Sample records for air position indicators

  1. Organic compounds as indicators of air pollution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mølhave, Lars


    The most important indoor air pollutants have already been addressedwith individual national guidelines or recommendations. However, an interna-tional set of guidelines or recommendations for indoor air quality (IAQ) isneeded for these pollutants based on general and uniform rules for setting...... suchstandards. A major research need exist on the less adverse pollutants beforerecommendations or guidelines can be established. In the interim period a pre-caution principle should lead to an ALARA principle for these secondary cau-salities. It should be noted that volatile organic compound (VOC......) is an indicatorfor the presence of VOC indoors. The TVOC indicator can be used in relation toexposure characterization and source identification but for VOCs only, not as anindictor of other pollutants and their health effects. In risk assessment the TVOCindicator can only be used as a screening tool and only...

  2. Method of indicating the position of a drill head of a shaft drilling unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gudkov, G.D.; Fayner, L.B.; Gurerich, D.I.


    A method of indicating the position of a drill head of a shaft drilling unit consists of duplicating its position by an indicator which moves along with movement of the drill head during its forward and backward movements. In order to reduce time spent on auxilliary operations mismatching of the reading of the indicator and the position of the drill head is accomplished due to automatic rejection of the accumulated air during backward motion. The indicated mismatching is rejected at the end of the backward cycle.

  3. Air quality as respiratory health indicator: a critical review. (United States)

    Moshammer, Hanns; Wallner, Peter


    As part of the European Public Health project IMCA II validity and practicability of "air pollution" as a respiratory health indicator were analyzed. The definitions of air quality as an indicator proposed by the WHO project ECOEHIS and by IMCA I were compared. The public availability of the necessary data was checked through access to web-based data-bases. Practicability and interpretation of the indicator were discussed with project partners and external experts. Air quality serves as a kind of benchmark for the good health-related environmental policy. In this sense, it is a relevant health indicator. Although air quality is not directly in the responsibility of health policy, its vital importance for the population's health should not be neglected. In principle, data is available to calculate this IMCA indicator for any chosen area in Europe. The indicator is relevant and informative, but calculation and interpretation need input from local expert knowledge. The European health policy is well advised to take air quality into account. To that end, an interdisciplinary approach is warranted. The proposed definition of air quality as a (respiratory) health indicator is workable, but correct interpretation depends on expert and local knowledge.

  4. Toward the Next Generation of Air Quality Monitoring Indicators (United States)

    Hsu, Angel; Reuben, Aaron; Shindell, Drew; deSherbinin, Alex; Levy, Marc


    This paper introduces an initiative to bridge the state of scientific knowledge on air pollution with the needs of policymakers and stakeholders to design the "next generation" of air quality indicators. As a first step this initiative assesses current monitoring and modeling associated with a number of important pollutants with an eye toward identifying knowledge gaps and scientific needs that are a barrier to reducing air pollution impacts on human and ecosystem health across the globe. Four outdoor air pollutants were considered e particulate matter, ozone, mercury, and Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) e because of their clear adverse impacts on human and ecosystem health and because of the availability of baseline data for assessment for each. While other papers appearing in this issue will address each pollutant separately, this paper serves as a summary of the initiative and presents recommendations for needed investments to provide improved measurement, monitoring, and modeling data for policyrelevant indicators. The ultimate goal of this effort is to enable enhanced public policy responses to air pollution by linking improved data and measurement methods to decision-making through the development of indicators that can allow policymakers to better understand the impacts of air pollution and, along with source attribution based on modeling and measurements, facilitate improved policies to solve it. The development of indicators represents a crucial next step in this process.

  5. Effects of the "Positive Action" Program on Indicators of Positive Youth Development among Urban Youth (United States)

    Lewis, Kendra M.; Vuchinich, Samuel; Ji, Peter; DuBois, David L.; Acock, Alan; Bavarian, Niloofar; Day, Joseph; Silverthorn, Naida; Flay, Brian R.


    This study evaluated effects of "Positive Action," a school-based social-emotional and character development intervention, on indicators of positive youth development (PYD) among a sample of low-income, ethnic minority youth attending 14 urban schools. The study used a matched-pair, cluster-randomized controlled design at the school…

  6. Summary of safety relief valve position indication systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cybulski, D.S.; Walter, J.F.


    Mainly as a result of the Three Mile Island-2 (TMI-2) incident, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission's Regulatory Guide 1.97 instituted criteria recommendations for monitoring variables to: 1. provide information required to permit the operator to take preplanned manual actions to accomplish safe plant shutdown; 2. determine important to safety are performing their functions...; and 3. provide information to the operators that will enable them to determine the potential for causing a gross breach of the barriers to radioactivity release.... This report surveys the methodologies employed in nuclear plants to monitor Type D variables as referred to in Regulatory Guide 1.97. Type D are those variables that provide information to indicate the operation of individual safety systems and other systems important to safety. The specific Type D variable addressed is safety relief valve (i.e., spring style safety relief valve) position indication. The application criteria for each of the methodologies surveyed is as described in Regulatory Guide 1.97. That is, minimally to provide light indications of closed/not closed positions.

  7. Effects of the Positive Action Program on Indicators of Positive Youth Development Among Urban Youth


    Lewis, Kendra M.; Vuchinich, Samuel; Ji, Peter; DuBois, David L.; Acock, Alan; Bavarian, Niloofar; Day, Joseph; Silverthorn, Naida; Flay, Brian R.


    This study evaluated effects of Positive Action, a school-based social-emotional and character development (SECD) intervention, on indicators of positive youth development (PYD) among a sample of low-income, ethnic minority youth attending 14 urban schools. The study used a matched-pair, cluster-randomized controlled design at the school level. A multiple-measure self-report protocol assessed four key strengths and resources for PYD: self-concept, peer affiliations, ethics, and social skills....

  8. EPHT air quality (county PM2.5 and Ozone) indicators, 2001-2006 (United States)

    California Environmental Health Tracking Program — The EPHT air quality indicator files are from a SAS program which calculates the air indicators as developed by CDC's Environmental Public Health Tracking (EPHT) Air...

  9. Effects of the Positive Action Program on Indicators of Positive Youth Development Among Urban Youth. (United States)

    Lewis, Kendra M; Vuchinich, Samuel; Ji, Peter; DuBois, David L; Acock, Alan; Bavarian, Niloofar; Day, Joseph; Silverthorn, Naida; Flay, Brian R

    This study evaluated effects of Positive Action, a school-based social-emotional and character development (SECD) intervention, on indicators of positive youth development (PYD) among a sample of low-income, ethnic minority youth attending 14 urban schools. The study used a matched-pair, cluster-randomized controlled design at the school level. A multiple-measure self-report protocol assessed four key strengths and resources for PYD: self-concept, peer affiliations, ethics, and social skills. Students (n=1170) were assessed from grades 3 to 8, the duration of the intervention, with drop-outs and late entrants included in analyses. Growth curve analyses revealed evidence of favorable program effects on each of the four types of resources. The study contributes to PYD research by providing evidence for school-based interventions in low-income, urban contexts for ethnic minority youth.

  10. Social position and health in old age: the relevance of different indicators of social position

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Avlund, Kirsten; Holstein, Bjørn E; Osler, Merete;


    AIMS: An analysis was undertaken to investigate social inequalities in health among old men and women in relation to five indicators of social position. METHODS: The study is based on a population-based cross-sectional survey among 748 75-year-old men and women, which was performed as clinical...... examinations and interviews in 1989 in Glostrup, a suburban area west of Copenhagen. Social position was measured by vocational education, occupation, social class, income, and housing tenure. Health was measured by number of chronic diseases, tiredness in relation to mobility, need of help in relation...... to mobility, oral health (number of teeth), and well-being (the CES-D Scale). The statistical analysis included bivariate contingency tables and logistic regression analyses. RESULTS: Two material wealth variables (income and tenure) were consistently related to nearly all health measures while...

  11. Characterizing multi-pollutant air pollution in China: Comparison of three air quality indices. (United States)

    Hu, Jianlin; Ying, Qi; Wang, Yungang; Zhang, Hongliang


    Multi-pollutant air pollution (i.e., several pollutants reaching very high concentrations simultaneously) frequently occurs in many regions across China. Air quality index (AQI) is used worldwide to inform the public about levels of air pollution and associated health risks. The current AQI approach used in China is based on the maximum value of individual pollutants, and does not consider the combined health effects of exposure to multiple pollutants. In this study, two novel alternative indices--aggregate air quality index (AAQI) and health-risk based air quality index (HAQI)--were calculated based on data collected in six megacities of China (Beijing, Shanghai, Guangzhou, Shjiazhuang, Xi'an, and Wuhan) during 2013 to 2014. Both AAQI and HAQI take into account the combined health effects of various pollutants, and the HAQI considers the exposure (or concentration)-response relationships of pollutants. AAQI and HAQI were compared to AQI to examine the effectiveness of the current AQI in characterizing multi-pollutant air pollution in China. The AAQI and HAQI values are higher than the AQI on days when two or more pollutants simultaneously exceed the Chinese Ambient Air Quality Standards (CAAQS) 24-hour Grade II standards. The results of the comparison of the classification of risk categories based on the three indices indicate that the current AQI approach underestimates the severity of health risk associated with exposure to multi-pollutant air pollution. For the AQI-based risk category of 'unhealthy', 96% and 80% of the days would be 'very unhealthy' or 'hazardous' if based on AAQI and HAQI, respectively; and for the AQI-based risk category of 'very unhealthy', 67% and 75% of the days would be 'hazardous' if based on AAQI and HAQI, respectively. The results suggest that the general public, especially sensitive population groups such as children and the elderly, should take more stringent actions than those currently suggested based on the AQI approach during

  12. Making air quality indices comparable--assessment of 10 years of air pollutant levels in western Europe. (United States)

    Lokys, Hanna Leona; Junk, Jürgen; Krein, Andreas


    To address the incomparability of the large number of existing air quality indices, we propose a new normalization method that is suited to directly compare air quality indices based on the common European World Health Organization (WHO) air quality guidelines for NO2, O3, and PM10. Using this method, we compared three air quality indices based on the European guidelines, related them to another air quality index based on the relative risk concept, and used them to assess the air quality and its trends in northwest central Europe. The average air quality in the area of investigation is below the recommended European guidelines. The majority of index values exceeding this threshold are caused by PM10, which is also, in most cases, responsible for the degrading trends in air quality. Eleven out of 29 stations tested showed significant trends, of which eight indicated trends towards better air quality.

  13. Position indicating split toroid for the RACE experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hurst, B. [Nuclear Engineering Teaching Laboratory, University of Texas, 10100 Burnet Road, Austin, TX 78758 (United States)]. E-mail:; Folkman, K. [Idaho Accelerator Center, Idaho State University, Pocatello, ID 83201 (United States)


    Aspects of the recent reactor accelerator coupled experiments (RACE) carried out at University of Texas Nuclear Engineering Teaching Laboratory will be discussed. In particular, a compact instrument that allowed a continuous non-invasive means of determining the relative electron beam position was developed. The operation of the instrument is similar to an inductive current pick up toroid except that the core is sectioned radially, which allows spatial information to be derived from the induced voltages. Results of initial tests, both in beam and with a pulser, will be presented along with plans to optimize future designs.

  14. Isohaline position as a habitat indicator for estuarine populations (United States)

    Jassby, Alan D.; Kimmerer, W.J.; Monismith, Stephen G.; Armor, C.; Cloern, James E.; Powell, T.M.; Vedlinski, Timothy J.


    Populations of native and introduced aquatic organisms in the San Francisco Bay/Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta Estuary ("Bay/Delta") have undergone significant declines over the past two decades. Decreasedriver inflow due to drought and increased freshwater diversion have contributed to the decline of atleast some populations. Effective management of the estuary's biological resources requires a sensitive indicatorof the response to freshwater inflow that has ecological significance, can be measured accurately and easily,and could be used as a "policy" variable to set standards for managing freshwater inflow. Positioning of the2% (grams of salt per kilogram of seawater) bottom salinity value along the axis of the estuary was examinedfor this purpose.

  15. Percentage of migration as indicator of femoral head position

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ekloef, O.; Ringertz, H.; Samuelsson, L.

    In childhood subluxation of one or both hips may develop rather insidiously. For lack of generally accepted objective methods of assessment, ambiguous interpretations of findings in serial examinations are common. Many subluxations are overlooked during the early stages. In order to overcome such disadvantages, determination of the percentage of migration seems to be a reasonably easy and reliable technique facilitating evaluation of impending dislocation. This investigation was carried out in order to estabilsh norms applicable to patients in the pediatric age interval. The 98th percentile of migration increases with age from 16% in patients < 4 years of age to 24% in patients greater than or equal to 12 years. Higher figures represent subluxation. If the migration exceeds 80% a manifest luxation is present. A difference in migration between the two hips larger than 12% indicates abnormality calling for clinical and radiologic follow-up.

  16. Analysis of nocturnal air temperature in districts using mobile measurements and a cooling indicator (United States)

    Leconte, François; Bouyer, Julien; Claverie, Rémy; Pétrissans, Mathieu


    The urban heat island phenomenon is generally defined as an air temperature difference between a city center and the non-urbanized rural areas nearby. However, this description does not encompass the intra-urban temperature differences that exist between neighborhoods in a city. This study investigates the air temperature dynamics of neighborhoods for meteorological conditions that lead to important urban heat island amplitude. Local climate zones (LCZs) have been determined in Nancy, France, and mobile screen-height air temperature measurements are performed using an instrumented vehicle. Initially, hourly measurements are performed within four different LCZs. These results show that air temperature within LCZ demonstrates a nocturnal cooling in two phases, i.e., a first phase between 1 to 3 h before sunset and 3 to 5 h after sunset, and a second phase from 3 to 5 h after sunset to sunrise. During phase 1, neighborhoods exhibit different cooling rate values and air temperature gaps develop between districts, while during phase 2, cooling rates tend to be analogous. Then, a larger meteorological data set is used to investigate these two phases for a selection of 13 LCZs. Normalized cooling rates are calculated between daytime measures and nighttime measures in order to quantify the air temperature dynamics of the studied areas during phase 1. Considering this indicator, three groups are emerging: LCZ compact midrise and open midrise with mean normalized cooling rate values of 0.09 h -1 LCZ large lowrise and open lowrise/sparsely built with mean normalized cooling rate values of 0.011 h -1 LCZ low plants with mean normalized cooling rate values of 0.014 h -1 Results indicate that the relative position of LCZ within the conurbation does not drive air temperature dynamics during phase 1. In addition, measures performed during phase 2 tend to illustrate that cooling rates are similar to all LCZ during this period.

  17. Aerosol Indices Derived from MODIS Data for Indicating Aerosol-Induced Air Pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junliang He


    Full Text Available Aerosol optical depth (AOD is a critical variable in estimating aerosol concentration in the atmosphere, evaluating severity of atmospheric pollution, and studying their impact on climate. With the assistance of the 6S radiative transfer model, we simulated apparent reflectancein relation to AOD in each Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS waveband in this study. The closeness of the relationship was used to identify the most and least sensitive MODIS wavebands. These two bands were then used to construct three aerosol indices (difference, ratio, and normalized difference for estimating AOD quickly and effectively. The three indices were correlated, respectively, with in situ measured AOD at the Aerosol Robotic NETwork (AERONET Lake Taihu, Beijing, and Xianghe stations. It is found that apparent reflectance of the blue waveband (band 3 is the most sensitive to AOD while the mid-infrared wavelength (band 7 is the least sensitive. The difference aerosol index is the most accurate in indicating aerosol-induced atmospheric pollution with a correlation coefficient of 0.585, 0.860, 0.685, and 0.333 at the Lake Taihu station, 0.721, 0.839, 0.795, and 0.629 at the Beijing station, and 0.778, 0.782, 0.837, and 0.643 at the Xianghe station in spring, summer, autumn and winter, respectively. It is concluded that the newly proposed difference aerosol index can be used effectively to study the level of aerosol-induced air pollution from MODIS satellite imagery with relative ease.

  18. Social position and health in old age. The relevance of different indicators of social position

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Avlund, Kirsten; Holstein, Bjørn Evald; Osler, Merete


    Social medicine, social position, chronic diseases, material wealth, income, tenure, oral health, functional ability, well-being, mobility......Social medicine, social position, chronic diseases, material wealth, income, tenure, oral health, functional ability, well-being, mobility...

  19. Influence of a portable air treatment unit on health-related quality indicators of indoor air in a classroom.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheepers, P.T.J.; Cremers, R.G.H.M.; Hout, S.P. van; Anzion, R.B.M.


    During periods of two weeks in February and June 2010 the performance of portable air treatment units (PATUs) was evaluated in a primary school classroom using indicators of indoor air quality. Air samples were collected in an undisturbed setting on weekend days and in an occupied setting during tea

  20. Valve position indicator & indicator adjust%阀位指示器及其指示调节

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    明仁雄; 万会雄


    This article brief disscuss the primary structure and working principle of the valve position indicator in the immersion type hydraulic driving butterfly valve,and introduced the correct adjustive method of the valve position indicator.%简要叙述了浸液式液压驱动蝶阀阀位指示器的主要结构及工作原理,并介绍了阀位指示器正确调节方法。

  1. Experiments on propagating and branching positive streamers in air

    CERN Document Server

    Briels, T M P; Ebert, Ute


    This proceedings paper from 2004 contains figures of discharges in different gap lengths at the same potential that are not available elsewhere. The 2004 abstract: The evolution of streamers is known to depend on gas composition and electrode geometry, on polarity and size of the voltage and also on the electric circuit that produces the high voltage pulse. To characterize the phenomena better and to compare with theory, a new larger experimental setup with vacuum enclosure has been built. We here present first results in this setup on positive streamers in air at fixed voltage and varying electrode distance. While next to the emitting anode tip, a similar number of streamers seems to emerge due to multiple branching, more streamers seem to survive over a fixed distance, when the gap is shorter. When lowering the voltage, streamers branch less at all distances from the anode tip or do not branch at all beyond a certain distance.

  2. Pulsed positive streamer discharges in air at high temperatures (United States)

    Ono, Ryo; Kamakura, Taku


    Atmospheric-pressure air pulsed positive streamer discharges are generated in a 13 mm point-plane gap in the temperature range of 293 K-1136 K, and the effect of temperature on the streamer discharges is studied. When the temperature is increased, the product of applied voltage and temperature VT proportional to the reduced electric field can be used as a primary parameter that determines some discharge parameters regardless of temperature. For a given VT, the transferred charge per pulse, streamer diameter, product of discharge energy and temperature, and length of secondary streamer are almost constant regardless of T, whereas the streamer velocity decreases with increasing T and the decay rate of the discharge current is proportional to 1/T. The N2(C) emission intensity is approximately determined by the discharge energy independent of T. These results are useful to predict the streamer discharge and its reactive species production when the ambient temperature is increased.

  3. Experimental study of hard X-rays emitted from meter-scale positive discharges in air

    CERN Document Server

    Kochkin, P O; van Deursen, A P J; Ebert, U


    We investigate structure and evolution of long positive spark breakdown; and we study at which stage pulses of hard X-rays are emitted. Positive high-voltage pulses of standardized lightning impulse wave form of about 1 MV were applied to about 1 meter of ambient air. The discharge evolution was imaged with a resolution of tens of nanoseconds with an intensified CCD camera. LaBr3(Ce+) scintillation detectors recorded the X-rays emitted during the process. The voltage and the currents on both electrodes were measured synchronously. All measurements indicate that first a large and dense corona of positive streamers emerges from the high voltage electrode. When they approach the grounded electrode, negative counter-streamers emerge there, and the emission of hard X-rays coincides with the connection of the positive streamers with the negative counter-streamers.

  4. A Comprehensive Real-Time Indoor Air-Quality Level Indicator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jungho Kang


    Full Text Available The growing concern about Indoor Air-Quality has accelerated the development of small, low-cost air-quality monitoring systems. These systems are capable of monitoring various indoor air pollutants in real time, notifying users about the current air-quality status and gathering the information to the central server. However, most Internet of Things (IoT-based air-quality monitoring systems numerically present the sensed value per pollutant, making it difficult for general users to identify how polluted the air is. Therefore, in this paper, we first introduce a tiny air-quality monitoring system that we developed and, based on the system, we also test the applicability of the comprehensive Air-Quality Index (AQI, which is widely used all over the world, in terms of its capacity for a comprehensive indoor air-quality indication. We also develop design considerations for an IoT-based air-quality monitoring system and propose a real-time comprehensive indoor air-quality level indication method, which effectively copes with dynamic changes and is efficient in terms of processing and memory overhead.

  5. 46 CFR 169.744 - Emergency position indicating radio beacon (EPIRB). (United States)


    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Emergency position indicating radio beacon (EPIRB). 169.744 Section 169.744 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS... position indicating radio beacon (EPIRB). Each EPIRB must be marked with the vessel's name....

  6. 46 CFR 169.555 - Emergency position indicating radio beacon (EPIRB). (United States)


    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Emergency position indicating radio beacon (EPIRB). 169.555 Section 169.555 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS... Emergency position indicating radio beacon (EPIRB). (a) Each vessel certificated for exposed waters...

  7. Air samplings in a Campylobacter jejuni positive laying hen flock. (United States)

    Ahmed, Marwa Fawzy El Metwaly; Schulz, Jochen; Hartung, Joerg


    The air in laying hen houses contains high concentrations of airborne bacteria. The numbers of these bacteria can be influenced by the efficiency of the chosen sampling method. In the presented study, AGI-30 Impingers and the Coriolis(®)µ air Sampler were compared in terms of their efficiency in sampling aerobic mesophilic bacteria in a laying hen house. Measurements were conducted in a laying hen flock with high prevalences of C. jejuni in order to investigate if culturable cells of this organism can also be detected by the applied methods. Airborne dust was also analyzed for the presence of C. jejuni specific DNA to assess the possible occurrence of non-culturable C. jejuni in the hen house air. The numbers of mesophilic airborne bacteria ranged from 8 × 10(4) - 2 × 10(6) CFU/m(-3) when sampled using AGI-30 Impingers, and from 2 × 10(5) - 4 × 10(6) CFU/m -3 when sampled using a Coriolis(®)µ air Sampler. The concentrations detected simultaneously by both devices correlated well (rPearson = 0.755), but the Coriolis(®)µ air Sampler showed a significantly higher sampling efficiency (phen house air, and in future it should be verified whether sampling stress of the air sampling methods could induce the non-culturable state.

  8. Indicators chest rheography at swimmers at rest and after exercise in different body positions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariya Sinyugina


    Full Text Available Purpose: Study of chest rheography for skilled swimmers when the dosage of physical activity in different body positions. Materials and Methods: the study involved 20 qualified swimmers for middle and long distance. Results: studies changes rheographic indicators from qualified swimmers in response to exercise in different positions of the body showed a clear dependence of the structure and functional hemodynamic changes the position of the body in which the exercise is carried out. Conclusions: found that when evaluating the success of readiness of swimmers and planning training loads must be based on indicators of physical performance obtained during exercise in a horizontal position of the body.

  9. Five patellar proximodistal positioning indices compared in clinically normal Greenland sled dogs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miles, James E; Dickow, Marlene; Nielsen, Dorte H


    Patellar luxation in large-breed dogs is associated with abnormal proximodistal patellar positioning. Using a clinically normal population of Greenland sled dogs, measurement reliability and the effect of limb position were compared for five patellar proximodistal positioning indices based...... on the Insall-Salvati (IS), modified Insall-Salvati (mIS), de Carvalho (dC), patellotrochlear (PT) and Blackburne-Peel (BP) indices. Indices were measured at one knee angle in 44 dogs and two knee angles in 10 dogs. Index susceptibility to error was modelled for different errors in knee angle estimation. Two...

  10. Metal | polypyrrole battery with the air regenerated positive electrode (United States)

    Grgur, Branimir N.


    Recharge characteristics of the battery based on the electrochemically synthesized polypyrrole cathode and aluminum, zinc, or magnesium anode in 2 M NH4Cl are investigated. It is shown that polypyrrole electrode can be regenerated by the reoxidation with the dissolved oxygen from the air. Using the polypyrrole synthesized on high surface graphite-felt electrode under modest discharge conditions, stable discharge voltage of 1.1 V is obtained. Such behavior is explained by the complex interaction of polypyrrole and hydrogen peroxide produced by the oxygen reduction reaction. The electrochemical characteristics are compared with the zinc-manganese dioxide and zinc-air systems.

  11. Relative Position Indicator Concept for Managing Mixed RNAV and Vectored Arrival Traffic Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Mosaic ATM proposes to study a Relative Position Indicator (RPI) concept for managing mixed RNAV and traditionally vectored arrival traffic, to enable increased...




    Abstract: Aiming to analyze self-concept indicators among adolescents, 343 students from public and private schools in the city of São Paulo, aged 11 and 18, answered questions about concerns related to the school, general concerns and their most positive aspect. Overall, it was observed that they are skillful to indicate positive aspects of their behavior, with specific responses varying according to gender, age and type of school. Youths concerns are mostly related to the school environment...

  13. TEE monitoring for RA-horizontal paradoxical arterial air embolism during sitting-position surgery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    A 36-year-old woman suffered meningioma in her right cerebellopontine angle.Air embolisms often complicate sitting-position surgeries.Because TEE guides the localization of central venous catheters and promptly locates air embolisms promptly enough for effective treatment,TEE is an effective monitoring method for sitting-position surgeries.

  14. Process capability indices and risk analysis for circular position tolerance zones (United States)

    Krystek, Michael P.


    Position tolerance is used in geometric dimensioning and tolerancing to specify tolerances for the location of holes. The tolerance zone for holes is usually cylindrical and the allowable position tolerance is the diameter of the tolerance zone. If holes are used in flat parts, as e. g. sheet metals, it is sufficient to use circular tolerance zones. In order to assure the quality and to reduce the risk to accept products which do not fulfil the design requirements, statistical process control is used in industry. In this paper it is shown, how process capability indices and the associated risk can be calculated for circular position tolerance zones.

  15. Air quality indication in Blace (Southeastern Serbia using lichens as bioindicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stamenković S.M.


    Full Text Available Air quality investigations have not been undertaken in Blace until now. Identifying the presence of different types of epiphytic lichens was performed in the summer 2012 in Blace (southeastern Serbia, and selected rural settlements around Blace, in order to establish the air quality of the area. The analysis of samples from described localities indicated the presence of 25 lichen taxa from 19 genera. Using the Index of Atmospheric Purity (IAP, it was found that there are 2 different air pollution zones in Blace: “lichen desert” and “transitional” or “struggle zone”, which includes the periphery of the city. In these zones the air is moderately polluted. In the urban area of Blace there is no “normal” zone, but one was detected in the surrounding rural areas. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. OI 171025 i br. III 41018

  16. 46 CFR 169.831 - Emergency position indicating radio beacon (EPIRB). (United States)


    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Emergency position indicating radio beacon (EPIRB). 169.831 Section 169.831 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS... radio beacon (EPIRB). The master shall ensure that— (a) The EPIRB required in § 169.555 of...

  17. 46 CFR 28.150 - Emergency Position Indicating Radio Beacons (EPIRBs). (United States)


    ... beacon (EPIRB) as required by 46 CFR part 25, subpart 25.26. Note: Each vessel which uses radio..., as set forth in 47 CFR part 80. ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Emergency Position Indicating Radio Beacons (EPIRBs)....

  18. Indicators of positive and negative emotions and emotional contagion in pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reimert, I.; Bolhuis, J.E.; Kemp, B.; Rodenburg, T.B.


    For the welfare of group-housed animals, such as pigs, the emotional state of an individual pig is relevant, but also the extent to which pen mates are affected by the distress or pleasure of other individuals, i.e. emotional contagion, a simple form of empathy. Therefore, indicators of positive and

  19. Environmental Learning Workshop: Lichen as Biological Indicator of Air Quality and Impact on Secondary Students' Performance (United States)

    Samsudin, Mohd Wahid; Daik, Rusli; Abas, Azlan; Meerah, T. Subahan Mohd; Halim, Lilia


    In this study, the learning of science outside the classroom is believe to be an added value to science learning as well as it offers students to interact with the environment. This study presents data obtained from two days' workshop on Lichen as Biological Indicator for Air Quality. The aim of the workshop is for the students to gain an…

  20. Can pine needles indicate trends in the air pollution levels at remote sites?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klanova, Jana, E-mail: klanova@recetox.muni.c [Research Centre for Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology RECETOX, Masaryk University, Kamenice 126/3, 625 00 Brno (Czech Republic); Cupr, Pavel; Barakova, Daniela; Seda, Zdenek; Andel, Petr; Holoubek, Ivan [Research Centre for Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology RECETOX, Masaryk University, Kamenice 126/3, 625 00 Brno (Czech Republic)


    Data from ten years of integrated monitoring were used here to evaluate whether pine needles are a feasible tool for an assessment of long-term trends of the atmospheric contamination. Pine needles collected once a year were compared to high volume air samples collected for 24 h, every 7 days, and passive air samples integrated over 28-day periods. Results showed the same concentration patterns of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) captured in needles and high volume samples. Passive air samplers were less efficient in sampling the particle-bound compounds. Theoretical air volume equivalent to each needle sample (V{sub EQ}) was calculated as a ratio of the needle concentration over the mean air concentration. Results indicated different equivalent volumes for PAHs and organochlorines, possibly due to the faster degradation rates of PAHs in needles. The most important finding is that in the long term a needle monitoring gives very similar information on temporal trends of the atmospheric pollution as does a high volume air monitoring. - Pine needle monitoring is a feasible tool for an assessment of temporal trends in the atmospheric contamination.

  1. Positive indicators of cattle welfare and their applicability to on-farm protocols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe De Rosa


    Full Text Available Most of the research on animal welfare has focused on the negative aspects of the matter including an array of stress categories, whereas little has been done about the positive states of well being. The present study aims to describe indicators of positive animal welfare suitable for on-farm assessment. Appropriate environmental stimulation favours good welfare and, in an adequately enriched environment, positive indicators of welfare such as play behaviour tend to be more common. In addition, animals are motivated to perform these behaviours only if their primary needs are satisfied. In cattle, beneficial effects of social licking have been observed with positive correlation between being licked vs. milk production and weight gain, respectively. Ruminants are gregarious and a high degree of synchronisation within the herd may indicate a positive welfare state, in particular for subordinate animals. They may be able to meet their basic feeding and resting requirements performing these behaviours when the competition for a particular resource is low, however their welfare state would be improved if they could choose when and where (i.e. along with the other members of the group to perform such behaviours. Due to the reduced applicability (mainly young animals, low feasibility (time consuming and lack of research on reliability, play behaviour, albeit of proven validity, does not appear to be suitable for a rapid implementation in a welfare assessment scheme. Social licking is rarely expressed and its detection may be time consuming and scarcely feasible. Although validity and reliability need more studies, behaviour synchrony seems to be a promising positive welfare indicator as the instantaneous scan sampling technique makes this indicator easily applicable. Recently, a new methodology called “qualitative assessment of animal behaviour” has been developed. The method relies on a number of terms which are freely generated by observers. Thus


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available With the emergence of HIV pandemic there is an alarming increase in both HIV and Tuberculosis cases cause’s major health problems due to poor socio-economic status in developing and resource poor countries. HIV and Tuberculosis infection hand in hand kills more population than all other infections combined. Both HIV and Tuberculosis is a major health problem. So the present study is under taken to know present scenario of HIV and TB in the rural set up, Amalapuram, East Godavari District, Andhra Pradesh. Out of 100 suspected cases with HIV and Tuberculosis with malnutrition, 10 samples were found to be HIV positive by rapid and ELISA. Among 10 positive HIV cases 6 cases were found to be positive for AFB by ZN stain indicating both HIV and Tuberculosis go hand in hand.

  3. Effect of wrist position on the measurement of carpal indices on the lateral radiograph. (United States)

    Koh, K H; Lee, H I; Lim, K S; Seo, J S; Park, M J


    The purpose of this study was to find out whether the carpal indices measured on lateral radiographs with a slightly malpositioned wrist are the same as those measured in the true neutral position. Lateral radiographic views of 25 wrists were taken with 5° intervals from 20° of flexion to 20° of extension. Most carpal indices measured in the flexed or extended position were significantly different from the wrist in zero flexion-extension, except scapholunate angle at 5° of extension and scaphocapitate angle at 5° and 10° of flexion. Starting from the flexed position, there was an average of -4.0° change in radioscaphoid angle, -1.0° in scapholunate angle, -1.0° in scaphocapitate angle, +3.0° in radiolunate angle, and +2.0° in lunocapitate angle for each 5° of extension with linear trends. The results from this study suggest that even minimal degrees of flexion-extension can affect the measurements of carpal indices on lateral radiographs.

  4. Comparison of the Revised Air Quality Index with the PSI and AQI indices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Wan-Li; Chen, Yu-Song; Chang, Shiang-Hung [Dept of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tunghai University, Taichung 407 (China); Zhang, Junfeng [Division of Environmental and Occupational Health, University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey, NJ 08854 (United States); Lyons, T.J. [Environmental Science, Murdoch University, Murdoch, WA 6150 (Australia); Pai, Joy-Lynn [Sunway Environmental Technology Co., Ltd., Taipei 104 (China)


    Air pollution indices are commonly used to indicate the level of severity of air pollution to the public. The Pollution Standards Index (PSI) was initially established in response to a dramatic increase in the number of people suffering respiratory irritation due to the deteriorating air quality. The PSI was subsequently revised and implemented by the USEPA in 1999, and became known as the Air Quality Index (AQI) that includes data relating to particle suspension, PM{sub 2.5}, and a selective options of either 8-hour or 1-hour ozone concentration during increased O{sub 3} periods. Yet, the costs of launching a network of PM{sub 2.5} monitoring stations are prohibitively high for many countries to implement the AQI from the PSI system in the foreseeable future. Therefore, the purpose of this research is to discuss the optimal method of assessing air quality using the latest developed Revised AQI (RAQI), a system that serves as an alternative to the PSI and AQI systems. The feasibility, effectiveness, and the differences between RAQI, AQI, and PSI in their applications to several air pollution conditions are also studied in this research. The results show that southern Taiwan's suspended particulates have significantly greater impact on PM{sub 2.5}/PM{sub 10} ratios than in central and northern metropolitan areas, and that the ratios are higher in Taiwan as a whole compared to many other countries. We also found that the RAQI shows more significant results compared to the PSI and AQI as it has a wider coverage of the range of pollutant concentration levels. (author)

  5. Reducing position error signal (PES) due to disk vibration using an air shroud (United States)

    He, Zhimin; Du, Chunling; Mou, Jianqiang; Ong, Eng Hong


    The advances in magnetic recording technology demand higher magnetic head positioning accuracy and faster disk rotation speed. However, the higher rotational speed of disk generates the greater flow-induced vibration known as disk flutter, which causes the increase of the track misregistration (TMR). To overcome the issue, an air shroud is presented to reduce disk vibration and position error signal (PES) for magnetic recording. Computational fluid mechanics simulations are performed to study the flow pattern surrounding a disk with an air shroud for different openings. The air-bearing stiffness and damping effects of the disk spindle assembly with an air shroud are evaluated. Based on the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation, the air shroud is prototyped and the disk vibrations with and without the air shroud at different disk rotation speeds are experimentally investigated using a laser Doppler vibrometer (LDV). Significant disk vibration reductions are attained while a shroud is installed onto a disk at certain disk rotation speeds. PESs are also measured for the cases with and without an air shroud during servo implementation. Reductions of PESs are observed when an air shroud is installed at some disk rotation speeds.

  6. Experimental calibration of the mathematical model of Air Torque Position dampers with non-cascading blades

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bikić Siniša M.


    Full Text Available This paper is focused on the mathematical model of the Air Torque Position dampers. The mathematical model establishes a link between the velocity of air in front of the damper, position of the damper blade and the moment acting on the blade caused by the air flow. This research aims to experimentally verify the mathematical model for the damper type with non-cascading blades. Four different types of dampers with non-cascading blades were considered: single blade dampers, dampers with two cross-blades, dampers with two parallel blades and dampers with two blades of which one is a fixed blade in the horizontal position. The case of a damper with a straight pipeline positioned in front of and behind the damper was taken in consideration. Calibration and verification of the mathematical model was conducted experimentally. The experiment was conducted on the laboratory facility for testing dampers used for regulation of the air flow rate in heating, ventilation and air conditioning systems. The design and setup of the laboratory facility, as well as construction, adjustment and calibration of the laboratory damper are presented in this paper. The mathematical model was calibrated by using one set of data, while the verification of the mathematical model was conducted by using the second set of data. The mathematical model was successfully validated and it can be used for accurate measurement of the air velocity on dampers with non-cascading blades under different operating conditions. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR31058

  7. Compressed Air Energy Storage: Optimal Performance and Techno-Economical Indices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Vadasz


    Full Text Available A thermodynamic and techno-economical analysis of a Compressed Air Energy Storage system subjected to an exogenous periodic electricity price function of the interconnection is presented. The fundamental parameters affecting the thermodynamic performance and the techno-economical cost-benefit indices are identified and corresponding optimisation problems are formulated. The results of the analysis permit to obtain the optimal values of the fundamental plant parameters to be used in the design process.

  8. Analysis of air pollution from industrial plants by lichen indication on example of small town (United States)

    Orlova, K. N.; Pietkova, I. R.; Borovikov, I. F.


    According to the research the species of lichens such as Parmelia sulcata, Parmeliopsis ambigua, Phiscia stellaris, Xanthoria parietina are founded on example of small town. Values of clear air index correlated with the average content of sulphur dioxide in the air. These measurement points correspond to residential areas and regions of the objects of food industry. Two zones zero projective coverage are selected. These most polluted zones corresponded to the location of the metallurgical industry and heat electropower station. The roof production and abrasive industry do not show a significant increase in the concentration of sulfur dioxide in the contiguous territory. By method lichen indication on example of small city two zones lichen deserts (sulfur dioxide concentration greater than 0.3 mg/m3) and one area of critical pollution (sulfur dioxide concentration of 0.1 -0.3 mg/m3) were founded. The largest area of air pollution allegedly linked to the activities of plants. Thus metallurgical industry and heat electropower station can be called major air pollutants in small towns.

  9. Prediction of soil frost penetration depth in northwest of Iran using air freezing indices (United States)

    Mohammadi, H.; Moghbel, M.; Ranjbar, F.


    Information about soil frost penetration depth can be effective in finding appropriate solutions to reduce the agricultural crop damage, transportations, and building facilities. Amongst proper methods to achieve this information are the statistical and empirical models capable of estimating soil frost penetration depth. Therefore, the main objective of this research is to calculate soil frost penetration depth in northwest of Iran during the year 2007-2008 to validate two different models accuracy. To do so, the relationship between air and soil temperature in different depths (5-10-20-30-50-100 cm) at three times of the day (3, 9, and 15 GMT) for 14 weather stations over 7 provinces was analyzed using linear regression. Then, two different air freezing indices (AFIs) including Norwegian and Finn AFI was implemented. Finally, the frost penetration depth was calculated by McKeown method and the accuracy of models determined by actual soil frost penetration depth. The results demonstrated that there is a significant correlation between air and soil depth temperature in all studied stations up to the 30 cm under the surface. Also, according to the results, Norwegian index can be effectively used for determination of soil frost depth penetration and the correlation coefficient between actual and estimated soil frost penetration depth is r = 0.92 while the Finn index overestimates the frost depth in all stations with correlation coefficient r = 0.70.

  10. Evaluating Cadet Leadership Position at the U.S. Air Force Academy (United States)


    Officer Development System PAR Prior Academic Record PEA Physical Education Average PITO Personal, Interpersonal , Team, Organizational ROC...positions (Kotter, 1990, p. 3; Cronin, 2011, p. 255). The Air Force perspective on leadership contains both inspirational and managerial interpersonal ...relationship between trait variables (e.g. intelligence, warmth , conformity) and subordinate and superior ratings of leadership behavior. The sample for

  11. Circuit dependence of the diameter of pulsed positive streamers in air

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Briels, T.M.P.; Kos, J.; Veldhuizen, E.M. van; Ebert, U.


    Diameter and branching structure of positive streamers in ambient air are investigated with a fast iCCD-camera. We use different pulsed power circuits and find that they generate different spatial streamer structures. The electrodes have a point-plane geometry and a distance of 40 or 80 mm, and the


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Muchacka


    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the effect of elevated air temperature in the first grow period on some physiological indicators of broiler chickens of different origin. Day-old Ross 308 and Hubbard Flex broiler chickens were assigned to 4 groups. Groups I (Ross 308 and II (Hubbard Flex were kept under standard thermal conditions throughout rearing, and groups III (Ross 308 and IV (Hubbard Flex were exposed to 10°C higher than recommended air temperature from 1 to 21 days of rearing. At 1, 21 and 42 days of the experiment, blood was collected from 10 birds in each group to determine T3 and T4, total protein, immunoglobulin complex, glucose, hemoglobin and hematocrit levels. The exposure to the thermal challenge decreased T3 and T4 levels at 21 days of rearing in both Ross 308 and Hubbard flex broilers compared to birds raised under standard thermal conditions. At 21 days of the experiment was observed a statistically significantly lower concentration of total protein in group I compared with group III and between group II and IV. There was no effect of elevated air temperature on the immunoglobulin complex concentration in the blood of birds of both genetic groups. In both genetic groups, the exposure to the thermal challenge caused a tendency to decrease the concentration of glucose. Statistically significant differences at 21 days of rearing of the hemoglobin content were observed between Ross 308 birds from groups I and III. The thermal challenge caused a statistically significant decrease in hematocrit levels in birds from both genetic groups at 21 days of the experiment. The thermal challenge upset the body’s homeostasis in both genetic groups of chickens, which possibly suggests that elevated air temperature during the first period of rearing has a negative effect on the welfare of broilers, regardless of their origin.

  13. Force measurements in positive unipolar wire-to-plane corona discharges in air

    CERN Document Server

    de Haan, V O


    Measurements of force generated by a positive unipolar wire-to-plane corona discharge in air are compared with numerical simulations. The generated force does not depend on the ion or electron mobilities, preventing the influence of uncertainty and variation of these parameters. A method is described to simulate the voltage and charge distribution for a wire-to-plane set-up. This method enables the determination of the transition between unipolar and bipolar discharges. In the experimental set-up breakdown electric field of air reduces with increasing discharge current.

  14. Trophic position of soil nematodes in boreal forests as indicated by stable isotope analysis (United States)

    Kudrin, Alexey; Tsurikov, Sergey


    Despite the well-developed trophic classification of soil nematodes, their position in soil food webs is still little understood. Observed deviations from the typical feeding strategy indicate that a simplified trophic classification probably does not fully reflect actual trophic interactions. Furthermore, the extent and functional significance of nematodes as prey for other soil animals remains unknown. Stable isotope analysis (SIA) is powerful tool for investigating the structure of soil food webs, but its application to the study of soil nematodes has been limited to only a few studies. We used stable isotope analysis to gain a better understanding of trophic links of several groups of soil nematodes in two boreal forests on albeluvisol. We investigated four taxonomic groups of nematodes: Mononchida, Dorylaimida, Plectidae and Tylenchidae (mostly from the genus Filenchus), that according to the conventional trophic classification represent predators, omnivores, bacterivores and root-fungal feeders, respectively. To assess the trophic position of nematodes, we used a comparison against a set of reference species including herbivorous, saprophagous and predatory macro-invertebrates, oribatid and mesostigmatid mites, and collembolans. Our results suggest that trophic position of the investigated groups of soil nematodes generally corresponds to the conventional classification. All nematodes were enriched in 13C relative to Picea abies roots and litter, and mycorrhizal fungal mycelium. Root-fungal feeders Tylenchidae had δ15N values similar to those of earthworms, enchytraeids and Entomobrya collembolans, but slightly lower δ13C values. Bacterivorous Plectidae were either equal or enriched in 15N compared with saprophagous macroinvertebrates and most mesofauna species. Omnivorous Dorylaimida and predatory Mononchida were further enriched in 15N and their isotopic signature was similar to that of predatory arthropods. These data confirm a clear separation of

  15. Influence of Peer Social Experiences on Positive and Negative Indicators of Mental Health among High School Students (United States)

    Suldo, Shannon M.; Gelley, Cheryl D.; Roth, Rachel A.; Bateman, Lisa P.


    Modern definitions of complete mental health include both positive and negative indicators of psychological functioning. We examined the associations between peer relationships (victimization and receipt of prosocial acts) and multiple indicators of mental health that represent subjective well-being (i.e., life satisfaction, positive and negative…

  16. Chemical and structural indicators for large redox potentials in Fe-based positive electrode materials. (United States)

    Melot, Brent C; Scanlon, David O; Reynaud, Marine; Rousse, Gwenaëlle; Chotard, Jean-Noël; Henry, Marc; Tarascon, Jean-Marie


    Li-ion batteries have enabled a revolution in the way portable consumer-electronics are powered and will play an important role as large-scale electrochemical storage applications like electric vehicles and grid-storage are developed. The ability to identify and design promising new positive insertion electrodes will be vital in continuing to push Li-ion technology to its fullest potential. Utilizing a combination of computational tools and structural analysis, we report new indicators which will facilitate the recognition of phases with the desired redox potential. Most importantly of these, we find there is a strong correlation between the presence of Li ions sitting in close-proximity to the redox center of polyanionic phases and the open circuit voltage in Fe-based cathodes. This common structural feature suggests that the bonding associated with Li may have a secondary inductive effect which increases the ionic character of Fe bonds beyond what is typically expected based purely on arguments of electronegativity associated with the polyanionic group. This correlation is supported by ab initio calculations which show the Bader charge increases (reflecting an increased ionicity) in a nearly linear fashion with the experimental cell potentials. These features are demonstrated to be consistent across a wide variety of compositions and structures and should help to facilitate the design of new, high-potential, and environmentally sustainable insertion electrodes.

  17. A study on temporal variation of elemental composition in tree barks used as air pollution indicators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Eliane C.; Saiki, Mitiko, E-mail:, E-mail: [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)


    The study of air pollution using biological matrices has shown that tree barks may be used as biomonitor due to accumulation of aerosol particles on its porous surface. The bark elemental composition can provide information on pollution sources as well as characterize the aerial pollutants from a wide geographical region. The aim of this study was to investigate the variation in elemental composition in barks with time of exposure. Tree barks from Tipuana (Tipuana tipu) and Sibipiruna (Caesalpinia peltophoroides) species were collected in February 2013 and July 2014 in the city of São Paulo. For analysis, the barks were cleaned, grated, ground and analyzed by neutron activation analysis (NAA). Aliquots of samples and synthetic standards of elements were irradiated with thermal neutron flux at the IEA-R1 nuclear research reactor and after a suitable decay time, the induced gamma activities were analyzed by gamma spectrometry. The elements As, Br, Ca, Co, Cr, Cs, Fe, K, La, Rb, Sb, Sc and Zn were determined and the results indicated variability in the concentrations depending on the element, sampling period and also on tree species, indicating that there are not very well defined temporal trends. The quality control of the analytical results evaluated by analyzing INCT Virginia Tobacco Leaves certified reference material (CRM) presented values of |z-score| < 2, indicating that the procedure of NAA applied is suitable for the analyses. (author)

  18. Experimental study on the onset of positive corona in atmospheric air

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McAllister, Iain Wilson; Crichton, George C; Bregnsbo, E.


    This paper reports the findings of a study into the gas physical processes which lead to the inception of the positive corona discharge in atmospheric air. A multiple avalanche process is observed to be a basic feature, and correlation with the works reported in the literature suggests...... that at corona onset the physical phenomena are independent of electrode radius of curvature rho in the range 0.04...

  19. Location Tracking Strategy Indicating Sufferers' Positions under Disaster in the Buildings (United States)

    Ok, Min-Hwan

    The advancement of location-based services now covers indoor location positioning. Under disaster in the building, the sufferer might faint, be wounded, or enclosed by structures in the dark. In the cases, the sufferer could not let the relief team know her position in the building. The LBS server provides location tracking or positioning of her device for quick relief. In the service UltraWideBand is used by its good penetrability. In dead-reckoning operation that the device is lost on the sensor network, the relief team traces logged profiles of location tracks. The strategy regards the privacy concerns.

  20. Evaluation of the Operator Protection Factors Offered by Positive Pressure Air Suits against Airborne Microbiological Challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jackie A. Steward


    Full Text Available Laboratories throughout the world that perform work with Risk Group 4 Pathogens generally adopt one of two approaches within BSL-4 environments: either the use of positive pressure air-fed suits or using Class III microbiological safety cabinets and isolators for animal work. Within the UK at present, all laboratories working with Risk Group 4 agents adopt the use of Class III microbiological safety cabinet lines and isolators. Operator protection factors for the use of microbiological safety cabinets and isolators are available however; there is limited published data on the operator protection factors afforded by the use of positive pressure suits. This study evaluated the operator protection factors provided by positive pressure air suits against a realistic airborne microbiological challenge. The suits were tested, both intact and with their integrity compromised, on an animated mannequin within a stainless steel exposure chamber. The suits gave operator protection in all tests with an intact suit and with a cut in the leg. When compromised by a cut in the glove, a very small ingress of the challenge was seen as far as the wrist. This is likely to be due to the low airflow in the gloves of the suit. In all cases no microbiological penetration of the respiratory tract was observed. These data provide evidence on which to base safety protocols for use of positive pressure suits within high containment laboratories.

  1. Evaluation of the operator protection factors offered by positive pressure air suits against airborne microbiological challenge. (United States)

    Steward, Jackie A; Lever, Mark S


    Laboratories throughout the world that perform work with Risk Group 4 Pathogens generally adopt one of two approaches within BSL-4 environments: either the use of positive pressure air-fed suits or using Class III microbiological safety cabinets and isolators for animal work. Within the UK at present, all laboratories working with Risk Group 4 agents adopt the use of Class III microbiological safety cabinet lines and isolators. Operator protection factors for the use of microbiological safety cabinets and isolators are available however; there is limited published data on the operator protection factors afforded by the use of positive pressure suits. This study evaluated the operator protection factors provided by positive pressure air suits against a realistic airborne microbiological challenge. The suits were tested, both intact and with their integrity compromised, on an animated mannequin within a stainless steel exposure chamber. The suits gave operator protection in all tests with an intact suit and with a cut in the leg. When compromised by a cut in the glove, a very small ingress of the challenge was seen as far as the wrist. This is likely to be due to the low airflow in the gloves of the suit. In all cases no microbiological penetration of the respiratory tract was observed. These data provide evidence on which to base safety protocols for use of positive pressure suits within high containment laboratories.

  2. Selective indication for positive airway pressure (PAP in sleep-related breathing disorders with obstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stasche, Norbert


    Full Text Available Positive airway pressure (PAP is the therapy of choice for most sleep-related breathing disorders (SRBD. A variety of PAP devices using positive airway pressure (CPAP, BiPAP, APAP, ASV must be carefully considered before application. This overview aims to provide criteria for choosing the optimal PAP device according to severity and type of sleep-related breathing disorder. In addition, the range of therapeutic applications, constraints and side effects as well as alternative methods to PAP will be discussed. This review is based on an analysis of current literature and clinical experience. The data is presented from an ENT-sleep-laboratory perspective and is designed to help the ENT practitioner initiate treatment and provide support. Different titration methods, current devices and possible applications will be described. In addition to constant pressure devices (CPAP, most commonly used for symptomatic obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA without complicating conditions, BiPAP models will be introduced. These allow two different positive pressure settings and are thus especially suitable for patients with cardiopulmonary diseases or patients with pressure intolerance, increasing compliance in this subgroup considerably. Compliance can also be increased in patients during first night of therapy, patients with highly variable pressure demands or position-dependent OSA, by using self-regulating Auto-adjust PAP devices (Automatic positive airway pressure, APAP. Patients with Cheyne-Stokes breathing, a subtype of central sleep apnoea, benefit from adaptive servo-ventilation (ASV, which analyzes breathing patterns continually and adjusts the actual ventilation pressure accordingly. This not only reduces daytime sleepiness, but can also influence heart disease positively. Therapy with positive airway pressure is very effective in eliminating obstruction-related sleep diseases and symptoms. However, because therapy is generally applied for life, the optimal

  3. Exponential Expression of Relating Different Positive Point Electrode for Small Air Gap Distance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Tarilanyo Afa


    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to draw a-mathematical relationship between different positive point electrodes using air as the dielectric medium for small gap distance. Four electrodes with varying radius of curvature were used at gap distance ranging from 1 to 12.5 cm under the same atmospheric condition. These results were graphically analyzed after finding the fifty percent probability (V50% of the breakdown voltage. Using the exponential form in expressing them, a general formula was derived for the breakdown voltage for sharply non-uniform field for small air gap distances. The humidity level was noted because of the varying humidity level of environment. The spark over voltage increases with humidity therefore the wet and dry bulb readings were taken before each experiment and the required correction factors were noted.

  4. Qualitative gas temperature distribution in positive DC glow corona using spectral image processing in atmospheric air (United States)

    Matsumoto, Takao; Inada, Yoichi; Shimizu, Daisuke; Izawa, Yasuji; Nishijima, Kiyoto


    An experimental method of determining a qualitative two-dimensional image of the gas temperature in stationary atmospheric nonthermal plasma by spectral image processing was presented. In the experiment, a steady-state glow corona discharge was generated by applying a positive DC voltage to a rod-plane electrode in synthetic air. The changes in the gas temperature distribution due to the amplitude of applied voltage and the ambient gas pressure were investigated. Spectral images of a positive DC glow corona were taken using a gated ICCD camera with ultranarrow band-pass filters, corresponding to the head and tail of a N2 second positive system band (0-2). The qualitative gas temperature was obtained from the emission intensity ratio between the head and tail of the N2 second positive system band (0-2). From the results, we confirmed that the gas temperature and its distribution of a positive DC glow corona increased with increasing applied voltage. In particular, just before the sparkover voltage, a distinctly high temperature region was formed in the positive DC glow at the tip of the rod electrode. In addition, the gas temperature decreased and its distribution spread diffusely with decreasing ambient gas pressure.

  5. On the Ratio of Sulfur Dioxide to Nitrogen Oxides as an Indicator of Air Pollution Sources. (United States)

    Nirel, Ronit; Dayan, Uri


    The ratio of sulfur dioxide to nitrogen oxides (RSN = SO2/NOx) is one indicator of air pollution sources. The role of this ratio in source attribution is illustrated here for the Ashdod area, located in the southern coastal plain of Israel. The main sources of pollution in the area are the tall stacks of the Eshkol power plant, the stacks of oil refineries, and areal sources (stationary and mobile). The factors that affect RSN are studied using four regression models: a binary regression tree in original scale, a tree in logarithmic scale, a data partition produced by a combination of the two trees, and a linear regression model. All models have similar relative prediction error, with the combined partition best highlighting the sources of variability in RSN: (a) very low values (interquartile range of [0.12, 0.48]) are associated with traffic, (b) low values ([0.43, 1.00]) are attributed to the power plant and to daytime emissions of local industry, (c) medium values ([0.74, 1.90]) are associated with local industry emissions during cooler hours of the day and refinery emissions mainly on slow wind episodes, and (d) high values ([1.07, 4.30]) are attributed to refinery emissions during moderate to fast wind episodes. Analysis of the number of episodes of increased concentrations indicates that, during 1996 and 1997, about 42% of SO2 episodes are attributable to the power plant and 33% to the refineries. Increased-NOx episodes are mainly contributed by traffic (91%) and power plant (4.5%) emissions.

  6. Nominal and Real Accuracy of the GPS Position Indicated by Different Maritime Receivers in Different Modes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Januszewski


    Full Text Available Nowadays on the ship's bridge two or even more GPS receivers are installed. As in the major cases the coordinates of the position obtained from these receivers differ the following questions can be posed - what is the cause of this divergence, which receiver in the first must be taken into account etc. Based on information published in annual GPS and GNSS receiver survey it was estimated the percentage of GPS receivers designed for marine and/or navigation users. The measurements of GPS position based on the four different stationary GPS receivers were realized in the laboratory of Gdynia Maritime University in Poland in the summer 2012. The coordinates of the position of all these receivers were registered at the same time. The measurements in mode 3D were made for different input data, the same for all receivers. The distances between the individual unit's antenna were considered also. Next measurements in mode 3D also were realized on two ships in different European ports. Additional measurements were made in mode 2D with three receivers for different their's antenna heights. The results showed that the GPS position accuracy depends on the type of the receiver and its technical parameters particularly.

  7. Elemental carbon as an indicator to monitor the effectiveness of traffic related measures on local air quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voogt, M.H.; Eijk, A.R.A.; Keuken, M.P.; Zandveld, P.Y.J.


    Even when European standards on air quality are met, health effects occur near busy roads because of the increased exposure to tailpipe emissions. For a proper assessment of these effects, an additional indicator is available: elemental carbon (EC). This is a sensitive indicator for particulate matt

  8. Innovation indices: the need for positioning them where they properly belong. (United States)

    Kozłowski, Jan

    A specific quality of the discussion about innovation indices (scoreboards) is that more often than not the subject is dealt with from a purely technical point of view. Such a narrow approach silently assumes that indices used as a policy tool are an accurate reflection of the phenomenon and should not be questioned, and also that the whole discussion concerning them should refer to methodological aspects and is best left to the statisticians. This author is of the opinion that for an accurate evaluation of the value of indices as a policy tool, it is necessary to consider the matter from the broader point of view and from the context in which such indices are generated and used. This article puts forward the thesis that progress in science and innovation policy studies depends on a diversity of issues, approaches and perspectives. If that is the case, maintaining thematic and methodological variety may be more important than creating coherent and closed analytical tools, i.e. indices. The advantage of indices is that they focus attention on those variables which are deemed to be key. Among their disadvantages, however, are their highly abstract nature (in order to understand innovation-related phenomena, it is necessary to study them in tangible, composite forms); their tendency to skip unmeasurable determinants; their prior acceptance of definitions and concepts of innovation (instead of searching for them); the way they apply a single yardstick to diverse countries and regions, assumed linearity and causality in a complex and non-linear world, the way they direct policy towards implementing indicators (rather than identifying and solving problems). It is suggested that big data revolution will allow the emergence of a new measurement tools that will replace innovation indices.

  9. Profiles of problematic behaviors across adolescence: covariations with indicators of positive youth development. (United States)

    Arbeit, Miriam R; Johnson, Sara K; Champine, Robey B; Greenman, Kathleen N; Lerner, Jacqueline V; Lerner, Richard M


    Previous analyses of data from the 4-H Study of Positive Youth Development (PYD) have examined concurrent trajectories of positive development and risk/problem behaviors among adolescents, finding complex and not necessarily inverse relationships among them. In this article, we expand on prior research by employing a person-centered approach to modeling risk behaviors, assessing development from approximately 6th grade through 12th grade among 4,391 adolescents (59.9% female). Latent profiles involving the problematic behaviors of delinquency, depressive symptoms, substance use, sexual activity, disordered eating behaviors, and bullying were then assessed for concurrent relationships with the Five Cs of PYD: Competence, Confidence, Character, Caring, and Connection. We found six latent profiles, based primarily on mental health, aggression, and alcohol use, with significant differences in Confidence levels among many of the profiles, as well as some differences in the four other Cs. We discuss directions for future research and implications for application to youth policies and programs.

  10. Abatement and degradation pathways of toluene in indoor air by positive corona discharge. (United States)

    Van Durme, J; Dewulf, J; Sysmans, W; Leys, C; Van Langenhove, H


    Indoor air concentrations of volatile organic compounds often exceed outdoor levels by a factor of 5. There is much interest in developing new technologies in order to improve indoor air quality. In this work non-thermal plasma (DC positive corona discharge) is explored as an innovative technology for indoor air purification. An inlet gas stream of 10 l min(-1) containing 0.50+/-0.02 ppm toluene was treated by the plasma reactor in atmospheric conditions. Toluene removal proved to be achievable with a characteristic energy density epsilon(0) of 50 J l(-1). Removal efficiencies were higher for 26% relative humidity (epsilon(0)=35 J l(-1)), compared with those at increased humidities (50% relative humidity, epsilon(0)=49 J l(-1)). Reaction products such as formic acid, benzaldehyde, benzyl alcohol, 3-methyl-4-nitrophenol, 4-methyl-2-nitrophenol, 4-methyl-2-propyl furan, 5-methyl-2-nitrophenol, 4-nitrophenol, 2-methyl-4,6-dinitrophenol are identified by means of mass spectrometry. Based on these by-products a toluene degradation mechanism is proposed.

  11. Dimensional analysis of detrimental ozone generation by positive wire-to-plate corona discharge in air (United States)

    Bo, Z.; Chen, J. H.


    The dimensional analysis technique is used to formulate a correlation between ozone generation rate and various parameters that are important in the design and operation of positive wire-to-plate corona discharges in indoor air. The dimensionless relation is determined by linear regression analysis based on the results from 36 laboratory-scale experiments. The derived equation is validated by experimental data and a numerical model published in the literature. Applications of such derived equation are illustrated through an example selection of the appropriate set of operating conditions in the design/operation of a photocopier to follow the federal regulations of ozone emission. Finally, a new current-voltage characteristic equation is proposed for positive wire-to-plate corona discharges based on the derived dimensionless equation.

  12. New concepts in air quality indices-linkage to health effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blagden, P.; Henderson, D. [Environment Canada, Downsview, ON (Canada). Meteorological Service of Canada


    The health effects of air pollution were discussed. Air pollution is responsible for thousands of mortalities and hospital admissions for cardiac and respiratory illnesses such as asthma, chronic bronchitis and emphysema. The air quality index is a communications tool that presents air quality information. It simplifies many measurements into a single unit scale with ranges and categories. Canada's current index structure is similar to that in the United States, with a slight difference in the category ranges which in Canada, are used to calculate a subindex for each pollutant. Recent improvements in the index structure include the provision for PM2.5, updated health messaging, and improved air quality forecasts. The air quality index is generally determined by either ozone or PM content. The advantages and disadvantages of the current index structure were also described along with a proposal for a health risk based index. The challenge of developing a risk based formula lies in the estimation of relative health risks, the selection of pollutants, and the fact that linear increase in risk does not yield simple categories. A national health risk based air quality index will require an agreement on health based formula, the ability to forecast multiple pollutants, cooperation with partners, and a well organized transition from old formats. 1 fig.

  13. Positioning indicators for cross-disciplinary challenges: the Dutch coastal defense research case

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Merkx, F.; van den Besselaar, P.


    In this paper, we develop indicators for the responsiveness of the research system to the changing knowledge needs that follow from changes in social and policy priorities. In this paper we use coastal defense research as a case. Using four different approaches –– an analysis of coastal defense poli

  14. Positioning indicators for cross-disciplinary challenges: The Dutch coastal defense research case

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Merkx, F.; van den Besselaar, P.


    In this paper, we develop indicators for the responsiveness of the research system to the changing knowledge needs that follow from changes in social and policy priorities. In this paper we use coastal defense research as a case. Using four different approaches — an analysis of coastal defense polic

  15. Experiments of Laser Pointing Stability in Air and in Vacuum to Validate Micrometric Positioning Sensor

    CERN Document Server

    Stern, G; Piedigrossi, D; Sandomierski, J; Sosin, M; Geiger, A; Guillaume, S


    Aligning accelerator components over 200m with 10 μm accuracy is a challenging task within the Compact Linear Collider (CLIC) study. A solution based on laser beam in vacuum as straight line reference is proposed. The positions of the accelerator’s components are measured with respect to the laser beam by sensors made of camera/shutter assemblies. To validate these sensors, laser pointing stability has to be studied over 200m. We perform experiments in air and in vacuum in order to know how laser pointing stability varies with the distance of propagation and with the environment. The experiments show that the standard deviations of the laser spot coordinates increase with the distance of propagation. They also show that the standard deviations are much smaller in vacuum (8 μm at 35m) than in air (2000 μm at 200m). Our experiment validates the concept of laser beam in vacuum with camera/shutter assembly for micrometric positioning over 35m. It also gives an estimation of the achievable precision.

  16. Influence of metabolic indicators, smoking, alcohol and socioeconomic position on mortality after breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Signe Benzon; Kroman, Niels; Ibfelt, Else Helene


    BACKGROUND: Factors differently distributed among social groups like obesity, metabolic syndrome, diabetes, smoking, and alcohol intake predict survival after breast cancer diagnosis and therefore might mediate part of the observed social inequality in survival. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We conducted...... as outcome. RESULTS: Median follow-up was 9.6 years [interquartile range (IQR), 2.2-17.0 years]. The hazard ratio (HR) for death from all causes increased with lower education (p for trend, 0.01). Adjustment for disease-related prognostic factors, comorbidity and metabolic indicators measured as BMI, waist...... circumference and diabetes, and smoking and alcohol affected but did not explain the social gradient. CONCLUSION: The findings indicate that these factors explain some but not all the social inequality in survival after breast cancer and that improvement of lifestyle to some extent would improve survival among...

  17. The image of Russia in 2010—2011 international indices: positioning crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berendeev M. V.


    Full Text Available This paper considers the political and economic shortcomings of the image of Russia and its perception by the international community in 2010—2011. International indices are a comprehensive information source in terms of the economic and political image of a country and, to a great extent, a decisive factor in the global trends relevant to different countries and their development potentials. The author also compares the international images of Russia and the Baltic Sea region countries.

  18. The image of Russia in 2010—2011 international indices: positioning crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berendeev Mikhail


    Full Text Available This paper considers the political and economic shortcomings of the image of Russia and its perception by the international community in 2010—2011. International indices are a comprehensive information source in terms of the economic and political image of a country and, to a great extent, a decisive factor in the global trends relevant to different countries and their development potentials. The author also compares the international images of Russia and the Baltic Sea region countries.

  19. A new study of describing the reliability of GNSS Network RTK positioning with the use of quality indicators (United States)

    Prochniewicz, D.; Szpunar, R.; Walo, J.


    The method of precise GNSS positioning using corrections from a network of reference stations, the so-called Network RTK, is currently the most accurate real time kinematic positioning method. The reliability of this method is largely dependent on the accuracy of determination of network ionospheric and geometric corrections (taking into account the tropospheric refraction and orbit errors). There are many indexes describing the reliability of Network RTK positioning in the aspect of the accuracy of modelling these errors. The so-called solution quality indicators are used for this purpose. They are parameters determined in the central network pre-processing which provide quantitative information regarding the predicted reliability of the positioning in an area encompassed by a network of reference stations. Unfortunately, their interpretation is hindered due to the lack of connection with basic parameters describing precise positioning quality, i.e. the correctness of the carrier phase ambiguity resolution and the accuracy of the rover position. This study presents a new approach to the design of quality indicators for the Network RTK method, based on a quantitative description of two parameters—solution accuracy and availability. The presented method is based on the existing parameters describing the probability of the correct fixing of ambiguities and the estimation of the fixed baseline solution accuracy. However, a stochastic model of observation, taking into account the accuracy of network corrections is used for these calculations. The proposed method enables a full account of all parameters affecting the reliability of positioning, which is not possible with the currently applied methods. Numerical tests of the new indicators carried out for a part of the regional reference stations network confirmed the effectiveness of this approach. The proposed indicators provide much more clear identification of the time periods for which the reliability of the

  20. Quality indicators for acute myocardial infarction: A position paper of the Acute Cardiovascular Care Association. (United States)

    Schiele, Francois; Gale, Chris P; Bonnefoy, Eric; Capuano, Frederic; Claeys, Marc J; Danchin, Nicolas; Fox, Keith Aa; Huber, Kurt; Iakobishvili, Zaza; Lettino, Maddalena; Quinn, Tom; Rubini Gimenez, Maria; Bøtker, Hans E; Swahn, Eva; Timmis, Adam; Tubaro, Marco; Vrints, Christiaan; Walker, David; Zahger, Doron; Zeymer, Uwe; Bueno, Hector


    Evaluation of quality of care is an integral part of modern healthcare, and has become an indispensable tool for health authorities, the public, the press and patients. However, measuring quality of care is difficult, because it is a multifactorial and multidimensional concept that cannot be estimated solely on the basis of patients' clinical outcomes. Thus, measuring the process of care through quality indicators (QIs) has become a widely used practice in this context. Other professional societies have published QIs for the evaluation of quality of care in the context of acute myocardial infarction (AMI), but no such indicators exist in Europe. In this context, the European Society of Cardiology (ESC) Acute Cardiovascular Care Association (ACCA) has reflected on the measurement of quality of care in the context of AMI (ST segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) and non-ST segment elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI)) and created a set of QIs, with a view to developing programmes to improve quality of care for the management of AMI across Europe. We present here the list of QIs defined by the ACCA, with explanations of the methodology used, scientific justification and reasons for the choice for each measure.

  1. Preliminary indications for antibiotic susceptibility tests in less than six hour in positive blood cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vesselina Kroumova


    Full Text Available A rapid determination of the antibiotic susceptibility patterns of pathogens responsible for sepsis represents a significant milestone for a timely correct antibiotic therapy.The system HB&L® (ALIFAX allows reduced time in the detection of bacterial growth and consequently is able to detect the growth or absence of certain microorganisms in the presence of a given antibiotic. In this study three system for rapid antibiotic susceptibility tests among bacteria isolated from blood were compared: HB&L® (ALIFAX,VITEK®2 (bioMérieux and essays Etest® (bioMérieux. Present findings indicate that HB&L® (ALIFAX is rapid reliable instrument that may support the clinician for a rapid and appropriate treatment, particularly in the critical patient.

  2. Collision indicator charts for gantry-couch position combinations for Siemens ONCOR and Elekta Infinity linacs. (United States)

    Becker, Stewart J; Culberson, Wes; Flynn, Ryan


    Noncoplanar radiation fields from a linear accelerator can be used to deliver radiation dose distributions that are superior to those delivered using coplanar radiation fields. Noncoplanar radiation field arrangements are especially valuable when delivering stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT). Noncoplanar radiation fields, however, are geometrically more challenging to deliver than coplanar radiation fields, and are associated with a greater risk of collisions between the gantry, treatment couch, and patient. Knowledge of which treatment couch offset, treatment couch angle, and gantry angle combinations provide a collision-free radiotherapy delivery is useful in the treatment planning process, as the risk of requiring replanning due to improperly selected treatment parameters can be minimized. Such tables are by default specific to the linear accelerator make and model used for treatment. In this work a set of plots is presented indicating which combination of treatment couch lateral offsets (-10 cm to 10 cm), couch angles (270° to 90°), and gantry angles (0° to 360°), will result in collision-free radiation delivery using Siemens ONCOR linear accelerators equipped with a 160-leaf multileaf collimator and a 550 TxT treatment table, and a Elekta Infinity linear accelerator with an MLCi2 and Elekta iBEAM evo Couchtop EP. The patient was assumed to have a width of 50 cm and a height of 25 cm.

  3. Low expression of a few genes indicates good prognosis in estrogen receptor positive breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buechler Steven


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many breast cancer patients remain free of distant metastasis even without adjuvant chemotherapy. While standard histopathological tests fail to identify these good prognosis patients with adequate precision, analyses of gene expression patterns in primary tumors have resulted in more successful diagnostic tests. These tests use continuous measurements of the mRNA concentrations of numerous genes to determine a risk of metastasis in lymph node negative breast cancer patients with other clinical traits. Methods A survival model is constructed from genes that are both connected with relapse and have expression patterns that define distinct subtypes, suggestive of different cellular states. This in silico study uses publicly available microarray databases generated with Affymetrix GeneChip technology. The genes in our model, as represented by array probes, have distinctive distributions in a patient cohort, consisting of a large normal component of low expression values; and a long right tail of high expression values. The cutoff between low and high expression of a probe is determined from the distribution using the theory of mixture models. The good prognosis group in our model consists of the samples in the low expression component of multiple genes. Results Here, we define a novel test for risk of metastasis in estrogen receptor positive (ER+ breast cancer patients, using four probes that determine distinct subtypes. The good prognosis group in this test, denoted AP4-, consists of the samples with low expression of each of the four probes. Two probes target MKI67, antigen identified by monoclonal antibody Ki-67, one targets CDC6, cell division cycle 6 homolog (S. cerevisiae, and a fourth targets SPAG5, sperm associated antigen 5. The long-term metastasis-free survival probability for samples in AP4- is sufficiently high to render chemotherapy of questionable benefit. Conclusion A breast cancer subtype defined by low

  4. Positive Feedback between Shrub Encroachment and Nocturnal Air Temperature over the Northern Chihuahuan Desert (United States)

    He, Y.; D'Odorico, P.; de Wekker, S.; Fuentes, J. D.; Litvak, M. E.


    Many arid grasslands around the world are affected by the encroachment of woody plants. A number of drivers have been invoked to explain these changes in plant community composition, including climate change, increase in atmospheric CO2 concentrations, nitrogen deposition, or internal feedbacks involving soil erosion or fire dynamics. An overlooked aspect of this shift in vegetation cover is its possible feedback on microclimate conditions. In this study we investigate how in the northern Chihuahuan Desert these changes in vegetation composition and structure influence near surface climate conditions and what feedbacks these conditions have on vegetation dynamics. To this end, the impact of shrub encroachment on the thermal structure of the near surface boundary layer and on the surface energy budget was analyzed using concurrent micrometeorological observations at two adjacent sites dominated respectively by Larrea tridentata shrubs and native grass species at the Sevilleta Wildlife Refuge (northern Chihuahuan Desert, NM). The nighttime air temperature was found to be substantially higher (> 2 degrees Celsius) in the shrubland than in the grassland, especially during calm winter nights. Low temperatures are considered to be the limiting factor of the northward migration of Larrea tridentata. Thus, a positive feedback mechanism seems to exist, where shrub encroachment leads to warmer near-ground nighttime conditions, particularly during winter, which in turn favor woody species encroachment. Our analysis shows that these differences in surface air temperature are accompanied by differences in longwave radiation, and surface sensible and ground heat fluxes. These differences in surface fluxes are interpreted as an effect of the larger fraction of bare soil that typically exists in the shrubland sites. Therefore, the ground surface remains less insulated and more energy flows into the ground at the shrubland site than in the grassland during daytime. This energy is

  5. Social Expectations and Behavioral Indicators in School-Wide Positive Behavior Supports: A National Study of Behavior Matrices (United States)

    Lynass, Lori; Tsai, Shu-Fei; Richman, Taylor D.; Cheney, Douglas


    The three-tiered School-Wide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (SWPBIS) model is now being implemented in more than 13,000 schools in the United States (Horner, Sugai, & Anderson, 2010). One core feature of Tier One of the SWPBIS model is the identification of social expectations and behavior indicators across all school settings.…

  6. Two-Dimensional Electron Density Measurement of Positive Streamer Discharge in Atmospheric-Pressure Air (United States)

    Inada, Yuki; Ono, Ryo; Kumada, Akiko; Hidaka, Kunihiko; Maeyama, Mitsuaki


    The electron density of streamer discharges propagating in atmospheric-pressure air is crucially important for systematic understanding of the production mechanisms of reactive species utilized in wide ranging applications such as medical treatment, plasma-assisted ignition and combustion, ozone production and environmental pollutant processing. However, electron density measurement during the propagation of the atmospheric-pressure streamers is extremely difficult by using the conventional localized type measurement systems due to the streamer initiation jitters and the irreproducibility in the discharge paths. In order to overcome the difficulties, single-shot two-dimensional electron density measurement was conducted by using a Shack-Hartmann type laser wavefront sensor. The Shack-Hartmann sensor with a temporal resolution of 2 ns was applied to pulsed positive streamer discharges generated in an air gap between pin-to-plate electrodes. The electron density a few ns after the streamer initiation was 7*1021m-3 and uniformly distributed along the streamer channel. The electron density and its distribution profile were compared with a previous study simulating similar streamers, demonstrating good agreement. This work was supported in part by JKA and its promotion funds from KEIRIN RACE. The authors like to thank Mr. Kazuaki Ogura and Mr. Kaiho Aono of The University of Tokyo for their support during this work.

  7. Scientific journals in the SciELO database, indicators of impact and the relative position of Ambiente & Água



    This editorial describes the process of periodic evaluation by CAPES, based on commercial indices proposed by companies such as the ISI FI by Thomson Reuters and SCImago by Scopus and public indices as proposed by SciELO and other freely calculated indices based on Google Scholar and investigates the impact position of the journal Ambiente & Agua compared with journals from the SciELO base. Results show that Ambiente & Agua is in the right path in the search for quality. Its editorial board s...

  8. Air Force Reserve Officer Training Corps Indicators of Leadership Development in Undergraduate Military Education (United States)

    Shannon, Christopher C.


    The selection and retention assessment process is dynamic. Dipboye, Smith, and Howell (1994) argued that the most influential portion of the final hiring process is the result of the interviewer's impression of the applicants. The Air Force Reserve Officer Training Corps program is responsible for selecting, retaining and ultimately hiring…

  9. Measuring Behaviors of Air Force Officers as Indicators of Effective Performance and Leadership. (United States)


    Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Publishers, 1983. Conger , Jay A., Rabindra N. Kanungo , and Assoc. Charismatic Leadership. Oxford: Jossey-Bass Publishers...Motowidlo (1983), Air Command and Staff College (1988), Conger et al. (1989), Borman and Brush (1993), and Van Scotter and Shane (1995) each developed lists

  10. Dynamic Characteristics of Positive Pulsed Dielectric Barrier Discharge for Ozone Generation in Air (United States)

    Wei, Linsheng; Peng, Bangfa; Li, Ming; Zhang, Yafang; Hu, Zhaoji


    A comprehensive dynamic model consisting of 66 reactions and 24 species is developed to investigate the dynamic characteristics of ozone generation by positive pulsed dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) using parallel-plate reactor in air. The electron energy conservation equation is coupled to the electron continuity equation, the heavy species continuity equation, and Poisson's equation for a better description. The reliability of the model is experimentally confirmed. The model can be used to predict the temporal and spatial evolution of species, as well as streamer propagation. The simulation results show that electron density increases nearly exponentially in the direction to the anode at the electron avalanche. Streamer propagation velocity is about 5.26 × 104 m/s from anode to cathode in the simulated condition. The primary positive ion, negative ion, and excited species are O2+, O3- and O2(1Δg) in pulsed DBD in air, respectively. N2O has the largest density among nitrogen oxides. e and N2+ densities in the streamer head increase gradually to maximum values with the development of the streamer. Meanwhile, the O2+, O, O3, N2(A3Σ) and N2O densities reach maximum values in the vicinity of the anode. supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 51366012 and 11105067), Jiangxi Province Young Scientists (Jinggang Star) Cultivation Plan of China (No. 20133BCB23008), Natural Science Foundation of Jiangxi, China (No. 20151BAB206047) and Jiangxi Province Higher School Science and Technology Landing Plan of China (No. KJLD-14015)

  11. Analysis of Geosynchronous Satellite-air Bistatic SAR Clutter Characteristics from the Point of View of Ground Moving Target Indication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Dan-dan


    Full Text Available Under the geometry of geosynchronous satellite-air bistatic SAR where the geosynchronous satellite is the transmitter and aerostat is the receiver, in order to suppress clutter and detect slowly moving target using Space Time Adaptive Processing (STAP, it is necessary to analyze the clutter characteristics. From the point of view of ground moving target indication, the theory model of the clutter characteristics under the geometry of geosynchronous satellite-space bistatic SAR is analyzed and established in this paper; especially, the range-dependence characteristics of the angle-Doppler curve of the clutter is analyzed. Finally, the simulation verifies correctness of the analysis. The theory model and the conclusion in this paper indicates the clutter characteristics of the new geosynchronous satellite-air bistatic SAR mode, and provide theory basis for the selection and research of ground moving target indication method under this mode.

  12. Tree bark as a passive air sampler to indicate atmospheric polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in southeastern China. (United States)

    Fu, Xiaoxu; Wang, Junxia; Zhou, Xiaoyu; Deng, Jingjing; Liu, Yangcheng; Zhang, Wei; Liu, Lili; Dong, Liang; Lin, Kuangfei


    The different barks were sampled to discuss the influence of the tree species, trunk circumference, and bark thickness on the accumulation processes of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) from air into the bark. The results of different PBDE concentrations indicated that barks with a thickness of 0-3 mm collected from weeping willow, Camphor tree, and Masson pine, the trunk circumferences of which were 100 to 150 cm, were better PBDEs passive samplers. Furthermore, tree bark and the corresponding air samples were collected at Anji (AJ), Hangzhou (HZ), Shanghai (SH), and Wenling (WL) to investigate the relationship between the PBDE concentrations in bark and those in air. In addition, the significant correlation (r (2) = 0.906; P PBDEs were the principle source for the accumulation of PBDEs in the barks. In this study, the log K BA (bark-air partition coefficient) of individual PBDE congeners at the four sites were in the range from 5.69 to 6.79. Finally, the total PBDE concentration in WL was 5 to 20 times higher than in the other three cities. The result indicated that crude household workshops contributed a heavy amount of PBDEs pollution to the environment, which had been verified by the spatial distribution of PBDEs levels in barks collected at Wenling (range, 26.53-1317.68 ng/g dw). The good correlation between the PBDE concentrations in the barks and the air samples and the variations of the PBDE concentrations in tree barks collected from different sites reflected that the bark could be used as a passive sampler to indicate the atmospheric PBDEs.

  13. Positive association between short-term ambient air pollution exposure and children blood pressure in China-Result from the Seven Northeast Cities (SNEC) study. (United States)

    Zeng, Xiao-Wen; Qian, Zhengmin Min; Vaughn, Michael G; Nelson, Erik J; Dharmage, Shyamali C; Bowatte, Gayan; Perret, Jennifer; Chen, Duo-Hong; Ma, Huimin; Lin, Shao; de Foy, Benjamin; Hu, Li-Wen; Yang, Bo-Yi; Xu, Shu-Li; Zhang, Chuan; Tian, Yan-Peng; Nian, Min; Wang, Jia; Xiao, Xiang; Bao, Wen-Wen; Zhang, Ya-Zhi; Dong, Guang-Hui


    The impact of ambient air pollution on health causes concerns in China. However, little is known about the association of short-term air pollution exposure with blood pressure (BP) in children. The goal of present study was to assess the association between short-term air pollution and BP in children from a highly polluted area in China. This study enrolled 9354 children in 24 elementary and middle schools (aged 5-17 years) from the Seven Northeast Cities (SNEC) study, respectively, during the period of 2012-2013. Ambient air pollutants, including particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter of ≤10 μm (PM10), sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and ozone (O3) on the days (1-5 days) preceding BP examination were collected from local air monitoring stations. Generalized additive models and two-level regression analyses were used to evaluate the relationship between air pollution and BP after adjusting for other covariates. Results showed that with an interquartile range (IQR) increase in PM10 (50.0 μg/m(3)) and O3 (53.0 μg/m(3)) level during the 5-day mean exposure, positive associations with elevated BP were observed, with an odds ratio of 2.17 (95% CI, 1.61-2.93) for PM10 and 2.77 (95% CI, 1.94-3.95) for O3. Both systolic BP and diastolic BP levels were positively associated with an IQR increase of four air pollutants at different lag times. Specifically, an IQR increase in the 5-day mean of PM10 and O3 was associated with elevation of 2.07 mmHg (95% CI, 1.71-2.44) and 3.29 mmHg (95% CI, 2.86-3.72) in systolic BP, respectively. When stratified by sex, positive relationships were observed for elevated BP with NO2 exposure only in males. This is the first report on the relationship between ambient short-term air pollution exposure and children BP in China. Findings indicate a need to control air pollutants and protect children from heavy air pollution exposure in China.

  14. Pulsed positive discharges in air at moderate pressures near a dielectric rod (United States)

    Dubinova, A.; Trienekens, D.; Ebert, U.; Nijdam, S.; Christen, T.


    We study pulsed positive discharges in air in a cylindrically symmetric setup with an electrode needle close (about 1 mm) above the top of a dielectric cylindrical rod of 4 mm in diameter mounted at its bottom on a grounded plate electrode. We present ICCD (intensified charge-coupled device) pictures and evaluations of experiments as well as simulations with a fluid discharge model; the simulations use cylindrical symmetry. In the experiments, there is an initial inception cloud phase, where the cylindrical symmetry is maintained, and later a streamer phase, where it is broken spontaneously. At 75-150 mbar, discharges with cylindrical symmetry are not attracted to the dielectric rod, but move away from it. The dielectric rod plays the sole role of an obstacle that shades (in the context of photoionization) a cone-shaped part of the inception cloud; the cone size is determined by the geometry of the setup. The material properties of the dielectric rod, such as its dielectric permittivity and the efficiency of the photon induced secondary electron emission do not have a noticeable effect. This is due to the abundance of photoionization in air, which supplies a positive discharge with free electrons and allows it to propagate along the electric field lines. Using some simple field calculations, we show that field enhancement due to dielectric polarization does not play a significant role in our geometry as long as the discharge maintains its cylindrical symmetry. The field component towards the rod is insufficiently enhanced to cause the discharge to move towards the rod. Any additional electrons produced by the dielectric surface do not influence this discharge morphology. This interpretation is supported by both experiments and simulations. At higher pressures (400-600 mbar) or for larger gaps between the needle and the dielectric rod, the inception cloud reaches its maximal radius within the gap between needle and rod and destabilizes there. In those cases

  15. Scientific journals in the SciELO database, indicators of impact and the relative position of Ambiente & Água

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Wellausen Dias


    Full Text Available This editorial describes the process of periodic evaluation by CAPES, based on commercial indices proposed by companies such as the ISI FI by Thomson Reuters and SCImago by Scopus and public indices as proposed by SciELO and other freely calculated indices based on Google Scholar and investigates the impact position of the journal Ambiente & Agua compared with journals from the SciELO base. Results show that Ambiente & Agua is in the right path in the search for quality. Its editorial board strongly recommends that Brazilian public scientific agencies consider tools that are cost free and have large coverage for impact evaluation to allow the impact assessment of a range of emerging journals in a common and wide basis for all scientific journals.

  16. Analysis of observations and modeling of criteria pollutants and photochemical age indicators during MILAGRO at Tenango del Aire (United States)

    Ruiz Suarez, L. G.


    We report measurements and modeling results from the mobile air quality monitoring unit and other instruments in Tenango del Aire (TA). Tenango del Aire is a small town in the mountain pass between the Siera de Chichinautzin and the Popocatepel and Iztachiuatl Volcanos. The pass joins the Valley of Mexico and the Valley of Cuernavaca. TA was the most shouter and equipped site on that flank of MILAGRO. We compare model results and measurements of O3, NOx, NOy, CO, SO2, CH2O, mixing high and some VOC speciated analysis. Indicators of photochemical age as O3/CO, NOy/CO, are also reported. Mean hourly averages for all the campaign are reported. Specific episodes are also analyzed in depth. Evidence of a polluted regional background atmosphere is shown. The basic average surface transport patern was as follows, from 09:00 to 12:00 winds from the north arrive to TA bringing fresh polluted parcels from the highly populated sowtheast parts of the MCMA. Between 12:00 and 13:00 hours a shift of wind direction brings back those or parts of those parcels and parcels farer away. Most of the times, this conditions continues until next morning when for few hours air again drains south from the valley of Mexico. Ozone reaches a maximum value between 12:00 and 13:00, and these values stay still until after 18:00. Average value of this plateau is 80 ppb. During this plateau indicators as O3/CO and NOy/CO show that air parcels passing over TA are photochemicaly aged.

  17. The Use of Lichens as Indicators of Ambient Air Quality in Southern Ontario (United States)

    Tulumello, Patricia M.

    The inverse relationship between arboreal lichen species richness and sulphur dioxide in ambient air has been thoroughly documented in the literature. Previous work in southern Ontario has shown that lichen bioindication can identify areas of potential concern regarding air quality. The EMAN suite of lichens was applied in the City of Sarnia by surveying 458 Sugar Maple trees, in order to test the applicability of lichen bioindication under conditions of high mean SO2 levels and high species richness values. The results of the survey were explored using Geographic Information Systems. A spatial relationship between lichen community variables, the Bluewater Bridge and the highway was identified. Lichen species richness, lichen percent cover and Index of Atmospheric Purity values were higher along the bridge and highway. No strong gradients were found between other known pollution sources and no lichen deserts were identified. The most common community grouping consisted of Physcia millegrana Degel, Candelaria concolor (Dicks) B. Stein, Physcia aipolia (Ehrh ex Humb.) Furnrohr; all of which are known nitrophytes. The relationship between substrate pH and lichen species richness was examined. Sites with a known source of anthropogenic chemical contamination were found to have a correlation of r2=o.8 between lichen species richness and pH. The inverse was found for sites with no known source of contamination with a correlation of r2=-0.72. The findings suggest that species richness may be influenced by altering substrate pH which promotes the growth of nitrophytic species capable of tolerating high SO2 levels.

  18. The correlation of Acanthamoeba from the ventilation system with other environmental parameters in commercial buildings as possible indicator for indoor air quality (United States)

    OOI, Soo Shen; MAK, Joon Wah; CHEN, Donald K.F.; AMBU, Stephen


    The free-living protozoan Acanthamoeba is an opportunistic pathogen that is ubiquitous in our environment. However, its role in affecting indoor air quality and ill-health of indoor occupants is relatively unknown. The present study investigated the presence of Acanthamoeba from the ventilation system and its correlation with other indoor air quality parameters, used in the industry code of practice and its potential as an indicator for indoor air quality. Indoor air quality assessments were carried out in nine commercial buildings with approval from the building management, and the parameters assessed were as recommended by the Department of Occupational Safety and Health. The presence of Acanthamoeba was determined through dust swabs from the ventilation system and indoor furniture. Logistic regression was performed to study the correlation between assessed parameters and occupants’ complaints. A total of 107 sampling points were assessed and 40.2% of the supplying air diffuser and blowing fan and 15% of the furniture were positive for cysts. There was a significant correlation between Acanthamoeba detected from the ventilation system with ambient total fungus count (r=0.327; p=0.01) and respirable particulates (r=0.276; p=0.01). Occupants’ sick building syndrome experience also correlated with the presence of Acanthamoeba in the ventilation system (r=0.361; p=0.01) and those detected on the furniture (r=0.290; p=0.01). Logistic regression showed that there was a five-fold probability of sick building syndrome among occupants when Acanthamoeba was detected in the ventilation system. PMID:27476379

  19. Comparison of reliability of five patellar position indices at various stifle joint angles in pelvic limbs obtained from cadavers of red foxes (Vulpes vulpes)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miles, James E; Nielsen, Dorte H; Jensen, Bente Rona


    To compare 5 patellar position indices at various stifle joint angles in cadavers of red foxes, determine measurement reliability, and assess the suitability of these indices for clinical use.......To compare 5 patellar position indices at various stifle joint angles in cadavers of red foxes, determine measurement reliability, and assess the suitability of these indices for clinical use....

  20. A review of biomarker compounds as source indicators and tracers for air pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simoneit, B.R.T. [Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR (United States). Environmental and Petroleum Geochemistry Group


    An overview of the application of organic geochemistry to the analysis of organic matter on aerosol particles is presented here. This organic matter is analyzed as solvent extractable bitumen/lipids by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The organic geochemical approach assesses the origin, the environmental history and the nature of secondary products of organic matter by using the data derived from specific molecular analyses. Evaluations of production and fluxes, with cross-correlations can thus be made by the application of the same separation and analytical procedures to samples form point source emissions and the ambient atmosphere. This will be illustrated here with typical examples from the ambient atmosphere (aerosol particles) and from emissions of biomass burning (smoke). Organic matter in aerosols is derived from two major sources and is admixed depending on the geographic relief of the air shed. These sources are biogenic detritus (e.g., plant wax, microbes, etc.) and anthropogenic particle emissions (e.g., oils, soot, synthetics, etc.). Both biogenic detritus and some of the anthropogenic particle emissions contain organic materials which have unique and distinguishable compound distribution patterns (C{sub 14}-C{sub 40}). Microbial and vascular plant lipids are the dominant biogenic residues and petroleum hydrocarbons, with lesser amounts of the pyrogenic polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and synthetics (e.g., chlorinated compounds), are the major anthropogenic residues. Biomass combustion is another important primary source of particles injected into the global atmosphere. It contributes many trace substances which are reactants in atmospheric chemistry and soot particulate matter with adsorbed biomarker compounds, most of which are unknown chemical structures. The injection of natural product organic compounds into smoke occurs primarily by direct volatilization/steam stripping and by thermal alteration based on combustion temperature

  1. Using radon-222 as indicator for the evaluation of the efficiency of groundwater remediation by in situ air sparging. (United States)

    Schubert, Michael; Schmidt, Axel; Müller, Kai; Weiss, Holger


    A common approach for remediation of groundwater contamination with volatile organic compounds (VOCs) is contaminant stripping by means of in situ air sparging (IAS). For VOC stripping, pressurized air is injected into the contaminated groundwater volume, followed by the extraction of the contaminant-loaded exhaust gas from the vadose soil zone and its immediate on-site treatment. Progress assessment of such remediation measure necessitates information (i) on the spatial range of the IAS influence and (ii) on temporal variations of the IAS efficiency. In the present study it was shown that the naturally occurring noble gas radon can be used as suitable environmental tracer for achieving the related spatial and temporal information. Due to the distinct water/air partitioning behaviour of radon and due to its straightforward on-site detectability, the radon distribution pattern in the groundwater can be used as appropriate measure for assessing the progression of an IAS measure as a function of space and time. The presented paper discusses both the theoretical background of the approach and the results of an IAS treatment accomplished at a VOC contaminated site lasting six months, during which radon was applied as efficiency indicator.

  2. Indicative levels of PM in the ambient air in the surrounding villages of the copper smelter complex Bor, Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tasić Viša


    Full Text Available While information on air pollution in the form of particulate matter (PM has been monitored for longer period for EU countries, availability of PM data sets in the Western Balkan countries including the Republic of Serbia are still limited. Studies, related to the particulate pollution research, have been only carried out in the past several years. The main objective of this paper is to present PM levels measured in the ambient air in the surrounding settlements of the Copper Smelter Complex Bor. Also, one of the goals is a comparison of PM levels in the surrounding settlements with those measured in Bor town. The ambient levels of PM particles (PM10, PM2.5 were measured by automatic PM monitors at 4 nearby settlements: Slatina, Oštrelj, Krivelj and Brezonik in the time interval from 2005 to 2010. According to the measurement results, PM10 and PM2.5 levels in the ambient air were higher in the cold, heating, (October-March than in the warm no heating period (April-September. The exceeding of the daily limit of PM10 and PM2.5 mass concentration levels was observed at all measuring points. A higher number of exceedances were detected in the cold period. The results indicate that there is a significant seasonal change in the level of fine particles at all measuring places in surroundings. In addition, the PM levels in Bor town are more influenced by the air pollution from the Copper Smelter Complex than settlements in the vicinity, where the PM concentrations were greatly influenced by the presence of domestic heating in the cold period. [Projekat Ministarstva nauka Republike Srbije, br. III42008: Evaluation of Energy Performances and Indoor Environment Quality of Educational Buildings in Serbia with Impact to Health i br. III41028: “An Integral Study to Identify the Regional Genetic and Environmental Risk Factors for the Common Noncommunicable Diseases in the Human Population of Serbia

  3. Using Acid Number as a Leading Indicator of Refrigeration and Air Conditioning System Performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dennis Cartlidge; Hans Schellhase


    number (TAN), which includes both mineral acids and organic acids, is therefore a useful indicator which can be used to monitor the condition of the system in order to perform remedial maintenance, when required, to prevent system failure. The critical TAN value is the acid level at which remedial action should be taken to prevent the onset of rapid acid formation which can result in system failure. The level of 0.05 mg KOH/g of oil was established for CFC/mineral oil systems based on analysis of 700 used lubricants from operating systems and failed units. There is no consensus within the refrigeration industry as to the critical TAN value for HFC/POE systems, however, the value will be higher than the CFC/mineral oil systems critical TAN value because of the much weaker organic acids produced from POE. A similar study of used POE lubricants should be performed to establish a critical TAN limit for POE systems. Titrimetric analysis per ASTM procedures is the most commonly used method to determine TAN values in lubricants in the refrigeration industry and other industries dealing with lubricating oils. For field measurements, acid test kits are often used since they provide rapid, semi-quantitative TAN results.

  4. Short-term effects of air quality and thermal stress on non-accidental morbidity—a multivariate meta-analysis comparing indices to single measures (United States)

    Lokys, Hanna Leona; Junk, Jürgen; Krein, Andreas


    Air quality and thermal stress lead to increased morbidity and mortality. Studies on morbidity and the combined impact of air pollution and thermal stress are still rare. To analyse the correlations between air quality, thermal stress and morbidity, we used a two-stage meta-analysis approach, consisting of a Poisson regression model combined with distributed lag non-linear models (DLNMs) and a meta-analysis investigating whether latitude or the number of inhabitants significantly influence the correlations. We used air pollution, meteorological and hospital admission data from 28 administrative districts along a north-south gradient in western Germany from 2001 to 2011. We compared the performance of the single measure particulate matter (PM10) and air temperature to air quality indices (MPI and CAQI) and the biometeorological index UTCI. Based on the Akaike information criterion (AIC), it can be shown that using air quality indices instead of single measures increases the model strength. However, using the UTCI in the model does not give additional information compared to mean air temperature. Interaction between the 3-day average of air quality (max PM10, max CAQI and max MPI) and meteorology (mean air temperature and mean UTCI) did not improve the models. Using the mean air temperature, we found immediate effects of heat stress (RR 1.0013, 95% CI: 0.9983-1.0043) and by 3 days delayed effects of cold stress (RR: 1.0184, 95% CI: 1.0117-1.0252). The results for air quality differ between both air quality indices and PM10. CAQI and MPI show a delayed impact on morbidity with a maximum RR after 2 days (MPI 1.0058, 95% CI: 1.0013-1.0102; CAQI 1.0068, 95% CI: 1.0030-1.0107). Latitude was identified as a significant meta-variable, whereas the number of inhabitants was not significant in the model.

  5. Short-term effects of air quality and thermal stress on non-accidental morbidity-a multivariate meta-analysis comparing indices to single measures. (United States)

    Lokys, Hanna Leona; Junk, Jürgen; Krein, Andreas


    Air quality and thermal stress lead to increased morbidity and mortality. Studies on morbidity and the combined impact of air pollution and thermal stress are still rare. To analyse the correlations between air quality, thermal stress and morbidity, we used a two-stage meta-analysis approach, consisting of a Poisson regression model combined with distributed lag non-linear models (DLNMs) and a meta-analysis investigating whether latitude or the number of inhabitants significantly influence the correlations. We used air pollution, meteorological and hospital admission data from 28 administrative districts along a north-south gradient in western Germany from 2001 to 2011. We compared the performance of the single measure particulate matter (PM10) and air temperature to air quality indices (MPI and CAQI) and the biometeorological index UTCI. Based on the Akaike information criterion (AIC), it can be shown that using air quality indices instead of single measures increases the model strength. However, using the UTCI in the model does not give additional information compared to mean air temperature. Interaction between the 3-day average of air quality (max PM10, max CAQI and max MPI) and meteorology (mean air temperature and mean UTCI) did not improve the models. Using the mean air temperature, we found immediate effects of heat stress (RR 1.0013, 95% CI: 0.9983-1.0043) and by 3 days delayed effects of cold stress (RR: 1.0184, 95% CI: 1.0117-1.0252). The results for air quality differ between both air quality indices and PM10. CAQI and MPI show a delayed impact on morbidity with a maximum RR after 2 days (MPI 1.0058, 95% CI: 1.0013-1.0102; CAQI 1.0068, 95% CI: 1.0030-1.0107). Latitude was identified as a significant meta-variable, whereas the number of inhabitants was not significant in the model.

  6. Slope of the lateral density function of extensive air showers around the knee region as an indicator of shower age

    CERN Document Server

    Dey, Rajat K


    Analyzing simulated extensive air shower (EAS) events generated with the Monte Carlo code CORSIKA, this paper critically studies the characteristics of lateral distribution of electrons in EAS around the knee energy region of the energy spectrum of primary cosmic rays. The study takes into account the issue of lateral shower age parameter as indicator of the stage of development of showers in the atmosphere. The correlation of lateral shower age parameter with other EAS observables is examined, using simulated data in the context of its possible use in a multi-parameter study of EAS, with a view to obtaining information about the nature of the shower initiating primaries at sea level EAS experiments. It is shown that the observed slope of the lateral density function in the 3-dimensional plot at least for the KASCADE data supports the idea of a transition from light to heavy mass composition around the knee.

  7. Slope of the lateral density function of extensive air showers around the knee region as an indicator of shower age (United States)

    Dey, Rajat K.; Dam, Sandip


    Analyzing simulated extensive air shower (EAS) events generated with the Monte Carlo code CORSIKA, this paper critically studies the characteristics of lateral distribution of electrons in EAS around the knee energy region of the energy spectrum of primary cosmic rays. The study takes into account the issue of the lateral shower age parameter as an indicator of the stage of development of showers in the atmosphere. The correlation of the lateral shower age parameter with other EAS observables is examined, using simulated data in the context of its possible use in a multi-parameter study of EAS, with a view to obtaining information about the nature of the shower initiating primaries at sea level EAS experiments. It is shown that the observed slope of the lateral density function in the 3-dimensional plot, at least for the KASCADE data, supports the idea of a transition from light to heavy mass composition around the knee.

  8. Positive precipitation-evaporation budget from AD 460 to 1090 in the Saloum Delta (Senegal) indicated by mollusk oxygen isotopes (United States)

    Azzoug, Moufok; Carré, Matthieu; Chase, Brian M.; Deme, Abdoulaye; Lazar, Alban; Lazareth, Claire E.; Schauer, Andrew J.; Mandeng-Yogo, Magloire; Simier, Monique; Thierno-Gaye, Amadou; de Morais, Luis Tito


    There is a critical need to document the long-term variability of the West African Monsoon (WAM) in the Sahel region. We present here a multidecadal proxy record of the past hydrology from AD 460 to 1090 in the Saloum Delta, Senegal. The Saloum Delta is a hypersaline estuary where the salinity and the water isotopic composition are highly sensitive to rainfall variations. The past hydrology was studied using the oxygen isotopic ratio of Anadara senilis fossil shells, since mollusk shell isotopic composition (δ18O) in this environment is primarily determined by the precipitation-evaporation budget. Successive samples of shells were taken along the stratigraphy of the massive Dioron Boumak fossil shell middens for new insights into the past WAM multi-decadal to centennial variability. The averaged δ18O value of fossil shells was more negative by 1.4‰ compared to modern shells' isotopic signature. This result indicates substantially fresher mean conditions in the Saloum Delta, that was likely not hypersaline as it is today. The precipitation-evaporation budget was thus more positive in response to a more intense and/or longer monsoon season during the studied period. Our record suggests that strong multidecadal droughts as observed in the Sahel in the late 20th century did likely not occur in Senegal during this ~ 600-yr time period.

  9. Seasonality Influence on Biochemical and Hematological Indicators of Stress and Growth of Pirarucu (Arapaima gigas, an Amazonian Air-Breathing Fish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosiely Felix Bezerra


    Full Text Available Environmental factors such as seasonal cycles are the main chronic stress cause in fish increasing incidence of disease and mortality and affecting productive performance. Arapaima gigas (pirarucu is an Amazonian air-breathing and largest freshwater fish with scales in the world. The captivity development of pirarucu is expanding since it can fatten up over 1 kg per month reaching 10 kg body mass in the first year of fattening. This work was conducted in three periods (April to July 2010, August to November 2010, and December 2010 to March 2011 defined according to rainfall and medium temperatures. Seasonality effect analysis was performed on biochemical (lectin activity, lactate dehydrogenase, and alkaline phosphatase activities and hematological (total count of red blood cells, hematocrit, hemoglobin, and hematimetric Wintrobe indexes stress indicators, as well as on growth and wellbeing degree expressed by pirarucu condition factor developed in captivity. All biochemical and hematological stress indicators showed seasonal variations. However, the fish growth was allometrically positive; condition factor high values indicated good state of healthiness in cultivation. These results reinforce the robust feature of pirarucu and represent a starting point for understanding stress physiology and environmental changes during cultivation enabling identification and prevention of fish adverse health conditions.

  10. Give It AGO: The Search for miRNA-Argonaute Sorting Signals in Arabidopsis thaliana Indicates a Relevance of Sequence Positions Other than the 5'-Position Alone. (United States)

    Thieme, Christoph J; Schudoma, Christian; May, Patrick; Walther, Dirk


    The specific recognition of miRNAs by Argonaute (AGO) proteins, the effector proteins of the RNA-induced silencing complex, constitutes the final step of the biogenesis of miRNAs and is crucial for their target interaction. In the genome of Arabidopsis thaliana (Ath), 10 different AGO proteins are encoded and the sorting decision, which miRNA associates with which AGO protein, was reported to depend exclusively on the identity of the 5'-sequence position of mature miRNAs. Hence, with only four different bases possible, a 5'-position-only sorting signal would not suffice to specifically target all 10 different AGOs individually or would suggest redundant AGO action. Alternatively, other and as of yet unidentified sorting signals may exist. We analyzed a dataset comprising 117 Ath-miRNAs with clear sorting preference to either AGO1, AGO2, or AGO5 as identified in co-immunoprecipitation experiments combined with sequencing. While mutual information analysis did not identify any other single position but the 5'-nucleotide to be informative for the sorting at sufficient statistical significance, significantly better than random classification results using Random Forests nonetheless suggest that additional positions and combinations thereof also carry information with regard to the AGO sorting. Positions 2, 6, 9, and 13 appear to be of particular importance. Furthermore, uracil bases at defined positions appear to be important for the sorting to AGO2 and AGO5, in particular. No predictive value was associated with miRNA length or base pair binding pattern in the miRNA:miRNA* duplex. From inspecting available AGO gene expression data in Arabidopsis, we conclude that the temporal and spatial expression profile may also contribute to the fine-tuning of miRNA sorting and function.

  11. Indicators of abdominal size relative to height associated with sex, age, socioeconomic position and ancestry among US adults (United States)

    Bullard, Kai McKeever


    Background/Objectives The supine sagittal abdominal diameter (SAD) and standing waist circumference (WC) describe abdominal size. The SAD/height ratio (SADHtR) or WC/height ratio (WHtR) may better identify cardiometabolic disorders than BMI (weight/height2), but population-based distributions of SADHtR and WHtR are not widely available. Abdominal adiposity may differ by sociodemographic characteristics. Subjects/Methods Anthropometry, including SAD by sliding-beam caliper, was performed on 9894 non-pregnant adults ≥20 years in the US National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys of 2011–2014. Applying survey design factors and sampling weights, we estimated nationally representative SADHtR and WHtR distributions by sex, age, educational attainment, and four ancestral groups. Results The median (10th percentile, 90th percentile) for men’s SADHtR was 0.130 (0.103, 0.165) and WHtR 0.569 (0.467, 0.690). For women, median SADHtR was 0.132 (0.102, 0.175) and WHtR 0.586 (0.473, 0.738). Medians for SADHtR and WHtR increased steadily through age 79. The median BMI, however, reached maximum values at ages 40–49 (men) or 60–69 (women) and then declined. Low educational attainment, adjusted for age and ancestry, was associated with elevated SADHtR more strongly than elevated BMI. While non-Hispanic Asians had substantially lower BMI compared to all other ancestral groups (adjusted for sex, age and education), their relative reductions in SADHtR and WHtR, were less marked. Conclusions These cross-sectional data are consistent with monotonically increasing abdominal adipose tissue through the years of adulthood but decreasing mass in non-abdominal regions beyond middle age. They suggest also that visceral adipose tissue, estimated by SADHtR, expands differentially in association with low socioeconomic position. Insofar as Asians have lower BMIs than other populations, employing abdominal indicators may attenuate the adiposity differences reported between ancestral

  12. ST-Segment Depression in Hyperventilation Indicates a False Positive Exercise Test in Patients with Mitral Valve Prolapse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas P. Michaelides


    Full Text Available Objectives. Mitral valve prolapse (MVP is a known cause for false positive exercise test (ET. The purpose of this study was to establish additional electrocardiographic criteria to distinguish the false positive exercise results in patients with MVP. Methods. We studied 218 consecutive patients ( years, 103 males with MVP (according to echocardiographic study, and positive treadmill ET was performed due to multiple cardiovascular risk factors or angina-like symptoms. A coronary angiography was performed to detect coronary artery disease (CAD. Results. From 218 patients, 90 (group A presented with normal coronary arteries according to the angiography (false positive ET while the rest 128 (group B presented with CAD. ST-segment depression in hyperventilation phase was present in 54 patients of group A (60% while only in 14 patients of group B (11%, . Conclusions. Presence of ST-segment depression in hyperventilation phase favors a false positive ET in patients with MVP.

  13. The contribution of transport to air quality. TERM 2012: transport indicators tracking progress towards environmental targets in Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez Vicente, A.; Pastorello, C.; Foltescu, V.L. [and others


    TERM 2012 (Transport and Environment Reporting Mechanism) presents the most relevant and up to date information on the main issues regarding transport and environment in Europe, particularly in areas with specific policy targets such as greenhouse gas emissions and energy consumption, transport demand levels, noise and other issues. It also offers an overview of the transport sector's impact on air pollutant emissions and air quality. It discusses the contributions made by all modes of transport to direct air pollutant emissions and also to 'secondary' air pollutants formed in the atmosphere. Alongside the recently published Air quality in Europe - 2012 report, TERM 2012 aims to inform the European Commission's review of the Thematic Strategy on Air Pollution. (Author)

  14. Guide To Fighting Positions, Obstacles, And Revetments - Air Force Handbook 10-222, Volume 14 (United States)


    and should provide a minimum 2-foot wide crest at the top of the wall. Constructing the wall requires formwork and equipment to mix the soil-cement...hardened position, which is reinforced against direct- and indirect-fire. Tunnels and trenches may be constructed to connect with other fighting

  15. Impact of two-way air flow due to temperature difference on preventing the entry of outdoor particles using indoor positive pressure control method. (United States)

    Chen, Chun; Zhao, Bin; Yang, Xudong


    Maintaining positive pressure indoors using mechanical ventilation system is a popular control method for preventing the entry of outdoor airborne particles. The idea is, as long as the supply air flow rate is larger than return air flow rate, the pressure inside the ventilated room should be positive since the superfluous air flow must exfiltrate from air leakages or other openings of the room to the outdoors. Based on experimental and theoretical analyses this paper aims to show the impact of two-way air flow due to indoor/outdoor temperature difference on preventing the entry of outdoor particles using positive pressure control method. The indoor positive pressure control method is effective only when the size of the opening area is restricted to a certain level, opening degree less than 30° in this study, due to the two-way air flow effect induced by differential temperature. The theoretical model was validated using the experimental data. The impacts of two-way air flow due to temperature difference and the supply air flow rate were also analyzed using the theoretical model as well as experimental data. For real houses, it seems that the idea about the positive pressure control method for preventing the entry of outdoor particles has a blind side.

  16. Association between mortality and indicators of traffic-related air pollution in the Netherlands: A cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoek, G.; Brunekreef, B.; Goldbohm, S.; Fischer, P.; Brandt, P.A. van den


    Background: Long-term exposure to particulate matter air pollution has been associated with increased cardiopulmonary mortality in the USA. We aimed to assess the relation between traffic-related air pollution and mortality in participants of the Netherlands Cohort study on Diet and Cancer (NLCS), a

  17. Meta-Analysis on Near-Road Air Pollutants Concentrations for Developing Traffic Indicators for Exposure Assessment (United States)

    Near-road air pollution has been associated with various health risks in human populations living near roadways. To better understand relationship between vehicle emissions and spatial profiles of traffic-related air pollutants we performed a comprehensive and systematic literat...

  18. An Evaluation of the Air Force Logistics Career Area Advanced Academic Degree Position Validation Process. (United States)

    Biehl, Aleck L.; Sonnier, Ronald J.

    Reduced funding for educational programs indicated that a thorough review should be made of the Advanced Academic Degree (AAD) validation process. This reduction in funding necessitates more effective management of the AAD program in the logistics career areas to insure that officers in these career areas require those skills learned through these…

  19. Disciplinary Style and Child Abuse Potential: Association with Indicators of Positive Functioning in Children with Behavior Problems (United States)

    Rodriguez, Christina M.; Eden, Ann M.


    Reduction of ineffective parenting is promoted in parent training components of mental health treatment for children with externalizing behavior disorders, but minimal research has considered whether disciplinary style and lower abuse risk could also be associated with positive functioning in such children. The present study examined whether lower…

  20. The strength of two indicators of social position on oral health among persons over the age of 80 years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Avlund, Kirsten; Holm-Pedersen, Poul; Morse, Douglas E;


    OBJECTIVE: The objective of the present study is to analyze how two dimensions of social position, education and social class, are associated with oral health among generally healthy, community-dwelling persons over the age of 80 years. METHODS: The present investigation is based on a sample of 157...... community-dwelling individuals from The Kungsholmen Elders Oral Health Study (KEOHS) and included data from interviews and oral examinations. Social position was measured by education and social class. Oral health was measured by active coronal caries, active root caries, edentulism and use of dental...... of being edentulous. Further, persons with elementary/ medium education tended to forego regular dental services more than persons with high education. CONCLUSION: The study identified social inequalities in oral health even in a population of independently living, generally healthy very old Swedes...

  1. Positional isomers of linear sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate: solubility, self-assembly, and air/water interfacial activity. (United States)

    Ma, Jian-Guo; Boyd, Ben J; Drummond, Calum J


    Commercial linear alkyl benzene sulfonates (ABS) are a very important class of anionic surfactants that are employed in a wide variety of applications, especially those involving wetting and detergency. Linear ABS surfactants generally consist of a complex mixture of different chain lengths and positional isomers. This diversity and level of complexity makes it difficult to develop fundamental structure-property correlations for the commercial surfactants. In this work, six monodisperse headgroup positional isomers of sodium para-dodecyl benzene sulfonate (Na-x-DBS, x = 1-6) have been studied. The influence of headgroup position and added electrolyte (NaCl) on the solubility and self-assembly (micellar and vesicular aggregation and lyotropic liquid crystalline phase behavior) in the temperature range from 10 to 90 degrees C have been investigated. Additionally, the air-aqueous solution interfacial adsorption at 25 (no added NaCl) and 50 degrees C (from 0 to 1.0 M added NaCl) has been examined. The observed physicochemical behavior is interpreted in terms of local molecular packing constraints, and in the case of the lyotropic liquid crystalline behavior global aggregate packing constraints as well.

  2. Research on Configuration Optimization of Electronic Countermeasure Air Reconnaissance Radar Position%电子对抗对空侦察雷达阵地配置优化研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭强; 高建军; 张弓胤


    针对电子对抗对空侦察雷达阵地优化配置问题,通过分析雷达站的侦察范围与定位条件,提出双机定位和三机定位的最优配置模式,分别建立双机定位和三机定位的最优站距、定位纵深、配置间隔、阵地高度等相关参数的计算模型。通过对电子对抗对空侦察雷达阵地优化配置问题进行实例计算,表明模型实用、有效。%Aimed at the optimization configuration problem of electronic countermeasure air reconnaissance radar position,the paper analyzes the reconnaissance scope and positioning condition at the radar station,proposes the optimal configuration modes of dual-unit positioning and ternary-unit positioning,and respectively sets up the calculation models related to the optimal station spacing, positioning depth,configuration interval,position height and other relevant parameters of dual-unit positioning and ternary -unit positioning. The real example’s calculation of the optimization configuration problem of electronic countermeasure air reconnaissance radar position indicates that the model is practical and effective.

  3. Lake Superior summer water temperatures are increasing more rapidly than regional air temperatures: A positive ice-albedo feedback (United States)

    Austin, Jay A.; Colman, Steven M.


    Lake Superior summer (July-September) surface water temperatures have increased approximately 2.5°C over the interval 1979-2006, equivalent to a rate of (11 +/- 6) × 10-2°C yr-1, significantly in excess of regional atmospheric warming. This discrepancy is caused by declining winter ice cover, which is causing the onset of the positively stratified season to occur earlier at a rate of roughly a half day per year. An earlier start of the stratified season significantly increases the period over which the lake warms during the summer months, leading to a stronger trend in mean summer temperatures than would be expected from changes in summer air temperature alone.

  4. Radially and temporally resolved electric field of positive streamers in air and modelling of the induced plasma chemistry (United States)

    Hoder, T.; Šimek, M.; Bonaventura, Z.; Prukner, V.; Gordillo-Vázquez, F. J.


    The initial stages of transient luminous events (TLEs) occurring in the upper atmosphere of the Earth are, in a certain pressure range, controlled by the streamer mechanism. This paper presents the results of the first laboratory experiments to study the TLE streamer phenomena under conditions close to those of the upper atmosphere. Spectrally and highly spatiotemporally resolved emissions originating from radiative states {{\\text{N}}2}≤ft({{\\text{C}}3}{{\\Pi}u}\\right) (second positive system) and \\text{N}2+≤ft({{\\text{B}}2}Σu+\\right) (first negative system) have been recorded from the positive streamer discharge. Periodic ionizing events were generated in a barrier discharge arrangement at a pressure of 4 torr of synthetic air, i.e. simulating the pressure conditions at altitudes of ≃37 km. Employing Abel inversion on the radially scanned streamer emission and a 2D fitting procedure, access was obtained to the local spectral signatures within the over 106  m s-1 fast propagating streamers. The reduced electric field strength distribution within the streamer head was determined from the ratio of the \\text{N}2+/{{\\text{N}}2} band intensities with peak values up to 500 Td and overall duration of about 10 ns. The 2D profiles of the streamer head electric fields were used as an experimentally obtained input for kinetic simulations of the streamer-induced air plasma chemistry. The radial and temporal computed distribution of the ground vibrational levels of the radiative states involved in the radiative transitions analyzed (337.1 nm and 391.5 nm), atomic oxygen, nitrogen, nitric oxide and ozone concentrations are vizualized and discussed in comparison with available models of the streamer phase of Blue Jet discharges in the stratosphere.

  5. Influence of Lymphatic Invasion on Locoregional Recurrence Following Mastectomy: Indication for Postmastectomy Radiotherapy for Breast Cancer Patients With One to Three Positive Nodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsunuma, Ryoichi, E-mail: [Department of Surgery, Breast Oncology Center, Cancer Institute Hospital of the Japanese Foundation for Cancer Research, Tokyo (Japan); First Department of Surgery, Hamamatsu University School of Medicine, Shizuoka (Japan); Oguchi, Masahiko [Radiation Oncology Department, Breast Oncology Center, Cancer Institute Hospital of the Japanese Foundation for Cancer Research, Tokyo (Japan); Fujikane, Tomoko [Department of Surgery, Breast Oncology Center, Cancer Institute Hospital of the Japanese Foundation for Cancer Research, Tokyo (Japan); Matsuura, Masaaki [Bioinformatics Group, Genome Center of the Japanese Foundation for Cancer Research and Division of Cancer Genomics, Cancer Institute of the Japanese Foundation for Cancer Research, Tokyo (Japan); Sakai, Takehiko; Kimura, Kiyomi; Morizono, Hidetomo; Iijima, Kotaro; Izumori, Ayumi; Miyagi, Yumi; Nishimura, Seiichiro; Makita, Masujiro [Department of Surgery, Breast Oncology Center, Cancer Institute Hospital of the Japanese Foundation for Cancer Research, Tokyo (Japan); Gomi, Naoya [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Breast Oncology Center, Cancer Institute Hospital of the Japanese Foundation for Cancer Research, Tokyo (Japan); Horii, Rie [Division of Pathology, Cancer Institute Hospital of the Japanese Foundation for Cancer Research, Tokyo (Japan); Akiyama, Futoshi [Division of Pathology, Cancer Institute of the Japanese Foundation for Cancer Research, Tokyo (Japan); Iwase, Takuji [Department of Surgery, Breast Oncology Center, Cancer Institute Hospital of the Japanese Foundation for Cancer Research, Tokyo (Japan)


    Purpose: The indication for postmastectomy radiotherapy (PMRT) in breast cancer patients with one to three positive lymph nodes has been in discussion. The purpose of this study was to identify patient groups for whom PMRT may be indicated, focusing on varied locoregional recurrence rates depending on lymphatic invasion (ly) status. Methods and Materials: Retrospective analysis of 1,994 node-positive patients who had undergone mastectomy without postoperative radiotherapy between January 1990 and December 2000 at our hospital was performed. Patient groups for whom PMRT should be indicated were assessed using statistical tests based on the relationship between locoregional recurrence rate and ly status. Results: Multivariate analysis showed that the ly status affected the locoregional recurrence rate to as great a degree as the number of positive lymph nodes (p < 0.001). Especially for patients with one to three positive nodes, extensive ly was a more significant factor than stage T3 in the TNM staging system for locoregional recurrence (p < 0.001 vs. p = 0.295). Conclusion: Among postmastectomy patients with one to three positive lymph nodes, patients with extensive ly seem to require local therapy regimens similar to those used for patients with four or more positive nodes and also seem to require consideration of the use of PMRT.

  6. A Simple Drought Product and Indicator Derived from Temperature and Relative Humidity Observed by the Atmospheric InfraRed Sounder (AIRS) (United States)

    Granger, S. L.; Behrangi, A.


    In the United States, drought results in agricultural losses, impacts to industry, power and energy production, natural resources, municipal water supplies and human health making it one of the costliest natural hazards in the nation. Monitoring drought is therefore critical to help local governments, resource managers, and other groups make effective decisions, yet there is no single definition of drought, and because of the complex nature of drought there is no universal best drought indicator. Remote sensing applications in drought monitoring are advantageous due to the large spatial and temporal frequency of observations, leading to a better understanding of the spatial extent of drought and its duration, and in detecting the onset of drought and its intensity. NASA Earth Observing System (EOS)-era data have potential for monitoring and assessing drought and many are already used either directly or indirectly for drought monitoring. Land Surface Temperature (LST) and Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) observations from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectro-radiometer (MODIS) sensor are widely used for agricultural and environmental plant-stress monitoring via the USDM, the VegDRI project and FEWSNet. However there remain underutilized sources of information from NASA satellite observations that may have promise for characterizing and understanding meteorological drought. Once such sensor is NASA's Advanced Infra-Red Sounder (AIRS) aboard the Aqua satellite. AIRS and it's sister sensor the Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit (AMSU) that together provide meteorological information of high relevance to meteorological drought, e.g., profiles of water vapor, surface air temperature, and precipitation. Recent work undertaken to develop simple indicators of drought based on temperature and relative humidity from the AIRS suite of instruments is promising. Although there are more sophisticated indicators developed through the application of a variety of

  7. Study of the accumulation of air pollution by the biological indicators, using 14 MeV neutron activation (United States)

    Senhou, A.; Khoukhi, T. El; Chouak, A.; Cherkaoui, R. El Moursili; Yahiaoui, A. El; Lferde, M.


    14 MeV neutron activation analysis was used to determine air polluting elements in samples of mosses, lichens and tree barks, collected from different regions in Morocco. The analysis of spectra shows clearly that the elements Mg, Al, Si, Cl, J, Ca, Ti and Fe can easily be determined by 14 NAA with good precision, while results for Zn, Rb, Sr, Ba and La are less precise. Curves showing correlation between Al and Mg concentrations are given for different sites.

  8. Bench experiments comparing simulated inspiratory effort when breathing helium-oxygen mixtures to that during positive pressure support with air

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Andrew R


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Inhalation of helium-oxygen (He/O2 mixtures has been explored as a means to lower the work of breathing of patients with obstructive lung disease. Non-invasive ventilation (NIV with positive pressure support is also used for this purpose. The bench experiments presented herein were conducted in order to compare simulated patient inspiratory effort breathing He/O2 with that breathing medical air, with or without pressure support, across a range of adult, obstructive disease patterns. Methods Patient breathing was simulated using a dual-chamber mechanical test lung, with the breathing compartment connected to an ICU ventilator operated in NIV mode with medical air or He/O2 (78/22 or 65/35%. Parabolic or linear resistances were inserted at the inlet to the breathing chamber. Breathing chamber compliance was also varied. The inspiratory effort was assessed for the different gas mixtures, for three breathing patterns, with zero pressure support (simulating unassisted spontaneous breathing, and with varying levels of pressure support. Results Inspiratory effort increased with increasing resistance and decreasing compliance. At a fixed resistance and compliance, inspiratory effort increased with increasing minute ventilation, and decreased with increasing pressure support. For parabolic resistors, inspiratory effort was lower for He/O2 mixtures than for air, whereas little difference was measured for nominally linear resistance. Relatively small differences in inspiratory effort were measured between the two He/O2 mixtures. Used in combination, reductions in inspiratory effort provided by He/O2 and pressure support were additive. Conclusions The reduction in inspiratory effort afforded by breathing He/O2 is strongly dependent on the severity and type of airway obstruction. Varying helium concentration between 78% and 65% has small impact on inspiratory effort, while combining He/O2 with pressure support provides an additive

  9. Prognosis of breast cancer with low-positive hormonal receptors using epidermal growth factor receptor and cytokeratin 5/6 as indi-cators

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Jianyi; Xue Jinqi; Zhang Wenhai; Zhang Yang; Jia Shi; Qian Songying


    Objective Less than a decade ago, ER-positive and PgR-positive diagnostic criteria decrease from 10%to 1%. Up to 20%of current immunohistochemical determinations of ER and PgR worldwide may be inaccu-rate. It is necessary to study patients whose tumors are between luminal A (LABC) and triple-negative (TNBC) breast cancer. Methods Survival analysis grouping by the level of positive hormone receptor, CK5/6 and EGFR, and en-docrine therapy was carried out in 206 patients whose tumors were junction zone between LABC and TNBC. Re-sults There were no significant differences between the low-positive (1%-9%) HR group and positive HR (10%-19%) group in overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS). There was an apparent difference between the nor-mal-like group and basal-like group in OS and DFS, and between the patients with and without endocrine therapy. There were significant differences between death and tumor progression for EGFR and CK5/6, chemotherapy, and endocrine therapy. Conclusions We conclude that EGFR and CK5/6 are better prognostic indicators than the lev-el of positive HR in patients whose tumors are junction zone at the junction zone between LABC and TNBC. En-docrine therapy can be highly beneficial to these patients regardless of the positive HR level.

  10. Collective behaviour of climate indices in the North Pacific air-sea system and its potential relationships with decadal climate changes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Xiao-Juan; Zhi Rong; He Wen-Ping; Gong Zhi-Qiang


    A climate network of six climate indices of the North Pacific air-sea system is constructed during the period of 1948-2009.In order to find out the inherent relationship between the intrinsic mechanism of climate index network and the important climate shift,the synchronization behaviour and the coupling behaviour of these indices are investigated.Results indicate that climate network synchronization happened around the beginning of the 1960s,in the middle of the 1970s and at the beginnings of the 1990s and the 2000s separately.These synchronization states were always followed by the decrease of the coupling coefficient.Each synchronization of the network was well associated with the abrupt phase or trend changes of annually accumulated abnormal vaiues of North Pacific sea-surface temperature and 500-hPa height,among which the one that happened in the middle of the 1970s is the most noticeable climate shift.We can also obtain this mysterious shift from the first mode of the empirical orthogonal function of six indices.That is to say,abrupt climate shift in North Pacific air-sea system is not only shown by the phase or trend changes of climate indices,but also night be indicated by the synchronizing and the coupling of climate indices.Furthermore,at the turning point of 1975,there are also abrupt correlation changes in the yearly mode of spatial degree distribution of the sea surface temperature and 500-hPa height in the region of the North Pacific,which further proves the probability of climate index synchronization and coupling shift in air-sea systems.

  11. The South African Air Force, 1920–2012: A Review of its History and an Indication of its Cultural Heritage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Wessels


    Full Text Available Although a South African Aviation Corps existed for a few months in 1915, and although several South Africans saw action in World War I as members of Britain’s Royal Flying Corps, the history of the South African Air Force (SAAF – the world’s second oldest air force – strictly speaking only dates back to 1 February 1920.  In this article, a review is provided of the history of the SAAF, with specific reference to its operational deployments in the 1920s; the difficult years of the great depression and its aftermath and impact on the SAAF; the very important role played by the SAAF in the course of World War II (for example in patrolling South Africa’s coastal waters, and in taking part in the campaigns in East Africa and Abyssinia, as well as in North Africa, Madagascar, Italy, over the Mediterranean and in the Balkans; the post-war rationalisation; its small but important role in the Korean War; the acquisition of a large number of modern aircraft and helicopters from the mid-1950s to the mid-1970s; the impact that sanctions had on the SAAF; the SAAF’s role in Northern Namibia and in Angola during the war years, 1966–1989, and the SAAF in post-apartheid South Africa.  Throughout the article, historiographical matters are mentioned by means of references – either in the text or in footnotes – to the most important available sources.

  12. Contactless electroreflectance studies of the Fermi level position at the air/GaN interface: Bistable nature of the Ga-polar surface (United States)

    Janicki, Łukasz; Gładysiewicz, Marta; Misiewicz, Jan; Klosek, Kamil; Sobanska, Marta; Kempisty, Paweł; Zytkiewicz, Zbigniew R.; Kudrawiec, Robert


    In this paper we show that the surface Fermi level of Ga-polar GaN exhibits a bistable behavior allowing it to be located at two distinct energetic positions at the air/GaN interface which is unusual for other III-V semiconductors such as GaAs or GaSb. To determine the Fermi level position at the air/GaN interface we perform contactless electroreflectance measurements on specially designed UD+ structures [GaN(undoped)/GaN(highly doped)/substrate] doped by Si and Mg. Analyzing the period of Franz-Keldysh oscillation we determine the built-in electric field in the undoped (U) layer. These studies coupled with numerical solutions of the Poisson equation allowed us to determine the position of the Fermi level at the air/GaN interface. We observe a change in the band bending correlated to different Fermi level positions in the doped (D+) layer. We show that depending on the doping type in the D+ layer the Fermi level at the air/GaN interface is located in the upper or lower singularity of surface density of states (SDOS) for Si or Mg doping of D+ layer, respectively. We support our findings with the density functional theory calculations of the SDOS and the dependence of the Fermi level position on the doping concentration in the bulk of a GaN slab.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available This paper examines two indicators, namely the net monetary statement and the net non-monetary statement. To determine and analyze them, we started with the classification of assets (monetary and non-monetary and liabilities (monetary and nonmonetary. The actual values of these elements were established on the basis of information supplied by the balance sheet, followed by the calculus of the net monetary statement and of the net non-monetary statement. These indicators provide relevant and reliable information to the users of financial statements and, in the future, they should be taken into account because they bring additional information about the financial position of the entity.

  14. Is it Always Best to be on Top? The Effect of Ad Positioning on Key Performance Indicators in Search Engine Advertising


    Philipp Herrmann; Michael Mueller


    Search Engine Advertising is one of the fastest growing instruments in online marketing and a major source of costs for online advertisers. In this research, we empirically and experimentally investigate the impact of ad positioning on key performance indicators in search engine advertising namely click-through-rates, cost-per-click, conversion-rates, and cost-per-conversion. We answer our research question by using a unique and very rich dataset provided by an online marketing agency as well...

  15. Project W-314 acceptance test report HNF-4643 for HNF-4642 241-AN-A valve pit manifold valves and position indication for project W-314

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The purpose of the test was to verify that the AN Tank Farm Manifold Valves can be manually manipulated to the required operating position and that the electrical and visual indications accurately reflect that position. Physical locking devices were also verified to function. The Acceptance Test Procedure HNF-4642, 241-AN-A Valve Pit Manifold Valves and Position Indication was conducted between 23 June and 10 August 1999 at the 200E AN Tank Farm. The test has no open test exceptions. The test was conducted prior to final engineering ''as built'' activities being completed, this had an impact on the procedure and test results, ECN 653752 was written to correct the mismatch between the procedure and actual field conditions. P&ID H-14-100941 was changed via ECN-W-314-4C-120. All components, identified in the procedure, were not found to be labeled and identified as written in the procedure, temporary tags were used for operational identification. A retest of valve ANA-WT-V 318 was required because it was removed from its installed position and modified after testing was completed.

  16. Can citizen science produce good science? Testing the OPAL Air Survey methodology, using lichens as indicators of nitrogenous pollution. (United States)

    Tregidgo, Daniel J; West, Sarah E; Ashmore, Mike R


    Citizen science is having increasing influence on environmental monitoring as its advantages are becoming recognised. However methodologies are often simplified to make them accessible to citizen scientists. We tested whether a recent citizen science survey (the OPAL Air Survey) could detect trends in lichen community composition over transects away from roads. We hypothesised that the abundance of nitrophilic lichens would decrease with distance from the road, while that of nitrophobic lichens would increase. The hypothesised changes were detected along strong pollution gradients, but not where the road source was relatively weak, or background pollution relatively high. We conclude that the simplified OPAL methodology can detect large contrasts in nitrogenous pollution, but it may not be able to detect more subtle changes in pollution exposure. Similar studies are needed in conjunction with the ever-growing body of citizen science work to ensure that the limitations of these methods are fully understood.

  17. Quantitative measurement of size and three-dimensional position of fast-moving bubbles in air-water mixture flows using digital holography. (United States)

    Tian, Lei; Loomis, Nick; Domínguez-Caballero, José A; Barbastathis, George


    We present a digital in-line holographic imaging system for measuring the size and three-dimensional position of fast-moving bubbles in air-water mixture flows. The captured holograms are numerically processed by performing a two-dimensional projection followed by local depth estimation to quickly and efficiently obtain the size and position information of multiple bubbles simultaneously. Statistical analysis on measured bubble size distributions shows that they follow lognormal or gamma distributions.

  18. Lead isotope ratios in tree bark pockets: An indicator of past air pollution in the Czech Republic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conkova, M. [Charles University, Faculty of Natural Sciences, Benatska 8, Prague 1 (Czech Republic)], E-mail:; Kubiznakova, J. [Czech Hydrometeorogical Institute, Na Sabatce 17, Prague 4 (Czech Republic)], E-mail:


    Tree bark pockets were collected at four sites in the Czech Republic with differing levels of lead (Pb) pollution. The samples, spanning 1923-2005, were separated from beech (Fagus sylvatica) and spruce (Picea abies). Elevated Pb content (0.1-42.4 {mu}g g{sup -1}) reflected air pollution in the city of Prague. The lowest Pb content (0.3-2.6 {mu}g g{sup -1}) was found at the Kosetice EMEP 'background pollution' site. Changes in {sup 206}Pb/{sup 207}Pb and {sup 208}Pb/{sup 206}Pb isotope ratios were in agreement with operation times of the Czech main anthropogenic Pb sources. Shortly after the Second World War, the {sup 206}Pb/{sup 207}Pb isotope ratio in bark pockets decreased from 1.17 to 1.14 and the {sup 208}Pb/{sup 206}Pb isotope ratio increased from 2.12 to 2.16. Two dominant emission sources responsible for these changes, lignite and leaded petrol combustion, contributed to the shifts in Pb isotope ratios. Low-radiogenic petrol Pb ({sup 206}Pb/{sup 207}Pb of 1.11) lead to lower {sup 206}Pb/{sup 207}Pb in bark pockets over time. High-radiogenic lignite-derived Pb ({sup 206}Pb/{sup 207}Pb of 1.18 to 1.19) was detected in areas affected by coal combustion rather than by traffic.

  19. Effect of air conditioning installation position on indoor air distribution in duplex apartment%空调安装位置对复式住宅室内流场的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晶; 史柏语; 戚译天; 吴国忠; 赵文凯; 李栋


    建立复式住宅的三维数理模型,利用CFD软件对复式住宅室内气流组织进行数值模拟,探讨室内温度场和速度场的变化关系,分析2种客厅内不同空调安装位置对复式住宅室内气流组织和热舒适性的影响.结果表明:客厅内空调送风只能同时保证客厅内主要活动区域,以及与其直接连接的相邻且无遮挡空间的空气温度满足要求;在送风时,位于客厅内上层卧室外墙上方空调比位于客厅内西墙墙壁上方的空调对室内气流的扰动作用更大,对室内风速及温度的影响也更大.这对于复式住宅内空调优化设计和节能具有指导意义.%Three-dimensional physical and mathematical models of duplex apartment were established in this paper. Indoor air distribution of the duplex apartment was simulated by using computational fluid dynamics software CFD, and the impact of the different installation position of air conditioning on indoor air distribution in summer were analyzed. By comparing the change relations of the indoor temperature field and velocity field in different circumstances, and the influence of two installation positions of air conditioning that meet the requirements of air distribution and thermal comfort in the duplex apartment were analyzed. Results show that air supply of air conditioning inside the drawing room only meet air temperature requirements of the main activity areas of drawing room and its' directly connected neighboring space without occlusion at the same time; and the disturbance effect of indoor air flow fluctuates more fiercely when air conditioning located in the indoor central position than the border, as well as the influence of indoor wind speed and temperature.

  20. The experimental effect of artificial air ionizer (negative and positive on some hematological parameters at Wistar rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simionca Iuri


    Full Text Available The air near the ground, where the most organisms live, is characterized by physical-chemical and biological properties.All these factors (e.g. temperature, humidity, air ionization, etc perform certains roles and any quantitative and qualitative change, beyond certain limits, are felt on the body in one form or another.From the physical factors of the air, the electrical power includes, in turn, electrical conductivity, electric field, electrical potential gradient, thunderstorms, air ionization, atmospherical which manifests itself differently in beautiful weather (low cloud, little wind, no precipitation or the disturbed weather (storm.The most common electricity of beautiful weather, is characterized by a multitude of meanings with has direct or indirect effects on the living world, favorable or unfavorable, perceptible or not, depending on the intensity, duration or frequency of manifestation of that power factor.A special place of these biometeorological factors is occupied by the category natural air ionization. The first observations on the existence of gaseous ions in air have been made since the early twentieth century `30 (German physicist Panthenier Ladenburg and French, thorough research and then resumed after the 50s of various collective (including French physicist J. Bricard, University of Paris. They have highlighted the link between low ion content in the air and micropopulation atmosphere and that lack almost daily a minimum amount of negative ions of oxygen from small places of daily activities constitute a cause of a inevitable occurrence of disorders, often severe, health status.

  1. Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in urban air: How chemistry affects the interpretation of positive matrix factorization (PMF) analysis (United States)

    Yuan, Bin; Shao, Min; de Gouw, Joost; Parrish, David D.; Lu, Sihua; Wang, Ming; Zeng, Limin; Zhang, Qian; Song, Yu; Zhang, Jianbo; Hu, Min


    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were measured online at an urban site in Beijing in August-September 2010. Diurnal variations of various VOC species indicate that VOCs concentrations were influenced by photochemical removal with OH radicals for reactive species and secondary formation for oxygenated VOCs (OVOCs). A photochemical age-based parameterization method was applied to characterize VOCs chemistry. A large part of the variability in concentrations of both hydrocarbons and OVOCs was explained by this method. The determined emission ratios of hydrocarbons to acetylene agreed within a factor of two between 2005 and 2010 measurements. However, large differences were found for emission ratios of some alkanes and C8 aromatics between Beijing and northeastern United States secondary formation from anthropogenic VOCs generally contributed higher percentages to concentrations of reactive aldehydes than those of inert ketones and alcohols. Anthropogenic primary emissions accounted for the majority of ketones and alcohols concentrations. Positive matrix factorization (PMF) was also used to identify emission sources from this VOCs data set. The four resolved factors were three anthropogenic factors and a biogenic factor. However, the anthropogenic factors are attributed here to a common source at different stages of photochemical processing rather than three independent sources. Anthropogenic and biogenic sources of VOCs concentrations were not separated completely in PMF. This study indicates that photochemistry of VOCs in the atmosphere complicates the information about separated sources that can be extracted from PMF and the influence of photochemical processing must be carefully considered in the interpretation of source apportionment studies based upon PMF.

  2. AIS-MOB(AIS便携式应急示位标)技术与应用%AIS-MOB(AIS portable emergency position indicator) Technology and Application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    AIS-MOB(AIS个人便携应急示位标)是一种可以安装于救生衣或随身携带的便携式应急示位报警装备,该设备可通过人工或落水自动启动,应用AIS自组织时分多址技术在AIS信道或指配的专用信道上,定时发送个人位置和报警信息,该信息可被所有AIS终端设备和基站设备接收显示,提高搜救效率。设备由AIS发射电路、GNSS定位、天线、电池等部分组成,可在紧急情况下连续工作48小时以上,可广泛应用于各类搜救系统。%AIS-MOB(AIS portable emergency position indicator) is a kind of can be installed on the lifejacket or portable emergency position indicating and alarm equipment, the equipment can be manual or automatic start falling, the application of AIS self-organized time division multiple access technology in AIS channel or assigned a dedicated channel, regularly send personal position and the alarm information, the information can be all AIS terminal equipment and base station equipment receiving display, improve search efficiency. Equipment from the AIS emission circuit, GNSS positioning, antenna, battery components, in an emergency situation more than 48 hours of continuous work, can be widely used in various types of search and rescue system.

  3. Use of Segregation Indices, Townsend Index, and Air Toxics Data to Assess Lifetime Cancer Risk Disparities in Metropolitan Charleston, South Carolina, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LaShanta J. Rice


    Full Text Available Background: Studies have demonstrated a relationship between segregation and level of education, occupational opportunities, and risk behaviors, yet a paucity of research has elucidated the association between racial residential segregation, socioeconomic deprivation, and lifetime cancer risk. Objectives: We examined estimated lifetime cancer risk from air toxics by racial composition, segregation, and deprivation in census tracts in Metropolitan Charleston. Methods: Segregation indices were used to measure the distribution of groups of people from different races within neighborhoods. The Townsend Index was used to measure economic deprivation in the study area. Poisson multivariate regressions were applied to assess the association of lifetime cancer risk with segregation indices and Townsend Index along with several sociodemographic measures. Results: Lifetime cancer risk from all pollution sources was 28 persons/million for half of the census tracts in Metropolitan Charleston. Isolation Index and Townsend Index both showed significant correlation with lifetime cancer risk from different sources. This significance still holds after adjusting for other sociodemographic measures in a Poisson regression, and these two indices have stronger effect on lifetime cancer risk compared to the effects of sociodemographic measures. Conclusions: We found that material deprivation, measured by the Townsend Index and segregation measured by the Isolation index, introduced high impact on lifetime cancer risk by air toxics at the census tract level.

  4. A comparison between the dimensions of positive transtibial residual limb molds prepared by air pressure casting and weight-bearing casting methods (United States)

    Hajiaghaei, Behnam; Ebrahimi, Ismail; Kamyab, Mojtaba; Saeedi, Hassan; Jalali, Maryam


    Background: Creating a socket with proper fit is an important factor to ensure the comfort and control of prosthetic devices. Several techniques are commonly used to cast transtibial stumps but their effect on stump shape deformation is not well understood. This study compares the dimensions, circumferences and volumes of the positive casts and also the socket comfort between two casting methods. Our hypothesis was that the casts prepared by air pressure method have less volume and are more comfortable than those prepared by weight bearing method. Methods: Fifteen transtibial unilateral amputees participated in the study. Two weight bearing and air pressure casting methods were utilized for their residual limbs. The diameters and circumferences of various areas of the residual limbs and positive casts were compared. The volumes of two types of casts were measured by a volumeter and compared. Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) was used to measure the sockets fit comfort. Results: Circumferences at 10 and 15 cm below the patella on the casts were significantly smaller in air pressure casting method compared to the weight bearing method (p=0.00 and 0.01 respectively). The volume of the cast in air pressure method was lower than that of the weight bearing method (p=0.006). The amputees found the fit of the sockets prepared by air pressure method more comfortable than the weight bearing sockets (p=0.015). Conclusion: The air pressure casting reduced the circumferences of the distal portion of residual limbs which has more soft tissue and because of its snug fit it provided more comfort for amputees, according to the VAS measurements. PMID:27390711

  5. Air network performance and hub competitive position: evaluation of primary airports in East and South-East Asia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G. Burghouwt; J. de Wit; J. Veldhuis; H. Matsumoto


    The growth of hub-and-spoke operations has changed the structure of competition among airlines and airports, meaning that airlines now compete both directly (air services from A to B) as well as indirectly (services from A to B via H). Traditional measures of airport performance, such as passenger e

  6. A process for selecting ecological indicators for application in monitoring impacts to Air Quality Related Values (AQRVs) from atmospheric pollutants. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, G.J.; Breckenridge, R.P.


    Section 160 of the Clean Air Act (CAA) calls for measures be taken {open_quotes}to preserve, protect, and enhance air quality in national parks, national wilderness areas, national monuments, national seashores, and other areas of special national or regional natural, recreational, scenic, or historic value.{close_quotes} Pursuant to this, stringent requirement have been established for {open_quotes}Class I{close_quotes} areas, which include most National Parks and Wilderness Areas. Federal Land Managers (FLMs) are charged with the task of carrying out these requirements through the identification of air quality related values (AQRVs) that are potentially at risk from atmospheric pollutants. This is a complex task, the success of which is dependent on the gathering of information on a wide variety of factors that contribute to the potential for impacting resources in Class I areas. Further complicating the issue is the diversity of ecological systems found in Class I areas. There is a critical need for the development of monitoring programs to assess the status of AQRVs in Class I areas with respect to impacts caused by atmospheric pollutants. These monitoring programs must be based on the measurement of a carefully selected suite of key physical, chemical, and biological parameters that serve as indicators of the status of the ecosystems found in Class I areas. Such programs must be both scientifically-based and cost-effective, and must provide the data necessary for FLMs to make objective, defensible decisions. This document summarizes a method for developing AQRV monitoring programs in Class I areas.

  7. Clinical use of quantitative cardiac perfusion PET: rationale, modalities and possible indications. Position paper of the Cardiovascular Committee of the European Association of Nuclear Medicine (EANM). (United States)

    Sciagrà, Roberto; Passeri, Alessandro; Bucerius, Jan; Verberne, Hein J; Slart, Riemer H J A; Lindner, Oliver; Gimelli, Alessia; Hyafil, Fabien; Agostini, Denis; Übleis, Christopher; Hacker, Marcus


    Until recently, PET was regarded as a luxurious way of performing myocardial perfusion scintigraphy, with excellent image quality and diagnostic capabilities that hardly justified the additional cost and procedural effort. Quantitative perfusion PET was considered a major improvement over standard qualitative imaging, because it allows the measurement of parameters not otherwise available, but for many years its use was confined to academic and research settings. In recent years, however, several factors have contributed to the renewal of interest in quantitative perfusion PET, which has become a much more readily accessible technique due to progress in hardware and the availability of dedicated and user-friendly platforms and programs. In spite of this evolution and of the growing evidence that quantitative perfusion PET can play a role in the clinical setting, there are not yet clear indications for its clinical use. Therefore, the Cardiovascular Committee of the European Association of Nuclear Medicine, starting from the experience of its members, decided to examine the current literature on quantitative perfusion PET to (1) evaluate the rationale for its clinical use, (2) identify the main methodological requirements, (3) identify the remaining technical difficulties, (4) define the most reliable interpretation criteria, and finally (5) tentatively delineate currently acceptable and possibly appropriate clinical indications. The present position paper must be considered as a starting point aiming to promote a wider use of quantitative perfusion PET and to encourage the conception and execution of the studies needed to definitely establish its role in clinical practice.

  8. Performance of a compact position-sensitive photon counting detector with image charge coupling to an air-side anode (United States)

    Jagutzki, O.; Czasch, A.; Schössler, S.


    We discuss a novel micro-channel plate (MCP) photomultiplier with resistive screen (RS-PMT) as a detection device for space- and time-correlated single photon counting, illustrated by several applications. The photomultiplier tube resembles a standard image intensifier device. However, the rear phosphor screen is replaced by a ceramic "window" with resistive coating. The MCP output is transferred through the ceramic plate to the read-out electrode (on the air side) via capacity-coupling of the image charge. This design allows for an easy reconfiguration of the read-out electrode (e.g. pixel, charge-sharing, cross-strip, delay-line) without breaking the vacuum for optimizing the detector performance towards a certain task. It also eases the design and manufacturing process of such a multi-purpose photomultiplier tube. Temporal and spatial resolutions well below 100 ps and 100 microns, respectively, have been reported at event rates as high as 1 MHz, for up to 40 mm effective detection diameter. In this paper we will discuss several applications like wide-field fluorescence microscopy and dual γ/fast-neutron radiography for air cargo screening and conclude with an outlook on large-area detectors for thermal neutrons based on MCPs.

  9. Surface oxidation under ambient air--not only a fast and economical method to identify double bond positions in unsaturated lipids but also a reminder of proper lipid processing. (United States)

    Zhou, Ying; Park, Hyejung; Kim, Philseok; Jiang, Yan; Costello, Catherine E


    A simple, fast approach elucidated carbon-carbon double bond positions in unsaturated lipids. Lipids were deposited onto various surfaces and the products from their oxidation in ambient air were observed by electrospray ionization (ESI) mass spectrometry (MS). The most common oxidative products, aldehydes, were detected as transformations at the cleaved double bond positions. Ozonides and carboxylic acids were generated in certain lipids. Investigations of the conditions controlling the appearance of these products indicated that the surface oxidation depends on light and ambient air. Since the lipid oxidation was slower in a high concentration of ozone, singlet oxygen appeared to be a parallel oxidant for unsaturated lipids. The 3-hydroxyl group in the sphingoid base of sulfatides offered some protection from oxidation for the Δ4,5-double bond, slowing its oxidation rate relative to that of the isolated double bond in the N-linked fatty acyl chain. Direct sampling by thin-layer chromatography (TLC)-ESI-MS provides a powerful approach to elucidate detailed structural information on biological samples. Co-localization of the starting lipids and their oxidation products after TLC separation allowed assignment of the native unsaturation sites. Phosphatidylserine and N,N-dimethyl phosphatidylethanolamine isomers in a bovine brain total lipid extract were distinguished on the basis of their oxidation products. Meanwhile, the findings reported herein reveal a potential pitfall in the assignment of structures to lipids extracted from TLC plates because of artifactual oxidation after the plate development.

  10. Clinical indications to the use of (99m)Tc-EDDA/HYNIC-TOC to detect somatostatin receptor-positive neuroendocrine tumors. (United States)

    Parisella, M G; Chianelli, M; D'Alessandria, C; Todino, V; Mikolajczak, R; Papini, E; Dierckx, R A; Scopinaro, F; Signore, A


    The aim of this study was to define, retrospectively, the utility to perform (99m)Tc-EDDA/HYNIC-Tyr3-octreotide ((99m)Tc-EDDA/HYNIC-TOC) scan in patients with NET. We studied 50 consecutive patients affected by different types of NET and divided in two groups. Group 1: 34 patients with known lesions in which (99m)Tc-EDDA/HYNIC-TOC was performed for staging, characterisation or to choose the appropriate treatment. Group 2: 16 patients suspected of having NET or in follow up after surgery. Patients were injected with 370 MBq of (99m)Tc-EDDA/HYNIC-Tyr3-octreotide and whole-body and SPET images acquired 2-3 hours after injection. Overall, 29 patients (58%) had a positive scan, with a sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of 70.3%, 76.9% and 72%, respectively (78.1%, 50% and 76.5%, in group 1 and 20%, 81.2%, 62.5% in group 2). In patients from group 1 (99m)Tc-HYNIC-TOC scintigraphy showed a concordance of 68% with another imaging procedure and in 9 patients revealed a greater number of lesions. In the second group, false negative results were especially found in patients with medullary thyroid cancer with negative radiological findings and elevated calcitonin. In conclusion, (99m)Tc-EDDA/HYNIC-TOC is highly indicated for in vivo histological characterization of known NET lesions, previously identified by other imaging modalities or biopsy, to plan appropriate therapy especially for patients with inoperable disease. In patients with only biochemical suspicion of NET and in those with negative markers, this scintigraphy does not significantly modify the clinical management.

  11. Study of the impact of photoionization on negative and positive needle-plane corona discharge in atmospheric air (United States)

    Dordizadeh, Peyman; Adamiak, Kazimierz; Castle, G. S. Peter


    A 2D axisymmetric model of the atmospheric pressure needle-plane corona discharge incorporating the photoionization phenomenon is presented in this paper. The photoionization model was developed using a three-term exponential approximation based on a model suggested by Bourdon et al. The coefficients of the photoionization model were tuned by reproducing the results of a positive corona discharge and comparing them with the experimental data published previously in the literature. In fact, this photoionization model is an essential module for studying a self-sustained positive corona discharge. Incorporating the photoionization phenomenon in the numerical model for the negative corona discharge causes an average of 5% increase in both the frequency and the DC current of the discharge. The relative importance of the photoionization in both positive and negative coronas was put in a quantitative frame by introducing the ratio of the integral of the impact ionization source term (IIS) divided by the Integral of the photoionization source term (IPS). With the help of this ratio and the spatial distribution of the two source terms, the minor role played by the photoionization source term for the negative discharge is justified. In the case of the positive discharge, the vital importance of the photoionization for sustaining the discharge is explained. Moreover, for the negative corona discharge, comparison of the ratio of the secondary emitted electrons (SEE) from the cathode surface divided by the IPS, at different instants of the formation of a Trichel pulse was found to be beneficial for the purpose of evaluating the relative importance of the photoionization. It is concluded that, although SEE on the rising edge of the Trichel pulse is smaller than the IPS since the injected electrons from the cathode surface are generated in the area with the strongest electric field, they have a greater contribution to the discharge current.

  12. Egg incubation position affects toxicity of air cell administered PCB 126 (3,3?4,4?,5- pentachlorobiphenyl) in chicken (Gallus domesticus) embryos (United States)

    McKernan, M.A.; Rattner, B.A.; Hale, R.C.; Ottinger, M.A.


    The avian egg is used extensively for chemical screening and determining the relative sensitivity of species to environmental contaminants (e.g., metals, pesticides, polyhalogenated compounds). The effect of egg incubation position on embryonic survival, pipping, and hatching success was examined following air cell administration of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congener 126 (3,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl [PCB 126]; 500?2,000 pg/g egg) on day 4 of development in fertile chicken (Gallus gallus) eggs. Depending on dose, toxicity was found to be up to nine times greater in vertically versus horizontally incubated eggs. This may be due to enhanced embryonic exposure to the injection bolus in vertically incubated eggs compared to more gradual uptake in horizontally incubated eggs. Following air cell administration of PCB 126, horizontal incubation of eggs may more closely approximate uptake and toxicity that has been observed with naturally incorporated contaminants. These data have implications for chemical screening and use of laboratory data for ecological risk assessments.

  13. The lichen Parmelia physodes (L. Ach. as indicator for determination of the degree of atmospheric air pollution in the area contaminated by flourine and sulphur dioxide emission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Świeboda


    Full Text Available On the area involved in the influence of conteminations emitted by the aluminium works and electric power plant, the degree of atmospheric air pollution was evaluated on the basis of the behaviour of healthy thallus of the lichen Parmelia physodes, analysis of fluorine and sulphur content in this thallus and in the bark substrate and the F and SO2 concentrations in the air.

  14. Positive ion chemistry in the exhaust plumes of an air craft jet engine and a burner: investigations with a quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiendler, A.; Aberle, S.; Arnold, F. [Max Planck Institute for Nuclear Physics, Heidelberg (Germany). Atmospheric Physics Div.


    Using a quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometer detailed composition analyses were made of positive ions in the exhaust of an aircraft jet engine and of a jet fuel burner. For both scenarios complex organic ions with large mass numbers were most abundant. By employing the MS{sup 2}-mode of the quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometer, mass selected trapped ions were intendently broken up and characteristic fragment ions were observed. The latter indicate that the parent ions contain hydrogen, carbon and oxygen which is indicative of oxygenated hydrocarbons. This contrasts recent composition measurements of negative ions in aircraft jet engine exhaust made by our group which revealed that negative ions contain the inorganic acid H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}. Our present measurements support the view that positive ions in aircraft jet engine exhaust contain preferably organic molecules. (author)

  15. Position-specific performance indicators that discriminate between successful and unsuccessful teams in elite women's indoor field hockey: implications for coaching. (United States)

    Vinson, Don; Peters, Derek M


    The aim of this investigation was to establish median performance profiles for the six playing positions in elite women's indoor hockey and then identify whether these position-specific profiles could discriminate between qualifying (top four), mid-table and relegated teams in the 2011-2012 England Hockey premier league. Successful passing in relegated teams was significantly lower (P teams in four of the five outfield positions. Furthermore, the right backs of qualifying teams demonstrated significantly fewer (P teams (x̃ = 19.5 ± CLs 21.0 and 17.0; x̃ = 7.5 ± CLs 8.0 and 6.0, respectively). Finally, the right forwards of relegated teams demonstrated significantly fewer (P teams (x̃ = 5.0 ± CLs 6.0 and 3.0, respectively) and significantly more (P teams (x̃ = 3.0 ± CLs 3.0 and 2.0, respectively). Based on these findings, coaches should adapt tactical strategies and personnel deployment accordingly to enhance the likelihood of preparing a qualifying team. Research should build from these data to examine dribbling, pressing and patterns of play when outletting.

  16. Indications and limitations of bariatric intervention in severely obese children and adolescents with and without nonalcoholic steatohepatitis: ESPGHAN Hepatology Committee Position Statement. (United States)

    Nobili, Valerio; Vajro, Pietro; Dezsofi, Antal; Fischler, Bjorn; Hadzic, Nedim; Jahnel, Joerg; Lamireau, Thierry; McKiernan, Patrick; McLin, Valerie; Socha, Piotr; Tizzard, Sarah; Baumann, Ulrich


    Morbid obesity is strongly associated with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), which is one of the most common causes of chronic liver disease worldwide. The present best treatment for NAFLD and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is weight reduction through lifestyle modification. Because of frustrating inefficiency of such a therapeutic approach, bariatric surgery is increasingly performed in adolescents as an alternative option for weight reduction. Standards of care and consensus for indications are, however, scarce. We explore the indications and limitations of bariatric surgery in children with severe obesity with and without NASH and aim to provide guidance for the exceptional indications for adolescents with extreme obesity with major comorbidity that may benefit from these controversial interventions. Present evidence suggests that bariatric surgery can decrease the grade of steatosis, hepatic inflammation, and fibrosis in NASH. Uncomplicated NAFLD is not an indication for bariatric surgery. Roux-en-Y gastric bypass is considered a safe and effective option for adolescents with extreme obesity, as long as an appropriate long-term follow-up is provided. Laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding has not been approved by the Food and Drug Administration for use in adolescents and therefore should be considered investigational. Finally, sleeve gastrectomy and other types of weight loss surgery that have grown increasingly common in adults, still need to be considered investigational. Temporary devices may be increasingly being used in pediatrics; however, future studies, including a long-term risk analysis of patients who undergo surgery, are much needed to clarify the exact indications for bariatric surgery in adolescents.

  17. P16INK4a Positive Cells in Human Skin Are Indicative of Local Elastic Fiber Morphology, Facial Wrinkling, and Perceived Age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waaijer, Mariëtte E C; Gunn, David A; Adams, Peter D


    from 178 participants (aged 45-81 years) of the Leiden Longevity Study. Local elastic fiber morphology, facial wrinkles, and perceived facial age were compared to tertiles of p16INK4a counts, while adjusting for chronological age and other potential confounders. The numbers of epidermal and dermal p16...... wrinkles and a higher perceived age. Participants in the lowest tertile of epidermal p16INK4a counts looked 3 years younger than those in the highest tertile, independently of chronological age and elastic fiber morphology. In conclusion, p16INK4a positive cell numbers in sun-protected human arm skin...

  18. 室内空气净化器性能评价指标的试验研究%Experimental study of the evaluating indicators for the room-conditioning air cleaners

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡晓微; 张于峰; 谢朝国; 黄娟


    The present paper is engaged in a research for the evaluating indicators of the room-conditioning air cleaners. The current situation is that, although the room-conditional air quality control is very important, the air cleaning technology for the time being is far from being perfect because much remains to be improved in modern air conditioning systems. In addition , Due to the practical application of the limitations and complexity of air cleaning technology, there has not so far been systematic and comprehensive evaluation methods to air cleaners. Therefore, in order to further standardize the cleaning products, the markets concerned, it is necessary to promote healthy and orderly development of the standardized air cleaners, and carry out a series of research work on the air cleaners and the related materials, and advanced cleaner's performance evaluation methods. Cherishing this purpose, we have done a series of work in developing such materials as TiO2 photocata-lyst, activated carbon fiber( ACF)and composite materials TiO2/ACF through careful and conscientious comparison and selection. In reference to the relevant national standards, we have built up an air-cleaning performance test unit of air-conditioning systems. Corresponding measures of good air tightness have also been taken to ensure the desirable results during the standard performance tests and found that the room-conditioning interior air purification level is strongly influenced both by the natural attenuation and cleaning devices. Although the natural attenuation of contaminants inside the room is relatively weak, the cleaning performance test should be excluded as a rule, for its capacity can be acquired by testing the concentration change of such contaminants as the respirable paniculate matters and formal dehydrates passing through the cleaner. The other three indicators for air cleaners, that is, the cleaning capacity per u-nit area m, , the cleaning capacity per unit mt, and that per unit

  19. Frequency of transferrin receptor positive reticulocytes (TF-Ret) in blood as an indicator of total-body radiation exposure: a pilot study in nuclear medicine patients. (United States)

    Hempel, Klaus; Haenscheid, Heribert; Biko, Johannes; Hategan, Maria; Kaiser, Franz; Kreissl, Michael; Lorenz, Reinhard; Samnick, Samuel; Schirbel, Andreas; Varazashvili, Lali; Verchenya, Stanislav; Reiners, Christoph


    Approximately 3-20% of all reticulocytes in blood of healthy persons are immature and transferrin receptor positive (Tf-Ret). Tf-Ret were measured by flow cytometry in 27 patients treated with three different radiopharmaceuticals labeled with (131)I and in 25 healthy controls. Patients were chronically exposed within 6 days to blood doses from 0.18-1.89 Gy (D6). Typically, two-thirds of D6 was administered within the first day (D1). The study had to be confined to intra-subject investigations due to high biological variability of Tf-Ret counts. A significant radiation-induced decline was found in patients D1 doses that were ≥0.5 Gy. Tf-Ret frequency declined during the first 4 to 5 days of nuclear therapy to about 30-60% of its initial value, and increased in the following 3 days without reaching the initial value. At the time of nadir, the relative frequency of Tf-Ret was more depressed than that of reticulocytes and lymphocytes. The relative Tf-Ret frequency at nadir could be fitted to the equation: %-Tf-Ret=exp-(D1/D(o)). D(o) was found to be 1.0 ± 0.4 Gy (Mean ± SEM). The study shows that Tf-Ret frequency in blood might be a good parameter for estimation of the radiation dose to red marrow.

  20. Global positioning system derived performance measures are responsive indicators of physical activity, disease and the success of clinical treatments in domestic dogs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth A Bruno

    Full Text Available To assess the use of Global Positioning System receiver (GPS derived performance measures for differentiating between: 1 different outdoor activities in healthy dogs; 2 healthy dogs and those with osteoarthritis; 3 osteoarthritic dogs before and after treatment with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory analgesia.Prospective study.Ten healthy dogs and seven dogs with osteoarthritis of the elbow joint (OA dogs.Healthy dogs were walked on a standard route on-lead, off-lead and subjected to playing activity (chasing a ball whilst wearing a GPS collar. Each dog was walked for five consecutive days. Dogs with OA were subjected to a single off-lead walk whilst wearing a GPS collar, and then administered oral Carprofen analgesia daily for two weeks. OA dogs were then subjected to the same walk, again wearing a GPS collar.GPS derived measures of physical performance could differentiate between on-lead activity, off-lead activity and playing activity in healthy dogs, and between healthy dogs and OA dogs. Variation in the performance measures analysed was greater between individual dogs than for individual dogs on different days. Performance measures could differentiate healthy dogs from OA dogs. OA Dogs treated with Carprofen analgesia showed improvements in their physical performance, which returned to values indistinguishable from those of healthy dogs on nearly all the measures assessed.GPS derived measures of physical performance in dogs are objective, easy to quantify, and can be used to gauge the effects of disease and success of clinical treatments. Specific stimuli can be used to modulate physical performance beyond the self-governed boundaries that dogs will naturally express when allowed to exercise freely without stimulation.

  1. Image analysis of the eruptive positions of third molars and adjacent second molars as indicators of age evaluation in Thai patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahasantipiya, Phattaranant May; Pramojanee, Sakarat; Thaiupathump, Trasapong [Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai (Thailand)


    This study was performed to determine the relationship between the stage of tooth eruption (both vertical and mesio-angular) and chronological age. Indirect digital panoramic radiographs were used to measure the distances from the dentinoenamel junction (DEJ) of the second molars to the occlusal plane of the second molar teeth and of the adjacent third molars in 264 Thai males and 437 Thai females using ImageJ software. The ratio of those distances was calculated by patient age, and the correlation coefficient of the ratio of the third molar length to the second molar length was calculated. The correlation between the height of the vertically erupted upper third molar teeth and age was at the intermediate level. The age range of ≥15 to <16 years was noted to be the range in which the correlation between the chronological age determined from the eruptional height and actual chronological age was statistically significant. The mean age of the female subjects, in which the position of the right upper third molar teeth was at or above the DEJ of the adjacent second molar but below one half of its coronal height was 19.9±2.6 years. That for the left side was 20.2±2.7 years. The mean ages of the male subjects were 20.1±3.3 years and 19.8±2.7 years for the right and left sides, respectively. It might be possible to predict chronological age from the eruption height of the wisdom teeth.

  2. Determining a free flight performance surface by mathematical optimization techniques utilizing an air speed indicator, MEMS inertial sensors and a variomete (United States)

    Teskey, Wesley J. E.; Chow, Jacky C. K.


    Paragliding is unpowered flight in which pilots rely on their ability to navigate rising currents of air to remain airborne. Paraglider flight performance is an important measure of the capabilities of a particular design of a canopy. Most often, the performance characteristics of a canopy are measured as horizontal velocity vs. vertical velocity for steady state flight in still air. The performance curve created using this approach neglects to take into account the effect which turning has on flight. In contrast, the performance surface created from the research carried out in this paper demonstrates the effect of turning on canopy flight; such a representation of performance is novel to the authors' knowledge. To produce this surface, a flight was conducted in which a paraglider's performance was measured for various steady state velocities and turning rates; the data were then analyzed utilizing mathematical optimization after appropriate calibration corrections were applied.

  3. Evidence that the p53 negative / Bcl-2 positive phenotype is an independent indicator of good prognosis in colorectal cancer: A tissue microarray study of 460 patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellis Ian O


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Advances in our understanding of the molecular biology of colorectal cancer have fuelled the search for novel molecular prognostic markers to complement existing staging systems. Markers assessed in combination may perform better than those considered individually. Using high-throughput tissue microarray technology, we describe the prognostic value of combined p53 / Bcl-2 status in colorectal cancer. Patients and methods Tumour samples from 462 patients who underwent elective surgery to resect a primary colorectal cancer between 1994 and 2000 (mean follow-up of 75 months were assembled in tissue microarray format. Clinico-pathological data including tumour grade, stage, vascular invasion status along with disease specific survival data has been collected prospectively. Immunohistochemical analysis of p53 and Bcl-2 expression was performed using antibodies DO-7 (p53 and 124 (Bcl-2, and results correlated with known clinico-pathological variables and outcomes. Results Abnormal nuclear p53 accumulation and Bcl-2 overexpression were detected in 221/445 (49.6% and199/437 (45.5% tumours respectively, with a significant inverse correlation between the two markers (p = 0.023. On univariate analysis no correlations were found between either marker and standard clinico-pathological variables, however nuclear p53 expression was associated with a significantly reduced survival (p = 0.024. Combined analysis of the two markers indicated that 112/432 (24.2% cases displayed a p53(-/Bcl-2(+ phenotype, this occurring more frequently in earlier stage tumours. Kaplan-Meier analysis revealed a significant survival advantage in these p53(-/Bcl-2(+ tumours compared with the remaining cases (p = 0.0032. On multivariate analysis using the Cox proportional hazards model, neither p53 expression nor Bcl-2 expression alone were of independent prognostic significance, however the combined p53(-/Bcl-2(+ phenotype was significantly associated with a good

  4. The presence of some humoral immunologic indicators and clinical manifestations in cryoglobulin positive heroin addicts without evidence of hepatitis virus infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simonovska Natasha


    Full Text Available Introduction. Cryoglobulins are single or mixed immunoglobulins that are subject to reversible precipitation at low temperatures. Objective. The aims of this paper were: 1. Comparison of cryoglobulin positive (CP, cryoglobulin negative (CN heroin addicts and the control group (CG in terms of serum immunoglobulins IgG, IgA and IgM and complement components C3 and C4; 2. Comparison of CP and CN heroin addicts in terms of rheumatoid factor (RF and circulating immune complexes (CIC; 3. Assessment of clinical manifestations in CP heroin addicts. Methods. This is a comparative study of cases (outpatients treated at the University Clinic of Toxicology in Skopje over 3.5 years, from January 2009 to June 2012. In this study 140 heroin addicts without HbsAg were examined, seronegative for HCV and HIV infections. They were divided into 2 groups: 70 CP and 70 CN heroin addicts. A previously designed self-administered questionnaire was used as a data source on participants. All heroin addicts underwent the following analyses: urea and creatinine in serum; creatinine in urine; proteinuria; 24-hour proteinuria; IgM, IgG, IgA, C3, C4 ; RF; CIC; creatinine clearance; ECG; toxicological analyses for opioids in a urine sample; cryoglobulins. In addition to these 2 groups, IgG, IgA, IgM, C3 and C4 were also examined in 70 healthy subjects (CG. Results. The study showed that there was no statistically significant difference between CP, CN heroin addicts and CG regarding the concentration of IgA, IgG, IgM, C3 and C4, and between CP and CN regarding the concentration of CIC. There was significant difference between CP and CN regarding the concentration of RF. The following conditions were significantly more frequently manifested in CP than in CN heroin addicts: arthralgia, Raynaud’s phenomenon, respiratory difficulties, neurological disorders, manifested skin changes, hematuria, 24-hour proteinuria levels, and decreased renal clearance. Conclusion. There were no

  5. Functional characterization of a Nudix hydrolase AtNUDX8 upon pathogen attack indicates a positive role in plant immune responses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Pedro Fonseca

    plant immunity as a positive regulator of defense in Arabidopsis.

  6. An initial assessment of spatial relationships between respiratory cases, soil metal content, air quality and deprivation indicators in Glasgow, Scotland, UK: relevance to the environmental justice agenda. (United States)

    Morrison, S; Fordyce, F M; Scott, E Marian


    There is growing interest in links between poor health and socio-environmental inequalities (e.g. inferior housing, crime and industrial emissions) under the environmental justice agenda. The current project assessed associations between soil metal content, air pollution (NO2/PM10) and deprivation and health (respiratory case incidence) across Glasgow. This is the first time that both chemical land quality and air pollution have been assessed citywide in the context of deprivation and health for a major UK conurbation. Based on the dataset 'averages' for intermediate geography areas, generalised linear modelling of respiratory cases showed significant associations with overall soil metal concentration (p = 0.0367) and with deprivation (p soil metals, only nickel showed a significant relationship with respiratory cases (p = 0.0056). Whilst these associations could simply represent concordant lower soil metal concentrations and fewer respiratory cases in the rural versus the urban environment, they are interesting given (1) possible contributions from soil to air particulate loading and (2) known associations between airborne metals like nickel and health. This study also demonstrated a statistically significant correlation (-0.213; p soil metal concentration and deprivation across Glasgow. This highlights the fact that despite numerous regeneration programmes, the legacy of environmental pollution remains in post-industrial areas of Glasgow many decades after heavy industry has declined. Further epidemiological investigations would be required to determine whether there are any causal links between soil quality and population health/well-being. However, the results of this study suggest that poor soil quality warrants greater consideration in future health and socio-environmental inequality assessments.

  7. Measurement of black carbon concentration as an indicator of air quality benefits of traffic restriction policies within the ecopass zone in Milan, Italy (United States)

    Invernizzi, Giovanni; Ruprecht, Ario; Mazza, Roberto; De Marco, Cinzia; Močnik, Griša; Sioutas, Costantinos; Westerdahl, Dane


    Traffic restrictions are an unpopular tool to mitigate urban air pollution, and a measurable improvement in air quality is needed to demonstrate the effectiveness of this measure. Previous attempts failed to detect measurable reductions of PM mass pollution within the areas subject to traffic restriction. However black carbon, which is emitted primarily by traffic sources, could be a PM metric more suitable than PM mass to demonstrate pollutant reductions. In this study we report the results of a black carbon monitoring campaign carried out in Milan, Italy, with the aim to detect - and demonstrate more suitably than PM mass - differences in local urban air quality among three zones located very closely with different traffic intensity. The study was carried out in three different days by measuring simultaneously black carbon and PM mass concentrations with fixed monitoring stations located in three main radial roads connecting the outskirts to the city center, each with three segments: 1) an outer one, with no traffic restrictions 2) an intermediate one, subject to the congestion traffic charge called "Ecopass", where a ticket is required to enter for cars equipped with engines prior to Euro 4 standard; 3) the pedestrian zone (no cars admitted) of Duomo Square in the city center, where each of the three main roads ends. The results demonstrated a sharply declining gradient in black carbon levels from the outer zone, without traffic restrictions, to the more central areas, for all of the three radial main roads. The differences in mean black carbon levels in the same day in the different traffic scheme locations were highly significant for each comparison. In contrast to the Black carbon results, mean PM 10, PM 2.5, PM 1 concentrations did not show significant differences among the different traffic zones on the different campaign days. The ratio of black carbon to PM 10 decreased by 47% and 62% in the Ecopass zone and in the pedestrian zone, respectively, as

  8. Failure Analysis and Improvement of Air-operated Double-position Flying Valve%台车炉气动双位蝶阀 故障分析及其改进

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    本文对台车炉气动双位蝶阀产生的故障进行了分析,并提出了改进方案。%This paper analyzes the failures of air-operated double-position butterfly valve used in car type furnace, and puts forward improving plan.

  9. Trends in indices for extremes in daily air temperature over Utah, USA Tendências de indices de extremos para temperatura do ar diária sobre Utah, EUA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Antonio Costa dos Santos


    Full Text Available The main objective of this study was to obtain analysis of the trends in eleven annual extreme indices of temperature for Utah, United State of America (USA. The analyses have been obtained for 28 meteorological stations, in general, for the period of 1930 to 2006, characterizing a long-term period and with high quality data. The software used to process the data was the RClimdex 1.0. The analysis has identified that the temperature increased in Utah during the last century, evidencing the importance of the ongoing research on climate change in many parts of the world.O principal objetivo desse estudo foi analisar as tendências de onze indices de extremos climáticos baseados em dados diários de temperatura do ar, obtidos a partir de 28 estações meteorológicas localizadas em Utah, Estados Unidos da America (EUA. Em geral, os dados foram coletados entre 1930 e 2006, apresentando coerente resolução temporal e espacial. O software utilizado no processamento dos dados foi o RClimdex 1.0. As análises dos índices extremos mostraram que a temperatura aumentou em Utah durante o último século, evidenciando a importância das pesquisas sobre mudanças climáticas em diferentes partes do mundo.

  10. Air bubble-induced detachment of positively and negatively charged polystyrene particles from collector surfaces in a parallel-plate flow chamber

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gomez-Suarez, C; Van der Mei, HC; Busscher, HJ


    Electrostatic interactions between colloidal particles and collector surfaces were found tcr be important in particle detachment as induced by the passage of air bubbles in a parallel-plate Row chamber. Electrostatic interactions between adhering particles and passing air bubbles, however, a-ere fou

  11. Oceanic whitecaps: Sea surface features detectable via satellite that are indicators of the magnitude of the air-sea gas transfer coefficient

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    E C Monahan


    Stage A whitecaps (spilling wave crests) have a microwave emissivity of close to 1. Thus if even a small fraction of the sea surface is covered by these features there will be a detectable enhancement in the apparent microwave brightness temperature of that surface as determined by satellite-borne microwave radiometers. This increase in the apparent microwave brightness temperature can as a consequence be routinely used to estimate the fraction of the sea surface covered by stage A whitecaps. For all but the very lowest wind speeds it has been shown in a series of controlled experiments that the air-sea gas transfer coeffcient for each of a wide range of gases, including carbon dioxide and oxygen, is directly proportional to the fraction of the sea surface covered by these stage A whitecaps.

  12. Combustion-driven oscillation in a furnace with multispud-type gas burners. 4th Report. Effects of position of secondary air guide sleeve and openness of secondary air guide vane on combustion oscillation condition; Multispud gata gas turner ni okeru nensho shindo. 4. Nijigen kuki sleeve ichi oyobi nijigen kuki vane kaido no shindo reiki ni oyobosu eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akiyama, I.; Okiura, K.; Baba, A.; Orimoto, M. [Babcock-Hitachi K.K., Tokyo (Japan)


    Effects of the position of a secondary air guide sleeve and the openness of a secondary air guide vane on combustion oscillation conditions were studied experimentally for multispud-type gas burners. Pressure fluctuation in furnaces was analyzed with the previously reported resonance factor which was proposed as an index to represent the degree of combustion oscillation. As a result, the combustion oscillation region was largely affected by both position of a guide sleeve and openness of a guide vane. As the openness having large effect on the ratio of primary and secondary air/tertiary air and the position hardly having effect on the ratio were adjusted skillfully, the burner with no combustion oscillation region was achieved in its normal operation range. In addition, as the effect of preheating combustion air was arranged with a standard flow rate or mass flow flux of air, it was suggested the combustion oscillation region due to preheating can be described with the same manner as that due to no preheating. 5 refs., 8 figs.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elżbieta Wołejko


    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess microbiological indoor air quality of selected bakeries located in the region of Podlasie. The microbiological studies were conducted in autumn in 2014 in three selected bakeries. Microbiological air counts were measured by impaction using an air sampler MAS-100 NT. The microbiological air studies, comprised the determination of the total number of psychrophilic and mesophilic bacteria, namely indicator bacteria such as: bacteria of the species Pseudomonas fluorescens, mannitol-positive and mannitol-negative Staphylococc, the total number of bacteria from the Enterobacteriaceae family and fungi found in atmospheric air. The results of the study of indoor air polluted with the analyzed groups of microorganisms differed depending on the type of test air and the location of the manufacturing plant. In the plants, the concentration of mesophilic bacteria and mannitol–positive and mannitol-negative Staphylococcus exceeded the limit values of unpolluted air, according to the Polish Standard recommendations.

  14. Air pollution positively correlates with daily stroke admission and in hospital mortality: a study in the urban area of Como, Italy. (United States)

    Vidale, Simone; Bonanomi, A; Guidotti, M; Arnaboldi, M; Sterzi, R


    Some current evidences suggest that stroke incidence and mortality may be higher in elevated air pollution areas. Our study examined the hypothesis of a correlation between air pollution level and ischemic stroke admission and in Hospital mortality in an urban population. Data on a total of 759 stroke admissions and 180 deaths have been obtained over a 4-year period (2000-2003). Five air ambient particles have been studied. A general additive model estimating Poisson distribution has been used, adding meteorological variables as covariates. NO(2) and PM(10) were significantly associated with admission and mortality (P value < 0.05) and with estimated RR of 1.039 (95% CI 1.066-1.013) and 1.078 (95% CI 1.104-1.052) for hospital admission at 2- and 4-day lags, respectively. In conclusion, this study suggests an association between short-term outdoor air pollution exposure and ischemic stroke admission and mortality.

  15. AL:PE - Acidification of Mountain Lakes: Palaeolimnology and Ecology. Part 2 - Remote Mountain Lakes as Indicators of Air Pollution and Climate Change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wathne, Bente M.; Patrick, Simon; Cameron, Nigel [eds.


    AL:PE is a multi-disciplinary and multi-national project coordinated by research groups in London and Oslo. It is funded by the European Commission, The project is described in this report. The project is the first comprehensive study of remote mountain lakes on a European scale. It is concerned with ecosystems in the arctic and alpine regions of Europe that are threatened by acid deposition, toxic air pollutants and climatic change despite their remoteness. The studies are important not only for ecosystems of the lakes, for which they were designed, but for the arctic and alpine regions in general, since the lakes with their sediment records act as environmental sensors. The AL:PE results illustrate two overarching issues: (1) the importance of these remote and sensitive ecosystems as sensors of long-range transported pollutants and as providers of early warning signals for more widespread environmental change; and (2) the importance and urgency of understanding the present and future impact of pollutants, both singly and in combination, on aquatic ecosystems. Currently, acid deposition is considered the most potent threat. In the context of global warming, however, it is a formidable scientific challenge to disentangle the interactions between the effects of changing deposition patterns of acids, nutrients, trace metals and trace organics. The AL:PE programme has begun to address this challenge and its successor EU project, MOLAR, is designed to tackle the issues more more specifically by focusing on in-depth studies of key sites. 97 refs., 192 figs., 100 tabs.

  16. 电动双位定风量阀在洁净手术部空调系统中的应用%The Application of Electrical Dual-position Consistent Air Valve in Air-Conditioning System of Clean Operation Department

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    窦用佳; 刘亮


    The stability and energy-saving of dual-position consistent air valve was explained,in terms of consistent air volume(air change rate) to cleanroom and consistent make-up air volume(pressure cascade of clean zone) by using the valve.%从恒定洁净室风量(换气次数)及恒定新风量(洁净区的压力梯度)的角度,利用电动双位定风量阀,阐述电动双位定风量阀在洁净空调系统上所具有的稳定性及节能性。

  17. Health risk assessment of migrant workers' exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls in air and dust in an e-waste recycling area in China: Indication for a new wealth gap in environmental rights. (United States)

    Wang, Yalin; Hu, Jinxing; Lin, Wei; Wang, Ning; Li, Cheng; Luo, Peng; Hashmi, Muhammad Zaffar; Wang, Wenbo; Su, Xiaomei; Chen, Chen; Liu, Yindong; Huang, Ronglang; Shen, Chaofeng


    Migrant workers who work and live in polluted environment are a special vulnerable group in the accelerating pace of urbanization and industrialization in China. In the electronic waste (e-waste) recycling area, for example, migrant workers' exposure to pollutants, such as PCBs (polychlorinated biphenyls), is the result of an informal e-waste recycling process. A village in an electronic waste recycling area where migrant workers gather was surveyed. The migrant workers' daily routines were simulated according to the three-space transition: work place-on the road-home. Indoor air and dust in the migrant workers' houses and workplaces and the ambient air on the roads were sampled. The PCB levels of the air and dust in the places corresponding to the migrant workers are higher than those for local residents. The migrant workers have health risks from PCBs that are 3.8 times greater than those of local residents. This is not only caused by the exposure at work but also by their activity patterns and the environmental conditions of their dwellings. These results revealed the reason for the health risk difference between the migrant workers and local residents, and it also indicated that lifestyle and economic status are important factors that are often ignored compared to occupational exposure.

  18. Indicações e achados das colonoscopias nos doentes HIV-positivo: comparação com soronegativos Indications and results of colonoscopies in HIV-positive patients: comparison with seronegative patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Ruth Manzione


    Full Text Available Embora as indicações da colonoscopia sejam semelhantes em doentes HIV-positivo, quando comparados aos soronegativos, os achados e as suas incidências parecem diferir, sendo alguns deles mais específicos para o grupo dos imunodeprimidos. OBJETIVO: Avaliar as indicações e os achados das colonoscopias comparando os doentes soropositivos com os soronegativos para o HIV. Realizamos 1909 exames entre 1997 e 2005, sendo 1341 HIV-negativo (771 mulheres e 570 homens com média etária de 51,2 anos e 568 HIV-positivo (137 mulheres e 431 homens com 34,4 anos, em média. A análise estatística dos dados estudados revelou haver mais exames em homens no grupo HIV-positivo e em mulheres entre os soronegativos. O grupo mais jovem foi o dos soropositivos. Houve mais indicações devidas a enterorragia (22,1% e dor abdominal (12,7% nos pacientes soronegativos, e diarréia crônica (45,9% entre os soropositivos. As colites e os tumores foram os achados mais comuns em pacientes HIV-positivo e a moléstia diverticular e os pólipos, os mais freqüentes entre os soronegativos. O tumor predominante nos soronegativos foi o adenocarcinoma, enquanto que entre os soropositivos foi o sarcoma de Kaposi. CONCLUSÃO: A comparação entre os grupos demonstrou haver diferenças com relação ao sexo, idade e algumas indicações. Os achados foram semelhantes, embora com freqüências distintas.Although colonoscopy indications are similar in HIV-positive patients when compared to sero-negative persons, the findings and their incidences seem to be different, and some are more specific to immunosuppressed patients. The aim of this study is to evaluate indications and findings of colonoscopies comparing patients, sero-negatives and sero-positives to HIV. We performed 1909 colonoscopies from 1997 to 2005, 1341 in HIV-negative persons (771 females and 570 males with mean age of 51.2 years old and 568 in HIV-positive people (137 females and 431 males with mean age of 34.4 years

  19. Design of Guided Air Ammunition's Optimal Guidance Law

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Min; LIU Zao-zhen; WANG Bao-cheng


    Some long distance air ammunition can be used to attack large still target. According to this character and according to the mathematical description of target-missile relative motion built by the message supplied by the strapdown inertial navigation system/global position system (SINS/GPS) of air ammunition, optimal guidance law is designed by applying optimal control theory. The simulation is provided to indicate that when the air ammunition reaches the target, its line-of-sight (LOS) and LOS angular rate can nearly equal zero. So the air ammunition can get good terminal attitude, and the air ammunition reaches the target at the expected velocity and heading.

  20. 基于虚拟仪器的脉冲堆棒位显示设备的研制%The Development of Rod Position Indicating System Based on Virtual Instrument in Pulsed Reactor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张杨; 付国恩; 黄礼渊


    It introduces the principle and structure, the hardware, software and test results of rod position indicating system based on virtual instrument in pulsed reactor. The application in PRC( Pulsed Reactor of China) indicates that the system are able to fulfill the measure, storage, report generation of the rod position experiment data, and the function of software calibration. In addition it advanced in cost - effective, high intelligence, maneuverability, compatibility, which makes it ready to be used in other reactor.%介绍了基于虚拟仪器技术研制的脉冲堆棒位显示设备的原理和组成,以及设备的硬件设计、软件设计、调试试验等情况.该设备能够完成脉冲堆控制棒的棒位数据测量、存储、报表生成以及软件校准等功能,同时因性价比高、智能化程度高、可操作性强、兼容性强等特点使该设备便于推广使用.

  1. Recommendations for multimodal noninvasive and invasive screening for detection of extracranial venous abnormalities indicative of chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency: a position statement of the International Society for Neurovascular Disease. (United States)

    Zivadinov, Robert; Bastianello, Stefano; Dake, Michael D; Ferral, Hector; Haacke, E Mark; Haskal, Ziv J; Hubbard, David; Liasis, Nikolaos; Mandato, Kenneth; Sclafani, Salvatore; Siddiqui, Adnan H; Simka, Marian; Zamboni, Paolo


    Under the auspices of the International Society for Neurovascular Disease (ISNVD), four expert panel committees were created from the ISNVD membership between 2011 and 2012 to determine and standardize noninvasive and invasive imaging protocols for detection of extracranial venous abnormalities indicative of chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency (CCSVI). The committees created working groups on color Doppler ultrasound (US), magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, catheter venography (CV), and intravascular US. Each group organized a workshop focused on its assigned imaging modality. Non-ISNVD members from other societies were invited to contribute to the various workshops. More than 60 neurology, radiology, vascular surgery, and interventional radiology experts participated in these workshops and contributed to the development of standardized noninvasive and invasive imaging protocols for the detection of extracranial venous abnormalities indicative of CCSVI. This ISNVD position statement presents the MR imaging and intravascular US protocols for the first time and describes refined color Doppler US and CV protocols. It also emphasizes the need for the use of for noninvasive and invasive multimodal imaging to diagnose adequately and monitor extracranial venous abnormalities indicative of CCSVI for open-label or double-blinded, randomized, controlled studies.

  2. Quality indicators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth-Andersen, Christian


    to the issue of how well these indicators perform, using market data provided by consumer magazines from 3 countries. The results strongly indicate that price is a poor quality indicator. The paper also presents some evidence which suggests that seller reputation and easily observable characteristics are also......In recent literature it has been suggested that consumers need have no knowledge of product quality as a number of quality indicators (or signals) may be used as substitutes. Very little attention has been paid to the empirical verification of these studies. The present paper is devoted...... poor indicators...

  3. The Exploration on the Positive Psychological Assessment Indicator of "Sunny Physical Culture" on Campus%高校“阳光体育运动”的积极心理评价指标探索

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    文章根据心理学相关理论与研究,结合高校"阳光体育运动"的评价现状认为,现阶段的有关高校"阳光体育运动"的评价缺乏对大学生积极心理层面的指标研究。文章详细介绍了流畅状态与锻炼承诺的理论及两者在大众锻炼领域的应用现状,结合高校"阳光体育运动"认为流畅状态与锻炼承诺可以作为高校"阳光体育运动"的心理评价指标,两者可以反映高校"阳光体育运动"心理层面的价值。%Based on the related theory and the studies,the paper indicates that the recent assessment of "Sunny Physical Culture" is in great lack of the study into the psychological indicator in the dimension of the positive mind.The paper fully introduces the notion of smooth statement and training commitment as well as the application of the two in the public physical training,combined with the perspective that "Sunny Physical Culture" argues that smooth statement and training commitment could work as the indicators of psychological assessment of "Sunny Physical Culture" on campus.Both of the indicators can reflect the true value of "Sunny Physical Culture" in the psychological dimension.

  4. Waste indicators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dall, O.; Lassen, C.; Hansen, E. [Cowi A/S, Lyngby (Denmark)


    The Waste Indicator Project focuses on methods to evaluate the efficiency of waste management. The project proposes the use of three indicators for resource consumption, primary energy and landfill requirements, based on the life-cycle principles applied in the EDIP Project. Trial runs are made With the indicators on paper, glass packaging and aluminium, and two models are identified for mapping the Danish waste management, of which the least extensive focuses on real and potential savings. (au)

  5. 污染源位置对气体污染物影响的数值模拟%Numerical Simulation of Pollutant Source Position Influencing on Air Pollutant Concentration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙斌; 韩克; 蒋能飞


    在自然通风、置换通风和单侧送侧回式通风3种方式下,通过改变污染源位置,运用CFD软件模拟研究了办公室内苯污染物的浓度分布规律,比较得出最佳通风方式下的最合理污染源位置.结果表明,3种通风方式下污染源放置的最合理位置是点3;苯污染源处于位置3时,3种通风方式中自然通风各平面苯污染物平均浓度普遍相对最高,而单侧送侧回方式的相对最低,置换通风居于二者之间.最终确定单侧送侧回通风方式下污染源处于位置3时为最佳物理模型,在该模型下办公室内通风效果最好,能够有效地排出室内气体污染物.因此,不同污染源位置对办公室内空气品质的影响不同.%CFD software was used to separately simulate and study benzene pollutant concentration distribution in an office under natural ventilation, the replacement ventilation and single side supply side return ventilation by changing the position of pollution source. Proper position of pollution sources and the most reasonable ventilation mode were obtained by analyzing and contrasting. Results showed that the most proper position of pollutant sources was the position 3 under three ventilation modes. When benzene pollutant sources were at position 3, average concentration of benzene of various planes for natural ventilation was relatively the maximum value, while indoor air pollutant concentration was relatively the lowest for single side supply side return mode, and replacement ventilation was between the two ventilation modes. The condition that pollution sources at position 3 under single side supply side return mode was finally determined as the best physical model. Ventilation effect in the office was relatively the best under the model and indoor air pollution could be effectively removed. Different position of pollutant sources could result in the change of air quality in the office.

  6. 基于SOPC的反应堆棒位信息监测技术研究%Research on Reactor Control Rod Position Indication Information Monitoring Technology Based on SOPC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑晓; 蔡晨; 孙宇; 刘明星


    A new monitoring technology for control rod position is developed by utilizing the FPGA (Field-Programmable Gate Array) platform and using the SOPC (System On Programmable Chip) technology.In this SOPC system,Nios Ⅱ CPU,VGA (Video Graphics Array) display controller and CAN (Controller Area Network) bus controller are integrated in one FPGA chip.Thus the SOPC hardware platform with comprehensive functionality is constructed.Based on this SOPC platform,the real time data of control rod position indication system can be vividly displayed on the LCD and stored in the external nonvolatile RAM as history records.Therefore,the operator can obtain the overall operation status of control rod position indication system quickly and conveniently.The developed prototype has proved the feasibility of this technology.%运用可编程片上系统(SOPC)技术,以现场可编程门阵列(FPGA)为数字平台,研究一种反应堆棒位信息监测技术.该监测技术将Nios Ⅱ处理器、视频图形阵列(VGA)显示控制器、控制器局域网络(CAN)总线控制器等集成在一片FPGA芯片中,构建完成一个具有丰富功能的SOPC硬件平台.采用该硬件平台,可将棒位系统的运行状态信息实时、直观地进行数字化显示,同时以日志的形式存储在外部存储设备中,能够全方位地监测棒位系统的运行状态,使操纵人员能更方便、快捷地掌握整个棒位系统的运行情况.研制完成的原理样机验证了该技术的可行性.

  7. Use of cluster-graphs from spoligotyping data to study genotype similarities and a comparison of three indices to quantify recent tuberculosis transmission among culture positive cases in French Guiana during a eight year period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brudey Karine


    Full Text Available Abstract Background French Guiana has the highest tuberculosis (TB burden among all French departments, with a strong increase in the TB incidence over the last few years. It is now uncertain how best to explain this incidence. The objective of this study was to compare three different methods evaluating the extent of recent TB transmission in French Guiana. Methods We conducted a population-based molecular epidemiology study of tuberculosis in French Guiana based on culture-positive TB strains (1996 to 2003, n = 344 to define molecular relatedness between isolates, i.e. potential transmission events. Phylogenetic relationships were inferred by comparing two methods: a "cluster-graph" method based on spoligotyping results, and a minimum spanning tree method based on both spoligotyping and variable number of tandem DNA repeats (VNTR. Furthermore, three indices attempting to reflect the extent of recent TB transmission (RTIn, RTIn-1 and TMI were compared. Results Molecular analyses showed a total amount of 120 different spoligotyping patterns and 273 clinical isolates (79.4% that were grouped in 49 clusters. The comparison of spoligotypes from French Guiana with an international spoligotype database (SpolDB4 showed that the majority of isolates belonged to major clades of M. tuberculosis (Haarlem, 22.6%; Latin American-Mediterranean, 23.3%; and T, 32.6%. Indices designed to quantify transmission of tuberculosis gave the following values: RTIn = 0.794, RTIn-1 = 0.651, and TMI = 0.146. Conclusion Our data showed a high number of Mycobacterium tuberculosis clusters, suggesting a high level of recent TB transmission, nonetheless an estimation of transmission rate taking into account cluster size and mutation rate of genetic markers showed a low ongoing transmission rate (14.6%. Our results indicate an endemic mode of TB transmission in French Guiana, with both resurgence of old spatially restricted genotypes, and a significant importation of new TB

  8. Solar Indices (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Collection includes a variety of indices related to solar activity contributed by a number of national and private solar observatories located worldwide. This...

  9. Dietary Magnesium Is Positively Associated With Skeletal Muscle Power and Indices of Muscle Mass and May Attenuate the Association Between Circulating C-Reactive Protein and Muscle Mass in Women. (United States)

    Welch, Ailsa A; Kelaiditi, Eirini; Jennings, Amy; Steves, Claire J; Spector, Tim D; MacGregor, Alexander


    Age-related loss of skeletal muscle mass and strength are risk factors for sarcopenia, osteoporosis, falls, fractures, frailty, and mortality. Dietary magnesium (Mg) could play a role in prevention of age-related loss of skeletal muscle mass, power, and strength directly through physiological mechanisms or indirectly through an impact on chronic low-grade inflammation, itself a risk factor for loss of skeletal muscle mass and strength. In a cross-sectional study of 2570 women aged 18 to 79 years, we examined associations between intakes of Mg, estimated using a food-frequency questionnaire (FFQ), dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA)-derived measures of muscle mass (fat-free mass as a percentage of body weight [FFM%], fat-free mass index [FFMI, kg/m(2)]), leg explosive power (LEP), and grip strength (n = 949 only). We also examined associations between circulating hs-CRP (C-reactive protein) and muscle mass and LEP, and explored the potential attenuation of these relationships by Mg. We compared our findings with those of age and protein intake. Endpoints were calculated by quintile of Mg and adjusted for relevant confounders. Significant positive associations were found between a higher Mg and indices of skeletal muscle mass and LEP, and also with hs-CRP, after adjustment for covariates. Contrasting extreme quintiles of Mg intake showed differences of 2.6% for FFM% (p trend protein, these positive associations were 7 times greater for FFM% and 2.5 times greater for LEP. We also found that higher hs-CRP was negatively associated with skeletal muscle mass and, in statistical modeling, that a higher dietary Mg attenuated this negative relationship by 6.5%, with greater attenuation in women older than 50 years. No association was found between Mg and grip strength. Our results suggest that dietary magnesium may aid conservation of age-related loss of skeletal muscle mass and power in women of all ages.

  10. 植物叶的波动性不对称对空气污染的响应及其指示功能%Leaf Fluctuating Asymmetry in Response to Air Pollution and Indicator Function

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石辉; 武云飞; 唐占铎; 王会霞; 王彦辉


    The fluctuating asymmetry (FA) of biological development stability has a close relationship with environmental conditions .The Ligustrum lucidum and L .quihoui were selected as experimental materi-als ,which are commonly urban greening tree species in Xi’an .The mature leaves of these plants were sampled from 9 air environmental monitoring sites .The leaf half-perimeter ,half-width ,and half-area were measured and the each FA was calculated ,which the vein is symmetry axis .The response characteristics of 2 kinds leaf FA to envrionmental air condition were researched ,and the potential of leaf FA as an air quality indicator was explored .The values of fluctuating asymmetry of perimeter ,width ,and area (abbre-viated as FAP ,FAW and FAA ,respectively ) were 0 .051 ,0 .063 and 0 .082 for L .lucidum ,respectively . The FAP ,FAW and FAA of L .quihoui were 0 .043 ,0 .082 and 0 .102 ,respectively .The each FA showed significant differences between different plant species sampling sites and enviromental sites .There were close relationship between the FAP and air SO2 concentrations for each plant species .The leaf FA has high sensitivity to different environmental conditions ,and it has the potential as a biological monitoring indica-tor .However ,the choice of suitable species for monitoring ,leaf characteristic indexes ,the number of samples ,FA and characteristics of pollutants relations should further research .%植物发育的波动性不对称(fluctuating asymmetry ,FA )与环境之间具有密切的关系。该研究以城市常用绿化树种大叶女贞(L igustrum lucidum Ait .)和小叶女贞(L igustrum quihoui Carr .)为对象,在西安市区9个空气质量监测点采集了两树种成熟叶片样品,以叶脉为对称轴测定叶左右两边的半宽度、半周长和半面积,计算其相应FA ,考察植物叶片FA对空气环境条件变化的响应特征,探讨叶FA作为空气质量指标的可行性。结果表明:大

  11. Proposal of a synchro panel meter instrument to replace the obsolete Synchro/Resolver reading device used as position indicator of safety rods assembly of the Brazilian IEA-R1 Nuclear Research Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toledo, Fabio de; Brancaccio, Franco; Cardenas, Jose Patricio N., E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail: [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)


    IPEN (Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares) was founded in 1956 (as Atomic Energy Institute - IEA) as a facility complex, for the research, development and application, in the nuclear technology field. The institute is recognized as a national leader in nuclear research and development (R and D), including the areas of reactor operation, radiopharmaceuticals, industrial and laboratory applications, materials science and laser technologies and applications. IPEN's main facility is the IEA-R1, nuclear research reactor (NRR), today, the only one in Brazil with a power level suitable for applications in physics, chemistry, biology and engineering. Some radioisotopes are also produced in IEA-R1, for medical and other applications. A common problem faced in the IEA-R1 maintenance is instrumentation obsolescence; spare parts are no more available, because of discontinued production, and an updating program is mandatory, aiming at modernization of old-aged I and C systems. In the presented context, an electronic system is here proposed, as a replacement for the reactor safety (shim) rods assembly position indicator, based on an open-source physical computing platform called Arduino, which includes a simple microcontroller board and a software-code development environment. A mathematical algorithm for the synchro-motor signal processing was developed, and the obtained resolution was better than 1.5%. (author)

  12. Evaluating and Mapping of Spatial Air Ion Quality Patterns in a Residential Garden Using a Geostatistic Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Huang Lin


    Full Text Available Negative air ions (NAI produce biochemical reactions that increase the levels of the mood chemical serotonin in the environment. Moreover, they benefit both the psychological well being and the human body’s physiological condition. The aim of this research was to estimate and measure the spatial distributions of negative and positive air ions in a residential garden in central Taiwan. Negative and positive air ions were measured at thirty monitoring locations in the study garden from July 2009 to June 2010. Moreover, Kriging was applied to estimate the spatial distribution of negative and positive air ions, as well as the air ion index in the study area. The measurement results showed that the numbers of NAI and PAI differed greatly during the four seasons, the highest and the lowest negative and positive air ion concentrations were found in the summer and winter, respectively. Moreover, temperature was positively affected negative air ions concentration. No matter what temperature is, the ranges of variogram in NAI/PAI were similar during four seasons. It indicated that spatial patterns of NAI/PAI were independent of the seasons and depended on garden elements and configuration, thus the NAP/PAI was a good estimate of the air quality regarding air ions. Kriging maps depicted that the highest negative and positive air ion concentration was next to the waterfall, whereas the lowest air ions areas were next to the exits of the garden. The results reveal that waterscapes are a source of negative and positive air ions, and that plants and green space are a minor source of negative air ions in the study garden. Moreover, temperature and humidity are positively and negatively affected negative air ions concentration, respectively. The proposed monitoring and mapping approach provides a way to effectively assess the patterns of negative and positive air ions in future landscape design projects.

  13. Social indicators. (United States)

    Sheldon, E B; Parke, R


    The notions of social indicators and social accounting, expressed by analogy with the national economic accounts, generated excitement in the 1960's, and the interest continues to grow if we may judge from governmental activity and the publication of programmatic and research papers. But the concepts which focused much of the early enthusiasm gave exaggerated promise of policy applications and provided an unproductive basis for research. The essential theoretical prerequisites for developing a system of social accounts-defining the variables and the interrelationships among them-are missing. It is now realized that evaluation research, particularly experimentation, must be relied on for evaluation of government programs. Through the development and analysis of descriptive time series and the modeling of social processes, we will be able to describe the state of the society and its dynamics and thus improve immensely our ability to state problems in a productive fashion, obtain clues as to promising lines of endeavor, and ask good questions. But these activities cannot measure program effectiveness. Finally, we must be skeptical about definitions of the social indicators enterprise which confine it to social engineering efforts. The issue is not whether social indicators are useful for policy but, rather, how this usefulness comes about. The interest in social indicators has stimulated a revival of interest in quantitative, comparative, social analysis (60), in the analysis of social change, in conceptual and measurement work on such topics as prejudice, crime, and learning, and in the development of models of social processes. The fruit of these efforts will be more directly a contribution to the policy-maker's cognition than to his decisions. Decision emerges from a mosaic of inputs, including valuational and political, as well as technical components. The work we have described deals with only one type of input; it is a contribution to the intellectual mapping

  14. Air Pollution (United States)

    Air pollution is a mixture of solid particles and gases in the air. Car emissions, chemicals from factories, dust, ... a gas, is a major part of air pollution in cities. When ozone forms air pollution, it's ...

  15. Contactless Positioning using an Active Air Film

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wesselingh, J.


    In the production of integrated circuits, solar cells, flat panel displays and elec- tronics, thin plates are often used as a base for manufacturing. Examples are silicon wafers and glass panels on which several process steps build transistors, pixels and interconnects. To improve the production thr

  16. 食物位置对热风微波耦合加热效果的影响%Effect of Different Positions on Hot-Air and Microwave Coupled Heating

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    浦广益; 宋春芳; 续艳峰; 张翰之; 崔政伟; 金光远


    This study aimed to investigate the effect of different positions on the hot-air and microwave coupled heating. Based on the mathematical model of hot-air and microwave coupled heating, distribution parameters of the end temperature field for seven spots were first obtained for whole potato heated in a particular cavity by numerical simulation techniques. The simulations were further by verified by the experimental results that different spots showed varied heat power values and density distribution after the conversion of microwave electromagnetic energy into heat power and uneven distribution of the temperature field. Therefore, great attention should be paid to the food spots in the hot-air and microwave coupled heating.%给出了微波与热风耦合同步加热物料的数学物理模型,以微波与热风耦合加热土豆为例,建立了完整的三维仿真模型,采用数值模拟法,分别得到了位于耦合加热腔内7个不同位置上土豆最终温度场的分布参数,并以实验加以验证,对数值模拟所得的仿真结果进行了分析与评定。结果表明,不同位置对热风微波耦合加热物料的效果影响极大,这主要体现在影响微波电磁场能量转化为热能功率的大小,以及密度分布及被加热食品温度场分布的不均匀性,故在采用热风微波加热食品时,应当要重视物料位置对耦合加热效果的影响。

  17. 上海市卢湾区公共场所集中空调通风系统卫生学预警指标研究%Application of Early-Warning Indicators for Pollution Control of Centralized Air Conditioning Ventilation System in Luwan District, Shanghai

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐文玺; 刘淮玉; 吴建华


    purification and disinfection devices, and none of them were equipped with cooling tower demisting to control aerosols. The cooling water test showed that the positive rate of Legionella pneumophila was 70.0% and the common type was Lpl. The average conductivity of the positive water samples was (5 897.55 ± 601.16) us/cm and that of the negative was (9031.12 ± 1172.35) us/cm (/=-2.571, P<0.05). [ Conclusion ] Indicators such as conductivity could be considered to identify Legionella pneumophila in cooling water for pre-waming of pollution. The management essentials of centralized air conditioning ventilation systems in public venues are the control of fresh air pollution and aerosol spread, as well as regular cleaning work and evaluation.

  18. A t (11; 22 (p13; q12 EWS-WT 1 positive desmoplastic small round cell tumor of the maxilla: An unusual case indicating the role of molecular diagnosis in round cell sarcomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rekhi B


    Full Text Available A desmoplastic small round cell tumor (DSRCT is an uncommon tumor characterized by polyphenotypic expression and a specific reciprocal translocation t (11; 22 (p13; q12. It has been rarely identified in the head and neck region. Herein, we describe a DSRCT in the maxilla of a young man, who was initially diagnosed with a primitive neuroectodermal tumor (PNET, based on histopathological appearance of a round cell tumor, with MIC2 and -FLI-1 positivity, on immunohistochemistry (IHC. Diagnosis of a DSRCT was confirmed on molecular analysis with positive -RT-PCR and sequencing results for EWS-WT1 transcript and negativity for EWS-FL1. The case is presented to highlight the value of molecular diagnosis in round cell sarcomas at uncommon sites, especially when similar IHC markers can be expressed in a PNET and a DSRCT. An exact diagnosis of a round cell sarcoma has a therapeutic relevance.

  19. Indicating Function of Different Organs of Cinnamomum camphora to Heavy Metals in Air%香樟不同器官对空气中重金属的指示作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘波; 林匡飞; 赵建华; 刘曦子; 苏禄晖; 杨意; 沙妙清; 杨明华; 朱丽红


    Taking Cinnamomum camphora(L.)Presl. on both sides of road in traffic busy area (pollution plot) and relatively clean area(the control plot) as research objects, contents of Pb, Cd, Zn, Cu, As and Ni in different organs including trunk, old bark, biennial branch, annual branch, leaf and fruit were determined, and cumulative amount and pollution index and their distribution proportion of six heavy metal elements in different organs of Cinnamomum camphora(L.)Presl. at pollution plot were analyzed.The results show that heavy metal element contents in the body C. camphoraa appear different change regulation because of differences in sampling plots, organs and elements, and there are obvious differences in cumulative amount and its distributionproportion, pollution index and its distribution proportion of 6 heavy metal elements at pollution plot because of differences in organs and elements. Overall, contents of Pb, Cd, Zn, Cu, As and Ni in each organ at pollution plot are all higher than those at the control plot with significant difference (P<0.05). Compared among 6 heavy metal elements, content of Zn is the highest, content of Cu is the second, while the contents of Pb、As、Ni are lower. And the content of same heavy metal element in different organs also has obvious difference, content of Pb, Cu and As in biennial branch are the highest. Cd and Ni in old bark are the highest, content of Zn in annual branch is the highest. Cumulative amount and its distribution proportion of 6 heavy metal elements are the highest in leaf, secondly in old bark, lower in fruit and annual branch, while the pollution index Pb and Zn its distribution proportion are the highest in old bark, the pollution index of other 4 heavy metal elements are the highest in leaf. It is indicated that the organs of C.camphoraa all have a certain absorption capacity to heavy metal elements in air, and absorption capacities of leaf and old bark both are obviously better than those of other organs . Leaf

  20. Énergie nucléaire. Mesure de la radioactivité dans l'environnement. Eau. Mesurage de l'indice de radioactivité bêta globale en équivalent strontium 90 et yttrium 90 dans l'eau peu chargée en sels.

    CERN Document Server

    Association Française de Normalisation. Paris


    Énergie nucléaire. Mesure de la radioactivité dans l'environnement. Eau. Mesurage de l'indice de radioactivité bêta globale en équivalent strontium 90 et yttrium 90 dans l'eau peu chargée en sels.

  1. Metodology for Risk-based Indicators Impementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimír Plos


    Full Text Available The article describes the principle of creating a riskbased indicators in companies operating in an air transport. The first part deals with the description of safety indicators and introduce the concept of risk-based indicators. The next section describes the procedure for creating the base of risk-based indicators and describes specific examples of developed indicators.

  2. Position Information (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Position Information Data Asset provides the ability to search for active SSA position descriptions using various search criteria. An individual may search by PD...

  3. Indicadores Webmétricos de carácter formal para evaluar el posicionamiento de las universidades: el caso de los Países Árabes Formal cybermetic indicators of the positioning of arab universities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaldoon Mohammad Oglah AL_Dwairi


    Full Text Available Los indicadores webmétricos constituyen una potente herramienta para evaluar recursos de información en la Web pertenecientes a dominios muy específicos. Ante la subjetividad subyacente en la mayor parte de los indicadores cualitativos de análisis tratados en la actualidad, el objetivo del presente trabajo es aplicar indicadores de calidad de carácter exclusivamente formal con el fin de calcular objetivamente el posicionamiento de los sitios web de las universidades árabes de la zona MENA (Middle East and North Africa (Oriente Medio y Norte de África. Los resultados obtenidos revelan que es posible usar indicadores formales para identificar la calidad y el posicionamiento de los sitios web universitarios, y que la correlación entre el análisis de enlaces y el análisis de indicadores formales no es suficientemente alta como para afirmar que aquellos sitios web mejor posicionados en el análisis de enlaces también lo sean en el análisis de sus indicadores formales. De esta manera, se establece un precedente para investigaciones futuras en el ámbito de la educación y, en concreto, de las universidades, más preocupadas hoy en día por descubrir su posicionamiento a través del entramado de enlaces que se establecen entre ellas que por valorar los aspectos formales de sus webs.Cybermetric indicators are powerful tools for assessing internet information resources of specific domains. In response to the underlying subjectivity of most qualitative analysis indicators currently in use, the purpose of this paper is to apply structural quality indicators exclusively in order to objectively assess the Web Ranking of Arab Universities of the Middle East and North African region (MENA. The results obtained show that is possible to use structural indicators to assess the quality and rank of university websites. Moreover, the correlation between link analysis and structural analysis indicator is not sufficiently significant to assert that those

  4. Positive Psychology (United States)

    Peterson, Christopher


    Positive psychology is a deliberate correction to the focus of psychology on problems. Positive psychology does not deny the difficulties that people may experience but does suggest that sole attention to disorder leads to an incomplete view of the human condition. Positive psychologists concern themselves with four major topics: (1) positive…

  5. Ubiquitous positioning

    CERN Document Server

    Mannings, Robin


    This groundbreaking resource offers a practical, in-depth understanding of Ubiquitous Positioning - positioning systems that identify the location and position of people, vehicles and objects in time and space in the digitized networked economy. The future and growth of ubiquitous positioning will be fueled by the convergence of many other areas of technology, from mobile telematics, Internet technology, and location systems, to sensing systems, geographic information systems, and the semantic web. This first-of-its-kind volume explores ubiquitous positioning from a convergence perspective, of

  6. Comparison of East Asian winter monsoon indices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gao Hui


    Full Text Available Four East Asian winter monsoon (EAWM indices are compared in this paper. In the research periods, all the indices show similar interannual and decadal-interdecadal variations, with predominant periods centering in 3–4 years, 6.5 years and 9–15 years, respectively. Besides, all the indices show remarkable weakening trends since the 1980s. The correlation coefficient of each two indices is positive with a significance level of 99%. Both the correlation analyses and the composites indicate that in stronger EAWM years, the Siberian high and the higher-level subtropical westerly jet are stronger, and the Aleutian low and the East Asia trough are deeper. This circulation pattern is favorable for much stronger northwesterly wind and lower air temperature in the subtropical regions of East Asia, while it is on the opposite in weaker EAWM years. Besides, EAWM can also exert a remarkable leading effect on the summer monsoon. After stronger (weaker EAWM, less (more summer precipitation is seen over the regions from the Yangtze River valley of China to southern Japan, while more (less from South China Sea to the tropical western Pacific.

  7. Positioning consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halkier, Bente; Keller, Margit


    positionings emerges based on empirical examples of research in parent–children consumption. Positionings are flexible discursive fixations of the relationship between the performances of the practitioner, other practitioners, media discourse and consumption activities. The basic positioning types...... are the practice maintenance and the practice change position, with different sorts of adapting in between. Media discourse can become a resource for a resistant position against social control or for an appropriating position in favour of space for action. Regardless of the current relation to a particular media...... discourse, practitioners attempt to maintain their self-positioning of competence when performing. This leads us, as researchers, to caution against any a priori anticipation of the anchoring power of media discourses within everyday activities....

  8. Positive moderation of the hematology, plasma biochemistry and ocular indices of oxidative stress in alloxan-induced diabetic rats, by an aqueous extract of the leaves of Sansevieria liberica Gerome and Labroy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ikewuchi Jude Chigozie; Ikewuchi Catherine Chidinma


    Objective: To investigate the ability of an aqueous extract of the leaves of Sansevieria liberica (S. liberica) to alter the hematology, plasma biochemistry and ocular indices of oxidative stress in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Method: Diabetes mellitus was induced by injection of alloxan (80 mg/kg body weight), via the tail vein. The extract was administered orally at 100, 200 and 300 mg/kg body weight (both to normal and diabetic rats), and metformin at 50 mg/kg body weight.Results:Compared to test control, the treatment dose dependently, significantly lowered (P<0.05) ocular malondialdehyde content, atherogenic indices, red cell, total white cell and lymphocyte counts, mean cell hemoglobin concentration; and plasma levels of glucose, triglyceride, total-, very low density lipoprotein-, low density lipoprotein- and non-high density lipoprotein cholesterols, total, conjugated and unconjugated bilirubin, sodium, urea, blood urea nitrogen, as well as plasma activities of alkaline phosphatase, alanine and aspartate transaminases. However, the treatment significantly increased (P<0.05) hematocrit, hemoglobin concentration, mean cell hemoglobin, and mean cell volume, neutrophil and monocyte counts, and plasma levels of high density lipoprotein cholesterol, potassium, chloride, calcium, bicarbonate and total protein, ocular ascorbic acid content and ocular activities of catalase and superoxide dismutase. This study showed the hypoglycemic, hypolipidemic, immune-modulating, ocular-, hepato-renal and cardio-protective potentials of the extract. Conclusions: All these, support the use of the leaves of S. liberica in African traditional health care practices for the management of diabetes mellitus.

  9. Diurnal and seasonal variation in air exchange rates and interzonal flows measured by active tracer gas in five Danish homes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Geo; Bekö, Gabriel; Toftum, Jørn


    and airflows between rooms. AERs changed rapidly during the day and differed between rooms. Occupant behavior (window opening) strongly influenced the AERs. AERs were highest in the summer, lowest in the winter. Interzonal airflow measurements indicated that the air within a given floor is well mixed, while...... there is less air movement between different floors. The position of the internal doors (open/closed) had a strong influence on the air movements within the dwelling....

  10. The characterization of exposure to air pollution in epidemiological studies: comparison of two indices of exposure to the traffic, in the frame of the VESTA study (5 epidemiological studies on transport and asthma); La caracterisation de l'exposition a la pollution atmospherique dans les etudes epidemiologiques: Comparaison de deux indices d'exposition au trafic, dans les cadre de l'etude VESTA (5 epidemiological studies on transport and asthma)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fillet Coignard, F.


    The existing methods of exposure estimation, in the frame of epidemiological studies on sanitary impact of air pollution are reviewed. An application is studied in the heart of the VESTA study (V Epidemiological Studies on Transport and Asthma). Measurements of personal exposure to nitrogen oxides have been realised on 4-14 years old children with portable captors during 48 hours. Two indirect indices of traffic exposure are compared to the results of measurements. In spite of the fact that the two indices integrate traffic data, they appear statistically independent. In order to determine the part allocatable to different sources (transport, background pollution, nicotine addiction, use of a gas cooker) in the personal exposure to nitrogen oxides, multiple linear regressions are realised. If they do not allow to explain totally the variations of personal measures, some models are significant. (N.C.)

  11. The Positive Effect of Phospholipids on Some Biochemical Indices of Trained Mice%磷脂对运动小鼠某些生化指标的改善作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁建琴; 冯炜权


    The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of phospholipids supplementation on nutritional status and antioxidant status of trained mice. The results indicate that: 1)In phospholipids supplementation groups concentrations of Hb and serum phospholipid increase significantly, serum Alb concentration tends to increase.Phospholipids supplementation can also help the recovery of Hb which is decreased after exhaustive exercise.2)Phospholipids supplementation can improve antioxidative status in some tissue .3)The activity of SOD is highest in quadriceps while the activity of GPX is highest in liver, and concentration of MDA is lowest in kidney.Different kinds of tissue show different levels of SOD, GPX and MDA, indicating their different abilities of antioxidation.4) Phospholipids supplementation have no effect on body weights of trained mice.%观察了补充磷脂对运动小鼠营养状况和自由基防御体系的影响。结果显示:(1)补充磷脂能提高血清磷脂含量,增加血红蛋白,并且使血清白蛋白有上升趋势,改善机体营养状况,对力竭性运动后血红蛋白的恢复也有良好作用;(2)补充磷脂能提高机体部分组织抗自由基氧化的能力。(3)各组织中SOD活性、GPX活性、MDA含量是不相同的,其中SOD活性以股四头肌中最高,GPX活性以肝脏最高,而MDA含量以肾脏最低,这可能反映了各组织器官抗过氧化综合能力的差异;(4)补充磷脂不影响运动小鼠体重。

  12. The treatment application of acute cardiogenic pulmonary edema with BiPAP noninvasive positive air pressure ventilation%BiPAP无创通气在急性心源性肺水肿救治中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄玉蓉; 王晓园; 张海涛; 李玮; 白会云


    目的 探讨双水平正压无创机械通气在救治急性心源性肺水肿患者中的疗效.方法 将我科收治的59例急性心源性肺水肿患者随机分为两组:在常规利尿、扩血管、强心和镇静治疗的基础上,治疗组26例经BiPAP无创通气治疗;而对照组33例则给予高浓度面罩吸氧,观察两组治疗前后心率、呼吸频率、血气分析指标及临床征象的变化,评价治疗效果.结果 治疗组无创正压通气2 h后患者心率(HR)、呼吸频率(RR)明显减慢(P<0.05),收缩压(ABP)及舒张压(DBP)明显下降(P<0.01),血氧饱和度(SaO2)明显升高(P<0.01).结论 BiPAP无创通气治疗急性心源性肺水肿起效快,能明显改善低氧血症,是抢救急性心源性肺水肿的重要方法之一,值得临床推广.%Objective To evaluate the effects of BiPAP noninvasive positive ah- pressure ventilation on acute cardiogenic pulmo nary edema. Methods Fifty-nine patients with acute cardiogenic pulmonary edema were randomly divided into two groups: 26 patients in treatment group received BiPAP, while 33 patients in control groups had high concentration oxygen mask. All the patients received conven tional treatments including diuresis, cardiac stimulant, and sedation. Results Two hours after BiPAP, the patients' heart rate and breathing rate slowed down obviously ( P<0.05 ), and their systolic pressure and diastolic pressure declined dearly ( P <0. 01 ). Be sides , the oxygen saturation of blood rose obviously ( P < 0. 01 ). Conclusion BiPAP noninvasive positive air pressure ventilation can im prove meionectic blood better and take into effect quickly. Therefore it is an important means to rescue acute pulmonary edema and wouth to popularize.

  13. Atmospheric Pressure Indicator. (United States)

    Salzsieder, John C.


    Discusses observable phenomena related to air pressure. Describes a simple, unobtrusive, semiquantitative device to monitor the changes in air pressure that are associated with altitude, using a soft-drink bottle and a balloon. (JRH)

  14. Positive Psychotherapy (United States)

    Seligman, Martin E. P.; Rashid, Tayyab; Parks, Acacia C.


    Positive psychotherapy (PPT) contrasts with standard interventions for depression by increasing positive emotion, engagement, and meaning rather than directly targeting depressive symptoms. The authors have tested the effects of these interventions in a variety of settings. In informal student and clinical settings, people not uncommonly reported…

  15. Image quality and volume computed tomography air kerma index (C{sub vol}) evaluation in Recife; Avaliacao da qualidade de imagem e do indice volumetrico de Kerma ar em tomografia computadorizada (C{sub vol}) em Recife

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrade, Marcos Ely Almeida


    The Computed Tomography (CT) is an important diagnostic imaging method, widely used. However, in spite of all the advantages and technologic advances within the CT scanners, the tomographic procedures result in high absorbed doses to patients. The main objective of this work was to perform a dosimetric study of CT scanners located at Recife and to evaluate the image quality on CT examinations in these equipment. The volume CT air kerma index (C{sub VOL}) and air kerma length product (P{sub KL,CT}) were estimated. These values were calculated using normalized weighted air kerma indexes in CT standard dosimetry phantoms ({sub n}C{sub W}), supplied by ImPACT group for several CT scanners, and the scan parameters of routine head, routine chest and hi-resolution chest CT exams performed at 20 institutions. The irradiation parameters of 15 adult patients for each CT procedure were registered at six participating centres, at which the phantom from the American College of Radiology (ACR) CT accreditation protocol was used for the image quality measurements. For routine head exams, the C{sub VOL} values varied between 12 and 58 mGy (at the posterior fossa) and 15 to 58 mGy (at the cerebrum) and the P{sub KL,CT}, from 150 to 750 mGy{center_dot}cm. The C{sub VOL} values for routine chest procedures varied from 3 to 26 mGy and the P{sub KL,CT}, between 120 and 460 mGy{center_dot}cm. In relation to Hi-resolution chest exams, C{sub VOL} values were from 1.0 to 2.7 mGy and the P{sub KL,CT} values varied between 24 and 67 mGy{center_dot}cm. The image quality evaluations results showed that almost all scanners presented at least one inadequacy. One of the equipment presented faults at 70% of the tests. With regard to the image noise, only two scanners presented acceptable results. From these results, it is possible to conclude that the volume CT air kerma index values are lower than the European reference levels. However, the image quality of these CT scanners does not attend the

  16. Positioning Agility (United States)

    Oza, Nilay; Abrahamsson, Pekka; Conboy, Kieran

    Agile methods are increasingly adopted by European companies. Academics too are conducting numerous studies on different tenets of agile methods. Companies often feel proud in marketing themselves as ‘agile’. However, the true notion of ‘being agile’ seems to have been overlooked due to lack of positioning of oneself for agility. This raises a call for more research and interactions between academia and the industry. The proposed workshop refers to this call. It will be highly relevant to participants, interested in positioning their company’s agility from organizational, group or project perspectives. The positioning of agility will help companies to better align their agile practices with stakeholder values. Results of the workshop will be shared across participants and they will also have opportunity to continue their work on agile positioning in their companies. At broader level, the work done in this workshop will contribute towards developing Agile Positioning System.

  17. 水稻叶面积指数与MODIS植被指数、红边位置之间的相关分析%Analyses of the correlation between rice LAI and simulated MODIS vegetation indices, red edge position

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程乾; 黄敬峰; 王人潮; 唐延林


    In the present study, analyses of the correlation between rice Leaf Area Index (LAI), hyperspectal data, Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI) and the Red-Edge Position (REP) were studied. Hyperspectral data of hybrid rice and common rice in whole growing stage during 2002 was measured using the ASD FieldSpec UV/VNIR Spectroradiometer with resolution of 3 nm and at the same time the rice LAI was measured. The REP may be defined using the first derivative spectrum. The three bands of the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradimeter (MODIS), band 1(620~670 nm, red), band 2(841~876 nm, NIR) and band 3(459~479 nm, blue) were simulated and MODIS-NDVI and EVI were calculated by averaging the continuous reflectance factor (350~1000 nm) over the spectral range of each band. A strong non-linear correlation was found between LAI of two rice varieties and the REP. The REP, MODIS-EVI and MODIS-NDVI were well related with LAI for the common rice, but the REP and MODIS-EVI were more sensitive than MODIS-NDVI to rice LAI for the hybrid rice. The reasons were that LAI of hybrid rice became greater with growth, and MODIS-NDVI was more affected by saturation, but MODIS-EVI and REP were less affected. This showed that the REP and MODIS-EVI will be more effective in monitoring the rice LAI.%对模拟中分辨率成像光谱仪(MODIS)两个植被指数归一化植被指数(NDVI)、增强植被指数(EVI)以及红边位置(REP)与水稻叶面积指数(LAI)进行了相关研究.利用光谱分辨率为3 nm 的ASD FieldSpec UV/VNIR 光谱仪获得了2002年两个不同水稻品种--杂交稻和常规稻整个生长期的高光谱数据,同时对水稻LAI进行了测定.利用一阶微分计算红边位移.模拟了MODIS 3个波段,波段1(620-670 nm,红波段),波段2(841~876 nm,近红外)和波段3(459~479 nm,蓝波段),并用这些波段计算了MODIS-NDVI和EVI.结果表明:对于常规稻,MODIS-NDVI、EVI和REP与水稻LAI呈现出

  18. Current Indications for Coronary Arteriography


    Dodek, Arthur


    Coronary arteriography is not necessary in all patients with angina pectoris. Angiography is indicated to define coronary anatomy in patients who have persistent angina despite full medication. It is also indicated in patients with a markedly positive stress test, unstable angina pectoris, positive stress test following myocardial infarction, variants of angina, ventricular aneurysm complications, and in the young coronary patient. Coronary arteriography may clarify the diagnosis in patients ...

  19. Solar Indices Forecasting Tool (United States)

    Henney, Carl John; Shurkin, Kathleen; Arge, Charles; Hill, Frank


    Progress to forecast key space weather parameters using SIFT (Solar Indices Forecasting Tool) with the ADAPT (Air Force Data Assimilative Photospheric flux Transport) model is highlighted in this presentation. Using a magnetic flux transport model, ADAPT, we estimate the solar near-side field distribution that is used as input into empirical models for predicting F10.7(solar 10.7 cm, 2.8 GHz, radio flux), the Mg II core-to-wing ratio, and selected bands of solar far ultraviolet (FUV) and extreme ultraviolet (EUV) irradiance. Input to the ADAPT model includes the inferred photospheric magnetic field from the NISP ground-based instruments, GONG & VSM. Besides a status update regarding ADAPT and SIFT models, we will summarize the findings that: 1) the sum of the absolute value of strong magnetic fields, associated with sunspots, is shown to correlate well with the observed daily F10.7 variability (Henney et al. 2012); and 2) the sum of the absolute value of weak magnetic fields, associated with plage regions, is shown to correlate well with EUV and FUV irradiance variability (Henney et al. 2015). This work utilizes data produced collaboratively between Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) and the National Solar Observatory (NSO). The ADAPT model development is supported by AFRL. The input data utilized by ADAPT is obtained by NISP (NSO Integrated Synoptic Program). NSO is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy (AURA), Inc., under a cooperative agreement with the National Science Foundation (NSF). The 10.7 cm solar radio flux data service, utilized by the ADAPT/SIFT F10.7 forecasting model, is operated by the National Research Council of Canada and National Resources Canada, with the support of the Canadian Space Agency.

  20. Researcher positioning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørck, Line Lerche; Khawaja, Iram


    abstract  This article focuses on the complex and multi-layered process of researcher positioning, specifically in relation to the politically sensitive study of marginalised and ‘othered' groups such as Muslims living in Denmark. We discuss the impact of different ethnic, religious and racial...... political and personal involvement by the researcher, which challenges traditional perspectives on research and researcher positioning. A key point in this regard is the importance of constant awareness of and reflection on the multiple ways in which one's positioning as a researcher influences the research...... process. Studying the other calls for close reflections on one's own position, theoretically, personally, and politically, taking into account one's complicity in either overcoming or reproducing processes of othering and marginalisation. [i] We use the term (ethnic) minoritised, not as a distinction...

  1. Positional games

    CERN Document Server

    Hefetz, Dan; Stojaković, Miloš; Szabó, Tibor


    This text serves as a thorough introduction to the rapidly developing field of positional games. This area constitutes an important branch of combinatorics, whose aim it is to systematically develop an extensive mathematical basis for a variety of two-player perfect information games. These range from such popular games as Tic-Tac-Toe and Hex to purely abstract games played on graphs and hypergraphs. The subject of positional games is strongly related to several other branches of combinatorics such as Ramsey theory, extremal graph and set theory, and the probabilistic method. These notes cover a variety of topics in positional games, including both classical results and recent important developments. They are presented in an accessible way and are accompanied by exercises of varying difficulty, helping the reader to better understand the theory. The text will benefit both researchers and graduate students in combinatorics and adjacent fields.

  2. Environment variations into the combustion control. A control system mixtures the air rate in the environmental characteristics. Influencia de las condiciones ambientales en el control de combustion. Un sistema de control que corrige el indice de exceso de aire en funcion de las caracteristicas ambientales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreiro Garcia, R.; Gonzalez Marco, P.P. (Universidad de la Corua. Dpto. Electronica y Sistemas (Spain))


    This paper describes a combustion control application for a fired drum type boiler system. The contribution is based in the compensation of disturbances by means of feed forward and feedback methods, which enters the combustion system from the environment variations as it is the case of moisture and ambient temperature in the combustion air. With the proposed strategy, efficiency is achieved at economic cost because of the simplicity of the system to correct automatically the stoichiometric combustion air flow even under large modelling errors design, which makes the control system robust and efficient under a wide range of operating conditions. (Author) 4 ref.

  3. Characterisation and quantification of trace metal elements in atmospheric deposition and particularities in the Aspe valley (Pyrenees): implementation of road traffic air quality indicators; Caracterisation et quantification des elements traces metalliques dans les depots et les particules atmospheriques de la vallee d'Aspe (Pyrenees): Mise en place d'indicateurs de la qualite de l'air lies au trafic routier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veschambre, S


    This study of inputs of trace metal elements (TME) in the Aspe valley (Pyrenees Atlantiques) has two objectives: (1) to define a reference state of metallic contaminants for the monitoring of road traffic emissions since the opening of the Somport tunnel and, (2) to evaluate sources and climatic conditions which contribute to TME inputs in the Aspe valley. To establish air quality indicators, TME (Al, Na, Mg, K, V, Mn, Cr, Zn, Cu, Rb, Cd, Sn, Sb, Ba, Ce, Pb and U) and lead isotopic ratios ({sup 208}Pb/{sup 206}Pb, {sup 206}Pb/{sup 207}Pb and {sup 208}Pb/{sup 207}Pb) were determined in the atmospheric receptors (fresh snow, wet deposition, atmospheric particulates and lichen). Sampling and analyses with ultra clean procedures were employed for TME quantification. Variability of atmospheric receptors studied, allows integration on a daily and pluri-annual temporal scale and a spatial scale in the North-South axis of the valley and as a function of the altitude from the road. The Aspe valley presents a level of contamination characteristic of remote European areas and the metallic contaminants identified are Cd, Sb, Zn, Cu, Pb and Sn. In the low valley, air quality indicators indicate contaminant contributions (i) from local emissions of domestic heat sources, from agricultural burning practices and road traffic, and (ii) from regional anthropogenic sources of waste incinerators, metallurgic industries and urban centres. In altitude, the valley is significantly influenced by wind erosion and long range transport of TME in the Northern Hemisphere. Characterisation of TME and the isotopic ratios of Pb in the Somport tunnel indicate (i) a significant emission of Cu, Sb, Zn and Ba and (ii) an isotopic composition from a slightly radiogenic source even though Pb concentrations indicate low emissions from road traffic emissions. Nevertheless, the low traffic volume in the Aspe valley prevents conclusive evidence of significant contamination from road traffic. (author)

  4. Positively Adolescent! (United States)

    Williamson, Sue


    Believes that music teachers should reassess their views toward adolescent behavior in the music classroom by learning to see their behavior in a positive light. Describes teaching strategies that build on four adolescent behaviors: (1) desire for peer acceptance; (2) abundant energy; (3) love of fun; and (4) limited time-managing skills. (CMK)

  5. An Experiment with Air Purifiers in Delhi during Winter 2015-2016 (United States)

    Vyas, Sangita


    Particulate pollution has important consequences for human health, and is an issue of global concern. Outdoor air pollution has become a cause for alarm in India in particular because recent data suggest that ambient pollution levels in Indian cities are some of the highest in the world. We study the number of particles between 0.5μm and 2.5μm indoors while using affordable air purifiers in the highly polluted city of Delhi. Though substantial reductions in indoor number concentrations are observed during air purifier use, indoor air quality while using an air purifier is frequently worse than in cities with moderate pollution, and often worse than levels observed even in polluted cities. When outdoor pollution levels are higher, on average, indoor pollution levels while using an air purifier are also higher. Moreover, the ratio of indoor air quality during air purifier use to two comparison measures of air quality without an air purifier are also positively correlated with outdoor pollution levels, suggesting that as ambient air quality worsens there are diminishing returns to improvements in indoor air quality during air purifier use. The findings of this study indicate that although the most affordable air purifiers currently available are associated with significant improvements in the indoor environment, they are not a replacement for public action in regions like Delhi. Although private solutions may serve as a stopgap, reducing ambient air pollution must be a public health and policy priority in any region where air pollution is as high as Delhi’s during the winter. PMID:27978542

  6. Researcher Positioning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khawaja, Iram; Mørck, Line Lerche


    This article focuses on the complex and multilayered process of researcher positioning,specifically in relation to the politically sensitive study of marginalised and "othered"groups such as Muslims living in Denmark. We discuss the impact of different ethnic,religious, and racial backgrounds......, of membership in a minoritised1 or majoritisedgroup, and the influence of different theoretical and methodological outlooks on ourcommon goal of trying to transcend existing othering and objectifying representationsof Muslims in Western societies. This process sometimes entails a direct political andpersonal...... involvement by the researcher, which challenges traditional perspectives onresearch and researcher positioning. A key point in this regard is the importance ofconstant awareness of and reflection on the multiple ways in which one's positioningas a researcher influences the research process. Studying the other...

  7. Relationship of condylar position to disc position and morphology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Incesu, L.; Taskaya-Yilmaz, N. E-mail:; Oeguetcen-Toller, M.; Uzun, E


    Introduction/objective: The purpose of this study was to assess whether condylar position, as depicted by magnetic resonance imaging, was an indicator of disc morphology and position. Methods and material: One hundred and twenty two TMJs of 61 patients with temporomandibular joint disorder were examined. Condylar position, disc deformity and degree of anterior disc displacement were evaluated by using magnetic resonance imaging. Results and discussion: Posterior condyle position was found to be the main feature of temporomandibular joints with slight and moderate anterior disc displacement. No statistical significance was found between the condylar position, and reducing and nonreducing disc positions. On the other hand, superior disc position was found to be statistically significant for centric condylar position. Conclusion: It was concluded that posterior condyle position could indicate anterior disc displacement whereas there was no relation between the position of condyle and the disc deformity.

  8. Associations between Parents' Perceived Air Quality in Homes and Health among Children in Nanjing, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua Qian

    Full Text Available The increasing prevalence of respiratory diseases in Chinese children has focused attention on indoor environmental quality. We investigated associations between perceived air quality in domestic environments and children's allergic diseases with a questionnaire survey study. A total of 4017 children aged 1-8 years old from 23 kindergartens in urban, suburban and industrial areas in Nanjing were randomly recruited for this study. Parents' perceived odors, including stuffy odor, unpleasant odor, pungent odor, moldy odor, humid air and dry air were found to be associated with asthma, wheeze, dry cough and rhinitis (P < 0.05. Both perceived dry and humid air were found to be positively associated with dampness indices, and we present evidence that the sensation of dryness may not be due to the actual indoor relative humidity, but rather to indoor air irritants. Parents' perception of odors and relative humidity may be indicators of environment pollutants, which are likely the real factors associated with children's allergic diseases.

  9. Piercing the Fog: Intelligence and Army Air Forces Operations in World War 2 (United States)


    situation prompted by the AAF’s subsidiary position within the Army and by the limited understanding of the new art of air warfare. Improvements in that...character. No doctrine is sacro - sanct, and of all military doctrines that of our Air Corps should be the last to be so regarded.”” General Arnold art that demanded great skill in assessing photographs and an ability to reason and deduce facts from images. The presence of camouflage indicated

  10. Local positioning system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kyker, R.


    Navigation systems have been vital to transportation ever since man took to the air and sea. Early navigation systems utilized the sextant to navigate by starlight as well as the magnetic needle compass. As electronics and communication technologies improved, inertial navigation systems were developed for use in ships and missile delivery. These systems consisted of electronic compasses, gyro-compasses, accelerometers, and various other sensors. Recently, systems such as LORAN and the Global Positioning System (GPS) have utilized the properties of radio wave propagation to triangulate position. The Local Positioning System (LPS), described in this paper, is an implementation of a limited inertial navigation system designed to be used on a bicycle. LPS displays a cyclist`s current position relative to a starting location. This information is displayed in Cartesian-like coordinates. To accomplish this, LPS relies upon two sensors, an electronic compass sensor and a distance sensor. The compass sensor provides directional information while the distance sensor provides the distance traveled. This information yields a distance vector for each point in time which when summed produces the cyclist`s current position. LPS is microprocessor controlled and is designed for a range of less than 90 miles.

  11. Cognitive Value of Financial Indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Cristina FLOREA


    Full Text Available Economic and Financial indicators are very important tools in the assessment of the economic entity's well-being. They Provide permanent monitoring of the significance of the issues related to the economic activity's deployment. The main Objectives tracked by the process of managing the company with the help of Economic and Financial indicators is the activity's continuity, ensuring liquidity and Achieving positive results.

  12. Air pollution characteristics associated with mesoscale atmospheric patterns in northwest continental Europe (United States)

    Buchholz, Saskia; Junk, Jürgen; Krein, Andreas; Heinemann, Günther; Hoffmann, Lucien


    An impact related daily air quality index (DAQx), calculated for 15 air quality monitoring stations (traffic, background, and industry) in Belgium, France, Germany and Luxembourg, was compared to mesoscale atmospheric patterns between 2001 and 2007. Meteorological conditions were described by the Hess and Brezowsky synoptic weather classification system and gridded data of the EU FP6 ENSEMBLES project of total precipitation and mean surface temperature. DAQx values indicate sufficient to poor air quality in the urban area of Brussels and at urban traffic stations, as well as satisfactory air quality at the background stations. The air quality index refers to more than 90% to the presence of high PM 10, O 3 and NO 2 concentrations. SO 2 and CO play only a minor role. The investigation of weather regimes indicates that zonal and mixed cyclonic circulation regimes are associated with better air quality than meridional and anticyclonic weather regimes. In general, weather regimes with high daily precipitation lead to better air quality than dryer air masses because of lower contribution of PM 10 to the air quality index. A trend analysis of weather regimes from 1978 to 2007 shows significant ( α = 0.05) positive trends for weather classes associated with lower PM 10 concentrations. The results of a case study at a German station examining the relationship between PM 10 concentrations and local meteorological quantities (wind speed and precipitation) confirm the results of the regional analysis.

  13. 大气压直流正电晕放电暂态空间电荷分布仿真研究%Numerical simulation of transient space charge distribution of DC positive corona discharge under atmospheric pressure air

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廖瑞金; 伍飞飞; 刘兴华; 杨帆; 杨丽君; 周之; 翟蕾


    本文提出了流体一化学动理学二维正电晕放电混合模型,该模型包含12种粒子间的27种化学反应,并且考虑光电离的影响.此外,在实验室内对该模型开展试验验证,单次脉冲波形及伏安特性曲线符合较好.基于上述模型,本文研究了在外施电压3kV时棒一板电极正电晕放电过程中的电场分布、电子温度分布、空间电荷分布的发展规律,并对电晕放电过程中粒子的成分进行了详细分析,讨论了电子、正负离子、中性粒子在放电过程中的生成规律及对电晕放电的影响.结果表明:在整个电晕放电过程中,电子温度分布和电场强度分布曲线相似,电子密度维持在10^19m-3左右,只发现带正电的等离子体特征.O4+密度是放电过程中数量最多的正离子,O2+和N2+在二次电子发射过程中具有重要作用,O2-离子和O分别是负离子和中性粒子中数量最多的粒子,由于负离子和中性粒子在电晕放电过程中数量较小,因而起的作用相对较小.%Corona discharges are usually generated at sharp points, edges or on thin wires where the electric field is strongly concentrated. With the rapid development of extra and ultra high-voltage transmission lines, the air corona discharge becomes one of the critical problems associated with high-voltage lines, which can lead to the deterioration of insulation systems, power loss, radio noise. Corona discharge studies have been undertaken for many years, not only because of the scientific interest in the corona mechanism but also because of its practical engineering importance. Transient space charge distribution effect that is one of the important canses in the process of corona discharge, is closely related to the corona discharge mechanism and onset, self-sustaining. In this paper, we present an improved self-consistent, multi-component and two-dimensional plasma hybrid model for simulating the

  14. Air Cleaning Technologies (United States)


    zoster, whereas close contact is required for the direct transmission of infectious diseases transmitted by droplets, such as influenza (the flu) and SARS. The Technology In-room air cleaners are supplied as portable or fixed devices. Fixed devices can be attached to either a wall or ceiling and are preferred over portable units because they have a greater degree of reliability (if installed properly) for achieving adequate room air mixing and airflow patterns, which are important for optimal effectiveness. Through a method of air recirculation, an in-room air cleaner can be used to increase room ventilation rates and if used to exhaust air out of the room it can create a negative-pressure room for airborne infection isolation (AII) when the building’s HVAC system cannot do so. A negative-pressure room is one where clean air flows into the room but contaminated air does not flow out of it. Contaminated room air is pulled into the in-room air cleaner and cleaned by passing through a series of filters, which remove the airborne infectious pathogens. The cleaned air is either recirculated into the room or exhausted outside the building. By filtering contaminated room air and then recirculating the cleaned air into the room, an in-room air cleaner can improve the room’s ventilation. By exhausting the filtered air to the outside the unit can create a negative-pressure room. There are many types of in-room air cleaners. They vary widely in the airflow rates through the unit, the type of air cleaning technology used, and the technical design. Crucial to maximizing the efficiency of any in-room air cleaner is its strategic placement and set-up within a room, which should be done in consultation with ventilation engineers, infection control experts, and/or industrial hygienists. A poorly positioned air cleaner may disrupt airflow patterns within the room and through the air cleaner, thereby compromising its air cleaning efficiency. The effectiveness of an in-room air cleaner

  15. Air Pollution (United States)

    ... to view this content or go to source URL . What NIEHS is Doing on Air Pollution Who ... Junction Last Reviewed: February 06, 2017 This page URL: NIEHS website: Email ...

  16. Multipollutant air quality management. (United States)

    Hidy, George M; Pennell, William T


    On the basis of a recent NARSTO assessment, this review discusses the factors involved in the implementation of a risk- and results-based multipollutant air quality management strategy applicable to North America. Such a strategy could evolve from current single-pollutant regulatory practices using a series of steps that would seek to minimize risk of exposure for humans and ecosystems while providing for a quantitative evaluation of the effectiveness of the management process. The tools needed to support multipollutant air quality management are summarized. They include application of a formal risk analysis, accounting for atmospheric processes, ambient measurements, emissions characterization, air quality modeling of emissions to ambient concentrations, and characterization of human and ecological responses to ambient pollutant exposure. The new management strategy would expand the current practice of accountability that relates emission reductions and attainment of air quality derived from air quality criteria and standards. Conceptually, achievement of accountability would establish goals optimizing risk reduction associated with pollution management. This expanded approach takes into account the sequence of processes from emissions reduction to resulting changes in ambient concentration. Using ambient concentration as a proxy for exposure, the resulting improvement in human and ecosystem health is estimated. The degree to which this chain of processes and effects can be achieved in current practice is examined in a multipollutant context exemplified by oxidants, as indicated by ozone, particulate matter, and some hazardous air pollutants. Achievement of a multipollutant management strategy will mostly depend on improving knowledge about human and ecosystem response to pollutant exposure.

  17. Geomagnetic Indices Bulletin (GIB) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Geomagnetic Indices Bulletin is a one page sheet containing the magnetic indices Kp, Ap, Cp, An, As, Am and the provisional aa indices. The bulletin is published...

  18. Construction and application of an intelligent air quality monitoring system for healthcare environment. (United States)

    Yang, Chao-Tung; Liao, Chi-Jui; Liu, Jung-Chun; Den, Walter; Chou, Ying-Chyi; Tsai, Jaw-Ji


    Indoor air quality monitoring in healthcare environment has become a critical part of hospital management and policy. Manual air sampling and analysis are cost-inhibitive and do not provide real-time air quality data and response measures. In this month-long study over 14 sampling locations in a public hospital in Taiwan, we observed a positive correlation between CO(2) concentration and population, total bacteria, and particulate matter concentrations, thus monitoring CO(2) concentration as a general indicator for air quality could be a viable option. Consequently, an intelligent environmental monitoring system consisting of a CO(2)/temperature/humidity sensor, a digital plug, and a ZigBee Router and Coordinator was developed and tested. The system also included a backend server that received and analyzed data, as well as activating ventilation and air purifiers when CO(2) concentration exceeded a pre-set value. Alert messages can also be delivered to offsite users through mobile devices.

  19. Air Leakage Rates in Typical Air Barrier Assemblies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hun, Diana E. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Atchley, Jerald Allen [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Childs, Phillip W. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)


    Estimates for 2010 indicate that infiltration in residential buildings was responsible for 2.85 quads of energy (DOE 2014), which is about 3% of the total energy consumed in the US. One of the mechanisms being implemented to reduce this energy penalty is the use of air barriers as part of the building envelope. These technologies decrease airflow through major leakage sites such as oriented strand board (OSB) joints, and gaps around penetrations (e.g., windows, doors, pipes, electrical outlets) as indicated by Hun et al. (2014). However, most air barrier materials do not properly address leakage spots such as wall-to-roof joints and wall-to-foundation joints because these are difficult to seal, and because air barrier manufacturers usually do not provide adequate instructions for these locations. The present study focuses on characterizing typical air leakage sites in wall assemblies with air barrier materials.

  20. Sustainable development indicators for cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey Nikolayevich Bobylev


    Full Text Available The assessment of urban population’s life quality implies an investigation of all factors defining it: economic, social and ecological. The development of the corresponding indicators of sustainable urban development is necessary. The majority of the cities in the world and this country show unsustainable development at present time. In the article, the world and Russian experience of development of indicators of sustainable urban development is considered. In the article, opportunities of adaptation of approaches to these indicators’ development on the basis of Human Development Index developed by United Nations Development Program and an index of Adjusted Net Savings of the World Bank for Russia are considered. The authors propose a new integrated index of sustainability for Russian cities. It is based on the concept and methodology of the Adjusted Net Savings index. In order to evaluate the sustainability of urban development taking into account economic, social, and ecological factors, the authors propose applying three corresponding sub-indexes: gross capital, expenses on human capital development, and damage from environmental pollution in the cities. In the article, the authors’ set of indicators for Russian cities is proposed. It reflects the most acute problems of sustainable urban development in Russia and the quality of life in cities; also it corresponds to Russian statistics. 21 key indicators reflecting important economic, social, and ecological urban priorities are proposed. Indicators are divided into nine groups: economic indicators; energy efficiency; transport; social and institutional indicators; air and climate; water resources; waste; especially protected natural territories; noise influence. Proposed indicators for cities allow more adequately assess trends of urbanized space shaping and quality of life

  1. Air quality indicators by county and year, 2001-2006 (United States)

    California Environmental Health Tracking Program — This data set contains values for Nationally Consistent Data and Measures (NCDMs) designated by the national Environmental Public Health Tracking Program and...

  2. A connection between combustion-related air pollutants and risk indicators for cardio-vascular disease? A panel study linked to the measurement campaign at Vaexjoe in the Biofuel-Health-Environment program.; Samband mellan foerbraenningsrelaterade luftfoeroreningar och riskindikatorer foer hjaert-kaerlsjukdom? - En panelstudie kopplad till maetkampanjen i Vaexjoe inom Biobraensle-Haelsa-Miljoe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaervholm, Bengt; Forsberg, Bertil; Modig, Lars; Nielsen, Joern; Boman, Kurt; Jansson, Jan-Haakan [Umeaa Univ. (Sweden). Inst. foer Folkhaelsa och Klinisk Medicin


    The main aim of this study was to see if particles in ambient air is related to biological risk indicators of cardio vascular disease. The study was conducted during the winter and early spring 2003, within the framework of the Swedish Energy Agency's research program. The study was designed as a panel study with 40 participating females within the ages 25-66 years, all working at the local hospital. Based on continuous measurements of air pollutants and meteorological forecasts blood samples were taken at five occasions during days with predicted high or low pollution levels. Each blood sample were then analysed for the inflammatory markers fibrinogen and C-reactive protein (CRP). The levels of inflammatory markers were analysed in relation to measured levels of PM{sub 2.5} and NO{sub 2}, respectively. The analyses were made by calculating the ratio between each persons single values and their mean value based on all five measuring occasions. This was made for both of the two inflammatory markers. The ratios were then plotted and regressed against each of the studied pollutants. The results showed no evidence suggesting high pollution levels to be associated with high present levels on the studied markers at present levels.

  3. Simulation of Variable Air Volume System with Different Duct Layout

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Hua(陈华); TU Guang-bei(涂光备); FRANCIS W H Yik


    The duct static pressure reset (DSPR) control method is a popular modern control method widely applied to variable air volume (VAV) systems of commercial buildings. In this paper, a VAV system simulation program was used to predict the system performance and zone air temperature of two kinds of layouts that were applied to a typical floor of an existing building office in Hong Kong. The position where the static pressure sensor was placed should affect the zones temperature and energy consumption. The comparison of predictions of the two kinds of layouts indicates that with the same DSPR control method the layout of the air duct might influence the fan control result and energy savings.

  4. Air surveillance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patton, G.W.


    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the air surveillance and monitoring programs currently in operation at that Hanford Site. Atmospheric releases of pollutants from Hanford to the surrounding region are a potential source of human exposure. For that reason, both radioactive and nonradioactive materials in air are monitored at a number of locations. The influence of Hanford emissions on local radionuclide concentrations was evaluated by comparing concentrations measured at distant locations within the region to concentrations measured at the Site perimeter. This section discusses sample collection, analytical methods, and the results of the Hanford air surveillance program. A complete listing of all analytical results summarized in this section is reported separately by Bisping (1995).

  5. Impact of individually controlled facially applied air movement on perceived air quality at high humidity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skwarczynski, M.A. [Faculty of Environmental Engineering, Institute of Environmental Protection Engineering, Department of Indoor Environment Engineering, Lublin University of Technology, Lublin (Poland); International Centre for Indoor Environment and Energy, Department of Civil Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, Copenhagen (Denmark); Melikov, A.K.; Lyubenova, V. [International Centre for Indoor Environment and Energy, Department of Civil Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, Copenhagen (Denmark); Kaczmarczyk, J. [Faculty of Energy and Environmental Engineering, Department of Heating, Ventilation and Dust Removal Technology, Silesian University of Technology, Gliwice (Poland)


    The effect of facially applied air movement on perceived air quality (PAQ) at high humidity was studied. Thirty subjects (21 males and 9 females) participated in three, 3-h experiments performed in a climate chamber. The experimental conditions covered three combinations of relative humidity and local air velocity under a constant air temperature of 26 C, namely: 70% relative humidity without air movement, 30% relative humidity without air movement and 70% relative humidity with air movement under isothermal conditions. Personalized ventilation was used to supply room air from the front toward the upper part of the body (upper chest, head). The subjects could control the flow rate (velocity) of the supplied air in the vicinity of their bodies. The results indicate an airflow with elevated velocity applied to the face significantly improves the acceptability of the air quality at the room air temperature of 26 C and relative humidity of 70%. (author)


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The analysis of profitability indicators is an activity that should preoccupy all companies. Profitabilitydoes not mean only obtaining profit. A company is competitive if the ownership equity grows (the shareholders’money, the company has a profit that is comparable to that of other companies from the same area of activity,has a positive cash flow and the employees are satisfied with their salaries. Multiple indicators are used tomeasure performance: profit, commercial, economic, financial, investment rate of return, breakeven point,economic value added, net operating result.

  7. Air distribution and ventilation effectiveness in an occupied room heated by warm air

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krajcik, Michal; Simone, Angela; Olesen, Bjarne W.


    and at different simulated outside conditions, internal heat gains and air change rates. Floor heating was also simulated and compared with the warm air heating system. Vertical air temperature profiles, air velocity profiles and equivalent temperatures were derived in order to describe the thermal environment......Air distribution, ventilation effectiveness and thermal environment were experimentally studied in a simulated room in a low-energy building heated and ventilated by warm air supplied by a mixing ventilation system. Measurements were performed for various positions of the air terminal devices....... Contaminant removal effectiveness and air change efficiency were used to evaluate ventilation effectiveness. No significant risk of thermal discomfort due to vertical air temperature differences or draught was found. When the room was heated by warm air, buoyancy forces were important for ventilation...

  8. Altimeter Setting Indicator (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The Altimeter Setting Indicator (ASI) is an aneroid system used at airports to provide an altimeter setting for aircraft altimeters. This indicator may be an analog...

  9. Geomagnetic aa Indices (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The geomagnetic aa indices are the continuation of the series beginning in the year 1868. A full description of these indices is given in the International...

  10. CREDIT Performance Indicator Framework

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Anne Kathrine; Bertelsen, Niels Haldor; Haugbølle, Kim


    During the past two years the Nordic Baltic research project CREDIT (Construction and Real Estate – Developing Indicators for Transparency) has worked with the aim to improve transparency of value creation in building and real estate. One of the central deliverables of the CREDIT project...... was a framework of indicators relevant in building and real estate and applicable in the Nordic and Baltic countries as well as a proposal for a set of key indicators. The study resulting in CREDIT Performance Indicator Framework has been based on 28 case studies of evaluation practises in the building and real...... regulations in the countries participating in CREDIT. The Performance Indicator Framework encompassed 187 indicators grouped in 7 main groups of indicators and 42 sub-groups. Based on the CREDIT case studies it was concluded that there neither is link between certain indicators and specific building types...

  11. Alternative Solar Indices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lantz, L.J.


    Possible alternative Solar Indices which could either be a perturbation from the currently defined Solar Index or possible indices based on current technologies for other media markets are discussed. An overview is given of the current project, including the logic that was utilized in defining its current structure and then alternative indices and definitions are presented and finally, recommendations are made for adopting alternative indices.

  12. Royal Danish Air Force. Air Operations Doctrine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørby, Søren

    This brief examines the development of the first Danish Air Force Air Operations Doctrine, which was officially commissioned in October 1997 and remained in effect until 2010. The development of a Danish air power doctrine was heavily influenced by the work of Colonel John Warden (USAF), both...... through his book ”The Air Campaign” and his subsequent planning of the air campaign against Iraq in 1990-1991. Warden’s ideas came to Denmark and the Danish Air Force by way of Danish Air Force students attending the United States Air Force Air University in Alabama, USA. Back in Denmark, graduates from...... the Air University inspired a small number of passionate airmen, who then wrote the Danish Air Operations Doctrine. The process was supported by the Air Force Tactical Command, which found that the work dovetailed perfectly with the transformation process that the Danish Air Force was in the midst...

  13. Indicators of Terrorism Vulnerability in Africa (United States)


    INDICATORS OF TERRORISM VULNERABILITY IN AFRICA THESIS MARCH 2015 Raymond J. Hill, Second Lieutenant, USAF AFIT-ENS-MS-15-M-125 DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR...actual mission capability or limitations. AFIT-ENS-MS-15-M-125 INDICATORS OF TERRORISM VULNERABILITY IN AFRICA THESIS Presented to the Faculty...IN AFRICA THESIS Raymond J. Hill, BS Second Lieutenant, USAF Committee Membership: Maj Jennifer L. Geffre, Ph.D. (Chairman) Raymond Hill, Ph.D

  14. 49 CFR 229.117 - Speed indicators. (United States)


    ... normal position under all light conditions. (b) Each speed indicator required shall be tested as soon as... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Speed indicators. 229.117 Section 229.117... § 229.117 Speed indicators. (a) After December 31, 1980, each locomotive used as a...

  15. 基于运动目标检测的同步轨道星-空双站SAR杂波特性分析%Analysis of Geosynchronous Satellite-Air Bistatic SAR Clutter Characteristics from the Viewpoint of Ground Moving Target Indication

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张丹丹; 仇晓兰; 胡东辉; 丁赤飚


    同步轨道星-空双站SAR构型下(卫星作为发射端、浮空器作为接收端),为了应用空时自适应处理(Space Time Adaptive Processing, STAP)方法更好地抑制杂波,进行地面慢速运动目标检测,有必要分析杂波特性。该文从地面运动目标检测角度出发,建立了同步轨道星-空双站 SAR 杂波特性的理论模型,分析了杂波的角度-多普勒轨迹的距离依赖性特点,仿真实验证明了模型建立和理论分析的正确性。该文的理论模型和分析结论揭示了同步轨道星-空双SAR这一新模式下的杂波特性,为该模式下地面运动目标检测方法的选择和研究奠定了理论基础。%Considering the geometry of geosynchronous satellite-air bistatic Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) where the geosynchronous satellite is the transmitter and the aerostat is the receiver, to suppress clutter and detect a slow-moving target using Space-Time Adaptive Processing (STAP), it is necessary to analyze the clutter characteristics. From the viewpoint of a ground moving target indication, a theoretical model of the clutter characteristics considering the geometry of geosynchronous satellite-space bistatic SAR is analyzed and established in this study; in particular, the range-dependence characteristics of the angle-Doppler curve of the clutter is analyzed. Finally, the simulation verifies the correctness of the analysis. The theoretical model described and the conclusion presented in this paper indicate the clutter characteristics of the new geosynchronous satellite-air bistatic SAR mode and provide a theoretical basis for the selection and research of a ground moving target indication method for use in this mode.

  16. eHealth indicators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    HYPPÖNEN, Hannele; AMMENWERTH, Elske; Nøhr, Christian;


    eHealth indicators are needed to measure defined aspects of national eHealth implementations. However, until now, eHealth indicators are ambiguous or unclear. Therefore, an expert workshop "Towards an International Minimum Dataset for Monitoring National Health Information System Implementations......" was organized. The objective was to develop ideas for a minimum eHealth indicator set. The proposed ideas for indicators were classified based on EUnetHTA and De-Lone & McClean, and classification was compared with health IT evaluation criteria classification by Ammenwerth & Keizer. Analysis of the workshop...... results emphasized the need for a common methodological framework for defining and classifying eHealth indicators. It also showed the importance of setting the indicators into context. The results will benefit policy makers, developers and researchers in pursuit of provision and use of evidence...

  17. Air Conditioning Overflow Sensor (United States)


    The Technology Transfer Office at Stennis Space Center helped a local inventor develop a prototype of an attachment for central air conditioners and heat pumps that helps monitor water levels to prevent condensation overflow. The sensor will indicate a need for drain line maintenance and prevent possible damage caused by drain pan water spillover. An engineer in the Stennis Space Center prototype Development Laboratory used SSC sensor technology in the development of the sensor.

  18. Indicators for environmental sustainability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dong, Yan; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky


    Decision making on sustainable consumption and production requires scientifically based information on sustainability. Different environmental sustainability targets exist for specific decision problems. To observe how well these targets are met, relevant environmental indicators are needed....... In this study, we reviewed indicators applied in life cycle assessment (LCA), planetary boundary framework (PB), and Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) developed under United Nation. The aim is to 1) identify their applications and relevant decision context; 2) Review their indicators and categorize them...

  19. GSPEL - Air Filtration Laboratory (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Evaluation capabilities for air filtration devices The Air Filtration Lab provides testing of air filtration devices to demonstrate and validate new or legacy system...

  20. Scopus' SNIP Indicator

    CERN Document Server

    Leydesdorff, Loet


    Rejoinder to Moed [arXiv:1005.4906]: Our main objection is against developing new indicators which, like some of the older ones (for example, the "crown indicator" of CWTS), do not allow for indicating error because they do not provide a statistics, but are based, in our opinion, on a violation of the order of operations. The claim of validity for the SNIP indicator is hollow because the normalizations are based on field classifications which are not valid. Both problems can perhaps be solved by using fractional counting.

  1. Data Quality and Indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Matute


    Full Text Available This study highlights the importance of collecting good quality data from multidisciplinary studies. Bias in data may be the result of instrument inaccuracies, imprecise data recording techniques, inaccurate data entry to computers or inappropriate statistical analysis and presentation. Recommendations for good data quality control are given. Different types of data are discussed: raw data, simple indicators and complex indicators. It is shown how measurements from the components of multidisciplinary systems can be combined to form complex indicators and a specific example is given using Z-scores and dot charts. Finally the accumulated effect of bias in the individual component measurements upon the combined indicator is shown.

  2. Climate Change Indicators (United States)

    Presents information, charts and graphs showing measured climate changes across 40 indicators related to greenhouse gases, weather and climate, oceans, snow and ice, heath and society, and ecosystems.

  3. Good air quality in offices improves productivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fanger, Povl Ole


    Three recent independent studies have documented that the quality of indoor air has a significant and positive influence or? the productivity of office workers. A combined analysis of the results of the three studies shows a significant relationship between productivity and perceived indoor air...... quality. The impact on productivity justifies a much higher indoor air quality than the minimum levels prescribed in present standards and guidelines. One way of providing air of high quality for people to breathe, without involving excessive ventilation rates and energy use, is to provide "personalized...... air" to each individual. The application of this concept is discussed in this paper: (C) 2000 Journal of Mechanical Engineering. All rights reserved....

  4. Good air quality in offices improves productivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fanger, Povl Ole


    Three recent independent studies have documented that the quality of indoor air has a significant and positive influence on the productivity of office workers. A combined analysis of the results of the three studies shows a significant relationship between productivity and perceived indoor air...... quality. The impact on productivity justifies a much higher indoor air quality than the minimum levels prescribed in present standards and guidelines. One way of providing air of high quality for people to breathe, without involving excessive ventilation rates and energy use, is to provide "personalized...... air" to each individual. The application of this concept is discussed....

  5. Regional air pollution over Malaysia (United States)

    Krysztofiak, G.; Catoire, V.; Dorf, M.; Grossmann, K.; Hamer, P. D.; Marécal, V.; Reiter, A.; Schlager, H.; Eckhardt, S.; Jurkat, T.; Oram, D.; Quack, B.; Atlas, E.; Pfeilsticker, K.


    During the SHIVA (Stratospheric Ozone: Halogen Impacts in a Varying Atmosphere) campaign in Nov. and Dec. 2011 a number of polluted air masses were observed in the marine and terrestrial boundary layer (0 - 2 km) and in the free troposphere (2 - 12 km) over Borneo/Malaysia. The measurements include isoprene, CO, CO2, CH4, N2O, NO2, SO2 as primary pollutants, O3 and HCHO as secondary pollutants, and meteorological parameters. This set of trace gases can be used to fingerprint different sources of local and regional air pollution (e.g., biomass burning and fossil fuel burning, gas flaring on oil rigs, emission of ships and from urban areas, volcanic emissions, and biogenic emissions). Individual sources and location can be identified when the measurements are combined with a nested-grid regional scale chemical and meteorological model and lagrangian particle dispersion model (e.g., CCATT-BRAMS and FLEXPART). In the case of the former, emission inventories of the primary pollutants provide the basis for the trace gas simulations. In this region, the anthropogenic influence on air pollution seems to dominate over natural causes. For example, CO2 and CH4 often show strong correlations with CO, suggesting biomass burning or urban fossil fuel combustion dominates the combustion sources. The study of the CO/CO2 and CH4/CO ratios can help separate anthropogenic combustion from biomass burning pollution sources. In addition, these ratios can be used as a measure of combustion efficiency to help place the type of biomass burning particular to this region within the wider context of fire types found globally. On several occasions, CH4 enhancements are observed near the ocean surface, which are not directly correlated with CO enhancements thus indicating a non-combustion-related CH4 source. Positive correlations between SO2 and CO show the anthropogenic influence of oil rigs located in the South China Sea. Furthermore, SO2 enhancements are observed without any increase in CO

  6. Benign positional vertigo (United States)

    Vertigo - positional; Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo; BPPV: dizziness- positional ... Benign positional vertigo is also called benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV). It is caused by a problem in the inner ear. ...

  7. Air-to-Air Missile Vector Scoring (United States)


    64 4.6. Unscented Kalman Filter Performance in Air-to-Air Missile Scor - ing Application with Continuous Velocity Dynamics Model (Tar- get...Filter Performance in Air-to-Air Missile Scor - ing Application with Continuous Velocity Dynamics Model (Tar- get Aircraft Executing a Vertical Climb...Kalman Filter Performance in Air-to-Air Missile Scor - ing Application with Continuous Velocity Dynamics Model (Tar- get Aircraft Non-maneuvering

  8. Indicators of coal metamorphism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Proskuryakov, A.E.


    Important in determining metamorphism of coal is the reliability of indicators of coalification. Both the reflection of vitrinite and emission of volatile matter have been used for this purpose. To determine which indicator more accurately characterizes metamorphism of coal, their conformity to the following demands was established: 1. uniformity in direction of change of parameters with degree of metamorphism; 2. independence of the indicator of the genetic characteristics of coal (petrographic composition, reduction and oxidation of coal); 3. sensitivity of indicator. Both indicators conform to the first requirement. Emission of volatile substance decreases and reflective capacity of vitrinite increases uniformly with degree of metamorphism. However, the reflectivity of vitrinite is not influenced by petrographic composition of coals and is less dependent on the oxidation and reduction of coal than emission of volatile matter. It is also a more sensitive indicator distinguishing more degrees of metamorphism than emission of volatile matter. Reflectivity of vitrinite is a more reliable indicator of metamorphism than emission of volatile matter. However, in many laboratories this indicator is not measured with sufficient accuracy. To correct this, measuring equipment must be standardized.

  9. Indicators of sustainable tourism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovičić Dobrica


    Full Text Available The indicators, precisely describing the linkages between tourism and the environment, social and cultural base, are not easily available. How ever, some relevant organizations (WTO, EU, OECD, etc., institutions and experts, have been hardly working to create the indicators of sustainable tourism. Whereas the economic objectives are easily defined by the use of the traditional indicators used in national and business economics, it is very difficult to identify widely applicable environmental, social and cultural indicators. In order to stimulate and alleviate the process of sustainable tourism development, EU created the list of comparative indicators of sustainable tourism. In preparing this list, special attention is paid to identification of valid indicators of real tourism impacts on the social and cultural environment (the entire set of traditions, customs, history, hospitality and culture that characterize a given area, that is a very complex task. Assuming the fact that the related indicators have been analyzed in many European countries, this paper is focused on applying the related indicators in research of tourism development in villages of the Kosjerić community. .

  10. Key performance indicators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwetsloot, G.I.J.M.


    This paper addresses how organisations can use OSH performance indicators. This is an important way to mainstream OSH into business management. Key performance indicators (KPIs) should provide objective data on the OSH situation. It is often said that ‘what gets measured gets managed’. Without infor

  11. Air-soil exchange of organochlorine pesticides in a sealed chamber

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bing Yang; Baolu Han; Nandong Xue; Lingli Zhou; Fasheng Li


    So far little is known about air-soil exchange under any sealed circumstances (e.g.,in plastic and glass sheds),which however has huge implications for the soil-air-plant pathways of persistent organic pollutants including organochlorine pesticides (OCPs).A newly designed passive air sampler was tested in a sealed chamber for measuring the vertical concentration profiles of gaseous phase OCPs (hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs)).Air was sampled at 5,15,and 30 cm above ground level every 10th day during a 60-day period by deploying polyurethane foam cyhnders housed in acrylonitrile butadiene styrene-covered cartridges.Concentrations and compositions of OCPs along the vertical sections indicated a clear relationship with proximity to the mixture of HCHs and DDTs which escapes from the soils.In addition,significant positive correlations were found between air temperatures and concentrations of HCHs and DDTs.These results indicated revolatilization and re-deposition being at or close to dynamic pseudo-equilibrium with the overlying air.The sampler used for addressing air-soil exchange of persistent organic pollutants in any sealed conditions is discussed.

  12. Air-soil exchange of organochlorine pesticides in a sealed chamber. (United States)

    Yang, Bing; Han, Baolu; Xue, Nandong; Zhou, Lingli; Li, Fasheng


    So far little is known about air-soil exchange under any sealed circumstances (e.g., in plastic and glass sheds), which however has huge implications for the soil-air-plant pathways of persistent organic pollutants including organochlorine pesticides (OCPs). A newly designed passive air sampler was tested in a sealed chamber for measuring the vertical concentration profiles of gaseous phase OCPs (hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs)). Air was sampled at 5, 15, and 30 cm above ground level every 10th day during a 60-day period by deploying polyurethane foam cylinders housed in acrylonitrile butadiene styrene-covered cartridges. Concentrations and compositions of OCPs along the vertical sections indicated a clear relationship with proximity to the mixture of HCHs and DDTs which escapes from the soils. In addition, significant positive correlations were found between air temperatures and concentrations of HCHs and DDTs. These results indicated revolatilization and re-deposition being at or close to dynamic pseudo-equilibrium with the overlying air. The sampler used for addressing air-soil exchange of persistent organic pollutants in any sealed conditions is discussed.

  13. Evaluating Living Standard Indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birčiaková Naďa


    Full Text Available This paper deals with the evaluation of selected available indicators of living standards, divided into three groups, namely economic, environmental, and social. We have selected six countries of the European Union for analysis: Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Hungary, Luxembourg, France, and Great Britain. The aim of this paper is to evaluate indicators measuring living standards and suggest the most important factors which should be included in the final measurement. We have tried to determine what factors influence each indicator and what factors affect living standards. We have chosen regression analysis as our main method. From the study of factors, we can deduce their impact on living standards, and thus the value of indicators of living standards. Indicators with a high degree of reliability include the following factors: size and density of population, health care and spending on education. Emissions of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere also have a certain lower degree of reliability.

  14. VP Ellipsis without Indices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hardt, Daniel; Asher, Nicholas; Hunter, Julie


    This paper compares two views on the status of indices in syntactic and logical representations. On a structural view, indices are syntactic formants on a par with node labels and phrase bracketings, and are thus a part of the logical forms that are derived from syntactic representations....... On the process view, an index is not a syntactic object at all, but rather, an indication of the output of a resolution process.In this paper we argue that a recent body of data provides a clear empirical basis for distinguishing between these two views of indices. We argue that cases of sloppy VP ellipsis pose...... insurmountable problems for the structural view of indices, while these problems do not arise for the process view. Furthermore, we show that this resolution process is constrained by the semantics of various discourse relations....

  15. Pulsed Power Bibliography. Volume 1. Indices. (United States)



  16. A study of air pollutants influencing life expectancy and longevity from spatial perspective in China. (United States)

    Wang, Li; BingganWei; Li, Yonghua; Li, Hairong; Zhang, Fengying; Rosenberg, Mark; Yang, Linsheng; Huang, Jixia; Krafft, Thomas; Wang, Wuyi


    Life expectancy and longevity are influenced by air pollutants and socioeconomic status, but the extend and significance are still unclear. Better understanding how the spatial differences of life expectancy and longevity are affected by air pollutants is needed for generating public health and environmental strategies since the whole of China is now threatened by deteriorated air quality. 85 major city regions were chosen as research areas. Geographically Weighted Regression (GWR) and Stepwise Regression (SR) were used to find the spatial correlations between health indicators and air pollutants, adjusted by per capita GDP(1). The results were, regions with higher life expectancy were mainly located in the east area and areas with good air quality, a regional difference of 10 μg/m(3) in ambient air SO2(2) could cause adjusted 0.28 year's difference in life expectancy, a regional difference of 10 μg/m(3) in ambient air PM10(3) could lead to a longevity ratio difference of 2.23, and per capita GDP was positively associating with life expectancy but not longevity ratio, with a regional difference of 10,000 RMB(4) associating with adjusted 0.49 year's difference in life expectancy. This research also showed the evidences that there exist spatially differences for ambient air PM10 and SO2 influencing life expectancy and longevity in China, and this influences were clearer in south China.

  17. Positive maps, positive polynomials and entanglement witnesses

    CERN Document Server

    Skowronek, Lukasz


    We link the study of positive quantum maps, block positive operators, and entanglement witnesses with problems related to multivariate polynomials. For instance, we show how indecomposable block positive operators relate to biquadratic forms that are not sums of squares. Although the general problem of describing the set of positive maps remains open, in some particular cases we solve the corresponding polynomial inequalities and obtain explicit conditions for positivity.

  18. Positive maps, positive polynomials and entanglement witnesses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skowronek, Lukasz; Zyczkowski, Karol [Institute of Physics, Jagiellonian University, Krakow (Poland)], E-mail:, E-mail:


    We link the study of positive quantum maps, block positive operators and entanglement witnesses with problems related to multivariate polynomials. For instance, we show how indecomposable block positive operators relate to biquadratic forms that are not sums of squares. Although the general problem of describing the set of positive maps remains open, in some particular cases we solve the corresponding polynomial inequalities and obtain explicit conditions for positivity.

  19. The radon indicator (United States)

    Samuelsson, L.


    The radon indicator is an efficient instrument for measuring the radon daughter concentrations in a house or dwelling. Physics or environmental science students could build a radon indicator as a student project. Another possibility would be to use a radon indicator in a student investigation of radon levels in different houses. Finally the radon indicator is an excellent device for producing a radioactive source, free of charge, for the study of α-, β- and γ-radiation. The half-life of the activity collected is approximately 40 min. The radon indicator makes use of an electrostatic method by which charged particles are drawn to a small aluminium plate with a high negative voltage (-5 kV), thus creating a strong electric field between the plate and a surrounding copper wire. The radioactivity on the plate is subsequently measured by a GM-counter and the result calculated in Bq m-3. The collecting time is just 5.5 min and therefore the instrument is only suitable for use in a short-time method for indicating the radon concentration. An improved diagram, ground-radon and/or wall-radon in houses, is presented on the basis of the author's measurements recorded with the radon indicator over many years. This diagram is very useful when discussing how to reduce radiation levels in homes.

  20. Variable volume combustor with an air bypass system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Thomas Edward; Ziminsky, Willy Steve; Ostebee, Heath Michael; Keener, Christopher Paul


    The present application provides a combustor for use with flow of fuel and a flow of air in a gas turbine engine. The combustor may include a number of micro-mixer fuel nozzles positioned within a liner and an air bypass system position about the liner. The air bypass system variably allows a bypass portion of the flow of air to bypass the micro-mixer fuel nozzles.

  1. R9 Air Districts (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Region 9 Air Districts layer is a compilation of polygons representing the California Air Pollution Control and Air Quality Management Districts, Arizona Air...

  2. AirData (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The AirData site provides access to yearly summaries of United States air pollution data, taken from EPA's air pollution databases. AirData has information about...

  3. California Air Basins (United States)

    California Department of Resources — Air ResourcesCalifornia Air Resources BoardThe following datasets are from the California Air Resources Board: * arb_california_airbasins - California Air BasinsThe...

  4. Steerable percussion air drilling system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bui, H.D.; Gray, M.A.; Oliver, M.S.


    In the Steerable Percussion Air Drilling System (SPADS), air percussion is used to drill directionally in hard formations. Compared to mud or air powered PDM motors, SPADS offers directional drilling at high penetration rate, reduced mud costs, negligible formation damage, and immediate indication of hole productivity. Field tests turned up problems ranging from tool design to operation procedures; remedies were developed. There is an optimum WOB (weight on bit) at which torque is reasonably low. The hammer was tested at three different line pressures (200, 300, 350 psig) at optimum WOB in granite, limestone, and sandstone.

  5. Environmental indicators for buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dammann, Sven

    Environmental Indicators for Buildings are studied using two different perspectives: with a technological, environmental scientific departing point and with a social scientific departing point. Different relevant groups in the building sector are identified and analysed, using the Social...

  6. Indicators and SEA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gao, Jingjing; Kørnøv, Lone; Christensen, Per

    Abstract: Indicators are widely used in SEA to measure, communicate and monitor impacts from a proposed policy, plan or programme, and can improve the effectiveness for the SEA by simplifying the complexity of both assessment and presentation. Indicators can be seen as part of the implementation...... process helping to understand, communicate and, integrate important environmental issues in planning and decision-making. On the other hand, use of indicators can also limit SEA effectiveness, if the ones chosen are biased or limited, if the aggregation gives incorrect interpretation...... and if the information requirement for different target groups is not addressed. Indicators are widely used in SEA to measure, communicate and monitor impacts from a proposed policy, plan or programme, and can improve the effectiveness for the SEA by simplifying the complexity of both assessment and presentation...

  7. NOHSS Adult Indicators (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1999, 2002-2014 (even years). Data from BRFSS for indicators of adult oral health for 1999 and even years from 2002 through 2014. National estimates are represented...

  8. Solar Indices Bulletin (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Solar Indices Bulletin is a prompt monthly information product that is distributed within two weeks after the observation month closes. For the month just ended,...

  9. Solar Indices - Solar Corona (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Collection includes a variety of indices related to solar activity contributed by a number of national and private solar observatories located worldwide. This...

  10. NOHSS Child Indicators (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Data for School year-end 1994 through year-end 2016. State oral health surveys are the data sources for these indicators. States periodically conduct independent...

  11. NOHSS Adult Indicators (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 2012-2014 (even years). Data from BRFSS for indicators of adult oral health for even years from 2012 through 2014. National estimates are represented by the median...

  12. Fishery Performance Indicators (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Performance indicators for landings, effort, revenue and distribution of revenue are collected for various fisheries nation-wide. The fisheries include catch and...

  13. Solar Indices - Solar Flares (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Collection includes a variety of indices related to solar activity contributed by a number of national and private solar observatories located worldwide. This...

  14. Solar Indices - Sunspot Numbers (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Collection includes a variety of indices related to solar activity contributed by a number of national and private solar observatories located worldwide. This...

  15. Solar Indices - Plage Regions (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Collection includes a variety of indices related to solar activity contributed by a number of national and private solar observatories located worldwide. This...

  16. Solar Indices - Solar Irradiance (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Collection includes a variety of indices related to solar activity contributed by a number of national and private solar observatories located worldwide. This...

  17. Solar Indices - Solar Ultraviolet (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Collection includes a variety of indices related to solar activity contributed by a number of national and private solar observatories located worldwide. This...

  18. ENSO Indices and Analyses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Zhiren; WU Dexing; CHEN Xue'en; QIAO Ran


    New ENSO indices were developed and the spatial variability and temporal evolution of ENSO were analyzed based on the new indices and modeling experiments,as well as multiple data resources.The new indices,after being defined,were validated with their good diagnostic characteristics and correlation with wind and SST.In the analysis after the definition and validation of the new indices,ENSO feedbacks from wind,heat fluxes,and precipitation were spatially and temporally examined in order to understand ENSO variability and evolution with some emphasized points such as the interaction among the feedbacks,the role of westerly wind bursts and the transformation between zonal and meridional circulations in an ENSO cycle,and the typical pattern of modern ENSO.

  19. Estabilidad, morfología y rugosidad de agregados de argiudoles típicos sometidos a distintos usos: su rol como indicadores de calidad física en suelos de la provincia de Buenos Aires, Argentina Stability, morphology and roughness of aggregates of typical argiudolls under diferent types of land uses: their role as indicators of soils physical quality in Buenos Aires province, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Fernanda Alvarez


    Full Text Available En los últimos diez años se observó un importante cambio en el uso de la tierra en la llanura pampeana, lo cual ha llevado a una marcada degradación de los suelos. El objetivo del trabajo fue evaluar la estabilidad, la morfología y la rugosidad de distintos tamaños de agregados como indicadores de calidad en Argiudoles Típicos del sudeste bonaerense sometidos a distintos usos de suelo y a distintas intensidades de manejo. Se trabajó con el epipedón mólico de parcelas con distinto uso de suelo: cultivadas, forestadas y naturales. Los resultados mostraron mayor estabilidad en los suelos no laboreados y en los forestados de más de treinta años. En los sitios cultivados y forestados se observaron agregados alargados, cuadrangulares y esféricos, mientras que en los sitios sin laboreo no se presentaron las formas esféricas. La rugosidad de los agregados fue mayor en los suelos sin laboreo, si bien ello varió con el tamaño de los agregados. La estabilidad, morfología y rugosidad de agregados demostraron ser buenos indicadores de calidad de suelos del SE bonaerense.During the last ten years, an important land use change took place in the Pampas region of Argentina. This change led to a significant soil degradation. This work aims to evaluate the stability, morphology and roughness of soil aggregates in soils under different land uses. The values found for each land use could serve as soil quality indicators in southeastern Buenos Aires. Samples were taken from mollic epipedons under cultivated, forest and natural soils. Results showed higher aggregate stability in virgin and forest soils than in cultivated soils. Aggregates were elongated, quadrangular and spherical in cultivated and forest soils. Aggregates from non-cultivated soils did not show the expected spherical forms; they also presented a high roughness although it varied across the different aggregate sizes. Soil aggregate stability, morphology and roughness were suitable

  20. Measuring Concentrations of Particulate 140La in the Air

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okada, Colin E.; Kernan, Warnick J.; Keillor, Martin E.; Kirkham, Randy R.; Sorom, Rich D.; Van Etten, Don M.


    Air sampling systems were deployed to measure the concentration of radioactive material in the air during the Full-Scale Radiological Dispersal Device experiments. The air samplers were positioned 100-600 meters downwind of the release point. The filters were collected immediately and analyzed in the field. Quantities for total activity collected on the air filters are reported along with additional information to compute the average or integrated air concentrations.

  1. Air Warfare (United States)


    undoubtedly begat the shield; poisonous gases were countered by the mask. Surely men on the surface of the earth will not have to submit to violent air, production methods and cost of helium are given in “Balloon and Airship Gases ,” a volume of the Ronald Aeronautic Library. 5 More complete...becomes and more inse - cure. We shall see later that even some of the men who were advancing in the path prescribed by the principle of mass

  2. Design Fabrication And Partial-Analysis Of A 2-Wheeler Prototype That Runs On Compressed Air

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Vinay


    Full Text Available Abstract The primary objective of the project is to create a prototype of a purely air powered motorcycle by retrofitting its internal combustion engine to run on compressed air. Firstly the conventional spark plug was replaced with a solenoid valve. The solenoid valve was initially actuated using a reed switch and magnet duo but then later replaced with an optical crank position sensor circuit due to reasons that include lack of control over the amount of air injected during each stroke and also for more precise control over the opening and closing of the valve. The torque brake power indicated power air consumption rate of the engine under load are calculated. Separate mounts for the modified engine and the cylindrical storage unit are designed and analysed using Catia v4. Also possible ways of future scope of the prototype are mentioned.

  3. Navicular bone position determined by positional MRI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Philip; Johannsen, Finn E; Hangaard, Stine


    OBJECTIVE: To examine intraobserver, interobserver and between-day reproducibility of positional MRI for evaluation of navicular bone height (NVH) and medial navicular position (MNP). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Positional MRI (pMRI) of the foot was performed on ten healthy participants (0.25 T G......: Navicular height and medial navicular position can be measured by pMRI in a very reproducible manner within and between observers. Increased measurement variation is observed between-days in supine position, which may be due to small positional differences or other unknown biomechanical factors....

  4. Publication point indicators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elleby, Anita; Ingwersen, Peter


    with novel publication point indicators (PPIs) that are formalized and exemplified. Two diachronic citation windows are applied: 2006-07 and 2006-08. Web of Science (WoS) as well as Google Scholar (GS) are applied to observe the cite delay and citedness for the different document types published by DIIS......The paper presents comparative analyses of two publication point systems, The Norwegian and the in-house system from the interdiscplinary Danish Institute for International Studies (DIIS), used as case in the study for publications published 2006, and compares central citation-based indicators......; the Cumulated Publication Point Indicator (CPPI), which graphically illustrates the cumulated gain of obtained vs. ideal points, both seen as vectors; and the normalized Cumulated Publication Point Index (nCPPI) that represents the cumulated gain of publication success as index values, either graphically...

  5. The State of Ambient Air Quality of Jeddah, Saudi Arabia (United States)

    Hussain, M. M.; Aburizaiza, O. S.; Khwaja, H. A.; Siddique, A.; Nayebare, S. R.; Zeb, J.; Blake, D. R.


    Ambient air pollution in major cities of Saudi Arabia is a substantial environmental and health concern. A study was undertaken to assess the air quality of Jeddah, Saudi Arabia by the analysis of respirable particulate matter (PM2.5), black carbon (BC), trace metals (Na, Mg, Al, Si, S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Br, Sr, Cd, Sb, and Pb), and water-soluble ions (F-, Cl-, NO3-, SO42-, C2O42-, and NH42+). Sulfur and BC mass concentration ranged 0.99 - 7.39 μg/m3 and 0.70 - 3.09 μg/m3, respectively, while the PM2.5 mass concentration ranged 23 - 186 μg/m3. Maximum BC contribution to PM2.5 was 5.6%. Atmospheric PM2.5 concentrations were well above the 24 h WHO guideline of 20 μg/m3. Air Quality Index (AQI) indicates that there were 8% days of moderate air quality, 28% days of unhealthy air quality for sensitive groups, 55% days of unhealthy air quality, and 9% days of very unhealthy air quality during the study period. Sulfate SO42- dominated the identifiable components. The major contributors to PM2.5 were soil and crustal material; vehicle emissions (black carbon factor); and fuel oil combustion in industries (sulfur factor), according to the Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF). This study highlights the importance of focusing control strategies not only on reducing PM concentration, but also on the reduction of toxic components of the PM, to most effectively protect human health and the environment.

  6. Air Leakage and Air Transfer Between Garage and Living Space

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudd, A.


    This research project focused on evaluation of air transfer between the garage and living space in a single-family detached home constructed by a production homebuilder in compliance with the 2009 International Residential Code and the 2009 International Energy Conservation Code. The project gathered important information about the performance of whole-building ventilation systems and garage ventilation systems as they relate to minimizing flow of contaminated air from garage to living space. A series of 25 multi-point fan pressurization tests and additional zone pressure diagnostic testing characterized the garage and house air leakage, the garage-to-house air leakage, and garage and house pressure relationships to each other and to outdoors using automated fan pressurization and pressure monitoring techniques. While the relative characteristics of this house may not represent the entire population of new construction configurations and air tightness levels (house and garage) throughout the country, the technical approach was conservative and should reasonably extend the usefulness of the results to a large spectrum of house configurations from this set of parametric tests in this one house. Based on the results of this testing, the two-step garage-to-house air leakage test protocol described above is recommended where whole-house exhaust ventilation is employed. For houses employing whole-house supply ventilation (positive pressure) or balanced ventilation (same pressure effect as the Baseline condition), adherence to the EPA Indoor airPLUS house-to-garage air sealing requirements should be sufficient to expect little to no garage-to-house air transfer.

  7. Air Surface Temperature Correlation with Greenhouse Gases by Using Airs Data Over Peninsular Malaysia (United States)

    Rajab, Jasim Mohammed; MatJafri, M. Z.; Lim, H. S.


    The main objective of this study is to develop algorithms for calculating the air surface temperature (AST). This study also aims to analyze and investigate the effects of greenhouse gases (GHGs) on the AST value in Peninsular Malaysia. Multiple linear regression is used to achieve the objectives of the study. Peninsular Malaysia has been selected as the research area because it is among the regions of tropical Southeast Asia with the greatest humidity, pockets of heavy pollution, rapid economic growth, and industrialization. The predicted AST was highly correlated ( R = 0.783) with GHGs for the 6-year data (2003-2008). Comparisons of five stations in 2009 showed close agreement between the predicted AST and the observed AST from AIRS, especially in the wet season (within 1.3 K). The in situ data ranged from 1 to 2 K. Validation results showed that AST ( R = 0.776-0.878) has values nearly the same as the observed AST from AIRS. We found that O3 during the wet season was indicated by a strongly positive beta coefficient (0.264-0.992) with AST. The CO2 yields a reasonable relationship with temperature with low to moderate beta coefficient (-0.065 to 0.238). The O3, CO2, and environmental variables experienced different seasonal fluctuations that depend on weather conditions and topography. The concentration of gases and pollution were the highest over industrial zones and overcrowded cities, and the dry season was more polluted compared with the wet season. These results indicate the advantage of using the satellite AIRS data and a correlation analysis to investigate the effect of atmospheric GHGs on AST over Peninsular Malaysia. An algorithm that is capable of retrieving Peninsular Malaysian AST in all weather conditions with total uncertainties ranging from 1 to 2 K was developed.

  8. Indicators for energy security

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruyt, B.; van Vuuren, D.P.; de Vries, H.J.M.; Groenenberg, H.


    The concept of energy security is widely used, yet there is no consensus on its precise interpretation. In this research, we have provided an overview of available indicators for long-term security of supply (SOS). We distinguished four dimensions of energy security that relate to the availability,

  9. "Healthy" Human Development Indices (United States)

    Engineer, Merwan; Roy, Nilanjana; Fink, Sari


    In the Human Development Index (HDI), life expectancy is the only indicator used in modeling the dimension "a long and healthy life". Whereas life expectancy is a direct measure of quantity of life, it is only an indirect measure of healthy years lived. In this paper we attempt to remedy this omission by introducing into the HDI the morbidity…

  10. Publication point indicators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elleby, Anita; Ingwersen, Peter


    with novel publication point indicators (PPIs) that are formalized and exemplified. Two diachronic citation windows are applied: 2006-07 and 2006-08. Web of Science (WoS) as well as Google Scholar (GS) are applied to observe the cite delay and citedness for the different document types published by DIIS...

  11. Maslov indices and monodromy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dullin, H.R.; Robbins, J.M.; Waalkens, H.; Creagh, S.C.; Tanner, G.


    We prove that for a Hamiltonian system on a cotangent bundle that is Liouville-integrable and has monodromy the vector of Maslov indices is an eigenvector of the monodromy matrix with eigenvalue 1. As a corollary, the resulting restrictions on the monodromy matrix are derived.

  12. Pain indicators in newborns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spasojević Slobodan


    Full Text Available Definition of pain. The International Association for the Study of Pain has defined pain as "an unpleasant sensory and emotional experience associated with actual or potential tissue damage or described in terms of such damage." The interpretation of pain is subjective. Each person forms an internal construct of pain through encountered injury. Pain and newborn. The issue of pain perception in newborns, its management and prevention has been neglected for decades. The inability of "self-report" of painful experience has contributed significantly to misunderstanding of the importance of this problem and in­adequate treatment. The main characteristic of this 'critical window of brain development' period is rapid enlargement of brain volume and its great plasticity. Harmful short-term and long-term consequences can arise as a consequence of disturbance of the sophisticated balance between newborn and its surrounding. Neonatal pain indicators. As a response to a present painful stimulus, the newborn adapts to this acute stress with changes in endocrine, vegetative, immune and behavioral area. An ideal pain indicator in neonatal period does not exist. There are several different groups o them, namely contextual and developmental indicators (gestational age, contributed illness, medication, for example, physiological (heart rate, vagal tone, breathing rate, blood pressure, oxygen saturation, transcutaneous partial pressures of oxygen and carbon-dioxide, intracranial pressure, palm sweating and behavioral ones (face expression, movements of limbs, cry, several neonatal pain scales were constructed on the basis of these indicators. .

  13. The logarithmic hypervolume indicator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friedrich, Tobias; Bringmann, Karl; Voß, Thomas;


    It was recently proven that sets of points maximizing the hypervolume indicator do not give a good multiplicative approximation of the Pareto front. We introduce a new “logarithmic hypervolume indicator” and prove that it achieves a close-to-optimal multiplicative approximation ratio. This is exp...

  14. Environmental health indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Posada de la Paz


    Full Text Available This presentation gives a general overview of the project titled Environmental Health Indicators, coordinated by WHO and managed by the Research Centre on the Toxic Oil Syndrome and Rare Diseases in Spain. The presentations describes the objectives of the project, the steps taken and the results obtained during the feasibility study. The project aims to develop an environmental health information system that will allow the monitoring of public health and its health determinants and make international comparisons, develop environmental policies and facilitate communication with citizens. WHO developed a methodology for the development of these indicators within the conceptual framework of DPSEEA (Driving Force, Pressure, State, Exposure, Effect, Action and selected a total of 55 indicators (which included 168 variables in 10 environmental health areas. The feasibility study predicted the successful gathering of 89% of the indicators. However, data recollection proved difficult due to the frequent incompatibility of some variables in the Spanish information systems with the WHO defined variables. On a management level, the greatest difficulty arose from the disperse distribution of responsibilities in environmental health matters. In addition to the technical contribution of this project to Environmental Health in Spain, an added value has been to establish a close collaboration with the different Ministries involved.

  15. Public Health Indicators for Europe: Context, Selection, Definition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kramers PGN; ECHI (European Community Health Indicators); ECHI team; VTV


    This ECHI-2 report (ECHI = European Community Health Indicators) presents a list of indicators in the field of public health. The indicators range from health status (e.g. cancer incidence) through health determinants (e.g. nutrition, air pollution) to preventive actions and health care systems. The

  16. National Climate Assessment Indicators: Background, Development, & Examples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janetos, Anthony C.; Chen, Robert; Arndt, Deke; Kenney, Melissa A.; Abbasi, Daniel; Armstrong, Tom; Bartuska, Ann; Blair, Maria; Buizer, Jim; Dietz, Tom; Easterling, Dave; Kaye, Jack; Kolian, Michael; McGeehin, Michael; O' Connor, Robert; Pulwarty, Roger; Running, Steve; Schmalensee, Dick; Webb, Robert; Weltzin, Jake; Baptista, Sandra; Enquist, Carolyn A.; Janetos, Anthony C.; Chen, Robert; Arndt, Deke; Hatfield, Jerry; Hayes, Mark L.; Jones, K. Burce; McNutt, Chad; Meier, Wayne R.; Schwartz, Mark D.; Svoboda, Mark


    Indicators are usually thought of as measurements or calculations that represent important features of the status, trend, or performance of a system of interest (e.g. the economy, agriculture, air quality). They are often used for the most practical of reasons – one cannot measure everything important about systems of interest, so there is a practical need to identify major features that can be reported periodically and used to guide both research and decisions (NRC 2000).

  17. Residential market transformation: National and regional indicators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Wie McGrory, Laura L.; McNamara, Maureen; Suozzo, Margaret


    A variety of programs are underway to address market barriers to the adoption of energy-efficient residential technologies and practices. Most are administered by utilities, states, or regions that rely on the Energy Star as a consistent platform for program marketing and messaging. This paper reviews regional and national market transformation activities for three key residential end-uses -- air conditioning, clothes washing, and lighting -- characterizing current and ongoing programs; reporting on progress; identifying market indicators; and discussing implications.

  18. Simplicial Indicator Kriging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    R Tolosana-Delgado; V Pawlowsky-Glahn; J J Egozcue


    Indicator kriging (IK) is a spatial interpolation technique devised for estimating a conditional cumulative distribution function at an unsampled location. The result is a discrete approximation, and its corresponding estimated probability density function can be viewed as a composition in the simplex. This fact suggested a compositional approach to IK which, by construction, avoids all its standard drawbacks (negative predictions, not-ordered or larger than one). Here, a simple algorithm to develop the procedure is presented.

  19. Indicators of Ecological Change (United States)


    Wang et al. (2003) and earlier those of Chapra and Di Toro (1991). Wang et al. (2003) termed their approach the extreme value method and used it to...Thesis, Auburn University, Auburn, AL. 210 pp. Chapra , S. C., Di Toro, D. M., 1991. Delta method for estimating primary production, respiration, and...characteristics, The challenge in using ecological indicators is determining which of the numerous measures of ecological systems best characterize

  20. GRB as luminosity indicator

    CERN Document Server

    Basak, Rupal


    Gamma Ray Bursts (GRBs) are found at much higher redshifts (z>6) than Supernova Ia (z~1), and hence, they can be used to probe very primitive universe. However, radiation mechanism of GRB remains a puzzle, unlike Supernova Ia. Through comprehensive description, both empirical and physical, we shall discuss the most likely way to use the constituent pulses of a GRB to find the radiation mechanism as well as using the pulses as luminosity indicators.

  1. Indicators for Knowledge Economy



    The Lisbon European Council conclusion was that in 2010 Europe will become 'the most competitive and dynamic knowledge-based economy in the world, capable of sustained economic growth with more and better jobs and greater social cohesion'. The knowledge economy concept is a part of modern society. This paper examines the knowledge economy concept and indicators for measuring the performance of the knowledge economy

  2. Positive clinical neuroscience: explorations in positive neurology. (United States)

    Kapur, Narinder; Cole, Jonathan; Manly, Tom; Viskontas, Indre; Ninteman, Aafke; Hasher, Lynn; Pascual-Leone, Alvaro


    Disorders of the brain and its sensory organs have traditionally been associated with deficits in movement, perception, cognition, emotion, and behavior. It is increasingly evident, however, that positive phenomena may also occur in such conditions, with implications for the individual, science, medicine, and for society. This article provides a selective review of such positive phenomena--enhanced function after brain lesions, better-than-normal performance in people with sensory loss, creativity associated with neurological disease, and enhanced performance associated with aging. We propose that, akin to the well-established field of positive psychology and the emerging field of positive clinical psychology, the nascent fields of positive neurology and positive neuropsychology offer new avenues to understand brain-behavior relationships, with both theoretical and therapeutic implications.

  3. Air filtration and indoor air quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bekö, Gabriel


    decent ventilation and air cleaning/air filtration, high indoor air quality cannot be accomplished. The need for effective air filtration has increased with increasing evidence on the hazardous effects of fine particles. Moreover, the air contains gaseous pollutants, removal of which requires various air....... These contradictions should motivate manufacturers and researchers to develop new efficient filtration techniques and/or improve the existing ones. Development of low polluting filtration techniques, which are at the same time easy and inexpensive to maintain is the way forward in the future....

  4. Ambient air quality monitoring during the H1N1 influence period in Pune (India). (United States)

    Pathak, M; Deshpande, A; Mirashe, P K; Sorte, R B; Ojha, A


    Ambient air quality in an urban area is directly linked with activity level in the city including transport, business and industrial activities. Maharashtra Pollution Control Board (MPCB) has established an ambient air quality network in the city including state-of-the-art continuous air quality monitoring stations which indicate short duration air quality variations for criteria and non-criteria pollutants. The influence of H1N1 outbreak in Pune hitting its worst pandemic condition, led the civic authorities to implement stringent isolation measures including closure of schools, colleges, business malls, cinema halls, etc. Additionally, the fear of such a pandemic brought the city to a stand still. It was therefore necessary to assess the impacts of such activity level on ambient air quality in the city. It has been observed that such events have positive impacts on air quality of the city. There was a decrease in PM concentration almost to the tune of 30 to 40% if the impacts of precipitation, i.e. seasonal variations, are taken into account. Similarly, the non criteria pollutants too showed a marked but unusual decrease in their concentrations in this ever growing city. The influence of these in turn led to lowered concentrations of secondary pollutants, i.e. O3. Overall, the ambient air quality of Pune was found to be improved during the study period.

  5. Positive Psychology: Positive Emotions and Emotional Intelegence



    The paper focuses on the and emotional intelligence. We try to answer on some questions regarding the role which positive emotions have in our life’s. The broaden-and-build theory (Fredrickson, 1998; 2001) predicts that positive emotions are useful in several ways. They guide present behavior, by broadening one’s attention and cognition, setting the stage for creative, explorative, and innovative pursuits. As well, positive emotions build personal and social resources to help individuals achi...

  6. The Influence of Blood Coagulation and Physiology Function of high Positive end Expiratory Pressure Indication of Mechanical Ventilation on Patients with Neurogenic Pulmonary Edema%高呼气末正压机械通气对神经源性肺水肿患者凝血功能及生理指征的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏琳娟; 周青山


    Objective To analyze the influence of blood coagulation and physiology function of high positive end expiratory pressure indication of mechanical ventilation on patients with neurogenic pulmonary edema .Methods 100 cases of neurogenic pulmonary edema patients were admitted in our hospital from May 2011~May 2014 as the research object , according to different PEEP ( high positive end expiratory pressure ) were divided into two groups ,PEEP in control group was 3~10 cmH2 O,PEEP in observation in group was 11~30 cmH2O,compared physiological indications (such as heart rate,respiratory frequency,blood pressure, body temperature ) ,coagulation function ,blood gas analysis and 1 months survival rate index of two groups be-fore and after treatment in patients.Results In the observation group after treatment ,GOS score,II score, HR,APACHE,MAP,RR,temperature were significantly better than control group (P<0.05).The two groups after treatment,PT[(15.0 ±2.2)VS(20.5 ±2.1)]s,aPTT[(37.2 ±5.0)VS(56.8 ±13.5)]s,Fbg[(3.3 ±1.1)VS(3.8 ±1.4)]g/L,differences were significant(P<0.05).In addition,the 1 months survival rate in observation group of 76%,was significantly lower than that in control group of 36%,difference was statisti-cally significant ( P<0.05 ) .Conclusion High positive end expiratory pressure ventilation can effectively improve the neurogenic pulmonary edema in patients with syndrome and blood coagulation function in physio -logical means,improve the survival rate of patients ,has the value of clinical promotion and research .%目的分析高呼气末正压机械通气对神经源性肺水肿患者凝血功能及生理指征的影响。方法以我院2011年5月~2014年5月收治的100例神经源性肺水肿患者为研究对象,根据不同PEEP (高呼气末正压通气)将其分为两组,对照组PEEP为3~10 cmH2 O,观察组PEEP为11~30 cmH2 O,比较两组患者治疗前后生理指征(如心率、呼吸频率、血压、体温)、

  7. Impact of AIRS Thermodynamic Profile on Regional Weather Forecast (United States)

    Chou, Shih-Hung; Zavodsky, Brad; Jedlovee, Gary


    Prudent assimilation of AIRS thermodynamic profiles and quality indicators can improve initial conditions for regional weather models. AIRS-enhanced analysis has warmer and moister PBL. Forecasts with AIRS profiles are generally closer to NAM analyses than CNTL. Assimilation of AIRS leads to an overall QPF improvement in 6-h accumulated precipitation forecasts. Including AIRS profiles in assimilation process enhances the moist instability and produces stronger updrafts and a better precipitation forecast than the CNTL run.

  8. Semi-analytical modelling of positive corona discharge in air (United States)

    Pontiga, Francisco; Yanallah, Khelifa; Chen, Junhong


    Semianalytical approximate solutions of the spatial distribution of electric field and electron and ion densities have been obtained by solving Poisson's equations and the continuity equations for the charged species along the Laplacian field lines. The need to iterate for the correct value of space charge on the corona electrode has been eliminated by using the corona current distribution over the grounded plane derived by Deutsch, which predicts a cos m θ law similar to Warburg's law. Based on the results of the approximated model, a parametric study of the influence of gas pressure, the corona wire radius, and the inter-electrode wire-plate separation has been carried out. Also, the approximate solutions of the electron number density has been combined with a simplified plasma chemistry model in order to compute the ozone density generated by the corona discharge in the presence of a gas flow. This work was supported by the Consejeria de Innovacion, Ciencia y Empresa (Junta de Andalucia) and by the Ministerio de Ciencia e Innovacion, Spain, within the European Regional Development Fund contracts FQM-4983 and FIS2011-25161.

  9. Air pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    Air pollution conditions in Iwakuni city were monitored at 9 monitoring stations, and 21 locations where sulfur oxides were measured by the lead peroxide candle method, and 13 locations where particulates concentrations were determined by the deposit cage method. The average SO/sub x/ concentrations in 1973 measured by the lead peroxide candle method ranged from 0.17 mg sulfur trioxide/day/100 sq cm at the Miso Office to 0.58 mg SO/sub 3//day/100 sq cm at Mitsui Sekiyu Shataku. The average SO/sub x/ concentrations measured by the conductivity method ranged from 0.021 ppM at Kazuki Kominkan to 0.037 ppM at the Higashi Fire Department. Only 58% of a total of 264 measurement days gave hourly average concentrations below the environmental standard of 0.04 ppM at the Higashi Fire Deparment. The average airborne particulate concentrations ranged from 0.050 mg/cu m at Totsu Kominkan to 0.056 mg/cu at the Higashi Fire Department. The average nitrogen oxides concentrations measured by the Saltzman method ranged from 0.007 ppM to 0.061 ppM. The average oxidant concentrations at the Iwakuni Municipal Office and Kazuki Kominkan were 0.028 ppM and 0.037 ppM, respectively.

  10. Acute management of vascular air embolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaikh Nissar


    Full Text Available Vascular air embolism (VAE is known since early nineteenth century. It is the entrainment of air or gas from operative field or other communications into the venous or arterial vasculature. Exact incidence of VAE is difficult to estimate. High risk surgeries for VAE are sitting position and posterior fossa neurosurgeries, cesarean section, laparoscopic, orthopedic, surgeries invasive procedures, pulmonary overpressure syndrome, and decompression syndrome. Risk factors for VAE are operative site 5 cm  above the heart, creation of pressure gradient which will facilitate entry of air into the circulation, orogenital sex during pregnancy, rapid ascent in scuba (self contained underwater breathing apparatus divers and barotrauma or chest trauma. Large bolus of air can lead to right ventricular air lock and immediate fatality. In up to 35% patient, the foramen ovale is patent which can cause paradoxical arterial air embolism. VAE affects cardiovascular, pulmonary and central nervous system. High index of clinical suspicion is must to diagnose VAE. The transesophgeal echocardiography is the most sensitive device which will detect smallest amount of air in the circulation. Treatment of VAE is to prevent further entrainment of air, reduce the volume of air entrained and haemodynamic support. Mortality of VAE ranges from 48 to 80%. VAE can be prevented significantly by proper positioning during surgery, optimal hydration, avoiding use of nitrous oxide, meticulous care during insertion, removal of central venous catheter, proper guidance, and training of scuba divers.

  11. Benign positional vertigo - aftercare (United States)

    Vertigo - positional - aftercare; Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo - aftercare; BPPV - aftercare; Dizziness - positional vertigo ... Your health care provider may have treated your vertigo with the Epley maneuver . These are head movements ...

  12. Want Positive Behavior? Use Positive Language (United States)

    Wood, Chip; Freeman-Loftis, Babs


    Positive adult language is the professional use of words and tone of voice to enable students to learn in an engaged, active way. This includes learning social skills. To guide children toward choosing and maintaining positive behaviors, adults need to carefully choose the words and tone of voice used when speaking to them. Learning to use…

  13. Positive Education: Positive Psychology and Classroom Interventions (United States)

    Seligman, Martin E. P.; Ernst, Randal M.; Gillham, Jane; Reivich, Karen; Linkins, Mark


    Positive education is defined as education for both traditional skills and for happiness. The high prevalence worldwide of depression among young people, the small rise in life satisfaction, and the synergy between learning and positive emotion all argue that the skills for happiness should be taught in school. There is substantial evidence from…

  14. [Psychodiagnostic factors of indication for abortion]. (United States)

    Blaser, A; Hodel, J


    The psychodiagnostic indication for abortion was investigated by means of the MMPI in 251 women with unwanted pregnancy. The results showed: 1. that, independently of the MMPI, positive indications exhibited more obvious psychopathological distrubance than the negative indications; 2. that women with negative indications where in some ways psychologically different from women with wanted pregnancy; 3. that after abortion women with positive indication no longer differed from a group of women with wanted pregnancy, so that the former could be identified as psychologically well adjusted; and 4. comparison between women with unwanted pregnancy and a group of neurotic women showed that both groups are phenomenologically very similar although women with unwanted pregnancy should be diagnosed as "reactive". The results are presented without comment as a basis for the medical and political debate now in progress.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available In a world of globalization generating geographical concentration, relocation of activities, thus inducing territorial disparities, territorial cohesion has become a prerequisite for achieving sustainable economic growth and implementing social and economic cohesion. The ratification of Lisbon Treaty represents the moment when “Territorial Cohesion” has been added as an official policy aim of the EU to its previous aims of economic and social cohesion. Thus, the process of defining this concept of “Territorial Cohesion” has become the task of the Commission and EU Member States. Based on a literature review, the paper describes, in the first section, the polysemantic nature of territorial cohesion. The main objective of the next section is to address the main indicators, directly related to territorial objectives, that could be used to support policy makers in measuring and monitoring territorial cohesion related to European territorial development.

  16. Teriparatide - Indications beyond osteoporosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilyn Lee Cheng


    Full Text Available Osteoporosis is a condition of impaired bone strength that results in an increased risk of fracture. The current and most popular pharmacological options for the treatment of osteoporosis include antiresorptive therapy, in particular, oral bisphosphonates (alendronate, risedronate, ibandronate. Anabolic agents like teriparatide have widened our therapeutic options. They act by directly stimulating bone formation and improving bone mass quantity and quality. Two forms of recombinant human parathyroid hormone (PTH are available : full-length PTH (PTH 1-84; approved in the EU only and the 1-34 N-terminal active fragment of PTH (teriparatide, US FDA approved. This review aims to discuss the benefits of teriparatide beyond the currently licensed indications like fracture healing, dental stability, osteonecrosis of jaw, hypoparathyroidism, and hypocalcemia.

  17. Air Sensor Toolbox (United States)

    Air Sensor Toolbox provides information to citizen scientists, researchers and developers interested in learning more about new lower-cost compact air sensor technologies and tools for measuring air quality.

  18. HEPA air filter (image) (United States)

    ... pet dander and other irritating allergens from the air. Along with other methods to reduce allergens, such ... controlling the amount of allergens circulating in the air. HEPA filters can be found in most air ...

  19. GSPEL - Air Filtration Laboratory (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Evaluation capabilities for air filtration devicesThe Air Filtration Lab provides testing of air filtration devices to demonstrate and validate new or legacy system...

  20. Lead (Pb) Air Pollution (United States)

    ... States Environmental Protection Agency Search Search Lead (Pb) Air Pollution Share Facebook Twitter Google+ Pinterest Contact Us As ... and protect aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. Lead (Pb) Air Pollution Lead Air Pollution Basics How does lead get ...

  1. AirPEx: Air Pollution Exposure Model


    Freijer JI; Bloemen HJTh; de Loos S; Marra M; Rombout PJA; Steentjes GM; Veen MP van; LBO


    Analysis of inhalatory exposure to air pollution is an important area of investigation when assessing the risks of air pollution for human health. Inhalatory exposure research focuses on the exposure of humans to air pollutants and the entry of these pollutants into the human respiratory tract. The principal grounds for studying the inhalatory exposure of humans to air pollutants are formed by the need for realistic exposure/dose estimates to evaluate the health effects of these pollutants. T...

  2. A Longitudinal Study of Myers-Briggs Personality Types in Air Traffic Controllers (United States)


    designed to look at the role of personality types as defined by the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator ( MBTI ). The instrument assesses personality on four...investigated the relationship between MBTI types and initial success in the Air Traffic Control Academy Screen Program, subsequent field training...outcomes, and transition to a supervisory or managerial position about 20 years later. METHOD. The 300-item MBTI was administered to 5,588 males (87

  3. AirPEx: Air Pollution Exposure Model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Freijer JI; Bloemen HJTh; Loos S de; Marra M; Rombout PJA; Steentjes GM; Veen MP van; LBO


    Analysis of inhalatory exposure to air pollution is an important area of investigation when assessing the risks of air pollution for human health. Inhalatory exposure research focuses on the exposure of humans to air pollutants and the entry of these pollutants into the human respiratory tract. The

  4. Air Pollution Monitoring | Air Quality Planning & Standards ... (United States)


    The basic mission of the Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards is to preserve and improve the quality of our nation's air. To accomplish this, OAQPS must be able to evaluate the status of the atmosphere as compared to clean air standards and historical information.

  5. Air quality in Ain Shams University Surgery Hospital. (United States)

    El Awady, M Y; El Rahman, A T Abd; Al Bagoury, L S; Mossad, I M


    Through air sampling, it was possible to evaluate microbial contamination in environments at high risk of infection, and to check the efficiency of ventilation system and the medical team's hygiene procedures. This study measured the concentration of particulate matter (PM) 2.5 or less microns and microbiological organisms in operating rooms (OR), intensive care units (ICU) and emergency rooms (ER) in Ain Shams University Surgery Hospital, and to assess ventilation characteristics in operating rooms in the hospital. The passive air sampling was done from ICUs, ORs, and ERs in Ain Shams University Surgery Hospital. Also for each operating room, an observational checklist was done to record other factors that may affect air quality in the room. The evaluated air quality indices were: suspended (PM) 2.5 micrometer or less, culture media and microbial identification of bacteria and fungi, and temperature and relative humidity. The results showed that the highest mean found for bacterial (105.70±30.49) and fungi concentration (7.50±5.30) was in ER. The three settings did not differ statistically as regard levels of PM 2.5, temperature, and relative humidity. A positive correlation exits between bacteria and fungi concentration on one hand and relative humidity on the other. Diphteroid, CONS, MRSA, S. aureus, and Anthracoid were the most frequent isolated bacterial types, while Penicillium and Asperigillus fumigatus were the most frequent isolated fungi. In operating rooms, the percent of unmasked persons present and the temperature positively influence the bacterial count, while ventilation condition is negatively influencing fungi count, and the number of persons present in the operating room positively affects the PM level.

  6. Health Effects of Air Pollution. (United States)

    Environmental Education Report and Newsletter, 1985


    Summarizes health hazards associated with air pollution, highlighting the difficulty in establishing acceptable thresholds of exposure. Respiratory disease, asthma, cancer, cardiovascular disease, and other problems are addressed. Indicates that a wide range of effects from any one chemical exists and that there are differences in sensitivity to…

  7. Lead and cadmium in indoor air and the urban environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Komarnicki, Guenter J.K. [Department of Ecotoxicology, Center of Public Health, Medical University of Vienna, Waehringer Str. 10, A-1090 Vienna (Austria)]. E-mail:


    The present study was conducted to find potential terrestrial biomonitors for heavy metals in indoor air in an urban environment. TSP, PM{sub 10}, and PM{sub 2.5} were collected in three retirement facilities in the urban area of Vienna. In addition, particulate matter and soil, vegetation, and isopods (Porcellio scaber L.) were collected in the adjacent garden areas. Aerosols were sampled with a low-volume air sampler. The sampled materials were wet ashed and total lead and cadmium contents were determined. Water-soluble heavy metal concentrations were measured in aqueous extracts from air exposed filters, soil, and vegetation. Lead and cadmium were analyzed by graphite furnace AAS. Lead contents in the vegetation were inferred from water-soluble lead in soils. Lead in isopods generally reflected the contents in vegetation. Cadmium in plants probably derived from soil solutions as well as from atmospheric input. Isopods reflected the total cadmium contents in soils. Particulate matter was dominated by PM{sub 2.5}, both with respect to mass concentrations and to heavy metal contents. The indoor aerosol was found to be influenced by human activity, indoor sources, and outdoor particles. Relationships between indoor airborne heavy metals and the contents in vegetation (lead and cadmium: positive) and isopods (lead: negative) were identified to have the potential for biomonitoring indoor air quality. - Urban vegetation and isopods are potential indicators for indoor aerial heavy metals.

  8. Air medical transportation in India: Our experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Himanshu Khurana


    Conclusion: Cardiac and central nervous system ailments are the most common indication for air medical transportation. These patients may need attention and interventions as any critical patient in the hospital but in a difficult environment lacking space and help. Air medical transport carries no more risk than ground transportation.

  9. Air Traffic Flow Management

    CERN Document Server

    Ganu, Hrishikesh V


    Air Traffic Flow Management is the regulation of air traffic in order to avoid exceeding airport or flight sector capacity in handling traffic, and to ensure that available capacity is used efficiently. We have tried to explore the logic behind the claims by Bertsimas about integral solutions to the LP relaxation of the Traffic Flow Management Problem(TFMP). Polyhedral theory only indicates that the stronger TFMP formulation of Bertsimas might lead to integral solutions in some cases. Our computations indicate that the encouraging results reported by Bertsimas are not merely fortuitous or due to their specific data set. Indeed, we found that the TFMP had integral solutions even in case of artificial data sets generated to include severe conflicts in the flight schedules. In our limited tests with 4-5 scenarios, we obtained non-integral solutions only once. This is of significant practical importance because, the LP relaxation can be solved even on small machines with low memory and processor...

  10. Entanglement–breaking indices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lami, L. [Scuola Normale Superiore, I-56126 Pisa (Italy); Giovannetti, V. [NEST, Scuola Normale Superiore and Istituto Nanoscienze-CNR, I-56127 Pisa (Italy)


    We study a set of new functionals (called entanglement–breaking indices) which characterize how many local iterations of a given (local) quantum channel are needed in order to completely destroy the entanglement between the system of interest over which the transformation is defined and an external ancilla. The possibility of contrasting the noisy effects introduced by the channel iterations via the action of intermediate (filtering) transformations is analyzed. We provide some examples in which our functionals can be exactly calculated. The differences between unitary and non-unitary filtering operations are analyzed showing that, at least for systems of dimension d larger than or equal to 3, the non-unitary choice is preferable (the gap between the performances of the two cases being divergent in some cases). For d = 2 (qubit case), on the contrary, no evidences of the presence of such gap is revealed: we conjecture that for this special case unitary filtering transformations are optimal. The scenario in which more general filtering protocols are allowed is also discussed in some detail. The case of a depolarizing noise acting on a two–qubit system is exactly solved in a general case.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Shitov


    Full Text Available Problem statement. Intensive wear of the structure bearing elements in premises with high moisture content in ventilated air is associated with cyclic changes in temperature and humidity indicators of steam-air environment; hence, the problem of ventilated air treatment in such premises is topical.Results. The design of device for integrated purification of atmospheric ventilated air from fine-dispersed pollutants in premise with high moisture content in indoor air is developed.Conclusions. The proposed device provides reliable and long-term operation of bearing building elements.

  12. Air-To-Air Combat Skills: Contribution of Platform Motion to Initial Training (United States)


    AFHRL/FT) using the Advanced Simulator for Air-to-Air Combat (SAAC); (b) an A/A study Pilot Training ( ASPT ) indicated that platform using Northrop...Advanced interested in the implication of these findings in Simulator for Pilot Training ( ASPT ) at Williams view of their planned simulator procurements...i.e., air-to-surface weapons delivery TAC’s request, but the ASPT A/S study was (A/S) and air-to-air combat (A/A), was questioned. completed (Gray

  13. Letting the Air Out: Aire as an Empty Signifier in Oaxacan Understandings of Illness. (United States)

    Gross, Toomas


    "Air (aire, also aigre) in the body" is a frequent explanation of illness according to the traditional medical beliefs in Mexico. Anthropologists have generally scrutinized aire in the context of other common folk illnesses treated by traditional healers (curanderas). However, drawing on my research in the communities of Northern Oaxaca I suggest that aire occupies a more distinct position in the folk medical cosmology than it has usually been credited with. This distinction rests on the notion's exceptional ambivalence and openness to multiple interpretations. "Air" is recurred to as the cause of illness mainly in situations where every other explanation, either "traditional" or "biomedical," seems to be inadequate. The physical properties of air-its transparency, invisibility, apparent immateriality, near omnipresence, and virtual "nothingness"-render it a suitable explanation of the last resort. Local understandings of what aire "is" are often vague and elusive, and in many respects the term functions in folk medical discourse as an "empty signifier."

  14. Diagnostic indices for vertiginous diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Warninghoff Jan-Christian


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vertigo and dizziness are symptoms which are reported frequently in clinical practice. We aimed to develop diagnostic indices for four prevalent vertiginous diseases: benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV, Menière's disease (MD, vestibular migraine (VM, and phobic postural vertigo (PPV. Methods Based on a detailed questionnaire handed out to consecutive patients presenting for the first time in our dizziness clinic we preselected a set of seven questions with desirable diagnostic properties when compared with the final diagnosis after medical workup. Using exact logistic regression analysis diagnostic scores, each comprising of four to six items that can simply be added up, were built for each of the four diagnoses. Results Of 193 patients 131 questionnaires were left after excluding those with missing consent or data. Applying the suggested cut-off points, sensitivity and specificity were 87.5 and 93.5% for BPPV, 100 and 87.4% for MD, 92.3 and 83.7% for VM, 73.7 and 84.1% for PPV, respectively. By changing the cut-off points sensitivity and specificity can be adjusted to meet diagnostic needs. Conclusions The diagnostic indices showed promising diagnostic properties. Once further validated, they could provide an ease to use and yet flexible tool for screening vertigo in clinical practice and epidemiological research.

  15. Microbes as forensic indicators. (United States)

    Alan, G; Sarah, J P


    The forensic potential of microorganisms is becoming increasingly apparent as a consequence of advances in molecular sciences and genomics. This review discusses instances in which microbes, and in particular bacteria, can impact upon forensic investigations. There is increasing evidence that humans have an extremely diverse 'microbiome' that may prove useful in determining ethnicity, country of origin, and even personal identity. The human microbiome differs between regions of the body and may prove useful for determining the nature of stains such as those caused by saliva and vaginal fluid: it may even be possible to link the stains to the person responsible for them. Similarly, the composition of the microbiome present in a soil sample may prove a useful indicator of geographic origin or as a means of linking people, animals, or objects together or to a specific location. Microorganisms are important in the decay process and also influence the presence and concentration of alcohol, drugs, and other chemicals of forensic relevance. There is also a possibility that the entry of microorganisms into the body during the agonal period may prove useful for the diagnosis of drowning. The transmission of infectious diseases, and in particular sexually-transmitted diseases, can provide evidence linking a victim and a suspect. Microorganisms that cause fatal infections are not always identified at the time of death and may lead to the death being considered 'suspicious'. If a fatal infection can be linked to a hospital or medical procedure it can lead to prosecutions and therefore it is important to determine when and where an infection was acquired. Similarly, naturally acquired infections need to be distinguished from those that result from malicious transmission. Microorganisms can therefore provide evidence in many different forensic scenarios but most of the work is still at the experimental stage and there are therefore many opportunities for further research.

  16. The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) evaluation of the carcinogenicity of outdoor air pollution: focus on China. (United States)

    Loomis, Dana; Huang, Wei; Chen, Guosheng


    The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has classified outdoor air pollution and the particulate matter (PM) in outdoor air pollution as carcinogenic to humans, as based on sufficient evidence of carcinogenicity in humans and experimental animals and strong support by mechanistic studies. The data with important contributions to the evaluation are reviewed, highlighting the data with particular relevance to China, and implications of the evaluation with respect to China are discussed. The air pollution levels in Chinese cities are among the highest observed in the world today and frequently exceed health-based national and international guidelines. Data from high-quality epidemiologic studies in Asia, Europe, and North America consistently show positive associations between lung cancer and PM exposure and other indicators of air pollution, which persist after adjustment for important lung cancer risk factors, such as tobacco smoking. Epidemiologic data from China are limited but nevertheless indicate an increased risk of lung cancer associated with several air pollutants. Excess cancer risk is also observed in experimental animals exposed to polluted outdoor air or extracted PM. The exposure of several species to outdoor air pollution is associated with markers of genetic damage that have been linked to increased cancer risk in humans. Numerous studies from China, especially genetic biomarker studies in exposed populations, support that the polluted air in China is genotoxic and carcinogenic to humans. The evaluation by IARC indicates both the need for further research into the cancer risks associated with exposure to air pollution in China and the urgent need to act to reduce exposure to the population.

  17. The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) evaluation of the carcinogenicity of outdoor air pollution:focus on China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dana Loomis; Wei Huang; Guosheng Chen


    The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has classified outdoor air pol ution and the particulate matter (PM) in outdoor air pol ution as carcinogenic to humans, as based on sufficient evidence of carcinogenicity in humans and experimental animals and strong support by mechanistic studies. The data with important contributions to the evaluation are reviewed, highlighting the data with particular relevance to China, and implications of the evaluation with respect to China are discussed. The air pol ution levels in Chinese cities are among the highest observed in the world today and frequently exceed health-based national and international guidelines. Data from high-quality epidemiologic studies in Asia, Europe, and North America consistently show positive associations between lung cancer and PM exposure and other indicators of air pol ution, which persist after adjustment for important lung cancer risk factors, such as tobacco smoking. Epidemiologic data from China are limited but nevertheless indicate an increased risk of lung cancer associated with several air pol utants. Excess cancer risk is also observed in experimental animals exposed to pol uted outdoor air or extracted PM. The exposure of several species to outdoor air pollution is associated with markers of genetic damage that have been linked to increased cancer risk in humans. Numerous studies from China, especially genetic biomarker studies in exposed populations, support that the polluted air in China is genotoxic and carcinogenic to humans. The evaluation by IARC indicates both the need for further research into the cancer risks associated with exposure to air pol ution in China and the urgent need to act to reduce exposure to the population.

  18. Position estimation of transceivers in communication networks (United States)

    Kent, Claudia A.; Dowla, Farid


    This invention provides a system and method using wireless communication interfaces coupled with statistical processing of time-of-flight data to locate by position estimation unknown wireless receivers. Such an invention can be applied in sensor network applications, such as environmental monitoring of water in the soil or chemicals in the air where the position of the network nodes is deemed critical. Moreover, the present invention can be arranged to operate in areas where a Global Positioning System (GPS) is not available, such as inside buildings, caves, and tunnels.

  19. Coronary air embolism treated with aspiration catheter. (United States)

    Patterson, M S; Kiemeneij, F


    Coronary air embolism remains a recognised complication of coronary catheterisation despite a strong emphasis on prevention. Current treatment consists of supportive measures with 100% oxygen and analgesia. Recent case reports describe the use of mechanical treatments aimed at dispersing or removing the air embolus with variable success. A case of coronary air embolism causing an acute coronary syndrome is described that was definitively treated with an aspiration system. The effectiveness of the aspiration system in the distal section of an obtuse marginal artery indicates that such dedicated aspiration systems may prove useful in the standard treatment of air embolism.

  20. Daily air pollution levels and acute asthma in southern Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forsberg, B. [Umeaa Univ., Dept. og Environmental Health (Sweden); Stjernberg, N. [National Inst. for Working Life, Umeaa (Sweden); Linne, R. [Landskrona Hospital (Sweden); Segerstedt, B. [Umeaa Univ., School of Business (Sweden); Wall, S. [Umeaa Univ., Dept. of Epidemiology and Public Health (Sweden)


    This study aimed to investigate the association between daily air pollution levels and the occurrence of acute respiratory signs and symptoms among people with asthma or asthma-like problems. Thirty eight subjects in the southern Swedish city of Landskrona kept a daily diary for 10 weeks. The daily prevalence of symptoms, supplementary bronchodilator use and peak flow deviations were compared with measurements of environmental nitrogen dioxide (NO{sub 2}), sulphur dioxide, temperature and humidity in the city. The occurrence of severe asthma, both during the day and during the evening, was significantly positively associated with the concurrent 24 h average concentration of NO{sub 2}, which never exceeded 72 {mu}m{sup 3}. A correlation of borderline significance was found between the use of on-demand medication and the NO{sub 2} level. However, peak flow deviations were not associated with air pollution or weather conditions, which may be explained by the beneficial effect of bronchodilators used by 28 of the subjects. The results of this study confirm those of some earlier studies and suggest that aggravation of asthma is related to daily variations in air quality, as indicated by relatively low ambient concentrations of nitrogen dioxide. These results also indicate that it may be appropriate to examine severe asthma symptoms separately. (au) 33 refs.

  1. Ozone, Air Quality, and Asthma (For Parents) (United States)

    ... Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & Family Life First Aid & Safety Doctors & ... carbon monoxide sulfur dioxide nitrogen dioxide Using a color-coded system, the Air Quality Index indicates when ...

  2. Residents' Willingness to Pay for Improving Air Quality in Jinan, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Yan; Zhang Yisheng; Wang Qian; Wang Wei


    Along with the progress of urbanization and environmental deterioration, residents' desire for improved air quality is increasing. In order to quantify an individual's willingness-to-pay (WTP) for improved air quality in Jinan of eastern China, a contingent valuation method (CVM) was employed. A sample of 1,500 residents was chosen on the basis of multistage sampling methods with face-to-face interviews by using a series of hypothetical, open-ended scenario questions which were designed to elicit the respondents' WTP. Results showed that 59.7% of respondents were able to express their WTP and the mean WTP is 100 Chinese Yuan (CNY) per person per year. A probit model on the probability of a positive WTP and a regression model were developed to find the relationship between endogenous variables and WTP. Most parameters in the econometric analysis had the expected sign. Annual household income and expenditure on treating respiratory diseases significantly influence WTP. The rates of positive WTP and the monetary amount are larger for men than for women. Results also showed that people who lived in more polluted areas were willing to pay more for clean air. Unlike developed countries, clean air may only be considered as a public good in China in that more than 40% of respondents had no incentive to bear the costs of attempting to achieve better air quality, which indicates the relatively low environmental consciousness.

  3. Lanthanide-halide based humidity indicators (United States)

    Beitz, James V.; Williams, Clayton W.


    The present invention discloses a lanthanide-halide based humidity indicator and method of producing such indicator. The color of the present invention indicates the humidity of an atmosphere to which it is exposed. For example, impregnating an adsorbent support such as silica gel with an aqueous solution of the europium-containing reagent solution described herein, and dehydrating the support to dryness forms a substance with a yellow color. When this substance is exposed to a humid atmosphere the water vapor from the air is adsorbed into the coating on the pore surface of the silica gel. As the water content of the coating increases, the visual color of the coated silica gel changes from yellow to white. The color change is due to the water combining with the lanthanide-halide complex on the pores of the gel.

  4. REACH. Air Conditioning Units. (United States)

    Garrison, Joe; And Others

    As a part of the REACH (Refrigeration, Electro-Mechanical, Air-Conditioning, Heating) electromechanical cluster, this student manual contains individualized instructional units in the area of air conditioning. The instructional units focus on air conditioning fundamentals, window air conditioning, system and installation, troubleshooting and…

  5. Statistical air quality mapping

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kassteele, van de J.


    This thesis handles statistical mapping of air quality data. Policy makers require more and more detailed air quality information to take measures to improve air quality. Besides, researchers need detailed air quality information to assess health effects. Accurate and spatially highly resolved maps

  6. 基于藤Copula-MCMC-SV-T模型的马航空难对六国(地)股指的风险传染研究%A Study on Risk Contagion from Malaysia Airlines Air Crashes to the Stock Indices of Six Countries(Regions)Based on the Model of Vine Copula-MCMC-SV-T

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩超; 严太华


    The two air crashes of MH370 and MH17 in 2014 caused people anxiety in the world. Anxiety passed from Malaysia Airlines plane crashes to the world conflict,the conflict leads to panics. Panics caused‘long-short’investing by abnormal be⁃havior in stock markets,stimulate stock market risk,the risk spill over from Kuala Lumpur and spread to the world. This paper depicts the volatility processes of six-dimensional marginal stock indices with the model of SV-T,inferred marginal model pa⁃rameters by using Gibbs sampling method of MCMC algorithm in Bayesian,and described the path diagram of risk contagion of six stock indices in the world in the structure of canonical vine copula,represented four different types of risk contagion by four common types of copula functions,used corresponding value of tau to represent the parameters of corresponding risk con⁃tagion,and finally described the risk contagion path and the risk magnitude from Kuala Lumpur to the world. This paper tried to provide a new idea or method for investors to make‘long and short’decision when facing emergencies and for various au⁃thorities to grasp the path of crisis contagion,reduce the risk of chain reaction and cut chain of risk contagion.%2014年马航MH370和MH17两次空难,引发世界人民的焦虑。焦虑从马航空难直指世界矛盾冲突,矛盾冲突导致恐慌。恐慌引起股市多空异常行为,引发股市风险,风险从吉隆坡传出,向世界蔓延。论文以SV-T模型刻画六维边缘股指波动进程,以MCMC算法的Gibbs抽样方法贝叶斯推断出边缘模型参数,以C藤Copula结构描述世界六国(地)股指风险传染路径图,以四种常见类型的Copula函数代表四种不同的风险传染类型,以相应的Copula函数Tau值表示风险传染参数,最终描绘出空难引起的危机从吉隆坡向世界蔓延的脉络和风险强度。论文尝试为投资者面对突发事件时进行多、空投资决策,以

  7. Environmental quality indicators and financial development in Malaysia: unity in diversity. (United States)

    Alam, Arif; Azam, Muhammad; Abdullah, Alias Bin; Malik, Ihtisham Abdul; Khan, Anwar; Hamzah, Tengku Adeline Adura Tengku; Faridullah; Khan, Muhammad Mushtaq; Zahoor, Hina; Zaman, Khalid


    Environmental quality indicators are crucial for responsive and cost-effective policies. The objective of the study is to examine the relationship between environmental quality indicators and financial development in Malaysia. For this purpose, the number of environmental quality indicators has been used, i.e., air pollution measured by carbon dioxide emissions, population density per square kilometer of land area, agricultural production measured by cereal production and livestock production, and energy resources considered by energy use and fossil fuel energy consumption, which placed an impact on the financial development of the country. The study used four main financial indicators, i.e., broad money supply (M2), domestic credit provided by the financial sector (DCFS), domestic credit to the private sector (DCPC), and inflation (CPI), which each financial indicator separately estimated with the environmental quality indicators, over a period of 1975-2013. The study used the generalized method of moments (GMM) technique to minimize the simultaneity from the model. The results show that carbon dioxide emissions exert the positive correlation with the M2, DCFC, and DCPC, while there is a negative correlation with the CPI. However, these results have been evaporated from the GMM estimates, where carbon emissions have no significant relationship with any of the four financial indicators in Malaysia. The GMM results show that population density has a negative relationship with the all four financial indicators; however, in case of M2, this relationship is insignificant to explain their result. Cereal production has a positive relationship with the DCPC, while there is a negative relationship with the CPI. Livestock production exerts the positive relationship with the all four financial indicators; however, this relationship with the CPI has a more elastic relationship, while the remaining relationship is less elastic with the three financial indicators in a country

  8. Identification of Regional Air Pollution Characteristic and the Correlation with Public Health in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huey H. Hsieh


    Full Text Available This study aims to classify regions with different air pollution characteristics into groups in Taiwan, and further to evaluate and compare the air quality of various groups. A selected multivariate analysis technique, cluster analysis, is applied to the pollution monitoring dataset which including PM10, SO2, NO2, CO and O3. The obtained results have proved that the regions with similar air pollution characteristic can be appropriately grouped by applying cluster analysis. All 22 regions are classified into six groups, and the pollution pattern for each group is characterized as: Group 1 (high SO2/NO2; low PM10, Group 2 (high PM10, Group 3 (high SO2/PM10, Group 4 (low SO2/NO2/CO; high O3, Group 5 (low CO/NO2; high O3 and Group 6 (low PM10/SO2/NO2/O3/CO. Results from air quality evaluation indicate that the regions in group 6 (Ilan, Hualien and Taitung have the best air quality while the regions in group 3 (Kaohsiung and Kaohsiung City have the worst air quality in Taiwan. The results from correlation analysis reveal that incidence of the respiratory system disease is significantly positively correlated with pollution of NO2 and CO at 99% confidence level.

  9. Long-Term Exposure to Traffic-Related Air Pollution and Risk of Incident Atrial Fibrillation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Monrad, Maria; Sajadieh, Ahmad; Christensen, Jeppe Schultz


    BACKGROUND: Atrial fibrillation is the most common sustained arrhythmia and associated with cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. The few studies conducted on short-term effects of air pollution on episodes of atrial fibrillation indicates a positive association, though not consistently....... OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to evaluate the long-term impact of traffic-related air pollution on incidence of atrial fibrillation in the general population. METHODS: In the Danish Diet, Cancer, and Health cohort of 57,053 people aged 50-64 years at enrolment in 1993-1997, we identified 2,700 cases...... tendencies regarding effect modification of the association between NO2 and atrial fibrillation by sex, smoking, hypertension or myocardial infarction. CONCLUSION: We found long-term residential traffic-related air pollution to be associated with higher risk of atrial fibrillation. Accordingly, the present...

  10. Air movement and perceived air quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melikov, Arsen Krikor; Kaczmarczyk, J.


    The impact of air movement on perceived air quality (PAQ) and sick building syndrome (SBS) symptoms was studied. In total, 124 human subjects participated in four series of experiments performed in climate chambers at different combinations of room air temperature (20, 23, 26 and 28 °C), relative...... and the humidity of the room air. At a low humidity level of 30% an increased velocity could compensate for the decrease in perceived air quality due to an elevated temperature ranging from 20 °C to 26 °C. In a room with 26 °C, increased air movement was also able to compensate for an increase in humidity from 30...

  11. Fingerprint Indoor Position System Based

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Antonio Gómez Martin


    Full Text Available This paper presents a research and a development of a fingerprint-indoor-positioning system using the Received Signal Strength Indication (RSSI of a Wireless Sensor Network (WSN. The WSN implementation is based on two different protocol stacks: BitCloud and OpenMAC, a certified ZigBee Compliant Platform (ZCP and an IEEE 802.15.4 embedded software implementation respectively, both from Atmel, and the system uses two different fingerprint algorithms, Simple and Centroid. A comparative analysis of both algorithms using both protocol stacks implementations have been performed to ascertain the best WSN protocol stack and the best algorithm for positioning purposes.

  12. Multi-technology positioning

    CERN Document Server

    Lohan, Elena-Simona; Wymeersch, Henk; Seco-Granados, Gonzalo; Nykänen, Ossi


    This book provides an overview of positioning technologies, applications and services in a format accessible to a wide variety of readers. Readers who have always wanted to understand how satellite-based positioning, wireless network positioning, inertial navigation, and their combinations work will find great value in this book. Readers will also learn about the advantages and disadvantages of different positioning methods, their limitations and challenges. Cognitive positioning, adding the brain to determine which technologies to use at device runtime, is introduced as well. Coverage also includes the use of position information for Location Based Services (LBS), as well as context-aware positioning services, designed for better user experience. • Brings understanding of positioning technology to readers from a variety of disciplines • Reviews multiple techniques, providing insight on the pros, cons and challenges related to each • Designed to be a tutorial on basic principles, avoiding unnecessary de...

  13. Stress Management: Positive Thinking (United States)

    ... health benefits of positive thinking. References Optimism. Clinical Psychology Review. 2010;30:879. Optimism and cardiovascular health: ... management/in-depth/positive-thinking/art-20043950 . Mayo Clinic Footer Legal Conditions and Terms Any use of ...

  14. Theoretical and experimental investigation on optimization of a non-contact air conveyor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟伟; 黎鑫; 陶国良; 路波; 香川利春


    Air film conveyors equipped with porous pads have been developed to bring the liquid crystal display (LCD) into a non-contact state during transportation process. In this work, a theoretical model including flow property of porous media and Reynolds equation is established within a representative region in order to optimize the design parameters of a partial porous air conveyor. With the theoretical model, an optimization method using nondominated sorting genetic algorithm – II (NSGA-II) is applied for a two-objective optimization to achieve a minimum air consumption and maximum load capacity. Three Pareto-optimal solutions are selected to analyze the influence of each parameter on the characteristics of the air conveyor, and the results indicate that the position of the porous pads has the most significant impact on the performance and of course must be determined with care. Furthermore, experimental results in terms of the supporting force versus gap clearance show that the optimized air conveyor can greatly improve the load capacity over the normal one, indicating that the optimization method is applicable for practical use.

  15. An Indicator for ecosystem externalities in fishing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn-Jonsen, Lars; Andersen, Ken Haste; Vestergaard, Niels

    a benefit indicator that explicitly divides the consequences of fishing into internal and external benefits. This analysis demonstrates that the forage fish fleet has a notable economic impact on the large fish fleet, but the reverse is not true. The impact can be either negative or positive, which entails...

  16. An indicator for ecosystem externalities in fishing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn-Jonsen, Lars; Andersen, Ken Haste; Vestergaard, Niels


    a benefit indicator that explicitly divides the consequences of fishing into internal and external benefits. This analysis demonstrates that the forage fish fleet has a notable economic impact on the large fish fleet, but the reverse is not true. The impact can be either negative or positive, which entails...

  17. Positive Deviance: Learning from Positive Anomalies (United States)

    LeMahieu, Paul G.; Nordstrum, Lee E.; Gale, Dick


    Purpose: This paper is one of seven in this volume, each elaborating different approaches to quality improvement in education. The purpose of this paper is to delineate a methodology called positive deviance. Design/methodology/approach: The paper presents the origins, theoretical foundations, core principles and a case study demonstrating an…

  18. Socioeconomic position and the risk of spontaneous abortion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norsker, Filippa Nyboe; Espenhain, Laura; A Rogvi, Sofie


    To investigate the relationship between different indicators of socioeconomic position and the risk of spontaneous abortion.......To investigate the relationship between different indicators of socioeconomic position and the risk of spontaneous abortion....

  19. Perception of eye positions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lorteije, J.A.M.; Wezel, R.J.A. van; Lankheet, M.J.M.


    In a two-alternative forced-choice psychophysical test human subjects were tested for their ability to perceive their own viewing direction. A small red flash was presented at different horizontal positions left or right from the subjects' eye position on the screen. Eye positions were recorded with

  20. Possible Economies in Air-Conditioning by Accepting Temperature Swings. (United States)

    Loudon, A. G.; Petherbridge, P.

    Public building air conditioning systems, which use constant and varying heat and cooling loads, are compared and investigated. Experiments indicated that constant temperature controls based on outside air temperature alone were inefficient. Ventilating a building with outside air and the methods of doing so are cited as being the most economical…

  1. Critical review of kraft recovery boiler air systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mac Callum, C.; Blackwell, B.R.


    Combustion air systems offered by major world suppliers of kraft recovery boilers are reviewed. A preliminary mathematical analysis of the air-jet trajectories in the furnace indicated that the conventional air systems leave room for improving the jet penetration into the furnace core. 9 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  2. Air quality in Delhi during the CommonWealth Games

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Marrapu


    Full Text Available Air quality during The CommonWealth Games (CWG, held in Delhi in October 2010 is analyzed using a new air quality forecasting system established for the Games. The CWG stimulated enhanced efforts to monitor and model air quality in the region. The air quality of Delhi during the CWG had high levels of particles with mean values of PM2.5 and PM10 at the venues of 111 and 238 μg m−3, respectively. Black carbon (BC accounted for ∼10% of the PM2.5 mass. It is shown that BC, PM2.5 and PM10 concentrations are well predicted, but with positive biases of ∼25%. The diurnal variations are also well captured, with both the observations and the modeled values showing nighttime maxima and daytime minima. A new emissions inventory, developed as part of this air quality forecasting initiative, is evaluated by comparing the observed and predicted species-species correlations (i.e., BC : CO; BC : PM2.5; PM2.5 : PM10. Assuming that the observations at these sites are representative and that all the model errors are associated with the emissions, then the modeled concentrations and slopes can be made consistent by scaling the emissions by: 0.6 for NOx, 2 for CO, and 0.7 for BC, PM2.5 and PM10. The emission estimates for particles are remarkably good considering the uncertainty in the estimates due to the diverse spread of activities and technologies that take place in Delhi and the rapid rates of change. The contribution of various emission sectors including transportation, power, domestic and industry to surface concentrations are also estimated. Transport, domestic and industrial sectors all make significant contributions to PM levels in Delhi, and the sectoral contributions vary spatially within the city. Ozone levels in Delhi are elevated, with hourly values sometimes exceeding 100 ppb. The continued growth of the transport sector is expected to make ozone pollution a more pressing air pollution problem in Delhi. The sector analysis provides useful

  3. Reassessment of MIPAS age of air trends and variability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. J. Haenel


    Full Text Available A new and improved setup of the SF6 retrieval together with a newly calibrated version of MIPAS-ENVISAT level 1b spectra (version 5, ESA data version 5.02/5.06 was used to obtain a new global SF6-data set, covering the total observational period of MIPAS from July 2002 to April 2012 for the first time. Monthly and zonally averaged SF6-profiles were converted into mean age of air using a tropospheric SF6-reference curve. The obtained data set of age of air was compared to airborne and balloon-borne age of air measurements. The temporal evolution of mean age of air was then investigated in 10° latitude and 1–2 km altitude bins. A regression model consisting of a constant and a linear trend term, 2 proxies for the quasi-biennial oscillation variation, sinusoidal terms for the seasonal and semi-annual variation and overtones was fitted to the age of air time series. The annual cycle for particular regions in the stratosphere was investigated and compared to other studies. The age of air trend over the total MIPAS-period consisting of the linear term was assessed and compared to previous findings of Stiller et al. (2012. While the linear increase of mean age is confirmed to be positive for the Northern mid-latitudes and Southern polar middle stratosphere, differences are found in the Northern polar upper stratosphere, where the mean age is now found to increase as well. The magnitude of trends in the Northern mid-latitude middle stratosphere is slightly lower compared to the previous version and the trends fit remarkably well to the trend derived by Engel et al. (2009. Negative age of air trends found by Stiller et al. (2012 are confirmed for the lowermost tropical stratosphere and lowermost Southern mid-latitudinal stratosphere. Differences to the previous data versions occur in the middle tropical stratosphere around 25 km, where the trends are now negative. Overall, the new latitude–altitude distribution of trends appears to be less patchy


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Partha Sarathi


    Full Text Available CONTEXT: The bacterial load in different air samples from environment of most hospitals remained undetermined. Any direct correlation between such bacterial load and the nosocomial infection are also lacking. Only higher bacterial load in air of a particular hospital environment may indicate higher risk of airborne cross infections. AIMS: The study is to determine the bacterial presence per unit volume of air, and the factors influencing the bioload. SETTINGS AND DESIGN: The air samples were collected from different locations of our tertiary care hospital, during Jul 2011 to June 2012 with information like room space per patient, number of daily average visitors, system of air circulation and house-keeping quality. METHODS: A specific volume of air was impacted on a plastic strips containing nutrient agar by air sampler La200, Hi-Media. Following incubation for 24 hour bacterial colonies were counted and organisms were identified up to genus level. RESULTS: Mostly Gram positive cocci followed by Gram positive and a few Gram negative bacilli were detected. The highest bacterial load was found in general outdoor premises (2456 CFU/cm, followed by some extremely crowded general wards (573 CFU/cm. The lowest count of such was found in nursery area (94 CFU/cm, where special emphasis was given on cleanliness, room ventilation and visitor’s restriction. Similarly variations in bacterial loads were also noted in different times in a day and in different seasons in a year. The bioload in all tested samples were within permissible limits. CONCLUSIONS: By appropriate measures the aerobic bacterial load in hospital environment can be restricted within optimal level

  5. Psychiatric aspects of air pollution. (United States)

    Lundberg, A


    Psychological and toxic effects of air pollution can lead to psychiatric symptoms, including anxiety and changes in mood, cognition, and behavior. Increased levels of some air pollutants are accompanied by an increase in psychiatric admissions and emergency calls and, in some studies, by changes in behavior and a reduction in psychological well-being. Numerous toxic pollutants interfere with the development and adult functioning of the nervous system. Manifestations are often insidious or delayed, but they can provide a more sensitive indicator of toxic effects than cancer rates or mortality data. Other medical effects of air pollution, such as asthma, can indirectly affect psychological health. The sick building syndrome and multiple chemical sensitivity are conditions with toxicologic and psychiatric aspects. Psychosocial stress can cause symptoms similar to those of organic mental disorders. Reactions to stress depend on cultural, individual, and situational variables. We must understand these factors to be able to alleviate and prevent the consequences of environmental trauma. Expanded research is recommended in three main areas: (1) how people perceive and cope with environmental health risks, (2) the effects of air pollution on behavior and neuropsychological functioning, and (3) neurotoxicologic evaluation of air pollutants with both behavioral and in vitro studies.

  6. Simulation of Flow and Heat Transfer of Mist/Air Impinging Jet on Grinding Work-Piece


    Fan Jiang; Han Wang; Yijun Wang; Jianhua Xiang


    The numerical investigation is presented for flow and heat transfer on grinding work-piece with mist/air impinging jet by using DPM (discrete phase model) model. The tracks of the mist droplets show most of them are accumulated on the right surface of grinding zone, and can be influenced by the rotating speed of the grinding wheel, the position and the number of the jet nozzle. The mechanism model of enhance cooling by mist/air impinging jet is developed, which indicated the mist droplet is a...

  7. Air Force JROTC: Introduction and Information Brief (United States)


    Requirements • Leaders, Teachers, Mentors, & Guides who care about making a positive impact on our cadets • Instructor Training - Junior Instructor...Curriculum In Action (Field Trips) • Kitty Hawk Air Society • Orienteering • Model Rocketry & Radio Controlled Aircraft Clubs • Incentive flights in...Support unit’s AFJROTC Booster Club • Encourage parent support & involvement • Visit & partner with other AFJROTC units, ROTC units, Air Force

  8. Pretty Easy Pervasive Positioning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Rene; Wind, Rico; Jensen, Christian Søndergaard;


    With the increasing availability of positioning based on GPS, Wi-Fi, and cellular technologies and the proliferation of mobile devices with GPS, Wi-Fi and cellular connectivity, ubiquitous positioning is becoming a reality. While offerings by companies such as Google, Skyhook, and Spotigo render...... positioning possible in outdoor settings, including urban environments with limited GPS coverage, they remain unable to offer accurate indoor positioning. We will demonstrate a software infrastructure that makes it easy for anybody to build support for accurate Wi-Fi based positioning in buildings. All...... that is needed is a building with Wi-Fi coverage, access to the building, a floor plan of the building, and a Wi-Fi enabled device. Specifically, we will explain the software infrastructure and the steps that must be completed to obtain support for positioning. And we will demonstrate the positioning obtained...

  9. Application of air ions for bacterial de-colonization in air filters contaminated by aerosolized bacteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yang Seon, E-mail: [School of Mechanical Engineering, Yonsei University, 262 Seongsanno, Seodaemun-Gu, Seoul, 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Ki Young, E-mail: [Exhaust Emission Engineering Team, Hyundai Motor Company, Hwaseong 445-706, Republic of Korea (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jae Hong, E-mail: [School of Mechanical Engineering, Yonsei University, 262 Seongsanno, Seodaemun-Gu, Seoul, 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Hwang, Jungho, E-mail: [School of Mechanical Engineering, Yonsei University, 262 Seongsanno, Seodaemun-Gu, Seoul, 120-749 (Korea, Republic of)


    We aerosolized the Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Staphylococcus epidermidis (S. epidermidis) bacteria and collected them on membrane filters. Then we generated air ions by applying a high voltage to a carbon fiber tip and applied them to the contaminated filters. The antibacterial efficiency was not significantly affected by the bacteria being Gram-positive or Gram-negative, however, negative ions showed a lower antibacterial efficiency than positive ions to both E. coli and S. epidermidis, even though the concentration of negative air ions was much higher than that of positive air ions. With a field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM) images and fluorescence microscopy images using a LIVE/DEAD BacLight Bacterial Viability Kit, electrostatic disruption of the bacteria was found to be the dominant antibacterial effect. - Research Highlights: {yields}This study examined the effects of air ions generated by a carbon fiber ionizer on the inactivation of bioaerosols. {yields}When the ion exposure time and the ion generation concentration were increased, the antibacterial efficiency increased. {yields}The bioaerosols carried a significant number of negative electrical charges. {yields}Negative ions showed lower antibacterial efficiency than positive ions to both E. coli and S. epidermidis, even though the concentration of negative air ions was much higher than that of positive air ions.

  10. Locating air samplers inside a room using qualitative airflow studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kravchik, T.; Levinson, S.; German, U. [Nuclear Research Center Negev, Beer-Sheva (Israel); Haim, M. [Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer-Sheva (Israel)


    The concentration of airborne radioactive materials inside a room can vary widely from one location to another, sometimes by orders of magnitude even for locations that are reactively close. Inappropriately placed air samplers can give misleading results and, therefore, the location of air samplers is important. Proper placement of samplers is not always obvious and cannot be determined simply by observing the position of room air supply and exhaust vents. Airflow studies, such as the release of smoke aerosols, should be used. The significance of airflow pattern studies depends on the purpose of sampling-for estimating worker intakes, warning of abnormally high concentrations, defining airborne radioactive areas, testing for confinement of sealed radioactive materials, etc. Qualitative smoke tests were conducted inside rooms using a 'KUPO Inc.' smoke tube (D5050 fog machine). Smoke was released at elevation of 1-2 meters and its path was recorded on worksheet drawings of the room. The tests revealed three types of airflow patterns inside the rooms: a) flow path with a definite stable direction, b) flow path which changes direction arbitrarily as a result of airflow vortices, and c) static/stagnant air. In some cases the airflow path direction was different from the expected one. This emphasizes the significance of conducting airflow studies for location of air samplers and not only relying on intuition. An airflow patterns comparison study between the qualitative smoke tests and computer simulation using a commercial finite element CFD code, FIDAP 8.01, was also conducted. The measured and the computed paths of the airflow were mostly in good agreement. The computer simulation indicated additional details which could not be observed when performing the smoke tests because of physical and visibility limitations. (author)

  11. Nocturnal drainage wind characteristics in two converging air sheds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gedayloo, T.; Clements, W.E.; Barr, S.; Archuleta, J.A.


    During the short experimental period in the Grants Basin of Northeastern New Mexico a survey was conducted on the complex meteorology of this area. Emphasis was placed on the nocturnal drainage flow because of the potential hazards to the populated areas of Milan and Grants from the effluents of the uranium mining and milling operation in this area. This investigation has shown that the nocturnal drainage flow patterns agree with the winds predicted on the basis of the complex terrain of the area. Because of the surface cooling at night (over 25/sup 0/C during summer and about 20/sup 0/C during winter), air from elevated surrounding areas flows to the low lying regions consequently setting up a nocturnal drainage flow. This regime exists over 60% of the time during summer months and over 65% of the time during winter months with a depth generally less than 200 m. In the San Mateo air shed the drainage flow is east northeast, and in the Ambrosia Lake air shed it is from northwest. The confluence of these two air flows contributes mainly to the drainage flow through the channel formed by La Ja Mesa and Mesa Montanosa. The analysis of data collected by the recording Flats Station confirms the prediction that although the area south of the channel region broadens considerably causing a reduction in flow speed, contributions from the southside of La Jara Mesa and Mesa Montanosa partly compensate for this reduction. The position of this recording station is 15 to 20 km from the populated towns of Milan and Grants. A drainage flow speed of approximately 2.2 m s/sup -1/ and the duration of over 11 hours as recorded by this station indicates that air from the San Mateo and Ambrosia Lake regions may be transported southwards to these population centers during a nocturnal period. In order to test this prediction, a series of multi-atmospheric tracer experiments were conducted in the Grants Basin.

  12. Connectable solar air collectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oestergaard Jensen, S.; Bosanac, M.


    The project has proved that it is possible to manufacture solar air collector panels, which in an easy way can be connected into large collector arrays with integrated ducting without loss of efficiency. The developed connectable solar air collectors are based on the use of matrix absorbers in the form of perforated metal sheets. Three interconnected solar air collectors of the above type - each with an transparent area of approx. 3 m{sup 2} - was tested and compared with parallel tests on two single solar air collectors also with a transparent area of approx. 3 m{sup 2} One of the single solar air collectors has an identical absorber as the connectable solar air collectors while the absorber of the other single solar air collector was a fibre cloth. The efficiency of the three solar air collectors proved to be almost identical in the investigated range of mass flow rates and temperature differences. The solar air collectors further proved to be very efficient - as efficient as the second most efficient solar air collectors tested in the IEA task 19 project Solar Air Systems. Some problems remain although to be solved: the pressure drop across especially the connectable solar air collectors is too high - mainly across the inlets of the solar air collectors. It should, however, be possible to considerably reduce the pressure losses with a more aerodynamic design of the inlet and outlet of the solar air collectors; The connectable solar air collectors are easy connectable but the air tightness of the connections in the present form is not good enough. As leakage leads to lower efficiencies focus should be put on making the connections more air tight without loosing the easiness in connecting the solar air collectors. As a spin off of the project a simple and easy way to determine the efficiency of solar, air collectors for pre-heating of fresh air has been validated. The simple method of determining the efficiency has with success been compared with an advance method

  13. Design of a Lighter Than Air Vehicle That Achieves Positive Buoyancy in Air Using a Vacuum (United States)


    calculated for the frame. The skin was predicted to add approximately 0.37 to the W/B if Zylon was used to reinforce a Mylar membrane, which would...stiffening the skin are Zylon and Vectran as shown in Table 6. If graphene could be made in usable sizes and attached to the structure, it would far exceed...Graphene 250 ∙ 109 100 130 0.02 Only Available in small sheets Zylon 303 ∙ 109 1560 5.8 2.5 Fiber Vectran 75 ∙ 109 1400 3.2 3.6 Fiber

  14. Perceived positions determine crowding. (United States)

    Maus, Gerrit W; Fischer, Jason; Whitney, David


    Crowding is a fundamental bottleneck in object recognition. In crowding, an object in the periphery becomes unrecognizable when surrounded by clutter or distractor objects. Crowding depends on the positions of target and distractors, both their eccentricity and their relative spacing. In all previous studies, position has been expressed in terms of retinal position. However, in a number of situations retinal and perceived positions can be dissociated. Does retinal or perceived position determine the magnitude of crowding? Here observers performed an orientation judgment on a target Gabor patch surrounded by distractors that drifted toward or away from the target, causing an illusory motion-induced position shift. Distractors in identical physical positions led to worse performance when they drifted towards the target (appearing closer) versus away from the target (appearing further). This difference in crowding corresponded to the difference in perceived positions. Further, the perceptual mislocalization was necessary for the change in crowding, and both the mislocalization and crowding scaled with drift speed. The results show that crowding occurs after perceived positions have been assigned by the visual system. Crowding does not operate in a purely retinal coordinate system; perceived positions need to be taken into account.

  15. Perceived positions determine crowding.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerrit W Maus

    Full Text Available Crowding is a fundamental bottleneck in object recognition. In crowding, an object in the periphery becomes unrecognizable when surrounded by clutter or distractor objects. Crowding depends on the positions of target and distractors, both their eccentricity and their relative spacing. In all previous studies, position has been expressed in terms of retinal position. However, in a number of situations retinal and perceived positions can be dissociated. Does retinal or perceived position determine the magnitude of crowding? Here observers performed an orientation judgment on a target Gabor patch surrounded by distractors that drifted toward or away from the target, causing an illusory motion-induced position shift. Distractors in identical physical positions led to worse performance when they drifted towards the target (appearing closer versus away from the target (appearing further. This difference in crowding corresponded to the difference in perceived positions. Further, the perceptual mislocalization was necessary for the change in crowding, and both the mislocalization and crowding scaled with drift speed. The results show that crowding occurs after perceived positions have been assigned by the visual system. Crowding does not operate in a purely retinal coordinate system; perceived positions need to be taken into account.

  16. A new air quality perception scale for global assessment of air pollution health effects. (United States)

    Deguen, Séverine; Ségala, Claire; Pédrono, Gaëlle; Mesbah, Mounir


    Despite improvements in air quality in developed countries, air pollution remains a major public health issue. To fully assess the health impact, we must consider that air pollution exposure has both physical and psychological effects; this latter dimension, less documented, is more difficult to measure and subjective indicators constitute an appropriate alternative. In this context, this work presents the methodological development of a new scale to measure the perception of air quality, useful as an exposure or risk appraisal metric in public health contexts. On the basis of the responses from 2,522 subjects in eight French cities, psychometric methods are used to construct the scale from 22 items that assess risk perception (anxiety about health and quality of life) and the extent to which air pollution is a nuisance (sensorial perception and symptoms). The scale is robust, reproducible, and discriminates between subpopulations more susceptible to poor air pollution perception. The individual risk factors of poor air pollution perception are coherent with those findings in the risk perception literature. Perception of air pollution by the general public is a key issue in the development of comprehensive risk assessment studies as well as in air pollution risk management and policy. This study offers a useful new tool to measure such efforts and to help set priorities for air quality improvements in combination with air quality measurements.

  17. Air pollution epidemiology. Assessment of health effects and risks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katsouyanni, K. [Athens Univ. (Greece). Dept. of Hygiene and Epidemiology


    Air pollution epidemiology is the study of the occurrence and distribution of health outcomes in association with community air pollution exposure. It is therefore specific in the exposure variable. Air pollution health effects became evident during high air pollution episodes which occurred in the first decades of our century. Since then, legal and other control measures have led to lower air pollution levels. However, recent results from several studies indicate that lower levels of air pollution than the previously considered safe have serious adverse health effects. Although, there is increasingly agreement that air pollution, at levels measured today, affects health, there is still a lot to be understood concerning specific causal pollutants, biologic mechanisms involved and sensitive groups of individuals. The extent of potential confounding, time-considerations in air pollution effects, individual variation in air pollution exposure and exposure misclassification are some factors which complicate the study of these issues. (author)

  18. Should researchers use single indicators, best indicators, or multiple indicators in structural equation models?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayduk Leslie A


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Structural equation modeling developed as a statistical melding of path analysis and factor analysis that obscured a fundamental tension between a factor preference for multiple indicators and path modeling’s openness to fewer indicators. Discussion Multiple indicators hamper theory by unnecessarily restricting the number of modeled latents. Using the few best indicators – possibly even the single best indicator of each latent – encourages development of theoretically sophisticated models. Additional latent variables permit stronger statistical control of potential confounders, and encourage detailed investigation of mediating causal mechanisms. Summary We recommend the use of the few best indicators. One or two indicators are often sufficient, but three indicators may occasionally be helpful. More than three indicators are rarely warranted because additional redundant indicators provide less research benefit than single indicators of additional latent variables. Scales created from multiple indicators can introduce additional problems, and are prone to being less desirable than either single or multiple indicators.

  19. The role of open-air inhalatoria in the air quality improvement in spa towns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Burkowska-But


    Full Text Available Objectives: The present study was aimed at evaluating microbiological contamination of air in Ciechocinek and Ino­wro­cław – Polish lowland spa towns. Additionally, the impact of open-air inhalatoria on the quality of air was evaluated. Material and Methods: Air samples were collected seasonally in the urban areas, in the recreation areas and in the vicinity of inhalatoria in both towns using impaction. The numbers of mesophilic bacteria, staphylococci, hemolytic bacteria and actinomycetes were determined on media according to the Polish Standard PN-86/Z-04111/02. The number of moulds was determined on media according to the Polish Standard PN-86/Z-04111/03. Results: While the highest numbers of microorganisms were noted at the sites located in the urban areas, the lowest numbers were noted in the vicinity of the open-air inhalatoria. In all the investigated air samples the values of bioaerosol concentrations were below the recommended TLVs (≤ 5000 CFU×m–3 for both bacteria and fungi in outdoor environments. Location of the sampling site was invariably a decisive factor in determining the number of microorganisms in the air. Conclusions: The aerosol which is formed in the open-air inhalatoria has a positive influence on microbiological air quality. Owing to a unique microclimate and low air contamination, Ciechocinek and Inowrocław comply with all necessary requirements set for health resorts specializing in treating upper respiratory tract infections.

  20. Ambient air quality and the effects of air pollutants on otolaryngology in Beijing. (United States)

    Zhang, Fengying; Xu, Jin; Zhang, Ziying; Meng, Haiying; Wang, Li; Lu, Jinmei; Wang, Wuyi; Krafft, Thomas


    To investigate temporal patterns, pollution concentrations and the health effects of air pollutants in Beijing we carried out time-series analyses on daily concentrations of ambient air pollutants and daily numbers of outpatient visits for otolaryngology over 2 years (2011-2012) to identify possible health effects of air pollutants. The results showed that PM10 was the major air pollutant in Beijing and that air quality was slightly better in 2012 than in 2011. Seasonal differences were apparent for SO2 and NO2. Both the background and urban areas of Beijing experienced particulate matter pollution in 2011. In addition to local air pollution, Beijing was also affected by pollutants transported from other regions, especially during heavy air pollution episodes. PM10, NO2, and SO2 concentrations showed positive associations with numbers of outpatient visits for otolaryngology during winter. NO2 and SO2 also had adverse ear, nose, and throat health effects outside of winter. The ear, nose, and throat health risks caused by air pollutants were higher during the winter than during the summer. NO2 had stronger influence on increased the likelihood of outpatient visits than SO2. The findings provide additional information about air quality and health effects of air pollution in Beijing.

  1. Sampling Position under No-Tillage System Affects the Results of Soil Physical Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Jorge Bernabé Ferreira


    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Understanding the spatial behavior of soil physical properties under no-tillage system (NT is required for the adoption and maintenance of a sustainable soil management system. The aims of this study were to quantify soil bulk density (BD, porosity in the soil macropore domain (PORp and in the soil matrix domain (PORm, air capacity in the soil matrix (ACm, field capacity (FC, and soil water storage capacity (FC/TP in the row (R, interrow (IR, and intermediate position between R and IR (designated IP in the 0.0-0.10 and 0.10-0.20 m soil layers under NT; and to verify if these soil properties have systematic variation in sampling positions related to rows and interrows of corn. Soil sampling was carried out in transect perpendicular to the corn rows in which 40 sampling points were selected at each position (R, IR, IP and in each soil layer, obtaining undisturbed samples to determine the aforementioned soil physical properties. The influence of sampling position on systematic variation of soil physical properties was evaluated by spectral analysis. In the 0.0-0.1 m layer, tilling the crop rows at the time of planting led to differences in BD, PORp, ACm, FC and FC/TP only in the R position. In the R position, the FC/TP ratio was considered close to ideal (0.66, indicating good water and air availability at this sampling position. The R position also showed BD values lower than the critical bulk density that restricts root growth, suggesting good soil physical conditions for seed germination and plant establishment. Spectral analysis indicated that there was systematic variation in soil physical properties evaluated in the 0.0-0.1 m layer, except for PORm. These results indicated that the soil physical properties evaluated in the 0.0-0.1 m layer were associated with soil position in the rows and interrows of corn. Thus, proper assessment of soil physical properties under NT must take into consideration the sampling positions and previous

  2. Positive criminology in practice. (United States)

    Ronel, Natti; Segev, Dana


    The discourse regarding offender rehabilitation has been criticized by various scholars who have claimed that reducing negative causes and managing risk will not automatically prompt positive human development and elements that are associated with desistance. Positive criminology is an innovative concept that challenges the common preoccupation with negative elements, by placing emphasis on human encounters and forces of inclusion that are experienced positively by target individuals and that can promote crime desistance. However, as the concept is relatively new, there are still no guiding principles for the practice of positive criminology that could direct research and the criminal justice system. This article attempts to fill that gap by providing principles that could be practiced by criminal justice personnel and examples of different interventions that reflect positive criminology. The article also provides ideological explanations for adopting the concept of positive criminology in practice.

  3. Air pollution and case fatality of SARS in the People's Republic of China: an ecologic study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Shun-Zhang


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS has claimed 349 lives with 5,327 probable cases reported in mainland China since November 2002. SARS case fatality has varied across geographical areas, which might be partially explained by air pollution level. Methods Publicly accessible data on SARS morbidity and mortality were utilized in the data analysis. Air pollution was evaluated by air pollution index (API derived from the concentrations of particulate matter, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, carbon monoxide and ground-level ozone. Ecologic analysis was conducted to explore the association and correlation between air pollution and SARS case fatality via model fitting. Partially ecologic studies were performed to assess the effects of long-term and short-term exposures on the risk of dying from SARS. Results Ecologic analysis conducted among 5 regions with 100 or more SARS cases showed that case fatality rate increased with the increment of API (case fatality = - 0.063 + 0.001 * API. Partially ecologic study based on short-term exposure demonstrated that SARS patients from regions with moderate APIs had an 84% increased risk of dying from SARS compared to those from regions with low APIs (RR = 1.84, 95% CI: 1.41–2.40. Similarly, SARS patients from regions with high APIs were twice as likely to die from SARS compared to those from regions with low APIs. (RR = 2.18, 95% CI: 1.31–3.65. Partially ecologic analysis based on long-term exposure to ambient air pollution showed the similar association. Conclusion Our studies demonstrated a positive association between air pollution and SARS case fatality in Chinese population by utilizing publicly accessible data on SARS statistics and air pollution indices. Although ecologic fallacy and uncontrolled confounding effect might have biased the results, the possibility of a detrimental effect of air pollution on the prognosis of SARS patients deserves further investigation.

  4. Positioning magnetorheological actuator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mikhailov, Valery; Bazinenkov, Alexey; Akimov, Igor [Bauman Moscow State Technical University, 2-nd Baumanskaia st. 5, MT-11, 105005, Moscow (Russian Federation); Borin, Dmitry [Technische Universitaet Dresden, Chair of Magnetofluiddynamics, 01062, Dresden (Germany)], E-mail:


    In this work we consider a construction of a positioning magnetorheological actuator based on bellow units, as well as dynamical model, which include such elements as a magnetically hysteresis, pressure loses in hydraulic system, nonlinearity of rheological behaviour of working fluid. Two operating modes of positioning actuator are taken into account and transients are presented. Dynamical modelling shows possibility for the improvement of a real control system and ensure of submicron precision of positioning with millisecond time of response.

  5. Global Positioning System III (GPS III) (United States)


    Military Operations in Urban Terrain; Defense-Wide Mission Support; Air Mobility; and Space Launch Orbital Support. For military users, the GPS III...program provides Precise Positioning Service (PPS) to military operations and force enhancement. It also provides increased anti-jam power to the earth be modified . On January 31, 2016, USD(AT&L) signed the GPS III revised APB. This Change 1 to the APB was due to both cost and schedule breaches

  6. Reflection Positive Doubles

    CERN Document Server

    Jaffe, Arthur


    Here we introduce reflection positive doubles, a general framework for reflection positivity, covering a wide variety of systems in statistical physics and quantum field theory. These systems may be bosonic, fermionic, or parafermionic in nature. Within the framework of reflection positive doubles, we give necessary and sufficient conditions for reflection positivity. We use a reflection-invariant cone to implement our construction. Our characterization allows for a direct interpretation in terms of coupling constants, making it easy to check in concrete situations. We illustrate our methods with numerous examples.

  7. AirCompare (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — AirCompare contains air quality information that allows a user to compare conditions in different localities over time and compare conditions in the same location...

  8. Allegheny County Air Quality (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Air quality data from Allegheny County Health Department monitors throughout the county. Air quality monitored data must be verified by qualified individuals before...

  9. Air Quality Facilities (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — Facilities with operating permits for Title V of the Federal Clean Air Act, as well as facilities required to submit an air emissions inventory, and other facilities...

  10. Indoor Air Pollution (United States)

    We usually think of air pollution as being outdoors, but the air in your house or office could also be polluted. Sources of indoor pollution include Mold and pollen Tobacco smoke Household products ...

  11. Air Quality System (AQS) (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Air Quality System (AQS) database contains measurements of air pollutant concentrations from throughout the United States and its territories. The measurements...

  12. Positional demands of professional rugby. (United States)

    Lindsay, Angus; Draper, Nick; Lewis, John; Gieseg, Steven P; Gill, Nicholas


    Rugby union is a physically intense intermittent sport coupled with high force collisions. Each position within a team has specific requirements which are typically based on speed, size and skill. The aim of this study was to investigate the contemporary demands of each position and whether they can explain changes in psychophysiological stress. Urine and saliva samples were collected before and after five selected Super 15 rugby games from 37 players. Total neopterin (NP), cortisol and immunoglobulin A were analysed by SCX-high performance liquid chromatography and enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. Global positioning system software provided distance data, while live video analysis provided impact data. All contemporary demands were analysed as events per minute of game time. Forwards were involved in more total impacts, tackles and rucks compared to backs (p cortisol and sIgA. The results indicate distance covered and number of impacts per minute of game time is position-dependent whereas changes in psychophysiological stress are independent. This information can be used to adapt training and recovery interventions to better prepare each position based on the physical requirements of the game.

  13. Random matrix theory and cross-correlations in global financial indices and local stock market indices (United States)

    Nobi, Ashadun; Maeng, Seong Eun; Ha, Gyeong Gyun; Lee, Jae Woo


    We analyzed cross-correlations between price fluctuations of global financial indices (20 daily stock indices over the world) and local indices (daily indices of 200 companies in the Korean stock market) by using random matrix theory (RMT). We compared eigenvalues and components of the largest and the second largest eigenvectors of the cross-correlation matrix before, during, and after the global financial the crisis in the year 2008. We find that the majority of its eigenvalues fall within the RMT bounds [ λ -, λ +], where λ - and λ + are the lower and the upper bounds of the eigenvalues of random correlation matrices. The components of the eigenvectors for the largest positive eigenvalues indicate the identical financial market mode dominating the global and local indices. On the other hand, the components of the eigenvector corresponding to the second largest eigenvalue are positive and negative values alternatively. The components before the crisis change sign during the crisis, and those during the crisis change sign after the crisis. The largest inverse participation ratio (IPR) corresponding to the smallest eigenvector is higher after the crisis than during any other periods in the global and local indices. During the global financial the crisis, the correlations among the global indices and among the local stock indices are perturbed significantly. However, the correlations between indices quickly recover the trends before the crisis.

  14. Values of Kp Indices, Ap Indices, Cp Indices, C9 Indices, Sunspot Number, and 10.7 cm Flux (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data file consists of Kp indices, Ap indices, Cp indices, C9 indices, sunspot number, and 10.7 cm flux. The most often requested parameter of this file are the...

  15. Nordic eHealth Indicators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)


    eHealth indicator and benchmarking activities are rapidly increasing nationally and internationally. The work is rarely based on a transparent methodology for indicator definition. This article describes first results of testing an indicator methodology for defining eHealth indicators, which...

  16. Air Power and Warfare (United States)


    Memorial, 1963. (T) 767.8 A3 ser .3, V.4) Air war against Germany and Italy, 1939-1943. Canberra: Australian War Memorial, 1954. (D 767.8 A3 Ser .3, al. Air poder indivisible Air University Ouarterly Review 2:5-18, Fall 1950. Spaatz, Crrl. Air-power odds against us. Readers Digest 58:11-14, June

  17. Indoor air quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Trine Susanne; Recevska, Ieva

     The objective of the 35th specific agreement is to provide support to the EEA activities in Environment and Health (E&H) on the topic of indoor air quality. The specific objectives have been to provide an overview of indoor air related projects in EU and indoor air related policies as well...... as idenfiying "good practices" to reduce health impact of indoor air exposure and suggest areas for future improvements....

  18. High Energy Efficiency Air Conditioning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edward McCullough; Patrick Dhooge; Jonathan Nimitz


    This project determined the performance of a new high efficiency refrigerant, Ikon B, in a residential air conditioner designed to use R-22. The refrigerant R-22, used in residential and small commercial air conditioners, is being phased out of production in developed countries beginning this year because of concerns regarding its ozone depletion potential. Although a replacement refrigerant, R-410A, is available, it operates at much higher pressure than R-22 and requires new equipment. R-22 air conditioners will continue to be in use for many years to come. Air conditioning is a large part of expensive summer peak power use in many parts of the U.S. Previous testing and computer simulations of Ikon B indicated that it would have 20 - 25% higher coefficient of performance (COP, the amount of cooling obtained per energy used) than R-22 in an air-cooled air conditioner. In this project, a typical new R-22 residential air conditioner was obtained, installed in a large environmental chamber, instrumented, and run both with its original charge of R-22 and then with Ikon B. In the environmental chamber, controlled temperature and humidity could be maintained to obtain repeatable and comparable energy use results. Tests with Ikon B included runs with and without a power controller, and an extended run for several months with subsequent analyses to check compatibility of Ikon B with the air conditioner materials and lubricant. Baseline energy use of the air conditioner with its original R-22 charge was measured at 90 deg F and 100 deg F. After changeover to Ikon B and a larger expansion orifice, energy use was measured at 90 deg F and 100 deg F. Ikon B proved to have about 19% higher COP at 90 deg F and about 26% higher COP at 100 deg F versus R-22. Ikon B had about 20% lower cooling capacity at 90 deg F and about 17% lower cooling capacity at 100 deg F versus R-22 in this system. All results over multiple runs were within 1% relative standard deviation (RSD). All of these

  19. Impact of individually controlled facially applied air movement on perceived air quality at high humidity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skwarczynski, Mariusz; Melikov, Arsen Krikor; Kaczmarczyk, J.


    The effect of facially applied air movement on perceived air quality (PAQ) at high humidity was studied. Thirty subjects (21 males and 9 females) participated in three, 3-h experiments performed in a climate chamber. The experimental conditions covered three combinations of relative humidity...... toward the upper part of the body (upper chest, head). The subjects could control the flow rate (velocity) of the supplied air in the vicinity of their bodies. The results indicate an airflow with elevated velocity applied to the face significantly improves the acceptability of the air quality...

  20. 14 CFR 65.37 - Skill requirements: Operating positions. (United States)


    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Skill requirements: Operating positions. 65... § 65.37 Skill requirements: Operating positions. No person may act as an air traffic control tower... is required by the person performing the examination: (1) The airport, including rules,...

  1. We Pollute the Air

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    1.Clean air is important to good health.If the aircontains impurities,they may be absorbed by ourbodies and make us ill.We need clean air,butunfortunately,air pollution is generally present,especially in cities. 2.Our cities have many factories,which we need tomake food products,clothing and many other things.

  2. Air Pollution Training Programs. (United States)

    Public Health Service (DHEW), Rockville, MD.

    This catalog lists the universities, both supported and not supported by the Division of Air Pollution, which offer graduate programs in the field of air pollution. The catalog briefly describes the programs and their entrance requirements, the requirements, qualifications and terms of special fellowships offered by the Division of Air Pollution.…

  3. Low-Cost Sensor Units for Measuring Urban Air Quality (United States)

    Popoola, O. A.; Mead, M.; Stewart, G.; Hodgson, T.; McLoed, M.; Baldovi, J.; Landshoff, P.; Hayes, M.; Calleja, M.; Jones, R.


    Measurements of selected key air quality gases (CO, NO & NO2) have been made with a range of miniature low-cost sensors based on electrochemical gas sensing technology incorporating GPS and GPRS for position and communication respectively. Two types of simple to operate sensors units have been designed to be deployed in relatively large numbers. Mobile handheld sensor units designed for operation by members of the public have been deployed on numerous occasions including in Cambridge, London and Valencia. Static sensor units have also been designed for long-term autonomous deployment on existing street furniture. A study was recently completed in which 45 sensor units were deployed in the Cambridge area for a period of 3 months. Results from these studies indicate that air quality varies widely both spatially and temporally. The widely varying concentrations found suggest that the urban environment cannot be fully understood using limited static site (AURN) networks and that a higher resolution, more dispersed network is required to better define air quality in the urban environment. The results also suggest that higher spatial and temporal resolution measurements could improve knowledge of the levels of individual exposure in the urban environment.

  4. Den positive psykologis metoder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Frans Ørsted; Mørck, Line Lerche; Nissen, Poul Erik

    En antologi der giver en introduktion til en række af de metoder der anvendes til forskning, assessment, test, udviklingsarbejde og intervention indenfor den positive psykologi.......En antologi der giver en introduktion til en række af de metoder der anvendes til forskning, assessment, test, udviklingsarbejde og intervention indenfor den positive psykologi....

  5. Letter Position Dyslexia in Arabic: From Form to Position (United States)

    Friedmann, Naama; Haddad-Hanna, Manar


    This study reports the reading of 11 Arabic-speaking individuals with letter position dyslexia (LPD), and the effect of letter form on their reading errors. LPD is a peripheral dyslexia caused by a selective deficit to letter position encoding in the orthographic-visual analyzer, which results in migration of letters within words, primarily of middle letters. The Arabic orthography is especially interesting for the study of LPD because Arabic letters have different forms in different positions in the word. As a result, some letter position errors require letter form change. We compared the rate of letter migrations that change letter form with migrations that do not change letter form in 10 Arabic-speaking individuals with developmental LPD, and one bilingual Arabic and Hebrew-speaking individual with acquired LPD. The results indicated that the participants made 40% letter position errors in migratable words when the resulting word included the letters in the same form, whereas migrations that changed letter form almost never occurred. The error rate of the Arabic-Hebrew bilingual reader was smaller in Arabic than in Hebrew. However, when only words in which migrations do not change letter form were counted, the rate was similar in Arabic and Hebrew. Hence, whereas orthographies with multiple letter forms for each letter might seem more difficult in some respects, these orthographies are in fact easier to read in some forms of dyslexia. Thus, the diagnosis of LPD in Arabic should consider the effect of letter forms on migration errors, and use only migratable words that do not require letter-form change. The theoretical implications for the reading model are that letter form (of the position-dependent type found in Arabic) is part of the information encoded in the abstract letter identity, and thus affects further word recognition processes, and that there might be a pre-lexical graphemic buffer in which the checking of orthographic well-formedness takes place

  6. Influence of local air velocity from air conditioner evaluated by salivary and skin biomarkers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamaguchi, Masaki; Takahashi, Takayuki; Yoshino, Yuichiro; Sasaki, Makoto [Graduate School of Engineering, Iwate University, 4-3-5 Ueda, Morioka 020-8551 (Japan); Nishimiya, Hajime [Asahi Kasei Homes Corporation, R and D Laboratories, 2-1 Samejima, Fuji, Shizuoka 416-8501 (Japan)


    The purpose of this paper is to reveal both the psychosomatic and the physical effects of local air velocity from an air conditioner using biomarkers which can be collected noninvasively. Salivary {alpha}-amylase activity (SAA) and salivary cortisol were used as the indexes of psychosomatic effects. The total protein (TP) collected from stratum corneum was used as an index of the physical condition of dry skin. A continuous experiment over a 5 days period in summer was conducted using 8 healthy young male adults for 2-types of airflow conditioners, a whole ceiling-type air conditioner (without local air velocity) and a normal-type air conditioner (with local air velocity). The subjects felt cool, windy, dry and uncomfortable when under the normal-type air conditioner as determined in a subjective evaluation. The SAA under the normal-type air conditioner fluctuated more widely than with the whole ceiling-type air conditioner. The level of salivary cortisol decreased more in a day under the normal-type air conditioner than with the whole ceiling-type air conditioner. These results showed that reducing local air velocity may provide more healthy psychosomatic conditions over the long-term. Moreover, the TP of a drying-exposed skin area showed a significant change during this experiment whereas the TP of drying-protected area was relatively unchanged. It was indicated that one week's exposure to local air velocity conditions possibly influences the drying of facial skin. Thus, air movement at low velocity can be provides more comfortable conditions not only psychosomatically but also physically. (author)

  7. A rigorous model of reflex function indicates that position and force feedback are flexibly tuned to position and force tasks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mugge, W.; Abbink, D.A.; Schouten, A.C.; Dewald, J.P.A.; Van der Helm, F.C.T.


    This study aims to quantify the separate contributions of muscle force feedback, muscle spindle activity and co-contraction to the performance of voluntary tasks (‘‘reduce the influence of perturbations on maintained force or position’’). Most human motion control studies either isolate only one con

  8. Air quality and urban management in Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alberti, M. [Stanford Univ. (United States). Center for Conservation Biology; Joffre, S. [Finnish Meteorological Inst., Helsinki (Finland)


    Important changes in the quality of urban air have occurred in Europe during the last 20 years. Urban air quality trends are clearly correlated to changes in production and consumption processes which have occurred in European cities during the last decades. However, the way these trends are linked with the changes in the urban structure is not yet fully appreciated. A set of indicators is proposed to examine the relationships between air quality, energy consumption and transportation trends. On this basis is argued that the current decentralization of the urban structure and specialization of land use are major driving forces in current urban air pollution. The range of actions and tools to improve urban air quality should include: (1) land use planning, (2) efficient urban management, and (3) measures directed to protecting the quality of the urban environment. (author)

  9. Air quality management in Riga area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leitass, A. [Riga City Council (Latvia). Air Monitoring Dept.


    The present Air Quality Management System was started in 1992 as a result of co-operation between two cities - Riga and Norrkoping (Sweden) supported by BITS (The Swedish Agency for International Technical and Economic Co-operation). Lots of Swedish companies were involved in different parts of this project. The strategy is designed by INDIC company developing the AIRVIRO which is a computer based system for all aspects of air quality management. Air pollution in Riga is a serious problem affecting health and damaging valuable buildings of historic value. The majority of the city`s air pollution is the result of emission sources inside the city. The traffic is the predominant source of pollution now. The fossil fuel power stations in the country are not considered to affect the air quality situation in Riga. (author)

  10. Cough and environmental air pollution in China. (United States)

    Zhang, Qingling; Qiu, Minzhi; Lai, Kefang; Zhong, Nanshan


    With fast-paced urbanization and increased energy consumption in rapidly industrialized modern China, the level of outdoor and indoor air pollution resulting from industrial and motor vehicle emissions has been increasing at an accelerated rate. Thus, there is a significant increase in the prevalence of respiratory symptoms such as coughing, wheezing, and decreased pulmonary function. Experimental exposure research and epidemiological studies have indicated that exposure to particulate matter, ozone, nitrogen dioxide, and environmental tobacco smoke have a harmful influence on development of respiratory diseases and are significantly associated with cough and wheeze. This review mainly discusses the effect of air pollutants on respiratory health, particularly with respect to cough, the links between air pollutants and microorganisms, and air pollutant sources. Particular attention is paid to studies in urban areas of China where the levels of ambient and indoor air pollution are significantly higher than World Health Organization recommendations.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shakhshir Ghassan


    Full Text Available The positioning strategy has suffered serious changes in the last few decades, being influenced by the rapid development of competition and the growing focus on specific traits belonging to the market, to the consumer or to the product. The purpose of this paper is to present the developments of theoretical positioning strategies and the orientation from more simple, product oriented strategies, to ones more oriented towards the client and with a briefer period of time. The world is moving in a much faster pace than in the past, thanks to communication development so companies are obliged to adopt more specific strategies in order for them to be effective. This essay represents a literary review presenting a documentary research within the scientific articles and strategy and positioning books. The paper begins with the analysis of company strategies and the marketing strategies in general. The first author to group the product positioning strategies is Porter with his three generic strategies. Following the development of brands and because of the lack of competitiveness in the simple generic positioning strategies, this paper has also presented the newer positioning strategies proposed by Kotler, Treacy & Wiersema, and also more complex ones such as Bowman's Strategy Clock and Blankson and Kalafatis positioning strategy based on the type of the consumer. The fast expansion of local brands in all categories has led to mistakes in positioning strategies, categories also presented in the current essay. The results of this study show that new positioning strategies are more and more based on the consumer and market segments and on the product specification - which have also evolved in the last decades. Adaptability to fast changes in the competitive market will represent the future positioning strategies.

  12. Manual for THOR-AirPAS - air pollution assessment system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Steen Solvang; Ketzel, Matthias; Brandt, Jørgen

    The report provides an outline of the THOR-AirPAS - air pollution assessment system and a brief manual for getting started with the air quality models and input data included in THOR-AirPAS.......The report provides an outline of the THOR-AirPAS - air pollution assessment system and a brief manual for getting started with the air quality models and input data included in THOR-AirPAS....

  13. An approach to represent a combined exposure to air pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mieczyslaw Szyszkowicz


    Full Text Available Objectives: The objective of this study was to present a technique for estimating the effect of ambient air pollution mix on health outcomes. Material and Methods: We created a technique of indexing air pollution mix as a cause of the increased odds of health problems. As an illustrative example, we analyzed the impact of pollution on the frequency of emergency department (ED visits due to colitis among young patients (age < 15 years, N = 11 110. Our technique involves 2 steps. First, we considered 6 ambient air pollutants (carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, sulphur dioxide, ozone, and 2 measures of particulate matter treating each pollutant as a single exposure. Odds ratios (ORs for ED visits associated with a standard increase (interquartile range – IQR in the pollutants levels were calculated using the case-crossover technique. The ORs and their 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs were also found for lagged exposures (for lags 1–9 days. Second, we defined a Health Air Study Index (HASI to represent the combined impact of the 6 air pollutants. Results: We obtained positive and statistically significant results for individual air pollutants and among them the following estimations: OR = 1.06 (95% CI: 1.02–1.1, NO2 lag 3, IQR = 12.8 ppb, OR = 1.04 (95% CI: 1.01–1.07, SO2 lag 4, IQR = 2.3 ppb, OR = 1.04 (95% CI: 1–1.06, PM lag 3, IQR = 6.2 μg/m3. Among the re-calculated ORs with the HASI values as an exposure, the highest estimated value was OR = 1.37 (95% CI: 1.12–1.68, for 1 unit of the HASI, lag 3. Conclusions: The proposed index (HASI allows to confirm the pattern of associations for lags obtained for individual air pollutants. In the presented example the used index (HASI indicates the strongest relation with the exposure lagged by 3 days.

  14. Uso da poeira e do ar como indicadores de contaminação ambiental em áreas circunvizinhas a uma fonte de emissão estacionária de chumbo Use of dust and air as indicators of environmental pollution in areas adjacent to a source of stationary lead emission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Lorena Quiterio


    Full Text Available Neste trabalho, determinou-se o nível de chumbo (Pb presente no ar em ambientes externos e na poeira doméstica de residências localizadas próximo a uma reformadora de baterias (RB. Uma das principais fontes de exposição ao Pb são empresas do setor de RB, que ainda utilizam processos e tecnologia obsoletos em instalações precárias. Na área externa à RB foram realizadas coletas em seis pontos localizados a aproximadamente 25m e a 500m da RB. Os resultados obtidos mostram que o limite para Pb no ar atmosférico (Pb-Ar de 1,5µg Pb.m-3 foi excedido em 50% das amostras coletadas, variando de 0,03 a 183,3µg Pb.m-3. As coletas nas dependências internas e externas das residências foram realizadas em seis pontos de quatorze residências localizadas a aproximadamente 25m, 50m e a 500m da RB. O limite de Pb na poeira doméstica (Pb-Pd de 1.500µg Pb.m-2 foi excedido em 44% das amostras coletadas, apresentando valores variáveis de 2,2 a 54.338,9µg Pb.m-2.This study measured lead concentrations in both the outdoor air and household dust from houses located around a lead-acid battery repair shop. Such installations are one of the largest sources of lead exposure, since outdated technology is still used, coupled with the lack of strict air-quality control programs. Measurements of the air lead concentration around the repair shop were carried out at 6 points, approximately 25 and 500m from the shop. Over 50% of the air samples exceeded the limit of 1.5µg Pb.m-3 (range 0.03 - 183.3µg Pb.m-3. House dust samples were collected from 6 places in houses located at approximately 25, 50, and 500m from the repair shop, and the concentration of 1,500µg Pb.m-2 for lead in house dust was exceeded in 44% of the samples, with results varying from 2.2 to 54,338.9µg Pb.m-2.

  15. Indicators for Monitoring Soil Biodiversity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bispo, A.; Cluzeau, D.; Creamer, R.


    is made for a set of suitable indicators for monitoring the decline in soil biodiversity (Bispo et al. 2007). These indicators were selected both from a literature review and an inventory of national monitoring programmes. Decline in soil biodiversity was defined as the reduction of forms of life living...... indicators are actually measured.   For monitoring application it was considered in ENVASSO that only three key indicators per soil stress were practical. For indicating biodiversity decline it was difficult to arrive at a small set of indicators due to the complexity of soil biota and functions. Therefore...

  16. Impact of Main Macroeconomic Indicators on Happiness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yavuz Agan


    Full Text Available The relationship between economic welfare and happiness has been compounded by different conceptualizations and statistical approaches. Economic conditions influence the welfare and social well-being of the society. While the literature indicates a positive relationship between income levels and life satisfaction, it indicates negative relationships between inflation, unemployment and life satisfaction. In this paper we analyze the relationship between main macroeconomic variables of unemployment, inflation, per capita GDP and life satisfaction using data from 57 countries. We make use of the standard regression analysis and conclude that our method is sufficient to examine the relations and the stated macro variables are significantly affecting life satisfaction towards expected directions.

  17. Impact of Main Macroeconomic Indicators on Happiness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yavuz Agan


    Full Text Available The relationship between economic welfare and happiness has been compounded by different conceptualizations and statistical approaches. Economic conditions influence the welfare and social well-being of the society. While the literature indicates a positive relationship between income levels and life satisfaction, it indicates negative relationships between inflation, unemployment and life satisfaction. In this paper we analyze the relationship between main macroeconomic variables of unemployment, inflation, per capita GDP and life satisfaction using data from 57 countries. We make use of the standard regression analysis and conclude that our method is sufficient to examine the relations and the stated macro variables are significantly affecting life satisfaction towards expected directions

  18. Prognostic Indicators for Ebola Patient Survival. (United States)

    Crowe, Samuel J; Maenner, Matthew J; Kuah, Solomon; Erickson, Bobbie Rae; Coffee, Megan; Knust, Barbara; Klena, John; Foday, Joyce; Hertz, Darren; Hermans, Veerle; Achar, Jay; Caleo, Grazia M; Van Herp, Michel; Albariño, César G; Amman, Brian; Basile, Alison Jane; Bearden, Scott; Belser, Jessica A; Bergeron, Eric; Blau, Dianna; Brault, Aaron C; Campbell, Shelley; Flint, Mike; Gibbons, Aridth; Goodman, Christin; McMullan, Laura; Paddock, Christopher; Russell, Brandy; Salzer, Johanna S; Sanchez, Angela; Sealy, Tara; Wang, David; Saffa, Gbessay; Turay, Alhajie; Nichol, Stuart T; Towner, Jonathan S


    To determine whether 2 readily available indicators predicted survival among patients with Ebola virus disease in Sierra Leone, we evaluated information for 216 of the 227 patients in Bo District during a 4-month period. The indicators were time from symptom onset to healthcare facility admission and quantitative real-time reverse transcription PCR cycle threshold (Ct), a surrogate for viral load, in first Ebola virus-positive blood sample tested. Of these patients, 151 were alive when detected and had reported healthcare facility admission dates and Ct values available. Time from symptom onset to healthcare facility admission was not associated with survival, but viral load in the first Ebola virus-positive blood sample was inversely associated with survival: 52 (87%) of 60 patients with a Ct of >24 survived and 20 (22%) of 91 with a Ct of <24 survived. Ct values may be useful for clinicians making treatment decisions or managing patient or family expectations.

  19. Intergenerational continuity in economic hardship, parental positivity, and positive parenting: The association with child behavior. (United States)

    Jeon, Shinyoung; Neppl, Tricia K


    The current study examined intergenerational continuity in economic hardship, parental positivity, and positive parenting across generations based on both the family stress model (FSM) and the family resilience framework. The study included 220 generation 1 (G1) parents, their target youth (generation 2: G2) who participated from adolescence through adulthood, and the target's child (generation 3: G3). Assessments included observational and self-report measures. Results indicated that G1 economic hardship negatively influenced both G1 positivity and G1 positive parenting. Similarly, G2 economic hardship was negatively related to both G2 positivity and G2 positive parenting, which in turn was associated with G3 positive behavior to G2. For both G1 and G2, parental positivity mediated the association between economic hardship and positive parenting. G2 economic hardship was indirectly related to G3 positive behavior through G2 parental positivity and positive parenting. An important finding is that the intergenerational continuity of economic hardship, positivity, and positive parenting were transmitted from G1 to G2. Results suggest that even in times of economic adversity, parental positivity and positive parenting were transmitted from G1 parents to their G2 youth during adulthood. Such continuity seems to influence the positive behavior of the G3 children.

  20. Long-term Changes in Extreme Air Pollution Meteorology and the Implications for Air Quality. (United States)

    Hou, Pei; Wu, Shiliang


    Extreme air pollution meteorological events, such as heat waves, temperature inversions and atmospheric stagnation episodes, can significantly affect air quality. Based on observational data, we have analyzed the long-term evolution of extreme air pollution meteorology on the global scale and their potential impacts on air quality, especially the high pollution episodes. We have identified significant increasing trends for the occurrences of extreme air pollution meteorological events in the past six decades, especially over the continental regions. Statistical analysis combining air quality data and meteorological data further indicates strong sensitivities of air quality (including both average air pollutant concentrations and high pollution episodes) to extreme meteorological events. For example, we find that in the United States the probability of severe ozone pollution when there are heat waves could be up to seven times of the average probability during summertime, while temperature inversions in wintertime could enhance the probability of severe particulate matter pollution by more than a factor of two. We have also identified significant seasonal and spatial variations in the sensitivity of air quality to extreme air pollution meteorology.

  1. Air Quality of Beijing and Impacts of the New Ambient Air Quality Standard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Chen


    Full Text Available Beijing has been publishing daily reports on its air quality since 2000, and while the air pollution index (API shows that the air quality has improved greatly since 2000, this is not the perception of Beijing’s residents. The new national ambient air quality standard (NAAQS-2012, which includes the monitoring of PM2.5, has posed stricter standards for evaluating air quality. With the new national standard, the air quality in Beijing is calculated using both NAAQS-2012 and the previous standard. The annual attainment rate has dropped from 75.5% to 50.7%. The spatial analysis of air quality shows that only a background station could attain the national standard, while urban and suburban stations exceed the national standard. Among the six pollutants included in the NAAQS-2012, PM2.5 is the major contributor to the air quality index (AQI comparing with the five other pollutants. The results indicate that under previous NAAQS without PM2.5 monitoring, the air quality has improved greatly in the past decade.  By considering PM2.5, the air quality attainment has dropped greatly. Furthermore, a great effort is needed for local government to bring down the PM2.5 concentration.

  2. Air Conditioning Does Reduce Air Pollution Indoors (United States)

    Healy, Bud


    Report of the winter meeting of the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers. Subjects covered are--(1) title subject, (2) predictions for the human habitat in 1994, (3) fans, and (4) fire safety in buildings. (JW)

  3. Phytoestrogens in postmenopausal indications: A theoretical perspective


    P Sunita; Pattanayak, S. P.


    This review discusses plant-derived compounds with estrogenic activity. The authors rightly emphasize the need for the intake of foods containing phytoestrogens in view of their positive effects on postmenopausal indications. This is particularly significant in the light of the current wave of enthusiasm for vegetarian food, in general, and phytoestrogens, in particular. Phytoestrogens are plant-derived hormone-like diphenolic compounds of dietary origin. These compounds are weakly estrogenic...

  4. Humor as a Mental Fitness Indicator


    Howrigan, Daniel P.; Kevin B. MacDonald


    To explain the pervasive role of humor in human social interaction and among mating partner preferences, Miller (2000a) proposed that intentional humor evolved as an indicator of intelligence. To test this, we looked at the relationships among rater-judged humor, general intelligence, and the Big Five personality traits in a sample of 185 college-age students (115 women, 70 men). General intelligence positively predicted rater-judged humor, independent of the Big Five personality traits. Extr...

  5. False positives in imaging genetics. (United States)

    Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas; Nicodemus, Kristin K; Egan, Michael F; Callicott, Joseph H; Mattay, Venkata; Weinberger, Daniel R


    Imaging genetics provides an enormous amount of functional-structural data on gene effects in living brain, but the sheer quantity of potential phenotypes raises concerns about false discovery. Here, we provide the first empirical results on false positive rates in imaging genetics. We analyzed 720 frequent coding SNPs without significant association with schizophrenia and a subset of 492 of these without association with cognitive function. Effects on brain structure (using voxel-based morphometry, VBM) and brain function, using two archival imaging tasks, the n-back working memory task and an emotional face matching task, were studied in whole brain and regions of interest and corrected for multiple comparisons using standard neuroimaging procedures. Since these variants are unlikely to impact relevant brain function, positives obtained provide an upper empirical estimate of the false positive association rate. In a separate analysis, we randomly permuted genotype labels across subjects, removing any true genotype-phenotype association in the data, to derive a lower empirical estimate. At a set correction level of 0.05, in each region of interest and data set used, the rate of positive findings was well below 5% (0.2-4.1%). There was no relationship between the region of interest and the false positive rate. Permutation results were in the same range as empirically derived rates. The observed low rates of positives provide empirical evidence that the type I error rate is well controlled by current commonly used correction procedures in imaging genetics, at least in the context of the imaging paradigms we have used. In fact, our observations indicate that these statistical thresholds are conservative.

  6. Edible Acid-Base Indicators. (United States)

    Mebane, Robert C.; Rybolt, Thomas R.


    Reports on the colors observed during titrations of 15 natural indicators obtained from common fruits and vegetables. These edible indicators can be used for a variety of teacher demonstrations or for simple student experiments. (JN)

  7. Positional Concerns and Institutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Landes, Xavier


    that invoking envy or subjective well-being is not fully satisfying for regulating positional concerns. More compelling reasons seem, in complement with efficiency, to be related to considerations for equality. In other words, if institutions could have strong reasons to pay attention to and regulate positional...... their implications for economics, positional concerns imply important normative dimensions. There have been presumed to be a symptom of envy, reduce people’s happiness, and create problems of social interaction or economic inefficiencies. Individuals are, for instance, prone to pick states of the world that improve...

  8. Position Resolution in DROIDs (United States)

    Samedov, Victor V.


    Since the very beginning, Distributed Read-Out Imaging Devices (DROIDs) were proposed to achieve both good position and energy resolutions. In DROIDs, the absorption of primary particle energy occurs in a long superconductive strip. Quasiparticles produced in the absorber diffuse along the strip and counted by the superconductive tunnel junctions positioned at the two ends of the strip. In this paper the formula for estimation DROID’s position resolution from experimental data was derived. This formula takes into account correlation between fluctuations of signals of DROID’s detectors.

  9. Influence of forced air volume on water evaporation during sewage sludge bio-drying. (United States)

    Cai, Lu; Chen, Tong-Bin; Gao, Ding; Zheng, Guo-Di; Liu, Hong-Tao; Pan, Tian-Hao


    Mechanical aeration is critical to sewage sludge bio-drying, and the actual water loss caused by aeration can be better understood from investigations of the relationship between aeration and water evaporation from the sewage sludge bio-drying pile based on in situ measurements. This study was conducted to investigate the effects of forced air volume on the evaporation of water from a sewage sludge bio-drying pile. Dewatered sewage sludge was bio-dried using control technology for bio-drying, during which time the temperature, superficial air velocity and water evaporation were measured and calculated. The results indicated that the peak air velocity and water evaporation occurred in the thermophilic phase and second temperature-increasing phase, with the highest values of 0.063 ± 0.027 m s(-1) and 28.9 kg ton(-1) matrix d(-1), respectively, being observed on day 4. Air velocity above the pile during aeration was 43-100% higher than when there was no aeration, and there was a significantly positive correlation between air volume and water evaporation from day 1 to 15. The order of daily means of water evaporation was thermophilic phase > second temperature-increasing phase > temperature-increasing phase > cooling phase. Forced aeration controlled the pile temperature and improved evaporation, making it the key factor influencing water loss during the process of sewage sludge bio-drying.

  10. Residential Forced Air System Cabinet Leakage and Blower Performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, Iain S.; Dickerhoff, Darryl J.; Delp, William W.


    This project evaluated the air leakage and electric power consumption of Residential HVAC components, with a particular focus on air leakage of furnace cabinets. Laboratory testing of HVAC components indicated that air leakage can be significant and highly variable from unit to unit ? indicating the need for a standard test method and specifying maximum allowable air leakage in California State energy codes. To further this effort, this project provided technical assistance for the development of a national standard for Residential HVAC equipment air leakage. This standard is being developed by ASHRAE and is called"ASHRAE Standard 193P - Method of test for Determining the Air Leakage Rate of HVAC Equipment". The final part of this project evaluated techniques for measurement of furnace blower power consumption. A draft test procedure for power consumption was developed in collaboration with the Canadian General Standards Board: CSA 823"Performance Standard for air handlers in residential space conditioning systems".


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Raising of problem. Any manufacturing processes related to the generation of waste. Year after year, a growing mass of waste is one of the main factors reducing the quality of the environment and destruction of natural landscapes. Industrial development inevitably enhances human impacts on the environment and disrupts the ecological balance [3]. Atmospher air is a vital element of the environment. The development of industry, the growth of cities, increasing the number of transport, active exploration of near-Earth space lead to a change in the gas composition of the atmosphere and disruption of its natural balance. Air quality affects the health of the population [5]. Without water or food a person can do for a while, but without air he can not live a few minutes, therefore saving air breathable is an urgent problem. Purpose. The results of geological studies clearly indicate that the contamination of the surface layer of the atmosphere is the most powerful permanent factor of influence on the human food chain and the environment. This problem was reflected in the scientific literature [2; 3; 6], and the second significant indicator of ecological well-being of the region is the number of generation and accumulation of waste. According to this indicator, Dnipropetrovsk region is in the lead, as relates to the industrialized regions. The idea of the article is to consider the air pollution of the urban environment in terms of the accumulation of waste in the territory of enterprises, in particular slag dumps metallurgical production. Conclusion. Slag dumps located on the premises are a significant source of air pollution urbanized areas due to the permanent nature of the spread of contamination. Slag dump of PAT "Nikopol Ferroalloy Plant" is a source of manganese, zinc, nickel emissions. As a conclusion about the magnitude of pollution of the atmospheric boundary layer can say the following: on the border of the sanitary protection zone (SPZ, in

  12. Modeling the impact of air transport on the economy - practices, problems and prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Huderek-Glapska


    Full Text Available Background: The issue of measuring the contribution of air transport to the regional economy is very important nowadays since many airport infrastructure projects are being implemented, using available European Union funds. As a result of growing transport needs and increasing incomes among the population, the air transport market is strongly developing.  This development results to many direct and indirect socio-economic benefits to locations in close proximity of an airport but also in the whole economy. The measurement of these benefits is important because the decisions made with respect to air transport influence local and regional economic performance. The most commonly used tool for measuring the positive effects associated with the operation of an airport is the input-output analysis. The aim of the article is to present the characteristics of the input-output method, to indicate its applications in Poland - the country with the most dynamic growth of air transport, to present the possible limitations of this method and propose improvements. Methods: The method used in this research is one that measures the effects of changes in the economy as a result of air transport activity. Particular input-output analysis is used. Results: On the background of the results of modeling the impact of polish airport on regional economy in 2009 the updated analysis in 2012 is provided. The economic impacts of Krakow, Katowice, Wroclaw and Szczecin airports are estimated. Then the limitations of input-output method are presented and suggestions of possible improvements are made. Comments: Proper measurement of the impact of airport's operation and investment on the economy, leads to more effective air transport policy development. For future research, the advanced input-output method to assess the positive impact of airports on regional development is recommended. However, a comprehensive assessment of the operation and expansion of airport

  13. Mockup Small-Diameter Air Distribution System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A. Poerschke and A. Rudd


    This report investigates the feasibility of using a home-run manifold small-diameter duct system to provide space conditioning air to individual thermal zones in a low-load home. This compact layout allows duct systems to be brought easily within conditioned space via interior partition walls. Centrally locating the air hander unit in the house significantly reduces duct lengths. The plenum box is designed so that each connected duct receives an equal amount of airflow, regardless of the duct position on the box. Furthermore, within a reasonable set of length restrictions, each duct continues to receive similar airflow. The design method uses an additive approach to reach the total needed zonal airflow. Once the cubic feet per minute needed to satisfy the thermal load of a zone has been determined, the total number of duct runs to a zone can be calculated by dividing the required airflow by the standard airflow from each duct. The additive approach greatly simplifies the design effort and reduces the potential for duct design mistakes to be made. Measured results indicate that this plenum design can satisfy the heating load. However, the total airflow falls short of satisfying the cooling load in a hypothetical building. Static pressure inside the plenum box of 51.5 Pa limited the total airflow of the attached mini-split heat pump blower, thus limiting the total thermal capacity. Fan energy consumption is kept to 0.16 to 0.22 watt/CFM by using short duct runs and smooth duct material.

  14. Traffic air pollution and oxidized LDL.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lotte Jacobs

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Epidemiologic studies indirectly suggest that air pollution accelerates atherosclerosis. We hypothesized that individual exposure to particulate matter (PM derived from fossil fuel would correlate with plasma concentrations of oxidized low-density lipoprotein (LDL, taken as a marker of atherosclerosis. We tested this hypothesis in patients with diabetes, who are at high risk for atherosclerosis. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In a cross-sectional study of non-smoking adult outpatients with diabetes we assessed individual chronic exposure to PM by measuring the area occupied by carbon in airway macrophages, collected by sputum induction and by determining the distance from the patient's residence to a major road, through geocoding. These exposure indices were regressed against plasma concentrations of oxidized LDL, von Willebrand factor and plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1. We could assess the carbon load of airway macrophages in 79 subjects (58 percent. Each doubling in the distance of residence from major roads was associated with a 0.027 µm(2 decrease (95% confidence interval (CI: -0.048 to -0.0051 in the carbon load of airway macrophages. Independently from other covariates, we found that each increase of 0.25 µm(2 [interquartile range (IQR] in carbon load was associated with an increase of 7.3 U/L (95% CI: 1.3 to 13.3 in plasma oxidized LDL. Each doubling in distance of residence from major roads was associated with a decrease of -2.9 U/L (95% CI: -5.2 to -0.72 in oxidized LDL. Neither the carbon load of macrophages nor the distance from residence to major roads, were associated with plasma von Willebrand factor or PAI-1. CONCLUSIONS: The observed positive association, in a susceptible group of the general population, between plasma oxidized LDL levels and either the carbon load of airway macrophages or the proximity of the subject's residence to busy roads suggests a proatherogenic effect of traffic air pollution.

  15. Comments and Position Regarding the Proposed TB 700-2 Rewrite Dated June 2007 (Preprint) (United States)


    1 Comments and Position Regarding the Proposed TB 700-2 Rewrite Dated June 2007 Daniel F . Schwartz Air Force Research Laboratory Propulsion...Comments and Position Regarding the Proposed TB 700-2 Rewrite Dated June 2007 Daniel F . Schwartz Air Force Research Laboratory Propulsion Directorate

  16. What controls nucleosome positions? (United States)

    Segal, Eran; Widom, Jonathan


    The DNA of eukaryotic genomes is wrapped in nucleosomes, which strongly distort and occlude the DNA from access to most DNA-binding proteins. An understanding of the mechanisms that control nucleosome positioning along the DNA is thus essential to understanding the binding and action of proteins that carry out essential genetic functions. New genome-wide data on in vivo and in vitro nucleosome positioning greatly advance our understanding of several factors that can influence nucleosome positioning, including DNA sequence preferences, DNA methylation, histone variants and post-translational modifications, higher order chromatin structure, and the actions of transcription factors, chromatin remodelers and other DNA-binding proteins. We discuss how these factors function and ways in which they might be integrated into a unified framework that accounts for both the preservation of nucleosome positioning and the dynamic nucleosome repositioning that occur across biological conditions, cell types, developmental processes and disease.

  17. The SJR indicator: A new indicator of journals' scientific prestige

    CERN Document Server

    Gonzalez-Pereira, Borja; Moya-Anegon, Felix


    This paper proposes an indicator of journals' scientific prestige, the SJR indicator, for ranking scholarly journals based on citation weighting schemes and eigenvector centrality to be used in complex and heterogeneous citation networks such Scopus. Its computation methodology is described and the results after implementing the indicator over Scopus 2007 dataset are compared to an ad-hoc Journal Impact Factor both generally and inside specific scientific areas. The results showed that SJR indicator and JIF distributions fitted well to a power law distribution and that both metrics were strongly correlated, although there were also major changes in rank. There was an observable general trend that might indicate that SJR indicator values decreased certain JIF values whose citedeness was greater than would correspond to their scientific influence.

  18. Optimal Centroid Position Estimation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Candy, J V; McClay, W A; Awwal, A S; Ferguson, S W


    The alignment of high energy laser beams for potential fusion experiments demand high precision and accuracy by the underlying positioning algorithms. This paper discusses the feasibility of employing online optimal position estimators in the form of model-based processors to achieve the desired results. Here we discuss the modeling, development, implementation and processing of model-based processors applied to both simulated and actual beam line data.

  19. Testing the Value of Information of Climate Change Indicators that use Earth Observations (United States)

    Kenney, M. A.


    Indicators are usually thought of as measurements or calculations that represent important features of the status, trend, or performance of a system of interest (e.g. the economy, agriculture, air quality). They are often used for the most practical of reasons - one cannot measure everything important about systems of interest, so there is a practical need to identify major features that can be reported periodically and used to guide both research and decisions (National Research Council (NRC). 2000. Ecological Indicators for the Nation. National Academy Press. Washington, DC). The use of indicators to track the status and trends of many features of environmental or economic performance, quality of life, and a host of other social concerns is embedded in the fabric of our everyday lives. Businesses, governments, and consumers regularly use the common economic indices - e.g. the unemployment index or consumer price index - as guides for decision-making on investments and hiring. There is an analogous demand for indicators of environmental conditions and performance - everything from agricultural yields to air and water quality to weather and climate - that are currently less publicly visible than the common economic indicators, but that can have critically important uses in such areas as natural resource management, improvement of environmental quality, emergency planning, and infrastructure development. A number of these environmental indicators, be it physical or ecological, use a range of data sources including earth observations. Despite the extensive development and use of indicators, there is little testing of these indicators to assure that they indeed provide the assumed positive information benefit. This is particularly concerning because if these indicators are systematically misunderstood by the intended audience or a sub-group of that audience, such individuals could make decisions that are consistent with their incorrect understanding of the indicator

  20. Air filtration in HVAC systems

    CERN Document Server

    Ginestet, Alain; Tronville, Paolo; Hyttinen, Marko


    Air filtration Guidebook will help the designer and user to understand the background and criteria for air filtration, how to select air filters and avoid problems associated with hygienic and other conditions at operation of air filters. The selection of air filters is based on external conditions such as levels of existing pollutants, indoor air quality and energy efficiency requirements.

  1. Herbal indicators as a substituent to synthetic indicators


    Bhagat Vishwas; Patil Radheshyam; Channekar P; Shetty S; Akarte Atul


    In acid - base titrations, indicators are used to show sharp color change at intervals of pH. Natural pigments in plants are highly colored substances and may show color changes with variation of pH. An attempt has been made to investigate the indicator activity of methanolic extract of flower pigments and to replace synthetic indicators as they have certain disadvantages like chemical pollution, availability problems and high cost. Methanolic extract of Rosa indica (L) from family Rosaceae a...

  2. Head and neck position sense. (United States)

    Armstrong, Bridget; McNair, Peter; Taylor, Denise


    fails to be appropriately integrated in the CNS, errors in head position may occur, resulting in an inaccurate reference for HNPS, and conversely if neck proprioceptive information is inaccurate, then control of head position may be affected. The cerebellum and cortex also play a role in control of head position, providing feed-forward and modulatory influences depending on the task requirements. Position-matching tasks have been the most popular means of testing position sense in the cervical spine. These allow the appreciation of absolute, constant and variable errors in positioning and have been shown to be reliable. The results of such tests indicate that errors are relatively low (2-5 degrees). It is apparent that error is not consistently affected by age, a finding similar to studies undertaken in peripheral joints. Furthermore, the range of motion in which subjects are tested does not consistently affect accuracy in a predictable manner. However, it is evident that impairments in position sense are observed in individuals who have experienced whiplash-type injuries and individuals with chronic head and neck pain of non-traumatic origin (e.g. cervical spondylosis). While researchers advocate comprehensive retraining protocols, which include eye and neck motion targeting tasks and coordination exercises, as well as co-contraction exercises to reduce such impairments, some studies show that more general exercises and manipulation may be of benefit. Overall, there is limited information concerning the efficacy of treatment programmes.

  3. Power plant VII revisited - Air-air /Scirocco/ (United States)

    Etievant, C.; Royer, D.

    A hybrid fossil fuel-solar central receiver power plant is described, noting principally a 'Scirocco' configuration for the receiver. The primary loop contains air which enters passages in the alveolar-configured walls of the boiler, which is semi-spherically shaped. The alveoles are located in the back of the cavity while the upper and lower surfaces are reflective. A heat flux of 24.4 MWth is delivered to the aperture by 668 heliostats, each having a 53 sq m surface. Air is heated to 660 C and then flows past flame tubes to attain temperatures near 900 C through use of a combustor before impinging on the turbine blades. It is noted that although only 1000 hr of functioning are currently available for the Scirocco configuration, it offers the chance to reduce the size of the boiler. Further studies to optimize the materials for the boiler are indicated.

  4. Cancer rehabilitation indicators for Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baili, Paolo; Hoekstra-Weebers, Josette; Van Hoof, Elke;


    on follow-up and treatments for samples of cases archived in cancer registries. (b) Indicators of rehabilitation success. These include: return to work, quality of life, and satisfaction of specific rehabilitation needs. Studies can be performed to estimate these indicators in individual countries......Little is known of cancer rehabilitation needs in Europe. EUROCHIP-3 organised a group of experts to propose a list of population-based indicators used for describing cancer rehabilitation across Europe. The aim of this study is to present and discuss these indicators. A EUROCHIP-3 expert panel...... reached agreement on two types of indicators. (a) Cancer prevalence indicators. These were proposed as a means of characterising the burden of cancer rehabilitation needs by time from diagnosis and patient health status. These indicators can be estimated from cancer registry data or by collecting data...

  5. Fabrication of nanofiber non-wovens on the melt blowing die with air by-passes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Ting


    Full Text Available The air flow field of the melt blowing die with air by-passes is simulated. The results show that fibers fabricated on the die with air by-passes are much finer than those without air by-passes, which indicates an energy-saving approach to fabricating nanofibers on the melt blowing equipment.

  6. Fabrication of nanofiber non-wovens on the melt blowing die with air by-passes


    Chen Ting; Yang Kang; Wu Li-Li


    The air flow field of the melt blowing die with air by-passes is simulated. The results show that fibers fabricated on the die with air by-passes are much finer than those without air by-passes, which indicates an energy-saving approach to fabricating nanofibers on the melt blowing equipment.

  7. Effect of streamer plasma air purifier on sbs symptoms and performance of office work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, X.J.; Fang, Lei; Wargocki, Pawel;


    level of air pollution. Intensity of SBS symptoms were indicated using visual-analogue scales. Subjects’ performance was evaluated with several computer tasks. The results show that operation of the air purifiers improved perceived air quality and reduced the odor intensity of indoor air. Eye dryness...

  8. Significance of air humidity and air velocity for fungal spore release into the air (United States)

    Pasanen, A.-L.; Pasanen, P.; Jantunen, M. J.; Kalliokoski, P.

    Our previous field studies have shown that the presence of molds in buildings does not necessarily mean elevated airborne spore counts. Therefore, we investigated the release of fungal spores from cultures of Aspergillus fumigatus, Penicillium sp. and Cladosporium sp. at different air velocities and air humidities. Spores of A. fumigatus and Penicillium sp. were released from conidiophores already at air velocity of 0.5 ms -1, whereas Cladosporium spores required at least a velocity of 1.0 ms -1. Airborne spore counts of A. fumigatus and Penicillium sp. were usually higher in dry than moist air, being minimal at relative humidities (r.h.) above 70%, while the effect of r.h. on the release of Cladosporium sp. was ambivalent. The geometric mean diameter of released spores increased when the r.h. exceeded a certain level which depends on fungal genus. Thus, spores of all three fungi were hygroscopic but the hygroscopicity of various spores appeared at different r.h.-ranges. This study indicates that spore release is controlled by external factors and depends on fungal genus which can be one reason for considerable variation of airborne spore counts in buildings with mold problems.

  9. The effects of air leaks on solar air heating systems (United States)

    Elkin, R.; Cash, M.


    This paper presents the results of an investigation to determine the effects of leakages in collector and duct work on the system performance of a typical single-family residence solar air heating system. Positive (leakage out) and negative (leakage in) pressure systems were examined. Collector and duct leakage rates were varied from 10 to 30 percent of the system flow rate. Within the range of leakage rates investigated, solar contribution to heated space and domestic hot water loads was found to be reduced up to 30 percent from the no-leak system contribution with duct leakage equally divided between supply and return duct; with supply duct leakage greater than return leakage a reduction of up to 35 percent was noted. The negative pressure system exhibited a reduction in solar contribution somewhat larger than the positive pressure system for the same leakage rates.

  10. A Device to Record Infant Head Position (United States)

    DeLucia, Clement; Bullinger, Andre


    The device described is a system to indicate left-to-right head position. It is limited to indicating relative left-right movements without vertical or up-down discrimination. Although developed for newborns, the system can be applied to older subjects by using a holding device for the infant. (JH)

  11. Air Force Implementation is Off the Ground (United States)


    actions taken by the Air Force that have a permanent, positive effect resulting from a particular action area of BBP 2.0. The KC-46 Tanker, F-22 Raptor Europe was able to save $57 million on a back-to-basics approach on its six largest acquisitions by en- couraging early industry involvement to

  12. Provide good air quality for people and improve their productivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fanger, Povl Ole


    Three recent independent studies have documented that the quality of indoor air has a significant and positive influence on the productivity of office workers. A combined analysis of the results of the three studies shows a significant relationship between productivity and perceived indoor air qu...

  13. Air guns: toys or weapons? (United States)

    Aslan, Sahin; Uzkeser, Mustafa; Katirci, Yavuz; Cakir, Zeynep; Bilir, Ozlem; Bilge, Fatih; Cakir, Murtaza


    Air guns and blank guns may appear relatively harmless at first glance, but they are, in fact, potentially destructive, even lethal, weapons. Approximately 2 to 2.5 million nonpowder firearms are sold annually, and again approximately 12.9 per 100,000 population are treated for such injuries in hospital emergency departments each year in the United States. Unfortunately, these guns are considered to be a toy for children. Therefore, incidents of air gun injuries are gradually increasing. Although such injuries may initially be considered trivial, it may signify severe internal tissue pathologies. These apparently trivial injuries may have catastrophic consequences if unnoticed. In this study, we report 4 cases with head injury due to a shot by these guns. The cases indicate that these people had used the guns belonging to their parents for the purpose of suicide. The cases also show that these machines are not innocent.

  14. Uncertainty in magnetic activity indices

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU WenYao


    Magnetic activity indices are widely used in theoretical studies of solar-terrestrial coupling and space weather prediction. However, the indices suffer from various uncertainties, which limit their application and even mislead to incorrect conclu-sion. In this paper we analyze three most popular indices, Kp, AE and Dst. Three categories of uncertainties in magnetic indices are discussed: "data uncertainty" originating from inadequate data processing, "station uncertainty" caused by in-complete station covering, and "physical uncertainty" stemming from unclear physical mechanism. A comparison between magnetic disturbances and related indices indicate that the residual Sq will cause an uncertainty of 1-2 in K meas-urement, the uncertainty in saturated AE is as much as 50%, and the uncertainty in Dst index caused by the partial ring currents is about a half of the partial ring cur-rent.

  15. Uncertainty in magnetic activity indices

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Magnetic activity indices are widely used in theoretical studies of solar-terrestrial coupling and space weather prediction. However, the indices suffer from various uncertainties, which limit their application and even mislead to incorrect conclu-sion. In this paper we analyze three most popular indices, Kp, AE and Dst. Three categories of uncertainties in magnetic indices are discussed: "data uncertainty" originating from inadequate data processing, "station uncertainty" caused by in-complete station covering, and "physical uncertainty" stemming from unclear physical mechanism. A comparison between magnetic disturbances and related indices indicate that the residual Sq will cause an uncertainty of 1―2 in K meas-urement, the uncertainty in saturated AE is as much as 50%, and the uncertainty in Dst index caused by the partial ring currents is about a half of the partial ring cur-rent.

  16. A novel, fuzzy-based air quality index (FAQI) for air quality assessment (United States)

    Sowlat, Mohammad Hossein; Gharibi, Hamed; Yunesian, Masud; Tayefeh Mahmoudi, Maryam; Lotfi, Saeedeh


    The ever increasing level of air pollution in most areas of the world has led to development of a variety of air quality indices for estimation of health effects of air pollution, though the indices have their own limitations such as high levels of subjectivity. Present study, therefore, aimed at developing a novel, fuzzy-based air quality index (FAQI ) to handle such limitations. The index developed by present study is based on fuzzy logic that is considered as one of the most common computational methods of artificial intelligence. In addition to criteria air pollutants (i.e. CO, SO 2, PM 10, O 3, NO 2), benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylene, and 1,3-butadiene were also taken into account in the index proposed, because of their considerable health effects. Different weighting factors were then assigned to each pollutant according to its priority. Trapezoidal membership functions were employed for classifications and the final index consisted of 72 inference rules. To assess the performance of the index, a case study was carried out employing air quality data at five different sampling stations in Tehran, Iran, from January 2008 to December 2009, results of which were then compared to the results obtained from USEPA air quality index (AQI). According to the results from present study, fuzzy-based air quality index is a comprehensive tool for classification of air quality and tends to produce accurate results. Therefore, it can be considered useful, reliable, and suitable for consideration by local authorities in air quality assessment and management schemes. Fuzzy-based air quality index (FAQI).

  17. 走近Air

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    @@ 大家对air这个单词并不陌生,它通常用作名词,表示"空气".例如: 1.Better let in fresh air. 最好让新鲜空气进来. 2.The air smells of paint. 空气里散发着油漆味. 3.The air was heavy with perfume of the flowers. 空气里弥漫着花朵的芳香.

  18. Contact air abrasion. (United States)

    Porth, R


    The advantages of contact air abrasion techniques are readily apparent. The first, of course, is the greatly increased ease of use. Working with contact also tends to speed the learning curve by giving the process a more natural dental feel. In addition, as one becomes familiar with working with a dust stream, the potential for misdirecting the air flow is decreased. The future use of air abrasion for deep decay removal will make this the treatment of choice for the next millennium.

  19. Olefin metathesis in air. (United States)

    Piola, Lorenzo; Nahra, Fady; Nolan, Steven P


    Since the discovery and now widespread use of olefin metathesis, the evolution of metathesis catalysts towards air stability has become an area of significant interest. In this fascinating area of study, beginning with early systems making use of high oxidation state early transition metal centers that required strict exclusion of water and air, advances have been made to render catalysts more stable and yet more functional group tolerant. This review summarizes the major developments concerning catalytic systems directed towards water and air tolerance.

  20. Herbal indicators as a substituent to synthetic indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhagat Vishwas


    Full Text Available In acid - base titrations, indicators are used to show sharp color change at intervals of pH. Natural pigments in plants are highly colored substances and may show color changes with variation of pH. An attempt has been made to investigate the indicator activity of methanolic extract of flower pigments and to replace synthetic indicators as they have certain disadvantages like chemical pollution, availability problems and high cost. Methanolic extract of Rosa indica (L from family Rosaceae and Hibiscus rosa-sinensis (L from family Malvaceae gives sharp and intense color change as compared to phenolphthalein and methyl orange. Herbal indicators are evaluated by using strong acid - strong base, strong acid - weak base, weak acid - strong base, and weak acid - weak base. In all these titrations the extract was found to be very useful and accurate for indicating the equivalence point (neutralization point. From photochemical investigation and qualitative chemical tests for Rosa indica and Hibiscus rosa-sinensis shows presence of anthocyanins; which are the pigmented flavonoids; which may be the reason for its activity as an indicator. Apart from the above advantages the isolation of pure compounds possessing indicator′s properties help to know the mechanism by which they shows indicator′s properties and new theories of indicators could be established.

  1. Numerical investigation on the effects of the laser energy and focal position on the multi-pulses laser propulsion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song Junling [College of Postgraduate, the Academy of Equipment Command and Technology, Post Box 3380-86, Huairou Dis. Beijing, 101416 (China); Hong Yanji; Wen Ming, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail: [Department of Basic theories, the Academy of Equipment Command and Technology, Post Box 3380-86, Huairou Dis. Beijing, 101416 (China)


    A detailed parametric study on the air-breathing laser propulsive performance is carried out for multi-pulses. Based on the finite volume scheme, the detailed evolving process of the inner and outer flow fluids is simulated. The numerical models with different focal positions and laser energies are employed to analyze the parameters effect on the multi-pulses impulse coupling coefficient C{sub m}. Moreover, the laser frequency is discussed and compared with those calculations. The simulation results indicate that the focal position is one of the main factors to influence the multi-pulses C{sub m} at low frequency. For high frequency, it is beneficial to replenish the air in the nozzle when the focal position locates near the nozzle exit. The influence of the laser energy is similar to the single pulse at low frequency, but at high frequency, the partial filling air in the nozzle causes low C{sub m} by high laser energy. The multi-pulses C{sub m} is lower than that of a single pulse. In the same calculative time, the higher the laser frequency, the higher the impulse value, but the lower the C{sub m}.

  2. Nucleosome Positioning and Epigenetics (United States)

    Schwab, David; Bruinsma, Robijn


    The role of chromatin structure in gene regulation has recently taken center stage in the field of epigenetics, phenomena that change the phenotype without changing the DNA sequence. Recent work has also shown that nucleosomes, a complex of DNA wrapped around a histone octamer, experience a sequence dependent energy landscape due to the variation in DNA bend stiffness with sequence composition. In this talk, we consider the role nucleosome positioning might play in the formation of heterochromatin, a compact form of DNA generically responsible for gene silencing. In particular, we discuss how different patterns of nucleosome positions, periodic or random, could either facilitate or suppress heterochromatin stability and formation.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudin, Andrew M; Butcher, Thomas; Troost, Henry


    The flame quality indicator concept was developed at BNL specifically to monitor the brightness of the flame in a small oil burner and to provide a ''call for service'' notification when the brightness has changed from its setpoint, either high or low. In prior development work BNL has explored the response of this system to operational upsets such as excess air changes, fouled atomizer nozzles, poor fuel quality, etc. Insight Technologies, Inc. and Honeywell, Inc. have licensed this technology from the U.S. Department of Energy and have been cooperating to develop product offerings which meet industry needs with an optimal combination of function and price. Honeywell has recently completed the development of the Flame Quality Monitor (FQM or Honeywell QS7100F). This is a small module which connects via a serial cable to the burners primary operating control. Primary advantages of this approach are simplicity, cost, and ease of installation. Call-for-service conditions are output in the form of front panel indicator lights and contact closure which can trigger a range of external communication options. Under this project a field test was conducted of the FQM in cooperation with service organizations in Virginia, Pennsylvania, New Jersey, New York, and Connecticut. At total of 83 field sites were included. At each site the FQM was installed in parallel with another embodiment of this concept--the Insight AFQI. The AFQI incorporates a modem and provides the ability to provide detailed information on the trends in the flame quality over the course of the two year test period. The test site population was comprised of 79.5% boilers, 13.7% warm air furnaces, and 6.8% water heaters. Nearly all were of residential size--with firing rates ranging from 0.6 gallons of oil per hour to 1.25. During the course of the test program the monitoring equipment successfully identified problems including: plugged fuel lines, fouled nozzles, collapsed combustion

  4. Future challenges regarding personal exposure to air pollutants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascual Pérez Ballesta


    Full Text Available The concept of population exposure as a direct indicator of the impact of pollution on public health is a consequence of the fact that the final aim of air quality measurements is the protection of the individuals' health. This article presents a picture of the exposure to air pollutants in different environments: industrial hygiene, indoor pollution and air quality legislation. The reduction of the health risk of the population to air pollution exposure opens new challenges when defining exposure indicators, control strategies and an effective assessment human exposure.

  5. Indicators to support environmental sustainability of bioenergy systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McBride, Allen [ORNL; Dale, Virginia H [ORNL; Baskaran, Latha Malar [ORNL; Downing, Mark [ORNL; Eaton, Laurence M [ORNL; Efroymson, Rebecca Ann [ORNL; Garten Jr, Charles T [ORNL; Kline, Keith L [ORNL; Jager, Yetta [ORNL; Mulholland, Patrick J [ORNL; Parish, Esther S [ORNL; Schweizer, Peter E [ORNL; Storey, John Morse [ORNL


    Indicators are needed to assess environmental sustainability of bioenergy systems. Effective indicators will help in the quantification of benefits and costs of bioenergy options and resource uses. We identify 19 measurable indicators for soil quality, water quality and quantity, greenhouse gases, biodiversity, air quality, and productivity, building on existing knowledge and on national and international programs that are seeking ways to assess sustainable bioenergy. Together, this suite of indicators is hypothesized to reflect major environmental effects of diverse feedstocks, management practices, and post-production processes. The importance of each indicator is identified. Future research relating to this indicator suite is discussed, including field testing, target establishment, and application to particular bioenergy systems. Coupled with such efforts, we envision that this indicator suite can serve as a basis for the practical evaluation of environmental sustainability in a variety of bioenergy systems.

  6. The performance and subjective responses of call-center operators with new and used supply air filters at two outdoor air supply rates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wargocki, Pawel; Wyon, David; Fanger, Povl Ole


    . Their performance was continuously monitored by recording the average talk-time every 30 min. Replacing a used filter with a clean filter reduced talk-time by about 10% at the high ventilation rate but had no significant effect at the low rate. Increasing the outdoor air supply rate reduced talk-time by 6......A 2X2 replicated field intervention experiment was conducted in a call-center providing a telephone directory service: outdoor air supply rate was adjusted to be 8% of the total airflow of 430 l/s (3.5/h)and the supply air filters were either new or had been in place for 6 months. One......% with a new filter in place but increased talk-time by 8% with a used filter in place. The interventions also had significant effects on some SBS symptoms and environmental perceptions. The present results indicate that increasing outdoor air supply rate and replacing filters can have positive effects...

  7. Air plasma effect on dental disinfection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duarte, S.; Murata, R. M.; Saxena, D. [Department of Basic Sciences and Craniofacial Biology, College of Dentistry, New York University, New York, New York 10010 (United States); Kuo, S. P.; Chen, C. Y.; Huang, K. J. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Polytechnic Institute of New York University, Brooklyn, New York 11202 (United States); Popovic, S. [Department of Physics, Old Dominion University, Norfolk, Virginia 23529 (United States)


    A nonthermal low temperature air plasma jet is characterized and applied to study the plasma effects on oral pathogens and biofilms. Experiments were performed on samples of six defined microorganisms' cultures, including those of gram-positive bacteria and fungi, and on a cultivating biofilm sample of Streptococcus mutans UA159. The results show that the plasma jet creates a zone of microbial growth inhibition in each treated sample; the zone increases with the plasma treatment time and expands beyond the entire region directly exposed to the plasma jet. With 30s plasma treatment twice daily during 5 days of biofilm cultivation, its formation was inhibited. The viability of S. mutans cells in the treated biofilms dropped to below the measurable level and the killed bacterial cells concentrated to local regions as manifested by the fluorescence microscopy via the environmental scanning electron microscope. The emission spectroscopy of the jet indicates that its plasma effluent carries an abundance of reactive atomic oxygen, providing catalyst for the observed plasma effect.

  8. Air plasma effect on dental disinfection (United States)

    Duarte, S.; Kuo, S. P.; Murata, R. M.; Chen, C. Y.; Saxena, D.; Huang, K. J.; Popovic, S.


    A nonthermal low temperature air plasma jet is characterized and applied to study the plasma effects on oral pathogens and biofilms. Experiments were performed on samples of six defined microorganisms' cultures, including those of gram-positive bacteria and fungi, and on a cultivating biofilm sample of Streptococcus mutans UA159. The results show that the plasma jet creates a zone of microbial growth inhibition in each treated sample; the zone increases with the plasma treatment time and expands beyond the entire region directly exposed to the plasma jet. With 30s plasma treatment twice daily during 5 days of biofilm cultivation, its formation was inhibited. The viability of S. mutans cells in the treated biofilms dropped to below the measurable level and the killed bacterial cells concentrated to local regions as manifested by the fluorescence microscopy via the environmental scanning electron microscope. The emission spectroscopy of the jet indicates that its plasma effluent carries an abundance of reactive atomic oxygen, providing catalyst for the observed plasma effect.

  9. Decisiveness indices are semiindices: addendum


    Freixas Bosch, Josep; Pons Vallès, Montserrat


    In the paper Decisiveness indices are semiindices (Freixas and Pons, 2016) it was shown that any decisiveness index obtained from an anonymous probability distribution is a semiindex, and that the converse is not true. In this note we characterize the semiindices which are indices of decisiveness. Peer Reviewed

  10. Quality Indicators for Learning Analytics (United States)

    Scheffel, Maren; Drachsler, Hendrik; Stoyanov, Slavi; Specht, Marcus


    This article proposes a framework of quality indicators for learning analytics that aims to standardise the evaluation of learning analytics tools and to provide a mean to capture evidence for the impact of learning analytics on educational practices in a standardised manner. The criteria of the framework and its quality indicators are based on…

  11. Lexical-Grammatical Pragmatic Indicators. (United States)

    Blum-Kulka, Shoshana; Levenston, Edward A.


    A study of the interlanguage pragmatics of learners of Hebrew and English (L2s) focuses on pragmatic indicators used in requests and apologies (situations in Appendix). Deviations from native-speaker norms in the speech of non-native speakers are discussed. Results suggest L2s' misuse of pragmatic indicators can have serious interactional…

  12. Wacky Patents Meet Economic Indicators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Czarnitzki, Dirk; Hussinger, Katrin; Schneider, Cédric


    We investigate whether standard indicators can distinguish between “wacky” patents and a control group. Forward citations are good predictors of importance. However, “wacky” patents have higher originality, generality and citation lags, suggesting that these indicators should be interpreted...

  13. Geomagnetic Kn, Ks, Km Indices (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A full description of the indices Kn, Ks, Km is given in a monography,"Indices Kn, Ks et Km, 1964-1967", edited in 1968 by the Centre National de la Recherche...

  14. The politics of SEA indicators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gao, Jingjing; Kørnøv, Lone; Christensen, Per


    The use of indicators is not only technical and science-led, but also a value-laden social process, and thus concerns public participation, political judgment and decision-making. This article approaches the Chinese SEA indicator system from a science-policy interface and aims at: 1) contributing...... to the general recognition of indicators functioning at science-policy interfaces in SEA, and 2) analysing, through a Chinese case-study, to what extent national guidelines mediate the science-policy interaction. The overall finding is a strong emphasis on technical/science aspects found in the Chinese SEA...... guidance, and a weak explicit recognition that policy plays a role in choosing and using indicators. Recent development, however, indicates a growing recognition of the politics involved and thus also leads to more involvement of stakeholders....

  15. Effect of poverty on the relationship between personal exposures and ambient concentrations of air pollutants in Ho Chi Minh City (United States)

    Mehta, Sumi; Sbihi, Hind; Dinh, Tuan Nguyen; Xuan, Dan Vu; Le Thi Thanh, Loan; Thanh, Canh Truong; Le Truong, Giang; Cohen, Aaron; Brauer, Michael


    Socioeconomic factors often affect the distribution of exposure to air pollution. The relationships between health, air pollution, and poverty potentially have important public health and policy implications, especially in areas of Asia where air pollution levels are high and income disparity is large. The objective of the study was to characterize the levels, determinants of exposure, and relationships between children personal exposures and ambient concentrations of multiple air pollutants amongst different socioeconomic segments of the population of Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam. Using repeated (N = 9) measures personal exposure monitoring and determinants of exposure modeling, we compared daily average PM2.5, PM10, PM2.5 absorbance and NO2 concentrations measured at ambient monitoring sites to measures of personal exposures for (N = 64) caregivers of young children from high and low socioeconomic groups in two districts (urban and peri-urban), across two seasons. Personal exposures for both PM sizes were significantly higher among the poor compared to non-poor participants in each district. Absolute levels of personal exposures were under-represented by ambient monitors with median individual longitudinal correlations between personal exposures and ambient concentrations of 0.4 for NO2, 0.6 for PM2.5 and PM10 and 0.7 for absorbance. Exposures of the non-poor were more highly correlated with ambient concentrations for both PM size fractions and absorbance while those for NO2 were not significantly affected by socioeconomic position. Determinants of exposure modeling indicated the importance of ventilation quality, time spent in the kitchen, air conditioner use and season as important determinant of exposure that are not fully captured by the differences in socioeconomic position. Our results underscore the need to evaluate how socioeconomic position affects exposure to air pollution. Here, differential exposure to major sources of pollution, further influenced by

  16. A Position Paper. (United States)

    Hixson, Richard A.

    This position paper covers possible problems of collective bargaining. (1) The two sides should not bring prejudgments of good or bad to the negotiating table. (2) Neither side should exaggerate its strength or minimize its weakness. (3) Neither side should confuse intransigence with firmness. (4) The composition of each team must be carefully…

  17. Positioning Theory in Paradigms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FU Xiao-qiu


    This article discusses the importance of theory and paradigm to a researcher. It starts from introducing and analyzing the definition of the two terms, by using the theories in the field of intercultural communication as examples. To a good researcher, he needs not only clarifying the paradigm his research is positioned, but also integrating the theories in his paradigm.

  18. Positionality at the Center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Vanner


    Full Text Available As a Western feminist supporting and researching gender equality in education in postcolonial contexts, I often wonder: Am I doing more harm than good? The privilege of my social location means that my efforts to support education in postcolonial contexts risk being patronizing, insulting, threatening, imperialist, and recolonizing. Yet neglecting and ignoring postcolonial contexts similarly reflects and reproduces a privileged position. I provide a tentative framework designed to address positionality, power, and privilege while creating an ethical research process for working in a postcolonial context. Beginning with an identification of positionality, the objectives of research, and guiding theoretical frameworks to situate the research in relation to the participants and context, I proceed to establish a methodology designed to minimize the negative effects of power and maximize participants’ empowerment. I position myself as a bricoleur, layering feminist standpoint theory and postcolonial theory, and propose the collaborative data collection and analysis techniques, with particular attention to ethical and cultural sensitivity, using a social constructivist approach to grounded theory. This article highlights the need for Western researchers to reflect upon the power dynamics of their research in postcolonial contexts and develop a strategy for conducting empowering research that prevents the misrepresentation and exploitation of participants. Observations from my doctoral thesis data collection provide examples of how these concepts were operationalized in practice as well as reflections on the disconnect between theorizing and conducting ethical research in postcolonial contexts.

  19. Clinical Positioning Space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Williams, Lars Peter Hedegaard; Christensen, Mette Krogh; Rytter, Carsten


    In this article, we present a case study of residents’ clinical experiences and communication in outpatient oncology consultations. We apply positioning theory, a dynamic alternative to role theory, to investigate how oncology residents and patients situate themselves as persons with rights and d...

  20. Positioning for Competition. (United States)

    Lapovsky, Lucie; Hubbell, Loren Loomis


    Analyzes results of the 1999 National Association of College and Business Officers tuition discounting survey and identifies trends. Finds colleges and universities are reactively responding to market pressures and proactively trying to analyze and position themselves ahead of the competition, often regional rather than national, for the…