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Sample records for air pouch model

  1. A mouse air pouch model for evaluating the immune response to Taenia crassiceps infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaspar, Emanuelle B; Sakai, Yuriko I; Gaspari, Elizabeth De

    2014-02-01

    The experimental system of Taenia crassiceps cysticerci infection in BALB/c mice is considered to be the most representative model of cysticercosis. In our work, mice were sacrificed 7 and 30days after infection, and pouch fluid was collected to determine the number of accumulated cells and the concentrations of IFNγ, IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10 and nitric oxide. The injection of 50 nonbudding cysticerci into normal mouse dorsal air pouches induced a high level of IFNγ and nitric oxide production relative to the parasite load. The air pouch provides a convenient cavity that allows studying the cellular immunological aspects of the T. crassiceps parasite. The nonbudding cysticerci recovered from the air pouches contained cells that can reconstitute complete cysts in the peritoneal cavity of mice. In conclusion, these results demonstrate that the air pouch model is an alternative tool for the evaluation of the immune characteristics of T. crassiceps infection. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. The effects of 5HT3 receptor antagonist granisetron on inflammatory parameters and angiogenesis in the air-pouch model of inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maleki-Dizaji, Nasrin; Eteraf-Oskouei, Tahereh; Fakhrjou, Ashraf; Maljaie, Seyyed Hadi; Garjani, Alireza

    2010-09-01

    The antagonists of 5HT(3) receptors have shown impressive efficacy in rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis or fibromyalgia. The mechanistic relationships between 5HT(3) receptors, angiogenesis and sequence of cytokine expression, and leukocyte recruitment during inflammation are not clear. We evaluate the effects of granisetron on inflammatory parameters and angiogenesis in rat air-pouch model. Male Wistar rats were anesthetized, and then 20 ml and 10 ml of sterile air were injected subcutaneously in the back on day 0 and day 3, respectively. On day 6, inflammation was induced by injection of 1 ml of carrageenan 1% into pouches. After 6 and 72 h, the rats were sacrificed; pouch fluid was collected in order to determine exudate volume, the number of accumulated cells and TNFalpha/PGE(2) concentration. Pouches were dissected out and weighed. Angiogenesis of granulomatous tissue was assayed using a hemoglobin kit. Leukocyte accumulation was dose-dependently inhibited by granisetron both at 6 and 72 h after induction of inflammation. All doses of granisetron decreased hemoglobin level in the whole granulation tissue in a bell-shaped manner. Vascular network formation was also inhibited by granisetron. Granisetron increased PGE(2) level at a lower dose (50 microg/pouch) but higher doses (100 and 200 microg/pouch) inhibited the release. At the same time, TNFalpha production was decreased by the lower dose and increased by higher doses of granisetron in a reciprocal fashion. Anti-inflammatory activities of 5HT(3) receptor antagonist, granisetron probably are mediated through modulation of TNFalpha/PGE(2) production and leukocyte infiltration. (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Carvedilol alleviates adjuvant-induced arthritis and subcutaneous air pouch edema: Modulation of oxidative stress and inflammatory mediators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arab, Hany H.; El-Sawalhi, Maha M.

    2013-01-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a systemic inflammatory disease with cardiovascular complications as the leading cause of morbidity. Carvedilol is an adrenergic antagonist which has been safely used in treatment of several cardiovascular disorders. Given that carvedilol has powerful antioxidant/anti-inflammatory properties, we aimed to investigate its protective potential against arthritis that may add further benefits for its clinical usefulness especially in RA patients with concomitant cardiovascular disorders. Two models were studied in the same rat; adjuvant arthritis and subcutaneous air pouch edema. Carvedilol (10 mg/kg/day p.o. for 21 days) effectively suppressed inflammation in both models with comparable efficacy to the standard anti-inflammatory diclofenac (5 mg/kg/day p.o.). Notably, carvedilol inhibited paw edema and abrogated the leukocyte invasion to air pouch exudates. The latter observation was confirmed by the histopathological assessment of the pouch lining that revealed mitigation of immuno-inflammatory cell influx. Carvedilol reduced/normalized oxidative stress markers (lipid peroxides, nitric oxide and protein thiols) and lowered the release of inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α and IL-6), and eicosanoids (PGE 2 and LTB 4 ) in sera and exudates of arthritic rats. Interestingly, carvedilol, per se, didn't present any effect on assessed biochemical parameters in normal rats. Together, the current study highlights evidences for the promising anti-arthritic effects of carvedilol that could be mediated through attenuation of leukocyte migration, alleviation of oxidative stress and suppression of proinflammatory cytokines and eicosanoids. - Highlights: ► Carvedilol possesses promising anti-arthritic properties. ► It markedly suppressed inflammation in adjuvant arthritis and air pouch edema. ► It abrogated the leukocyte invasion to air pouch exudates and linings. ► It reduced/normalized oxidative stress markers in sera and exudates of arthritic rats

  4. Carvedilol alleviates adjuvant-induced arthritis and subcutaneous air pouch edema: Modulation of oxidative stress and inflammatory mediators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arab, Hany H., E-mail: hany_h_arab@yahoo.com [Biochemistry Division, Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Taif University, Taif (Saudi Arabia); Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Cairo University, Cairo (Egypt); El-Sawalhi, Maha M. [Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Cairo University, Cairo (Egypt)

    2013-04-15

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a systemic inflammatory disease with cardiovascular complications as the leading cause of morbidity. Carvedilol is an adrenergic antagonist which has been safely used in treatment of several cardiovascular disorders. Given that carvedilol has powerful antioxidant/anti-inflammatory properties, we aimed to investigate its protective potential against arthritis that may add further benefits for its clinical usefulness especially in RA patients with concomitant cardiovascular disorders. Two models were studied in the same rat; adjuvant arthritis and subcutaneous air pouch edema. Carvedilol (10 mg/kg/day p.o. for 21 days) effectively suppressed inflammation in both models with comparable efficacy to the standard anti-inflammatory diclofenac (5 mg/kg/day p.o.). Notably, carvedilol inhibited paw edema and abrogated the leukocyte invasion to air pouch exudates. The latter observation was confirmed by the histopathological assessment of the pouch lining that revealed mitigation of immuno-inflammatory cell influx. Carvedilol reduced/normalized oxidative stress markers (lipid peroxides, nitric oxide and protein thiols) and lowered the release of inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α and IL-6), and eicosanoids (PGE{sub 2} and LTB{sub 4}) in sera and exudates of arthritic rats. Interestingly, carvedilol, per se, didn't present any effect on assessed biochemical parameters in normal rats. Together, the current study highlights evidences for the promising anti-arthritic effects of carvedilol that could be mediated through attenuation of leukocyte migration, alleviation of oxidative stress and suppression of proinflammatory cytokines and eicosanoids. - Highlights: ► Carvedilol possesses promising anti-arthritic properties. ► It markedly suppressed inflammation in adjuvant arthritis and air pouch edema. ► It abrogated the leukocyte invasion to air pouch exudates and linings. ► It reduced/normalized oxidative stress markers in sera and exudates of

  5. Ileoanal pouch function is related to postprandial pouch tone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steens, J.; Bemelman, W. A.; Meijerink, W. J.; Griffioen, G.; van Hogezand, R. A.; Masclee, A. A.

    2001-01-01

    Functional impairments are frequently observed in patients with an ileoanal pouch. Meal ingestion increases pouch tone and motility. Little is known, however, about the influence of meal-stimulated pouch characteristics on pouch function. The aim was to characterize basal and postprandial pouch

  6. The LPS-induced neutrophil recruitment into rat air pouches is mediated by TNFα: likely macrophage origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C-D. Arreto

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available The role of resident cells during the lipopolysaccharide (LPS-induced neutrophil recruitment into rat air pouches was investigated. In this model, LPS (Escherichia coli, O55: B5 strain; 2–2000 ng induced a dose– and time-dependent neutrophil recruitment accompanied by the generation of a tumour necrosis factor-α (TNFα-like activity. Dexamethasone (0.05–5 mug and cycloheximide (6 ng, injected 2 h before LPS into the pouches, inhibited the neutrophil recruitment and the generation of the TNFα-like activity, while the H1-receptor antagonist mepyramine (1 and 4 mg/kg, i.p., 0.5 h before LPS and the PAF-receptor antagonist WEB 2170 (0.05 and 1 mg/kg, i.p., 0.5 h before LPS had no effect. Purified alveolar macrophages (AM were used to replenish the pouches of cycloheximide-treated recipient rats. AM provided by PBS-treated animals led to the recovery of the LPS-induced neutrophil recruitment and of the TNFα-like formation contrasting with those from cycloheximide-treated animals (1 mg/kg, i.p.. When delivered in situ, liposome-encapsulated clodronate, a macrophage depletor, significantly impaired both the LPSinduced neutrophil recruitment and the TNFα-like activity. An anti-murine TNFα polyclonal antibody (0.5 h before LPS was also effective. These results emphasize the pivotal role of macrophages for LPS-induced neutrophil recruitment via the formation of TNFα.

  7. Pouch failures following ileal pouch-anal anastomosis for ulcerative colitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mark-Christensen, A; Erichsen, R; Brandsborg, S

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The ileal pouch-anal anastomosis is a procedure offered to patients with ulcerative colitis who opt for restoration of bowel continuity. The aim of this study was to determine the risk of pouch failure and ascertain risk factors associated with failure. METHOD: 1,991 patients with ulc......BACKGROUND: The ileal pouch-anal anastomosis is a procedure offered to patients with ulcerative colitis who opt for restoration of bowel continuity. The aim of this study was to determine the risk of pouch failure and ascertain risk factors associated with failure. METHOD: 1,991 patients......-anal anastomosis from Denmark, where pouch surgery is centralized, females had a higher risk of pouch failure. Of modifiable factors, low hospital volume and non-diversion were associated with a higher risk of pouch failure. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved....

  8. The role of pouch compliance measurement in the management of pouch dysfunction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maeda, Yasuko; Molina, María Elena; Norton, Christine

    2010-01-01

    PURPOSE: Ileal pouch anal anastomosis is an established option for patients who require total proctocolectomy and restoration of bowel continuity. However, the functional results are not always good and low pouch compliance has been suggested as one possible cause. We aimed to review the results...... of pouch compliance tests over 11 years to assess whether measuring pouch compliance is a useful diagnostic tool to guide management of pouch dysfunction. METHODS: The results of pouch compliance tests performed between 1996 and 2007 together with the details of symptoms, treatments and outcome were...... reviewed. RESULTS: One hundred and forty-one pouch compliance tests were performed. There was no difference in pouch compliance between those with overt pathology (pouchitis, pelvic sepsis or anastomotic stricture) and those with idiopathic pouch dysfunction. In this second group, there was no difference...

  9. The role of pouch compliance measurement in the management of pouch dysfunction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maeda, Yasuko; Molina, Maria E; Norton, Christine

    2010-01-01

    in pouch compliance between patients with and without each of the symptoms of increased defaecatory frequency, incontinence and evacuation difficulties. The results of the compliance testing did not influence the clinical decision making on idiopathic pouch dysfunction (p=0.77) nor diverted pouches (p=0...

  10. Changing your ostomy pouch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostomy - pouch change; Colostomy - pouch change ... of surgery you had. You may need your ostomy for just a short time. Or, you may ... it for the rest of your life. The ostomy pouch attaches to your belly, away from your ...

  11. Establishment of a tumor neovascularization animal model with biomaterials in rabbit corneal pouch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Yu-Ping; Li, Hong-Chuan; Ma, Ling; Xia, Yang

    2018-06-01

    The present animal model of tumor neovascularization most often used by researchers is zebrafish. For studies on human breast cancer cell neovascularization, a new animal model was established to enable a more convenient study of tumor neovascularization. A sodium alginate-gelatin blend gel system was used to design the new animal model. The model was established using rabbit corneal pouch implantation. Then, the animal model was validated by human breast cancer cell lines MCF-7-Kindlin-2 and MCF-7-CMV. The experiment intuitively observed the relationship between tumor and neovascularization, and demonstrated the advantages of this animal model in the study of tumor neovascularization. The use of sodium alginate-gelatin blends to establish tumor neovascularization in a rabbit corneal pouch is a novel and ideal method for the study of neovascularization. It may be a better animal model for expanding the research in this area. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Boron neutron capture therapy for the treatment of oral cancer in the hamster cheek pouch model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kreimann, Erica L.; Itoiz, Maria E.; Schwint, Amanda E.; Longhino, Juan; Blaumann, Herman; Calzetta, Osvaldo

    2003-01-01

    We have proposed and validated the hamster cheek pouch model of oral cancer for BNCT studies separately. We herein report the first evidence of the usefulness of BNCT for the treatment of oral cancer in an experimental model. We assessed the response of hamster cheek pouch tumors, precancerous tissue and normal oral tissue to BPA-mediated BNCT employing the thermalized epithermal beam of the RA-6 Reactor at the Bariloche Atomic Center. BNCT leads to complete remission by 15 days post-treatment in 78% of tumors and partial remission in a further 13% of tumors with virtually no damage to normal tissue. (author)

  13. Failed pelvic pouch substituted by continent ileostomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasmuth, H H; Tranø, G; Wibe, A; Endreseth, B H; Rydning, A; Myrvold, H E

    2010-07-01

    The long-term failure rate of ileal pouch-anal anastomosis (IPAA) is 10-15%. When salvage surgery is unsuccessful, most surgeons prefer pouch excision with conventional ileostomy, thus sacrificing 40-50 cm of ileum. Conversion of a pelvic pouch to a continent ileostomy (CI, Kock pouch) is an alternative that preserves both the ileal surface and pouch properties. The aim of the study was to evaluate clinical outcome after the construction of a CI following a failed IPAA. During 1984-2007, 317 patients were operated with IPAA at St Olavs Hospital and evaluated for failure, treatment and outcome. Seven patients with IPAA failure had CI. Four patients with IPAA failure referred from other hospitals underwent conversion to CI and are included in the final analysis. Seven patients had a CI constructed from the transposing pelvic pouch and four had the pelvic pouch removed and a new continent pouch constructed from the distal ileum. Median follow up after conversion to CI was 7 years (0-17 years). Two CI had to be removed due to fistulae. One patient needed a revision of the nipple valve due to pouch loosening. At the end of follow-up, 8 of the 11 patients were fully continent. One patient with Crohn's disease had minor leakage. In patients with pelvic pouch failure, the possibility of conversion to CI should be presented to the patient as an alternative to pouch excision and permanent ileostomy. The advantage is the continence and possibly a better body image. Construction of a CI on a new ileal segment may be considered, but the consequences of additional small bowel loss and risk of malnutrition if the Kock pouch fails should be appraised.

  14. Autoradiographic images in the hamster cheek pouch oral cancer model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Portu, A.; Molinari, A.J.; Schwint, A.; Saint Martin, G.; Thorp, S.; Pozzi, E.C.C.; Curotto, P.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this work is to summarize the autoradiographic study performed to samples from different protocols of the hamster cheek pouch oral cancer model. The qualitative analysis of histological and autoradiographic images, together with the determination of the boron concentration in the different structures of tumor, premalignant tissue and normal tissue contributed to the knowledge of the microdistribution of boron compounds. Besides, the study led to the optimization of the autoradiography technique applied to BNCT (Boron Neutron Capture Therapy). (author)

  15. Congenital pouch colon syndrome: A report of 17 cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhat, Nisar Ahmad

    2007-01-01

    Congenital pouch syndrome (CPC) is rare condition seen in an association with anorectal malformation that occurs almost exclusively in northern India. We viewed cases seen in our institution to study aspects of clinical presentation, diagnosis, embryogeneis, and management and raise awareness of this relatively frequent entity. From March 2002 to September 2004, 17 neonates/infants (11 males and 6 females) treated for CPC associated with anorectal malformations included 13 with type IV and 4 with type I CPC. Diagnosis was made by a single large air-fluid level on the infantogram occupying more than 50% of the entire abdominal dimension. In all patients, the pouch had fistulous communication with the genitourinary system, and there were other associated anomalies as well. Of 13 patients with pouch colon type IV, 11 neonates underwent laparotomy, ligation of the fistula, excision of the colonic pouch and end colostomy as a stage I procedure. Subsequently, these patients underwent definitive surgery, i.e. abdominal posterior sagittal anorectoplasty (AP-PSARP), with or without covering colostomy. Two of the 4 patients with type I CPC underwent laparotomy, ligation of the fistula and colorrhaphy as a first-stage operation before AP-PSARP. In our series, 4 patients were diagnosed intraoperatively and were treated in accordance with their operative findings. Post-operatively, there were no major complications except wound infection in some patients. There was one death that was not related to surgery. There are variants of the anomaly, but the possibility of CPC needs to be kept in mind as a possible association with anorectal malformations. (author)

  16. Lesions of the Pouch of Douglas: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heller, Debra S

    2016-01-01

    The pouch of Douglas may become occupied by a variety of mass-like lesions, which may be challenging to providers who treat women. These lesions may initially be thought to arise from the uterus or adnexa. We conducted a literature review using a Medline search of the terms "Douglas' pouch," "pouch of Douglas," "cul-de-sac," and "rectouterine pouch." A review of the scope of pouch of Douglas lesions is presented to assist in developing a differential diagnosis if a patient with such a lesion is encountered. Copyright © 2016 AAGL. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Congenital pouch colon in female subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarin Y

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Over a period of 5-year (May 2000 to April 2005 29 patients of congenital pouch colon (CPC were managed by single pediatric surgeon in the Department of Pediatric Surgery of a tertiary hospital. Of these, 11 were girls (M: F: 1.6:1. Detailed anatomy could be studied in nine patients, were included in this study. Age of presentation in female subjects ranged 1 day to 8 years. On examination, eight of the nine patients had single perineal opening suggesting a very high incidence of association of cloaca in female subjects with CPC. Four had short urogenital sinus with colonic pouch opening in the posterior wall of urinary bladder. In other two patients, CPC terminated in short cloaca. Anomalies of mullerian structures such as uterus didelphus and septate vagina ware commonly encountered. Proximal diversion with or without pouch excision was done as the initial preliminary treatment for all those patients who presented in early life. Of the nine girls, two died after the preliminary surgery. Only five patients have undergone definitive surgery. Definitive surgery included abdomino-perineal pull-through of proximal normal colon ( n =2, tubularization of pouch with abdomino- posterior sagittal- pull through ( n =2 and abdomino-posterior sagittal urethra-vaginoanorectoplasty with pull through of tapered pouch colon in one patient. Two of these patients had concomitant bowel vaginoplasty. Three patients with tubularized pouches had constipation and spurious diarrhea. However, good pseudo-continence of bowel was achieved on regular bowel washes. The cosmetic appearance of perineum in all these three patients was acceptable. The patients in whom pouch excision was done had diarrhea and severe perineal excoriation resistant to conservative management.

  18. Label-free vascular imaging in a spontaneous hamster cheek pouch carcinogen model for pre-cancer detection (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Fangyao; Morhard, Robert; Liu, Heather; Murphy, Helen; Farsiu, Sina; Ramanujam, Nimmi

    2016-03-01

    Inducing angiogenesis is one hallmark of cancer. Tumor induced neovasculature is often characterized as leaky, tortuous and chaotic, unlike a highly organized normal vasculature. Additionally, in the course of carcinogenesis, angiogenesis precedes a visible lesion. Tumor cannot grow beyond 1-2 mm in diameter without inducing angiogenesis. Therefore, capturing the event of angiogenesis may aid early detection of pre-cancer -important for better treatment prognoses in regions that lack the resources to manage invasive cancer. In this study, we imaged the neovascularization in vivo in a spontaneous hamster cheek pouch carcinogen model using a, non-invasive, label-free, high resolution, reflected-light spectral darkfield microscope. Hamsters' cheek pouches were painted with 7,12-Dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA) to induce pre-cancerous to cancerous changes, or mineral oil as control. High resolution spectral darkfield images were obtained over the course of pre-cancer development and in control cheek pouches. The vasculature was segmented with a multi-scale Gabor filter with an 85% accuracy compared with manually traced masks. Highly tortuous vasculature was observed only in the DMBA treated cheek pouches as early as 6 weeks of treatment. In addition, the highly tortuous vessels could be identified before a visible lesion occurred later during the treatment. The vessel patterns as determined by the tortuosity index were significantly different from that of the control cheek pouch. This preliminary study suggests that high-resolution darkfield microscopy is promising tool for pre-cancer and early cancer detection in low resource settings.

  19. Modeling Lithium Ion Battery Safety: Venting of Pouch Cells; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santhanagopalan, Shriram.; Yang, Chuanbo.; Pesaran, Ahmad

    2013-07-01

    This report documents the successful completion of the NREL July milestone entitled “Modeling Lithium-Ion Battery Safety - Complete Case-Studies on Pouch Cell Venting,” as part of the 2013 Vehicle Technologies Annual Operating Plan with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). This work aims to bridge the gap between materials modeling, usually carried out at the sub-continuum scale, and the

  20. Differences in Ostomy Pouch Seal Leakage Occurrences Between North American and European Residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fellows, Jane; Forest Lalande, Louise; Martins, Lina; Steen, Anne; Størling, Zenia M

    The purpose of this study was to compare experiences and concerns about pouch seal leakage between persons with ostomies residing in North America (Canada and the United States) and Europe (United Kingdom, Netherlands, Sweden, Germany, Belgium, France, and Italy). Differences in reported pouch wear time and accessories used between the 2 groups were also examined. Secondary analysis of data from a cross-sectional study (Ostomy Life Study). Responses from persons residing in European countries (n = 1939) were compared with responses of 1387 individuals residing in North American countries. Persons with an ostomy completed a questionnaire that focused on 4 topics related to the daily use of an ostomy pouching system (pouch seal leakage, ballooning, appearance of pouching system such as color and size of the pouch and whether it is discrete under clothing, and coupling failure of 2-piece pouching systems). Pouch seal leakage was defined as stomal effluent seeping between the skin and the wafer of the ostomy pouching system. Statistical analysis was performed using a proportional odds model including various variable effects. Special attention was given to frequency of pouch seal leakage occurrences. All tests were 2-sided; P values ≤.05 were deemed statistically significant. Participants living in the North American countries indicated they were more likely to experience leakage from the ostomy (odds ratio = 2.610, 95% CI 2.187-3.115; P < .0001). Findings also indicated they were more likely to worry about pouch seal leakage than those in the European countries' data set (odds ratio = 2.722, 95% CI 2.283-3.246; P < .0001). Participants residing in the North American countries had significantly longer wear times than those participants in the European countries (P < .0001, χ test). The use of accessories was associated with a longer pouching system wear time. Study results suggest that participants from the North American countries indicated significantly more

  1. 21 CFR 876.5900 - Ostomy pouch and accessories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ostomy pouch and accessories. 876.5900 Section 876...) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5900 Ostomy pouch and accessories. (a) Identification. An ostomy pouch and accessories is a device that consists of a bag that is...

  2. Myeloid Heme Oxygenase-1 Regulates the Acute Inflammatory Response to Zymosan in the Mouse Air Pouch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Brines

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1 is induced by many stimuli to modulate the activation and function of different cell types during innate immune responses. Although HO-1 has shown anti-inflammatory effects in different systems, there are few data on the contribution of myeloid HO-1 and its role in inflammatory processes is not well understood. To address this point, we have used HO-1M-KO mice with myeloid-restricted deletion of HO-1 to specifically investigate its influence on the acute inflammatory response to zymosan in vivo. In the mouse air pouch model, we have shown an exacerbated inflammation in HO-1M-KO mice with increased neutrophil infiltration accompanied by high levels of inflammatory mediators such as interleukin-1β, tumor necrosis factor-α, and prostaglandin E2. The expression of the degradative enzyme matrix metalloproteinase-3 (MMP-3 was also enhanced. In addition, we observed higher levels of serum MMP-3 in HO-1M-KO mice compared with control mice, suggesting the presence of systemic inflammation. Altogether, these findings demonstrate that myeloid HO-1 plays an anti-inflammatory role in the acute response to zymosan in vivo and suggest the interest of this target to regulate inflammatory processes.

  3. Causes and consequences of anterior pharyngeal pouch after total laryngectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, S; Hogan, D; Panizza, B

    2014-07-01

    To assess the frequency of anterior pharyngeal pouch formation after total laryngectomy, and to discuss the causes and consequences of anterior pharyngeal pouch formation. A prospective, observational study of 43 patients undergoing total laryngectomy. Data collected included laryngeal defect closure type, tumour staging and demographic information. A barium swallow was performed on day 7-14 after surgery to assess for anterior pharyngeal pouch formation and fistula formation. The incidence of anterior pharyngeal pouch formation was 47 per cent. Patients who did not have an anterior pharyngeal pouch on swallow imaging assessment were less likely to develop a pharyngo-cutaneous fistula. There was no statistically significant association between laryngeal defect closure type and anterior pharyngeal pouch formation. The anterior pharyngeal pouch is a dynamic phenomenon best investigated with a fluoroscopic swallow imaging study. Its causes are multi-factorial. Absence of an anterior pharyngeal pouch appears to confer protection against pharyngo-cutaneous fistula formation, hastening commencement of adjuvant therapy and an oral diet.

  4. Seahorse Brood Pouch Transcriptome Reveals Common Genes Associated with Vertebrate Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittington, Camilla M; Griffith, Oliver W; Qi, Weihong; Thompson, Michael B; Wilson, Anthony B

    2015-12-01

    Viviparity (live birth) has evolved more than 150 times in vertebrates, and represents an excellent model system for studying the evolution of complex traits. There are at least 23 independent origins of viviparity in fishes, with syngnathid fishes (seahorses and pipefish) unique in exhibiting male pregnancy. Male seahorses and pipefish have evolved specialized brooding pouches that provide protection, gas exchange, osmoregulation, and limited nutrient provisioning to developing embryos. Pouch structures differ widely across the Syngnathidae, offering an ideal opportunity to study the evolution of reproductive complexity. However, the physiological and genetic changes facilitating male pregnancy are largely unknown. We used transcriptome profiling to examine pouch gene expression at successive gestational stages in a syngnathid with the most complex brood pouch morphology, the seahorse Hippocampus abdominalis. Using a unique time-calibrated RNA-seq data set including brood pouch at key stages of embryonic development, we identified transcriptional changes associated with brood pouch remodeling, nutrient and waste transport, gas exchange, osmoregulation, and immunological protection of developing embryos at conception, development and parturition. Key seahorse transcripts share homology with genes of reproductive function in pregnant mammals, reptiles, and other live-bearing fish, suggesting a common toolkit of genes regulating pregnancy in divergent evolutionary lineages. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Colon pouch (Mainz III) for continent urinary diversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolzenburg, Jens-Uwe; Schwalenberg, Thilo; Liatsikos, Evangelos N; Sakelaropoulos, George; Rödder, Kilian; Hohenfellner, Rudolph; Fisch, Margit

    2007-06-01

    To evaluate the use of a continent cutaneous pouch made exclusively of colon (Mainz pouch III), as excellent results with the Mainz pouch III in irradiated patients suggested that the indication for this type of urinary diversion could be extended. The outcome of 24 patients with continent cutaneous urinary diversions using colon segments (Mainz pouch III) was investigated retrospectively. Overall, 22 of the patients had a malignant disease and two a benign disease; 16 had a hysterectomy and pelvic exenteration for gynaecological tumours; two men with a rhabdomyosarcoma of the prostate had a radical cystoprostatectomy; one woman had pelvic exenteration for bladder cancer; one man had a simultaneous rectum resection due to infiltrating rectal cancer, and another a left nephrectomy with cystectomy for concomitant kidney and bladder tumour. Benign indications were hyper-reflexive bladder after polytrauma and two cases of neurogenic bladder dysfunction. Eighteen patients had radiotherapy (32-48 Gy) before the urinary diversion. The mean (range) follow-up was 35 (12-65) months. The mean pouch capacity was 293.8 mL. Three patients died during the follow-up (two from disease progression and one suicide); 20 patients were fully continent, four with reduced pouch capacity (<300 mL) had slight incontinence and are wearing a protective pad (band-aid at the umbilicus). All patients use intermittent self-catheterization (mean catheterization frequency 6.8/day, range 6-12). Complications related to the pouch were one outlet stenosis that required revision. Postoperative pouchograms showed asymptomatic reflux in four patients. None of the patients developed metabolic acidosis or diarrhoea. The Mainz pouch III is an alternative to other types of continent urinary diversion.

  6. Psychological impact of colostomy pouch change and disposal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenzie, Frances; White, Craig A; Kendall, Sally; Finlayson, Aileen; Urquhart, Mary; Williams, Isabel

    This article presents some of the findings from a multicentre cross-sectional correlational study to evaluate the relationship between colostomy pouch change and disposal practices and the patient's psychological wellbeing. Five questionnaires were used in a one-off interview with 86 patients. Patients were assessed at between one and four months postoperatively. Results from the Pouch Change and Disposal questionnaire showed that only 25% of patients found disposal of used appliances the most difficult part of their pouch change and disposal routine. Half felt that their body was out of their control and 33% reported avoiding social and leisure activities due to what was involved in their pouch change and disposal routine. Patients cited several factors, such as minimizing odour and having an appliance that could flush away, as factors which would help them to stop avoiding these activities. Stoma care nurses have a unique opportunity to improve the psychological wellbeing of their patients by considering the aspects of pouch change and disposal that pose the greatest challenge to individuals. Use of a modified version of the Pouch Change and Disposal questionnaire may be a useful tool in identifying those at risk of impaired quality of life.

  7. Congenital pouch colon: Increasing association with low anorectal anomalies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavai Arunachalam

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Three cases of type IV congenital pouch colon associated with low anorectal anomaly are reported here. Pouch colon may be a cause of intractable constipation in children operated for low anorectal anomaly. Excellent results can be obtained by exicision of the pouch. The radiological and pathological features of this condition are discussed.

  8. Biodistribution study with combined administration of BPA and BSH for BNCT in the hamster cheek pouch oral cancer model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garabalino, M A; Heber, E M; Monti Hughes, A; Pzzi, E C C; Molinari, A J; Niggg, D W; Bauer, W; Trivillin, V A; Schwint, A E

    2012-01-01

    We previously proved the therapeutic potential of the chemically non-selective boron compound decahydrodecaborate (GB-10) as a stand-alone boron carrier for BNCT in the hamster cheek pouch oral cancer model with no toxic effects in normal or precancerous tissue. Although GB-10 is not taken up selectively by oral tumor tissue, selective tumor lethality would result from selective aberrant tumor blood vessel damage. Furthermore, BNCT efficacy was enhanced when GB-10 and boronophenylalanine (BPA) were administered jointly. The fact that sodium mercaptoundecahydro-closo-dodecaborate (BSH) is being investigated clinically as a stand-alone boron agent for BNCT of brain tumors and in combination with BPA for recurrent head and neck malignancies makes it a particularly interesting boron compound to explore. Based on the working hypothesis that BSH would conceivably behave similarly to GB-10 in oral cancer, we previously performed biodistribution studies with BSH alone in the hamster cheek pouch oral cancer model. The aim of the present study was to perform biodistribution studies of BSH + BPA administered jointly in the hamster cheek pouch oral cancer model as a starting point to contribute to the knowledge of (BSH+BPA)-BNCT radiobiology and optimize therapeutic efficacy. The right cheek pouch of Syrian hamsters was subjected to topical administration of a carcinogen twice a week for 12 weeks. Once the exophytic tumors, i.e. squamous cell carcinomas, had developed, the animals were used for biodistribution studies with BSH + BPA. Three administration protocols with different proportions of each of the compounds were assessed: 1. BSH, 50 mg 10 B/kg, iv + BPA, 15.5 mg 10 B/kg, ip; 2. BSH, 34.5 mg 10 B/kg, iv + BPA, 31 mg 10 B/kg, ip; 3. BSH, 20 mg 10 B/kg, iv + BPA, 46.5 mg 10 B/kg, ip. Groups of animals were euthanized 4 h after the administration of BSH and 3 h after the administration of BPA. Samples of blood, tumor, precancerous and normal pouch and other tissues with

  9. Sulphomucin expression in ileal pouches: emerging differences between ulcerative colitis and familial adenomatous polyposis pouches.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Bambury, Niamh

    2012-02-03

    PURPOSE: We characterized the expression of sialomucin and sulphomucin in pouches fashioned for familial adenomatous polyposis and ulcerative colitis. We correlated sulphomucin expression with bacterial colonization and mucosal inflammation. METHODS: Ethical approval and informed consent were obtained. Mucosal biopsies from 9 patients with familial adenomatous polyposis and 12 with ulcerative colitis were obtained. Sulphomucin levels were assessed by using the high iron-diamine stain. Mucous gel layer composition was correlated with villous height, crypt depth, and total mucosal thickness. Mucous gel layer composition was correlated with acute and chronic inflammatory infiltrates. Colonization by a panel of seven bacterial species (including sulphate reducing bacteria) was established and correlated with sulphomucin levels. RESULTS: High-iron-diamine positivity (i.e., sulphomucin expression) was greater in ulcerative colitis pouch mucous gel (2.083 +\\/- 0.5 vs. 0.556 +\\/- 0.4, P = 0.003). Sulphomucin expression correlated with reduced crypt depth, villous height, and total mucosal thickness. In the ulcerative colitis group, chronic inflammatory infiltrate scores were significantly greater for high-iron-diamine-positive patients. Colonization by sulphate reducing bacteria was increased in high-iron-diamine-positive patients. CONCLUSIONS: Sulphomucin expression is increased in the mucous gel layer of the ulcerative colitis pouch compared with that of the familial adenomatous polyposis pouch. Sulphomucin expression is associated with colonization by sulphate-reducing bacteria and increased chronic inflammation.

  10. Food intake in relation to pouch volume, stoma diameter, and pouch emptying after gastroplasty for morbid obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, T; Pedersen, B H; Henriksen, Jens Henrik Sahl

    1988-01-01

    associated with the change of solid foods consumed (by weight, p = 0.01; by energy content, p = 0.02). The change of pouch volume was negatively associated with the change of energy from beverages (p = 0.005). In conclusion, it seems impossible to tailor the reduction of food intake through adjustments...... of the surgical dimensions, at least within the ranges of our observations. Increased food consumption and decreased energy intake with beverages may be caused by late dilations, or vice versa.......This study investigated possible determinants of food intake change after gastroplastry. Preoperatively and 6 and 12 months postoperatively, 27 morbidly obese patients were prospectively examined with 7-day food registration and radiologic measurement of pouch volume and stoma diameter. Pouch...

  11. Pouch dilatation following laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding: psychobehavioral factors (can psychiatrists predict pouch dilatation?).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poole, Norman; Al Atar, Ashraf; Bidlake, Louise; Fienness, Alberic; McCluskey, Sara; Nussey, S; Bano, Gal; Morgan, John

    2004-01-01

    Laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding is increasingly being performed in morbidly obese individuals for weight loss. Some patients develop pouch dilatation as a postoperative complication that limits the utility of the procedure. Surgical variables are poor predictors of this complication. 5 patients from a series of 157 who underwent LAGB at a single center developed the condition. Psychiatric and surgical case-notes were analyzed retrospectively for the presence of operationally defined psychiatric disorders and compared to 10 controls from the same population. Cases were significantly more likely to have past or current binge eating, emotionally triggered eating with reduced awareness of the link, a history of affective disorder, reduced sexual functioning and successful preoperative weight loss. No difference between groups was observed for compliance with orlistat, childhood sexual abuse, relationships with parents, history of bulimia nervosa, rate of band inflation or preoperative BMI. Psychological factors may be better predictors of pouch dilatation than biomedical variables. Disordered eating can be an attempt to modulate negative emotions. Pouch dilatation may be a consequence of this eating behavior.

  12. Alkaline and non-aqueous proton-conducting pouch-cell batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Kwo-hsiung; Nei, Jean; Meng, Tiejun

    2018-01-02

    Provided are sealed pouch-cell batteries that are alkaline batteries or non-aqueous proton-conducing batteries. A pouch cell includes a flexible housing such as is used for pouch cell construction where the housing is in the form of a pouch, a cathode comprising a cathode active material suitable for use in an alkaline battery, an anode comprising an anode active material suitable for use in an alkaline battery, an electrolyte that is optionally an alkaline or proton-conducting electrolyte, and wherein the pouch does not include or require a safety vent or other gas absorbing or releasing system as the anode active material and the cathode active material do not increase the internal atmospheric pressure any more than 2 psig during cycling. The batteries provided function contrary to the art recognized belief that such battery systems were impossible due to unacceptable gas production during cycling.

  13. Tuberculosis Detection by Giant African Pouched Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poling, Alan; Weetjens, Bart; Cox, Christophe; Beyene, Negussie; Durgin, Amy; Mahoney, Amanda

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, operant discrimination training procedures have been used to teach giant African pouched rats to detect tuberculosis (TB) in human sputum samples. This article summarizes how the rats are trained and used operationally, as well as their performance in studies published to date. Available data suggest that pouched rats, which can…

  14. Microbiology of third and fourth branchial pouch cysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pahlavan, Shane; Haque, Waqar; Pereira, Kevin; Larrier, Deidre; Valdez, Tulio A

    2010-03-01

    To identify the most common pathogens involved in infections of third and fourth branchial pouch cysts. Third and fourth branchial pouch cyst infections are an uncommon cause of anterior neck abscesses often confused with other entities, such as thyroglossal duct cysts and thyroid abscesses leading to misdiagnosis, recurrence, and increased morbidity related to a delay in diagnosis and appropriate treatment. Retrospective chart and literature review. Retrospective chart review case series of patients presenting to the Bobby R. Alford Department of Otolaryngology at Texas Children's Hospital from July 2004 to July 2008 with third and fourth branchial pouch cysts. A total of 11 patients were identified. All patients had left-sided lesions. Eikenella corrodens was found in 60% of cultures and was the most common organism identified in our patient group. Furthermore, 56% of the organisms isolated were anaerobic. All organisms with the exception of Staphylococcus aureus were identified as oral cavity flora. Third and fourth branchial pouch cysts provide a communication between the neck and the oral cavity through pyriform sinus tracts. The presence of oral cavity flora in a left anterior neck abscess should raise the suspicion of a branchial pouch anomaly, and subsequently alter therapeutic management.

  15. Pouch emptying of solid foods after gastroplasty for morbid obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, T; Pedersen, B H; Henriksen, Jens Henrik Sahl

    1985-01-01

    To obtain information on possible determinants of weight loss after horizontal gastroplasty, pouch emptying was prospectively investigated in 27 morbidly obese patients. A scintigraphic method was used. Examinations were carried out every 6 months until 2 years after surgery. Pouch emptying...... was described by means of delay, time until half emptying, mean transit time, and emptying rate. The measures all showed a significant (p less than 0.05) acceleration of pouch emptying during the first 6 months after gastroplasty. Thereafter pouch emptying was unaltered. No significant association could...

  16. Morphology of brood pouch formation in the pot-bellied seahorse Hippocampus abdominalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawaguchi, Mari; Okubo, Ryohei; Harada, Akari; Miyasaka, Kazuki; Takada, Kensuke; Hiroi, Junya; Yasumasu, Shigeki

    2017-01-01

    The reproductive strategies of vertebrates are diverse. Seahorses (Pisces: Syngnathidae) possess the unique characteristic of male pregnancy; i.e., males, not females, incubate embryos in a specialized structure called a 'brood pouch'. The brood pouch is formed along the ventral midline of the tail. The lumen of the brood pouch is surrounded by loose connective tissue, called pseudoplacenta, and dermis. We visualized and evaluated the morphology of brood pouch formation in Hippocampus abdominalis to gain generalizable insights into this process in seahorses. First, we employed several staining methods to characterize the pseudoplacenta and dermis of the brood pouch of mature male seahorses. The pseudoplacenta is composed mainly of reticular fibers, while the dermis is composed mainly of collagenous fibers. Further observations showed that pouch formation is initiated by linear projections of epithelia on both ventrolateral sides of the body. These projections elongated toward the ventral midline, eventually fused together, and then formed a baggy structure composed of a single dermis layer with neither smooth muscle nor pseudoplacenta. Finally, the pseudoplacenta was formed, together with two layers of dermis and smooth muscle. Thus, a fully developed brood pouch was established. The morphology of the luminal epithelium also changed during pouch formation. We analyzed the localization of C-type lectins as markers; haCTL II was localized in both the outer and luminal epithelia of the brood pouch throughout development in the male seahorse, whereas haCTL IV, which was not detected in the early stage of seahorse development, became localized only in the luminal epithelium as development proceeded. We categorized the processes of brood pouch formation during male seahorse development into three stages: (1) the early stage, characterized by formation of a baggy structure from the primordium; (2) the middle stage, characterized by the differentiation and establishment of

  17. HDL inhibit cytokine production in a mouse model of urate crystal-induced inflammation

    OpenAIRE

    L. Punzi; D. Burger; J.M Dayer; P. Sfriso; R. Luisetto; F. Oliviero; A. Scanu

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate whether high density lipoproteins (HDL) affect monosodium urate (MSU) crystal-induced inflammation in the murine air pouch model. Methods: MSU crystals were prepared by Denko’s method and sterilized by heating at 180°C for 2 h before each experiment. Human HDL were isolated from peripheral blood of healthy volunteers. MSU crystals (2 mg in 1 ml of PBS) were injected into subcutaneous air pouches in mice in the presence or absence of HDL (0.1 mg). Negative control pouch...

  18. Food intake in relation to pouch volume, stoma diameter, and pouch emptying after gastroplasty for morbid obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, T; Pedersen, B H; Henriksen, Jens Henrik Sahl

    1988-01-01

    This study investigated possible determinants of food intake change after gastroplastry. Preoperatively and 6 and 12 months postoperatively, 27 morbidly obese patients were prospectively examined with 7-day food registration and radiologic measurement of pouch volume and stoma diameter. Pouch...... associated with the change of solid foods consumed (by weight, p = 0.01; by energy content, p = 0.02). The change of pouch volume was negatively associated with the change of energy from beverages (p = 0.005). In conclusion, it seems impossible to tailor the reduction of food intake through adjustments...... emptying was determined as the mean transit time by a scintigraphic method. None of the measured variables was found to influence the change in food intake taking place during the first 6 months, when most of the weight loss was observed. Between 6 and 12 months, the change of stoma diameter was positively...

  19. How I do it: the stapled ileal J pouch at restorative proctocolectomy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Martin, S T

    2011-12-01

    Ileal pouch-anal anastomosis (IPAA) following proctocolectomy is the preferred option for patients with medically refractory ulcerative colitis, indeterminate colitis, and familial adenomatous polyposis. However, it remains a procedure associated with morbidity and mortality. Pelvic sepsis, pouch fistulae, and anastomotic dehiscence predispose to pouch failure. We report our experience with an adaptation for the formation of the stapled ileal J pouch using the GIA™ 100 stapling device (Covidien, Mansfield, Massachusetts, USA). When creating the J pouch, we remove the bevelled plastic protector from the thin fork of the stapling device, allowing the staple line to be completed to the tip of the stapled efferent limb of the pouch, thereby minimizing potential blind ending in the efferent limb and injury to the transverse staple line.

  20. Subarachnoid pouches of the posterior fossa with syringomyelia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, B [Midland Centre for Neurosurgery and Neurology, Smethwick (UK)

    1979-01-01

    Three men are presented, all of whom were born with difficulty and later developed severe syringomyelia with collapsing cords on air myelography. Each had hydrocephalus and a sizable subarachnoid pouch in the posterior fossa. The clinical features and investigations are presented with a discussion of the aetiology and possible mechanisms concerned in pathogenesis and treatment. All three men had posterior fossa exploration over fifty years after birth, and the first two were also treated by valved ventriculo-atrial shunts. Each patient has improved a little since operation, but no certainly that this was due to surgery has been proved in any case; none has progressed since the last operation.

  1. Prune belly syndrome with pouch colon with scaphoid megalourethra

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We here report a rare association of megalourethra with pouch colon with prune belly syndrome. We also provide a newer embryological and prognostic perspective to this association. Keywords: megalourethra, prune belly syndrome pouch colon, scaphoid ...

  2. Breath hydrogen analysis in patients with ileoanal pouch anastomosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, E; Meyer, J N; Rumessen, J J

    1995-01-01

    The possible influence on functional outcomes of hydrogen production in the ileoanal pouch after restorative proctocolectomy was investigated by means of lactulose H2 breath tests. Eight of 15 patients had significant increases in breath hydrogen after 10 g lactulose. One patient declined...... to participate in further investigations, the remaining seven responders had no evidence of small bowel bacterial overgrowth after glucose H2 breath tests. The ability to produce hydrogen by anaerobic fermentation of lactulose in the pouch was unrelated to the age of the patients or of the pouch. Seven of eight...... responders had successive breath tests after ingestion of lactulose 20 g and wheat starch 100 g. Five of seven had significant increases after lactulose but none after wheat starch. The overall function of the pouch continence, spontaneity of defecation, and 24 hour stool frequency was significantly better...

  3. Sulfate-reducing bacteria colonize pouches formed for ulcerative colitis but not for familial adenomatous polyposis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Duffy, M

    2012-02-03

    PURPOSE: Ileal pouch-anal anastomosis remains the "gold standard" in surgical treatment of ulcerative colitis and familial adenomatous polyposis. Pouchitis occurs mainly in patients with a background of ulcerative colitis, although the reasons for this are unknown. The aim of this study was to characterize differences in pouch bacterial populations between ulcerative colitis and familial adenomatous pouches. METHODS: After ethical approval was obtained, fresh stool samples were collected from patients with ulcerative colitis pouches (n = 10), familial adenomatous polyposis (n = 7) pouches, and ulcerative colitis ileostomies (n = 8). Quantitative measurements of aerobic and anaerobic bacteria were performed. RESULTS: Sulfate-reducing bacteria were isolated from 80 percent (n = 8) of ulcerative colitis pouches. Sulfate-reducing bacteria were absent from familial adenomatous polyposis pouches and also from ulcerative colitis ileostomy effluent. Pouch Lactobacilli, Bifidobacterium, Bacteroides sp, and Clostridium perfringens counts were increased relative to ileostomy counts in patients with ulcerative colitis. Total pouch enterococci and coliform counts were also increased relative to ileostomy levels. There were no significant quantitative or qualitative differences between pouch types when these bacteria were evaluated. CONCLUSIONS: Sulfate-reducing bacteria are exclusive to patients with a background of ulcerative colitis. Not all ulcerative colitis pouches harbor sulfate-reducing bacteria because two ulcerative colitis pouches in this study were free of the latter. They are not present in familial adenomatous polyposis pouches or in ileostomy effluent collected from patients with ulcerative colitis. Total bacterial counts increase in ulcerative colitis pouches after stoma closure. Levels of Lactobacilli, Bifidobacterium, Bacteroides sp, Clostridium perfringens, enterococci, and coliforms were similar in both pouch groups. Because sulfate-reducing bacteria are

  4. Scintigraphic small intestinal transit time and defaecography in patients with J-pouch

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Mie Dilling; Simonsen, Jane Angel; Hvidsten, Svend

    2015-01-01

    Objective methods for examination of pouch function are warranted for a better understanding of the functional result and treatment of dysfunction. The objective of this study was to evaluate the results of scintigraphic intestinal transit time and defaecography compared to the results of pouch...... function, mucosal condition and a questionnaire on quality of life (QoL). This cross-sectional study included 21 patients. Scintigraphic transit time and defaecography was determined with the use of Tc-99m. Pouch function was assessed by number of bowel movements, pouch volume, and continence. Pouch...... mucosal condition was evaluated by endoscopy and histology. Median transit time was 189 min (105–365). Median ejection fraction at defaecography (EF) was 49% (3–77) and 62% (17–98) after first and second defecation. Median pouch volume was 223 mL (100–360). A median daily stool frequency of nine (4...

  5. Surgical sterilization of the African giant pouched rats | Werema ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... to all principles of surgery. This study has demonstrated the three surgical procedures for African Giant pouched rats as being useful to veterinarians in public/private practice and/or in biomedical research facilities. Keywords: Surgical sterilization, ovariectomy, ovariohysterectomy, orchidectomy, African giant pouched rats ...

  6. Disease course and management strategy of pouch neoplasia in patients with underlying inflammatory bowel diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xian-Rui; Remzi, Feza H; Liu, Xiu-Li; Lian, Lei; Stocchi, Luca; Ashburn, Jean; Shen, Bo

    2014-11-01

    To evaluate the disease course and management strategy for pouch neoplasia. Patients undergoing ileal pouch surgery for underlying ulcerative colitis who developed low-grade dysplasia (LGD), high-grade dysplasia, or adenocarcinoma in the pouch were identified. All eligible 44 patients were evaluated. Of the 22 patients with initial diagnosis of pouch LGD, 6 (27.3%) had persistence or progression after a median follow-up of 9.5 (4.1-17.6) years. Family history of colorectal cancer was shown to be a risk factor associated with persistence or progression of LGD (P = 0.03). Of the 12 patients with pouch high-grade dysplasia, 5 (41.7%) had a history of (n = 2, 16.7%) or synchronous (n = 4, 33.3%) pouch LGD. Pouch high-grade dysplasia either persisted or progressed in 3 patients (25.0%) after the initial management, during a median time interval of 5.4 (2.2-9.2) years. Of the 14 patients with pouch adenocarcinoma, 12 (85.7%) had a history of (n = 2, 14.3%) or synchronous dysplasia (n = 12, 85.7%). After a median follow-up of 2.1 (0.6-5.2) years, 6 patients with pouch cancer (42.9%) died. Comparison of patients with a final diagnosis of pouch adenocarcinoma (14, 32.6%), and those with dysplasia (29, 67.4%) showed that patients with adenocarcinoma were older (P = 0.04) and had a longer duration from IBD diagnosis or pouch construction to the detection of pouch neoplasia (P = 0.007 and P = 0.0013). The risk for progression of pouch dysplasia can be stratified. The presence of family history of colorectal cancer seemed to increase the risk for persistence or progression for patients with pouch LGD. The prognosis for pouch adenocarcinoma was poor.

  7. Zyflamend reduces LTB4 formation and prevents oral carcinogenesis in a 7,12-dimethylbenz[alpha]anthracene (DMBA)-induced hamster cheek pouch model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Peiying; Sun, Zheng; Chan, Diana; Cartwright, Carrie A; Vijjeswarapu, Mary; Ding, Jibin; Chen, Xiaoxin; Newman, Robert A

    2008-11-01

    Aberrant arachidonic acid metabolism, especially altered cyclooxygenase and 5-lipoxygenase (LOX) activities, has been associated with chronic inflammation as well as carcinogenesis in human oral cavity tissues. Here, we examined the effect of Zyflamend, a product containing 10 concentrated herbal extracts, on development of 7,12-dimethylbenz[alpha]anthracene (DMBA)-induced inflammation and oral squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). A hamster cheek pouch model was used in which 0.5% DMBA was applied topically onto the left cheek pouch of male Syrian golden hamsters either three times per week for 3 weeks (short term) or 6 weeks (long term). Zyflamend was then applied topically at one of three different doses (25, 50 and 100 microl) onto the left cheek pouch three times for 1 week (short-term study) or chronically for 18 weeks. Zyflamend significantly reduced infiltration of inflammatory cells, incidence of hyperplasia and dysplastic lesions, bromodeoxyuridine-labeling index as well as number of SCC in a concentration-dependent manner. Application of Zyflamend (100 microl) reduced formation of leukotriene B(4) (LTB(4)) by 50% compared with DMBA-treated tissues. The reduction of LTB(4) was concentration dependent. The effect of Zyflamend on inhibition of LTB(4) formation was further confirmed with in vitro cell-based assay. Adding LTB(4) to RBL-1 cells, a rat leukemia cell line expressing high levels of 5-LOX and LTA(4) hydrolase, partially blocked antiproliferative effect of Zyflamend. This study demonstrates that Zyflamend inhibited LTB(4) formation and modulated adverse histopathological changes in the DMBA-induced hamster cheek pouch model. The study suggests that Zyflamend might prevent oral carcinogenesis at the post-initiation stage.

  8. Elicitation of ostomy pouch preferences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonnichsen, Ole

    2011-01-01

    Background: Previous studies about patients who have undergone ostomy surgery commonly address the issues of the surgery, complications, preoperative counseling, quality of life, and psychosocial changes following surgery. Only a limited number of studies deal with how technical improvements...... in stoma care would affect patients and, to the author's knowledge, the present study is the first to elicit preferences for potential improvements in ostomy pouches in the form of monetary values. Objective: This article examines and measures Swedish patients' preferences for potential improvements...... in ostomy pouch attributes. The theory, study design, elicitation procedure, and resulting preference structure of the sample is described. Methods: A discrete-choice experiment (DCE) was used to elicit preferences. Respondents were asked to choose between alternatives in choice sets, in which each...

  9. Scintigraphic Small Intestinal Transit Time and Defaecography in Patients with J-Pouch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mie Dilling Kjaer

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective methods for examination of pouch function are warranted for a better understanding of the functional result and treatment of dysfunction. The objective of this study was to evaluate the results of scintigraphic intestinal transit time and defaecography compared to the results of pouch function, mucosal condition and a questionnaire on quality of life (QoL. This cross-sectional study included 21 patients. Scintigraphic transit time and defaecography was determined with the use of Tc-99m. Pouch function was assessed by number of bowel movements, pouch volume, and continence. Pouch mucosal condition was evaluated by endoscopy and histology. Median transit time was 189 min (105–365. Median ejection fraction at defaecography (EF was 49% (3–77 and 62% (17–98 after first and second defecation. Median pouch volume was 223 mL (100–360. A median daily stool frequency of nine (4–25 was reported and three (14% patients suffered from daytime incontinence. No patients had symptomatic or endoscopic pouchitis; however, the histology showed unspecific inflammation in 19 (90% patients. There was no correlation between transit time, evacuation fraction (EF and pouch function in univariate analysis. However, we found a high body mass index (BMI and a low bowel movement frequency to be associated with a longer transit time by multivariate analysis. Scintigraphic determination of transit time and defaecography are feasible methods in patients with ileal pouch anal anastomosis, but the clinical relevance is yet doubtful.

  10. Development of an Advanced Two-Dimensional Thermal Model for Large size Lithium-ion Pouch Cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samba, Ahmadou; Omar, Noshin; Gualous, Hamid; Firouz, Youssef; Van den Bossche, Peter; Van Mierlo, Joeri; Boubekeur, Tala Ighil

    2014-01-01

    In this work, a LiFePO4/graphite lithium-ion pouch cell with a rated capacity of 45Ah has been used and a two dimensional thermal model is developed to predict the cell temperature distribution over the surface of the battery, this model requires less input parameters and still has high accuracy. The used input parameters are the heat generation and thermal properties. The ANSYS FLUENT software has been used to solve the models. In addition, a new estimation tool has been developed for estimation of the thermal model parameters. Furthermore, the thermal behavior of the proposed battery has been investigated at different environmental conditions as well as during the abuse conditions. Thermal runaway is investigated in depth by the model

  11. Rare association of prune belly syndrome with pouch colon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Ragavan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available M Ragavan1, U Haripriya1, PV Pradeep1, J Sarvavinothini21Department of Endocrine Surgery, 2Department of Anaesthesia, Narayana Medical College and Superspeciality Hospital, Nellore, Andhra Pradesh, IndiaAbstract: Prune belly syndrome is a triad characterized by abdominal wall musculature deficiency, cryptorchidism and urinary tract abnormalities, and is often associated with other anomalies. Although associated anorectal anomalies have been reported with this syndrome, only two cases of pouch colon, a rare type of anorectal malformation, have been reported. We report a case of prune belly syndrome with pouch colon presenting with retention of urine.Keywords: prune belly, triad syndrome, pouch colon, anorectal malformation

  12. Elicitation of preferences for improvements in ostomy pouches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonnichsen, Ole

    This paper attempts to examine and measure ostomates’ preferences for improvements in ostomy pouches. Described are the study design, elicitation procedure and resulting preference structure of the Swedish ostomate sample. The method used to elicit the preferences is a Discrete Choice Experiment...... (DCE), where respondents are asked to choose between alternatives in choice sets. Each alternative is comprised of a number of attributes relating to the adhesive, filter and flexibility of ostomy pouches. The choice between alternatives made by the respondent implies an implicit trade-off between...... the attributes and allows for the estimation of individuals’ Willingness to Pay (WTP) for the attributes of ostomy pouches when cost is included as an attribute. The data consists of 254 ostomates responding to the survey. The respondents have positive WTP for all improvement attributes presented to them...

  13. Impact of Tab Location on Large Format Lithium-Ion Pouch Cell Based on Fully Coupled Tree-Dimensional Electrochemical-Thermal Modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samba, Ahmadou; Omar, Noshin; Gualous, Hamid; Capron, Odile; Van den Bossche, Peter; Van Mierlo, Joeri

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents extensive three-dimensional (3D) simulations of large LiFPO 4 pouch cells. 3D simulations of the Li-ion battery behavior are highly nonlinear and computationally demanding. Coupling electrochemical modeling to thermal models represents an important step towards accurate simulation of the Li-ion battery. Non-uniform temperature, potential and current density through the battery induce non-uniform use of the active material and can have a negative impact on cell performance and lifetime. Different pouch cell designs, with different tab locations, have been investigated in term of performance, current density, potential and heat distributions. The model is first validated with experimental data at different current discharge rates. Afterwards, the electrochemical, thermal and electrical behaviors over each cell design under high discharge rate (4 I t ) are compared between configurations. It has been shown that the designs with symmetrical configurations show uniform potential and current density gradient, which minimize the ohmic heat and lead to more uniform active material utilization and temperature distributions across the cell surface.Introduction

  14. Recurrent Volvulus of an Ileal Pouch Requiring Repeat Pouchopexy: A Lesson Learnt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pär Myrelid

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Restorative surgery for ulcerative colitis with ileal pouch anal anastomosis (IPAA is frequently accompanied by complications. Volvulus of the ileal pouch is one of the most rarely reported late complications and to our knowledge no report exists on reoperative surgery for this condition. Case Report. A 58-year-old woman who previously had undergone restorative proctocolectomy due to ulcerative colitis with an IPAA presented with volvulus of the pouch. She was operated with a single row pouchopexy to the presacral fascia. Two months later she returned with a recurrent volvulus. At reoperation, the pouch was found to have become completely detached from the fascia. A new pexy was made by firmly anchoring the pouch with two rows of sutures to the presacral fascia as well as with sutures to the lateral pelvic walls. At follow-up after five months she was free of symptoms. Conclusion. This first report ever on reoperative surgery for volvulus of a pelvic pouch indicates that a single row pouchopexy might be insufficient for preventing retwisting. Several rows seem to be needed.

  15. Restorative proctocolectomy with ileal pouch-anal anastomosis in 203 patients: the Auckland experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neilly, P; Neill, M E; Hill, G L

    1999-01-01

    Restorative proctocolectomy with ileal pouch-anal anastomosis (IPAA) has become an established operation for patients with ulcerative colitis and familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP). The results of a 15-year experience with IPAA are reported. Between September 1982 and June 1997, 203 patients had IPAA surgery. From a review of the charts, data were collected on the surgical procedure, the diagnosis and early and late complications. Pouch function was assessed by means of a postal questionnaire. Of the 201 patients (median age of 32 years; 89 women) with complete records, 122 had J pouches, 65 had W pouches and 14 S pouches were constructed. The pre-operative diagnosis in 88% was ulcerative colitis and in 10% it was FAP. During a median follow-up time of 6.1 years the diagnoses were changed for 8% of the patients; in 4% the diagnosis was changed to Crohn's disease. The overall mortality was 1.5% (early = 2, late = 1). The overall morbidity was 62% (early = 17%, late = 52%). The pouch was removed or was non-functional in 9%. All patients with a final diagnosis of Crohn's disease have had their pouch excised. The median stool frequency was 4.0 (range 1.3-8.7) during the day, and 0.7 (range 0-2.1) during the night. The fewer night-time stools (J = 1.0+/-0.6; W = 0.4+/-0.5 P requirement of the W-pouch patients for anti-diarrhoeals (P = 0.004) were offset by the need for two W-pouch patients to pass a catheter to empty their pouches. The type of patients who present for IPAA surgery and the outcomes observed in this series of Auckland patients are similar to those reported from major centres elsewhere.

  16. Pouch Volvulus in Patients Having Undergone Restorative Proctocolectomy for Ulcerative Colitis: A Case Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landisch, Rachel M; Knechtges, Paul M; Otterson, Mary F; Ludwig, Kirk A; Ridolfi, Timothy J

    2018-06-01

    Restorative proctocolectomy with IPAA improves quality of life in patients with medically refractory ulcerative colitis. Although bowel obstruction is common, pouch volvulus is rare and described only in case reports. Diagnosis can be challenging, resulting in delayed care and heightened morbidity. The purpose of this study was to delineate the symptoms and successful management strategies used in patients with IPAA volvulus that result in pouch salvage. This study was a case series. The study was conducted at a tertiary referral center for ulcerative colitis in Milwaukee, Wisconsin. Patients included those with volvulus of the IPAA. Over the study period (2010-2015), 6 patients were diagnosed with IPAA volvulus. The primary outcomes were symptom manifestation, diagnostic practices, and treatment of pouch volvulus. Six patients with ulcerative colitis were identified with pouch volvulus. The majority (n = 4) underwent a laparoscopic pouch creation and had early symptom manifestation after surgery. Complications preceding volvulus included pouch ulceration (n = 5) and pouchitis (n = 4). The most common presenting symptoms of volvulus were abdominal pain (n = 4) and obstipation (n = 4). Multiple imaging modalities were used, but volvulus was most frequently identified by CT scan. Management was primarily operative (n = 5), composed of excision of the pouch (n = 3), pouch-pexy (n = 1), and detorsion with defect closure (n = 1). Both operative and nonoperative treatment with endoscopic detorsion resulted in low morbidity and improved patient symptoms. This single-institution study is limited by its retrospective design and small number of patients. IPAA volvulus is a rare and challenging cause of bowel obstruction in ulcerative colitis. Heralding signs and symptoms, such as pouch ulceration and acute obstipation, should initiate a workup for a twisting pouch. Diagnosis, which is multimodal, must occur early to avert necrosis and allow for preservation of a well

  17. Bmp signaling mediates endoderm pouch morphogenesis by regulating Fgf signaling in zebrafish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swartz, Mary E.; McCarthy, Neil; Norrie, Jacqueline L.; Eberhart, Johann K.

    2016-01-01

    The endodermal pouches are a series of reiterated structures that segment the pharyngeal arches and help pattern the vertebrate face. Multiple pathways regulate the complex process of endodermal development, including the Bone morphogenetic protein (Bmp) pathway. However, the role of Bmp signaling in pouch morphogenesis is poorly understood. Using genetic and chemical inhibitor approaches, we show that pouch morphogenesis requires Bmp signaling from 10-18 h post-fertilization, immediately following gastrulation. Blocking Bmp signaling during this window results in morphological defects to the pouches and craniofacial skeleton. Using genetic chimeras we show that Bmp signals directly to the endoderm for proper morphogenesis. Time-lapse imaging and analysis of reporter transgenics show that Bmp signaling is necessary for pouch outpocketing via the Fibroblast growth factor (Fgf) pathway. Double loss-of-function analyses demonstrate that Bmp and Fgf signaling interact synergistically in craniofacial development. Collectively, our analyses shed light on the tissue and signaling interactions that regulate development of the vertebrate face. PMID:27122171

  18. Defecation mechanisms after anterior resection with J-pouch-anal and side-to-end anastomosis in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, S; Hölzl, F; Wein, B; Tittel, A; Schumpelick, V

    2007-02-01

    Colonic J-pouch-anal anastomosis or colonic side-to-end anastomosis is the reconstruction of choice after low anterior resection. However, the mechanisms of defecation after both reconstruction forms are still speculative. Low anterior rectal resections were performed in 12 dogs with six colonic J-pouch-anal (pouch) and six coloanal side-to-end (SE) reconstructions. Four months postoperative stool frequency, intestinal transit time, and neorectal compliance were determined by radiography and barostat. Defecation mechanisms were evaluated radiographically during expulsion of artificial stool. One dog with pouch reconstruction could not be evaluated due to an anastomotic leak, while the others had uncomplicated course. Spontaneous stool frequency was significantly increased with both reconstruction methods (control 2.0+/-0.9, pouch 2.7+/-1.2, SE 3.3+/-0.9 day; panastomosis. Our results show that pouch evacuation is passive and independent from pouch motility. The functional principle of the colonic J-pouch is not its reservoir function but a delay of colonic motility.

  19. Management of ileal pouch prolapse with endoscopic hot snare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xian-rui Wu

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Pouch prolapse is a complication following the creation of restorative proctocolectomy. There is a paucity of information in the literature pertaining to its management. An ileal J pouch patient with dyschezia presented to our Pouch Center. Under sedation, pouchos- copy was performed with a gastroscope. We detected an anterior distal pouch mucosal prolapse, 1.5 cm in diameter, blocking the anal canal. The prolapsed mucosa was excised with hot snare under a retroflex view. There was no bleeding or perforation. The entire procedure took 25 minutes. The patient tolerated the procedure well and was discharged home 30 minutes after post-procedural observation. The patient reported the resolution of the dyschezia symptom. The histopathological examination of excised specimen showed small bowel mucosa and sub-mucosa with changes compatible with mucosal prolapse. En- doscopic hot snare appears to be feasible in the management of pouch mucosal prolapse. Resumo: O prolapso da bolsa ileal é uma complicação que pode surgir após a criação da proctoco- lectomia restauradora. As informações na literatura são escassas quanto ao tratamento. Um paciente com bolsa ileal em “J” e apresentando disquezia deu entrada em nosso centro médico. Sob sedação, realizamos uma endoscopia da bolsa ileal. Detectamos uma bolsa distal anterior com prolapso da mucosa, com 1,5 cm de diâmetro, bloqueando o canal anal. O prolapso da mucosa foi retirado com alça diatérmica sob visão retroflexa. Não houve san- gramento ou perfuração. A duração de todo o processo foi de 25 minutos. O paciente tolerou bem o procedimento e recebeu alta após 30 minutos de observação pós-procedimento. O paciente relatou a resolução do sintoma de disquezia. O exame histopatológico do espéci- me extirpado mostrou a mucosa e submucosa do intestino delgado com alterações com- patíveis com o prolapso da mucosa. A alça diatérmica endoscópica parece ser viável no

  20. Sodium borocaptate (BSH) for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) in the hamster cheek pouch oral cancer model: boron biodistribution at 9 post administration time-points

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garabalino, M.A.; Heber, E.M.; Monti, Hughes A.; Molinari, A.J.; Pozzi, E.C.C.; Trivillin, V.A.; Schwint, Amanda E.

    2011-01-01

    The therapeutic success of Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) depends centrally on boron concentration in tumor and healthy tissue. We previously demonstrated the therapeutic efficacy of boronophenylalanine (BPA) and sodium decahydrodecaborate (GB-10) as boron carriers for BNCT in the hamster cheek pouch oral cancer model. Given the clinical relevance of sodium mercaptoundecahydro-closo-dodecaborate (BSH) as a boron carrier, the aim of the present study was to expand the ongoing BSH biodistribution studies in the hamster cheek pouch oral cancer model. In particular, we studied 3 additional post-administration time-points and increased the sample size corresponding to the time-points evaluated previously, to select more accurately the post-administration time at which neutron irradiation would potentially confer the greatest therapeutic advantage. BSH was dissolved in saline solution in anaerobic conditions to avoid the formation of the dimer BSSB and its oxides which are toxic. The solution was injected intravenously at a dose of 50 mg 10 B/kg (88 mg BSH / kg). Different groups of animals were killed humanely at 7, 8, and 10 h after administration of BSH. The sample size corresponding to the time-points 3, 4, 6, 9 and 12 h was increased. Samples of blood, tumor, precancerous tissue, normal pouch tissue, cheek mucosa, parotid gland, palate, skin, tongue, spinal cord marrow, brain, liver, kidney, spleen and lung were processed for boron measurement by Optic Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-OES). Boron concentration in tumor peaked to 24-34 ppm, 3-10 h post-administration of BSH, with a spread in values that resembled that previously reported in other experimental models and human subjects. The boron concentration ratios tumor/normal pouch tissue and tumor/blood ranged from 1.3 to 1.8. No selective tumor uptake was observed at any of the time points evaluated. The times post-administration of BSH that would be therapeutically most useful would be 5, 7 and 9 h. The

  1. Peripouch Fat Area Measured on MRI Image and Its Association With Adverse Pouch Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xian Hua; Chouhan, Hanumant; Liu, Gang Lei; Lan, Nan; Remer, Erick; Stocchi, Luca; Ashburn, Jean; Hull, Tracy L; Shen, Bo

    2018-03-19

    There are no published studies on the impact of peripouch fat on pouch outcomes in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients. Patients with pelvic MRI-DIXON scans from our prospectively maintained Pouch Database between 2002 and 2016 were evaluated. Peripouch fat area was measured on MRI-DIXON-F images at the middle height level of the pouch (area M) and the highest level of the pouch (area H). Of all 1863 patients in the database, 197 eligible patients were included in this study. The median of area M was 52.4 cm2, so the 197 patients were classified into 2 groups: group 1 (Area-M Area-M ≥52.4 cm2). Compared with group 1, group 2 was found to have thicker perianal fat, more Caucasian and more males. Group 2 also had a higher Area-H, more weight, height, and body mass index, along with greater age at IBD diagnosis, age at pouch construction and pouch age, and a higher frequency of total pouch complication (86.7% versus 66.7%, P = 0.001), chronic pouch complication (68.4% versus 51.5%, P = 0.016), and chronic antibiotic-refractory pouchitis (16.3% versus 7.1%, P = 0.043). Multivariate logistic analysis showed that Area-M was an independent risk factor for chronic antibiotic-refractory pouchitis (odds ratio [OR]: 1.025; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.007-1.042, P = 0.005). The 22 patients with 2 or more pelvic MRI-DIXON scans were further classified into 2 groups by the change from the initial to latest MRI-DIXON scans. Patients with Area-M increase ≥10% and Area-M/height increase ≥10% were found to have shorter pouch survivals than those with increase <10%. A new method was established for measuring peripouch fat using pelvic MRI-DIXON-F image. Our study suggests that accumulation of peripouch fat may be associated with poor outcomes in selected IBD patients suspected of inflammatory or mechanical disorders of the pouch. Whether this association is causal warrants further investigation.

  2. Lethality of Rendang packaged in multilayer retortable pouch with sterilization process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Praharasti, A. S.; Kusumaningrum, A.; Frediansyah, A.; Nurhikmat, A.; Khasanah, Y.; Suprapedi

    2017-01-01

    Retort Pouch had become a choice to preserve foods nowadays, besides the used of the can. Both had their own advantages, and Retort Pouch became more popular for the reason of cheaper and easier to recycle. General Method usually used to estimate the lethality of commercial heat sterilization process. Lethality value wa s used for evaluating the efficacy of the thermal process. This study aimed to find whether different layers of pouch materials affect the lethality value and to find differences lethality in two types of multilayer retort pouch, PET/Aluminum Foil/Nylon/RCPP and PET/Nylon/Modified Aluminum/CPP. The result showed that the different layer arrangement was resulted different Sterilization Value (SV). PET/Nylon/Modified Aluminum/CPP had better heat penetration, implied by the higher value of lethality. PET/Nylon/Modified Aluminum/CPP had the lethality value of 6,24 minutes, whereas the lethality value of PET/Aluminum Foil/Nylon/RCPP was 3,54 minutes.

  3. A Third Branchial Pouch Cyst Presenting as Stridor in a Child

    OpenAIRE

    Wasson, Joseph; Blaney, Sean; Simo, Ricard

    2007-01-01

    We present a rare case of a third branchial pouch cyst in an 18-month-old child, presenting with stridor and a lateral cervical cystic mass. Differences in the anatomical course of third and fourth branchial cysts, and histological differences between branchial pouch and branchial cleft cysts are discussed.

  4. Clinical surgical Experiences with 51-ileal pouches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puerta, Juan D; Castano, Rodrigo; Arismendi, Ivan R

    2004-01-01

    Restorative proctocolectomy and ileal pouch (IP) has become an established surgery for patients with chronic ulcerative colitis and poliposis syndromes. The authors report the results of 8-year experience of restorative proctocolectomy and IP. Chart review was performed for 51 patients undergoing IP from 1994 through 2002. Preoperative histopathologic diagnoses were ulcerative colitis (n=39), poliposis syndromes (n=10), 2 Crohn diseases and 1 patient with colorectal cancer and extended resection. Information was obtained regarding patient demographics, type and duration of diseases, previous operations, and indications for surgery. Early (within 30 days after surgery) and late complications were noted. Follow-up included an annual function, physical examination, and biopsies of the pouch and anal transitional zone when were indicated. Of the 51 patients (24 women) with mean follow-up time of 44,5 months (range 12 -108 months), histopathologic diagnoses of ulcerative colitis were changed for Crohn's disease in 2 patients. The overall mortality rate was 2% (1 patient) one death was related to perineal sepsis 45 months after ileal pouch. The overall morbidity rate was 65% (73 complications in 33 patients; early 39%; late 49%) the mean hospitalary stance was 8, 9 days (range 6-25 days). Small bowel obstruction, septic complication and reoperation rates were 36%, 22% and 26%, respectively. The most frequent late complication was pouchitis (31,8%). The ileal pouch was removed in 1 patient, and it is functional in 50 (98%). There was a satisfactory index with 82% with excellent-good results, and 16% and 2% with regular and bad results. Restorative proctocolectomy with an IP is a safe procedure, with low mortality and major morbidity rates. Although total morbidity rate is appreciable, functional results generally are good and patient satisfaction is acceptable

  5. A Third Branchial Pouch Cyst Presenting as Stridor in a Child

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasson, Joseph; Blaney, Sean; Simo, Ricard

    2007-01-01

    We present a rare case of a third branchial pouch cyst in an 18-month-old child, presenting with stridor and a lateral cervical cystic mass. Differences in the anatomical course of third and fourth branchial cysts, and histological differences between branchial pouch and branchial cleft cysts are discussed. PMID:17316513

  6. An integrin-dependent role of pouch endoderm in hyoid cartilage development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin Gage Crump

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Pharyngeal endoderm is essential for and can reprogram development of the head skeleton. Here we investigate the roles of specific endodermal structures in regulating craniofacial development. We have isolated an integrinalpha5 mutant in zebrafish that has region-specific losses of facial cartilages derived from hyoid neural crest cells. In addition, the cranial muscles that normally attach to the affected cartilage region and their associated nerve are secondarily reduced in integrinalpha5- animals. Earlier in development, integrinalpha5 mutants also have specific defects in the formation of the first pouch, an outpocketing of the pharyngeal endoderm. By fate mapping, we show that the cartilage regions that are lost in integrinalpha5 mutants develop from neural crest cells directly adjacent to the first pouch in wild-type animals. Furthermore, we demonstrate that Integrinalpha5 functions in the endoderm to control pouch formation and cartilage development. Time-lapse recordings suggest that the first pouch promotes region-specific cartilage development by regulating the local compaction and survival of skeletogenic neural crest cells. Thus, our results reveal a hierarchy of tissue interactions, at the top of which is the first endodermal pouch, which locally coordinates the development of multiple tissues in a specific region of the vertebrate face. Lastly, we discuss the implications of a mosaic assembly of the facial skeleton for the evolution of ray-finned fish.

  7. Li-Ion Pouch Cells for Vehicle Applications — Studies of Water Transmission and Packing Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Göran Flodberg

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study includes analysis of encapsulation materials from lithium-ion pouch cells and water vapour transmission rate (WVTR measurements. WVTR measurements are performed on both fresh and environmentally stressed lithium-ion pouch cells. Capacity measurements are performed on both the fresh and the environmentally stressed battery cells to identify possible influences on electrochemical performance. Preparation of the battery cells prior to WVTR measurements includes opening of battery cells and extraction of electrode material, followed by resealing the encapsulations and adhesively mounting of gas couplings. A model describing the water diffusion through the thermal welds of the encapsulation are set up based on material analysis of the encapsulation material. Two WVTR equipments with different type of detectors are evaluated in this study. The results from the WVTR measurements show how important it is to perform this type of studies in dry environment and apply a rigorous precondition sequence before testing. Results from modelling confirm that the WVTR method has potential to be used for measurements of water diffusion into lithium-ion pouch cells. Consequently, WVTR measurements should be possible to use as a complement or alternative method to for example Karl Fisher titration.

  8. Interposition of Ileal J-Pouch for Rectum Reconstruction in Dog

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Ghahramani

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The gold standard of the management of rectal cancer in the middle and lower parts is low anterior resection with coloanal anastomosis. About 50% of the patients undergoing this procedure might experience some complications because of the low capacity of the neorectum. The aim of this study was to evaluate ileal J-pouch interposition as a neorectum between the anal canal and the remaining colon in comparison to coloanal anastomosis and transverse coloplasty. Methods: Twelve dogs, weighing 23-27 kg, were divided into three groups. After laparotomy, the volume of the primary rectum was measured so that it could be compared with that of the neorectum at the end of the study. After rectal resection in Group A, the colon was directly anastomosed to the anus. In Group B, a 5-cm longitudinal incision was made 2 cm proximal to the anastomosis and was sutured transversely (coloplasty. In Group C, a 5-cm ileal J-pouch was interposed between the colon and anus. After 8 weeks, the neorectum was evaluated for volume, radiology, and pathology. Results: All the samples were alive until the end of the study. The healing of the anastomotic lines was acceptable (pathologically in all. The mean volume expansion was 20.9% in Group A, 21.7% in Group B, and 118.2% in Group C, with the latter being significantly higher than that of the other groups (P=0.03. Colon J-pouch and coloplasty after proctectomy in some situations have not been performable. This study evaluated the performance of ileal J-pouch interposition. Conclusion: This study showed that ileal J-pouch interposition might produce an acceptable reservoir function and that it seems feasible and safe in selected cases. Please cite this article as: Ghahramani L, Yazdani S, Derakhshani S, Rezaianzadeh A, Jalli R, Geramizadeh B, Safarpour AR, Rahimikazerooni S, Hosseini SV. Interposition of Ileal J-Pouch for Rectum Reconstruction in Dog. Iran J Med Sci. 2014;39(2:117-122.

  9. Early Transcriptomic Changes in the Ileal Pouch Provide Insight into the Molecular Pathogenesis of Pouchitis and Ulcerative Colitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Yong; Dalal, Sushila; Antonopoulos, Dionysios; Hubert, Nathaniel; Raffals, Laura H.; Dolan, Kyle; Weber, Christopher; Messer, Jeannette S.; Jabri, Bana; Bendelac, Albert; Eren, A. Murat; Rubin, David T.; Sogin, Mitch; Chang, Eugene B.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Ulcerative colitis (UC) only involves the colonic mucosa. Yet, nearly 50% of patients with UC who undergo total proctocolectomy with ileal pouch anal anastomosis develop UC-like inflammation of the ileal pouch (pouchitis). By contrast, patients with familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) with ileal pouch anal anastomosis develop pouchitis far less frequently. We hypothesized that pathogenic events associated with the development of UC are recapitulated by colonic-metaplastic transcriptomic reprogramming of the UC pouch. Methods: We prospectively sampled pouch and prepouch ileum mucosal biopsies in patients with UC with ileal pouch anal anastomosis 4, 8, and 12 months after their pouch was in continuity. Mucosal samples were also obtained from patients with FAP. Transcriptional profiles of the UC and FAP pouch and prepouch ileum were investigated via RNA sequencing and compared with data from a previously published microarray study. Results: Unlike patients with FAP, subjects with UC exhibited a large set of differentially expressed genes between the pouch and prepouch ileum as early as 4 months after pouch functionalization. Functional pathway analysis of differentially expressed genes in the UC pouch revealed an enhanced state of immune/inflammatory response and extracellular matrix remodeling. Moreover, >70% of differentially expressed genes mapped to published inflammatory bowel diseases microarray data sets displayed directional changes consistent with active UC but not with Crohn's disease. Conclusions: The UC pouch, well before histologic inflammation, already displays a systems-level gain of colon-associated genes and loss of ileum-associated genes. Patients with UC exhibit a unique transcriptomic response to ileal pouch creation that can be observed well before disease and may in part explain their susceptibility to the development of pouchitis.

  10. Microfluidic "Pouch" Chips for Immunoassays and Nucleic Acid Amplification Tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauk, Michael G; Liu, Changchun; Qiu, Xianbo; Chen, Dafeng; Song, Jinzhao; Bau, Haim H

    2017-01-01

    Microfluidic cassettes ("chips") for processing and analysis of clinical specimens and other sample types facilitate point-of-care (POC) immunoassays and nucleic acid based amplification tests. These single-use test chips can be self-contained and made amenable to autonomous operation-reducing or eliminating supporting instrumentation-by incorporating laminated, pliable "pouch" and membrane structures for fluid storage, pumping, mixing, and flow control. Materials and methods for integrating flexible pouch compartments and diaphragm valves into hard plastic (e.g., acrylic and polycarbonate) microfluidic "chips" for reagent storage, fluid actuation, and flow control are described. We review several versions of these pouch chips for immunoassay and nucleic acid amplification tests, and describe related fabrication techniques. These protocols thus offer a "toolbox" of methods for storage, pumping, and flow control functions in microfluidic devices.

  11. Management of third branchial pouch anomalies - an evolution of a minimally invasive technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Phui Yee; Moore, Andrew; Daya, Hamid

    2014-03-01

    The management of third branchial pouch anomalies has evolved in recent times with the popularisation of the endoscopic diathermy technique to sclerose the pyriform fossa sinus opening. We present our experience in managing 3 children with third branchial pouch anomalies and propose a minimally invasive management algorithm avoiding open neck surgery. Retrospective case review of 3 patients including demographics, mode of presentation, investigations, management and complications. Three children, two male and one female of mean age 9.6 years presented with painful left anterior neck swelling. Axial neck imaging showed a superficial abscess with air locules and a sinus tract leading towards the left pharynx. Diagnosis was confirmed by endoscopic examination of the pyriform fossa revealing a sinus opening. Two patients underwent open excision; one combined with diathermy to the sinus opening. The last patient was diagnosed at his initial presentation and managed with endoscopic diathermy of the sinus opening combined with percutaneous needle aspiration of the neck abscess at the same sitting. One patient had two recurrences, the first after initial open surgery and the second after the first cautery. Two patients developed temporary hoarseness after the procedure, which resolved within two weeks. All patients were free from recurrences at follow-up. Introduction of the technique of endoscopic diathermy to the pyriform fossa sinus opening in children with third branchial pouch anomalies has revolutionised their management avoiding open and potentially morbid surgery. Our algorithm takes this further by advocating percutaneous needle aspiration of the infective component and performing diathermy to the sinus opening at the first presentation. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Do right-handed monkeys use the right cheek pouch before the left?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhur Mangalam

    Full Text Available There can be several factors that are likely to have played a role in the evolution of hand preference in humans and non-human primates, which the existing theories do not consider. There exists a possibility that hand preference in non-human primates evolved from the pre-existing lateralities in more elementary brain functions and behavior, or alternatively, the two coevolved. A basic example can be a hand-mouth command system that could have evolved in the context of ingestion. In the present study, we examined the relationship between lateralities in prehension and mastication processes, that is, hand and cheek pouch usage, in free-ranging bonnet macaques, Macaca radiata. The macaques preferentially used one hand-the 'preferred' hand, to pick up the bananas lying on the ground. Lateralities in hand and cheek pouch usage (for both filling and emptying were positively related with each other, that is, the macaques used the cheek pouch corresponding to the preferred hand predominantly and before the other. Moreover, when the macaques used the non-preferred hand to pick up the bananas, the frequency of contralateral cheek pouch usage was higher than the frequency of ipsilateral cheek pouch usage, that is, the combined structure of hand, mouth, and food did not influence the relationship between laterality in hand usage and laterality in cheek pouch usage. These findings demonstrate laterality in a relatively more involuntary function than those explored previously in any non-human primate species (e.g., facial expressions and manual gestures.

  13. The Kock pouch reconsidered: an alternative surgical technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawshaw, Alison; Williams, Julia; Woodhouse, Fran

    The psychological impact stoma surgery can have on an individual is well documented within the literature (White and Hunt, 1997; Borwell, 2009; Williams, 2005; Brown, 2005). For many years, surgeons have explored and developed innovations in surgical techniques, in particular restorative procedures with a view of preventing permanent stoma formation; ileal anal pouch (IAP) now being the surgical procedure of choice for treatment of ulcerative colitis (UC) and familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP). However, high morbidity rates are associated with pouch longevity (Castillo et al 2005; Nessar and Wu, 2012) and once removed can lead to a high-output ileostomy with risks of electrolyte imbalance and malabsorption. This then creates the dilemma of whether the Kock pouch (KP) should be offered as a surgical option. This article offers a historical perspective of the KP and its place in the surgical management of UC and FAP. This article also presents results from a recent audit funded by the Ileostomy Association (IA), highlighting how patients manage their KP and the importance of maintaining bowel control and being free of an incontinent stoma as a means of coming to terms with their condition.

  14. Measuring and assessing the effective in-plane thermal conductivity of lithium iron phosphate pouch cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bazinski, S.J.; Wang, X.; Sangeorzan, B.P.; Guessous, L.

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this research is to experimentally determine the effective in-plane thermal conductivity of a lithium iron phosphate pouch cell. An experimental setup is designed to treat the battery cell as a straight rectangular fin in natural convection. Thermography and heat sensors were used to collect data that yields the temperature distribution and heat transfer rate of the fin, respectively. One-dimensional fin equations were combined with the experimental data to yield the in-plane thermal conductivity through an iterative process that best-fits the data to the model. The experiment was first calibrated using reference plates of different metals. The fin model predicts the thermal conductivity value well with a correction factor of approximately 7%–9%. Using this experimental method, the in-plane thermal conductivity of the pouch cells is measured at different state of charge (SOC) levels. The in-plane thermal conductivity decreases approximately 0.13 Wm"−"1 °C"−"1 per 10% increase in SOC for the LFP cells. This translates to a 4.2% overall decrease in the thermal conductivity as the cell becomes fully charged. - Highlights: • A method is proposed to measure the in-plane thermal conductivity of a pouch cell. • The thermal conductivity decreases slightly with increase in SOC for the LFP cells. • The fin model predicts the thermal conductivity well with a correction factor.

  15. Prevalence of Methicillin?Resistant Staphylococcus aureus from Equine Nasopharyngeal and Guttural Pouch Wash Samples

    OpenAIRE

    Boyle, A.G.; Rankin, S.C.; Duffee, L.A.; Morris, D.

    2017-01-01

    Background Methicillin?resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is recognized as a cause of nosocomial infections in both human and veterinary medicine. Studies that examine the nasopharynx and guttural pouches of the horse as carriage sites for MRSA have not been reported. Hypothesis/Objective MRSA colonizes the nasopharynx and guttural pouch of horses. To determine the prevalence of MRSA in equine nasopharyngeal wash (NPW) and guttural pouch lavage (GPL) samples in a field population of horse...

  16. Boron biodistribution for BNCT in the hamster cheek pouch oral cancer model: Combined administration of BSH and BPA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D.W. Nigg; William Bauer; Various Others

    2014-06-01

    Sodium mercaptoundecahydro-closo-dodecaborate (BSH) is being investigated clinically for BNCT. We examined the biodistribution of BSH and BPA administered jointly in different proportions in the hamster cheek pouch oral cancer model. The 3 assayed protocols were non-toxic, and showed preferential tumor boron uptake versus precancerous and normal tissue and therapeutic tumor boron concentration values (70–85 ppm). All 3 protocols warrant assessment in BNCT studies to contribute to the knowledge of (BSH+BPA)-BNCT radiobiology for head and neck cancer and optimize therapeutic efficacy.

  17. Interposition of Ileal J-Pouch for Rectum Reconstruction in Dog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghahramani, Leila; Yazdani, Saeed; Derakhshani, Saeed; Rezaianzadeh, Abbas; Jalli, Reza; Geramizadeh, Bita; Safarpour, Ali Reza; Rahimikazerooni, Salar; Hosseini, Seyed Vahid

    2014-01-01

    Background: The gold standard of the management of rectal cancer in the middle and lower parts is low anterior resection with coloanal anastomosis. About 50% of the patients undergoing this procedure might experience some complications because of the low capacity of the neorectum. The aim of this study was to evaluate ileal J-pouch interposition as a neorectum between the anal canal and the remaining colon in comparison to coloanal anastomosis and transverse coloplasty. Methods: Twelve dogs, weighing 23-27 kg, were divided into three groups. After laparotomy, the volume of the primary rectum was measured so that it could be compared with that of the neorectum at the end of the study. After rectal resection in Group A, the colon was directly anastomosed to the anus. In Group B, a 5-cm longitudinal incision was made 2 cm proximal to the anastomosis and was sutured transversely (coloplasty). In Group C, a 5-cm ileal J-pouch was interposed between the colon and anus. After 8 weeks, the neorectum was evaluated for volume, radiology, and pathology. Results: All the samples were alive until the end of the study. The healing of the anastomotic lines was acceptable (pathologically) in all. The mean volume expansion was 20.9% in Group A, 21.7% in Group B, and 118.2% in Group C, with the latter being significantly higher than that of the other groups (P=0.03). Colon J-pouch and coloplasty after proctectomy in some situations have not been performable. This study evaluated the performance of ileal J-pouch interposition. Conclusion: This study showed that ileal J-pouch interposition might produce an acceptable reservoir function and that it seems feasible and safe in selected cases. PMID:24644380

  18. Interposition of ileal j-pouch for rectum reconstruction in dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghahramani, Leila; Yazdani, Saeed; Derakhshani, Saeed; Rezaianzadeh, Abbas; Jalli, Reza; Geramizadeh, Bita; Safarpour, Ali Reza; Rahimikazerooni, Salar; Hosseini, Seyed Vahid

    2014-03-01

    The gold standard of the management of rectal cancer in the middle and lower parts is low anterior resection with coloanal anastomosis. About 50% of the patients undergoing this procedure might experience some complications because of the low capacity of the neorectum. The aim of this study was to evaluate ileal J-pouch interposition as a neorectum between the anal canal and the remaining colon in comparison to coloanal anastomosis and transverse coloplasty. Twelve dogs, weighing 23-27 kg, were divided into three groups. After laparotomy, the volume of the primary rectum was measured so that it could be compared with that of the neorectum at the end of the study. After rectal resection in Group A, the colon was directly anastomosed to the anus. In Group B, a 5-cm longitudinal incision was made 2 cm proximal to the anastomosis and was sutured transversely (coloplasty). In Group C, a 5-cm ileal J-pouch was interposed between the colon and anus. After 8 weeks, the neorectum was evaluated for volume, radiology, and pathology. All the samples were alive until the end of the study. The healing of the anastomotic lines was acceptable (pathologically) in all. The mean volume expansion was 20.9% in Group A, 21.7% in Group B, and 118.2% in Group C, with the latter being significantly higher than that of the other groups (P=0.03). Colon J-pouch and coloplasty after proctectomy in some situations have not been performable. This study evaluated the performance of ileal J-pouch interposition. This study showed that ileal J-pouch interposition might produce an acceptable reservoir function and that it seems feasible and safe in selected cases.

  19. Oesophageal pouches and diverticula: A pictorial review

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    through these areas of weaknesses are termed pouches, while persistent ... gradient across the oesophageal lumen, which determines the formation of ... Postero-anterior radiograph of the chest, control view for a barium swallow study in a ...

  20. Beyond the brotherhood: Skoal Bandits' role in the evolution of marketing moist smokeless tobacco pouches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendlin, Yogi H; Veffer, Jessica R; Lewis, M Jane; Ling, Pamela M

    2017-01-01

    Since 2006, "snus" smokeless tobacco has been sold in the U.S.. However, U.S. Smokeless Tobacco (USST) and Swedish Match developed and marketed pouched moist snuff tobacco (MST) since 1973. Analysis of previously secret tobacco documents, advertisements and trade press. USST partnered with Swedish Match, forming United Scandia International to develop pouch products as part of the "Lotus Project." Pouched MST was not commonly used, either in Sweden or the U.S. prior to the Lotus Project's innovation in 1973. The project aimed to transform smokeless tobacco from being perceived as an "unsightly habit of old men" into a relevant, socially acceptable urban activity, targeting 15-35 year-old men. While USST's initial pouched product "Good Luck," never gained mainstream traction, Skoal Bandits captured significant market share after its 1983 introduction. Internal market research found that smokers generally used Skoal Bandits in smokefree environments, yet continued to smoke cigarettes in other contexts. Over time, pouch products increasingly featured increased flavor, size, nicotine strength and user imagery variation. Marlboro and Camel Snus advertising mirrors historical advertising for Skoal Bandits, designed to recruit new users and smokers subjected to smokefree places. Despite serious efforts, pouched MST marketing has been unable to dispel its association with traditional smokeless tobacco stereotypes as macho and rural. Public education efforts to discourage new users and dual use of MST and cigarettes should emphasize that "new" pouch products are simply repackaging "old" smokeless tobacco.

  1. Influence of storage period on properties of biopolymer packaging materials and pouches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bulut Sandra N.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Bilayer biodegradable films based on pumpkin oil cake (PuOC and zein, as well as pouches made from these materials, were prepared, and the changes of their mechanical, physicochemical and barrier properties were analyzed during four weeks of storage. Heat seal quality of formed pouches and composition of the gas atmosphere in the pouches were also monitored. The results showed that the bilayer film had a thickness of 300 ± 10 (μm, and no its changes were observed during the storage time. The tensile strength of the tested film increased slightly in the third week, but the elongation at break showed a decreasing trend during the whole storage period. The decreases in the moisture content, total soluble matter and swelling of the obtained film, were also observed. After one month of storage, the O2 transmission rate of tested films, increased from 27 to 64 (ml/m2 24h 1 bar, and the CO2 gas transmission rate from 147 to 188 (ml/m2 24h 1 bar. The heat seal strength of the PuOC/Zein pouches decreased during the whole storage period. The percentage of O2 in PuOC/Zein pouches increased up to 7 times during the storage period; however, the percentage of CO2 decreased up to 18 times already after one week, and then remained stable in the rest of the storage period. These results are, to a smaller extent, due to the gas transmission rate through the material, especially for CO2 , and to a greater extent, due to the low heat seal strength, which decreased through the storage period, and probably influenced the content of the gases in the pouches.[Project of the Serbian Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development, Grant no. 46010

  2. Serology of Patients with Ulcerative Colitis After Pouch Surgery Is More Comparable with that of Patients with Crohn's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goren, Idan; Yahav, Lior; Tulchinsky, Hagit; Dotan, Iris

    2015-10-01

    The serologic status of patients with ulcerative colitis (UC) who develop postoperative pouchitis was compared with that of patients with Crohn's disease (CD) and unoperated patients with UC. Pouch patients were stratified into normal pouch, acute/recurrent acute pouchitis, and chronic pouchitis/Crohn's-like disease of the pouch groups. Antibodies against glycans associated with CD (anti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae, anti-laminaribioside, anti-chitobioside, and anti-mannobioside carbohydrate antibodies [ASCA, ALCA, ACCA, and AMCA, respectively]) were detected and correlated with type of inflammatory bowel disease and pouch behavior. A total of 501 patients with inflammatory bowel diseases were recruited: 250 (50%) CD, 124 (24.7%) unoperated UC, and 127 (25.3%) UC-pouch. At least 1 positive antibody was detected in 77.6% CD, 52.0% UC-pouch and 33.1% unoperated UC (P ACCA and AMCA prevalence in CD, UC-pouch and unoperated patients with UC were 33.2%, 24.4%, and 16.9% (P = 0.003 for all) and 35.2%, 26.8%, and 7.3%, respectively (P ACCA and AMCA is significantly increased in UC-pouch patients, suggesting that pouch surgery may trigger differential immune responses to glycans. The finding that the serology of UC-pouch patients shares similarities with that of patients with CD supports the notion that those 2 inflammatory bowel diseases share a common pathogenic pathway.

  3. Non-invasive characterization of normal and pathological tissues through dynamic infrared imaging in the hamster cheek pouch oral cancer model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, María. S.; Monti Hughes, Andrea; Salva, Natalia; Padra, Claudio; Schwint, Amanda; Santa Cruz, Gustavo A.

    2017-05-01

    Biomedical infrared thermography, a non-invasive and functional imaging method, provides information on the normal and abnormal status and response of tissues in terms of spatial and temporal variations in body infrared radiance. It is especially attractive in cancer research due to the hypervascular and hypermetabolic activity of solid tumors. Moreover, healthy tissues like skin or mucosa exposed to radiation can be examined since inflammation, changes in water content, exudation, desquamation, erosion and necrosis, between others, are factors that modify their thermal properties. In this work we performed Dynamic Infrared Imaging (DIRI) to contribute to the understanding and evaluation of normal tissue, tumor and precancerous tissue response and radiotoxicity in an in vivo model, the hamster cheek pouch, exposed to Boron Neutron Capture Therapy. In this study, we particularly focused on the observation of temperature changes under forced transient conditions associated with mass moisture transfer in the tissue-air interface, in each tissue with or without treatment. We proposed a simple mathematical procedure that considerers the heat transfer from tissue to ambient through convection and evaporation to model the transient (exponential decay o recover) thermal study. The data was fitted to determined the characteristic decay and recovery time constants of the temperature as a function of time. Also this model allowed to explore the mass flux of moisture, as a degree of evaporation occurring on the tissue surface. Tissue thermal responses under provocation tests could be used as a non-invasive method to characterize tissue physiology.

  4. Experimental induction of mycotic plaques in the guttural pouches of horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greppi, Maria Carla; Guillot, Jacques; Melloul, Elise; Bourdoiseau, Gilles; Lepage, Olivier; Cadoré, Jean-Luc

    2017-04-01

    Guttural pouch mycosis (GPM) is a rare but potentially life-threatening condition in horses. GPM is caused by a fungal invasion into the mucosal lining of the guttural pouches and, frequently, the associated neurovascular structures. Although several species of fungi have been associated with this disease, Aspergillus spp. appear to be the most common isolated from the guttural pouches. However, it remains unclear which are the predisposing factors leading to the development of the infection. The objectives of the present study were to experimentally reproduce an infection by Aspergillus fumigatus and to follow the natural evolution of the mycosis. Eight guttural pouches from four horses were experimentally infected by endoscopy-guided intrapouch inoculation of A. fumigatus culture. Horses were monitored for clinical signs and development of fungal plaques through endoscopic examination. Mycotic lesions were observed in all the horses and a spontaneous regression was observed within 15-28 days. No development of clinical signs was noticed. In conclusion, we were able to induce the development of mycotic lesions and to observe a natural regression of these lesions without clinical signs. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The International Society for Human and Animal Mycology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Laparoscopic restorative proctocolectomy ileal pouch anal anastomosis: How I do it?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manish A Madnani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Surgery for ulcerative colitis is a major and complex colorectal surgery. Laparoscopy benefits these patients with better outcomes in context of cosmesis, pain and early recovery, especially in young patients. For surgeons, it is a better tool for improving vision and magnification in deep cavities. This is not the simple extension of the laparoscopy training. Starting from preoperative preparation to post operative care there are wide variations as compared to open surgery. There are also many variations in steps of laparoscopic surgery. It involves left colon, right colon and rectal mobilisation, low division of rectum, pouch creation and anastomosis of pouch to rectum. Over many years after standardisation of this technique, it takes same operative time as open surgery at our centre. So we present our standardized technique of laparoscopic assisted restorative proctocolectomy and ileal pouch anal anastomosis (IPAA.

  6. Changes in the absorption of bile acids after total colectomy in patients with an ileostomy or pouch-anal anastomosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nasmyth, D.G.; Johnston, D.; Williams, N.S.; King, R.F.; Burkinshaw, L.; Brooks, K.

    1989-01-01

    Bile acid absorption was investigated using 75 Se Taurohomocholate (SeHCAT) in controls and patients who had undergone total colectomy with either conventional ileostomy or pouch-anal anastomosis for ulcerative colitis or adenomatous polyposis. Whole-body retention of SeHCAT after 168 hours was greater in the controls than the patients who had undergone colectomy (P less than .05). Retention of SeHCAT did not differ significantly between patients with an ileostomy and patients with pouch-anal anastomosis, but patients with an ileostomy and ileal resection of more than 20 cm retained less SeHCAT than patients with a pouch-anal anastomosis (P less than .01). Analysis of fecal bile acids from ileostomies and pouches showed that bacterial metabolism of primary conjugated bile acids was greater in patients with a pouch. It was concluded that bile acid absorption was not significantly impaired by construction of a pouch compared with conventional ileostomy, but bacterial metabolism of bile acids was greater in the pouches

  7. Changes in the absorption of bile acids after total colectomy in patients with an ileostomy or pouch-anal anastomosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nasmyth, D.G.; Johnston, D.; Williams, N.S.; King, R.F.; Burkinshaw, L.; Brooks, K.

    1989-03-01

    Bile acid absorption was investigated using /sup 75/Se Taurohomocholate (SeHCAT) in controls and patients who had undergone total colectomy with either conventional ileostomy or pouch-anal anastomosis for ulcerative colitis or adenomatous polyposis. Whole-body retention of SeHCAT after 168 hours was greater in the controls than the patients who had undergone colectomy (P less than .05). Retention of SeHCAT did not differ significantly between patients with an ileostomy and patients with pouch-anal anastomosis, but patients with an ileostomy and ileal resection of more than 20 cm retained less SeHCAT than patients with a pouch-anal anastomosis (P less than .01). Analysis of fecal bile acids from ileostomies and pouches showed that bacterial metabolism of primary conjugated bile acids was greater in patients with a pouch. It was concluded that bile acid absorption was not significantly impaired by construction of a pouch compared with conventional ileostomy, but bacterial metabolism of bile acids was greater in the pouches.

  8. Paradoxical Impact of Ileal Pouch-Anal Anastomosis on Male and Female Fertility in Patients With Ulcerative Colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pachler, Frederik R; Brandsborg, Søren B; Laurberg, Søren

    2017-06-01

    Birth rates in males with ulcerative colitis and ileal pouch-anal anastomosis have not been studied. This study aimed to estimate birth rates in males and females with ulcerative colitis and study the impact of ileal pouch-anal anastomosis. This was a retrospective registry-based cohort study that was performed over a 30-year period. Records for parenting a child from the same period were cross-linked with patient records, and birth rates were calculated using 15 through 49 years as age limits. All data were prospectively registered. All patients with ulcerative colitis and ulcerative colitis with ileal pouch-anal anastomosis between 1980 and 2010 were identified in Danish national databases. The primary outcomes measured were birth rates in females and males with ulcerative colitis and ulcerative colitis with ileal pouch-anal anastomosis. We included 27,379 patients with ulcerative colitis (12,812 males and 14,567 females); 1544 had ileal pouch-anal anastomosis (792 males and 752 females). Patients with ulcerative colitis have slightly reduced birth rates (males at 40.8 children/1000 years, background population 43.2, females at 46.2 children/1000 years, background population 49.1). After ileal pouch-anal anastomosis, males had increased birth rates at 47.8 children/1000 years in comparison with males with ulcerative colitis without ileal pouch-anal anastomosis (40.5 children/1000 years), whereas females had reduced birth rates at 27.6 children/1000 years in comparison with females with ulcerative colitis without ileal pouch-anal anastomosis (46.8 children/1000 years). Only birth rates were investigated and not fecundability. Furthermore, there is a question about misattributed paternity, but this has previously been shown to be less than 5%. Ulcerative colitis per se has little impact on birth rates in both sexes, but ileal pouch-anal anastomosis surgery leads to a reduction in birth rates in females and an increase in birth rates in males. This has clinical

  9. Characterization of the upper pouch tracheo-oesophageal fistula in oesophageal atresia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summerour, Virginia; Stevens, Paul S; Lander, Anthony D; Singh, Michael; Soccorso, Giampiero; Arul, G Suren

    2017-02-01

    A small proportion of infants with oesophageal atresia (OA) are thought to have a proximal tracheoesophageal fistula (TOF). Failure to recognize these can hamper mobilization of the upper pouch and lead to life-threatening episodes of aspiration once oral feeding starts. We reviewed our experience of upper pouch fistulae to identify characteristic features of proximal TOF. A retrospective review of TOF/OA patient notes and bronchoscopy photographs and videos, identified from our database from 01/01/2006 to 12/31/2015, was performed. Eight (6.1%) infants were identified (M:F 5:3) from a total population of 131 newly diagnosed TOF/OA infants during the period. Their median gestational age was 33 (range 28-39) weeks, and median birth weight was 1647g (range 1100-3400g). Five were initially diagnosed with pure OA and 3 with a distal TOF. All patients underwent rigid bronchoscopy at the initial surgery but only one proximal fistula was identified. The 7 missed proximal fistulae were subsequently found either during on-table oesophagograms for gap assessment (n=2), at the time of thoracotomy when mobilizing the upper pouch (n=3), or during subsequent bronchoscopy for symptoms post OA repair (n=2). Two patients needed a further operation to divide the fistula. Review of the bronchoscopy videos identified four characteristic differences between upper and lower pouch fistulae. Proximal fistulae are found just distal to the vocal cords, are very small, often no more than a pit, do not open and close with ventilation, and are best identified by insufflation of the esophagus. Upper pouch fistulae are relatively easy to miss because of different characteristics compared with H-type or distal fistulae that have not previously been mentioned in the literature. level IV. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. Morbidity Following Coloanal Anastomosis: A Comparison of Colonic J-Pouch vs Straight Anastomosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Shaun; Margolin, David A; Altom, Laura K; Green, Heather; Beck, David E; Kann, Brian R; Whitlow, Charles B; Vargas, Herschel David

    2018-02-01

    Low rectal tumors are often treated with sphincter-preserving resection followed by coloanal anastomosis. The purpose of this study was to compare the short-term complications following straight coloanal anastomosis vs colonic J-pouch anal anastomosis. Patients were identified who underwent proctectomy for rectal neoplasia followed by coloanal anastomosis in the 2008 to 2013 American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program database. Demographic characteristics and 30-day postoperative complications were compared between groups. A national sample was extracted from the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Project database. Inpatients following proctectomy and coloanal anastomosis for rectal cancer were selected. Demographic characteristics and 30-day postoperative complications were compared between the 2 groups. One thousand three hundred seventy patients were included, 624 in the straight anastomosis group and 746 in the colonic J-pouch group. Preoperative characteristics were similar between groups, with the exception of preoperative radiation therapy (straight anastomosis 35% vs colonic J-pouch 48%, p = 0.0004). Univariate analysis demonstrated that deep surgical site infection (3.7% vs 1.4%, p = 0.01), septic shock (2.25% vs 0.8%, p = 0.04), and return to the operating room (8.8% vs 5.0%, p = 0.0006) were more frequent in the straight anastomosis group vs the colonic J-pouch group. Major complications were also higher (23% vs 14%, p = 0.0001) and length of stay was longer in the straight anastomosis group vs the colonic J-pouch group (8.9 days vs 8.1 days, p = 0.02). After adjusting for covariates, major complications were less following colonic J-pouch vs straight anastomosis (OR, 0.57; CI, 0.38-0.84; p = 0.005). Subgroup analysis of patients who received preoperative radiation therapy demonstrated no difference in major complications between groups. This study had those limitations inherent to a

  11. Modified Le Bag Pouch after Radical Cystectomy: Continence, Uro dynamic Results and Morbidity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nassar, O.A.H.

    2010-01-01

    To revaluate ileocolonic pouch for ortho-topic neobladder reconstruction, a cohort of patients with bladder cancer was selected to undergo radical cystectomy and modified Le Bag pouch. Evaluation concentrates on continence and associated morbidity observed on close follow-up. Patients and Methods: A total of 37 patients including 16 females with T2 3 bladder cancer (19 transitional, 15 : squamous and 3 adenocarcinoma) were treated by radical cystectomy and totally detubularized ileocolic neobladder. Post operative morbidity, continence and urodynamic studies were evaluated. Mean time to have full daytime continence was tested against age, gender, postoperative complications, technique of pouch creation either stapler or hand suture and adjuvant irradiation. Results: Cystometry 12 months post surgery showed 493 ml median capacity with basal and maximum reservoir median pressures of 16 and 38 cm H 2 O respectively. Uro-flowmetry had maximum voiding volume of 370ml, voiding time 45s and maximum flow rate of 11.6ml/s. Within the first 2 months post operative 44% were continent by day, 33% by night and 67% had stress incontinence. By 12 months post surgery 89% were continent by day, 73% by night and 27% had stress incontinence. Two years post surgery 94% were continent by day and 81 % had complete day and night control of uri-ne. Urinary leakage was the most frequent early complication (10.8%). Late complications were urinary tract infection (13.5%), metabolic acidosis (13.5%) and reflux (10.8%). Pouch over distension (5.4%) was consistent with bladder neck obstruction. Patient's gender and postoperative morbidity were statistically significant factors to increase the mean time to continence; whereas, age, use of stapler and adjuvant radiotherapy had no significant effect. Conclusion: Modified Le Bag pouch is a simple technique with adequate pouch capacity that offers excellent slowly progressing continence rates with minor morbidity rate. Post operative morbidity and

  12. Endoscopic gastric pouch plication – a novel endoluminal incision free approach to revisional bariatric surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virk CS

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available 10-40% of Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB patients regain significant weight after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery due to dilation of the pouch and/or the gastrojejunal (GJ anastomosis. Traditional revision surgery is associated with significant morbidity (e.g. post-anastomotic GJ leak where less invasive endoluminal procedures may represent safer alternatives. The present article reports a case of the safe and successful use of endoluminal gastric pouch plication (EGPP using the StomaphyX™ device to correct both a dilated gastric pouch and a dilated gastrojejunostomy in a post-RYGB patient who regained significant weight.

  13. Two-staged management for all types of congenital pouch colon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajendra K Ghritlaharey

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was to review our experience with two-staged management for all types of congenital pouch colon (CPC. Patients and Methods: This retrospective study included CPC cases that were managed with two-staged procedures in the Department of Paediatric Surgery, over a period of 12 years from 1 January 2000 to 31 December 2011. Results: CPC comprised of 13.71% (97 of 707 of all anorectal malformations (ARM and 28.19% (97 of 344 of high ARM. Eleven CPC cases (all males were managed with two-staged procedures. Distribution of cases (Narsimha Rao et al.′s classification into types I, II, III, and IV were 1, 2, 6, and 2, respectively. Initial operative procedures performed were window colostomy (n = 6, colostomy proximal to pouch (n = 4, and ligation of colovesical fistula and end colostomy (n = 1. As definitive procedures, pouch excision with abdomino-perineal pull through (APPT of colon in eight, and pouch excision with APPT of ileum in three were performed. The mean age at the time of definitive procedures was 15.6 months (ranges from 3 to 53 months and the mean weight was 7.5 kg (ranges from 4 to 11 kg. Good fecal continence was observed in six and fair in two cases in follow-up periods, while three of our cases lost to follow up. There was no mortality following definitive procedures amongst above 11 cases. Conclusions: Two-staged procedures for all types of CPC can also be performed safely with good results. The most important fact that the definitive procedure is being done without protective stoma and therefore, it avoids stoma closure, stoma-related complications, related cost of stoma closure and hospital stay.

  14. Female sexual function and fertility after ileal pouch-anal anastomosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hor, Thevy; Lefevre, Jeremie H; Shields, Conor; Chafai, Najim; Tiret, Emmanuel; Parc, Yann

    2016-03-01

    A potential complication in women after ileal pouch-anal anastomosis (IPAA) is sexual impairment and reduced fertility. The aim was to evaluate sexual function and fertility after IPAA. All female patients who underwent an IPAA between 2004 and 2013 were retrospectively included. Sexual function, fertility, and continence were explored by the female sexual function index (FSFI), telephonic interview, and Wexner's score. Among 127 women included, 93 responded to the questionnaires (73.2%). Seventy five were sexually active, and 48 (64%) had normal sexual function (FSFI > 26). In univariate analysis, there was a significant relationship between ulcerative colitis (p = 0.0161), age > 40 years (p = 0.01311), number of bowel movements (p = 0.0238), nocturnal pouch activity (p = 0.0094), use of loperamide (p = 0.0283), and existence of sexual dysfunction. After multivariate analysis, age and nocturnal pouch activity were associated with a worse sexual function (p = 0.0235, OR = 3.3 (1.2-9.9) and p = 0.0094, OR = 4.1 (1.4-13.5)). Of 16 patients who wished to have children, 10 (63%) became pregnant without recourse to in vitro fertilization, of whom 3 had two or more pregnancies. In total, there were 13 children born after IPAA. The mean time between the first pregnancy and surgery was 24.8 ± 22 months. At 12 and 24 months after cessation of contraception, 57 and 67% had at least one pregnancy. While sexual function is impaired in a limited number of patients, the impact of surgery can be regarded as modest. Age and nocturnal pouch activity were some independent factors of worse sexual function. The risk of infertility should not preclude consideration of IPAA as a treatment option.

  15. A Case of Extragonadal Teratoma in the Pouch of Douglas and Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakuda, Mamoru; Matsuzaki, Shinya; Kobayashi, Eiji; Yoshino, Kiyoshi; Morii, Eiichi; Kimura, Tadashi

    2015-01-01

    Mature cystic teratoma is a germ cell tumor of the ovaries and is often observed in clinical practice. However, extragonadal teratomas are rare tumors and have been reported outside the ovaries, (e.g., in the greater omentum). The mechanism underlying the development of extragonadal teratomas remains unknown. We encountered a case of extragonadal teratoma in the pouch of Douglas that appeared to be a parasitic dermoid cyst. From our experience and the literature review, we discuss the potential mechanism leading to the development of extragonadal teratomas. A 41-year-old nonpregnant woman was referred to our department due to myoma and anemia. A 4-cm asymptomatic mass in the pouch of Douglas was observed, and the patient was diagnosed with ovarian mature cystic teratoma. She underwent laparoscopic surgery, and intraoperative findings revealed that the fallopian tube was injured and torn, and a residual small ovary was observed in the left side of the ovary. A tumor measuring approximately 4 cm observed in the pouch of Douglas was extracted without rupturing. The tumor was diagnosed as a parasitic dermoid cyst by macroscopic and histopathological findings. Auto-amputation could be the underlying mechanism that leads to an isolated parasitic dermoid cyst in the pouch of Douglas. Copyright © 2015 AAGL. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Tubular Adenoma in the Indiana Pouch of a Patient With a History of Bladder Exstrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madeleine G. Manka

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available An increased risk of neoplasm has been noted when bowel segments are used for urinary diversion. Particularly true for ureterosigmoidostomy, colonic adenocarcinoma has rarely been reported following Indiana Pouch diversion. This report describes a 42-year-old woman with a history of bladder exstrophy who developed a polyp in her Indiana Pouch 24 years after its creation. The polyp, found incidentally, was a tubular adenoma with high-grade dysplasia. Due to its malignant potential, the polyp was resected with preservation of the Indiana Pouch. This case highlights the need for lifetime surveillance in urinary reservoir patients who received diversions at a young age.

  17. Contaminated fistula following J-pouch ileoanal reservoir. Treatment with a collagen sponge containing gentamicin and metronidazole. Case report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, R; Bülow, Steffen; Moesgaard, F

    1991-01-01

    In a 55-year-old woman, a 1 x 5 cm fistula developed in the ileoanal anastomosis after restorative proctocolectomy with J-pouch ileoanal reservoir and temporary ileostomy for intractable ulcerative colitis. The fistula extended between the pouch and the sacral bone. Lasting closure was achieved b...... by intrafistular placement of a collagen sponge containing gentamicin and soaked in metronidazole solution and pouch drainage through a transanal Foley catheter....

  18. 48 CFR 752.7015 - Use of pouch facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... clause is available from the Post Communication Center at the Embassy or USAID Mission. [49 FR 13259, Apr... paragraphs (a)(1) through (a)(7) of this clause; however, the final decision regarding use of pouch... Name of Post, U.S. Agency for International Development, Washington, DC 20523-0001. (5) Personal mail...

  19. Construction of a Jejunal Pouch After Total Gastrectomy

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    food intake and slow the transit. Reconstruction using a jejunal interposition is more complicated and less suitable than the simple classic Roux‑en‑Y reconstruction.[1]. According to several prospective randomized trials and a recent meta‑analysis, the Roux‑en‑Y jejunal pouch reconstruction [Figure 1] appears to be the ...

  20. Bacterial fermentation of fructo-oligosaccharides and resistant starch in patients with an ileal pouch-anal anastomosis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alles, M.S.; Katan, M.B.; Salemans, J.M.J.I.; Laere, van K.M.J.; Gerichhausen, M.J.W.; Rozendaal, M.J.; Nagengast, F.M.

    1997-01-01

    Patients with large bowel disease may undergo ileal pouch-anal anastomosis, in which the colon is removed and part of the distal ileum is used to construct a pelvic reservoir. Competence of the ileal pouch to ferment carbohydrates is associated with the absence of pouchitis. However, the extent to

  1. Indiana pouch continent urinary reservoir in patients with previous pelvic irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mannel, R.S.; Braly, P.S.; Buller, R.E.

    1990-01-01

    Little information exists on the use of continent urinary reservoirs in patients with previous pelvic irradiation. We report the use of the Indiana pouch urinary reservoir in ten women with a history of pelvic irradiation for cervical cancer, of whom eight underwent a total pelvic exenteration for recurrent pelvic tumor and two had diversion for radiation-induced vesicovaginal fistula. All ten women achieved daytime continence, with a median time between catheterizations of 4.5 hours and a median pouch capacity of 500 mL. There was no evidence of leakage from the reservoir or significant ureteral reflux or obstruction on postoperative radiographic evaluation. No patient has required reoperation or had significant postoperative complications with the technique described

  2. Outcome of Mainz II Pouch Urinary Diversion after Radical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    bladder cancer is one of the options of continent urinary diversion following radical ... II pouch urinary diversion for muscle‑invasive bladder cancer in our institution ... immunotherapy.[2]. Following RC, there is a need for urinary diversion. Internal urinary diversion by ureterosigmoidostomy was introduced decades ago,.

  3. Visual pigment coexpression in all cones of two rodents, the Siberian hamster, and the pouched mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukáts, Akos; Dkhissi-Benyahya, Ouria; Szepessy, Zsuzsanna; Röhlich, Pál; Vígh, Béla; Bennett, Nigel C; Cooper, Howard M; Szél, Agoston

    2002-07-01

    To decide whether the identical topography of short- and middle-wavelength cone photoreceptors in two species of rodents reflects the presence of both opsins in all cone cells. Double-label immunocytochemistry using antibodies directed against short-wavelength (S)-and middle- to long-wavelength (M/L)-sensitive opsin were used to determine the presence of visual pigments in cones of two species of rodents, the Siberian hamster (Phodopus sungorus) and the pouched mouse (Saccostomus campestris) from South Africa. Topographical distribution was determined from retinal whole-mounts, and the colocalization of visual pigments was examined using confocal laser scanning microscopy. Opsin colocalization was also confirmed in consecutive semithin tangential sections. The immunocytochemical results demonstrate that in both the Siberian hamster and the pouched mouse all retinal cones contain two visual pigments. No dorsoventral gradient in the differential expression of the two opsins is observed. The retina of the Siberian hamster and the pouched mouse is the first example to show a uniform coexpression of M and S cone opsins in all cones, without any topographical gradient in opsin expression. This finding makes these two species good models for the study of molecular control mechanisms in opsin coexpression in rodents, and renders them suitable as sources of dual cones for future investigations on the role and neural connections of this cone type.

  4. Energy and process substitution in the frozen-food industry: geothermal energy and the retortable pouch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stern, M.W.; Hanemann, W.M.; Eckhouse, K.

    1981-12-01

    An assessment is made of the possibilities of using geothermal energy and an aseptic retortable pouch in the food processing industry. The focus of the study is on the production of frozen broccoli in the Imperial Valley, California. Background information on the current status of the frozen food industry, the nature of geothermal energy as a potential substitute for conventional fossil fuels, and the engineering details of the retortable pouch process are covered. The analytical methodology by which the energy and process substitution were evaluated is described. A four-way comparison of the economics of the frozen product versus the pouched product and conventional fossil fuels versus geothermal energy was performed. A sensitivity analysis for the energy substitution was made and results are given. Results are summarized. (MCW)

  5. Quality of ready to serve tilapia fish curry with PUFA in retortable pouches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhanapal, K; Reddy, G V S; Nayak, B B; Basu, S; Shashidhar, K; Venkateshwarlu, G; Chouksey, M K

    2010-09-01

    Studies on the physical, chemical, and microbiological qualities of fresh tilapia meat revealed its suitability for the preparation of ready to eat fish curry packed in retort pouches. Studies on the fatty acid profile of tilapia meat suggest fortification with polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) to increase the nutritional value. Based on the commercial sterility, sensory evaluation, color, and texture profile analysis F(0) value of 6.94 and cook value of 107.24, with a total process time of 50.24 min at 116 °C was satisfactory for the development of tilapia fish curry in retort pouches. Thermally processed ready to eat south Indian type tilapia fish curry fortified with PUFA was developed and its keeping quality studied at ambient temperature. During storage, a slight increase in the fat content of fish meat was observed, with no significant change in the contents of moisture, protein, and ash. The thiobarbituric acid (TBA) values of fish curry significantly increased during storage. Fish curry fortified with 1% cod liver oil and fish curry without fortification (control) did not show any significant difference in the levels of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), during thermal processing and storage. Sensory analysis revealed that fortification of fish curry with cod liver oil had no impact on the quality. Tilapia fish curry processed at 116 °C and F(0) value of 7.0 (with or without fortification of cod liver oil) was fit for consumption, even after a period of 1-y storage in retort pouch. Tilapia is a lean variety of fish with white flesh and therefore an ideal choice as raw material for the development of ready to serve fish products such as fish curry in retort pouches for both domestic and international markets. Ready to eat thermal processed (116 °C and F(0) value of 7.0) south Indian type tilapia fish curry enriched with PUFA and packed in retort pouch was acceptable for consumption even after a storage period of 1 y at ambient

  6. Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) translational studies in the hamster cheek pouch model of oral cancer at the new ''B2'' configuration of the RA-6 nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monti Hughes, Andrea; Trivillin, Veronica A.; Schwint, Amanda E.; Longhino, Juan; Boggio, Esteban; Medina, Vanina A.; Martinel Lamas, Diego J.; Garabalino, Marcela A.; Heber, Elisa M.; Pozzi, Emiliano C.C.; Itoiz, Maria E.; Aromando, Romina F.; Nigg, David W.

    2017-01-01

    Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is based on selective accumulation of B-10 carriers in tumor followed by neutron irradiation. We demonstrated, in 2001, the therapeutic effect of BNCT mediated by BPA (boronophenylalanine) in the hamster cheek pouch model of oral cancer, at the RA-6 nuclear reactor. Between 2007 and 2011, the RA-6 was upgraded, leading to an improvement in the performance of the BNCT beam (B2 configuration). Our aim was to evaluate BPA-BNCT radiotoxicity and tumor control in the hamster cheek pouch model of oral cancer at the new ''B2'' configuration. We also evaluated, for the first time in the oral cancer model, the radioprotective effect of histamine against mucositis in precancerous tissue as the dose-limiting tissue. Cancerized pouches were exposed to: BPA-BNCT; BPA-BNCT + histamine; BO: Beam only; BO + histamine; CONTROL: cancerized, no-treatment. BNCT induced severe mucositis, with an incidence that was slightly higher than in ''B1'' experiments (86 vs 67%, respectively). BO induced low/moderate mucositis. Histamine slightly reduced the incidence of severe mucositis induced by BPA-BNCT (75 vs 86%) and prevented mucositis altogether in BO animals. Tumor overall response was significantly higher in BNCT (94-96%) than in control (16%) and BO groups (9-38%), and did not differ significantly from the ''B1'' results (91%). Histamine did not compromise BNCT therapeutic efficacy. BNCT radiotoxicity and therapeutic effect at the B1 and B2 configurations of RA-6 were consistent. Histamine slightly reduced mucositis in precancerous tissue even in this overly aggressive oral cancer model, without compromising tumor control. (orig.)

  7. Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) translational studies in the hamster cheek pouch model of oral cancer at the new ''B2'' configuration of the RA-6 nuclear reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monti Hughes, Andrea; Trivillin, Veronica A.; Schwint, Amanda E. [Constituyentes Atomic Center, National Atomic Energy Commission (CNEA), Department of Radiobiology, San Martin, Province Buenos Aires (Argentina); National Research Council (CONICET), Ciudad Autonoma de Buenos Aires (Argentina); Longhino, Juan; Boggio, Esteban [Bariloche Atomic Center, CNEA, Department of Nuclear Engineering, San Carlos de Bariloche, Province Rio Negro (Argentina); Medina, Vanina A.; Martinel Lamas, Diego J. [National Research Council (CONICET), Ciudad Autonoma de Buenos Aires (Argentina); Pontifical Catholic University of Argentina (UCA), Laboratory of Tumoral Biology and Inflammation, School of Medical Sciences, Institute for Biomedical Research (BIOMED CONICET-UCA), Ciudad Autonoma de Buenos Aires (Argentina); Garabalino, Marcela A.; Heber, Elisa M.; Pozzi, Emiliano C.C. [Constituyentes Atomic Center, National Atomic Energy Commission (CNEA), Department of Radiobiology, San Martin, Province Buenos Aires (Argentina); Itoiz, Maria E. [Constituyentes Atomic Center, National Atomic Energy Commission (CNEA), Department of Radiobiology, San Martin, Province Buenos Aires (Argentina); UBA, Department of Oral Pathology, Faculty of Dentistry, Ciudad Autonoma de Buenos Aires (Argentina); Aromando, Romina F. [UBA, Department of Oral Pathology, Faculty of Dentistry, Ciudad Autonoma de Buenos Aires (Argentina); Nigg, David W. [Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls (United States)

    2017-11-15

    Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is based on selective accumulation of B-10 carriers in tumor followed by neutron irradiation. We demonstrated, in 2001, the therapeutic effect of BNCT mediated by BPA (boronophenylalanine) in the hamster cheek pouch model of oral cancer, at the RA-6 nuclear reactor. Between 2007 and 2011, the RA-6 was upgraded, leading to an improvement in the performance of the BNCT beam (B2 configuration). Our aim was to evaluate BPA-BNCT radiotoxicity and tumor control in the hamster cheek pouch model of oral cancer at the new ''B2'' configuration. We also evaluated, for the first time in the oral cancer model, the radioprotective effect of histamine against mucositis in precancerous tissue as the dose-limiting tissue. Cancerized pouches were exposed to: BPA-BNCT; BPA-BNCT + histamine; BO: Beam only; BO + histamine; CONTROL: cancerized, no-treatment. BNCT induced severe mucositis, with an incidence that was slightly higher than in ''B1'' experiments (86 vs 67%, respectively). BO induced low/moderate mucositis. Histamine slightly reduced the incidence of severe mucositis induced by BPA-BNCT (75 vs 86%) and prevented mucositis altogether in BO animals. Tumor overall response was significantly higher in BNCT (94-96%) than in control (16%) and BO groups (9-38%), and did not differ significantly from the ''B1'' results (91%). Histamine did not compromise BNCT therapeutic efficacy. BNCT radiotoxicity and therapeutic effect at the B1 and B2 configurations of RA-6 were consistent. Histamine slightly reduced mucositis in precancerous tissue even in this overly aggressive oral cancer model, without compromising tumor control. (orig.)

  8. Stability of 2-Alkylcyclobutanones in irradiated retort pouch Gyudon topping during room temperature storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitagawa, Yoko; Okihashi, Masahiro; Takatori, Satoshi; Fukui, Naoki; Kajimura, Keiji; Obana, Hirotaka; Furuta, Masakazu

    2016-01-01

    2-Alkylcyclobutanones (ACBs), such as 2-dodecylcyclobutanone (DCB) and 2-tetradecylcylobutanone (TCB) are specific products in the irradiated liquid. Thus, DCB and TCB are suitable for indicators of the irradiation history of food. We previously reported DCB and TCB concentrations in irradiated retort pouch Gyudon topping (instant Gyudon mixes which were made from a beef, onion and soy sauce and could be preserved for a long term at room temperature) after storage for one year. Here, we have evaluated the stability of ACBs preserved in irradiated retort pouch Gyudon topping at room temperature for three years. Although interfering peaks were detected frequently after the storage at room temperature, it was possible for the detection of the irradiation history and there was no apparent decrease of ACBs concentrations in comparison with the one year storage after irradiation. These results concluded that DCB and TCB formed in retort pouch would be stable at room temperature for three years. (author)

  9. Endoscopic management of anastomotic bleeding in the ileal pouch with staples removal and clipping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xian-rui Wu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Postoperative pouch bleeding is a rare but detrimental complication following ileal pouch surgery. It is usually self-limited, however continuous bleeding requires inter- vention. There is limited published data on its management. Design: Ileoscopy via stoma for loop ileostomy and pouchoscopy via anus for ileal pouch were performed under sedation for the purpose of diagnosis and management of postop- erative bleeding. Results: Ileoscopy demonstrated a large, long blood clot in the lumen of efferent limb, but no sign of active bleeding was identified. Pouchoscopy showed that lumen of pouch body as well as afferent limb was filled with maroon-colored liquid stool. Pouch and neo-terminal ileum mucosa was normal. Two dislodged staples at the anastomotic line with sharp tips towards the lumen were found, with activating bleeding at one site. The staples were re- moved by biopsy forceps, and active bleeding was successfully controlled by the deploy- ment of one endoclip. Conclusions: We reported the first case that postoperative pouch bleeding, which was caused by dislodged staples, was successfully managed by endoscopic removal of the staples com- bined with clipping. Resumo: Objetivo: O sangramento pós-operatório da bolsa ileal é uma complicação rara, mas prejudi- cial após abordagem cirúrgica da bolsa ileal. Esse sangramento é geralmente autolimitado, porém, requer intervenção quando contínuo. Não há dados publicados sobre o tratamento. Método: Ileoscopia através de estoma para ileostomia em alça e endoscopia via ânus para a bolsa ileal foram realizadas sob sedação para diagnóstico e tratamento do sangramento pós-operatório. Resultados: A ileoscopia demonstrou um grande e longo coágulo sanguíneo no lúmen do ramo eferente, mas nenhum sinal de sangramento ativo foi identificado. A endoscopia da bolsa ileal mostrou que os lumens do corpo da bolsa e ramo aferente estavam cheios de fe- zes líquidas de cor marrom. A

  10. Giant African Pouched Rats as Detectors of Tuberculosis in Human Sputum: Comparison of Two Techniques for Sputum Presentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wray, Alisha M.; Mahoney, Amanda; Weetjens, Bart J.; Cox, Christophe; Jubitana, Maureen; Kazwala, Rudovic; Mfinanga, Godfrey S.; Durgin, Amy; Poling, Alan

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that pouched rats can detect the presence of "Mycobacterium tuberculosis," which causes tuberculosis, in human sputum samples obtained from clinical facilities. Although pouched rats evaluate sputum samples quickly, preparing the samples is relatively slow. The present study evaluated whether the rats can detect…

  11. Effects of propionyl-L-carnitine on ischemia-reperfusion injury in hamster cheek pouch microcirculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapi, Dominga; Sabatino, Lina; Altobelli, Giovanna Giuseppina; Mondola, Paolo; Cimini, Vincenzo; Colantuoni, Antonio

    2010-01-01

    Propionyl-l-carnitine (pLc) exerts protective effects in different experimental models of ischemia-reperfusion (I/R). The aim of the present study was to assess the effects of intravenously and topically applied pLc on microvascular permeability increase induced by I/R in the hamster cheek pouch preparation. The hamster cheek pouch microcirculation was visualized by fluorescence microscopy. Microvascular permeability, leukocyte adhesion to venular walls, perfused capillary length, and capillary red blood cell velocity (V(RBC)) were evaluated by computer-assisted methods. E-selectin expression was assessed by in vitro analysis. Lipid peroxidation and reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation were determined by thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) and 2'-7'-dichlorofluorescein (DCF), respectively. In control animals, I/R caused a significant increase in permeability and in the leukocyte adhesion in venules. Capillary perfusion and V(RBC) decreased. TBARS levels and DCF fluorescence significantly increased compared with baseline. Intravenously infused pLc dose-dependently prevented leakage and leukocyte adhesion, preserved capillary perfusion, and induced vasodilation at the end of reperfusion, while ROS concentration decreased. Inhibition of nitric oxide synthase prior to pLc caused vasoconstriction and partially blunted the pLc-induced protective effects; inhibition of the endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor (EDHF) abolished pLc effects. Topical application of pLc on cheek pouch membrane produced the same effects as observed with intravenous administration. pLc decreased the E-selectin expression. pLc prevents microvascular changes induced by I/R injury. The reduction of permeability increase could be mainly due to EDHF release induce vasodilatation together with NO. The reduction of E-selectin expression prevents leukocyte adhesion and permeability increase.

  12. Effects of propionyl-L-carnitine on ischemia-reperfusion injury in hamster cheek pouch microcirculation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominga Lapi

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose Propionyl-L-carnitine (pLc exerts protective effects in different experimental models of ischemia-reperfusion (I/R. The aim of the present study was to assess the effects of intravenously and topically applied pLc on microvascular permeability increase induced by I/R in the hamster check pouch preparation. Methods The hamster check pouch microcirculation was visualized by fluorescence microscopy. Microvascular permeability, leukocyte adhesion to venular walls, perfused capillary length and capillary red blood cell velocity (VRBC were evaluated by computer-assisted methods. E-selectin expression was assessed by in vitro analysis. Lipid peroxidation and reactive oxygen species (ROS formation were determined by thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS and 2’-7’-dichlorofluorescein (DCF, respectively. Results In control animals, I/R caused a significant increase in permeability and in the leukocyte adhesion in venules. Capillary perfusion and VRBC decreased. TBARS levels and DCF fluorescence significantly increased compared with baseline. Intravenously infused pLc dose-dependently prevented leakage and leukocyte adhesion, preserved capillary perfusion and induced vasodilation at the end of reperfusion, while ROS concentration decreased. Inhibition of nitric oxide synthase prior to pLc caused vasoconstriction and partially blunted the pLc-induced protective effects; inhibition of the endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor (EDHF abolished pLc effects. Topical application of pLc on check pouch membrane produced the same effects as observed with intravenous administration. pLc decreased the E-selectin expression. Conclusions pLc prevents microvascular changes induced by I/R injury. The reduction of permeability increase could be mainly due to EDHF release induce vasodilatation together with NO. The reduction of E-selectin expression prevents leukocyte adhesion and permeability increase.

  13. The Quechua manta pouch: a caretaking practice for buffering the Peruvian infant against the multiple stressors of high altitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tronick, E Z; Thomas, R B; Daltabuit, M

    1994-08-01

    The manta pouch--a caretaking practice of tightly swaddling and enclosing the infant in a set of cloths and blankets--and other caretaking practices are described for high-altitude resident (> 4,000 m) Quechua mother-infant pairs (N = 14). The manta pouch modifies the microenvironment inside the pouch so that, compared to the ambient environment, the temperature is higher and more stable, the humidity is higher, the partial pressure of O2 is lower, and stimulation levels are reduced. As the infant gets older, the characteristics of the pouch are modified such that the infant is increasingly exposed to ambient conditions. These caretaking practices may benefit the infant by buffering the infant from the multiple ecological stressors of high altitude, but they may also incur costs by exposing the infant to additional microenvironmental stressors (e.g., higher CO2 levels) and by reducing stimulation and limiting infant movement.

  14. Treatment of pouch stones after augmentation ileocystoplasty in children: is it always bothersome?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmy, Tamer E; Elawdy, Mohammed M; AbdelHalim, Ahmed; Orban, Hesham; Nabeeh, Hossam; Dawaba, Mohammed; Hafez, Ashraf T

    2015-01-01

    To report our experience with different approaches for management of pouch stones in children with ileal-based urinary reservoir. Charts of children who underwent ileal-based urinary reservoirs between 2000 and 2009 were retrospectively reviewed. Patients who were diagnosed with reservoir calculi were identified; medical records were reviewed for patients' demographics, diversion details, stone criteria, mode of treatment, perioperative complications, and recurrence rate. We identified 26 children with pouch stones after urinary diversion. There were 11 boys (42%) and 15 girls (58%). Mean age was 11 years (range, 4-16 years). Mean time for diagnosis was 42 months (24-120 months). Pouch stones were asymptomatic in 10 patients (38%). Fifteen cases were postbladder augmentation and 11 cases postcontinent cutaneous diversion. The mean stone size was 4 cm (range, 1-10 cm), and mean Hounsfield Unit was 585 (205-1090). Seventeen children (65%) had positive urine culture result, whereas 9 children were sterile. Seven children (27%) required open poucholithotomy, whereas 19 patients (73%) were managed endoscopically. Percutaneous approach was done in 5 children, whereas urethral access was used in 7 children. Mechanical extraction was performed in 12 cases, and stone disintegration was required in 7 cases. Eight children developed stone recurrence. Mean time for recurrence was 11 months (range, 3-19 months). Six children were after endoscopic disintegration, and all required redo endoscopic extraction. Stone analysis was available in 15 patients (struvite stones in 10 cases and calcium phosphate in 5 cases). Pouch stones are established long-term complication of urinary diversion. Open and endoscopic approaches are valid treatment strategies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. J-pouch ileoanal anastomosis in children and adolescents with ulcerative colitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wewer, Vibeke; Hesselfeldt, Peter; Qvist, Niels

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to evaluate, over a 10-year period, severe surgical complications, functional outcome, patient satisfaction and impact on social life after colectomy and J-pouch ileoanal anastomosis for children and adolescents

  16. Scintigrapfic evaluation of pouch function in patients with ulcerative colitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Mie Dilling; Hvidsten, Svend; Simonsen, Jane Angel

    by endoscopy and pouch biopsy. Results We included 9 men and 12 women with a median age of 41 yrs [26-68]. Median BMI was 24 [19-36] and follow-up was 932 days [481-3491]. A median daily stool frequency of 8.5 [4-25] was reported and 3 (15%) patients suffered from incontinence. No patients had symptomatic......Introduction The function of an ileal pouch–anal anastomosis (IPAA) has high impact on the patients’ quality of life (QoL), and, hence, objective methods for examination of the function are warranted for a better understanding of the functional result and possible treatment of dysfunction. Studies...... with QoL and pouch function. Method It is a cross-sectional study including 20 patients with ulcerative colitis and an IPAA. Scintigraphic transit time was determined after oral administration of a Tc-99m-labelled omelette. Defecography was performed with instillation of a radioactive labelled paste...

  17. Tissue eosinophilia induced by recombinant human interleukin-5 in the hamster cheek pouch membrane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Minnicozzi

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Interleukin-5 (IL-5 is a cytokine that preferentially effects the development and function of eosinophils, and is considered important in the pathophysiology of allergic inflammation. In this study, we evaluated the ability of recombinant human IL-5 (rHu IL-5 to promote tissue eosinophilia and the importance of this eosinophilia to pathological alterations in vascular function. Repetitive subcutaneous administration for 18 days of rHu IL-5 resulted in a 7-fold increase in the number of eosinophils found in the ipsilateral hamster cheek pouch membrane. The contralateral cheek pouch membrane and peritoneum of these animals showed lesser but significant elevations in the number of eosinophils. In contrast, denatured rHu IL-5 did not elevate eosinophils in these tissues. Through the use of intravital microscopy and fluorometric analysis, rHu IL-5 treated hamster cheek pouch membranes were evaluated for alterations in microvascular permeability, using plasma clearance of FITC-dextran 150 as an index. Despite promoting a prominent tissue eosinophilia, the repetitive subcutaneous injections of rHu IL-5 did not alter the clearance of FITC-dextran 150. Topical application of rHu IL-5 to the cheek pouch, also, had no effect on the clearance of FITC-dextran 150. Immunofluorescence observations using an antibody to the granule protein, eosinophil peroxidase, indicated that the recruited cells had not degranulated. Our results support the importance of IL-5 in the recruitment of tissue eosinophils, but further stimulation is probably required to cause degranulation of these cells and the ensuing tissue damage.

  18. High-energy metal air batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ji-Guang; Xiao, Jie; Xu, Wu; Wang, Deyu; Williford, Ralph E.; Liu, Jun

    2013-07-09

    Disclosed herein are embodiments of lithium/air batteries and methods of making and using the same. Certain embodiments are pouch-cell batteries encased within an oxygen-permeable membrane packaging material that is less than 2% of the total battery weight. Some embodiments include a hybrid air electrode comprising carbon and an ion insertion material, wherein the mass ratio of ion insertion material to carbon is 0.2 to 0.8. The air electrode may include hydrophobic, porous fibers. In particular embodiments, the air electrode is soaked with an electrolyte comprising one or more solvents including dimethyl ether, and the dimethyl ether subsequently is evacuated from the soaked electrode. In other embodiments, the electrolyte comprises 10-20% crown ether by weight.

  19. Outcome of Mainz II pouch urinary diversion after radical cystectomy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Outcome of Mainz II pouch urinary diversion after radical cystectomy in patients with muscle-invasive bladder cancer: our experience. ... Nine (82%) had a histological diagnosis of transitional cell carcinoma, and two (18%) were squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). Ten (91%) patients had high‑grade disease, whereas only 1 ...

  20. Adenocarcinoma of the pouch after silastic ring vertical gastroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zirak, Christophe; Lemaitre, Jean; Lebrun, Eric; Journé, Stephane; Carlier, Patrick

    2002-10-01

    A 52-year-old woman was admitted because of epigastralgia, anorexia and recently increased vomiting, 2 years after silastic ring vertical gastroplasty. On gastroscopy, a tumor mass was visualized in the pouch near the "neo-pylorus". Biopsies confirmed adenocarcinoma. She underwent total gastrectomy, and has no evidence of recurrence at 1 year. The literature on gastric carcinoma after gastroplasty is reviewed.

  1. Avaliação do Efeito do Transporte no Desempenho de Embalagem Tipo Stand-up Pouch para Produtos Líquidos Evaluation of Transport Effect on the Performance of Stand-Up Pouch Packages for Liquid Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leda Coltro

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo foi desenvolvido com o objetivo de estimar o efeito do transporte rodoviário no desempenho de embalagem do tipo stand-up pouch tendo folha de alumínio (8µm na estrutura, para o acondicionamento de produtos líquidos. O stand-up pouch foi submetido ao ensaio de simulação de transporte seguindo os padrões adotados na norma ASTM D4728-95, durante 4 horas. A intensidade da vibração randômica e o tempo de ensaio representam uma distância percorrida de aproximadamente 2000km. Como ocorreu falha na estrutura de algumas unidades de embalagem devido a solicitação de vibração, foram feitas avaliações empregando-se microscopia ótica e microscopia eletrônica de varredura dos stand-up pouches antes e após a simulação de transporte a fim de elucidar a causa dos danos. As prováveis causas da falha observada na estrutura podem estar associadas aos seguintes fatores: a características da laminação da estrutura (tipo de material, força de adesão das camadas, etc.; b flexibilidade e características de elasticidade da folha de alumínio; c efeito crítico da solicitação mecânica da embalagem pelo uso da mesma com um produto líquido.The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of the transport on the performance of stand-up pouch packaging having aluminum foil in the structure, employed for packing liquid products. The stand-up pouch was submitted to transport simulation tests following the standards adopted in the ASTM D4728-95, during 4 hours. The intensity of the random vibration and the test time represent a traveled distance of approximately 2000km. Evaluations of the stand-up pouches were performed before and after the transport simulation employing optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy, in order to elucidate the cause of possible damages in the structure of the packaging by the vibration request. The probable causes of the observed ruptures in the structure can be associated to the following

  2. A multilayer electro-thermal model of pouch battery during normal discharge and internal short circuit process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Mingbiao; Bai, Fanfei; Song, Wenji; Lv, Jie; Lin, Shili

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • 2D network equivalent circuit considers the interplay of cell units. • The temperature non-uniformity Φ of multilayer model is bigger than that of lumped model. • The temperature non-uniformity is quantified and the reason of non-uniformity is analyzed. • Increasing the thermal conductivity of the separator can effectively relieve the heat spot effect of ISC. - Abstract: As the electrical and thermal characteristic will affect the batteries’ safety, performance, calendar life and capacity fading, an electro-thermal coupled model for pouch battery LiFePO_4/C is developed in normal discharge and internal short circuit process. The battery is discretized into many cell elements which are united as a 2D network equivalent circuit. The electro-thermal model is solved with finite difference method. Non-uniformity of current distribution and temperature distribution is simulated and the result is validated with experiment data at various discharge rates. Comparison of the lumped model and the multilayer structure model shows that the temperature non-uniformity Φ of multilayer model is bigger than that of lumped model and shows more precise. The temperature non-uniformity is quantified and the reason of non-uniformity is analyzed. The electro-thermal model can also be used to guide the safety design of battery. The temperature of the ISC element near tabs is the highest because the equivalent resistance of the external circuit (not including the ISC element) is the smallest when the resistance of cell units is small. It is found that increasing the thermal conductivity of integrated layer can effectively relieve the heat spot effect of ISC.

  3. An Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy Study on a Lithium Sulfur Pouch Cell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stroe, Daniel Loan; Knap, Vaclav; Swierczynski, Maciej Jozef

    2016-01-01

    The impedance behavior of a 3.4 Ah pouch Lithium-Sulfur cell was extensively characterized using the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) technique. EIS measurements were performed at various temperatures and over the entire state-of-charge (SOC) interval without applying a superimposed DC...

  4. A Case Report: A Third/Fourth Branchial Pouch Anomaly Presented by Solid Thyroid and Lateral Cervical Neck Masses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasreldin, Magda H A; Ibrahim, Eman A; Saad El-Din, Somaia A

    2016-01-01

    Branchial pouch-derived anomalies may arise from remnants of the first, second, or third/fourth branchial arches. Branchial pouch-related structures are found within the thyroid gland in the form of solid cell rests, epithelial lined cyst with or without an associated lymphoid component, thymic and/or parathyroid tissue, and less commonly in the form of heterotopic cartilage. We present a rare case of left solid thyroid swelling nearby two cervical nodules in a seven-year-old female with a clinical diagnosis suggestive of malignant thyroid tumor with metastasis to the cervical lymph nodes. Histopathological examination revealed that it was compatible with third/fourth branchial pouch-derived anomaly composed of mature cartilage and thymic and parathyroid tissues for clinical and radiological correlations.

  5. A Case Report: A Third/Fourth Branchial Pouch Anomaly Presented by Solid Thyroid and Lateral Cervical Neck Masses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magda H. A. Nasreldin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Branchial pouch-derived anomalies may arise from remnants of the first, second, or third/fourth branchial arches. Branchial pouch-related structures are found within the thyroid gland in the form of solid cell rests, epithelial lined cyst with or without an associated lymphoid component, thymic and/or parathyroid tissue, and less commonly in the form of heterotopic cartilage. We present a rare case of left solid thyroid swelling nearby two cervical nodules in a seven-year-old female with a clinical diagnosis suggestive of malignant thyroid tumor with metastasis to the cervical lymph nodes. Histopathological examination revealed that it was compatible with third/fourth branchial pouch-derived anomaly composed of mature cartilage and thymic and parathyroid tissues for clinical and radiological correlations.

  6. AirPEx. Air Pollution Exposure Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freijer, J.I.; Bloemen, H.J.Th.; De Loos, S.; Marra, M.; Rombout, P.J.A.; Steentjes, G.M.; Van Veen, M.P.

    1997-12-01

    Analysis of inhalatory exposure to air pollution is an important area of investigation when assessing the risks of air pollution for human health. Inhalatory exposure research focuses on the exposure of humans to air pollutants and the entry of these pollutants into the human respiratory tract. The principal grounds for studying the inhalatory exposure of humans to air pollutants are formed by the need for realistic exposure/dose estimates to evaluate the health effects of these pollutants. The AirPEx (Air Pollution Exposure) model, developed to assess the time- and space-dependence of inhalatory exposure of humans to air pollution, has been implemented for use as a Windows 3.1 computer program. The program is suited to estimating various exposure and dose quantities for individuals, as well as for populations and subpopulations. This report describes the fundamentals of the AirPEx model and provides a user manual for the computer program. Several examples included in the report illustrate the possibilities of the AirPEx model in exposure assessment. The model will be used at the National Institute of Public Health and the Environment as a tool in analysing the current exposure of the Dutch population to air pollutants. 57 refs.

  7. [Observation on alpha-SMA during Erigeron Breviscapus (Vant) Hand-Mazz obstructs the evolution of carcinogenesis of golden hamster cheek pouch].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, C T; Zhang, S L; Ding, R Y; Hua, L; Zhong, W J

    2000-06-01

    To observe dynamically that Erigeron Breviscapus (Vant) Hand-Mazz (HEr) affects the expression of alpha-smooth muscle actin (alpha-SMA). To discuss the probable mechanism of obstructing leukoplakia carcinogenesis of this medicine. 120 golden hamsters were randomly divided into model group (48), HEr group (48) and control group (6). HEr was applied to obstruct the evolution of carcinogenesis of golden hamster cheek pouch. Immunohistochemistry was used to detect the expression level of alpha-SMA with cheek pouch specimen that besmears DMBA in 4-9 weeks. Results were compared with model group. Vessel density dyed with alpha-SMA continuously of HEr group was 65.76 significantly higher than that of model group 42.12 (P<0.001). High classification cases in HEr group were much more than model group when cases were divided into five groups as follow: 100%, 50%, 20%, 10%, 3% (P<0.01). HEr can raise the expression level of alpha-SMA exactly during the evolution of leukoplakia carcinogenesis of golden hamster, which shows that this medicine obstructs carcinogenesis by keeping the normal physiological function of vascular myoepithelial cell and integrity of vascular basement membrane.

  8. Successful conservative management of a rare complication of tracheostomy; extensive posterior tracheal false pouch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Jennifer F; Ostwani, Waseem; Green, Glenn

    2016-11-01

    With the advent of improved neonatal and pediatric intensive care management, tracheostomy is increasingly performed in children requiring prolonged ventilation. Even though tracheostomy is generally a safe procedure, there remains mortality and morbidity associated with it. We report a rare complication of a tracheostomy tube resulting in extensive erosion and posterior tracheal false pouch secondary to a large tracheostomy tube and high positive end expiratory pressure in a 12-month-old infant. This was managed successfully with conservative treatment. A former 34-week premature infant was transferred to our pediatrics intensive care unit (PICU) with recurrent episodes of cardiopulmonary arrests due to suspected severe tracheobronchomalacia. The patient has bronchopulomonary dysplasia, severe restrictive lung disease and thoracic insufficiency from skeletal dysplasia requiring tracheostomy tube (TT) at two-month-old and mechanical ventilation. The 3.5 NEO TT was gradually upsized to a 5. The PEEP setting at transfer was 18cmH2O. The direct laryngoscopy and bronchoscopy showed moderate tracheomalacia at the innominate artery with a false pouch in the posterior tracheal wall that was 1.1cm below the tracheostomy stoma. A multi-disciplinary discussion including otolaryngology, PICU, Pulmonary Medicine, and Pediatric Surgery decided on conservative management. The false pouch healed and she was transferred back to referring PICU after a 46-day. Tracheal wall erosion resulting in a pouch formation is a rare complication, but it should be considered in patients with long term tracheostomy with difficulty ventilation and oxygenation with positional change. DLB is a useful tool in its diagnosis and conservative management can be successful. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Stability of 2-Alkylcyclobutanones in irradiated retort pouch Gyudon topping during room temperature storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitagawa, Yoko; Okihashi, Masahiro; Takatori, Satoshi; Fukui, Naoki; Kajimura, Keiji; Obana, Hirotaka; Furuta, Masakazu

    2014-01-01

    2-Alkylcyclobutanones (ACBs), such as 2-dodecylcyclobutanone (DCB) and 2-tetradecylcylobutanone (TCB) are specific products from irradiated lipid. Thus, DCB and TCB are suitable for indicators of the irradiation history of food. The purpose of this study was to clarify the stability of ACBs in food, kept at room temperature for a long period. We evaluated DCB and TCB in irradiated retort pouch Gyudon topping (instant Gyudon mixes which were made from a beef, onion and soy sauce), which could be preserved for a long term at room temperature, after storage for one year. DCB and TCB were detected at doses of 0.6-4.5 kGy in irradiated retort pouch Gyudon topping. The peaks of DCB and TCB were separated from other peaks on the chromatogram with GC-MS. The concentration of DCB and TCB were periodically determined till 12 months later of irradiation. The dose-response curves of DCB and TCB were almost identical with those obtained from the samples after the 12 months storage at room temperature. These results concluded that DCB and TCB formed in retort pouch would stable at room temperature at least 12 months. (author)

  10. The Quechua Manta Pouch: A Caretaking Practice for Buffering the Peruvian Infant against the Multiple Stressors of High Altitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tronick, E. Z.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Describes the caretaking practices employed by the Peruvian Quechua mountain people, who swaddle infants in cloths and blankets (known as a manta pouch) to protect them from the harsh and frigid environment. The practices of 14 mother-infants pairs are examined in detail, and the benefits and drawbacks of the manta pouch are examined. (MDM)

  11. Comparison of functional outcome of colonic J-pouch and latero-terminal anastomosis in low anterior resection for rectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marković, Velimir; Dimitrijević, Ivan; Barišić, Goran; Krivokapić, Zoran

    2015-01-01

    Functional results after low anterior resection for rectal cancer are an issue of increasing attention among colorectal surgeons and others interested in this subject. The consensus on ideal reconstruction type has not been achieved to date, although the number of papers on this subject has been published in recent years. We conducted a prospective, parallel group study comparing latero-terminal with colonic J-pouch anastomosis in terms of defecatory function in patients undergoing stapled low colorectal/ coloanal anastomosis. A total of 80 patients were included in this study with either latero-terminal or colonic J-pouch anastomosis. Defecatory function was evaluated using the modified version of MSKCC questionnaire 6, 12 and 24 months after the operation. Fecal continence was evaluated using the Wexner continence score. In both groups, trend towards improvement was registered in all measured variables in all three control intervals. This can apply to bowel frequency, urgency, night soiling, fragmentation and incomplete evacuation. However, the difference was not statistically significant, and when reviewing the trend of results we can note that in the J-pouch group steady state has not been reached even after 24 month control. This trial did not reveal any significant differences in defecatory function 6, 12 and 24 months after low anterior resection (LAR) between patients with a latero-terminal anastomosis and those with colonic J-pouch anastomosis. Our results did not confirm superiority of colonic J-pouch over the latero-terminal anastomosis

  12. Effect of probiotics (Lactobacillus plantarum 299 plus Bifidobacterium Cure21) in patients with poor ileal pouch function: a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bengtsson, J; Adlerberth, I; Östblom, A; Saksena, P; Öresland, T; Börjesson, L

    2016-09-01

    Poor pouch function after restorative proctocolectomy for ulcerative colitis is a considerable problem. Pouchitis and functional disorders are the most common reasons. Probiotics seem to have a beneficial effect in pouchitis but have not been assessed in functional pouch disorders. The aim was to analyse the effects of probiotics in patients with poor pouch function. Thirty-three patients were randomized to probiotics (Lactobacillus plantarum 299 and Bifidobacterium infantis Cure 21) or placebo in a double blinded, 1:1 fashion. The treatment effect was assessed by the pouch functional score (PFS; 0-15, 15 worst), pouchitis disease activity index (PDAI; 0-18, 18 worst), and levels of four faecal biomarkers of inflammation (calprotectin, lactoferrin, myeloperoxidase [MPO] and eosinophilic cationic protein [ECP]). Thirty-two patients were included (probiotics = 17, placebo = 16). There was no difference in change in the PFS from before to after treatment between the groups (median difference: -1.00, 95% C.I. -3.00 to 0.00, p = 0.119). Furthermore, probiotics had no effect on PDAI (median difference: 0.00, 95% C.I. 0.00-1.00, p = 0.786), or on faecal biomarkers. Significant correlations were observed between PDAI and each of the faecal biomarkers at study start. There were no correlations between PFS or PDAI symptom subscore and the biomarkers. PDAI endoscopic and histologic subscores correlated significantly to each of the biomarkers. The hypothesis that probiotics improves pouch-related dysfunction was not confirmed. Faecal biomarkers could play a future role in the management of pouch patients.

  13. Prevalence of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus from Equine Nasopharyngeal and Guttural Pouch Wash Samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, A G; Rankin, S C; Duffee, L A; Morris, D

    2017-09-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is recognized as a cause of nosocomial infections in both human and veterinary medicine. Studies that examine the nasopharynx and guttural pouches of the horse as carriage sites for MRSA have not been reported. MRSA colonizes the nasopharynx and guttural pouch of horses. To determine the prevalence of MRSA in equine nasopharyngeal wash (NPW) and guttural pouch lavage (GPL) samples in a field population of horses. One hundred seventy-eight samples (123 NPW and 55 GPL) from 108 horses. Prospective study. Samples were collected from a convenience population of clinically ill horses with suspected Streptococcus equi subsp. equi (S. equi) infection, horses convalescing from a known S. equi infection, and asymptomatic horses undergoing S. equi screening. Samples were submitted for S. aureus aerobic bacterial culture with mannitol salt broth and two selective agars (cefoxitin CHROMagar as the PBP2a inducer and mannitol salt agar with oxacillin). Biochemical identification of Staphylococcus species and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), to determine clonal relationships between isolates, were performed. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus (MRS) was isolated from the nasopharynx of 7/108 (4%) horses. Three horses had MRSA (2.7%), and 4 had MR-Staphylococcus pseudintermedius (MRSP). MRSA was isolated from horses on the same farm. PFGE revealed the 3 MRSA as USA 500 strains. Sampling the nasopharynx and guttural pouch of community-based horses revealed a similarly low prevalence rate of MRSA as other studies sampling the nares of community-based horses. More study is required to determine the need for sampling multiple anatomic sites when screening horses for MRSA. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  14. Effects on the pouch of different digestive tract reconstruction modes assessed by radionuclide scintigraphy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dong-Sheng; Xu, Hui-Mian; Han, Chun-Qi; Li, Ya-Ming

    2010-01-01

    AIM: To determine the effect of three digestive tract reconstruction procedures on pouch function, after radical surgery undertaken because of gastric cancer, as assessed by radionuclide dynamic imaging. METHODS: As a measure of the reservoir function, with a designed diet containing technetium-99m (99mTc), the emptying time of the gastric substitute was evaluated using a 99mTc-labeled solid test meal. Immediately after the meal, the patient was placed in front of a γ camera in a supine position and the radioactivity was measured over the whole abdomen every minute. A frame image was obtained. The emptying sequences were recorded by the microprocessor and then stored on a computer disk. According to a computer processing system, the half-emptying actual curve and the fitting curve of food containing isotope in the detected region were depicted, and the half-emptying actual curves of the three reconstruction procedures were directly compared. RESULTS: Of the three reconstruction procedures, the half-emptying time of food containing isotope in the Dual Braun type esophagojejunal anastomosis procedure (51.86 ± 6.43 min) was far closer to normal, significantly better than that of the proximal gastrectomy orthotopic reconstruction (30.07 ± 15.77 min, P = 0.002) and P type esophagojejunal anastomosis (27.88 ± 6.07 min, P = 0.001) methods. The half-emptying actual curve and fitting curves for the Dual Braun type esophagojejunal anastomosis were fairly similar while those of the proximal gastrectomy orthotopic reconstruction and P type esophagojejunal anastomosis were obviously separated, which indicated bad food conservation in the reconstructed pouches. CONCLUSION: Dual Braun type esophagojejunal anastomosis is the most useful of the three procedures for improving food accommodation in patients with a pouch and can retard evacuation of solid food from the reconstructed pouch. PMID:20238408

  15. A paper sheet phantom for scintigraphic planar imaging. Usefulness of pouch-laminated paper source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takaki, Akihiro; Soma, Tsutomu; Murase, Kenya; Teraoka, Satomi; Murakami, Tomonori; Kojima, Akihiro; Matsumoto, Masanori

    2007-01-01

    In order to perform experimental measurements for evaluation of imaging device's performance, data acquisition technique, and clinical images on scintigraphic imaging, many kinds of phantoms are employed. However, since these materials are acrylic and plastic, the thickness and quality of those materials cause attenuation and scatter in itself. We developed a paper sheet phantom sealed with a pouch laminator, which can be a true radioactive source in air. In this study, the paper sheet phantom was compared to the acrylic liver phantom, with the thickness of 2 cm, which is commercially available. The results showed that although some scatter counts were contained within the image of the acrylic liver phantom, there were few scattered photons in the paper sheet phantom image. Furthermore, this laminated paper sheet phantom made handling of the source and its waste easier. If the paper sheet phantom will be designed more sophisticatedly, it becomes a useful tool for planar imaging experiments. (author)

  16. Pouched Rats’ Detection of Tuberculosis in Human Sputum: Comparison to Culturing and Polymerase Chain Reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Mahoney

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Setting. Tanzania. Objective. To compare microscopy as conducted in direct observation of treatment, short course centers to pouched rats as detectors of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Design. Ten pouched rats were trained to detect tuberculosis in sputum using operant conditioning techniques. The rats evaluated 910 samples previously evaluated by smear microscopy. All samples were also evaluated through culturing and multiplex polymerase chain reaction was performed on culture growths to classify the bacteria. Results. The patientwise sensitivity of microscopy was 58.0%, and the patient-wise specificity was 97.3%. Used as a group of 10 with a cutoff (defined as the number of rat indications to classify a sample as positive for Mycobacterium tuberculosis of 1, the rats increased new case detection by 46.8% relative to microscopy alone. The average samplewise sensitivity of the individual rats was 68.4% (range 61.1–73.8%, and the mean specificity was 87.3% (range 84.7–90.3%. Conclusion. These results suggest that pouched rats are a valuable adjunct to, and may be a viable substitute for, sputum smear microscopy as a tuberculosis diagnostic in resource-poor countries.

  17. Effects on the pouch of different digestive tract reconstruction modes assessed by radionuclide scintigraphy

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Dong-Sheng; Xu, Hui-Mian; Han, Chun-Qi; Li, Ya-Ming

    2010-01-01

    AIM: To determine the effect of three digestive tract reconstruction procedures on pouch function, after radical surgery undertaken because of gastric cancer, as assessed by radionuclide dynamic imaging.

  18. Cancer in an unexpected site post pouch surgery for familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar A. Alwahbi

    2018-01-01

    Conclusion: Although the risk of developing adenomas or carcinomas in the ileal pouch post proctocolectomy with IPAA is low it should not be neglected as cancer occurrence or recurrence is unpredictable even with appropriate measures.

  19. Streamline three-dimensional thermal model of a lithium titanate pouch cell battery in extreme temperature conditions with module simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaguemont, Joris; Omar, Noshin; Martel, François; Van den Bossche, Peter; Van Mierlo, Joeri

    2017-11-01

    In this paper, the development of a three-dimensional (3D) lithium titanium oxide (LTO) pouch cell is presented to first better comprehend its thermal behavior within electrified vehicle applications, but also to propose a strong modeling base for future thermal management system. Current 3D-thermal models are based on electrochemical reactions which are in need for elaborated meshing effort and long computational time. There lacks a fast electro-thermal model which can capture voltage, current and thermal distribution variation during the whole process. The proposed thermal model is a reduce-effort temperature simulation approach involving a 0D-electrical model accommodating a 3D-thermal model to exclude electrochemical processes. The thermal model is based on heat-transfer theory and its temperature distribution prediction incorporates internal conduction and heat generation effect as well as convection. In addition, experimental tests are conducted to validate the model. Results show that both the heat dissipation rate and surface temperature uniformity data are in agreement with simulation results, which satisfies the application requirements for electrified vehicles. Additionally, a LTO battery pack sizing and modeling is also designed, applied and displays a non-uniformity of the cells under driving operation. Ultimately, the model will serve as a basis for the future development of a thermal strategy for LTO cells that operate in a large temperature range, which is a strong contribution to the existing body of scientific literature.

  20. Comparative evaluation of antiproliferative, antiangiogenic and apoptosis inducing potential of black tea polyphenols in the hamster buccal pouch carcinogenesis model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prathiba Duvuru

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To evaluate the relative chemopreventive efficacy of two black tea polyphenols, Polyphenon-B [P-B] and BTF-35 on 7,12-dimethylbenz [a]anthracene (DMBA-induced hamster buccal pouch (HBP carcinogenesis. Methods Hamsters were divided into 6 groups. The right buccal pouches of animals in groups 1–3 were painted with 0.5% of DMBA three times a week for 14 weeks. While hamsters in group 1 received no further treatment, animals in groups 2 and 3 received diet containing 0.05% P-B and BTF-35 respectively, four weeks before DMBA painting that was continued until the end of the experiments. Animals in groups 4 and 5 were given P-B and BTF-35 alone respectively as in groups 2 and 3. Group 6 animals served as the untreated control. All the animals were sacrificed after 18 weeks. The expression of p21, cyclin D1, glutathione S-transferase pi (GST-P, nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB, Bcl-2, Bax, cytochrome C, caspase-3, caspase-9, poly(ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP, cytokeratins and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF was analysed by RT-PCR, immunohistochemical and Western blot analyses. Results DMBA treated animals developed buccal pouch carcinomas that displayed increased expression of p21, cyclin D1, GST-P, NF-κB, cytokeratins, VEGF and Bcl-2 with decreased expression of Bax, cytochrome C, caspase-3, caspase-9, and PARP. Dietary administration of both P-B and BTF-35 reduced the incidence of DMBA-induced HBP carcinomas by modulating markers of cell proliferation, cell survival, tumour infiltration, angiogenesis, and apoptosis. Conclusion The results of the present study provide a mechanistic basis for the chemopreventive potential of black tea polyphenols. The greater efficacy of BTF-35 in inhibiting HBP carcinogenesis and modulating multiple molecular targets may have a potential role in the prevention of oral cancer.

  1. J-pouch versus Roux-en-Y reconstruction after gastrectomy: functional assessment and quality of life (randomized trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zonca P

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Pavel Zonča,1,2 Tomáš Malý,3 Peter Ihnát,1,2 Matus Peteja,1,2 Otakar Kraft,4 Kamil Kuca2,5 1Department of Surgery, University Hospital Ostrava, 2Department of Surgical Studies, Faculty of Medicine, University of Ostrava, Ostrava, 3Department of Surgery, University Hospital Olomouc, Olomouc, 4Department of Nuclear Medicine, University Hospital Ostrava, Ostrava, 5Biomedical Research Center, University Hospital Hradec Kralove, Hradec Kralove, Czech Republic Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate the quality of life and functional emptying of J-pouch versus Roux-en-Y reconstruction after total gastrectomy for malignancy. Methods: This study was designed as a prospective, nonblinded, randomized, parallel clinical trial (Trial Number: MN Ostrava, 200604. With informed consent, patients undergoing gastrectomy for malignancy were randomized to J-pouch or Roux-en-Y reconstruction. The time taken for a test semisolid meal labeled with 99mTc-sulfur colloid to exit the reconstructed parts was measured by dynamic scintigraphy 1 year after resection. Quality of life was measured using the Eypasch questionnaire at the same time as functional emptying assessment. This trial was investigator-initiated. Results: In all, 72 patients were included into the study. The time taken for the test meal to exit the postgastrectomy reconstruction was 16.5±10.0 minutes (mean ± standard deviation in the Roux-en-Y group and 89.4±37.8 minutes in the “J-pouch” group; the difference was statistically significant (P<0.001. Emptying of the J-pouch appeared to be a linear decreasing function compared to the exponential pattern seen in the Roux-en-Y group. The quality of life measurement showed scores of 106±18.8 points (mean ± standard deviation in the Roux-en-Y group compared to 122±22.5 points in the J-pouch group; the difference was statistically significant (P=0.0016. There were no important adverse events. Conclusion: After total gastrectomy, a J-pouch

  2. The effects of probiotics on barrier function and mucosal pouch microbiota during maintenance treatment for severe pouchitis in patients with ulcerative colitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Persborn, M.; Gerritsen, J.; Wallon, C.; Carlsson, A.; Akkermans, L.M.A.; Soderholm, J.D.

    2013-01-01

    Background A total of 10-15% of patients with an ileoanal pouch develop severe pouchitis necessitating long-term use of antibiotics or pouch excision. Probiotics reduce the risk of recurrence of pouchitis, but mechanisms behind these effects are not fully understood. Aim To examine mucosal barrier

  3. Functional Evaluation of Modified T Pouch as Ileal Neo bladder Ortho topic Reservoir

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammouda, H.M.

    2004-01-01

    We report on the functional results of ortho topic modified T pouch ileal neo bladder, incorporating serous- lined extra mural ileal anti reflux technique for urinary diversion after radical cystectomy. Material and Methods: From September 1998 through November 2001,42 patients of mean age 49 years (range 45-54) having invasive bladder carcinoma underwent radical cystectomy and ortho topic ileal neo bladder urinary diversion, the modified T pouch. Thirty-three patients were males while the remaining 9 were females. The mean follow up was 24 months (range 18-42). Preoperative unior bilateral ureteral dilatation was noted in 13/42 (30.9%) patients). Follow up included clinical examination, laboratory, radiological and uro dynamic investigations. Early postoperative complications were recorded in 3 cases, that were managed conservatively. Day and night continence were achieved in 34/42 (81 %) and 29/42 (69%) patients, night enuresis in 2 (4.8%),while satisfactory day and night continence were noted, respectively. Upper urinary tract (UUT) remained unchanged or improved in all cases. No need for clean intermittent catherization (CIC). No evidence of reflux was detected. Pressure at maximum capacity (average 17 cm H 2 O at 600 ml). Mean flow rate was 17.6 ml/sec (range 15-24). Pelvic cancer recurrence was recorded in 5 patients at mean 24 months, respectively. Modified T pouch has an excellent functional criteria as an ortho topic ileal neo bladder reservoir. It is absolutely indicated in short and/or massively dilated ureter

  4. Quality of life after ileal pouch-anal anastomosis: an evaluation of diet and other factors using the Cleveland Global Quality of Life instrument.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Coffey, J C

    2012-02-03

    PURPOSE: Although functional results after ileal pouch-anal anastomosis are excellent, imperfections of function do occur. In this setting, quality-of-life assessment is an invaluable tool in determining overall therapeutic efficacy. We evaluated the impact of dietary restrictions, preoperative diagnosis (ulcerative colitis vs. familial adenomatous polyposis), and pregnancy (after pouch insertion) on quality of life. METHODS: After ethical approval, 64 patients were reviewed (mean age, 31 (range, 15-54) years). Long-term quality of life in patients after ileal pouch-anal anastomosis was assessed using the Cleveland Global Quality of Life instrument or Fazio score. The Cleveland Global Quality of Life score is a novel quality-of-life instrument specifically designed for patients with ileal pouches. Stool frequency and continence were recorded to establish the functional status of this group. RESULTS: Sixty-one patients (95.3 percent) complained of some form of dietary restriction and adopted a fixed dietary regimen. All such patients felt that a breach of this regimen would impinge significantly on their quality of life. Late eating and alcohol were associated with diarrhea, whereas smoking was not. Constipation was infrequently reported. The mean Cleveland Global Quality of Life score of patients with ulcerative colitis (0.81 +\\/- 0.13) was greater than that of patients with ulcerative colitis and a background of pouchitis (0.78 +\\/- 0.16; P = 0.042). Whereas postoperative stool frequency in patients with familial adenomatous polyposis was always higher than the preoperative level (4 vs. 2 movements per day; P = 0.04), the Cleveland Global Quality of Life score of this group was lower than that of ulcerative colitis patients (0.77 vs. 0.81; P = 0.047). The Cleveland Global Quality of Life score of females who had had pregnancies after pouch formation was 0.70, significantly lower (P = 0.039) than that of ulcerative colitis patients, although pouch function was

  5. Type V Pouch Colon, Prune Belly Syndrome, and Congenital Anterior Urethrocutaneous Fistula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raj, Prince; Birua, Hirendra

    2017-01-01

    Congenital pouch colon (CPC) or short colon syndrome is a rare type of anorectal malformation(ARM). Type V is the rarest form of CPC. We present a 1-day-old male child with type V CPC with prune belly syndrome and congenital anterior urethrocutaneous fistula (CAUF).

  6. A Case Report: A Third/Fourth Branchial Pouch Anomaly Presented by Solid Thyroid and Lateral Cervical Neck Masses

    OpenAIRE

    Magda H. A. Nasreldin; Eman A. Ibrahim; Somaia A. Saad El-Din

    2016-01-01

    Branchial pouch-derived anomalies may arise from remnants of the first, second, or third/fourth branchial arches. Branchial pouch-related structures are found within the thyroid gland in the form of solid cell rests, epithelial lined cyst with or without an associated lymphoid component, thymic and/or parathyroid tissue, and less commonly in the form of heterotopic cartilage. We present a rare case of left solid thyroid swelling nearby two cervical nodules in a seven-year-old female with a cl...

  7. Barium enema and CT findings of Douglas pouch metastasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyakawa, Kunihisa; Uchiyama, Nachiko; Iinuma, Hajime; Moriyama, Noriyuki

    1999-01-01

    We retrospectively reviewed barium enema and CT findings of Douglas pouch metastasis in 170 patients. The findings were divided into three types: Anterior compression type, anterior fixed folds type, and stenosis type. Patients with gastric cancer usually showed a stenosis type, especially in those with poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma. Patients with colon and ovary cancer usually showed an anterior compression type. In patients with gastric cancer, those who showed a stenosis type had the most favorable prognosis among these three types. (author)

  8. Further assessment of Monkeypox Virus infection in Gambian pouched rats (Cricetomys gambianus) using in vivo bioluminescent imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falendysz, Elizabeth; Lopera, Juan G.; Faye Lorenzsonn,; Salzer, Johanna S.; Hutson, Christina L.; Doty, Jeffrey; Gallardo-Romero, Nadia; Carroll, Darin S.; Osorio, Jorge E.; Rocke, Tonie E.

    2015-01-01

    Monkeypox is a zoonosis clinically similar to smallpox in humans. Recent evidence has shown a potential risk of increased incidence in central Africa. Despite attempts to isolate the virus from wild rodents and other small mammals, no reservoir host has been identified. In 2003,Monkeypox virus (MPXV) was accidentally introduced into the U.S. via the pet trade and was associated with the Gambian pouched rat (Cricetomys gambianus). Therefore, we investigated the potential reservoir competence of the Gambian pouched rat for MPXV by utilizing a combination of in vivo and in vitro methods. We inoculated three animals by the intradermal route and three animals by the intranasal route, with one mock-infected control for each route. Bioluminescent imaging (BLI) was used to track replicating virus in infected animals and virological assays (e.g. real time PCR, cell culture) were used to determine viral load in blood, urine, ocular, nasal, oral, and rectal swabs. Intradermal inoculation resulted in clinical signs of monkeypox infection in two of three animals. One severely ill animal was euthanized and the other affected animal recovered. In contrast, intranasal inoculation resulted in subclinical infection in all three animals. All animals, regardless of apparent or inapparent infection, shed virus in oral and nasal secretions. Additionally, BLI identified viral replication in the skin without grossly visible lesions. These results suggest that Gambian pouched rats may play an important role in transmission of the virus to humans, as they are hunted for consumption and it is possible for MPXV-infected pouched rats to shed infectious virus without displaying overt clinical signs.

  9. Mesh Migration into the J-Pouch in a Patient with Post-Ulcerative Colitis Colectomy: A Case Report and Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asem Ghanim

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Mesh repair offers advantages like lower postsurgical pain and earlier return to work. Thus, it has become a widely used treatment option. Here, we present the first case report of a mesh migration into a J-pouch in a patient with history of ulcerative colitis who underwent total abdominal colectomy with J-pouch and ileoanal anastomosis and a subsequent laparoscopic ventral hernia repair with mesh.

  10. Processing of chopped mussel meat in retort pouch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giustino TRIBUZI

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Chopped mussel meat packaged in retort pouches was processed in a laboratory-scale water immersion retort, adapted for processing under overpressure conditions. Retort temperature effects on product yield and on cook value were evaluated by setting the F0 at 7 min. The effects of different pre-treatments (salting and marination on the characteristics of mussels were evaluated after processing at retort temperature of 118 °C and during a whole year of storage at 25 °C. The salted samples showed better yield during storage, while no differences were found for the other physicochemical parameters.

  11. Topical methotrexate pretreatment enhances the therapeutic effect of topical 5-aminolevulinic acid-mediated photodynamic therapy on hamster buccal pouch precancers

    OpenAIRE

    Deng-Fu Yang; Jeng-Woei Lee; Hsin-Ming Chen; Yih-Chih Hsu

    2014-01-01

    Topical 5-aminolevulinic acid-mediated photodynamic therapy (ALA-PDT) is effective for treatment of human oral precancerous lesions. This animal study aimed to assess whether topical methotrexate (MTX) pretreatment could enhance the therapeutic effect of topical ALA-PDT on hamster buccal pouch precancerous lesions. Methods: Twenty hamster buccal pouch precancerous lesions were treated with either topical ALA-PDT with topical MTX pretreatment (topical MTX-ALA-PDT group, n = 10) or topical A...

  12. Sources and severity of self-reported food intolerance after ileal pouch-anal anastomosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenhagen, E.; Roos, de N.M.; Bouwman, C.A.; Laarhoven, van C.J.H.M.; Staveren, van W.A.

    2006-01-01

    Data on food intolerance after ileal pouch-anal anastomosis are scarce. The aim of this study was to identify foods causing intolerance and to determine the nature and severity of reported symptoms. Patients from the Dutch Crohn's and Ulcerative Colitis Association were mailed a survey on food

  13. Functional morphology of the brain of the African giant pouched rat (Cricetomys gambianus Waterhouse, 1840

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chikera S. Ibe

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available A gross morphological study of the brain of the African giant pouched rat (Cricetomys gambianus Waterhouse, 1840 was undertaken in order to document its normal features and assess the structure-function paradigm. The study was conducted by direct observation of 29 adult African giant pouched rats’ brains. In the telencephalon, the cerebral cortex was devoid of prominent gyri and sulci, but the large olfactory bulb and tract relaying impulses to the olfactory cortex were very prominent. The large size of the olfactory bulb correlated with the established sharp olfactory acuity of the rodent. In the mesencephalic tectum, the caudal colliculi were bigger than the rostral colliculi, indicating a more acute sense of hearing than sight. In the metencephalon, the cerebellar vermis, the flocculus and the paraflocculus were highly coiled and, thus, well developed. The myelencephalon revealed a better organised ventral surface than dorsal surface; the cuneate fascicle, the intermediate sulcus and the lateral sulcus were not evident on the dorsal surface, but there were clearly visible pyramids and olivary prominence on the ventral surface. In conclusion, the highly coiled cerebellar vermis, flocculus and paraflocculus, as well as the conspicuous pyramids and olivary prominence are indicative of a good motor coordination and balance in the African giant pouched rat.

  14. Similar Outcome After Colonic Pouch and Side-to-End Anastomosis in Low Anterior Resection for Rectal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Mikael; Nygren, Jonas; Goldman, Sven; Ljungqvist, Olle

    2003-01-01

    Objectives To compare a colonic J-pouch or a side-to-end anastomosis after low-anterior resection for rectal cancer with regard to functional and surgical outcome. Summary Background Data: A complication after restorative rectal surgery with a straight anastomosis is low- anterior resection syndrome with a postoperatively deteriorated anorectal function. The colonic J-reservoir is sometimes used with the purpose of reducing these symptoms. An alternative method is to use a simple side-to-end anastomosis. Methods: One-hundred patients with rectal cancer undergoing total mesorectal excision and colo-anal anastomosis were randomized to receive either a colonic pouch or a side-to-end anastomosis using the descending colon. Surgical results and complications were recorded. Patients were followed with a functional evaluation at 6 and 12 months postoperatively. Results: Fifty patients were randomized to each group. Patient characteristics in both groups were very similar regarding age, gender, tumor level, and Dukes’ stages. A large proportion of the patients received short-term preoperative radiotherapy (78%). There was no significant difference in surgical outcome between the 2 techniques with respect to anastomotic height (4 cm), perioperative blood loss (500 ml), hospital stay (11 days), postoperative complications, reoperations or pelvic sepsis rates. Comparing functional results in the 2 study groups, only the ability to evacuate the bowel in <15 minutes at 6 months reached a significant difference in favor of the pouch procedure. Conclusions: The data from this study show that either a colonic J-pouch or a side-to-end anastomosis performed on the descending colon in low-anterior resection with total mesorectal excision are methods that can be used with similar expected functional and surgical results. PMID:12894014

  15. Intestinal Parasites and Anthelmintic Treatments in a Laboratory Colony of Wild-caught African Pouched Rats (Cricetomys ansorgei)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullin, Cassandra O; Sellers, Matthew S; Rogers, Erin R; Scott, Kathleen E; Lee, Danielle N; Ophir, Alexander G; Jackson, Todd A

    2017-01-01

    African giant pouched rats (Cricetomys spp.) are large rodents native to subSaharan Africa. Wild-caught pouched rats identified as Cricetomys ansorgei (n = 49) were imported from Tanzania. A survey of gastrointestinal parasitism by fecal flotation revealed the presence of multiple parasites, including Nippostrongylus spp., Heterakis spp., Trichuris spp., Hymenolepis spp., Raillietina spp., and Eimeria spp. Oral self-administered fenbendazole (150 ppm), topical moxidectin (2 mg/kg), pyrantel pamoate (15 mg/kg), piperazine (100 mg/kg daily), and injectable ivermectin (0.25 mg/kg) were used to determine effective treatment options for the gastrointestinal parasites present in the colony. Pyrantel pamoate in a treat vehicle and piperazine in water bottles were easily administered and significantly reduced the numbers of animals shedding Nippostrongylus spp. and Heterakis spp. during the study. Moxidectin and ivermectin were clinically ineffective at reducing fecal egg shedding. Fenbendazole was most effective at clearing infection with Trichuris spp. Although 10 mg/kg praziquantel was ineffective, a single dose of 30 mg/kg praziquantel significantly reduced the number of African pouched rats that shed cestode embryos. A combination treatment may be necessary to successfully treat all parasites present in any given animal. PMID:28935004

  16. Prune belly syndrome with pouch colon and absent dermatome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baba, Aejaz A; Hussain, Syed A; Shera, Altaf H; Patnaik, Rekha

    2010-01-01

    Prune belly syndrome (PBS) is a rare congenital constellation of defects in pediatric surgical practice. Although anorectal anomalies have been reported in association with PBS, only few case of pouch colon with PBS has been reported. [1] In addition, our patient had deficient abdominal wall with absent dermatome in left upper quadrant, which has never been reported in the English literature. This association with abdominal wall deficiency and absent dermatome not only strengthens the theory of mesodermal arrest in the etiology of PBS but also points towards a defect in the ectodermal development.

  17. Interposition of Ileal J-Pouch for Rectum Reconstruction in Dog

    OpenAIRE

    Leila Ghahramani; Saeed Yazdani; Saeed Derakhshani; Abbas Rezaianzadeh; Reza Jalli; Bita Geramizadeh; Ali Reza Safarpour; Salar Rahimikazerooni; Seyed Vahid Hosseini

    2014-01-01

    Background: The gold standard of the management of rectal cancer in the middle and lower parts is low anterior resection with coloanal anastomosis. About 50% of the patients undergoing this procedure might experience some complications because of the low capacity of the neorectum. The aim of this study was to evaluate ileal J-pouch interposition as a neorectum between the anal canal and the remaining colon in comparison to coloanal anastomosis and transverse coloplasty. Methods: Twelve do...

  18. Report of a Case and Review of Literature of Internal Hernia through Peritoneal Defect in Pouch of Douglas: A Rare Occurrence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthukumar, Vamseedharan; Venugopal, Sarveswaran; Subramaniam, Surees Kumar

    2017-01-01

    Intestinal obstruction attributable to internal hernia as a cause is a rare phenomenon with a reported incidence of 0.6%-5.8%. Internal hernias ensuing as a result of defect in the pouch of Douglas is extremely rare with only six such cases reported so far in the literature. We present a case of 74-year-old posthysterectomy status female who presented with features of intestinal obstruction. Intraoperatively, the site of obstruction was found to be a rent in the peritoneum of the pouch of Douglas through which a loop of ileum was found herniating. The viability of the bowel was confirmed, and the defect was closed. The postoperative course was uneventful. This report presents an extremely rare type of internal hernia caused by defect in the pouch of Douglas and review of the literature so far available.

  19. A Case of Enlarged Intracranial Translucency in a Fetus with Blake’s Pouch Cyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ambra Iuculano

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The intracranial translucency (IT is a recently introduced marker of open spina bifida (OSB. In this study, we describe a case of a fetus affected by Blake’s pouch cyst which showed alterations of BS/BSOB ratio at the first trimester screening.

  20. Alveolar ridge augmentation by connective tissue grafting using a pouch method and modified connective tissue technique: A prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Ashish; Gupta, Narinder Dev

    2015-01-01

    Localized alveolar ridge defect may create physiological and pathological problems. Developments in surgical techniques have made it simpler to change the configuration of a ridge to create a more aesthetic and more easily cleansable shape. The purpose of this study was to compare the efficacy of alveolar ridge augmentation using a subepithelial connective tissue graft in pouch and modified connective tissue graft technique. In this randomized, double blind, parallel and prospective study, 40 non-smoker individuals with 40 class III alveolar ridge defects in maxillary anterior were randomly divided in two groups. Group I received modified connective tissue graft, while group II were treated with subepithelial connective tissue graft in pouch technique. The defect size was measured in its horizontal and vertical dimension by utilizing a periodontal probe in a stone cast at base line, after 3 months, and 6 months post surgically. Analysis of variance and Bonferroni post-hoc test were used for statistical analysis. A two-tailed P connective tissue graft proposed significantly more improvement as compare to connective tissue graft in pouch.

  1. Towards Sensor-Actuator Coupling in an Automated Order Picking System by Detecting Sealed Seams on Pouch Packed Goods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Weichert

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a novel concept of coupling the actuators of an automated order picking system for pouch packed goods with an embedded CCD camera sensor by means of image processing and machine learning is presented. The picking system mechanically combines the conveyance and singularization of a still-connected chain of pouch packed goods in a single machinery. The proposed algorithms perform a per-frame processing of the captured images in real-time to detect the sealed seams of the ongoing pouches. The detections are used to deduce cutting decisions in order to control the system’s actuators, namely the drive pulley for conveyance and the cutting device for the separation. Within this context, two controlling strategies are presented as well which specify the interaction of the sensor and the actuators. The detection is carried out by two different marker detection strategies: enhanced Template Matching as a heuristic and Support Vector Machines as a supervised classification based concept. Depending on the employed marker, detection rates of almost 100% with a calculation time of less than 40 ms are possible. From a logistic point of view, sealed seam widths of 20 mm prove feasible.

  2. Preliminary study of tissue concentrations of penicillin after local administration into the guttural pouches in four healthy horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendall, A; Mayhew, I G; Petrovski, K

    2016-08-01

    Treatment of subclinical carriers of Streptococcus equi subsp. equi with a gelatine-penicillin formulation deposited in the guttural pouch has been empirically proposed, but data on local tissue penicillin concentrations after treatment are lacking. We analysed tissue levels of penicillin after administration into the guttural pouches of four healthy horses. Two horses received local treatment with gelatine-penicillin and two horses received local treatment with an intramammary formulation of penicillin. Tissues were harvested for analysis either 12 or 24 h later. Results indicate that local treatment may be effective, but more research on optimal drug formulations in a larger sample size is warranted. © 2016 Australian Veterinary Association.

  3. Prune belly syndrome with pouch colon and absent dermatome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baba Aejaz

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Prune belly syndrome (PBS is a rare congenital constellation of defects in pediatric surgical practice. Although anorectal anomalies have been reported in association with PBS, only few case of pouch colon with PBS has been reported. [1] In addition, our patient had deficient abdominal wall with absent dermatome in left upper quadrant, which has never been reported in the English literature. This association with abdominal wall deficiency and absent dermatome not only strengthens the theory of mesodermal arrest in the etiology of PBS but also points towards a defect in the ectodermal development.

  4. Using Trained Pouched Rats to Detect Land Mines: Another Victory for Operant Conditioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poling, Alan; Weetjens, Bart; Cox, Christophe; Beyene, Negussie W.; Bach, Harvard; Sully, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    We used giant African pouched rats ("Cricetomys gambianus") as land mine-detection animals in Mozambique because they have an excellent sense of smell, weigh too little to activate mines, and are native to sub-Saharan Africa, and therefore are resistant to local parasites and diseases. In 2009 the rats searched 93,400 m[superscript 2] of…

  5. Internal hernia through the pouch of douglas after hysterectomy: A case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Dong Jin; Cho, Seung Hyun; Shin, Hyun Woong; Kim, Tae Eun; Kim, Byung Young; Kim, Hee Jin

    2012-01-01

    Internal hernia is a rare cause of small bowel obstruction. Among the different types of internal hernias, the pelvic hernia is extremely rare. We report the radiographic findings of a patient with a Douglas pouch hernia presenting with closed loop obstruction at the anterior aspect of the distal rectum. The patient was a 60 year old female, who had undergone a hysterectomy 20 years prior, for treatment of a uterine myoma

  6. Endoscopic Removal of a Giant Gastric Bezoar in a Gastric pouch Diverticulum

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-15

    the bezoar was noted to be hard , requiring a tooth forcep to penetrate the outer shell. This maneuver was followed by transection of the bezoars into...of the grinding mechanism. Our patient had multiple risk factors to include post-surgical anatomy of gastric pouch, compounded by formation of a...It should be noted that certain phytobezoars (eg. Persimmons) are often resistant to chemical dissolution because of their hard consistency

  7. Use of a laparoscopic specimen retrieval pouch to facilitate removal of intact or fragmented cystic calculi from standing sedated horses: 8 cases (2012-2015).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katzman, Scott A; Vaughan, Betsy; Nieto, Jorge E; Galuppo, Larry D

    2016-08-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate the use of a laparoscopic specimen retrieval pouch for removal of intact or fragmented cystic calculi from standing horses. DESIGN Retrospective case series. ANIMALS 8 horses (5 geldings and 3 mares) with cystic calculi. PROCEDURES Physical examination and cystoscopic, ultrasonographic, and hematologic evaluations of urinary tract function were performed for each horse. A diagnosis of cystic calculus was made on the basis of results of cystoscopy and ultrasonography. Concurrent urolithiasis or other urinary tract abnormalities identified during preoperative evaluation were recorded. Horses were sedated and placed in standing stocks, and the perineum was aseptically prepared. Direct access to the urinary bladder was gained in geldings via perineal urethrotomy or in mares by a transurethral approach. Calculi were visualized endoscopically, manipulated into the retrieval pouch, and removed intact or fragmented (for larger calculi). RESULTS For 4 geldings and 1 mare, fragmentation was necessary to facilitate calculus removal. Mean duration of surgery was 125 minutes, and trauma to the urinary bladder and urethra was limited to areas of hyperemia and submucosal petechiation. No postoperative complications were encountered for any horse. When lithotripsy was required, the retrieval pouch provided an effective means of stabilizing calculi and containing the fragments for removal. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Use of the laparoscopic specimen retrieval pouch was an effective, minimally traumatic method for retrieving cystic calculi from standing horses. The pouch protected the urinary bladder and urethra from trauma during calculus removal and allowed for stabilization, containment, and fragmentation of calculi when necessary.

  8. Surgery versus endoscopic cauterization in patients with third or fourth branchial pouch sinuses : A systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Derks, Laura S M; Veenstra, Hidde J.; Oomen, Karin P Q; Speleman, Lucienne; Stegeman, Inge

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To systematically review the current literature on treatment of third and fourth branchial pouch sinuses with endoscopic cauterization, including chemocauterization and electrocauterization, in comparison to surgical treatment. Data Sources PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane Library. Review

  9. Tunguska, 1908: the gas pouch and soil fluidization hypothesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nistor, I.

    2012-01-01

    The Siberian taiga explosion of 30 June 1908 remains one of the great mysteries of the 20th century: millions of trees put down over an area of 2200 km2 without trace of a crater or meteorite fragments. Hundred years of failed searches have followed, resulting in as many flawed hypothesis which could not offer satisfactory explanations: meteorite, comet, UFO, etc. In the author's opinion, the cause is that the energy the explorers looked for was simply not there! The author's hypothesis is that a meteoroid encountered a gas pouch in the atmosphere, producing a devastating explosion, its effects being amplified by soil fluidization.

  10. Inhibitory effect of vitamin D-binding protein-derived macrophage activating factor on DMBA-induced hamster cheek pouch carcinogenesis and its derived carcinoma cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyohara, Yukiyo; Hashitani, Susumu; Kishimoto, Hiromitsu; Noguchi, Kazuma; Yamamoto, Nobuto; Urade, Masahiro

    2011-07-01

    This study investigated the inhibitory effect of vitamin D-binding protein-derived macrophage-activating factor (GcMAF) on carcinogenesis and tumor growth, using a 9,10-dimethyl-1,2-benzanthracene (DMBA)-induced hamster cheek pouch carcinogenesis model, as well as the cytocidal effect of activated macrophages against HCPC-1, a cell line established from DMBA-induced cheek pouch carcinoma. DMBA application induced squamous cell carcinoma in all 15 hamsters of the control group at approximately 10 weeks, and all 15 hamsters died of tumor burden within 20 weeks. By contrast, 2 out of the 14 hamsters with GcMAF administration did not develop tumors and the remaining 12 hamsters showed a significant delay of tumor development for approximately 3.5 weeks. The growth of tumors formed was significantly suppressed and none of the hamsters died within the 20 weeks during which they were observed. When GcMAF administration was stopped at the 13th week of the experiment in 4 out of the 14 hamsters in the GcMAF-treated group, tumor growth was promoted, but none of the mice died within the 20-week period. On the other hand, when GcMAF administration was commenced after the 13th week in 5 out of the 15 hamsters in the control group, tumor growth was slightly suppressed and all 15 hamsters died of tumor burden. However, the mean survival time was significantly extended. GcMAF treatment activated peritoneal macrophages in vitro and in vivo, and these activated macrophages exhibited a marked cytocidal effect on HCPC-1 cells. Furthermore, the cytocidal effect of activated macrophages was enhanced by the addition of tumor-bearing hamster serum. These findings indicated that GcMAF possesses an inhibitory effect on tumor development and growth in a DMBA-induced hamster cheek pouch carcinogenesis model.

  11. Air quality dispersion models from energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazarevska, Ana

    1996-01-01

    Along with the continuing development of new air quality models that cover more complex problems, in the Clean Air Act, legislated by the US Congress, a consistency and standardization of air quality model applications were encouraged. As a result, the Guidelines on Air Quality Models were published, which are regularly reviewed by the Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards, EPA. These guidelines provide a basis for estimating the air quality concentrations used in accessing control strategies as well as defining emission limits. This paper presents a review and analysis of the recent versions of the models: Simple Terrain Stationary Source Model; Complex Terrain Dispersion Model; Ozone,Carbon Monoxide and Nitrogen Dioxide Models; Long Range Transport Model; Other phenomenon Models:Fugitive Dust/Fugitive Emissions, Particulate Matter, Lead, Air Pathway Analyses - Air Toxic as well as Hazardous Waste. 8 refs., 4 tabs., 2 ills

  12. Modelling Hot Air Balloons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brimicombe, M. W.

    1991-01-01

    A macroscopic way of modeling hot air balloons using a Newtonian approach is presented. Misleading examples using a car tire and the concept of hot air rising are discussed. Pressure gradient changes in the atmosphere are used to explain how hot air balloons work. (KR)

  13. [Histologic study on impeding leukoplakia carcinogenesis of golden hamster cheek pouch about Erigeron breviscapus (Vant) Hand-Mazz].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, C T; Zhong, W J; Hua, L; Hu, H F; Jin, Z G

    2000-06-01

    To observe the effect of Erigeron breviscapus (Vant) Hand Mazz (HEr) in impeding oral leukoplakia carcinogenesis, and to seek effective Chinese herb medicine that can impede precarcinoma of oral mucosas. 132 golden hamsters were randomly divided into model group (60 animals), HEr group (60 animals), and control group 12 animals. Salley's leukoplakia carcinogenesis model of golden hamster cheek pouch was used in this study. HEr was injected into the stomach to impede evolution of carcinogenesis. Pathological specimens were observed via naked eye and light microscope between model group and HEr group. Results were compared. Observation via naked-eye showed that leukoplakia rate of HEr group (18.2%) was lower than that of model group (27.3%). Observation via light microscope showed that carcinogenesis rate descended one fold and displasia rate descended 0.4 fold in HEr group. HEr has exact effect in impeding leukoplakia carcinogenesis.

  14. Combination therapies in adjuvant with topical ALA-mediated photodynamic therapy for DMBA-induced hamster buccal pouch premalignant lesions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Deng-Fu; Hsu, Yih-Chih

    2012-03-01

    In Taiwan, oral cancer has becomes the fastest growth male cancer disease due to the betel nut chewing habit combing with smoking and alcohol-drinking lifestyle of people. In order to eliminate the systemic phototoxic effect of 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA), this study was designed to use a topical ALA-mediated PDT for treatment of DMBA-induced hamster buccal pouch precancerous lesions. DMBA was applied to one of the buccal pouches of hamsters thrice a week for 10 to 12 weeks. Cancerous lesions were induced and proven by histological examination. These DMBA-induced cancerous lesions were used for testing the efficacy of topical ALA-mediated PDT. Before PDT, fluorescence spectroscopy was used to determine when ALA reached its peak level in the lesional epithelial cells after topical application of ALA gel. We found that ALA reached its peak level in precancerous lesions about 2.5 hrs after topical application of ALA gel. The cancerous lesions in hamsters were then treated with topical ALA -mediated PDT with light exposure dose of 150 J/cm2 using LED 635 nm fiber-guided light device. Visual examination demonstrated that adjuvant topical ALA -mediated PDT group has shown better therapeutic results in compared to those of non-adjuvant topical ALA-mediated PDT group for DMBA-induced hamster buccal pouch precancerous lesions.

  15. A review of air exchange rate models for air pollution exposure assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breen, Michael S; Schultz, Bradley D; Sohn, Michael D; Long, Thomas; Langstaff, John; Williams, Ronald; Isaacs, Kristin; Meng, Qing Yu; Stallings, Casson; Smith, Luther

    2014-11-01

    A critical aspect of air pollution exposure assessments is estimation of the air exchange rate (AER) for various buildings where people spend their time. The AER, which is the rate of exchange of indoor air with outdoor air, is an important determinant for entry of outdoor air pollutants and for removal of indoor-emitted air pollutants. This paper presents an overview and critical analysis of the scientific literature on empirical and physically based AER models for residential and commercial buildings; the models highlighted here are feasible for exposure assessments as extensive inputs are not required. Models are included for the three types of airflows that can occur across building envelopes: leakage, natural ventilation, and mechanical ventilation. Guidance is provided to select the preferable AER model based on available data, desired temporal resolution, types of airflows, and types of buildings included in the exposure assessment. For exposure assessments with some limited building leakage or AER measurements, strategies are described to reduce AER model uncertainty. This review will facilitate the selection of AER models in support of air pollution exposure assessments.

  16. Stochastic Modeling of Traffic Air Pollution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thoft-Christensen, Palle

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, modeling of traffic air pollution is discussed with special reference to infrastructures. A number of subjects related to health effects of air pollution and the different types of pollutants are briefly presented. A simple model for estimating the social cost of traffic related air...... and using simple Monte Carlo techniques to obtain a stochastic estimate of the costs of traffic air pollution for infrastructures....... pollution is derived. Several authors have published papers on this very complicated subject, but no stochastic modelling procedure have obtained general acceptance. The subject is discussed basis of a deterministic model. However, it is straightforward to modify this model to include uncertain parameters...

  17. Teaching giant african pouched rats to find landmines: operant conditioning with real consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poling, Alan; Weetjens, Bart J; Cox, Christophe; Beyene, Negussie; Bach, Håvard; Sully, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    Giant African pouched rats recently have been used as mine-detection animals in Mozambique. To provide an example of the wide range of problems to which operant conditioning procedures can be applied and to illustrate the common challenges often faced in applying those procedures, this manuscript briefly describes how the rats are trained and used operationally. To date, the rats have performed well and it appears they can play a valuable role in humanitarian demining.

  18. Using Trained Pouched Rats (Cricetomys Gambianus) to Detect Land Mines: Another Victory for Operant Conditioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poling, Alan; Weetjens, Bart; Cox, Christophe; Beyene, Negussie W.; Bach, Harvard; Sully, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    We used giant African pouched rats ("Cricetomys gambianus") as land mine-detection animals in Mozambique because they have an excellent sense of smell, weigh too little to activate mines, and are native to sub-Saharan Africa, and therefore are resistant to local parasites and diseases. In 2009 the rats searched 93,400 m[superscript 2] of…

  19. Temporary Relocation of the Testes in Anteromedial Thigh Pouches Facilitates Delayed Primary Scrotal Wound Closure in Fournier Gangrene With Extensive Loss of Scrotal Skin-Experience With 12 Cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okwudili, Obi Anselm

    2016-03-01

    To share our experience on the use of temporary testicular thigh pouches to facilitate scrotal wound closure in Fournier gangrene with extensive loss of scrotal skin. Patients seen over a 10-year period who had extensive (>50%) loss of scrotal skin precluding delayed primary closure of the residual scrotal skin over the testes were documented. Patients had serial debridement as required with scrotal wound dressing until healthy granulation tissue was achieved. The testes were placed temporarily in anteromedial thigh pouches to allow for scrotal wound closure. In the postoperative period, the testes were gradually massaged back into the residual scrotal pouch, thus acting as natural tissue expanders. Mean patient age was 38.1 ± 10.0 years. Mean duration of admission was 24.4 ± 4.7 days. Identified predisposing factors were ischiorectal fossa abscess in 2 patients and urethral stricture in 1 patient. The rest were idiopathic. Mean Fournier gangrene severity index was 6.0 ± 1.3. Mean number of debridements was 2.3 ± 0.5. There was no mortality. The residual scrotal pouches expanded sufficiently over time (3-8 months) to accommodate the testes. Normal testicular volume was maintained in all patients. Mean testicular volume was 19.0 ± 3.2 cm. Follow-up was for 14.8 ± 9.7 months. Temporarily relocating the testes in anteromedial thigh pouches facilitates scrotal wound closure in Fournier gangrene with extensive loss of scrotal skin and obviates the need for specialized reconstructive surgery.

  20. Topical photosan-mediated photodynamic therapy for DMBA-induced hamster buccal pouch early cancer lesions: an in vivo study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Yih-Chih; Chang, Walter Hong-Shong; Chang, Junn-Liang; Liu, Kuang-Ting; Chiang, Chun-Pin; Liu, Chung-Ji; Chen, Chih-Ping

    2011-03-01

    Oral cancer has becomes the most prominent cancer disease in recent years in Taiwan. The reason is the betel nut chewing habit combing with smoking and alcohol-drinking lifestyle of people results in oral cancer becomes the fastest growth incident cancer amongst other major cancer diseases. In previous studies showed that photosan, haematoporphyrin derivative (HPD), has demonstrated effective PDT results on human head and neck disease studies. To avoid the systemic phototoxic effect of photosan, this study was designed to use a topical photosan-mediated PDT for treatment of DMBA-induced hamster buccal pouch cancerous lesions. DMBA was applied to one of the buccal pouches of hamsters thrice a week for 10 to 12 weeks. Cancerous lesions were induced and proven by histological examination. These DMBA-induced cancerous lesions were used for testing the efficacy of topical photosan-mediated PDT. Before PDT, fluorescence spectroscopy was used to determine when photosan reached its peak level in the lesional epithelial cells after topical application of photosan gel. We found that photosan reached its peak level in cancerous lesions about 13.5 min after topical application of photosan gel. The cancerous lesions in hamsters were then treated with topical photosan-mediated PDT (fluence rate: 600 mW/cm2; light exposure dose 200 J/cm2) using the portable Lumacare 635 nm fiber-guided light device. Visual examination demonstrated that topical photosan-mediated PDT was an applicable treatment modality for DMBA-induced hamster buccal pouch cancerous lesions.

  1. J-pouch vs. side-to-end anastomosis after hand-assisted laparoscopic low anterior resection for rectal cancer: A prospective randomized trial on short and long term outcomes including life quality and functional results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okkabaz, Nuri; Haksal, Mustafa; Atici, Ali Emre; Altuntas, Yunus Emre; Gundogan, Ersin; Gezen, Fazli Cem; Oncel, Mustafa

    2017-11-01

    To analyze the outcomes of j-pouch and side-to-end anastomosis in rectal cancer patients treated with laparoscopic hand-assisted low anterior resection. Prospective trial on cases randomized to have a colonic j-pouch or a side-to-end anastomosis after low anterior resection. Demographics, characteristics of disease and treatment, perioperative results, and functional outcomes and life quality were compared between the groups. Seventy four patients were randomized. Reservoir creation was withdrawn in 17 (23%) patients, mostly related to reach problem (n = 11, 64.7%). Anastomotic leakage rate was significantly higher in j-pouch group (8 [27.6%] vs. 0, p = 0.004). Stoma closure could not be achieved in 16 (28.1%) patients. Life quality and functional outcomes, measured 4, 8 and 12 months after the stoma reversal, were similar. Colonic j-pouch and side-to-end anastomosis are similar regarding perioperative measures including operation time, rates of postoperative complications, reoperation and 30-day mortality, and hospitalization period except anastomotic leak rate, which is higher in j-pouch group. Postoperative aspects are not different in patients receiving either technique including functional outcomes and life quality for the first year after stoma closure. In our opinion, both techniques may be preferred during the daily practice while performing laparoscopic surgery; but surgeons may be aware of a possibly higher anastomotic leak rate in case of a j-pouch. Copyright © 2017 IJS Publishing Group Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Effect of gamma-radiation on migration of additives in laminated flexible plastic pouches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Variyar, Prasad S.; Rao, B.Y.K.; Alur, M.D.; Thomas, Paul

    2000-01-01

    Effect of gamma-radiation (7.5 kGy) on migration of chemical constituents from laminated (LDP/Nylon/EAA) plastic pouches into water as simulant was studied. The compounds migrating into water were concentrated, separated on TLC and analyzed using GC/MS. Some of the migrant compounds identified were p-toluene sulfonamide, di-n-butyl phthalate, di-isobutyl phthalate, hexadecanoic acid and lyxononitrile. The non-irradiated control sample did not show the presence of any of these compounds. (author)

  3. Determination of the behavior and performance of commercial Li-Ion pouch cells by means of isothermal calorimeter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khan, Mohammad Rezwan; Swierczynski, Maciej Jozef; Kær, Søren Knudsen

    2016-01-01

    In this experiment-based research, there is an attempt to determine the evolution of surface temperature distribution, thermal behaviour and performance of a battery cell at the same time. The pouch type commercial test cell has a 13Ah capacity and Lithium Titanate Oxide (LTO) based anode...

  4. Hand-assisted hybrid laparoscopic-robotic total proctocolectomy with ileal pouch--anal anastomosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morelli, Luca; Guadagni, Simone; Mariniello, Maria Donatella; Furbetta, Niccolò; Pisano, Roberta; D'Isidoro, Cristiano; Caprili, Giovanni; Marciano, Emanuele; Di Candio, Giulio; Boggi, Ugo; Mosca, Franco

    2015-08-01

    Few studies have reported minimally invasive total proctocolectomy with ileal pouch-anal anastomosis (IPAA) for ulcerative colitis (UC) and familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP). We herein report a novel hand-assisted hybrid laparoscopic-robotic technique for patients with FAP and UC. Between February 2010 and March 2014, six patients underwent hand-assisted hybrid laparoscopic-robotic total proctocolectomy with IPAA. The abdominal colectomy was performed laparoscopically with hand assistance through a transverse suprapubic incision, also used to fashion the ileal pouch. The proctectomy was carried out with the da Vinci Surgical System. The IPAA was hand-sewn through a trans-anal approach. The procedure was complemented by a temporary diverting loop ileostomy. The mean hand-assisted laparoscopic surgery (HALS) time was 154.6 (±12.8) min whereas the mean robotic time was 93.6 (±8.1) min. In all cases, a nerve-sparing proctectomy was performed, and no conversion to traditional laparotomy was required. The mean postoperative hospital stay was 13.2 (±7.4) days. No anastomotic leakage was observed. To date, no autonomic neurological disorders have been observed with a mean of 5.8 (±1.3) bowel movements per day. The hand-assisted hybrid laparoscopic-robotic approach to total proctocolectomy with IPAA has not been previously described. Our report shows the feasibility of this hybrid approach, which surpasses most of the limitations of pure laparoscopic and robotic techniques. Further experience is necessary to refine the technique and fully assess its potential advantages.

  5. Effect of indirect ohmic heating on quality of ready-to-eat pineapple packed in plastic pouch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoang Pham

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Ready-to-eat fruits packed in sealed containers are highly perishable due to their intrinsic characteristics and lack of full thermal process. Ohmic heating has the advantages of rapid liquid heating through electrical current. The aim of this research was to investigate the effect of indirect ohmic heating on pH, total soluble solids, polyphenol oxidase activity, color and texture of ready-to-eat pineapple packed in a polypropylene pouch with 1% calcium chloride and 0.3% ascorbic acid packing solution. The pre-packed sample in a pouch was placed in the ohmic heating jar filled with 0.5% sodium chloride ohmic heating solution which was then ohmic heated at different voltage gradients (20, 30, 40 V/cm, to different packing solution temperatures (60, 70, 80°C for 60s. Samples were kept at 4°C for quality measurement. It was found that browning index of ready-to-eat pineapple treated with 20 V/cm at 80°C, 30 V/cm at 70°C and 80°C, 40 V/cm at 80°C did not change during 12 days cold storage (p>0.05. Polyphenol oxidase was inactivated when the temperature of the pineapple was 62°C or higher. After 10 days at 4°C, the pineapple heated with 30 V/cm at 70°C had much higher firmness than the un-heated sample kept at the same storage condition. Indirect ohmic heating of pre-packed ready-to-eat pineapple in polypropylene pouch with 30 V/cm at 70°C packing solution temperature for 60s could be used as minimal heating methods to maintain the quality of ready-to-eat fruits in 12 days at 4°C.

  6. Pouchitis-Associated Iritis (Uveitis Following Total Proctocolectomy and Ileal Pouch-to-Anal Anastomosis in Ulcerative Colitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugh James Freeman

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available A 26-year-old woman with ulcerative colitis treated with a proctocolectomy and ileal pouch-to-anal anastomosis developed an erosive and ulcerative pouchitis. Although no ophthalmological manifestations were present before the staged surgical procedures, iritis developed after appearance of the pouchitis. Both conditions subsequently resolved with oral corticosteroids and metronidazole.

  7. Comparison of Colonic J-pouch and Straight Coloanal anastomosis after Low Anterior Resection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrvarz, Shaban; Towliat, Seyed Mohsen; Mohebbi, Hassan Ali; Derakhshani, Saieed; Abavisani, Mahdi

    2013-01-01

    The tendency towards sphincter preserving for low rectal cancers with low anterior resection, has led to the technique of straight coloanal anastomosis (SCAA) or colonic J-pouch anal anastomosis (CPAA). The aim of our study was to compare functional outcomes, complication rates and quality of life (QoL) after LAR with either a straight or colonic J pouch anastomosis. In 88 patients with rectal tumors located in lower third, who were candidate for LAR with coloanal anastomosis. They were divided for reconstruction using either SCAA (n= 47) or CPAA (n= 41) from January 2007 to May 2009. Functional results were assessed after closure of temporary loop ileostomy, 6 months postoperatively. Quality of life (QoL) was measured using European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) QLQ-C30. The two groups were matched for gender, age, and preoperative chemotherapy and radiotherapy. There were no significant differences between the SCAA and CPAA groups relative to anastomotic leakage. Among patients with CPAA, the mean of 24 hours bowel movements, daytime bowel movements, incontinence scores, and incidence of urgency were significantly lower than those in the SCAA group. Also, patients with a CPAA had a significantly better quality of life. CPAA provided not only better functional results than SCAA, but also improved quality of life, thus may be the better choice.

  8. Effects of aqueous cinnamon extract on chemically-induced carcinoma of hamster cheek pouch mucosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samah K. Ezzat

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the effects of aqueous cinnamon extract (ACE on 7, 12-Dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA-induced oral carcinogenesis in hamster cheek pouch (HCP mucosa. Sixty male Syrian hamsters were randomly divided into six equal groups. The hamsters of groups I, II and III received no treatment, DMBA and ACE respectively, for 16 weeks. Groups IV and V were handled as group II and concomitantly treated with ACE for the same period and additionally group V received ACE for other 16 weeks after the stoppage of DMBA application. Group VI hamsters were handled as group III and additionally received DMBA for other 16 weeks after the stoppage of ACE supplementation. Hamsters of each group were euthanized according to the experimental schedule. The buccal pouches were and prepared for H&E stain, PAS reagent, CD3 and PDGF immunohistochemical reactivity. All groups showed dysplastic changes with varying degrees except groups I and III. Deep invasive carcinomas were recorded in 90% of the samples of group II, 60% of group IV, 50% of group V and 40% of group VI. From the previous results, it can be concluded that ACE has the potentiality preventing oral cancer initiation better than inhibiting oral cancer progression.

  9. The benefits of a laparoscopic approach in ileal pouch anal anastomosis formation: a single institutional retrospective case-matched experience.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kelly, J

    2010-06-01

    A laparoscopic approach to ileoanal pouch formation is novel. By using prospectively gathered data, laparoscopic and open restorative proctocolectomy procedures in mucosal ulcerative colitis (UC) and familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) patients were compared using a case-matched design.

  10. Topical methotrexate pretreatment enhances the therapeutic effect of topical 5-aminolevulinic acid-mediated photodynamic therapy on hamster buccal pouch precancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deng-Fu Yang

    2014-09-01

    Conclusion: We conclude that topical MTX-pretreatment can increase intracellular PpIX production in hamster buccal pouch precancerous lesions and significantly improves the outcomes of the precancerous lesions treated with topical ALA-PDT.

  11. Letting the ‘cat’ out of the bag: pouch young development of the extinct Tasmanian tiger revealed by X-ray computed tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spoutil, Frantisek; Prochazka, Jan; Black, Jay R.; Medlock, Kathryn; Paddle, Robert N.; Knitlova, Marketa; Hipsley, Christy A.

    2018-01-01

    The Tasmanian tiger or thylacine (Thylacinus cynocephalus) was an iconic Australian marsupial predator that was hunted to extinction in the early 1900s. Despite sharing striking similarities with canids, they failed to evolve many of the specialized anatomical features that characterize carnivorous placental mammals. These evolutionary limitations are thought to arise from functional constraints associated with the marsupial mode of reproduction, in which otherwise highly altricial young use their well-developed forelimbs to climb to the pouch and mouth to suckle. Here we present the first three-dimensional digital developmental series of the thylacine throughout its pouch life using X-ray computed tomography on all known ethanol-preserved specimens. Based on detailed skeletal measurements, we refine the species growth curve to improve age estimates for the individuals. Comparison of allometric growth trends in the appendicular skeleton (fore- and hindlimbs) with that of other placental and marsupial mammals revealed that despite their unique adult morphologies, thylacines retained a generalized early marsupial ontogeny. Our approach also revealed mislabelled specimens that possessed large epipubic bones (vestigial in thylacine) and differing vertebral numbers. All of our generated CT models are publicly available, preserving their developmental morphology and providing a novel digital resource for future studies of this unique marsupial. PMID:29515893

  12. The role of the defaecating pouchogram in the assessment of evacuation difficulty after restorative proctocolectomy and pouch-anal anastomosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stellingwerf, M. E.; Maeda, Y.; Patel, U.; Vaizey, C. J.; Warusavitarne, J.; Bemelman, W. A.; Clark, S. K.

    2016-01-01

    Restorative proctocolectomy (RPC) with ileal pouch-anal anastomosis (IPAA) is the most frequently performed operation for intractable ulcerative colitis (UC) and for many patients with familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP). It can be complicated by a functional evacuation difficulty, which is not

  13. Design and characterization of a novel neutron shield for BNCT in an experimental model of oral cancer in the hamster cheek pouch at RA-3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pozzi, E.C.C.; Curotto, P.; Monti Hughes, A.; Nigg, D.W.; Schwint, A.E.; Trivillin, V.A.; Thorp, S.I.

    2013-01-01

    Our research group at the Radiation Pathology Division of the Department of Radiobiology (National Atomic Energy Commission) has previously demonstrated the therapeutic efficacy of different BNCT protocols to treat oral cancer in an experimental hamster cheek pouch model. In particular, to perform studies in this experimental model at the thermal facility constructed at RA-3, we designed and constructed a shielding device for thermal neutrons, to be able to expose the cheek pouch while minimizing the dose to the rest of the body. This device allowed for the irradiation of one animal at a time. Given the usage rate of the device, the aim of the present study was to design and construct an optimized version of the existing shielding device that would allow for the simultaneous irradiation of 2 animals at the thermal facility of RA-3. Taking into account the characteristics of the neutron source and preliminary biological assays, we designed the shielding device for the body of the animal, i.e. a rectangular shaped box with double acrylic walls. The space between the walls contains a continuous filling of 6Li 2 CO 3 (95% enriched in 6Li), approximately 6 mm thick. Two small windows interrupt the shield at one end of the box through which the right pouch of each hamster is everted out onto an external acrylic shelf for exposure to the neutron flux. The characterization of the shielding device showed that the neutron flux was equivalent at both irradiation positions confirming that we were able to design and construct a new shielding device that allows for the irradiation of 2 animals at the same time at the thermal facility of RA-3. This new version of the shielding device will reduce the number of interventions of the reactor operators, reducing occupational exposure to radiation and will make the procedure more efficient for researchers. In addition, we addressed the generation of tritium as a product of the capture reaction in lithium. It was considered as a

  14. Closure of leak at the tip of the “J” after ileal pouch-anal anastomosis using a novel over-the-scope clipping system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Lian

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: leaks from the body or the tip of the J-pouch can occur after restorative proctocolecotmy. Although it may follow an indolent clinical course, it often requires surgical repair or pouch revision. Here we describe a novel endoscopic approach to close the leak at the tip of the J pouch. Design: pouchoscopy was performed under sedation and endoscopic over-the-scope clipping system was used for the management of a leak from the tip of a J-pouch. Results: under sedation, a pouchoscopy was performed and the deep tip of “J” leak was detected with a guidewire, along with water-contrasted pouchogram. The contained cavity from the leak was cleaned with hydrogen peroxide and 50% dextrose. Debridement of the epithelialized mouth of the leak was performed with an endoscopic cytology brush. Then endoscopic over-the-scope clipping system was used and the leak defect was completely closed. There was no bleeding or perforation. The entire procedure took 25 min. The patient continued to do well and reported resolution of the low back pain symptom. Conclusion: we reported the first case in the literature that a leak from the tip of a J-pouch was endoscopically occluded using a novel over-the-scope clipping system. Resumo: Objetive: vazamentos do corpo da bolsa e da extremidade da bolsa ileal em J podem ocorrer após proctocolectomia restauradora. Embora possam apresentar um curso clínico indolente, muitas vezes requerem procedimentos abdominais. Desenho: endoscopia da bolsa ileal foi realizada sob sedação e clipagem endoscópica usando o sistema “over-the-scope” foi utilizada para fechar um vazamento na extremidade da bolsa ileal em “J”. Resultados: sob sedação, uma endoscopia de bolsa ileal foi realizada e a extremidade profunda do vazamento da bolsa ileal em “J” foi detectada com um fio-guia. A cavidade que continha o vazamento foi limpa com peróxido de hidrogênio e 50% de dextrose. Desbridamento da borda epitelizada do

  15. Laparoscopic restorative total proctocolectomy with ileal pouch anal anastomosis for familial adenomatous polyposis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palanivelu, C; Jani, Kalpesh; Sendhilkumar, K; Parthasarathi, R; Senthilnathan, P; Maheshkumar, G

    2008-01-01

    Familial adenomatous polyposis is a hereditary disease characterized by the presence of thousands of colonic adenomas, which, if untreated, invariably undergo malignant transformation. Because this disease manifests at a young age, the laparoscopic approach to perform surgery would be desirable due to its cosmetic benefits. We describe our experience with this procedure and review the literature on the topic. This is a case series of 15 patients who underwent restorative proctocolectomy with ileo-anal pouch anastomosis for familial adenomatous polyposis between 2000 and 2007. The salient operative steps are described. There were 9 males and 6 females, 32 to 52 years of age, with an average age of 44.8 years. The median body mass index was 21.5 (range, 17 to 28). Rectal cancer was already present in 4 patients at the time of diagnosis. The median operating time was 225 minutes. Mean blood loss was 60 mL, with none of the patients requiring perioperative blood transfusion. None of the surgeries required conversion to the open approach. Bowel function resumed on the second postoperative day in 12 patients and on the third postoperative day in 3 patients. The median hospital stay was 8 days. Postoperatively, there was no mortality and no serious morbidity. Laparoscopic restorative proctocolectomy with ileal pouch anal anastomosis is a feasible surgery for familial adenomatous polyposis, and considering its cosmetic benefit, is a desirable option for this group of predominantly young patients.

  16. Integrated Heat Air & Moisture Modeling and control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schijndel, van A.W.M.

    2007-01-01

    The paper presents a recently developed Heat Air & Moisture Laboratory in SimuLink. The simulation laboratory facilitates the integration of the following models: (1) a whole building model; (2) Heating Venting and Air-Conditioning and primary systems; (3) 2D indoor airflow, 3D Heat Air & Moisture

  17. Alveolar ridge augmentation by connective tissue grafting using a pouch method and modified connective tissue technique: A prospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashish Agarwal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Localized alveolar ridge defect may create physiological and pathological problems. Developments in surgical techniques have made it simpler to change the configuration of a ridge to create a more aesthetic and more easily cleansable shape. The purpose of this study was to compare the efficacy of alveolar ridge augmentation using a subepithelial connective tissue graft in pouch and modified connective tissue graft technique. Materials and Methods: In this randomized, double blind, parallel and prospective study, 40 non-smoker individuals with 40 class III alveolar ridge defects in maxillary anterior were randomly divided in two groups. Group I received modified connective tissue graft, while group II were treated with subepithelial connective tissue graft in pouch technique. The defect size was measured in its horizontal and vertical dimension by utilizing a periodontal probe in a stone cast at base line, after 3 months, and 6 months post surgically. Analysis of variance and Bonferroni post-hoc test were used for statistical analysis. A two-tailed P < 0.05 was considered to be statistically significant. Results: Mean values in horizontal width after 6 months were 4.70 ± 0.87 mm, and 4.05 ± 0.89 mm for group I and II, respectively. Regarding vertical heights, obtained mean values were 4.75 ± 0.97 mm and 3.70 ± 0.92 mm for group I and group II, respectively. Conclusion: Within the limitations of this study, connective tissue graft proposed significantly more improvement as compare to connective tissue graft in pouch.

  18. Serological and molecular characterization of leptospira serovar Kenya from captive African giant pouched rats (Cricetomys gambianus) from Morogoro Tanzania

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Machang'u, R. S.; Mgode, G. F.; Assenga, J.; Mhamphi, G.; Weetjens, B.; Cox, C.; Verhagen, R.; Sondij, S.; Goris, M. G.; Hartskeerl, R. A.

    2004-01-01

    Two identical leptospiral isolates coded Sh9 and Sh25 obtained from the urine of captive African giant pouched rats (Cricetomys gambianus), destined for use as biodetector of antipersonnel landmines were typed as serovar Kenya using cross-agglutination absorption test and DNA fingerprinting with the

  19. State of charge estimation for lithium-ion pouch batteries based on stress measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dai, Haifeng; Yu, Chenchen; Wei, Xuezhe; Sun, Zechang

    2017-01-01

    State of charge (SOC) estimation is one of the important tasks of battery management system (BMS). Being different from other researches, a novel method of SOC estimation for pouch lithium-ion battery cells based on stress measurement is proposed. With a comprehensive experimental study, we find that, the stress of the battery during charge/discharge is composed of the static stress and the dynamic stress. The static stress, which is the measured stress in equilibrium state, corresponds to SOC, this phenomenon facilitates the design of our stress-based SOC estimation. The dynamic stress, on the other hand, is influenced by multiple factors including charge accumulation or depletion, current and historical operation, thus a multiple regression model of the dynamic stress is established. Based on the relationship between static stress and SOC, as well as the dynamic stress modeling, the SOC estimation method is founded. Experimental results show that the stress-based method performs well with a good accuracy, and this method offers a novel perspective for SOC estimation. - Highlights: • A State of Charge estimator based on stress measurement is proposed. • The stress during charge and discharge is investigated with comprehensive experiments. • Effects of SOC, current, and operation history on battery stress are well studied. • A multiple regression model of the dynamic stress is established.

  20. Consumer Behavior Modeling: Fuzzy Logic Model for Air Purifiers Choosing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleksandr Dorokhov

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available At the beginning, the article briefly describes the features of the marketing complex household goods. Also provides an overview of some aspects of the market for indoor air purifiers. The specific subject of the study was the process of consumer choice of household appliances for cleaning air in living quarters. The aim of the study was to substantiate and develop a computer model for evaluating by the potential buyers devices for air purification in conditions of vagueness and ambiguity of their consumer preferences. Accordingly, the main consumer criteria are identified, substantiated and described when buyers choose air purifiers. As methods of research, approaches based on fuzzy logic, fuzzy sets theory and fuzzy modeling were chosen. It was hypothesized that the fuzzy-multiple model allows rather accurately reflect consumer preferences and potential consumer choice in conditions of insufficient and undetermined information. Further, a computer model for estimating the consumer qualities of air cleaners by customers is developed. A proposed approach based on the application of fuzzy logic theory and practical modeling in the specialized computer software MATLAB. In this model, the necessary membership functions and their terms are constructed, as well as a set of rules for fuzzy inference to make decisions on the estimation of a specific air purifier. A numerical example of a comparative evaluation of air cleaners presented on the Ukrainian market is made and is given. Numerical simulation results confirmed the applicability of the proposed approach and the correctness of the hypothesis advanced about the possibility of modeling consumer behavior using fuzzy logic. The analysis of the obtained results is carried out and the prospects of application, development, and improvement of the developed model and the proposed approach are determined.

  1. Plasma prolactin concentrations during lactation, pouch young development and the return to behavioural oestrus in captive koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballantyne, K; Anderson, S T; Mucci, A; Nicolson, V; Johnston, S D

    2015-05-29

    Plasma prolactin (PRL) concentrations in captive koalas during lactation were determined by serial blood sampling. PRL concentrations were low (1.3 ± 0.1 ng mL-1; n = 5) during early lactation until pouch young (PY) began to emerge from the pouch (around Day 130) before significantly (P < 0.05) increasing between Day 161 and Day 175 (5.3 ± 1.0 ng mL-1). A significant (P < 0.001) peak in PRL (7.7 ± 0.6 ng mL-1) coincided with maturing young between Day 189 and Day 231. All females failed to exhibit any signs of oestrous behaviour until Day 268.8 ± 8.5 (n = 4), some 102 ± 19 days before PY were weaned following achieving target weights of 2.5-2.7 kg. Throughout lactation, plasma LH concentrations were relatively high (range 4.9-8.7 ng mL-1) and LH responses to exogenous gonadotrophin-releasing hormone were observed in all koalas at all times during lactation.

  2. Air quality model guideline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Idriss, A.; Spurrell, F.

    2009-06-01

    Alberta Environment has developed a guidelines for operations and proposed operations that require approvals under the province's Environmental Protection and Enhancement Act or that operate under a code of practice for emissions to the atmosphere. In an effort to ensure consistency in the use of dispersion models for regulatory applications in Alberta, this document provided detailed guidance on suitable methods and approaches that should be employed to assess air quality from emission sources, specifically, information required to demonstrate that a source meets the Alberta ambient air quality objectives. The document outlined the statutory authority and provided an overview of the approach. It provided detailed advice on the types and uses of dispersion models with particular reference to the modelling protocol, input data, and output interpretation. Guidance on the application of regulatory models were also presented. Various models were described and their intended uses were explained. Internet addresses for different modelling resources were also offered. Last, some information about regional modelling in the province of Alberta was discussed. 40 refs., 4 tabs., 7 figs., 3 appendices.

  3. Preoperative chemoradiotherapy and colonic J-pouch anal anastomosis for lower rectal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, Yasuhiro; Okigami, Masato; Kawamoto, Aya; Hiro, Junichiro; Toiyama, Yuji; Kobayashi, Minako; Tanaka, Koji; Miki, Chikao; Kusunoki, Masato

    2011-01-01

    We performed colonic J-pouch anal anastomosis in 61 patients with rectal cancer located <4 cm from the anal verge. Surgical and oncological results were evaluated in multimodality therapy for advanced rectal cancer. According to Wexner's score, 7% of patients were fully continent, 71% had acceptable function with minor continence problems, and 22% were incontinent. No patients required intermittent self-catheterization during follow-up. After a median follow-up of 49 months, there was only 1 case of local recurrence after surgery. Our surgical approach irrespective of internal sphincter resection produces satisfactory functional and oncological results in multimodality therapy using preoperative chemoradiotherapy for lower rectal cancer. (author)

  4. Abdominoperineal pull-through with simultaneous extravesical detrussoraphy: An alternative surgical technique for congenital pouch colon with high-grade vesicoureteric reflux

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Bawa

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Congenital pouch colon (CPC is frequently associated with vesicoureteric reflux (VUR. These patients require long-term antibiotic prophylaxis and/or an additional surgical intervention for the management of the refluxing system. We propose a single-stage alternative approach in these patients. Two patients diagnosed to have CPC underwent pouch excision and an end colostomy at birth. Further evaluation revealed high-grade reflux in both the patients. At 6 months of age, definitive abdominoperineal pull-through (APPT surgery along with extravesical detrusorrhaphy was performed. In the follow-up at 1 year, they are thriving well with no urinary complaints. Micturating cystourethrogram revealed complete resolution of VUR. This approach takes the advantage of the anesthesia for APPT and offers a relatively simple and quick solution for the refluxing system, thus, enabling the stoppage of antibiotic prophylaxis and obviating the need for a future endoscopy/surgery.

  5. Comparsion of light dose on topical ALA-mediated photodynamic therapy for DMBA-induced hamster buccal pouch premalignant lesions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Deng-Fu; Tseng, Meng-Ke; Liu, Chung-Ji; Hsu, Yih-Chih

    2012-03-01

    Oral cancer has becomes the most prominent male cancer disease due to the local betel nut chewing habit combing with smoking and alcohol-drinking lifestyle. In order to minimize the systemic phototoxic effect of 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA), this study was designed to use a topical ALA-mediated PDT for treatment of DMBA-induced hamster buccal pouch cancerous lesions. DMBA was applied to one of the buccal pouches of hamsters thrice a week for 8 to 10 weeks. Precancerous lesions were induced and proven by histological examination. These DMBA-induced cancerous lesions were used for testing the efficacy of topical ALA -mediated PDT. We found that ALA reached its peak level in cancerous lesions about 2.5 hrs after topical application of ALA gel. The precancerous lesions in hamsters were then treated with topical ALA -mediated PDT with light exposure dose of 75 and 100 J/cm2 using LED 635 nm Wonderlight device. It is suggesting that optimization of the given light dose is critical to the success of PDT results.

  6. Topical chlorophyll-pheophytin derivative-mediated photodynamic therapy for DMBA-induced hamster buccal pouch premaligant lesions: an in vivo study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Yih-Chih; Chiang, Chung-Pin; Chen, Jian Wen; Lee, Jeng-Woei; How, Mon-Hsin

    2010-02-01

    In Taiwan, oral cancer has become a prominent cancer because of its highest annual increase rate among all cancer diseases. Betel quid chewing habit is a major risk factor for oral precancerous and cancerous lesions and there are more than two million people who have this habit in Taiwan. Our previous studies showed that chlorophyll-pheophytin derivative (CPD)-mediated PDT is very effective for killing of SCC-4 cell lines in vitro. In order to decrease the systemic phototoxic effect of CPD, this study was designed to use a topical CPD-mediated PDT for treatment of DMBA-induced hamster buccal pouch precancerous lesions. DMBA was applied to one of the buccal pouches of hamsters thrice a week for 8 to 10 weeks. Precancerous lesions of moderate to severe dysplasia were induced and proven by histological examination. These induced precancerous lesions were used for testing the efficacy of topical CPD-mediated PDT. Before PDT, fluorescence spectroscopy was used to determine when CPD reached its peak level in the lesional epithelial cells after topical application of CPD gel. We found that CPD reached its peak level in precancerous lesions about 1 hour (range, 0 to 30 hours) after topical application of CPD gel. The precancerous lesions in hamsters were then treated with topical CPD-mediated PDT (fluence rate: 200 mW/cm2; light exposure dose 100 J/cm2) using the portable WonderLight LED 635 nm fiber-guided light device once or twice a week. Visual and histological examination demonstrated that topical CPD-mediated PDT was partially effective treatment modality for DMBA-induced hamster buccal pouch precancerous lesions.

  7. Analysis of Error Propagation Within Hierarchical Air Combat Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    values alone are propagated through layers of combat models, the final results will likely be biased, and risk underestimated. An air-to-air...values alone are propagated through layers of combat models, the final results will likely be biased, and risk underestimated. An air-to-air engagement... PROPAGATION WITHIN HIERARCHICAL AIR COMBAT MODELS by Salih Ilaslan June 2016 Thesis Advisor: Thomas W. Lucas Second Reader: Jeffrey

  8. Air Quality Modelling and the National Emission Database

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, S. S.

    The project focuses on development of institutional strengthening to be able to carry out national air emission inventories based on the CORINAIR methodology. The present report describes the link between emission inventories and air quality modelling to ensure that the new national air emission...... inventory is able to take into account the data requirements of air quality models...

  9. Modeling aluminum-air battery systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savinell, R. F.; Willis, M. S.

    The performance of a complete aluminum-air battery system was studied with a flowsheet model built from unit models of each battery system component. A plug flow model for heat transfer was used to estimate the amount of heat transferred from the electrolyte to the air stream. The effect of shunt currents on battery performance was found to be insignificant. Using the flowsheet simulator to analyze a 100 cell battery system now under development demonstrated that load current, aluminate concentration, and electrolyte temperature are dominant variables controlling system performance. System efficiency was found to decrease as both load current and aluminate concentration increases. The flowsheet model illustrates the interdependence of separate units on overall system performance.

  10. Coverage of Gingival Fenestration Using Modified Pouch and Tunnel Technique: A Novel Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil Pendor

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Gingival fenestration defects are a rare phenomenon. Gingival fenestration means the exposure of the tooth due to loss of the overlying bone and gingiva. Though treatment of mucosal fenestration occurring in association with chronic periapical inflammation has been reported previously, the occurrence and treatment of gingival fenestration have not been documented in great detail. This report describes the occurrence of a gingival fenestration that developed secondarily to a gutka chewing habit. Treatment of the fenestration along with coverage of an adjacent recession defect in a single-step procedure using a pouch and tunnel technique is described.

  11. Anti-inflammatory effects and anti-oxidant capacity of Myrathius arboreus (Cecropiaceae) in experimental models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oluwole, Oluwafemi Gabriel; Ologe, Olufunmilayo; Alabi, Akinyinka; Tunde Yusuf, Ganiyu; Umukoro, Solomon

    2017-11-27

    Inflammation is involved in various diseases; search for safe treatments is warranted. Anti-inflammatory effects of ethanol extract of Myrathius arboreus (EEMa) were studied in carrageenan-induced model, formaldehyde sub-acute-induced model, and in 48 h lipopolysaccharide-induced air pouch model of inflammation. EEMa membrane-stabilizing activities and anti-oxidant capacity were determined in vitro. In the carrageenan model EEMa (125, 250, or 500 mg/kg), indomethacin (5 mg/kg), or vehicle 3 mL/kg was administered orally in rats (n=5). After 1 h, 0.1 mL of 1% carrageenan was injected into the right hind paw of rats. Change in edema sizes was measured for 3 h with plethysmometer. One-tenth milliliter (0.1 mL) of 2.5% formaldehyde was injected into the rat paw on the first day and the third day to induce sub-acute inflammation; changes in the edema sizes were determined, and percentages of inhibitions were calculated. Anti-inflammatory effects of EEMa were further examined in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced air-pouch based on leukocytes count, volume of exudates, levels of malondialdehyde, glutathione, superoxide dismutase, nitric oxides, and tumor necrosis factor released into the inflammatory fluids. EEMa-free radicals scavenging activities were studied in DPPH and reducing power tests. Membrane-stabilizing activities of EEMa were evaluated in the red blood cell lysis induced by thermal and hypotonic solution. EEMa (250, 500 mg/kg) produced significant (p<0.001; p<0.05) inhibition of inflammation when compared with vehicle. Also, EEMa (250, 500, or 1000 μg/mL) significantly stabilized membrane and produced free radical scavenging activities. M. arboreus possesses anti-inflammatory and the anti-oxidant properties that might benefit translational medicine.

  12. Geostatistical models for air pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, M.J.; Soares, A.; Almeida, J.; Branquinho, C.

    2000-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to present geostatistical models applied to the spatial characterisation of air pollution phenomena. A concise presentation of the geostatistical methodologies is illustrated with practical examples. The case study was conducted in an underground copper-mine located on the southern of Portugal, where a biomonitoring program using lichens has been implemented. Given the characteristics of lichens as indicators of air pollution it was possible to gather a great amount of data in space, which enabled the development and application of geostatistical methodologies. The advantages of using geostatistical models compared with deterministic models, as environmental control tools, are highlighted. (author)

  13. Rapid promotion and progression of fibrovascular polyps by inflammation and/or hyperplasia in hamster check pouch: implications for carcinogenesis assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGaughey, C; Jensen, J L

    1983-03-01

    Tumor initiation by topical application of 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA) in dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) followed by topical application of retinyl acetate (RA), ethylphenylpropiolate, or acetic acid in DMSO at inflammatory and hyperplasiogenic dose regimens caused the rapid promotion of fibrovascular polyps with dysplastic epithelium in hamster cheek pouch. Such lesions did not occur in control animals initiated with DMBA followed by application of DMSO only, where inflammation was also minimal. At the dose regimen employed, RA caused obvious cytotoxicity and tissue destruction. With EPP and AA, there was no histological evidence of tissue destruction. At dose regimens resulting in minimal inflammation and no apparent cytotoxicity, RA promoted almost no polyps, but a higher yield of other tumor types. Thus, inflammation and/or hyperplasia apparently exerted a strong polyp-promoting and progressive influence. This and other differences between the tumorigenic responses of hamster-pouch mucosa and mouse skin suggest that the former supplement the latter in carcinogenic risk assessment.

  14. Surface Flux Modeling for Air Quality Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Limei Ran

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available For many gasses and aerosols, dry deposition is an important sink of atmospheric mass. Dry deposition fluxes are also important sources of pollutants to terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. The surface fluxes of some gases, such as ammonia, mercury, and certain volatile organic compounds, can be upward into the air as well as downward to the surface and therefore should be modeled as bi-directional fluxes. Model parameterizations of dry deposition in air quality models have been represented by simple electrical resistance analogs for almost 30 years. Uncertainties in surface flux modeling in global to mesoscale models are being slowly reduced as more field measurements provide constraints on parameterizations. However, at the same time, more chemical species are being added to surface flux models as air quality models are expanded to include more complex chemistry and are being applied to a wider array of environmental issues. Since surface flux measurements of many of these chemicals are still lacking, resistances are usually parameterized using simple scaling by water or lipid solubility and reactivity. Advances in recent years have included bi-directional flux algorithms that require a shift from pre-computation of deposition velocities to fully integrated surface flux calculations within air quality models. Improved modeling of the stomatal component of chemical surface fluxes has resulted from improved evapotranspiration modeling in land surface models and closer integration between meteorology and air quality models. Satellite-derived land use characterization and vegetation products and indices are improving model representation of spatial and temporal variations in surface flux processes. This review describes the current state of chemical dry deposition modeling, recent progress in bi-directional flux modeling, synergistic model development research with field measurements, and coupling with meteorological land surface models.

  15. Shelf-life extension of dried shrimps by irradiation and packaging techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warunee Varanyanond; Hirata, Takashi; Ishitani, Takasuke

    2000-01-01

    Dried shrimps were air-packaged or N2-packaged in the flexible pouch of oriented polypropylene (OPP), polyvinylidene chloride coated polypropylene (KOP) and ethylene vinyl alcohol copolymer (EVOH). The packages were irradiated with gamma ray from cobalt 60 at 3 and 8 kGy. Non-irradiated dried shrimps were used as a control. The samples were stored at 30 deg C and 70+-5 percent RH for 4 months. Non-enzymatic browning induced the discoloration of dried shrimps, and oxidation of astaxanthin proceeded after irradiation and during storage. The hunter color difference, delta E, of all the samples was increased, especially in the non-irradiated air-packages samples. The decrease in astaxanthin content was found in both air - and N2-packaged samples during storage. The number of microorganisms was reduced by irradiation dose of 3 and 8 kGy from 6.5 to 4.2 and 2.7 log CFU/g, respectively. The decreased concentration of O2 in the package also reduced the number of microorganisms. The air packaged dried shrimps in the OPP pouch deteriorated during storage. Shrinkage of the pouches and growth of halophilic bacteria on the surface of dried shrimps were found at a sub(w) of 0.75. The discoloration of dried shrimps in the OPP pouch was more significant than that in other pouches. Irradiation at 3 and 8 kGy in combination with packaging in KOP and EVOH pouches containing N2 atmosphere was one of the promising methods for prolonging shelf-life of dried shrimps at room temperature

  16. Large Scale Computations in Air Pollution Modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zlatev, Z.; Brandt, J.; Builtjes, P. J. H.

    Proceedings of the NATO Advanced Research Workshop on Large Scale Computations in Air Pollution Modelling, Sofia, Bulgaria, 6-10 July 1998......Proceedings of the NATO Advanced Research Workshop on Large Scale Computations in Air Pollution Modelling, Sofia, Bulgaria, 6-10 July 1998...

  17. Strategic Implications of U.S. Fighter Force Reductions: Air-to-Air Combat Modeling Using Lanchester Equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    STRATEGIC IMPLICATIONS OF US FIGHTER FORCE REDUCTIONS: AIR-TO-AIR COMBAT MODELING USING LANCHESTER ...TO-AIR COMBAT MODELING USING LANCHESTER EQUATIONS GRADUATE RESEARCH PAPER Presented to the Faculty Department of Operational Sciences...MODELING USING LANCHESTER EQUATIONS Ronald E. Gilbert, BS, MBA Major, USAF Approved

  18. High Performance Cathodes for Li-Air Batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xing, Yangchuan

    2013-08-22

    The overall objective of this project was to develop and fabricate a multifunctional cathode with high activities in acidic electrolytes for the oxygen reduction and evolution reactions for Li-air batteries. It should enable the development of Li-air batteries that operate on hybrid electrolytes, with acidic catholytes in particular. The use of hybrid electrolytes eliminates the problems of lithium reaction with water and of lithium oxide deposition in the cathode with sole organic electrolytes. The use of acid electrolytes can eliminate carbonate formation inside the cathode, making air breathing Li-air batteries viable. The tasks of the project were focused on developing hierarchical cathode structures and bifunctional catalysts. Development and testing of a prototype hybrid Li-air battery were also conducted. We succeeded in developing a hierarchical cathode structure and an effective bifunctional catalyst. We accomplished integrating the cathode with existing anode technologies and made a pouch prototype Li-air battery using sulfuric acid as catholyte. The battery cathodes contain a nanoscale multilayer structure made with carbon nanotubes and nanofibers. The structure was demonstrated to improve battery performance substantially. The bifunctional catalyst developed contains a conductive oxide support with ultra-low loading of platinum and iridium oxides. The work performed in this project has been documented in seven peer reviewed journal publications, five conference presentations, and filing of two U.S. patents. Technical details have been documented in the quarterly reports to DOE during the course of the project.

  19. A reduced order electrochemical and thermal model for a pouch type lithium ion polymer battery with LiNixMnyCo1-x-yO2/LiFePO4 blended cathode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xueyan; Choe, Song-Yul; Joe, Won Tae

    2015-10-01

    LiNixMnyCo1-x-yO2 (NMC) and LiFePO4 (LFP) as a cathode material have been widely employed for cells designed for high power applications. However, NMC needs further improvements in rate capability and stability that can be accomplished by blending it with LFP. Working mechanism of the blended cells is very complex and hard to understand. In addition, characteristics of the blended cells, particularly the plateau and path dependence of LFP materials, make it extremely difficult to estimate the state of charge and state of health using classical electric equivalent circuit models. Therefore, a reduced order model based on electrochemical and thermal principles is developed with objectives for real time applications and validated against experimental data collected from a large format pouch type of lithium ion polymer battery. The model for LFP is based on a shrinking core model along with moving boundary and then integrated into NMC model. Responses of the model that include SOC estimation and responses of current and voltage are compared with those of experiments at CC/CV charging and CC discharging along with different current rates and temperatures. In addition, the model is used to analyze effects of mass ratios between two materials on terminal voltage and heat generation rate.

  20. The hamster cheek pouch: an immunologically privileged site suitable to the study of granulomatous infections A bolsa jugal do hamster: um local imunologicamente privilegiado, apropriado para o estudo das ¡nfecções granulomatosas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. P. de Arruda

    1995-08-01

    Full Text Available The hamster check pouch is an invagination of oral mucosa, characterized histologically as skin-like. In this paper we describe anatomical, histological and embriological features of the pouch and coment on the pouch as an immunologically privileged site since it lacks lymphatic drainage and has few Langerhans cells. We present the review from literature and our observations after inoculation in the pouch of mycobacteriae (BCG, Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Mycobacterium leprae and a fungus (Paracoccidioides brasiliensis. Lesions in the pouch were granulomatous but smaller and long lasting; even granulomatous, the reaction was inefficient to control the proliferation of agents compared with inoculation in other sites, except for BCG. Appearance of immunity was also delayed or absent and, when it was detected, a sharp decrease in number of agents in pouch lesions was observed. These observations make the pouch an interesting site for the study of the role of immune system in infeccious diseases and in granuloma formation.A bolsa jugal do hamster (BJH é uma invaginação da mucosa oral, caracterizada histologicamente como semelhante a pele. Nesse estudo nós descrevemos algumas de suas características anatômicas, histológicas e embriológicas e comentamos sobre sua propriedade como local imunologicamente privilegiado, considerando a ausência de drenagem linfática e o reduzido número de células de Langerhans. Apresentamos também os resultados obtidos quando da inoculação de micobacterias (BCG, Mycobacterium tuberculosis e Mycobacterium leprae e do fungo Paracoccidioides brasiliensis na bolsa jugal. Comparada com as lesões provocadas em outras localizações e, à exceção do BCG, as lesões induzidas na bolsa são menores e de maior duração e, mesmo quando granulomatosas, incapazes de controlar a multiplicação do agente; nos casos em que houve o desenvolvimento da resposta imune, ele se fez tardiamente e foi acompanhado pela redu

  1. ARAMIS a regional air quality model for air pollution management: evaluation and validation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solar, M. R.; Gamez, P.; Olid, M.

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this research was to better understand the dynamics of air pollutants and to forecast the air quality over regional areas in order to develop emission abatement strategies for air pollution and adverse health effects. To accomplish this objective, we developed and applied a high resolution Eulerian system named ARAMIS (A Regional Air Quality Modelling Integrated System) over the north-east of Spain (Catalonia), where several pollutants exceed threshold values for the protection of human health. The results indicate that the model reproduced reasonably well observed concentrations, as statistical values fell within Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) recommendations and European (EU) regulations. Nevertheless, some hourly O{sub 3} exceedances in summer and hourly peaks of NO{sub 2} in winter were underestimated. Concerning PM10 concentrations less accurate model levels were obtained with a moderate trend towards underestimation during the day. (Author)

  2. ARAMIS a regional air quality model for air pollution management: evaluation and validation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soler, M.R.; Gamez, P.; Olid, M.

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this research was to better understand the dynamics of air pollutants and to forecast the air quality over regional areas in order to develop emission abatement strategies for air pollution and adverse health effects. To accomplish this objective, we developed and applied a high resolution Eulerian system named ARAMIS (A Regional Air Quality Modelling Integrated System) over the north-east of Spain (Catalonia), where several pollutants exceed threshold values for the protection of human health. The results indicate that the model reproduced reasonably well observed concentrations, as statistical values fell within Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) recommendations and European (EU) regulations. Nevertheless, some hourly O3 exceedances in summer and hourly peaks of NO2 in winter were underestimated. Concerning PM10 concentrations less accurate model levels were obtained with a moderate trend towards underestimation during the day. (Author)

  3. Tissue response and wound healing after placement of two types of bioengineered grafts containing vital cells in submucosal maxillary pouches: an experimental pilot study in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornstein, Michael M; Reichart, Peter A; Buser, Daniel; Bosshardt, Dieter D

    2011-01-01

    This pilot study evaluated the wound healing and tissue response after placement of two different skin substitutes in subgingival mucosal pouches in rabbits. Four rabbits were selected to receive a commercially available skin substitute consisting of a collagen matrix with fibroblasts and an epithelial layer (test membrane 1) and a prototype device consisting of a collagen matrix with fibroblasts only (test membrane 2). In each rabbit, two horizontal incisions were made in the buccal alveolar mucosa of the maxilla bilaterally to create submucosal pouches. Three pouches in each animal were filled with either the test 1 or test 2 membranes, and one pouch was left without a membrane (sham-operated control). All rabbits were sacrificed after a healing period of 4 weeks, and histologic samples were prepared and examined. After a healing period of 1 month, both tested membranes were still visible in the sections. Test membrane 1 was still bilayered, contained inflammatory cells in its center, and was encapsulated by a thick fibrous tissue. Numerous ectopic calcifications were evident in the collagenous part of the membrane and in association with some basal epithelial cells. Test membrane 2 was also encapsulated in fibrous tissue, with inflammatory cells present only between the fibrous encapsulation and the remnants of the membrane. For test membrane 2, no calcifications were visible. Test membrane 1 seemed to be more resistant to degradation, but there was also a more pronounced inflammatory reaction in comparison to test membrane 2, especially in the vicinity of the keratinocytes. The significance of the ectopic calcifications, along with that of the resorption or degradation processes of both tested membranes, must be evaluated in future experimental studies, with different time points after implantation examined.

  4. The Oak Ridge Heat Pump Models: I. A Steady-State Computer Design Model of Air-to-Air Heat Pumps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, S.K. Rice, C.K.

    1999-12-10

    The ORNL Heat Pump Design Model is a FORTRAN-IV computer program to predict the steady-state performance of conventional, vapor compression, electrically-driven, air-to-air heat pumps in both heating and cooling modes. This model is intended to serve as an analytical design tool for use by heat pump manufacturers, consulting engineers, research institutions, and universities in studies directed toward the improvement of heat pump performance. The Heat Pump Design Model allows the user to specify: system operating conditions, compressor characteristics, refrigerant flow control devices, fin-and-tube heat exchanger parameters, fan and indoor duct characteristics, and any of ten refrigerants. The model will compute: system capacity and COP (or EER), compressor and fan motor power consumptions, coil outlet air dry- and wet-bulb temperatures, air- and refrigerant-side pressure drops, a summary of the refrigerant-side states throughout the cycle, and overall compressor efficiencies and heat exchanger effectiveness. This report provides thorough documentation of how to use and/or modify the model. This is a revision of an earlier report containing miscellaneous corrections and information on availability and distribution of the model--including an interactive version.

  5. Model-generated air quality statistics for application in vegetation response models in Alberta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McVehil, G.E.; Nosal, M.

    1990-01-01

    To test and apply vegetation response models in Alberta, air pollution statistics representative of various parts of the Province are required. At this time, air quality monitoring data of the requisite accuracy and time resolution are not available for most parts of Alberta. Therefore, there exists a need to develop appropriate air quality statistics. The objectives of the work reported here were to determine the applicability of model generated air quality statistics and to develop by modelling, realistic and representative time series of hourly SO 2 concentrations that could be used to generate the statistics demanded by vegetation response models

  6. Topical methotrexate pretreatment enhances the therapeutic effect of topical 5-aminolevulinic acid-mediated photodynamic therapy on hamster buccal pouch precancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Deng-Fu; Lee, Jeng-Woei; Chen, Hsin-Ming; Hsu, Yih-Chih

    2014-09-01

    Topical 5-aminolevulinic acid-mediated photodynamic therapy (ALA-PDT) is effective for treatment of human oral precancerous lesions. This animal study aimed to assess whether topical methotrexate (MTX) pretreatment could enhance the therapeutic effect of topical ALA-PDT on hamster buccal pouch precancerous lesions. Twenty hamster buccal pouch precancerous lesions were treated with either topical ALA-PDT with topical MTX pretreatment (topical MTX-ALA-PDT group, n = 10) or topical ALA-PDT alone (topical ALA-PDT group, n = 10). The intracellular protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) level in another 12 precancerous lesions (n = 6 for either the topical MTX-ALA or topical ALA group) was monitored by fluorescence spectroscopy. The intracellular PpIX reached its peak level in precancerous lesions 6.5 hours and 2.5 hours after topical ALA application for the topical MTX-ALA group (5.63-fold higher in the lesion than in the normal mucosa) and topical ALA group (2.42-fold higher in the lesion than in the normal mucosa), respectively. The complete response rate of precancerous lesions was 80% for the topical MTX-ALA-PDT group and 70% for the topical ALA-PDT group. In addition, the topical MTX-ALA-PDT group required a significantly lower mean treatment number (2.1 ± 0.6) to achieve complete response than the topical ALA-PDT group (4.4 ± 1.3, p topical MTX-ALA-PDT group had a lower recurrence rate (12.5%) than the topical ALA-PDT group (28.6%). We conclude that topical MTX-pretreatment can increase intracellular PpIX production in hamster buccal pouch precancerous lesions and significantly improves the outcomes of the precancerous lesions treated with topical ALA-PDT. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. Totally Transanal Laparo-Endoscopic Single-Site ProctoColectomy-Ileoanal J-Pouch (TLPC-J: An Experimental Study of a Novel Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Vahdad

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery (NOTES has become a commonly considered novel approach in the surgical field. The NOTES provide possibility of operation through the natural orifice and decreases the intentional puncture of the systemic organ and subsequent complications. Totally transanal laparo-endoscopic single-site proctoColectomy-Ileoanal J-Pouch (TLPC-J is a novel method in minimally invasive surgery for total colectomy. The main goal of this study is to perform this new method on an animal model, to assess probable complication and to resolve probable issues by using patients that are candidate for total colectomy. Method: Five dogs were prepared in lithotomy position. The TLPC-I procedure consists of endorectal technique with full thickness rectal dissection starting 1 cm orally from the dentate line above the peritoneal reflection and the proximal bowel was replaced into the abdominal cavity. Afterwards, the TriPort system was inserted in the anal canal and mesentrial resection of the total colon, mobilization of a distal ileal segment and intracorporeal suture of an ileal J-loop was accomplished by this system. An incision in the J-loop was conducted transanally. The J-pouch was created with an Endo-GIA® and sutured to the rectal wall. Results: All animals survived and passed stool with clear post operation situation. There was no infection in site of anastomosis. Conclusion: The TLPC-I provides the possibility of surgery without abdominal wall incision and decreases post operation complication such as pain, abdominal wound infection and wound dehiscence. This technique increases the quality of life and surgeons can discharge the patients early.

  8. Surface temperature evolution and the location of maximum and average surface temperature of a lithium-ion pouch cell under variable load profiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goutam, Shovon; Timmermans, Jean-Marc; Omar, Noshin

    2014-01-01

    This experimental work attempts to determine the surface temperature evolution of large (20 Ah-rated capacity) commercial Lithium-Ion pouch cells for the application of rechargeable energy storage of plug in hybrid electric vehicles and electric vehicles. The cathode of the cells is nickel...

  9. Successful endoscopic treatment of fecalith blocking sinus in a patient with ileal pouch-anal anastomosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Ma

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Ulcerative colitis patients who underwent restorative proctocolectomy with ileal pouch-anal anastomosis can develop various mechanical complications. Among them is presacral sinus resulting from chronic anastomotic leak. Methods: We present a symptomatic patient with a large fecalith blocking the sinus which was successfully treated with Doppler ultrasound guided endoscopic needle knife sinusotomy along with fecalith extraction. Results: A 67-year-old female presented with a 4-month history of perianal pain and urgency. Pouchocopy showed a 3-cm deep wide-mouthed anastomotic sinus, the orifice of which was blocked by a large hard fecalith. Removal of the fecalith using RothNet, Tripod, or Basket were made but failed. Then needle knife was applied to cut the orifice to enlarge the opening of the sinus. One month later, the patient returned and the fecalith was successfully removed with two Baskets and two Rothnets. Six months after fecalith extraction, pouchoscopy showed a compartalized distal pouch sinus with two cavities, which was treated by two sessions of Doppler ultrasound guided endoscopic needle knife sinusotomy. Six months following the treatment, the sinus was completed healed. The patient tolerated all procedures well without any complication. Conclusion: Fecalith blocking pouch anastomotic sinus is a rare complication in patients with restorative proctocolectomy. In our case, this surgical complication was successfully treated with a carefully planned, stepwise endoscopy approach. Resumo: Experiência: Pacientes com colite ulcerativa tratados por proctocolectomia restauradora com anastomose bolsa ileal-anal podem ser acometidos por diversas complicações mecânicas. Entre elas, cita-se o seio pré-sacral resultante de vazamento crônico pela anastomose. Métodos: Apresentamos uma paciente sintomática com um grande fecálito bloqueando o seio, com tratamento bem-sucedido com sinusotomia por bisturi-agulha guiado por

  10. Modelling of air-conditioned and heated spaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moehl, U

    1987-01-01

    A space represents a complex system involving numerous components, manipulated variables and disturbances which need to be described if dynamic behaviour of space air is to be determined. A justifiable amount of simulation input is determined by the application of adjusted modelling of the individual components. The determination of natural air exchange in heated spaces and of space-air flow in air-conditioned space are a primary source of uncertainties. (orig.).

  11. Effects of babassu nut oil on ischemia/reperfusion-induced leukocyte adhesion and macromolecular leakage in the microcirculation: Observation in the hamster cheek pouch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbosa Maria do

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The babassu palm tree is native to Brazil and is most densely distributed in the Cocais region of the state of Maranhão, in northeastern Brazil. In addition to the industrial use of refined babassu oil, the milk, the unrefined oil and the nuts in natura are used by families from several communities of African descendants as one of the principal sources of food energy. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of babassu oil on microvascular permeability and leukocyte-endothelial interactions induced by ischemia/reperfusion using the hamster cheek pouch microcirculation as experimental model. Methods Twice a day for 14 days, male hamsters received unrefined babassu oil (0.02 ml/dose [BO-2 group], 0.06 ml/dose [BO-6 group], 0.18 ml/dose [BO-18 group] or mineral oil (0.18 ml/dose [MO group]. Observations were made in the cheek pouch and macromolecular permeability increase induced by ischemia/reperfusion (I/R or topical application of histamine, as well as leukocyte-endothelial interaction after I/R were evaluated. Results The mean value of I/R-induced microvascular leakage, determined during reperfusion, was significantly lower in the BO-6 and BO-18 groups than in the MO one (P Conclusions Our findings suggest that unrefined babassu oil reduced microvascular leakage and protected against histamine-induced effects in postcapillary venules and highlights that these almost unexploited nut and its oil might be secure sources of food energy.

  12. The air emissions risk assessment model (AERAM)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gratt, L.B.

    1991-01-01

    AERAM is an environmental analysis and power generation station investment decision support tool. AERAM calculates the public health risk (in terms of the lifetime cancers) in the nearby population from pollutants released into the air. AERAM consists of four main subroutines: Emissions, Air, Exposure and Risk. The Emission subroutine uses power plant parameters to calculate the expected release of the pollutants. A coal-fired and oil-fired power plant are currently available. A gas-fired plant model is under preparation. The release of the pollutants into the air is followed by their dispersal in the environment. The dispersion in the Air Subroutine uses the Environmental Protection Agency's model, Industrial Source Complex-Long Term. Additional dispersion models (Industrial Source Complex - Short Term and Cooling Tower Drift) are being implemented for future AERAM versions. The Expose Subroutine uses the ambient concentrations to compute population exposures for the pollutants of concern. The exposures are used with corresponding dose-response model in the Risk Subroutine to estimate both the total population risk and individual risk. The risk for the dispersion receptor-population centroid for the maximum concentration is also calculated for regulatory-population purposes. In addition, automated interfaces with AirTox (an air risk decision model) have been implemented to extend AERAM's steady-state single solution to the decision-under-uncertainty domain. AERAM was used for public health risks, the investment decision for additional pollution control systems based on health risk reductions, and the economics of fuel vs. health risk tradeoffs. AERAM provides that state-of-the-art capability for evaluating the public health impact airborne toxic substances in response to regulations and public concern

  13. Enhanced Contaminated Human Remains Pouch: initial development and preliminary performance assessments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iseli, A.M.; Kwen, H.D.; Ul-Alam, M.; Balasubramanian, M.; Rajagopalan, S.

    2011-11-07

    The objective is to produce a proof of concept prototype Enhanced Contaminated Human Remains Pouch (ECHRP) with self-decontamination capability to provide increased protection to emergency response personnel. The key objective was to decrease the concentration of toxic chemicals through the use of an absorbent and reactive nanocellulose liner. Additionally, nanomaterials with biocidal properties were developed and tested as a 'stand-alone' treatment. The setting was a private company research laboratory. The main outcome measures were production of a functional prototype. A functional prototype capable of mitigating the threats due to sulfur mustard, Soman, and a large variety of liquid and vapor toxic industrial chemicals was produced. Stand-alone biocidal treatment efficacy was validated. The ECHRP provides superior protection from both chemical and biological hazards to various emergency response personnel and human remains handlers.

  14. Inhibitory effects of Zengshengping fractions on DMBA-induced buccal pouch carcinogenesis in hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Xiao-Bing; Sun, Zheng; Chen, Xiao-Xin; Wu, Hong-Ru; Zhang, Xin-Yan

    2012-01-01

    Zengshengping (ZSP) tablets had inhibitory effects on oral precancerous lesions by reducing the incidence of oral cancer. However, the severe liver toxicity caused by systemic administration of ZSP limits the long-term use of this anti-cancer drug. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the tumor inhibitory effects due to the topical application of extracts from ZSP, a Chinese herbal drug, on 7, 12-dimethlbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA) induced oral tumors in hamsters. The study also investigated the anti-cancer mechanisms of the ZSP extracts on oral carcinogenesis. DMBA (0.5%) was applied topically to the buccal pouches of Syrian golden hamsters (6 - 8 weeks old) three times per week for six weeks in order to induce the development of oral tumors. Different fractions of ZSP were either applied topically to the oral tumor lesions or fed orally at varying dosages to animals with oral tumors for 18 weeks. Tumor volume was measured by histopathological examination. Tumor cell proliferation was evaluated by counting BrdU labeled cells and by Western blotting for mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) protein levels. The protein levels of apoptosis marker Caspase-3 and regulator Bcl-2 protein were also measured by Western blotting. Topical application of DMBA to the left pouch of hamsters induced oral tumor formation. Animals treated with DMBA showed a loss in body weight while animals treated with ZSP maintained normal body weights. Both the ZSP n-butanol fraction and water fraction significantly reduced tumor volume by 32.6% (P oral tumor lesions and reduced the expression level of MAPK. In addition, ZSP promoted tumor cell apoptosis by increasing Caspase-3 expression but decreasing Bcl-2 protein production. The n-butanol and water fractions of ZSP are effective at inhibiting tumor cell proliferation and stimulating apoptosis in oral cancer suggesting that these fractions have chemopreventive effects on DMBA induced oral carcinogenesis.

  15. Hamster (Mesocricetus auratus cheek pouch as an experimental model to investigate human skin and keloid heterologous graft Bolsa jugal no hamster (Mesocricetus auratus como modelo experimental de investigação de enxertos heterólogos de pele humana e quelóide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernardo Hochman

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available To describe the integration process of grafts of total human skin and keloid in hamster (Mesocricetus auratus cheek pouch, whose sub-epithelium is naturally an "Immunologically Privileged Site". Fragments of human normal skin and keloid from the breast region of mulatto female patients were transplanted into the cheek pouch subepithelium in situ. Surgical procedure and grafted pouches for microscopic exam at several time points of the transplantation were standardized. The integration of grafted fragments of human skin and keloid was seen in late periods (84 days since the microscopic assessment showed the presence of blood vases within the conjunctive tissue of grafted fragments. It was also possible to see among the grafted fragments the epithelium, the appearing of early cellular infiltrated, epithelial secretion of keratin, the presence of melanocytes, and delayed changes on the aspect of collagen fibers of conjunctive tissue. Pooled results allow to define hamster cheek pouch sub-epithelium as an experimental model to investigating heterologous graft physiology of human total skin and keloid with epithelium.Descrever a integração dos enxertos de pele total humana e quelóide na bolsa jugal do hamster (Mesocricetus auratus, cujo subepitélio é, naturalmente, um "Local de Privilégio Imunológico". Foram transplantados fragmentos, de pele humana normal e de quelóide, obtidos da região mamária de pacientes pardas, no subepitélio da bolsa jugal in situ. O procedimento operatório, e de preparo das bolsas enxertadas para exame microscópico em vários períodos de transplante, foi padronizado. Verificou-se a integração dos fragmentos enxertados de pele humana e de quelóide em períodos tardios (84 dias, uma vez que a avaliação microscópica revelou a presença de vasos sangüíneos no tecido conjuntivo dos fragmentos enxertados. Foi também possível observar, nos fragmentos enxertados, o epitélio, o aparecimento de infiltrado

  16. Adenocarcinoma in the anal canal after ileal pouch-anal anastomosis for familial adenomatous polyposis using a double-stapled technique: report of two cases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vrouenraets, Bart C.; van Duijvendijk, Peter; Bemelman, Willem A.; Offerhaus, G. Johan A.; Slors, J. Frederik M.

    2004-01-01

    Restorative proctocolectomy with an ileal pouch-anal anastomosis is thought to abolish the risk of colorectal adenoma development in patients suffering from familial adenomatous polyposis. Both after mucosectomy with a handsewn anastomosis and after a double-stapled anastomosis, rectal mucosa is

  17. Angiogenic effect of the aqueous extract of Cynodon dactylon on human umbilical vein endothelial cells and granulation tissue in rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soraya, Hamid; Moloudizargari, Milad; Aghajanshakeri, Shahin; Javaherypour, Soheil; Mokarizadeh, Aram; Hamedeyazdan, Sanaz; Esmaeli Gouvarchin Ghaleh, Hadi; Mikaili, Peyman; Garjani, Alireza

    2015-01-29

    Cynodon dactylon, a valuable medicinal plant, is widely used in Iranian folk medicine for the treatment of various cardiovascular diseases such as heart failure and atherosclerosis. Moreover, its anti-diabetic, anti-cancer and anti-microbial properties have been also reported. Concerning the critical role of angiogenesis in the incidence and progression of tumors and also its protective role in cardiovascular diseases, we investigated the effects of the aqueous extract prepared from the rhizomes of C. dactylon on vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expressions in Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells (HUVECs) and also on angiogenesis in carrageenan induced air-pouch model in rats. In the air-pouch model, carrageenan was injected into an air-pouch on the back of the rats and following an IV injection of carmine red dye on day 6, granulation tissue was processed for the assessment of the dye content. Furthermore, in an in vitro study, angiogenic property of the extract was assessed through its effect on VEGF expression in HUVECs. Oral administration of 400 mg/kg/day of the extract significantly increased angiogenesis (p<0.05) and markedly decreased neutrophil (p<0.05) and total leukocyte infiltration (p<0.001) into the granulation tissues. Moreover, the extract increased the expression of total VEGF in HUVECs at a concentration of (100 μl/ml). The present study showed that the aqueous extract of C. dactylon promotes angiogenesis probably through stimulating VEGF expression.

  18. 77 FR 4808 - Conference on Air Quality Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-31

    ... Modeling AGENCY: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice of conference. SUMMARY: The EPA will be hosting the Tenth Conference on Air Quality Modeling on March 13-15, 2012. Section 320 of the... First, Second, and Third Conferences on Air Quality Modeling as required by CAA Section 320 to help...

  19. NASA/Air Force Cost Model: NAFCOM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winn, Sharon D.; Hamcher, John W. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The NASA/Air Force Cost Model (NAFCOM) is a parametric estimating tool for space hardware. It is based on historical NASA and Air Force space projects and is primarily used in the very early phases of a development project. NAFCOM can be used at the subsystem or component levels.

  20. Dispersion modeling of selected PAHs in urban air: A new approach combining dispersion model with GIS and passive air sampling

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sáňka, O.; Melymuk, L.; Čupr, P.; Dvorská, Alice; Klánová, J.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 90, oct (2014), s. 88-95 ISSN 1352-2310 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : passive air sampling * air dispersion modeling * GIS * polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons * emission inventories Subject RIV: DI - Air Pollution ; Quality Impact factor: 3.281, year: 2014

  1. Mathematical models for atmospheric pollutants. Appendix D. Available air quality models. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drake, R.L.; McNaughton, D.J.; Huang, C.

    1979-08-01

    Models that are available for the analysis of airborne pollutants are summarized. In addition, recommendations are given concerning the use of particular models to aid in particular air quality decision making processes. The air quality models are characterized in terms of time and space scales, steady state or time dependent processes, reference frames, reaction mechanisms, treatment of turbulence and topography, and model uncertainty. Using these characteristics, the models are classified in the following manner: simple deterministic models, such as air pollution indices, simple area source models and rollback models; statistical models, such as averaging time models, time series analysis and multivariate analysis; local plume and puff models; box and multibox models; finite difference or grid models; particle models; physical models, such as wind tunnels and liquid flumes; regional models; and global models

  2. Neuro-models for discharge air temperature system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaheer-uddin, M.; Tudoroiu, N.

    2004-01-01

    Nonlinear neuro-models for a discharge air temperature (DAT) system are developed. Experimental data gathered in a heating ventilating and air conditioning (HVAC) test facility is used to develop multi-input multi-output (MIMO) and single-input single-output (SISO) neuro-models. Several different network architectures were explored to build the models. Results show that a three layer second order neural network structure is necessary to achieve good accuracy of the predictions. Results from the developed models are compared, and some observations on sensitivity and standard deviation errors are presented

  3. Long-Term Calculations with Large Air Pollution Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ambelas Skjøth, C.; Bastrup-Birk, A.; Brandt, J.

    1999-01-01

    Proceedings of the NATO Advanced Research Workshop on Large Scale Computations in Air Pollution Modelling, Sofia, Bulgaria, 6-10 July 1998......Proceedings of the NATO Advanced Research Workshop on Large Scale Computations in Air Pollution Modelling, Sofia, Bulgaria, 6-10 July 1998...

  4. Surgery versus endoscopic cauterization in patients with third or fourth branchial pouch sinuses: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derks, Laura S M; Veenstra, Hidde J; Oomen, Karin P Q; Speleman, Lucienne; Stegeman, Inge

    2016-01-01

    To systematically review the current literature on treatment of third and fourth branchial pouch sinuses with endoscopic cauterization, including chemocauterization and electrocauterization, in comparison to surgical treatment. PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane Library. We conducted a systematic search. Studies reporting original study data were included. After assessing the directness of evidence and risk of bias, studies with a low directness of evidence or a high risk of bias were excluded from analysis. Cumulative success rates after initial and recurrent treatments were calculated for both methods. A meta-analysis was conducted comparing the success rate of electrocauterization and surgery. A total of 2,263 articles were retrieved, of which seven retrospective and one prospective article were eligible for analysis. The cumulative success rate after primary treatment with cauterization ranged from 66.7% to 100%, and ranged from 77.8% to 100% after a second cauterization. The cumulative success rate after the first surgical treatment ranged from 50% to 100% and was 100% after the second surgical attempt. Meta-analysis on electrocauterization showed a nonsignificant risk ratio of 1.35 (95% confidence interval: 0.78-2.33). The effectiveness of cauterization in preventing recurrence seems to be comparable to surgical treatment. However, we suggest endoscopic cauterization as the treatment of choice for third and fourth branchial pouch sinuses because of the lower morbidity rate. © 2015 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  5. CHAPTER 1

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Olaleye

    plate, acetic acid-induced writhing, carrageenan-induced paw oedema and air pouch models. No death was recorded when WAP .... treatment. A single high dose as recommended by the. Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development ... The visual observations included changes in the skin and fur, locomotor ...

  6. Neutrophil elastase-mediated increase in airway temperature during inflammation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Annika; Belaaouaj, Azzaq; Bissinger, Rosi

    2014-01-01

    in the exhaled air of cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. To further test our hypothesis, a pouch inflammatory model using neutrophil elastase-deficient mice was employed. Next, the impact of temperature changes on the dominant CF pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa growth was tested by plating method and RNAseq. Results...

  7. 'Sequential' Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT): A Novel Approach to BNCT for the Treatment of Oral Cancer in the Hamster Cheek Pouch Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molinari, Ana J.; Pozzi, Emiliano C.C.; Hughes, Andrea Monti; Heber, Elisa M.; Garabalino, Marcela A.; Thorp, Silvia I.; Miller, Marcelo; Itoiz, Maria E.; Aromando, Romina F.; Nigg, David W.; Quintana, Jorge; Santa Cruz, Gustavo A.; Trivillin, Veronica A.; Schwint, Amanda E.

    2011-01-01

    In the present study we evaluated the therapeutic effect and/or potential radiotoxicity of the novel 'Tandem' Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (T-BNCT) for the treatment of oral cancer in the hamster cheek pouch model at RA-3 Nuclear Reactor. Two groups of animals were treated with 'Tandem BNCT', i.e. BNCT mediated by boronophenylalanine (BPA) followed by BNCT mediated by sodium decahydrodecaborate (GB-10) either 24 h (T-24h-BNCT) or 48 h (T-48h-BNCT) later. A total tumor dose-matched single application of BNCT mediated by BPA and GB-10 administered jointly ((BPA + GB-10)-BNCT) was administered to an additional group of animals. At 28 days post-treatment, T-24h-BNCT and T-48h-BNCT induced, respectively, overall tumor control (OTC) of 95% and 91%, with no statistically significant differences between protocols. Tumor response for the single application of (BPA + GB-10)-BNCT was 75%, significantly lower than for T-BNCT. The T-BNCT protocols and (BPA + GB-10)-BNCT induced reversible mucositis in dose-limiting precancerous tissue around treated tumors, reaching Grade 3/4 mucositis in 47% and 60% of the animals respectively. No normal tissue radiotoxicity was associated to tumor control for any of the protocols. 'Tandem' BNCT enhances tumor control in oral cancer and reduces or, at worst, does not increase, mucositis in dose-limiting precancerous tissue.

  8. The cost of simplifying air travel when modeling disease spread.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin Lessler

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Air travel plays a key role in the spread of many pathogens. Modeling the long distance spread of infectious disease in these cases requires an air travel model. Highly detailed air transportation models can be over determined and computationally problematic. We compared the predictions of a simplified air transport model with those of a model of all routes and assessed the impact of differences on models of infectious disease. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using U.S. ticket data from 2007, we compared a simplified "pipe" model, in which individuals flow in and out of the air transport system based on the number of arrivals and departures from a given airport, to a fully saturated model where all routes are modeled individually. We also compared the pipe model to a "gravity" model where the probability of travel is scaled by physical distance; the gravity model did not differ significantly from the pipe model. The pipe model roughly approximated actual air travel, but tended to overestimate the number of trips between small airports and underestimate travel between major east and west coast airports. For most routes, the maximum number of false (or missed introductions of disease is small (<1 per day but for a few routes this rate is greatly underestimated by the pipe model. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: If our interest is in large scale regional and national effects of disease, the simplified pipe model may be adequate. If we are interested in specific effects of interventions on particular air routes or the time for the disease to reach a particular location, a more complex point-to-point model will be more accurate. For many problems a hybrid model that independently models some frequently traveled routes may be the best choice. Regardless of the model used, the effect of simplifications and sensitivity to errors in parameter estimation should be analyzed.

  9. Mathematical Models for Room Air Distribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter V.

    1982-01-01

    A number of different models on the air distribution in rooms are introduced. This includes the throw model, a model on penetration length of a cold wall jet and a model for maximum velocity in the dimensioning of an air distribution system in highly loaded rooms and shows that the amount of heat...... removed from the room at constant penetration length is proportional to the cube of the velocities in the occupied zone. It is also shown that a large number of diffusers increases the amount of heat which may be removed without affecting the thermal conditions. Control strategies for dual duct and single...... duct systems are given and the paper is concluded by mentioning a computer-based prediction method which gives the velocity and temperature distribution in the whole room....

  10. Air quality modelling using chemometric techniques | Azid | Journal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study presents that the chemometric techniques and modelling become an excellent tool in API assessment, air pollution source identification, apportionment and can be setbacks in designing an API monitoring network for effective air pollution resources management. Keywords: air pollutant index; chemometric; ANN; ...

  11. Technique of Robotic-assisted Total Proctocolectomy with Lymphadenectomy and Ileal Pouch-Anal Anastomosis for Transverse Colitic Cancer of Ulcerative Colitis, Using the Single Cart Position.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanai, Tsunekazu; Maeda, Koutarou; Masumori, Koji; Katsuno, Hidetoshi; Matsuoka, Hiroshi

    2015-11-01

    Robotic surgery offers advantages for operating in a narrow space such as inside the pelvis. We report on the technique of robotic-assisted laparoscopic total proctocolectomy with lymphadenectomy and ileal pouch-anal anastomosis for ulcerative colitis with transverse colitic cancer, using the single cart position. A 46-year-old female patient was diagnosed with colitic cancer of the transverse colon during the surveillance of ulcerative colitis. Six port sites were used. Mobilization of the left-sided colon through to the rectum and mobilization of the transverse colon with lymphadenectomy around the middle colic artery were performed using the robotic surgical system. After rectal mobilization was conducted near the anus, the right side of the colon was mobilized and the ileum resected laparoscopically. Thereafter, a mucosectomy of the proctorectum was carried out through a trans-anal approach, and a hand-sewn J-pouch was performed. Finally, a diverting ileostomy was constructed through the right lower abdomen. The operative time was 460 minutes, including the console time of 361 minutes. The amount of blood loss was 76 g. The patient was discharged on postoperative day nine. Pathological results demonstrated that the depth of the lesion was T3, and the positive lymph node was 1 of 115 retrieved lymph nodes. There were no complications or mortality. Robotic-assisted total proctocolectomy and lymphadenectomy with ileal pouch-anal anastomosis for transverse colitic cancer of ulcerative colitis was performed safely using the single cart position.

  12. Air Pollution Exposure Modeling for Health Studies | Science ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dr. Michael Breen is leading the development of air pollution exposure models, integrated with novel personal sensor technologies, to improve exposure and risk assessments for individuals in health studies. He is co-investigator for multiple health studies assessing the exposure and effects of air pollutants. These health studies include participants with asthma, diabetes, and coronary artery disease living in various U.S. cities. He has developed, evaluated, and applied novel exposure modeling and time-activity tools, which includes the Exposure Model for Individuals (EMI), GPS-based Microenvironment Tracker (MicroTrac) and Exposure Tracker models. At this seminar, Dr. Breen will present the development and application of these models to predict individual-level personal exposures to particulate matter (PM) for two health studies in central North Carolina. These health studies examine the association between PM and adverse health outcomes for susceptible individuals. During Dr. Breen’s visit, he will also have the opportunity to establish additional collaborations with researchers at Harvard University that may benefit from the use of exposure models for cohort health studies. These research projects that link air pollution exposure with adverse health outcomes benefit EPA by developing model-predicted exposure-dose metrics for individuals in health studies to improve the understanding of exposure-response behavior of air pollutants, and to reduce participant

  13. The ASAC Air Carrier Investment Model (Second Generation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wingrove, Earl R., III; Johnson, Jesse P.; Sickles, Robin C.; Good, David H.

    1997-01-01

    To meet its objective of assisting the U.S. aviation industry with the technological challenges of the future, NASA must identify research areas that have the greatest potential for improving the operation of the air transportation system. To accomplish this, NASA is building an Aviation System Analysis Capability (ASAC). The ASAC differs from previous NASA modeling efforts in that the economic behavior of buyers and sellers in the air transportation and aviation industries is central to its conception. To link the economics of flight with the technology of flight, ASAC requires a parametrically based mode with extensions that link airline operations and investments in aircraft with aircraft characteristics. This model also must provide a mechanism for incorporating air travel demand and profitability factors into the airlines' investment decisions. Finally, the model must be flexible and capable of being incorporated into a wide-ranging suite of economic and technical models that are envisioned for ASAC. We describe a second-generation Air Carrier Investment Model that meets these requirements. The enhanced model incorporates econometric results from the supply and demand curves faced by U.S.-scheduled passenger air carriers. It uses detailed information about their fleets in 1995 to make predictions about future aircraft purchases. It enables analysts with the ability to project revenue passenger-miles flown, airline industry employment, airline operating profit margins, numbers and types of aircraft in the fleet, and changes in aircraft manufacturing employment under various user-defined scenarios.

  14. QUANTIFYING SUBGRID POLLUTANT VARIABILITY IN EULERIAN AIR QUALITY MODELS

    Science.gov (United States)

    In order to properly assess human risk due to exposure to hazardous air pollutants or air toxics, detailed information is needed on the location and magnitude of ambient air toxic concentrations. Regional scale Eulerian air quality models are typically limited to relatively coar...

  15. A characterization of anaerobic colonization and associated mucosal adaptations in the undiseased ileal pouch.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Smith, F M

    2012-02-03

    INTRODUCTION: The resolution of pouchitis with metronidazole points to an anaerobic aetiology. Pouchitis is mainly seen in patients with ulcerative colitis pouches (UCP). We have recently found that sulphate reducing bacteria (SRB), a species of strict anaerobe, colonize UCP exclusively. Herein, we aimed to correlate levels of different bacterial species (including SRB) with mucosal inflammation and morphology. METHODS: Following ethical approval, fresh faecal samples and mucosal biopsies were taken from 9 patients with UCP and 5 patients with familial adenomatous polyposis pouches (FAPP). For the purposes of comparison, faecal samples and mucosal biopsies were also taken from the stomas of 7 of the 9 patients with UC (UCS). Colonization by four types of strict anaerobes (SRB, Clostridium perfringens, Bifidobacteria and Bacteroides) as well as by three types of facultative anaerobes (Enterococci, Coliforms and Lactobacilli) was evaluated. Inflammatory scores and mucosal morphology were assessed histologically in a blinded fashion by a pathologist. RESULTS: In general, strict anaerobes predominated over facultative in the UCP (P = 0.041). SRB were present in UCP exclusively. Even after exclusion of SRB from total bacterial counts, strict anaerobes still predominated. In the UCS, facultative anaerobes predominated. Strict and facultative anaerobes were present at similar levels in the FAPP. Enterococci were present at significantly reduced levels in the UCP when compared with the UCS (P = 0.031). When levels of SRB and other anaerobic species were individually correlated with mucosal inflammation and morphology, no trends were observed. CONCLUSION: We have previously identified that SRB exclusively colonize UCP. In addition we have now identified a novel increase in the strict\\/facultative anaerobic ratio within the UCP compared to UCS. These stark differences in bacterial colonization, however, appear to have limited impact on mucosal inflammation or morphology.

  16. Modeling activities in air traffic control systems: antecedents and consequences of a mid-air collision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Carvalho, Paulo Victor R; Ferreira, Bemildo

    2012-01-01

    In this article we present a model of some functions and activities of the Brazilian Air traffic Control System (ATS) in the period in which occurred a mid-air collision between flight GLO1907, a commercial aircraft Boeing 737-800, and flight N600XL, an executive jet EMBRAER E-145, to investigate key resilience characteristics of the ATM. Modeling in some detail activities during the collision and related them to overall behavior and antecedents that stress the organization uncover some drift into failure mechanisms that erode safety defenses provided by the Air Navigation Service Provider (ANSP), enabling a mid-air collision to be happen.

  17. An EMD–SARIMA-Based Modeling Approach for Air Traffic Forecasting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Nai

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The ever-increasing air traffic demand in China has brought huge pressure on the planning and management of, and investment in, air terminals as well as airline companies. In this context, accurate and adequate short-term air traffic forecasting is essential for the operations of those entities. In consideration of such a problem, a hybrid air traffic forecasting model based on empirical mode decomposition (EMD and seasonal auto regressive integrated moving average (SARIMA has been proposed in this paper. The model proposed decomposes the original time series into components at first, and models each component with the SARIMA forecasting model, then integrates all the models together to form the final combined forecast result. By using the monthly air cargo and passenger flow data from the years 2006 to 2014 available at the official website of the Civil Aviation Administration of China (CAAC, the effectiveness in forecasting of the model proposed has been demonstrated, and by a horizontal performance comparison between several other widely used forecasting models, the advantage of the proposed model has also been proved.

  18. Absent upper blind Pouch in a case of tracheo-esophageal fistula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Man Mohan Harjai

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A common upper airway and digestive tract is a rare congenital anomaly that is usually fatal and its exact incidence is not known. It is a diagnostic challenge as it requires high index of suspicion. It should be considered in a neonate with respiratory distress in a non-vigorous baby requiring endotracheal intubation, which is difficult even in expert hand. We present a newborn with suspected tracheo-esophageal fistula that was diagnosed intraoperatively to have absent upper blind pouch of the esophagus and on autopsy found to have laryngeal atresia with absent vocal cords and a common aerodigestive tract continuing distally with trachea. The neonate was ventilated with endotracheal tube (ETT placement which in retrospect we came to know that it was in the esophagus. The neonate also had associated multiple congenital anomalies of VACTERL association. The importance of teamwork between neonatologist, pediatric surgeon, anesthesiologist, and radiologist is highlighted for diagnosis and management of such rare cases.

  19. “Sequential” Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT): A Novel Approach to BNCT for the Treatment of Oral Cancer in the Hamster Cheek Pouch Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ana J. Molinari; Emiliano C. C. Pozzi; Andrea Monti Hughes; Elisa M. Heber; Marcela A. Garabalino; Silvia I. Thorp; Marcelo Miller; Maria E. Itoiz; Romina F. Aromando; David W. Nigg; Jorge Quintana; Gustavo A. Santa Cruz; Veronica A. Trivillin; Amanda E. Schwint

    2011-04-01

    In the present study we evaluated the therapeutic effect and/or potential radiotoxicity of the novel “Tandem” Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (T-BNCT) for the treatment of oral cancer in the hamster cheek pouch model at RA-3 Nuclear Reactor. Two groups of animals were treated with “Tandem BNCT”, i.e. BNCT mediated by boronophenylalanine (BPA) followed by BNCT mediated by sodium decahydrodecaborate (GB-10) either 24 h (T-24h-BNCT) or 48 h (T-48h-BNCT) later. A total tumor dose-matched single application of BNCT mediated by BPA and GB-10 administered jointly [(BPA + GB-10)-BNCT] was administered to an additional group of animals. At 28 days post-treatment, T-24h-BNCT and T-48h-BNCT induced, respectively, overall tumor control (OTC) of 95% and 91%, with no statistically significant differences between protocols. Tumor response for the single application of (BPA + GB-10)-BNCT was 75%, significantly lower than for T-BNCT. The T-BNCT protocols and (BPA + GB-10)-BNCT induced reversible mucositis in dose-limiting precancerous tissue around treated tumors, reaching Grade 3/4 mucositis in 47% and 60% of the animals respectively. No normal tissue radiotoxicity was associated to tumor control for any of the protocols. “Tandem” BNCT enhances tumor control in oral cancer and reduces or, at worst, does not increase, mucositis in dose-limiting precancerous tissue.

  20. Letter to the Editor: Applications Air Q Model on Estimate Health Effects Exposure to Air Pollutants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholamreza Goudarzi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiologic studies in worldwide have measured increases in mortality and morbidity associated with air pollution (1-3. Quantifying the effects of air pollution on the human health in urban area causes an increasingly critical component in policy discussion (4-6. Air Q model was proved to be a valid and reliable tool to predicts health effects related to criteria  pollutants (particulate matter (PM, ozone (O3, nitrogen dioxide (NO2, sulfur dioxide (SO2, and carbon monoxide (CO, determinate  the  potential short term effects of air pollution  and allows the examination of various scenarios in which emission rates of pollutants are varied (7,8. Air Q software provided by the WHO European Centre for Environment and Health (ECEH (9. Air Q model is based on cohort studies and used to estimates of both attributable average reductions in life-span and numbers of mortality and morbidity associated with exposure to air pollution (10,11. Applications

  1. Application of Parallel Algorithms in an Air Pollution Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Georgiev, K.; Zlatev, Z.

    1999-01-01

    Proceedings of the NATO Advanced Research Workshop on Large Scale Computations in Air Pollution Modelling, Sofia, Bulgaria, 6-10 July 1998......Proceedings of the NATO Advanced Research Workshop on Large Scale Computations in Air Pollution Modelling, Sofia, Bulgaria, 6-10 July 1998...

  2. Indoor Air Quality Building Education and Assessment Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Indoor Air Quality Building Education and Assessment Model (I-BEAM), released in 2002, is a guidance tool designed for use by building professionals and others interested in indoor air quality in commercial buildings.

  3. Air Quality Forecasts Using the NASA GEOS Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Christoph A.; Knowland, K. Emma; Nielsen, Jon E.; Orbe, Clara; Ott, Lesley; Pawson, Steven; Saunders, Emily; Duncan, Bryan; Follette-Cook, Melanie; Liu, Junhua; hide

    2018-01-01

    We provide an introduction to a new high-resolution (0.25 degree) global composition forecast produced by NASA's Global Modeling and Assimilation office. The NASA Goddard Earth Observing System version 5 (GEOS-5) model has been expanded to provide global near-real-time forecasts of atmospheric composition at a horizontal resolution of 0.25 degrees (25 km). Previously, this combination of detailed chemistry and resolution was only provided by regional models. This system combines the operational GEOS-5 weather forecasting model with the state-of-the-science GEOS-Chem chemistry module (version 11) to provide detailed chemical analysis of a wide range of air pollutants such as ozone, carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, and fine particulate matter (PM2.5). The resolution of the forecasts is the highest resolution compared to current, publically-available global composition forecasts. Evaluation and validation of modeled trace gases and aerosols compared to surface and satellite observations will be presented for constituents relative to health air quality standards. Comparisons of modeled trace gases and aerosols against satellite observations show that the model produces realistic concentrations of atmospheric constituents in the free troposphere. Model comparisons against surface observations highlight the model's capability to capture the diurnal variability of air pollutants under a variety of meteorological conditions. The GEOS-5 composition forecasting system offers a new tool for scientists and the public health community, and is being developed jointly with several government and non-profit partners. Potential applications include air quality warnings, flight campaign planning and exposure studies using the archived analysis fields.

  4. AirPEx: Air Pollution Exposure Model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Freijer JI; Bloemen HJTh; Loos S de; Marra M; Rombout PJA; Steentjes GM; Veen MP van; LBO

    1997-01-01

    Analysis of inhalatory exposure to air pollution is an important area of investigation when assessing the risks of air pollution for human health. Inhalatory exposure research focuses on the exposure of humans to air pollutants and the entry of these pollutants into the human respiratory tract. The

  5. A desiccant-enhanced evaporative air conditioner: Numerical model and experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woods, Jason; Kozubal, Eric

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► We studied a new process combining liquid desiccants and evaporative cooling. ► We modeled the process using a finite-difference numerical model. ► We measured the performance of the process with experimental prototypes. ► Results show agreement between model and experiment of ±10%. ► Results add confidence to previous modeled energy savings estimates of 40–85%. - Abstract: This article presents modeling and experimental results on a recently proposed liquid desiccant air conditioner, which consists of two stages: a liquid desiccant dehumidifier and an indirect evaporative cooler. Each stage is a stack of channel pairs, where a channel pair is a process air channel separated from an exhaust air channel with a thin plastic plate. In the first stage, a liquid desiccant film, which lines the process air channels, removes moisture from the air through a porous hydrophobic membrane. An evaporating water film wets the surface of the exhaust channels and transfers the enthalpy of vaporization from the liquid desiccant into an exhaust airstream, cooling the desiccant and enabling lower outlet humidity. The second stage is a counterflow indirect evaporative cooler that siphons off and uses a portion of the cool-dry air exiting the second stage as the evaporative sink. The objectives of this article are to (1) present fluid-thermal numerical models for each stage, (2) present experimental results of prototypes for each stage, and (3) compare the modeled and experimental results. Several experiments were performed on the prototypes over a range of inlet temperatures and humidities, process and exhaust air flow rates, and desiccant concentrations and flow rates. The model predicts the experiments within ±10%.

  6. Evaluation of AirGIS: a GIS-based air pollution and human exposure modelling system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ketzel, Matthias; Berkowicz, Ruwim; Hvidberg, Martin

    2011-01-01

    This study describes in brief the latest extensions of the Danish Geographic Information System (GIS)-based air pollution and human exposure modelling system (AirGIS), which has been developed in Denmark since 2001 and gives results of an evaluation with measured air pollution data. The system...... shows, in general, a good performance for both long-term averages (annual and monthly averages), short-term averages (hourly and daily) as well as when reproducing spatial variation in air pollution concentrations. Some shortcomings and future perspectives of the system are discussed too....

  7. Modeling of air flow through a narrow crack

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trojek, T.; Cechak, T.; Moucka, L.; Fronka, A.

    2004-01-01

    Radon transport in dwellings is governed to a significant extent by pressure differences and properties of transport pathways. A model of air flow through narrow cracks was created in order to facilitate prediction of air velocity and air flow. Theoretical calculations, based on numerical solution of a system of differential equations, were compared with measurements carried out on a window crack. (P.A.)

  8. Impact of inherent meteorology uncertainty on air quality model predictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    It is well established that there are a number of different classifications and sources of uncertainties in environmental modeling systems. Air quality models rely on two key inputs, namely, meteorology and emissions. When using air quality models for decision making, it is impor...

  9. Quasi-steady-state model of a counter flow air-to-air heat exchanger with phase change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rose, Jørgen; Nielsen, Toke Rammer; Kragh, Jesper

    2008-01-01

    -exchanger. Developing highly efficient heat-exchangers and strategies to avoid/remove frost formation implies the use of detailed models to predict and evaluate different heat-exchanger designs and strategies. This paper presents a quasi-steady-state model of a counter-flow air-to-air heat-exchanger that takes...

  10. Generalized additive model of air pollution to daily mortality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, J.; Yang, H.E.

    2005-01-01

    The association of air pollution with daily mortality due to cardiovascular disease, respiratory disease, and old age (65 or older) in Seoul, Korea was investigated in 1999 using daily values of TSP, PM10, O 3 , SO 2 , NO 2 , and CO. Generalized additive Poisson models were applied to allow for the highly flexible fitting of daily trends in air pollution as well as nonlinear association with meteorological variables such as temperature, humidity, and wind speed. To estimate the effect of air pollution and weather on mortality, LOESS smoothing was used in generalized additive models. The findings suggest that air pollution levels affect significantly the daily mortality. (orig.)

  11. Mixed deterministic statistical modelling of regional ozone air pollution

    KAUST Repository

    Kalenderski, Stoitchko

    2011-03-17

    We develop a physically motivated statistical model for regional ozone air pollution by separating the ground-level pollutant concentration field into three components, namely: transport, local production and large-scale mean trend mostly dominated by emission rates. The model is novel in the field of environmental spatial statistics in that it is a combined deterministic-statistical model, which gives a new perspective to the modelling of air pollution. The model is presented in a Bayesian hierarchical formalism, and explicitly accounts for advection of pollutants, using the advection equation. We apply the model to a specific case of regional ozone pollution-the Lower Fraser valley of British Columbia, Canada. As a predictive tool, we demonstrate that the model vastly outperforms existing, simpler modelling approaches. Our study highlights the importance of simultaneously considering different aspects of an air pollution problem as well as taking into account the physical bases that govern the processes of interest. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd..

  12. Performance of the air2stream model that relates air and stream water temperatures depends on the calibration method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piotrowski, Adam P.; Napiorkowski, Jaroslaw J.

    2018-06-01

    A number of physical or data-driven models have been proposed to evaluate stream water temperatures based on hydrological and meteorological observations. However, physical models require a large amount of information that is frequently unavailable, while data-based models ignore the physical processes. Recently the air2stream model has been proposed as an intermediate alternative that is based on physical heat budget processes, but it is so simplified that the model may be applied like data-driven ones. However, the price for simplicity is the need to calibrate eight parameters that, although have some physical meaning, cannot be measured or evaluated a priori. As a result, applicability and performance of the air2stream model for a particular stream relies on the efficiency of the calibration method. The original air2stream model uses an inefficient 20-year old approach called Particle Swarm Optimization with inertia weight. This study aims at finding an effective and robust calibration method for the air2stream model. Twelve different optimization algorithms are examined on six different streams from northern USA (states of Washington, Oregon and New York), Poland and Switzerland, located in both high mountains, hilly and lowland areas. It is found that the performance of the air2stream model depends significantly on the calibration method. Two algorithms lead to the best results for each considered stream. The air2stream model, calibrated with the chosen optimization methods, performs favorably against classical streamwater temperature models. The MATLAB code of the air2stream model and the chosen calibration procedure (CoBiDE) are available as Supplementary Material on the Journal of Hydrology web page.

  13. EMMA model: an advanced operational mesoscale air quality model for urban and regional environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jose, R.S.; Rodriguez, M.A.; Cortes, E.; Gonzalez, R.M.

    1999-01-01

    Mesoscale air quality models are an important tool to forecast and analyse the air quality in regional and urban areas. In recent years an increased interest has been shown by decision makers in these types of software tools. The complexity of such a model has grown exponentially with the increase of computer power. Nowadays, medium workstations can run operational versions of these modelling systems successfully. Presents a complex mesoscale air quality model which has been installed in the Environmental Office of the Madrid community (Spain) in order to forecast accurately the ozone, nitrogen dioxide and sulphur dioxide air concentrations in a 3D domain centred on Madrid city. Describes the challenging scientific matters to be solved in order to develop an operational version of the atmospheric mesoscale numerical pollution model for urban and regional areas (ANA). Some encouraging results have been achieved in the attempts to improve the accuracy of the predictions made by the version already installed. (Author)

  14. Development of a model for radon concentration in indoor air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jelle, Bjørn Petter

    2012-01-01

    A model is developed for calculation of the radon concentration in indoor air. The model takes into account various important parameters, e.g. radon concentration in ground, radon diffusion resistance of radon barrier, air permeance of ground, air pressure difference between outdoor ground and indoor at ground level, ventilation of the building ground and number of air changes per hour due to ventilation. Characteristic case studies are depicted in selected 2D and 3D graphical plots for easy visualization and interpretation. The radon transport into buildings might be dominated by diffusion, pressure driven flow or a mixture of both depending on the actual values of the various parameters. The results of our work indicate that with realistic or typical values of the parameters, most of the transport of radon from the building ground to the indoor air is due to air leakage driven by pressure differences through the construction. By incorporation of various and realistic values in the radon model, valuable information about the miscellaneous parameters influencing the indoor radon level is gained. Hence, the presented radon model may be utilized as a simple yet versatile and powerful tool for examining which preventive or remedial measures should be carried out to achieve an indoor radon level below the reference level as set by the authorities. - Highlights: ► Model development for calculation of radon concentration in indoor air. ► Radon model accounting for various important parameters. ► Characteristic case studies depicted in 2D and 3D graphical plots. ► May be utilized for examining radon preventive measures.

  15. Mathematical Models for Room Air Distribution - Addendum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter V.

    1982-01-01

    A number of different models on the air distribution in rooms are introduced. This includes the throw model, a model on penetration length of a cold wall jet and a model for maximum velocity in the dimensioning of an air distribution system in highly loaded rooms and shows that the amount of heat...... removed from the room at constant penetration length is proportional to the cube of the velocities in the occupied zone. It is also shown that a large number of diffusers increases the amount of heat which may be removed without affecting the thermal conditions. Control strategies for dual duct and single...... duct systems are given and the paper is concluded by mentioning a computer-based prediction method which gives the velocity and temperature distribution in the whole room....

  16. New calculation method for thermodynamic properties of humid air in humid air turbine cycle – The general model and solutions for saturated humid air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Zidong; Chen, Hanping; Weng, Shilie

    2013-01-01

    The article proposes a new calculation method for thermodynamic properties (i.e. specific enthalpy, specific entropy and specific volume) of humid air in humid air turbine cycle. The research pressure range is from 0.1 MPa to 5 MPa. The fundamental behaviors of dry air and water vapor in saturated humid air are explored in depth. The new model proposes and verifies the relationship between total gas mixture pressure and gas component pressures. This provides a good explanation of the fundamental behaviors of gas components in gas mixture from a new perspective. Another discovery is that the water vapor component pressure of saturated humid air equals P S , always smaller than its partial pressure (f·P S ) which was believed in the past researches. In the new model, “Local Gas Constant” describes the interaction between similar molecules. “Improvement Factor” is proposed for the first time by this article, and it quantitatively describes the magnitude of interaction between dissimilar molecules. They are combined to fully describe the real thermodynamic properties of humid air. The average error of Revised Dalton's Method is within 0.1% compared to experimentally-based data. - Highlights: • Our new model is suitable to calculate thermodynamic properties of humid air in HAT cycle. • Fundamental behaviors of dry air and water vapor in saturated humid air are explored in depth. • Local-Gas-Constant describes existing alone component and Improvement Factor describes interaction between different components. • The new model proposes and verifies the relationship between total gas mixture pressure and component pressures. • It solves saturated humid air thoroughly and deviates from experimental data less than 0.1%

  17. Modeling quiescent phase transport of air bubbles induced by breaking waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Fengyan; Kirby, James T.; Ma, Gangfeng

    Simultaneous modeling of both the acoustic phase and quiescent phase of breaking wave-induced air bubbles involves a large range of length scales from microns to meters and time scales from milliseconds to seconds, and thus is computational unaffordable in a surfzone-scale computational domain. In this study, we use an air bubble entrainment formula in a two-fluid model to predict air bubble evolution in the quiescent phase in a breaking wave event. The breaking wave-induced air bubble entrainment is formulated by connecting the shear production at the air-water interface and the bubble number intensity with a certain bubble size spectra observed in laboratory experiments. A two-fluid model is developed based on the partial differential equations of the gas-liquid mixture phase and the continuum bubble phase, which has multiple size bubble groups representing a polydisperse bubble population. An enhanced 2-DV VOF (Volume of Fluid) model with a k - ɛ turbulence closure is used to model the mixture phase. The bubble phase is governed by the advection-diffusion equations of the gas molar concentration and bubble intensity for groups of bubbles with different sizes. The model is used to simulate air bubble plumes measured in laboratory experiments. Numerical results indicate that, with an appropriate parameter in the air entrainment formula, the model is able to predict the main features of bubbly flows as evidenced by reasonable agreement with measured void fraction. Bubbles larger than an intermediate radius of O(1 mm) make a major contribution to void fraction in the near-crest region. Smaller bubbles tend to penetrate deeper and stay longer in the water column, resulting in significant contribution to the cross-sectional area of the bubble cloud. An underprediction of void fraction is found at the beginning of wave breaking when large air pockets take place. The core region of high void fraction predicted by the model is dislocated due to use of the shear

  18. Congenital pouch colon in a girl associated with bilateral atresia of cervix uteri and uterus didelphys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chadha, Rajiv; Puri, Manju; Saxena, Rahul; Agarwala, Surendrakumar; Puri, Archana; Choudhury, Subhasis Roy

    2013-04-01

    This report describes a girl with congenital pouch colon (CPC), uterus didelphys with septate vagina, and a cloacal anomaly. The girl underwent cloacal reconstruction at the age of 15 months. Subsequently, at puberty, the child had primary amenorrhea with severe cyclic abdominal pain due to endometriosis of both the uteruses and adnexal cysts with hematometra and hematosalpinx. Laparotomy with removal of both uteri and the left fallopian tube was performed. Both uteri had atresia of the cervix uteri. This report emphasizes the need for comprehensive evaluation and a long-term management strategy for associated gynecologic anomalies in girls with CPC, especially with regard to patency of the outflow tract.

  19. Short-term morbidity and quality of life from a randomized clinical trial of close rectal dissection and total mesorectal excision in ileal pouch-anal anastomosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bartels, S. A. L.; Gardenbroek, T. J.; Aarts, M.; Ponsioen, C. Y.; Tanis, P. J.; Buskens, C. J.; Bemelman, W. A.

    2015-01-01

    Posterior rectal dissection during ileal pouch-anal anastomosis (IPAA) can be performed in the total mesorectal excision (TME) or close rectal dissection (CRD) plane. The aim of this study was to compare morbidity and quality of life (QoL) in patients having TME or CRD during proctectomy followed by

  20. Assessment and prediction of air quality using fuzzy logic and autoregressive models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbajal-Hernández, José Juan; Sánchez-Fernández, Luis P.; Carrasco-Ochoa, Jesús A.; Martínez-Trinidad, José Fco.

    2012-12-01

    In recent years, artificial intelligence methods have been used for the treatment of environmental problems. This work, presents two models for assessment and prediction of air quality. First, we develop a new computational model for air quality assessment in order to evaluate toxic compounds that can harm sensitive people in urban areas, affecting their normal activities. In this model we propose to use a Sigma operator to statistically asses air quality parameters using their historical data information and determining their negative impact in air quality based on toxicity limits, frequency average and deviations of toxicological tests. We also introduce a fuzzy inference system to perform parameter classification using a reasoning process and integrating them in an air quality index describing the pollution levels in five stages: excellent, good, regular, bad and danger, respectively. The second model proposed in this work predicts air quality concentrations using an autoregressive model, providing a predicted air quality index based on the fuzzy inference system previously developed. Using data from Mexico City Atmospheric Monitoring System, we perform a comparison among air quality indices developed for environmental agencies and similar models. Our results show that our models are an appropriate tool for assessing site pollution and for providing guidance to improve contingency actions in urban areas.

  1. Robust geographically weighted regression of modeling the Air Polluter Standard Index (APSI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warsito, Budi; Yasin, Hasbi; Ispriyanti, Dwi; Hoyyi, Abdul

    2018-05-01

    The Geographically Weighted Regression (GWR) model has been widely applied to many practical fields for exploring spatial heterogenity of a regression model. However, this method is inherently not robust to outliers. Outliers commonly exist in data sets and may lead to a distorted estimate of the underlying regression model. One of solution to handle the outliers in the regression model is to use the robust models. So this model was called Robust Geographically Weighted Regression (RGWR). This research aims to aid the government in the policy making process related to air pollution mitigation by developing a standard index model for air polluter (Air Polluter Standard Index - APSI) based on the RGWR approach. In this research, we also consider seven variables that are directly related to the air pollution level, which are the traffic velocity, the population density, the business center aspect, the air humidity, the wind velocity, the air temperature, and the area size of the urban forest. The best model is determined by the smallest AIC value. There are significance differences between Regression and RGWR in this case, but Basic GWR using the Gaussian kernel is the best model to modeling APSI because it has smallest AIC.

  2. Numerical Modelling Of Humid Air Flow Around A Porous Body

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bohojło-Wiśniewska Aneta

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an example of humid air flow around a single head of Chinese cabbage under conditions of complex heat transfer. This kind of numerical simulation allows us to create a heat and humidity transfer model between the Chinese cabbage and the flowing humid air. The calculations utilize the heat transfer model in porous medium, which includes the temperature difference between the solid (vegetable tissue and fluid (air phases of the porous medium. Modelling and calculations were performed in ANSYS Fluent 14.5 software.

  3. Indoor Air Quality Building Education and Assessment Model Forms

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Indoor Air Quality Building Education and Assessment Model (I-BEAM) is a guidance tool designed for use by building professionals and others interested in indoor air quality in commercial buildings.

  4. Innovations in projecting emissions for air quality modeling ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Air quality modeling is used in setting air quality standards and in evaluating their costs and benefits. Historically, modeling applications have projected emissions and the resulting air quality only 5 to 10 years into the future. Recognition that the choice of air quality management strategy has climate change implications is encouraging longer modeling time horizons. However, for multi-decadal time horizons, many questions about future conditions arise. For example, will current population, economic, and land use trends continue, or will we see shifts that may alter the spatial and temporal pattern of emissions? Similarly, will technologies such as building-integrated solar photovoltaics, battery storage, electric vehicles, and CO2 capture emerge as disruptive technologies - shifting how we produce and use energy - or will these technologies achieve only niche markets and have little impact? These are some of the questions that are being evaluated by researchers within the U.S. EPA’s Office of Research and Development. In this presentation, Dr. Loughlin will describe a range of analytical approaches that are being explored. These include: (i) the development of alternative scenarios of the future that can be used to evaluate candidate management strategies over wide-ranging conditions, (ii) the application of energy system models to project emissions decades into the future and to assess the environmental implications of new technologies, (iii) and methodo

  5. Carcinogenic effects of MGP-7 and B(a)P on the Hamster Cheek Pouch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandon, J.L.; Conti, C.J.; Goldstein, L.S.; DiGiovanni, J.; Gimenez-Conti, I.B. [University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Smithville, TX (United States). Dept. of Carcinogenesis

    2009-10-15

    This study was performed to examine the carcinogenic effects of benzo(a)pyrene (B(a)P) and manufactured gas plant (MGP) residues on the hamster cheek pouch (HCP). Syrian hamsters were treated topically with a suspension of 2%, 10%, or 20% B(a)P or 50% or 100% MGP-7 (a mixture of residues from 7 MGP sites) in mineral oil for eight (short-term study) and sixteen, twenty, twenty-eight, and thirty-two weeks (long-term study). The short-term study showed that B(a)P induced p53 protein accumulation, indicative of genotoxic damage, as well as increased cell proliferation, hyperplasia, and inflammation, which is usually associated with promotional activity. In contrast, the MGP-7 presented only marginal p53 accumulation and induction of BrdU incorporation. In the long-term experiments, animals treated with 2% and 10% of B(a)P continued to show p53 protein accumulation as well as hyperplasia and increased cell proliferation and inflammation. By thirty weeks, all the animals treated with B(a)P had a 100% incidence of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). Animals treated with 50% and 100% MGP-7 showed only weak hyperplasia and a low proliferation rate and accumulation of p53 protein through thirty-two weeks. Benzo(a)pyrene was highly carcinogenic when used at adequate doses. Manufactured gas plant residue, however, was not carcinogenic in this model.

  6. Modeling the Environmental Impact of Air Traffic Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Neil

    2011-01-01

    There is increased interest to understand and mitigate the impacts of air traffic on the climate, since greenhouse gases, nitrogen oxides, and contrails generated by air traffic can have adverse impacts on the climate. The models described in this presentation are useful for quantifying these impacts and for studying alternative environmentally aware operational concepts. These models have been developed by leveraging and building upon existing simulation and optimization techniques developed for the design of efficient traffic flow management strategies. Specific enhancements to the existing simulation and optimization techniques include new models that simulate aircraft fuel flow, emissions and contrails. To ensure that these new models are beneficial to the larger climate research community, the outputs of these new models are compatible with existing global climate modeling tools like the FAA's Aviation Environmental Design Tool.

  7. Modeling green infrastructure land use changes on future air ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green infrastructure can be a cost-effective approach for reducing stormwater runoff and improving water quality as a result, but it could also bring co-benefits for air quality: less impervious surfaces and more vegetation can decrease the urban heat island effect, and also result in more removal of air pollutants via dry deposition with increased vegetative surfaces. Cooler surface temperatures can also decrease ozone formation through the increases of NOx titration; however, cooler surface temperatures also lower the height of the boundary layer resulting in more concentrated pollutants within the same volume of air, especially for primary emitted pollutants (e.g. NOx, CO, primary particulate matter). To better understand how green infrastructure impacts air quality, the interactions between all of these processes must be considered collectively. In this study, we use a comprehensive coupled meteorology-air quality model (WRF-CMAQ) to simulate the influence of planned land use changes that include green infrastructure in Kansas City (KC) on regional meteorology and air quality. Current and future land use data was provided by the Mid-America Regional Council for 2012 and 2040 (projected land use due to population growth, city planning and green infrastructure implementation). These land use datasets were incorporated into the WRF-CMAQ modeling system allowing the modeling system to propagate the changes in vegetation and impervious surface coverage on meteoro

  8. Development and application of air quality models at the US ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overview of the development and application of air quality models at the U.S. EPA, particularly focused on the development and application of the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model developed within the Computation Exposure Division (CED) of the National Exposure Research Laboratory (NERL). This presentation will provide a simple overview of air quality model development and application geared toward a non-technical student audience. The National Exposure Research Laboratory (NERL) Computational Exposure Division (CED) develops and evaluates data, decision-support tools, and models to be applied to media-specific or receptor-specific problem areas. CED uses modeling-based approaches to characterize exposures, evaluate fate and transport, and support environmental diagnostics/forensics with input from multiple data sources. It also develops media- and receptor-specific models, process models, and decision support tools for use both within and outside of EPA.

  9. Diabetes Is Reversed in a Murine Model by Marginal Mass Syngeneic Islet Transplantation Using a Subcutaneous Cell Pouch Device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepper, Andrew R; Pawlick, Rena; Gala-Lopez, Boris; MacGillivary, Amanda; Mazzuca, Delfina M; White, David J G; Toleikis, Philip M; Shapiro, A M James

    2015-11-01

    Islet transplantation is a successful β-cell replacement therapy for selected patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus. Although high rates of early insulin independence are achieved routinely, long-term function wanes over time. Intraportal transplantation is associated with procedural risks, requires multiple donors, and does not afford routine biopsy. Stem cell technologies may require potential for retrievability, and graft removal by hepatectomy is impractical. There is a clear clinical need for an alternative, optimized transplantation site. The subcutaneous space is a potential substitute, but transplantation of islets into this site has routinely failed to reverse diabetes. However, an implanted device, which becomes prevascularized before transplantation, may alter this equation. Syngeneic mouse islets were transplanted subcutaneously within Sernova Corp's Cell Pouch (CP). All recipients were preimplanted with CPs 4 weeks before diabetes induction and transplantation. After transplantation, recipients were monitored for glycemic control and glucose tolerance. Mouse islets transplanted into the CP routinely restored glycemic control with modest delay and responded well to glucose challenge, comparable to renal subcapsular islet grafts, despite a marginal islet dose, and normoglycemia was maintained until graft explantation. In contrast, islets transplanted subcutaneously alone failed to engraft. Islets within CPs stained positively for insulin, glucagon, and microvessels. The CP is biocompatible, forms an environment suitable for islet engraftment, and offers a potential alternative to the intraportal site for islet and future stem cell therapies.

  10. Equivalent Air Spring Suspension Model for Quarter-Passive Model of Passenger Vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Abid, Haider J.; Chen, Jie; Nassar, Ameen A.

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates the GENSIS air spring suspension system equivalence to a passive suspension system. The SIMULINK simulation together with the OptiY optimization is used to obtain the air spring suspension model equivalent to passive suspension system, where the car body response difference from both systems with the same road profile inputs is used as the objective function for optimization (OptiY program). The parameters of air spring system such as initial pressure, volume of bag, l...

  11. Aircraft/Air Traffic Management Functional Analysis Model: Technical Description. 2.0

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etheridge, Melvin; Plugge, Joana; Retina, Nusrat

    1998-01-01

    The Aircraft/Air Traffic Management Functional Analysis Model, Version 2.0 (FAM 2.0), is a discrete event simulation model designed to support analysis of alternative concepts in air traffic management and control. FAM 2.0 was developed by the Logistics Management Institute (LMI) under a National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) contract. This document provides a technical description of FAM 2.0 and its computer files to enable the modeler and programmer to make enhancements or modifications to the model. Those interested in a guide for using the model in analysis should consult the companion document, Aircraft/Air Traffic Management Functional Analysis Model, Version 2.0 Users Manual.

  12. The role of the defaecating pouchogram in the assessment of evacuation difficulty after restorative proctocolectomy and pouch-anal anastomosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stellingwerf, M E; Maeda, Y; Patel, U; Vaizey, C J; Warusavitarne, J; Bemelman, W A; Clark, S K

    2016-08-01

    Restorative proctocolectomy (RPC) with ileal pouch-anal anastomosis (IPAA) is the most frequently performed operation for intractable ulcerative colitis (UC) and for many patients with familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP). It can be complicated by a functional evacuation difficulty, which is not well understood. We aimed to evaluate the role of defaecating pouchography in an attempt to assess the mechanism of evacuation difficulty in pouch patients. All RPC patients who had had a defaecating pouchogram for evacuation difficulty at one hospital between 2006 and 2014 were retrospectively reviewed. The findings and features were correlated with the symptoms. Demographic, clinical and radiological variables were analysed. Eighty-seven [55 (63%) female] patients aged 47.6 ± 12.5 years (mean standard ± SD) were identified. Thirty-five had a mechanical outlet obstruction and 52 had no identified mechanical cause to explain the evacuation difficulty. The mean age of these 52 [33 (63%) female] patients was 48.2 ± 13 years. Of these 52 patients, significantly more used anti-diarrhoeal medication (P = 0.029), complained of a high frequency of defaecation (P = 0.005), experienced a longer time to the initiation of defaecation (P = 0.049) and underwent pouchoscopy (P = 0.003). Biofeedback appeared to improve the symptoms in 7 of 16 patients with a nonmechanical defaecatory difficulty. The most common findings on defaecating pouchography included residual barium of more than 33% after an attempted evacuation (46%, n = 24), slow evacuation (35%, n = 18) and mucosal irregularity (33%, n = 17). Correlation between radiological features and symptoms showed a statistically significant relationship between straining, anal pain, incontinence and urgency with patterns of anismus or pelvic floor descent or weakness seen on the defaecating pouchogram. Symptoms of incomplete evacuation, difficulty in the initiation of defaecation, high defaecatory frequency and

  13. High-resolution modelling of health impacts from air pollution using the integrated model system EVA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Jørgen; Andersen, Mikael S.; Bønløkke, Jakob; Christensen, Jesper H.; Geels, Camilla; Hansen, Kaj M.; Jensen, Steen S.; Ketzel, Matthias; Plejdrup, Marlene S.; Sigsgaard, Torben; Silver, Jeremy D.

    2014-05-01

    A high-resolution assessment of health impacts from air pollution and related external cost has been conducted for Denmark using the integrated EVA model system. The EVA system has been further developed by implementing an air quality model with a 1 km x 1 km resolution covering the whole of Denmark. New developments of the integrated model system will be presented as well as results for health impacts and related external costs over several decades. Furthermore, the sensitivity of health impacts to model resolution will be studied. We have developed an integrated model system EVA (Economic Valuation of Air pollution), based on the impact-pathway chain, to assess the health impacts and health-related economic externalities of air pollution resulting from specific emission sources or sectors. The system is used to support policymaking with respect to emission control. In Brandt et al. (2013a; 2013b), the EVA system was used to assess the impacts in Europe and Denmark from the past, present and future total air pollution levels as well as the contribution from the major anthropogenic emission sectors. The EVA system was applied using the hemispheric chemistry-transport model, the Danish Eulerian Hemispheric Model (DEHM), with nesting capability for higher resolution over Europe (50 km x 50 km) and Northern Europe (16.7 km x 16.7 km). In this study an Urban Background Model (UBM) has been further developed to cover the whole of Denmark with a 1 km x 1 km resolution and the model has been implemented as a part of the integrated model system, EVA. The EVA system is based on the impact-pathway methodology. The site-specific emissions will result (via atmospheric transport and chemistry) in a concentration distribution, which together with detailed population data, are used to estimate the population-level exposure. Using exposure-response functions and economic valuations, the exposure is transformed into impacts on human health and related external costs. In this study

  14. Statistical modeling of urban air temperature distributions under different synoptic conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Christoph; Breitner, Susanne; Cyrys, Josef; Hald, Cornelius; Hartz, Uwe; Jacobeit, Jucundus; Richter, Katja; Schneider, Alexandra; Wolf, Kathrin

    2015-04-01

    Within urban areas air temperature may vary distinctly between different locations. These intra-urban air temperature variations partly reach magnitudes that are relevant with respect to human thermal comfort. Therefore and furthermore taking into account potential interrelations with other health related environmental factors (e.g. air quality) it is important to estimate spatial patterns of intra-urban air temperature distributions that may be incorporated into urban planning processes. In this contribution we present an approach to estimate spatial temperature distributions in the urban area of Augsburg (Germany) by means of statistical modeling. At 36 locations in the urban area of Augsburg air temperatures are measured with high temporal resolution (4 min.) since December 2012. These 36 locations represent different typical urban land use characteristics in terms of varying percentage coverages of different land cover categories (e.g. impervious, built-up, vegetated). Percentage coverages of these land cover categories have been extracted from different sources (Open Street Map, European Urban Atlas, Urban Morphological Zones) for regular grids of varying size (50, 100, 200 meter horizonal resolution) for the urban area of Augsburg. It is well known from numerous studies that land use characteristics have a distinct influence on air temperature and as well other climatic variables at a certain location. Therefore air temperatures at the 36 locations are modeled utilizing land use characteristics (percentage coverages of land cover categories) as predictor variables in Stepwise Multiple Regression models and in Random Forest based model approaches. After model evaluation via cross-validation appropriate statistical models are applied to gridded land use data to derive spatial urban air temperature distributions. Varying models are tested and applied for different seasons and times of the day and also for different synoptic conditions (e.g. clear and calm

  15. Description of Supply Openings in Numerical Models for Room Air Distribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter V.

    This paper discusses various possibilities for describing supply openings in numerical models of room air distribution.......This paper discusses various possibilities for describing supply openings in numerical models of room air distribution....

  16. Modelling pesticide volatilization after soil application using the mechanistic model Volt'Air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedos, Carole; Génermont, Sophie; Le Cadre, Edith; Garcia, Lucas; Barriuso, Enrique; Cellier, Pierre

    Volatilization of pesticides participates in atmospheric contamination and affects environmental ecosystems including human welfare. Modelling at relevant time and spatial scales is needed to better understand the complex processes involved in pesticide volatilization. Volt'Air-Pesticides has been developed following a two-step procedure to study pesticide volatilization at the field scale and at a quarter time step. Firstly, Volt'Air-NH 3 was adapted by extending the initial transfer of solutes to pesticides and by adding specific calculations for physico-chemical equilibriums as well as for the degradation of pesticides in soil. Secondly, the model was evaluated in terms of 3 pesticides applied on bare soil (atrazine, alachlor, and trifluralin) which display a wide range of volatilization rates. A sensitivity analysis confirmed the relevance of tuning to K h. Then, using Volt'Air-Pesticides, environmental conditions and emission fluxes of the pesticides were compared to fluxes measured under 2 environmental conditions. The model fairly well described water temporal dynamics, soil surface temperature, and energy budget. Overall, Volt'Air-Pesticides estimates of the order of magnitude of the volatilization flux of all three compounds were in good agreement with the field measurements. The model also satisfactorily simulated the decrease in the volatilization rate of the three pesticides during night-time as well as the decrease in the soil surface residue of trifluralin before and after incorporation. However, the timing of the maximum flux rate during the day was not correctly described, thought to be linked to an increased adsorption under dry soil conditions. Thanks to Volt'Air's capacity to deal with pedo-climatic conditions, several existing parameterizations describing adsorption as a function of soil water content could be tested. However, this point requires further investigation. Practically speaking, Volt'Air-Pesticides can be a useful tool to make

  17. COMPLEX OF NUMERICAL MODELS FOR COMPUTATION OF AIR ION CONCENTRATION IN PREMISES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Biliaiev

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The article highlights the question about creation the complex numerical models in order to calculate the ions concentration fields in premises of various purpose and in work areas. Developed complex should take into account the main physical factors influencing the formation of the concentration field of ions, that is, aerodynamics of air jets in the room, presence of furniture, equipment, placement of ventilation holes, ventilation mode, location of ionization sources, transfer of ions under the electric field effect, other factors, determining the intensity and shape of the field of concentration of ions. In addition, complex of numerical models has to ensure conducting of the express calculation of the ions concentration in the premises, allowing quick sorting of possible variants and enabling «enlarged» evaluation of air ions concentration in the premises. Methodology. The complex numerical models to calculate air ion regime in the premises is developed. CFD numerical model is based on the use of aerodynamics, electrostatics and mass transfer equations, and takes into account the effect of air flows caused by the ventilation operation, diffusion, electric field effects, as well as the interaction of different polarities ions with each other and with the dust particles. The proposed balance model for computation of air ion regime indoors allows operative calculating the ions concentration field considering pulsed operation of the ionizer. Findings. The calculated data are received, on the basis of which one can estimate the ions concentration anywhere in the premises with artificial air ionization. An example of calculating the negative ions concentration on the basis of the CFD numerical model in the premises with reengineering transformations is given. On the basis of the developed balance model the air ions concentration in the room volume was calculated. Originality. Results of the air ion regime computation in premise, which

  18. Air Quality – monitoring and modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius DEACONU

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Air pollution is a major concern for all nations, regardless of their development. The rapid growth of the industrial sector and urban development have lead to significant quantities of substances and toxic materials, mostly discharged into the atmosphere and having adverse effects both on human health and environment in general. Human society has to recognize that environment has only a limited capacity to process all of its waste without major changes. Each of us is a pollutant but also a victim of pollution. If monitoring of air pollutants is particularly important for assessing the air quality at any moment, by modelling the monitoring data spectacular results are obtained both through the factor analysis and identification of potential pollution mitigation measures. Latest equipment and techniques come and support these problems giving medium and long term solutions.

  19. An inexact fuzzy-chance-constrained air quality management model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ye; Huang, Guohe; Qin, Xiaosheng

    2010-07-01

    Regional air pollution is a major concern for almost every country because it not only directly relates to economic development, but also poses significant threats to environment and public health. In this study, an inexact fuzzy-chance-constrained air quality management model (IFAMM) was developed for regional air quality management under uncertainty. IFAMM was formulated through integrating interval linear programming (ILP) within a fuzzy-chance-constrained programming (FCCP) framework and could deal with uncertainties expressed as not only possibilistic distributions but also discrete intervals in air quality management systems. Moreover, the constraints with fuzzy variables could be satisfied at different confidence levels such that various solutions with different risk and cost considerations could be obtained. The developed model was applied to a hypothetical case of regional air quality management. Six abatement technologies and sulfur dioxide (SO2) emission trading under uncertainty were taken into consideration. The results demonstrated that IFAMM could help decision-makers generate cost-effective air quality management patterns, gain in-depth insights into effects of the uncertainties, and analyze tradeoffs between system economy and reliability. The results also implied that the trading scheme could achieve lower total abatement cost than a nontrading one.

  20. AIR INGRESS ANALYSIS: COMPUTATIONAL FLUID DYNAMIC MODELS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang H. Oh; Eung S. Kim; Richard Schultz; Hans Gougar; David Petti; Hyung S. Kang

    2010-08-01

    The Idaho National Laboratory (INL), under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy, is performing research and development that focuses on key phenomena important during potential scenarios that may occur in very high temperature reactors (VHTRs). Phenomena Identification and Ranking Studies to date have ranked an air ingress event, following on the heels of a VHTR depressurization, as important with regard to core safety. Consequently, the development of advanced air ingress-related models and verification and validation data are a very high priority. Following a loss of coolant and system depressurization incident, air will enter the core of the High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactor through the break, possibly causing oxidation of the in-the core and reflector graphite structure. Simple core and plant models indicate that, under certain circumstances, the oxidation may proceed at an elevated rate with additional heat generated from the oxidation reaction itself. Under postulated conditions of fluid flow and temperature, excessive degradation of the lower plenum graphite can lead to a loss of structural support. Excessive oxidation of core graphite can also lead to the release of fission products into the confinement, which could be detrimental to a reactor safety. Computational fluid dynamic model developed in this study will improve our understanding of this phenomenon. This paper presents two-dimensional and three-dimensional CFD results for the quantitative assessment of the air ingress phenomena. A portion of results of the density-driven stratified flow in the inlet pipe will be compared with results of the experimental results.

  1. Modeling personal exposure to traffic related air pollutants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Montagne, D.R.

    2015-01-01

    The first part of this thesis is about the VE3SPA project. Land use regression (LUR) models are often used to predict the outdoor air pollution at the home address of study participants, to study long-term effects of air pollution. While several studies have documented that PM2.5 mass measured at a

  2. Distributed Nonstationary Heat Model of Two-Channel Solar Air Heater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klychev, Sh. I.; Bakhramov, S. A.; Ismanzhanov, A. I.; Tashiev, N.N.

    2011-01-01

    An algorithm for a distributed nonstationary heat model of a solar air heater (SAH) with two operating channels is presented. The model makes it possible to determine how the coolant temperature changes with time along the solar air heater channel by considering its main thermal and ambient parameters, as well as variations in efficiency. Examples of calculations are presented. It is shown that the time within which the mean-day efficiency of the solar air heater becomes stable is significantly higher than the time within which the coolant temperature reaches stable values. The model can be used for investigation of the performances of solar water-heating collectors. (authors)

  3. Cladding oxidation during air ingress. Part II: Synthesis of modelling results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beuzet, E.; Haurais, F.; Bals, C.; Coindreau, O.; Fernandez-Moguel, L.; Vasiliev, A.; Park, S.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A state-of-the-art for air oxidation modelling in the frame of severe accident is done. • Air oxidation models from main severe accident codes are detailed. • Simulations from main severe accident codes are compared against experimental results. • Perspectives in terms of need for further model development and experiments are given. - Abstract: Air ingress is a potential risk in some low probable situations of severe accidents in a nuclear power plant. Air is a highly oxidizing atmosphere that can lead to an enhanced Zr-based cladding oxidation and core degradation affecting the release of fission products. This is particularly true speaking about ruthenium release, due to its high radiotoxicity and its ability to form highly volatile oxides in a significant manner in presence of air. The oxygen affinity is decreasing from the Zircaloy cladding, fuel and ruthenium inclusions. It is consequently of great need to understand the phenomena governing cladding oxidation by air as a prerequisite for the source term issues in such scenarios. In the past years, many works have been done on cladding oxidation by air under severe accident conditions. This paper with in addition the paper “Cladding oxidation during air ingress – Part I: Synthesis of experimental results” of this journal issue aim at assessing the state of the art on this phenomenon. In this paper, the modelling of air ingress phenomena in the main severe accident codes (ASTEC, ATHLET-CD, MAAP, MELCOR, RELAP/SCDAPSIM, SOCRAT) is described in details, as well as the validation against the integral experiments QUENCH-10, QUENCH-16 and PARAMETER-SF4. A full review of cladding oxidation by air is thus established.

  4. A physically based analytical spatial air temperature and humidity model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang Yang; Theodore A. Endreny; David J. Nowak

    2013-01-01

    Spatial variation of urban surface air temperature and humidity influences human thermal comfort, the settling rate of atmospheric pollutants, and plant physiology and growth. Given the lack of observations, we developed a Physically based Analytical Spatial Air Temperature and Humidity (PASATH) model. The PASATH model calculates spatial solar radiation and heat...

  5. On Regional Modeling to Support Air Quality Policies (book chapter)

    Science.gov (United States)

    We examine the use of the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model in simulating the changes in the extreme values of air quality that are of interest to the regulatory agencies. Year-to-year changes in ozone air quality are attributable to variations in the prevailing meteo...

  6. A physically based analytical spatial air temperature and humidity model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yang; Endreny, Theodore A.; Nowak, David J.

    2013-09-01

    Spatial variation of urban surface air temperature and humidity influences human thermal comfort, the settling rate of atmospheric pollutants, and plant physiology and growth. Given the lack of observations, we developed a Physically based Analytical Spatial Air Temperature and Humidity (PASATH) model. The PASATH model calculates spatial solar radiation and heat storage based on semiempirical functions and generates spatially distributed estimates based on inputs of topography, land cover, and the weather data measured at a reference site. The model assumes that for all grids under the same mesoscale climate, grid air temperature and humidity are modified by local variation in absorbed solar radiation and the partitioning of sensible and latent heat. The model uses a reference grid site for time series meteorological data and the air temperature and humidity of any other grid can be obtained by solving the heat flux network equations. PASATH was coupled with the USDA iTree-Hydro water balance model to obtain evapotranspiration terms and run from 20 to 29 August 2010 at a 360 m by 360 m grid scale and hourly time step across a 285 km2 watershed including the urban area of Syracuse, NY. PASATH predictions were tested at nine urban weather stations representing variability in urban topography and land cover. The PASATH model predictive efficiency R2 ranged from 0.81 to 0.99 for air temperature and 0.77 to 0.97 for dew point temperature. PASATH is expected to have broad applications on environmental and ecological models.

  7. A phenomenological model of two-phase (air/fuel droplet developing and breakup

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlović Radomir R.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Effervescent atomization namely the air-filled liquid atomization comprehends certain complex two-phase phenomenon that are difficult to be modeled. Just a few researchers have found the mathematical expressions for description of the complex atomization model of the two-phase mixture air/diesel fuel. In the following review, developing model of twophase (air/fuel droplet of Cummins spray pump-injector is shown. The assumption of the same diameters of the droplet and the opening of the atomizer is made, while the air/fuel mass ratio inside the droplet varies.

  8. The results of air treatment process modeling at the location of the air curtain in the air suppliers and ventilation shafts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolaev Aleksandr

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the existing shaft air heater installations (AHI, that heat the air for air suppliers in cold seasons, a heater channel is used. Some parts of the air from the heater go to the channel, other parts are sucked through a pithead by the general shaft pressure drawdown formed by the main ventilation installation (MVI. When this happens, a mix of two air flows leads to a shaft heat regime violation that can break pressurization of intertubular sealers. The problem of energy saving while airing underground mining enterprises is also very important. The proposed solution of both tasks due to the application of an air curtain is described in the article. In cold seasons the air treatment process should be used and it is offered to place an air curtain in the air suppliers shaft above the place of interface of the calorifer channel to a trunk in order to avoid an infiltration (suction of air through the pithead. It’s recommended to use an air curtain in a ventilation shaft because it reduces external air leaks thereby improving energy efficiency of the MVI work. During the mathematical modeling of ventilation and air preparation process (in SolidWorks Flowsimulation software package it was found out that the use of the air curtain in the air supply shaft can increase the efficiency of the AHI, and reduce the electricity consumption for ventilation in the ventilation shaft.

  9. Spatial distribution of emissions to air - the SPREAD model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plejdrup, M S; Gyldenkaerne, S

    2011-04-15

    The National Environmental Research Institute (NERI), Aarhus University, completes the annual national emission inventories for greenhouse gases and air pollutants according to Denmark's obligations under international conventions, e.g. the climate convention, UNFCCC and the convention on long-range transboundary air pollution, CLRTAP. NERI has developed a model to distribute emissions from the national emission inventories on a 1x1 km grid covering the Danish land and sea territory. The new spatial high resolution distribution model for emissions to air (SPREAD) has been developed according to the requirements for reporting of gridded emissions to CLRTAP. Spatial emission data is e.g. used as input for air quality modelling, which again serves as input for assessment and evaluation of health effects. For these purposes distributions with higher spatial resolution have been requested. Previously, a distribution on the 17x17 km EMEP grid has been set up and used in research projects combined with detailed distributions for a few sectors or sub-sectors e.g. a distribution for emissions from road traffic on 1x1 km resolution. SPREAD is developed to generate improved spatial emission data for e.g. air quality modelling in exposure studies. SPREAD includes emission distributions for each sector in the Danish inventory system; stationary combustion, mobile sources, fugitive emissions from fuels, industrial processes, solvents and other product use, agriculture and waste. This model enables generation of distributions for single sectors and for a number of sub-sectors and single sources as well. This report documents the methodologies in this first version of SPREAD and presents selected results. Further, a number of potential improvements for later versions of SPREAD are addressed and discussed. (Author)

  10. RESOLVING NEIGHBORHOOD-SCALE AIR TOXICS MODELING: A CASE STUDY IN WILMINGTON, CALIFORNIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Air quality modeling is useful for characterizing exposures to air pollutants. While models typically provide results on regional scales, there is a need for refined modeling approaches capable of resolving concentrations on the scale of tens of meters, across modeling domains 1...

  11. Equivalent Air Spring Suspension Model for Quarter-Passive Model of Passenger Vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abid, Haider J; Chen, Jie; Nassar, Ameen A

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates the GENSIS air spring suspension system equivalence to a passive suspension system. The SIMULINK simulation together with the OptiY optimization is used to obtain the air spring suspension model equivalent to passive suspension system, where the car body response difference from both systems with the same road profile inputs is used as the objective function for optimization (OptiY program). The parameters of air spring system such as initial pressure, volume of bag, length of surge pipe, diameter of surge pipe, and volume of reservoir are obtained from optimization. The simulation results show that the air spring suspension equivalent system can produce responses very close to the passive suspension system.

  12. An interprovincial cooperative game model for air pollution control in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Jian; Zhao, Laijun; Fan, Longzhen; Qian, Ying

    2015-07-01

    The noncooperative air pollution reduction model (NCRM) that is currently adopted in China to manage air pollution reduction of each individual province has inherent drawbacks. In this paper, we propose a cooperative air pollution reduction game model (CRM) that consists of two parts: (1) an optimization model that calculates the optimal pollution reduction quantity for each participating province to meet the joint pollution reduction goal; and (2) a model that distribute the economic benefit of the cooperation (i.e., pollution reduction cost saving) among the provinces in the cooperation based on the Shapley value method. We applied the CRM to the case of SO2 reduction in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region in China. The results, based on the data from 2003-2009, show that cooperation helps lower the overall SO2 pollution reduction cost from 4.58% to 11.29%. Distributed across the participating provinces, such a cost saving from interprovincial cooperation brings significant benefits to each local government and stimulates them for further cooperation in pollution reduction. Finally, sensitivity analysis is performed using the year 2009 data to test the parameters' effects on the pollution reduction cost savings. China is increasingly facing unprecedented pressure for immediate air pollution control. The current air pollution reduction policy does not allow cooperation and is less efficient. In this paper we developed a cooperative air pollution reduction game model that consists of two parts: (1) an optimization model that calculates the optimal pollution reduction quantity for each participating province to meet the joint pollution reduction goal; and (2) a model that distributes the cooperation gains (i.e., cost reduction) among the provinces in the cooperation based on the Shapley value method. The empirical case shows that such a model can help improve efficiency in air pollution reduction. The result of the model can serve as a reference for Chinese government

  13. MODELS OF AIR TRAFFIC CONTROLLERS ERRORS PREVENTION IN TERMINAL CONTROL AREAS UNDER UNCERTAINTY CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volodymyr Kharchenko

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: the aim of this study is to research applied models of air traffic controllers’ errors prevention in terminal control areas (TMA under uncertainty conditions. In this work the theoretical framework descripting safety events and errors of air traffic controllers connected with the operations in TMA is proposed. Methods: optimisation of terminal control area formal description based on the Threat and Error management model and the TMA network model of air traffic flows. Results: the human factors variables associated with safety events in work of air traffic controllers under uncertainty conditions were obtained. The Threat and Error management model application principles to air traffic controller operations and the TMA network model of air traffic flows were proposed. Discussion: Information processing context for preventing air traffic controller errors, examples of threats in work of air traffic controllers, which are relevant for TMA operations under uncertainty conditions.

  14. A Non-linear Stochastic Model for an Office Building with Air Infiltration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thavlov, Anders; Madsen, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a non-linear heat dynamic model for a multi-room office building with air infiltration. Several linear and non-linear models, with and without air infiltration, are investigated and compared. The models are formulated using stochastic differential equations and the model...

  15. Suppressions of Serotonin-Induced Increased Vascular Permeability and Leukocyte Infiltration by Bixa orellana Leaf Extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoke Keong Yong

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to evaluate the anti-inflammatory activities of aqueous extract of Bixa orellana (AEBO leaves and its possible mechanisms in animal models. The anti-inflammatory activity of the extract was evaluated using serotonin-induced rat paw edema, increased peritoneal vascular permeability, and leukocyte infiltrations in an air-pouch model. Nitric oxide (NO, indicated by the sum of nitrites and nitrates, and vascular growth endothelial growth factor (VEGF were measured in paw tissues of rats to determine their involvement in the regulation of increased permeability. Pretreatments with AEBO (50 and 150 mg kg−1 prior to serotonin inductions resulted in maximum inhibitions of 56.2% of paw volume, 45.7% of Evans blue dye leakage in the peritoneal vascular permeability model, and 83.9% of leukocyte infiltration in the air-pouch model. 57.2% maximum inhibition of NO and 27% of VEGF formations in rats’ paws were observed with AEBO at the dose of 150 mg kg−1. Pharmacological screening of the extract showed significant (P<0.05 anti-inflammatory activity, indicated by the suppressions of increased vascular permeability and leukocyte infiltration. The inhibitions of these inflammatory events are probably mediated via inhibition of NO and VEGF formation and release.

  16. Urban Landscape Characterization Using Remote Sensing Data For Input into Air Quality Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quattrochi, Dale A.; Estes, Maurice G., Jr.; Crosson, William; Khan, Maudood

    2005-01-01

    The urban landscape is inherently complex and this complexity is not adequately captured in air quality models that are used to assess whether urban areas are in attainment of EPA air quality standards, particularly for ground level ozone. This inadequacy of air quality models to sufficiently respond to the heterogeneous nature of the urban landscape can impact how well these models predict ozone pollutant levels over metropolitan areas and ultimately, whether cities exceed EPA ozone air quality standards. We are exploring the utility of high-resolution remote sensing data and urban growth projections as improved inputs to meteorological and air quality models focusing on the Atlanta, Georgia metropolitan area as a case study. The National Land Cover Dataset at 30m resolution is being used as the land use/land cover input and aggregated to the 4km scale for the MM5 mesoscale meteorological model and the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) modeling schemes. Use of these data have been found to better characterize low density/suburban development as compared with USGS 1 km land use/land cover data that have traditionally been used in modeling. Air quality prediction for future scenarios to 2030 is being facilitated by land use projections using a spatial growth model. Land use projections were developed using the 2030 Regional Transportation Plan developed by the Atlanta Regional Commission. This allows the State Environmental Protection agency to evaluate how these transportation plans will affect future air quality.

  17. Dietary turmeric modulates DMBA-induced p21ras, MAP kinases and AP-1/NF-κB pathway to alter cellular responses during hamster buccal pouch carcinogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garg, Rachana; Ingle, Arvind; Maru, Girish

    2008-01-01

    The chemopreventive efficacy of turmeric has been established in experimental systems. However, its mechanism(s) of action are not fully elucidated in vivo. The present study investigates the mechanism of turmeric-mediated chemoprevention in 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA)-induced hamster buccal pouch (HBP) carcinogenesis at 2, 4, 6, 10 and 12 weeks. Dietary turmeric (1%) led to decrease in DMBA-induced tumor burden and multiplicity, and enhanced the latency period in parallel, to its modulatory effects on oncogene products and various cellular responses during HBP tumorigenesis. DMBA-induced expression of ras oncogene product, p21 and downstream target, the mitogen-activated protein kinases were significantly decreased by turmeric during HBP carcinogenesis. Turmeric also diminished the DMBA-induced mRNA expression of proto-oncogenes (c-jun, c-fos) and NF-κB, leading to decreased protein levels and in further attenuation of DMBA-induced AP-1/NF-κB DNA-binding in the buccal pouch nuclear extracts. Besides, buccal pouch of hamsters receiving turmeric diet showed significant alterations in DMBA-induced effects: (a) decrease in cell proliferation (diminished PCNA and Bcl2 expression), (b) enhanced apoptosis (increased expression of Bax, caspase-3 and apoptotic index), (c) decrease in inflammation (levels of Cox-2, the downstream target of AP-1/NF-κB, and PGE2) and (d) aberrant expression of differentiation markers, the cytokeratins (1, 5, 8, and 18). Together, the protective effects of dietary turmeric converge on augmenting apoptosis of the initiated cells and decreasing cell proliferation in DMBA-treated animals, which in turn, is reflected in decreased tumor burden, multiplicity and enhanced latency period. Some of these biomarkers are likely to be helpful in monitoring clinical trials and evaluating drug effect measurements

  18. Mathematical model of one-man air revitalization system

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-01-01

    A mathematical model was developed for simulating the steady state performance in electrochemical CO2 concentrators which utilize (NMe4)2 CO3 (aq.) electrolyte. This electrolyte, which accommodates a wide range of air relative humidity, is most suitable for one-man air revitalization systems. The model is based on the solution of coupled nonlinear ordinary differential equations derived from mass transport and rate equations for the processes which take place in the cell. The boundary conditions are obtained by solving the mass and energy transport equations. A shooting method is used to solve the differential equations.

  19. Mapping real-time air pollution health risk for environmental management: Combining mobile and stationary air pollution monitoring with neural network models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Matthew D; Kanaroglou, Pavlos S

    2016-03-01

    Air pollution poses health concerns at the global scale. The challenge of managing air pollution is significant because of the many air pollutants, insufficient funds for monitoring and abatement programs, and political and social challenges in defining policy to limit emissions. Some governments provide citizens with air pollution health risk information to allow them to limit their exposure. However, many regions still have insufficient air pollution monitoring networks to provide real-time mapping. Where available, these risk mapping systems either provide absolute concentration data or the concentrations are used to derive an Air Quality Index, which provides the air pollution risk for a mix of air pollutants with a single value. When risk information is presented as a single value for an entire region it does not inform on the spatial variation within the region. Without an understanding of the local variation residents can only make a partially informed decision when choosing daily activities. The single value is typically provided because of a limited number of active monitoring units in the area. In our work, we overcome this issue by leveraging mobile air pollution monitoring techniques, meteorological information and land use information to map real-time air pollution health risks. We propose an approach that can provide improved health risk information to the public by applying neural network models within a framework that is inspired by land use regression. Mobile air pollution monitoring campaigns were conducted across Hamilton from 2005 to 2013. These mobile air pollution data were modelled with a number of predictor variables that included information on the surrounding land use characteristics, the meteorological conditions, air pollution concentrations from fixed location monitors, and traffic information during the time of collection. Fine particulate matter and nitrogen dioxide were both modelled. During the model fitting process we reserved

  20. An unexpected resident in the ileum detected during robot-assisted laparoscopic radical cystoprostatectomy and intracorporeal Studer pouch formation: Taenia saginata parasite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canda, Abdullah Erdem; Asil, Erem; Balbay, Mevlana Derya

    2011-02-01

    A case of moving ileal Taenia saginata parasites is presented with demonstrative images. We came across the parasites surprisingly while performing robot-assisted laparoscopic radical cystoprostatectomy with intracorporeal Studer pouch urinary diversion. We recommend stool sample evaluation in the preoperative period for possible presence of intestinal parasitic diseases, particularly in patients with bladder cancer who are admitted from areas with an increased incidence of intestinal parasitic diseases, before opening the bowel segments during surgery to perform radical cystectomy and urinary diversion.

  1. Models of Aire-dependent gene regulation for thymic negative selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dina eDanso-Abeam

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Mutations in the Autoimmune Regulator (AIRE gene lead to Autoimmune Polyendocrinopathy Syndrome type 1 (APS1, characterized by the development of multi-organ autoimmune damage. The mechanism by which defects in AIRE result in autoimmunity has been the subject of intense scrutiny. At the cellular level, the working model explains most of the clinical and immunological characteristics of APS1, with AIRE driving the expression of tissue restricted antigens (TRAs in the epithelial cells of the thymic medulla. This TRA expression results in effective negative selection of TRA-reactive thymocytes, preventing autoimmune disease. At the molecular level, the mechanism by which AIRE initiates TRA expression in the thymic medulla remains unclear. Multiple different models for the molecular mechanism have been proposed, ranging from classical transcriptional activity, to random induction of gene expression, to epigenetic tag recognition effect, to altered cell biology. In this review, we evaluate each of these models and discuss their relative strengths and weaknesses.

  2. Prediction of Indoor Air Exposure from Outdoor Air Quality Using an Artificial Neural Network Model for Inner City Commercial Buildings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Challoner, Avril; Pilla, Francesco; Gill, Laurence

    2015-12-01

    NO₂ and particulate matter are the air pollutants of most concern in Ireland, with possible links to the higher respiratory and cardiovascular mortality and morbidity rates found in the country compared to the rest of Europe. Currently, air quality limits in Europe only cover outdoor environments yet the quality of indoor air is an essential determinant of a person's well-being, especially since the average person spends more than 90% of their time indoors. The modelling conducted in this research aims to provide a framework for epidemiological studies by the use of publically available data from fixed outdoor monitoring stations to predict indoor air quality more accurately. Predictions are made using two modelling techniques, the Personal-exposure Activity Location Model (PALM), to predict outdoor air quality at a particular building, and Artificial Neural Networks, to model the indoor/outdoor relationship of the building. This joint approach has been used to predict indoor air concentrations for three inner city commercial buildings in Dublin, where parallel indoor and outdoor diurnal monitoring had been carried out on site. This modelling methodology has been shown to provide reasonable predictions of average NO₂ indoor air quality compared to the monitored data, but did not perform well in the prediction of indoor PM2.5 concentrations. Hence, this approach could be used to determine NO₂ exposures more rigorously of those who work and/or live in the city centre, which can then be linked to potential health impacts.

  3. Spatial distribution of emissions to air - the SPREAD model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plejdrup, M.S.; Gyldenkaerne, S.

    2011-04-15

    The National Environmental Research Institute (NERI), Aarhus University, completes the annual national emission inventories for greenhouse gases and air pollutants according to Denmark's obligations under international conventions, e.g. the climate convention, UNFCCC and the convention on long-range transboundary air pollution, CLRTAP. NERI has developed a model to distribute emissions from the national emission inventories on a 1x1 km grid covering the Danish land and sea territory. The new spatial high resolution distribution model for emissions to air (SPREAD) has been developed according to the requirements for reporting of gridded emissions to CLRTAP. Spatial emission data is e.g. used as input for air quality modelling, which again serves as input for assessment and evaluation of health effects. For these purposes distributions with higher spatial resolution have been requested. Previously, a distribution on the 17x17 km EMEP grid has been set up and used in research projects combined with detailed distributions for a few sectors or sub-sectors e.g. a distribution for emissions from road traffic on 1x1 km resolution. SPREAD is developed to generate improved spatial emission data for e.g. air quality modelling in exposure studies. SPREAD includes emission distributions for each sector in the Danish inventory system; stationary combustion, mobile sources, fugitive emissions from fuels, industrial processes, solvents and other product use, agriculture and waste. This model enables generation of distributions for single sectors and for a number of sub-sectors and single sources as well. This report documents the methodologies in this first version of SPREAD and presents selected results. Further, a number of potential improvements for later versions of SPREAD are addressed and discussed. (Author)

  4. Air quality modeling for effective environmental management in the mining region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asif, Zunaira; Chen, Zhi; Han, Yi

    2018-04-18

    Air quality in the mining sector is a serious environmental concern and associated with many health issues. The air quality management in mining region has been facing many challenges due to lack of understanding of atmospheric factors and physical removal mechanism. A modeling approach called mining air dispersion model (MADM) is developed to predict air pollutants concentration in the mining region while considering the deposition effect. The model is taken into account through the planet's boundary conditions and assuming that the eddy diffusivity depends on the downwind distance. The developed MADM is applied to a mining site in Canada. The model provides values as the predicted concentrations of PM 10 , PM 2.5 , TSP, NO 2 and six heavy metals (As, Pb, Hg, Cd, Zn, Cr) at various receptor locations. The model shows that neutral stability conditions are dominant for the study site. The maximum mixing height is achieved (1280 m) during the evening of summer, and minimum mixing height (380 m) is attained during the evening of winter. The dust fall (PM coarse) deposition flux is maximum during February and March with the deposition velocity of 4.67 cm/s. The results are evaluated with the monitoring field values, revealing a good agreement for the target air pollutants with R-squared ranging from 0.72 to 0.96 for PM 2.5 ; 0.71 to 0.82 for PM 10 and from 0.71 to 0.89 for NO 2 . The analyses illustrate that presented algorithm in this model can be used to assess air quality for the mining site in a systematic way. The comparison of MADM and CALPUFF modeling values are made for four different pollutants (PM 2.5 , PM 10 , TSP, and NO 2 ) under three different atmospheric stability classes (stable, neutral and unstable). Further, MADM results are statistically tested against CALPUFF for the air pollutants and model performance is found satisfactory.

  5. A Flexible Spatio-Temporal Model for Air Pollution with Spatial and Spatio-Temporal Covariates

    OpenAIRE

    Lindström, Johan; Szpiro, Adam A; Sampson, Paul D; Oron, Assaf P; Richards, Mark; Larson, Tim V; Sheppard, Lianne

    2013-01-01

    The development of models that provide accurate spatio-temporal predictions of ambient air pollution at small spatial scales is of great importance for the assessment of potential health effects of air pollution. Here we present a spatio-temporal framework that predicts ambient air pollution by combining data from several different monitoring networks and deterministic air pollution model(s) with geographic information system (GIS) covariates. The model presented in this paper has been implem...

  6. Air traffic simulation in chemistry-climate model EMAC 2.41: AirTraf 1.0

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, Hiroshi; Grewe, Volker; Jöckel, Patrick; Linke, Florian; Schaefer, Martin; Sasaki, Daisuke

    2016-09-01

    Mobility is becoming more and more important to society and hence air transportation is expected to grow further over the next decades. Reducing anthropogenic climate impact from aviation emissions and building a climate-friendly air transportation system are required for a sustainable development of commercial aviation. A climate optimized routing, which avoids climate-sensitive regions by re-routing horizontally and vertically, is an important measure for climate impact reduction. The idea includes a number of different routing strategies (routing options) and shows a great potential for the reduction. To evaluate this, the impact of not only CO2 but also non-CO2 emissions must be considered. CO2 is a long-lived gas, while non-CO2 emissions are short-lived and are inhomogeneously distributed. This study introduces AirTraf (version 1.0) that performs global air traffic simulations, including effects of local weather conditions on the emissions. AirTraf was developed as a new submodel of the ECHAM5/MESSy Atmospheric Chemistry (EMAC) model. Air traffic information comprises Eurocontrol's Base of Aircraft Data (BADA Revision 3.9) and International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) engine performance data. Fuel use and emissions are calculated by the total energy model based on the BADA methodology and Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt (DLR) fuel flow method. The flight trajectory optimization is performed by a genetic algorithm (GA) with respect to a selected routing option. In the model development phase, benchmark tests were performed for the great circle and flight time routing options. The first test showed that the great circle calculations were accurate to -0.004 %, compared to those calculated by the Movable Type script. The second test showed that the optimal solution found by the algorithm sufficiently converged to the theoretical true-optimal solution. The difference in flight time between the two solutions is less than 0.01 %. The dependence of

  7. Period adding cascades: experiment and modeling in air bubbling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Felipe Augusto Cardoso; Colli, Eduardo; Sartorelli, José Carlos

    2012-03-01

    Period adding cascades have been observed experimentally/numerically in the dynamics of neurons and pancreatic cells, lasers, electric circuits, chemical reactions, oceanic internal waves, and also in air bubbling. We show that the period adding cascades appearing in bubbling from a nozzle submerged in a viscous liquid can be reproduced by a simple model, based on some hydrodynamical principles, dealing with the time evolution of two variables, bubble position and pressure of the air chamber, through a system of differential equations with a rule of detachment based on force balance. The model further reduces to an iterating one-dimensional map giving the pressures at the detachments, where time between bubbles come out as an observable of the dynamics. The model has not only good agreement with experimental data, but is also able to predict the influence of the main parameters involved, like the length of the hose connecting the air supplier with the needle, the needle radius and the needle length.

  8. Air Pollution Modeling at Road Sides Using the Operational Street Pollution Model-A Case Study in Hanoi, Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hung, Ngo Tho; Ketzel, Matthias; Jensen, Steen Solvang

    2010-01-01

    In many metropolitan areas, traffic is the main source of air pollution. The high concentrations of pollutants in streets have the potential to affect human health. Therefore, estimation of air pollution at the street level is required for health impact assessment. This task has been carried out...... in many developed countries by a combination of air quality measurements and modeling. This study focuses on how to apply a dispersion model to cities in the developing world, where model input data and data from air quality monitoring stations are limited or of varying quality. This research uses...... the operational street pollution model (OSPM) developed by the National Environmental Research Institute in Denmark for a case study in Hanoi, the capital of Vietnam. OSPM predictions from five streets were evaluated against air pollution measurements of nitrogen oxides (NO), sulfur dioxide (SO2), carbon monoxide...

  9. Dynamic Models of Heating and Cooling Coils with One—Dimensional Air Distribution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WangZijie; G.Krauss

    1993-01-01

    This paper presents the simulation models of the plate-fin,air-to-water(or water vapour) heat exchangers used as air-heating or air-cooling and dehumidifying colis in the HVAC(Heating,Ventilation and AIr-Conditioning)systems.The thermal models are used to calculate the heat exchange between distributing air and coil pipes and outlet temperatures of air and heat or chilled fluid.The aerodynamic models are used to account for the pressure drop of the air crossing the coil tubes,They can also be used to optimize the structres of such coils.The models are based on principal laws of teat and mass conservation and fluid mechanics.They are transparent and easy to use.In our work,a coil is considered as an assembly of numbers of basic elements in which all the state variables are unique.Therefore we can conveniently simulate the coils with different structures and different geometric parameters.Two modular programs TRNSYS(Transient System Simulation)and ESACAP are utilized as supporting softwares which make the programming and simulation greatly simplified.The coil elements and a real coil were simulated.The results were compared with the data offered by the manufacturer(company SOFICA) and also with those obtained using critical methods such as NTU method ,etc.and good agreement is attained.

  10. Trends of air pollution in Denmark - Normalised by a simple weather index model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiilsholm, S.; Rasmussen, A.

    2000-01-01

    This report is a part of the Traffic Pool projects on 'Traffic and Environments', 1995-99, financed by the Danish Ministry of Transport. The Traffic Pool projects included five different projects on 'Surveillance of the Air Quality', 'Atmospheric Modelling', 'Atmospheric Chemistry Modelling', 'Smog and ozone' and 'Greenhouse effects and Climate', [Rasmussen, 2000]. This work is a part of the project on 'Surveillance of the Air Quality' with the main objectives to make trend analysis of levels of air pollution from traffic in Denmark. Other participants were from the Road Directory mainly focusing on measurement of traffic and trend analysis of the air quality utilising a nordic model for the air pollution in street canyons called BLB (Beregningsmodel for Luftkvalitet i Byluftgader) [Vejdirektoratet 2000], National Environmental Research Institute (HERI) mainly focusing on. measurements of air pollution and trend analysis with the Operational Street Pollution Model (OSPM) [DMU 2000], and the Copenhagen Environmental Protection Agency mainly focusing on measurements. In this study a more simple statistical model has been developed for trend analysis of the air quality. The model is filtering out the influence of the variations from year to year in the meteorological conditions on the air pollution levels. The weather factors found most important are wind speed, wind direction and mixing height. Measurements of CO, NO and NO 2 from three streets in Copenhagen have been used, these streets are Jagtvej, Bredgade and H. C. Andersen's Boulevard (HCAB). The years 1994-1996 were used for evaluation of the method and annual indexes of air pollution index dependent only on meteorological parameters, called WEATHIX, were calculated for the years 1990-1997 and used for normalisation of the observed air pollution trends. Meteorological data were taken from either the background stations at the H.C. Oersted - building situated close to one of the street stations or the synoptic

  11. Prediction of Indoor Air Exposure from Outdoor Air Quality Using an Artificial Neural Network Model for Inner City Commercial Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avril Challoner

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available NO2 and particulate matter are the air pollutants of most concern in Ireland, with possible links to the higher respiratory and cardiovascular mortality and morbidity rates found in the country compared to the rest of Europe. Currently, air quality limits in Europe only cover outdoor environments yet the quality of indoor air is an essential determinant of a person’s well-being, especially since the average person spends more than 90% of their time indoors. The modelling conducted in this research aims to provide a framework for epidemiological studies by the use of publically available data from fixed outdoor monitoring stations to predict indoor air quality more accurately. Predictions are made using two modelling techniques, the Personal-exposure Activity Location Model (PALM, to predict outdoor air quality at a particular building, and Artificial Neural Networks, to model the indoor/outdoor relationship of the building. This joint approach has been used to predict indoor air concentrations for three inner city commercial buildings in Dublin, where parallel indoor and outdoor diurnal monitoring had been carried out on site. This modelling methodology has been shown to provide reasonable predictions of average NO2 indoor air quality compared to the monitored data, but did not perform well in the prediction of indoor PM2.5 concentrations. Hence, this approach could be used to determine NO2 exposures more rigorously of those who work and/or live in the city centre, which can then be linked to potential health impacts.

  12. The Aviation System Analysis Capability Air Carrier Cost-Benefit Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaier, Eric M.; Edlich, Alexander; Santmire, Tara S.; Wingrove, Earl R.., III

    1999-01-01

    To meet its objective of assisting the U.S. aviation industry with the technological challenges of the future, NASA must identify research areas that have the greatest potential for improving the operation of the air transportation system. Therefore, NASA is developing the ability to evaluate the potential impact of various advanced technologies. By thoroughly understanding the economic impact of advanced aviation technologies and by evaluating how the new technologies will be used in the integrated aviation system, NASA aims to balance its aeronautical research program and help speed the introduction of high-leverage technologies. To meet these objectives, NASA is building the Aviation System Analysis Capability (ASAC). NASA envisions ASAC primarily as a process for understanding and evaluating the impact of advanced aviation technologies on the U.S. economy. ASAC consists of a diverse collection of models and databases used by analysts and other individuals from the public and private sectors brought together to work on issues of common interest to organizations in the aviation community. ASAC also will be a resource available to the aviation community to analyze; inform; and assist scientists, engineers, analysts, and program managers in their daily work. The ASAC differs from previous NASA modeling efforts in that the economic behavior of buyers and sellers in the air transportation and aviation industries is central to its conception. Commercial air carriers, in particular, are an important stakeholder in this community. Therefore, to fully evaluate the implications of advanced aviation technologies, ASAC requires a flexible financial analysis tool that credibly links the technology of flight with the financial performance of commercial air carriers. By linking technical and financial information, NASA ensures that its technology programs will continue to benefit the user community. In addition, the analysis tool must be capable of being incorporated into the

  13. Air injection test on a Kaplan turbine: prototype - model comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angulo, M.; Rivetti, A.; Díaz, L.; Liscia, S.

    2016-11-01

    Air injection is a very well-known resource to reduce pressure pulsation magnitude in turbines, especially on Francis type. In the case of large Kaplan designs, even when not so usual, it could be a solution to mitigate vibrations arising when tip vortex cavitation phenomenon becomes erosive and induces structural vibrations. In order to study this alternative, aeration tests were performed on a Kaplan turbine at model and prototype scales. The research was focused on efficiency of different air flow rates injected in reducing vibrations, especially at the draft tube and the discharge ring and also in the efficiency drop magnitude. It was found that results on both scales presents the same trend in particular for vibration levels at the discharge ring. The efficiency drop was overestimated on model tests while on prototype were less than 0.2 % for all power output. On prototype, air has a beneficial effect in reducing pressure fluctuations up to 0.2 ‰ of air flow rate. On model high speed image computing helped to quantify the volume of tip vortex cavitation that is strongly correlated with the vibration level. The hydrophone measurements did not capture the cavitation intensity when air is injected, however on prototype, it was detected by a sonometer installed at the draft tube access gallery.

  14. Engineering Model of High Pressure Moist Air

    OpenAIRE

    Hyhlík Tomáš

    2017-01-01

    The article deals with the moist air equation of state. There are equations of state discussed in the article, i.e. the model of an ideal mixture of ideal gases, the model of an ideal mixture of real gases and the model based on the virial equation of state. The evaluation of sound speed based on the ideal mixture concept is mentioned. The sound speed calculated by the model of an ideal mixture of ideal gases is compared with the sound speed calculated by using the model based on the concept ...

  15. Implementation of a WRF-CMAQ Air Quality Modeling System in Bogotá, Colombia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nedbor-Gross, R.; Henderson, B. H.; Pachon, J. E.; Davis, J. R.; Baublitz, C. B.; Rincón, A.

    2014-12-01

    Due to a continuous economic growth Bogotá, Colombia has experienced air pollution issues in recent years. The local environmental authority has implemented several strategies to curb air pollution that have resulted in the decrease of PM10 concentrations since 2010. However, more activities are necessary in order to meet international air quality standards in the city. The University of Florida Air Quality and Climate group is collaborating with the Universidad de La Salle to prioritize regulatory strategies for Bogotá using air pollution simulations. To simulate pollution, we developed a modeling platform that combines the Weather Research and Forecasting Model (WRF), local emissions, and the Community Multi-scale Air Quality model (CMAQ). This platform is the first of its kind to be implemented in the megacity of Bogota, Colombia. The presentation will discuss development and evaluation of the air quality modeling system, highlight initial results characterizing photochemical conditions in Bogotá, and characterize air pollution under proposed regulatory strategies. The WRF model has been configured and applied to Bogotá, which resides in a tropical climate with complex mountainous topography. Developing the configuration included incorporation of local topography and land-use data, a physics sensitivity analysis, review, and systematic evaluation. The threshold, however, was set based on synthesis of model performance under less mountainous conditions. We will evaluate the impact that differences in autocorrelation contribute to the non-ideal performance. Air pollution predictions are currently under way. CMAQ has been configured with WRF meteorology, global boundary conditions from GEOS-Chem, and a locally produced emission inventory. Preliminary results from simulations show promising performance of CMAQ in Bogota. Anticipated results include a systematic performance evaluation of ozone and PM10, characterization of photochemical sensitivity, and air

  16. Microscopic modelling of air spring bellows. Automation in the lifetime estimation of air springs; Mikroskopische Balgmodellierung. Automatismen in der Lebensdauerabschaetzung von Luftfedern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pham, Tram Anh; Brueger, Thorsten [Vibracoustic GmbH und Co. KG, Hamburg (Germany); Rambacher, Christoph [Professur fuer Maschinenelemente und Produktentwicklung (MRP), Helmut-Schmidt-Univ., Hamburg (HSU) (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    Because of the many advantages of air springs over conventional springs, they are being increasingly fitted in upper and middle class automobiles. Generally air spring bellows, consisting of reinforcing cords and elastomer, can be simulated using the rebar technique. The following article introduces a method in which the boundary conditions derived from the model simulated with the rebar technique are applied in the air spring bellow ''microscopic model'' which is modelled automatically. The microscopic modelling enables a detailed analysis of stress and strain conditions in the elastomer. With the automated process this method can be applied for the widespread design process for air spring systems. Finally the validation of the method is demonstrated. (orig.)

  17. Mathematical modeling of hot air/electrohydrodynamic (EHD) drying kinetics of mushroom slices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taghian Dinani, Somayeh; Hamdami, Nasser; Shahedi, Mohammad; Havet, Michel

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Hot air/EHD drying behavior of thin layer mushroom slices was evaluated. • A new empirical model was proposed for drying kinetics modeling of mushroom slices. • The new model presents excellent predictions for hot air/EHD drying of mushroom. - Abstract: Researches about mathematical modeling of electrohydrodynamic (EHD) drying are rare. In this study, hot air combined with electrohydrodynamic (EHD) drying behavior of thin layer mushroom slices was evaluated in a laboratory scale dryer at voltages of 17, 19, and 21 kV and electrode gaps of 5, 6, and 7 cm. The drying curves were fitted to ten different mathematical models (Newton, Page, Modified Page, Henderson and Pabis, Logarithmic, Two-term exponential, Midilli and Kucuk, Wang and Singh, Weibull and Parabolic models) and a proposed new empirical model to select a suitable drying equation for drying mushroom slices in a hot air combined with EHD dryer. Coefficients of the models were determined by non-linear regression analysis and the models were compared based on their coefficient of determination (R 2 ), sum of square errors (SSE) and root mean square error (RMSE) between experimental and predicted moisture ratios. According to the results, the proposed model that contains only three parameters provided the best fit with the experimental data. It was closely followed by the Midilli and Kucuk model that contains four parameters. Therefore, the proposed model can present comfortable usage and excellent predictions for the moisture content changes of mushroom slices in the hot air combined with EHD drying system

  18. Accelerating the Global Nested Air Quality Prediction Modeling System (GNAQPMS) model on Intel Xeon Phi processors

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Hui; Chen, Huansheng; Wu, Qizhong; Lin, Junming; Chen, Xueshun; Xie, Xinwei; Wang, Rongrong; Tang, Xiao; Wang, Zifa

    2017-01-01

    The GNAQPMS model is the global version of the Nested Air Quality Prediction Modelling System (NAQPMS), which is a multi-scale chemical transport model used for air quality forecast and atmospheric environmental research. In this study, we present our work of porting and optimizing the GNAQPMS model on the second generation Intel Xeon Phi processor codename “Knights Landing” (KNL). Compared with the first generation Xeon Phi coprocessor, KNL introduced many new hardware features such as a boo...

  19. Existing air sparging model and literature review for the development of an air sparging optimization decision tool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-08-01

    The objectives of this Report are two-fold: (1) to provide overviews of the state-of-the-art and state-of-the-practice with respect to air sparging technology, air sparging models and related or augmentation technologies (e.g., soil vapor extraction); and (2) to provide the basis for the development of the conceptual Decision Tool. The Project Team conducted an exhaustive review of available literature. The complete listing of the documents, numbering several hundred and reviewed as a part of this task, is included in Appendix A. Even with the large amount of material written regarding the development and application of air sparging, there still are significant gaps in the technical community`s understanding of the remediation technology. The results of the literature review are provided in Section 2. In Section 3, an overview of seventeen conceptual, theoretical, mathematical and empirical models is presented. Detailed descriptions of each of the models reviewed is provided in Appendix B. Included in Appendix D is a copy of the questionnaire used to compile information about the models. The remaining sections of the document reflect the analysis and synthesis of the information gleaned during the literature and model reviews. The results of these efforts provide the basis for development of the decision tree and conceptual decision tool for determining applicability and optimization of air sparging. The preliminary decision tree and accompanying information provided in Section 6 describe a three-tiered approach for determining air sparging applicability: comparison with established scenarios; calculation of conceptual design parameters; and the conducting of pilot-scale studies to confirm applicability. The final two sections of this document provide listings of the key success factors which will be used for evaluating the utility of the Decision Tool and descriptions of potential applications for Decision Tool use.

  20. Numerical model of sprayed air cooled condenser coupled to refrigerating system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Youbi-Idrissi, M.; Macchi-Tejeda, H.; Fournaison, L.; Guilpart, J.

    2007-01-01

    Because of technological, economic and environmental constraints, many refrigeration and air conditioning units are equipped with a simple air cooled condenser. Spraying the condenser seems to be an original solution to improve the energetic performances of such systems. To characterise this energetic benefit, a semi-local mathematical model was developed and applied to a refrigerating machine with and without spraying its air cooled condenser. It is found that, compared to a dry air cooled condenser, both the calorific capacity and machine COP increase by 13% and 55%, respectively. Furthermore, the model shows that a spray flow rate threshold occurs. It should not be exceeded to assure an effective and rational spray use

  1. User's guide to the LIRAQ model: an air pollution model for the San Francisco Bay Area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacCracken, M.C.

    1975-01-01

    The Livermore Regional Air Quality (LIRAQ) model comprises a set of computer programs that have been integrated into an easily used tool for the air quality planner. To assemble and modify the necessary data files and to direct model execution, a problem formulation program has been developed that makes possible the setup of a wide variety of studies involving perturbation of the emission inventory, changes to the initial and boundary conditions, and different choices of grid size and problem domain. In addition to describing the types of air quality problems for which the LIRAQ model may be used, this User's Guide provides detailed information on how to set up and conduct model simulations. Also included are descriptions of the formats of input data files so that the LIRAQ model may be applied to regions other than the San Francisco Bay Area

  2. Evolution of Air Quality Model at the US EPA

    Science.gov (United States)

    At the US EPA, we have developed an air quality model, CMAQ, in the past 20+ years. Throughout the years, the model has been upgraded with respect to advancement of science. We have extended the model from regional to hemispheric. We have coupled it with meteorological model, WR...

  3. Preparing the Model for Prediction Across Scales (MPAS) for global retrospective air quality modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    The US EPA has a plan to leverage recent advances in meteorological modeling to develop a "Next-Generation" air quality modeling system that will allow consistent modeling of problems from global to local scale. The meteorological model of choice is the Model for Predic...

  4. Review of air quality modeling techniques. Volume 8

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosen, L.C.

    1977-01-01

    Air transport and diffusion models which are applicable to the assessment of the environmental effects of nuclear, geothermal, and fossil-fuel electric generation are reviewed. The general classification of models and model inputs are discussed. A detailed examination of the statistical, Gaussian plume, Gaussian puff, one-box and species-conservation-of-mass models is given. Representative models are discussed with attention given to the assumptions, input data requirement, advantages, disadvantages and applicability of each

  5. A Data-Driven Air Transportation Delay Propagation Model Using Epidemic Process Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Baspinar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In air transport network management, in addition to defining the performance behavior of the system’s components, identification of their interaction dynamics is a delicate issue in both strategic and tactical decision-making process so as to decide which elements of the system are “controlled” and how. This paper introduces a novel delay propagation model utilizing epidemic spreading process, which enables the definition of novel performance indicators and interaction rates of the elements of the air transportation network. In order to understand the behavior of the delay propagation over the network at different levels, we have constructed two different data-driven epidemic models approximating the dynamics of the system: (a flight-based epidemic model and (b airport-based epidemic model. The flight-based epidemic model utilizing SIS epidemic model focuses on the individual flights where each flight can be in susceptible or infected states. The airport-centric epidemic model, in addition to the flight-to-flight interactions, allows us to define the collective behavior of the airports, which are modeled as metapopulations. In network model construction, we have utilized historical flight-track data of Europe and performed analysis for certain days involving certain disturbances. Through this effort, we have validated the proposed delay propagation models under disruptive events.

  6. Physical approach to air pollution climatological modelling in a complex site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonino, G [Torino, Universita; CNR, Istituto di Cosmo-Geofisica, Turin, Italy); Longhetto, A [Ente Nazionale per l' Energia Elettrica, Centro di Ricerca Termica e Nucleare, Milan; CNR, Istituto di Cosmo-Geofisica, Turin, Italy); Runca, E [International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, Laxenburg, Austria

    1980-09-01

    A Gaussian climatological model which takes into account physical factors affecting air pollutant dispersion, such as nocturnal radiative inversion and mixing height evolution, associated with land breeze and sea breeze regimes, has been applied to the topographically complex area of La Spezia. The measurements of the dynamic and thermodynamic structure of the lower atmosphere obtained by field experiments are utilized in the model to calculate the SO/sub 2/ seasonal average concentrations. The model has been tested on eight three-monthly periods by comparing the simulated values with the ones measured at the SO/sub 2/ stations of the local air pollution monitoring network. Comparison of simulated and measured values was satisfactory and proved the applicability of the model for urban planning and establishment of air quality strategies.

  7. A three-dimensional numerical study and comparison between the air side model and the air/water side model of a plain fin-and-tube heat exchanger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borrajo-Pelaez, R.; Ortega-Casanova, J.; Cejudo-Lopez, J.M.

    2010-01-01

    CFD is becoming an important heat exchanger research technique. It constitutes an inexpensive prediction method, avoiding the need of testing numerous prototypes. Current work in this field is mostly based on air flow models assuming constant temperature of fin-and-tube surface. The purpose of this paper is to present an enhanced model, whose innovation lies in considering additionally the water flow in the tubes and the conduction heat transfer through the fin and tubes, to demonstrate that the neglect of these two phenomena causes a simulation result accuracy reduction. 3-D Numerical simulations were accomplished to compare both an air side and an air/water side model. The influence of Reynolds number, fin pitch, tube diameter, fin length and fin thickness was studied. The exchanger performance was evaluated through two non-dimensional parameters: the air side Nusselt number and a friction factor. It was found that the influence of the five parameters over the mechanical and thermal efficiencies can be well reported using these non-dimensional coefficients. The results from the improved model showed more real temperature contours, with regard to those of the simplified model. Therefore, a higher accuracy of the heat transfer was achieved, yielding better predictions on the exchanger performance.

  8. Birthdating studies reshape models for pituitary gland cell specification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Shannon W; Mortensen, Amanda H; Camper, Sally A

    2011-04-15

    The intermediate and anterior lobes of the pituitary gland are derived from an invagination of oral ectoderm that forms Rathke's pouch. During gestation proliferating cells are enriched around the pouch lumen, and they appear to delaminate as they exit the cell cycle and differentiate. During late mouse gestation and the postnatal period, anterior lobe progenitors re-enter the cell cycle and expand the populations of specialized, hormone-producing cells. At birth, all cell types are present, and their localization appears stratified based on cell type. We conducted a birth dating study of Rathke's pouch derivatives to determine whether the location of specialized cells at birth is correlated with the timing of cell cycle exit. We find that all of the anterior lobe cell types initiate differentiation concurrently with a peak between e11.5 and e13.5. Differentiation of intermediate lobe melanotropes is delayed relative to anterior lobe cell types. We discovered that specialized cell types are not grouped together based on birth date and are dispersed throughout the anterior lobe. Thus, the apparent stratification of specialized cells at birth is not correlated with cell cycle exit. Thus, the currently popular model of cell specification, dependent upon timing of extrinsic, directional gradients of signaling molecules, needs revision. We propose that signals intrinsic to Rathke's pouch are necessary for cell specification between e11.5 and e13.5 and that cell-cell communication likely plays an important role in regulating this process. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. New Methods for Air Quality Model Evaluation with Satellite Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holloway, T.; Harkey, M.

    2015-12-01

    Despite major advances in the ability of satellites to detect gases and aerosols in the atmosphere, there remains significant, untapped potential to apply space-based data to air quality regulatory applications. Here, we showcase research findings geared toward increasing the relevance of satellite data to support operational air quality management, focused on model evaluation. Particular emphasis is given to nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and formaldehyde (HCHO) from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument aboard the NASA Aura satellite, and evaluation of simulations from the EPA Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model. This work is part of the NASA Air Quality Applied Sciences Team (AQAST), and is motivated by ongoing dialog with state and federal air quality management agencies. We present the response of satellite-derived NO2 to meteorological conditions, satellite-derived HCHO:NO2 ratios as an indicator of ozone production regime, and the ability of models to capture these sensitivities over the continental U.S. In the case of NO2-weather sensitivities, we find boundary layer height, wind speed, temperature, and relative humidity to be the most important variables in determining near-surface NO2 variability. CMAQ agreed with relationships observed in satellite data, as well as in ground-based data, over most regions. However, we find that the southwest U.S. is a problem area for CMAQ, where modeled NO2 responses to insolation, boundary layer height, and other variables are at odds with the observations. Our analyses utilize a software developed by our team, the Wisconsin Horizontal Interpolation Program for Satellites (WHIPS): a free, open-source program designed to make satellite-derived air quality data more usable. WHIPS interpolates level 2 satellite retrievals onto a user-defined fixed grid, in effect creating custom-gridded level 3 satellite product. Currently, WHIPS can process the following data products: OMI NO2 (NASA retrieval); OMI NO2 (KNMI retrieval); OMI

  10. Health risks maps. Modelling of air quality as a tool to map health risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Doorn, R.; Hegger, C.

    2000-01-01

    Environmental departments consider geographical maps with information on air quality as the final product of a complicated process of measuring, modelling and presentation. Municipal health departments consider such maps a useful starting point to solve the problem whether air pollution causes health risks for citizens. The answer to this question cannot be reduced to checking if threshold limit values are exceeded. Based on the results of measurements and modelling of concentrations of nitrogen dioxide in air, the health significance of air pollution caused by nitrogen dioxide is illuminated. A proposal is presented to map health risks of air pollution by using the results of measurements and modelling of air pollution. 7 refs

  11. Development of Air Dispersion Modeling for Future Nuclear Plant in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Nahar Othman

    2011-01-01

    The impact development of Nuclear power plant in Malaysia, can be very negative to the nearby population, causing public restlessness and consequently affecting the image of the authorities in the countries. The precise source of the pollution from the nuclear power plant must be determined, pollution emission level and the meteorological conditions are needed to predict and established the ambient air to the save level at the perimeter fence of the plant and address it with respect to the radiological ambient standards. Upon modeling using an established package as well as site measurements, the radiological level at the perimeter fence of the plant must deduced and lower than the normal ambient level. Based on this issue, a modeling study was made in vicinity of Malaysian Nuclear Agency TRIGA reactor in the area of Bangi, Selangor to evaluate the possibility of movement of air around the area and their impact. This paper will address and discuss the modeling base on the data getting from Meteorological Department such as measurement of wind speed, temperature, humidity, ambient air radiological concentration and ect. The purpose of Air Dispersion Modeling is to establish the critical ambient emission level, as well as radiological modeling. The focus will be made on exploring the use of Ausplume modeling to develop correlations between the radiological concentrations, chemical compositions and ambient model for emission controls. (author)

  12. Numerical Modelling and Analysis of Hydrostatic Thrust Air Bearings for High Loading Capacities and Low Air Consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yunluo; Pu, Guang; Jiang, Kyle

    2017-12-01

    The paper presents a numerical simulation study on hydrostatic thrust air bearings to assess the load capacity, compressed air consumptions, and the dynamic response. Finite Difference Method (FDM) and Finite Volume Method (FVM) are combined to solve the non-linear Reynolds equation to find the pressure distribution of the air bearing gas film and the total loading capacity of the bearing. The influence of design parameters on air film gap characteristics, including the air film thickness, supplied pressure, depth of the groove and external load, are investigated based on the proposed FDM model. The simulation results show that the thrust air bearings with a groove have a higher load capacity and air consumption than without a groove, and the load capacity and air consumption both increase with the depth of the groove. Bearings without the groove are better damped than those with the grooves, and the stability of thrust bearing decreases when the groove depth increases. The stability of the thrust bearings is also affected by their loading.

  13. Polyethylene and methyl methacrylate particle-stimulated inflammatory tissue and macrophages up-regulate bone resorption in a murine neonatal calvaria in vitro organ system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Weiping; Wu, Bin; Mayton, Lois; Wooley, Paul H

    2002-09-01

    There is considerable evidence that orthopaedic wear debris plays a crucial role in the pathology of aseptic loosening of joint prostheses. This study examined the effect of inflammatory membranes stimulated with methyl methacrylate and polyethylene on bone resorption, using the murine air pouch model. The capacity of RAW 264.7 mouse macrophages exposed to polymer particles to produce factors affecting bone metabolism was also studied. Neonatal calvaria bones were co-cultured with either pouch membranes or conditioned media from activated macrophages. Bone resorption was measured by the release of calcium from cultured bones, and the activity of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase in both bone sections and culture medium was also assayed. Results showed that inflammatory pouch membrane activated by methyl methacrylate and polyethylene enhanced osteoclastic bone resorption. Conditioned media from particles stimulated mouse macrophages also stimulated bone resorption, although this effect was weaker than resorption induced by inflammatory pouch membranes. The addition of the particles directly into the medium of cultured calvaria bones had little effect on bone resorption. Our observations indicate that both inflammatory tissue and macrophages provoked by particles can stimulate bone resorption in cultured mouse neonatal calvaria bones. This simple in vitro bone resorption system allows us to investigate the fundamental cellular and molecular mechanism of wear debris induced bone resorption and to screen potential therapeutic approaches for aseptic loosening.

  14. Bibliography for the Indoor Air Quality Building Education and Assessment Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Indoor Air Quality Building Education and Assessment Model (I-BEAM) is a guidance tool designed for use by building professionals and others interested in indoor air quality in commercial buildings.

  15. Modeling the ascent of sounding balloons: derivation of the vertical air motion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Gallice

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available A new model to describe the ascent of sounding balloons in the troposphere and lower stratosphere (up to ∼30–35 km altitude is presented. Contrary to previous models, detailed account is taken of both the variation of the drag coefficient with altitude and the heat imbalance between the balloon and the atmosphere. To compensate for the lack of data on the drag coefficient of sounding balloons, a reference curve for the relationship between drag coefficient and Reynolds number is derived from a dataset of flights launched during the Lindenberg Upper Air Methods Intercomparisons (LUAMI campaign. The transfer of heat from the surrounding air into the balloon is accounted for by solving the radial heat diffusion equation inside the balloon. In its present state, the model does not account for solar radiation, i.e. it is only able to describe the ascent of balloons during the night. It could however be adapted to also represent daytime soundings, with solar radiation modeled as a diffusive process. The potential applications of the model include the forecast of the trajectory of sounding balloons, which can be used to increase the accuracy of the match technique, and the derivation of the air vertical velocity. The latter is obtained by subtracting the ascent rate of the balloon in still air calculated by the model from the actual ascent rate. This technique is shown to provide an approximation for the vertical air motion with an uncertainty error of 0.5 m s−1 in the troposphere and 0.2 m s−1 in the stratosphere. An example of extraction of the air vertical velocity is provided in this paper. We show that the air vertical velocities derived from the balloon soundings in this paper are in general agreement with small-scale atmospheric velocity fluctuations related to gravity waves, mechanical turbulence, or other small-scale air motions measured during the SUCCESS campaign (Subsonic Aircraft: Contrail and Cloud Effects

  16. Importance and Challenges in Use and Uptake of Air Quality Modelling in Developing Countries: Use of CAMx for Air Quality Management in the City of Johannesburg.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garland, R. M.; Naidoo, M.; Sibiya, B.; Naidoo, S.; Bird, T.; von Gruenewaldt, R.; Liebenberg-Enslin, H.; Nekhwalivhe, M.; Netshandama, J.; Mahlatji, M.

    2017-12-01

    Ambient air pollution levels are regulated in South Africa; however in many areas pollution concentrations exceed these levels. The South African Air Quality Act also stipulates that government across all levels must have Air Quality Management Plans (AQMP) in place that outline the current state of air quality and emissions, as well as the implementable plan to manage, and where necessary improve, air quality. Historically, dispersion models have been used to support air quality management decisions, including in AQMPs. However, with the focus of air quality management shifting from focusing on industrial point sources to a more integrated and holistic management of all sources, chemical transport models are needed. CAMx was used in the review and development of the City of Johannesburg's AQMP to simulate hot spots of air pollution, as well as to model intervention scenarios. As the pollutants of concern in Johannesburg are ozone and particulate matter, it is critical to use a model that can simulate chemistry. CAMx was run at 1 km with a locally derived emissions inventory for 2014. The sources of pollution in the City are diverse (including, industrial, vehicles, domestic burning, natural), and many sources have large uncertainties in estimating emissions due to lack of necessary data and local emission factors. These uncertainties, together with a lack of measurements to validate the model against, hinder the performance of the model to simulate air quality and thus inform air quality management. However, as air quality worsens in Africa, it is critical for decision makers to have a strong evidence base on the state of air quality and impact of interventions in order to improve air quality effectively. This presentation will highlight the findings from using a chemical transport model for air quality management in the largest city in South Africa, the use and limitations of these for decision-makers, and proposed way forward.

  17. Modeling of a split type air conditioner with integrated water heater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Techarungpaisan, P.; Theerakulpisut, S.; Priprem, S.

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a steady state simulation model to predict the performance of a small split type air conditioner with integrated water heater. The mathematical model consists of submodels of system components such as evaporator, condenser, compressor, capillary tube, receiver and water heater. These submodels were built based on fundamental principles of heat transfer, thermodynamics, fluid mechanics, empirical relationships and manufacturer's data as necessary. The model was coded into a simulation program and used to predict system parameters of interest such as hot water temperature, condenser exit air temperature, evaporator exit air temperature, mass flow rate of refrigerant, heat rejection in the condenser and cooling capacity of the system. The simulation results were compared with experimental data obtained from an experimental rig built for validating the mathematical model. It was found that the experimental and simulation results are in good agreement

  18. Modeling, Monitoring and Fault Diagnosis of Spacecraft Air Contaminants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, W. Fred; Skliar, Mikhail; Narayan, Anand; Morgenthaler, George W.; Smith, Gerald J.

    1998-01-01

    Control of air contaminants is a crucial factor in the safety considerations of crewed space flight. Indoor air quality needs to be closely monitored during long range missions such as a Mars mission, and also on large complex space structures such as the International Space Station. This work mainly pertains to the detection and simulation of air contaminants in the space station, though much of the work is easily extended to buildings, and issues of ventilation systems. Here we propose a method with which to track the presence of contaminants using an accurate physical model, and also develop a robust procedure that would raise alarms when certain tolerance levels are exceeded. A part of this research concerns the modeling of air flow inside a spacecraft, and the consequent dispersal pattern of contaminants. Our objective is to also monitor the contaminants on-line, so we develop a state estimation procedure that makes use of the measurements from a sensor system and determines an optimal estimate of the contamination in the system as a function of time and space. The real-time optimal estimates in turn are used to detect faults in the system and also offer diagnoses as to their sources. This work is concerned with the monitoring of air contaminants aboard future generation spacecraft and seeks to satisfy NASA's requirements as outlined in their Strategic Plan document (Technology Development Requirements, 1996).

  19. Development of a forecast model for global air traffic emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaefer, Martin

    2012-07-01

    The thesis describes the methodology and results of a simulation model that quantifies fuel consumption and emissions of civil air traffic. Besides covering historical emissions, the model aims at forecasting emissions in the medium-term future. For this purpose, simulation models of aircraft and engine types are used in combination with a database of global flight movements and assumptions about traffic growth, fleet rollover and operational aspects. Results from an application of the model include emissions of scheduled air traffic for the years 2000 to 2010 as well as forecasted emissions until the year 2030. In a baseline scenario of the forecast, input assumptions (e.g. traffic growth rates) are in line with predictions by the aircraft industry. Considering the effects of advanced technologies of the short-term and medium-term future, the forecast focusses on fuel consumption and emissions of nitric oxides. Calculations for historical air traffic additionally cover emissions of carbon monoxide, unburned hydrocarbons and soot. Results are validated against reference data including studies by the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) and simulation results from international research projects. (orig.)

  20. Daily air quality index forecasting with hybrid models: A case in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Suling; Lian, Xiuyuan; Liu, Haixia; Hu, Jianming; Wang, Yuanyuan; Che, Jinxing

    2017-01-01

    Air quality is closely related to quality of life. Air pollution forecasting plays a vital role in air pollution warnings and controlling. However, it is difficult to attain accurate forecasts for air pollution indexes because the original data are non-stationary and chaotic. The existing forecasting methods, such as multiple linear models, autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) and support vector regression (SVR), cannot fully capture the information from series of pollution indexes. Therefore, new effective techniques need to be proposed to forecast air pollution indexes. The main purpose of this research is to develop effective forecasting models for regional air quality indexes (AQI) to address the problems above and enhance forecasting accuracy. Therefore, two hybrid models (EMD-SVR-Hybrid and EMD-IMFs-Hybrid) are proposed to forecast AQI data. The main steps of the EMD-SVR-Hybrid model are as follows: the data preprocessing technique EMD (empirical mode decomposition) is utilized to sift the original AQI data to obtain one group of smoother IMFs (intrinsic mode functions) and a noise series, where the IMFs contain the important information (level, fluctuations and others) from the original AQI series. LS-SVR is applied to forecast the sum of the IMFs, and then, S-ARIMA (seasonal ARIMA) is employed to forecast the residual sequence of LS-SVR. In addition, EMD-IMFs-Hybrid first separately forecasts the IMFs via statistical models and sums the forecasting results of the IMFs as EMD-IMFs. Then, S-ARIMA is employed to forecast the residuals of EMD-IMFs. To certify the proposed hybrid model, AQI data from June 2014 to August 2015 collected from Xingtai in China are utilized as a test case to investigate the empirical research. In terms of some of the forecasting assessment measures, the AQI forecasting results of Xingtai show that the two proposed hybrid models are superior to ARIMA, SVR, GRNN, EMD-GRNN, Wavelet-GRNN and Wavelet-SVR. Therefore, the

  1. Dry Air Cooler Modeling for Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Brayton Cycle Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moisseytsev, A. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Sienicki, J. J. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Lv, Q. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2016-07-28

    Modeling for commercially available and cost effective dry air coolers such as those manufactured by Harsco Industries has been implemented in the Argonne National Laboratory Plant Dynamics Code for system level dynamic analysis of supercritical carbon dioxide (sCO2) Brayton cycles. The modeling can now be utilized to optimize and simulate sCO2 Brayton cycles with dry air cooling whereby heat is rejected directly to the atmospheric heat sink without the need for cooling towers that require makeup water for evaporative losses. It has sometimes been stated that a benefit of the sCO2 Brayton cycle is that it enables dry air cooling implying that the Rankine steam cycle does not. A preliminary and simple examination of a Rankine superheated steam cycle and an air-cooled condenser indicates that dry air cooling can be utilized with both cycles provided that the cycle conditions are selected appropriately

  2. Developing of a New Atmospheric Ionizing Radiation (AIR) Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clem, John M.; deAngelis, Giovanni; Goldhagen, Paul; Wilson, John W.

    2003-01-01

    As a result of the research leading to the 1998 AIR workshop and the subsequent analysis, the neutron issues posed by Foelsche et al. and further analyzed by Hajnal have been adequately resolved. We are now engaged in developing a new atmospheric ionizing radiation (AIR) model for use in epidemiological studies and air transportation safety assessment. A team was formed to examine a promising code using the basic FLUKA software but with modifications to allow multiple charged ion breakup effects. A limited dataset of the ER-2 measurements and other cosmic ray data will be used to evaluate the use of this code.

  3. Air-gun signature modelling considering the influence of mechanical structure factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Guofa; Liu, Zhao; Wang, Jianhua; Cao, Mingqiang

    2014-01-01

    In marine seismic prospecting, as the air-gun array is usually composed of different types of air-guns, the signature modelling of different air-guns is particularly important to the array design. Different types of air-guns have different mechanical structures, which directly or indirectly affect the signatures. In order to simulate the influence of the mechanical structure, five parameters—the throttling constant, throttling power law exponent, mass release efficiency, fluid viscosity and heat transfer coefficient—are used in signature modelling. Through minimizing the energy relative error between the simulated and the measured signatures by the simulated annealing method, the five optimal parameters can be estimated. The method is tested in a field experiment, and the consistency between the simulated and the measured signatures is improved with the optimal parameters. (paper)

  4. Air Dispersion Modeling for the INL Application for a Synthetic Minor Sitewide Air Quality Permit to Construct with a Facility Emission Cap Component

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sondrup, Andrus Jeffrey [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-10-01

    The Department of Energy Idaho Operations Office (DOE-ID) is applying for a synthetic minor, Sitewide, air quality permit to construct (PTC) with a facility emission cap (FEC) component from the Idaho Department of Environmental Quality (DEQ) for Idaho National Laboratory (INL) to limit its potential to emit to less than major facility limits for criteria air pollutants (CAPs) and hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) regulated under the Clean Air Act. This document is supplied as an appendix to the application, Idaho National Laboratory Application for a Synthetic Minor Sitewide Air Quality Permit to Construct with a Facility Emissions Cap Component, hereafter referred to as “permit application” (DOE-ID 2015). Air dispersion modeling was performed as part of the permit application process to demonstrate pollutant emissions from the INL will not cause a violation of any ambient air quality standards. This report documents the modeling methodology and results for the air dispersion impact analysis. All CAPs regulated under Section 109 of the Clean Air Act were modeled with the exception of lead (Pb) and ozone, which are not required to be modeled by DEQ. Modeling was not performed for toxic air pollutants (TAPs) as uncontrolled emissions did not exceed screening emission levels for carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic TAPs. Modeling for CAPs was performed with the EPA approved AERMOD dispersion modeling system (Version 14134) (EPA 2004a) and five years (2000-2004) of meteorological data. The meteorological data set was produced with the companion AERMET model (Version 14134) (EPA 2004b) using surface data from the Idaho Falls airport, and upper-air data from Boise International Airport supplied by DEQ. Onsite meteorological data from the Grid 3 Mesonet tower located near the center of the INL (north of INTEC) and supplied by the local National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) office was used for surface wind directions and wind speeds. Surface data (i

  5. Indoor Air Nuclear, Biological, and Chemical Health Modeling and Assessment System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stenner, Robert D.; Hadley, Donald L.; Armstrong, Peter R.; Buck, John W.; Hoopes, Bonnie L.; Janus, Michael C.

    2001-03-01

    Indoor air quality effects on human health are of increasing concern to public health agencies and building owners. The prevention and treatment of 'sick building' syndrome and the spread of air-borne diseases in hospitals, for example, are well known priorities. However, increasing attention is being directed to the vulnerability of our public buildings/places, public security and national defense facilities to terrorist attack or the accidental release of air-borne biological pathogens, harmful chemicals, or radioactive contaminants. The Indoor Air Nuclear, Biological, and Chemical Health Modeling and Assessment System (IA-NBC-HMAS) was developed to serve as a health impact analysis tool for use in addressing these concerns. The overall goal was to develop a user-friendly fully functional prototype Health Modeling and Assessment system, which will operate under the PNNL FRAMES system for ease of use and to maximize its integration with other modeling and assessment capabilities accessible within the FRAMES system (e.g., ambient air fate and transport models, water borne fate and transport models, Physiologically Based Pharmacokinetic models, etc.). The prototype IA-NBC-HMAS is designed to serve as a functional Health Modeling and Assessment system that can be easily tailored to meet specific building analysis needs of a customer. The prototype system was developed and tested using an actual building (i.e., the Churchville Building located at the Aberdeen Proving Ground) and release scenario (i.e., the release and measurement of tracer materials within the building) to ensure realism and practicality in the design and development of the prototype system. A user-friendly "demo" accompanies this report to allow the reader the opportunity for a "hands on" review of the prototype system's capability.

  6. Modelling the urban air quality in Hamburg with the new city-scale chemistry transport model CityChem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karl, Matthias; Ramacher, Martin; Aulinger, Armin; Matthias, Volker; Quante, Markus

    2017-04-01

    Air quality modelling plays an important role by providing guidelines for efficient air pollution abatement measures. Currently, most urban dispersion models treat air pollutants as passive tracer substances or use highly simplified chemistry when simulating air pollutant concentrations on the city-scale. The newly developed urban chemistry-transport model CityChem has the capability of modelling the photochemical transformation of multiple pollutants along with atmospheric diffusion to produce pollutant concentration fields for the entire city on a horizontal resolution of 100 m or even finer and a vertical resolution of 24 layers up to 4000 m height. CityChem is based on the Eulerian urban dispersion model EPISODE of the Norwegian Institute for Air Research (NILU). CityChem treats the complex photochemistry in cities using detailed EMEP chemistry on an Eulerian 3-D grid, while using simple photo-stationary equilibrium on a much higher resolution grid (receptor grid), i.e. close to industrial point sources and traffic sources. The CityChem model takes into account that long-range transport contributes to urban pollutant concentrations. This is done by using 3-D boundary concentrations for the city domain derived from chemistry-transport simulations with the regional air quality model CMAQ. For the study of the air quality in Hamburg, CityChem was set-up with a main grid of 30×30 grid cells of 1×1 km2 each and a receptor grid of 300×300 grid cells of 100×100 m2. The CityChem model was driven with meteorological data generated by the prognostic meteorology component of the Australian chemistry-transport model TAPM. Bottom-up inventories of emissions from traffic, industry, households were based on data of the municipality of Hamburg. Shipping emissions for the port of Hamburg were taken from the Clean North Sea Shipping project. Episodes with elevated ozone (O3) were of specific interest for this study, as these are associated with exceedances of the World

  7. Modeling Air-Quality in Complex Terrain Using Mesoscale and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Air-quality in a complex terrain (Colorado-River-Valley/Grand-Canyon Area, Southwest U.S.) is modeled using a higher-order closure mesoscale model and a higher-order closure dispersion model. Non-reactive tracers have been released in the Colorado-River valley, during winter and summer 1992, to study the ...

  8. Modelling of radio emission from cosmic ray air showers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludwig, Marianne

    2011-06-01

    Cosmic rays entering the Earth's atmosphere induce extensive air showers consisting of up to billions of secondary particles. Among them, a multitude of electrons and positrons are generated. These get deflected in the Earth's magnetic field, creating time-varying transverse currents. Thereby, the air shower emits coherent radiation in the MHz frequency range measured by radio antenna arrays on the ground such as LOPES at the KIT. This detection method provides a possibility to study cosmic rays with energies above 1017 eV. At this time, the radio technique undergoes the change from prototype experiments to large scale application. Thus, a detailed understanding of the radio emission process is needed more than ever. Before starting this work, different models made conflicting predictions on the pulse shape and the amplitude of the radio signal. It turned out that a radiation component caused by the variation of the number of charged particles within the air shower was missed in several models. The Monte Carlo code REAS2 superposing the radiation of the individual air shower electrons and positrons was one of those. At this time, it was not known how to take the missing component into account. For REAS3, we developed and implemented the endpoint formalism, a universal approach, to calculate the radiation from each single particle. For the first time, we achieve a good agreement between REAS3 and MGMR, an independent and completely different simulation approach. In contrast to REAS3, MGMR is based on a macroscopic approach and on parametrisations of the air shower. We studied the differences in the underlying air shower models to explain the remaining deviations. For comparisons with LOPES data, we developed a new method which allows "top-down" simulations of air showers. From this, we developed an air shower selection criterion based on the number of muons measured with KASCADE to take shower-to-shower fluctuations for a single event analysis into account. With

  9. Model development for air conditioning system in heavy duty trucks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kessels, J.T.B.A.; van den Bosch, P.P.J.; Zhang, Quansheng; Li, Shengbo Eben; Deng, Kun

    2016-01-01

    This chapter presents a modelling approach for the air conditioning (AC) system in heavy duty trucks. The presented model entails two major elements: a mechanical compressor model and a thermal AC model. The compressor model describes the massflow of the refrigerant as well as the mechanical power

  10. Eight Year Climatologies from Observational (AIRS) and Model (MERRA) Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hearty, Thomas; Savtchenko, Andrey; Won, Young-In; Theobalk, Mike; Vollmer, Bruce; Manning, Evan; Smith, Peter; Ostrenga, Dana; Leptoukh, Greg

    2010-01-01

    We examine climatologies derived from eight years of temperature, water vapor, cloud, and trace gas observations made by the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) instrument flying on the Aqua satellite and compare them to similar climatologies constructed with data from a global assimilation model, the Modern Era Retrospective-Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA). We use the AIRS climatologies to examine anomalies and trends in the AIRS data record. Since sampling can be an issue for infrared satellites in low earth orbit, we also use the MERRA data to examine the AIRS sampling biases. By sampling the MERRA data at the AIRS space-time locations both with and without the AIRS quality control we estimate the sampling bias of the AIRS climatology and the atmospheric conditions where AIRS has a lower sampling rate. While the AIRS temperature and water vapor sampling biases are small at low latitudes, they can be more than a few degrees in temperature or 10 percent in water vapor at higher latitudes. The largest sampling biases are over desert. The AIRS and MERRA data are available from the Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center (GES DISC). The AIRS climatologies we used are available for analysis with the GIOVANNI data exploration tool. (see, http://disc.gsfc.nasa.gov).

  11. A three-dimensional mathematical model to predict air-cooling flow and temperature distribution of wire loops in the Stelmor air-cooling system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Lingxiang; Wang, Bo; Feng, Shuai; Yang, Zhiliang; Yu, Yaowei; Peng, Wangjun; Zhang, Jieyu

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A 3-dimentioanl mathematical models for complex wire loops was set up in Stelmor. • The air flow field in the cooling process was simulated. • The convective heat transfer coefficient was simulated coupled with air flow field. • The temperature distribution with distances was predicted. - Abstract: Controlling the forced air cooling conditions in the Stelmor conveyor line is important for improving the microstructure and mechanical properties of steel wire rods. A three-dimensional mathematical model incorporating the turbulent flow of the cooling air and heat transfer of the wire rods was developed to predict the cooling process in the Stelmor air-cooling line of wire rolling mills. The distribution of cooling air from the plenum chamber and the forced convective heat transfer coefficient for the wire loops were simulated at the different locations over the conveyor. The temperature profiles and cooling curves of the wire loops in Stelmor conveyor lines were also calculated by considering the convective heat transfer, radiative heat transfer as well as the latent heat during transformation. The calculated temperature results using this model agreed well with the available measured results in the industrial tests. Thus, it was demonstrated that this model can be useful for studying the air-cooling process and predicting the temperature profile and microstructure evolution of the wire rods.

  12. Modelling and Evaluating Air Quality with Fuzzy Logic Algorithm-Ankara-Cebeci Sample

    OpenAIRE

    Atacak, Ismail; Arici, Nursal; Guner, Dilem

    2017-01-01

    Air is one of the most important life sources for all living things. Gases that are present and absent in the composition of clean air also considered as pollutants in the atmosphere. If the pollutants rise above a certain concentration level, air pollution occurs. Air pollution damages all living things, especially human health. Accurate estimation of pollutant concentrations through air pollution modeling has an important effect in reducing the adverse effects of pollution and taking necess...

  13. Estimating the Impact of Urbanization on Air Quality in China Using Spatial Regression Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuanglin Fang

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Urban air pollution is one of the most visible environmental problems to have accompanied China’s rapid urbanization. Based on emission inventory data from 2014, gathered from 289 cities, we used Global and Local Moran’s I to measure the spatial autorrelation of Air Quality Index (AQI values at the city level, and employed Ordinary Least Squares (OLS, Spatial Lag Model (SAR, and Geographically Weighted Regression (GWR to quantitatively estimate the comprehensive impact and spatial variations of China’s urbanization process on air quality. The results show that a significant spatial dependence and heterogeneity existed in AQI values. Regression models revealed urbanization has played an important negative role in determining air quality in Chinese cities. The population, urbanization rate, automobile density, and the proportion of secondary industry were all found to have had a significant influence over air quality. Per capita Gross Domestic Product (GDP and the scale of urban land use, however, failed the significance test at 10% level. The GWR model performed better than global models and the results of GWR modeling show that the relationship between urbanization and air quality was not constant in space. Further, the local parameter estimates suggest significant spatial variation in the impacts of various urbanization factors on air quality.

  14. Assessing the ability of mechanistic volatilization models to simulate soil surface conditions: a study with the Volt'Air model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, L; Bedos, C; Génermont, S; Braud, I; Cellier, P

    2011-09-01

    Ammonia and pesticide volatilization in the field is a surface phenomenon involving physical and chemical processes that depend on the soil surface temperature and water content. The water transfer, heat transfer and energy budget sub models of volatilization models are adapted from the most commonly accepted formalisms and parameterizations. They are less detailed than the dedicated models describing water and heat transfers and surface status. The aim of this work was to assess the ability of one of the available mechanistic volatilization models, Volt'Air, to accurately describe the pedo-climatic conditions of a soil surface at the required time and space resolution. The assessment involves: (i) a sensitivity analysis, (ii) an evaluation of Volt'Air outputs in the light of outputs from a reference Soil-Vegetation-Atmosphere Transfer model (SiSPAT) and three experimental datasets, and (iii) the study of three tests based on modifications of SiSPAT to establish the potential impact of the simplifying assumptions used in Volt'Air. The analysis confirmed that a 5 mm surface layer was well suited, and that Volt'Air surface temperature correlated well with the experimental measurements as well as with SiSPAT outputs. In terms of liquid water transfers, Volt'Air was overall consistent with SiSPAT, with discrepancies only during major rainfall events and dry weather conditions. The tests enabled us to identify the main source of the discrepancies between Volt'Air and SiSPAT: the lack of gaseous water transfer description in Volt'Air. They also helped to explain why neither Volt'Air nor SiSPAT was able to represent lower values of surface water content: current classical water retention and hydraulic conductivity models are not yet adapted to cases of very dry conditions. Given the outcomes of this study, we discuss to what extent the volatilization models can be improved and the questions they pose for current research in water transfer modeling and parameterization

  15. Modeling air concentration over macro roughness conditions by Artificial Intelligence techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roshni, T.; Pagliara, S.

    2018-05-01

    Aeration is improved in rivers by the turbulence created in the flow over macro and intermediate roughness conditions. Macro and intermediate roughness flow conditions are generated by flows over block ramps or rock chutes. The measurements are taken in uniform flow region. Efficacy of soft computing methods in modeling hydraulic parameters are not common so far. In this study, modeling efficiencies of MPMR model and FFNN model are found for estimating the air concentration over block ramps under macro roughness conditions. The experimental data are used for training and testing phases. Potential capability of MPMR and FFNN model in estimating air concentration are proved through this study.

  16. MODELING THE TRANSPORT AND CHEMICAL EVOLUTION OF ONSHORE AND OFFSHORE EMISSIONS AND THEIR IMPACT ON LOCAL AND REGIONAL AIR QUALITY USING A VARIABLE-GRID-RESOLUTION AIR QUALITY MODEL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiran Alapaty

    2003-12-01

    This document, the project's first semiannual report, summarizes the research performed from 04/17/2003 through 10/16/2003. Portions of the research in several of the project's eight tasks were completed, and results obtained are briefly presented. We have tested the applicability of two different atmospheric boundary layer schemes for use in air quality model simulations. Preliminary analysis indicates that a scheme that uses sophisticated atmospheric boundary physics resulted in better simulation of atmospheric circulations. We have further developed and tested a new surface data assimilation technique to improve meteorological simulations, which will also result in improved air quality model simulations. Preliminary analysis of results indicates that using the new data assimilation technique results in reduced modeling errors in temperature and moisture. Ingestion of satellite-derived sea surface temperatures into the mesoscale meteorological model led to significant improvements in simulated clouds and precipitation compared to that obtained using traditional analyzed sea surface temperatures. To enhance the capabilities of an emissions processing system so that it can be used with our variable-grid-resolution air quality model, we have identified potential areas for improvements. Also for use in the variable-grid-resolution air quality model, we have tested a cloud module offline for its functionality, and have implemented and tested an efficient horizontal diffusion algorithm within the model.

  17. Combined effects of porous hydroxyapatite and demineralized bone matrix on bone induction: in vitro and in vivo study using a nude rat model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jae Hyup; Lee, Kyung-Mee; Baek, Hae-Ri; Jang, Soo-Jeong; Lee, Ji-Ho [Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Seoul National University School of Medicine, SMG-SNU Boramae Medical Center, Seoul 156-707 (Korea, Republic of); Ryu, Hyun-Seung, E-mail: spinelee@snu.ac.kr [Research and Development Center, CGBio Inc., Seong-Nam 462-120 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-02-15

    Hydroxyapatite (HA) is an osteoconductive material used as a bone graft extender and demineralized bone matrix (DBM) has been used as a source of osteoinductive factors. A combination of DBM and HA is expected to create a composite with both osteoconductive and osteoinductive properties. This study examined the effect of a combination of DBM and HA on osteogenesis both in vitro and in vivo using an athymic nude rat abdominal muscle pouch model, and evaluated the possibility of HA as a carrier of DBM. Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) staining, ALP assay and measurements of the mRNA expression of ALP and Runx2 by RT-PCR were performed by transplanting human mesenchymal stem cells onto a plate. Five athymic nude rats each were assigned to one of two experimental groups (DBM/HA putty and only HA, i.e. 15 pouches per group). The muscle pouches were filled with DBM/HA putty or only HA. Radiographs were obtained at weeks 4 and 8, postoperatively. The animals were sacrificed at week 8 postoperatively and high resolution microCT was used to confirm the newly formed mineralized tissue. Each pouch was fixed, embedded, sectioned and processed for hematoxylin and eosin staining. The ALP value of the DBM/HA putty was higher than those of HA and control (p < 0.05, each). The expression of ALP mRNA appeared higher on the DBM/HA putty than on HA and control. MicroCT and histology examinations of the DBM/HA putty demonstrated the presence of newly generated mineralized tissues but there was no mineralized tissue in the HA cases. In conclusion, the DBM/HA putty indicated osteoblastic differentiation in vitro and showed ectopic mineralized tissue formation in the rat abdominal pouch model. These findings indicate that the DBM/HA putty can retain its oteoinductivity and HA can be used as a carrier of DBM.

  18. Combined effects of porous hydroxyapatite and demineralized bone matrix on bone induction: in vitro and in vivo study using a nude rat model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jae Hyup; Lee, Kyung-Mee; Baek, Hae-Ri; Jang, Soo-Jeong; Lee, Ji-Ho; Ryu, Hyun-Seung

    2011-01-01

    Hydroxyapatite (HA) is an osteoconductive material used as a bone graft extender and demineralized bone matrix (DBM) has been used as a source of osteoinductive factors. A combination of DBM and HA is expected to create a composite with both osteoconductive and osteoinductive properties. This study examined the effect of a combination of DBM and HA on osteogenesis both in vitro and in vivo using an athymic nude rat abdominal muscle pouch model, and evaluated the possibility of HA as a carrier of DBM. Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) staining, ALP assay and measurements of the mRNA expression of ALP and Runx2 by RT-PCR were performed by transplanting human mesenchymal stem cells onto a plate. Five athymic nude rats each were assigned to one of two experimental groups (DBM/HA putty and only HA, i.e. 15 pouches per group). The muscle pouches were filled with DBM/HA putty or only HA. Radiographs were obtained at weeks 4 and 8, postoperatively. The animals were sacrificed at week 8 postoperatively and high resolution microCT was used to confirm the newly formed mineralized tissue. Each pouch was fixed, embedded, sectioned and processed for hematoxylin and eosin staining. The ALP value of the DBM/HA putty was higher than those of HA and control (p < 0.05, each). The expression of ALP mRNA appeared higher on the DBM/HA putty than on HA and control. MicroCT and histology examinations of the DBM/HA putty demonstrated the presence of newly generated mineralized tissues but there was no mineralized tissue in the HA cases. In conclusion, the DBM/HA putty indicated osteoblastic differentiation in vitro and showed ectopic mineralized tissue formation in the rat abdominal pouch model. These findings indicate that the DBM/HA putty can retain its oteoinductivity and HA can be used as a carrier of DBM.

  19. An empirically grounded agent based model for modeling directs, conflict detection and resolution operations in air traffic management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bongiorno, Christian; Miccichè, Salvatore; Mantegna, Rosario N

    2017-01-01

    We present an agent based model of the Air Traffic Management socio-technical complex system aiming at modeling the interactions between aircraft and air traffic controllers at a tactical level. The core of the model is given by the conflict detection and resolution module and by the directs module. Directs are flight shortcuts that are given by air controllers to speed up the passage of an aircraft within a certain airspace and therefore to facilitate airline operations. Conflicts between flight trajectories can occur for two main reasons: either the planning of the flight trajectory was not sufficiently detailed to rule out all potential conflicts or unforeseen events during the flight require modifications of the flight plan that can conflict with other flight trajectories. Our model performs a local conflict detection and resolution procedure. Once a flight trajectory has been made conflict-free, the model searches for possible improvements of the system efficiency by issuing directs. We give an example of model calibration based on real data. We then provide an illustration of the capability of our model in generating scenario simulations able to give insights about the air traffic management system. We show that the calibrated model is able to reproduce the existence of a geographical localization of air traffic controllers' operations. Finally, we use the model to investigate the relationship between directs and conflict resolutions (i) in the presence of perfect forecast ability of controllers, and (ii) in the presence of some degree of uncertainty in flight trajectory forecast.

  20. An empirically grounded agent based model for modeling directs, conflict detection and resolution operations in air traffic management.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Bongiorno

    Full Text Available We present an agent based model of the Air Traffic Management socio-technical complex system aiming at modeling the interactions between aircraft and air traffic controllers at a tactical level. The core of the model is given by the conflict detection and resolution module and by the directs module. Directs are flight shortcuts that are given by air controllers to speed up the passage of an aircraft within a certain airspace and therefore to facilitate airline operations. Conflicts between flight trajectories can occur for two main reasons: either the planning of the flight trajectory was not sufficiently detailed to rule out all potential conflicts or unforeseen events during the flight require modifications of the flight plan that can conflict with other flight trajectories. Our model performs a local conflict detection and resolution procedure. Once a flight trajectory has been made conflict-free, the model searches for possible improvements of the system efficiency by issuing directs. We give an example of model calibration based on real data. We then provide an illustration of the capability of our model in generating scenario simulations able to give insights about the air traffic management system. We show that the calibrated model is able to reproduce the existence of a geographical localization of air traffic controllers' operations. Finally, we use the model to investigate the relationship between directs and conflict resolutions (i in the presence of perfect forecast ability of controllers, and (ii in the presence of some degree of uncertainty in flight trajectory forecast.

  1. Modeling near-road air quality using a computational fluid dynamics model, CFD-VIT-RIT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y Jason; Zhang, K Max

    2009-10-15

    It is well recognized that dilution is an important mechanism governing the near-road air pollutant concentrations. In this paper, we aim to advance our understanding of turbulent mixing mechanisms on and near roadways using computation fluid dynamics. Turbulent mixing mechanisms can be classified into three categories according to their origins: vehicle-induced turbulence (VIT), road-induced turbulence (RIT), and atmospheric boundary layer turbulence. RIT includes the turbulence generated by road embankment, road surface thermal effects, and roadside structures. Both VIT and RIT are affected by the roadway designs. We incorporate the detailed treatment of VIT and RIT into the CFD (namely CFD-VIT-RIT) and apply the model in simulating the spatial gradients of carbon monoxide near two major highways with different traffic mix and roadway configurations. The modeling results are compared to the field measurements and those from CALINE4 and CFD without considering VIT and RIT. We demonstrate that the incorporation of VIT and RIT considerably improves the modeling predictions, especially on vertical gradients and seasonal variations of carbon monoxide. Our study implies that roadway design can significantly influence the near-road air pollution. Thus we recommend that mitigating near-road air pollution through roadway designs be considered in the air quality and transportation management In addition, thanks to the rigorous representation of turbulent mixing mechanisms, CFD-VIT-RIT can become valuable tools in the roadway designs process.

  2. Quantifying Co-benefits of Renewable Energy through Integrated Electricity and Air Quality Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abel, D.

    2016-12-01

    This work focuses on the coordination of electricity sector changes with air quality and health improvement strategies through the integration of electricity and air quality models. Two energy models are used to calculate emission perturbations associated with changes in generation technology (20% generation from solar photovoltaics) and demand (future electricity use under a warmer climate). Impacts from increased solar PV penetration are simulated with the electricity model GridView, in collaboration with the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). Generation results are used to scale power plant emissions from an inventory developed by the Lake Michigan Air Directors Consortium (LADCO). Perturbed emissions and are used to calculate secondary particulate matter with the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model. We find that electricity NOx and SO2 emissions decrease at a rate similar to the total fraction of electricity supplied by solar. Across the Eastern U.S. region, average PM2.5 is reduced 5% over the summer, with highest reduction in regions and on days of greater PM2.5. A similar approach evaluates the air quality impacts of elevated electricity demand under a warmer climate. Meteorology is selected from the North American Regional Climate Change Assessment Program (NARCCAP) and input to a building energy model, eQUEST, to assess electricity demand as a function of ambient temperature. The associated generation and emissions are calculated on a plant-by-plant basis by the MyPower power sector model. These emissions are referenced to the 2011 National Emissions Inventory to be modeled in CMAQ for the Eastern U.S. and extended to health impact evaluation with the Environmental Benefits Mapping and Analysis Program (BenMAP). All results focus on the air quality and health consequences of energy system changes, considering grid-level changes to meet climate and air quality goals.

  3. Indicators to support the dynamic evaluation of air quality models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thunis, P.; Clappier, A.

    2014-12-01

    Air quality models are useful tools for the assessment and forecast of pollutant concentrations in the atmosphere. Most of the evaluation process relies on the “operational phase” or in other words the comparison of model results with available measurements which provides insight on the model capability to reproduce measured concentrations for a given application. But one of the key advantages of air quality models lies in their ability to assess the impact of precursor emission reductions on air quality levels. Models are then used in a dynamic mode (i.e. response to a change in a given model input data) for which evaluation of the model performances becomes a challenge. The objective of this work is to propose common indicators and diagrams to facilitate the understanding of model responses to emission changes when models are to be used for policy support. These indicators are shown to be useful to retrieve information on the magnitude of the locally produced impacts of emission reductions on concentrations with respect to the “external to the domain” contribution but also to identify, distinguish and quantify impacts arising from different factors (different precursors). In addition information about the robustness of the model results is provided. As such these indicators might reveal useful as first screening methodology to identify the feasibility of a given action as well as to prioritize the factors on which to act for an increased efficiency. Finally all indicators are made dimensionless to facilitate the comparison of results obtained with different models, different resolutions, or on different geographical areas.

  4. Remote Sensing Characterization of the Urban Landscape for Improvement of Air Quality Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quattrochi, Dale A.; Estes, Maurice G., Jr.; Khan, Maudood

    2005-01-01

    The urban landscape is inherently complex and this complexity is not adequately captured in air quality models, particularly the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model that is used to assess whether urban areas are in attainment of EPA air quality standards, primarily for ground level ozone. This inadequacy of the CMAQ model to sufficiently respond to the heterogeneous nature of the urban landscape can impact how well the model predicts ozone pollutant levels over metropolitan areas and ultimately, whether cities exceed EPA ozone air quality standards. We are exploring the utility of high-resolution remote sensing data and urban growth projections as improved inputs to the meteorology component of the CMAQ model focusing on the Atlanta, Georgia metropolitan area as a case study. These growth projections include "business as usual" and "smart growth" scenarios out to 2030. The growth projections illustrate the effects of employing urban heat island mitigation strategies, such as increasing tree canopy and albedo across the Atlanta metro area, in moderating ground-level ozone and air temperature, compared to "business as usual" simulations in which heat island mitigation strategies are not applied. The National Land Cover Dataset at 30m resolution is being used as the land use/land cover input and aggregated to the 4km scale for the MM5 mesoscale meteorological model and the (CMAQ) modeling schemes. Use of these data has been found to better characterize low densityhburban development as compared with USGS 1 km land use/land cover data that have traditionally been used in modeling. Air quality prediction for fiture scenarios to 2030 is being facilitated by land use projections using a spatial growth model. Land use projections were developed using the 2030 Regional Transportation Plan developed by the Atlanta Regional Commission, the regional planning agency for the area. This allows the state Environmental Protection agency to evaluate how these

  5. Changes in bolti fish lipids as affected by ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rady, A.H.

    1992-01-01

    Bolti fish was transported live in special tank, then prepared and packed in international ken field pouches. Half of the pouches were sealed under vacuum and the other were left unsealed. All pouches were gamma irradiated at 0.2.4.6 and 8 KGH. Fish lipids were extracted and analyzed for hydroxy fatty acids (HFA), keto-fatty acids (KFA), total sterols and fatty alcohols, total carotenoids and individual un esterified fatty acids (UFA). The results indicated that HFA gradually decreased in air and vacuum packed samples upon exposure to 2 and 4 KGY, then increased with increasing irradiation. KFA showed the opposite trend of HFA by gamma irradiation. Total carotenoids were unchanged at 2 KGY in air packed samples, then increased with increasing dosage and peaked at 6 KGY (216% increase) while all doses caused a remarkable increase in total carotenoids of vacuum packed samples and the percentage increase reached 294 at 8 KGY. Total sterols and fatty alcohols followed the same pattern observed in total carotenoids when air and vacuum packed samples irradiated with gamma rays. Moreover, the individual UFA were unaffected at 2 KGY in vacuum packed samples, then showed a gradual increase with increasing irradiation. The individual UFA gradually increased upon exposure of the air packed fish samples to ascending doses of gamma radiation

  6. Arima and integrated arfima models for forecasting air pollution index in Shah Alam, Selangor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Ying Siew; Lim, Ying Chin; Pauline, Mah Jin Wee

    2008-01-01

    Air pollution is one of the major issues that has been affecting human health, agricultural crops, forest species and ecosystems. Since 1980, Malaysia has had a series of haze episodes and the worst ever was reported in 1997. As a result, the government has established the Malaysia Air Quality Guidelines, the Air Pollution Index (API) and Haze Action Plan, to improve the air quality. The API was introduced as an index system for classifying and reporting the ambient air quality in Malaysia. The API for a given period is calculated based on the sub-index value (sub-API) for all the five air pollutants, namely sulphur dioxide (SO 2 ), nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ), ozone (O 3 ), carbon monoxide (CO) and particulate matter below 10 micron size (PM 10 ). The forecast of air pollution can be used for air pollution assessment and management. It can serve as information and warning to the public in cases of high air pollution levels and for policy management of many different chemical compounds. Hence, the objective of this project is to fit and illustrate the use of time series models in forecasting the API in Shah Alam, Selangor. The data used in this study consists of 70 monthly observations of API (from March 1998 to December 2003) published in the Annual Reports of the Department of Environment, Selangor. The time series models that were being considered were the Integrated Autoregressive Moving Average (ARIMA) and the Integrated Long Memory Model (ARFIMA) models. The lowest MAE, RMSE and MAPE values were used as the model selection criteria. Between these two models considered, the integrated ARFIMA model appears to be the better model as it has the lowest MAPE value. However, the actual value of May 2003 falls outside the 95% forecast interval, probably due to emissions from mobile sources (i.e., motor vehicles), industrial emissions, burning of solid wastes and forest fires. (author)

  7. Modelling future impacts of air pollution using the multi-scale UK Integrated Assessment Model (UKIAM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oxley, Tim; Dore, Anthony J; ApSimon, Helen; Hall, Jane; Kryza, Maciej

    2013-11-01

    Integrated assessment modelling has evolved to support policy development in relation to air pollutants and greenhouse gases by providing integrated simulation tools able to produce quick and realistic representations of emission scenarios and their environmental impacts without the need to re-run complex atmospheric dispersion models. The UK Integrated Assessment Model (UKIAM) has been developed to investigate strategies for reducing UK emissions by bringing together information on projected UK emissions of SO2, NOx, NH3, PM10 and PM2.5, atmospheric dispersion, criteria for protection of ecosystems, urban air quality and human health, and data on potential abatement measures to reduce emissions, which may subsequently be linked to associated analyses of costs and benefits. We describe the multi-scale model structure ranging from continental to roadside, UK emission sources, atmospheric dispersion of emissions, implementation of abatement measures, integration with European-scale modelling, and environmental impacts. The model generates outputs from a national perspective which are used to evaluate alternative strategies in relation to emissions, deposition patterns, air quality metrics and ecosystem critical load exceedance. We present a selection of scenarios in relation to the 2020 Business-As-Usual projections and identify potential further reductions beyond those currently being planned. © 2013.

  8. Development of a dynamic model for a DX VAV air conditioning system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Wu; Deng Shiming

    2006-01-01

    A direct expansion (DX) variable air volume (VAV) air conditioning (A/C) system consists of a VAV air distribution subsystem and a DX refrigeration plant. This paper reports on the development of a representative and complete dynamic mathematical model for the DX VAV A/C system having a variable speed compressor and pressure independent VAV terminals. The model is component based and takes into account the dynamic behaviors of both the DX refrigeration plant and the VAV air distribution subsystem simultaneously. The dynamic model has been developed based on the principles of mass and energy conservation and using correlations describing the operational performance of some of the system's components, which are either field tested or available from manufacturers. An experimental rig has been set up for the DX VAV A/C system, and experimental work has been conducted to obtain the system's responses to the step change of compressor speed. The dynamic model developed was then validated using the experimental data obtained. Steady state and transient responses for five major operating parameters obtained from both the model and the experiment were compared and found to be in good agreement

  9. A Unified Spatiotemporal Modeling Approach for Predicting Concentrations of Multiple Air Pollutants in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis and Air Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olives, Casey; Kim, Sun-Young; Sheppard, Lianne; Sampson, Paul D.; Szpiro, Adam A.; Oron, Assaf P.; Lindström, Johan; Vedal, Sverre; Kaufman, Joel D.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Cohort studies of the relationship between air pollution exposure and chronic health effects require predictions of exposure over long periods of time. Objectives: We developed a unified modeling approach for predicting fine particulate matter, nitrogen dioxide, oxides of nitrogen, and black carbon (as measured by light absorption coefficient) in six U.S. metropolitan regions from 1999 through early 2012 as part of the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis and Air Pollution (MESA Air). Methods: We obtained monitoring data from regulatory networks and supplemented those data with study-specific measurements collected from MESA Air community locations and participants’ homes. In each region, we applied a spatiotemporal model that included a long-term spatial mean, time trends with spatially varying coefficients, and a spatiotemporal residual. The mean structure was derived from a large set of geographic covariates that was reduced using partial least-squares regression. We estimated time trends from observed time series and used spatial smoothing methods to borrow strength between observations. Results: Prediction accuracy was high for most models, with cross-validation R2 (R2CV) > 0.80 at regulatory and fixed sites for most regions and pollutants. At home sites, overall R2CV ranged from 0.45 to 0.92, and temporally adjusted R2CV ranged from 0.23 to 0.92. Conclusions: This novel spatiotemporal modeling approach provides accurate fine-scale predictions in multiple regions for four pollutants. We have generated participant-specific predictions for MESA Air to investigate health effects of long-term air pollution exposures. These successes highlight modeling advances that can be adopted more widely in modern cohort studies. Citation: Keller JP, Olives C, Kim SY, Sheppard L, Sampson PD, Szpiro AA, Oron AP, Lindström J, Vedal S, Kaufman JD. 2015. A unified spatiotemporal modeling approach for predicting concentrations of multiple air pollutants in the Multi

  10. Presumed PDF modeling of microjet assisted CH4–H2/air turbulent flames

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chouaieb, Sirine; Kriaa, Wassim; Mhiri, Hatem; Bournot, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Microjet assisted CH 4 –H 2 /air turbulent flames are numerically investigated. • Temperature, species and soot are well predicted by the Presumed PDF model. • An inner flame is identified due to the microjet presence. • The addition of hydrogen to the microjet assisted flames enhances mixing. • Soot emission is reduced by 36% for a 10% enriched microjet assisted flame. - Abstract: The characteristics of microjet assisted CH 4 –H 2 /air flames in a turbulent mode are numerically investigated. Simulations are performed using the Computational Fluid Dynamics code Fluent. The Presumed PDF and the Discrete Ordinates models are considered respectively for combustion and radiation modeling. The k–ε Realizable model is adopted as a turbulence closure model. The Tesner model is used to calculate soot particle quantities. In the first part of this paper, the Presumed PDF model is compared to the Eddy Dissipation model and to slow chemistry combustion models from literature. Results show that the Presumed PDF model predicts correctly thermal and species fields, as well as soot formation. The effect of hydrogen enrichment on CH 4 /air confined flames under the addition of an air microjet is investigated in the second part of this work. The found results show that an inner flame was identified due to the air microjet for the CH 4 –H 2 /air flames. Moreover, the increase of hydrogen percentage in the fuel mixture leads to mixing enhancement and consequently to considerable soot emission reduction.

  11. Simplified model-based optimal control of VAV air-conditioning system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nassif, N.; Kajl, S.; Sabourin, R. [Ecole de Technologie Superieure, Montreal, PQ (Canada). Dept. of Construction Engineering

    2005-07-01

    The improvement of Variable Air Volume (VAV) system performance is one of several attempts being made to minimize the high energy use associated with the operation of heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) systems. A Simplified Optimization Process (SOP) comprised of controller set point strategies and a simplified VAV model was presented in this paper. The aim of the SOP was to determine supply set points. The advantage of the SOP over previous methods was that it did not require a detailed VAV model and optimization program. In addition, the monitored data for representative local-loop control can be checked on-line, after which controller set points can be updated in order to ensure proper operation by opting for real situations with minimum energy use. The SOP was validated using existing monitoring data and a model of an existing VAV system. Energy use simulations were compared to that of the existing VAV system. At each simulation step, 3 controller set point values were proposed and studied using the VAV model in order to select a value for each point which corresponded to the best performance of the VAV system. Simplified VAV component models were presented. Strategies for controller set points were described, including zone air temperature, duct static pressure set points; chilled water supply set points and supply air temperature set points. Simplified optimization process calculations were presented. Results indicated that the SOP provided significant energy savings when applied to specific AHU systems. In a comparison with a Detailed Optimization Process (DOP), the SOP was capable of determining set points close to those obtained by the DOP. However, it was noted that the controller set points determined by the SOP need a certain amount of time to reach optimal values when outdoor conditions or thermal loads are significantly changed. It was suggested that this disadvantage could be overcome by the use of a dynamic incremental value, which

  12. A state of the art regarding urban air quality prediction models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croitoru, Cristiana; Nastase, Ilinca

    2018-02-01

    Urban pollution represents an increasing risk to residents of urban regions, particularly in large, over-industrialized cities knowing that the traffic is responsible for more than 25% of air gaseous pollutants and dust particles. Air quality modelling plays an important role in addressing air pollution control and management approaches by providing guidelines for better and more efficient air quality forecasting, along with smart monitoring sensor networks. The advances in technology regarding simulations, forecasting and monitoring are part of the new smart cities which offers a healthy environment for their occupants.

  13. A state of the art regarding urban air quality prediction models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Croitoru Cristiana

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Urban pollution represents an increasing risk to residents of urban regions, particularly in large, over-industrialized cities knowing that the traffic is responsible for more than 25% of air gaseous pollutants and dust particles. Air quality modelling plays an important role in addressing air pollution control and management approaches by providing guidelines for better and more efficient air quality forecasting, along with smart monitoring sensor networks. The advances in technology regarding simulations, forecasting and monitoring are part of the new smart cities which offers a healthy environment for their occupants.

  14. Early development of the longsnout seahorse Hippocampus reidi (Syngnathidae) within the male brood pouch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novelli, B; Otero Ferrer, F; Socorro, J A; Molina Domínguez, L

    2018-04-16

    Fertilized and unfertilized eggs and embryos of the longsnout seahorse Hippocampus reidi were collected at different stages of development and provided the basis for a description of morphological development from fertilization until release from the paternal pouch. Images of fertilized eggs, as well as their rupture after a few minutes in seawater are reported for the first time. The yolk sac transitioned from ovoid to spherical shape and was reabsorbed progressively until release. The tail began rising from the surface of the deuteroplasm while embryos were in the egg envelope. Embryos lacked a primordial fin fold and developed some species characteristics, such as rays in the dorsal fin, before resorption of the yolk sac. At release, juvenile seahorses were in an advanced stage of development even if they lacked important adult characteristics, such as ring plates and coronet. The tail was not prehensile in juveniles at release; a small caudal fin was present, although this fin is lost in adults. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  15. Performance of Air Pollution Models on Massively Parallel Computers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brown, John; Hansen, Per Christian; Wasniewski, Jerzy

    1996-01-01

    To compare the performance and use of three massively parallel SIMD computers, we implemented a large air pollution model on the computers. Using a realistic large-scale model, we gain detailed insight about the performance of the three computers when used to solve large-scale scientific problems...

  16. Unified Data Model of Urban Air Pollution Dispersion and 3D Spatial City Models: Groundwork Assessment towards Sustainable Urban Development for Malaysia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ujang, Uznir; Anton, François; Rahman, Alias Abdul

    2013-01-01

    air pollution in urban areas encompasses sophisticated air quality modeling and data acquisition. However, rapid developments in major cities cause difficulties in acquiring the city geometries. The existing method in acquiring city geometries data via ground or space measurement inspection....... Therefore this paper aims is to perform groundwork assessment and discuss on the current scenario in Malaysia in the aspect of current policies towards SUD, air quality monitoring stations, scale model and detail discussion on air pollution dispersion model used called the Operational Street Pollution Model......Understanding the behavior of urban air pollution is important en route for sustainable urban development (SUD). Malaysia is on its mission to be a developed country by year 2020 comprehends dealing with air pollution is one of the indicators headed towards it. At present monitoring and managing...

  17. Economic damages of ozone air pollution to crops using combined air quality and GIS modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlachokostas, Ch.; Nastis, S. A.; Achillas, Ch.; Kalogeropoulos, K.; Karmiris, I.; Moussiopoulos, N.; Chourdakis, E.; Banias, G.; Limperi, N.

    2010-09-01

    This study aims at presenting a combined air quality and GIS modelling methodological approach in order to estimate crop damages from photochemical air pollution, depict their spatial resolution and assess the order of magnitude regarding the corresponding economic damages. The analysis is conducted within the Greater Thessaloniki Area, Greece, a Mediterranean territory which is characterised by high levels of photochemical air pollution and considerable agricultural activity. Ozone concentration fields for 2002 and for specific emission reduction scenarios for the year 2010 were estimated with the Ozone Fine Structure model in the area under consideration. Total economic damage to crops turns out to be significant and estimated to be approximately 43 M€ for the reference year. Production of cotton presents the highest economic loss, which is over 16 M€, followed by table tomato (9 M€), rice (4.2 M€), wheat (4 M€) and oilseed rape (2.8 M€) cultivations. Losses are not spread uniformly among farmers and the major losses occur in areas with valuable ozone-sensitive crops. The results are very useful for highlighting the magnitude of the total economic impacts of photochemical air pollution to the area's agricultural sector and can potentially be used for comparison with studies worldwide. Furthermore, spatial analysis of the economic damage could be of importance for governmental authorities and decision makers since it provides an indicative insight, especially if the economic instruments such as financial incentives or state subsidies to farmers are considered.

  18. Comparison of Land-Use Regression Modeling with Dispersion and Chemistry Transport Modeling to Assign Air Pollution Concentrations within the Ruhr Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frauke Hennig

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Two commonly used models to assess air pollution concentration for investigating health effects of air pollution in epidemiological studies are Land Use Regression (LUR models and Dispersion and Chemistry Transport Models (DCTM. Both modeling approaches have been applied in the Ruhr area, Germany, a location where multiple cohort studies are being conducted. Application of these different modelling approaches leads to differences in exposure estimation and interpretation due to the specific characteristics of each model. We aimed to compare both model approaches by means of their respective aims, modeling characteristics, validation, temporal and spatial resolution, and agreement of residential exposure estimation, referring to the air pollutants PM2.5, PM10, and NO2. Residential exposure referred to air pollution exposure at residences of participants of the Heinz Nixdorf Recall Study, located in the Ruhr area. The point-specific ESCAPE (European Study of Cohorts on Air Pollution Effects-LUR aims to temporally estimate stable long-term exposure to local, mostly traffic-related air pollution with respect to very small-scale spatial variations (≤100 m. In contrast, the EURAD (European Air Pollution Dispersion-CTM aims to estimate a time-varying average air pollutant concentration in a small area (i.e., 1 km2, taking into account a range of major sources, e.g., traffic, industry, meteorological conditions, and transport. Overall agreement between EURAD-CTM and ESCAPE-LUR was weak to moderate on a residential basis. Restricting EURAD-CTM to sources of local traffic only, respective agreement was good. The possibility of combining the strengths of both applications will be the next step to enhance exposure assessment.

  19. Models of Weather Impact on Air Traffic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Deepak; Wang, Yao

    2017-01-01

    Flight delays have been a serious problem in the national airspace system costing about $30B per year. About 70 of the delays are attributed to weather and upto two thirds of these are avoidable. Better decision support tools would reduce these delays and improve air traffic management tools. Such tools would benefit from models of weather impacts on the airspace operations. This presentation discusses use of machine learning methods to mine various types of weather and traffic data to develop such models.

  20. NUMERICAL PREDICTION MODELS FOR AIR POLLUTION BY MOTOR VEHICLE EMISSIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Biliaiev

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Scientific work involves: 1 development of 3D numerical models that allow calculating the process of air pollution by motor vehicles emissions; 2 creation of models which would allow predicting the air pollution level in urban areas. Methodology. To solve the problem upon assessing the level of air pollution by motor vehicles emissions fundamental equations of aerodynamics and mass transfer are used. For the solution of differential equations of aerodynamics and mass transfer finite-difference methods are used. For the numerical integration of the equation for the velocity potential the method of conditional approximations is applied. The equation for the velocity potential written in differential form, splits into two equations, where at each step of splitting an unknown value of the velocity potential is determined by an explicit scheme of running computation, while the difference scheme is implicit one. For the numerical integration of the emissions dispersion equation in the atmosphere applies the implicit alternating-triangular difference scheme of splitting. Emissions from the road are modeled by a series of point sources of given intensity. Developed numerical models form is the basis of the created software package. Findings. 3D numerical models were developed; they belong to the class of «diagnostic models». These models take into account main physical factors that influence the process of dispersion of harmful substances in the atmosphere when emissions from vehicles in the city occur. Based on the constructed numerical models the computational experiment was conducted to assess the level of air pollution in the street. Originality. Authors have developed numerical models that allow to calculate the 3D aerodynamics of the wind flow in urban areas and the process of mass transfer emissions from the highway. Calculations to determine the area of contamination, which is formed near the buildings, located along the highway were

  1. Sexual Function and Body Image are Similar after Laparoscopy-Assisted and Open Ileal Pouch-Anal Anastomosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjaer, Mie Dilling; Laursen, Stig Borbjerg; Qvist, Niels

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Ileal pouch-anal anastomosis (IPAA) is performed in patients with ulcerative colitis and familial adenomatous polyposis where the majority of patients are sexually active. Laparoscopic surgery is becoming the preferred technique for most colorectal interventions, and we examined posto...... better body image among laparoscopy-treated women, the two surgical techniques seem equal with respect to postoperative sexual function....... postoperative sexual function and body image compared to those after open surgery IPAA. METHODS: Patients treated with IPAA in the period from October 2008 to March 2012 were included. Evaluation of sexual function, body image, and quality of life was performed using the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI......), the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF), the Body Image Questionnaire (BIQ), and the Short Inflammatory Bowel Disease Questionnaire (SIBDQ). RESULTS: We included 72 patients (38 laparoscopy-assisted and 34 open). Response rate was 74 %. There were no differences in demographics, functional outcome...

  2. A prospective study of personality as a predictor of quality of life after pelvic pouch surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinryb, R M; Gustavsson, J P; Liljeqvist, L; Poppen, B; Rössel, R J

    1997-02-01

    Surgeons often "know" preoperatively which patients will achieve good postoperative quality of life (QOL). This intuition is probably based on impressions of the patient's personality. The present aim was to examine whether preoperative personality traits predict postoperative QOL. In 53 patients undergoing pelvic pouch surgery for ulcerative colitis the relationship between preoperative personality traits, and surgical functional outcome and QOL was examined at a median of 17 months postoperatively. Personality assessment instruments (KAPP and KSP), and specific measures of alexithymia were used. Postoperatively, the Psychosocial Adjustment to Illness Scale (PAIS), and surgical functional outcome scales were used. Using multiple correlation/regression, analysis lack of alexithymia, poor frustration tolerance, anxiety proneness, and poor socialization (resentment over childhood and present life situation) were found to predict poor postoperative QOL. The findings suggest personality traits, in addition to surgical functional outcome, to be important for the patient's postoperative QOL.

  3. Dynamic model of counter flow air to air heat exchanger for comfort ventilation with condensation and frost formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Toke Rammer; Rose, Jørgen; Kragh, Jesper

    2009-01-01

    must be calculated under conditions with condensation and freezing. This article presents a dynamic model of a counter flow air to air heat exchanger taking into account condensation and freezing and melting of ice. The model is implemented in Simulink and results are compared to measurements......In cold climates heat recovery in the ventilation system is essential to reduce heating energy demand. Condensation and freezing occur often in efficient heat exchangers used in cold climates. To develop efficient heat exchangers and defrosting strategies for cold climates, heat and mass transfer...

  4. Links Related to the Indoor Air Quality Building Education and Assessment Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Indoor Air Quality Building Education and Assessment Model (I-BEAM) is a guidance tool designed for use by building professionals and others interested in indoor air quality in commercial buildings.

  5. 76 FR 31800 - Airworthiness Directives; Viking Air Limited Model DHC-3 (Otter) Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-02

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Viking Air Limited Model DHC-3 (Otter) Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation... INFORMATION: Discussion Recent analysis by the FAA on the Viking Air Limited Model DHC-3 (Otter) airplanes... new airworthiness directive (AD): 2011-12-02 Viking Aircraft Limited: Amendment 39-16709; Docket No...

  6. Manual for THOR-AirPAS - air pollution assessment system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Steen Solvang; Ketzel, Matthias; Brandt, Jørgen

    The report provides an outline of the THOR-AirPAS - air pollution assessment system and a brief manual for getting started with the air quality models and input data included in THOR-AirPAS.......The report provides an outline of the THOR-AirPAS - air pollution assessment system and a brief manual for getting started with the air quality models and input data included in THOR-AirPAS....

  7. High-Resolution Modelling of Health Impacts from Air Pollution for Denmark using the Integrated Model System EVA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Jørgen; Andersen, Mikael S.; Bønløkke, Jakob; Christensen, Jesper H.; Hansen, Kaj M.; Hertel, Ole; Im, Ulas; Jensen, Steen S.; Ketzel, Matthias; Nielsen, Ole-Kenneth; Plejdrup, Marlene S.; Sigsgaard, Torben; Geels, Camilla

    2015-04-01

    We have developed an integrated health impact assessment system EVA (Economic Valuation of Air pollution; Brandt et al., 2013a; 2013b), based on the impact-pathway chain, to assess the health impacts and health-related economic externalities of air pollution resulting from specific emission sources or sectors. The system is used to support policymaking with respect to emission control. The EVA system has previously been used to assess the health impacts based on results from a regional model DEHM (the Danish Eulerian Hemispheric Model; Brandt et al., 2012). In this study we have used a coupling of two chemistry transport models to calculate the air pollution concentration at different scales; the DEHM model to calculate the air pollution levels with a resolution down to 5.6 km x 5.6 km and the UBM model (Urban Background Model ; Berkowicz, 2000; Brandt et al., 2001) to further calculate the air pollution at 1 km x 1 km resolution for Denmark using results from DEHM as boundary conditions. Both the emission data based on the SPREAD model (Plejdrup and Gyldenkærne, 2011) as well as the population density has been represented in the model system with the same high resolution. The new developments of the integrated model system will be presented as well as results for health impacts and related external costs over the years 2006-2014 for Denmark. Furthermore, a sensitivity study of the health impact using coarse and fine resolutions in the model system has been carried out to evaluate the effect of improved description of the geographical population distribution with respect to location of local emissions. References Berkowicz, R., 2000. A Simple Model for Urban Background Pollution. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 65, 1/2, 259-267. Brandt, J., J. H. Christensen, L. M. Frohn, F. Palmgren, R. Berkowicz and Z. Zlatev, 2001: "Operational air pollution forecasts from European to local scale". Atmospheric Environment, Vol. 35, Sup. No. 1, pp. S91-S98, 2001 Brandt

  8. Probabilistic estimation of residential air exchange rates for population-based human exposure modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Residential air exchange rates (AERs) are a key determinant in the infiltration of ambient air pollution indoors. Population-based human exposure models using probabilistic approaches to estimate personal exposure to air pollutants have relied on input distributions from AER meas...

  9. Online Monitoring System of Air Distribution in Pulverized Coal-Fired Boiler Based on Numerical Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Żymełka Piotr

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Balanced distribution of air in coal-fired boiler is one of the most important factors in the combustion process and is strongly connected to the overall system efficiency. Reliable and continuous information about combustion airflow and fuel rate is essential for achieving optimal stoichiometric ratio as well as efficient and safe operation of a boiler. Imbalances in air distribution result in reduced boiler efficiency, increased gas pollutant emission and operating problems, such as corrosion, slagging or fouling. Monitoring of air flow trends in boiler is an effective method for further analysis and can help to appoint important dependences and start optimization actions. Accurate real-time monitoring of the air distribution in boiler can bring economical, environmental and operational benefits. The paper presents a novel concept for online monitoring system of air distribution in coal-fired boiler based on real-time numerical calculations. The proposed mathematical model allows for identification of mass flow rates of secondary air to individual burners and to overfire air (OFA nozzles. Numerical models of air and flue gas system were developed using software for power plant simulation. The correctness of the developed model was verified and validated with the reference measurement values. The presented numerical model for real-time monitoring of air distribution is capable of giving continuous determination of the complete air flows based on available digital communication system (DCS data.

  10. Online Monitoring System of Air Distribution in Pulverized Coal-Fired Boiler Based on Numerical Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Żymełka, Piotr; Nabagło, Daniel; Janda, Tomasz; Madejski, Paweł

    2017-12-01

    Balanced distribution of air in coal-fired boiler is one of the most important factors in the combustion process and is strongly connected to the overall system efficiency. Reliable and continuous information about combustion airflow and fuel rate is essential for achieving optimal stoichiometric ratio as well as efficient and safe operation of a boiler. Imbalances in air distribution result in reduced boiler efficiency, increased gas pollutant emission and operating problems, such as corrosion, slagging or fouling. Monitoring of air flow trends in boiler is an effective method for further analysis and can help to appoint important dependences and start optimization actions. Accurate real-time monitoring of the air distribution in boiler can bring economical, environmental and operational benefits. The paper presents a novel concept for online monitoring system of air distribution in coal-fired boiler based on real-time numerical calculations. The proposed mathematical model allows for identification of mass flow rates of secondary air to individual burners and to overfire air (OFA) nozzles. Numerical models of air and flue gas system were developed using software for power plant simulation. The correctness of the developed model was verified and validated with the reference measurement values. The presented numerical model for real-time monitoring of air distribution is capable of giving continuous determination of the complete air flows based on available digital communication system (DCS) data.

  11. Regional air-quality and acid-deposition modeling and the role for visualization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novak, J.H.; Dennis, R.L.

    1991-11-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) uses air quality and deposition models to advance the scientific understanding of basic physical and chemical processes related to air pollution, and to assess the effectiveness of alternative emissions control strategies. The paper provides a brief technical description of several regional scale atmospheric models, their current use within EPA, and related data analysis issues. Spatial analysis is a key component in the evaluation and interpretation of the model predictions. Thus, the authors highlight several types of analysis enhancements focusing on those related to issues of spatial scale, user access to models and analysis tools, and consolidation of air quality modeling and graphical analysis capabilities. They discuss their initial experience with a Geographical Information System (GIS) pilot project that generated the initial concepts for the design of an integrated modeling and analysis environment. And finally, they present current plans to evolve this modeling/visualization approach to a distributed, heterogeneous computing environment which enables any research scientist or policy analyst to use high performance visualization techniques from his/her desktop

  12. Sensitivity of a complex urban air quality model to input data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seigneur, C.; Tesche, T.W.; Roth, P.M.; Reid, L.E.

    1981-01-01

    In recent years, urban-scale photochemical simulation models have been developed that are of practical value for predicting air quality and analyzing the impacts of alternative emission control strategies. Although the performance of some urban-scale models appears to be acceptable, the demanding data requirements of such models have prompted concern about the costs of data acquistion, which might be high enough to preclude use of photochemical models for many urban areas. To explore this issue, sensitivity studies with the Systems Applications, Inc. (SAI) Airshed Model, a grid-based time-dependent photochemical dispersion model, have been carried out for the Los Angeles basin. Reductions in the amount and quality of meteorological, air quality and emission data, as well as modifications of the model gridded structure, have been analyzed. This paper presents and interprets the results of 22 sensitivity studies. A sensitivity-uncertainty index is defined to rank input data needs for an urban photochemical model. The index takes into account the sensitivity of model predictions to the amount of input data, the costs of data acquistion, and the uncertainties in the air quality model input variables. The results of these sensitivity studies are considered in light of the limitations of specific attributes of the Los Angeles basin and of the modeling conditions (e.g., choice of wind model, length of simulation time). The extent to which the results may be applied to other urban areas also is discussed

  13. 76 FR 62605 - Airworthiness Directives; Viking Air Limited Model DHC-3 (Otter) Airplanes With Supplemental Type...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-11

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Viking Air Limited Model DHC-3 (Otter) Airplanes With Supplemental Type Certificate.... That AD applies to Viking Air Limited Model DHC-3 (Otter) airplanes equipped with a Honeywell TPE331... limitations and marking the airspeed indicator accordingly for Viking Air Limited Model DHC-3 (Otter...

  14. Atmospheric Boundary Layer Modeling for Combined Meteorology and Air Quality Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atmospheric Eulerian grid models for mesoscale and larger applications require sub-grid models for turbulent vertical exchange processes, particularly within the Planetary Boundary Layer (PSL). In combined meteorology and air quality modeling systems consistent PSL modeling of wi...

  15. Bayesian Modeling of Air Pollution Extremes Using Nested Multivariate Max-Stable Processes

    KAUST Repository

    Vettori, Sabrina; Huser, Raphaë l; Genton, Marc G.

    2018-01-01

    Capturing the potentially strong dependence among the peak concentrations of multiple air pollutants across a spatial region is crucial for assessing the related public health risks. In order to investigate the multivariate spatial dependence properties of air pollution extremes, we introduce a new class of multivariate max-stable processes. Our proposed model admits a hierarchical tree-based formulation, in which the data are conditionally independent given some latent nested $\\alpha$-stable random factors. The hierarchical structure facilitates Bayesian inference and offers a convenient and interpretable characterization. We fit this nested multivariate max-stable model to the maxima of air pollution concentrations and temperatures recorded at a number of sites in the Los Angeles area, showing that the proposed model succeeds in capturing their complex tail dependence structure.

  16. Bayesian Modeling of Air Pollution Extremes Using Nested Multivariate Max-Stable Processes

    KAUST Repository

    Vettori, Sabrina

    2018-03-18

    Capturing the potentially strong dependence among the peak concentrations of multiple air pollutants across a spatial region is crucial for assessing the related public health risks. In order to investigate the multivariate spatial dependence properties of air pollution extremes, we introduce a new class of multivariate max-stable processes. Our proposed model admits a hierarchical tree-based formulation, in which the data are conditionally independent given some latent nested $\\\\alpha$-stable random factors. The hierarchical structure facilitates Bayesian inference and offers a convenient and interpretable characterization. We fit this nested multivariate max-stable model to the maxima of air pollution concentrations and temperatures recorded at a number of sites in the Los Angeles area, showing that the proposed model succeeds in capturing their complex tail dependence structure.

  17. Analisis Potensi Sumberdaya Air Daerah Aliran Sungai Singkil Menggunakan Model Tangki

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafril Mustafril

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak. Kebutuhan air terus meningkat seiring pertumbuhan penduduk, sedangkan air yang tersedia tidak selalu sejalan antara kebutuhannya menurut volume, tempat, waktu dan kualitasnya. Model-model hidrologi berdasarkan Tank Model telah dikembangkan dalam penelitian di Indonesia dan di dunia untuk memprediksi potensi sumberdaya air dalam suatu DAS. Optimasi parameter Tank Model dapat menggunakan Artificial Neural Network (ANN yang mempunyai kemampuan untuk belajar dari data dan tidak membutuhkan waktu yang lama untuk mencapai model optimal. Tujuan analisis ini untuk menentukan seberapa besar potensi sumberdaya air di DAS Singkil berdasarkan optimasi parameter Tank Model. Hasil optimasi keseimbangan air parameter Tank Model DAS Singkil meliputi: karakteristik hidrologi DAS Singkil meliputi debit minimum 3,60 mm/hari, debit maksimum 17,80 mm/hari, dan rasio debit maksimum/minimum 4,94. Indikator kesalahan Tank Model DAS Singkil meliputi: R (Coefficient of Correlation sebesar 0,6471, MAE (Mean Absolute Error dan RMSE (Root Square Mean Error masing-masing 2,18 dan 2,73. Total inflow 3.189,48 mm/tahun dan total outflow 3.155,64 mm/tahun, yang terdiri dari: surface flow 11,75 mm/tahun, subsurface flow 669,84 mm/tahun, intermediate flow 62,05 mm/tahun, subbase flow 0,74 mm/tahun, dan base flow 2.411,26 mm/tahun. Berdasarkan total baseflow volume ketersediaan air total yang mengalir di Sungai Singkil mencapai 12.164 x 106 m3/tahun. Potensi sumberdaya air DAS Singkil untuk keperluan pertanian mencapai 3.438,4 x 106 m3/tahun   Analysis of Potential Water Resources at Singkil Watershed using Tank Model Abstract. Water demand continues to increase as the population growth, while the availability of water is not always consistent with the needs in terms of volume, place, time and its quality. Tank based hydrological models have been developed in many researches in Indonesia and in the world to predict the potential of water resources in a watershed. The

  18. Forest fire forecasting tool for air quality modelling systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    San Jose, R.; Perez, J. L.; Perez, L.; Gonzalez, R. M.; Pecci, J.; Palacios, M.

    2015-01-01

    Adverse effects of smoke on air quality are of great concern; however, even today the estimates of atmospheric fire emissions are a key issue. It is necessary to implement systems for predicting smoke into an air quality modelling system, and in this work a first attempt towards creating a system of this type is presented. Wild land fire spread and behavior are complex phenomena due to both the number of involved physic-chemical factors, and the nonlinear relationship between variables. WRF-Fire was employed to simulate spread and behavior of some real fires occurred in South-East of Spain and North of Portugal. The use of fire behavior models requires the availability of high resolution environmental and fuel data. A new custom fuel moisture content model has been developed. The new module allows each time step to calculate the fuel moisture content of the dead fuels and live fuels. The results confirm that the use of accurate meteorological data and a custom fuel moisture content model is crucial to obtain precise simulations of fire behavior. To simulate air pollution over Europe, we use the regional meteorological-chemistry transport model WRF-Chem. In this contribution, we show the impact of using two different fire emissions inventories (FINN and IS4FIRES) and how the coupled WRF-Fire- Chem model improves the results of the forest fire emissions and smoke concentrations. The impact of the forest fire emissions on concentrations is evident, and it is quite clear from these simulations that the choice of emission inventory is very important. We conclude that using the WRF-fire behavior model produces better results than using forest fire emission inventories although the requested computational power is much higher. (Author)

  19. Forest fire forecasting tool for air quality modelling systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    San Jose, R.; Perez, J.L.; Perez, L.; Gonzalez, R.M.; Pecci, J.; Palacios, M.

    2015-07-01

    Adverse effects of smoke on air quality are of great concern; however, even today the estimates of atmospheric fire emissions are a key issue. It is necessary to implement systems for predicting smoke into an air quality modelling system, and in this work a first attempt towards creating a system of this type is presented. Wildland fire spread and behavior are complex Phenomena due to both the number of involved physic-chemical factors, and the nonlinear relationship between variables. WRF-Fire was employed to simulate spread and behavior of some real fires occurred in South-East of Spain and North of Portugal. The use of fire behavior models requires the availability of high resolution environmental and fuel data. A new custom fuel moisture content model has been developed. The new module allows each time step to calculate the fuel moisture content of the dead fuels and live fuels. The results confirm that the use of accurate meteorological data and a custom fuel moisture content model is crucial to obtain precise simulations of fire behavior. To simulate air pollution over Europe, we use the regional meteorological-chemistry transport model WRF-Chem. In this contribution, we show the impact of using two different fire emissions inventories (FINN and IS4FIRES) and how the coupled WRF-FireChem model improves the results of the forest fire emissions and smoke concentrations. The impact of the forest fire emissions on concentrations is evident, and it is quite clear from these simulations that the choice of emission inventory is very important. We conclude that using the WRF-fire behavior model produces better results than using forest fire emission inventories although the requested computational power is much higher. (Author)

  20. Forest fire forecasting tool for air quality modelling systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    San Jose, R.; Perez, J. L.; Perez, L.; Gonzalez, R. M.; Pecci, J.; Palacios, M.

    2015-07-01

    Adverse effects of smoke on air quality are of great concern; however, even today the estimates of atmospheric fire emissions are a key issue. It is necessary to implement systems for predicting smoke into an air quality modelling system, and in this work a first attempt towards creating a system of this type is presented. Wild land fire spread and behavior are complex phenomena due to both the number of involved physic-chemical factors, and the nonlinear relationship between variables. WRF-Fire was employed to simulate spread and behavior of some real fires occurred in South-East of Spain and North of Portugal. The use of fire behavior models requires the availability of high resolution environmental and fuel data. A new custom fuel moisture content model has been developed. The new module allows each time step to calculate the fuel moisture content of the dead fuels and live fuels. The results confirm that the use of accurate meteorological data and a custom fuel moisture content model is crucial to obtain precise simulations of fire behavior. To simulate air pollution over Europe, we use the regional meteorological-chemistry transport model WRF-Chem. In this contribution, we show the impact of using two different fire emissions inventories (FINN and IS4FIRES) and how the coupled WRF-Fire- Chem model improves the results of the forest fire emissions and smoke concentrations. The impact of the forest fire emissions on concentrations is evident, and it is quite clear from these simulations that the choice of emission inventory is very important. We conclude that using the WRF-fire behavior model produces better results than using forest fire emission inventories although the requested computational power is much higher. (Author)

  1. CREATION OF OPTIMIZATION MODEL OF STEAM BOILER RECUPERATIVE AIR HEATER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. B. Carnickiy

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper proposes to use a mathematical modeling as one of the ways intended to improve quality of recuperative air heater design (RAH without significant additional costs, connected with the change of design materials or fuel type. The described conceptual mathematical AHP optimization model of RAH consists of optimized and constant parameters, technical limitations and optimality criteria.The paper considers a methodology for search of design and regime parameters of an air heater which is based on the methods of multi-criteria optimization. Conclusions for expediency of the given approach usage are made in the paper.

  2. Electrical circuit models for performance modeling of Lithium-Sulfur batteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knap, Vaclav; Stroe, Daniel Ioan; Teodorescu, Remus

    2015-01-01

    emerging technology for various applications, there is a need for Li-S battery performance model; however, developing such models represents a challenging task due to batteries' complex ongoing chemical reactions. Therefore, the literature review was performed to summarize electrical circuit models (ECMs......) used for modeling the performance behavior of Li-S batteries. The studied Li-S pouch cell was tested in the laboratory in order to parametrize four basic ECM topologies. These topologies were compared by analyzing their voltage estimation accuracy values, which were obtained for different battery...... current profiles. Based on these results, the 3 R-C ECM was chosen and the Li-S battery cell discharging performance model with current dependent parameters was derived and validated....

  3. Tracks FAQs: What is Modeled Air Data?

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-04-25

    In this podcast, CDC Tracking experts discuss modeled air data. Do you have a question for our Tracking experts? Please e-mail questions to trackingsupport@cdc.gov.  Created: 4/25/2011 by National Center for Environmental Health, Division of Environmental Hazards and Health Effects, Environmental Health Tracking Branch.   Date Released: 4/25/2011.

  4. Quality of life and nutritional consequences after aboral pouch reconstruction following total gastrectomy for gastric cancer: randomized controlled trial CCG1101.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Yuichi; Yoshikawa, Takaki; Fujiwara, Michitaka; Kojima, Hiroshi; Matsui, Takanori; Mochizuki, Yoshinari; Cho, Haruhiko; Aoyama, Toru; Ito, Seiji; Misawa, Kazunari; Nakayama, Hiroshi; Morioka, Yuki; Ishiyama, Akiharu; Tanaka, Chie; Morita, Satoshi; Sakamoto, Junichi; Kodera, Yasuhiro

    2016-07-01

    Total gastrectomy has detrimental effects on postoperative nutritional status and quality of life (QOL), but it is often unavoidable in the treatment of gastric cancer. Roux-en-Y (RY) is the most common reconstruction method following total gastrectomy. Trials to explore other means of reconstruction have been conducted but have failed to identify a method that is globally accepted. Aboral pouch reconstruction (AP), in which an anisoperistaltic jejunal pouch is created in the Y limb of the RY reconstruction, is considered effective and technically feasible. A prospective randomized trial was conducted to compare AP with RY. Gastric cancer patients requiring total gastrectomy for R0 resection were randomly assigned during surgery to receive either RY (n = 51) or AP (n = 49). Postoperative QOL as assessed by the EORTC QLQ-C30 and STO22, body composition, and morbidity were compared between the two reconstruction methods. The physical functioning score of the QLQ-C30 was selected as the primary endpoint. The incidences of postoperative complications were similar between the two groups (29 % in the RY group and 27 % in the AP group). No significant difference was observed in the physical functioning score, and the superiority of AP was demonstrated only for the nausea and vomiting score at 12 months (p = 0.041) and the reflux score at 1 month (p = 0.036). No significant differences were observed in body composition or serum biochemistry. Although AP was safely implemented, no increased benefits in nutritional or QOL-related parameters were observed for this method over RY within 12 months postoperatively.

  5. Global Land Use Regression Model for Nitrogen Dioxide Air Pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larkin, Andrew; Geddes, Jeffrey A; Martin, Randall V; Xiao, Qingyang; Liu, Yang; Marshall, Julian D; Brauer, Michael; Hystad, Perry

    2017-06-20

    Nitrogen dioxide is a common air pollutant with growing evidence of health impacts independent of other common pollutants such as ozone and particulate matter. However, the worldwide distribution of NO 2 exposure and associated impacts on health is still largely uncertain. To advance global exposure estimates we created a global nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ) land use regression model for 2011 using annual measurements from 5,220 air monitors in 58 countries. The model captured 54% of global NO 2 variation, with a mean absolute error of 3.7 ppb. Regional performance varied from R 2 = 0.42 (Africa) to 0.67 (South America). Repeated 10% cross-validation using bootstrap sampling (n = 10,000) demonstrated a robust performance with respect to air monitor sampling in North America, Europe, and Asia (adjusted R 2 within 2%) but not for Africa and Oceania (adjusted R 2 within 11%) where NO 2 monitoring data are sparse. The final model included 10 variables that captured both between and within-city spatial gradients in NO 2 concentrations. Variable contributions differed between continental regions, but major roads within 100 m and satellite-derived NO 2 were consistently the strongest predictors. The resulting model can be used for global risk assessments and health studies, particularly in countries without existing NO 2 monitoring data or models.

  6. Air quality modeling for accountability research: Operational, dynamic, and diagnostic evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henneman, Lucas R. F.; Liu, Cong; Hu, Yongtao; Mulholland, James A.; Russell, Armistead G.

    2017-10-01

    Photochemical grid models play a central role in air quality regulatory frameworks, including in air pollution accountability research, which seeks to demonstrate the extent to which regulations causally impacted emissions, air quality, and public health. There is a need, however, to develop and demonstrate appropriate practices for model application and evaluation in an accountability framework. We employ a combination of traditional and novel evaluation techniques to assess four years (2001-02, 2011-12) of simulated pollutant concentrations across a decade of major emissions reductions using the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model. We have grouped our assessments in three categories: Operational evaluation investigates how well CMAQ captures absolute concentrations; dynamic evaluation investigates how well CMAQ captures changes in concentrations across the decade of changing emissions; diagnostic evaluation investigates how CMAQ attributes variability in concentrations and sensitivities to emissions between meteorology and emissions, and how well this attribution compares to empirical statistical models. In this application, CMAQ captures O3 and PM2.5 concentrations and change over the decade in the Eastern United States similarly to past CMAQ applications and in line with model evaluation guidance; however, some PM2.5 species-EC, OC, and sulfate in particular-exhibit high biases in various months. CMAQ-simulated PM2.5 has a high bias in winter months and low bias in the summer, mainly due to a high bias in OC during the cold months and low bias in OC and sulfate during the summer. Simulated O3 and PM2.5 changes across the decade have normalized mean bias of less than 2.5% and 17%, respectively. Detailed comparisons suggest biased EC emissions, negative wintertime SO42- sensitivities to mobile source emissions, and incomplete capture of OC chemistry in the summer and winter. Photochemical grid model-simulated O3 and PM2.5 responses to emissions and

  7. Modeling of Hydrate Formation Mode in Raw Natural Gas Air Coolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherbinin, S. V.; Prakhova, M. Yu; Krasnov, A. N.; Khoroshavina, E. A.

    2018-05-01

    Air cooling units (ACU) are used at all the gas fields for cooling natural gas after compressing. When using ACUs on raw (wet) gas in a low temperature condition, there is a danger of hydrate plug formation in the heat exchanging tubes of the ACU. To predict possible hydrate formation, a mathematical model of the air cooler thermal behavior used in the control system shall adequately calculate not only gas temperature at the cooler's outlet, but also a dew point value, a temperature at which condensation, as well as the gas hydrate formation point, onsets. This paper proposes a mathematical model allowing one to determine the pressure in the air cooler which makes hydrate formation for a given gas composition possible.

  8. Development of a distributed air pollutant dry deposition modeling framework

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirabayashi, Satoshi; Kroll, Charles N.; Nowak, David J.

    2012-01-01

    A distributed air pollutant dry deposition modeling system was developed with a geographic information system (GIS) to enhance the functionality of i-Tree Eco (i-Tree, 2011). With the developed system, temperature, leaf area index (LAI) and air pollutant concentration in a spatially distributed form can be estimated, and based on these and other input variables, dry deposition of carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ), sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ), and particulate matter less than 10 microns (PM10) to trees can be spatially quantified. Employing nationally available road network, traffic volume, air pollutant emission/measurement and meteorological data, the developed system provides a framework for the U.S. city managers to identify spatial patterns of urban forest and locate potential areas for future urban forest planting and protection to improve air quality. To exhibit the usability of the framework, a case study was performed for July and August of 2005 in Baltimore, MD. - Highlights: ► A distributed air pollutant dry deposition modeling system was developed. ► The developed system enhances the functionality of i-Tree Eco. ► The developed system employs nationally available input datasets. ► The developed system is transferable to any U.S. city. ► Future planting and protection spots were visually identified in a case study. - Employing nationally available datasets and a GIS, this study will provide urban forest managers in U.S. cities a framework to quantify and visualize urban forest structure and its air pollution removal effect.

  9. Modeling to Evaluate Contribution of Oil and Gas Emissions to Air Pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Tammy M; Shepherd, Donald; Stacy, Andrea; Barna, Michael G; Schichtel, Bret A

    2017-04-01

    Oil and gas production in the Western United States has increased considerably over the past 10 years. While many of the still limited oil and gas impact assessments have focused on potential human health impacts, the typically remote locations of production in the Intermountain West suggests that the impacts of oil and gas production on national parks and wilderness areas (Class I and II areas) could also be important. To evaluate this, we utilize the Comprehensive Air quality Model with Extensions (CAMx) with a year-long modeling episode representing the best available representation of 2011 meteorology and emissions for the Western United States. The model inputs for the 2011 episodes were generated as part of the Three State Air Quality Study (3SAQS). The study includes a detailed assessment of oil and gas (O&G) emissions in Western States. The year-long modeling episode was run both with and without emissions from O&G production. The difference between these two runs provides an estimate of the contribution of the O&G production to air quality. These data were used to assess the contribution of O&G to the 8 hour average ozone concentrations, daily and annual fine particulate concentrations, annual nitrogen deposition totals and visibility in the modeling domain. We present the results for the Class I and II areas in the Western United States. Modeling results suggest that emissions from O&G activity are having a negative impact on air quality and ecosystem health in our National Parks and Class I areas. In this research, we use a modeling framework developed for oil and gas evaluation in the western United States to determine the modeled impacts of emissions associated with oil and gas production on air pollution metrics. We show that oil and gas production may have a significant negative impact on air quality and ecosystem health in some national parks and other Class I areas in the western United States. Our findings are of particular interest to federal

  10. Effect of Low Co-flow Air Velocity on Hydrogen-air Non-premixed Turbulent Flame Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noor Mohsin Jasim

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to provide information concerning the effect of low co-flow velocity on the turbulent diffusion flame for a simple type of combustor, a numerical simulated cases of turbulent diffusion hydrogen-air flame are performed. The combustion model used in this investigation is based on chemical equilibrium and kinetics to simplify the complexity of the chemical mechanism. Effects of increased co-flowing air velocity on temperature, velocity components (axial and radial, and reactants have been investigated numerically and examined. Numerical results for temperature are compared with the experimental data. The comparison offers a good agreement. All numerical simulations have been performed using the Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD commercial code FLUENT. A comparison among the various co-flow air velocities, and their effects on flame behavior and temperature fields are presented.

  11. High-density lipoproteins inhibit urate crystal-induced inflammation in mice

    OpenAIRE

    Scanu Anna; Luisetto Roberto; Oliviero Francesca; Gruaz Lyssia; Sfriso Paolo; Burger Danielle; Punzi Leonardo

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the effects and mechanisms of action of high density lipoproteins (HDL) in monosodium urate (MSU) crystal induced inflammation—that is gouty inflammation in vivo. Methods Air pouches raised on the backs of mice were injected with MSU crystals or tumour necrosis factor (TNF) in the presence or absence of HDL and/or interleukin (IL) 1 receptor antagonist (IL 1Ra) for 3 h. Leucocyte count and neutrophil percentage in pouch fluids were measured using a haemocytometer an...

  12. A robust model predictive control strategy for improving the control performance of air-conditioning systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Gongsheng; Wang Shengwei; Xu Xinhua

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a robust model predictive control strategy for improving the supply air temperature control of air-handling units by dealing with the associated uncertainties and constraints directly. This strategy uses a first-order plus time-delay model with uncertain time-delay and system gain to describe air-conditioning process of an air-handling unit usually operating at various weather conditions. The uncertainties of the time-delay and system gain, which imply the nonlinearities and the variable dynamic characteristics, are formulated using an uncertainty polytope. Based on this uncertainty formulation, an offline LMI-based robust model predictive control algorithm is employed to design a robust controller for air-handling units which can guarantee a good robustness subject to uncertainties and constraints. The proposed robust strategy is evaluated in a dynamic simulation environment of a variable air volume air-conditioning system in various operation conditions by comparing with a conventional PI control strategy. The robustness analysis of both strategies under different weather conditions is also presented.

  13. Measurement error in epidemiologic studies of air pollution based on land-use regression models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basagaña, Xavier; Aguilera, Inmaculada; Rivera, Marcela; Agis, David; Foraster, Maria; Marrugat, Jaume; Elosua, Roberto; Künzli, Nino

    2013-10-15

    Land-use regression (LUR) models are increasingly used to estimate air pollution exposure in epidemiologic studies. These models use air pollution measurements taken at a small set of locations and modeling based on geographical covariates for which data are available at all study participant locations. The process of LUR model development commonly includes a variable selection procedure. When LUR model predictions are used as explanatory variables in a model for a health outcome, measurement error can lead to bias of the regression coefficients and to inflation of their variance. In previous studies dealing with spatial predictions of air pollution, bias was shown to be small while most of the effect of measurement error was on the variance. In this study, we show that in realistic cases where LUR models are applied to health data, bias in health-effect estimates can be substantial. This bias depends on the number of air pollution measurement sites, the number of available predictors for model selection, and the amount of explainable variability in the true exposure. These results should be taken into account when interpreting health effects from studies that used LUR models.

  14. Mathematical modeling of compression processes in air-driven boosters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Zeyu; Zhao Yuanyang; Li Liansheng; Shu Pengcheng

    2007-01-01

    The compressed air in normal pressure is used as the source of power of the air-driven booster. The continuous working of air-driven boosters relies on the difference of surface area between driven piston and driving piston, i.e., the different forces acting on the pistons. When the working surface area of the driving piston for providing power is greater than that of the driven piston for compressing gas, the gas in compression chamber will be compressed. On the basis of the first law of thermodynamics, the motion regulation of piston is analyzed and the mathematical model of compression processes is set up. Giving a calculating example, the vary trends of gas pressure and pistons' move in working process of booster have been gotten. The change of parameters at different working conditions is also calculated and compared. And the corresponding results can be referred in the design of air-driven boosters

  15. Application of uncertainty and sensitivity analysis to the air quality SHERPA modelling tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisoni, E.; Albrecht, D.; Mara, T. A.; Rosati, R.; Tarantola, S.; Thunis, P.

    2018-06-01

    Air quality has significantly improved in Europe over the past few decades. Nonetheless we still find high concentrations in measurements mainly in specific regions or cities. This dimensional shift, from EU-wide to hot-spot exceedances, calls for a novel approach to regional air quality management (to complement EU-wide existing policies). The SHERPA (Screening for High Emission Reduction Potentials on Air quality) modelling tool was developed in this context. It provides an additional tool to be used in support to regional/local decision makers responsible for the design of air quality plans. It is therefore important to evaluate the quality of the SHERPA model, and its behavior in the face of various kinds of uncertainty. Uncertainty and sensitivity analysis techniques can be used for this purpose. They both reveal the links between assumptions and forecasts, help in-model simplification and may highlight unexpected relationships between inputs and outputs. Thus, a policy steered SHERPA module - predicting air quality improvement linked to emission reduction scenarios - was evaluated by means of (1) uncertainty analysis (UA) to quantify uncertainty in the model output, and (2) by sensitivity analysis (SA) to identify the most influential input sources of this uncertainty. The results of this study provide relevant information about the key variables driving the SHERPA output uncertainty, and advise policy-makers and modellers where to place their efforts for an improved decision-making process.

  16. Uncertainty characterization and quantification in air pollution models. Application to the ADMS-Urban model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debry, E.; Malherbe, L.; Schillinger, C.; Bessagnet, B.; Rouil, L.

    2009-04-01

    Evaluation of human exposure to atmospheric pollution usually requires the knowledge of pollutants concentrations in ambient air. In the framework of PAISA project, which studies the influence of socio-economical status on relationships between air pollution and short term health effects, the concentrations of gas and particle pollutants are computed over Strasbourg with the ADMS-Urban model. As for any modeling result, simulated concentrations come with uncertainties which have to be characterized and quantified. There are several sources of uncertainties related to input data and parameters, i.e. fields used to execute the model like meteorological fields, boundary conditions and emissions, related to the model formulation because of incomplete or inaccurate treatment of dynamical and chemical processes, and inherent to the stochastic behavior of atmosphere and human activities [1]. Our aim is here to assess the uncertainties of the simulated concentrations with respect to input data and model parameters. In this scope the first step consisted in bringing out the input data and model parameters that contribute most effectively to space and time variability of predicted concentrations. Concentrations of several pollutants were simulated for two months in winter 2004 and two months in summer 2004 over five areas of Strasbourg. The sensitivity analysis shows the dominating influence of boundary conditions and emissions. Among model parameters, the roughness and Monin-Obukhov lengths appear to have non neglectable local effects. Dry deposition is also an important dynamic process. The second step of the characterization and quantification of uncertainties consists in attributing a probability distribution to each input data and model parameter and in propagating the joint distribution of all data and parameters into the model so as to associate a probability distribution to the modeled concentrations. Several analytical and numerical methods exist to perform an

  17. Released air during vapor and air cavitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jablonská, Jana, E-mail: jana.jablonska@vsb.cz; Kozubková, Milada, E-mail: milada.kozubkova@vsb.cz [VŠB-Technical University of Ostrava, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Department of Hydromechanics and Hydraulic Equipment, 17. listopadu 15, 708 33 Ostrava-Poruba (Czech Republic)

    2016-06-30

    Cavitation today is a very important problem that is solved by means of experimental and mathematical methods. The article deals with the generation of cavitation in convergent divergent nozzle of rectangular cross section. Measurement of pressure, flow rate, temperature, amount of dissolved air in the liquid and visualization of cavitation area using high-speed camera was performed for different flow rates. The measurement results were generalized by dimensionless analysis, which allows easy detection of cavitation in the nozzle. For numerical simulation the multiphase mathematical model of cavitation consisting of water and vapor was created. During verification the disagreement with the measurements for higher flow rates was proved, therefore the model was extended to multiphase mathematical model (water, vapor and air), due to release of dissolved air. For the mathematical modeling the multiphase turbulence RNG k-ε model for low Reynolds number flow with vapor and air cavitation was used. Subsequently the sizes of the cavitation area were verified. In article the inlet pressure and loss coefficient depending on the amount of air added to the mathematical model are evaluated. On the basis of the approach it may be create a methodology to estimate the amount of released air added at the inlet to the modeled area.

  18. A NEW COMBINED LOCAL AND NON-LOCAL PBL MODEL FOR METEOROLOGY AND AIR QUALITY MODELING

    Science.gov (United States)

    A new version of the Asymmetric Convective Model (ACM) has been developed to describe sub-grid vertical turbulent transport in both meteorology models and air quality models. The new version (ACM2) combines the non-local convective mixing of the original ACM with local eddy diff...

  19. High-resolution modelling of health impacts and related external cost from air pollution using the integrated model system EVA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Jørgen; Andersen, Mikael Skou; Bønløkke, Jakob

    2015-01-01

    Proceedings from ITM 2015, 34th International Technical Meeting on Air Pollution Modelling and its Application. 4-8 May, 2015, Montpellier, France. 4 pp......Proceedings from ITM 2015, 34th International Technical Meeting on Air Pollution Modelling and its Application. 4-8 May, 2015, Montpellier, France. 4 pp...

  20. Air Dispersion Modeling for Building 3026C/D Demolition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ward, Richard C [ORNL; Sjoreen, Andrea L [ORNL; Eckerman, Keith F [ORNL

    2010-06-01

    This report presents estimates of dispersion coefficients and effective dose for potential air dispersion scenarios of uncontrolled releases from Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) buildings 3026C, 3026D, and 3140 prior to or during the demolition of the 3026 Complex. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) AERMOD system1-6 was used to compute these estimates. AERMOD stands for AERMIC Model, where AERMIC is the American Meteorological Society-EPA Regulatory Model Improvement Committee. Five source locations (three in building 3026D and one each in building 3026C and the filter house 3140) and associated source characteristics were determined with the customer. In addition, the area of study was determined and building footprints and intake locations of air-handling systems were obtained. In addition to the air intakes, receptor sites consisting of ground level locations on four polar grids (50 m, 100 m, 200 m, and 500 m) and two intersecting lines of points (50 m separation), corresponding to sidewalks along Central Avenue and Fifth Street. Three years of meteorological data (2006 2008) were used each consisting of three datasets: 1) National Weather Service data; 2) upper air data for the Knoxville-Oak Ridge area; and 3) local weather data from Tower C (10 m, 30 m and 100 m) on the ORNL reservation. Annual average air concentration, highest 1 h average and highest 3 h average air concentrations were computed using AERMOD for the five source locations for the three years of meteorological data. The highest 1 h average air concentrations were converted to dispersion coefficients to characterize the atmospheric dispersion as the customer was interested in the most significant response and the highest 1 h average data reflects the best time-averaged values available from the AERMOD code. Results are presented in tabular and graphical form. The results for dose were obtained using radionuclide activities for each of the buildings provided by the customer.7

  1. Updraft Model for Development of Autonomous Soaring Uninhabited Air Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Michael J.

    2006-01-01

    Large birds and glider pilots commonly use updrafts caused by convection in the lower atmosphere to extend flight duration, increase cross-country speed, improve range, or simply to conserve energy. Uninhabited air vehicles may also have the ability to exploit updrafts to improve performance. An updraft model was developed at NASA Dryden Flight Research Center (Edwards, California) to investigate the use of convective lift for uninhabited air vehicles in desert regions. Balloon and surface measurements obtained at the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Surface Radiation station (Desert Rock, Nevada) enabled the model development. The data were used to create a statistical representation of the convective velocity scale, w*, and the convective mixing-layer thickness, zi. These parameters were then used to determine updraft size, vertical velocity profile, spacing, and maximum height. This paper gives a complete description of the updraft model and its derivation. Computer code for running the model is also given in conjunction with a check case for model verification.

  2. Increasing the Use of Earth Science Data and Models in Air Quality Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milford, Jana B; Knight, Daniel

    2017-04-01

    In 2010, the U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) initiated the Air Quality Applied Science Team (AQAST) as a 5-year, $17.5-million award with 19 principal investigators. AQAST aims to increase the use of Earth science products in air quality-related research and to help meet air quality managers' information needs. We conducted a Web-based survey and a limited number of follow-up interviews to investigate federal, state, tribal, and local air quality managers' perspectives on usefulness of Earth science data and models, and on the impact AQAST has had. The air quality managers we surveyed identified meeting the National Ambient Air Quality Standards for ozone and particulate matter, emissions from mobile sources, and interstate air pollution transport as top challenges in need of improved information. Most survey respondents viewed inadequate coverage or frequency of satellite observations, data uncertainty, and lack of staff time or resources as barriers to increased use of satellite data by their organizations. Managers who have been involved with AQAST indicated that the program has helped build awareness of NASA Earth science products, and assisted their organizations with retrieval and interpretation of satellite data and with application of global chemistry and climate models. AQAST has also helped build a network between researchers and air quality managers with potential for further collaborations. NASA's Air Quality Applied Science Team (AQAST) aims to increase the use of satellite data and global chemistry and climate models for air quality management purposes, by supporting research and tool development projects of interest to both groups. Our survey and interviews of air quality managers indicate they found value in many AQAST projects and particularly appreciated the connections to the research community that the program facilitated. Managers expressed interest in receiving continued support for their organizations' use of

  3. Performance and Ageing Robustness of Graphite/NMC Pouch Prototypes Manufactured through Eco-Friendly Materials and Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loeffler, Nicholas; Kim, Guk-T; Passerini, Stefano; Gutierrez, Cesar; Cendoya, Iosu; De Meatza, Iratxe; Alessandrini, Fabrizio; Appetecchi, Giovanni B

    2017-09-22

    Graphite/lithium nickel-manganese-cobalt oxide (NMC), stacked pouch cells with nominal capacity of 15-18 Ah were designed, developed, and manufactured for automotive applications in the frame of the European Project GREENLION. A natural, water-soluble material was used as the main electrode binder, thus allowing the employment of H 2 O as the only processing solvent. The electrode formulations were developed, optimized, and upscaled for cell manufacturing. Prolonged cycling and ageing tests revealed excellent capacity retention and robustness toward degradation phenomena. For instance, above 99 % of the initial capacity is retained upon 500 full charge/discharge cycles, corresponding to a fading of 0.004 % per cycle, and about 80 % of the initial capacity is delivered after 8 months ageing at 45 °C. The stacked soft-packaged cells have shown very reproducible characteristics and performance, reflecting the goodness of design and manufacturing. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Endoscopic third ventriculostomy is a safe and effective procedure for the treatment of Blake's pouch cyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Vicente Brusius

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Blake's pouch cyst (BPC is a midline cystic malformation of the posterior fossa, within Dandy-Walker's complex (DWC, often associated with hydrocephalus. Endoscopic third ventriculostomy (ETV has been an alternative to conventional methods for BPC treatment. This study aimed at reporting our experience with ETV in a series of patients with BPC. METHODS: Of 33 patients diagnosed with midline posterior fossa cyst, 26 met the protocol criteria for DWC, and eight subjects with BPC were selected (aged one month to two years old. All cases were treated with ETV. RESULTS: Five patients were male; and three were prenatally diagnosed. They had hydrocephalus and motor deficiencies. Motor assessment at a five-year follow-up yielded normal findings. All patients improved, and only one had residual cognitive dysfunction, despite overall neurological improvement. There were no complications. CONCLUSIONS: ETV was a safe and effective procedure, reducing risks and morbidity associated with open surgery and shunt-related problems.

  5. Model Predictive Engine Air-Ratio Control Using Online Sequential Relevance Vector Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hang-cheong Wong

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Engine power, brake-specific fuel consumption, and emissions relate closely to air ratio (i.e., lambda among all the engine variables. An accurate and adaptive model for lambda prediction is essential to effective lambda control for long term. This paper utilizes an emerging technique, relevance vector machine (RVM, to build a reliable time-dependent lambda model which can be continually updated whenever a sample is added to, or removed from, the estimated lambda model. The paper also presents a new model predictive control (MPC algorithm for air-ratio regulation based on RVM. This study shows that the accuracy, training, and updating time of the RVM model are superior to the latest modelling methods, such as diagonal recurrent neural network (DRNN and decremental least-squares support vector machine (DLSSVM. Moreover, the control algorithm has been implemented on a real car to test. Experimental results reveal that the control performance of the proposed relevance vector machine model predictive controller (RVMMPC is also superior to DRNNMPC, support vector machine-based MPC, and conventional proportional-integral (PI controller in production cars. Therefore, the proposed RVMMPC is a promising scheme to replace conventional PI controller for engine air-ratio control.

  6. Comparison of air-standard rectangular cycles with different specific heat models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Chao; Chen, Lingen; Ge, Yanlin; Sun, Fengrui

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Air-standard rectangular cycle models are built and investigated. • Finite-time thermodynamics is applied. • Different dissipation models and variable specific heats models are adopted. • Performance characteristics of different cycle models are compared. - Abstract: In this paper, performance comparison of air-standard rectangular cycles with constant specific heat (SH), linear variable SH and non-linear variable SH are conducted by using finite time thermodynamics. The power output and efficiency of each cycle model and the characteristic curves of power output versus compression ratio, efficiency versus compression ratio, as well as power output versus efficiency are obtained by taking heat transfer loss (HTL) and friction loss (FL) into account. The influences of HTL, FL and SH on cycle performance are analyzed by detailed numerical examples.

  7. Thermodynamic model of a thermal storage air conditioning system with dynamic behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fleming, Evan; Wen, Shaoyi; Shi, Li; Silva, Alexandre K. da

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • We developed an automotive thermal storage air conditioning system model. • The thermal storage unit utilizes phase change materials. • We use semi-analytic solution to the coupled phase change and forced convection. • We model the airside heat exchange using the NTU method. • The system model can incorporate dynamic inputs, e.g. variable inlet airflow. - Abstract: A thermodynamic model was developed to predict transient behavior of a thermal storage system, using phase change materials (PCMs), for a novel electric vehicle climate conditioning application. The main objectives of the paper are to consider the system’s dynamic behavior, such as a dynamic air flow rate into the vehicle’s cabin, and to characterize the transient heat transfer process between the thermal storage unit and the vehicle’s cabin, while still maintaining accurate solution to the complex phase change heat transfer. The system studied consists of a heat transfer fluid circulating between either of the on-board hot and cold thermal storage units, which we refer to as thermal batteries, and a liquid–air heat exchanger that provides heat exchange with the incoming air to the vehicle cabin. Each thermal battery is a shell-and-tube configuration where a heat transfer fluid flows through parallel tubes, which are surrounded by PCM within a larger shell. The system model incorporates computationally inexpensive semi-analytic solution to the conjugated laminar forced convection and phase change problem within the battery and accounts for airside heat exchange using the Number of Transfer Units (NTUs) method for the liquid–air heat exchanger. Using this approach, we are able to obtain an accurate solution to the complex heat transfer problem within the battery while also incorporating the impact of the airside heat transfer on the overall system performance. The implemented model was benchmarked against a numerical study for a melting process and against full system

  8. A dynamic model for air-based photovoltaic thermal systems working under real operating conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sohel, M. Imroz; Ma, Zhenjun; Cooper, Paul; Adams, Jamie; Scott, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A dynamic model suitable for air-based photovoltaic thermal (PVT) systems is presented. • The model is validated with PVT data from two unique buildings. • The simulated output variables match very well with the experimental data. • The performance of the PVT system under changing working condition is analysed. - Abstract: In this paper a dynamic model suitable for simulating real operating conditions of air-based photovoltaic thermal (PVT) systems is presented. The performance of the model is validated by using the operational data collected from the building integrated photovoltaic (PVT) systems installed in two unique buildings. The modelled air outlet temperature and electrical power match very well with the experimental data. In Solar Decathlon house PVT, the average (RMS) error in air outlet temperatures was 4.2%. The average (RMS) error in electrical power was also 4.2%. In the Sustainable Buildings Research Centre PVT, the average errors (RMS) of PV and air temperatures were 3.8% and 2.2%, respectively. The performance of the PVT system under changing working condition is also analysed in this paper. The analysis includes the effect of ambient air temperature, air inlet temperature, air flow rate and solar irradiation on thermal, electrical, first law and second law efficiencies. Both the thermal and the 1st law efficiencies almost linearly increased with the increase of the ambient temperature. However, the PVT electrical efficiency and the second law efficiency decreased with the increase of the ambient temperature. All efficiencies expect the second law efficiency decreased with increase of the PVT air inlet temperature. The second law efficiency first increased and then reduced. With increasing the air flow rate all the efficiencies increased. The electrical and second law efficiencies become less sensitive when the air flow rate exceeded 300 l/s. Both the thermal and the 1st law efficiencies decreased while the electrical

  9. Energy deposition model for low-energy electrons (10-10 000 eV) in air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roldan, A.; Perez, J.M.; Williart, A.; Blanco, F.; Garcia, G.

    2004-01-01

    An energy deposition model for electrons in air that can be useful in microdosimetric applications is presented in this study. The model is based on a Monte Carlo simulation of the single electron scattering processes that can take place with the molecular constituents of the air in the energy range 10-10 000 eV. The input parameters for this procedure have been the electron scattering cross sections, both differential and integral. These parameters were calculated using a model potential method which describes the electron scattering with the molecular constituent of air. The reliability of the calculated integral cross section values has been evaluated by comparison with direct total electron scattering cross-section measurements performed by us in a transmission beam experiment. Experimental energy loss spectra for electrons in air have been used as probability distribution functions to define the electron energy loss in single collision events. The resulting model has been applied to simulate the electron transport through a gas cell containing air at different pressures and the results have been compared with those observed in the experiments. Finally, as an example of its applicability to dosimetric issues, the energy deposition of 10 000 eV by means of successive collisions in a free air chamber has been simulated

  10. MODELING THE AMBIENT CONDITION EFFECTS OF AN AIR-COOLED NATURAL CIRCULATION SYSTEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Rui; Lisowski, Darius D.; Bucknor, Matthew; Kraus, Adam R.; Lv, Qiuping

    2017-07-02

    The Reactor Cavity Cooling System (RCCS) is a passive safety concept under consideration for the overall safety strategy of advanced reactors such as the High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (HTGR). One such variant, air-cooled RCCS, uses natural convection to drive the flow of air from outside the reactor building to remove decay heat during normal operation and accident scenarios. The Natural convection Shutdown heat removal Test Facility (NSTF) at Argonne National Laboratory (“Argonne”) is a half-scale model of the primary features of one conceptual air-cooled RCCS design. The facility was constructed to carry out highly instrumented experiments to study the performance of the RCCS concept for reactor decay heat removal that relies on natural convection cooling. Parallel modeling and simulation efforts were performed to support the design, operation, and analysis of the natural convection system. Throughout the testing program, strong influences of ambient conditions were observed in the experimental data when baseline tests were repeated under the same test procedures. Thus, significant analysis efforts were devoted to gaining a better understanding of these influences and the subsequent response of the NSTF to ambient conditions. It was determined that air humidity had negligible impacts on NSTF system performance and therefore did not warrant consideration in the models. However, temperature differences between the building exterior and interior air, along with the outside wind speed, were shown to be dominant factors. Combining the stack and wind effects together, an empirical model was developed based on theoretical considerations and using experimental data to correlate zero-power system flow rates with ambient meteorological conditions. Some coefficients in the model were obtained based on best fitting the experimental data. The predictive capability of the empirical model was demonstrated by applying it to the new set of experimental data. The

  11. Atmospheric dispersion models help to improve air quality; Los modelos de dispersion atmosferica ayudan a mejorar la calidad del aire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, F.

    2013-07-01

    One of the main challenges of the atmospheric sciences is to reproduce as well as possible the phenomena and processes of pollutants in the atmosphere. To do it, mathematical models based in this case on fluid dynamics and mass and energy conservation equations, equations that govern the atmospheric chemistry, etc., adapted to the spatial scales to be simulated, are developed. The dispersion models simulate the processes of transport, dispersion, chemical transformation and elimination by deposition that air pollutants undergo once they are emitted. Atmospheric dispersion models with their multiple applications have become essential tools for the air quality management. (Author)

  12. Simplified Model and Response Analysis for Crankshaft of Air Compressor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao-bo, Li; Jing-jun, Lou; Zhen-hai, Zhang

    2017-11-01

    The original model of crankshaft is simplified to the appropriateness to balance the calculation precision and calculation speed, and then the finite element method is used to analyse the vibration response of the structure. In order to study the simplification and stress concentration for crankshaft of air compressor, this paper compares calculative mode frequency and experimental mode frequency of the air compressor crankshaft before and after the simplification, the vibration response of reference point constraint conditions is calculated by using the simplified model, and the stress distribution of the original model is calculated. The results show that the error between calculative mode frequency and experimental mode frequency is controlled in less than 7%, the constraint will change the model density of the system, the position between the crank arm and the shaft appeared stress concentration, so the part of the crankshaft should be treated in the process of manufacture.

  13. Modelling of air quality for Winter and Summer episodes in Switzerland. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andreani-Aksoyoglu, S.; Keller, J.; Barmpadimos, L.; Oderbolz, D.; Tinguely, M.; Prevot, A. [Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI), Laboratory of Atmospheric Chemistry, Villigen (Switzerland); Alfarra, R. [University of Manchester, Manchester (United Kingdom); Sandradewi, J. [Jisca Sandradewi, Hoexter (Germany)

    2009-05-15

    This final report issued by the General Energy Research Department and its Laboratory of Atmospheric Chemistry at the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI) reports on the results obtained from the modelling of regional air quality for three episodes, January-February 2006, June 2006 and January 2007. The focus of the calculations is on particulate matter concentrations, as well as on ozone levels in summer. The model results were compared with the aerosol data collected by an Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (AMS), which was operated during all three episodes as well as with the air quality monitoring data from further monitoring programs. The air quality model used in this study is described and the results obtained for various types of locations - rural, city, high-altitude and motorway-near - are presented and discussed. The models used are described.

  14. Extension of the PMV model to non-air-conditioned building in warm climates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fanger, Povl Ole; Toftum, Jørn

    2002-01-01

    The PMV model agrees well with high-quality field studies in buildings with HVAC systems, situated in cold, temperate and warm climates, studied during both summer and winter. In non-air-conditioned buildings in warm climates, occupants may sense the warmth as being less severe than the PMV...... predicts. The main reason is low expectations, but a metabolic rate that is estimated too high can also contribute to explaining the difference. An extension of the PMV model that includes an expectancy factor is introduced for use in non-air-conditioned buildings in warm climates. The extended PMV model...... agrees well with quality field studies in non-air-conditioned buildings of three continents....

  15. Hybrid Air Quality Modeling Approach for use in the Hear-road Exposures to Urban air pollutant Study(NEXUS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The paper presents a hybrid air quality modeling approach and its application in NEXUS in order to provide spatial and temporally varying exposure estimates and identification of the mobile source contribution to the total pollutant exposure. Model-based exposure metrics, associa...

  16. Methodology for modeling the microbial contamination of air filters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joe, Yun Haeng; Yoon, Ki Young; Hwang, Jungho

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a theoretical model to simulate microbial growth on contaminated air filters and entrainment of bioaerosols from the filters to an indoor environment. Air filter filtration and antimicrobial efficiencies, and effects of dust particles on these efficiencies, were evaluated. The number of bioaerosols downstream of the filter could be characterized according to three phases: initial, transitional, and stationary. In the initial phase, the number was determined by filtration efficiency, the concentration of dust particles entering the filter, and the flow rate. During the transitional phase, the number of bioaerosols gradually increased up to the stationary phase, at which point no further increase was observed. The antimicrobial efficiency and flow rate were the dominant parameters affecting the number of bioaerosols downstream of the filter in the transitional and stationary phase, respectively. It was found that the nutrient fraction of dust particles entering the filter caused a significant change in the number of bioaerosols in both the transitional and stationary phases. The proposed model would be a solution for predicting the air filter life cycle in terms of microbiological activity by simulating the microbial contamination of the filter.

  17. Methodology for modeling the microbial contamination of air filters.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun Haeng Joe

    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose a theoretical model to simulate microbial growth on contaminated air filters and entrainment of bioaerosols from the filters to an indoor environment. Air filter filtration and antimicrobial efficiencies, and effects of dust particles on these efficiencies, were evaluated. The number of bioaerosols downstream of the filter could be characterized according to three phases: initial, transitional, and stationary. In the initial phase, the number was determined by filtration efficiency, the concentration of dust particles entering the filter, and the flow rate. During the transitional phase, the number of bioaerosols gradually increased up to the stationary phase, at which point no further increase was observed. The antimicrobial efficiency and flow rate were the dominant parameters affecting the number of bioaerosols downstream of the filter in the transitional and stationary phase, respectively. It was found that the nutrient fraction of dust particles entering the filter caused a significant change in the number of bioaerosols in both the transitional and stationary phases. The proposed model would be a solution for predicting the air filter life cycle in terms of microbiological activity by simulating the microbial contamination of the filter.

  18. Modelling relationships between lichen bioindicators, air quality and climate on a national scale: Results from the UK OPAL air survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seed, Lindsay; Wolseley, Pat; Gosling, Laura; Davies, Linda; Power, Sally A.

    2013-01-01

    Air pollution has many negative effects on the natural environment, from changes in plant growth patterns to loss of ecosystem function. This study uses citizen science to investigate national-scale patterns in the distribution and abundance of selected lichen species on tree trunks and branches, and to relate these to air pollution and climate. Volunteers collected data for nine lichen indicators on 19,334 deciduous trees. Submitted data provided information on species-level patterns, and were used to derive composite lichen indices. Multiple linear regression and ANCOVA were used to model the relationships between lichen response variables on Quercus spp. and pollution, climate and location. The study demonstrated significant relationships between patterns in indicator lichens and levels of N- and S-containing pollutants on trunks and twigs. The derived lichen indices show great potential as a tool to provide information on local, site-specific levels of air quality. -- Highlights: •Data on presence and abundance of selected lichens were collected by members of the public. •Indicator species and indices were modelled against air pollution and climate data. •Lichens and indices show significant relationships with nitrogenous air pollution. •Lichen indices are useful tools for providing information on local air quality. -- Data on selected lichen taxa collected by members of the public in England is used to show the relationship of indicator taxa and pollution indices to air pollution and climate data

  19. Validation of a CFD model by using 3D sonic anemometers to analyse the air velocity generated by an air-assisted sprayer equipped with two axial fans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Ramos, F Javier; Malón, Hugo; Aguirre, A Javier; Boné, Antonio; Puyuelo, Javier; Vidal, Mariano

    2015-01-22

    A computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model of the air flow generated by an air-assisted sprayer equipped with two axial fans was developed and validated by practical experiments in the laboratory. The CFD model was developed by considering the total air flow supplied by the sprayer fan to be the main parameter, rather than the outlet air velocity. The model was developed for three air flows corresponding to three fan blade settings and assuming that the sprayer is stationary. Actual measurements of the air velocity near the sprayer were taken using 3D sonic anemometers. The workspace sprayer was divided into three sections, and the air velocity was measured in each section on both sides of the machine at a horizontal distance of 1.5, 2.5, and 3.5 m from the machine, and at heights of 1, 2, 3, and 4 m above the ground The coefficient of determination (R2) between the simulated and measured values was 0.859, which demonstrates a good correlation between the simulated and measured data. Considering the overall data, the air velocity values produced by the CFD model were not significantly different from the measured values.

  20. [Application of Land-use Regression Models in Spatial-temporal Differentiation of Air Pollution].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jian-sheng; Xie, Wu-dan; Li, Jia-cheng

    2016-02-15

    With the rapid development of urbanization, industrialization and motorization, air pollution has become one of the most serious environmental problems in our country, which has negative impacts on public health and ecological environment. LUR model is one of the common methods simulating spatial-temporal differentiation of air pollution at city scale. It has broad application in Europe and North America, but not really in China. Based on many studies at home and abroad, this study started with the main steps to develop LUR model, including obtaining the monitoring data, generating variables, developing models, model validation and regression mapping. Then a conclusion was drawn on the progress of LUR models in spatial-temporal differentiation of air pollution. Furthermore, the research focus and orientation in the future were prospected, including highlighting spatial-temporal differentiation, increasing classes of model variables and improving the methods of model development. This paper was aimed to popularize the application of LUR model in China, and provide a methodological basis for human exposure, epidemiologic study and health risk assessment.

  1. An open-access modeled passenger flow matrix for the global air network in 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Zhuojie; Wu, Xiao; Garcia, Andres J; Fik, Timothy J; Tatem, Andrew J

    2013-01-01

    The expanding global air network provides rapid and wide-reaching connections accelerating both domestic and international travel. To understand human movement patterns on the network and their socioeconomic, environmental and epidemiological implications, information on passenger flow is required. However, comprehensive data on global passenger flow remain difficult and expensive to obtain, prompting researchers to rely on scheduled flight seat capacity data or simple models of flow. This study describes the construction of an open-access modeled passenger flow matrix for all airports with a host city-population of more than 100,000 and within two transfers of air travel from various publicly available air travel datasets. Data on network characteristics, city population, and local area GDP amongst others are utilized as covariates in a spatial interaction framework to predict the air transportation flows between airports. Training datasets based on information from various transportation organizations in the United States, Canada and the European Union were assembled. A log-linear model controlling the random effects on origin, destination and the airport hierarchy was then built to predict passenger flows on the network, and compared to the results produced using previously published models. Validation analyses showed that the model presented here produced improved predictive power and accuracy compared to previously published models, yielding the highest successful prediction rate at the global scale. Based on this model, passenger flows between 1,491 airports on 644,406 unique routes were estimated in the prediction dataset. The airport node characteristics and estimated passenger flows are freely available as part of the Vector-Borne Disease Airline Importation Risk (VBD-Air) project at: www.vbd-air.com/data.

  2. Humid-air and aqueous corrosion models for corrosion-allowance barrier material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, J.H.; Atkins, J.E.; Andrews, R.W.

    1995-01-01

    Humid-air and aqueous general and pitting corrosion models (including their uncertainties) for the carbon steel outer containment barrier were developed using the corrosion data from literature for a suite of cast irons and carbon steels which have similar corrosion behaviors to the outer barrier material. The corrosion data include the potential effects of various chemical species present in the testing environments. The atmospheric corrosion data also embed any effects of cyclic wetting and drying and salts that may form on the corroding specimen surface. The humid-air and aqueous general corrosion models are consistent in that the predicted humid-air general corrosion rates at relative humidities between 85 and 100% RH are close to the predicted aqueous general corrosion rates. Using the expected values of the model parameters, the model predicts that aqueous pitting corrosion is the most likely failure mode for the carbon steel outer barrier, and an earliest failure (or initial pit penetration) of the 100-mm thick barrier may occur as early as about 500 years if it is exposed continuously to an aqueous condition at between 60 and 70 degrees C

  3. An integrated Markov decision process and nested logit consumer response model of air ticket pricing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lu, J.; Feng, T.; Timmermans, H.P.J.; Yang, Z.

    2017-01-01

    The paper attempts to propose an optimal air ticket pricing model during the booking horizon by taking into account passengers' purchasing behavior of air tickets. A Markov decision process incorporating a nested logit consumer response model is established to modeling the dynamic pricing process.

  4. Model predictive control of an air suspension system with damping multi-mode switching damper based on hybrid model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiaoqiang; Yuan, Chaochun; Cai, Yingfeng; Wang, Shaohua; Chen, Long

    2017-09-01

    This paper presents the hybrid modeling and the model predictive control of an air suspension system with damping multi-mode switching damper. Unlike traditional damper with continuously adjustable damping, in this study, a new damper with four discrete damping modes is applied to vehicle semi-active air suspension. The new damper can achieve different damping modes by just controlling the on-off statuses of two solenoid valves, which makes its damping adjustment more efficient and more reliable. However, since the damping mode switching induces different modes of operation, the air suspension system with the new damper poses challenging hybrid control problem. To model both the continuous/discrete dynamics and the switching between different damping modes, the framework of mixed logical dynamical (MLD) systems is used to establish the system hybrid model. Based on the resulting hybrid dynamical model, the system control problem is recast as a model predictive control (MPC) problem, which allows us to optimize the switching sequences of the damping modes by taking into account the suspension performance requirements. Numerical simulations results demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed control method finally.

  5. Energy consumption modeling of air source electric heat pump water heaters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourke, Grant; Bansal, Pradeep

    2010-01-01

    Electric heat pump air source water heaters may provide an opportunity for significant improvements in residential water heater energy efficiency in countries with temperate climates. As the performance of these appliances can vary widely, it is important for consumers to be able to accurately assess product performance in their application to maximise energy savings and ensure uptake of this technology. For a given ambient temperature and humidity, the performance of an air source heat pump water heater is strongly correlated to the water temperature in or surrounding the condenser. It is therefore important that energy consumption models for these products duplicate the real-world water temperatures applied to the heat pump condenser. This paper examines a recently published joint Australian and New Zealand Standard, AS/NZS 4234: 2008; Heated water systems - Calculation of energy consumption. Using this standard a series TRNSYS models were run for several split type air source electric heat pump water heaters. An equivalent set of models was then run utilizing an alternative water use pattern. Unfavorable errors of up to 12% were shown to occur in modeling of heat pump water heater performance using the current standard compared to the alternative regime. The difference in performance of a model using varying water use regimes can be greater than the performance difference between models of product.

  6. Macroscopic Model and Simulation Analysis of Air Traffic Flow in Airport Terminal Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Honghai Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We focus on the spatiotemporal characteristics and their evolvement law of the air traffic flow in airport terminal area to provide scientific basis for optimizing flight control processes and alleviating severe air traffic conditions. Methods in this work combine mathematical derivation and simulation analysis. Based on cell transmission model the macroscopic models of arrival and departure air traffic flow in terminal area are established. Meanwhile, the interrelationship and influential factors of the three characteristic parameters as traffic flux, density, and velocity are presented. Then according to such models, the macro emergence of traffic flow evolution is emulated with the NetLogo simulation platform, and the correlativity of basic traffic flow parameters is deduced and verified by means of sensitivity analysis. The results suggest that there are remarkable relations among the three characteristic parameters of the air traffic flow in terminal area. Moreover, such relationships evolve distinctly with the flight procedures, control separations, and ATC strategies.

  7. Development of the Next Generation Air Quality Modeling System (20th Joint Conference on the Applications of Air Pollution Meteorology with the A&WMA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    A next generation air quality modeling system is being developed at the U.S. EPA to enable modeling of air quality from global to regional to (eventually) local scales. We envision that the system will have three configurations: 1. Global meteorology with seamless mesh refinemen...

  8. Some important results from the air pollution distribution model STACKS (1988-1992)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erbrink, J.J.

    1993-01-01

    Attention is paid to the results of the study on the distribution of air pollutants by high chimney-stacks of electric power plants. An important product of the study is the integrated distribution model STACKS (Short Term Air-pollutant Concentrations Kema modelling System). The improvements and the extensions of STACKS are described in relation to the National Model, which has been used to estimate the environmental effects of individual chimney-stacks. The National Model shows unacceptable variations for high pollutant sources. Based on the results of STACKS revision of the National model has been taken into consideration. By means of the revised National Model a more realistic estimation of the environmental effects of electric power plants can be carried out

  9. A comparative study of turbulence models for dissolved air flotation flow analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Min A; Lee, Kyun Ho; Chung, Jae Dong; Seo, Seung Ho

    2015-01-01

    The dissolved air flotation (DAF) system is a water treatment process that removes contaminants by attaching micro bubbles to them, causing them to float to the water surface. In the present study, two-phase flow of air-water mixture is simulated to investigate changes in the internal flow analysis of DAF systems caused by using different turbulence models. Internal micro bubble distribution, velocity, and computation time are compared between several turbulence models for a given DAF geometry and condition. As a result, it is observed that the standard κ-ε model, which has been frequently used in previous research, predicts somewhat different behavior than other turbulence models

  10. Clearing the air. Air quality modelling for policy support

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriks, C.

    2017-01-01

    The studies presented in this thesis were performed to provide policy makers with more accurate information about the sources of air pollution and the possible consequences of future developments on air quality. This enables policy makers to make better informed decisions when formulating policies

  11. Modelling and analysis of ozone concentration by artificial intelligent techniques for estimating air quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylan, Osman

    2017-02-01

    High ozone concentration is an important cause of air pollution mainly due to its role in the greenhouse gas emission. Ozone is produced by photochemical processes which contain nitrogen oxides and volatile organic compounds in the lower atmospheric level. Therefore, monitoring and controlling the quality of air in the urban environment is very important due to the public health care. However, air quality prediction is a highly complex and non-linear process; usually several attributes have to be considered. Artificial intelligent (AI) techniques can be employed to monitor and evaluate the ozone concentration level. The aim of this study is to develop an Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy inference approach (ANFIS) to determine the influence of peripheral factors on air quality and pollution which is an arising problem due to ozone level in Jeddah city. The concentration of ozone level was considered as a factor to predict the Air Quality (AQ) under the atmospheric conditions. Using Air Quality Standards of Saudi Arabia, ozone concentration level was modelled by employing certain factors such as; nitrogen oxide (NOx), atmospheric pressure, temperature, and relative humidity. Hence, an ANFIS model was developed to observe the ozone concentration level and the model performance was assessed by testing data obtained from the monitoring stations established by the General Authority of Meteorology and Environment Protection of Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. The outcomes of ANFIS model were re-assessed by fuzzy quality charts using quality specification and control limits based on US-EPA air quality standards. The results of present study show that the ANFIS model is a comprehensive approach for the estimation and assessment of ozone level and is a reliable approach to produce more genuine outcomes.

  12. Spatially-varying surface roughness and ground-level air quality in an operational dispersion model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnes, M.J.; Brade, T.K.; MacKenzie, A.R.; Whyatt, J.D.; Carruthers, D.J.; Stocker, J.; Cai, X.; Hewitt, C.N.

    2014-01-01

    Urban form controls the overall aerodynamic roughness of a city, and hence plays a significant role in how air flow interacts with the urban landscape. This paper reports improved model performance resulting from the introduction of variable surface roughness in the operational air-quality model ADMS-Urban (v3.1). We then assess to what extent pollutant concentrations can be reduced solely through local reductions in roughness. The model results suggest that reducing surface roughness in a city centre can increase ground-level pollutant concentrations, both locally in the area of reduced roughness and downwind of that area. The unexpected simulation of increased ground-level pollutant concentrations implies that this type of modelling should be used with caution for urban planning and design studies looking at ventilation of pollution. We expect the results from this study to be relevant for all atmospheric dispersion models with urban-surface parameterisations based on roughness. -- Highlights: • Spatially variable roughness improved performance of an operational model. • Scenario modelling explored effect of reduced roughness on air pollution. • Reducing surface roughness can increase modelled ground-level pollution. • Damped vertical mixing outweighs increased horizontal advection in model study. • Result should hold for any model with a land-surface coupling based on roughness. -- Spatially varying roughness improves model simulations of urban air pollutant dispersion. Reducing roughness does not always decrease ground-level pollution concentrations

  13. Human-model hybrid Korean air quality forecasting system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Lim-Seok; Cho, Ara; Park, Hyunju; Nam, Kipyo; Kim, Deokrae; Hong, Ji-Hyoung; Song, Chang-Keun

    2016-09-01

    The Korean national air quality forecasting system, consisting of the Weather Research and Forecasting, the Sparse Matrix Operator Kernel Emissions, and the Community Modeling and Analysis (CMAQ), commenced from August 31, 2013 with target pollutants of particulate matters (PM) and ozone. Factors contributing to PM forecasting accuracy include CMAQ inputs of meteorological field and emissions, forecasters' capacity, and inherent CMAQ limit. Four numerical experiments were conducted including two global meteorological inputs from the Global Forecast System (GFS) and the Unified Model (UM), two emissions from the Model Intercomparison Study Asia (MICS-Asia) and the Intercontinental Chemical Transport Experiment (INTEX-B) for the Northeast Asia with Clear Air Policy Support System (CAPSS) for South Korea, and data assimilation of the Monitoring Atmospheric Composition and Climate (MACC). Significant PM underpredictions by using both emissions were found for PM mass and major components (sulfate and organic carbon). CMAQ predicts PM2.5 much better than PM10 (NMB of PM2.5: -20~-25%, PM10: -43~-47%). Forecasters' error usually occurred at the next day of high PM event. Once CMAQ fails to predict high PM event the day before, forecasters are likely to dismiss the model predictions on the next day which turns out to be true. The best combination of CMAQ inputs is the set of UM global meteorological field, MICS-Asia and CAPSS 2010 emissions with the NMB of -12.3%, the RMSE of 16.6μ/m(3) and the R(2) of 0.68. By using MACC data as an initial and boundary condition, the performance skill of CMAQ would be improved, especially in the case of undefined coarse emission. A variety of methods such as ensemble and data assimilation are considered to improve further the accuracy of air quality forecasting, especially for high PM events to be comparable to for all cases. The growing utilization of the air quality forecast induced the public strongly to demand that the accuracy of the

  14. Computing Air Demand Using the Takagi–Sugeno Model for Dam Outlets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Zounemat-Kermani

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available An adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS was developed using the subtractive clustering technique to study the air demand in low-level outlet works. The ANFIS model was employed to calculate vent air discharge in different gate openings for an embankment dam. A hybrid learning algorithm obtained from combining back-propagation and least square estimate was adopted to identify linear and non-linear parameters in the ANFIS model. Empirical relationships based on the experimental information obtained from physical models were applied to 108 experimental data points to obtain more reliable evaluations. The feed-forward Levenberg-Marquardt neural network (LMNN and multiple linear regression (MLR models were also built using the same data to compare model performances with each other. The results indicated that the fuzzy rule-based model performed better than the LMNN and MLR models, in terms of the simulation performance criteria established, as the root mean square error, the Nash–Sutcliffe efficiency, the correlation coefficient and the Bias.

  15. A multi-model assessment of the co-benefits of climate mitigation for global air quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rao, Shilpa; Klimont, Zbigniew; Leitao, Joana; Riahi, Keywan; van Dingenen, Rita; Aleluia Reis, Lara; Calvin, Katherine; Dentener, Frank; Drouet, Laurent; Fujimori, Shinichiro; Harmsen, Mathijs; Luderer, Gunnar; Heyes, Chris; Strefler, Jessica; Tavoni, Massimo; van Vuuren, Detlef P.

    2016-01-01

    We present a model comparison study that combines multiple integrated assessment models with a reduced-form global air quality model to assess the potential co-benefits of global climate mitigation policies in relation to the World Health Organization (WHO) goals on air quality and health. We

  16. PAT-2 (Plutonium Air Transportable Model 2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, J.

    1981-01-01

    The PAT-2 (Plutonium Air Transportable Model 2) package is designed for the safe transport of plutonium and/or uranium in small quantities, especially as used in international safeguards activities, and especially as transported by air. The PAT-2 package is resistant to severe accidents, including that of a high-speed jet aircraft crash, and is designed to withstand such environments as extreme impact, crushing, puncturing and slashing loads, severe hydrocarbon-fueled fires, and deep underwater immersion, with no escape of contents. The accident environments may be imposed upon the package singly or seqentially. The package meets the requirements of 10 CFR 71 for Fissile Class I packages with a cargo of 15 grams of Pu-239, or other isotopic forms described herein, not to exceed 2 watts of thermal activity. Packaging, operational features, and contents of package, are discussed

  17. Comparison of Parametrization Techniques for an Electrical Circuit Model of Lithium-Sulfur Batteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knap, Vaclav; Stroe, Daniel Loan; Teodorescu, Remus

    2015-01-01

    on the comparison of different parametrization methods of electrical circuit models (ECMs) for Li-S batteries. These methods are used to parametrize an ECM based on laboratory measurements performed on a Li-S pouch cell. Simulation results of ECMs are presented and compared against measurement values...

  18. Improved air ventilation rate estimation based on a statistical model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brabec, M.; Jilek, K.

    2004-01-01

    A new approach to air ventilation rate estimation from CO measurement data is presented. The approach is based on a state-space dynamic statistical model, allowing for quick and efficient estimation. Underlying computations are based on Kalman filtering, whose practical software implementation is rather easy. The key property is the flexibility of the model, allowing various artificial regimens of CO level manipulation to be treated. The model is semi-parametric in nature and can efficiently handle time-varying ventilation rate. This is a major advantage, compared to some of the methods which are currently in practical use. After a formal introduction of the statistical model, its performance is demonstrated on real data from routine measurements. It is shown how the approach can be utilized in a more complex situation of major practical relevance, when time-varying air ventilation rate and radon entry rate are to be estimated simultaneously from concurrent radon and CO measurements

  19. Numerical modelling of convective heat transport by air flow in permafrost talus slopes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Wicky

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Talus slopes are a widespread geomorphic feature in the Alps. Due to their high porosity a gravity-driven internal air circulation can be established which is forced by the gradient between external (air and internal (talus temperature. The thermal regime is different from the surrounding environment, leading to the occurrence of permafrost below the typical permafrost zone. This phenomenon has mainly been analysed by field studies and only few explicit numerical modelling studies exist. Numerical simulations of permafrost sometimes use parameterisations for the effects of convection but mostly neglect the influence of convective heat transfer in air on the thermal regime. In contrast, in civil engineering many studies have been carried out to investigate the thermal behaviour of blocky layers and to improve their passive cooling effect. The present study further develops and applies these concepts to model heat transfer in air flows in a natural-scale talus slope. Modelling results show that convective heat transfer has the potential to develop a significant temperature difference between the lower and the upper parts of the talus slope. A seasonally alternating chimney-effect type of circulation develops. Modelling results also show that this convective heat transfer leads to the formation of a cold reservoir in the lower part of the talus slope, which can be crucial for maintaining the frozen ground conditions despite increasing air temperatures caused by climate change.

  20. Therapeutic efficacy and toxicity of a single and double application of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) in a hamster cheek pouch oral precancer model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monti Hughes, A; Pozzi, E C C; Thorp, S; Garabalino, M A; Farias, R O; Gonzalez, S J; Heber, E M; Itoiz, M E; Aromando, R F; Molinari, A J; Miller, M; Nigg, D W; Curotto, P; Trivillin, V A; Schwint, A E

    2012-01-01

    Tumor development from tissue with potentially malignant disorders (PMD) gives rise to second primary tumors. We previously demonstrated the partial inhibitory effect on tumor development of Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) mediated by the boron compounds BPA (boronophenylalanine) and decahydrodecaborate (GB-10) in a hamster pouch oral precancer model. Seeking to optimize BNCT, the aim of the present study was to contribute to the knowledge of BNCT radiobiology for oral precancer and assess new BNCT protocols in terms of inhibition of tumor development and radiotoxicity. Groups of cancerized hamsters were locally exposed to single or double applications (2 weeks apart) of BPA-BNCT or (GB-10 + BPA)-BNCT at a total dose of 8Gy to tissue with PMD; to a single application of BPA-BNCT at 6Gy and to a double application (4 weeks apart) of BPA-BNCT or (BPA + GB-10)-BNCT at a total dose of 10Gy. Cancerized, sham-irradiated hamsters served as controls. Clinical status, tumor development from tissue with PMD and mucositis were followed for 8 months. The marked therapeutic efficacy of single applications of BNCT at 6 and 8Gy were associated to severe radiotoxicity. Dose fractionation into 2 applications reduced mucositis but also reduced therapeutic efficacy, depending on dose and interval between applications. A double application (4 weeks apart) of (GB-10 + BPA)-BNCT at a total dose of 10Gy rendered the best therapeutic advantage, i.e. 63% - 100% inhibition of tumor development with only slight mucositis in 67% of cases. The data reported herein show that issues such as dose levels and dose fractionation, interval between applications, and choice of boron compounds are pivotal to therapeutic advantage and must be tailored for a particular pathology and anatomic site. The present study determined treatment conditions that would contribute to optimize BNCT for precancer and that would warrant cautious assessment in a clinical scenario (author)

  1. A review on air pollution and various dust models for open cast mines in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sangeeth, M.G.; Ahmed, Siraj; Bhagoria, J.L.; Pandit, G.G.

    2010-01-01

    Open cast coal mining continues to create significant environmental problems in India. In particular, this type of mining creates high rates of air pollution SPM, RPM, SO 2 and NO x . In these particulate matter i.e. SPM and RPM is major pollution in the open cast mines. It creates several heath hazards to mine workers and surrounding peoples and high environmental deterioration occurs. Several studies are carried out in the field of air pollution and air quality modeling of open cast projects and many researchers suggested several control measures for the air pollution control in mines. Different dust models FDM, ISC3 are available for prediction and transport of the pollutants. In this paper a review has been studied about air pollution in the open cast mines and dust dispersion models for open cast mines in India. (author)

  2. Anti-inflammatory effects of jojoba liquid wax in experimental models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habashy, Ramy R; Abdel-Naim, Ashraf B; Khalifa, Amani E; Al-Azizi, Mohammed M

    2005-02-01

    Jojoba [Simmondsia chinensis (Link 1822) Schneider 1907] is an arid perennial shrub grown in several American and African countries. Jojoba seeds, which are rich in liquid wax, were used in folk medicine for diverse ailments. In the current study, the potential anti-inflammatory activity of jojoba liquid wax (JLW) was evaluated in a number of experimental models. Results showed that JLW caused reduction of carrageenin-induced rat paw oedema in addition to diminishing prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) level in the inflammatory exudates. In a test for anti-inflammatory potential utilizing the chick's embryo chroioallantoic membrane (CAM), JLW also caused significant lowering of granulation tissue formation. Topical application of JLW reduced ear oedema induced by croton oil in rats. In the same animal model, JLW also reduced neutrophil infiltration, as indicated by decreased myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity. In addition, JLW ameliorated histopathological changes affected by croton oil application. In the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammation in air pouch in rats, JLW reduced nitric oxide (NO) level and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) release. In conclusion, this study demonstrates the effectiveness of JLW in combating inflammation in several experimental models. Further investigations are needed to identify the active constituents responsible for the anti-inflammatory property of JLW.

  3. Fault Tolerance Automotive Air-Ratio Control Using Extreme Learning Machine Model Predictive Controller

    OpenAIRE

    Pak Kin Wong; Hang Cheong Wong; Chi Man Vong; Tong Meng Iong; Ka In Wong; Xianghui Gao

    2015-01-01

    Effective air-ratio control is desirable to maintain the best engine performance. However, traditional air-ratio control assumes the lambda sensor located at the tail pipe works properly and relies strongly on the air-ratio feedback signal measured by the lambda sensor. When the sensor is warming up during cold start or under failure, the traditional air-ratio control no longer works. To address this issue, this paper utilizes an advanced modelling technique, kernel extreme learning machine (...

  4. Assessment of Root Morphological Traits of 16 Tropical and Four Temperate Maize Cultivars for Nitrogen Efficiency in Short-Term Nutrient Solution Experiments with the Cigar Roll and Growth Pouch Methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saifu, S.; Schulte auf' m Erley, G.; Horst, W. J. [Institute for Plant Nutrition, Leibniz University of Hannover (Germany)

    2013-11-15

    Genotypic differences in N efficiency of maize have been reported by many authors. One of the reasons responsible for genotypic differences in N efficiency is differences in N uptake efficiency after anthesis. Continuous root growth and N uptake activity are responsible for the high N uptake efficiency of N-efficient genotypes. This study was conducted mainly to identify root parameters which could be used as secondary selection traits for genotypic differences in N efficiency of maize established in field experiments. The specific objective of the first experiment was to establish a relationship between root parameters with genotypic differences in N efficiency in the field, and to identify root traits to be used as secondary selection criteria for N efficiency. Four temperate and 16 tropical genotypes were grown in low-N nutrient solution with a cigar roll and a growth pouch culture for 9 and 10 days, respectively. In the cigar roll experiment individual root fractions (adventitious, seminal and primary root fractions) and in growth pouch experiment root distribution and root branching angle were of primary interest. Genotypic differences were found in most of the root traits, but the differences were not clear cut between N-efficient and inefficient genotypes with few exceptions. The N-efficient genotypes had the highest percentage of root length in the deepest (>20 cm) interval in the growth pouch, which also positively correlated with N uptake after anthesis and grain yield. The N-efficient genotypes also had a high percentage of roots in the root branching angle interval of 60-90{sup o}. It was concluded that the high N uptake efficiency of N-efficient genotypes might be related to a higher percentage of roots growing downwards (high branching angle) and a high percentage of root length in deeper soil layers enabling them to exploit nitrate in the subsoil more efficiently. These two root parameters were found promising to use as selection criteria for N

  5. Integration of Linear Dynamic Emission and Climate Models with Air Traffic Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sridhar, Banavar; Ng, Hok K.; Chen, Neil Y.

    2012-01-01

    Future air traffic management systems are required to balance the conflicting objectives of maximizing safety and efficiency of traffic flows while minimizing the climate impact of aviation emissions and contrails. Integrating emission and climate models together with air traffic simulations improve the understanding of the complex interaction between the physical climate system, carbon and other greenhouse gas emissions and aviation activity. This paper integrates a national-level air traffic simulation and optimization capability with simple climate models and carbon cycle models, and climate metrics to assess the impact of aviation on climate. The capability can be used to make trade-offs between extra fuel cost and reduction in global surface temperature change. The parameters in the simulation can be used to evaluate the effect of various uncertainties in emission models and contrails and the impact of different decision horizons. Alternatively, the optimization results from the simulation can be used as inputs to other tools that monetize global climate impacts like the FAA s Aviation Environmental Portfolio Management Tool for Impacts.

  6. A Bayesian localized conditional autoregressive model for estimating the health effects of air pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Duncan; Rushworth, Alastair; Sahu, Sujit K

    2014-06-01

    Estimation of the long-term health effects of air pollution is a challenging task, especially when modeling spatial small-area disease incidence data in an ecological study design. The challenge comes from the unobserved underlying spatial autocorrelation structure in these data, which is accounted for using random effects modeled by a globally smooth conditional autoregressive model. These smooth random effects confound the effects of air pollution, which are also globally smooth. To avoid this collinearity a Bayesian localized conditional autoregressive model is developed for the random effects. This localized model is flexible spatially, in the sense that it is not only able to model areas of spatial smoothness, but also it is able to capture step changes in the random effects surface. This methodological development allows us to improve the estimation performance of the covariate effects, compared to using traditional conditional auto-regressive models. These results are established using a simulation study, and are then illustrated with our motivating study on air pollution and respiratory ill health in Greater Glasgow, Scotland in 2011. The model shows substantial health effects of particulate matter air pollution and nitrogen dioxide, whose effects have been consistently attenuated by the currently available globally smooth models. © 2014, The Authors Biometrics published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of International Biometric Society.

  7. Spatial measurement error and correction by spatial SIMEX in linear regression models when using predicted air pollution exposures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexeeff, Stacey E; Carroll, Raymond J; Coull, Brent

    2016-04-01

    Spatial modeling of air pollution exposures is widespread in air pollution epidemiology research as a way to improve exposure assessment. However, there are key sources of exposure model uncertainty when air pollution is modeled, including estimation error and model misspecification. We examine the use of predicted air pollution levels in linear health effect models under a measurement error framework. For the prediction of air pollution exposures, we consider a universal Kriging framework, which may include land-use regression terms in the mean function and a spatial covariance structure for the residuals. We derive the bias induced by estimation error and by model misspecification in the exposure model, and we find that a misspecified exposure model can induce asymptotic bias in the effect estimate of air pollution on health. We propose a new spatial simulation extrapolation (SIMEX) procedure, and we demonstrate that the procedure has good performance in correcting this asymptotic bias. We illustrate spatial SIMEX in a study of air pollution and birthweight in Massachusetts. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Cardiorespiratory adaptation to breath-holding in air: Analysis via a cardiopulmonary simulation model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albanese, Antonio; Limei Cheng; Ursino, Mauro; Chbat, Nicolas W

    2015-01-01

    Apnea via breath-holding (BH) in air induces cardiorespiratory adaptation that involves the activation of several reflex mechanisms and their complex interactions. Hence, the effects of BH in air on cardiorespiratory function can become hardly predictable and difficult to be interpreted. Particularly, the effect on heart rate is not yet completely understood because of the contradicting results of different physiological studies. In this paper we apply our previously d