xiao; Cai, Yi-Yu; Chen, Jie-Sheng

    2013-01-01

    The catalytic purification of automobile exhaust gases (CO, NOx and hydrocarbons) is one of the most practiced conversion processes used to lower the emissions and to reduce the air pollution. Nevertheless, the good performance of exhaust gas purification catalysts often requires the high consumption of noble metals such as platinum. Here we report that the Brønsted acid sites on the external surface of a microporous silicoaluminophosphate (SAPO) act as a promoter for exhaust gas purification...

  12. Corona-discharge air-purification system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wydeven, T. J.; Flamm, D. L.

    1979-01-01

    Plasma reaction chamber removes trace contaminants from spacecraft, submarines, and other closed environments by oxidizing contaminants to produce carbon dioxide and water. Contaminants are alcohols, esters, hydrogen sulfide, and ammonia. Others are lubricant solvents such as Freons, aromatics, and Ketones. Contaminants are removed from chamber by scrubber.

  13. Application of Micro Discharge for Air Purification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Kazuo; Sugiyama, Takeki; L. S., Manisha Nishamani; Kanamori, Masaki

    Micro discharge is investigated which is occurred with a pair of electrodes covered with dielectric barrier. The discharge gap is set at an order of micro meters by changing a spacer from 0 to 100μm. Paschen's law states the minimum sparking voltage of various gases for respective discharge gaps in atmospheric pressure. In this paper, characteristics of micro discharges, such as discharge voltages, discharge currents, discharge power, which is obtained with the help of Lissajous figures, and the relationships between these characteristics are presented. Characteristics of ozone generation and treatment of high concentration NOx, which is contained in exhaust gas of automobiles, are investigated. Byproducts are confirmed by FT-IR and GC-MS.

  14. Electron beam silicon purification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kravtsov, Anatoly [SIA ' ' KEPP EU' ' , Riga (Latvia); Kravtsov, Alexey [' ' KEPP-service' ' Ltd., Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2014-11-15

    Purification of heavily doped electronic grade silicon by evaporation of N-type impurities with electron beam heating was investigated in process with a batch weight up to 50 kilos. Effective temperature of the melt, an indicative parameter suitable for purification process characterization was calculated and appeared to be stable for different load weight processes. Purified material was successfully approbated in standard CZ processes of three different companies. Each company used its standard process and obtained CZ monocrystals applicable for photovoltaic application. These facts enable process to be successfully scaled up to commercial volumes (150-300 kg) and yield solar grade silicon. (copyright 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  15. [Protein expression and purification].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Růčková, E; Müller, P; Vojtěšek, B

    2014-01-01

    Production of recombinant proteins is essential for many applications in both basic research and also in medicine, where recombinant proteins are used as pharmaceuticals. This review summarizes procedures involved in recombinant protein expression and purification, including molecular cloning of target genes into expression vectors, selection of the appropriate expression system, and protein purification techniques. Recombinant DNA technology allows protein engineering to modify protein stability, activity and function or to facilitate protein purification by affinity tag fusions. A wide range of cloning systems enabling fast and effective design of expression vectors is currently available. A first choice of protein expression system is usually the bacteria Escherichia coli. The main advantages of this prokaryotic expression system are low cost and simplicity; on the other hand this system is often unsuitable for production of complex mammalian proteins. Protein expression mediated by eukaryotic cells (yeast, insect and mammalian cells) usually produces properly folded and posttranslationally modified proteins. How-ever, cultivation of insect and, especially, mammalian cells is time consuming and expensive. Affinity tagged recombinant proteins are purified efficiently using affinity chromatography. An affinity tag is a protein or peptide that mediates specific binding to a chromatography column, unbound proteins are removed during a washing step and pure protein is subsequently eluted. PMID:24945544

  16. Running Cost Analysis of Evaporative Cooling Energy-saving and Purification Air-conditioning in Supermarket of Xi'an%蒸发冷却式节能净化空调机组应用于西安某商场的经济性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋祥龙; 黄翔; 薛运

    2014-01-01

    以中等湿度地区西安为例,对蒸发冷却式节能净化机组在商场的适用性进行分析,得出室内参数按扩展空调舒适区设计时,机组全年内均可满足空调制冷要求。与传统机械制冷空调进行对比,蒸发冷却式节能净化空调机组COP为7.9,是机械制冷的3倍,全年运行费用为17099.3元,仅为机械制冷的21.5%,适合于中等湿度地区商场的应用,节能经济。%As Xi'an an example at moderate humidity area, the evaporative cooling type energy saving analysis the applicability of the purification unit at the mall, it is concluded that when the indoor comfort zone and air conditioning design parameters according to the extension, in all the year round all can meet the requirements of air conditioning refrigeration unit. Compared with traditional mechanical refrigeration and air conditioning, evaporative cooling type energy saving to purify the air conditioning unit COP is 7.9, is three times as many mechanical refrigeration, annual operating cost is 17099.3 yuan, only 21.5%of the mechanical refrigeration, suitable for medium humidity region market application, saving energy economy.

  17. Acrylic purification and coatings

    CERN Document Server

    ,

    2012-01-01

    Radon (Rn) and its decay daughters are a well-known source of background in direct WIMP detection experiments, as either a Rn decay daughter or an alpha particle emitted from a thin inner surface layer of a detector could produce a WIMP-like signal. Different surface treatment and cleaning techniques have been employed in the past to remove this type of contamination. A new method of dealing with the problem has been proposed and used for a prototype acrylic DEAP-1 detector. Inner surfaces of the detector were coated with a layer of ultra pure acrylic, meant to shield the active volume from alphas and recoiling nuclei. An acrylic purification technique and two coating techniques are described: a solvent-borne (tested on DEAP-1) and solvent-less (being developed for the full scale DEAP-3600 detector).

  18. Blood purification and hemo- perfusion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The method of blood purification is a new overlapping frontierdiscipline which develops quickly in recent years. It helps overcoming many serious and complicated diseases, even including some incurable illnesses.

  19. Nanomechanical Water Purification Device Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Seldon Laboratories, LLC, proposes a lightweight, low-pressure water purification device that harnesses the unique properties of carbon nanotubes and will operate...

  20. Sewage Purification Business Process Management

    OpenAIRE

    Esad Ahmetagić; Blaženka Piuković; Dušan Lukić

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the current level of drainage and sewage purification facilities built in the Autonomous Province of Vojvodina, a territorial unit of the Republic of Serbia. It also points out the issues related to organized business management in companies involved in this business.The management of business processes in sewage purification involves a comprehensive cycle: business organizing process, issues of standard, investments, workforce, and information system design as factors in ...

  1. Theoretical preconditions and technical substantiation for mechanical compressed air drying method application on the railway transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana RIPOL’-SARAGOSI

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is related to the compressed air purification for the rolling stock problems. The mechanical method is described as a potential way of the compressed air cooling and purificating. The temperature field at the heat conducting surface engineer function equation is given in the article as well.

  2. New concept of gas purification by electron attachment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recently, the public has become interested in the following types of gas purification: (1) removal of indoor air pollutants; (2) complete removal of dioxin from incineration plants; (3) complete removal of radioactive iodine compounds; (4) simultaneous removal of NOx and SOx in exhaust gases from cogeneration plants; (5) removal and decomposition of halocarbons; (6) ultrahigh purification of gas sued for semiconductor industries. A new concept of gas purification by electron attachment is proposed. Low-energy electrons generated in a corona-discharge reactor are captured by electronegative impurities, producing negative ions. The ions drift to the anode in the electric field and are removed at the anode of the reactor. Two types of reactors were used to remove the negative ions: a deposition-type reactor, which deposits negative ions at the anode surface; a sweep-out-type reactor, which sweeps out enriched electronegative impurities through the porous anode. Removals of dilute sulfur compounds, oxygen and iodine from nitrogen were conducted to verify the concept of gas purification. Simulation models were used to estimate removal efficiencies of these compounds, by taking into account electron attachment, and experimental constants of the models were determined. The removal efficiency correlated by the models agreed well with the experimental one

  3. [Biocenotic dynamics of liquid sewage in the process of its biological purification at aeration stations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalina, G P; Vinogradova, L A; Gipp, E K

    1975-08-01

    A study was made of biological purification of sewage at the aeration stations on the quantitative composition of the main indicator microbes--of bacteria of the coliform group and of the fecal coliform bacilli, enterococci, Proteus, and also pathogenic enterobacteria. There was found a difference in the behaviour of different species of Proteus, i.e. reduction in the process of purification in the numbers of Pr. mirabilis, and a sharp elevation of Pr. morganii content. There was noted an insignificant amount of Pr. vulgaris both before and after the biological purification. It was found that dynamics of biocenosis was influenced by air temperature at the time of collection of the samples. A possibility of reproduction of coliform bacilli serving as one of the factors of autopurification of sewage during the biological purification was confirmed.

  4. Rapid purification of recombinant histones.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrike Klinker

    Full Text Available The development of methods to assemble nucleosomes from recombinant histones decades ago has transformed chromatin research. Nevertheless, nucleosome reconstitution remains time consuming to this day, not least because the four individual histones must be purified first. Here, we present a streamlined purification protocol of recombinant histones from bacteria. We termed this method "rapid histone purification" (RHP as it circumvents isolation of inclusion bodies and thereby cuts out the most time-consuming step of traditional purification protocols. Instead of inclusion body isolation, whole cell extracts are prepared under strongly denaturing conditions that directly solubilize inclusion bodies. By ion exchange chromatography, the histones are purified from the extracts. The protocol has been successfully applied to all four canonical Drosophila and human histones. RHP histones and histones that were purified from isolated inclusion bodies had similar purities. The different purification strategies also did not impact the quality of octamers reconstituted from these histones. We expect that the RHP protocol can be readily applied to the purification of canonical histones from other species as well as the numerous histone variants.

  5. Purification of Water by Aquatic Plants

    OpenAIRE

    Morimitsu, Katsuhito; Kawahigashi, Tatsuo

    2013-01-01

    [Abstract] Water quality purification of many water systems including those occurring in rivers depends to a great degree on water quality purification activities of aquatic plants and microbes. This paper presents a discussion of results, based on laboratory experiments, of purification by aquatic plants.

  6. Exhaust purification with on-board ammonia production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robel, Wade J.; Driscoll, James J.; Coleman, Gerald N.; Knox, Kevin J.

    2009-06-30

    A power source is provided for use with selective catalytic reduction systems for exhaust-gas purification. The power source includes a first cylinder group with a first air-intake passage and a first exhaust passage, and a second cylinder group with a second air-intake passage and a second exhaust passage. The second air-intake passage is fluidly isolated from the first air-intake passage. A fuel-supply device may be configured to supply fuel into the first exhaust passage, and a catalyst may be disposed downstream of the fuel-supply device to convert at least a portion of the exhaust stream in the first exhaust passage into ammonia.

  7. INVESTIGATIONS ON BIOCHEMICAL PURIFICATION OF GROUND WATER FROM HYDROGEN SULFIDE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. P. Sedlukho

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers problems and features of biochemical removal of hydrogen sulfide from ground water. The analysis of existing methods for purification of ground water from hydrogen sulfide has been given in the paper. The paper has established shortcomings of physical and chemical purification of ground water. While using aeration methods for removal of hydrogen sulfide formation of colloidal sulfur that gives muddiness and opalescence to water occurs due to partial chemical air oxidation. In addition to this violation of sulfide-carbonate equilibrium taking place in the process of aeration due to desorption of H2S and CO2, often leads to clogging of degasifier nozzles with formed CaCO3 that causes serious operational problems. Chemical methods require relatively large flow of complex reagent facilities, storage facilities and transportation costs.In terms of hydrogen sulfide ground water purification the greatest interest is given to the biochemical method. Factors deterring widespread application of the biochemical method is its insufficient previous investigation and necessity to execute special research in order to determine optimal process parameters while purifying groundwater of a particular water supply source. Biochemical methods for oxidation of sulfur compounds are based on natural biological processes that ensure natural sulfur cycle. S. Vinogradsky has established a two-stage mechanism for oxidation of hydrogen sulfide with sulfur bacteria (Beggiatoa. The first stage presupposes oxidation of hydrogen sulphide to elemental sulfur which is accumulating in the cytoplasm in the form of globules. During the second stage sulfur bacteria begin to oxidize intracellular sulfur to sulfuric acid due to shortage of hydrogen sulfide.The paper provides the results of technological tests of large-scale pilot plants for biochemical purification of groundwater from hydrogen sulfide in semi-industrial conditions. Dependences of water quality

  8. Optimized purification of heating surfaces by means of pneumatic beating systems; Optimierte Heizflaechenreinigung durch den Einsatz pneumatischer Klopfvorrichtungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, Christian; Frach, Manfred; Tirkschleit, Marc [Clyde Bergemann GmbH, Wesel (Germany); Haug, Alexander; Gradwohl, Thomas [Norgren GmbH, Fellbach (Germany). Power Plants - Waste to Energy

    2012-11-01

    Today, the target-oriented purification of polluted heating surfaces in waste incinerators for increasing the efficiency and prolongation of the boiler availability is performed by a requirement oriented application of purification systems. The main components of the purification systems are in any case efficient key components, knowledge of the process as well as system competence. In the purification of convective heating surfaces of waste incinerators such purification systems consist of up to 350 innovative pneumatic single beater from Norgren GmbH (Alpen, Federal Republic of Germany) and a automation solution as well as process competence and system competence of Clyde Bergemann GmbH (Wesel, Federal Republic of Germany). Intense field tests resulted in a development of the highly efficient single beater which is characterized by a reduced consumption of compressed air, adjustable impact energy of up to 125 J as well as the possibility of a selective purification. The effectivity, reliability and longevity of this new single beater cylinder as well as its suitability as a key component in an efficient purification system already is proved by a large range of waste incinerators and refuse-fuelled power plants explicitly. In the immediate future the performance of this purification plant is enhanced by a combination with sensor-based process diagnostics systems.

  9. Novel technology of purification of copper electrolyte

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The effects of arsenic with different valence states on the purification of copper electrolyte were studied and a novel technology of purification of copper electrolyte by copper arsenite was proposed. The results show that the purification performance of As(Ⅲ) compounds is better than that of As(Ⅴ) compounds. The purification technology by copper arsenite has the advantages of simple operation, high purification performance and low cost in comparison with other technologies and its appropriate purification conditions are that copper arsenite concentration is 18 g/L, reaction temperature is 65 ℃ and reaction time is 8 h. The removal rates of Sb and Bi are 53.22% and 58.67% respectively under these conditions. The purification principle show that a kind of yellow precipitate mainly composed of arsenic, antimony (Ⅴ), bismuth and oxygen forms in electrolyte after copper arsenite is added, and consequently antimony and bismuth are removed from electrolyte.

  10. Bioinspired Materials for Water Purification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Gonzalez-Perez

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Water scarcity issues associated with inadequate access to clean water and sanitation is a ubiquitous problem occurring globally. Addressing future challenges will require a combination of new technological development in water purification and environmental remediation technology with suitable conservation policies. In this scenario, new bioinspired materials will play a pivotal role in the development of more efficient and environmentally friendly solutions. The role of amphiphilic self-assembly on the fabrication of new biomimetic membranes for membrane separation like reverse osmosis is emphasized. Mesoporous support materials for semiconductor growth in the photocatalytic degradation of pollutants and new carriers for immobilization of bacteria in bioreactors are used in the removal and processing of different kind of water pollutants like heavy metals. Obstacles to improve and optimize the fabrication as well as a better understanding of their performance in small-scale and pilot purification systems need to be addressed. However, it is expected that these new biomimetic materials will find their way into the current water purification technologies to improve their purification/removal performance in a cost-effective and environmentally friendly way.

  11. The Application of Plasma Air Purification Technology in Metro%光等离子空气净化技术在地铁中的应用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈洪; 张美玲; 王嘉

    2016-01-01

    According to the type of bacteria present in the subway,proposed the use of plasma to improve air quali-ty in the metro environment,and introduces the plasma sterilization principle,analyzes its sterilization effect of dif-ferent strains,the experimental results show that the sterilization rate of white staphylococcus more than 99.94%, sterilants table Staphylococcus aureus was 99.3%,and sterilization methicillin -resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)rate of 77.1%,indicating that plasma technology can effectively eliminate the detected bacteria of Guang-zhou Metro,can effectively improve the air quality in Guangzhou subway,ensure public travel health,to create a good traveling environment.%本文根据地铁中存在的细菌种类,提出了采用光等离子改善地铁环境空气质量,并介绍了光等离子灭菌原理,分析了其对不同菌种的灭菌效果,实验结果表明对白色葡萄球菌的灭菌率在99.94%以上,物表金黄色葡萄球菌的灭菌率为99.3%,对耐甲氧西林金黄色葡萄球菌(MRSA )的灭菌率为77.1%,说明光等离子技术可以有效地消灭广州地铁所检出的菌种,可以有效地改善广州地铁的空气质量,确保公众出行健康,营造良好的乘车环境。

  12. TIO2 based photocatalytic gas purification: the effects of co-catalysts and process conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fraters, Bindikt Daouda

    2015-01-01

    Photocatalysis is highly promising as a technology to mitigate environmental pollution. In this thesis the focus will be on air purification by photocatalytic oxidation of volatile organic compounds (VOC’s). A major challenge in photocatalysis is the low photonic efficiency, due to high electron hol

  13. Mimiviruses: Replication, Purification, and Quantification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrahão, Jônatas Santos; Oliveira, Graziele Pereira; Ferreira da Silva, Lorena Christine; Dos Santos Silva, Ludmila Karen; Kroon, Erna Geessien; La Scola, Bernard

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this protocol is to describe the replication, purification, and titration of mimiviruses. These viruses belong to the Mimiviridae family, the first member of which was isolated in 1992 from a cooling tower water sample collected during an outbreak of pneumonia in a hospital in Bradford, England. In recent years, several new mimiviruses have been isolated from different environmental conditions. These giant viruses are easily replicated in amoeba of the Acanthamoeba genus, its natural host. Mimiviruses present peculiar features that make them unique viruses, such as the particle and genome size and the genome's complexity. The discovery of these viruses rekindled discussions about their origin and evolution, and the genetic and structural complexity opened up a new field of study. Here, we describe some methods utilized for mimiviruses replication, purification, and titration. © 2016 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. PMID:27153385

  14. Bioinspired Materials for Water Purification

    OpenAIRE

    Alfredo Gonzalez-Perez; Persson, Kenneth M.

    2016-01-01

    Water scarcity issues associated with inadequate access to clean water and sanitation is a ubiquitous problem occurring globally. Addressing future challenges will require a combination of new technological development in water purification and environmental remediation technology with suitable conservation policies. In this scenario, new bioinspired materials will play a pivotal role in the development of more efficient and environmentally friendly solutions. The role of amphiphilic self-ass...

  15. Optimization of the online-purification; Optimierung der Online-Reinigung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rostkowski, Slawomir; Beckmann, Michael [Technische Univ. Dresden (Germany). Professur fuer Verbrennung, Waerme- und Stoffuebertragung; Tanner, Norbert [Kasseler Fernwaerme GmbH, Kassel (Germany). Planung und Bau von Erzeugungsanlagen

    2012-11-01

    The temperature of exhaust gases is used to evaluate the degree of pollution of a boiler during its operation and to determine the cleaning times. The temperature of exhaust gases increases with increasing incrustation due to a decreased heat extraction. The temperature of the exhaust gases also is influenced by other factors such as fuel throughput or air supply. Due to the conventional operating data, a targeted purification of the boiler is not possible. Due to the inhomogeneous fuels an online purification of waste incinerators determined by the degree of pollution at the single heating surfaces would be advantageous.

  16. Purification technology of molten aluminum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙宝德; 丁文江; 疏达; 周尧和

    2004-01-01

    Various purification methods were explored to eliminate the dissolved hydrogen and nonmetallic inclusions from molten aluminum alloys. A novel rotating impeller head with self-oscillation nozzles or an electromagnetic valve in the gas circuit was used to produce pulse gas currents for the rotary impeller degassing method. Water simulation results show that the size of gas bubbles can be decreased by 10%-20% as compared with the constant gas current mode. By coating ceramic filters or particles with active flux or enamels, composite filters were used to filter the scrap A356 alloy and pure aluminum. Experimental results demonstrate that better filtration efficiency and operation performance can be obtained. Based on numerical calculations, the separation efficiency of inclusions by high frequency magnetic field can be significantly improved by using a hollow cylinder-like separator or utilizing the effects of secondary flow of the melt in a square separator. A multi-stage and multi-media purification platform based on these methods was designed and applied in on-line processing of molten aluminum alloys. Mechanical properties of the processed scrap A356 alloy are greatly improved by the composite purification.

  17. SNO+ Scintillator Purification and Assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, R.; Chen, M.; Chkvorets, O.; Hallman, D.; Vázquez-Jáuregui, E.

    2011-04-01

    We describe the R&D on the scintillator purification and assay methods and technology for the SNO+ neutrino and double-beta decay experiment. The SNO+ experiment is a replacement of the SNO heavy water with liquid scintillator comprised of 2 g/L PPO in linear alkylbenzene (LAB). During filling the LAB will be transported underground by rail car and purified by multi-stage distillation and steam stripping at a flow rate of 19 LPM. While the detector is operational the scintillator can be recirculated at 150 LPM (full detector volume in 4 days) to provide repurification as necessary by either water extraction (for Ra, K, Bi) or by functional metal scavenger columns (for Pb, Ra, Bi, Ac, Th) followed by steam stripping to remove noble gases and oxygen (Rn, O2, Kr, Ar). The metal scavenger columns also provide a method for scintillator assay for ex-situ measurement of the U and Th chain radioactivity. We have developed "natural" radioactive spikes of Pb and Ra in LAB and use these for purification testing. Lastly, we present the planned operating modes and purification strategies and the plant specifications and design.

  18. Sewage Purification Business Process Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esad Ahmetagić

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the current level of drainage and sewage purification facilities built in the Autonomous Province of Vojvodina, a territorial unit of the Republic of Serbia. It also points out the issues related to organized business management in companies involved in this business.The management of business processes in sewage purification involves a comprehensive cycle: business organizing process, issues of standard, investments, workforce, and information system design as factors in establishing an effective organization of business processes. The definition of gap existing between the current approach to organizing business activities and the need to establish an approach based on knowledge, information technologies, and effective business process management points to the necessity for organization redesign and standard definition in business process management. Sewage purification business process management in Vojvodina, the Republic of Serbia has been elaborated through theoretical presentation and a practical example realized by electronic ISO 9001:2008 system of quality management in public water utility company JKP "Vodokanal" Sombor.

  19. Technological assumptions for biogas purification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makareviciene, Violeta; Sendzikiene, Egle

    2015-01-01

    Biogas can be used in the engines of transport vehicles and blended into natural gas networks, but it also requires the removal of carbon dioxide, hydrogen sulphide, and moisture. Biogas purification process flow diagrams have been developed for a process enabling the use of a dolomite suspension, as well as for solutions obtained by the filtration of the suspension, to obtain biogas free of hydrogen sulphide and with a carbon dioxide content that does not exceed 2%. The cost of biogas purification was evaluated on the basis of data on biogas production capacity and biogas production cost obtained from local water treatment facilities. It has been found that, with the use of dolomite suspension, the cost of biogas purification is approximately six times lower than that in the case of using a chemical sorbent such as monoethanolamine. The results showed travelling costs using biogas purified by dolomite suspension are nearly 1.5 time lower than travelling costs using gasoline and slightly lower than travelling costs using mineral diesel fuel.

  20. Comparing Russian and Finnish standards of water purification

    OpenAIRE

    Maria, Pupkova

    2012-01-01

    The subject of this thesis is water purification. The first aim of this thesis is to consider different ways of water purification. The second aim is to compare Finnish and Russian standards of water purification. The third one is to show water purification methods on the pattern of Mikkeli water purification plan. Water purification methods of water intended for human consumption will be described.Combined tables will be done according to the quality requirement of drinking water of both,...

  1. Experimental study on energy performance of clean air heat pump

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fang, Lei; Nie, Jinzhe; Olesen, Bjarne W.

    2014-01-01

    to investigate its energy performance. Energy consumption of the prototype of CAHP was measured in laboratory at different climate conditions including mild-cold, mildhot and extremely hot and humid climates. The energy saving potential of the clean air heat pump compared to a conventional ventilation and air......-conditioning system was calculated. The experimental results showed that the clean air heat pump saved substantial amount of energy compared to the conventional system. For example, the CAHP can save up to 59% of electricity in Copenhagen, up to 40% of electricity in Milan and up to 30% of electricity in Colombo......An innovative clean air heat pump (CAHP) was designed and developed based on the air purification capacity of regenerative silica gel rotor. The clean air heat pump integrated air purification, dehumidification and cooling in one unit. A prototype of the clean air heat pump was developed...

  2. Nano TiO2 photocatalytic materials and its applications in air purification within submarine cabins%纳米TiO2光催化材料及其在潜艇内空气净化中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王中驰; 黎德龙; 潘春旭

    2016-01-01

    The air quality within the submarine cabin is one of the major indicators in ensuring the normal operation of submarines. As a new photocatalysis, extensive attentions has been paid to nano TiO2 due to its effective and high degradation efficiency as well as its potential applications in environmental pollution treatment. With the continuous modification and improvement in recent years, the photocatalytic perfor⁃mance of nano TiO2 has been greatly enhanced, with its practical applications being promoted and developed as well. As a result, the air quality control via nano TiO2 photocatalysis in submarine cabins has become one of the most important research subjects. In this paper, according to the analysis on the compositions of hazardous gases and their damage to submarines, an overview of the recent development and feasibility of nano TiO2 on degrading organic pollution, anti-bacteria, and deodorization is presented, and its applications in degrading Volatile Organic Compounds(VOCs) as well as in air purification multi-technology is ex⁃plored. In addition, the technical solutions regarding the immobilization and low photocatalytic efficiency problems of nano TiO2 are proposed during practical applications. In brief, this paper provides useful sug⁃gestions and guidance for further nano TiO2 application in controlling air quality within submarine cabins.%潜艇舱室内空气质量的优劣是衡量潜艇正常运行的重要指标之一。纳米TiO2作为一种新型高效无污染光催化材料,在环境污染处理中具有广泛的应用前景,一直受到国内外研究者的关注。近年来,随着纳米TiO2的不断改性,光催化性能不断提高,在实际应用中得到了推广和开发,如何有效利用纳米TiO2光催化材料控制潜艇舱室内的空气质量水平成为一个极其重要的研究和应用领域。通过对潜艇内的有害气体组成与危害进行分析,综述了近几年在纳米TiO2光催化材料制备

  3. Synergistic effect of Brønsted acid and platinum on purification of automobile exhaust gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Wei; Li, Xin-Hao; Bao, Hong-Liang; Wang, Kai-Xue; Wei, Xiao; Cai, Yi-Yu; Chen, Jie-Sheng

    2013-08-01

    The catalytic purification of automobile exhaust gases (CO, NOx and hydrocarbons) is one of the most practiced conversion processes used to lower the emissions and to reduce the air pollution. Nevertheless, the good performance of exhaust gas purification catalysts often requires the high consumption of noble metals such as platinum. Here we report that the Brønsted acid sites on the external surface of a microporous silicoaluminophosphate (SAPO) act as a promoter for exhaust gas purification, effectively cutting the loading amount of platinum in the catalyst without sacrifice of performance. It is revealed that in the Pt-loaded SAPO-CHA catalyst, there exists a remarkable synergistic effect between the Brønsted acid sites and the Pt nanoparticles, the former helping to adsorb and activate the hydrocarbon molecules for NO reduction during the catalytic process. The thermal stability of SAPO-CHA also makes the composite catalyst stable and reusable without activity decay.

  4. Argon Collection And Purification For Proliferation Detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Achey, R. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Hunter, D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-10-09

    In order to determine whether a seismic event was a declared/undeclared underground nuclear weapon test, environmental samples must be taken and analyzed for signatures that are unique to a nuclear explosion. These signatures are either particles or gases. Particle samples are routinely taken and analyzed under the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO) verification regime as well as by individual countries. Gas samples are analyzed for signature gases, especially radioactive xenon. Underground nuclear tests also produce radioactive argon, but that signature is not well monitored. A radioactive argon signature, along with other signatures, can more conclusively determine whether an event was a nuclear test. This project has developed capabilities for collecting and purifying argon samples for ultra-low-background proportional counting. SRNL has developed a continuous gas enrichment system that produces an output stream containing 97% argon from whole air using adsorbent separation technology (the flow diagram for the system is shown in the figure). The vacuum swing adsorption (VSA) enrichment system is easily scalable to produce ten liters or more of 97% argon within twelve hours. A gas chromatographic separation using a column of modified hydrogen mordenite molecular sieve has been developed that can further purify the sample to better than 99% purity after separation from the helium carrier gas. The combination of these concentration and purification systems has the capability of being used for a field-deployable system for collecting argon samples suitable for ultra-low-background proportional counting for detecting nuclear detonations under the On-Site Inspection program of the CTBTO verification regime. The technology also has applications for the bulk argon separation from air for industrial purposes such as the semi-conductor industry.

  5. Boron carbide morphology changing under purification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmatullin, I. A.; Sivkov, A. A.

    2015-10-01

    Boron carbide synthesized by using coaxial magnetoplasma accelerator with graphite electrodes was purified by two different ways. XRD-investigations showed content changing and respectively powder purification. Moreover TEM-investigations demonstrated morphology changing of product under purification that was discussed in the work.

  6. Purification of trioctylphosphine oxide by liquid extracting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many methods of TOPO synthesis are known in the litterature. Neverthless, the purification methods still unknown or quite known. In this work, we have proposed to develop a new method of purification and we have used the extraction properties of TOPO. This method consist to extracting the molybdene with TOPO in acid medium

  7. HOUSEHOLD PURIFICATION OF FLUORIDE CONTAMINATED MAGADI (TRONA)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Joan Maj; Dahi, Elian

    1997-01-01

    Purification of fluoride contaminated magadi is studied using bone char sorption and calcium precipitation. The bone char treatment is found to be workable both in columns and in batches where the magadi is dissolved in water prior to treatment. The concentrations in the solutions were 89 g magadi...... treatment method. A procedure for purification of fluoride contaminated magadi at household level is described....

  8. Ion exchange purification of scandium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herchenroeder, Laurie A.; Burkholder, Harvey R.

    1990-10-23

    An improvement in purification of scandium through ion exchange chromatography is disclosed in which the oxidation potential of the eluting solution is altered by the addition of potassium chlorate or ammonium chloride so that removal of contaminants is encouraged. The temperature, pH and concentration of the eluent HEDTA are controlled in order to maintain the scandium in the column while minimizing dilution of the scandium band. Recovery of scandium is improved by pumping dilute scandium over the column prior to stripping the scandium and precipitation. This eliminates the HEDTA ion and other monovalent cations contaminating the scandium band. This method maximizes recovery of scandium while maintaining purity.

  9. Visible Light Responsive Catalyst for Air Water Purification Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Raymond M.

    2014-01-01

    Investigate and develop viable approaches to render the normally UV-activated TIO2 catalyst visible light responsive (VLR) and achieve high and sustaining catalytic activity under the visible region of the solar spectrum.

  10. Carbon Nanotube Electron Sources for Air Purification Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Pollution of the environment is a world wide concern and is the subject of broadly based R&D into means of prevention and remediation. The innovation proposed...

  11. Nb purification by Ti gettering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High purity niobium is required for superconducting RF cavities in order to achieve high accelerating fields. Ti gettering at high temperature in a vacuum furnace appears to be a nice way to get rid of light elements (O, C and N). Using this technique, residual resistance ratio (RRR) as high as 2000 can be obtained from standard 160 RRR niobium samples. Results of heat treatment applied to low RRR samples are shown. The influence of metallic impurities is also discussed. Another important feature to point out for that kind of purification is the sample thickness dependence. An experimental profile of the local RRR as a function of depth is drawn. Finally, the improvement of the accelerating field obtained on heat treated cavities is clearly demonstrated. (author)

  12. Air Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Air pollution is a mixture of solid particles and gases in the air. Car emissions, chemicals from factories, dust, pollen and ... Ozone, a gas, is a major part of air pollution in cities. When ozone forms air pollution, ...

  13. Simulation of Ion Generation and Breakdown in Atmospheric Air

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, W; Fisher, T. S.; Garimella, S V

    2004-01-01

    Understanding of ion generation in air provides insights to several applications, such as gas sensors, electrohydrodynamic pumping, and air purification. In this paper, ion generation processes in atmospheric air are simulated using a particle-in-cell and Monte Carlo method with emphasis on the prediction of ion generation and breakdown characteristics in microscale gaps. The simulation results are validated through comparison to Townsend’s discharge theory and experiments. The significance o...

  14. Extraction and purification of yellow cake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This dissertation has reviewed current studies on production and purification of yellow cake from uranium ores by both acid and alkaline leaching processes. It comprises three chapters, the first one deal with uranium minerals, uranium deposits, geology of uranium and uranium isotopes. The second chapter covers mining and milling methods, uranium leaching chemistry, precipitation, and purification of uranium concentrate by solvent extraction and possible impurities that commonly interfered with yellow cake. The last chapter presented ongoing literature review.(Author)

  15. The feasibility of NOx-purification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Dutch research institute TNO has developed a new, biological purification method to remove nitrogen oxide in combustion processes. Also the financial aspects and the practical possibilities of the new method were studied. By now the time has come to start a pilot project with industrial partners for which companies with a problem in their off gassing purification and a high reduction target for nitrogen oxide are requested to apply

  16. Extracorporeal blood purification in burns: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linden, Katharina; Stewart, Ian J; Kreyer, Stefan F X; Scaravilli, Vittorio; Cannon, Jeremy W; Cancio, Leopoldo C; Batchinsky, Andriy I; Chung, Kevin K

    2014-09-01

    A prolonged and fulminant inflammatory state, with high levels of pro- and anti-inflammatory mediators, is seen after extensive thermal injury. Blood purification techniques including plasma exchange, continuous venovenous hemofiltration, and adsorbing membranes have the potential to modulate this response, thereby improving outcomes. This article describes the scientific rationale behind blood purification in burns and offers a review of literature regarding its potential application in this patient cohort.

  17. Unified Model of Purification Units in Hydrogen Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴思东; 王彧斐; 冯霄

    2014-01-01

    Purification processes are widely used in hydrogen networks of refineries to increase hydrogen reuse. In refineries, hydrogen purification techniques include hydrocarbon, hydrogen sulfide and CO removal units. In addi-tion, light hydrocarbon recovery from the hydrogen source streams can also result in hydrogen purification. In order to simplify the superstructure and mathematical model of hydrogen network integration, the models of different pu-rification processes are unified in this paper, including mass balance and the expressions for hydrogen recovery and impurity removal ratios, which are given for all the purification units in refineries. Based on the proposed unified model, a superstructure of hydrogen networks with purification processes is constructed.

  18. Effect of purification pretreatment on the recovery of magnetite from waste ferrous sulfate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Wang; Peng, Ying-lin; Zheng, Ya-jie

    2016-08-01

    The present study was conducted to elucidate the influence of impurities in waste ferrous sulfate on its recovery of magnetite. Ferrous sulfate solution was purified by the addition of NaOH solution to precipitate impurities, and magnetite was recovered from ferrous sulfate solution without and with purification pretreatment. Calcium hydroxide was added to the solution of ferrous sulfate as a precipitator. A mixed product of magnetite and gypsum was subsequently obtained by air oxidation and heating. Wet-milling was performed prior to magnetic separation to recover magnetite from the mixed products. The results show that with the purification pretreatment, the grade of iron in magnetite concentrate increased from 62.05% to 65.58% and the recovery rate of iron decreased from 85.35% to 80.35%. The purification pretreatment reduced the conglutination between magnetite and gypsum, which favors their subsequent magnetic separation. In summary, a higher-grade magnetite with a better crystallinity and a larger particle size of 2.35 μm was obtained with the purification pretreatment.

  19. Effect of purification pretreatment on the recovery of magnetite from waste ferrous sulfate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Yu; Ying-lin Peng; Ya-jie Zheng

    2016-01-01

    The present study was conducted to elucidate the influence of impurities in waste ferrous sulfate on its recovery of magnetite. Ferrous sulfate solution was purified by the addition of NaOH solution to precipitate impurities, and magnetite was recovered from fer-rous sulfate solution without and with purification pretreatment. Calcium hydroxide was added to the solution of ferrous sulfate as a pre-cipitator. A mixed product of magnetite and gypsum was subsequently obtained by air oxidation and heating. Wet-milling was performed prior to magnetic separation to recover magnetite from the mixed products. The results show that with the purification pretreatment, the grade of iron in magnetite concentrate increased from 62.05%to 65.58%and the recovery rate of iron decreased from 85.35%to 80.35%. The pu-rification pretreatment reduced the conglutination between magnetite and gypsum, which favors their subsequent magnetic separation. In summary, a higher-grade magnetite with a better crystallinity and a larger particle size of 2.35 μm was obtained with the purification pretreatment.

  20. Ionic behavior of treated water at a water purification plant

    OpenAIRE

    Yanagida, Kazumi; Kawahigashi, Tatsuo

    2012-01-01

    [Abstract] Water at each processing stage in a water purification plant was extracted and analyzed to investigate changes of water quality. Investigations of water at each processing stage at the water purification plant are discussed herein.

  1. Advanced purification strategy for CueR, a cysteine containing copper(I) and DNA binding protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balogh, Ria K.; Gyurcsik, Béla; Hunyadi-Gulyás, Éva;

    2016-01-01

    . A detailed understanding of their function may be exploited in potential health, environmental and analytical applications. Members of the MerR protein family sense a broad range of mostly late transition and heavy metal ions through their cysteine thiolates. The air sensitivity of latter groups makes...... the expression and purification of such proteins challenging. Here we describe a method for the purification of the copper-regulatory CueR protein under optimized conditions. In order to avoid protein precipitation and/or eventual aggregation and to get rid of the co-purifying Escherichia coli elongation factor...... any affinity tag. Structure and functionality tests performed with mass spectrometry, circular dichroism spectroscopy and electrophoretic gel mobility shift assays approved the success of the purification procedure....

  2. Strategies and considerations for protein purifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linn, Stuart

    2009-01-01

    Prior to embarking upon the purification of a protein, one should begin by considering what the protein is to be used for. In particular, how much of the protein is needed, what should be its state of purity, and must it be folded correctly and associated with various other peptides or cofactors. Using such criteria, an appropriate assay should be chosen and a procedure be planned taking into account the source of the protein, how it is to be extracted from the source, and what agents the protein ought to be exposed to or ultimately be stored in. One is often surprised at the time necessary to develop an appropriate protein purification procedure relative to the time required to clone a gene or to accumulate information with the purified protein. There are an overwhelming number of options for protein purification steps, so forethought is necessary to expedite the tedious job of developing the purification scheme, or to avoid having to redesign it upon attempting to use the protein. This chapter points out general considerations to be undertaken in designing, organizing, and executing the purification, while subsequent chapters of this volume supply more specific options and technical details. PMID:19892162

  3. Air Abrasion

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... delivered directly to your desktop! more... What Is Air Abrasion? Article Chapters What Is Air Abrasion? What Happens? The Pros and Cons Will I Feel Anything? Is Air Abrasion for Everyone? print full article print this ...

  4. 21 CFR 876.5665 - Water purification system for hemodialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Water purification system for hemodialysis. 876... purification system for hemodialysis. (a) Identification. A water purification system for hemodialysis is a device that is intended for use with a hemodialysis system and that is intended to remove organic...

  5. Purification of Carbon Nanotubes: Alternative Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Files, Bradley; Scott, Carl; Gorelik, Olga; Nikolaev, Pasha; Hulse, Lou; Arepalli, Sivaram

    2000-01-01

    Traditional carbon nanotube purification process involves nitric acid refluxing and cross flow filtration using surfactant TritonX. This is believed to result in damage to nanotubes and surfactant residue on nanotube surface. Alternative purification procedures involving solvent extraction, thermal zone refining and nitric acid refiuxing are used in the current study. The effect of duration and type of solvent to dissolve impurities including fullerenes and P ACs (polyaromatic compounds) are monitored by nuclear magnetic reasonance, high performance liquid chromatography, and thermogravimetric analysis. Thermal zone refining yielded sample areas rich in nanotubes as seen by scanning electric microscopy. Refluxing in boiling nitric acid seem to improve the nanotube content. Different procedural steps are needed to purify samples produced by laser process compared to arc process. These alternative methods of nanotube purification will be presented along with results from supporting analytical techniques.

  6. Purification of contaminated groundwater by membrane technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Youn, In Soo; Chung, Chin Ki; Kim, Byoung Gon [Korea Institute of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-12-01

    The objective of this study is to apply the membrane separation technology to the purification of contaminated ground water in Korea. Under this scope, the purification was aimed to the drinking water level. The scale of the membrane system was chosen to a small filtration plant for local clean water supplies and/or heavy purifiers for buildings and public uses. The actual conditions of ground water contamination in Korea was surveyed to determine the major components to remove under the drinking water requirements. To set up a hybrid process with membrane methods, conventional purification methods were also investigated for the comparison purpose. The research results are summarized as follows : 1) Contamination of the groundwater in Korea has been found to be widespread across the country. The major contaminant were nitrate, bacteria, and organic chlorides. Some solvents and heavy metals are also supposed to exist in the ground water of industrial complexes, cities, and abandoned mines. 2) The purification methods currently used in public filtration plants appear not to be enough for new contaminants from recent industrial expanding. The advanced purification technologies generally adopted for this problem have been found to be unsuitable due to their very complicated design and operation, and lack of confidence in the purification performance. 3) The reverse osmosis tested with FilmTec FT30 membrane was found to remove nitrate ions in water with over 90 % efficiency. 4) The suitable membrane process for the contaminated groundwater in Korea has been found to be the treatments composed of activated carbon, microfiltration, reverse osmosis or ultrafiltration, and disinfection. The activated carbon treatment could be omitted for the water of low organic contaminants. The microfiltration and the reverse osmosis treatments stand for the conventional methods of filtration plants and the advanced methods for hardly removable components, respectively. It is recommended

  7. Soft-Bake Purification of SWCNTs Produced by Pulsed Laser Vaporization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yowell, Leonard; Nikolaev, Pavel; Gorelik, Olga; Allada, Rama Kumar; Sosa, Edward; Arepalli, Sivaram

    2013-01-01

    The "soft-bake" method is a simple and reliable initial purification step first proposed by researchers at Rice University for single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNT) produced by high-pressure carbon mon oxide disproportionation (HiPco). Soft-baking consists of annealing as-produced (raw) SWCNT, at low temperatures in humid air, in order to degrade the heavy graphitic shells that surround metal particle impurities. Once these shells are cracked open by the expansion and slow oxidation of the metal particles, the metal impurities can be digested through treatment with hydrochloric acid. The soft-baking of SWCNT produced by pulsed-laser vaporization (PLV) is not straightforward, because the larger average SWCNT diameters (.1.4 nm) and heavier graphitic shells surrounding metal particles call for increased temperatures during soft-bake. A part of the technology development focused on optimizing the temperature so that effective cracking of the graphitic shells is balanced with maintaining a reasonable yield, which was a critical aspect of this study. Once the ideal temperature was determined, a number of samples of raw SWCNT were purified using the soft-bake method. An important benefit to this process is the reduced time and effort required for soft-bake versus the standard purification route for SWCNT. The total time spent purifying samples by soft-bake is one week per batch, which equates to a factor of three reduction in the time required for purification as compared to the standard acid purification method. Reduction of the number of steps also appears to be an important factor in improving reproducibility of yield and purity of SWCNT, as small deviations are likely to get amplified over the course of a complicated multi-step purification process.

  8. Air stripping. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the application of air stripping techniques to water treatment, including groundwater decontamination and wastewater purification. The advantages and disadvantages of air stripping over other water treatment processes are discussed. Cleanup of the organic emissions generated by air stripping is also considered. The primary applications of air stripping are in groundwater and soil cleanup. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  9. Investigation of efficiency of air cleaning from acetone using a segmental construction biofilter

    OpenAIRE

    Denas Bacevičius; Alvydas Zagorskis

    2015-01-01

    Volatile organic compounds, e. g. acetone, have a direct impact on climate change, decrease of ozone in the air, and on the growth of greenhouse effect. One of the most popular air purifying methods from VOC is a biological air cleaning. Experimental investigations were conducted to determine the efficiency of the new structure of biofilter with polypropylene plates segments. During the investigations the efficiency of segmental construction biofilter of air purification at different initial ...

  10. Catalytic partial oxidation coupled with membrane purification to improve resource and energy efficiency in syngas production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iaquaniello, G; Salladini, A; Palo, E; Centi, G

    2015-02-01

    Catalytic partial oxidation coupled with membrane purification is a new process scheme to improve resource and energy efficiency in a well-established and large scale-process like syngas production. Experimentation in a semi industrial-scale unit (20 Nm(3)  h(-1) production) shows that a novel syngas production scheme based on a pre-reforming stage followed by a membrane for hydrogen separation, a catalytic partial oxidation step, and a further step of syngas purification by membrane allows the oxygen-to-carbon ratio to be decreased while maintaining levels of feed conversion. For a total feed conversion of 40 %, for example, the integrated novel architecture reduces oxygen consumption by over 50 %, with thus a corresponding improvement in resource efficiency and an improved energy efficiency and economics, these factors largely depending on the air separation stage used to produce pure oxygen. PMID:25571881

  11. Design and control of an alternative distillation sequence for bioethanol purification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Errico, Massimiliano; Ramírez-Márquez, César; Torres Ortega, Carlo Edgar;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Bioethanol is a green fuel considered to be a sustainable alternative to petro-derived gasoline. The transport sector contributes significantly to carbon dioxide emission and consequently has a negative impact on the air quality and is responsible for the increase of the greenhouse...... separation is presented. The steady state performance and the dynamic beavior are analyzed compared with the classical configuration reported in the literature. RESULTS: Ethanol-water azeotropic separation represents a challenge for bioethanol purification. Usually a three column sequence is used to obtain...... fuel grade bioethanol by extractive distillation. In order to reduce bioethanol purification cost a two column separation sequence is proposed. This configuration shows a 10% saving in capital costs together with higher ethanol recovery and better control properties compared with the classical three...

  12. Expression and Purification of Sperm Whale Myoglobin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Stephen; Indivero, Virginia; Burkhard, Caroline

    2010-01-01

    We present a multiweek laboratory exercise that exposes students to the fundamental techniques of bacterial expression and protein purification through the preparation of sperm whale myoglobin. Myoglobin, a robust oxygen-binding protein, contains a single heme that gives the protein a reddish color, making it an ideal subject for the teaching…

  13. Biodiesel separation and purification: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biodiesel as a biodegradable, sustainable and clean energy has worldwide attracted renewed and growing interest in topical years, chiefly due to development in biodiesel fuel and ecological pressures which include climatic changes. In the production of biodiesel from biomass, separation and purification of biodiesel is a critical technology. Conventional technologies used for biodiesel separation such as gravitational settling, decantation, filtration and biodiesel purification such as water washing, acid washing, and washing with ether and absorbents have proven to be inefficient, time and energy consumptive, and less cost effective. The involvement of membrane reactor and separative membrane shows great promise for the separation and purification of biodiesel. Membrane technology needs to be explored and exploited to overcome the difficulties usually encountered in the separation and purification of biodiesel. In this paper both conventional and most recent membrane technologies used in refining biodiesel have been critically reviewed. The effects of catalysts, free fatty acids, water content and oil to methanol ratios on the purity and quality of biodiesel are also examined. (author)

  14. Purification and Characterization of Tryptophan Hydroxylase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haahr, Lærke Tvedebrink

    This thesis deals with the purification and characterization of the iron-containing enzyme tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH). TPH exists in two isoforms, called TPH1 and TPH2. Each isoform consists of threestructural distinct domains: the regulatory, the catalytic and the tetramerization domain. TPH c...

  15. Entanglement purification for high dimensional multipartite systems

    CERN Document Server

    Cheong, Y W; Lee, J; Lee, S W; Cheong, Yong Wook; Lee, Hai-Woong; Lee, Jinhyoung; Lee, Seung-Woo

    2005-01-01

    If entangled states are transmitted through noisy quantum channel, then the correlation properties of the states can be changed. This fact can be usefully employed to error detection, which is closely linked to entanglement purification protocols (EPPs). We propose new EPPs which extract a generalized GHZ state from ensemble of mixed entangled state with a framework of error detection.

  16. Investigation of efficiency of air cleaning from acetone using a segmental construction biofilter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denas Bacevičius

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Volatile organic compounds, e. g. acetone, have a direct impact on climate change, decrease of ozone in the air, and on the growth of greenhouse effect. One of the most popular air purifying methods from VOC is a biological air cleaning. Experimental investigations were conducted to determine the efficiency of the new structure of biofilter with polypropylene plates segments. During the investigations the efficiency of segmental construction biofilter of air purification at different initial concentrations of pollutants was determined. Different concentrations of pollutants were estimated during the acetone dilution with water. During the tests the efficiency of biofilter air purification from acetone vapor and its change under different concentrations of vapors was set. Based on test results, the maximum efficiency of biofilter air purification was up to 93%. Studies have shown that increasing the allowable pollutant concentration, the efficiency of air purification unit decreases. Increasing the concentration of supplied acetone vapor into the biofilter from 232 to 701 mg/m3, cleaning efficiency decreased from 92.8 to 82.3%. Since microorganisms fail to oxidize organic compounds, the filter works better at lower initial concentrations of pollutants.

  17. Optimized entanglement purification schemes for modular based quantum computers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krastanov, Stefan; Jiang, Liang

    The choice of entanglement purification scheme strongly depends on the fidelities of quantum gates and measurements, as well as the imperfection of initial entanglement. For instance, the purification scheme optimal at low gate fidelities may not necessarily be the optimal scheme at higher gate fidelities. We employ an evolutionary algorithm that efficiently optimizes the entanglement purification circuit for given system parameters. Such optimized purification schemes will boost the performance of entanglement purification, and consequently enhance the fidelity of teleportation-based non-local coupling gates, which is an indispensible building block for modular-based quantum computers. In addition, we study how these optimized purification schemes affect the resource overhead caused by error correction in modular based quantum computers.

  18. Purification of Logic-Qubit Entanglement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Lan; Sheng, Yu-Bo

    2016-01-01

    Recently, the logic-qubit entanglement shows its potential application in future quantum communication and quantum network. However, the entanglement will suffer from the noise and decoherence. In this paper, we will investigate the first entanglement purification protocol for logic-qubit entanglement. We show that both the bit-flip error and phase-flip error in logic-qubit entanglement can be well purified. Moreover, the bit-flip error in physical-qubit entanglement can be completely corrected. The phase-flip in physical-qubit entanglement error equals to the bit-flip error in logic-qubit entanglement, which can also be purified. This entanglement purification protocol may provide some potential applications in future quantum communication and quantum network. PMID:27377165

  19. Improved native affinity purification of RNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batey, Robert T; Kieft, Jeffrey S

    2007-08-01

    RNA biochemical or structural studies often require an RNA sample that is chemically pure, and most protocols for its in vitro production use denaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis to achieve this. Unfortunately, many RNAs do not quantitatively refold into an active conformation after denaturation, creating significant problems for downstream characterization or use. In addition, this traditional purification method is not amenable to studies demanding high-throughput RNA production. Recently, we presented the first general method for producing almost any RNA sequence that employs an affinity tag that is removed during the purification process. Because technical difficulties prevented application of this method to many RNAs, we have developed an improved version that utilizes a different activatable ribozyme and affinity tag that are considerably more robust, rapid, and broadly applicable. PMID:17548432

  20. Nanotechnology for water treatment and purification

    CERN Document Server

    Apblett, Allen

    2014-01-01

    This book describes the latest progress in the application of nanotechnology for water treatment and purification. Leaders in the field present both the fundamental science and a comprehensive overview of the diverse range of tools and technologies that have been developed in this critical area. Expert chapters present the unique physicochemical and surface properties of nanoparticles and the advantages that these provide for engineering applications that ensure a supply of safe drinking water for our growing population. Application areas include generating fresh water from seawater, preventing contamination of the environment, and creating effective and efficient methods for remediation of polluted waters. The chapter authors are leading world-wide experts in the field with either academic or industrial experience, ensuring that this comprehensive volume presents the state-of-the-art in the integration of nanotechnology with water treatment and purification. Covers both wastewater and drinking water treatmen...

  1. Purification of Carbon Nanotubes by Proton Irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Euikwoun; Lee, Jeonggil; Lee, Younman; Jeon, Jaekyun; Kim, Jae-Yong; Kim, Jeongha; Shin, Kwanwoo; Youn, Sang-Pil; Kim, Kyeryung

    2007-10-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) exhibit variety of superior physical properties including well-defined nanodimensional structure, high electrical and thermal conductivity, and good mechanical stability against external irradiations. Further, a large specific surface area per unit weight suggests that carbon nanotubes could be excellent candidates for gas storage, purification, and separation. However, the practical application of CNTs is limited mainly due to the metallic impurities that were used as a catalyst during the fabrication process. Here, we irradiated CNTs by using high energy proton beams (35.7 MeV at the Bragg Peak). Interestingly, metallic impurities such as Fe, Ni, Co and chunk of amorphous carbon that were attached on the surface of CNTs were completely removed after the irradiation. The mechanism of such the purification process is not understood. The possible speculation will be demonstrated combined with the changes of physical properties including the appearance of the magnetism after the irradiation.

  2. Purification of Logic-Qubit Entanglement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Lan; Sheng, Yu-Bo

    2016-07-05

    Recently, the logic-qubit entanglement shows its potential application in future quantum communication and quantum network. However, the entanglement will suffer from the noise and decoherence. In this paper, we will investigate the first entanglement purification protocol for logic-qubit entanglement. We show that both the bit-flip error and phase-flip error in logic-qubit entanglement can be well purified. Moreover, the bit-flip error in physical-qubit entanglement can be completely corrected. The phase-flip in physical-qubit entanglement error equals to the bit-flip error in logic-qubit entanglement, which can also be purified. This entanglement purification protocol may provide some potential applications in future quantum communication and quantum network.

  3. Detergent-Free Membrane Protein Purification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothnie, Alice J

    2016-01-01

    Membrane proteins are localized within a lipid bilayer; in order to purify them for functional and structural studies the first step must involve solubilizing or extracting the protein from these lipids. To date this has been achieved using detergents which disrupt the bilayer and bind to the protein in the transmembrane region. However finding conditions for optimal extraction, without destabilizing protein structure, is time consuming and expensive. Here we present a recently-developed method using a styrene-maleic acid (SMA) co-polymer instead of detergents. The SMA co-polymer extracts membrane proteins in a small disc of lipid bilayer which can be used for affinity chromatography purification, thus enabling the purification of membrane proteins while maintaining their native lipid bilayer environment. PMID:27485341

  4. The Scintillator Purification System for the Borexino Solar Neutrino Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Benziger, J; Cadonati, L; Calaprice, F; Chen, M; Corsi, A; Cubaiu, A; Dalnoki-Veress, F; Di Pietro, G; Fernholz, R; Ford, R; Galbiati, C; Gazzana, S; Goretti, A; Harding, E; Ianni, Aldo; Ianni, Andrea; Kidner, S; Korga, G; Leung, M; Löser, F; Lombardi, P; McCarty, K; McKinsey, D; Montanari, D; Nelson, A; Orsini, M; Papp, L; Parmeggiano, S; Pocar, A; Salvo, C; Schimizzi, D; Shutt, T; Sonnenschein, A; Soricelli, F; Suvorov, Y

    2007-01-01

    Purification of the 278 tons of liquid scintillator and 889 tons of buffer shielding for the Borexino solar neutrino detector was performed with a system that combined distillation, water extraction, gas stripping and filtration. The purification of the scintillator achieved unprecedented low backgrounds for the large scale liquid scintillation detector. This paper describes the principles of operation, design, construction and commissioning of the purification system, and reviews the requirements and methods to achieve system cleanliness and leak-tightness.

  5. Affinity Purification of Protein Complexes Using TAP Tags

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerace, Erica; Moazed, Danesh

    2016-01-01

    This protocol is used for the isolation and analysis of protein complexes using the tandem affinity purification (TAP) tag system. The protocol describes the purification of a protein fused to a TAP tag comprised of two protein A domains and the calmodulin binding peptide separated by a TEV cleavage site. This is a powerful technique for rapid purification of protein complexes and the analysis of their stoichiometric composition, posttranslational modifications, structure, and functional activities. PMID:26096502

  6. Experimental method for the purification and reconditioning of ferrofluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotae, Constantin

    1987-03-01

    The paper presents the theoretical aspects regarding the magnetogravimetric purification of ferrofluids both in the process of preparation and for their reconditioning from impurities. An experimental device used for magnetogravimetric purification is described together with experiments on some samples of oil-based ferrofluid that became impure with non-mixible solid, liquid, magnetic and nonmagnetic ingredients. The experiments resulted in a complete purification of the ferrofluid samples.

  7. Post deposition purification of PTCDA thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The decomposition of perylene-3,4,9,10-tetracarboxylic dianhydride (PTCDA) molecules during evaporation of unpurified raw material in ultra high vacuum was studied. The fragments were identified by mass spectrometry and the influence of these fragments and further contaminations of the raw material on the electronic structure of PTCDA thin films was measured by photoemission spectroscopy. Annealing of contaminated PTCDA films was tested as cheap and easy to perform method for (partial) post deposition purification of the contaminated films

  8. Improved native affinity purification of RNA

    OpenAIRE

    Batey, Robert T.; Kieft, Jeffrey S.

    2007-01-01

    RNA biochemical or structural studies often require an RNA sample that is chemically pure, and most protocols for its in vitro production use denaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis to achieve this. Unfortunately, many RNAs do not quantitatively refold into an active conformation after denaturation, creating significant problems for downstream characterization or use. In addition, this traditional purification method is not amenable to studies demanding high-throughput RNA production. R...

  9. Purification of tubulin from porcine brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gell, Christopher; Friel, Claire T; Borgonovo, Barbara; Drechsel, David N; Hyman, Anthony A; Howard, Jonathon

    2011-01-01

    Microtubules, polymers of the heterodimeric protein αβ-tubulin, give shape to cells and are the tracks for vesicle transport and chromosome segregation. In vitro assays to study microtubule functions and their regulation by microtubule-associated proteins require the availability of purified αβ-tubulin. In this chapter, we describe the process of purification of heterodimeric αβ-tubulin from porcine brain.

  10. Conductive diamond electrodes for water purification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alberto Martínez-Huitle

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, synthetic diamond has been studied for its application in wastewater treatment, electroanalysis, organic synthesis and sensor areas; however, its use in the water disinfection/purification is its most relevant application. The new electrochemistry applications of diamond electrodes open new perspectives for an easy, effective, and chemical free water treatment. This article highlights and summarizes the results of a selection of papers dealing with electrochemical disinfection using synthetic diamond films.

  11. PURIFICATION OF GLUTAMINASE ENZYME PRODUCED FROM ERWINIA

    OpenAIRE

    PUSHPINDER PAUL

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to do Purification of the Glutaminase enzyme produced from free cells of Erwinia species at flask level. Glutaminase can be isolated from a number of sources such as plants, animals and microorganisms. Glutaminase is an important enzyme that serves many functions. It plays a key role in the energy and nitrogen metabolism of mammalian cells. Glutaminase is very important food enzyme used in food industries for flavor enhancement. Glutaminase, in combination with o...

  12. Simplified purification method for Clostridium difficiletoxin A

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Si-Wu Fu; Jing Xue; Ya-Li Zhang; Dian-Yuan Zhou

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To establish the purification method for Clostridiumdifficile ( C. difficile) toxin A.METHODS: C. difficile VPI 10463 filtrate was cultured anaerobically by the dialysis bag methods. And then the toxin A was purified by precipitation with 500 g/L (NH4)2SO4and acid precipitation at pH 5.5, followed by ion-exchange chromatography on DEAE-Toyopearl.RESULTS: Purified toxin A exhibited only one band on nativepolyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (native-PAGE) andOuchterlony double immunodiffusion. The molecular weight of toxin A was estimated to be 550 000. The purified toxin A had a protein concentration of 0.881 mg/mL. The minimum lethal dose was 1×106 MLD/mL (i.p.mice). The cytotoxictiter was 107 CU/mg. The haemagglutinate activity was ata concentration of 1.72 μg/mL. The ratio of fluid volume (mL)accumulated to the length (cm) of the loop was 2.46. CONCLUSION: The modified method for purification of toxin A of C. difficile was simple and convenient. It may be even more suitable for purification of toxin A on large scales.

  13. Affinity purification of aprotinin from bovine lung.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Yu; Liu, Lanhua; Chen, Beizhan; Zhang, Ling; Tong, Yanjun

    2015-05-01

    An affinity protocol for the purification of aprotinin from bovine lung was developed. To simulate the structure of sucrose octasulfate, a natural specific probe for aprotinin, the affinity ligand was composed of an acidic head and a hydrophobic stick, and was then linked with Sepharose. The sorbent was then subjected to adsorption analysis with pure aprotinin. The purification process consisted of one step of affinity chromatography and another step of ultrafiltration. Then purified aprotinin was subjected to sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, trypsin inhibitor activity, gel-filtration, and thin-layer chromatography analysis. As calculated, the theoretical maximum adsorption (Qmax ) of the affinity sorbent was 25,476.0 ± 184.8 kallikrein inactivator unit/g wet gel; the dissociation constant of the complex "immobilized ligand-aprotinin" (Kd ) was 4.6 ± 0.1 kallikrein inactivator unit/mL. After the affinity separation of bovine lung aprotinin, reducing sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analysis and gel-filtration chromatography revealed that the protein was a single polypeptide, and the purities were ∼ 97 and 100%, respectively; the purified peptide was also confirmed with aprotinin standard by gel-filtration chromatography and thin-layer chromatography. After the whole purification process, protein, and bioactivity recoveries were 2.2 and 92.6%, respectively; and the specific activity was up to 15,907.1 ± 10.2 kallikrein inactivator unit/mg. PMID:25677462

  14. Rotating Reverse-Osmosis for Water Purification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lueptow, RIchard M.

    2004-01-01

    A new design for a water-filtering device combines rotating filtration with reverse osmosis to create a rotating reverse- osmosis system. Rotating filtration has been used for separating plasma from whole blood, while reverse osmosis has been used in purification of water and in some chemical processes. Reverse- osmosis membranes are vulnerable to concentration polarization a type of fouling in which the chemicals meant not to pass through the reverse-osmosis membranes accumulate very near the surfaces of the membranes. The combination of rotating filtration and reverse osmosis is intended to prevent concentration polarization and thereby increase the desired flux of filtered water while decreasing the likelihood of passage of undesired chemical species through the filter. Devices based on this concept could be useful in a variety of commercial applications, including purification and desalination of drinking water, purification of pharmaceutical process water, treatment of household and industrial wastewater, and treatment of industrial process water. A rotating filter consists of a cylindrical porous microfilter rotating within a stationary concentric cylindrical outer shell (see figure). The aqueous suspension enters one end of the annulus between the inner and outer cylinders. Filtrate passes through the rotating cylindrical microfilter and is removed via a hollow shaft. The concentrated suspension is removed at the end of the annulus opposite the end where the suspension entered.

  15. Plasma coating formed TIO2 catalysts usage in cleaning the air from nitrogen oxides and carbon monoxide

    OpenAIRE

    Vitalij Kolodynskij; Pranas Baltrėnas

    2015-01-01

    The present catalytic air purification device–air cleaning device is capable to reduce nitrogen oxide sand carbon monoxide concentrations in polluted air stream and to achieve high cleaning efficiency. The principle of operation of catalytic air cleaning device is based on plasma coating formed catalysts usage. At high temperatures and oxygen concentrations in the experimental device channel, catalysts become active and reactions of conversion of pollutants start. In this research, the effici...

  16. Purification of scrap aluminum foil and aluminum melt covering and protecting & atomic purification theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    倪红军; 孙宝德; 刘满平; 丁文江

    2003-01-01

    A new flux, JDN-I, including rare earth compounds, for purification of the scraps of 99.99% aluminum foil was introduced. The experimental results indicate that its function of degassing and deoxidizing is excellent. The hydrogen content of the scrap aluminum foil melt purified by JDN-I flux decreases greatly from 4.5 mL/kg to 1.2 mL/kg at 720 ℃. The tensile strength of the samples refined with JDN-I flux increases by 19.2% and the elongation increases by 38.3% in comparison with those without flux. The purification mechanism of JDN-I was discussed and a theory of covering, protecting & atomic purification was also put forward.

  17. Compressorless Gas Storage and Regenerative Hydrogen Purification Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Microwave regenerative sorption media gas storage/delivery techniques are proposed to address both compressed gas management and hydrogen purification requirements...

  18. Efficient entanglement purification for doubly entangled photon state

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    In this paper,we present an efficient purification scheme that improves the efficiency of entanglement purification of the recently proposed entanglement purification scheme for doubly entangled photon states (Phys.Rev.A,2008,77:042315).This modified scheme contains the bit-flip error correction where all the photon pairs can be kept while all the bit-flip errors are corrected and the entanglement purification of phase-flip errors where a wavelength conversion process is used.This scheme has the advantage of high efficiency and a much lower minimum fidelity of the original state.It works under existing technology.

  19. HEAT OF COMPRESSION AND OPPORTUNITY OF ITS USE FOR INCREASE OF EFFICIENCY OF AIR SEPARATION PLANTS

    OpenAIRE

    Лавренченко, Г. К.; Швец, С. Г.; Копытин, А. В.

    2015-01-01

    The analysis of possible directions useful utilization of heat of compression for production of the cold water in the heat-utilizing refrigerating machine and for organization heating vacuum regeneration of the adsorbent bloc of the desiccation and the purification of the air. Mark expediency of the application absorption lithium bromide refrigerating machines for organization preliminary cooling of the air in the air separation plant large productivity.

  20. Dense Medium Plasma Water Purification Reactor (DMP WaPR) Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Dense Medium Plasma Water Purification Reactor offers significant improvements over existing water purification technologies used in Advanced Life Support...

  1. EB technology for the purification of flue gases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kojima, Takuji [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment

    2003-02-01

    Sulfur oxides and nitrogen oxides in flue gas from coal-combustion boilers in power plants, dioxins in flue gas from municipal waste incineration facilities and toxic volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in off-gas from painting or cleaning factories are among air pollutants for which emission is regulated by a law in Japan. Electron beam is the effective and easy controllable radiation source for treatment of these flue gases. This report describes outline of the results so far obtained at JAERI on electron beam treatment of flue gas. The removal performance higher than 90% at 10 kGy for flue gas containing 800 ppm SOx and 225 ppm NOx were achieved and being applied to real-scale power plants in Poland and China with expectation of cost reduction of 20% compared to conventional plants. Decomposition of dioxins in flue gas from solid waste incinerators is another project. Using an accelerator of 300 keV and 40 mA for treatment of real incineration gas at 200degC, we obtain 90% decomposition of dioxins at 15 kGy irradiation. Expansion of these flue gas purification technologies combined with low-energy electron accelerators is expected. (S. Ohno)

  2. Experimental evaluation on energy performance of innovative clean air heat pump for indoor environment control in summer and winter seasons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nie, Jinzhe; Fang, Lei; Olesen, Bjarne W.

    2014-01-01

    Based on the air purification capacity of regenerative silica gel rotor, an innovative clean air heat pump (CAHP) was designed, developed and investigated through experimental studies. The CAHP integrated air purification, dehumidification and heating/cooling in one unit. A prototype of the CAHP...... was developed. Laboratory experimental studies were conducted to investigate its energy performance under different outdoor climates including cold, mild-cold, mild-hot and extremely hot and humid climates. The energy performance of the CAHP was then evaluated by comparing with a conventional air source heat...... pump. The results showed that to keep same indoor air quality, the CAHP could save substantial amount of energy. For example, compared to the conventional air source heat pump, the CAHP could save up to 59%, 40%, 30% of electricity for ventilation and air conditioning in a test room in summer...

  3. One-step purification of E. coli elongation factor Tu

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Charlotte Rohde; Clark, Brian F. C.; Degn, B;

    1993-01-01

    The tuf A gene, encoding the E. coli elongation factor Tu, was cloned in the pGEX gene fusion system. Upon expression EF-Tu is fused to glutathione-S-transferase serving as a purification handle with affinity for glutathione immobilised on agarose. This allows purification of EF-Tu in a one...

  4. Surface processes during purification of InP quantum dots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Mordvinova

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Recently, a new simple and fast method for the synthesis of InP quantum dots by using phosphine as phosphorous precursor and myristic acid as surface stabilizer was reported. Purification after synthesis is necessary to obtain samples with good optical properties. Two methods of purification were compared and the surface processes which occur during purification were studied. Traditional precipitation with acetone is accompanied by a small increase in photoluminescence. It occurs that during the purification the hydrolysis of the indium precursor takes place, which leads to a better surface passivation. The electrophoretic purification technique does not increase luminescence efficiency but yields very pure quantum dots in only a few minutes. Additionally, the formation of In(OH3 during the low temperature synthesis was explained. Purification of quantum dots is a very significant part of postsynthetical treatment that determines the properties of the material. But this subject is not sufficiently discussed in the literature. The paper is devoted to the processes that occur at the surface of quantum dots during purification. A new method of purification, electrophoresis, is investigated and described in particular.

  5. The Induced Self-Purification of Creeks and Rivers

    CERN Document Server

    Mikhailovskii, V

    2000-01-01

    The clean-up of several Creeks and Rivers by induction of a self-purification process was provided. The process took place at all the sites studied with the up to 100% resulted removal of polluting agents depending on the site and nature of the contaminant. The self-purification mechanism could be used for drinking and technical water preparation.

  6. New Combined Electron-Beam Methods of Wastewater Purification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper is a brief review of the results obtained with the participation of the authors from the study on combined electron-beam methods for purification of some wastewaters. The data on purification of wastewaters containing dyes or hydrogen peroxide and municipal wastewater in the aerosol flow are considered

  7. Research of the thorium purification at monazite refinement processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shagalov, V. V.; Sobolev, V. I.; Turinskaya, M. V.; Malin, A. V.

    2016-06-01

    This paper is aimed to the research of the thorium purification processes at monazite refinement processes. We have investigated different solution containing thorium with different mix of rare-earth elements. It was found that the application of cation resin is well- recommended if we want to reach the highest yields of thorium purification process.

  8. An Innovative Reactor Technology to Improve Indoor Air Quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rempel, Jane [TIAX LLC., Lexington, MA (United States)

    2013-03-30

    As residential buildings achieve tighter envelopes in order to minimize energy used for space heating and cooling, accumulation of indoor air pollutants such as volatile organic compounds (VOCs), becomes a major concern causing poor air quality and increased health risks. Current VOC removal methods include sorbents, ultraviolet photocatalytic oxidation (UVPCO), and increased ventilation, but these methods do not capture or destroy all VOCs or are prohibitively expensive to implement. TIAX's objective in this program was to develop a new VOC removal technology for residential buildings. This novel air purification technology is based on an innovative reactor and light source design along with UVPCO properties of the chosen catalyst to purify indoor air and enhance indoor air quality (IAQ). During the program we designed, fabricated and tested a prototype air purifier to demonstrate its feasibility and effectiveness. We also measured kinetics of VOC destruction on photocatalysts, providing deep insight into reactor design.

  9. Purification and Characterization of Abrus precatorius Agglutinin

    OpenAIRE

    Absar, Nural; Funatsu, Gunki

    1984-01-01

    Abrus pvecatorius agglutinin (APA) has been purified by a new purification procedure from the seeds of semen jequiriti produced in Bangladesh and Taiwan. The method was accomplished by 33-50% saturation ammonium sulfate fraction from 1% acetic acid extract of the seeds of semen jequiriti using gel filtration on Sephadex G-75 followed by DEAE-cellulose column chromatography. The molecular weight was estimated to be 126,000 and 122,000 by gel filtration on Sephadex G-150 for Bangladesh-APA and ...

  10. Protein purification using magnetic adsorbent particles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Franzreb, M; Siemann-Herzberg, M.; Hobley, Timothy John;

    2006-01-01

    The application of functionalised magnetic adsorbent particles in combination with magnetic separation techniques has received considerable attention in recent years. The magnetically responsive nature of such adsorbent particles permits their selective manipulation and separation in the presence...... of development of protein separation using magnetic adsorbent particles and identify the obstacles that must be overcome if protein purification with magnetic adsorbent particles is to find its way into industrial practice....... of other suspended solids. Thus, it becomes possible to magnetically separate selected target species directly out of crude biological process liquors (e.g. fermentation broths, cell disruptates, plasma, milk, whey and plant extracts) simply by binding them on magnetic adsorbents before application...

  11. CAREM-25. Purification and volume control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purification and volume control system has the following main functions: water level control inside reactor pressure vessel (RPR) in all the reactor operational modes, pressure control when the reactor operates in solid state, and maintenance of radiological, physical and chemical parameters of primary water. In case of Hot Shutdown operational mode and also after Scram the system is capable of extraction of nuclear decay heat. The design of the system is in accordance with the Requirements of ANSI/ ANS 51.1; 58.11 and 56.2 standards. (author)

  12. Efficient entanglement purification in quantum repeaters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sheng Yu-Bo; Zhou Lan; Cheng Wei-Wen; Gong Long-Yan; Zhao Sheng-Mei; Zheng Bao-Yu

    2012-01-01

    We present an efficient entanglement purification protocol (EPP) with controlled-not (CNOT) gates and linear optics.With the CNOT gates,our EPP can reach a higher fidelity than the conventional one.Moreover,it does not require the fidelity of the initial mixed state to satisfy · · 1· 2.If the initial state is not entangled,it still can be purified.With the linear optics,this protocol can get pure maximally entangled pairs with some probabilities.Meanwhile,it can be used to purify the entanglement between the atomic ensembles in distant locations.This protocol may be useful in long-distance quantum communication.

  13. Immunochromatographic purification of Bean Yellow Mosaic Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bujarski, J J; Wiatroszak, I

    1981-01-01

    The method of immunoadsorptional purification of Bean Yellow Mosaic Virus has been worked out. Immunosorbents were obtained by coupling the antibody (IgG) fraction isolated from anti-BYMV and anti-pea leaf protein antisera with CNBr-activated 1% agarose beads. Conditions for preparation of immunosorbents, for BYMV adsorption and elution as well as the method of plant protein separation from BYMV were pointed out. The purity of BYMV was checked by double immunodiffusion as well as by SDS-acrylamide gel electrophoresis. Also biological activity was determined. TMV was used as the model virus for further BYMV studies. PMID:7025790

  14. Environment purification technology using ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radiation technologies for environment conservation are useful for purification of pollutants contained in flue gas or wastewater at very low concentration which is difficult to perform by conventional methods: removal using fine filter or charcoals and decomposition using catalysis at high temperature, etc. This paper reviews some examples of radiation application to removal of SO2 and NOx from coal-combustion flue gases, decomposition of dioxin in gas emitted through the incinerator, decomposition of gaseous toxic volatile organic compounds in off gas, reuse of agricultural wastes. (author)

  15. Purification of a single photon nonlinearity

    CERN Document Server

    Snijders, H; Norman, J; Bakker, M P; Gossard, A; Bowers, J E; van Exter, M P; Bouwmeester, D; Löffler, W

    2016-01-01

    We show that the lifetime-reduced fidelity of a semiconductor quantum dot-cavity single photon nonlinearity can be restored by polarization pre- and postselection. This is realized with a polarization degenerate microcavity in the weak coupling regime, where an output polarizer enables quantum interference of the two orthogonally polarized transmission amplitudes. This allows us to transform incident coherent light into a stream of strongly correlated photons with a second-order correlation function of g2(0)~40, larger than previous experimental results even in the strong-coupling regime. This purification technique might also be useful to improve the fidelity of quantum dot based logic gates.

  16. Biotechnology Protein Expression and Purification Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of the Project Scientist Core Facility is to provide purified proteins, both recombinant and natural, to the Biotechnology Science Team Project Scientists and the NRA-Structural Biology Test Investigators. Having a core facility for this purpose obviates the need for each scientist to develop the necessary expertise and equipment for molecular biology, protein expression, and protein purification. Because of this, they are able to focus their energies as well as their funding on the crystallization and structure determination of their target proteins.

  17. [Purification of {sup 67}Cu]. Progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeNardo, S.J.

    1994-09-01

    This report documents progress made in several areas of research and describes results which have not yet been published. These areas include: Purification of {sup 67}Cu; Macrocyclic chelates for targeted therapy; Studies of biologic activation associated with molecular receptor increase and tumor response in ChL6/L6 protocol patients; Lym-1 single chain genetically engineered molecules; Analysis of molecular genetic coded messages to enhance tumor response; Human dosimetry and therapeutic human use radiopharmaceuticals; studies in phantoms; Quantitative SPECT; Preclinical studies; and Clinical studies.

  18. Development of an automated mid-scale parallel protein purification system for antibody purification and affinity chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chi; Long, Alexander M; Swalm, Brooke; Charest, Ken; Wang, Yan; Hu, Jiali; Schulz, Craig; Goetzinger, Wolfgang; Hall, Brian E

    2016-12-01

    Protein purification is often a bottleneck during protein generation for large molecule drug discovery. Therapeutic antibody campaigns typically require the purification of hundreds of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) during the hybridoma process and lead optimization. With the increase in high-throughput cloning, faster DNA sequencing, and the use of parallel protein expression systems, a need for high-throughput purification approaches has evolved, particularly in the midsize range between 20 ml and 100 ml. To address this we modified a four channel Gilson solid phase extraction system (referred to as MG-SPE) with switching valves and sample holding loops to be able to perform standard affinity purification using commercially available columns and micro-titer format deep well blocks. By running 4 samples in parallel, the MG-SPE has the capacity to purify up to 24 samples of greater than 50 ml each using a single-step affinity purification protocol or a two-step protocol consisting of affinity chromatography followed by desalting/buffer exchange overnight (∼12 h run time). Our evaluation of affinity purification using mAbs and Fc-fusion proteins from mammalian cell supernatants demonstrates that the MG-SPE compared favorably with industry standard systems for both protein quality and yield. Overall the system is simple to operate and fills a void in purification processes where a simple, efficient, automated system is needed for affinity purification of midsize research samples.

  19. Thin air

    OpenAIRE

    Jasanoff, Sheila

    2013-01-01

    Clearing the air How do we grasp the air? Without Michel Callon’s guidance, I might never have asked that question. Years ago, when I first entered environmental law practice, I took it for granted that problems such as air pollution exist “out there” in the real world for science to discover and law to fix. It is a measure of Callon’s influence that I understand the law today as a metaphysical instrument, no less powerful in its capacity to order nature than the tools of the ancient oracular...

  20. Online Oxide Contamination Measurement and Purification Demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, D. E.; Godfroy, T. J.; Webster, K. L.; Garber, A. E.; Polzin, K. A.; Childers, D. J.

    2011-01-01

    Liquid metal sodium-potassium (NaK) has advantageous thermodynamic properties indicating its use as a fission reactor coolant for a surface (lunar, martian) power system. A major area of concern for fission reactor cooling systems is system corrosion due to oxygen contaminants at the high operating temperatures experienced. A small-scale, approximately 4-L capacity, simulated fission reactor cooling system employing NaK as a coolant was fabricated and tested with the goal of demonstrating a noninvasive oxygen detection and purification system. In order to generate prototypical conditions in the simulated cooling system, several system components were designed, fabricated, and tested. These major components were a fully-sealed, magnetically-coupled mechanical NaK pump, a graphite element heated reservoir, a plugging indicator system, and a cold trap. All system components were successfully demonstrated at a maximum system flow rate of approximately 150 cc/s at temperatures up to 550 C. Coolant purification was accomplished using a cold trap before and after plugging operations which showed a relative reduction in oxygen content.

  1. The Purification of Yttrium by Extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purification of yttrium by extraction process in the solution of nitric acid rare earth with di-(2-ethylhexyl)-phosphoric acid (HDEHP) have been investigated. Feed as nitric acid rare earth solution was prepared by method digestion of xenotime sand. The contents of yttrium (Y), lanthanum (La), and cerium (Ce) rare earth were analyzed using X-ray fluorescence. The purification was done by liquid-liquid extraction process from the feed mixture of rare earth. Variable that effect the distribution of rare earth as function of concentration of nitric acid in the aqueous phase, the concentration of organic phase in kerosene, and time of extraction. The best results at the separation was obtained as follows : concentration of nitric acid = 0.5 M, the concentration of organic phase = 30% di-(2-ethylhexyl)-phosphoric acid in kerosene, and time of extraction = 15 minutes. At this condition were the value of the separation factor of Y-La 126.9403 and separation factor of Y-Ce = 89.7923. (author)

  2. Generation and Purification of Atomic Entangled States

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Ming; SONG Wei; LI Yingqun; SHI Shouhua; CAO Zhuoliang

    2004-01-01

    @@ Entangled state plays a more and more important role in quantum information, so the generation of entangled state is of scientific value and practical significance.Although the experimental realization of entangled pairs of atoms and polarized photons have been reported recently, the current preparation schemes cannot meet the need of the practical application of entangled state in Quantum Communication and Quantum Computation.At the same time, resulting from the coupling between the quantum systems and its environment, decoherence of the quantum systems is unavoidable, which sets a vital obstacle on the way of the application of entanglement.There exist some entanglement generation and purification schemes, but the range of its application is relative small.So we proposed a more efficient scheme for entanglement generation and purification.The scheme is mainly based on the combination of linear optics and Cavity QED technique.The entanglement generation scheme can entangle two atoms by using MZI plus an optical cavity.Pure maximally entangled atomic states can be generated from product states or mixed states.Using a MZI, we can extract not only two-atom near-maximally entangled states but also four-atom maximally entangled states from less entangled pure or mixed states.

  3. Air Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to a close in June 2013 when the company, Conscious Clothing, was awarded the My Air grand ... Page Options: Request Translation Services Facebook Twitter LinkedIn Google+ Reddit Email Evernote More Increase Font Size Decrease ...

  4. [Expression, purification of recombinant cationic peptide AIK in Escherichia coli and its antitumor activity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Fangfang; Sun, Huiying; Xu, Hui; Liu, Jiawei; Zhang, Haiyuan; Li, Yilan; Ning, Xuelian; Sun, Yue; Bai, Jing; Fu, Songbin; Zhou, Chunshui

    2015-12-01

    AIK is a novel cationic peptide with potential antitumor activity. In order to construct the AIK expression vector by Gateway technology, and establish an optimal expression and purification method for recombinant AIK, a set of primers containing AttB sites were designed and used to create the AttB-TEV-FLAG-AIR fusion gene by overlapping PCR. The resulting fusion gene was cloned into the donor vector pDONR223 by attB and attP mediated recombination (BP reaction), then, transferred into the destination vector pDESTl 5 by attL and attR mediated recombination (LR reaction). All the cloning was verified by both colony PCR and DNA sequencing. The BL21 F. coli transformed by the GST-AIR expression plasmid was used to express the GST-AIK fusion protein with IPTG induction and the induction conditions were optimized. GST-AIR fusion protein was purified by glutathione magnetic beads, followed by rTEV cleavage to remove GST tag and MTS assay to test the growth inhibition activity of the recombinant AIR on human leukemia HL-60 cells. We found that a high level of soluble expression of GST-AIK protein (more than 30% out of the total bacterial proteins) was achieved upon 0.1 mmol/L ITPG induction for 4 h at 37 °C in the transformed BL21 F. coli with starting OD₆₀₀ at 1.0. Through GST affinity purification and rTEV cleavage, the purity of the resulting recombinant AIK was greater than 95%. And the MTS assays on HL-60 cells confirmed that the recombinant AIK retains an antitumor activity at a level similar to the chemically synthesized AIK. Taken together, we have established a method for expression and purification of recombinant AIK with a potent activity against tumor cells, which will be beneficial for the large-scale production and application of recombinant AIK in the future. PMID:27093838

  5. Evaluation of separation and purification processes in the antibiotic industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bienkowski, P.R.; Lee, D.D.; Byers, C.H.

    1987-05-01

    The different separation and purification processes for three major types of antibiotics, Penicillins, Cephalosporins and Tetracyclines will be discussed. All antibiotic, processing plants contain two majors sections, a relatively small and highly specialized fermentation section and a very large (60-80% of the plant) separation and purification section. The fermentation sections for the different antibiotics are essentially identical, except for differences in growth media and operating variables, but there are vast differences in the separation and purification sections. Several different separation methods are used including filtration, ultrafiltration, centrifugation, precipitation, extraction, chromatography and various membrane methods. Variables affecting the specific separation and purification configurations include final fermentation broth concentration, by-product formed during fermentation, the physical properties and molecular structure of the various antibiotics and special purification requirements. Necessary reductions in the separation and purification processes required for rebuilding the antibiotic industry after a national emergency are discussed along with several relatively new separation/purification methods that hold great promise for effecting these reductions, chromatography, supercritical fluid extraction (SCF), and membranes. 35 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs.

  6. The efficiency study of different purification methods for liquid scintillator

    CERN Document Server

    Hu, Wei; Yu, Boxiang; Zhang, Xuan; Zhou, Li; Cai, Xiao; Sun, Lijun

    2016-01-01

    JUNO is an experiment aimed at detecting neutrino mass hierarchy. The innermost part of the JUNO detector is formed by 20,000 tons of liquid scintillator which should have very low level of radioactive materials, such as 238U, 232Th, and 40K. Since the radioactive level of raw LAB(the solvent of LS)cannot reach so stringent requirements of JUNO, the purification for LAB plays an extremely important role in LS production. This article studies the efficiency of several different purification methods for LS, like distillation, water extraction and Al2O3 purification.

  7. Development of an equipment for atmospheric krypton sampling, purification, concentration and 85Kr measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The aim of this work is to develop an automated equipment for krypton sampling, concentration, and purification, and for 85Kr measurement. A potential interest of such an equipment is the detection of undeclared reprocessing activities as 10-35 TBq of 85Kr are emitted per kg of reprocessed Pu. Based on experience acquired during development of the 'Spalax' Noble Gas Equipment for CTBT implementation, we realize a laboratory prototype. This equipment was conceived according to the following technical specifications: i) fully automated sampling, treatment (concentration and purification), and measurement; ii) trapping at ambient temperature (no cryogenic cooling); iii) a 6-hour duty cycle; iv) 85Kr measurement thanks to a proportional counter; v) obtention of about 0.5 cm3 of krypton. This krypton volume provides a detection capability of about 100 mBq.m-3 of 85Kr over background, assuming given performance of the proportional counter (efficiency, background) and given precision over stable krypton volume determination. The prototype is composed of four distinct stages which perform successively the following steps: i) a first purification and pre-concentration; ii) purification; iii) further concentration; iv) detection of 85Kr. As a first-step krypton purification and pre-concentration, we use a semi-permeative membrane, as for the 'Spalax' equipment. Nevertheless, membranes are less 'efficient' for krypton than for xenon. Therefore, we conducted a specific optimization of the operating conditions for krypton. Finally, this membrane provides an efficient purification (O2, H2O, CO2 are eliminated) and krypton pre-concentration in nitrogen by about a factor of three. A strong pressure of about 7 bars in entrance is necessary. Air equivalent processed volume in 6 hours is about 1 m3. The purification stage provides an ambient temperature adsorption of noble gases on high specific area active charcoal bed thanks to two columns inserted in two tubular ovens

  8. Effect of water purification process in radioactive content: analysis on small scale purification plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Water from small scale purification plants is a low cost alternative for consumers in comparison to the bottled commercial presentations. Because of its low cost per liter, the consumption of this product has increased in recent years, stimulating in turn the installation of purification systems for these small businesses. The purpose of this study was to estimate the efficiency of small scale purification systems located in the cities of Zacatecas and Guadalupe, Zacatecas, to reduce the radioactive content of water. It was measured the total alpha and beta activity in water samples of entry and exit to process, through the liquid scintillation technique. In general it was observed that the process is more efficient in removing alpha that beta activity. The fraction of total alpha activity removed varied between 27 and 100%, while between 0 and 77% of the total beta activity was removed by the analyzed plants. In all cases, the total radioactivity level was lower than the maximum permissible value settled by the official mexican standard for drinking water. (Author)

  9. A RAPID DNA EXTRACTION METHOD FOR PCR IDENTIFICATION OF FUNGAL INDOOR AIR CONTAMINANTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Following air sampling, fungal DNA needs to be extracted and purified to a state suitable for laboratory use. Our laboratory has developed a simple method of extraction and purification of fungal DNA appropriate for enzymatic manipulation and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) appli...

  10. Silver nanocluster catalytic microreactors for water purification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da Silva, B.; Habibi, M.; Ognier, S.; Schelcher, G.; Mostafavi-Amjad, J.; Khalesifard, H. R. M.; Tatoulian, M.; Bonn, D.

    2016-07-01

    A new method for the elaboration of a novel type of catalytic microsystem with a high specific area catalyst is developed. A silver nanocluster catalytic microreactor was elaborated by doping a soda-lime glass with a silver salt. By applying a high power laser beam to the glass, silver nanoclusters are obtained at one of the surfaces which were characterized by BET measurements and AFM. A microfluidic chip was obtained by sealing the silver coated glass with a NOA 81 microchannel. The catalytic activity of the silver nanoclusters was then tested for the efficiency of water purification by using catalytic ozonation to oxidize an organic pollutant. The silver nanoclusters were found to be very stable in the microreactor and efficiently oxidized the pollutant, in spite of the very short residence times in the microchannel. This opens the way to study catalytic reactions in microchannels without the need of introducing the catalyst as a powder or manufacturing complex packed bed microreactors.

  11. Purification and Structural Analysis of Desmoplakin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hee-Jung; Weis, William I

    2016-01-01

    Desmoplakin (DP) is an obligate component of desmosomes, where it links the desmosomal cadherin/plakoglobin/plakophilin assembly to intermediate filaments. DP contains a large amino-terminal domain (DPNT) that binds to the cadherin/plakoglobin/plakophilin complex, a central coiled-coil domain that dimerizes the molecule, and a C-terminal domain (DPCT) that binds to intermediate filaments. DPNT contains a plakin domain, comprising a set of spectrin-like repeats. DPCT contains three plakin repeat domains, each formed by 4.5 repeats of a sequence motif known as a plakin repeat that bind to intermediate filaments. Here, we review purification, biochemical characterization, and structural analysis of the DPNT plakin domain and the DPCT plakin repeat domains. PMID:26778560

  12. Purification and Structural Analysis of Desmoplakin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hee-Jung; Weis, William I

    2016-01-01

    Desmoplakin (DP) is an obligate component of desmosomes, where it links the desmosomal cadherin/plakoglobin/plakophilin assembly to intermediate filaments. DP contains a large amino-terminal domain (DPNT) that binds to the cadherin/plakoglobin/plakophilin complex, a central coiled-coil domain that dimerizes the molecule, and a C-terminal domain (DPCT) that binds to intermediate filaments. DPNT contains a plakin domain, comprising a set of spectrin-like repeats. DPCT contains three plakin repeat domains, each formed by 4.5 repeats of a sequence motif known as a plakin repeat that bind to intermediate filaments. Here, we review purification, biochemical characterization, and structural analysis of the DPNT plakin domain and the DPCT plakin repeat domains.

  13. The purification capability analysis of AUC process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Through calculation,the purification capability of four kinds of impurities in AUC(ammonium uranyl tricarbonate) process was discussed. The minimum level of some impurities which can produce slightly soluble carbonates or hydroxides was calculated and their minimum values in AUC crystal were below 1 μg/g U. Some impurities which can produce partly soluble carbonates,for example, the Li concentration reached to 2.09 x 104 μg/L in solution containing [(NH4)2CO3] of 2.8 mol/L, cannot come into AUC crystal. The impurities which compound solubility is higher than the solubility of AUC can be removed by means of the separation of solid and liquid and washing the AUC crystal. (authors)

  14. Process for fine purification of fission molybdenum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The invention deals with a method for the fine purification of fission molybdenum, dissolved in anionic form together with the anions of the fission products of J, Sn, Ce, Ru, and Zr in an aqueous mineral acid solution; in this process the fission molybdenum is a) fixed on a metal oxide in a sorption step and b) released again in a desorption step. By the invention, a method shall be created, which is, under less favourable working conditions, almost insusceptible to failure and can be safely carried out with low expenditure of operation time, working equipment and handling technique and which delivers a highly pure Mo-99 product with a decreased volume of radioactive waste at the same time. (orig./RB)

  15. Vitreous membranes used in the biogas purification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the present work 10 vitreous membranes with different masses of zinc oxide (ZnO(s)) and particle diameters charcoal (DPC) are used in the purification of biogas. The porosity and tortuosity of the membranes is obtained, showing the variation with respect to the composition thereof. From these structural features specific flow of H2S(g) is obtained which is transferred using the Fick's diffusion equation in the membranes and its value increases with increasing mass of ZnO(s). By X-ray diffraction membrane made with 3.16 g of ZnO(s) forming zinc sulfide it is shown, so we can say that the removal of H2S(g) occurs by a process of absorption with chemical reaction in the membranes. (Author)

  16. Water purification using solar radiation in Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In developing countries, lack of safe and reliable drinking water constitutes a major problem. Contaminated water is the major cause of most water borne diseases like diarrhoea. Disinfection of water is accomplished by a number of different physical - chemical treatments including boiling, application of chlorine and filtration techniques. Solar energy, which is universally available, can also be used effectively in this process, that is, to deactivate the micro-organisms present in this contaminated water thereby improving its microbiological quality. This treatment process is called solar water disinfection. This paper therefore appraises the extent to which research work has been done as regards purification of water using solar radiation in Nigeria vis-a-vis outside the country. It is hoped that it will serve as a wake-up-call for Nigerians especially those in remote areas with no treated pipe borne water supply. The problems and prospects of this technology as well as the policy implications are presented. (author)

  17. Systems, compositions, and methods for fluid purification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ho, W.S. Winston; Verweij, Hendrik; Shqau, Krenar; Ramasubranian, Kartik

    2015-12-22

    Disclosed herein are membranes comprising a substrate, a support layer, and a selective layer. In some embodiments the membrane may further comprise a permeable layer. Methods of forming membranes are also disclosed comprising forming a support layer on a substrate, removing adsorbed species from the support layer, preparing a solution containing inorganic materials of a selective layer, contacting the support layer with the solution, drying the membrane, and exposing the membrane to rapid thermal processing. Also disclosed are methods of fluid purification comprising providing a membrane having a feed side and a permeable side, passing a fluid mixture across the feed side of the membrane, providing a driving force for transmembrane permeation, removing from the permeate side a permeate stream enriched in a purified fluid, and withdrawing from the feed side a fluid that is depleted in a purified fluid.

  18. Purification and characterization of the Oligosaccharyl transferase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kapoor, T.M.

    1990-11-01

    Oligosaccharyl transferase was characterized to be a glycoprotein with at least one saccharide unit that had a D-manno or D- glucopyranose configuration with unmodified hydroxy groups at C-3, C-4 and C-6, using a Concanavalin A affinity column. This afforded a 100 fold increase in the transferase purity in the solubilized microsomal sample and also removed over 90% of the microsomal proteins (the cytosolic ones being removed before solubilization). The detergent, N,N-Dimethyldodecylamine N-oxide (LDAO) was used for solubilization and it yielded a system compatible with the assay and the purification steps. An efficient method for detergent extraction without dilution of sample or protein precipitation was also developed.

  19. Hydrogen Purification Using Natural Zeolite Membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    DelValle, William

    2003-01-01

    The School of Science at Universidad del Turabo (UT) have a long-lasting investigation plan to study the hydrogen cleaning and purification technologies. We proposed a research project for the synthesis, phase analysis and porosity characterization of zeolite based ceramic perm-selective membranes for hydrogen cleaning to support NASA's commitment to achieving a broad-based research capability focusing on aerospace-related issues. The present study will focus on technology transfer by utilizing inorganic membranes for production of ultra-clean hydrogen for application in combustion. We tested three different natural zeolite membranes (different particle size at different temperatures and time of exposure). Our results show that the membranes exposured at 900 C for 1Hr has the most higher permeation capacity, indicated that our zeolite membranes has the capacity to permeate hydrogen.

  20. Carbon Nanotube–Purification and Sorting Protocols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poornendu Chaturvedi

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Carbon nanotubes (CNTs have shown extraordinary mechanical, thermal, electrical, and electronic properties. Electronic properties of CNT are very sensitive to its diameter and chirality, making it metallicor semiconducting, depending upon its chiral vector. The extraordinary properties of CNTs have led to demonstration of several applications but commercial realisation of these devices require consistent qualityof CNTs, and these should be  free of any impurity. For development of electronic devices, CNTs should notjust be pure but also of similar length, diameter, and electronic behaviour. Such demanding requirements need development of elaborate purification and sorting protocols. In this paper,  a brief review of the existing technologies and the research done is presented.Defence Science Journal, 2008, 58(5, pp.591-599, DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.14429/dsj.58.1694

  1. Air surveillance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patton, G.W.

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the air surveillance and monitoring programs currently in operation at that Hanford Site. Atmospheric releases of pollutants from Hanford to the surrounding region are a potential source of human exposure. For that reason, both radioactive and nonradioactive materials in air are monitored at a number of locations. The influence of Hanford emissions on local radionuclide concentrations was evaluated by comparing concentrations measured at distant locations within the region to concentrations measured at the Site perimeter. This section discusses sample collection, analytical methods, and the results of the Hanford air surveillance program. A complete listing of all analytical results summarized in this section is reported separately by Bisping (1995).

  2. Purification of melanoma growth stimulatory activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Hs0294 human malignant melanoma cell line produces a monolayer mitogen that stimulates the serum free growth of low-density cultures of Hs0294 cells. This report describes the purification of that mitogen, termed MGSA for melanoma growth stimulatory activity, from serum-free conditioned medium from the Hs0294 cultures. MGSA has been purified from acetic acid extracts of lyophilized conditioned medium by gel filtration, reverse-phase high-pressure liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC), and preparative electrophoresis, resulting in a >400,000-fold purification. MGSA bioactivity resides in acid- and heat-stable polypeptides of high and low molecular weight. However, the majority of the activity is reproducibly associated with the ∼16-kd moiety eluting from RP-HPLC at ∼35% acetonitrile. Reduction with dithiothreitol or B-mercaptoethanol results in a loss of biological activity but does not convert the 24-28-kd moieties to the 125I-MGSA that has been purified by preparative electrophoresis (16 kd) specifically binds to Hs0294 melanoma cells and retains 100% of the growth-stimulatory activity. The 16-kd MGSA stimulates the proliferation of Hs0294 cells at concentrations of 0.3-30 pM. Purified MGSA does not enable anchorage-independent growth of normal rat kidney (NRK) cells and is therefore different from the previously described transforming growth factors. The amino acid composition of MGSA differs from that of other previously described growth factors. These data demonstrate that MGSA represents a separate class of growth factors with biological and biochemical properties different from other growth factors

  3. Separation and Purification of Fissiogenic Ruthenium From Irradiated Uranium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Ruthenium is an important fission product. Its isotopic composition may reflect the burnup or the initial uranium enrichment of nuclear fuel. So the separation and purification method of fission products of Ruthenium from irradiated uranium was studied and established.

  4. Composite purification technology and mechanism of recycled aluminum alloys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    房文斌; 耿耀宏; 安阁英; 叶荣茂

    2002-01-01

    Iron-rich inclusions in aluminum alloys can be effectively removed by composite purification of sedimentation and filtration technology.The results show that the purposed method has no negative effects on aluminum alloys and obviously improve their mechanical properties.

  5. Materials for next-generation desalination and water purification membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werber, Jay R.; Osuji, Chinedum O.; Elimelech, Menachem

    2016-05-01

    Membrane-based separations for water purification and desalination have been increasingly applied to address the global challenges of water scarcity and the pollution of aquatic environments. However, progress in water purification membranes has been constrained by the inherent limitations of conventional membrane materials. Recent advances in methods for controlling the structure and chemical functionality in polymer films can potentially lead to new classes of membranes for water purification. In this Review, we first discuss the state of the art of existing membrane technologies for water purification and desalination, highlight their inherent limitations and establish the urgent requirements for next-generation membranes. We then describe molecular-level design approaches towards fabricating highly selective membranes, focusing on novel materials such as aquaporin, synthetic nanochannels, graphene and self-assembled block copolymers and small molecules. Finally, we highlight promising membrane surface modification approaches that minimize interfacial interactions and enhance fouling resistance.

  6. Sodium Purification Device for Production of Tantalum Powder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    In the process of tantalum powder production it requires pure sodium to reduce potassium fluotantalate, thus the design of a sodium purification device is improved, later it is built and commissioned. The device includes sodium transportation tank, storage tank, filter, cold trap, final storage tank, metering tank, regulating valve, argon purification system, electric control panel and instrument. Industrial purity sodium is purified, the impurities in the sodium were reduced to very

  7. A convenient method for lecithin purification from fresh eggs

    OpenAIRE

    Flavio A. Maximiano; Marcia A. da Silva; Katia R. P. Daghastanli; de Araujo, Pedro S.; Hernan Chaimovich; Iolanda M. Cuccovia

    2008-01-01

    The increasing demand for fatty acid-free lecithin required modifications in existing purification methods. In this technical note we describe a purification procedure with the following steps: a) homogenization and extraction of yolks obtained from fresh eggs with acetone, b) solubilization with ethanol and solvent elimination and c) repeated solubilization/precipitation with petroleum ether/acetone. This crude extract was chromatographed on neutral alumina, which was exhaustively washed wit...

  8. Purification of crime scene DNA extracts using centrifugal filter devices

    OpenAIRE

    Norén, Lina; Hedell, Ronny; Ansell, Ricky; Hedman, Johannes

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The success of forensic DNA analysis is limited by the size, quality and purity of biological evidence found at crime scenes. Sample impurities can inhibit PCR, resulting in partial or negative DNA profiles. Various DNA purification methods are applied to remove impurities, for example, employing centrifugal filter devices. However, irrespective of method, DNA purification leads to DNA loss. Here we evaluate the filter devices Amicon Ultra 30 K and Microsep 30 K with respect to re...

  9. Purification of human leucocyte DNA: proteinase K is not necessary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, A M; Georgalis, A M; Benton, L R; Canavan, K L; Atchison, B A

    1992-03-01

    A rapid nontoxic method for the purification of DNA from human leucocytes is described. Preliminary experiments which tested different methods of DNA purification indicated that digestion of proteins with proteinase K was unnecessary. This led to the development of a simple procedure involving lysis of the cells in SDS followed by extraction with 6 M NaCl. The method described overcomes the requirement for lengthy incubations in the presence of expensive proteinase K and subsequent extraction with toxic chemicals.

  10. Recommended methods for purification of solvents and tests for impurities

    CERN Document Server

    Coetzee, J F

    1982-01-01

    Recommended Methods for Purification of Solvents and Tests for Impurities is a compilation of recommended procedures for purification of solvents and tests for solvent impurities. Ten solvents are covered: acetonitrile, sulfolane, propylene carbonate, dimethyl sulfoxide, dimethylformamide, hexamethylphosphoramide, pyridine, ethylenediamine, N-methylacetamide, and N-methylpropionamide. This book is comprised of 12 chapters and opens with an introduction to general aspects of impurity effects. The rationale for the selection of solvent is explained, and the relative reactivities of solutes in di

  11. Experimental Demonstration of Continuous Variable Purification of Squeezed States

    OpenAIRE

    Franzen, A.; Hage, B; DiGuglielmo, J.; Fiurasek, J.; Schnabel, R.

    2006-01-01

    We report on the first experimental demonstration of purification of nonclassical continuous variable states. The protocol uses two copies of phase-diffused states overlapped on a beam splitter and provides Gaussified, less mixed states with the degree of squeezing improved. The protocol uses only linear optical devices such as beam splitters and homodyne detection, thereby proving these optical elements can be used for successful purification of this type of state decoherence which occurs in...

  12. Thoron in the air: assessment of the occupational dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The occupational dose due to inhalation of thoron was assessed through the committed effective dose and the committed equivalent dose received by workers exposed to the radionuclide at the nuclear materials storage site and the thorium purification plant of the Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN-CNEN/SP). The radiation doses were performed by compartmental analysis following the compartmental model of the lung and biokinetic model of the lead, through the thoron equilibrium equivalent concentrations. These values were obtained by gamma ray spectrometry, total alpha count and alpha particle spectrometry of air samples glass fiber filters. The results of the thoron equilibrium equivalent concentration varied from 0.3 to 0,67 Bq/m3 at the nuclear materials storage site and from 0.9 to 249.8 Bq/m3 at the thorium purification plant. The committed effective dose due to thoron inhalation varied from 0.03 mSv/a to 0.67 mSv/a at the nuclear materials storage site and from 0.12 mSv/a to 6.0 mSv/a at the thorium purification plant. The risk assessment of lung cancer and fatal cancers for the workers exposed to thoron at the nuclear materials storage site and the thorium purification plant showed an increment for both risk cancer. (author)

  13. Healthy Air Outdoors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... lung.org > Our Initiatives > Healthy Air > Outdoor Healthy Air Outdoors The quality of the air we breathe ... families and can even shorten their lives. Outdoor Air Pollution and Health Outdoor air pollution continues to ...

  14. 室内植物对甲醛净化性能的研究进展%Progress of Research on the Purification of Formaldehyde by Plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡宝珍; 金荷仙; 熊伟

    2011-01-01

    随着人们生活水平的提高,室内空气净化已成为人们普遍关心的问题,而甲醛作为室内空气污染的头号杀手,引起了人们的巨大关注.笔者简述室内甲醛污染的来源、危害以及净化甲醛的重要性.与物理吸附、化学吸收、光催化和生物降解等技术相比,植物净化甲醛技术具有自然、环保、操作简单的特点,已经成为室内甲醛净化和室内植物景观研究的热点和前沿科学之一.综述植物净化甲醛的国内外研究进展,着重从吸附净化、代谢净化及根际微生物的降解净化等3方面阐述植物净化甲醛的机理,介绍植物净化甲醛的毒理研究进展,同时指出目前研究中存在的主要问题,并进一步提出未来的研究发展方向.%Purification of indoor polluted air becomes a common concern topic along with living standards'enhancement.As the top killer of indoor polluted air, the formaldehyde pollution was of special concern.The origin of formaldehyde and its enormous pollution in indoor air were inevitable, so it was very import to purify indoor air formaldehyde.Compared with technology of physical absorption, chemical absorption, photocatalytic biodegradable, the purification of formaldehyde by plant was natural, environmental and easy operate, which became the hot topic and advanced science in the research of purification of indoor formaldehyde and houseplant landscape.The domestic and abroad research progress of aerobic granular sludge was summerized.The theory of purification of formaldehyde was the absorption by the stem and foliage, the metabolism and transformation by the plant, and the degradation by the rhizosphere microorganism.Toxicological purification of formaldehyde by indoor plants was viewed.Advantages and disadvantages in research were reported, too.Finally, the foreground of the purification of formaldehyde by indoor plants was prospected.

  15. Purification of cerium, neodymium and gadolinium for low background experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boiko, R. S.; Barabash, A. S.; Belli, P.; Bernabei, R.; Cappella, F.; Cerulli, R.; Danevich, F. A.; Incicchitti, A.; Laubenstein, M.; Mokina, V. M.; Nisi, S.; Poda, D. V.; Polischuk, O. G.; Tretyak, V. I.

    2014-01-01

    Cerium, neodymium and gadolinium contain double beta active isotopes. The most interesting are 150Nd and 160Gd (promising for 0ν2β search), 136Ce (2β+ candidate with one of the highest Q2β). The main problem of compounds containing lanthanide elements is their high radioactive contamination by uranium, radium, actinium and thorium. The new generation 2β experiments require development of methods for a deep purification of lanthanides from the radioactive elements. A combination of physical and chemical methods was applied to purify cerium, neodymium and gadolinium. Liquid-liquid extraction technique was used to remove traces of Th and U from neodymium, gadolinium and for purification of cerium from Th, U, Ra and K. Co-precipitation and recrystallization methods were utilized for further reduction of the impurities. The radioactive contamination of the samples before and after the purification was tested by using ultra-low-background HPGe gamma spectrometry. As a result of the purification procedure the radioactive contamination of gadolinium oxide (a similar purification efficiency was reached also with cerium and neodymium oxides) was decreased from 0.12 Bq/kg to 0.007 Bq/kg in 228Th, from 0.04 Bq/kg to <0.006 Bq/kg in 226Ra, and from 0.9 Bq/kg to 0.04 Bq/kg in 40K. The purification methods are much less efficient for chemically very similar radioactive elements like actinium, lanthanum and lutetium.

  16. Monogamy, polygamy, and other properties of entanglement of purification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagchi, Shrobona; Pati, Arun Kumar

    2015-04-01

    For bipartite pure and mixed quantum states, in addition to the quantum mutual information, there is another measure of total correlation, namely, the entanglement of purification. We study the monogamy, polygamy, and additivity properties of the entanglement of purification for pure and mixed states. In this paper, we show that, in contrast to the quantum mutual information which is strictly monogamous for any tripartite pure states, the entanglement of purification is polygamous for the same. This shows that there can be genuinely two types of total correlation across any bipartite cross in a pure tripartite state. Furthermore, we find the lower bound and actual values of the entanglement of purification for different classes of tripartite and higher-dimensional bipartite mixed states. Thereafter, we show that if entanglement of purification is not additive on tensor product states, it is actually subadditive. Using these results, we identify some states which are additive on tensor products for entanglement of purification. The implications of these findings on the quantum advantage of dense coding are briefly discussed, whereby we show that for tripartite pure states, it is strictly monogamous and if it is nonadditive, then it is superadditive on tensor product states.

  17. Purification of cerium, neodymium and gadolinium for low background experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boiko R.S.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cerium, neodymium and gadolinium contain double beta active isotopes. The most interesting are 150Nd and 160Gd (promising for 0ν2β search, 136Ce (2β+ candidate with one of the highest Q2β. The main problem of compounds containing lanthanide elements is their high radioactive contamination by uranium, radium, actinium and thorium. The new generation 2β experiments require development of methods for a deep purification of lanthanides from the radioactive elements. A combination of physical and chemical methods was applied to purify cerium, neodymium and gadolinium. Liquid-liquid extraction technique was used to remove traces of Th and U from neodymium, gadolinium and for purification of cerium from Th, U, Ra and K. Co-precipitation and recrystallization methods were utilized for further reduction of the impurities. The radioactive contamination of the samples before and after the purification was tested by using ultra-low-background HPGe gamma spectrometry. As a result of the purification procedure the radioactive contamination of gadolinium oxide (a similar purification efficiency was reached also with cerium and neodymium oxides was decreased from 0.12 Bq/kg to 0.007 Bq/kg in 228Th, from 0.04 Bq/kg to <0.006 Bq/kg in 226Ra, and from 0.9 Bq/kg to 0.04 Bq/kg in 40K. The purification methods are much less efficient for chemically very similar radioactive elements like actinium, lanthanum and lutetium.

  18. Argon Purification Studies and a Novel Liquid Argon Re-circulation System

    CERN Document Server

    Mavrokoridis, K; Coleman, J; Lightfoot, P K; McCauley, N; McCormick, K J; Touramanis, C

    2011-01-01

    Future giant liquid argon (LAr) time projection chambers (TPCs) require a purity of better than 0.1 parts per billion (ppb) to allow the ionised electrons to drift without significant capture by any electronegative impurities. We present a comprehensive study of the effects of electronegative impurity on gaseous and liquid argon scintillation light, an analysis of the efficacy of various purification chemicals, as well as the Liverpool LAr setup, which utilises a novel re-circulation purification system. Of the impurities tested - Air, O_2, H_2O, N_2 and CO_2 in the range of between 0.01 ppm to 1000 ppm - H_2O was found to have the most profound effect on gaseous argon scintillation light, and N_2 was found to have the least. Additionally, a correlation between the slow component decay time and the total energy deposited with 0.01 ppm - 100 ppm O_2 contamination levels in liquid argon has been established. The superiority of molecular sieves over anhydrous complexes at absorbing Ar gas, N_2 gas and H_2O vapou...

  19. Advanced purification strategy for CueR, a cysteine containing copper(I) and DNA binding protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balogh, Ria K; Gyurcsik, Béla; Hunyadi-Gulyás, Éva; Christensen, Hans E M; Jancsó, Attila

    2016-07-01

    Metal ion regulation is essential for living organisms. In prokaryotes metal ion dependent transcriptional factors, the so-called metalloregulatory proteins play a fundamental role in controlling the concentration of metal ions. These proteins recognize metal ions with an outstanding selectivity. A detailed understanding of their function may be exploited in potential health, environmental and analytical applications. Members of the MerR protein family sense a broad range of mostly late transition and heavy metal ions through their cysteine thiolates. The air sensitivity of latter groups makes the expression and purification of such proteins challenging. Here we describe a method for the purification of the copper-regulatory CueR protein under optimized conditions. In order to avoid protein precipitation and/or eventual aggregation and to get rid of the co-purifying Escherichia coli elongation factor, our procedure consisted of four steps supplemented by DNA digestion. Subsequent anion exchange on Sepharose FF Q 16/10, affinity chromatography on Heparin FF 16/10, second anion exchange on Source 30 Q 16/13 and gel filtration on Superdex 75 26/60 resulted in large amounts of pure CueR protein without any affinity tag. Structure and functionality tests performed with mass spectrometry, circular dichroism spectroscopy and electrophoretic gel mobility shift assays approved the success of the purification procedure. PMID:27038857

  20. The perfection of systems for water-supply, sewerage, and the purification of waste water at oil-refining plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ioakimis, E.G.; Nurmukhametova, I.Z.

    1981-01-01

    A notable part of the management of a petroleum-processing plant is delegated to effective equipment cleaning and, the resultant costs waste water (SV) cleaning are large. This is why tasks were formulated for the improvement of the water-supply system, the sewerage system, and for the improvement of SV quantities and elimination of their pollution. The maximum use of cold air for local purification of the more polluted SV and for the intensification of existing purfication methods, is incoroporated into the tasks.

  1. A rating system for oyster purification. Hazard analysis critical control point (HACCP) application to purification of live oysters

    OpenAIRE

    Bird, P

    1992-01-01

    A Critical Hazard Analysis Rating (CHAR) based on the Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP) concept is used to monitor oyster purification in New South Wales (N.S.W.), Australia. Critical areas for assessment include oyster condition, separation of raw and treated oysters, water quality (turbidity, salinity, temperature, aeration, circulation), purification period, flow rate, steriliser efficiency and tank hydraulics. Batch records and product identification are included. Purificatio...

  2. Royal Danish Air Force. Air Operations Doctrine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørby, Søren

    This brief examines the development of the first Danish Air Force Air Operations Doctrine, which was officially commissioned in October 1997 and remained in effect until 2010. The development of a Danish air power doctrine was heavily influenced by the work of Colonel John Warden (USAF), both...... through his book ”The Air Campaign” and his subsequent planning of the air campaign against Iraq in 1990-1991. Warden’s ideas came to Denmark and the Danish Air Force by way of Danish Air Force students attending the United States Air Force Air University in Alabama, USA. Back in Denmark, graduates from...... the Air University inspired a small number of passionate airmen, who then wrote the Danish Air Operations Doctrine. The process was supported by the Air Force Tactical Command, which found that the work dovetailed perfectly with the transformation process that the Danish Air Force was in the midst...

  3. Extraction and purification of {sup 227}Ac and development of solid {sup 219}Rn source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, Quan; Qiu, Shoukang; Xiao, Detao; Zhou, Yaohui; An, Xiaogang [University of South China, Hengyang (China). Radon Key Laboratory of Hunan Province/School of Nuclear Science and Technology

    2014-04-01

    The method of {sup 227}Ac extraction and purification from high-grade uranium ore and the test results of solid {sup 219}Rn source made from {sup 227}Ac are reported in this paper. With five years of follow-up monitoring, radiochemical purity of {sup 227}Ac and the emanation power of solid {sup 219}Rn source has been checked by emanation method and γ-spectrometry, the results showed that {sup 228}Th, {sup 231}Pa and {sup 226}Ra have been effectively removed and the emanation power of {sup 219}Rn source is about 80%. The long-term test results also showed that the {sup 219}Rn emanation rate remains stable in a wide air humidity range (40% ∝ 90%). Though the {sup 219}Rn source has not been accurately calibrated yet, it has been applied in the research for delay coincidence measurement of {sup 223}Ra. (orig.)

  4. Breakthrough in Xenon Capture and Purification Using Adsorbent-Supported Silver Nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deliere, Ludovic; Coasne, Benoit; Topin, Sylvain; Gréau, Claire; Moulin, Christophe; Farrusseng, David

    2016-07-01

    Rare gas capture and purification is a major challenge for energy, environment, and health applications. Of utmost importance for the nuclear industry, novel separation processes for Xe are urgently needed for spent nuclear fuel reprocessing and nuclear activity monitoring. The recovered, non-radioactive Xe is also of high economic value for lighting, surgical anesthetic, etc. Here, using adsorption and breakthrough experiments and statistical mechanics molecular simulation, we show the outstanding performance of zeolite-supported silver nanoparticles to capture/separate Xe at low concentrations (0.087-100 ppm). We also establish the efficiency of temperature swing adsorption based on such adsorbents for Xe separation from Kr/Xe mixtures and air streams corresponding to off-gases generated by nuclear reprocessing. This study paves the way for the development of novel, cost-efficient technologies relying on the large selectivity/capacity of adsorbent-supported silver nanoparticles which surpass all materials ever tested. PMID:27249317

  5. Air filtration and indoor air quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bekö, Gabriel

    2006-01-01

    Demands for better indoor air quality are increasing, since we spend most of our time indoors and we are more and more aware of indoor air pollution. Field studies in different parts of the world have documented that high percentage of occupants in many offices and buildings find the indoor air...... decent ventilation and air cleaning/air filtration, high indoor air quality cannot be accomplished. The need for effective air filtration has increased with increasing evidence on the hazardous effects of fine particles. Moreover, the air contains gaseous pollutants, removal of which requires various air...... cleaning techniques. Supply air filter is one of the key components in the ventilation system. Studies have shown that used ventilation filters themselves can be a significant source of indoor air pollution with consequent impact on perceived air quality, sick building syndrome symptoms and performance...

  6. Entanglement purification of unknown quantum states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brun, Todd A.; Caves, Carlton M.; Schack, Rüdiger

    2001-04-01

    A concern has been expressed that ``the Jaynes principle can produce fake entanglement'' [R. Horodecki et al., Phys. Rev. A 59, 1799 (1999)]. In this paper we discuss the general problem of distilling maximally entangled states from N copies of a bipartite quantum system about which only partial information is known, for instance, in the form of a given expectation value. We point out that there is indeed a problem with applying the Jaynes principle of maximum entropy to more than one copy of a system, but the nature of this problem is classical and was discussed extensively by Jaynes. Under the additional assumption that the state ρ(N) of the N copies of the quantum system is exchangeable, one can write down a simple general expression for ρ(N). By measuring one or more of the subsystems, one can gain information and update the state estimate for the remaining subsystems with the quantum version of the Bayes rule. Using this rule, we show how to modify two standard entanglement purification protocols, one-way hashing and recurrence, so that they can be applied to exchangeable states. We thus give an explicit algorithm for distilling entanglement from an unknown or partially known quantum state.

  7. Characterization and purification of bacteriophages using chromatofocusing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brorson, Kurt; Shen, Hong; Lute, Scott; Pérez, Jessica Soto; Frey, Douglas D

    2008-10-17

    The technique of chromatofocusing was applied to the characterization and purification of three bacteriophages that are routinely used for testing virus filters: phiX174, PR772, and PP7. Chemically well-defined eluent buffers were used, instead of the more commonly used chromatofocusing polyampholyte buffers. Chromatographic column packings were selected to minimize band broadening by confining bacteriophage adsorption solely to the exterior particle surface. Under the conditions used it was determined that bacteriophages could be made to focus into narrow bands in a retained pH gradient with recoveries of live phage that ranged from 15 to nearly 100% as determined by a plaque-forming assay. Retention times and apparent isoelectric point data were obtained for samples consisting either of purified bacteriophage, or samples consisting of crude preparations of bacteriophages containing host cell impurities. Isoelectric point estimates were obtained using modified, previously described models. The results obtained suggest that chromatofocusing is a simple and rapid method for obtaining approximate isoelectric points for bacteriophages and probably other types of viruses. It is also likely a useful method for purifying these materials.

  8. Isolation and Purification of Biotechnological Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbuch, Jürgen; Kula, Maria-Regina

    2007-05-01

    The production of modern pharma proteins is one of the most rapid growing fields in biotechnology. The overall development and production is a complex task ranging from strain development and cultivation to the purification and formulation of the drug. Downstream processing, however, still accounts for the major part of production costs. This is mainly due to the high demands on purity and thus safety of the final product and results in processes with a sequence of typically more than 10 unit operations. Consequently, even if each process step would operate at near optimal yield, a very significant amount of product would be lost. The majority of unit operations applied in downstream processing have a long history in the field of chemical and process engineering; nevertheless, mathematical descriptions of the respective processes and the economical large-scale production of modern pharmaceutical products are hampered by the complexity of the biological feedstock, especially the high molecular weight and limited stability of proteins. In order to develop new operational steps as well as a successful overall process, it is thus a necessary prerequisite to develop a deeper understanding of the thermodynamics and physics behind the applied processes as well as the implications for the product.

  9. Purification and properties of thioether methyltransferase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method to assay activity was developed which measures acceptance of methyl groups from [methyl-3H]-S-adenosylmethionine by dimethyl selenide. The product, [3H]trimethylselenonium ion, is separated by HPLC and quantitated by scintillation counting. Thioether methyltransferase from mouse liver and lung resides primarily in the cytosol. In terms of specific activity the enzyme is most active in the lung and liver. Purification from lung cytosol requires a three-step process of DEAE and gel filtration column chromatographies followed by chromatofocusing. SDS-Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis shows a single homogeneous band with a molecular mass of 28,000 daltons. Vmax and Km values for dimethyl selenide as a substrate are 15. 7 pmol/min and 0.44 μM, respectively. Our studies have also shown that this purified enzyme is capable of methylating a wide range of compounds. To further test the enzyme's role in detoxification, in vivo studies were performed by injecting mice with substrate and [methyl-3H]methionine and analyzing tissue extracts and urine for [methyl-3H]sulfonium

  10. Myxoma virus: propagation, purification, quantification, and storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smallwood, Sherin E; Rahman, Masmudur M; Smith, Dorothy W; McFadden, Grant

    2010-05-01

    Myxoma virus (MYXV) is a member of the Poxviridae family and prototype for the genus Leporipoxvirus. It is pathogenic only for European rabbits, in which it causes the lethal disease myxomatosis, and two North American species, in which it causes a less severe disease. MYXV replicates exclusively in the cytoplasm of the host cell. Although not infectious in humans, its genome encodes proteins that can interfere with or modulate host defense mechanisms; it is able to productively infect a number of human cancer cell lines, but not normal human cells, and has also been shown to increase survival time in mouse models of human glioma. These characteristics suggest that MYXV could be a viable therapeutic agent, e.g., in anti-inflammatory or anti-immune therapy, or as an oncolytic agent. MYXV is also an excellent model for poxvirus biology, pathogenesis, and host tropism studies. It is easily propagated in a number of cell lines, including adherent cells and suspension cultures, and minimal purification is required to provide a stock for in vivo and in vitro studies. PMID:20440681

  11. TMI-2 purification demineralizer resin study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, J D; Osterhoudt, T R

    1984-05-01

    Study of the Makeup and Purification System demineralizers at TMI-2 has established that fuel quantities in the vessels are low, precluding criticality, that the high radioactive cesium concentration on the demineralizer resins can be chemically removed, and that the demineralizer resins can probably be removed from the vessels by sluicing through existing plant piping. Radiation measurements from outside the demineralizers establishing that there is between 1.5 and 5.1 (probably 3.3) lb of fuel in the A vessel and less than that amount in the B vessel. Dose rates up to 2780 R per hour were measured on contact with the A demineralizer. Remote visual observation of the A demineralizer showed a crystalline crust overlaying amber-colored resins. The cesium activity in solid resin samples ranged from 220 to 16,900 ..mu..Ci/g. Based on this information, researchers concluded that the resins cannot be removed through the normal pathway in their present condition. Studies do show that the resins will withstand chemical processing designed to rinse and elute cesium from the resins. The process developed should work on the TMI-2 resins.

  12. Recent developments in water purification technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Water is source of life. More than 70% surface of earth is covered with water. Water is extensively used in industries for various purposes like cooling, rinsing, steam generation and as process fluid etc. Water as found in nature cannot be used directly in industries since it contains various types of impurities which can affect smooth operation of equipment/plants. Quality of water requirement for industry greatly differs from the quality requirement for domestic use. Some industrial plant such as nuclear and thermal power plants, pharmaceutical plants and electronic industries require water of quality approaching that of ultra pure water. To get water of required quality from available natural resources, selection of proper treatment methods and control of necessary water conditioning procedures are essential analysis of water for different types of impurities involving various analytical techniques is also of great importance to select proper processes for its purification. In this talk, a survey of various types of impurities present in water from different sources, their harmful effects and general methods than can be used for removal of these impurities are detailed. Various methods of removing suspended and colloidal impurities, organic and gaseous impurities from water are also described

  13. Biologically Inspired Purification and Dispersion of SWCNTs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feeback, Daniel L.; Clarke, Mark S.; Nikolaev, Pavel

    2009-01-01

    A biologically inspired method has been developed for (1) separating single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) from other materials (principally, amorphous carbon and metal catalysts) in raw production batches and (2) dispersing the SWCNTs as individual particles (in contradistinction to ropes and bundles) in suspension, as required for a number of applications. Prior methods of purification and dispersal of SWCNTs involve, variously, harsh physical processes (e.g., sonication) or harsh chemical processes (e.g., acid reflux). These processes do not completely remove the undesired materials and do not disperse bundles and ropes into individual suspended SWCNTs. Moreover, these processes cut long SWCNTs into shorter pieces, yielding typical nanotube lengths between 150 and 250 nm. In contrast, the present method does not involve harsh physical or chemical processes. The method involves the use of biologically derived dispersal agents (BDDAs) in an aqueous solution that is mechanically homogenized (but not sonicated) and centrifuged. The dense solid material remaining after centrifugation is resuspended by vortexing in distilled water, yielding an aqueous suspension of individual, separated SWCNTs having lengths from about 10 to about 15 microns.

  14. The Purification of a Blood Group A Glycoprotein: An Affinity Chromatography Experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estelrich, J.; Pouplana, R.

    1988-01-01

    Describes a purification process through affinity chromatography necessary to obtain specific blood group glycoproteins from erythrocytic membranes. Discusses the preparation of erythrocytic membranes, extraction of glycoprotein from membranes, affinity chromatography purification, determination of glycoproteins, and results. (CW)

  15. Purification of a-galactosidase from seeds of Sesbania marginata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Falco A.L.P.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Alpha-galactosidase taken from a raw extract of Sesbania marginata legume seeds was purified by partitioning in aqueous two-phase systems (ATPS. Initially, galactomannan/dextran 2,000,000 systems were used for the purification, and the partition coefficients of alpha -galactosidase varied from 1.5 to 4.0. However, mass transport in these systems was poor due to the high viscosity of the employed polymers. Therefore, partitioning in polyethyleneglycol (PEG/ sodium phosphate systems and the effect of sodium chloride upon the enzyme purification and the yield of alpha -galactosidase were also investigated. The purification achieved in a single-step was 5.7 with a recovery of 144% of alpha -galactosidase, possibly due to the removal of materials which inhibited alpha -galactosidase activity before the purification. The removal of the main protein contaminants and the highest yields were achieved in PEG 4,000/ sodium phosphate + 6% NaCl system at pH 5.0. Further purification by preparative on-exchange chromatography was also developed.

  16. Purification of carbon nanotubes grown by thermal CVD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porro, S.; Musso, S.; Vinante, M.; Vanzetti, L.; Anderle, M.; Trotta, F.; Tagliaferro, A.

    2007-03-01

    We show the results of a set of purifications on carbon nanotubes (CNT) by acid and basic treatments. CNTs were obtained by thermal decomposition of camphor at 850 °C in a CVD growth system, by means of a growth process catalyzed by iron clusters originating from the addition of ferrocene in the precursors mixture. The purification procedures involved HNO 3, H 2SO 4, HSO 3Cl and NaOH for different process temperatures. As-grown CNTs showed a consistent presence of metal catalyst (about 6 wt%), evidenced by TGA. The purification treatments led to a certain amount of opening of the CNT tips, with a consequent loss of metal catalyst encapsulated in tips. This is also confirmed by BET analysis, which showed an increase of the surface area density of CNT after the purification. FT-IR and XPS revealed the presence of carboxylic groups on the CNT surface chemically modified by the harsh environment of the purification process. Among the various treatments that have been tested, the 1:3 solution of nitric and sulphuric acid was the most effective in modifying the CNT surface and inducing the formation of functional groups.

  17. AirData

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The AirData site provides access to yearly summaries of United States air pollution data, taken from EPA's air pollution databases. AirData has information about...

  18. R9 Air Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Region 9 Air Districts layer is a compilation of polygons representing the California Air Pollution Control and Air Quality Management Districts, Arizona Air...

  19. Hazardous Air Pollutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Facebook Twitter Google+ Pinterest Contact Us Hazardous Air Pollutants Hazardous air pollutants are those known to cause ... protect against adverse environmental effects. About Hazardous Air Pollutants What are hazardous air pollutants? Health and Environmental ...

  20. California Air Basins

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — Air ResourcesCalifornia Air Resources BoardThe following datasets are from the California Air Resources Board: * arb_california_airbasins - California Air BasinsThe...

  1. 21 CFR 884.6170 - Assisted reproduction water and water purification systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Assisted reproduction water and water purification... Devices § 884.6170 Assisted reproduction water and water purification systems. (a) Identification. Assisted reproduction water purification systems are devices specifically intended to generate high...

  2. INDUSTRIAL GAS PURIFICATION USE OF BIOFILTERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Ramona PECINGINĂ

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Biological filtration systems is one of the current alternatives to remove residual volatile components of the air through biological means, without affecting the natural environment. Biofilters have a technology that uses microorganisms (bacteria to treat emissions, in a secure economic and environmental quality. Biofilters consist of porous filters, which is distributed flue gas stream

  3. Detection of protein-protein interactions using tandem affinity purification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodfellow, Ian; Bailey, Dalan

    2014-01-01

    Tandem affinity purification (TAP) is an invaluable technique for identifying interaction partners for an affinity tagged bait protein. The approach relies on the fusion of dual tags to the bait before separate rounds of affinity purification and precipitation. Frequently two specific elution steps are also performed to increase the specificity of the overall technique. In the method detailed here, the two tags used are protein G and a short streptavidin binding peptide; however, many variations can be employed. In our example the tags are separated by a cleavable tobacco etch virus protease target sequence, allowing for specific elution after the first round of affinity purification. Proteins isolated after the final elution step in this process are concentrated before being identified by mass spectrometry. The use of dual affinity tags and specific elution in this technique dramatically increases both the specificity and stringency of the pull-downs, ensuring a low level of background nonspecific interactions.

  4. A Novel and Fast Purification Method for Nucleoside Transporters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Zhenyu; Thomsen, Maren; Postis, Vincent L G; Lesiuk, Amelia; Sharples, David; Wang, Yingying; Bartlam, Mark; Goldman, Adrian

    2016-01-01

    Nucleoside transporters (NTs) play critical biological roles in humans, and to understand the molecular mechanism of nucleoside transport requires high-resolution structural information. However, the main bottleneck for structural analysis of NTs is the production of pure, stable, and high quality native protein for crystallization trials. Here we report a novel membrane protein expression and purification strategy, including construction of a high-yield membrane protein expression vector, and a new and fast purification protocol for NTs. The advantages of this strategy are the improved time efficiency, leading to high quality, active, stable membrane proteins, and the efficient use of reagents and consumables. Our strategy might serve as a useful point of reference for investigating NTs and other membrane proteins by clarifying the technical points of vector construction and improvements of membrane protein expression and purification. PMID:27376071

  5. A simple method for purification of herpesvirus DNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Laurids Siig; Normann, Preben

    1992-01-01

    A rapid and reliable method for purification of herpesvirus DNA from cell cultures is described. The method is based on the isolation of virus particles and/or nucleocapsids by differential centrifugation and exploits the solubilizing and denaturing capabilities of cesium trifluoroacetate during ...... isopycnic centrifugation, so that phenol/chloroform extractions can be omitted. The method was used for the purification of DNA from several members of the Alfaherpesvirinae subfamily.......A rapid and reliable method for purification of herpesvirus DNA from cell cultures is described. The method is based on the isolation of virus particles and/or nucleocapsids by differential centrifugation and exploits the solubilizing and denaturing capabilities of cesium trifluoroacetate during...

  6. Purification of thyrotropin from human hypophysis: preliminary preparation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The adequacy of stored crude preparations for isolation of human tyrotropin (TSH) was evaluated according to Ross et al from a side fraction obtained during the purification of growth hormone from frozen pituitaries (SOMATORMON). Six crude TSH preparations were stored at - 200C during several years for further purification. One of these preparations was purified by sucessive chromatographies on Sephadex G-100, hydroxylapatite and SP-Sephadex C50. The TSH content present in the chromatographic fractions and in the pools was assayed by specific radioimmunoassay developed at our laboratory. The protein determination of the fractions and pools was performed by absorbance at 280 nm and by the method of Lowry at al, respectively. The TSH activity increased eight times during the purification and the TSH purified had a radioimmunological potency around half that de scribed by Roos at al. The results suggest the fitness of long time stored preparations in the attainment of pure TSH. (author)

  7. Bromelain: an overview of industrial application and purification strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arshad, Zatul Iffah Mohd; Amid, Azura; Yusof, Faridah; Jaswir, Irwandi; Ahmad, Kausar; Loke, Show Pau

    2014-09-01

    This review highlights the use of bromelain in various applications with up-to-date literature on the purification of bromelain from pineapple fruit and waste such as peel, core, crown, and leaves. Bromelain, a cysteine protease, has been exploited commercially in many applications in the food, beverage, tenderization, cosmetic, pharmaceutical, and textile industries. Researchers worldwide have been directing their interest to purification strategies by applying conventional and modern approaches, such as manipulating the pH, affinity, hydrophobicity, and temperature conditions in accord with the unique properties of bromelain. The amount of downstream processing will depend on its intended application in industries. The breakthrough of recombinant DNA technology has facilitated the large-scale production and purification of recombinant bromelain for novel applications in the future. PMID:24965557

  8. Purification of fluorescently labeled Saccharomyces cerevisiae Spindle Pole Bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Trisha N.

    2016-01-01

    Centrosomes are components of the mitotic spindle responsible for organizing microtubules and establishing a bipolar spindle for accurate chromosome segregation. In budding yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the centrosome is called the spindle pole body, a highly organized tri-laminar structure embedded in the nuclear envelope. Here we describe a detailed protocol for the purification of fluorescently labeled spindle pole bodes from S. cerevisiae. Spindle pole bodies are purified from yeast using a TAP-tag purification followed by velocity sedimentation. This highly reproducible TAP-tag purification method improves upon previous techniques and expands the scope of in vitro characterization of yeast spindle pole bodies. The genetic flexibility of this technique allows for the study of spindle pole body mutants as well as the study of spindle pole bodies during different stages of the cell cycle. The ease and reproducibility of the technique makes it possible to study spindle pole bodies using a variety of biochemical, biophysical, and microscopic techniques. PMID:27193850

  9. Purification of artemisinin excerpt from Artemisia annua L

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chemat-Djenni Z.

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The active pharmaceutical substance artemisinin found in Artemisia annua L. remains the most effective remedy against malaria. The objective of this work is the purification of the active ingredient through a natural matrix composed of clay sandwiched by aluminum. The purification process is carried by adsorption of the extracts on sodium type and bridged clay type. The XRD characterization of this material shows an increase in the basal distance of 10 Å to 17 Å. This shows the success of the intercalation of aluminum polycation. We find a better purification of the extract when using aluminum bridged clay compared to sodium clay. The best performance of 80.64% adsorption is obtained at 40 ° C for the clay matrix bridged with aluminum complex.

  10. Bromelain: an overview of industrial application and purification strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arshad, Zatul Iffah Mohd; Amid, Azura; Yusof, Faridah; Jaswir, Irwandi; Ahmad, Kausar; Loke, Show Pau

    2014-09-01

    This review highlights the use of bromelain in various applications with up-to-date literature on the purification of bromelain from pineapple fruit and waste such as peel, core, crown, and leaves. Bromelain, a cysteine protease, has been exploited commercially in many applications in the food, beverage, tenderization, cosmetic, pharmaceutical, and textile industries. Researchers worldwide have been directing their interest to purification strategies by applying conventional and modern approaches, such as manipulating the pH, affinity, hydrophobicity, and temperature conditions in accord with the unique properties of bromelain. The amount of downstream processing will depend on its intended application in industries. The breakthrough of recombinant DNA technology has facilitated the large-scale production and purification of recombinant bromelain for novel applications in the future.

  11. A Novel and Fast Purification Method for Nucleoside Transporters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Zhenyu; Thomsen, Maren; Postis, Vincent L. G.; Lesiuk, Amelia; Sharples, David; Wang, Yingying; Bartlam, Mark; Goldman, Adrian

    2016-01-01

    Nucleoside transporters (NTs) play critical biological roles in humans, and to understand the molecular mechanism of nucleoside transport requires high-resolution structural information. However, the main bottleneck for structural analysis of NTs is the production of pure, stable, and high quality native protein for crystallization trials. Here we report a novel membrane protein expression and purification strategy, including construction of a high-yield membrane protein expression vector, and a new and fast purification protocol for NTs. The advantages of this strategy are the improved time efficiency, leading to high quality, active, stable membrane proteins, and the efficient use of reagents and consumables. Our strategy might serve as a useful point of reference for investigating NTs and other membrane proteins by clarifying the technical points of vector construction and improvements of membrane protein expression and purification. PMID:27376071

  12. Factors influencing the purification efficiency of photosynthetic bacteria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    One strain of photosynthetic bacteria (PSB) was isolated from substrate sludge offresh-water fishpond. Influence of the use level of PSB culture solution, illumination condition,temperature, salinity, the use level of copper sulfate and dipterex on the purification efficiency was investigated. The results showed that the optimum use level of PSB culture solution was 10 mg/L,and the purification efficiency at illumination was higher than that at black, and if the temperature was lower than 15℃, or the use level of sodium chloride, copper sulfate and dipterex were higherthan 10 000 mg/L, 0.4 mg/L and 2.0 mg/L, respectively, the purification efficiency dropped distinctly.

  13. STUDIES ON THE PURIFICATION OF BACTERIOPHAGE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalmanson, G; Bronfenbrenner, J

    1939-11-20

    A simple method of concentrating and purifying bacteriophage has been described. The procedure consisted essentially in collecting the active agent on a reinforced collodion membrane of a porosity that would just retain all the active agent and permit extraneous material to pass through. Advantage was taken of the fact that B. coli will proliferate and regenerate bacteriophage in a completely diffusible synthetic medium with ammonia as the only source of nitrogen, which permitted the purification of the bacteriophage by copious washing. The material thus obtained was concentrated by suction and after thorough washing possessed all the activity of the original filtrate. It was labile, losing its activity in a few days on standing, and was quickly and completely inactivated upon drying. This material contained approximately 15 per cent of nitrogen and with 2 or 3 mg. samples of inactive dry residue it was possible to obtain positive protein color tests. The concentrated and purified bacteriophage has about 10(-14) mg. of nitrogen, or 6 x 10(-17) gm. of protein per unit of lytic activity. Assuming that each unit of activity represents a molecule, the calculated maximum average molecular weight would be approximately 36,000,000, and on the assumption of a spherical shape of particles and a density of 1.3, the calculated radius would be about 22 millimicra. By measurement of the diffusion rate, the average radius of particle of the fraction of the purified bacteriophage which diffuses most readily through a porous plate was found to be of the order of magnitude of 9 millimicra, or of a calculated molecular weight of 2,250,000. Furthermore, when this purified bacteriophage was fractionated by forcing it through a thin collodion membrane, which permits the passage of only the smaller particles, it was possible to demonstrate in the ultrafiltrate active particles of about 2 millimicra in radius, and of a calculated molecular weight of 25,000. It was of interest to apply

  14. Advantages for passengers and cabin crew of operating a Gas-Phase Adsorption air purifier in 11-h simulated flights

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strøm-Tejsen, Peter; Zukowska, Daria; Fang, Lei;

    2008-01-01

    Experiments were carried out in a 3-row, 21-seat section of a simulated aircraft cabin installed in a climate chamber to evaluate the extent to which passengers’ perception of cabin air quality is affected by the operation of a Gas-Phase Adsorption (GPA) purification unit. A total of 68 subjects......, divided into four groups of 17 subjects took part in simulated 11-hour flights. Each group experienced 4 conditions in balanced order, defined by two outside air supply rates (2.4 and 3.3 L/s per person), with and without the GPA purification unit installed in the recirculated air system. During each...... flight the subjects completed questionnaires five times to provide subjective assessments of air quality, cabin environment, intensity of symptoms, and thermal comfort. Additionally, the subjects’ visual acuity, finger temperature, skin dryness and nasal peak flow were measured three times during each...

  15. CHROMATOGRAPHIC SEPERATION AND PURIFICATION OF HUMAN CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WangHaifeng; XuYutai; 等

    1995-01-01

    Separation and purification of human chorionic gonadotropion(HCG) in the urine sample of early pregnant women by D3520 resin adsorption chromatography is reported.The crude product obtained by DEAE-Cellulose 23 and DEAE-Sephadex A50 column chromatography showed a high activity of HCG. Further purification of the sample by gel filtration chromatography on a Sephadex G75 column gives a final preparation of 6000-6500 IU/mg.The preparation meets the requirements of the pyrogn test in Chinese Law of Pharmacopeia.

  16. Purification of Murine Monoclonal IgM Antibody

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents the purification of a monoclonal IgM antibody against human tumor associated antigen Lewis-Y by ion exchange chromatography and gel filtration.Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) were used to identify purified IgM antibody.In flow cytometry analysis, the purified IgM antibody recognizes human breast tumor cell line MCF-7 which expresses Lewis-Y antigen.This work presents a new way for the purification of murine monoclonal IgM antibody.

  17. A convenient method for lecithin purification from fresh eggs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavio A. Maximiano

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The increasing demand for fatty acid-free lecithin required modifications in existing purification methods. In this technical note we describe a purification procedure with the following steps: a homogenization and extraction of yolks obtained from fresh eggs with acetone, b solubilization with ethanol and solvent elimination and c repeated solubilization/precipitation with petroleum ether/acetone. This crude extract was chromatographed on neutral alumina, which was exhaustively washed with chloroform before elution with chloroform:methanol, allowing the sequential separation of fatty acids and lecithin. Chromatographic behavior and mass spectra of the product are presented. This fast procedure yields fatty acid-free lecithin at a competitive cost.

  18. Drinking water safety and the development of purification technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Guibai

    2012-01-01

    This paper briefly introduced the evolution of purification technology for drinking water over time. After description of the 1st generation processes in the beginning of the 20th century -- conventional processes and the 2nd generation processes in 1970s -- advanced treatment processes, a tertiary processes -- UF (ultrafiltration) based on integrated processes was proposed. Moreover, reaction measures (dosing variety of regents for different contaminants) for urban source water emergencies.were illustrated in brief. A new technology of KMnO4 and potassium permanganate composite (PPC) for drinking water purification which was developed by Harbin Institute of Technology (HIT) was concisely introduced.

  19. Present Situation of Purification Technologies for Automotive Exhaust in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    It is presented that eliminating and controlling the current automotive exhaust emission should be important and urgent in China, and the Chinese state emission standards have been getting stricter and stricter. Also the present purification technologies for automotive exhaust are elucidated. It is indicated that the development and the commercialization of Rare Earth based on three way catalytic converters is pretty necessary and urgent to address the current harsh automotive exhaust emission problems in China. In addition, the future automotive exhaust purification technologies are prospected.

  20. High quality protein microarray using in situ protein purification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fleischmann Robert D

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the postgenomic era, high throughput protein expression and protein microarray technologies have progressed markedly permitting screening of therapeutic reagents and discovery of novel protein functions. Hexa-histidine is one of the most commonly used fusion tags for protein expression due to its small size and convenient purification via immobilized metal ion affinity chromatography (IMAC. This purification process has been adapted to the protein microarray format, but the quality of in situ His-tagged protein purification on slides has not been systematically evaluated. We established methods to determine the level of purification of such proteins on metal chelate-modified slide surfaces. Optimized in situ purification of His-tagged recombinant proteins has the potential to become the new gold standard for cost-effective generation of high-quality and high-density protein microarrays. Results Two slide surfaces were examined, chelated Cu2+ slides suspended on a polyethylene glycol (PEG coating and chelated Ni2+ slides immobilized on a support without PEG coating. Using PEG-coated chelated Cu2+ slides, consistently higher purities of recombinant proteins were measured. An optimized wash buffer (PBST composed of 10 mM phosphate buffer, 2.7 mM KCl, 140 mM NaCl and 0.05% Tween 20, pH 7.4, further improved protein purity levels. Using Escherichia coli cell lysates expressing 90 recombinant Streptococcus pneumoniae proteins, 73 proteins were successfully immobilized, and 66 proteins were in situ purified with greater than 90% purity. We identified several antigens among the in situ-purified proteins via assays with anti-S. pneumoniae rabbit antibodies and a human patient antiserum, as a demonstration project of large scale microarray-based immunoproteomics profiling. The methodology is compatible with higher throughput formats of in vivo protein expression, eliminates the need for resin-based purification and circumvents

  1. Plant lipases: partial purification of Carica papaya lipase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, Ivanna; Mateos-Díaz, Juan Carlos; Sandoval, Georgina

    2012-01-01

    Lipases from plants have very interesting features for application in different fields. This chapter provides an overview on some of the most important aspects of plant lipases, such as sources, applications, physiological functions, and specificities. Lipases from laticifers and particularly Carica papaya lipase (CPL) have emerged as a versatile autoimmobilized biocatalyst. However, to get a better understanding of CPL biocatalytic properties, the isolation and purification of individual C. papaya lipolytic enzymes become necessary. In this chapter, a practical protocol for partial purification of the latex-associated lipolytic activity from C. papaya is given.

  2. Biospecific affinity chromatographic purification of octopine dehydrogenase from molluscs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulcahy, P; Griffin, T; O'Carra, P

    1997-02-01

    The development of a biospecific affinity chromatographic method for the purification of octopine dehydrogenase from molluscs is described. The method utilizes immobilized NAD+ derivatives in conjunction with soluble specific substrates to promote binding. Using this method, octopine dehydrogenase has been purified to electrophoretic homogeneity in a single chromatographic step from three different marine invertebrate sources [the queen scallop, Chlamys opercularis (adductor muscle), the great scallop, Pecten maximus (adductor muscle), and the squid Loligo vulgaris (mantle muscle)]. However, the system is not applicable to the purification of octopine dehydrogenase from some other marine invertebrate sources investigated (the mussel Mytilus edulis and the topshell Monodonta lineata). PMID:9116492

  3. Fundamental limitations in the purifications of tensor networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    De las Cuevas, G.; Cubitt, T. S.; Cirac, J. I.; Wolf, M. M.; Pérez-García, D.

    2016-07-01

    We show a fundamental limitation in the description of quantum many-body mixed states with tensor networks in purification form. Namely, we show that there exist mixed states which can be represented as a translationally invariant (TI) matrix product density operator valid for all system sizes, but for which there does not exist a TI purification valid for all system sizes. The proof is based on an undecidable problem and on the uniqueness of canonical forms of matrix product states. The result also holds for classical states.

  4. Effects of Humidity Swings on Adsorption Columns for Air Revitalization: Modeling and Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeVan, M. Douglas; Finn, John E.

    1997-01-01

    Air purification systems are necessary to provide clean air in the closed environments aboard spacecraft. Trace contaminants are removed using adsorption. One major factor concerning the removal of trace contaminants is relative humidity. Water can reduce adsorption capacity and, due to constant fluctuations, its presence is difficult to incorporate into adsorption column designs. The purpose of the research was to allow for better design techniques in trace contaminant adsorption systems, especially for feeds with water present. Experiments and mathematical modeling research on effects of humidity swings on adsorption columns for air revitalization were carried out.

  5. Flue Gas Purification Utilizing SOx/NOx Reactions During Compression of CO{sub 2} Derived from Oxyfuel Combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fogash, Kevin

    2010-09-30

    The United States wishes to decrease foreign energy dependence by utilizing the country’s significant coal reserves, while stemming the effects of global warming from greenhouse gases. In response to these needs, Air Products has developed a patented process for the compression and purification of the CO{sub 2} stream from oxyfuel combustion of pulverized coal. The purpose of this project was the development and performance of a comprehensive experimental and engineering evaluation to determine the feasibility of purifying CO{sub 2} derived from the flue gas generated in a tangentially fired coal combustion unit operated in the oxy-combustion mode. Following the design and construction of a 15 bar reactor system, Air Products conducted two test campaigns using the slip stream from the tangentially fired oxy-coal combustion unit. During the first test campaign, Air Products evaluated the reactor performance based on both the liquid and gaseous reactor effluents. The data obtained from the test run has enabled Air Products to determine the reaction and mass transfer rates, as well as the effectiveness of the reactor system. During the second test campaign, Air Products evaluated reactor performance based on effluents for different reactor pressures, as well as water recycle rates. Analysis of the reaction equations indicates that both pressure and water flow rate affect the process reaction rates, as well as the overall reactor performance.

  6. 客机座舱气态污染物及其净化技术现状%Review of gaseous pollutants in aircraft cabin and purification technologies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆义; 裴晶晶; 韩旭; 刘鲁萌; 刘俊杰

    2014-01-01

    介绍了客机座舱环境的特点与飞机环境控制系统中的通风净化系统,给出了国外关于机舱内空气质量的实际调查结果,总结了目前新风中臭氧处理的方法及可能面临的问题,对可用于回风中挥发性有机化合物处理的几种技术及其利弊进行了分析对比,探讨了机舱空气净化技术的发展方向。%Presents the characteristics of aircraft cabin environment and the ventilation purification system of its environmental control system.Gives survey results of cabin air quality,and summarizes ozone treatment methods in cabin outdoor air systems and potential problems.Analyses and compares several technologies that can be used for removal of volatile organic compounds in cabin return air systems. Discusses the developing orientation of cabin air purification technology.

  7. MENEKAN LAJU PENYEBARAN KOLERA DI ASIA DENGAN 3SW (STERILIZATION, SEWAGE, SOURCES, AND WATER PURIFICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bagus Anggaraditya Anggaraditya

    2015-08-01

    purification, hal ini mengingatkan kita untuk menjaga keseimbangan Agent, Host, dan Environment.Gangguan pada environment (lingkungan, alam di sekitar kita, akhirnya menyebabkan ketidakseimbangan di sebuah daerah dan akhirnya membawa bencana di wilayah tersebut. Kata kunci: Kolera, Sterilisasi, Saluran, Sumber, Pengolahan Air, Modifikasi gaya hidup.

  8. Air movement and perceived air quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melikov, Arsen Krikor; Kaczmarczyk, J.

    2012-01-01

    The impact of air movement on perceived air quality (PAQ) and sick building syndrome (SBS) symptoms was studied. In total, 124 human subjects participated in four series of experiments performed in climate chambers at different combinations of room air temperature (20, 23, 26 and 28 °C), relative...... humidity (30, 40 and 70%) and pollution level (low and high). Most of the experiments were performed with and without facially applied airflow at elevated velocity. The importance of the use of recirculated room air and clean, cool and dry outdoor air was studied. The exposures ranged from 60. min to 235....... min. Acceptability of PAQ and freshness of the air improved when air movement was applied. The elevated air movement diminished the negative impact of increased air temperature, relative humidity and pollution level on PAQ. The degree of improvement depended on the pollution level, the temperature...

  9. An air quality assessment onboard an Oberon class submarine : HMCS Okanagan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Defence and Civil Institute of Environmental Medicine (DCIEM) re-examined the air quality on an Oberon class submarine, the HMCS Okanagan, to determine if the atmosphere complied with Air Purification Standard BR 1326. The main objective of the assessment was to help in the development of future submarine air quality management. The information obtained from the Oberon class submarine could be readily applied to the Victoria class submarines. The assessment involved a trial aboard an Oberon under patrol conditions. The functional and detection capabilities of analytical air monitoring instruments were assessed for a 24-hour period to obtain data regarding the contaminants onboard the submarine. A profile of carbon dioxide accumulation and oxygen consumption was determined. This was followed by an assessment of the effectiveness of air purification such as carbon dioxide scrubbing, oxygen generation and snorting. Carbon monoxide was also monitored and carboxyhemoglobin was measured in both smokers and non-smokers. In order to determine if the sanitary or electrical systems, or engine exhaust posed any danger, ammonia, ozone and nitrous compounds were also measured. In addition, hydrogen, arsine and stibene were monitored to determine any possible danger from charging batteries. The health risks associated with aerosolized particles from cooking, smoking and exhaust gases were also measured. Results showed that all contaminants were within allowable limits. However, the study also confirmed that air purification measures on diesel submarines are minimal and poorly placed and that there is a lack of exhaust ventilation. Poor air exchange was worsened by compartmentalization and blackout curtains. Several recommendations were proposed to improve the management of air quality in Victoria class submarines. 18 refs., 2 tabs., 5 figs

  10. An air quality assessment onboard an Oberon class submarine : HMCS Okanagan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Severs, Y.D.; Sabiston, B.H.

    2000-09-01

    The Defence and Civil Institute of Environmental Medicine (DCIEM) re-examined the air quality on an Oberon class submarine, the HMCS Okanagan, to determine if the atmosphere complied with Air Purification Standard BR 1326. The main objective of the assessment was to help in the development of future submarine air quality management. The information obtained from the Oberon class submarine could be readily applied to the Victoria class submarines. The assessment involved a trial aboard an Oberon under patrol conditions. The functional and detection capabilities of analytical air monitoring instruments were assessed for a 24-hour period to obtain data regarding the contaminants onboard the submarine. A profile of carbon dioxide accumulation and oxygen consumption was determined. This was followed by an assessment of the effectiveness of air purification such as carbon dioxide scrubbing, oxygen generation and snorting. Carbon monoxide was also monitored and carboxyhemoglobin was measured in both smokers and non-smokers. In order to determine if the sanitary or electrical systems, or engine exhaust posed any danger, ammonia, ozone and nitrous compounds were also measured. In addition, hydrogen, arsine and stibene were monitored to determine any possible danger from charging batteries. The health risks associated with aerosolized particles from cooking, smoking and exhaust gases were also measured. Results showed that all contaminants were within allowable limits. However, the study also confirmed that air purification measures on diesel submarines are minimal and poorly placed and that there is a lack of exhaust ventilation. Poor air exchange was worsened by compartmentalization and blackout curtains. Several recommendations were proposed to improve the management of air quality in Victoria class submarines. 18 refs., 2 tabs., 5 figs.

  11. Fundamental mechanisms in Li-air battery electrochemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højberg, Jonathan

    The lithium-air (or Li-O2) batteries have received wide attention as an enabling technology for a mass market entry of electric vehicles due to a potential capacity much higher than current Li-ion technology. The technology is a relatively new battery concept proposed in 1996, and the current res...... battery system better than any other method available. Finally, calculations were made to support that an open system configuration is a realistic option in terms of air purification, if H2O and CO2 levels at 1 ppm are allowed.......The lithium-air (or Li-O2) batteries have received wide attention as an enabling technology for a mass market entry of electric vehicles due to a potential capacity much higher than current Li-ion technology. The technology is a relatively new battery concept proposed in 1996, and the current...

  12. A synthetic zero air standard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, Ruth

    2016-04-01

    A Synthetic Zero Air Standard R. E. Hill-Pearce, K. V. Resner, D. R. Worton, P. J. Brewer The National Physical Laboratory Teddington, Middlesex TW11 0LW UK We present work towards providing traceability for measurements of high impact greenhouse gases identified by the World Meteorological Organisation (WMO) as critical for global monitoring. Standards for these components are required with challengingly low uncertainties to improve the quality assurance and control processes used for the global networks to better assess climate trends. Currently the WMO compatibility goals require reference standards with uncertainties of < 100 nmolmol-1 for CO2 (northern hemisphere) and < 2 nmolmol-1 for CH4 and CO. High purity zero gas is required for both the balance gas in the preparation of reference standards and for baseline calibrations of instrumentation. Quantification of the amount fraction of the target components in the zero gas is a significant contributor to the uncertainty and is challenging due to limited availability of reference standard at the amount fraction of the measurand and limited analytical techniques with sufficient detection limits. A novel dilutor was used to blend NPL Primary Reference Gas Mixtures containing CO2, CH4 and CO at atmospheric amount fractions with a zero gas under test. Several mixtures were generated with nominal dilution ratios ranging from 2000:1 to 350:1. The baseline of two cavity ring down spectrometers was calibrated using the zero gas under test after purification by oxidative removal of CO and hydrocarbons to < 1 nmolmol-1 (SAES PS15-GC50) followed by the removal of CO2 and water vapour to < 100 pmolmol-1 (SAES MC190). Using the standard addition method.[1] we have quantified the amount fraction of CO, CO2, and CH4 in scrubbed whole air (Scott Marrin) and NPL synthetic zero air. This is the first synthetic zero air standard with a matrix of N2, O2 and Ar closely matching ambient composition with gravimetrically assigned

  13. Experimental studies on islets isolation, purification and function in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Xinlu; Xue, Wujun; Feng, Xinshun; Tian, Xiaohui; Teng, Yan; Ding, Xiaoming; Pan, Xiaoming; Guo, Qi; He, Xiaoli

    2015-01-01

    To develop a simple and effective method of islet isolation and purification in rats. Collagenase P was injected into pancreatic duct followed by incubation in water bath to digest the pancreas and isolate islet, then discontinuous gravity gradient purification was used to purify the islet. The purified islets were identified by dithizone staining. The viability of islets was assessed by fluorescence staining of acridine orange (AO) and propidium iodide (PI). The function of purified islets was determined by glucose-stimulated insulin release test and transplantation of rat with streptozocin-induced diabetes. 738±193 islets were recovered after purification. The average purity was 77±13%, the viability of islets was more than 95%. When inspected by glucose stimulation, the secreted insulin concentration was 24.31±5.47 mIU/L when stimulated by low concentration glucose and 37.62±4.29 mIU/L by high concentration glucose. There was significant difference between the two phases (Pmethod of injecting collagenase into pancreatic duct followed by incubation in water bath and purification using discontinuous gravity gradient. PMID:26885021

  14. Optimization of membrane protein overexpression and purification using GFP fusions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drew, David; Lerch, Mirjam; Kunji, Edmund; Slotboom, Dirk-Jan; de Gier, Jan-Willem

    2006-01-01

    Optimizing conditions for the overexpression and purification of membrane proteins for functional and structural studies is usually a Laborious and time-consuming process. This process can be accelerated using membrane protein-GFP fusions(1-3), which allows direct monitoring and visualization of mem

  15. 2D nanostructures for water purification: graphene and beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dervin, Saoirse; Dionysiou, Dionysios D; Pillai, Suresh C

    2016-08-18

    Owing to their atomically thin structure, large surface area and mechanical strength, 2D nanoporous materials are considered to be suitable alternatives for existing desalination and water purification membrane materials. Recent progress in the development of nanoporous graphene based materials has generated enormous potential for water purification technologies. Progress in the development of nanoporous graphene and graphene oxide (GO) membranes, the mechanism of graphene molecular sieve action, structural design, hydrophilic nature, mechanical strength and antifouling properties and the principal challenges associated with nanopore generation are discussed in detail. Subsequently, the recent applications and performance of newly developed 2D materials such as 2D boron nitride (BN) nanosheets, graphyne, molybdenum disulfide (MoS2), tungsten chalcogenides (WS2) and titanium carbide (Ti3C2Tx) are highlighted. In addition, the challenges affecting 2D nanostructures for water purification are highlighted and their applications in the water purification industry are discussed. Though only a few 2D materials have been explored so far for water treatment applications, this emerging field of research is set to attract a great deal of attention in the near future. PMID:27506268

  16. Affinity purification of polysaccharide degrading enzymes with crosslinked substrates.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rozie, H.J.

    1992-01-01

    The aim of this work was to find economically favourable, affinity based, purification methods for several polysaccharide splitting bulk enzymes. The framework in which this study is done is described in Chapter 1.Chapter 2 describes the adsorption of endo-polygalacturonase (endoPG) from a commercia

  17. [Purification of neuraminidase from influenza virus on an immunosorbent].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iakubov, L A; Savich, I M; Beklemishev, A B

    1984-10-01

    A procedure for isolation of neuraminidase from influenza virus using the nonionic detergent Triton x-100 was developed. To achieve further purification, the protein mixture was passed through a Sepharose column packed with immobilized antibodies against hemagglutinin. The neuraminidase preparation thus obtained fully retained its enzymatic and antigenic properties and during electrophoretic separation under denaturating conditions gave one protein band. PMID:6440594

  18. Purification of lanthanides for double beta decay experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polischuk, O. G. [Institute for Nuclear Research, MSP 03680 Kyiv, Ukraine and INFN, Section of Rome, La Sapienza, I-00185 Rome (Italy); Barabash, A. S. [Institute of Theoretical and Experimental Physics, 117259 Moscow (Russian Federation); Belli, P. [INFN, Section of Rome Tor Vergata, I-00133 Rome (Italy); Bernabei, R. [INFN, Section of Rome Tor Vergata, I-00133 Rome, Italy and Department of Physics, University of Rome Tor Vergata, I-00133 Rome (Italy); Boiko, R. S.; Danevich, F. A.; Mokina, V. M.; Poda, D. V.; Tretyak, V. I. [Institute for Nuclear Research, MSP 03680 Kyiv (Ukraine); Cappella, F.; Incicchitti, A. [INFN, Section of Rome La Sapienza, I-00185 Rome, Italy and Department of Physics, University of Rome La Sapienza, I-00185 Rome (Italy); Cerulli, R.; Laubenstein, M.; Nisi, S. [INFN, Gran Sasso National Laboratories, I-67100 Assergi (Aq) (Italy)

    2013-08-08

    There are several potentially double beta active isotopes among the lanthanide elements. However, even high purity grade lanthanide compounds contain {sup 238}U, {sup 226}Ra and {sup 232,228}Th typically on the level of ∼ (0.1 - 1) Bq/kg. The liquid-liquid extraction technique was used to remove traces of U, Ra and Th from CeO{sub 2}, Nd{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3}. The radioactive contamination of the samples before and after the purification was tested by using ultra-low-background HPGe γ spectrometry at the underground Gran Sasso National Laboratories of the INFN (Italy). After the purification the radioactive contamination of gadolinium oxide by Ra and Th was decreased at least one order of magnitude. The efficiency of the approach to purify cerium oxide from Ra was on same level, while the radioactive contamination of neodymium sample before and after the purification is below the sensitivity of analytical methods. The purification method is much less efficient for chemically very similar radioactive elements like lanthanum, lutetium and actinium. R and D of the methods to remove the pollutions with improved efficiency is in progress.

  19. Purification and characterization of a soluble calnexin from human placenta

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Dorthe T; Peng, Li; Træholt, Sofie D;

    2013-01-01

    Calreticulin (Crt) and calnexin (Cnx) are homologous endoplasmic reticulum (ER) chaperones involved in protein folding and quality control. Crt is a soluble ER luminal Mr 46 kDa protein and Cnx is a Mr 67kDa ER membrane protein. During purification of Crt from human placenta a soluble form of Cnx...

  20. Purification and deodorization of structured lipids by short path distillation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Xuebing; Jacobsen, Charlotte; Nielsen, Nina Skall;

    2002-01-01

    Purification of structured lipids (SL), produced from lipase- catalyzed acidolysis of rapeseed oil and capric acid, and deodorization of randomized SL, produced from chemical randomization of fish oil and tricaprin, were studied in a bench-scale short path distillation (SPD). SL obtained from...

  1. Membrane concepts for blood purification : towards improved artificial kidney devices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tijink, M.S.L.

    2013-01-01

    The research presented in this thesis is about the fabrication and characterization of new membranes for blood purification. A novel membrane concept is proposed to combine diffusion and adsorption in one step to remove uremic retention solutes. A membrane with embedded functionalized particles, a s

  2. Pyrochemical technology of plutonium and americium preparation and purification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pyrochemical tecnology of metallic plutonium and americium preparation and purification is considered. Investigations into plutonium dioxide reduction up to metal; plutonium electrolytic refining in molten salts; plutonium extraction from the molten salts and preparation of americium dioxide and metallic americium from its tetrafluoride are described

  3. Novel electrokinetic approaches to improve purification processes with monoclonal antibodies

    OpenAIRE

    Faude, Alexander

    2009-01-01

    This work was focussed on mAb separations using cation exchange and hydrophobic interaction chromatography. Methods to accelerate long winded development strategies of purification processes with monoclonal antibodies were developed facilitated by further improvement of understanding the basic adsorption mechanisms of proteins on chromatographic resins. The new experimental electrokinetic methods introduced are zeta potential determination with proteins via laser light scattering and electro-...

  4. An improved purification procedure for Leishmania RNA virus (LRV)

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Marcos Michel; Manzine, Livia Regina; da Silva, Marcos Vinicius G.; Bettini, Jefferson; Portugal, Rodrigo Vilares; Cruz, Angela Kaysel; Arruda, Eurico; Thiemann, Otavio Henrique

    2014-01-01

    Leishmania RNA Virus (LRV, Totiviridae) infect Leishmania cells and subvert mice immune response, probably promoting parasite persistence, suggesting significant roles for LRV in host-parasite interaction. Here we describe a new LRV1-4 purification protocol, enabling capsid visualization by negatively stained electron microscopy representing a significant contribution to future LRV investigations. PMID:25242960

  5. Turnkey Helium Purification and Liquefaction Plant for DARWIN, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindemann, U.; Boeck, S.; Blum, L.; Kurtcuoglu, K.

    2010-04-01

    The Linde Group, through its Australian subsidiary BOC Limited, has signed an agreement with Darwin LNG Pty Ltd for the supply of feed-gas to Linde's new helium refining and liquefaction facility in Darwin, Australia. Linde Kryotechnik AG, located in Switzerland, has carried out the engineering and fabrication of the equipment for the turn key helium plant. The raw feed gas flow of 20'730 Nm3/h contains up to of 3 mol% helium. The purification process of the feed gas consists of partial condensation of nitrogen in two stages, cryogenic adsorption and finally catalytic oxidation of hydrogen followed by a dryer system. Downstream of the purification the refined helium is liquefied using a modified Bryton process and stored in a 30'000 gal LHe tank. For further distribution and export of the liquid helium there are two stations available for filling of truck trailers and containers. The liquid nitrogen, required for refrigeration capacity to the nitrogen removal stages in the purification process as well as for the pre-cooling of the pure helium in the liquefaction process, is generated on site during the feed gas purification process. The optimized process provides low power consumption, maximum helium recovery and a minimum helium loss.

  6. Modified cationic membranes for water purification, and their selective permeability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavrin, G. V.; Fasullin, D. D.; Melkolvan, R. G.

    2014-12-01

    Wastewater containing heavy metal ions pose a significant toxicological risk to aquatic ecosystems and humans. The common problem of modern engineering technology is the development of environmentally friendly systems with a closed-circuit and a minimum waste. The ion exchange membrane can significantly reduce the cost of wastewater treatment and provide a high degree of purification.

  7. The Extraction and Purification of Stevioside from Stevia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李涛; 张慧; 王冉冉; 张祥敏; 张万青; 王延霞; 王丽娟; 田浩

    2011-01-01

    tevioside is a natural sweetener extracted from stevia,which is widely used in the food industry and the pharmacy.Centre on the extraction and purification of stevioside,using ADS-7 resin to extract stevioside through one single step,greatly shorten the p

  8. STUDY ON CARRIER PURIFICATION TECHNOLOGY FOR HYDRAULIC OIL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZhangXi

    1996-01-01

    The surface feature of contaminative oil is analysed and the theory of carrier purification technology for hydraulic oil is put forward.Experiments have been done in laboratory.The main performance of the purified oil has got to a level of new oil.

  9. Purification and properties of cowpea mosaic virus RNA replicase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zabel, P.

    1978-01-01

    This thesis concerns the partial purification and properties of an RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RNA replicase) produced upon infection of Vigna unguiculata plants with Cowpea Mosaic Virus (CPMV). The enzyme is believed to be coded, at least in part, by the virus genome and to be responsible for the

  10. Purification of KamLAND-Zen liquid scintillator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda, Haruo

    2013-08-01

    KamLAND-Zen is neutrino-less double-beta decay search experiment using enriched 300 kg of 136Xe dissolved in pure liquid scintillator. This report is purification work of liquid scintillator for KamLAND-Zen experiment before installation in the inner-balloon and background rejection processes after installation.

  11. Zein purification: the process, the product, market potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objectives of this article intend to give an overview of a zein purification, decolorization and deodorization process, methodologies to assess those properties and applications of the purified product. The process involves column filtration of commercial zein solutions through a combination of ...

  12. Distillation and Air Stripping Designs for the Lunar Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boul, Peter J.; Lange, Kevin E.; Conger, Bruce; Anderson, Molly

    2009-01-01

    Air stripping and distillation are two different gravity-based methods, which may be applied to the purification of wastewater on the lunar base. These gravity-based solutions to water processing are robust physical separation techniques, which may be advantageous to many other techniques for their simplicity in design and operation. The two techniques can be used in conjunction with each other to obtain high purity water. The components and feed compositions for modeling waste water streams are presented in conjunction with the Aspen property system for traditional stage distillation models and air stripping models. While the individual components for each of the waste streams will vary naturally within certain bounds, an analog model for waste water processing is suggested based on typical concentration ranges for these components. Target purity levels for the for recycled water are determined for each individual component based on NASA s required maximum contaminant levels for potable water Distillation processes are modeled separately and in tandem with air stripping to demonstrate the potential effectiveness and utility of these methods in recycling wastewater on the Moon. Optimum parameters such as reflux ratio, feed stage location, and processing rates are determined with respect to the power consumption of the process. Multistage distillation is evaluated for components in wastewater to determine the minimum number of stages necessary for each of 65 components in humidity condensate and urine wastewater mixed streams. Components of the wastewater streams are ranked by Henry s Law Constant and the suitability of air stripping in the purification of wastewater in terms of component removal is evaluated. Scaling factors for distillation and air stripping columns are presented to account for the difference in the lunar gravitation environment. Commercially available distillation and air stripping units which are considered suitable for Exploration Life Support

  13. Synthesis Gas Purification Purification des gaz de synthèse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiche D.

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Fischer-Tropsch (FT based B-XTL processes are attractive alternatives for future energy production. These processes aim at converting lignocellulosic biomass possibly in co-processing with petcoke, coal, or vacuum residues into synthetic biofuels. A gasification step converts the feed into a synthesis gas (CO and H2 mixture , which undergoes the Fischer-Tropsch reaction after H2/CO ratio adjustment and CO2 removal. However synthesis gas also contains various impurities that must be removed in order to prevent Fischer-Tropsch catalyst poisoning. Due to the large feedstocks variety that can be processed, significant variations of the composition of the synthesis gas are expected. Especially, this affects the nature of the impurities that are present (element, speciation, as well as their relative contents. Moreover, due to high FT catalyst sensitivity, severe syngas specifications regarding its purity are required. For these reasons, synthesis gas purification constitutes a major challenge for the development of B-XTL processes. In this article, we focus on these major hurdles that have to be overcome. The different kinds of syngas impurities are presented. The influence of the nature of feedstocks, gasification technology and operating conditions on the type and content of impurities is discussed. Highlight is given on the fate of sulfur compounds, nitrogen compounds, halides, transition and heavy metals. Main synthesis gas purification technologies (based on adsorption, absorption, catalytic reactions, etc. are finally described, as well as the related challenges. Les procédés de synthèse de biocarburants par voie Fischer-Tropsch (FT, voies B-XTL, représentent des alternatives prometteuses pour la production d’énergie. Ces procédés permettent la conversion en carburants de synthèse de biomasse lignocellulosique, éventuellement mise en oeuvre en mélange avec des charges fossiles telles que petcoke, charbons ou résidus sous vide. Pour

  14. Improved methods for magnetic purification of malaria parasites and haemozoin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DeRisi Joseph L

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria parasites generate free haem upon catabolism of host haemoglobin during their intraerythrocytic growth cycle. In order to minimize oxidative toxicity of the ferric iron, the free haem molecules are polymerized into the biomineral beta-haematin (commonly referred to as haemozoin. Haemozoin crystals are paramagnetic, and this property can be exploited for the purification of late stage parasites as they contain larger haemozoin crystals than early stage parasites and uninfected cells. Commercially available magnets that were originally developed for the purpose of antibody-mediated cell purification are widely used for this purpose. As these methods are not necessarily optimized for parasite purification, the relationship between magnetic field strength and the quantity and quality of yield during parasite purification was explored. Methods Inexpensive rare-earth neodymium magnets with commercially available disposable columns were employed to explore the relationship between magnetic field strength and recovery of free haemozoin and infected erythrocytes (iRBCs. Results Yields of free haemozoin increased nearly linearly with increasing magnetic field strength to the strongest fields tested (8,500 Gauss. Stronger magnetic fields also improved the recovery of iRBCs with no detrimental effects on parasite viability. An in-house constructed magnetic stand, built for $75 in materials, produced superior results when compared with much more expensive commercial products. Conclusions Existing protocols for the magnetic purification of free haemozoin and iRBCs result in sub-optimal yields. Inexpensive high-strength neodymium magnets offer a better option, resulting in higher yields with no detrimental effects on parasite viability.

  15. Biofiltration of air contaminated with methanol and toluene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pakamas Chetpattananondh

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Biofiltration of air contaminated with VOCs is inexpensive compared with the conventional techniques and very effective for treating large volumes of moist air streams with low concentrations of VOCs. In this study, biofiltration for the purification of polluted air from methanol, a hydrophilic VOC, and toluene, a hydrophobic VOC, was investigated. The experiments were operated using three separated stainless steel biofilters, for methanol, toluene, and a mixture of methanol and toluene, respectively. Biofilter consisted of a mixture of palm shells and activated sludge as a filter-bed material. Only the indigenous microorganisms of the bed medium without any addition of extra inoculum were used throughout the whole process. The polluted air inlet concentration was varied from 0.3-4.7 g/m3 with flow rates ranging from 0.06-0.45 m3/h, equivalent to the empty bed residence times of 9-71 sec. Polluted air was successfully treated by biofiltration, 100% removal efficiencies would be obtained when the air flow rate was lower than 0.45 m3/h. The presence of toluene did not affect the removal rate of methanol while the removal rate of toluene was decreased with the presence of methanol in air stream according to the competition phenomenon.

  16. EVALUATION OF THE POLYAD FB AIR PURIFICATION AND SOLVENT RECOVERY PROCESS FOR STYRENE REMOVAL

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report gives results of a study evaluating the Polyad fluidized-bed (FB) process for controlling styrene emissions at a representative fiberglass shower stall and bath tub manufacturing plan*t. he process was evaluated using a transport able unit supplied by Weatherly, Inc., ...

  17. Indoor Air Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... protect yourself and your family. Learn more Air Quality at Work Workers should breathe easy while on the job, but worksites with poor air quality put employees at risk. Healthy air is essential ...

  18. Air protection. Ochrana ovzdusia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siska, F.

    1980-01-01

    This paper discusses problems of air pollution control, air pollution abatement and effects of air pollution. Air pollution caused by black and brown coal combustion, by fossil-fuel power plants and by coking plants is evaluated. Air pollution by dusts, sulfur oxides, nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide, ammonia as well arsenic, barium, beryllium, boron, chromium, gallium, cobalt, manganese, copper, nickel, lead, plutonium, titanium and vanadium, which sometimes accompany ashes in coal, is analyzed. Methods of air pollution abatement such as fluidized bed combustion, coal preparation, desulfurization or dry coke quenching are described. Systems for air pollution control are presented: air filtration, cyclones, electrostatic precipitators. Systems of air pollution measurement and recording are evaluated. Propagation of air pollutants in the atmosphere as well as the factors which influence pollutant propagation are characterized. Problems associated with site selection for fossil-fuel power plants are also discussed. An analysis of economic aspects of air pollution abatement and air pollution control is made. (55 refs.)

  19. HEPA air filter (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... pet dander and other irritating allergens from the air. Along with other methods to reduce allergens, such ... controlling the amount of allergens circulating in the air. HEPA filters can be found in most air ...

  20. Bad Air Day

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... link, please review our exit disclaimer . Subscribe Bad Air Day Air Quality and Your Health In many parts of the country, summer has the worst air quality of any season. When the forecast says ...

  1. MATHEMATICAL MODELING AND INTENSIFICATION OF CONDENSATION GRAVITY FINE AIR FILTER OPERATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Shitov

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement. A problem of mathematical modeling and intensification of operation of the flow thermal diffusion chamber of the condensation gravity filter as one of the most efficient air filter is solved.Results and conclusions. This paper presents an example of the practical application of the model of heat and mass exchange in the thermodiffusion chamber as the main operating element of condensation gravity filter for high-performance air purification due to the generation of supersaturation fields with controlled properties. A criterion for quantitative assessment of purification efficiency in the form of breakthrough function is developed. The typical results of numerical modeling of the operation of the condensation gravity-type filter are presented for the most common case in practice. The possibility of intensification of the filter operation either at the stage of use or at the stage of design is shown based on the proposed approach, obtained models, and calculations.

  2. Evaluation of strategies to control Fab light chain dimer during mammalian expression and purification: A universal one-step process for purification of correctly assembled Fab.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spooner, Jennifer; Keen, Jenny; Nayyar, Kalpana; Birkett, Neil; Bond, Nicholas; Bannister, David; Tigue, Natalie; Higazi, Daniel; Kemp, Benjamin; Vaughan, Tristan; Kippen, Alistair; Buchanan, Andrew

    2015-07-01

    Fabs are an important class of antibody fragment as both research reagents and therapeutic agents. There are a plethora of methods described for their recombinant expression and purification. However, these do not address the issue of excessive light chain production that forms light chain dimers nor do they describe a universal purification strategy. Light chain dimer impurities and the absence of a universal Fab purification strategy present persistent challenges for biotechnology applications using Fabs, particularly around the need for bespoke purification strategies. This study describes methods to address light chain dimer formation during Fab expression and identifies a novel CH 1 affinity resin as a simple and efficient one-step purification for correctly assembled Fab.

  3. A new cellulose purification approach for higher degree of polymerization: Modeling, optimization and characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hivechi, Ahmad; Bahrami, S Hajir

    2016-11-01

    Degree of polymerization (DP) is an important factor which is affected by purification process. In this study, a new purification process is proposed in which cellulose DP is preserved. Response surface methodology (RSM) was used for optimizing the purification conditions. Purification process of biomass at 100°C in 10g/L sodium hydroxide and 30g/L sodium dithionite, is reported as the optimum condition of this treatment. DP, purity, weight reduction and yellowness index were 6012, 98.10%, 8.46% and 25.22 respectively. TGA, IR, XRD and SEM techniques were used to compare both this new approach and conventional purification treatments. The results showed that this proposed purification process can produce cellulose with higher degree of polymerization compare to the conventional method. PMID:27516274

  4. The Blood Compatibilities of Blood Purification Membranes and Other Materials Developed in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takaya Abe

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The biocompatibilities in blood purification therapy are defined as “a concept to stipulate safety of blood purification therapy by an index based on interaction in the body arising from blood purification therapy itself.” The biocompatibilities are associated with not only materials to be used but also many factors such as sterilization method and eluted substance. It is often evaluated based on impacts on cellular pathways and on humoral pathways. Since the biocompatibilities of blood purification therapy in particular hemodialysis are not just a prognostic factor for dialysis patients but a contributory factor for long-term complications, it should be considered with adequate attention. It is important that blood purification therapy should be performed by consistently evaluating not only risks associated with these biocompatibilities but also the other advantages obtained from treatments. In this paper, the biocompatibilities of membrane and adsorption material based on Japanese original which are used for blood purification therapy are described.

  5. Methods for air cleaning and protection of building occupants from airborne pathogens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bolashikov, Zhecho Dimitrov; Melikov, Arsen Krikor

    2009-01-01

    germicidal irradiation (UVGI), photocatalytic oxidation (PCO), plasmacluster ions and other technologies for air disinfection and purification from pathogens are analyzed with respect to currently used air distribution principles. The importance of indoor air characteristics, such as temperature, relative...... of transmission, i.e. the generation of pathogen laden droplets originating in the respiratory tract of an infected individual, the survivability of the pathogens, their dispersal indoors and their transfer to a healthy person are reviewed. The advantages and the drawbacks of air dilution, filtration, ultraviolet...... humidity and velocity for the efficiency of each method is analyzed, taking into consideration the nature of the pathogens themselves. The applicability of the methods to the different types of total volume air distribution used at present indoors, i.e. mixing, displacement and underfloor ventilation...

  6. Expression and purification of soluble recombinant Hexastatin in E. coli

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To construct the expression vector of Hexastatin gene, to express and to purify the recombinant protein for further activity research. Methods: The human Hexastatin gene was isolated by RTPCR from EC9706 cells total RNA and cloned into pMD18-T for sequencing. Then the Hexastatin gene was subcloned into pMAL-c4x expression vector and induced to express by IPTG. The recombinant fusion protein was purified with Amylose Resin Heads. Results: RT-PCR product was about 687 bp and its sequence was the same as that of Hexastatin reported. The recombinant protein was expressed in E. coli BL21 with high level and the soluble protein accounted for 24.8% of the total bacterial protein. The purification of recombinant protein purified with Amylose Resin Heads reached more than 90%. Conclusion: The cloning, expression and purification of human Hexastatin have laid a foundation for its anti-angiogenesis therapy for tumor. (authors)

  7. Purification effects of glass flux on A356 melt

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    倪红军; 孙宝德; 蒋海燕; 陈晨; 丁文江

    2002-01-01

    In order to remove hydrogen and inclusions from A356 alloy melt,a low melting-point glass flux,JDN-Ⅱ,was developed.The results indicated that JDN-Ⅱ flux has distinct effect of purification and protection on A356 alloy melt.When the dosage of the flux was 3%,the content of hydrogen in A356 melt was only 2.6 mL/kg at 857 ℃ and 0.7 mL/kg even at 750 ℃.In the meantime,the mechanical properties of the alloy increase greatly with the covering of 3% JDN-Ⅱ flux.Compared with no flux,the tensile strength of A356 alloy increases by 9.42% and the elongation increases by 22%.The purification mechanism of JDN-Ⅱ glass flux was discussed too.

  8. Water Purification by Shock Electrodialysis: Deionization, Filtration, Separation, and Disinfection

    CERN Document Server

    Deng, Daosheng; Braff, William A; Schlumpberger, Sven; Suss, Matthew E; Bazant, Martin Z

    2014-01-01

    The development of energy and infrastructure efficient water purification systems are among the most critical engineering challenges facing our society. Water purification is often a multi-step process involving filtration, desalination, and disinfection of a feedstream. Shock electrodialysis (shock ED) is a newly developed technique for water desalination, leveraging the formation of ion concentration polarization (ICP) zones and deionization shock waves in microscale pores near to an ion selective element. While shock ED has been demonstrated as an effective water desalination tool, we here present evidence of other simultaneous functionalities. We show that, unlike electrodialysis, shock ED can thoroughly filter micron-scale particles and aggregates of nanoparticles present in the feedwater. We also demonstrate that shock ED can enable disinfection of feedwaters, as approximately $99\\%$ of viable bacteria (here \\textit{E. coli}) in the inflow were killed or removed by our prototype. Shock ED also separates...

  9. Uranium hexafluoride purification; Purificacao de hexafluoreto de uranio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araujo, Eneas F. de

    1986-07-01

    Uranium hexafluoride might contain a large amount of impurities after manufacturing or handling. Three usual methods of purification of uranium hexafluoride were presented: selective sorption, sublimation, and distillation. Since uranium hexafluoride usually is contaminated with hydrogen fluoride, a theoretical study of the phase equilibrium properties was performed for the binary system UF{sub 6}-HF. A large deviation from the ideal solution behaviour was observed. A purification unity based on a constant reflux batch distillation process was developed. A procedure was established in order to design the re boiler, condenser and packed columns for the UF{sub 6}-HF mixture separation. A bench scale facility for fractional distillation of uranium hexafluoride was described. Basic operations for that facility and results extracted from several batches were discussed. (author)

  10. Overlimiting current and water purification in porous materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Daosheng; Aouad, Wassim; Schlumpberger, Sven; Bazant, Martin Z.

    2012-11-01

    Salt transport in bulk electrolytes occurs by diffusion and convection, but in microfluidic devices and porous media, the presence of charged side walls leads to additional surface transport mechanisms, surface conduction and electro-osmotic flows, which become more important as the bulk salt concentration decreases. As a result, it is possible to exceed the diffusion-limited current to a membrane or electrode. In this work, we present experimental observations of over-limiting current to an ion-exchange membrane through a porous glass frit with submicron pores. Under this operation conditions, we also demonstrate the continuous extraction of depleted solution for water purification, including removing heavy metal ions, filtrating aggregated particles and reducing dye concentration. The porous media pave the way for practical water desalination and purification.

  11. Preparation and Purification of Zinc Sulphinate Reagents for Organic Synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    O’Hara, Fionn; Baxter, Ryan D.; O’Brien, Alexander G.; Collins, Michael R.; Dixon, Janice A.; Fujiwara, Yuta; Ishihara, Yoshihiro; Baran, Phil S.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY The present protocol details the synthesis of zinc bis(alkanesulphinate)s that can be used as general reagents for the formation of radical species. The zinc sulphinates described herein have been generated from the corresponding sulphonyl chlorides by treatment with zinc dust. The products may be used crude, or a simple purification procedure may be performed to minimize incorporation of water and zinc chloride. Elemental analysis has been conducted in order to confirm the purity of the zinc sulphinate reagents; reactions with caffeine have also been carried out to verify the reactivity of each batch that has been synthesized. Although the synthesis of the zinc sulphinate salts generally proceeds within 3 h, workup can take up to 24 h and purification can take up to 3 h. Following the steps in this protocol would enable the user to generate a small toolkit of zinc sulphinate reagents over the course of one week. PMID:23640168

  12. Stabilization of high mercury contaminated brine purification sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, J Ming; Lo, Tony; Walsh, Tony; Lam, Tak

    2004-09-10

    The highly leachable mercury contaminants of brine purification sludge (BPS) generated from the Hg-cell electrolysis process in chlorine production can be stabilized in the treatment procedure employing ferric-lignin derivatives (FLD) (Ligmet binder) and Portland cement (PC). The stabilization effectiveness has been examined by time-based multiple toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) tests and sequential TCLP tests. In a period of 50 days, the multiple TCLP tests showed a variation of less than 90 microg l(-1) for the leachable mercury level, and the sequential TCLP tests for the same sample displayed a declining TCLP mercury level. Based on this study, the stabilization of approximately 2000 t of brine purification sludge has been successfully processed with the ferric-lignin derivatives treatment. PMID:15363526

  13. Fast multi-copy entanglement purification with linear optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Chun; Zhou, Lan; Sheng, Yu-Bo

    2015-12-01

    We describe an entanglement purification protocol for a polarization Bell state. Different from the previous protocols, it does not require the controlled-not gate, and only uses linear optical elements to complete the task. This protocol requires multi-copy degraded mixed states, which can make this protocol obtain a high fidelity in one purification step. It can also be extended to purify the multi-photon Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) state. This protocol may be useful in future long-distance communication. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11474168 and 61401222), the Qing Lan Project of Jiangsu Province, China, the STITP Project in Nanjing University of Posts and Telecommunications, the Natural Science Foundation of Jiangsu Province, China (Grant No. BK20151502), the Natural Science Foundation of the Jiangsu Higher Education Institutions (Grant No. 15KJA120002), and the Project Funded by the Priority Academic Program Development of Jiangsu Higher Education Institutions, China.

  14. A Scintillator Purification Plant and Fluid Handling System for SNO+

    CERN Document Server

    Ford, Richard J

    2015-01-01

    A large capacity purification plant and fluid handling system has been constructed for the SNO+ neutrino and double-beta decay experiment, located 6800 feet underground at SNOLAB, Canada. SNO+ is a refurbishment of the SNO detector to fill the acrylic vessel with liquid scintillator based on Linear Alkylbenzene (LAB) and 2 g/L PPO, and also has a phase to load natural tellurium into the scintillator for a double-beta decay experiment with 130Te. The plant includes processes multi-stage dual-stream distillation, column water extraction, steam stripping, and functionalized silica gel adsorption columns. The plant also includes systems for preparing the scintillator with PPO and metal-loading the scintillator for double-beta decay exposure. We review the basis of design, the purification principles, specifications for the plant, and the construction and installations. The construction and commissioning status is updated.

  15. Affinity Purification of Insulin by Peptide-Ligand Affinity Chromatography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The affinity heptapeptide (HWWWPAS) for insulin, selected from phage display library,was coupled to EAH Sepharose 4B gel and packed to a 1-mL column. The column was used for the affinity purification of insulin from protein mixture and commercial insulin preparation. It was observed that the minor impurity in the commercial insulin was removed by the affinity chromatography. Nearly 40 mg of insulin could be purified with the 1-mL affinity column. The results revealed the high specificity and capacity of the affinity column for insulin purification. Moreover, based on the analysis of the amino acids in the peptide sequence, shorter peptides were designed and synthesized for insulin chromatography. As a result, HWWPS was found to be a good alternative to HWWWPAS, while the other two peptides with three or four amino acids showed weak affinity for insulin. The results indicated that the peptide sequence of HWWWPAS was quite conservative for specific binding of insulin.

  16. Recombinant Dragline Silk-Like Proteins—Expression and Purification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaines, William A.; Marcotte, William R.

    2011-01-01

    Spider dragline silk is a proteinaceous fiber with impressive physical characteristics making it attractive for use in advanced materials. The fiber is composed of two proteins (spidroins MaSp1 and MaSp2), each of which contains a large central repeat array flanked by non-repetitive N- and C-terminal domains. The repeat arrays appear to be largely responsible for the tensile properties of the fiber, suggesting that the N- and C-terminal domains may be involved in self-assembly. We recently isolated the MaSp1 and MaSp2 N-terminal domains from Nephila clavipes and have incorporated these into mini-silk genes for expression in transgenic systems. Current efforts involve the development of expression vectors that will allow purification using a removable affinity tag for scalable protein purification. PMID:23914141

  17. Recombinant Dragline Silk-Like Proteins-Expression and Purification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaines, William A; Marcotte, William R

    2011-03-01

    Spider dragline silk is a proteinaceous fiber with impressive physical characteristics making it attractive for use in advanced materials. The fiber is composed of two proteins (spidroins MaSp1 and MaSp2), each of which contains a large central repeat array flanked by non-repetitive N- and C-terminal domains. The repeat arrays appear to be largely responsible for the tensile properties of the fiber, suggesting that the N- and C-terminal domains may be involved in self-assembly. We recently isolated the MaSp1 and MaSp2 N-terminal domains from Nephila clavipes and have incorporated these into mini-silk genes for expression in transgenic systems. Current efforts involve the development of expression vectors that will allow purification using a removable affinity tag for scalable protein purification.

  18. An alternate high yielding purification method for Clitoria ternatea lectin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naeem, Aabgeena; Ahmad, Ejaz; Khan, Rizwan Hasan

    2007-10-01

    In our previous publication we had reported the purification and characterization of Clitoria ternatea agglutinin from its seeds on fetuin CL agarose affinity column, designated CTA [A. Naeem, S. Haque, R.H. Khan. Protein J., 2007]. Since CTA binds beta-d-galactosides, this lectin can be used as valuable tool for glycobiology studies in biomedical and cancer research. So an attempt was made for a high yielding alternative purification method employing the use of asialofetuin CL agarose column for the above-mentioned lectin, designated CTL. The fetuin affinity purified agglutinin was found similar to asialofetuin affinity purified lectin in SDS pattern, HPLC and N-terminal sequence. The content of lectin was found to be 30mg/30g dry weight of pulse. The yield was 2.8% as compared to 0.3% obtained on fetuin column. The number of tryptophan and tyrosine estimated was four and six per subunit. PMID:17590430

  19. The Physical-Chemical Mechanism of Water Stream Self-Purification

    CERN Document Server

    Mikhailovskii, V

    2000-01-01

    The self-purification process of water streams is studied and the physical-chemical mechanism of it is determined. The naturally occurring self-purification process at the Boyne River site is monitored. Experiments at several creeks and rivers in GTA area that induced the self-purification process are provided. As a result, the concentration of polluting agents in the water decreases up to 100 0epending on the site and pollutants.

  20. EM-TECHNOLOGY APPLICATION FOR MUNICIPAL WASTEWATERS PURIFICATION FROM BIOLOGICAL POLLUTANTS

    OpenAIRE

    Vovk, Oksana; Gay, Angela; Yakovleva, Anna

    2011-01-01

    Abstract. This article is devoted to the problem of municipal waste waters purification. The present daysituation with waste water treatment facilities in Ukraine, existed methods of waste waters purification andsearch for new ones are described. Much attention is paid to such kind of pollutants as microbiological andbacterial. A comparatively new method of sewage waters purification from biological contaminants andpossibilities to apply this method in Ukraine is presented in the article.Keyw...

  1. Purification of carbon nanotube by wet oxidation; Shisshiki sanka ni yoru carbon nanotube no seisei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morishita, K.; Takarada, T. [Gunma University, Gunma (Japan)

    1997-07-10

    In order to efficiently recover carbon nanotubes, the purification method by wet oxidation with orthoperiodic acid and perchloric acid is investigated. The reactivity of the carbonaceous material toward the acids depends on the type of carbon. Carbon nanotubes are selectively recovered under the mild oxidation conditions. The degree of purification depends on the concentration of orthoperiodic acid. It is suggested that wet oxidation is an effective method for purification of carbon nanotubes. 17 refs., 6 figs.

  2. Expression, purification, and immobilization of recombinant tamavidin 2 fusion proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takakura, Yoshimitsu; Oka, Naomi; Tsunashima, Masako

    2014-01-01

    Tamavidin 2 is a fungal avidin-like protein that binds biotin with high affinity. Unlike avidin or streptavidin, tamavidin 2 in soluble form is produced at high levels in Escherichia coli. In this chapter, we describe a method for immobilization and purification of recombinant proteins with the use of tamavidin 2 as an affinity tag. The protein fused to tamavidin 2 is tightly immobilized and simultaneously purified on biotinylated magnetic microbeads without loss of activity. PMID:24943317

  3. Isolation, purification, and characterization of mouse placental lactogen.

    OpenAIRE

    Colosi, P; Marr, G; Lopez, J; Haro, L; Ogren, L; Talamantes, F

    1982-01-01

    Mouse placental lactogen was purified 1840-fold from BALB/c placentae from days 14-18 of gestation with an overall yield of 29%. The purification procedure included alkaline homogenization and extraction, ammonium sulfate precipitation, hydrophobic interaction chromatography on Phenyl-Sepharose, ion-exchange chromatography on CM- and DEAE-cellulose, and gel exclusion chromatography on Sephadex G-100. On 10% alkaline polyacrylamide gels, mouse placental lactogen had an Rf of 0.19. Electrophore...

  4. Streamlined Purification of Plasmid DNA From Prokaryotic Cultures

    OpenAIRE

    Pueschel, Laura; Li, Hongshan; Hymes, Matthew

    2011-01-01

    We describe the complete process of AcroPrep Advance Filter Plates for 96 plasmid preparations, starting from prokaryotic culture and ending with high purity DNA. Based on multi-well filtration for bacterial lysate clearance and DNA purification, this method creates a streamlined process for plasmid preparation. Filter plates containing silica-based media can easily be processed by vacuum filtration or centrifuge to yield appreciable quantities of plasmid DNA. Quantitative analyses determine ...

  5. The Flotational Mechanism of Etobicoke Creek's Self-Purification

    CERN Document Server

    Fisenko, A I

    2000-01-01

    A flotational mechanism of Etobicoke Creek's self-purification has been investigated. It is shown that the froth contains a high concentration of polluting agents. Chemical analyses of the top layer of surface water in comparison to both before and after froth collector in the course of a year are provided. As a result, the concentrations of pollutants by utilizing the model froth collector are decreased.

  6. Production and purification of hybrid Ty-VLPs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, N R; Gilmour, J E; Kingsman, S M; Kingsman, A J; Adams, S E

    1994-04-01

    This article describes how pure Ty-VLPs (virus-like particles) can be prepared from hybrid Ty-VLPs. Many different hybrid Ty-VLPs have been produced and may be easily purified. Since the sedimentation properties of different hybrid Ty-VLPs are similar, a simple purification process can be used for any VLP. This fast, versatile, and easy process allows for the production of a variety of recombinant proteins. PMID:7859157

  7. Aqueous Chloride Operations Overview: Plutonium and Americium Purification/Recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gardner, Kyle Shelton [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Kimball, David Bryan [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Skidmore, Bradley Evan [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-09-28

    These are a set of slides intended for an information session as part of recruiting activities at Brigham Young University. It gives an overview of aqueous chloride operations, specifically on plutonium and americium purification/recovery. This presentation details the steps taken perform these processes, from plutonium size reduction, dissolution, solvent extraction, oxalate precipitation, to calcination. For Americium recovery, it details the CLEAR (chloride extraction and actinide recovery) Line, oxalate precipitation and calcination.

  8. PURIFICATION OF TRANSFORMER OIL in PT. PJB UP PAITON

    OpenAIRE

    Gusti Wahdaniyah*, Purnomo Tri Prasetyo, Arif Setiabudi, Totok R. Biyanto

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe the filtration or purification of transformer oil. One of the main equipment in coal-fired power generation unit is transformer. When the transformer fail to operate properly, the continuity of distribution system become interrupted. As a part of transformer, transformer oil contribute the failure of transformer due to the aging. To solve this problem, several methods is applied starting from dehydration process, degasification process, oxidation remov...

  9. Purification and characterisation of amylolytic enzymes from Lipomyces starkeyi

    OpenAIRE

    Pandya, Jyoti

    2002-01-01

    A purification scheme has been developed for the extracellular carbohydrases; aglucosidase and a-amylase, secreted by the ascosporogenous soil yeast Lipomyces starkeyi NCYC 1436. Growth and optimum enzyme yield conditions were determined with cultures of L. starkeyi grown at 30°C on a medium containing 2% soluble starch, 1% yeast extract and 1% Bactopeptone, appropriate enzyme assay procedures having been devised. Both enzymes were initially precipitated from the cell free supernatant ...

  10. Analysis and chromatographic purification of eicosanoids multiply labeled by tritium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We show the possibility of analysis and chromatographic purification of eicosanoids triply labeled by tritium. The described methods allow us to isolate chromatographically pure products obtained by selective hydrogenatin, chemical, and enzyme methods, with radiochemical purity at least 95-97%. The following methods are used to analyze the reaction mixtures and to isolate the tritium-labeled eicosanoids: gas-liquid chromatography, high-efficiency liquid chromatography, and thin-layer chromatography on supports impregnated with silver nitrate

  11. Affinity purification of polysaccharide degrading enzymes with crosslinked substrates.

    OpenAIRE

    Rozie, H.J.

    1992-01-01

    The aim of this work was to find economically favourable, affinity based, purification methods for several polysaccharide splitting bulk enzymes. The framework in which this study is done is described in Chapter 1.Chapter 2 describes the adsorption of endo-polygalacturonase (endoPG) from a commercial enzyme preparation (Rapidase) to calcium alginate beads. Approximately 75% of the various polygalacturonase activities from Rapidase can be adsorbed at pH 4.4 by calcium alginate beads as well as...

  12. Synthesis and purification of trialkyl compounds of gallium and indium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The research progress in trialkyl compounds of gallium and indium was discussed from two aspects, one was the chemical synthesis of the compounds and the other was the purification of them. There are three synthesis routes being reported in the first aspect, i.e. the route staring from pure metal, the route starting from the pure metal trihalides, and the electrochemical route. In the second aspect, the purifying methods of decomposition-distillation and zone refining were reviewed.

  13. Production and purification of Bacillus anthracis protective antigen

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    Protective antigen (PA) plays crucial roles in the pathogenicity and virulence of Bacillus anthracis. Animals or human immunised with the protein acquire a complete protection against the disease. In addition to vaccine, PA can also be developed into a sensitive diagnostic test for anthrax. The purpose of this study was to produce PA using a culture medium easily obtained, and to develop a simple and effective technique for purification of the protein. To produce PA, B. anthracis Sterne 34F2 ...

  14. Reverse osmosis membrane of high urea rejection properties. [water purification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, C. C.; Wydeven, T. J. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    Polymeric membranes suitable for use in reverse osmosis water purification because of their high urea and salt rejection properties are prepared by generating a plasma of an unsaturated hydrocarbon monomer and nitrogen gas from an electrical source. A polymeric membrane is formed by depositing a polymer of the unsaturated monomer from the plasma onto a substrate, so that nitrogen from the nitrogen gas is incorporated within the polymer in a chemically combined form.

  15. Prevalence of Campylobacter in Dutch sewage purification plants.

    OpenAIRE

    Koenraad, P.M.F.J.

    1995-01-01

    Campylobacter bacteria are an important cause of bacterial gastro-enteritis in man. Although food of animal origin is the main source of human infection, a casecontrol study in the United States of America showed that 8% of all campylobacteriosis cases could be attributed to consumption of contaminated surface water. In this thesis the prevalence of Campylobacter in sewage purification plants was investigated in order to obtain more information on the survival of this pathogen in aquatic envi...

  16. Partial purification of protective antigens from Nippostrongylus brasiliensis in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhalem, A; Bourdieu, C; Luffau, G; Pery, P

    1988-01-01

    The purification of antigens from Nippostrongylus brasiliensis, through their ability to provoke cellular proliferation of immune cells and through their recognition by antibodies, led to an antigenic preparation which was extracted from adult worms and which contained only two proteins (MW 14 and 43 Kd). Mice which were vaccinated by the oral route after the entrapment of these two proteins in liposomes were strongly protected.

  17. Chromatographic purification and size separation of carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duesberg, G. S.; Muster, J.; Krstic, V.; Burghard, M.; Roth, S.

    1998-08-01

    The efficient purification of single-wall and multi-wall carbon nanotubes (NTs) by columnar size exclusion chromatography (SEC) is reported. In this process, carbon nanospheres (polyhedra), amorphous carbon and metal particles are removed from aqueous surfactant-stabilised dispersions of NT raw material. TEM and AFM investigations revealed that more than 40-50% of the purified material consists of individual tubes. In addition, length separation of the tubes is achieved.

  18. Production and Purification of Rabbit's Polyclonal Antibody Against Factor VIII.

    OpenAIRE

    Sohrabi, Simin; Akbarzadeh, Azim; Norouzian, Dariush; Farhangi, Ali; Mortazavi, Mehri; Mehrabi, Mohammad Reza; Chiani, Mohsen; Saffari, Zahra; Ghassemi, Soheil

    2011-01-01

    The attempt is made to produce recombinant factor VIII but the first step in producing such product is production and purification of rabbit's polyclonal antibody against factor VIII. The second and third steps involve monoclonal antibody and recombinant factor VIII production. Factor VIII is one of the most important coagulating factor where its deficiency leads to diseases like hemophilia type A or classic. It is an inherited disease. Previously, it was obtained through fractionation of blo...

  19. Natural water purification and water management by artificial groundwater recharge

    OpenAIRE

    Balke, Klaus-Dieter; Zhu, Yan

    2008-01-01

    Worldwide, several regions suffer from water scarcity and contamination. The infiltration and subsurface storage of rain and river water can reduce water stress. Artificial groundwater recharge, possibly combined with bank filtration, plant purification and/or the use of subsurface dams and artificial aquifers, is especially advantageous in areas where layers of gravel and sand exist below the earth’s surface. Artificial infiltration of surface water into the uppermost aquifer has qualitative...

  20. Purification of coated vesicles by agarose gel electrophoresis

    OpenAIRE

    1981-01-01

    We have applied agarose gel electrophoresis as a novel step in the purification of clathrin-coated vesicles. Preparations of coated vesicles obtained by sedimentation velocity and isopycnic centrifugation are resolved into two distinct fractions upon electrophoresis. The slower migrating fraction contains smooth vesicles, whereas the faster contains only coated vesicles and empty clathrin coats. The faster mobility of the coated vesicles is primarily caused by the acidic nature of clathrin. C...

  1. Biocidal Efficacy of a Flocculating Emergency Water Purification Tablet

    OpenAIRE

    Powers, Edmund M.; Hernandez, C.(Department of Physics, The University of Texas at Arlington, Arlington, TX, United States of America); Boutros, S. N.; Harper, B. G.

    1994-01-01

    Chlor-Floc (CF) emergency water purification tablets were tested for bactericidal, virucidal, and cysticidal efficacy in water at temperatures ranging from 5 to 25°C. The minimal required log reduction was achieved for bacteria, Giardia muris, and rotavirus, but CF did not achieve the required log reduction of poliovirus at any of the temperatures or times investigated. The biocidal properties of the CF tablet were equivalent to if not greater than those of the Globaline iodine tablet, and th...

  2. REACH. Air Conditioning Units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrison, Joe; And Others

    As a part of the REACH (Refrigeration, Electro-Mechanical, Air-Conditioning, Heating) electromechanical cluster, this student manual contains individualized instructional units in the area of air conditioning. The instructional units focus on air conditioning fundamentals, window air conditioning, system and installation, troubleshooting and…

  3. Purification and characterization of two isoenzymes of lipoxygenase from soybeans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diel, E; Stan, H J

    1978-01-01

    A chromatographic procedure for the purification of two lipoxygenase isoenzymes (linoleate: O2 oxidoreductase, EC 1.13.11.12.) from soybean is described. The procedure for the purification of isoenzyme L-1 includes optimalized extraction, ammonium sulfate fractionation, heat treatment and gradient elution from a CM-Sephadex C-50 column. The purification of L-2 includes ammonium sulfate fractionation, gelfiltration on Sephadex G-150 and gradient elution from a DEAE-cellulose column. Both isoenzymes L-1 and L-2 appear homogeneous after Disc-PAGE. The isoelectric points are 5.6 for L-1 and 5.8 for L-2. Molecular weights are estimated as 100,000 for L-1 as well as L-2 applying three different methods. Both isoenzymes contain 0.9 mol iron per mol protien. The estimated turn over numbers are 8,200 mol linoleate per mol enzyme and min for L-1 and 3,100 for L-2. Amino acid compositions determined after acid hydrolysis show marked differences between L-1 and L-2, particularly with respect to the amino acids Lys, Phe, Ser, Gly and Leu. L-1 posesses a total of 9 cysteine molecules, 6 of which are present as disulfide bonds. L-2 posesses a total of 8 cysteine molecules with only one disulfide bond.

  4. Different purification methods and quality of sunflower biodiesel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pighinelli, A.L.M.T.; Park, K.J. [Campinas State Univ., Sao Paulo (Brazil). School of Agricultural Engineering; Ferrari, R.A.; Miguel, A.M.R.O. [Food Technology Inst., Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    Biodiesel is derived from triacylglycerides and is produced primarily through transesterification, a chemical reaction of vegetable oils with alcohol, methanol or ethanol. The cost of raw material should be considered since 85 per cent of production cost is related to vegetable oil. The purpose of this study was to evaluate oil expression of sunflower seed. It also examined the sunflower crude oil as a raw material for biodiesel by transesterification in both laboratory and pilot scale studies. Three different biodiesel purification methods were examined. The best result for oil expelling (68.4 per cent) at the experimental stage was obtained for seeds with a moisture content of 6.9 per cent at 25 degrees C and at a screw speed of 114 rpm. For biodiesel production at the laboratory scale, the best result for oil expelling was 87.5 per cent. It was obtained with an ethanol:oil molar ratio of 4.7:1 and with a 4.42 per cent catalyst concentration related to the quantity of oil that had to be transesterified. The experimental condition was applied at a bigger scale with a batch stirred tank reactor. For purification with washing, the biodiesel yield was 84.2 per cent. Purification with silica resulted in a yield of 84.6 per cent. A better quality biofuel was obtained through distillation of biodiesel.

  5. Large-scale functional purification of recombinant HIV-1 capsid.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdeleine Hung

    Full Text Available During human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1 virion maturation, capsid proteins undergo a major rearrangement to form a conical core that protects the viral nucleoprotein complexes. Mutations in the capsid sequence that alter the stability of the capsid core are deleterious to viral infectivity and replication. Recently, capsid assembly has become an attractive target for the development of a new generation of anti-retroviral agents. Drug screening efforts and subsequent structural and mechanistic studies require gram quantities of active, homogeneous and pure protein. Conventional means of laboratory purification of Escherichia coli expressed recombinant capsid protein rely on column chromatography steps that are not amenable to large-scale production. Here we present a function-based purification of wild-type and quadruple mutant capsid proteins, which relies on the inherent propensity of capsid protein to polymerize and depolymerize. This method does not require the packing of sizable chromatography columns and can generate double-digit gram quantities of functionally and biochemically well-behaved proteins with greater than 98% purity. We have used the purified capsid protein to characterize two known assembly inhibitors in our in-house developed polymerization assay and to measure their binding affinities. Our capsid purification procedure provides a robust method for purifying large quantities of a key protein in the HIV-1 life cycle, facilitating identification of the next generation anti-HIV agents.

  6. Purification of Lamins and Soluble Fragments of NETs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makarov, Alexandr A; Rizzotto, Andrea; Meinke, Peter; Schirmer, Eric C

    2016-01-01

    Lamins and associated nuclear envelope transmembrane proteins (NETs) present unique problems for biochemical studies. Lamins form insoluble intermediate filament networks, associate with chromatin, and are also connected via specific NETs to the cytoskeleton, thus further complicating their isolation and purification from mammalian cells. Adding to this complexity, NETs at the inner nuclear membrane function in three distinct environments: (a) their nucleoplasmic domain(s) can bind lamins, chromatin, and transcriptional regulators; (b) they possess one or more integral transmembrane domains; and (c) their lumenal domain(s) function in the unique reducing environment of the nuclear envelope/ER lumen. This chapter describes strategic considerations and protocols to facilitate biochemical studies of lamins and NET proteins in vitro. Studying these proteins in vitro typically involves first expressing specific polypeptide fragments in bacteria and optimizing conditions to purify each fragment. We describe parameters for choosing specific fragments and designing purification strategies and provide detailed purification protocols. Biochemical studies can provide fundamental knowledge including binding strengths and the molecular consequences of disease-causing mutations that will be essential to understand nuclear envelope-genome interactions and nuclear envelope linked disease mechanisms.

  7. Simple method for purification of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli fimbriae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Brittany; Grassel, Christen; Laufer, Rachel S; Sears, Khandra T; Pasetti, Marcela F; Barry, Eileen M; Simon, Raphael

    2016-03-01

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) are endemic pathogens in the developing world. They frequently cause illness in travelers, and are among the most prevalent causes of diarrheal disease in children. Pathogenic ETEC strains employ fimbriae as adhesion factors to bind the luminal surface of the intestinal epithelium and establish infection. Accordingly, there is marked interest in immunoprophylactic strategies targeting fimbriae to protect against ETEC infections. Multiple strategies have been reported for purification of ETEC fimbriae, however none is ideal. Purification has typically involved the use of highly virulent wild-type strains. We report here a simple and improved method to purify ETEC fimbriae, which was applied to obtain two different Class 5 fimbriae types of clinical relevance (CFA/I and CS4) expressed recombinantly in E. coli production strains. Following removal from cells by shearing, fimbriae proteins were purified by orthogonal purification steps employing ultracentrifugation, precipitation, and ion-exchange membrane chromatography. Purified fimbriae demonstrated the anticipated size and morphology by electron microscopy analysis, contained negligible levels of residual host cell proteins, nucleic acid, and endotoxin, and were recognized by convalescent human anti-sera.

  8. Purification of large plasmids with methacrylate monolithic columns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krajnc, Nika Lendero; Smrekar, Franci; Cerne, Jasmina; Raspor, Peter; Modic, Martina; Krgovic, Danijela; Strancar, Ales; Podgornik, Ales

    2009-08-01

    The rapid evolution of gene therapy and DNA vaccines results in an increasing interest in producing large quantities of pharmaceutical grade plasmid DNA. Most current clinical trials involve plasmids of 10 kb or smaller in size, however, future requirements for multigene vectors including extensive control regions may require the production of larger plasmids, e. g., 20 kb and bigger. The objective of this study was to examine certain process conditions for purification of large plasmids with the size of up to 93 kb. Since there is a lack of knowledge about production and purification of bigger plasmid DNA, cell lysis and storage conditions were investigated. The impact of chromatographic system and methacrylate monolithic column on the degradation of plasmid molecules under nonbinding conditions at different flow rates was studied. Furthermore, capacity measurements varying salt concentration in loading buffer were performed and the capacities up to 13 mg of plasmid per mL of the monolithic column were obtained. The capacity flow independence in the range from 130 to 370 cm/h was observed. Using high resolution monolithic column the separation of linear and supercoiled isoforms of large plasmids was obtained. Last but not least, since the baseline separation of RNA and pDNA was achieved, the one step purification on larger CIM DEAE 8 mL tube monolithic column was performed and the fractions were analyzed by CIM analytical monolithic columns. PMID:19598166

  9. Composting Guilt: An Ecological Critique of Purification of Past Wrongdoing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharina von Kellenbach

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available A review of the fast growing body of literature on transitional justice (Hayner 2011, political reconciliation (Philpott 2006, Verdejo 2009, forgiveness (Amstutz 2005, apology (Celermajer 2009, guilt (Barkan 2000 repentance (Schimmel 2002, evil (Meister 2011, moral repair (Walker 2006, and cultural memory (Borneman 2011, shows that the concept of purification has so far received little attention.  But the language of purification operates in the background of diverse practices such as the exhumation and ceremonial reburial of the dead (Desbois 2009, the call for truth commissions to document wrongdoing, and reparation campaigns that apologize and offer restitution (Diner 2007. At their best, truth and reconciliation commissions create cathartic moments (Greek: katharos = pure and facilitate “performative transformations” that cleanse relations between perpetrators and victims (Cole 2010, 15. My new project, still in its early stages, asks whether the concept and ritual practice of purification can be used to enhance moral repair in individuals and to serve the restoration of social order in the aftermath of atrocity and systemic human rights abuses.

  10. Development of EV71 virus-like particle purification processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shih-Yeh; Chiu, Hsin-Yi; Chiang, Bor-Luen; Hu, Yu-Chen

    2015-11-01

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) causes the outbreaks of hand-foot-and-mouth disease and results in deaths of hundreds of young children. EV71 virus-like particles (VLPs) are empty capsids consisting of viral structural proteins and can elicit potent immune responses, thus holding promise as an EV71 vaccine candidate. However, an efficient, scalable production and purification scheme is missing. For mass production of EV71 VLPs, this study aimed to develop a production and chromatography-based purification process. We first demonstrated the successful EV71 VLPs production in the stirred-tank bioreactor in which High Five™ cells were infected with a recombinant baculovirus co-expressing EV71 structural polyprotein P1 and protease 3CD. The culture supernatant containing the VLPs was subjected to tangential flow filtration (TFF) for concentration/diafiltration, which enabled the removal of >80% of proteins while recovering >80% of VLPs. The concentrated VLPs were next subjected to hydroxyapatite chromatography (HAC) in which the VLPs were mainly found in the flow through. After another TFF concentration/diafiltration, the VLPs were purified by size-exclusion chromatography (SEC) and concentrated/diafiltered by a final TFF. The integrated process yielded an overall VLPs recovery of ≈ 36% and a purity of ≈ 83%, which was better or comparable to the recovery and purity for the purification of live EV71 virus particles. This process thus may move the EV71 VLPs vaccine one step closer to the clinical applications.

  11. Purification of a Multidrug Resistance Transporter for Crystallization Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamela O. Alegre

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Crystallization of integral membrane proteins is a challenging field and much effort has been invested in optimizing the overexpression and purification steps needed to obtain milligram amounts of pure, stable, monodisperse protein sample for crystallography studies. Our current work involves the structural and functional characterization of the Escherichia coli multidrug resistance transporter MdtM, a member of the major facilitator superfamily (MFS. Here we present a protocol for isolation of MdtM to increase yields of recombinant protein to the milligram quantities necessary for pursuit of structural studies using X-ray crystallography. Purification of MdtM was enhanced by introduction of an elongated His-tag, followed by identification and subsequent removal of chaperonin contamination. For crystallization trials of MdtM, detergent screening using size exclusion chromatography determined that decylmaltoside (DM was the shortest-chain detergent that maintained the protein in a stable, monodispersed state. Crystallization trials of MdtM performed using the hanging-drop diffusion method with commercially available crystallization screens yielded 3D protein crystals under several different conditions. We contend that the purification protocol described here may be employed for production of high-quality protein of other multidrug efflux members of the MFS, a ubiquitous, physiologically and clinically important class of membrane transporters.

  12. Matching relations for optimal entanglement concentration and purification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Fan-Zhen; Xia, Hui-Zhi; Yang, Ming; Yang, Qing; Cao, Zhuo-Liang

    2016-05-18

    The bilateral controlled NOT (CNOT) operation plays a key role in standard entanglement purification process, but the CNOT operation may not be the optimal joint operation in the sense that the output entanglement is maximized. In this paper, the CNOT operations in both the Schmidt-projection based entanglement concentration and the entanglement purification schemes are replaced with a general joint unitary operation, and the optimal matching relations between the entangling power of the joint unitary operation and the non-maximal entangled channel are found for optimizing the entanglement in- crement or the output entanglement. The result is somewhat counter-intuitive for entanglement concentration. The output entanglement is maximized when the entangling power of the joint unitary operation and the quantum channel satisfy certain relation. There exist a variety of joint operations with non-maximal entangling power that can induce a maximal output entanglement, which will greatly broaden the set of the potential joint operations in entanglement concentration. In addition, the entanglement increment in purification process is maximized only by the joint unitary operations (including CNOT) with maximal entangling power.

  13. Purification of Sardinella sp., Oil: Centrifugation and Bentonite Adsorbent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.H. Suseno

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Centrifugation and purification using adsorbents is one example of a fish oil refining techniques applied to reduce impurities of fish oil. The study aimed to determine the sardine oil quality before treatment, to determine yield of fish oil after centrifugation treatment and to determine the influence of centrifugation speed and bentonite concentration on sardine oil quality. Factorial design with two factors was used in this study. Level of free fatty acid and peroxide value before purification was 35.53% and 170 mEq/kg. Yield of fish oil after centrifugation treatment has been ranged from 17.42±3.56 to 76.33±0.21%. The best treatment which could reduce the peroxide value and total oxidation was a treatment with centrifugation speed at 6500 rpm and bentonite concentration at 3%. Peroxide value and total oxidation of its treatment was 25.00±0.00 and 51.43±0.01 mEq/kg. The lowest value of p-anisidine was 1.29±0.05 mEq/kg and its value could be found in a treatment with centrifugation speed at 4500 rpm and bentonite concentration at 5%. The level of free fatty acid after purification process was ranged from 27.35 to 34.69%. Oil clarity tended to increase with the increase of centrifugation speed and adsorbent concentration.

  14. Purification technology of AZ91 magnesium alloy wastes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴国华; 谢敏; 翟春泉; 曾小勤; 朱燕萍; 丁文江

    2003-01-01

    The effects of different purification processes on the mechanical properties,structure and fracture pattern of AZ91 magnesium alloy wastes were studied.The results show that the inclusions in the Mg melt can be removed effectively by the treatment of the fluxes with MgO foam ceramic filter.Therefore,the properties of magnesium alloy wastes can be improved substantially.Tensile strength and elongation of the magnesium alloy wastes after purification treatment can reach 194.6 MPa and 5.12% respectively,which are comparable to the mechanical properties of AZ91 fresh stuff.The metallographic analysis results show that the purification treatment has not obvious effect on metallurgical structure.The fracture mechanism of AZ91 is not changed,and its fractures are still quasicleavage crack.It is discovered that for AZ91 magnesium alloy,the fluxes containing TiO2 can decrease the Fe content of magnesium alloy wastes to below 0.0056%.The results also show that TiO2 is helpful for the precipitation of γ phase in granular or small island shape and can refine the grain size effectively.

  15. Indoor Air Pollution (Environmental Health Student Portal)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Students to Environmental Health Information Menu Home Air Pollution Air Pollution Home Indoor Air Pollution Outdoor Air Pollution ... Pollution Indoor Air Pollution Print this Page Air Pollution Air Pollution Home Indoor Air Pollution Outdoor Air Pollution ...

  16. ALPHA SARCIN, A NEW ANTITUMOR AGENT. I. ISOLATION, PURIFICATION, CHEMICAL COMPOSITION, AND THE IDENTITY OF A NEW AMINO ACID.

    Science.gov (United States)

    OLSON, B H; GOERNER, G L

    1965-05-01

    Isolation and purification procedures are given for the new antitumor agent, alpha sarcin. These procedures include the use of column ion exchange with a carboxylic resin (Amberlite IRC50), dialysis, decolorization with activated charcoal, gradient salt chromatography, salt removal, and drying from the frozen state. The final product has an activity of 800 sarcoma 180 mouse dilution units per mg. The amino acid composition of the purified material is reported. All of the usual amino acids found in proteins were present except methionine. In addition to the usual amino acids, an unknown amino acid was present in the acid hydrolysate. The latter was isolated, and was found to yield phenylalanine and kynurenine. This compound, which has been named "sarcinine," is extremely stable in 6 n hydrochloric acid in the absence of air, and is unstable in alkali. Sarcinine has also been found in two other antitumor peptides produced by aspergilli, and so may relate significantly to the antitumor properties of these peptides.

  17. The Borexino Solar Neutrino Experiment: Scintillator purification and surface contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Michael

    The Borexino Solar Neutrino Experiment will observe the monoenergetic (862 keV) 7Be neutrinos, produced in the solar reaction 7Be+e- →7 Li+nue. These neutrinos are the second most abundant species of solar neutrinos, with an expected flux at earth of 5 x 109/cm2/s. Using nu - e scattering in an aromatic liquid scintillator, Borexino will make the first real time measurement of the solar neutrino flux at energies less than 1 MeV. In addition to checking Standard Solar Model and neutrino oscillation predictions at low energies, Borexino will test the MSW vacuum-matter transition, luminosity constraint, and non-standard theories such as mass varying neutrinos. The Borexino detector will also be sensitive to supernova neutrinos, geoneutrinos, reactor neutrinos, and pep solar neutrinos. The pep measurement will tightly constrain the primary pp solar neutrino flux whose energy is below the Borexino threshold. With an expected rate of 35 events per day from solar 7Be neutrinos, the maximum tolerable background rate is one count per day. Removal of radioactive isotopes from the liquid scintillator is essential for the experiment's success and will be achieved with purification techniques including filtration, distillation, water extraction, nitrogen stripping, and silica gel adsorption. Results from small-scale purification efficiency tests are presented. Water extraction showed moderate but inadequate removal of 210Po which is a dominant background. Distillation reduced 210Po by a factor of more than 500. Online purification involves cycling over 300 m3 of scintillator from the detector though the purification plants. Flow patterns within the detector that influence the purification efficiency were determined with numerical simulations. Poor flow in the prototype Counting Test Facility showed effectively stagnant volumes within the detector. These are not present in the larger Borexino detector. Surface contamination in Borexino arises primarily from contact with

  18. 家用空气净化器净化技术的探讨%Discussion on Technology of Domestic Air Purifier

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨晓平

    2013-01-01

    研究表明,室内空气的污染程度远超室外数倍,室内空气污染已成为人类生活中的主要健康威胁,人们急需空气净化技术对室内空气进行防护,具有滤除各种有害气体的新型家用电器---空气净化器应运而生,本文从过滤原理、净化技术、检测方法以及发展趋势四个方面进行讨论分析,为今后我国空气净化技术的长远发展提供参考。%Researches suggest that indoor air pollution is larger than outdoor's. Indoor air pollution has become a major health threat in human life, so people need air purification technology for indoor air protection. As a new type of home appliances, air purifier has come true. In this paper, filtration theory, purification technology, test method and development tendency are discussed. It is a reference for the future air purification technology.

  19. Purification and characterization of a branched-chain amino acid aminotransferase from Lactobacillus paracasei subsp paracasei CHCC 2115

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thage, B.V.; Rattray, F.P.; Laustsen, M.W.;

    2004-01-01

    Purification and characterization of an aminotransferase (AT) specific for the degradation of branched-chain amino acids from Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. paracasei CHCC 2115. Methods and Results: The purification protocol consisted of anion exchange chromatography, affinity chromatography...

  20. Pseudobrookite-type MgTi2O5 water purification filter with controlled particle morphology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuta Nakagoshi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Pseudobrookite-type oxide-based ceramics, such as Al2TiO5 and MgTi2O5, have recently been studied as porous ceramic membranes. Here, the effect of LiF doping on the morphology of MgTi2O5 particles is presented in detail. Water purification filters were produced using porous MgTi2O5, with different particle morphologies. MgCO3 (basic and TiO2 powders with various LiF contents were wet-ball milled, dried, and then, calcined in air at 1100 °C to obtain the MgTi2O5 powders. The powder compacts were sintered at 1000–1200 °C to produce the MgTi2O5 disk filters. The 0.5 wt.% LiF-doped MgTi2O5 disk filter, with elongated grains, showed well-balanced performance removing boehmite particles with diameter of 0.7 μm. Non-doped MgTi2O5 disk filter with equiaxed grains was suitable for precise filtration.

  1. Connectable solar air collectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oestergaard Jensen, S.; Bosanac, M.

    2002-02-01

    The project has proved that it is possible to manufacture solar air collector panels, which in an easy way can be connected into large collector arrays with integrated ducting without loss of efficiency. The developed connectable solar air collectors are based on the use of matrix absorbers in the form of perforated metal sheets. Three interconnected solar air collectors of the above type - each with an transparent area of approx. 3 m{sup 2} - was tested and compared with parallel tests on two single solar air collectors also with a transparent area of approx. 3 m{sup 2} One of the single solar air collectors has an identical absorber as the connectable solar air collectors while the absorber of the other single solar air collector was a fibre cloth. The efficiency of the three solar air collectors proved to be almost identical in the investigated range of mass flow rates and temperature differences. The solar air collectors further proved to be very efficient - as efficient as the second most efficient solar air collectors tested in the IEA task 19 project Solar Air Systems. Some problems remain although to be solved: the pressure drop across especially the connectable solar air collectors is too high - mainly across the inlets of the solar air collectors. It should, however, be possible to considerably reduce the pressure losses with a more aerodynamic design of the inlet and outlet of the solar air collectors; The connectable solar air collectors are easy connectable but the air tightness of the connections in the present form is not good enough. As leakage leads to lower efficiencies focus should be put on making the connections more air tight without loosing the easiness in connecting the solar air collectors. As a spin off of the project a simple and easy way to determine the efficiency of solar, air collectors for pre-heating of fresh air has been validated. The simple method of determining the efficiency has with success been compared with an advance method

  2. 24 CFR 203.52 - Acceptance of individual residential water purification equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... National Primary Drinking Water requirements, 40 CFR parts 141 and 142.) (4) There exists a Plan providing... residential water purification equipment. 203.52 Section 203.52 Housing and Urban Development Regulations... water purification equipment. If a property otherwise eligible for insurance under this part does...

  3. Purification of heat labile toxin from Bordetella pertussis vaccine strain 134 employed indigenous technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.C. Shivanandappa

    2016-06-01

    Conclusion: The B. pertussis HLT could be purified through two phase with G50 and DEAE, cost effective techniques, the G50 purification has reduced the bioburden problems during DEAE purification and at the same time the quality of the product was high.

  4. A Versatile and Inexpensive Enzyme Purification Experiment for Undergraduate Biochemistry Labs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, Shawn O.; Choo, Darryl

    1989-01-01

    Develops an experiment that could be done in two- to three-hour blocks and does not rely on cold room procedures for most of the purification. Describes the materials, methods, and results of the purification of bovine heart lactate dehydrogenase using ammonium sulfate fractionation, dialysis, and separation using affinity chromatography and…

  5. Purification of a Recombinant Glutathione Transferase from the Causative Agent of Hydatidosis, "Echinococcus granulosus"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleitas, Andrea L.; Randall, Lía M.; Möller, Matías N.; Denicola, Ana

    2016-01-01

    This practical class activity was designed to introduce students to recombinant protein expression and purification. The principal goal is to shed light on basic aspects concerning recombinant protein production, in particular protein expression, chromatography methods for protein purification, and enzyme activity as a tool to evaluate purity and…

  6. Improvement of the Quality of Water Purification from Hydrocarbons Using the Fibers from Recycled Thermoplastics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galtseva, O. V.; Bordunov, S. V.; Natalinova, N. M.; Mazikov, S. V.

    2016-06-01

    Adsorption properties of the polymer fibers are studied. It is shown that polypropylene fiber can be successfully applied for oil spill response for filtration purification of water from hydrocarbons. Polypropylene fibers from waste polymers have higher characteristics of adsorption capacity and degree of purification of water than commercially available fiber sipron.

  7. The application of modified montmorillonite in the processes of baromembrane purification of water from U (VI)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The processes of uranium-containing water purification by ultra- and nanofiltration methods combined with the use of montmorillonite modified by polyethyleneimine are studied. It is shown that the application of montmorillonite allows one to obtain the high indices of the uranium-containing water purification by baromembrane methods.

  8. Development of an automated system for isolation and purification of humic substances

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zomeren, van A.; Weij-Zuiver, van der E.; Comans, R.N.J.

    2008-01-01

    Characterization of humic substances (HS) in environmental samples generally involves labor-intensive and time-consuming isolation and purification procedures. In this paper, the development of an automated system for HS isolation and purification is described. The novelty of the developed system li

  9. Item Purification Does Not Always Improve DIF Detection: A Counterexample with Angoff's Delta Plot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magis, David; Facon, Bruno

    2013-01-01

    Item purification is an iterative process that is often advocated as improving the identification of items affected by differential item functioning (DIF). With test-score-based DIF detection methods, item purification iteratively removes the items currently flagged as DIF from the test scores to get purified sets of items, unaffected by DIF. The…

  10. Analysis of purification of slightly mineralized natural waters from radioactive pollution of nuclear-energetic origin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results of purification at sorption pilot plant of fresh water of Ladoga lake contaminated by radionuclides are represented. It is substantiated the purification technology perfecting by means of addition membrane methods to adsorption ones taking into account man-caused pollutions (petroleum derivatives and corrosion products)

  11. Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of struthiocalcin 1 from ostrich (Struthio camelus) eggshell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reyes-Grajeda, Juan Pablo [Unidad de Proteómica Médica, Instituto Nacional de Medicina Genómica, Mexico City (Mexico); Marín-García, Liliana [Instituto de Química, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (Mexico); Stojanoff, Vivian [Brookhaven National Laboratories, NSLS, Upton, New York (United States); Moreno, Abel, E-mail: carcamo@servidor.unam.mx [Instituto de Química, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (Mexico); Unidad de Proteómica Médica, Instituto Nacional de Medicina Genómica, Mexico City (Mexico)

    2007-11-01

    The purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction data of the protein struthiocalcin 1 isolated from ostrich eggshell are reported. The purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of struthiocalcin 1 (SCA-1), a protein obtained from the intramineral part of ostrich (Struthio camelus) eggshell, is reported.

  12. Technology of thorium concentrates purification and their transformation in pure nuclear products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An experimental study for the purification of thorium concentrates by solvent extraction is presented. The product of purification is appropriate for utilization in the fabrication of nuclear reactor fuel elements. The experiments are carried out in a laboratory scale and the following operations are studied: dissolution, extraction-scrubbing, stripping-scrubbing, thorium oxalate precipitation, and thorium nitrate coagulation

  13. Air Quality Facilities

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — Facilities with operating permits for Title V of the Federal Clean Air Act, as well as facilities required to submit an air emissions inventory, and other...

  14. Airing It Out.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzemeyer, Ted

    2000-01-01

    Discusses how proper maintenance can help schools eliminate sources contributing to poor air quality. Maintaining heating and air conditioning units, investigating bacterial breeding grounds, fixing leaking boilers, and adhering to ventilation codes and standards are discussed. (GR)

  15. AirCompare

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — AirCompare contains air quality information that allows a user to compare conditions in different localities over time and compare conditions in the same location...

  16. Allegheny County Air Quality

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Air quality data from Allegheny County Health Department monitors throughout the county. Air quality monitored data must be verified by qualified individuals...

  17. Air Quality System (AQS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Air Quality System (AQS) database contains measurements of air pollutant concentrations from throughout the United States and its territories. The measurements...

  18. Analysis of modern state of radiation purification technologies of water polluted with oil products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: this work the modern state of methods and technologies on radiation purification of waste and sea water polluted with oil products is analyzed. Technologies based on ultraviolet (UV), electroplasma, magnet and radiation purification are considered. It is shown, that radionuclide - installations have following advantages: 1) for operational personal the specific qualification is not required and personnel quantity may be reduced to minimum (2-3 person for equipment); 2) high penetrability of - radiation; 3) low dose rate = 10 Gy/s (10 Vt/kg). These technologies have also significance economic, ecologic, and other advantages versus to existing traditional methods. It is also shown, that among radiation purification methods of waste and sea water electron-beam treatment has specific actuality. It allows: to decrease the concentration of harmful ingredients down to limits. It is also shown that among of technologies of radiation purification of waste and sea water an electron -beam treatment has specific actuality. It allows: a) to decrease concentration of harmful ingredients down to limits acceptable purification system; b) to increase of clarity of water by removing of color matters; c) to produce purification without using of additional ingredients. The technology of application of frequency high-current electron beams for purification and disinfection of water also is considered. The advantages of this technology are : simultaneous action on all water parameters; absence of consumed materials; multiple-factor action on all chemical impurities; affection of microorganisms of all types; flexibility and simplicity of operation of purification degree by increasing/decreasing of dose rateIn present work it is also shown that one of perspective directions of radiation purification is interfacial action of radiation and heat. The radiation-thermal method of purification of water from heptanes is considered. It is shown, that at absorbed dose of 2-3 kGy, at a

  19. Indoor air quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Trine Susanne; Recevska, Ieva

     The objective of the 35th specific agreement is to provide support to the EEA activities in Environment and Health (E&H) on the topic of indoor air quality. The specific objectives have been to provide an overview of indoor air related projects in EU and indoor air related policies as well...... as idenfiying "good practices" to reduce health impact of indoor air exposure and suggest areas for future improvements....

  20. Fermentation, fractionation and purification of streptokinase by chemical reduction method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Niakan

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Streptokinase is used clinically as an intravenous thrombolytic agent for the treatment of acute myocardial infarction and is commonly prepared from cultures of Streptococcus equisimilis strain H46A. The objective of the present study was the production of streptokinase from strain H46A and purification by chemical reduction method."nMaterials and Methods: The rate of streptokinase production evaluated under the effect of changes on some fermentation factors. Moreover, due to the specific structure of streptokinase, a chemical reduction method employed for the purification of streptokinase from the fermentation broth. The H46A strain of group C streptococcus, was grown in a fermentor. The proper pH adjusted with NaOH under glucose feeding in an optimum temperature. The supernatant of the fermentation product was sterilized by filtration and concentrated by ultrafiltration. The pH of the concentrate was adjusted, cooled, and precipitated by methanol. Protein solution was reduced with dithiothreitol (DTT. Impurities settled down by aldrithiol-2 and the biological activity of supernatant containing streptokinase was determined."nResults: In the fed -batch culture, the rate of streptokinase production increased over two times as compared with the batch culture and the impurities were effectively separated from streptokinase by reduction method."nConclusion: Improvements in SK production are due to a decrease in lag phase period and increase in the growth rate of logarithmic phase. The methods of purification often result in unacceptable losses of streptokinase, but the chemical reduction method give high yield of streptokinase and is easy to perform it.

  1. Tall fescue seed extraction and partial purification of ergot alkaloids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lowell eBush

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Many substances in the tall fescue/endophyte association (Schedonorus arundinaceus/Epichloë coenophiala have biological activity. Of these compounds only the ergot alkaloids are known to have significant mammalian toxicity and the predominant ergot alkaloids are ergovaline and ergovalinine. Because synthetically produced ergovaline is difficult to obtain, we developed a seed extraction and partial purification protocol for ergovaline/ergovalinine that provided a biologically active product. Tall fescue seed was ground and packed into several different sized columns for liquid extraction. Smaller particle size and increased extraction time increased efficiency of extraction. Our largest column was a 114 × 52 × 61 cm (W×L×D stainless steel tub. Approximately 150 kg of seed could be extracted in this tub. The extraction was done with 80% ethanol. When the solvent front migrated to bottom of the column, flow was stopped and seed was allowed to steep for at least 48 h. Light was excluded from the solvent from the beginning of this step to the end of the purification process. Following elution, ethanol was removed from the eluate by evaporation at room temperature. Resulting syrup was freeze-dried. About 80% recovery of alkaloids was achieved with 18-fold increase in concentration of ergovaline. Initial purification of the dried product was accomplished by extracting with hexane/water (6:1, v/v and the hexane fraction was discarded. The aqueous fraction was extracted with chloroform, the aqueous layer discarded, after which the chloroform was removed with a resulting 20-fold increase of ergovaline. About 65% of the ergovaline was recovered from the chloroform residue for an overall recovery of 50%. The resultant partially purified ergovaline had biological activities in in vivo and in vitro bovine bioassays that approximate that of synthetic ergovaline.

  2. Anion exchange purification of plasmid DNA using expanded bed adsorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, G N; Cabral, J M; Prazeres, D M

    2000-01-01

    Recent developments in gene therapy with non-viral vectors and DNA vaccination have increased the demand for large amounts of pharmaceutical-grade plasmid DNA. The high viscosity of process streams is of major concern in the purification of plasmids, since it can cause high back pressures in column operations, thus limiting the throughput. In order to avoid these high back pressures, expanded bed anion exchange chromatography was evaluated as an alternative to fixed bed chromatography. A Streamline 25 column filled with 100 ml of Streamline QXL media, was equilibrated with 0.5 M NaCl in TE (10 mM Tris, 1 mM EDTA, pH = 8.0) buffer at an upward flow of 300 cmh-1, E. coli lysates (obtained from up to 3 liters of fermentation broth) were injected in the column. After washing out the unbound material, the media was allowed to sediment and the plasmid was eluted with 1 M NaCl in TE buffer at a downward flow of 120 cmh-1. Purification factors of 36 +/- 1 fold, 26 +/- 0.4 plasmid purity, and close to 100% yields were obtained when less than one settled column volume of plasmid feed was injected. However, both recovery yield and purity abruptly decreased when larger amounts were processed-values of 35 +/- 2 and 5 +/- 0.7 were obtained for the recovery yield and purity, respectively, when 250 ml of feedstock were processed. In these cases, gel clogging and expansion collapse were observed. The processing of larger volumes, thus larger plasmid quantities, was only possible by performing an isopropanol precipitation step prior to the chromatographic step. This step led to an enhancement of the purification step.

  3. Magnetic purification of curcumin from Curcuma longa rhizome by novel naked maghemite nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magro, Massimiliano; Campos, Rene; Baratella, Davide; Ferreira, Maria Izabela; Bonaiuto, Emanuela; Corraducci, Vittorino; Uliana, Maíra Rodrigues; Lima, Giuseppina Pace Pereira; Santagata, Silvia; Sambo, Paolo; Vianello, Fabio

    2015-01-28

    Naked maghemite nanoparticles, namely, surface active maghemite nanoparticles (SAMNs), characterized by a diameter of about 10 nm, possessing peculiar colloidal stability, surface chemistry, and superparamagnetism, present fundamental requisites for the development of effective magnetic purification processes for biomolecules in complex matrices. Polyphenolic molecules presenting functionalities with different proclivities toward iron chelation were studied as probes for testing SAMN suitability for magnetic purification. Thus, the binding efficiency and reversibility on SAMNs of phenolic compounds of interest in the pharmaceutical and food industries, namely, catechin, tyrosine, hydroxytyrosine, ferulic acid, coumaric acid, rosmarinic acid, naringenin, curcumin, and cyanidin-3-glucoside, were evaluated. Curcumin emerged as an elective compound, suitable for magnetic purification by SAMNs from complex matrices. A combination of curcumin, demethoxycurcumin, and bis-demethoxycurcumin was recovered by a single magnetic purification step from extracts of Curcuma longa rhizomes, with a purity >98% and a purification yield of 45%, curcumin being >80% of the total purified curcuminoids.

  4. Small scale extraction and purification of human prolactin for the preparation of radioimmunoassay reagents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purification of human prolactin from pituitaries was carried out in our laboratory to obtain a pure reagent for use in RIA. The extraction and purification procedure was adapted from the method of Mc. Lean et al., and it involves the following steps: 1. Extraction of frozen pituitaries in buffers 0.14M phosphate/citrate pH 4.0 and 0.05M ammonium acetate pH 10.0. 2. Purification by hydrophobic interaction chromatography on Phenyl-Sepharose CL-4B in the presence of acetonitrile. 3. Purification by anion exchange chromatography on DEAE-Sepharose Cl-68. The purification method is considered effective for obtaining a hPrl of the purity needed for radioassay purposes, having the advantage of rapidity and relative simplicity. (author)

  5. Experimental optimal single qubit purification in an NMR quantum information processor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Shi-Yao; Sheng, Yu-Bo; Feng, Guan-Ru; Long, Gui-Lu

    2014-10-31

    High quality single qubits are the building blocks in quantum information processing. But they are vulnerable to environmental noise. To overcome noise, purification techniques, which generate qubits with higher purities from qubits with lower purities, have been proposed. Purifications have attracted much interest and been widely studied. However, the full experimental demonstration of an optimal single qubit purification protocol proposed by Cirac, Ekert and Macchiavello [Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 4344 (1999), the CEM protocol] more than one and half decades ago, still remains an experimental challenge, as it requires more complicated networks and a higher level of precision controls. In this work, we design an experiment scheme that realizes the CEM protocol with explicit symmetrization of the wave functions. The purification scheme was successfully implemented in a nuclear magnetic resonance quantum information processor. The experiment fully demonstrated the purification protocol, and showed that it is an effective way of protecting qubits against errors and decoherence.

  6. Air Pollution Training Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Public Health Service (DHEW), Rockville, MD.

    This catalog lists the universities, both supported and not supported by the Division of Air Pollution, which offer graduate programs in the field of air pollution. The catalog briefly describes the programs and their entrance requirements, the requirements, qualifications and terms of special fellowships offered by the Division of Air Pollution.…

  7. Indoor Air Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    We usually think of air pollution as being outdoors, but the air in your house or office could also be polluted. Sources of indoor pollution ... is known as sick building syndrome. Usually indoor air quality problems only cause discomfort. Most people feel ...

  8. Indoor Air Quality Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin Union Free School District, NY.

    This manual identifies ways to improve a school's indoor air quality (IAQ) and discusses practical actions that can be carried out by school staff in managing air quality. The manual includes discussions of the many sources contributing to school indoor air pollution and the preventive planning for each including renovation and repair work,…

  9. We Pollute the Air

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    1.Clean air is important to good health.If the aircontains impurities,they may be absorbed by ourbodies and make us ill.We need clean air,butunfortunately,air pollution is generally present,especially in cities. 2.Our cities have many factories,which we need tomake food products,clothing and many other things.

  10. Air Travel Health Tips

    Science.gov (United States)

    MENU Return to Web version Air Travel Health Tips Air Travel Health Tips How can I improve plane travel? Most people don't have any problems when ... and dosages of all of your medicines. The air in airplanes is dry, so drink nonalcoholic, decaffeinated ...

  11. Palladium-based Membrane Applications for Hydrogen Purification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Yin'e; MA Guang; JIA Zhihua; JIANG Ting

    2012-01-01

    It describes the purification of hydrogen isotopes,separation with the preparation of palladium-based membrane's technology,types,application,advantages and disadvantages of palladium in this article.Due to excellent comprehensive properties palladium composite membrane will become the future direction of development.At the same time it will develop preparation methods of the membrane support body with high mechanical strength and heat resistance and low-cost and palladium-based membrane.Also it will explore high service life and high transmittance of novel composite membrane.

  12. Novel Hydrogen Purification Device Integrated with PEM Fuel Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joseph Schwartz; Hankwon Lim; Raymond Drnevich

    2010-12-31

    A prototype device containing twelve membrane tubes was designed, built, and demonstrated. The device produced almost 300 scfh of purified hydrogen at 200 psig feed pressure. The extent of purification met the program target of selectively removing enough impurities to enable industrial-grade hydrogen to meet purity specifications for PEM fuel cells. An extrusion process was developed to produce substrate tubes. Membranes met several test objectives, including completing 20 thermal cycles, exceeding 250 hours of operating life, and demonstrating a flux of 965 scfh/ft2 at 200 psid and 400 C.

  13. Isolation and Preparative Purification for Ginkgolides A and B

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩金玉; 王华; 常贺英; 褚巧伟

    2003-01-01

    In this paper a simple preparative method for isolation and purification of ginkgolides A and B was developed,As starting material,a commercially available standardized ginkgo extract (EGb761,containing 24% flavonoid and 6% terpene trilactones) was used,After a pretreatment step,optimized by the uniform design method ,the concentrated intermediate extract with high content of GA and gb(+90%) was separated into the individual terpenes by preparative liquid chromatography eluted with petroleum ether-ethylacetate,Analysis of products was carried out by means of HPLC-ELSD(evaporative light -scattering detector),The results show that ginkgolides A and B are obtained in higher yield and better purity.

  14. Molecular Techniques for Dicistrovirus Detection without RNA Extraction or Purification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jailson F. B. Querido

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Dicistroviridae is a new family of small, nonenveloped, and +ssRNA viruses pathogenic to both beneficial arthropods and insect pests as well. Triatoma virus (TrV, a dicistrovirus, is a pathogen of Triatoma infestans (Hemiptera: Reduviidae, one of the main vectors of Chagas disease. In this work, we report a single-step method to identify TrV, a dicistrovirus, isolated from fecal samples of triatomines. The identification method proved to be quite sensitive, even without the extraction and purification of RNA virus.

  15. Process for the biological purification of waste water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    1992-01-01

    Process for the biological purification of waste water by the activated sludge method, the waste water being mixed with recirculated sludge and being subjected to an anaerobic treatment, before the waste water thus treated is alternately subjected to anoxic and aerobic treatments and the waste...... water thus treated is led into a clarification zone for settling sludge, which sludge is recirculated in order to be mixed with the crude waste water. As a result, a simultaneous reduction of the content both of nitrogen and phosphorus of the waste water is achieved....

  16. Exploiting interfacial water properties for desalination and purification applications.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Hongwu (Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM); Varma, Sameer; Nyman, May Devan; Alam, Todd Michael; Thuermer, Konrad; Holland, Gregory P.; Leung, Kevin; Liu, Nanguo (University of New Mexico Albuquerque, NM); Xomeritakis, George K. (University of New Mexico Albuquerque, NM); Frankamp, Benjamin L.; Siepmann, J. Ilja (University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN); Cygan, Randall Timothy; Hartl, Monika A. (Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM); Travesset, Alex (Iowa State University, Ames, IA); Anderson, Joshua A. (Iowa State University, Ames, IA); Huber, Dale L.; Kissel, David J. (University of New Mexico Albuquerque, NM); Bunker, Bruce Conrad; Lorenz, Christian Douglas; Major, Ryan C. (University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN); McGrath, Matthew J. (University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN); Farrow, Darcie; Cecchi, Joseph L. (University of New Mexico Albuquerque, NM); van Swol, Frank B.; Singh, Seema; Rempe, Susan B.; Brinker, C. Jeffrey; Clawson, Jacalyn S.; Feibelman, Peter Julian; Houston, Jack E.; Crozier, Paul Stewart; Criscenti, Louise Jacqueline; Chen, Zhu (University of New Mexico Albuquerque, NM); Zhu, Xiaoyang (University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN); Dunphy, Darren Robert (University of New Mexico Albuquerque, NM); Orendorff, Christopher J.; Pless, Jason D.; Daemen, Luke L. (Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM); Gerung, Henry (University of New Mexico Albuquerque, NM); Ockwig, Nathan W.; Nenoff, Tina Maria; Jiang, Ying-Bing; Stevens, Mark Jackson

    2008-09-01

    A molecular-scale interpretation of interfacial processes is often downplayed in the analysis of traditional water treatment methods. However, such an approach is critical for the development of enhanced performance in traditional desalination and water treatments. Water confined between surfaces, within channels, or in pores is ubiquitous in technology and nature. Its physical and chemical properties in such environments are unpredictably different from bulk water. As a result, advances in water desalination and purification methods may be accomplished through an improved analysis of water behavior in these challenging environments using state-of-the-art microscopy, spectroscopy, experimental, and computational methods.

  17. Preparation and Characterization of Zeolite Membrane for Bioethanol Purification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aprilina Purbasari

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The use of bioethanol as an alternative fuel with a purity of more than 99.5% wt has prompted research on bioethanol purification. One of the promising methods used for bioethanol purification is pervaporation membrane. This research is aimed to prepare and characterize zeolite membranes for pervaporation membrane. The membrane preparation consisted of two stages, namely support preparation and zeolite deposition on the support. In support preparation, α- alumina and kaolin with specific composition (50:30; 40:40; 50:30 was mixed with additives and water. After pugging and aging process, the mixture became paste and extruded into tubular shape. The tube was then calcined at temperature of 1250 °C for 3 hours. After that, zeolite 4A was deposited on the tubes using clear solution made of 10 %wt zeolite and 90 %wt water and heated at temperature of 80 °C for 3 hours. Furthermore, the resulting zeolite membranes was washed with deionized water for 5 minutes and dried in oven at temperature of 100 °C for 24 hours. Characterization of zeolite membranes included mechanical strength test, XRD, and SEM. In the mechanical strength test, the membrane sample with α- alumina:kaolin = 50:30 (membrane A has the highest mechanical strength of 46.65 N/mm2. Result of XRD analysis for the membrane A indicated that mullite and corundum phases were formed, which mullite phase was more dominant. Meanwhile the result of SEM analysis shows that zeolite crystals have been formed and covered the pores support, but the deposition of zeolite has not been optimal yet. The performance examination for bioethanol purification showed that the membrane could increase the purity of bioethanol from 95% to 98.5% wt. © 2013 BCREC UNDIP. All rights reservedReceived: 23rd October 2012; Revised: 15th February 2013; Accepted: 16th February 2013[How to Cite: Purbasari, A., Istirokhatun, T., Devi, A.M., Mahsunnah, L. , Susanto, H. (2013. Preparation and Characterization of Zeolite

  18. Communication: Generalized canonical purification for density matrix minimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truflandier, Lionel A.; Dianzinga, Rivo M.; Bowler, David R.

    2016-03-01

    A Lagrangian formulation for the constrained search for the N-representable one-particle density matrix based on the McWeeny idempotency error minimization is proposed, which converges systematically to the ground state. A closed form of the canonical purification is derived for which no a posteriori adjustment on the trace of the density matrix is needed. The relationship with comparable methods is discussed, showing their possible generalization through the hole-particle duality. The appealing simplicity of this self-consistent recursion relation along with its low computational complexity could prove useful as an alternative to diagonalization in solving dense and sparse matrix eigenvalue problems.

  19. Use of trioctylphosphine oxide for transplutonium element extraction and purification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Investigated was extraction of tri-valent curium, berkelium, californium, einsteinium as well as cerium and europium with trioctylphosphin oxide from lactic acid solutions, containing DTPA and aluminium nitrate depending on the aluminium nitrate and TOPO concentrations and nitric acid solutions of variable concentration as well. Under optimum conditions of extraction chromatography of berkelium studied was the distribution of cobalt, nickel, chromium, iron, aluminium, titanium, zirconium and niobium ions, and the coefficients of berkelium purification from cations investigated were determined. The effect of weight quantities of cation impurities on extraction chromatographic yield of berkelium has been investigated. Examples of practice application of the extraction chromatography with the use of TOPO are given

  20. Semiconductor Grade, Solar Silicon Purification Project. [photovoltaic solar energy conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingle, W. M.; Rosler, R. S.; Thompson, S. W.; Chaney, R. E.

    1979-01-01

    A low cost by-product, SiF4, is reacted with mg silicon to form SiF2 gas which is polymerized. The (SiF2)x polymer is heated forming volatile SixFy homologues which disproportionate on a silicon particle bed forming silicon and SiF4. The silicon analysis procedure relied heavily on mass spectroscopic and emission spectroscopic analysis. These analyses demonstrated that major purification had occured and some samples were indistinguishable from semiconductor grade silicon (except possibly for phosphorus). However, electrical analysis via crystal growth reveal that the product contains compensated phosphorus and boron.

  1. Evaluation of red cabbage anthocyanins after partial purification on clay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toni Jefferson Lopes

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to evaluate the red cabbage anthocyanins quality after purification by static adsorption assays on clay (Tonsil Terrana 580FF. Thin-layer chromatography analysis and scan spectrometry on UV-Visible showed a good dye stability of the pigment interacting with the clay. The use of pH 3.0 buffer during the batch assays provided a protective effect on the cabbage anthocyanins, limiting the dye acid hydrolyses. Analyses of the reducing sugars contents of the extract showed that clay retained 20% average of total free sugars under the test conditions.

  2. Studies of iso-alpha-acids: analysis, purification, and stability.

    OpenAIRE

    Khatib, Alfi

    2006-01-01

    The female cones of hop (Humulus lupulus L.) are added to beer, providing taste and flavour and contributing to the stability of foam. The main constituents of hop related to these properties are generically known as alpha-acids. During the brewing process, these acids are isomerized, resulting in the formation of three pairs of trans-/cis-iso-alpha–acids. The aim of this thesis project was to develop a method for the analysis (Chapter 2 and 7) as well as the purification of iso-alpha-acids (...

  3. Air Conditioning Does Reduce Air Pollution Indoors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healy, Bud

    1970-01-01

    Report of the winter meeting of the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers. Subjects covered are--(1) title subject, (2) predictions for the human habitat in 1994, (3) fans, and (4) fire safety in buildings. (JW)

  4. Advanced air distribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melikov, Arsen Krikor

    2011-01-01

    The aim of total volume air distribution (TVAD) involves achieving uniform temperature and velocity in the occupied zone and environment designed for an average occupant. The supply of large amounts of clean and cool air are needed to maintain temperature and pollution concentration at acceptable....... Ventilation in hospitals is essential to decrease the risk of airborne cross-infection. At present, mixing air distribution at a minimum of 12 ach is used in infection wards. Advanced air distribution has the potential to aid in achieving healthy, comfortable and productive indoor environments at levels...... higher than what can be achieved today with the commonly used total volume air distribution principles....

  5. Organic-inorganic hybrid materials in separation chemistry: a molecular approach towards design of purification processes; De la molecule au procede. Apports des materiaux hybrides organiques-inorganiques en chimie separative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandes, St.; Denat, F. [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), 21 - Dijon (France); Meyer, M.; Guilard, R. [Universite de Bourgogne, Lab. d' Ingenierie Moleculaire pour la Separation et les Applications des Gaz (LIMSAG) UMR 5633 du CNRS, 21 - Dijon (France)

    2005-11-01

    Located on the campus of the Universite de Bourgogne and supported by the CNRS, the main particularity of the LIMSAG was its association with an industrial partner, the Air Liquide company. The main objectives of this unusual research unit in the French academic system was to conceive and develop new molecules and materials that exhibit suitable properties for the ultra-purification or the detection of gases. Beside these activities, a second research topic is dedicated to the decontamination of industrial waste streams containing either toxic (lead, cadmium) and/or radioactive metal ions (uranium, plutonium, americium). Specific sequestering agents have also been designed for the lead removal from municipal tap water. Grafted and sol-gel immobilized tetra-aza-macrocyclic complexes are used as specific adsorbents for the purification and detection of gases, while related functionalized silica-gels have been implemented in the solid/liquid extraction processes of metals. (authors)

  6. Caract\\'erisation de r\\'eacteurs photocatalytiques utilis\\'es pour le traitement de l'air

    CERN Document Server

    Faure, Marie; Corbel, Serge; Carré, Marie-Christiane; Gérardin, Fabien; Zahraa, Orfan

    2009-01-01

    Photocatalysis is often used in air purification. Photocatalytic degradation od VOC's has been investigated in a number of devices. An optimisation of this process requires a chracterisation of the reactor : in a first step the gas flow behaviour has to be studied (plug flow, CSTR,...) by RTD analysis; then, chemical kinetics have to be determined as a function ot the relevant parameters (space time, relative humidity, concentrations, etc). All the data collected lead to a reliable design of the equipment.

  7. New purification and upgrading technologies for biogas; Nya renings- och uppgraderingstekniker foer biogas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johan Benjaminsson [Linkoeping Univ. (Sweden)

    2006-04-15

    Biogas is a renewable energy source that is produced by anaerobic digestion of organic material. In Sweden, biogas predominately comes from sewage water sludge and landfills or from organic waste of households and industries. Small scale digestion plants at farms are especially expected to contribute to increased biogas production in the future. Biogas can be obtained directly in its raw form and used as fuel in a combustion chamber. However, gas engines require biogas purification from hydrogen sulphide and drying from water to avoid corrosion. In order to increase the calorific value, carbon dioxide is separated and the Swedish Standard Type A requires the methane content to be 97 % for vehicle gas. In the gas treatment process from biogas to vehicle gas, the upgrading step when carbon dioxide is separated represents the highest cost since conventional upgrading techniques require high investments. This makes the upgrading costs for smaller biogas plants relatively high. In this master thesis, six upgrading methods have been evaluated and four of them are expected to be commercialized within two years. The following upgrading methods are of interest for Sweden: - In situ methane enrichment; air desorbs carbon dioxide from the sludge in a desorption column. The method is intended for digestion of sewage water sludge and the total upgrading cost is approximately 0,13 kr/kWh by a raw biogas flow 62,5 Nm{sup 3}/h. - Small scale water scrubber; carbon dioxide is absorbed in water under enhanced pressure. The upgrading process is very similar to the conventional water scrubbing technique and the total upgrading cost is approximately 0,42 kr/kWh by a raw biogas flow of 12 Nm{sup 3}/h. - Cryogenic upgrading; the biogas is chilled to under -85 deg C under a pressure of at least 5,2 barg and carbon dioxide can be separated in the liquid phase. The total upgrading cost is approximately 0,12 kr/kWh by a raw biogas flow of 150 Nm{sup 3}/h. The total upgrading cost can be

  8. Released air during vapor and air cavitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jablonská, Jana; Kozubková, Milada

    2016-06-01

    Cavitation today is a very important problem that is solved by means of experimental and mathematical methods. The article deals with the generation of cavitation in convergent divergent nozzle of rectangular cross section. Measurement of pressure, flow rate, temperature, amount of dissolved air in the liquid and visualization of cavitation area using high-speed camera was performed for different flow rates. The measurement results were generalized by dimensionless analysis, which allows easy detection of cavitation in the nozzle. For numerical simulation the multiphase mathematical model of cavitation consisting of water and vapor was created. During verification the disagreement with the measurements for higher flow rates was proved, therefore the model was extended to multiphase mathematical model (water, vapor and air), due to release of dissolved air. For the mathematical modeling the multiphase turbulence RNG k-ɛ model for low Reynolds number flow with vapor and air cavitation was used. Subsequently the sizes of the cavitation area were verified. In article the inlet pressure and loss coefficient depending on the amount of air added to the mathematical model are evaluated. On the basis of the approach it may be create a methodology to estimate the amount of released air added at the inlet to the modeled area.

  9. Air Conditioner/Dehumidifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-01-01

    An ordinary air conditioner in a very humid environment must overcool the room air, then reheat it. Mr. Dinh, a former STAC associate, devised a heat pipe based humidifier under a NASA Contract. The system used heat pipes to precool the air; the air conditioner's cooling coil removes heat and humidity, then the heat pipes restore the overcooled air to a comfortable temperature. The heat pipes use no energy, and typical savings are from 15-20%. The Dinh Company also manufactures a "Z" coil, a retrofit cooling coil which may be installed on an existing heater/air conditioner. It will also provide free hot water. The company has also developed a photovoltaic air conditioner and solar powered water pump.

  10. Manual for THOR-AirPAS - air pollution assessment system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Steen Solvang; Ketzel, Matthias; Brandt, Jørgen;

    The report provides an outline of the THOR-AirPAS - air pollution assessment system and a brief manual for getting started with the air quality models and input data included in THOR-AirPAS.......The report provides an outline of the THOR-AirPAS - air pollution assessment system and a brief manual for getting started with the air quality models and input data included in THOR-AirPAS....

  11. A magnificent enzyme superfamily: carbonic anhydrases, their purification and characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozensoy Guler, Ozen; Capasso, Clemente; Supuran, Claudiu T

    2016-10-01

    In this paper, we reviewed the purification and characterization methods of the α-carbonic anhydrase (CA, EC 4.2.1.1) class. Six genetic families (α-, β-, γ-, δ-, ζ- and η-CAs) all know to date, all encoding such enzymes in organisms widely distributed over the phylogenetic tree. Starting from the manuscripts published in the 1930s on the isolation and purification of α-CAs from blood and other tissues, and ending with the recent discovery of the last genetic family in protozoa, the η-CAs, considered for long time an α-CA, we present historically the numerous and different procedures which were employed for obtaining these catalysts in pure form. α-CAs possess important application in medicine (as many human α-CA isoforms are drug targets) as well as biotechnological processes, in which the enzymes are ultimately used for CO2 capture in order to mitigate the global warming effects due to greenhouse gases. Recently, it was discovered an involvement of CAs in cancerogenesis as well as infection caused by pathogenic agents such as bacteria, fungi and protozoa. Inhibition studies of CAs identified in the genome of the aforementioned organisms might lead to the discovery of innovative drugs with a novel mechanism of action. PMID:26118417

  12. Purification of total DNA extracted from activated sludge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Purification of the total DNA extracted from activated sludge samples was studied. The effects of extraction buffers and lysis treatments (lysozyme, sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), sonication, mechanical mill and thermal shock) on yield and purity of the total DNA extracted from activated sludge were investigated. It was found that SDS and mechanical mill were the most effective ways for cell lysis, and both gave the highest DNA yields, while by SDS and thermal shock, the purest DNA extract could be obtained. The combination of SDS with other lysis treatment, such as sonication and thermal shock, could apparently increase the DNA yields but also result in severe shearing. For the purification of the crude DNA extract, polyvinyl polypyrrolidone was used for the removal of humic contaminants. Cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide, potassium acetate and phenol/chloroform were used to remove proteins and polysaccharides from crude DNA. Crude DNA was further purified by isopropanol precipitation. Thus, a suitable protocol was proposed for DNA extraction, yielding about 49.9 mg (DNA)/g volatile suspended solids, and the DNA extracts were successfully used in PCR amplifications for 16S rDNA and 16S rDNA V3 region. The PCR products of 16S rDNA V3 region allowed the DGGE analysis (denatured gradient gel electrophoresis) to be possible.

  13. Affitins for protein purification by affinity magnetic fishing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Cláudia S M; Dos Santos, Raquel; Ottengy, Stella; Viecinski, Aline Canani; Béhar, Ghislaine; Mouratou, Barbara; Pecorari, Frédéric; Roque, A Cecília A

    2016-07-29

    Currently most economical and technological bottlenecks in protein production are placed in the downstream processes. With the aim of increasing the efficiency and reducing the associated costs, various affinity ligands have been developed. Affitins are small, yet robust and easy to produce, proteins derived from the archaeal extremophilic "7kDa DNA-binding" protein family. By means of combinatorial protein engineering and ribosome display selection techniques, Affitins have shown to bind a diversity of targets. In this work, two previously developed Affitins (anti-lysozyme and anti-IgG) were immobilized onto magnetic particles to assess their potential for protein purification by magnetic fishing. The optimal lysozyme and human IgG binding conditions yielded 58mg lysozyme/g support and 165mgIgG/g support, respectively. The recovery of proteins was possible in high yield (≥95%) and with high purity, namely ≥95% and 81%, when recovering lysozyme from Escherichia coli supernatant and IgG from human plasma, respectively. Static binding studies indicated affinity constants of 5.0×10(4)M(-1) and 9.3×10(5)M(-1) for the anti-lysozyme and anti-IgG magnetic supports. This work demonstrated that Affitins, which can be virtually evolved for any protein of interest, can be coupled onto magnetic particles creating novel affinity adsorbents for purification by magnetic fishing. PMID:27342136

  14. Alloys based on Group 5 metals for hydrogen purification membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozhakhmetov, S. [Institute of High Technologies, 050012 Almaty (Kazakhstan); Sidorov, N. [Institute of Metallurgy UB RAS, 620016 Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Piven, V. [Saint Petersburg State University, 198504 Saint Petersburg (Russian Federation); Sipatov, I. [Institute of Metallurgy UB RAS, 620016 Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Gabis, I. [Saint Petersburg State University, 198504 Saint Petersburg (Russian Federation); Arinov, B. [Institute of High Technologies, 050012 Almaty (Kazakhstan)

    2015-10-05

    Highlights: • The Ta{sub 77}Nb{sub 23} alloy showed hydrogen permeability high enough to be used in diffusion purification technology. • The Ta{sub 77}Nb{sub 23} alloy has mechanical properties suitable for practical application. • The hydrogen permeability data were acquired for the alloys with no special coatings. - Abstract: Production of high-purity hydrogen is required to move to power systems with little environmental impact. The considerable part of hydrogen is suggested to be obtained by methane conversion and its separation from other hydrocarbon gases which are not involved in the energy production process (associated gas, waste gas of petrochemical industry, etc.). The aim of this study was to compare properties of low cost alloys for membranes for hydrogen purification and separation. To investigate the membranes of V{sub 53}Ti{sub 26}Ni{sub 21} and Ta{sub 77}Nb{sub 23} (wt.%) alloys, the specific hydrogen permeability and micro hardness tests, metallography and X-ray diffraction were applied. It was concluded the Ta{sub 77}Nb{sub 23} (wt.%) alloy has hydrogen permeability parameters and mechanical characteristics that make it suitable for the production of thin membranes.

  15. PARTIAL PURIFICATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF ALKALOPHILIC PROTEASE FROM PSEUDOMONAS AERUGINOSA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Satheeskumar

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Partial purification and characterization of alkalophilic protease production from Pseudomonas aeruginosa was isolated from the gut of marine and coastal waters shrimp Penaeus monodon. The protease production was assayed in submerged fermentation to produce maximum protease activity (423 ± 0.09 U/ml. The enzyme was precipitated with ammonium sulphate and partially purified by ion exchange chromatography through DEAE Sephadex A-50 column. In 10th fraction showed maximum protease activity (734 ± 0.18 U/ml with increase in purification fold. The molecular weight of protease from Pseudomonas aeruginosa was recorded as 60 kDa. The stability of protease was tested at various pH and temperature; it showed maximum protease activity at pH-9 and temperature 50ºC. Among the various surfactants tested for enzyme stability, maximum activity was retained in poly ethylene glycol. The compatibility of protease enzyme with various commercial detergents; the enzyme retained maximum protease activity in tide. The results are indicated that all these properties make the bacterial proteases are most suitable for wide industrial applications.

  16. Improvement of uranium extraction during uranium concentrate purification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aurelian, F.; Georgescu, D.P.; Serban, N.; Panturu, E. [R and D Institute for Rare and Radioactive Metals, Bucharest (Romania)

    2000-07-01

    The majority of solvent extraction operations in the mining industry have the problem of forming a stable emulsion and the eventual formation of crud. The major causes of crud formation in the solvent extraction circuits are suspended solids, colloidal silica and organic constituents, such as humic acids. During the refining of Uranium concentrates sodium or ammonium diuranate are treated with a solvent extraction process. The formation of an emulsion or crud affects the purification process and generates losses of valuable uranium during solid liquid separation. The technology proposed, in a first stage, use dissolution of uranium concentrates under temperature and agitation, in a nitric acid media. This operation partially removes organic impurities. After the dissolution, the solution is kept with the aim to remove silica by settling. Part of the organic impurities are removed by filtration together with silica and other entrained impurities (suspended solids). The liquid phase is carbonated until inorganic impurities are precipitated. From the clear solutions the sodium diuranate is precipitated with sodium hydroxide solution. The uranium purification is controlled by the aqueous phase acidity level. The mechanism of crud formation and prevention are also explained in this paper. (author)

  17. [Protoplasts isolation, purification and plant regeneration of Pinellia cordata].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xian; Ma, Dan-Dan; Jiang, Fu-Sheng; Chen, Ni-Pi; Ding, Bin; Jin, Li-Xia; Qian, Chao-Dong; Ding, Zhi-Shan

    2014-11-01

    The main factors which affected the isolation, purification and cultivation of Pinellia cordata protoplasts from leaves were studied. The results indicated that the optimum enzyme solution for P. cordata leaves was 13% CPW + 1.0% Cellulose +0.1% Pectolase, at pH 6.0, temperature (25-28 degrees C ) for 4 h. The sucrose density gradient centrifugation was adopted to purificate the protoplasts collected, when 25% sucrose was used as mediator, centrifugating at 500 rpm for 10 min. When the protoplasts were shallow liquid and liquid-solid double layer cultured on the medium of MS + 0.5 mg x L(-1) 6-BA + 0.25 mg x L(-1) NAA + 13% mannitol at the density of 2.5 x 104 protoplasts/mL, or fed and nursed cultured at the density of 100-500 protoplasts/mL, cell division could be observed for 3 days; granular calli appeared for 30 days. Calli was proliferated on the medium of MS + 0.5 mg x L(-1) 6-BA + 0.25 mg x L(-1) NAA solidified by 0.55% agar, and differentiated and regenerated after 5-6 months. Plant generation of P. cordata is successfully established.

  18. Expression, purification and crystallization of a lyssavirus matrix (M) protein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Assenberg, René [Division of Structural Biology and Oxford Protein Production Facility, The Henry Wellcome Building for Genomic Medicine, Oxford University, Roosevelt Drive, Oxford OX3 7BN (United Kingdom); Delmas, Olivier [UPRE Lyssavirus Dynamics and Host Adaptation, WHO Collaborating Centre for Reference and Research on Rabies, Institut Pasteur, 28 Rue du Docteur Roux, 75724 Paris CEDEX 15 (France); Graham, Stephen C.; Verma, Anil; Berrow, Nick; Stuart, David I.; Owens, Raymond J. [Division of Structural Biology and Oxford Protein Production Facility, The Henry Wellcome Building for Genomic Medicine, Oxford University, Roosevelt Drive, Oxford OX3 7BN (United Kingdom); Bourhy, Hervé [UPRE Lyssavirus Dynamics and Host Adaptation, WHO Collaborating Centre for Reference and Research on Rabies, Institut Pasteur, 28 Rue du Docteur Roux, 75724 Paris CEDEX 15 (France); Grimes, Jonathan M., E-mail: jonathan@strubi.ox.ac.uk [Division of Structural Biology and Oxford Protein Production Facility, The Henry Wellcome Building for Genomic Medicine, Oxford University, Roosevelt Drive, Oxford OX3 7BN (United Kingdom)

    2008-04-01

    The expression, purification and crystallization of the full-length matrix protein from three lyssaviruses is described. The matrix (M) proteins of lyssaviruses (family Rhabdoviridae) are crucial to viral morphogenesis as well as in modulating replication and transcription of the viral genome. To date, no high-resolution structural information has been obtained for full-length rhabdovirus M. Here, the cloning, expression and purification of the matrix proteins from three lyssaviruses, Lagos bat virus (LAG), Mokola virus and Thailand dog virus, are described. Crystals have been obtained for the full-length M protein from Lagos bat virus (LAG M). Successful crystallization depended on a number of factors, in particular the addition of an N-terminal SUMO fusion tag to increase protein solubility. Diffraction data have been recorded from crystals of native and selenomethionine-labelled LAG M to 2.75 and 3.0 Å resolution, respectively. Preliminary analysis indicates that these crystals belong to space group P6{sub 1}22 or P6{sub 5}22, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 56.9–57.2, c = 187.9–188.6 Å, consistent with the presence of one molecule per asymmetric unit, and structure determination is currently in progress.

  19. Cryogenic distillation facility for isotopic purification of protium and deuterium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alekseev, I.; Arkhipov, Ev.; Bondarenko, S.; Fedorchenko, O.; Ganzha, V.; Ivshin, K.; Kravtsov, P., E-mail: pkravt@gmail.com; Trofimov, V.; Vasilyev, A.; Vasyanina, T.; Vorobyov, A.; Vznuzdaev, M. [National Research Center “Kurchatov Institute” Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute (NRC “Kurchatov Institute” PNPI), 188300 Gatchina (Russian Federation); Kammel, P. [Department of Physics, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195 (United States); Petitjean, C. [Paul Scherrer Institut (PSI), CH-5232 Villigen (Switzerland)

    2015-12-15

    Isotopic purification of the protium and deuterium is an important requirement of many physics experiments. A cryogenic facility for high-efficiency separation of hydrogen isotopes with a cryogenic distillation column as the main element is described. The instrument is portable, so that it can be used at the experimental site. It was designed and built at the Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute, Gatchina, Russia. Fundamental operating parameters have been measured including a liquid holdup in the column packing, the pressure drops across the column and the purity of the product at different operating modes. A mathematical model describes expected profiles of hydrogen isotope concentration along the distillation column. An analysis of ortho-parahydrogen isomeric composition by gas chromatography was used for evaluation of the column performance during the tuning operations. The protium content during deuterium purification (≤100 ppb) was measured using gas chromatography with accumulation of the protium in the distillation column. A high precision isotopic measurement at the Institute of Particle Physics, ETH-Zurich, Switzerland, provided an upper bound of the deuterium content in protium (≤6 ppb), which exceeds all commercially available products.

  20. Powdered Activated Carbon: An Alternative Approach to Genomic DNA Purification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbarić, Lucija; Bačić, Ivana; Grubić, Zorana

    2015-07-01

    Forensic evidence samples are routinely found as stains on various substrates, which may contain substances known to inhibit polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The goal of this study was to evaluate post-Chelex(®) 100 purification using powdered activated carbon (PAC). Mock crime scene DNA extracts were analyzed using quantitative PCR and short tandem repeat (STR) profiling to test the DNA recovery and inhibitor removal using PAC with those of the Amicon(®) Ultra 100K. For extracted bloodstains on soil and wood substrates, PAC and Amicon(®) Ultra 100K generated similar DNA yield and quality. Moreover, the two methods significantly decreased the concentration of humic substances and tannins compared to nonpurified extracts (p < 0.001). In instances where extracts contained indigo dye (bloodstains on denim), Amicon(®) Ultra 100K performed better than PAC due to improved amplifiability. Efficient adsorption of humic substances and tannins, which are common inhibitors, indicates PAC's potential application in the purification of high-template DNA extracts. PMID:25929735

  1. Determination of the self purification of streams using tracers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A methodology for the 'in situ' evaluation of the self purification of streams is discussed. It consists of the simultaneous injection of two tracers into the stream. One of the tracers is oxidized by biochemical processes. It can be either artificially supplied to the stream or a naturally present component can be used. This tracer is used for the determination of the self purification parameters. The other tracer is conservative and allows for the hydrodynamic effects. Tests have been carried out in two streams with quite different hydrodynamic and physicochemical conditions. In the first stream, with a flow-rate of about 0.9 m3/s, urea was used as the nonconservative tracer. In the other stream, which had a flow-rate of about 5 m3/s, only a radioactive tracer has been used, and the rate of biochemical oxidation has been determined from BOD measurements. Calculations have been implemented on a digital computer. In both cases it was found that the reoxygenation rate is more conveniently determined by empirical formulas. Results from both tests have been deemed realistic by comparison with similar experiments. (Author)

  2. Purification and characterization of a thylakoid protein kinase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Control of state transitions in the thylakoid by reversible phosphorylation of the light-harvesting chlorophyll a/b protein complex of photosystem II (LHC-II) is modulated by a kinase. The kinase catalyzing this phosphorylation is associated with the thylakoid membrane, and is regulated by the redox state of the plastoquinone pool. The isolation and partial purification from spinach thylakoids of two protein kinases (CPK1, CPK2) of apparent molecular masses 25 kDa and 38 kDa has been reported. Neither enzyme utilizes isolated LHC-II as a substrate. The partial purification of a third protein kinase (LHCK) which can utilize both lysine-rich histones (IIIs and Vs) and isolated LHC-II as substrate has now been purified to homogeneity and characterized by SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis as a 64 kDa peptide. From a comparison of the two isolation procedures we have concluded that CPK1 is indeed a protein kinase, but has a lower specific activity than that of LHCK. 8 refs., 4 figs

  3. Purification of mammalian DNA repair protein XRCC1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, I. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1995-11-01

    Malfunctioning DNA repair systems lead to cancer mutations, and cell death. XRCC1 (X-ray Repair Cross Complementing) is a human DNA repair gene that has been found to fully correct the x-ray repair defect in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell mutant EM9. The corresponding protein (XRCC1) encoded by this gene has been linked to a DNA repair pathway known as base excision repair, and affects the activity of DNA ligase III. Previously, an XRCC1 cDNA minigene (consisting of the uninterrupted coding sequence for XRCC1 protein followed by a decahistidine tag) was constructed and cloned into vector pET-16b for the purpose of: (1) overproduction of XRCC1 in both prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells; and (2) to facilitate rapid purification of XRCC1 from these systems. A vector is basically a DNA carrier that allows recombinant protein to be cloned and overexpressed in host cells. In this study, XRCC1 protein was overexpressed in E. coli and purified by immobilized metal affinity chromatography. Currently, the XRCC1 minigene is being inserted into a new vector [pET-26b(+)] in hopes to increase overexpression and improve purification. Once purified XRCC1 can be crystallized for structural studies, or studied in vitro for its biological function.

  4. Affinity purification of copper chelating peptides from chickpea protein hydrolysates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Megías, Cristina; Pedroche, Justo; Yust, Maria M; Girón-Calle, Julio; Alaiz, Manuel; Millan, Francisco; Vioque, Javier

    2007-05-16

    Chickpea protein hydrolysates obtained with alcalase and flavourzyme were used for purification of copper chelating peptides by affinity chromatography using copper immobilized on solid supports. The chelating activity of purified peptides was indirectly measured by the inhibition of beta-carotene oxidation in the presence of copper. Two protein hydrolysates, obtained after 10 and 100 min of hydrolysis, were the most inhibitory of beta-carotene oxidation. Purified copper chelating peptides from these protein hydrolysates contained 19.7 and 35.1% histidine, respectively, in comparison to 2.7 and 2.6% in the protein hydrolysates. Chelating peptides from hydrolysate obtained after 10 min of hydrolysis were the most antioxidative being 8.3 times more antioxidative than the hydrolysate, while chelating peptides purified from protein hydrolysate obtained after 100 min were 3.1 times more antioxidative than its hydrolysate. However, the histidine content was higher in peptides derived from the 100 min hydrolysate (19.7 against 35.1% in 10 min hydrolysate), indicating that this amino acid is not the only factor involved in the antioxidative activity, and other factors such as peptide size or amino acid sequence are also determinant. This manuscript shows that affinity chromatography is a useful procedure for purification of copper chelating peptides. This method can be extended to other metals of interest in nutrition, such as calcium, iron, or zinc. Purified chelating peptides, in addition to their antioxidative properties, may also be useful in food mineral fortification for increasing the bioavailability of these metals.

  5. Isolation and Purification of Jacalin from Artocarpus Heterophyllus Lam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.R. Othman

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents investigation results of saturation conditions needed for purification of jacalin lectin from the extract seeds of Artocarpus heterophyllus by ammonium precipitation and affinity chromatography on Galactose-Affi gel Hz. Three different aspects of parameters encompassing the percentage of saturation of ammonium sulfate precipitation, the presence of ammonium sulfate on Lowry method and the suitable galactose concentration for optimum elution of the protein from Galactose-Affi gel Hz were investigated. With three different sets of fractional saturation of jacalin purification using ammonium sulfate precipitation, the maximum yield of 0.463 g/g was achieved at 0-90% saturation range in the absence of dialysis. Maximum yield of 0.425 g/g was obtained at 30-60% and 0-90% saturation range in the presence of dialysis. The result from this work also indicates that excessive quantity of NH4SO4 interferes with Lowry method for protein determination substantially. The 0-90% saturation range was found to be more potentially appropriate for large scale application than 30-60% saturation, since the former involves only 1 step NH4SO4 addition. From the affinity chromatography, elution of 0.2 M galactose (in 0.15 M NaCl from Galactose-Affi gel Hz produced the maximum peak profile and jacalin concentration. A reduction or increase in galactose concentration of more than 0.2 M did not increase concentration of purified jacalin purified using this method.

  6. Study of a zirconium getter for purification of xenon gas

    CERN Document Server

    Dobi, A; Hall, C; Kaufman, L; Langford, T; Slutsky, S; Yen, Y R

    2010-01-01

    Oxygen, nitrogen and methane purification efficiencies for a common zirconium getter are measured in 1050 Torr of xenon gas. Starting with impurity concentrations near 10^{-6} g/g, the outlet impurity level is found to be less than 120*10^{-12} g/g for O2 and less than 950*10^{-12} g/g for N2. For methane we find residual contamination of the purified gas at concentrations varying over three orders of magnitude, depending on the purifier temperature and the gas flow rate. A slight reduction in the purifier's methane efficiency is observed after 13 mg of this impurity has been absorbed, which we attribute to partial exhaustion of the purifier's capacity for this species. We also find that the purifier's ability to absorb N2 and methane can be extinguished long before any decrease in O2 performance is observed, and slower flow rates should be employed for xenon purification due to the cooling effect that the heavy gas has on the getter.

  7. Expression and affinity purification of recombinant proteins from plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Urvee A.; Sur, Gargi; Daunert, Sylvia; Babbitt, Ruth; Li, Qingshun

    2002-01-01

    With recent advances in plant biotechnology, transgenic plants have been targeted as an inexpensive means for the mass production of proteins for biopharmaceutical and industrial uses. However, the current plant purification techniques lack a generally applicable, economic, large-scale strategy. In this study, we demonstrate the purification of a model protein, beta-glucuronidase (GUS), by employing the protein calmodulin (CaM) as an affinity tag. In the proposed system, CaM is fused to GUS. In the presence of calcium, the calmodulin fusion protein binds specifically to a phenothiazine-modified surface of an affinity column. When calcium is removed with a complexing agent, e.g., EDTA, calmodulin undergoes a conformational change allowing the dissociation of the calmodulin-phenothiazine complex and, therefore, permitting the elution of the GUS-CaM fusion protein. The advantages of this approach are the fast, efficient, and economical isolation of the target protein under mild elution conditions, thus preserving the activity of the target protein. Two types of transformation methods were used in this study, namely, the Agrobacterium-mediated system and the viral-vector-mediated transformation system. Copyright 2002 Elsevier Science (USA).

  8. Kilogram-scale purification of americium by ion exchange

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wheelwright, E. J.

    1979-01-01

    Sequential anion and cation exchange processes have been used for the final purification of /sup 241/Am recovered during the reprocessing of aged plutonium metallurgical scrap. Plutonium was removed by absorption of Dowex 1, X-3.5 (30 to 50 mesh) anion exchange resin from 6.5 to 7.5 M HNO/sub 3/ feed solution. Following a water dilution to 0.75 to 1.0 M HNO/sub 3/, americium was absorbed on Dowex 50W, X-8 (50 to 100 mesh) cation exchange resion. Final purification was accomplished by elution of the absorbed band down 3 to 4 successive beds of the same resin, preloaded with Zn/sup 2 +/, with an NH/sub 4/OH buffered chelating agent. The recovery of mixed /sup 241/Am-/sup 243/Am from power reactor reprocessing waste has been demonstrated. Solvent extraction was used to recover a HNO/sub 3/ solution of mixed lanthanides and actinides from waste generated by the reprocessng of 13.5 tons of Shippingport Power Reactor blanket fuel. Sequential cation exchange band-displacement processes were then used to separate americium and curium from the lanthanides and then to separate approx. 60 g of /sup 244/Cm from 1000 g of mixed /sup 241/Am-/sup 243/Am.

  9. Expression and purification of mammalian calreticulin in Pichia pastoris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrin, C; Corbett, E F; Johnson, S; Dabrowska, M; Campbell, I D; Eggleton, P; Opas, M; Michalak, M

    2000-11-01

    Calreticulin is a 46-kDa Ca(2+)-binding chaperone of the endoplasmic reticulum membranes. The protein binds Ca(2+) with high capacity, affects intracellular Ca(2+) homeostasis, and functions as a lectin-like chaperone. In this study, we describe expression and purification procedures for the isolation of recombinant rabbit calreticulin. The calreticulin was expressed in Pichia pastoris and purified to homogeneity by DEAE-Sepharose and Resource Q FPLC chromatography. The protein was not retained in the endoplasmic reticulum of Pichia pastoris but instead it was secreted into the external media. The purification procedures reported here for recombinant calreticulin yield homogeneous preparations of the protein by SDS-PAGE and mass spectroscopy analysis. Purified calreticulin was identified by its NH(2)-terminal amino acid sequences, by its Ca(2+) binding, and by its reactivity with anti-calreticulin antibodies. The protein contained one disulfide bond between (88)Cys and (120)Cys. CD spectral analysis and Ca(2+)-binding properties of the recombinant protein indicated that it was correctly folded. PMID:11049745

  10. Purification and Characterization of Recombinant Deinococcus radiodurans RNA Polymerase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esyunina, D M; Kulbachinskiy, A V

    2015-10-01

    The radioresistant bacterium Deinococcus radiodurans is one of the most interesting models for studies of cell stress resistance. Analysis of the mechanisms of gene expression in D. radiodurans revealed some specific features of the transcription apparatus that might play a role in cell resistance to DNA-damaging conditions. In particular, RNA polymerase from D. radiodurans forms unstable promoter complexes and during transcription elongation has a much higher rate of RNA cleavage than RNA polymerase from Escherichia coli. Analysis of the structure and functions of D. radiodurans RNA polymerase is complicated due to the absence of convenient genetic systems for making mutations in the RNA polymerase genes and difficulties with enzyme purification. In this work, we developed a system for expression of D. radiodurans RNA polymerase in E. coli cells. We obtained an expression vector encoding all core RNA polymerase subunits and defined optimal conditions for the expression and purification of the RNA polymerase. It was found that D. radiodurans RNA polymerase has much higher rates of RNA cleavage than E. coli RNA polymerase under a wide range of conditions, including variations in the concentration of catalytic magnesium ions and pH values of the reaction buffer. The expression system can be used for further studies of the RNA cleavage reaction and the mechanisms of transcription regulation in D. radiodurans, including analysis of mutant RNA polymerase variants.

  11. Production and purification of polyclonal antibody against melatonin hormone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fooladsaz K

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays immunochemical techniques have played a very important and valuable role in quantitative and qualitative assays of liquid compounds of the body. Producing antibody against immunogenes is the first step to make immunochemical kits. In this study production and purification of polyclonal antibody against melatonin has been considered. This hormone which has several important functions in physiological conditions such as migraine, cirrhosis, mammary gland cancer and other diseases, is the most important pineal gland secretion. This gland is a circumventricular organ of brain and according to histological and anatomical studies, it is a high secretory organ, that secretes active biological substances like melatonin, oxytocin, serotonin and ect. In this study, melatonin has been considered as hapten and has become an immunogen by being linked to the bovine serum Albumin. Then, by the immunization of three white New Zeland rabbits that had the booster injections in regular intervals, the antibody titer was detected to be 1/2000, by using checkboard curves, and with the use of melatonin linked to penicillinase as a labeled antigen, the titer was detected 1/200. Finally an antibody with high purification rate has been obtained, which can be used in immunochemical assays like RIA, ELISA, and EIA.

  12. Preparation, purification, and characterization of aminopropyl-functionalized silica sol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pálmai, Marcell; Nagy, Lívia Naszályi; Mihály, Judith; Varga, Zoltán; Tárkányi, Gábor; Mizsei, Réka; Szigyártó, Imola Csilla; Kiss, Teréz; Kremmer, Tibor; Bóta, Attila

    2013-01-15

    A new, simple, and "green" method was developed for the surface modification of 20 nm diameter Stöber silica particles with 3-aminopropyl(diethoxy)methylsilane in ethanol. The bulk polycondensation of the reagent was inhibited and the stability of the sol preserved by adding a small amount of glacial acetic acid after appropriate reaction time. Centrifugation, ultrafiltration, and dialysis were compared in order to choose a convenient purification technique that allows the separation of unreacted silylating agent from the nanoparticles without destabilizing the sol. The exchange of the solvent to acidic water during the purification yielded a stable colloid, as well. Structural and morphological analysis of the obtained aminopropyl silica was performed using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), dynamic light scattering (DLS) and zeta potential measurements, Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR), (13)C and (29)Si MAS nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopies, as well as small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS). Our investigations revealed that the silica nanoparticle surfaces were partially covered with aminopropyl groups, and multilayer adsorption followed by polycondensation of the silylating reagent was successfully avoided. The resulting stable aminopropyl silica sol (ethanolic or aqueous) is suitable for biomedical uses due to its purity. PMID:23068887

  13. Modelling of the filter-adsorber type air cleaner by using neural network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raos Miomir

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that most air purifying methods imply the passing of air flow, as a pollutant carrier, through a control unit which retains impurities. Properties of the air control unit and the purifying process itself therefore differ depending on the nature of present impurities, as well as on flow-thermal properties of air as the carrier of those impurities. For the assumed conditions, in terms of production of a pollution source and presence of different polluting substances in the form of dust, aerosols, gas, vapor in the exhaust gas, etc., an integrated gas purifier has been designed and tested, comprising a module for purification of mechanical impurities and a module for purification of gaseous impurities. The purifier is compact and has a universal application while simultaneously retaining several different pollutants. These requirements were met through application of the filtration and adsorption methods. On the formed experimental line with an adequate system of acquisition, filter-adsorber type gas cleaners in the function of flow-thermal parameters of gas mixture were tested simultaneously. Experimental data were used for training the radial basis function neural network, which was then used to model properties of the process and gas cleaner.

  14. Air filtration in HVAC systems

    CERN Document Server

    Ginestet, Alain; Tronville, Paolo; Hyttinen, Marko

    2010-01-01

    Air filtration Guidebook will help the designer and user to understand the background and criteria for air filtration, how to select air filters and avoid problems associated with hygienic and other conditions at operation of air filters. The selection of air filters is based on external conditions such as levels of existing pollutants, indoor air quality and energy efficiency requirements.

  15. Health Effects of Air Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... air pollution How to protect yourself from air pollution Chemicals Noise Quizzes Links to more information girlshealth glossary girlshealth.gov home http://www.girlshealth.gov/ Home The environment and your health Air Health effects of air pollution ... Health effects of air pollution Breathing air that ...

  16. Effect of an ozone-generating air-purifying device on reducing concentrations of formaldehyde in air

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esswein, E.J. [Univ. of Utah School of Medicine, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Boeniger, M.F. [National Institute for Occupational Safety, Cincinnati, OH (United States)

    1994-02-01

    Formaldehyde, an air contaminant found in many indoor air investigations, poses distinct occupational exposure hazards in certain job categories (e.g., mortuary science) but is also of concern when found or suspected in office buildings and homes. A variety of air-purifying devices (APDs) are currently available or marketed for application to reduce or remove concentrations of a variety of indoor air pollutants through the use of ozone as a chemical oxidant. An investigation was conducted to determine if concentrations of formaldehyde similar to those found in industrial hygiene evaluations of funeral homes could be reduced with the use of an ozone-generating APD. An ozone-generating APD was placed in an exposure chamber and formaldehyde-containing embalming solution was allowed to evaporate naturally, creating peak and mean chamber concentrations of 2.5 and 1.3 ppm, respectively. Continuous-reading instruments were used to sample for formaldehyde and ozone. Active sampling methods were also used to sample simultaneously for formaldehyde and a possible reactant product, formic acid. Triplicate measurements were made in each of three evaluations: formaldehyde alone, ozone alone, and formaldehyde and ozone combined. Concentrations of formaldehyde were virtually identical with and without 0.5 ppm ozone. No reduction in formaldehyde concentration was found during a 90-minute evaluation using ozone at this concentration with peak and average concentrations of approximately 2.5 and 1.3 ppm formaldehyde, respectively. The results of this investigation suggest that the use of ozone is ineffective in reducing concentrations of formaldehyde. Because ozone has demonstrated health hazards, and is a regulated air contaminant in both the occupational and ambient environment, the use of ozone as an air purification agent in indoor air does not seem warranted. 25 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs.

  17. Heparin-binding peptide as a novel affinity tag for purification of recombinant proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Jacqueline; Jayanthi, Srinivas; Langston, Rebekah; Daily, Anna; Kight, Alicia; McNabb, David S; Henry, Ralph; Kumar, Thallapuranam Krishnaswamy Suresh

    2016-10-01

    Purification of recombinant proteins constitutes a significant part of the downstream processing in biopharmaceutical industries. Major costs involved in the production of bio-therapeutics mainly depend on the number of purification steps used during the downstream process. Affinity chromatography is a widely used method for the purification of recombinant proteins expressed in different expression host platforms. Recombinant protein purification is achieved by fusing appropriate affinity tags to either N- or C- terminus of the target recombinant proteins. Currently available protein/peptide affinity tags have proved quite useful in the purification of recombinant proteins. However, these affinity tags suffer from specific limitations in their use under different conditions of purification. In this study, we have designed a novel 34-amino acid heparin-binding affinity tag (HB-tag) for the purification of recombinant proteins expressed in Escherichia coli (E. coli) cells. HB-tag fused recombinant proteins were overexpressed in E. coli in high yields. A one-step heparin-Sepharose-based affinity chromatography protocol was developed to purify HB-fused recombinant proteins to homogeneity using a simple sodium chloride step gradient elution. The HB-tag has also been shown to facilitate the purification of target recombinant proteins from their 8 M urea denatured state(s). The HB-tag has been demonstrated to be successfully released from the fusion protein by an appropriate protease treatment to obtain the recombinant target protein(s) in high yields. Results of the two-dimensional NMR spectroscopy experiments indicate that the purified recombinant target protein(s) exist in the native conformation. Polyclonal antibodies raised against the HB-peptide sequence, exhibited high binding specificity and sensitivity to the HB-fused recombinant proteins (∼10 ng) in different crude cell extracts obtained from diverse expression hosts. In our opinion, the HB-tag provides a

  18. Recombinant expression and purification of "virus-like" bacterial encapsulin protein cages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rurup, W Frederik; Cornelissen, Jeroen J L M; Koay, Melissa S T

    2015-01-01

    Ultracentrifugation, particularly the use of sucrose or cesium chloride density gradients, is a highly reliable and efficient technique for the purification of virus-like particles and protein cages. Since virus-like particles and protein cages have a unique size compared to cellular macromolecules and organelles, the rate of migration can be used as a tool for purification. Here we describe a detailed protocol for the purification of recently discovered virus-like assemblies called bacterial encapsulins from Thermotoga maritima and Brevibacterium linens. PMID:25358773

  19. EM-TECHNOLOGY APPLICATION FOR MUNICIPAL WASTEWATERS PURIFICATION FROM BIOLOGICAL POLLUTANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oksana Vovk

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. This article is devoted to the problem of municipal waste waters purification. The present daysituation with waste water treatment facilities in Ukraine, existed methods of waste waters purification andsearch for new ones are described. Much attention is paid to such kind of pollutants as microbiological andbacterial. A comparatively new method of sewage waters purification from biological contaminants andpossibilities to apply this method in Ukraine is presented in the article.Keywords: biological pollutants, disinfection, effective microorganisms, EM-technology, treatmentfacilities, wastewaters.

  20. Purification of human insulin-like growth factors I and II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Insulin-like growth factors I and II (IGFs) are the designations for two polypeptides of approximately 7.5 kDa isolated from human serum. Two methods of purification of IGF are described which employ modern peptide separation techniques. Isolation of IGF from human serum or a plasma fraction involve both a gel filtration at low pH as an early step. Final purification is carried out in an HPLC system. Radioimmunoassays are used to monitor IGF at various stages of purification

  1. Purification of human insulin-like growth factors I and II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zumstein, P.P.; Humbel, R.E.

    1985-01-01

    Insulin-like growth factors I and II (IGFs) are the designations for two polypeptides of approximately 7.5 kDa isolated from human serum. Two methods of purification of IGF are described which employ modern peptide separation techniques. Isolation of IGF from human serum or a plasma fraction involve both a gel filtration at low pH as an early step. Final purification is carried out in an HPLC system. Radioimmunoassays are used to monitor IGF at various stages of purification.

  2. Practice and design of the self-purification system for heavy metals-bearing contaminants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qian Guangren

    2008-01-01

    Many minerals in nature have self-purification capacity to hold and stabilize deleterious contaminants into their lattice structures,which can be used for treatment of heavy metals-bearing contaminants.Hydrotalcite Layer Double Hy-droxide(LDH),tobermorite Calcium Silicate Hydrate(CSH)and apatite are ubiquitous minerals in nature,having higher geochemical stability and potential for binding and stabilizing heavy metals.Based on the elucidation of crystal structure property and self-purification principles of the three minerals above,this article discussed how to design the self-purification system of heavy metal-bearing contaminants.

  3. Microscale purification of proteins by line immunoelectrophoresis: application of the technique in protein biogenesis studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danielsen, E M; Cowell, G M

    1983-01-01

    A small-scale version of line immunoelectrophoresis in combination with immunoprecipitate excision is described as a rapid and convenient technique to purify proteins on a micro scale in biogenesis studies. In the purification and to result in a higher state of purity than an isolation procedure...... using protein A-Sepharose. Since the method furthermore allows a simultaneous purification of several different protein antigens from the same sample, it may be of interest as an alternative method to other procedures in the purification of proteins on a micro scale....

  4. Purification of prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP) for structural and functional studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrala, Annakaisa M; Quintero, Ileana B; Vihko, Pirkko T

    2013-01-01

    High-scale purification methods are required for several protein studies such as crystallography, mass spectrometry, circular dichroism, and function. Here we describe a purification method for PAP based on anion exchange, L-(+)-tartrate affinity, and gel filtration chromatographies. Acid phosphatase activity and protein concentration were measured for each purification step, and to collect the fractions with the highest acid phosphatase activity the p-nitrophenyl phosphate method was used. The purified protein obtained by the procedure described here was used for the determination of the first reported three-dimensional structure of prostatic acid phosphatase.

  5. High-speed countercurrent chromatography for purification of single-walled carbon nanotubes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ying Cai; Zhi Hong Yan; Ying Chun Lv; Min Zi; Li Ming Yuan

    2008-01-01

    A new chromatographic purification of single-walled carbon nanotubes using high-speed countercurrent chromatography is reported.The purification was accomplished on the basis of experiment that dispersed the single-walled carbon nanotubes with sodium dodecyl sulfate,and the result mixture was separated using the two phase system composed of n-butanol/water=1/1 (v/v).The sizes of SWNTs separated were observed by scanning electron microscopy.The results demonstrated that the high-speed countercurrent chromatography possessed a good efficency for purification of single-walled carbon nanotubes.

  6. Indonesia's Clean Air Program

    OpenAIRE

    Budy P. Resosudarmo

    2002-01-01

    Unprecedented industrial development in Indonesia during the last two decades, accompanied by a growing population, has increased the amount of environmental damage. One of the most important environmental problems is that the level of air pollution in several large cities has become alarming, particularly in the last few years. This high pollution level has stimulated the government to develop a national clean air program designed to control the quantity of pollutants in the air. However, th...

  7. Air Quality in Lithuania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pietilae, P. [Tampere University of Technology / ECAT-Lithuania (Lithuania); Kliucininkas, L. [Department for Environmental Engineering, Kaunas University of Technology (Lithuania)

    2000-07-01

    Sustainable monitoring of the ambient air is the major preventive measure of ensuring its proper quality. Only with a monitoring procedure going-on a continuous basis it is possible to make an objective evaluation of air pollution trends, of the efficiency of air protection measures and, partially, to a certain extent of the impact the pollution exerts on a human health. The information stemming from the monitoring procedure must be reliable, sustainable and efficient. (orig.)

  8. Olefin metathesis in air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piola, Lorenzo; Nahra, Fady; Nolan, Steven P

    2015-01-01

    Since the discovery and now widespread use of olefin metathesis, the evolution of metathesis catalysts towards air stability has become an area of significant interest. In this fascinating area of study, beginning with early systems making use of high oxidation state early transition metal centers that required strict exclusion of water and air, advances have been made to render catalysts more stable and yet more functional group tolerant. This review summarizes the major developments concerning catalytic systems directed towards water and air tolerance.

  9. Bad traffic, bad air

    OpenAIRE

    Duca, Edward

    2012-01-01

    Air pollution is one of Malta’s greatest concerns. Transportation is the principal source with over 300,000 vehicles belching out smoke, which damages our environment and health. Emissions from vehicles need to be monitored and controlled, and the information used to improve the current system and ensure an acceptable air quality. By using the pollution data set, Nicolette Formosa (supervised by Dr Kenneth Scerri) mapped the air pollution levels and major sources around Malta. http://www....

  10. 走近Air

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马华

    2007-01-01

    @@ 大家对air这个单词并不陌生,它通常用作名词,表示"空气".例如: 1.Better let in fresh air. 最好让新鲜空气进来. 2.The air smells of paint. 空气里散发着油漆味. 3.The air was heavy with perfume of the flowers. 空气里弥漫着花朵的芳香.

  11. Applications Using AIRS Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, S. E.; Pagano, T. S.; Fetzer, E. J.; Lambrigtsen, B.; Olsen, E. T.; Teixeira, J.; Licata, S. J.; Hall, J. R.; Thompson, C. K.

    2015-12-01

    The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) on NASA's Aqua spacecraft has been returning daily global observations of Earth's atmospheric constituents and properties since 2002. With a 12-year data record and daily, global observations in near real-time, AIRS data can play a role in applications that fall under many of the NASA Applied Sciences focus areas. For vector-borne disease, research is underway using AIRS near surface retrievals to assess outbreak risk, mosquito incubation periods and epidemic potential for dengue fever, malaria, and West Nile virus. For drought applications, AIRS temperature and humidity data are being used in the development of new drought indicators and improvement in the understanding of drought development. For volcanic hazards, new algorithms using AIRS data are in development to improve the reporting of sulfur dioxide concentration, the burden and height of volcanic ash and dust, all of which pose a safety threat to aircraft. In addition, anomaly maps of many of AIRS standard products are being produced to help highlight "hot spots" and illustrate trends. To distribute it's applications imagery, AIRS is leveraging existing NASA data frameworks and organizations to facilitate archiving, distribution and participation in the BEDI. This poster will communicate the status of the applications effort for the AIRS Project and provide examples of new maps designed to best communicate the AIRS data.

  12. 123I and 13I purification for biomolecules labelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 123I and 131I are iodine radioisotopes widely used in Nuclear Medicine. The radioisotope 123I is used in diagnosis through the SPECT technique and is routinely produced at IPEN in cyclotron through the reaction: '124Xe (p, 2n) '123Cs -> 123Xe -> 123I. The radioisotope 131I is used both in diagnosis and therapy due to its physical characteristics of decay by β- and its γ-ray emissions that are softened with the use of specific collimators for diagnosis. It is routinely produced at IPEN using the nuclear reactor through the indirect reaction: 130Te (n, γ) ->131Te -> 131I, irradiating compounds containing Te. The radiopharmaceuticals prepared with these radioisotopes go through rigorous quality control tests and the chemical purity of the primary radioisotopes 123I and 131I are within the permissible limits currently defined. However, the presence of some chemical contaminants can prejudice the biomolecules labeling (monoclonal antibodies and peptides), that will produce radiopharmaceuticals of first generation to the oncology area. The aim of this work was to obtain a new purification method of these radioisotopes, allowing the labeling of biomolecules and also to established a process control on those radioisotopes. The methodology was separated on 3 steps: Evaluation of '123I e 131I radionuclidic purity using a hyper pure germanium detector, chemical purity using ICP-OES and the retention and elution study of 131I in several absorbers to choose the most appropriate for the purification tests analyzing the behavior of the possible contaminants. The radionuclidic analyses showed the presence of Te and Co on 131I samples and Te, Tc e Co on 123I samples. The chemical purity analyses showed the presence of Al and Mo in 123I, coming from the window material of the target holder and the presence of Al and Te in 131I samples, coming from the target holder and the target, respectively. The retention and elution study selected the most promising adsorber to the

  13. Affinity Monolith-Integrated Microchips for Protein Purification and Concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Changlu; Sun, Xiuhua; Wang, Huaixin; Qiao, Wei; Hu, Bo

    2016-01-01

    Affinity chromatography is a valuable method to purify and concentrate minute amount of proteins. Monoliths with epoxy groups for affinity immobilization were prepared by direct in-situ photopolymerization of glycidyl methacrylate and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate in porogenic solvents consisting of 1-dodecanol and cyclohexanol. By integrating affinity monoliths onto a microfluidic system, targeted biomolecules can be captured and retained on affinity column, while other biomolecules having no specific interactions toward the immobilized ligands flow through the microchannel. Therefore, proteins which remain on the affinity column are purified and concentrated, and then eluted by appropriate solutions and finally, separated by microchip capillary electrophoresis. This integrated microfluidic device has been applied to the purification and separation of specific proteins (FITC-labeled human serum albumin and IgG) in a mixture.

  14. Fructo-oligosaccharides: Production, Purification and Potential Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bali, Vandana; Panesar, Parmjit S; Bera, Manab B; Panesar, Reeba

    2015-01-01

    The nutritional and therapeutic benefits of prebiotics have attracted the keen interest of consumers and food processing industry for their use as food ingredients. Fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS), new alternative sweeteners, constitute 1-kestose, nystose, and 1-beta-fructofuranosyl nystose produced from sucrose by the action of fructosyltransferase from plants, bacteria, yeast, and fungi. FOS has low caloric values, non-cariogenic properties, and help gut absorption of ions, decrease levels of lipids and cholesterol and bifidus-stimulating functionality. The purified linear fructose oligomers are added to various food products like cookies, yoghurt, infant milk products, desserts, and beverages due to their potential health benefits. This review is focused on the various aspects of biotechnological production, purification and potential applications of fructo-oligosaccharides. PMID:24915337

  15. Continuous chemical cold traps for reprocessing off-gas purification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Absorption of nitrogen oxides and iodine from simulated reprocessing plant off-gas streams has been studied using nitric acid and nitric acid/hydrogen peroxide mixtures at low temperatures. The experiments were carried out at the laboratory and on the engineering scale. The pilot plant scale column has 0.8 m diameter and 16 absorption plates at 0.2 m spacing. Cooling coils on the plates allow operating temperatures down to -600C. The NO concentration in the feed gas usually has been 1% by volume and the flow rate 4-32 m3 (STP) per hour. The iodine behavior has been studied using I-123 tracer. Results of the study are presented. The chemistry of the processes and the advantages and disadvantages in correlation to the various applications for an off-gas purification in a reprocessing plant are compared and discussed. The processes are compatible with the PUREX process and do not produce additional waste

  16. Extraction and Purification of Phlorotannins from Brown Algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gall, Erwan Ar; Lelchat, Florian; Hupel, Mélanie; Jégou, Camille; Stiger-Pouvreau, Valérie

    2015-01-01

    The interest in the physiological roles and bioactivities of plant phenols has increased over the past decades. In seaweeds, many investigations have dealt with phenolic compounds of Phaeophyceae (phlorotannins), even though little is known so far about the ecophysiological variations of their pool or their biosynthetic pathways. We describe here a simple procedure based on the use of water-organic solvent mixtures for the extraction of phlorotannins. Crude extracts are semi-purified and fractionated by separating methods based on both the polarity and the molecular size of compounds. Phenols are then quantified by the Folin-Ciocalteu method and their radical-scavenging activity is characterized using the DPPH test. All along the purification process of phenolic compounds, the efficiency of separation is assessed by (1)H-NMR. PMID:26108502

  17. Improved virus purification processes for vaccines and gene therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nestola, Piergiuseppe; Peixoto, Cristina; Silva, Ricardo R J S; Alves, Paula M; Mota, José P B; Carrondo, Manuel J T

    2015-05-01

    The downstream processing of virus particles for vaccination or gene therapy is becoming a critical bottleneck as upstream titers keep improving. Moreover, the growing pressure to develop cost-efficient processes has brought forward new downstream trains. This review aims at analyzing the state-of-the-art in viral downstream purification processes, encompassing the classical unit operations and their recent developments. Emphasis is given to novel strategies for process intensification, such as continuous or semi-continuous systems based on multicolumn technology, opening up process efficiency. Process understanding in the light of the pharmaceutical quality by design (QbD) initiative is also discussed. Finally, an outlook of the upcoming breakthrough technologies is presented. PMID:25677990

  18. Production and purification of active snowdrop lectin in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longstaff, M; Powell, K S; Gatehouse, J A; Raemaekers, R; Newell, C A; Hamilton, W D

    1998-02-15

    Recombinant snowdrop lectin was produced in Escherichia coli from a cDNA clone encoding mature Galanthus nivalis agglutinin. After induction with isopropylthio-beta-D-galactoside, inclusion bodies from E. coli were solubilised and the G. nivalis agglutinin purified by metal-affinity chromatography using a carboxy-terminal hexahistidine tag. The protein was refolded on the metal-affinity column prior to elution. After purification, the recombinant G. nivalis agglutinin agglutinated rabbit erythrocytes to a dilution similar to that determined for 'native' lectin purified from snowdrop, and showed similar specific binding to mannose. The toxicity of the recombinant G. nivalis agglutinin towards rice brown planthopper (Nilaparvata lugens) was shown to be similar to that of 'native' G. nivalis agglutinin when incorporated into an artificial diet. The recombinant G. nivalis agglutinin is thus functionally similar to 'native' snowdrop lectin.

  19. Purification of cadmium up to 5N+ by vacuum distillation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S T Ali; J V Rao; K S Varma; T L Prakash

    2002-11-01

    Cadmium was refined by vacuum distillation, a technique suitable for low boiling and melting point materials, to remove the heavy and low vapour pressure impurities at ppm level. The detailed analysis of the purified Cd as well as raw Cd was done by ICP–OES techniques for 27 impurity elements. Purification was carried out in an efficient high-yield vacuum distillation system designed and fabricated for purifying 3N+ purity indigenous cadmium to 5N+ (99.999%). Analysis confirmed the reduction of total impurity content from 134 ppm (3N7) for raw Cd to 3 ppm (5N7) upon vacuum distilled Cd. The present study shows that the analysis of impurities such as Fe, Mg and Ca are contributed from environmental effect, whereas impurities such as Pb, Bi, Ag, Ni, Cu, Zn and Tl require adaptation of elemental analysing technique to counter dilution effect. The Hg trace analysis can however be carried out by hydride generation techniques.

  20. Purification of ADU and high-molybdenum AUC by recrystallization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ADU was converted to AUC by preparing pulp with (NH4)2CO3 concentrated solution, and then the prepared AUC (high-molybdenum AUC) crystals were dissolved with hot soft water for dissolution, and after filtration or clarification and scrubbing of the residue, and the clarified solution was digested and the obtained pulp was thickened and the thickened pulp was converted and recrystallized by adding (NH4)2CO3 concentrated solution. The crystals were washed and filtrated, and then the high-purity AUC crystals were prepared. The laboratory and pilot-plant scale experiments showed that the presented purification process was feasible with the solvent extraction step eliminated, so the chemicals consumption would be considerably decreased and the environmental pollution would be lowered. It is easy to realize the process in practice

  1. Separation process design for isolation and purification of natural products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malwade, Chandrakant R.

    Natural products are defined as secondary metabolites produced by plants and form a vast pool of compounds with unlimited chemical and functional diversity. Many of these secondary metabolites are high value added chemicals that are frequently used as ingredients in food, cosmetics, pharmaceuticals...... and other consumer products. Therefore, process technology towards industrial scale production of such high value chemicals from plants has significant value. Natural products can be obtained in pure form via synthetic or semi-synthetic route, but due to their complicated nature these methods have not been...... developed to the extent of industrial production for majority of natural products. Thus, isolation and purification of such natural products from plants is the most viable way to obtain natural products in pure form. This PhD project is mainly concerned with the design of separation process to isolate...

  2. Stability, purification, and applications of bromelain: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lencastre Novaes, Letícia Celia; Jozala, Angela Faustino; Lopes, André Moreni; de Carvalho Santos-Ebinuma, Valéria; Mazzola, Priscila Gava; Pessoa Junior, Adalberto

    2016-01-01

    Bromelain is a cysteine protease found in pineapple tissue. Because of its anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer activities, as well as its ability to induce apoptotic cell death, bromelain has proved useful in several therapeutic areas. The market for this protease is growing, and several studies exploring various properties of this molecule have been reported. This review aims to compile this data, and summarize the main findings on bromelain in the literature to date. The physicochemical properties and stability of bromelain under different conditions are discussed. Several studies on the purification of bromelain from crude extracts using a wide range of techniques such as liquid-liquid extractions by aqueous two-phase system, ultrafiltration, precipitation, and chromatography, have been reported. Finally, the various applications of bromelain are presented. This review therefore covers the main properties of bromelain, aiming to provide an up-to-date compilation of the data reported on this enzyme. PMID:26518672

  3. Matrix product purifications for canonical ensembles and quantum number distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barthel, Thomas

    2016-09-01

    Matrix product purifications (MPPs) are a very efficient tool for the simulation of strongly correlated quantum many-body systems at finite temperatures. When a system features symmetries, these can be used to reduce computation costs substantially. It is straightforward to compute an MPP of a grand-canonical ensemble, also when symmetries are exploited. This paper provides and demonstrates methods for the efficient computation of MPPs of canonical ensembles under utilization of symmetries. Furthermore, we present a scheme for the evaluation of global quantum number distributions using matrix product density operators (MPDOs). We provide exact matrix product representations for canonical infinite-temperature states, and discuss how they can be constructed alternatively by applying matrix product operators to vacuum-type states or by using entangler Hamiltonians. A demonstration of the techniques for Heisenberg spin-1 /2 chains explains why the difference in the energy densities of canonical and grand-canonical ensembles decays as 1 /L .

  4. Easy and Rapid Purification of Highly Active Nisin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Abts

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Nisin is an antimicrobial peptide produced and secreted by several L. lactis strains and is specifically active against Gram-positive bacteria. In previous studies, nisin was purified via cation exchange chromatography at low pH employing a single-step elution using 1 M NaCl. Here, we describe an optimized purification protocol using a five-step NaCl elution to remove contaminants. The obtained nisin is devoid of impurities and shows high bactericidal activity against the nisin-sensitive L. lactis strain NZ9000. Purified nisin exhibits an IC50 of ~3 nM, which is a tenfold improvement as compared to nisin obtained via the one-step elution procedure.

  5. Magnetite decorated activated carbon composites for water purification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barala, Sunil Kumar; Arora, Manju; Saini, Parveen

    2013-06-01

    Activated carbon decorated with magnetite (ACMG) nanoparticles composites have been prepared by facile method via impregnation of AC with stable dispersion of superparamagnetic MG nanoparticles followed by drying. These composites exhibit both magnetic and porosity behavior which can be easily optimized by controlling the weight ratio of two phases. The structural, magnetic, thermal and morphological properties of these as synthesized ACMG samples were characterized by powder XRD, FTIR, VSM and SEM techniques. The ACMG powder has been used for water purification having methylene blue (MB) dye as an impurity. The nanoporosity of these composites allow rapid adsorption of MB and their magnetic behavior helps in single step separation of MB adsorbed ACMG particles by the application of external magnetic field.

  6. CAREM 25: Suppression pool cooling and purification system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The suppression pool cooling and purification system has the following main functions: purify and cool water from the suppression pool, cool and send water to the residual heat extraction system, and transfer water to the fuel element transference channel. In case of Loss of Coolant Accident (LOCA), the system sends water from the suppression pool to the spray network, thus cooling and reducing pressure in the primary containment. The system has been designed in accordance with the requirements of the following standards: ANSI/ANS 52.1; ANSI/ANS 57.2; ANSI/ANS 56.2; ANSI/ANS 59.1; ANSI/ANS 58.3; ANSI/ANS 58.9; and ANSI/ANS 56.5. The design of the system fulfils all the assigned functions. (author)

  7. CAREM-25. Suppression Pool Cooling and Purification System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Suppression Pool Cooling and Purification System has the following main functions: purify and cool water from the Suppression Pool, cool and send water to the Residual Heat Extraction System, and transfer water to the Fuel Element Transference Channel. In case of Loss of Coolant Accident (LOCA), the system sends water from the Suppression Pool to the spray network, thus cooling and reducing pressure in the primary containment.The system has been designed in accordance with the requirements of the following standards ANSI/ANS 52.1 [1], ANSI/ANS 57.2 [2], ANSI/ANS 56.2 [3], ANSI/ANS 59.1 [4] ANSI/ANS 58.3 [5], ANSI/ANS 58.9 [6], and ANSI/ANS 56.5 [7]. The design of the system fulfils all the assigned functions

  8. Circulation and Purification in the LUX-ZEPLIN System Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsum, Shaun; Lz Collaboration

    2016-03-01

    LZ is a dark-matter direct detection experiment whose detector is a two-phase TPC using approximately seven tons of active xenon as its scintillator. The xenon must have few electronegative impurities to ensure sufficient electron transport through the drift region. The LZ purification system is being prototyped in the LZ system test, a test platform located at SLAC using about 100kg of Xenon, which consists of gas circulation through a SAES getter. We utilize a dual-phase and a gas-phase heat exchanger to reduce needed cooling power. To achieve this circulation we employ an all metal seal triple diaphragm pump, also prototyped in the System Test. This talk will present early results from the system test as well as some baseline LZ designs. The LUX-ZEPLIN dark matter direct detection experiment.

  9. Development of Purification Technology of Natural Gas in Sichuan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Genliang

    1995-01-01

    @@ Sichuan is an important base of natural gas production in China. Its output is about 70×108 m3/a which makes up over 40% of that in whole country. The composition of natural gas from various fields in Sichuan is different. Most of the gas contains H2S which reaches its summit of above 490 g/m3. It also contains CO2. According to the criterion, H2S conent in natural gas should be lower than 20 mg/m3, about 70%of the gas produced in Sichuan has to be purified before it comes into use for commercial purpose. Therefore it is of great significance for our natural gas industry to develop the purification technology.

  10. Distillation and purification of symmetric entangled Gaussian states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We propose an entanglement distillation and purification scheme for symmetric two-mode entangled Gaussian states that allows to asymptotically extract a pure entangled Gaussian state from any input entangled symmetric Gaussian state. The proposed scheme is a modified and extended version of the entanglement distillation protocol originally developed by Browne et al. [Phys. Rev. A 67, 062320 (2003)]. A key feature of the present protocol is that it utilizes a two-copy degaussification procedure that involves a Mach-Zehnder interferometer with single-mode non-Gaussian filters inserted in its two arms. The required non-Gaussian filtering operations can be implemented by coherently combining two sequences of single-photon addition and subtraction operations.

  11. Membrane purification in radioactive waste management: a short review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation hazards of radionuclides arising from nuclear plant facilities are well known. Separation technologies are used to concentrate the radionuclides and prevent the spread of this hazard to the environment. The present review describes the recent advances made in radioactive waste treatment using membrane separation technology. The first part discusses the membrane methods for collective separation of radionuclides and the second part discusses the membrane methods for selective separation of individual radionuclides. For the collection separation of radionulides, methods include reverse osmosis, precipitation followed by ultrafiltration or microfiltration and membrane distillation. Individual elements have been separated using liquid supported membranes, polymer inclusion membranes, solid polymer based electrolysis, nanofiltration, electrochemical salt-splitting process and other advanced separation methods. - Highlights: ► Collective ions and colloids and Selective ions separation using membranes has been reviewed. ► Ultrafiltration and membrane distillation aide in collective waste remediation. ► Supported membranes aide in purification of radioisotopes.

  12. A novel purification process for dodecanedioic acid by molecular distillation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiang Yu; Xigang Yuan; Aiwu Zeng

    2015-01-01

    A novel purification process is involved to obtain the high purity [N 99%(by mass)] dodecanedioic acid (DC12). It involves a re-crystal ization followed by molecular distil ation from the crude product. The objective of this study is to investigate general conditions, feed rate, distil ing temperature and vacuum, necessary for centrifugal distil-lation of DC12. Under the optimum conditions, distilling temperature 180 °C, pressure 30 Pa and feed flow rate 700 ml·h−1, the purity of DC12 in the residence reached 97.55%with a yield of 53.18%by the analysis of gas chromatography. Multiple-pass distillation made a considerable contribution by improving the purity to 99.22%. Additionally, the effect of pretreatment (re-crystallization) on distillation process was revealed through a series of comparative experiments.

  13. Efficient expression and purification of biologically active human cystatin proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauhan, Sakshi; Tomar, Raghuvir S

    2016-02-01

    Cystatins are reversible cysteine protease inhibitor proteins. They are known to play important roles in controlling cathepsins, neurodegenerative disease, and in immune system regulation. Production of recombinant cystatin proteins is important for biochemical and function characterization. In this study, we cloned and expressed human stefin A, stefin B and cystatin C in Escherichia coli. Human stefin A, stefin B and cystatin C were purified from soluble fraction. For cystatin C, we used various chaperone plasmids to make cystatin C soluble, as it is reported to localize in inclusion bodies. Trigger factor, GroES-GroEL, DnaK-DnaJ-GrpE chaperones lead to the presence of cystatin C in the soluble fraction. Immobilized metal affinity chromatography, glutathione sepharose and anion exchange chromatography techniques were employed for efficient purification of these proteins. Their biological activities were tested by inhibition assays against cathepsin L and H3 protease.

  14. Stability, purification, and applications of bromelain: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lencastre Novaes, Letícia Celia; Jozala, Angela Faustino; Lopes, André Moreni; de Carvalho Santos-Ebinuma, Valéria; Mazzola, Priscila Gava; Pessoa Junior, Adalberto

    2016-01-01

    Bromelain is a cysteine protease found in pineapple tissue. Because of its anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer activities, as well as its ability to induce apoptotic cell death, bromelain has proved useful in several therapeutic areas. The market for this protease is growing, and several studies exploring various properties of this molecule have been reported. This review aims to compile this data, and summarize the main findings on bromelain in the literature to date. The physicochemical properties and stability of bromelain under different conditions are discussed. Several studies on the purification of bromelain from crude extracts using a wide range of techniques such as liquid-liquid extractions by aqueous two-phase system, ultrafiltration, precipitation, and chromatography, have been reported. Finally, the various applications of bromelain are presented. This review therefore covers the main properties of bromelain, aiming to provide an up-to-date compilation of the data reported on this enzyme.

  15. Experimental studies of e-beam flue gas purification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Numerous studies have shown that electron beam irradiation of flue can bring about chemical changes that make removal of sulfuric oxide (SO2) and nitrogen oxides (NO, NO2) easier. Based on the promising results of those activities, the economic and technical benefits of e-beam flue gas purification have also been proved and brought the construction of several commercial scale plants. In the laboratory of EB-Tech Co. (formerly the Central Research Institute of Samsung Heavy Ind.), a pilot scale plant of flue gas treatment facility was constructed and has been operating since 1995. The pilot plant consists of coal burning boiler (a source of flue gas), mixing system (control of pollutant), electron accelerator, reactor, neutralizer, bag-filter (by-product collector), measuring instruments and others

  16. Radiation-flotation purification of aqueous wastes from mercury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purification of industrial wastes of plants producing chlorine and alkalies by electrolysis with using metallic mercury as a cathode from mercury (in ionic and metallic form as well as in the form of precipitate) to the accepted in the Soviet Union limiting permitted level of concentration (5 x 10-3 mg dm-3) by routine sulphide and ion exchange methods has some disadvantages. We have now developed the radiation-flotation method which consists of three stages: preliminary flotation in the presence of surfactant (sodium alkylsulphonate), γ-irradiation at dose 1 kGy and secondary flotation (also in the presence of sodium alkylsulphonate). The method is discussed and results are reported. (author)

  17. PURIFICATION AND ENRICHMENT OF BIOGAS IN ASH-WATER MIXTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Brudniak

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Biogas, produced in an aerobic digestion process, is a mixture of gases, and that is why its inexpensive and effective valorisation is essential. Research on this process is necessary in order to use biogas as a renewable energy source. The aim of this thesis is to present methods of biogas purification and enrichment in the fly ash - water mixture, that is generated on the base of fly ash produced during burning coal in power industry. Experience presented that the fly ash absorbs CO2 and H2S, even in conventional conditions. The absorption efficiency depends not only on the chemical composition of the ash but also on its physical properties. There was also a strong neutralization of alkaline waste combustion.

  18. Heterologous expression and purification of membrane-bound pyrophosphatases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kellosalo, J.; Kajander, T.; Palmgren, Michael Broberg;

    2011-01-01

    to obtain structural information for drug design. We have tested the expression of eight integral membrane pyrophosphatases in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, six from bacterial and archaeal sources and two from protozoa. Two proteins originating from hyperthermophilic organisms were purified in dimeric......Membrane-bound pyrophosphatases (M-PPases) are enzymes that couple the hydrolysis of inorganic pyrophosphate to pumping of protons or sodium ions. In plants and bacteria they are important for relieving stress caused by low energy levels during anoxia, drought, nutrient deficiency, cold and low...... light intensity. While they are completely absent in mammalians, they are key players in the survival of disease-causing protozoans making these proteins attractive pharmacological targets. In this work, we aimed at the purification of M-PPases in amounts suitable for crystallization as a first step...

  19. Purification and Characterization of An Alkaline Protease from Acetes chinensis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Jiachao; LIU Xin; LI Zhaojie; XU Jie; XUE Changhu; GAO Xin

    2005-01-01

    An alkaline protease from Acetes chinensis was purified and characterized in this study. The steps of purification include ammonium sulfate precipitation, ion-exchange chromatography with Q-sepharose Fast Flow, gel filtration chromatography with S300 and the second ion-exchange chromatography with Q-sepharose Fast Flow. The protease was isolated and purified, which was present and active on protein substrates (azocasein and casein). The specific protease activity was 17.15folds and the recovery was 4.67. The molecular weight of the protease was estimated at 23.2 kD by SDS-PAGE. With azocasein as the susbstrate, the optimal temperature was 55 ℃ and the optimal pH value was 5.5. Ion Ca2+ could enhance the proteolytic activity of the protease, while Cu2+ , EDTA and PMSF could inhibit its activity.

  20. Restoran Buenos Aires = Restaurant Buenos Aires

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2008-01-01

    Restorani Buenos Aires (Narva mnt. 5, Tallinn) sisekujundusest. Sisearhitektid: Janno Roos ja Andres Labi (Ruumilabor OÜ). Laudu eraldavad 400 vardasse aetud puukuuli. Sisearhitektidest, nende tähtsamad tööd. I-III korruse plaan, 12 värv. vaadet, fotod sisearhitektidest