WorldWideScience

Sample records for air pollution-related health

  1. Societal costs of air pollution-related health hazards: A review of methods and results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerdtham Ulf-G

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper aims to provide a critical and systematic review of the societal costs of air pollution-related ill health (CAP, to explore methodological issues that may be important when assessing or comparing CAP across countries and to suggest ways in which future CAP studies can be made more useful for policy analysis. The methodology includes a systematic search based on the major electronic databases and the websites of a number of major international organizations. Studies are categorized by origin – OECD countries or non-OECD countries – and by publication status. Seventeen studies are included, eight from OECD countries and nine from non-OECD countries. A number of studies based on the ExternE methodology and the USA studies conducted by the Institute of Transportation are also summarized and discussed separately. The present review shows that considerable societal costs are attributable to air pollution-related health hazards. Nevertheless, given the variations in the methodologies used to calculate the estimated costs (e.g. cost estimation methods and cost components included, and inter-country differences in demographic composition and health care systems, it is difficult to compare CAP estimates across studies and countries. To increase awareness concerning the air pollution-related burden of disease, and to build links to health policy analyses, future research efforts should be directed towards theoretically sound and comprehensive CAP estimates with use of rich data. In particular, a more explicit approach should be followed to deal with uncertainties in the estimations. Along with monetary estimates, future research should also report all physical impacts and source-specific cost estimates, and should attempt to estimate 'avoidable cost' using alternative counterfactual scenarios.

  2. Air pollution-related burden of illness in Toronto : 2004 update, technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pengelly, D.; Sommerfreund, J. [McMaster Univ., Hamilton, ON (Canada). McMaster Inst. of Environment and Health

    2004-03-01

    A study was conducted to assess the air pollution burden of illness (BOI) related to air quality measurements in Toronto. BOI estimates can assess the human health risk of existing or expected levels of air pollution. New scientific literature, data and measuring methods allow for the quantification of adverse health effects associated with exposure to air pollution. The information provides numerical coefficients associating a broad range of health end points with air pollutants. The coefficients can be used to estimate the air pollution BOI in a community if the air pollution levels have been measured and if the disease specific overall BOI data from hospitals are also available. This report described the factors influencing the direction of scientific research in air pollution. It also provided a literature review of epidemiological studies. The risk coefficients for BOI estimation, air quality measurements, and health outcome data were also described. Air pollution-related BOI was discussed in terms of premature non-traumatic mortality and hospital admissions for respiratory and cardiovascular disease. The report reveals that Toronto has seen an increase in air pollution related to fossil-fuelled electrical generation, a decrease in transportation related primary pollutants, and a large increase in ozone. The dominant air problem in Toronto is the impact of transportation-related pollutants, particularly from diesel-powered heavy vehicles. In terms of policy implications, the literature suggests that focus should be placed on susceptible groups such as infants, children and the elderly. It was suggested that more studies should examine the role of the pollutant mix on susceptible groups instead of examining the effects of individual pollutants on the entire population. It was also suggested that air quality management strategies should be aimed at the sources of the most toxic components of the pollutant mix. 57 refs., 9 tabs., 2 figs., 3 appendices.

  3. Characterization of Somatic Mutations in Air Pollution-Related Lung Cancer

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    Xian-Jun Yu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Air pollution has been classified as Group 1 carcinogenic to humans, but the underlying tumorigenesis remains unclear. In Xuanwei City of Yunnan Province, the lung cancer incidence is among the highest in China attributed to severe air pollution generated by combustion of smoky coal, providing a unique opportunity to dissect lung carcinogenesis of air pollution. Here we analyzed the somatic mutations of 164 non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLCs from Xuanwei and control regions (CR where smoky coal was not used. Whole genome sequencing revealed a mean of 289 somatic exonic mutations per tumor and the frequent C:G → A:T nucleotide substitutions in Xuanwei NSCLCs. Exome sequencing of 2010 genes showed that Xuanwei and CR NSCLCs had a mean of 68 and 22 mutated genes per tumor, respectively (p < 0.0001. We found 167 genes (including TP53, RYR2, KRAS, CACNA1E which had significantly higher mutation frequencies in Xuanwei than CR patients, and mutations in most genes in Xuanwei NSCLCs differed from those in CR cases. The mutation rates of 70 genes (e.g., RYR2, MYH3, GPR144, CACNA1E were associated with patients' lifetime benzo(apyrene exposure. This study uncovers the mutation spectrum of air pollution-related lung cancers, and provides evidence for pollution exposure–genomic mutation relationship at a large scale.

  4. Characterization of Somatic Mutations in Air Pollution-Related Lung Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xian-Jun; Yang, Min-Jun; Zhou, Bo; Wang, Gui-Zhen; Huang, Yun-Chao; Wu, Li-Chuan; Cheng, Xin; Wen, Zhe-Sheng; Huang, Jin-Yan; Zhang, Yun-Dong; Gao, Xiao-Hong; Li, Gao-Feng; He, Shui-Wang; Gu, Zhao-Hui; Ma, Liang; Pan, Chun-Ming; Wang, Ping; Chen, Hao-Bin; Hong, Zhi-Peng; Wang, Xiao-Lu; Mao, Wen-Jing; Jin, Xiao-Long; Kang, Hui; Chen, Shu-Ting; Zhu, Yong-Qiang; Gu, Wen-Yi; Liu, Zi; Dong, Hui; Tian, Lin-Wei; Chen, Sai-Juan; Cao, Yi; Wang, Sheng-Yue; Zhou, Guang-Biao

    2015-01-01

    Air pollution has been classified as Group 1 carcinogenic to humans, but the underlying tumorigenesis remains unclear. In Xuanwei City of Yunnan Province, the lung cancer incidence is among the highest in China attributed to severe air pollution generated by combustion of smoky coal, providing a unique opportunity to dissect lung carcinogenesis of air pollution. Here we analyzed the somatic mutations of 164 non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLCs) from Xuanwei and control regions (CR) where smoky coal was not used. Whole genome sequencing revealed a mean of 289 somatic exonic mutations per tumor and the frequent C:G → A:T nucleotide substitutions in Xuanwei NSCLCs. Exome sequencing of 2010 genes showed that Xuanwei and CR NSCLCs had a mean of 68 and 22 mutated genes per tumor, respectively (p < 0.0001). We found 167 genes (including TP53, RYR2, KRAS, CACNA1E) which had significantly higher mutation frequencies in Xuanwei than CR patients, and mutations in most genes in Xuanwei NSCLCs differed from those in CR cases. The mutation rates of 70 genes (e.g., RYR2, MYH3, GPR144, CACNA1E) were associated with patients' lifetime benzo(a)pyrene exposure. This study uncovers the mutation spectrum of air pollution-related lung cancers, and provides evidence for pollution exposure–genomic mutation relationship at a large scale. PMID:26288819

  5. A comparative study of air pollution-related morbidity among exposed population of Delhi

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    Joon Vinod

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Vehicular pollution is increasing in Indian cities, which may lead to increased number of patients with diseases related to air pollution. Present study was undertaken to assess the pattern of morbidity in two areas of Delhi, one highly polluted area (HPA and the other low polluted area (LPA. Materials and Methods: Subjects were interviewed regarding socioeconomic status and exposure history. Symptoms during the last month were recorded in a questionnaire and weight, height and peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR were measured. Air pollution data were obtained from the monitoring stations of Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB. Results: A total of 640 subjects participated in the study. Majority of the patients in both the areas were educated till primary but 24% in HPA and 13% in LPA were graduates. Current levels of all pollutants (except SO2 and NOx were above the safety levels prescribed by CPCB in both the areas, but the values were much higher in HPA. The values of PEFR amongst study population were more compromised in HPA. The difference in mean PEFR values among the populations in LPA and HPA were found to be statistically significant (P < 0.05. The mean number of symptoms experienced by subjects of HPA was more as compared to LPA (P < 0.05. Frequency of occurrence of symptoms varied with duration of stay in the study area. Children were affected more than the adults. Conclusion: Air pollution has a deleterious effect on various systems of the body.

  6. Effects of air pollution related respiratory symptoms in school children in industrial areas Rayong, Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paradee Asa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The chronic effects of air pollution in school children living near industrial sites were investigated. The respiratory symptoms of 806 school children aged 9-12 years were examined by the American Thoracic Society's Division of Lung Diseases (ATS-DLD-78-C questionnaire during February- August 2013. The selected elementary schools in this survey was based on the distance from Map Ta Phut Industrial Estate, area A within 1 km., area B 5 km. and area C 10 km. Logistic regression techniques were used to assess the association between prevalence of respiratory symptoms and independent variables. The average 24 hrs PM10 and VOCs concentrations from 2011-2014 in area A were significantly higher than in area C (p < 0.05. Relatively, the prevalence of respiratory symptoms in area A were high with odds ratios (OR = 3.41, (95% confidence intervals (CI = 1.70-6.85 and in area B with OR = 1.36, (95% CI = 0.54-3.45, in comparison to area C. The prevalent of non-specific respiratory diseases (NSRD and Persistent Cough and Phlegm (PCP in boy student were higher than girls students with OR=2.17, (95%CI=1.33-3.53, whereas those factors such as age, residential years, home size, parental smoking habits, use of air conditioners and domestic pets were not associated. Exposure to particulate matter and volatile organic compounds arising from Industrial sites was associated with worse respiratory impairments in children.

  7. Economic Impacts from PM2.5 Pollution-Related Health Effects in China: A Provincial-Level Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Yang; Dai, Hancheng; Dong, Huijuan; Hanaoka, Tatsuya; Masui, Toshihiko

    2016-05-01

    This study evaluates the PM2.5 pollution-related health impacts on the national and provincial economy of China using a computable general equilibrium (CGE) model and the latest nonlinear exposure-response functions. Results show that the health and economic impacts may be substantial in provinces with a high PM2.5 concentration. In the WoPol scenario without PM2.5 pollution control policy, we estimate that China experiences a 2.00% GDP loss and 25.2 billion USD in health expenditure from PM2.5 pollution in 2030. In contrast, with control policy in the WPol scenario, a control investment of 101.8 billion USD (0.79% of GDP) and a gain of 1.17% of China's GDP from improving PM2.5 pollution are projected. At the provincial level, GDP loss in 2030 in the WoPol scenario is high in Tianjin (3.08%), Shanghai (2.98%), Henan (2.32%), Beijing (2.75%), and Hebei (2.60%) and the top five provinces with the highest additional health expenditure are Henan, Sichuan, Shandong, Hebei, and Jiangsu. Controlling PM2.5 pollution could bring positive benefits in two-thirds of provinces. Tianjin, Shanghai, Beijing, Henan, Jiangsu, and Hebei experience most benefits from PM2.5 pollution control as a result of a higher PM2.5 pollution and dense population distribution. Conversely, the control investment is higher than GDP gain in some underdeveloped provinces, such as Ningxia, Guizhou, Shanxi, Gansu, and Yunnan.

  8. Air Travel Health Tips

    Science.gov (United States)

    MENU Return to Web version Air Travel Health Tips Air Travel Health Tips How can I improve plane travel? Most people don't have any problems when ... and dosages of all of your medicines. The air in airplanes is dry, so drink nonalcoholic, decaffeinated ...

  9. Health Effects of Air Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... air pollution How to protect yourself from air pollution Chemicals Noise Quizzes Links to more information girlshealth glossary girlshealth.gov home http://www.girlshealth.gov/ Home The environment and your health Air Health effects of air pollution ... Health effects of air pollution Breathing air that ...

  10. Indoor Air Pollution (Environmental Health Student Portal)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Students to Environmental Health Information Menu Home Air Pollution Air Pollution Home Indoor Air Pollution Outdoor Air Pollution ... Pollution Indoor Air Pollution Print this Page Air Pollution Air Pollution Home Indoor Air Pollution Outdoor Air Pollution ...

  11. Air Pollution Affects Community Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shy, Carl M.; Finklea, John F.

    1973-01-01

    Community Health and Environmental Surveillance System (CHESS), a nationwide program relating community health to environmental quality, is designed to evaluate existing environmental standards, obtain health intelligence for new standards, and document health benefits of air pollution control. (BL)

  12. Air climate health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    'France Nature Environnement Ile de France' publishes, on occasion of the COP 21, a special paper about the air pollution in the Paris region, greenhouse gases and their influence on the environment. This document has been written in close cooperation with professionals and civil associations. Elected representatives from local and regional authorities also speak about their experiences. The first part emphasizes the urgency to accelerate preventive and corrective measures since the air pollution, after slightly decreasing in the 2000's, remains stable. Our work is a science based analysis of essential parameters and details the impact of local pollution and greenhouse gases on the climate. It is based on the GIEC 2013 and 2015 reports, as well as the work of National meteorology in association with the Climate agency of Paris. The threshold of not exceeding an average temperature of +2 deg. C in 2100 is almost reached. If consumption of fossil energies does not heavily decline in the next 10 years, the earth's thermal machine will enter, for several centuries, into an uncontrollable cycle which could endanger life on earth with average temperatures exceeding 4 to 6 deg. C above the current level. The second part reveals the impact of air pollution on the health of the Paris region's population, especially on women who are the most affected by respiratory diseases: obstructive pulmonary bronchitis and asthma. Four departments are particularly affected: Paris, Seine-et-Marne, Seine-Saint-Denis and Val-d'Oise. Even though we do not have the formal causal proof between gas concentration and disease, analysis of similar situations worldwide eliminate any doubts about the reality of the relationship. The third part proposes solutions which can be implemented by local government, companies, but also civil associations and citizens in order to quickly decrease greenhouse gas production. Solutions range from energy sobriety to change in travel

  13. Public’s Health Risk Awareness on Urban Air Pollution in Chinese Megacities: The Cases of Shanghai, Wuhan and Nanchang

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaojun Liu

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This study assessed the public’s health risk awareness of urban air pollution triggered by three megacities in China, and the data are the responses from a sample size of 3868 megacity inhabitants from Shanghai, Nanchang and Wuhan. Descriptive analyses were used to summarize the respondents’ demographics, perceived health risks from air pollution and sources of health-related knowledge on urban air pollution. Chi-square tests were used to examine if participants’ demographics were associated with participant’s general attitudes towards current air quality and the three perceived highest health risks due to urban air pollution. We found low rate of satisfaction of current urban air quality as well as poor knowledge of air pollution related indicator. Participants’ gender, age and travel experience were found to be associated with the satisfaction of current air quality. The knowledge of air pollution related indicator was significantly affected by respondents’ education, monthly income, health status, and sites of study. As many as 46.23% of the participants expressed their feelings of anxiety when exposed to polluted air, especially females, older adults and those with poor health conditions. Most participants believed that coughs/colds, eye problems and skin allergies were the three highest health risks due to urban air pollution based on public education through television/radio, internet and newspaper/magazine. Further public health education is needed to improve public awareness of air pollution and its effects.

  14. Public's Health Risk Awareness on Urban Air Pollution in Chinese Megacities: The Cases of Shanghai, Wuhan and Nanchang.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaojun; Zhu, Hui; Hu, Yongxin; Feng, Sha; Chu, Yuanyuan; Wu, Yanyan; Wang, Chiyu; Zhang, Yuxuan; Yuan, Zhaokang; Lu, Yuanan

    2016-08-25

    This study assessed the public's health risk awareness of urban air pollution triggered by three megacities in China, and the data are the responses from a sample size of 3868 megacity inhabitants from Shanghai, Nanchang and Wuhan. Descriptive analyses were used to summarize the respondents' demographics, perceived health risks from air pollution and sources of health-related knowledge on urban air pollution. Chi-square tests were used to examine if participants' demographics were associated with participant's general attitudes towards current air quality and the three perceived highest health risks due to urban air pollution. We found low rate of satisfaction of current urban air quality as well as poor knowledge of air pollution related indicator. Participants' gender, age and travel experience were found to be associated with the satisfaction of current air quality. The knowledge of air pollution related indicator was significantly affected by respondents' education, monthly income, health status, and sites of study. As many as 46.23% of the participants expressed their feelings of anxiety when exposed to polluted air, especially females, older adults and those with poor health conditions. Most participants believed that coughs/colds, eye problems and skin allergies were the three highest health risks due to urban air pollution based on public education through television/radio, internet and newspaper/magazine. Further public health education is needed to improve public awareness of air pollution and its effects.

  15. Public’s Health Risk Awareness on Urban Air Pollution in Chinese Megacities: The Cases of Shanghai, Wuhan and Nanchang

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaojun; Zhu, Hui; Hu, Yongxin; Feng, Sha; Chu, Yuanyuan; Wu, Yanyan; Wang, Chiyu; Zhang, Yuxuan; Yuan, Zhaokang; Lu, Yuanan

    2016-01-01

    This study assessed the public’s health risk awareness of urban air pollution triggered by three megacities in China, and the data are the responses from a sample size of 3868 megacity inhabitants from Shanghai, Nanchang and Wuhan. Descriptive analyses were used to summarize the respondents’ demographics, perceived health risks from air pollution and sources of health-related knowledge on urban air pollution. Chi-square tests were used to examine if participants’ demographics were associated with participant’s general attitudes towards current air quality and the three perceived highest health risks due to urban air pollution. We found low rate of satisfaction of current urban air quality as well as poor knowledge of air pollution related indicator. Participants’ gender, age and travel experience were found to be associated with the satisfaction of current air quality. The knowledge of air pollution related indicator was significantly affected by respondents’ education, monthly income, health status, and sites of study. As many as 46.23% of the participants expressed their feelings of anxiety when exposed to polluted air, especially females, older adults and those with poor health conditions. Most participants believed that coughs/colds, eye problems and skin allergies were the three highest health risks due to urban air pollution based on public education through television/radio, internet and newspaper/magazine. Further public health education is needed to improve public awareness of air pollution and its effects. PMID:27571088

  16. Public's Health Risk Awareness on Urban Air Pollution in Chinese Megacities: The Cases of Shanghai, Wuhan and Nanchang.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaojun; Zhu, Hui; Hu, Yongxin; Feng, Sha; Chu, Yuanyuan; Wu, Yanyan; Wang, Chiyu; Zhang, Yuxuan; Yuan, Zhaokang; Lu, Yuanan

    2016-01-01

    This study assessed the public's health risk awareness of urban air pollution triggered by three megacities in China, and the data are the responses from a sample size of 3868 megacity inhabitants from Shanghai, Nanchang and Wuhan. Descriptive analyses were used to summarize the respondents' demographics, perceived health risks from air pollution and sources of health-related knowledge on urban air pollution. Chi-square tests were used to examine if participants' demographics were associated with participant's general attitudes towards current air quality and the three perceived highest health risks due to urban air pollution. We found low rate of satisfaction of current urban air quality as well as poor knowledge of air pollution related indicator. Participants' gender, age and travel experience were found to be associated with the satisfaction of current air quality. The knowledge of air pollution related indicator was significantly affected by respondents' education, monthly income, health status, and sites of study. As many as 46.23% of the participants expressed their feelings of anxiety when exposed to polluted air, especially females, older adults and those with poor health conditions. Most participants believed that coughs/colds, eye problems and skin allergies were the three highest health risks due to urban air pollution based on public education through television/radio, internet and newspaper/magazine. Further public health education is needed to improve public awareness of air pollution and its effects. PMID:27571088

  17. Urban air pollution, poverty, violence and health--Neurological and immunological aspects as mediating factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristiansson, Marianne; Sörman, Karolina; Tekwe, Carmen; Calderón-Garcidueñas, Lilian

    2015-07-01

    Rapid rural-urban migration has created overcrowded areas characterized by concentrated poverty and increases in indoor and outdoor air pollutants. These "hotspots" constitute an increased risk of violence and disease outbreaks. We hypothesize that the effects of poverty and associated air pollution-related stress on impaired cognitive skills are mediated by inflammatory cytokines. A research framework is proposed, encompassing (i) an epidemiological investigation of associations between poverty, high concentrations of air pollutants, violence and health, (ii) a longitudinal follow-up of working memory capacities and inflammatory markers, and (iii) intervention programs aiming to strengthen employability and decreased exposures to toxic air pollutants. PMID:26005121

  18. Urban air pollution, poverty, violence and health--Neurological and immunological aspects as mediating factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristiansson, Marianne; Sörman, Karolina; Tekwe, Carmen; Calderón-Garcidueñas, Lilian

    2015-07-01

    Rapid rural-urban migration has created overcrowded areas characterized by concentrated poverty and increases in indoor and outdoor air pollutants. These "hotspots" constitute an increased risk of violence and disease outbreaks. We hypothesize that the effects of poverty and associated air pollution-related stress on impaired cognitive skills are mediated by inflammatory cytokines. A research framework is proposed, encompassing (i) an epidemiological investigation of associations between poverty, high concentrations of air pollutants, violence and health, (ii) a longitudinal follow-up of working memory capacities and inflammatory markers, and (iii) intervention programs aiming to strengthen employability and decreased exposures to toxic air pollutants.

  19. Indoor air quality and health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, A. P.

    During the last two decades there has been increasing concern within the scientific community over the effects of indoor air quality on health. Changes in building design devised to improve energy efficiency have meant that modern homes and offices are frequently more airtight than older structures. Furthermore, advances in construction technology have caused a much greater use of synthetic building materials. Whilst these improvements have led to more comfortable buildings with lower running costs, they also provide indoor environments in which contaminants are readily produced and may build up to much higher concentrations than are found outside. This article reviews our current understanding of the relationship between indoor air pollution and health. Indoor pollutants can emanate from a range of sources. The health impacts from indoor exposure to combustion products from heating, cooking, and the smoking of tobacco are examined. Also discussed are the symptoms associated with pollutants emitted from building materials. Of particular importance might be substances known as volatile organic compounds (VOCs), which arise from sources including paints, varnishes, solvents, and preservatives. Furthermore, if the structure of a building begins to deteriorate, exposure to asbestos may be an important risk factor for the chronic respiratory disease mesothelioma. The health effects of inhaled biological particles can be significant, as a large variety of biological materials are present in indoor environments. Their role in inducing illness through immune mechanisms, infectious processes, and direct toxicity is considered. Outdoor sources can be the main contributors to indoor concentrations of some contaminants. Of particular significance is Radon, the radioactive gas that arises from outside, yet only presents a serious health risk when found inside buildings. Radon and its decay products are now recognised as important indoor pollutants, and their effects are

  20. Impact of Ambient Air Pollution on Public Health under Various Traffic Policies in Shanghai,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHAN-GHONG CHEN; HAI-DONG KAN; CHENG HUANG; LI LI; YUN-HUI ZHANG; REN-JIE CHEN; BING-HENG CHEN

    2009-01-01

    Objective To investigate the potential impact of ambient air pollution on public health under various traffic policies in Shanghai. Methods The exposure level of Shanghai residents to air pollution under various planned traffic scenarios was estimated,and the public health impact was assessed using concentration-response functions derived from available epidemiological studies. Results Our results showed that ambient air pollution in relation to traffic scenarios had a significant impact on the future health status of Shanghai residents.Compared with the base case scenario,implementation of various traffic scenarios could prevent 759-1574,1885-2420,and 2277-2650 PM10-related avoidable deaths (mean-value) in 2010,2015,and 2020,respectively.It could also decrease the incidence of several relevant diseases. Conclusion Our findings emphasize the need to consider air pollution-related health effects as an important impact of traffic policy in Shanghai.

  1. Indoor air pollution and health

    OpenAIRE

    World Heath Organization (WHO)

    2005-01-01

    Metadata only record This is a fact sheet summarizing the indoor air pollution problem. The risk factors include health impacts such as respiratory infections and lung cancer. The fact sheet explains that women and children in developing nations are most vulnerable to the pollutants. It links Millennium Development Goals 1, 3, 4 and 7 (eradicate extreme poverty, empowering women, reducing child mortality, and ensure environmental sustainability) with the need for action. The fact sheet end...

  2. [Air transport, aeronautic medicine, health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cupa, Michel

    2009-10-01

    There were 3.2 billion airline passengers in 2006, compared to only 30 million in 1950. Intercontinental health disparities create a risk of pandemics such as SARS and so-called bird flu. Precautions are now being implemented both in airports and in aircraft, in addition to measures intended to prevent the spread of malaria and arboviral diseases, such as vector eradication, elimination of stagnant water, malaria prophylaxis, vaccination, and use of repellents. These measures are dealt with in international health regulations, which have existed since 1851 and were last updated on 15 June 2007. Flying on an airliner also carries a risk of hypobaria (cabin pressure at 2000 m), which can aggravate respiratory problems. Other problems include relative hypoxia, gas expansion, air dryness, ozone, cosmic rays, airsickness, jet lag, the effects of alcohol and tobacco, and, more recently, deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE), collectively known as "coach class syndrome". A new type of medicine has appeared, in the form of on-board medical assistance. The European Civil Aviation Committee has recommended first-aid training for cabin crews and onboard medical equipment such as first-aid kits and defibrillators. Airline statistics show that one in-flight medical incident occurs per 20 000 passengers, as well as one death per 5 million passengers and one medical reroute per 20 000 flights (40% of reroutes turn out to be unjustified). More than 80% of long-haul flights have a physician travelling on board. However, depending on his or her specialty, problems of competence and legal responsibility may arise. Ground-based medical centers can provide help via satellite telephone, but this implies the need for airline staff training. International cooperation is the only way to minimize the health risks associated with the growth in global air travel. PMID:20669640

  3. Indoor air pollution: a public health perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although official efforts to control air pollution have traditionally focused on outdoor air, it is now apparent that elevated contaminant concentrations are common inside some private and public buildings. Concerns about potential public health problems due to indoor air pollution are based on evidence that urban residents typically spend more than 90 percent of their time indoors, concentrations of some contaminants are higher indoors than outdoors, and for some pollutants personal exposures are not characterized adequately by outdoor measurements. Among the more important indoor contaminants associated with health or irritation effects are passive tobacco smoke, radon decay products, carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, formaldehyde, asbestos fibers, microorganisms, and aeroallergens. Efforts to assess health risks associated with indoor air pollution are limited by insufficient information about the number of people exposed, the pattern and severity of exposures, and the health consequences of exposures. An overall strategy should be developed to investigate indoor exposures, health effects, control options, and public policy alternatives

  4. Air pollution, public health, and inflation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostro, B D

    1980-02-01

    Since the passage of the environmental legislation in the early 1970's, critics have attacked these laws as being unnecessary and for contributing significantly to the problem of inflation in the United States. This paper is an attempt to put the inflationary costs of air pollution into perspective by considering them in light of the cost, especially to public health, of not proceeding with pollution control. There is now a great deal of evidence that the concentration of certain pollutants in the air can contribute significantly to the incidence of respiratory and cardiovascular diseases and to certain forms of cancer. On the basis of the results of a recent study of the impacts of pollution control on inflation, the annual reduction in purchasing power of the average family is calculated to be $31 per family. To determine the average costs of air pollution on human health, research by Lave and Seskin is utilized. First, the implications of air pollution for mortality and morbidity rates are determined. Then, the reduction in direct health costs and indirect costs (lost productivity of workers) as a result of pollution abatement is estimated. These annual health costs from pollution total approximately $250 per family. The results suggest that the inflationary costs of air pollution control are more than offset by the damages to public health from unabated air pollution. PMID:6771129

  5. Air Pollution and Climate Change Health Impact Assessment. The ACHIA Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Climate change may affect human health via interactions with air pollutants such as ozone and PM2.5. These air pollutants are linked to climate because they can be both affected by and have effects on climate. In coming decades, substantial, cost-effective improvements in public health may be achieved with well-planned strategies to mitigate climate impacts while also reducing health effects of ozone and PM2.5. Climate mitigation actions affect greenhouse pollutant emissions, including methane and black carbon, but also may affect other key air pollution precursors such as NOx, CO, and SOx. To better understand the potential of such strategies, studies are needed that assess possible future health impacts under alternative assumptions about future emissions and climate across multiple spatial scales. The overall objective of this project is to apply state of the art climate, air quality, and health modelling tools to assess future health impacts of ozone and PM2.5 under different IPCCs scenario of climate change, focusing specifically on pollution-related health co-benefits which could be achieved under alternative climate mitigation pathways in the period 2030-2050. This question will be explored at three spatial scales: global, regional (Europe), and urban (Paris). ACHIA is comprised of an integrated set of four work packages: WP1. Global Climate and Air Pollution Impacts of Alternative Emissions Pathways; WP2. Climate and Air Quality at Regional and Urban Scales: Results for Europe and Paris; WP3. Health Impact Assessment; WP4. Dissemination, Evaluation, Management. ACHIA is designed to create an interdisciplinary approach to the impacts of climate change on health through air quality changes, and to start longer-term collaborations between communities. We expect the project to advance state of art across all WPs, with important implications for research groups around the world. A particular innovation of the project is the multi-scale aspect, i.e., the analysis

  6. [Airport related air pollution and health effects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iavicoli, Ivo; Fontana, Luca; Ancona, Carla; Forastiere, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    Airport is an extremely complex emission source of airborne pollutants that can have a significant impact on the environment. Indeed, several airborne chemicals emitted during airport activities may significantly get worse air quality and increase exposure level of both airport workers and general population living nearby the airports. In recent years airport traffic has increased and consequently several studies investigated the association between airport-related air pollution and occurrence of adverse health effects, particularly on respiratory system, in exposed workers and general population resident nearby. In this context, we carried out a critical evaluation of the studies that investigated this correlation in order to obtain a deeper knowledge of this issue and to identify the future research needs. Results show that the evidence of association between airport-related air pollution and health effects on workers and residents is still limited.

  7. Human health effects of air pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kampa, Marilena [Laboratory of Experimental Endocrinology, University of Crete, School of Medicine, P.O. Box 2208, Heraklion, 71003 (Greece)], E-mail: kampa@med.uoc.gr; Castanas, Elias [Laboratory of Experimental Endocrinology, University of Crete, School of Medicine, P.O. Box 2208, Heraklion, 71003 (Greece)], E-mail: castanas@med.uoc.gr

    2008-01-15

    Hazardous chemicals escape to the environment by a number of natural and/or anthropogenic activities and may cause adverse effects on human health and the environment. Increased combustion of fossil fuels in the last century is responsible for the progressive change in the atmospheric composition. Air pollutants, such as carbon monoxide (CO), sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}), nitrogen oxides (NOx), volatile organic compounds (VOCs), ozone (O{sub 3}), heavy metals, and respirable particulate matter (PM2.5 and PM10), differ in their chemical composition, reaction properties, emission, time of disintegration and ability to diffuse in long or short distances. Air pollution has both acute and chronic effects on human health, affecting a number of different systems and organs. It ranges from minor upper respiratory irritation to chronic respiratory and heart disease, lung cancer, acute respiratory infections in children and chronic bronchitis in adults, aggravating pre-existing heart and lung disease, or asthmatic attacks. In addition, short- and long-term exposures have also been linked with premature mortality and reduced life expectancy. These effects of air pollutants on human health and their mechanism of action are briefly discussed. - The effect of air pollutants on human health and underlying mechanisms of cellular action are discussed.

  8. Human health effects of air pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hazardous chemicals escape to the environment by a number of natural and/or anthropogenic activities and may cause adverse effects on human health and the environment. Increased combustion of fossil fuels in the last century is responsible for the progressive change in the atmospheric composition. Air pollutants, such as carbon monoxide (CO), sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen oxides (NOx), volatile organic compounds (VOCs), ozone (O3), heavy metals, and respirable particulate matter (PM2.5 and PM10), differ in their chemical composition, reaction properties, emission, time of disintegration and ability to diffuse in long or short distances. Air pollution has both acute and chronic effects on human health, affecting a number of different systems and organs. It ranges from minor upper respiratory irritation to chronic respiratory and heart disease, lung cancer, acute respiratory infections in children and chronic bronchitis in adults, aggravating pre-existing heart and lung disease, or asthmatic attacks. In addition, short- and long-term exposures have also been linked with premature mortality and reduced life expectancy. These effects of air pollutants on human health and their mechanism of action are briefly discussed. - The effect of air pollutants on human health and underlying mechanisms of cellular action are discussed

  9. Air Travel and Health A Systems Perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Seabridge, Allan

    2010-01-01

    Providing a detailed examination of the issues that affect the long term health of aircrew, cabin crew and passengers, Air Travel and Health offers guidance to engineers designing aircraft in the difficult field of legislation and product liability. Examining the facts, anecdotes and myths associated with health and travel, Seabridge and Morgan draw balanced conclusions on which the aircraft operations and design communities can act to provide cost-effective solutions. The authors present a useful reference for aircrew, regulatory authorities, engineers and managers within the aerospace indust

  10. Indoor air and human health: major indoor air pollutants and their health implications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-01-01

    This publication is a collection of abstracts of papers presented at the Indoor Air and Human Health symposium. Session titles include: Radon, Microorganisms, Passive Cigarette Smoke, Combustion Products, Organics, and Panel and Audience Discussion.

  11. Indoor air and human health: major indoor air pollutants and their health implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This publication is a collection of abstracts of papers presented at the Indoor Air and Human Health symposium. Session titles include: Radon, Microorganisms, Passive Cigarette Smoke, Combustion Products, Organics, and Panel and Audience Discussion

  12. Air pollution, public health, and inflation

    OpenAIRE

    Ostro, Bart David

    1980-01-01

    Since the passage of the environmental legislation in the early 1970's, critics have attacked these laws as being unnecessary and for contributing significantly to the problem of inflation in the United States. This paper is an attempt to put the inflationary costs of air pollution into perspective by considering them in light of the cost, especially to public health, of not proceeding with pollution control. There is now a great deal of evidence that the concentration of certain pollutants i...

  13. The Air Toxics Health Effects Database (ATHED)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Air Toxics Health Effects Database (ATHED) is currently used by the EPA's Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards (OAQPS) to support risk assessments for the Residual Risk Program. An assessment of the residual risk is required to be performed at a specified time (typically 8years) following the promulgation of a technology-based Maximum Achievable Control Technologies (MACT) standard. The goal of the Residual Risk Program is to assure that the risk that remains after MACT standards are implemented (i.e., the 'residual risk') is acceptable, and if not, to propose additional regulations to mitigate those risks. ATHED maintains all available reference values for each chemical as separate data records, and includes values for all exposure durations (acute, short-term, subchronic and chronic). These values are used as benchmarks to determine acceptable exposure levels to the hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) listed in Section 112 of the Clean Air Act. ATHED also provides useful background information on the uncertainty and/or modifying factors that were applied in the derivation of each reference value, as well as the point of departure and the critical study/studies. To facilitate comparisons across durations for a specific chemical, ATHED data can be graphically presented

  14. Air pollution epidemiology. Assessment of health effects and risks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katsouyanni, K. [Athens Univ. (Greece). Dept. of Hygiene and Epidemiology

    1995-12-31

    Air pollution epidemiology is the study of the occurrence and distribution of health outcomes in association with community air pollution exposure. It is therefore specific in the exposure variable. Air pollution health effects became evident during high air pollution episodes which occurred in the first decades of our century. Since then, legal and other control measures have led to lower air pollution levels. However, recent results from several studies indicate that lower levels of air pollution than the previously considered safe have serious adverse health effects. Although, there is increasingly agreement that air pollution, at levels measured today, affects health, there is still a lot to be understood concerning specific causal pollutants, biologic mechanisms involved and sensitive groups of individuals. The extent of potential confounding, time-considerations in air pollution effects, individual variation in air pollution exposure and exposure misclassification are some factors which complicate the study of these issues. (author)

  15. Air travel and children’s health issues

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    With more children travelling by air, health care professionals should become more familiar with some of the unique health issues associated with air travel. A thorough literature search involving a number of databases (1966 to 2006) revealed very few evidence-based papers on air travel and children. Many of the existing recommendations are based on descriptive evidence and expert opinion. The present statement will help physicians to inform families about the health-related issues concerning...

  16. Proceedings of the symposium on air pollution and public health[Organized under the auspices of the Conference of New England Governors and Eastern Canadian Premiers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoen, D.; Drouin, L. [National Public Health Inst. of Quebec, PQ (Canada)]|[Direction de la sante publique de Montreal, PQ (Canada)

    2003-09-01

    Air pollution levels throughout New England and southeastern Canada generally exceed U.S. and Canadian ambient air quality limits, most notably for ozone and particulate matter. The pollutants can reduce respiratory function and trigger asthma attacks. Acute effects are also associated with short-term peaks in air pollution levels. This two-day symposium featured presentations by scientists from Canada, the United States and Europe who described recent advances in their areas of expertise and presented recommendations to reduce air pollution and its impact on human health. The recommendations, which were compiled according to individual presentations as well as the plenary sessions of the symposium, have been classified as follows: improving the air quality database; epidemiological and toxicological research needs; and, concrete intervention to reduce air pollution-related health impacts. The six sessions were entitled as follows: (1) levels and sources of air pollution in northeastern America, (2) specific sources of air pollution, (3) human health effects, (4) air pollution and asthma, (5) epidemiology, and (6) scientific basis for regulatory approaches to air pollution standards. refs.

  17. Air quality standards must protect public health

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norman Edelman [American Lung Association (ALA) (United States)

    2006-06-15

    Leading medical and public health organizations are deeply concerned about the proposed revisions to the National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) that the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) announced in December 2005. Led by the American Lung Association (ALA), these groups are fighting to force EPA to finalize stricter standards for fine and coarse particles when the final decision is announced in September 2006. The ALA disagrees strongly with the proposal to exempt coarse particles from agriculture and mining sources, and to exclude communities with populations fewer than 100,000 from protection and monitoring requirements. ALA urges EPA to set the following health-based NAAQS for PM: Annual average PM2.5 standard of 12 {mu}mg/m{sup 3}; 24 hour average PM2.5 standard of 25 {mu}mg.m{sup 3} (99th percentile); 24-hour average PM10-2.5 standard of 25-30 {mu}g/m{sup 3} (99th percentile), applied equally to all areas of the country and to all types of particles. 72 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  18. UNDERSTANDING THE RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN AIR QUALITY AND HUMAN HEALTH

    Science.gov (United States)

    This issue of EM presents a series of articles that focus on air quality and human health--what we know so far and the challenges that remain. The first article provides an overview of the problem at hand and approaches to properly address air quality and human health issues. Fo...

  19. The health effects of exercising in air pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giles, Luisa V; Koehle, Michael S

    2014-02-01

    The health benefits of exercise are well known. Many of the most accessible forms of exercise, such as walking, cycling, and running often occur outdoors. This means that exercising outdoors may increase exposure to urban air pollution. Regular exercise plays a key role in improving some of the physiologic mechanisms and health outcomes that air pollution exposure may exacerbate. This problem presents an interesting challenge of balancing the beneficial effects of exercise along with the detrimental effects of air pollution upon health. This article summarizes the pulmonary, cardiovascular, cognitive, and systemic health effects of exposure to particulate matter, ozone, and carbon monoxide during exercise. It also summarizes how air pollution exposure affects maximal oxygen consumption and exercise performance. This article highlights ways in which exercisers could mitigate the adverse health effects of air pollution exposure during exercise and draws attention to the potential importance of land use planning in selecting exercise facilities. PMID:24174304

  20. AIR POLLUTION AND INFANT HEALTH: LESSONS FROM NEW JERSEY*

    OpenAIRE

    Janet Currie; Matthew J. Neidell; Johannes Schmieder

    2009-01-01

    We examine the impact of three "criteria" air pollutants on infant health in New Jersey in the 1990s by combining information about mother's residential location from birth certificates with information from air quality monitors. In addition to large sample size, our work offers three important innovations: First, because we know the exact addresses of mothers, we select those mothers closest to air monitors to ensure a more accurate measure of air quality. Second, since we follow mothers ove...

  1. Letter to the Editor: Applications Air Q Model on Estimate Health Effects Exposure to Air Pollutants

    OpenAIRE

    , Gholamreza Goudarzi; Sahar Geravandi; Elaheh Jame Porazmey; Mohammad Javad Mohammadi

    2016-01-01

    Epidemiologic studies in worldwide have measured increases in mortality and morbidity associated with air pollution (1-3). Quantifying the effects of air pollution on the human health in urban area causes an increasingly critical component in policy discussion (4-6). Air Q model was proved to be a valid and reliable tool to predicts health effects related to criteria  pollutants (particulate matter (PM), ozone (O3), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), sulfur dioxide (SO2), and carbon monoxide (CO)),...

  2. Proceedings of the upwind downwind cities air and health conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The upwind downwind conference examined the health impacts of poor air quality and how land use decisions impact air quality as well as the roles of industry, community groups, academia and government in improving air quality. Conference attendees included planners, public health officials, policy makers, environmental managers, non-government organizations, academics, industry, community groups and politicians. The conference covered several topics including partnerships between public health and planning with respect to improving air quality in urban environments; the use of science in decision-making and development of new projects, policies and regulations; airshed agreements in North America, in addition to Ontario's new air quality regulations; and examples of citizen groups, non-government organizations, industry, academia and local, provincial and federal governments partnering to improve air quality. A total of 16 presentations were presented at the conference, of which 2 have been catalogued separately for inclusion in this database. The conference also featured several keynote speakers and panel discussions. tabs., figs

  3. Generating scenarios to predict air quality impact in public health

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, J.M.; Coelho, L.M.R.; Gouveia, C.; Cerdeira, R. [Escola Superior de Tecnologia de Setubal (EST-IPS), Setubal (Portugal); Ferreira, T.; Baptista, M.N. [Hospital Na. Sa. do Rosario, Servico de Pediatria, Barreiro (Portugal)

    2004-07-01

    This study intends to associate air quality with public health by generating air quality scenarios, under different future perspectives in Barreiro. This city is located in middle south of Portugal nearby Lisbon and it has a large resident population, an important industrial area and intense traffic. In this study ADMS-urban was used to simulate the possible scenarios of future air quality in this city, taking into consideration the probable city development and future activities. Special attention was given to the future evolutions of traffic, industrial activities, demographical and geographical expansion. The new EU directives about air quality and the CAFE program were also considered. To correlate the impact of the future air quality of the city and public health, a children population sample was used. This study team is also composed by paediatric doctors from Hospital N{sup a}. S{sup a}. do Rosario that contribute with public health information and helped to identify air quality related diseases. (orig.)

  4. Air quality as respiratory health indicator: a critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moshammer, Hanns; Wallner, Peter

    2011-09-01

    As part of the European Public Health project IMCA II validity and practicability of "air pollution" as a respiratory health indicator were analyzed. The definitions of air quality as an indicator proposed by the WHO project ECOEHIS and by IMCA I were compared. The public availability of the necessary data was checked through access to web-based data-bases. Practicability and interpretation of the indicator were discussed with project partners and external experts. Air quality serves as a kind of benchmark for the good health-related environmental policy. In this sense, it is a relevant health indicator. Although air quality is not directly in the responsibility of health policy, its vital importance for the population's health should not be neglected. In principle, data is available to calculate this IMCA indicator for any chosen area in Europe. The indicator is relevant and informative, but calculation and interpretation need input from local expert knowledge. The European health policy is well advised to take air quality into account. To that end, an interdisciplinary approach is warranted. The proposed definition of air quality as a (respiratory) health indicator is workable, but correct interpretation depends on expert and local knowledge.

  5. The Outdoor Air Pollution and Brain Health Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Accumulating evidence suggests that air pollution may have a significant impact on central nervous system (CNS) health and disease. To address this issue, the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences/National Institute of Health convened a panel of research scientists...

  6. Effects on health of air pollution: a narrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannucci, Pier Mannuccio; Harari, Sergio; Martinelli, Ida; Franchini, Massimo

    2015-09-01

    Air pollution is a complex and ubiquitous mixture of pollutants including particulate matter, chemical substances and biological materials. There is growing awareness of the adverse effects on health of air pollution following both acute and chronic exposure, with a rapidly expanding body of evidence linking air pollution with an increased risk of respiratory (e.g., asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, lung cancer) and cardiovascular disease (e.g., myocardial infarction, heart failure, cerebrovascular accidents). Elderly subjects, pregnant women, infants and people with prior diseases appear especially susceptible to the deleterious effects of ambient air pollution. The main diseases associated with exposure to air pollutants will be summarized in this narrative review.

  7. The public health relevance of air pollution abatement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Künzli, N

    2002-07-01

    Assuming a causal relationship between current levels of air pollution and morbidity/mortality, it is crucial to estimate the public health relevance of the problem. The derivation of air pollution attributable cases faces inherent uncertainties and requires influential assumptions. Based on the results of the trinational impact assessment study of Austria, France, and Switzerland, where prudent estimates of the air pollution attributable cases (mortality, chronic bronchitis incidence, hospital admissions, acute bronchitis among children, restricted activity days, asthma attacks) have been made, influential uncertainties are quantified in this review. The public health impact of smoking, environmental tobacco smoke, and air pollution on the prevalence of chronic cough/phlegm are outlined. Despite all methodological caveats, impact assessment studies clearly suggest that public health largely benefits from better air quality. The studies are selective underestimates as they are strongly driven by mortality, but do not include full quantification of the impact on morbidity and their consequences on quality of life among the diseased and the caregivers. Air pollution abatement strategies are usually political in nature, targeting at polities, regulation and technology in mobile or stationary sources rather than at individuals. It is of note that key clean air strategies converge into abatement of climate change. In general, energy consumption is very closely related to both air pollution and greenhouse gases. The dominant causes of both problems are the excessive and inefficient combustion of fossil fuel. Thus, for many policy options, the benefit of air pollution abatement will go far beyond what prudent health-impact assessments may derive. From a climate change and air pollution perspective, improved energy efficiency and a strong and decisive departure from the "fossil fuel" combustion society is a science-based must. Health professionals must raise their voices

  8. Air quality trends and potential health effects - Development of an aggregate risk index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sicard, Pierre; Lesne, Olivia; Alexandre, Nicolas; Mangin, Antoine; Collomp, Rémy

    2011-02-01

    The "Provence Alpes Côte d'Azur" (PACA) region, in the South East of France, is one of Europe's regions most influenced by the atmospheric pollution. During the last 15 years, the industrial emissions decrease caused an evolution of the atmospheric pollution nature. Nowadays, atmospheric pollution is more and more influenced by the road traffic, the dominating pollution source in urban zones for the PACA region. Combined with this intense road traffic, the strong hot season of the Mediterranean climate contributes to the region bad air quality; it is known to be one of the worse in Europe. The recognized air pollution effects over public health include increased risk of hospital admissions and mortality by respiratory or cardiovascular diseases. The combination of these serious pollution related health hazards with senior and children vulnerabilities leads to serious sanitary concerns. Over the 1990-2005 period, we obtained, using the non-parametric Mann-Kendall test from annual mortality dataset (CépiDC), decreasing trends for Asthma (-5.00% year -1), Cardiovascular (-0.73% year -1), Ischemic (-0.69% year -1) and cerebrovascular diseases (-3.10% year -1). However, for "Other heart diseases" (+0.10% year -1) and "Respiratory" (+0.10% year -1) an increase was observed. The development of an adequate tool to understand impacts of pollution levels is of utmost importance. Different pollutants have different health endpoints, information may be lost through the use of a single index consequently, in this study we present the modified formula of air quality index, based on Cairncross's concept the Aggregate Risk Index (ARI). ARI is based on the relative risk of the well-established increased daily mortality, or morbidity, enabling an assessment of additive effects of short-term exposure to the main air pollutants: PM 2.5, PM 10, SO 2, O 3 and NO 2 in order to account for the reality of the multiple exposures impacts of chemical agents. The ARI, developed per pathology

  9. Air Quality Measures on the National Environmental Health Tracking Network

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) provides air pollution data about ozone and particulate matter (PM2.5) to CDC for the Tracking Network. The EPA maintains...

  10. Health and air quality 2005 : phase 2 : valuation of health impacts from air quality in the Lower Fraser Valley airshed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furberg, M.; Preston, K. [RWDI West Inc., Vancouver, BC (Canada); Sawyer, D. [Marbek Resource Consultants Ltd., Ottawa, ON (Canada); Brauer, M. [British Columbia Univ., Vancouver, BC (Canada). School of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene; Hanvelt, R. [British Columbia Univ., Vancouver, BC (Canada). Dept. of Health Care and Epidemiology

    2005-07-15

    This study provided estimates the health benefits and costs associated with specified changes in ambient air concentrations of particulate matter (PM) and ozone in the Lower Fraser Valley (LFV). Estimates were developed on a regional level. The study focused on PM and ozone, as current air quality monitoring data and scientific findings have indicated that these are the air contaminants of greatest concern in the region. Known air quality health outcome relationships were applied in a spreadsheet model to predict changes in health outcomes associated with 6 ambient air quality scenarios for 3 sub-regions within the LFV airshed. Concentration response functions based on epidemiological studies were used to estimate the number of health events associated with changes in air quality. For each scenario, the model calculated the expected number of the following health outcomes: mortality; chronic bronchitis; respiratory hospital admissions; cardiac hospital admissions; emergency room visits; child acute bronchitis; restricted activity days; asthma symptom days; minor restricted activity days and acute respiratory symptom days. The model also produced the dollar value of the health outcomes. A dollar metric was used so that the health outcomes could be aggregated and compared with other air quality management actions such the costs of improving ambient air quality. Results indicated that improving ambient air quality in the LFV will produce valued and socially desirable benefits, including reduced mortality and morbidity. The measures contemplated by decision-makers to maintain and improve air quality in the LFV will trigger benefits that are likely to be significant. 101 refs., 7 tabs., 7 figs.

  11. The effects of air pollution on the health of children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buka, Irena; Koranteng, Samuel; Osornio-Vargas, Alvaro R

    2006-10-01

    The present article is intended to inform paediatricians about the associations between ambient air pollution and adverse health outcomes in children within the context of current epidemiological evidence.The majority of the current literature pertains to adverse respiratory health outcomes, including asthma, other respiratory symptoms, and deficits in lung function and growth, as well as exposure to ambient levels of criteria air pollutants. In addition to the above, the present article highlights mortality, pregnancy outcomes, vitamin D deficiency and alteration in the immune system of children.Some of the data on the impact of improved air quality on children's health are provided, including the reduction of air pollution in former East Germany following the reunification of Germany, as well as the reduction in the rates of childhood asthma events during the 1996 Summer Olympics in Atlanta, Georgia, due to a reduction in local motor vehicle traffic. However, there are many other toxic air pollutants that are regularly released into the air. These pollutants, which are not regularly monitored and have not been adequately researched, are also potentially harmful to children.Significant morbidity and mortality is attributed to ambient air pollution, resulting in a significant economic cost to society. As Canada's cities grow, air pollution issues need to be a priority in order to protect the health of children and support sustainable development for future generations. PMID:19030320

  12. Air quality health index variation across British Columbia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasselback, P. [Interior Health Authority, Kelowna, BC (Canada); Taylor, E. [British Columbia Ministry of Health Living and Sport, Vancouver, BC (Canada)

    2010-09-15

    The new Air Quality Health Index (AQHI) is a tool aiming to present the health risks related to air pollution in Canada. This index can be used by individuals to help them reduce their health risk resulting from poor air quality. An assessment of the short term health risk induced by poor air quality is provided to Canadians through the AQHI. The AQHI is based on three factors: ambient concentrations of nitrogen dioxide, fine particulate matter and ozone, the local air quality information being presented on an hourly and daily basis and being calculated each hour for several locations across Canada. Pulmonary disorders and impacts on cardiac function are the more significant short term health risks. Longer term exposure to poor air quality is associated with increased rates of allergies and asthma, low birth weight, atherosclerosis, poorer lung development in children, lung cancer and ear infections. Information on the AQHI and on the variation across British Columbia of the health risk associated with this index are presented in this document. 19 refs., 5 tabs., 5 figs.

  13. Recognizing the impact of ambient air pollution on skin health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancebo, S E; Wang, S Q

    2015-12-01

    Ambient air pollution is a known public health hazard that negatively impacts non-cutaneous organs; however, our knowledge regarding the effects on skin remains limited. Current scientific evidence suggests there are four mechanisms by which ambient air pollutants cause adverse effects on skin health: (i) generation of free radicals, (ii) induction of inflammatory cascade and subsequent impairment of skin barrier, (iii) activation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) and (iv) alterations to skin microflora. In this review, we provide a comprehensive overview on ambient air pollutants and their relevant sources, and highlight current evidence of the effects on skin. PMID:26289769

  14. Review of air pollution and health impacts in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the early days of abundant resources and minimal development pressures, little attention was paid to growing environmental concerns in Malaysia. The haze episodes in Southeast Asia in 1983, 1984, 1991, 1994, and 1997 imposed threats to the environmental management of Malaysia and increased awareness of the environment. As a consequence, the government established Malaysian Air Quality Guidelines, the Air Pollution Index, and the Haze Action Plan to improve air quality. Air quality monitoring is part of the initial strategy in the pollution prevention program in Malaysia. Review of air pollution in Malaysia is based on the reports of the air quality monitoring in several large cities in Malaysia, which cover air pollutants such as Carbon monoxide (CO), Sulphur Dioxide (SO2), Nitrogen Dioxide (NO2), Ozone (O3), and Suspended Particulate Matter (SPM). The results of the monitoring indicate that Suspended Particulate Matter (SPM) and Nitrogen Dioxide (NO2) are the predominant pollutants. Other pollutants such as CO, Ox, SO2, and Pb are also observed in several big cities in Malaysia. The air pollution comes mainly from land transportation, industrial emissions, and open burning sources. Among them, land transportation contributes the most to air pollution. This paper reviews the results of the ambient air quality monitoring and studies related to air pollution and health impacts

  15. Review of air pollution and health impacts in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afroz, Rafia; Hassan, Mohd Nasir; Ibrahim, Noor Akma

    2003-06-01

    In the early days of abundant resources and minimal development pressures, little attention was paid to growing environmental concerns in Malaysia. The haze episodes in Southeast Asia in 1983, 1984, 1991, 1994, and 1997 imposed threats to the environmental management of Malaysia and increased awareness of the environment. As a consequence, the government established Malaysian Air Quality Guidelines, the Air Pollution Index, and the Haze Action Plan to improve air quality. Air quality monitoring is part of the initial strategy in the pollution prevention program in Malaysia. Review of air pollution in Malaysia is based on the reports of the air quality monitoring in several large cities in Malaysia, which cover air pollutants such as Carbon monoxide (CO), Sulphur Dioxide (SO2), Nitrogen Dioxide (NO2), Ozone (O3), and Suspended Particulate Matter (SPM). The results of the monitoring indicate that Suspended Particulate Matter (SPM) and Nitrogen Dioxide (NO2) are the predominant pollutants. Other pollutants such as CO, O(x), SO2, and Pb are also observed in several big cities in Malaysia. The air pollution comes mainly from land transportation, industrial emissions, and open burning sources. Among them, land transportation contributes the most to air pollution. This paper reviews the results of the ambient air quality monitoring and studies related to air pollution and health impacts.

  16. Air Quality and Health Impacts of Future Ethanol Production and Use in São Paulo State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noah Scovronick

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available It is often argued that liquid biofuels are cleaner than fossil fuels, and therefore better for human health, however, the evidence on this issue is still unclear. Brazil’s high uptake of ethanol and role as a major producer makes it the most appropriate case study to assess the merits of different biofuel policies. Accordingly, we modeled the impact on air quality and health of two future fuel scenarios in São Paulo State: a business-as-usual scenario where ethanol production and use proceeds according to government predictions and a counterfactual scenario where ethanol is frozen at 2010 levels and future transport fuel demand is met with gasoline. The population-weighted exposure to fine particulate matter (PM2.5 and ozone was 3.0 μg/m3 and 0.3 ppb lower, respectively, in 2020 in the scenario emphasizing gasoline compared with the business-as-usual (ethanol scenario. The lower exposure to both pollutants in the gasoline scenario would result in the population living 1100 additional life-years in the first year, and if sustained, would increase to 40,000 life-years in year 20 and continue to rise. Without additional measures to limit emissions, increasing the use of ethanol in Brazil could lead to higher air pollution-related population health burdens when compared to policy that prioritizes gasoline.

  17. Air Quality and Health Impacts of Future Ethanol Production and Use in São Paulo State, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scovronick, Noah; França, Daniela; Alonso, Marcelo; Almeida, Claudia; Longo, Karla; Freitas, Saulo; Rudorff, Bernardo; Wilkinson, Paul

    2016-07-11

    It is often argued that liquid biofuels are cleaner than fossil fuels, and therefore better for human health, however, the evidence on this issue is still unclear. Brazil's high uptake of ethanol and role as a major producer makes it the most appropriate case study to assess the merits of different biofuel policies. Accordingly, we modeled the impact on air quality and health of two future fuel scenarios in São Paulo State: a business-as-usual scenario where ethanol production and use proceeds according to government predictions and a counterfactual scenario where ethanol is frozen at 2010 levels and future transport fuel demand is met with gasoline. The population-weighted exposure to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and ozone was 3.0 μg/m³ and 0.3 ppb lower, respectively, in 2020 in the scenario emphasizing gasoline compared with the business-as-usual (ethanol) scenario. The lower exposure to both pollutants in the gasoline scenario would result in the population living 1100 additional life-years in the first year, and if sustained, would increase to 40,000 life-years in year 20 and continue to rise. Without additional measures to limit emissions, increasing the use of ethanol in Brazil could lead to higher air pollution-related population health burdens when compared to policy that prioritizes gasoline.

  18. Air Quality and Health Impacts of Future Ethanol Production and Use in São Paulo State, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scovronick, Noah; França, Daniela; Alonso, Marcelo; Almeida, Claudia; Longo, Karla; Freitas, Saulo; Rudorff, Bernardo; Wilkinson, Paul

    2016-01-01

    It is often argued that liquid biofuels are cleaner than fossil fuels, and therefore better for human health, however, the evidence on this issue is still unclear. Brazil's high uptake of ethanol and role as a major producer makes it the most appropriate case study to assess the merits of different biofuel policies. Accordingly, we modeled the impact on air quality and health of two future fuel scenarios in São Paulo State: a business-as-usual scenario where ethanol production and use proceeds according to government predictions and a counterfactual scenario where ethanol is frozen at 2010 levels and future transport fuel demand is met with gasoline. The population-weighted exposure to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and ozone was 3.0 μg/m³ and 0.3 ppb lower, respectively, in 2020 in the scenario emphasizing gasoline compared with the business-as-usual (ethanol) scenario. The lower exposure to both pollutants in the gasoline scenario would result in the population living 1100 additional life-years in the first year, and if sustained, would increase to 40,000 life-years in year 20 and continue to rise. Without additional measures to limit emissions, increasing the use of ethanol in Brazil could lead to higher air pollution-related population health burdens when compared to policy that prioritizes gasoline. PMID:27409628

  19. Air Quality and Health Impacts of Future Ethanol Production and Use in São Paulo State, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scovronick, Noah; França, Daniela; Alonso, Marcelo; Almeida, Claudia; Longo, Karla; Freitas, Saulo; Rudorff, Bernardo; Wilkinson, Paul

    2016-01-01

    It is often argued that liquid biofuels are cleaner than fossil fuels, and therefore better for human health, however, the evidence on this issue is still unclear. Brazil’s high uptake of ethanol and role as a major producer makes it the most appropriate case study to assess the merits of different biofuel policies. Accordingly, we modeled the impact on air quality and health of two future fuel scenarios in São Paulo State: a business-as-usual scenario where ethanol production and use proceeds according to government predictions and a counterfactual scenario where ethanol is frozen at 2010 levels and future transport fuel demand is met with gasoline. The population-weighted exposure to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and ozone was 3.0 μg/m3 and 0.3 ppb lower, respectively, in 2020 in the scenario emphasizing gasoline compared with the business-as-usual (ethanol) scenario. The lower exposure to both pollutants in the gasoline scenario would result in the population living 1100 additional life-years in the first year, and if sustained, would increase to 40,000 life-years in year 20 and continue to rise. Without additional measures to limit emissions, increasing the use of ethanol in Brazil could lead to higher air pollution-related population health burdens when compared to policy that prioritizes gasoline. PMID:27409628

  20. Impact of air quality on lung health: myth or reality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marino, Elisa; Caruso, Massimo; Campagna, Davide; Polosa, Riccardo

    2015-09-01

    The respiratory system is a primary target of the harmful effects of key air pollutants of health concern. Several air pollutants have been implicated including particulate matter (PM), ozone (O3), nitrogen dioxide (NO2) polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs). It is well known that episodes of exposure to high concentrations of outdoor air pollutants can cause acute respiratory exacerbations. However, there is now increasing evidence suggesting that significant exposure to outdoor air pollutants may be also associated with development of lung cancer and with incident cases of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and respiratory allergies. Here we provide a critical appraisal of the impact of air pollution on respiratory diseases and discuss strategies for preventing excessive exposure to harmful air pollutants. However, the evidence that significant exposure to air pollutants is causing COPD, lung cancer or respiratory allergies is not conclusive and therefore regulators must be aware that execution of clean air policies may not be that cost-effective and may lead to unintended consequences. Addressing the lung health effects of air pollution must be considered work in progress.

  1. Remote Sensing, Air Quality, and Public Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quattrochi, Dale A.; Rickman, Douglas; Mohammad, Al-Hamdan; Crosson, William; Estes, Maurice, Jr.; Limaye, Ashutosh; Qualters, Judith

    2008-01-01

    HELIX-Atlanta was developed to support current and future state and local EPHT programs to implement data linking demonstratio'n projects which could be part of the EPHT Network. HELIX-Atlanta is a pilot linking project in Atlanta for CDC to learn about the challenges the states will encounter. NASA/MSFC and the CDC are partners in linking environmental and health data to enhance public health surveillance. The use of NASA technology creates value - added geospatial products from existing environmental data sources to facilitate public health linkages. Proving the feasibility of the approach is the main objective

  2. Health effects of air quality regulations in Delhi, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Andrew; Kumar, Naresh

    2011-03-01

    This, the first systematic study, quantifies the health effects of air quality regulations in Delhi, which adopted radical measures to improve air quality, including, for example, the conversion of all commercial vehicles to compressed natural gas (CNG), and the closure of polluting industries in residential areas from 2000 to 2002. Air pollution data, collected at 113 sites (spread across Delhi and its neighboring areas) from July-December 2003, were used to compute exposure at the place of residence of 3989 subjects. A socio-economic and respiratory health survey was administered in 1576 households. This survey collected time-use, residence histories, demographic information, and direct measurements of lung function with subjects. The optimal interpolation methods were used to link air pollution and respiratory health data at the place of their residence. Resident histories, in combination with secondary data, were used to impute cumulative exposure prior to the air-quality interventions, and the effects of recent air quality measures on lung function were then evaluated. Three important findings emerge from the analysis. First, the interventions were associated with a significant improvement in respiratory health. Second, the effect of these interventions varied significantly by gender and income. Third, consistent with a causal interpretation of these results, effects were the strongest among those individuals who spend a disproportionate share of their time out-of-doors.

  3. Population Dynamics and Air Pollution: The Impact of Demographics on Health Impact Assessment of Air Pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esben Meulengracht Flachs

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To explore how three different assumptions on demographics affect the health impact of Danish emitted air pollution in Denmark from 2005 to 2030, with health impact modeled from 2005 to 2050. Methods. Modeled air pollution from Danish sources was used as exposure in a newly developed health impact assessment model, which models four major diseases and mortality causes in addition to all-cause mortality. The modeling was at the municipal level, which divides the approximately 5.5 M residents in Denmark into 99 municipalities. Three sets of demographic assumptions were used: (1 a static year 2005 population, (2 morbidity and mortality fixed at the year 2005 level, or (3 an expected development. Results. The health impact of air pollution was estimated at 672,000, 290,000, and 280,000 lost life years depending on demographic assumptions and the corresponding social costs at 430.4 M€, 317.5 M€, and 261.6 M€ through the modeled years 2005–2050. Conclusion. The modeled health impact of air pollution differed widely with the demographic assumptions, and thus demographics and assumptions on demographics played a key role in making health impact assessments on air pollution.

  4. Letter to the Editor: Applications Air Q Model on Estimate Health Effects Exposure to Air Pollutants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholamreza Goudarzi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiologic studies in worldwide have measured increases in mortality and morbidity associated with air pollution (1-3. Quantifying the effects of air pollution on the human health in urban area causes an increasingly critical component in policy discussion (4-6. Air Q model was proved to be a valid and reliable tool to predicts health effects related to criteria  pollutants (particulate matter (PM, ozone (O3, nitrogen dioxide (NO2, sulfur dioxide (SO2, and carbon monoxide (CO, determinate  the  potential short term effects of air pollution  and allows the examination of various scenarios in which emission rates of pollutants are varied (7,8. Air Q software provided by the WHO European Centre for Environment and Health (ECEH (9. Air Q model is based on cohort studies and used to estimates of both attributable average reductions in life-span and numbers of mortality and morbidity associated with exposure to air pollution (10,11. Applications

  5. Inside environment, air quality and health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is now obvious that there is a risk of lung cancer because of the radon exposure in houses. The domestic exposure is the second cause of the lung cancer after tobacco. It is possible to reduce the concentration in radon in houses. The domestic exposure to radon is a problem of public health that we have to manage. The question is to know to what point from a technical, economical and public health point of view. Studies about cost-efficiency should be made to better direct the political actions on radon. Two points are important to fight against bad effects of radon, the reduction of radon levels in houses and the fight against addiction to smoking. (N.C.)

  6. Survey of Ambient Air Pollution Health Risk Assessment Tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anenberg, Susan C; Belova, Anna; Brandt, Jørgen; Fann, Neal; Greco, Sue; Guttikunda, Sarath; Heroux, Marie-Eve; Hurley, Fintan; Krzyzanowski, Michal; Medina, Sylvia; Miller, Brian; Pandey, Kiran; Roos, Joachim; Van Dingenen, Rita

    2016-09-01

    Designing air quality policies that improve public health can benefit from information about air pollution health risks and impacts, which include respiratory and cardiovascular diseases and premature death. Several computer-based tools help automate air pollution health impact assessments and are being used for a variety of contexts. Expanding information gathered for a May 2014 World Health Organization expert meeting, we survey 12 multinational air pollution health impact assessment tools, categorize them according to key technical and operational characteristics, and identify limitations and challenges. Key characteristics include spatial resolution, pollutants and health effect outcomes evaluated, and method for characterizing population exposure, as well as tool format, accessibility, complexity, and degree of peer review and application in policy contexts. While many of the tools use common data sources for concentration-response associations, population, and baseline mortality rates, they vary in the exposure information source, format, and degree of technical complexity. We find that there is an important tradeoff between technical refinement and accessibility for a broad range of applications. Analysts should apply tools that provide the appropriate geographic scope, resolution, and maximum degree of technical rigor for the intended assessment, within resources constraints. A systematic intercomparison of the tools' inputs, assumptions, calculations, and results would be helpful to determine the appropriateness of each for different types of assessment. Future work would benefit from accounting for multiple uncertainty sources and integrating ambient air pollution health impact assessment tools with those addressing other related health risks (e.g., smoking, indoor pollution, climate change, vehicle accidents, physical activity).

  7. Methodology for Valuing the Health Impacts of Air Pollution

    OpenAIRE

    Narain, Urvashi; Sall, Chris

    2016-01-01

    This report is meant to inform a joint publication by the World Bank and Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation (IHME) on the economic costs of air pollution. Air pollution is a global challenge and one that is acutely felt in developing countries. Illnesses caused by ambient and household air pollution claim the lives of nearly 6 million people each year. The goal of the joint World Bank-IHME report is to raise awareness about the severity of this challenge and to strengthen the busi...

  8. Health assessment of hazardous air pollutants, The Netherlands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vermeire, T.; van der Heijden, K. (National Institute of Public Health and Environmental Protection, Bilthoven (Netherlands))

    1990-10-01

    In The Netherlands, risk assessment of air pollutants goes back to 1980. From 1985 onwards the risk assessment of chemicals has crystallized in a systematic multi-media approach taking into account air, water, soil, and food. Criteria Documents support the formulation of environmental quality standards. Until now, 23 documents were prepared. Some toxicological aspects of the risk assessment for man in these documents are discussed with emphasis on carcinogenicity. As examples the main aspects of the risk assessments of benzene and trichloroethylene are described. A list of proposed health based standards for air pollutants is added.

  9. Acute effects of winter air pollution on respiratory health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zee, van der S.

    1999-01-01

    In this thesis, acute respiratory health effects of exposure to winter air pollution are investigated in panels of children (7-11 yr) and adults (50-70 yr) with and without chronic respiratory symptoms, living in urban and non-urban areas in the Netherlands. The study was performed during three cons

  10. Public health implications of urban air pollution in developing countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwela, D.H. [World Health Organisation, Geneva (Switzerland)

    1995-12-31

    Exposure to air pollution is an almost inescapable part of urban life throughout the world. Ambient air pollutant levels in urban areas are generally a reflection of emissions. For sulphur dioxide, total suspended particulate matter and lead, ambient concentrations are declining in the industrialized western countries. For nitrogen dioxide, ambient levels in cities are generally constant, or slightly increasing. For carbon dioxide, they are variable, declining where controls are being applied. In a substantial number of cities, particularly in developing countries, WHO guidelines are being often exceeded for the compounds mentioned. Given the rate at which these cities are growing, the air pollution situation will probably worsen if environmental control measures are not implemented. As a consequence, the health and well-being of urban residents will further deteriorate with high ambient air pollutant concentrations causing increased mortality, morbidity, deficits on pulmonary functions and cardiovascular and neurobehavioural effects. (author)

  11. Traffic related air pollution : spatial variation, health effects and mitigation measures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkema, M.B.A.

    2011-01-01

    Air pollution is probably the most intensely studied field in today’s environmental health research. The extensive body of literature on health effects associated with air pollution exposure has lead to prioritization of air pollution as public health risk factor and air quality regulations worldwid

  12. Vaal Triangle air pollution health study. Addressing South African problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terblanche, P.; Nel, R. [CSIR Environmental Services, Pretoria (South Africa); Surridge, T. [Dept. of Mineral and Energy Affairs (South Africa); Annegarn, H. [Annegarn Environmental Research, Johannesburg (South Africa); Tosen, G. [Eskom, Johannesburg (South Africa); Pols, A. [CSIR Informationtek, Pretoria (South Africa)

    1995-12-31

    Situated in the central region of South Africa, the Vaal Triangle is an area which plays a vital role in driving the economic dynamo of South Africa. Also, because of the concentration of heavy industry, it is an area which provides a challenge in effective air pollution control. The Vaal Triangle lies within the Vaal River Basin, at an altitude of 1 500 m above sea level. Meteorological conditions in the area are highly conducive to the formation of surface temperature inversions, resulting in a poor dispersion potential. Because of multiple sources of air pollution in the area, poor dispersion conditions increase the risk pollution build-up and subsequent adverse impacts. The situation is further exacerbated by the continued combustion of coal in households, even after the electrification of residences. This is particularly chronic in the developing communities and during winter. Vaal Triangle Air Pollution Health Study (VAPS) was initiated in 1990 by the Department of Health, the Medical Research Council and major industries in the area to determine effects of air pollution on the health of the community. The final results of that study summarised in this article, and options to ameliorate problems are addressed. (author)

  13. Environment and air pollution: health services bequeath to grotesque menace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qureshi, Muhammad Imran; Rasli, Amran Md; Awan, Usama; Ma, Jian; Ali, Ghulam; Faridullah; Alam, Arif; Sajjad, Faiza; Zaman, Khalid

    2015-03-01

    The objective of the study is to establish the link between air pollution, fossil fuel energy consumption, industrialization, alternative and nuclear energy, combustible renewable and wastes, urbanization, and resulting impact on health services in Malaysia. The study employed two-stage least square regression technique on the time series data from 1975 to 2012 to possibly minimize the problem of endogeniety in the health services model. The results in general show that air pollution and environmental indicators act as a strong contributor to influence Malaysian health services. Urbanization and nuclear energy consumption both significantly increases the life expectancy in Malaysia, while fertility rate decreases along with the increasing urbanization in a country. Fossil fuel energy consumption and industrialization both have an indirect relationship with the infant mortality rate, whereas, carbon dioxide emissions have a direct relationship with the sanitation facility in a country. The results conclude that balancing the air pollution, environment, and health services needs strong policy vistas on the end of the government officials. PMID:25242593

  14. Environment and air pollution: health services bequeath to grotesque menace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qureshi, Muhammad Imran; Rasli, Amran Md; Awan, Usama; Ma, Jian; Ali, Ghulam; Faridullah; Alam, Arif; Sajjad, Faiza; Zaman, Khalid

    2015-03-01

    The objective of the study is to establish the link between air pollution, fossil fuel energy consumption, industrialization, alternative and nuclear energy, combustible renewable and wastes, urbanization, and resulting impact on health services in Malaysia. The study employed two-stage least square regression technique on the time series data from 1975 to 2012 to possibly minimize the problem of endogeniety in the health services model. The results in general show that air pollution and environmental indicators act as a strong contributor to influence Malaysian health services. Urbanization and nuclear energy consumption both significantly increases the life expectancy in Malaysia, while fertility rate decreases along with the increasing urbanization in a country. Fossil fuel energy consumption and industrialization both have an indirect relationship with the infant mortality rate, whereas, carbon dioxide emissions have a direct relationship with the sanitation facility in a country. The results conclude that balancing the air pollution, environment, and health services needs strong policy vistas on the end of the government officials.

  15. Health benefits of improving air quality in Taiyuan, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Deliang; Wang, Cuicui; Nie, Jiesheng; Chen, Renjie; Niu, Qiao; Kan, Haidong; Chen, Bingheng; Perera, Frederica

    2014-12-01

    Since 2000, the government in Shanxi province has mounted several initiatives and mandated factory shutdowns with the goal of reducing coal burning emissions and the environmental impacts of industrialization. We estimated the health benefits associated with air quality improvement from 2001 to 2010 in Taiyuan, Shanxi Province, using disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) and monetized the health benefits using value of statistical life (VOSL). Data were collected on annual average concentrations of particulate matter less than 10 μm in aerodynamic diameter (PM10) and relevant health outcomes in Taiyuan from 2001 to 2010. Selected exposure-response functions were used to calculate the cases of death or disease attributable to PM10 annually over a 10-year period. These were summed to calculate the DALYs lost and their monetary value associated with PM10 each year between 2001 and 2010. Air quality improvement from 2001 to 2010 was estimated to have prevented 2810 premature deaths, 951 new cases of chronic bronchitis, 141,457 cases of outpatient visits, 969 cases of emergency-room visits and 31,810 cases of hospital admissions. The DALYs (VOSL) decreased by 56.92% (52.68%) from 52,937 (7274 million Yuan) in 2001 to 22,807 (3442 million Yuan) in 2010. Premature deaths accounted for almost 95% of the total DALYs. Our analysis demonstrates that air pollution abatement during the last decade in Taiyuan has generated substantial health benefits. PMID:25168129

  16. Air pollution health effects of electric power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    stitutt for Atomenergi (IFA) and Norsk Institutt for Luftforskning (NILU) have undertaken a joint project with the ultimate purpose of comparing the relative air pollution health effects of gas-fired, oil-fired and uranium-fueled electric power generating plants. Phase I of the project includes a literature review on pollutant emissions and their health effects. The methods which have previouously been used to compare the relative health effects are also reviewed. The radioactive effluents from nuclear power plants are tabulated and the health effects discussed on the basis of data from Hiroshima and Nagasaki, medical irradiation therapy and studies of USAEC and UKAEA employees. It is pointed out that there is no indication that chronic low-level radiation has somatic effects, and the Japanese data gives no conclusive indication of genetic effects. Background irradiation in Kerala and Guarapari and in USA is also cited. Following a brief presentation of the principal air pollutants from fossil fuels a number of studies of 'smog' incidents in the UK and USA are discussed, and a prediction equation based on multiple regression analysis is presented. Finally the methods of comparing the health effects from nuclear and fossil-fuel plants are discussed. In an appendix Lave and Freeburg's study 'Health effects of electricity generation from coal, oil and nuclear fuel' is evaluated. (JIW)

  17. The impact of weather changes on air quality and health in the United States in 1994–2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Air quality is heavily influenced by weather conditions. In this study, we assessed the impact of long-term weather changes on air quality and health in the US during 1994–2012. We quantified past weather-related increases, or ‘weather penalty’, in ozone (O3) and fine particulate matter (PM2.5), and thereafter estimated the associated excess deaths. Using statistical regression methods, we derived the weather penalty as the additional increases in air pollution relative to trends assuming constant weather conditions (i.e., weather-adjusted trends). During our study period, temperature increased and wind speed decreased in most US regions. Nationally, weather-related 8 h max O3 increases were 0.18 ppb per year (95% CI: 0.06, 0.31) in the warm season (May–October) and 0.07 ppb per year (95% CI: 0.02, 0.13) in the cold season (November–April). The weather penalties on O3 were relatively larger than PM2.5 weather penalties, which were 0.056 μgm−3 per year (95% CI: 0.016, 0.096) in warm months and 0.027 μgm−3 per year (95% CI: 0.010, 0.043) in cold months. Weather penalties on O3 and PM2.5 were associated with 290 (95% CI: 80, 510) and 770 (95% CI: 190, 1350) excess annual deaths, respectively. Over a 19-year period, this amounts to 20 300 excess deaths (5600 from O3, 14 700 from PM2.5) attributable to the weather penalty on air quality. (letter)

  18. Effects of Indoor Air Pollution on Human Health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berglund, B.; Brunekreef, B.; Knöppel, H.;

    1992-01-01

    to changes in behaviour and performance. An increased risk of developing lung cancer has been linked to exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) and to radon decay products. Lung cancer is a very serious disease with a high fatality rate; however, the number of people affected is much lower than......This article contains a summary discussion of human health effects linked to indoor air pollution (UP) in homes and other non-industrial environments. Rather than discussing the health effects of the many different pollutants which can be found in indoor air, the approach has been to group broad...... the number of people contracting resparatory disease or alhgies, or experiencing irritative effects due to exposure to indoor pollution. The effects of IAP on reproduction, cardiovascular disease and on other systems and organs have not been well documented to date. To a certain extent, this may mean...

  19. Health effects of SRS non-radiological air emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stewart, J.

    1997-06-16

    This report examines the potential health effects of non radiological emissions to the air resulting from operations at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The scope of this study was limited to the 55 air contaminants for which the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has quantified risk by determining unit risk factors (excess cancer risks) and/or reference concentrations (deleterious non cancer risks). Potential health impacts have been assessed in relation to the maximally exposed individual. This is a hypothetical person who resides for a lifetime at the SRS boundary. The most recent (1994) quality assured SRS emissions data available were used. Estimated maximum site boundary concentrations of the air contaminants were calculated using air dispersion modeling and 24-hour and annual averaging times. For the emissions studied, the excess cancer risk was found to be less than the generally accepted risk level of 1 in 100,000 and, in most cases, was less than 1 in 1,000,000. Deleterious non cancer effects were also found to be very unlikely.

  20. Report by the Commission of environment accounting and economy - Health and outdoor air quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After an overview of the issue of air pollution (definition, pollutant emission, population exposure, main air pollutants and emission sources, assessment of air quality in France), this report discusses the various impacts of air pollution on health and their related costs: pathologies associated with a bad air quality, categories which are more exposed than others, assessment of health impacts of air pollution, health costs. The next part describes the current policies aimed at improving air quality: European and international commitments, national policy, public policy tools, impacts of policies of struggle against air pollution by some pollutants, current researches and knowledge to be improved

  1. Assessment of health risks caused by air pollutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is a support document to an other report from the Swedish Environmental Protection Agency 'Risk assessment - a research programme aimed at health risks from air pollution in the general environment', report 3890, 1991 and is a survey of the scientific 'state of the art' in the different parts of risk assessment. Furthermore certain proposals are made concerning the scientific content of the future research in this area. (au)

  2. Fiber Optic Sensors for Structural Health Monitoring of Air Platforms

    OpenAIRE

    Jianping Yao; Honglei Guo; Gaozhi Xiao; Nezih Mrad

    2011-01-01

    Aircraft operators are faced with increasing requirements to extend the service life of air platforms beyond their designed life cycles, resulting in heavy maintenance and inspection burdens as well as economic pressure. Structural health monitoring (SHM) based on advanced sensor technology is potentially a cost-effective approach to meet operational requirements, and to reduce maintenance costs. Fiber optic sensor technology is being developed to provide existing and future aircrafts with SH...

  3. Can the Air Pollution Index be used to communicate the health risks of air pollution?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li; Lin, Guo-Zhen; Liu, Hua-Zhang; Guo, Yuming; Ou, Chun-Quan; Chen, Ping-Yan

    2015-10-01

    The validity of using the Air Pollution Index (API) to assess health impacts of air pollution and potential modification by individual characteristics on air pollution effects remain uncertain. We applied distributed lag non-linear models (DLNMs) to assess associations of daily API, specific pollution indices for PM10, SO2, NO2 and the weighted combined API (APIw) with mortality during 2003-2011 in Guangzhou, China. An increase of 10 in API was associated with a 0.88% (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.50, 1.27%) increase of non-accidental mortality at lag 0-2 days. Harvesting effects appeared after 2 days' exposure. The effect estimate of API over lag 0-15 days was statistically significant and similar with those of pollutant-specific indices and APIw. Stronger associations between API and mortality were observed in the elderly, females and residents with low educational attainment. In conclusion, the API can be used to communicate health risks of air pollution. PMID:26057478

  4. Household energy, air pollution and health in Maputo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellegaard, A.

    1997-05-01

    A survey was carried out in 1188 low-income households in Maputo, Mocambique, in order to assess the degree of exposure to air pollution and health effects associated with this exposure. The hypothesis was that pollution from biomass fuels, especially wood, impairs the health of the women using them, and that it would be possible to discern this effect in a general population. Average exposure levels during cooking time were found to be high, with a level of respirable particulates at 1200, 540 and 380 {mu}g/m{sup 3} for wood, charcoal and electricity users respectively. Similarly carbon monoxide levels were 42, 37 and 5 ppm for the same groups. Wood users were found to have significantly more symptoms of respiratory problems than users of other fuels, but also significantly more symptoms that could not be immediately associated with household fuel pollution. Thus, wood users had lower literacy, poorer housing, and more primitive access to water and sanitation. There was little difference in health aspects between charcoal users and users of modern fuels, though exposure to air pollution was higher among charcoal users. In statistical analysis it was found that cough were significantly associated with the use of wood as a principal fuel, but not with the use of charcoal. Other variables that influenced the health outcome were the age when a woman started helping her mother to cook, daily cooking time and kitchen ventilation. Most of the variables associated to ill health were correlated to wood use. In contrast, charcoal use was associated with a better health status in many respects. From the point of pollution exposure and health, wood use should be limited, while charcoal appears to be a feasible intermediate substitute for wood in the short term in Maputo. 48 refs, 31 figs, 33 tabs

  5. Household energy, air pollution and health in Maputo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A survey was carried out in 1188 low-income households in Maputo, Mocambique, in order to assess the degree of exposure to air pollution and health effects associated with this exposure. The hypothesis was that pollution from biomass fuels, especially wood, impairs the health of the women using them, and that it would be possible to discern this effect in a general population. Average exposure levels during cooking time were found to be high, with a level of respirable particulates at 1200, 540 and 380 μg/m3 for wood, charcoal and electricity users respectively. Similarly carbon monoxide levels were 42, 37 and 5 ppm for the same groups. Wood users were found to have significantly more symptoms of respiratory problems than users of other fuels, but also significantly more symptoms that could not be immediately associated with household fuel pollution. Thus, wood users had lower literacy, poorer housing, and more primitive access to water and sanitation. There was little difference in health aspects between charcoal users and users of modern fuels, though exposure to air pollution was higher among charcoal users. In statistical analysis it was found that cough were significantly associated with the use of wood as a principal fuel, but not with the use of charcoal. Other variables that influenced the health outcome were the age when a woman started helping her mother to cook, daily cooking time and kitchen ventilation. Most of the variables associated to ill health were correlated to wood use. In contrast, charcoal use was associated with a better health status in many respects. From the point of pollution exposure and health, wood use should be limited, while charcoal appears to be a feasible intermediate substitute for wood in the short term in Maputo. 48 refs, 31 figs, 33 tabs

  6. Impact of air pollution on health in Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kruzyzanowski, M. [WHO European Centre for Environment and Health, Bilthoven (Netherlands)

    1995-12-31

    Assessment of health risks due to air pollution should be an important indicator for setting the priorities for the environmental policies and for the abatement of the pollution. The scale of such assessment depends on the level, and scope, of the policy decisions relying on the evaluation. The analysis may range from an estimate of the health impact of a single pollution source, through the risk assessment in a community or a region of a country, to an international, or pan-continental approach. Such assessment, addressing population of all Europe, was one of the aims of the project `Concern for Europe`s Tomorrow` (CET). The WHO European Centre for Environment and Health completed this project, and the corresponding report, as a contribution to the Second European Conference on Environment and Health which gathered ministries of health and of environment from all European countries in Helsinki in June 1994. Using the report as the background information, the ministries have endorsed the `Environmental Health Action Plan for Europe`, the document formulating common environmental health policy of the Region. In this article, the summary of the evaluation will be presented and the main constraints of the pan-European approach will be addressed. (author)

  7. Air pollutants and health outcomes: Assessment of confounding by influenza

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thach, Thuan-Quoc; Wong, Chit-Ming; Chan, King-Pan; Chau, Yuen-Kwan; Neil Thomas, G.; Ou, Chun-Quan; Yang, Lin; Peiris, Joseph S. M.; Lam, Tai-Hing; Hedley, Anthony J.

    2010-04-01

    We assessed confounding of associations between short-term effects of air pollution and health outcomes by influenza using Hong Kong mortality and hospitalization data for 1996-2002. Three measures of influenza were defined: (i) intensity: weekly proportion of positive influenza viruses, (ii) epidemic: weekly number of positive influenza viruses ≥4% of the annual number for ≥2 consecutive weeks, and (iii) predominance: an epidemic period with co-circulation of respiratory syncytial virus effects of influenza on associations between nitrogen dioxide (NO 2), sulfur dioxide (SO 2), particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter ≤10 μm (PM 10) and ozone (O 3) and health outcomes including all natural causes mortality, cardiorespiratory mortality and hospitalization. Generalized additive Poisson regression model with natural cubic splines was fitted to control for time-varying covariates to estimate air pollution health effects. Confounding with influenza was assessed using an absolute difference of >0.1% between unadjusted and adjusted excess risks (ER%). Without adjustment, pollutants were associated with positive ER% for all health outcomes except asthma and stroke hospitalization with SO 2 and stroke hospitalization with O 3. Following adjustment, changes in ER% for all pollutants were 0.1% for mortality from stroke with NO 2 and SO 2, cardiac or heart disease with NO 2, PM 10 and O 3, lower respiratory infections with NO 2 and O 3 and mortality from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease with all pollutants. Changes >0.1% were seen for acute respiratory disease hospitalization with NO 2, SO 2 and O 3 and acute lower respiratory infections hospitalization with PM 10. Generally, influenza does not confound the observed associations of air pollutants with all natural causes mortality and cardiovascular hospitalization, but for some pollutants and subgroups of cardiorespiratory mortality and respiratory hospitalization there was evidence to suggest confounding by

  8. Fiber Optic Sensors for Structural Health Monitoring of Air Platforms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianping Yao

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Aircraft operators are faced with increasing requirements to extend the service life of air platforms beyond their designed life cycles, resulting in heavy maintenance and inspection burdens as well as economic pressure. Structural health monitoring (SHM based on advanced sensor technology is potentially a cost-effective approach to meet operational requirements, and to reduce maintenance costs. Fiber optic sensor technology is being developed to provide existing and future aircrafts with SHM capability due to its unique superior characteristics. This review paper covers the aerospace SHM requirements and an overview of the fiber optic sensor technologies. In particular, fiber Bragg grating (FBG sensor technology is evaluated as the most promising tool for load monitoring and damage detection, the two critical SHM aspects of air platforms. At last, recommendations on the implementation and integration of FBG sensors into an SHM system are provided.

  9. Fiber optic sensors for structural health monitoring of air platforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Honglei; Xiao, Gaozhi; Mrad, Nezih; Yao, Jianping

    2011-01-01

    Aircraft operators are faced with increasing requirements to extend the service life of air platforms beyond their designed life cycles, resulting in heavy maintenance and inspection burdens as well as economic pressure. Structural health monitoring (SHM) based on advanced sensor technology is potentially a cost-effective approach to meet operational requirements, and to reduce maintenance costs. Fiber optic sensor technology is being developed to provide existing and future aircrafts with SHM capability due to its unique superior characteristics. This review paper covers the aerospace SHM requirements and an overview of the fiber optic sensor technologies. In particular, fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensor technology is evaluated as the most promising tool for load monitoring and damage detection, the two critical SHM aspects of air platforms. At last, recommendations on the implementation and integration of FBG sensors into an SHM system are provided. PMID:22163816

  10. Characterization of ambient air pollution for stochastic health models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batterman, S.A.

    1981-08-01

    This research is an analysis of various measures of ambient air pollution useful in cross-sectional epidemiological investigations and rick assessments. The Chestnut Ridge area health effects investigation, which includes a cross-sectional study of respiratory symptoms in young children, is used as a case study. Four large coal-fired electric generating power plants are the dominant pollution sources in this area of western Pennsylvania. The air pollution data base includes four years of sulfur dioxide and five years of total suspended particulate concentrations at seventeen monitors. Some 70 different characterizations of pollution are constructed and tested. These include pollutant concentrations at various percentiles and averaging times, exceedence measures which show the amount of time a specified threshold concentration is exceeded, and several dosage measures which transform non-linear dose-response relationships onto pollutant concentrations.

  11. Can air pollution negate the health benefits of cycling and walking?

    OpenAIRE

    Tainio, Marko; de Nazelle, Audrey; Götschi, Thomas; Kahlmeier, Sonja; Rojas-Rueda, David; Nieuwenhuijse, Mark J; Sa, Thiago H; Kelly, Paul; Woodcock, James

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Active travel (cycling, walking) is beneficial for health due to increased physical activity (PA). However, active travel may increase the intake of air pollution, leading to negative health consequences. We examined the risk-benefit balance between active travel related PA and exposure to air pollution across a range of air pollution and PA scenarios. Methods: The health effects of active travel and air pollution were estimated through changes in all-cause mortality for different...

  12. Can air pollution negate the health benefits of cycling and walking?

    OpenAIRE

    Tainio, Marko; De Nazelle, Audrey; Götschi, Thomas; Kahlmeier, Sonja; Rojas-Rueda, David; Nieuwenhuijse, Mark J; Sa, Thiago H; Kelly, Paul; Woodcock, James

    2016-01-01

    Active travel (cycling, walking) is beneficial for the health due to increased physical activity (PA). However, active travel may increase the intake of air pollution, leading to negative health consequences. We examined the risk–benefit balance between active travel related PA and exposure to air pollution across a range of air pollution and PA scenarios. The health effects of active travel and air pollution were estimated through changes in all-cause mortality for different levels of active...

  13. Ambient air pollution exposure and the incidence of related health effects among racial/ethnic minorities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nieves, L.A.; Wernette, D.R.

    1997-02-01

    Differences among racial and ethnic groups in morbidity and mortality rates for diseases, including diseases with environmental causes, have been extensively documented. However, documenting the linkages between environmental contaminants, individual exposures, and disease incidence has been hindered by difficulties in measuring exposure for the population in general and for minority populations in particular. After briefly discussing research findings on associations of common air pollutants with disease incidence, the authors summarize recent studies of radial/ethnic subgroup differences in incidence of these diseases in the US. They then present evidence of both historic and current patterns of disproportionate minority group exposure to air pollution as measured by residence in areas where ambient air quality standards are violated. The current indications of disproportionate potential exposures of minority and low-income populations to air pollutants represent the continuation of a historical trend. The evidence of linkage between disproportionate exposure to air pollution of racial/ethnic minorities and low-income groups and their higher rates of some air pollution-related diseases is largely circumstantial. Differences in disease incidence and mortality rates among racial/ethnic groups are discussed for respiratory diseases, cancers, and lead poisoning. Pollutants of concern include CO, Pb, SO{sub 2}, O{sub 3}, and particulates.

  14. The impact of European measures to reduce air pollutants on air quality, human health and climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turnock, S.; Butt, E. W.; Richardson, T.; Mann, G.; Forster, P.; Haywood, J. M.; Crippa, M.; Janssens-Maenhout, G. G. A.; Johnson, C.; Bellouin, N.; Spracklen, D. V.; Carslaw, K. S.; Reddington, C.

    2015-12-01

    European air quality legislation has reduced emissions of air pollutants across Europe since the 1970s, resulting in improved air quality and benefits to human health but also an unintended impact on regional climate. Here we used a coupled chemistry-climate model and a new policy relevant emission scenario to determine the impact of air pollutant emission reductions over Europe. The emission scenario shows that a combination of technological improvements and end-of-pipe abatement measures in the energy, industrial and road transport sectors reduced European emissions of sulphur dioxide, black carbon and organic carbon by 53%, 59% and 32% respectively. We estimate that these emission reductions decreased European annual mean concentrations of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) by 35%, sulphate by 44%, black carbon (BC) by 56% and particulate organic matter (POM) by 23%. The reduction in PM2.5 concentrations is calculated to have prevented 107,000 (40,000-172,000, 5-95% confidence intervals) premature deaths annually from cardiopulmonary disease and lung cancer across the EU member states. The decrease in aerosol concentrations caused a positive all-sky aerosol radiative forcing at the top of atmosphere over Europe of 2.3±0.06 W m-2 and a positive clear-sky forcing of 1.7±0.05 W m-2. Additionally, the amount of solar radiation incident at the surface over Europe increased by 3.3±0.07 W m-2 under all-sky and by 2.7±0.05 W m-2 under clear-sky conditions. Reductions in BC concentrations caused a 1 Wm-2 reduction in atmospheric absorption. We use an energy budget approximation to show that the aerosol induced radiative changes caused both temperature and precipitation to increase globally and over Europe. Our results show that the implementation of European legislation to reduce the emission of air pollutants has improved air quality and human health over Europe, as well as altered the regional radiative balance and climate.

  15. Air pollution, athletic health and performance at the Olympic Games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitch, Ken

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to briefly review air pollution and its effects on athletes' health and performance and to examine air quality (AQ) at specific Olympic Summer Games between 1964 and 2008. It will focus on any attempts made by the cities hosting these Olympics to improve AQ for the Games and if undertaken, how successful these were. The author had a medical role at five of the seven Olympic Games that will be examined and hence has personal experiences. Information was obtained from the readily accessible official reports of the Olympic Games, relevant published papers and books and the internet. For each of these seven Olympic Games, monitoring AQ was far below current acceptable standards and for the majority, minimal or no data on major pollutants was available. From what can be ascertained, at these Games, AQ varied but was less than optimal in most if not all. Nevertheless, there were few reported or known unfavorable effects on the health of Olympic athletes. To date, there have been few reported consequences of sub-optimal AQ at Olympic Games. The focus on AQ at Olympic Games has gradually increased over the past five decades and is expected to continue into the future. PMID:25786594

  16. Quantifying the health impacts of ambient air pollutants : recommendations of a WHO/Europe project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Héroux, Marie-Eve; Anderson, H Ross; Atkinson, Richard; Brunekreef, Bert; Cohen, Aaron; Forastiere, Francesco; Hurley, Fintan; Katsouyanni, Klea; Krewski, Daniel; Krzyzanowski, Michal; Künzli, Nino; Mills, Inga; Querol, Xavier; Ostro, Bart; Walton, Heather

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Quantitative estimates of air pollution health impacts have become an increasingly critical input to policy decisions. The WHO project "Health risks of air pollution in Europe-HRAPIE" was implemented to provide the evidence-based concentration-response functions for quantifying air pollut

  17. Clearing the air: a review of the effects of particulate matter air pollution on human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Jonathan O; Thundiyil, Josef G; Stolbach, Andrew

    2012-06-01

    The World Health Organization estimates that particulate matter (PM) air pollution contributes to approximately 800,000 premature deaths each year, ranking it the 13th leading cause of mortality worldwide. However, many studies show that the relationship is deeper and far more complicated than originally thought. PM is a portion of air pollution that is made up of extremely small particles and liquid droplets containing acids, organic chemicals, metals, and soil or dust particles. PM is categorized by size and continues to be the fraction of air pollution that is most reliably associated with human disease. PM is thought to contribute to cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease by the mechanisms of systemic inflammation, direct and indirect coagulation activation, and direct translocation into systemic circulation. The data demonstrating PM's effect on the cardiovascular system are strong. Populations subjected to long-term exposure to PM have a significantly higher cardiovascular incident and mortality rate. Short-term acute exposures subtly increase the rate of cardiovascular events within days of a pollution spike. The data are not as strong for PM's effects on cerebrovascular disease, though some data and similar mechanisms suggest a lesser result with smaller amplitude. Respiratory diseases are also exacerbated by exposure to PM. PM causes respiratory morbidity and mortality by creating oxidative stress and inflammation that leads to pulmonary anatomic and physiologic remodeling. The literature shows PM causes worsening respiratory symptoms, more frequent medication use, decreased lung function, recurrent health care utilization, and increased mortality. PM exposure has been shown to have a small but significant adverse effect on cardiovascular, respiratory, and to a lesser extent, cerebrovascular disease. These consistent results are shown by multiple studies with varying populations, protocols, and regions. The data demonstrate a dose

  18. Evaluating the Impact of Air Pollution on Human Health in China: the Price of Clean Air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, X.; Mauzerall, D. L.; Hu, Y.; Russell, A. G.; Woo, J.; Streets, D. G.

    2003-12-01

    Population growth, rapid urbanization and economic development are contributing to increased energy consumption in China. One of the unintended consequences is poor air quality due to a lack of environmental controls. The coal dependent energy structure in China only worsens the situation. Quantification of the environmental costs resulting from air pollution is needed in order to provide a mechanism for making strategic energy policy that accounts for the life-cycle cost of energy use. However, few such studies have been conducted for China that examine the entire energy system. Here we examine the extent to which public health has been compromised due to elevated air pollution and how China could incorporate environmental costs into future energy and environmental policies. Taking the Shandong region in eastern China as a case study, we develop a high-resolution regional inventory for anthropogenic emissions of NOx, CO, PM2.5, PM10, VOCs, NH3 and SO2. SMOKE (Sparse Matrix Operator Kernel Emissions Modeling System) is used to process spatial and temporal distributions and chemical speciation of the regional emissions, MM5 (the Fifth-Generation NCAR/Penn State Meso-scale Model, Version 3) is used to generate meteorology and Models3/CMAQ (Community Multi-scale Air Quality Modeling System) is used to simulate ambient concentrations of particulates and other gaseous species in this region. We then estimate the mortality and morbidity in this region resulting from exposure to these air pollutants. We also estimate the monetary values associated with the resulting mortality and morbidity and quantify the contributions from various economic sectors (i.e. power generation, transportation, industry, residential and others). Finally, we examine the potential health benefits that adoption of best available or advanced energy (coal-based, in particular) and environmental technologies in different sectors could bring about. The results of these analyses are intended to provide

  19. Air pollution and health risks due to vehicle traffic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kai; Batterman, Stuart

    2013-04-15

    Traffic congestion increases vehicle emissions and degrades ambient air quality, and recent studies have shown excess morbidity and mortality for drivers, commuters and individuals living near major roadways. Presently, our understanding of the air pollution impacts from congestion on roads is very limited. This study demonstrates an approach to characterize risks of traffic for on- and near-road populations. Simulation modeling was used to estimate on- and near-road NO2 concentrations and health risks for freeway and arterial scenarios attributable to traffic for different traffic volumes during rush hour periods. The modeling used emission factors from two different models (Comprehensive Modal Emissions Model and Motor Vehicle Emissions Factor Model version 6.2), an empirical traffic speed-volume relationship, the California Line Source Dispersion Model, an empirical NO2-NOx relationship, estimated travel time changes during congestion, and concentration-response relationships from the literature, which give emergency doctor visits, hospital admissions and mortality attributed to NO2 exposure. An incremental analysis, which expresses the change in health risks for small increases in traffic volume, showed non-linear effects. For a freeway, "U" shaped trends of incremental risks were predicted for on-road populations, and incremental risks are flat at low traffic volumes for near-road populations. For an arterial road, incremental risks increased sharply for both on- and near-road populations as traffic increased. These patterns result from changes in emission factors, the NO2-NOx relationship, the travel delay for the on-road population, and the extended duration of rush hour for the near-road population. This study suggests that health risks from congestion are potentially significant, and that additional traffic can significantly increase risks, depending on the type of road and other factors. Further, evaluations of risk associated with congestion must

  20. Evaluating impacts of air pollution in China on public health: Implications for future air pollution and energy policies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, X.P.; Mauzerall, D.L. [Princeton University, Princeton, NJ (United States). Woodrow Wilson School of Public & Internal Affairs

    2006-03-15

    Our objective is to establish the link between energy consumption and technologies, air pollution concentrations, and resulting impacts on public health in eastern China. We use Zaozhuang, a city in eastern China heavily dependent on coal, as a case study to quantify the impacts that air pollution in eastern China had on public health in 2000 and the benefits in improved air quality and health that could be obtained by 2020, relative to business-as-usual (BAU), through the implementation of best available emission control technology (BACT) and advanced coal gasification technologies (ACGT). We use an integrated assessment approach, utilizing state-of-the-science air quality and meteorological models, engineering, epidemiology, and economics, to achieve this objective. We find that total health damages due to year 2000 anthropogenic emissions from Zaozhuang, using the 'willingness-to-pay' metric, was equivalent to 10% of Zaozhuang's GDP. If all health damages resulting from coal use were internalized in the market price of coal, the year 2000 price would have more than tripled. With no new air pollution controls implemented between 2000 and 2020 but with projected increases in energy use, we estimate health damages from air pollution exposure to be equivalent to 16% of Zaozhuang's projected 2020 GDP. BACT and ACGT (with only 24% penetration in Zaozhuang and providing 2% of energy needs in three surrounding municipalities) could reduce the potential health damage of air pollution in 2020 to 13% and 8% of projected GDP, respectively. Benefits to public health, of substantial monetary value, can be achieved through the use of BACT; health benefits from the use of ACGT could be even larger.

  1. Social [and health] relevance of psychotropic substances monitoring in air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drug abuse assessment methods based on measuring illicit substances in waste waters are consolidated. The approach of ambient air monitoring looks questionable, nonetheless it can be explored if the variables determining the drug burdens are accounted for, or suitable co-contaminants are adopted to normalize concentrations to environmental and human contours. The general approach linking the airborne drug concentrations to consumption is presented and the case of cocaine is discussed according to measurements conducted in Italy. The cocaine/nicotine concentration ratio, identified as the most suitable tool, fitted well with anti-drug Police operations and people noticed for drug-related crimes, and with the abuse prevalence estimated in the cities investigated. According to that, the conversion factors of drug concentrations into prevalence estimates seem assessable, provided sufficient databases over space and time are collected. Further investigations are necessary to understand if airborne drugs cause adverse sanitary effects. -- Highlights: •The drug contents in the air were discussed to draw information about abuse prevalence. •The time and site drug modulations were compared to those of the airborne toxicants. •Nicotine looks suitable to normalize the cocaine concentrations to human and environmental contours. •The health impact of illicit and licit drugs onto non-abusers is still insufficiently understood. -- The airborne cocaine/nicotine concentration ratio looks a promising tool to estimate the cocaine abuse prevalence

  2. Modification by influenza on health effects of air pollution in Hong Kong

    OpenAIRE

    Wong, Chit Ming; YANG, LIN; Thach, Thuan Quoc; Chau, Patsy Yuen Kwan; Chan, King Pan; Thomas, G. Neil; Lam, Tai Hing; Wong, Tze Wai; Hedley, Anthony J.; Peiris, J. S. Malik

    2009-01-01

    Background: Both influenza viruses and air pollutants have been well documented as major hazards to human health, but few epidemiologic studies have assessed effect modification of influenza on health effects of ambient air pollutants. Objectives: We aimed to assess modifying effects of influenza on health effects of ambient air pollutants. Methods: We applied Poisson regression to daily numbers of hospitalizations and mortality to develop core models after adjustment for potential time-varyi...

  3. The effects of congestions tax on air quality and health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, Christer; Burman, Lars; Forsberg, Bertil

    -berg since reductions are expected in both respiratory and cardiovascular morbidity. This study demonstrates the importance of not only assessing the effects on air quality limit values, but also to make quantitative estimates of health impacts, in order to justify actions to reduce air pollution.

  4. Health effects of particulate air pollution and airborne desert dust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lelieveld, J.; Pozzer, A.; Giannadaki, D.; Fnais, M.

    2013-12-01

    Air pollution by fine particulate matter (PM2.5) has increased strongly with industrialization and urbanization. In the past decades this increase has taken place at a particularly high pace in South and East Asia. We estimate the premature mortality and the years of human life lost (YLL) caused by anthropogenic PM2.5 and airborne desert dust (DU2.5) on regional and national scales (Giannadaki et al., 2013; Lelieveld et al., 2013). This is based on high-resolution global model calculations that resolve urban and industrial regions in relatively great detail. We apply an epidemiological health impact function and find that especially in large countries with extensive suburban and rural populations, air pollution-induced mortality rates have been underestimated given that previous studies largely focused on the urban environment. We calculate a global premature mortality by anthropogenic aerosols of 2.2 million/year (YLL ≈ 16 million/year) due to lung cancer and cardiopulmonary disease. High mortality rates by PM2.5 are found in China, India, Bangladesh, Pakistan and Indonesia. Desert dust DU2.5 aerosols add about 0.4 million/year (YLL ≈ 3.6 million/year). Particularly significant mortality rates by DU2.5 occur in Pakistan, China and India. The estimated global mean per capita mortality caused by airborne particulates is about 0.1%/year (about two thirds of that caused by tobacco smoking). We show that the highest premature mortality rates are found in the Southeast Asia and Western Pacific regions (about 25% and 46% of the global rate, respectively) where more than a dozen of the most highly polluted megacities are located. References: Giannadaki, D., A. Pozzer, and J. Lelieveld, Modeled global effects of airborne desert dust on air quality and premature mortality, Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss. (submitted), 2013. Lelieveld, J., C. Barlas, D. Giannadaki, and A. Pozzer, Model calculated global, regional and megacity premature mortality due to air pollution by ozone

  5. Can the Air Pollution Index be used to communicate the health risks of air pollution?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The validity of using the Air Pollution Index (API) to assess health impacts of air pollution and potential modification by individual characteristics on air pollution effects remain uncertain. We applied distributed lag non-linear models (DLNMs) to assess associations of daily API, specific pollution indices for PM10, SO2, NO2 and the weighted combined API (APIw) with mortality during 2003–2011 in Guangzhou, China. An increase of 10 in API was associated with a 0.88% (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.50, 1.27%) increase of non-accidental mortality at lag 0–2 days. Harvesting effects appeared after 2 days’ exposure. The effect estimate of API over lag 0–15 days was statistically significant and similar with those of pollutant-specific indices and APIw. Stronger associations between API and mortality were observed in the elderly, females and residents with low educational attainment. In conclusion, the API can be used to communicate health risks of air pollution. - Highlights: • The cumulative effects of API on mortality over lag 0–15 days remained significant. • The indices for three specific pollutants had similar associations with mortality. • The effects of API were modified by age, gender and educational attainment. • Our findings can help to communicate health risks of air pollution to the public. - The Air Pollution Index communicates health risks of air pollution

  6. Health benefits from improved outdoor air quality and intervention in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shanshan; Williams, Gail; Guo, Yuming

    2016-07-01

    China is at its most critical stage of outdoor air quality management. In order to prevent further deterioration of air quality and to protect human health, the Chinese government has made a series of attempts to reduce ambient air pollution. Unlike previous literature reviews on the widespread hazards of air pollution on health, this review article firstly summarized the existing evidence of human health benefits from intermittently improved outdoor air quality and intervention in China. Contents of this paper provide concrete and direct clue that improvement in outdoor air quality generates various health benefits in China, and confirm from a new perspective that it is worthwhile for China to shift its development strategy from economic growth to environmental economic sustainability. Greater emphasis on sustainable environment design, consistently strict regulatory enforcement, and specific monitoring actions should be regarded in China to decrease the health risks and to avoid long-term environmental threats.

  7. Health benefits from improved outdoor air quality and intervention in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shanshan; Williams, Gail; Guo, Yuming

    2016-07-01

    China is at its most critical stage of outdoor air quality management. In order to prevent further deterioration of air quality and to protect human health, the Chinese government has made a series of attempts to reduce ambient air pollution. Unlike previous literature reviews on the widespread hazards of air pollution on health, this review article firstly summarized the existing evidence of human health benefits from intermittently improved outdoor air quality and intervention in China. Contents of this paper provide concrete and direct clue that improvement in outdoor air quality generates various health benefits in China, and confirm from a new perspective that it is worthwhile for China to shift its development strategy from economic growth to environmental economic sustainability. Greater emphasis on sustainable environment design, consistently strict regulatory enforcement, and specific monitoring actions should be regarded in China to decrease the health risks and to avoid long-term environmental threats. PMID:27061471

  8. Every breath you take? Environmental justice and air pollution in Christchurch, New Zealand

    OpenAIRE

    Jamie Pearce; Simon Kingham; Peyman Zawar-Reza

    2006-01-01

    In a number of environmental-justice studies it has been noted that the exposure to an array of air pollutants varies between different social groups. This inequality in exposure is one possible explanation for the variations in pollution-related health outcomes such as lung cancer and other respiratory diseases. Previous environmental-justice studies that have focused upon air pollution have tended to be concerned with exposure to industrial and vehicle pollution and rely upon simple estimat...

  9. Evaluating impacts of air pollution in China on public health: implications for future air pollution and energy policies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiaoping Wang; Mauzerall, D.L. [Princeton University, Princeton, NJ (United States). Science, Technology and Environmental Policy Program

    2006-03-15

    Our objective is to establish the link between energy consumption and technologies, air pollution concentrations, and resulting impacts on public health in eastern China. We use Zaozhuang, a city in eastern China heavily dependent on coal, as a case study to quantify the impacts that air pollution in eastern China had on public health in 2000 and the benefits in improved air quality and health that could be obtained by 2020, relative to business-as-usual (BAU), through the implementation of best available emission control technology (BACT) and advanced coal gasification technologies (ACGT). We use an integrated assessment approach, utilizing state-of-the-science air quality and meteorological models, engineering, epidemiology, and economics, to achieve this objective. We find that total health damages due to year 2000 anthropogenic emissions from Zaozhuang, using the ''willingness-to-pay'' metric, was equivalent to 10% of Zaozhuang's GDP. If all health damages resulting from coal use were internalized in the market price of coal, the year 2000 price would have more than tripled. With no new air pollution controls implemented between 2000 and 2020 but with projected increases in energy use, we estimate health damages from air pollution exposure to be equivalent to 16% of Zaozhuang's projected 2020 GDP. BACT and ACGT (with only 24% penetration in Zaozhuang and providing 2% of energy needs in three surrounding municipalities) could reduce the potential health damage of air pollution in 2020 to 13% and 8% of projected GDP, respectively. Benefits to public health, of substantial monetary value, can be achieved through the use of BACT; health benefits from the use of ACGT could be even larger. Despite significant uncertainty associated with each element of the integrated assessment approach, we demonstrate that substantial benefits to public health could be achieved in this region of eastern China through the use of additional pollution

  10. Reducing indoor air pollution by air conditioning is associated with improvements in cardiovascular health among the general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Lian-Yu; Chuang, Hsiao-Chi; Liu, I-Jung; Chen, Hua-Wei; Chuang, Kai-Jen

    2013-10-01

    Indoor air pollution is associated with cardiovascular effects, however, little is known about the effects of improving indoor air quality on cardiovascular health. The aim of this study was to explore whether improving indoor air quality through air conditioning can improve cardiovascular health in human subjects. We recruited a panel of 300 healthy subjects from Taipei, aged 20 and over, to participate in six home visits each, to measure a variety of cardiovascular endpoints, including high sensitivity-C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), fibrinogen in plasma and heart rate variability (HRV). Indoor particles and total volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were measured simultaneously at the participant's home during each visit. Three exposure conditions were investigated in this study: participants were requested to keep their windows open during the first two visits, close their windows during the next two visits, and close the windows and turn on their air conditioners during the last two visits. We used linear mixed-effects models to associate the cardiovascular endpoints with individual indoor air pollutants. The results showed that increases in hs-CRP, 8-OHdG and fibrinogen, and decreases in HRV indices were associated with increased levels of indoor particles and total VOCs in single-pollutant and two-pollutant models. The effects of indoor particles and total VOCs on cardiovascular endpoints were greatest during visits with the windows open. During visits with the air conditioners turned on, no significant changes in cardiovascular endpoints were observed. In conclusion, indoor air pollution is associated with inflammation, oxidative stress, blood coagulation and autonomic dysfunction. Reductions in indoor air pollution and subsequent improvements in cardiovascular health can be achieved by closing windows and turning on air conditioners at home.

  11. Avoiding Dirty Air (A Cup of Health with CDC)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-05-01

    As summertime approaches and warmer weather moves in, air pollution will become an increasing problem across the U.S. People with asthma are especially impacted by deteriorating air quality. In this podcast, Dr. Suzanne Beavers discusses ways to avoid the negative impacts of air pollution.  Created: 5/1/2014 by MMWR.   Date Released: 5/1/2014.

  12. Comprehensive national database of tree effects on air quality and human health in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirabayashi, Satoshi; Nowak, David J

    2016-08-01

    Trees remove air pollutants through dry deposition processes depending upon forest structure, meteorology, and air quality that vary across space and time. Employing nationally available forest, weather, air pollution and human population data for 2010, computer simulations were performed for deciduous and evergreen trees with varying leaf area index for rural and urban areas in every county in the conterminous United States. The results populated a national database of annual air pollutant removal, concentration changes, and reductions in adverse health incidences and costs for NO2, O3, PM2.5 and SO2. The developed database enabled a first order approximation of air quality and associated human health benefits provided by trees with any forest configurations anywhere in the conterminous United States over time. Comprehensive national database of tree effects on air quality and human health in the United States was developed. PMID:27176764

  13. Comprehensive national database of tree effects on air quality and human health in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirabayashi, Satoshi; Nowak, David J

    2016-08-01

    Trees remove air pollutants through dry deposition processes depending upon forest structure, meteorology, and air quality that vary across space and time. Employing nationally available forest, weather, air pollution and human population data for 2010, computer simulations were performed for deciduous and evergreen trees with varying leaf area index for rural and urban areas in every county in the conterminous United States. The results populated a national database of annual air pollutant removal, concentration changes, and reductions in adverse health incidences and costs for NO2, O3, PM2.5 and SO2. The developed database enabled a first order approximation of air quality and associated human health benefits provided by trees with any forest configurations anywhere in the conterminous United States over time. Comprehensive national database of tree effects on air quality and human health in the United States was developed.

  14. Health and air quality 2002 phase 1 : methods for estimating and applying relationships between air pollution and health effects : final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The British Columbia Lung Association recruited members of an expert panel to examine the relationships between exposure to air pollution and effects on human health, in particular human respiratory and cardio-vascular health. This report is intended for regulatory managers, planners, project proponents, researchers and physicians. It reports on the available literature on the subject and offers recommendations on how it can be interpreted in terms of application to problems in British Columbia and the Pacific Northwest. The common air contaminants that are associated with direct human health effects include nitrogen oxides, sulphur oxides, carbon monoxide, ozone, fine particles and inhalable particles (PM). The review did not include toxic or hazardous air pollutants that are considered to be cancer-causing agents, however, the association between air pollution and elevated rates of cancer in urban populations was considered. The panel considered: pollutant mix and exposure patterns; different types of studies such as epidemiology; sources of uncertainty; and, several criteria for judging the power of the relationships. It was concluded that some air pollutants, particularly PM 2.5 and its wood smoke component and ozone are at levels that may cause adverse health effects. It was noted that affected communities should be aware that risk increases with level of exposure and risk of health effects is very low at the lowest ambient concentrations in British Columbia and increases proportionally to ambient concentrations of PM and ozone. refs., tabs., figs

  15. Avoiding Dirty Air (A Minute of Health with CDC)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-05-01

    As summertime approaches and warmer weather moves in, air pollution becomes an increasing problem across the U.S. This podcast discusses the importance of people with asthma and other respiratory or heart conditions, checking the air quality in their respective areas.  Created: 5/1/2014 by MMWR.   Date Released: 5/1/2014.

  16. Impact of Climate Change on Air Quality and Public Health in Urban Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Noor Artika; Hashim, Zailina; Hashim, Jamal Hisham

    2016-03-01

    This review discusses how climate undergo changes and the effect of climate change on air quality as well as public health. It also covers the inter relationship between climate and air quality. The air quality discussed here are in relation to the 5 criteria pollutants; ozone (O3), carbon dioxide (CO2), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), sulfur dioxide (SO2), and particulate matter (PM). Urban air pollution is the main concern due to higher anthropogenic activities in urban areas. The implications on health are also discussed. Mitigating measures are presented with the final conclusion.

  17. Chronic effects of air pollution on respiratory health in Southern California children: findings from the Southern California Children's Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhanghua; Salam, Muhammad T; Eckel, Sandrah P; Breton, Carrie V; Gilliland, Frank D

    2015-01-01

    Outdoor air pollution is one of the leading contributors to adverse respiratory health outcomes in urban areas around the world. Children are highly sensitive to the adverse effects of air pollution due to their rapidly growing lungs, incomplete immune and metabolic functions, patterns of ventilation and high levels of outdoor activity. The Children's Health Study (CHS) is a continuing series of longitudinal studies that first began in 1993 and has focused on demonstrating the chronic impacts of air pollution on respiratory illnesses from early childhood through adolescence. A large body of evidence from the CHS has documented that exposures to both regional ambient air and traffic-related pollutants are associated with increased asthma prevalence, new-onset asthma, risk of bronchitis and wheezing, deficits of lung function growth, and airway inflammation. These associations may be modulated by key genes involved in oxidative-nitrosative stress pathways via gene-environment interactions. Despite successful efforts to reduce pollution over the past 40 years, air pollution at the current levels still brings many challenges to public health. To further ameliorate adverse health effects attributable to air pollution, many more toxic pollutants may require regulation and control of motor vehicle emissions and other combustion sources may need to be strengthened. Individual interventions based on personal susceptibility may be needed to protect children's health while control measures are being implemented.

  18. Illness from air pollution : a Halton perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nosal, R.M. [Ontario Ministry of Health, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2002-03-14

    This report highlights the impact of air pollution on the health of Halton residents and describes how the Health Department will be involved in many initiatives in 2002. The health effects associated with air pollution include asthma and other respiratory problems. The federal government estimates that air pollution can be linked to 5,000 premature deaths each year in eleven major cities. The Ontario Medical Association claims pollution related illnesses cost the province more than $1 billion annually. Approximately 1,000 residents of Toronto die prematurely each year as a result of air pollution. Children, the elderly, and those with respiratory conditions or heart disease are most vulnerable. The actions proposed by the Regional Municipality of Halton at the local level include: the promotion of public transit; expanding Halton's Clean Air Partnership to include private sector partners by 2003; studying the possibility of providing more bicycle paths to reduce reliance on the automobile; and, promoting public awareness of the impact of smog on public health. The Halton Partners for Clean Air is a consortium of 12 public sector organizations which was developed to help reduce smog across the region. In 2002, the Partnership will expand to include local industry where the greatest reductions in air pollution can be achieved. One of the main goals of the Partnership is to reduce traffic congestion and associated environmental and health problems associated with air pollution around schools. 1 tab.

  19. Proceedings of the educational forum on the air children breathe : the effects on their health

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-31

    This conference was organized by the Canadian Institute of Child Health and Pollution Probe to consider issues regarding indoor and outdoor air quality and how it affects the health of children. More than 120 experts and citizens attended. Existing policies, air quality standards and guidelines were reviewed, and the role of community groups in bringing about change were discussed. Discussion revolved around four main themes: (1) the status of children`s health, (2) children`s exposure and vulnerability, (3) determinants of outdoor air quality, and (4) determinants of indoor air quality. Specific topics addressed included asthma, molds, trace volatiles, pesticides, coal-fired power generating stations, swimming pools and arenas. Several recommendations were made as to how air quality can be improved. 19 figs., 8 appendices.

  20. A cost-efficiency and health benefit approach to improve urban air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, A I; Ferreira, J; Silveira, C; Relvas, H; Duque, L; Roebeling, P; Lopes, M; Costa, S; Monteiro, A; Gama, C; Sá, E; Borrego, C; Teixeira, J P

    2016-11-01

    When ambient air quality standards established in the EU Directive 2008/50/EC are exceeded, Member States are obliged to develop and implement Air Quality Plans (AQP) to improve air quality and health. Notwithstanding the achievements in emission reductions and air quality improvement, additional efforts need to be undertaken to improve air quality in a sustainable way - i.e. through a cost-efficiency approach. This work was developed in the scope of the recently concluded MAPLIA project "Moving from Air Pollution to Local Integrated Assessment", and focuses on the definition and assessment of emission abatement measures and their associated costs, air quality and health impacts and benefits by means of air quality modelling tools, health impact functions and cost-efficiency analysis. The MAPLIA system was applied to the Grande Porto urban area (Portugal), addressing PM10 and NOx as the most important pollutants in the region. Four different measures to reduce PM10 and NOx emissions were defined and characterized in terms of emissions and implementation costs, and combined into 15 emission scenarios, simulated by the TAPM air quality modelling tool. Air pollutant concentration fields were then used to estimate health benefits in terms of avoided costs (external costs), using dose-response health impact functions. Results revealed that, among the 15 scenarios analysed, the scenario including all 4 measures lead to a total net benefit of 0.3M€·y(-1). The largest net benefit is obtained for the scenario considering the conversion of 50% of open fire places into heat recovery wood stoves. Although the implementation costs of this measure are high, the benefits outweigh the costs. Research outcomes confirm that the MAPLIA system is useful for policy decision support on air quality improvement strategies, and could be applied to other urban areas where AQP need to be implemented and monitored. PMID:27348699

  1. A cost-efficiency and health benefit approach to improve urban air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, A I; Ferreira, J; Silveira, C; Relvas, H; Duque, L; Roebeling, P; Lopes, M; Costa, S; Monteiro, A; Gama, C; Sá, E; Borrego, C; Teixeira, J P

    2016-11-01

    When ambient air quality standards established in the EU Directive 2008/50/EC are exceeded, Member States are obliged to develop and implement Air Quality Plans (AQP) to improve air quality and health. Notwithstanding the achievements in emission reductions and air quality improvement, additional efforts need to be undertaken to improve air quality in a sustainable way - i.e. through a cost-efficiency approach. This work was developed in the scope of the recently concluded MAPLIA project "Moving from Air Pollution to Local Integrated Assessment", and focuses on the definition and assessment of emission abatement measures and their associated costs, air quality and health impacts and benefits by means of air quality modelling tools, health impact functions and cost-efficiency analysis. The MAPLIA system was applied to the Grande Porto urban area (Portugal), addressing PM10 and NOx as the most important pollutants in the region. Four different measures to reduce PM10 and NOx emissions were defined and characterized in terms of emissions and implementation costs, and combined into 15 emission scenarios, simulated by the TAPM air quality modelling tool. Air pollutant concentration fields were then used to estimate health benefits in terms of avoided costs (external costs), using dose-response health impact functions. Results revealed that, among the 15 scenarios analysed, the scenario including all 4 measures lead to a total net benefit of 0.3M€·y(-1). The largest net benefit is obtained for the scenario considering the conversion of 50% of open fire places into heat recovery wood stoves. Although the implementation costs of this measure are high, the benefits outweigh the costs. Research outcomes confirm that the MAPLIA system is useful for policy decision support on air quality improvement strategies, and could be applied to other urban areas where AQP need to be implemented and monitored.

  2. Tree and forest effects on air quality and human health in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowak, David J; Hirabayashi, Satoshi; Bodine, Allison; Greenfield, Eric

    2014-10-01

    Trees remove air pollution by the interception of particulate matter on plant surfaces and the absorption of gaseous pollutants through the leaf stomata. However, the magnitude and value of the effects of trees and forests on air quality and human health across the United States remains unknown. Computer simulations with local environmental data reveal that trees and forests in the conterminous United States removed 17.4 million tonnes (t) of air pollution in 2010 (range: 9.0-23.2 million t), with human health effects valued at 6.8 billion U.S. dollars (range: $1.5-13.0 billion). This pollution removal equated to an average air quality improvement of less than one percent. Most of the pollution removal occurred in rural areas, while most of the health impacts and values were within urban areas. Health impacts included the avoidance of more than 850 incidences of human mortality and 670,000 incidences of acute respiratory symptoms.

  3. Ambient Air Quality and Human Health: Current Concepts—Part 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tee L Guidotti

    1995-01-01

    the control of which invites interest in second-order determinants of health. This article attempts to provide a framework for understanding air quality issues that pertain to human health. The objective is to provide the specialist in respiratory medicine with an overview that will assist in educating patients and in responding to their inquiries, and to equip the physician to respond to requests for assistance or interpretation when called upon to comment on public policy issues involving air pollution. The implications of setting air quality standards or objectives to meet arbitrary levels of risk of health effects are examined. The current state of the art does not support risk-based air quality standards. A policy of continuous improvement is most protective of both human health and the environment.

  4. Radon in indoor air. Health risk, measurement methods and remedial measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radon in indoor air is the main source of ionizing radiation in Norway. The booklet contains a presentation of radon sources, measurement methods, indoor radon concentrations, action levels, health risk and remedial measures

  5. Indoor air quality and respiratory health effects in school children: The HITEA study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobs, J.H.

    2013-01-01

    A good air quality of the indoor environment is essential for human health; on average people spend more than 80% of their time indoors. The composition of indoor air is extremely complex and the quality can be influenced by several outdoor and indoor sources. In this thesis the effects of indoor ai

  6. Epidemiological surveillance - air and health. Surveillance of effects on health linked to air pollution; Surveillance epidemiologique air et sante. Surveillance des effets sur la sante lies a la pollution atmospherique en milieu urbain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quenel, Ph.; Cassadou, S.; Eilstein, D.; Filleul, L.; Le Goaster, C.; Le Tertre, A.; Medina, S.; Pascal, L.; Prouvost, H.; Saviuc, Ph.; Zeghnoun, A. [Institut National de Veille Sanitaire, 94 - Saint Maurice (France); Declerq, Ch. [Observatoire Regional de Sante Nord Pas de Calais (France)

    1999-03-01

    In the field of air pollution, the France is the first country to be endowed with a device of epidemiological surveillance allowing to to evaluate and monitor the impact of urban air pollution on the health of population. This new approach is based on the analysis of relationship between pollution indicators and health indicators, it leads to confirm the partnership between actors of environment and health, at the national level as well at the local level. It confirms the development of assessment in the field of environmental health. (N.C.)

  7. The Health and Visibility Cost of Air Pollution: A Comparison of Estimation Methods

    OpenAIRE

    Delucchi, Mark; Murphy, James; McCubbin, Donald

    2002-01-01

    Abstract Air pollution from motor vehicles, electricity-generating plants, industry, and other sources can harm human health, injure crops and forests, damage building materials, and impair visibility. Economists sometimes analyze the social cost of these impacts, in order to illuminate tradeoffs, compare alternatives, and promote efficient use of scarce resource. In this paper, we compare estimates of the health and visibility costs of air pollution derived from a meta-hedonic price analys...

  8. [Environment of high temperature or air particle matter pollution, and health promotion of exercise].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jie-xiu; Xu, Min-xiao; Wu, Zhao-zhao

    2014-10-01

    It is important to keep human health in special environment, since the special environment has different effects on health. In this review, we focused on high temperature and air particle matter environment, and health promotion of exercise. Exercise and high temperature are the main non-pharmacological therapeutic interventions of insulin resistance (IR). PGC-1α is key regulatory factor in health promotion of exercise and high temperature. The novel hormone Irisin might be the important pathway through which heat and exercise could have positive function on IR. Air particle matter (PM) is associated with onset of many respiratory diseases and negative effects of exerciser performance. However, regular exercise plays an important role in improving health of respiratory system and lowering the risk induced by PM. Furthermore, free radicals and inflammatory pathways are included in the possible mechanisms of positive physiological effects induced by exercise in air particle matter environment.

  9. Examining Personal Air Pollution Exposure, Intake, and Health Danger Zone Using Time Geography and 3D Geovisualization

    OpenAIRE

    Yongmei Lu; Tianfang Bernie Fang

    2014-01-01

    Expanding traditional time geography, this study examines personal exposure to air pollution and personal pollutant intake, and defines personal health danger zones by accounting for individual level space-time behavior. A 3D personal air pollution and health risk map is constructed to visualize individual space-time path, personal Air Quality Indexes (AQIs), and personal health danger zones. Personal air pollution exposure level and its variation through space and time is measured by a porta...

  10. Carcinogenic Air Toxics Exposure and Their Cancer-Related Health Impacts in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ying; Li, Chaoyang; Huijbregts, Mark A. J.; Mumtaz, M. Moiz

    2015-01-01

    Public health protection from air pollution can be achieved more effectively by shifting from a single-pollutant approach to a multi-pollutant approach. To develop such multi-pollutant approaches, identifying which air pollutants are present most frequently is essential. This study aims to determine the frequently found carcinogenic air toxics or hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) combinations across the United States as well as to analyze the health impacts of developing cancer due to exposure to these HAPs. To identify the most commonly found carcinogenic air toxics combinations, we first identified HAPs with cancer risk greater than one in a million in more than 5% of the census tracts across the United States, based on the National-Scale Air Toxics Assessment (NATA) by the U.S. EPA for year 2005. We then calculated the frequencies of their two-component (binary), and three-component (ternary) combinations. To quantify the cancer-related health impacts, we focused on the 10 most frequently found HAPs with national average cancer risk greater than one in a million. Their cancer-related health impacts were calculated by converting lifetime cancer risk reported in NATA 2005 to years of healthy life lost or Disability-Adjusted Life Years (DALYs). We found that the most frequently found air toxics with cancer risk greater than one in a million are formaldehyde, carbon tetrachloride, acetaldehyde, and benzene. The most frequently occurring binary pairs and ternary mixtures are the various combinations of these four air toxics. Analysis of urban and rural HAPs did not reveal significant differences in the top combinations of these chemicals. The cumulative annual cancer-related health impacts of inhaling the top 10 carcinogenic air toxics included was about 1,600 DALYs in the United States or 0.6 DALYs per 100,000 people. Formaldehyde and benzene together contribute nearly 60 percent of the total cancer-related health impacts. Our study shows that although there are many

  11. Health Impact Assessment of Air Pollution in São Paulo, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Karina Camasmie; Miraglia, Simone Georges El Khouri

    2016-01-01

    Epidemiological research suggests that air pollution may cause chronic diseases, as well as exacerbation of related pathologies such as cardiovascular and respiratory morbidity and mortality. This study evaluates air pollution scenarios considering a Health Impact Assessment approach in São Paulo, Brazil. We have analyzed abatement scenarios of Particulate Matter (PM) with an aerodynamic diameter air pollution would also lower the demand for hospital care, since hospitalizations would diminish. In this sense, Brazil should urgently adopt WHO air pollution standards in order to improve the quality of life of its population. PMID:27409629

  12. Health Impact Assessment of Air Pollution in São Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Karina Camasmie; Miraglia, Simone Georges El Khouri

    2016-01-01

    Epidemiological research suggests that air pollution may cause chronic diseases, as well as exacerbation of related pathologies such as cardiovascular and respiratory morbidity and mortality. This study evaluates air pollution scenarios considering a Health Impact Assessment approach in São Paulo, Brazil. We have analyzed abatement scenarios of Particulate Matter (PM) with an aerodynamic diameter resources are scarce. Moreover, the reduced levels of air pollution would also lower the demand for hospital care, since hospitalizations would diminish. In this sense, Brazil should urgently adopt WHO air pollution standards in order to improve the quality of life of its population. PMID:27409629

  13. Economic evaluation of health losses from air pollution in Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xiaoli; Yu, Xueying; Wang, Ying; Fan, Chunyang

    2016-06-01

    Aggravated air pollution in Beijing, China has caused serious health concern. This paper comprehensively evaluates the health losses from illness and premature death caused by air pollution in monetary terms. We use the concentration of PM10 as an indicator of the pollution since it constitutes the primary pollutant in Beijing. By our estimation, air pollution in Beijing caused a health loss equivalent to Ұ583.02 million or 0.03 % of its GDP. Most of the losses took the form of depreciation in human capital that resulted from premature death. The losses from premature deaths were most salient for people of either old or young ages, with the former group suffering from the highest mortality rates and the latter group the highest per capital losses of human capitals from premature death. Policies that target on PM10 emission reduction, urban vegetation expansion, and protection of vulnerable groups are all proposed as possible solutions to air pollution risks in Beijing.

  14. Air-conditioning and antibiotics: Demand management insights from problematic health and household cooling practices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Air-conditioners and antibiotics are two technologies that have both been traditionally framed around individual health and comfort needs, despite aspects of their use contributing to social health problems. The imprudent use of antibiotics is threatening the capacity of the healthcare system internationally. Similarly, in Australia the increasing reliance on air-conditioning to maintain thermal comfort is contributing to rising peak demand and electricity prices, and is placing an inequitable health and financial burden on vulnerable heat-stressed households. This paper analyses policy responses to these problems through the lens of social practice theory. In the health sector, campaigns are attempting to emphasise the social health implications of antibiotic use. In considering this approach in relation to the problem of air-conditioned cooling and how to change the ways in which people keep cool during peak times, our analysis draws on interviews with 80 Australian households. We find that the problem of peak electricity demand may be reduced through attention to the social health implications of air-conditioned cooling on very hot days. We conclude that social practice theory offers a fruitful analytical route for identifying new avenues for research and informing policy responses to emerging health and environmental problems. - Highlights: • Over-use of antibiotics and air-conditioning has social health implications. • Focusing on financial incentives limits the potential of demand management programs. • Explaining peak demand to households shifts the meanings of cooling practices. • Emphasising the social health implications of antibiotics and air-conditioning may resurrect alternative practices. • Analysing policy with social practice theory offers insights into policy approaches

  15. Air pollution from biodegradable wastes and non-specific health symptoms among residents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blanes-Vidal, Victoria

    2015-01-01

    Adverse health effects of exposure to high levels of air pollutants from biodegradable wastes have been well-studied. However, few investigations have examined the potential effects of chronic exposure to low-to-moderate levels on non-specific health symptoms among residents. Besides, most studie...

  16. The role of Health Impact Assessment in the setting of air quality standards: An Australian perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spickett, Jeffery, E-mail: J.Spickett@curtin.edu.au [WHO Collaborating Centre for Environmental Health Impact Assessment (Australia); Faculty of Health Sciences, School of Public Health, Curtin University, Perth, Western Australia (Australia); Katscherian, Dianne [WHO Collaborating Centre for Environmental Health Impact Assessment (Australia); Faculty of Health Sciences, School of Public Health, Curtin University, Perth, Western Australia (Australia); Harris, Patrick [CHETRE — UNSW Research Centre for Primary Health Care and Equity, University of New South Wales (Australia)

    2013-11-15

    The approaches used for setting or reviewing air quality standards vary from country to country. The purpose of this research was to consider the potential to improve decision-making through integration of HIA into the processes to review and set air quality standards used in Australia. To assess the value of HIA in this policy process, its strengths and weaknesses were evaluated aligned with review of international processes for setting air quality standards. Air quality standard setting programmes elsewhere have either used HIA or have amalgamated and incorporated factors normally found within HIA frameworks. They clearly demonstrate the value of a formalised HIA process for setting air quality standards in Australia. The following elements should be taken into consideration when using HIA in standard setting. (a) The adequacy of a mainly technical approach in current standard setting procedures to consider social determinants of health. (b) The importance of risk assessment criteria and information within the HIA process. The assessment of risk should consider equity, the distribution of variations in air quality in different locations and the potential impacts on health. (c) The uncertainties in extrapolating evidence from one population to another or to subpopulations, especially the more vulnerable, due to differing environmental factors and population variables. (d) The significance of communication with all potential stakeholders on issues associated with the management of air quality. In Australia there is also an opportunity for HIA to be used in conjunction with the NEPM to develop local air quality standard measures. The outcomes of this research indicated that the use of HIA for air quality standard setting at the national and local levels would prove advantageous. -- Highlights: • Health Impact Assessment framework has been applied to a policy development process. • HIA process was evaluated for application in air quality standard setting.

  17. Noise Effects on Health in the Context of Air Pollution Exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen A. Stansfeld

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available For public health policy and planning it is important to understand the relative contribution of environmental noise on health compared to other environmental stressors. Air pollution is the primary environmental stressor in relation to cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. This paper reports a narrative review of studies in which the associations of both environmental noise and air pollution with health have been examined. Studies of hypertension, myocardial infarction, stroke, mortality and cognitive outcomes were included. Results suggest independent effects of environmental noise from road traffic, aircraft and, with fewer studies, railway noise on cardiovascular outcomes after adjustment for air pollution. Comparative burden of disease studies demonstrate that air pollution is the primary environmental cause of disability adjusted life years lost (DALYs. Environmental noise is ranked second in terms of DALYs in Europe and the DALYs attributed to noise were more than those attributed to lead, ozone and dioxins. In conclusion, in planning and health impact assessment environmental noise should be considered an independent contributor to health risk which has a separate and substantial role in ill-health separate to that of air pollution.

  18. Noise Effects on Health in the Context of Air Pollution Exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stansfeld, Stephen A

    2015-10-01

    For public health policy and planning it is important to understand the relative contribution of environmental noise on health compared to other environmental stressors. Air pollution is the primary environmental stressor in relation to cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. This paper reports a narrative review of studies in which the associations of both environmental noise and air pollution with health have been examined. Studies of hypertension, myocardial infarction, stroke, mortality and cognitive outcomes were included. Results suggest independent effects of environmental noise from road traffic, aircraft and, with fewer studies, railway noise on cardiovascular outcomes after adjustment for air pollution. Comparative burden of disease studies demonstrate that air pollution is the primary environmental cause of disability adjusted life years lost (DALYs). Environmental noise is ranked second in terms of DALYs in Europe and the DALYs attributed to noise were more than those attributed to lead, ozone and dioxins. In conclusion, in planning and health impact assessment environmental noise should be considered an independent contributor to health risk which has a separate and substantial role in ill-health separate to that of air pollution.

  19. Air Pollution Mixtures: Health Effects across Life Stages

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The main objectives of the proposed Center are: 1) to investigate the acute and chronic health effects across life stages of six exposure metrics (short- and long-...

  20. Air Pollution Exposure and Physical Activity in China: Current Knowledge, Public Health Implications, and Future Research Needs

    OpenAIRE

    Jiaojiao Lü; Leichao Liang; Yi Feng; Rena Li; Yu Liu

    2015-01-01

    Deteriorating air quality in China has created global public health concerns in regard to health and health-related behaviors. Although emerging environmental regulations address ambient air pollution in China, the level of enforcement and long-term impact of these measures remain unknown. Exposure to air pollution has been shown to lead to multiple adverse health outcomes, including increased rates of heart disease and mortality. However, a lesser-known but increasingly significant concern i...

  1. Linking Meteorology, Air Quality Models and Observations to Characterize Human Exposures in Support of the Environmental Health Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epidemiologic studies are critical in establishing the association between exposure to air pollutants and adverse health effects. Results of epidemiologic studies are used by U.S. EPA in developing air quality standards to protect the public from the health effects of air polluta...

  2. Assessment of impact of air pollution on human health and environment in the South Durban Industrial Basin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, P. V.; Hertel, O.; Bøgh, E.

    This study predicts the spatial variation of air quality and estimate the human health risk of air pollution in SDIB. The study is based on the operational air pollution (OML) model which is predicting the dispersion and quantifying the contribution of selected air pollutant as PM10, SO2 and NOX...

  3. Public views on the links between air pollution and health in Northeast England

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We investigated how public perceptions of the links between air pollution and health varied with contextual factors describing individuals and their locality. Information was collected via postal surveys on 2744 adults resident in five neighborhoods in Northeast England. Perceptions were compared by individual factors (health status, age, and gender) and locality actors (relative deprivation, proximity to industry and district--Teesside r Sunderland, with different amounts of heavy industry). There was relatively little variation in views about air pollution and health links between neighborhoods. The greatest contrasts were found when comparing those living near or further from industry and between the two districts. Any differences were related more to awareness of illness in the neighborhood thought to be affected by air pollution, rather than belief that a particular disease was linked to air pollution. Chronic illness status and age were sometimes found to be associated with perceptions of disease affected by air pollution, but gender and material deprivation were not central to differences in risk perceptions among the population studied. In understanding public perceptions about the links between air quality and health, research should focus on the characteristics of places as well as of people

  4. Can air pollution negate the health benefits of cycling and walking?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tainio, Marko; de Nazelle, Audrey J; Götschi, Thomas; Kahlmeier, Sonja; Rojas-Rueda, David; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J; de Sá, Thiago Hérick; Kelly, Paul; Woodcock, James

    2016-06-01

    Active travel (cycling, walking) is beneficial for the health due to increased physical activity (PA). However, active travel may increase the intake of air pollution, leading to negative health consequences. We examined the risk-benefit balance between active travel related PA and exposure to air pollution across a range of air pollution and PA scenarios. The health effects of active travel and air pollution were estimated through changes in all-cause mortality for different levels of active travel and air pollution. Air pollution exposure was estimated through changes in background concentrations of fine particulate matter (PM2.5), ranging from 5 to 200μg/m3. For active travel exposure, we estimated cycling and walking from 0 up to 16h per day, respectively. These refer to long-term average levels of active travel and PM2.5 exposure. For the global average urban background PM2.5 concentration (22μg/m3) benefits of PA by far outweigh risks from air pollution even under the most extreme levels of active travel. In areas with PM2.5 concentrations of 100μg/m3, harms would exceed benefits after 1h 30min of cycling per day or more than 10h of walking per day. If the counterfactual was driving, rather than staying at home, the benefits of PA would exceed harms from air pollution up to 3h 30min of cycling per day. The results were sensitive to dose-response function (DRF) assumptions for PM2.5 and PA. PA benefits of active travel outweighed the harm caused by air pollution in all but the most extreme air pollution concentrations.

  5. Can air pollution negate the health benefits of cycling and walking?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tainio, Marko; de Nazelle, Audrey J; Götschi, Thomas; Kahlmeier, Sonja; Rojas-Rueda, David; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J; de Sá, Thiago Hérick; Kelly, Paul; Woodcock, James

    2016-06-01

    Active travel (cycling, walking) is beneficial for the health due to increased physical activity (PA). However, active travel may increase the intake of air pollution, leading to negative health consequences. We examined the risk-benefit balance between active travel related PA and exposure to air pollution across a range of air pollution and PA scenarios. The health effects of active travel and air pollution were estimated through changes in all-cause mortality for different levels of active travel and air pollution. Air pollution exposure was estimated through changes in background concentrations of fine particulate matter (PM2.5), ranging from 5 to 200μg/m3. For active travel exposure, we estimated cycling and walking from 0 up to 16h per day, respectively. These refer to long-term average levels of active travel and PM2.5 exposure. For the global average urban background PM2.5 concentration (22μg/m3) benefits of PA by far outweigh risks from air pollution even under the most extreme levels of active travel. In areas with PM2.5 concentrations of 100μg/m3, harms would exceed benefits after 1h 30min of cycling per day or more than 10h of walking per day. If the counterfactual was driving, rather than staying at home, the benefits of PA would exceed harms from air pollution up to 3h 30min of cycling per day. The results were sensitive to dose-response function (DRF) assumptions for PM2.5 and PA. PA benefits of active travel outweighed the harm caused by air pollution in all but the most extreme air pollution concentrations. PMID:27156248

  6. Urban air carcinogens and their effects on health

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lechner, J.F.

    1994-11-01

    Airborne carcinogens may be relevant especially in metropolitan regions with extreme smog as a primary cause of lung cancer. Lung cancer is most common in urban environs and the incidence directly correlates with the size of the city. In addition, several, but not all formal epidemiological studies also suggest a positive correlation between lung cancer incidence and the intensity of air pollution exposure. There is further support for a role of air pollution; as of 1993, 4.4% of all of the bronchogenic adenocarcinoma cancer cases among Mexicans living in industrialized cities are under 40 years of age. It is plausible that chronic inhalation of automobile combustion products, factory emissions, and/or radon is at least partially responsible for the higher incidence of lung cancer exemplified by the never-smoking urban residents. The exceptionally high incidence of lung cancer cases among never-smokers living in highly industrialized Mexican cities offers a unique opportunity to use molecular epidemiology to test whether chronic inhalation of atmospheric pollutants increases the risk for this disease. Overall, the analysis of the genetic alterations in two cancer genes, and possibly the hprt locus should give new insight as to whether the urban never-smokers developed their cancers because of exposure to environmental pollutants.

  7. Interaction between Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) and other important health conditions and measurable air pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blagev, D. P.; Mendoza, D. L.; Rea, S.; Sorensen, J.

    2015-12-01

    Adverse health effects have been associated with urban pollutant exposure arising from close proximity to highly-emitting sources and atmospheric mixing. The relative air pollution exposure dose and time effects on various diseases remains unknown. This study compares the increased risk of health complications when patients are exposed to short term high-levels of air pollution vs. longer term exposure to lower levels of air pollution. We used the electronic medical record of an integrated hospital system based in Utah, Intermountain Healthcare, to identify a cohort of patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) who were seen between 2009-2014. We determined patient demographics as well as comorbidity data and healthcare utilization. To determine the approximate air pollution dose and time exposure, we used the Hestia highly-resolved emissions inventory for Salt Lake County, Utah in conjunction with emissions based on the National Emissions Inventory (NEI). Hourly emissions of CO2 and criteria air pollutants were gridded at a 0.002o x 0.002o resolution for the study years. The resulting emissions were transported using the CALPUFF and AERMOD dispersion models to estimate air pollutant concentrations at an hourly 0.002o x 0.002oresolution. Additionally, pollutant concentrations were estimated at each patient's home and work address to estimate exposure. Multivariate analysis adjusting for patient demographics, comorbidities and severity of COPD was performed to determine association between air pollution exposure and the risk of hospitalization or emergency department (ED) visit for COPD exacerbation and an equivalency estimate for air pollution exposure was developed. We noted associations with air pollution levels for each pollutant and hospitalizations and ED visits for COPD and other patient comorbidities. We also present an equivalency estimate for dose of air pollution exposure and health outcomes. This analysis compares the increased risk of

  8. Changing air mass frequencies in Canada: potential links and implications for human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanos, J K; Cakmak, S

    2014-03-01

    Many individual variables have been studied to understand climate change, yet an overall weather situation involves the consideration of many meteorological variables simultaneously at various times diurnally, seasonally, and yearly. The current study identifies a full weather situation as an air mass type using synoptic scale classification, in 30 population centres throughout Canada. Investigative analysis of long-term air mass frequency trends was completed, drawing comparisons between seasons and climate zones. We find that the changing air mass trends are highly dependent on the season and climate zone being studied, with an overall increase of moderate ('warm') air masses and decrease of polar ('cold') air masses. In the summertime, general increased moisture content is present throughout Canada, consistent with the warming air masses. The moist tropical air mass, containing the most hot and humid air, is found to increase in a statistically significant fashion in the summertime in 46% of the areas studied, which encompass six of Canada's ten largest population centres. This emphasises the need for heat adaptation and acclimatisation for a large proportion of the Canadian population. In addition, strong and significant decreases of transition/frontal passage days were found throughout Canada. This result is one of the most remarkable transition frequency results published to date due to its consistency in identifying declining trends, coinciding with research completed in the United States (US). We discuss relative results and implications to similar US air mass trend analyses, and draw upon research studies involving large-scale upper-level air flow and vortex connections to air mass changes, to small-scale meteorological and air pollution interactions. Further research is warranted to better understand such connections, and how these air masses relate to the overall and city-specific health of Canadians.

  9. MICA-AIR: A PARTICIPANT-BASED APPROACH TO EXPOSURE ASSESSMENT IN EPIDEMIOLOGIC AND COMMUNITY HEALTH STUDIES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Objective. Epidemiologic and community health studies of traffic-related air pollution and childhood asthma have been limited by resource intensive exposure assessment techniques. The current study utilized a novel participant-based approach to collect air monitoring data f...

  10. Systems Health Monitoring — From Ground to Air — The Aerospace Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Mary

    2007-03-01

    The aerospace industry and the government are significantly investing in jet engine systems health monitoring. Government organizations such as the Air Force, Navy, Army, National Labs and NASA are investing in the development of state aware sensing for health monitoring of jet engines such as the Joint Strike Fighter, F119 and F100's. This paper will discuss on-going work in systems health monitoring for jet engines. Topics will include a general discussion of the approaches to engine structural health monitoring and the prognosis of engine component life. Real-world implementation challenges on the ground and in the air will be reviewed. The talk will conclude with a prediction of where engine health monitoring will be in twenty years.

  11. Climate Change in the US: Potential Consequences for Human Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maynard, Nancy G.

    2001-01-01

    The U.S. National Assessment identified five major areas of consequences of climate change in the United States: temperature-related illnesses and deaths, health effects related to extreme weather events, air pollution-related health effects, water- and food-borne diseases, and insect-, tick-, and rodent-borne diseases. The U.S. National Assessment final conclusions about these potential health effects will be described. In addition, a summary of some of the new tools for studying human health aspects of climate change as well as environment-health linkages through remotely sensed data and observations will be provided.

  12. EC multicentre study on short-term effects of air pollution on health. The aphea project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katsouyanni, K. [Univ. of Athens (Greece). Medical School; Zmirou, D. [Grenoble Univ. (France). Faculte de Medecine; Spix, C. [GSF- Forschungszentrum Umwelt und Gesundheit (Germany)

    1995-12-31

    The APHEA project is an attempt to provide quantitative estimates of the short-term health effects of air pollution, using an extensive data base from ten different European countries which represent various social, environmental and air pollution situations. Within the framework of the project, the methodology of analyzing epidemiologic time series data, as well as that of performing meta-analysis, are further developed and standardized

  13. Air quality and particles: impact on the environment and health. What to prescribe for tomorrow?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After having recalled that particles in the air are present under the form of liquid or solid matters and are characterized by their size, and that the term aerosol is generally used for a mix of air and particles in suspension, this publication proposes an overview of tools used to characterize particle pollutions, of the different impacts of particles on health, on the way ecosystems react with particle pollutions, on impacts of particles on building environment (outside and inside)

  14. Estimating the health effects of air pollutants : a method with an application to Jakarta

    OpenAIRE

    Ostro, Bart

    1994-01-01

    To develop efficient strategies for pollution control, it is essential to assess both the costs of control and the benefits that may result. These benefits will often included improvements in public health, including reductions in both morbidity and premature mortality. Until recently, there has been little guidance about how to calculate the benefits of air pollution controls and how to use those estimates to assign priorities to different air pollution control strategies. The author describ...

  15. Short term respiratory health effects of ambient air pollution: results of the APHEA project in Paris.

    OpenAIRE

    Dab, W; S. Medina; Quénel, P; Le Moullec, Y; Le Tertre, A; THELOT, B; Monteil, C; LAMELOISE,P; Pirard, P.; Momas, I; Ferry, R; Festy, B

    1996-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE: To quantify the short term respiratory health effects of ambient air pollution in the Paris area. DESIGN: Time series analysis of daily pollution levels using Poisson regression. SETTING: Paris, 1987-92. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Air pollution was monitored by measurement of black smoke (BS) (15 monitoring stations), sulphur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), particulate matter less than 13 microns in diameter (PM13), and ozone (O3) (4 stations). Daily mortality and ...

  16. The health of our air : toward sustainable agriculture in Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janzen, H.H.; Desjardins, R.L.; Asselin, J.M.R.; Grace, B. [eds.

    1998-12-31

    The interactions between land and atmosphere that occur as a result of agricultural practices in Canada are reviewed and analyzed. While some changes may be benign, or even beneficial to humans and plants, there is evidence to suggest that adverse effects are also occurring. The evidence suggests that these negative changes will continue to increase unless changes are made in the way we manage energy, food and fiber economics. Agriculture is a main source of greenhouse gases, accounting for 25 per cent of carbon dioxide, 50 per cent of methane, and 70 per cent of nitrous oxides released via human activity globally. Agriculture also accounts for more than 50 per cent of ammonia released into the air. The study describes various options available for increasing the efficiency of using agricultural resources. It also examines the feasibility of restoring organic carbon in the soil through conservation tillage and other means, thereby reducing atmospheric carbon dioxide. refs., tabs., figs.

  17. Particulate matter and health - from air to human lungs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this project is to search for respiratory system particular aggressors to which workers are submitted in their labouring activity. The work plan under the current IAEA contract comprise a prospective study to identify particulate matter deposited in the human respiratory ducts and lung tissue and workers respiratory health status survey at a steel plant, Siderurgia Nacional (SN). So far, the selection of areas of interest at SN, workers exposed, airborne particulate monitoring sites according to the periodicity of labouring cycles, and the beginning of workers medical survey have been achieved and/or initiated. The SN selected area, where steel is processed and steel casting is achieved, involve approximately 80 workers, most of them working at that location for more than 15 years. Blood elemental content data determined by PIXE and INAA and a preliminary health status evaluation from 32 of the 80 workers included in this survey are presented and discussed. (author)

  18. Smartphone Air Quality and Atmospheric Aerosol Characterization for Public Health Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strong, S. B.; Brown, D. M.; Brown, A.

    2014-12-01

    Air quality is a major global concern. Tracking and monitoring air quality provides individuals with the knowledge to make personal decisions about their health and investigate the environment in which they live. Satellite remote sensing and ground-based observations (e.g. Environmental Protection Agency, NASA Aerosol Robotic Network) of air quality is spatially and temporarlly limited and often neglects to provide individuals with the freedom to understand their own personal environment using their personal observations. Given the ubiquitous nature of smartphones, individuals have access to powerful processing and sensing capabilities. When coupled with the appropriate sensor parameters, filters, and algorithms, smartphones can be used both for 'citizen science' air quality applications and 'professional' scientific atmospheric investigations, alike, simplifying data analysis, processing, and improving deployment efficiency. We evaluate the validity of smartphone technology for air quality investigations using standard Cimel CE 318 sun photometry and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroradiometer (FTIR) observations at specific locations.

  19. Indoor air quality, ventilation and respiratory health in elderly residents living in nursing homes in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentayeb, Malek; Norback, Dan; Bednarek, Micha;

    2015-01-01

    European countries. 600 elderly people from 50 nursing homes underwent a medical examination and completed a standardised questionnaire. Air quality and comfort parameters were objectively assessed in situ in the nursing home. Mean concentrations of air pollutants did not exceed the existing standards...... cough. Elderly subjects aged ≥80 years were at higher risk. Pollutant effects were more pronounced in the case of poor ventilation. Even at low levels, indoor air quality affected respiratory health in elderly people permanently living in nursing homes, with frailty increasing with age. The effects were...... modulated by ventilation....

  20. Household air pollution from coal and biomass fuels in China: Measurements, health impacts, and interventions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, J.J.; Smith, K.R. [University of Medicine & Dentistry New Jersey, Piscataway, NJ (United States). School of Public Health

    2007-06-15

    Nearly all China's rural residents and a shrinking fraction of urban residents use solid fuels (biomass and coal) for household cooking and/or heating. Consequently, global meta-analyses of epidemiologic studies indicate that indoor air pollution from solid fuel use in China is responsible for approximately 420,000 premature deaths annually, more than the approximately 300,000 attributed to urban outdoor air pollution in the country. Our objective in this review was to help elucidate the extent of this indoor air pollution health hazard. We reviewed approximately 200 publications in both Chinese- and English language journals that reported health effects, exposure characteristics, and fuel/stove intervention options. Observed health effects include respiratory illnesses, lung cancer, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, weakening of the immune system, and reduction in lung function. Arsenic poisoning and fluorosis resulting from the use of 'Poisonous' coal have been observed in certain regions of China. Although attempts have been made in a few studies to identify specific coal smoke constituents responsible for specific adverse health effects, the majority of indoor air measurements include those of only particulate matter, carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, and/or nitrogen dioxide. These measurements indicate that pollution levels in households using solid fuel generally exceed China's indoor air quality standards. Intervention technologies ranging from simply adding a chimney to the more complex modernized bioenergy program are available, but they can be viable only with coordinated support from the government and the commercial sector.

  1. The impact of European legislative and technology measures to reduce air pollutants on air quality, human health and climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turnock, S. T.; Butt, E. W.; Richardson, T. B.; Mann, G. W.; Reddington, C. L.; Forster, P. M.; Haywood, J.; Crippa, M.; Janssens-Maenhout, G.; Johnson, C. E.; Bellouin, N.; Carslaw, K. S.; Spracklen, D. V.

    2016-02-01

    European air quality legislation has reduced emissions of air pollutants across Europe since the 1970s, affecting air quality, human health and regional climate. We used a coupled composition-climate model to simulate the impacts of European air quality legislation and technology measures implemented between 1970 and 2010. We contrast simulations using two emission scenarios; one with actual emissions in 2010 and the other with emissions that would have occurred in 2010 in the absence of technological improvements and end-of-pipe treatment measures in the energy, industrial and road transport sectors. European emissions of sulphur dioxide, black carbon (BC) and organic carbon in 2010 are 53%, 59% and 32% lower respectively compared to emissions that would have occurred in 2010 in the absence of legislative and technology measures. These emission reductions decreased simulated European annual mean concentrations of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) by 35%, sulphate by 44%, BC by 56% and particulate organic matter by 23%. The reduction in PM2.5 concentrations is calculated to have prevented 80 000 (37 000-116 000, at 95% confidence intervals) premature deaths annually across the European Union, resulting in a perceived financial benefit to society of US232 billion annually (1.4% of 2010 EU GDP). The reduction in aerosol concentrations due to legislative and technology measures caused a positive change in the aerosol radiative effect at the top of atmosphere, reduced atmospheric absorption and also increased the amount of solar radiation incident at the surface over Europe. We used an energy budget approximation to estimate that these changes in the radiative balance have increased European annual mean surface temperatures and precipitation by 0.45 ± 0.11 °C and by 13 ± 0.8 mm yr-1 respectively. Our results show that the implementation of European legislation and technological improvements to reduce the emission of air pollutants has improved air quality and human

  2. The impact of European legislative and technology measures to reduce air pollutants on air quality, human health and climate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    European air quality legislation has reduced emissions of air pollutants across Europe since the 1970s, affecting air quality, human health and regional climate. We used a coupled composition-climate model to simulate the impacts of European air quality legislation and technology measures implemented between 1970 and 2010. We contrast simulations using two emission scenarios; one with actual emissions in 2010 and the other with emissions that would have occurred in 2010 in the absence of technological improvements and end-of-pipe treatment measures in the energy, industrial and road transport sectors. European emissions of sulphur dioxide, black carbon (BC) and organic carbon in 2010 are 53%, 59% and 32% lower respectively compared to emissions that would have occurred in 2010 in the absence of legislative and technology measures. These emission reductions decreased simulated European annual mean concentrations of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) by 35%, sulphate by 44%, BC by 56% and particulate organic matter by 23%. The reduction in PM2.5 concentrations is calculated to have prevented 80 000 (37 000–116 000, at 95% confidence intervals) premature deaths annually across the European Union, resulting in a perceived financial benefit to society of US$232 billion annually (1.4% of 2010 EU GDP). The reduction in aerosol concentrations due to legislative and technology measures caused a positive change in the aerosol radiative effect at the top of atmosphere, reduced atmospheric absorption and also increased the amount of solar radiation incident at the surface over Europe. We used an energy budget approximation to estimate that these changes in the radiative balance have increased European annual mean surface temperatures and precipitation by 0.45 ± 0.11 °C and by 13 ± 0.8 mm yr−1 respectively. Our results show that the implementation of European legislation and technological improvements to reduce the emission of air pollutants has improved air quality and

  3. Public’s Health Risk Awareness on Urban Air Pollution in Chinese Megacities: The Cases of Shanghai, Wuhan and Nanchang

    OpenAIRE

    Xiaojun Liu; Hui Zhu; Yongxin Hu; Sha Feng; Yuanyuan Chu; Yanyan Wu; Chiyu Wang; Yuxuan Zhang; Zhaokang Yuan; Yuanan Lu

    2016-01-01

    This study assessed the public’s health risk awareness of urban air pollution triggered by three megacities in China, and the data are the responses from a sample size of 3868 megacity inhabitants from Shanghai, Nanchang and Wuhan. Descriptive analyses were used to summarize the respondents’ demographics, perceived health risks from air pollution and sources of health-related knowledge on urban air pollution. Chi-square tests were used to examine if participants’ demographics were associated ...

  4. Bourdieu does environmental justice? Probing the linkages between population health and air pollution epidemiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buzzelli, Michael

    2007-03-01

    The environmental justice literature faces a number of conceptual and methodological shortcomings. The purpose of this paper is to probe ways in which these shortcomings can be remedied via recent developments in related literatures: population health and air pollution epidemiology. More sophisticated treatment of social structure, particularly if based on Pierre Bourdieu's relational approach to forms of capital, can be combined with the methodological rigour and established biological pathways of air pollution epidemiology. The aim is to reformulate environmental justice research in order to make further meaningful contributions to the wider movement concerned with issues of social justice and equity in health research.

  5. Urban political ecologies of informal recyclers׳ health in Buenos Aires, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parizeau, Kate

    2015-05-01

    Buenos Aires׳ informal recyclers (cartoneros) confront multiple health hazards in their work. Based in a survey with (n=397) informal recyclers, this study establishes that these workers experience uneven health landscapes as evidenced through their health outcomes, the social determinants of their health, and their living and working environments. I argue that the analytical framework of urban political ecology can provide insights to the ways that the urban environments where cartoneros live and work are socially-constructed phenomena, drawing on concepts of crisis, metabolism, and multi-scalar analyses.

  6. Health Impact Assessment of air Pollution in Megacity of Tehran, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazem Naddafi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aims of the present study were to provide quantitative data on the impact of air pollution on the health of people living in Tehran city, the most populated city of Iran. The approach proposed by the World Health Organization (WHO was applied using the AirQ 2.2.3 software developed by the WHO European Centre for Environment and Health, Bilthoven Division. Concentrations of ozone, nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide and particulate matter of aerodynamic diameter ≤ 10 μm (PM10 were used to assess human exposure and healthimpacts in terms of attributable proportion of the health outcome, annual number of excess cases of mortality for all causes, and cardiovascular and respiratory diseases. The annual average of PM10, SO2, NO2 and O3 in Tehran were 90.58, 89.16, 85 and 68.82 μg/m3, respectively. Considering short-term effects, PM10 had the highest health impact on the 8,700,000 inhabitants of Tehran city, causing an excess of total mortality of 2194 out of 47284 in a year. Sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide and ozone caused about, respectively, 1458, 1050 and 819 excess cases of total mortality. Results indicate that the magnitude of the health impact estimated for the city of Tehranunderscores the need for urgent action to reduce the health burden of air pollution.

  7. Economic Valuation of Air Pollution Health Im¬pacts in the Tehran Area, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Karimzadegan

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Air pollution in Tehran, capital of Iran is responsible for several diverse negative effects. It has been estab­lished that air pollution can affect human health. These health effects include increased hospital admissions due to the ex­acerba­tion of cardiac and respiratory diseases, as well as symptoms such as headache, cough, eye irritation, nausea, sputum and even death in the most vulnerable individuals. In evaluating any policy that would reduce air pollution, it is useful to com­pare the policy's costs to its benefits expressed in monetary units.Methods: Since there is no market available that places value on the benefits of improved air quality, we must undertake non market valuation methods. In this paper we used direct medical cost (DMC, contingent valuation (CV and value of sta­tisti­cal life (VOSL approaches and household production model of health. According to this study marginal health dam­age costs for the following type of pollutants impacts: sulfur dioxide (SO2, nitrogen dioxide (NO2, particulate matter (PM10 and carbon monoxide (CO are quantified using exposure response functions(ERF which relate pollutant con­centra­tion to the resulting impact on a receptor(health. ERFs for health impacts are derived from epidemiological studies.Results: Health damage costs has been estimated at 16224 US$ per each unit increase of PM10, 28816 US$ per each unit in­crease of CO, 1927 US$ per each unit increase of NO2 and 7739 US$ per each unit increase of SO2.Conclusion: Substituting economic incentives for command and control approach to regulating air quality.

  8. Establishment of Exposure-response Functions of Air Particulate Matter and Adverse Health Outcomes in China and Worldwide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAI-DONG KAN; BING-HENG CHEN; CHANG-HONG CHEN; BING-YAN WANG; QING-YAN FU

    2005-01-01

    Objective To obtain the exposure-response functions that could be used in health-based risk assessment of particulate air pollution in China. Methods Meta analysis was conducted on the literatures on air particulate matter and its adverse health outcomes in China and worldwide. Results For each health outcome from morbidity to mortality changes, the relative risks were estimated when the concentration of air particulate matter increased to some certain units. Conclusion The exposure-response functions recommended here can be further applied to health risk assessment of air particulate matter in China.

  9. Air Pollution and Health: Bridging the Gap from Sources to Health Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has established National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for six principal air pollutants (“criteria” pollutants): carbon monoxide (CO), lead (Pb), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), particulate matter (PM) in two size ranges [...

  10. Valuing health effects from the industrial air pollution in rural Tianjin,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Zhi-feng; XU Lin-yu

    2004-01-01

    High concentrations of air pollutants such as total suspended particulates(TSP) and sulfur dioxide(SO2 ) have serious impacts on nearby populations. In this paper, a survey of rural Tianjin residents' willingness-to-pay for health improvement was reported on, and the MBDC( multiple bounded discrete choice) model was adopted to study the respondents' willingness-to-pay to prevent respiratory illnesses.The results showed that the willingness-to-pay for health improvement was affected by respondents' health condition, work situation and environmental awareness, but not by personal habits, such as smoking. If person's willingness-to-pay to avoid respiratory diseases can be considered equal to the cost to personal health caused by air pollution, the total cost will reach 538 x 106 RMB Yuan( RMB, equal to 65million USD) per year.

  11. Particulate matter and health - From air to human lungs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work reports on the environmental influence in the respiratory health of workers exposed to metal pollutants in their labour activities (metal processing industry). The clinical, respiratory functional and morphological changes were related with blood elemental concentrations in order to evaluate the influence of exposure to inhaled metal airborne particles. In addition, the deposition of particulate matter in the respiratory system was assessed in humans and in an animal model to infer possible mechanisms of interaction of metals with the respiratory tissue. The respiratory affections encountered for the exposure group through clinical, functional and morphological data are related with the number of years of exposure and with high levels of Zn in blood. Methodologies applied have into account the quality of results produced. Interlaboratory checks were carried out using certified reference materials and standard procedures were initiated to assure traceability in chemical analysis of biological matrices using analytical techniques based on X ray spectrometry. (author)

  12. Comparative Health Impact Assessment of Local and Regional Particulate Air Pollutants in Scandinavia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forsberg, Bertil; Jaervholm, Bengt [Umeaa Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Public Health and Clinical Medicine; Hansson, Hans-Christen; Johansson, Christer; Areskoug, Hans [Stockholm Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Applied Environmental Science; Persson, Karin [Swedish Environmental Research Institute, Goeteborg (Sweden)

    2005-02-01

    The ongoing program Clean Air for Europe (CAFE) is an initiative from the EU Commission to establish a coordinated effort to reach better air quality in the EU. The focus is on particulate matter as it has been shown to have large impact on human health. CAFE requested that WHO make a review of the latest findings on air pollutants and health to facilitate assessments of the different air pollutants and their health effects. The WHO review project on health aspects of air pollution in Europe confirmed that exposure to particulate matter (PM), despite the lower levels we face today, still poses a significant risk to human health. Using the recommended uniform risk coefficients for health impact assessment of PM, regardless of sources, premature mortality related to long-range transported anthropogenic particles has been estimated to be about 3,500 deaths per year for the Swedish population, corresponding to a reduction in life expectancy of up to about seven months. The influence of local sources is more difficult to estimate due to large uncertainties when linking available risk coefficients to exposure data, but the estimates indicate about 1,800 deaths brought forward each year with a life expectancy reduction of about 2-3 months. However, some sectors of the population are exposed to quite high locally induced concentrations and are likely to suffer excessive reductions in life expectancy. Since the literature increasingly supports assumptions that combustion related particles are associated with higher relative risks, further studies may shift the focus for abatement strategies. CAFE sets out to establish a general cost effective abatement strategy for atmospheric particles. Our results, based on studies of background exposure, show that long-range transported sulfate rich particles dominate the health effects of PM in Sweden. The same results would be found for the whole of Scandinavia and many countries influenced by transboundary air pollution. However

  13. Air Pollution Exposure and Physical Activity in China: Current Knowledge, Public Health Implications, and Future Research Needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lü, Jiaojiao; Liang, Leichao; Feng, Yi; Li, Rena; Liu, Yu

    2015-11-01

    Deteriorating air quality in China has created global public health concerns in regard to health and health-related behaviors. Although emerging environmental regulations address ambient air pollution in China, the level of enforcement and long-term impact of these measures remain unknown. Exposure to air pollution has been shown to lead to multiple adverse health outcomes, including increased rates of heart disease and mortality. However, a lesser-known but increasingly significant concern is the relationship between air pollution and its effects on outdoor exercise. This is especially important in China, which has a culturally rooted lifestyle that encourages participation in outdoor physical activity. This article evaluates the intersection of air pollution and outdoor exercise and provides a discussion of issues related to its public health impact in China, where efforts to promote a healthy lifestyle may be adversely affected by the ambient air pollution that has accompanied rapid economic development and urbanization.

  14. Air Pollution Exposure and Physical Activity in China: Current Knowledge, Public Health Implications, and Future Research Needs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiaojiao Lü

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Deteriorating air quality in China has created global public health concerns in regard to health and health-related behaviors. Although emerging environmental regulations address ambient air pollution in China, the level of enforcement and long-term impact of these measures remain unknown. Exposure to air pollution has been shown to lead to multiple adverse health outcomes, including increased rates of heart disease and mortality. However, a lesser-known but increasingly significant concern is the relationship between air pollution and its effects on outdoor exercise. This is especially important in China, which has a culturally rooted lifestyle that encourages participation in outdoor physical activity. This article evaluates the intersection of air pollution and outdoor exercise and provides a discussion of issues related to its public health impact in China, where efforts to promote a healthy lifestyle may be adversely affected by the ambient air pollution that has accompanied rapid economic development and urbanization.

  15. Meta-analysis of adverse health effects due to air pollution in Chinese populations

    OpenAIRE

    Lai, Hak-Kan; Tsang, Hilda; Wong, Chit-Ming

    2013-01-01

    Background Pooled estimates of air pollution health effects are important drivers of environmental risk communications and political willingness. In China, there is a lack of review studies to provide such estimates for health impact assessments. Methods We systematically searched the MEDLINE database using keywords of 80 major Chinese cities in Mainland China, Hong Kong and Taiwan on 30 June 2012, yielding 350 abstracts with 48 non-duplicated reports either in English or Chinese after screen...

  16. Health impact assessment of air pollution using a dynamic exposure profile: Implications for exposure and health impact estimates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In both ambient air pollution epidemiology and health impact assessment an accurate assessment of the population exposure is crucial. Although considerable advances have been made in assessing human exposure outdoors, the assessments often do not consider the impact of individual travel behavior on such exposures. Population-based exposures to NO2 and O3 using only home addresses were compared with models that integrate all time-activity patterns—including time in commute—for Flanders and Brussels. The exposure estimates were used to estimate the air pollution impact on years of life lost due to respiratory mortality. Health impact of NO2 using an exposure that integrates time-activity information was on average 1.2% higher than when assuming that people are always at their home address. For ozone the overall estimated health impact was 0.8% lower. Local differences could be much larger, with estimates that differ up to 12% from the exposure using residential addresses only. Depending on age and gender, deviations from the population average were seen. Our results showed modest differences on a regional level. At the local level, however, time-activity patterns indicated larger differences in exposure and health impact estimates, mainly for people living in more rural areas. These results suggest that for local analyses the dynamic approach can contribute to an improved assessment of the health impact of various types of pollution and to the understanding of exposure differences between population groups. - Highlights: ► Exposure to ambient air pollution was assessed integrating population mobility. ► This dynamic exposure was integrated into a health impact assessment. ► Differences between the dynamic and residential exposure were quantified. ► Modest differences in health impact were found at a regional level. ► At municipal level larger differences were found, influenced by gender and age.

  17. Indoor Air Nuclear, Biological, and Chemical Health Modeling and Assessment System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stenner, Robert D.; Hadley, Donald L.; Armstrong, Peter R.; Buck, John W.; Hoopes, Bonnie L.; Janus, Michael C.

    2001-03-01

    Indoor air quality effects on human health are of increasing concern to public health agencies and building owners. The prevention and treatment of 'sick building' syndrome and the spread of air-borne diseases in hospitals, for example, are well known priorities. However, increasing attention is being directed to the vulnerability of our public buildings/places, public security and national defense facilities to terrorist attack or the accidental release of air-borne biological pathogens, harmful chemicals, or radioactive contaminants. The Indoor Air Nuclear, Biological, and Chemical Health Modeling and Assessment System (IA-NBC-HMAS) was developed to serve as a health impact analysis tool for use in addressing these concerns. The overall goal was to develop a user-friendly fully functional prototype Health Modeling and Assessment system, which will operate under the PNNL FRAMES system for ease of use and to maximize its integration with other modeling and assessment capabilities accessible within the FRAMES system (e.g., ambient air fate and transport models, water borne fate and transport models, Physiologically Based Pharmacokinetic models, etc.). The prototype IA-NBC-HMAS is designed to serve as a functional Health Modeling and Assessment system that can be easily tailored to meet specific building analysis needs of a customer. The prototype system was developed and tested using an actual building (i.e., the Churchville Building located at the Aberdeen Proving Ground) and release scenario (i.e., the release and measurement of tracer materials within the building) to ensure realism and practicality in the design and development of the prototype system. A user-friendly "demo" accompanies this report to allow the reader the opportunity for a "hands on" review of the prototype system's capability.

  18. Linking Asthma Exacerbation and Air Pollution Data: A Step Toward Public Health and Environmental Data Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faruque, Fazlay; Finley, Richard; Marshall, Gailen; Brackin, Bruce; Li, Hui; Williams, Worth; Al-Hamdan, Mohammad; Luvall, Jeffrey; Rickman, Doug; Crosson, Bill

    2006-01-01

    Studies have shown that reducing exposure to triggers such as air pollutants can reduce symptoms and the need for medication in asthma patients. However, systems that track asthma are generally not integrated with those that track environmental hazards related to asthma. Tlvs lack of integration hinders public health awareness and responsiveness to these environmental triggers. The current study is a collaboration between health and environmental professionals to utilize NASA-derived environmental data to develop a decision support system (DSS) for asthma prediction, surveillance, and intervention. The investigators link asthma morbidity data from the University of Mississippi Medical Center (UMMC) and Mississippi Department of Health (MDH) with air quality data from the Mississippi Department of Environmental Quality (MDEQ) and remote sensing data from NASA. Daily ambient environmental hazard data for PM2.5 and ozone are obtained from the MDEQ air quality monitoring locations and are combined with remotely sensed data from NASA to develop a state-wide spatial and time series profile of environmental air quality. These data are then used to study the correlation of these measures of air quality variation with the asthma exacerbation incidence throughout the state over time. The goal is to utilize these readily available measures to allow real-time risk assessment for asthma exacerbations. GeoMedStat, a DSS previously developed for biosurveillance, will integrate these measures to monitor, analyze and report the real-time risk assessment for asthma exacerbation throughout the state.

  19. Development of a health effects based priority ranking system for air emissions reductions from oil refineries in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents the concept and methodologies behind the development of a health effects priority ranking tool for the reduction of air emissions from oil refineries. The Health Effects Indicators Decision Index- Versions 2 (Heidi II) was designed to assist policy makers in prioritizing air emissions reductions on the basis of estimated risk to human health. Inputs include facility level rankings of potential health impacts associated with carcinogenic air toxics, non-carcinogenic air toxics and criteria air contaminants for each of the 20 refineries in Canada. Rankings of estimated health impacts are presented on predicted incidence of health effects. Heidi II considers site-specific annual pollutant emission data, ambient air concentrations associated with releases and concentration response functions for various types of health effects. Additional data includes location specific background air concentrations, site-specific population densities, and the baseline incidence of different health effects endpoints, such as cancer, non-cancer illnesses and cardiorespiratory illnesses and death. Air pollutants include the 29 air toxics reported annually in Environment Canada's National Pollutant Release Inventory. Three health impact ranking outputs are provided for each facility: ranking of pollutants based on predicted number of annual cases of health effects; ranking of pollutants based on simplified Disability Adjusted Life Years (DALYs); and ranking of pollutants based on more complex DALYs that consider types of cancer, systemic disease or types of cardiopulmonary health effects. Rankings rely on rough statistical estimates of predicted incidence rates for health endpoints. The models used to calculate rankings can provide useful guidance by comparing estimated health impacts. Heidi II has demonstrated that it is possible to develop a consistent and objective approach for ranking priority reductions of air emissions. Heidi II requires numerous types and

  20. Contribution of smoking and air pollution exposure in urban areas to social differences in respiratory health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranft Ulrich

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Socio-economic status, smoking, and exposure to increased levels of environmental air pollution are associated with adverse effects on respiratory health. We assessed the contribution of occupational exposures, smoking and outdoor air pollution as competing factors for the association between socio-economic status and respiratory health indicators in a cohort of women from the Ruhr area aged 55 at the time of investigation between 1985 and 1990. Methods Data of 1251 women with spirometry and complete questionnaire information about respiratory diseases, smoking and potential confounders were used in the analyses. Exposure to large-scale air pollution was assessed with data from monitoring stations. Exposure to small-scale air pollution was assessed as traffic-related exposure by distance to the nearest major road. Socio-economic status was defined by educational level. Multiple regression models were used to estimate the contribution of occupational exposures, smoking and outdoor air pollution to social differences in respiratory health. Results Women with less than 10 years of school education in comparison to more than 10 years of school education were more often occupationally exposed (16.4% vs. 10.1%, smoked more often (20.3% vs. 13.9%, and lived more often close to major roads (26.0% vs. 22.9%. Long-term exposure to increased levels of PM10 was significantly associated with lower school education. Women with low school education were more likely to suffer from respiratory symptoms and had reduced lung function. In the multivariate analysis the associations between education and respiratory health attenuated after adjusting for occupational exposure, smoking and outdoor air pollution. The crude odds ratio for the association between the lung function indicator FEV1 less than 80% of predicted value and educational level (10 years of school education was 1.83 (95% CI: 1.22–2.74. This changed to 1.56 (95% CI: 1.03–2

  1. Assessing the health benefits of improved air quality in Central and Eastern Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krupnick, A.J.; Harrison, K.W.; Nickell, E.J.; Toman, M.A.

    Assessments of the benefits of improvements in environmental quality in Central and Eastern Europe are needed to determine priorities for pollution abatement activities in the region. A recent study conducted by researchers at Resources for the Future suggests that the human health benefits attributable to reductions in emissions of three air pollutants in five of the region's countries are potentially large. However, the study also highlights the uncertainties surrounding measurements of decreases in adverse health effects and economic valuations of improved air quality. Attempts to account for these uncertainties yield findings that strengthen the researchers' assertion that air pollution control should be a target of environmental and economic policies in Central and Eastern Europe.

  2. Assessment of human health impact from exposure to multiple air pollutants in China based on satellite observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Tao; Wang, Wen; Ciren, Pubu; Zhu, Yan

    2016-10-01

    Assessment of human health impact caused by air pollution is crucial for evaluating environmental hazards. In this paper, concentrations of six air pollutants (PM10, PM2.5, NO2, SO2, O3, and CO) were first derived from satellite observations, and then the overall human health risks in China caused by multiple air pollutants were assessed using an aggregated health risks index. Unlike traditional approach for human health risks assessment, which relied on the in-situ air pollution measurements, the spatial distribution of aggregated human health risks in China were obtained using satellite observations in this research. It was indicated that the remote sensing data have advantages over in-situ data in accessing human health impact caused by air pollution.

  3. EFFECTS OF AIR POLLUTION ON RESPIRATORY HEALTH OF ADULTS IN THREE CHINESE CITIES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The authors examined potential associations between air-pollution exposures and respiratory symptoms and illnesses of 4,108 adults who resided in 4 districts of 3 large, distinct Chinese cities. Data on respiratory health outcomes and relevant risk factors for parents and childre...

  4. Acute effects of ozone on mortality from the "Air pollution and health : A European approach" project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gryparis, A; Forsberg, B; Katsouyanni, K; Analitis, A; Touloumi, G; Schwartz, J; Samoli, E; Medina, S; Anderson, HR; Niciu, EM; Wichmann, HE; Kriz, B; Kosnik, M; Skorkovsky, J; Vonk, JM; Dortbudak, Z

    2004-01-01

    In the Air Pollution and Health: A European Approach (APHEA2) project, the effects of ambient ozone concentrations on mortality were investigated. Data were collected on daily ozone concentrations, the daily number of deaths, confounders, and potential effect modifiers from 23 cities/areas for at le

  5. Acute effects of ambient air pollution episodes on respiratory health of children.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoek, G.

    1992-01-01

    In this thesis the acute effects of air pollution episodes on respiratory health of seven to eleven year old children living in non-urban communities in the Netherlands are discussed. Repeated measurements of pulmonary function (spirometry) and the occurrence of acute respiratory symptoms using a da

  6. Air pollution and respiratory health of children: the PEACE panel study in Teplice, Czech Republic.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kotesovec, F.; Vitnerova, N.; Leixner, M.; Benes, I.; Skoorkovsky, J.; Roemer, W.

    1998-01-01

    As part of a multicentre study (the Pollution Effects on Asthmatic Children in Europe (PEACE) project) the acute effects of air pollution on the health of susceptible children was investigated. Eighty nine children in the urban and 77 children in the rural area were followed during the study period

  7. Introduction: Special Issue of Air Quality, Atmosphere and Health for Air Pollution and Health: Bridging the Gap from Source-to-Health Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has established the National Ambient Air Quality Standards for six principal air pollutants (criteria pollutants): carbon monoxide (CO), lead (Pb), nitrogen dioxide, particulate matter in two size ranges [less than 2.5 μm (PM2.5) and less ...

  8. Advanced air distribution: Improving health and comfort while reducing energy use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melikov, Arsen Krikor

    2015-01-01

    the risk of airborne cross-infection while reducing energy use. This study justifies the need for improving the present air distribution design in occupied spaces, and in general the need for a paradigm shift from the design of collective environments to the design of individually controlled environments....... The focus is on advanced air distribution in spaces, its guiding principles and its advantages and disadvantages. Examples of advanced air distribution solutions in spaces for different use, such as offices, hospital rooms, vehicle compartments, are presented. The potential of advanced air distribution......, and individually controlled macro-environment in general, for achieving shared values, that is, improved health, comfort, and performance, energy saving, reduction of healthcare costs and improved well-being is demonstrated. Performance criteria are defined and further research in the field is outlined....

  9. Evaluation of health effects of air pollution in the Chestnut Ridge area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gruhl, J.; Schweppe, F.C.

    1980-01-01

    This project involves several tasks designed to take advantage of a very extensive air pollution monitoring system that is operating in the Chestnut Ridge region of Western Pennsylvania and the very well developed analytic dispersion models that have been previously fine-tuned to this particular area. The major task in this project is to establish, through several distinct epidemiologic approaches, health data to be used to test hypotheses about relations of air pollution exposures to morbidity and mortality rates in this region. This project affords a cost-effective opportunity for state-of-the-art techniques to be used in both costly areas of air pollution and health effects data collection. The closely spaced network of monitors, plus the dispersion modeling capabilities, allow for the investigation of health impacts of various pollutant gradients in neighboring geographic areas, thus minimizing the confounding effects of social, ethnic, and economic factors. The pollutants that are monitored in this network include total gaseous sulfur, sulfates, total suspended particulates, NOx, NO, ozone/oxidants, and coefficient of haze. In addition to enabling the simulation of exposure profiles between monitors, the air quality modeling, along with extensive source and background inventories, will allow for upgrading the quality of the monitored data as well as simulating the exposure levels for about 25 additional air pollutants. Another important goal of this project is to collect and test the many available models for associating health effects with air pollution, to determine their predictive validity and their usefulness in the choice and siting of future energy facilities.

  10. Satellite Models for Global Environmental Change in the NASA Health and Air Quality Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haynes, J.; Estes, S. M.

    2015-12-01

    Satellite remote sensing of the environment offers a unique vantage point that can fill in the gaps of environmental, spatial, and temporal data for tracking disease. Health and Air Quality providers and researchers are effective by the global environmental changes that are occurring and they need environmental data to study and understand the geographic, environmental, and meteorological differences in disease. This presentation maintains a diverse constellation of Earth observing research satellites and sponsors research in developing satellite data applications across a wide spectrum of areas including environmental health; infectious disease; air quality standards, policies, and regulations; and the impact of climate change on health and air quality. Successfully providing predictions with the accuracy and specificity required by decision makers will require advancements over current capabilities in a number of interrelated areas. These areas include observations, modeling systems, forecast development, application integration, and the research to operations transition process. This presentation will highlight many projects on which NASA satellites have been a primary partner with local, state, Federal, and international operational agencies over the past twelve years in these areas. Domestic and International officials have increasingly recognized links between environment and health. Health providers and researchers need environmental data to study and understand the geographic, environmental, and meteorological differences in disease. The presentation is directly related to Earth Observing systems and Global Health Surveillance and will present research results of the remote sensing environmental observations of earth and health applications, which can contribute to the health research. As part of NASA approach and methodology they have used Earth Observation Systems and Applications for Health Models to provide a method for bridging gaps of environmental

  11. Environmental Public Health Tracking of Childhood Asthma Using California Health Interview Survey, Traffic, and Outdoor Air Pollution Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilhelm, Michelle; Meng, Ying-Ying; Rull, Rudolph P.; English, Paul; Balmes, John; Ritz, Beate

    2008-01-01

    Background Despite extensive evidence that air pollution affects childhood asthma, state-level and national-level tracking of asthma outcomes in relation to air pollution is limited. Objectives Our goals were to evaluate the feasibility of linking the 2001 California Health Interview Survey (CHIS), air monitoring, and traffic data; estimate associations between traffic density (TD) or outdoor air pollutant concentrations and childhood asthma morbidity; and evaluate the usefulness of such databases, linkages, and analyses to Environmental Public Health Tracking (EPHT). Methods We estimated TD within 500 feet of residential cross-streets of respondents and annual average pollutant concentrations based on monitoring station measurements. We used logistic regression to examine associations with reported asthma symptoms and emergency department (ED) visits/hospitalizations. Results Assignment of TD and air pollution exposures for cross-streets was successful for 82% of children with asthma in Los Angeles and San Diego, California, Counties. Children with asthma living in high ozone areas and areas with high concentrations of particulate matter < 10 μm in aerodynamic diameter experienced symptoms more frequently, and those living close to heavy traffic reported more ED visits/hospitalizations. The advantages of the CHIS for asthma EPHT include a large and representative sample, biennial data collection, and ascertainment of important socio-demographic and residential address information. Disadvantages are its cross-sectional design, reliance on parental reports of diagnoses and symptoms, and lack of information on some potential confounders. Conclusions Despite limitations, the CHIS provides a useful framework for examining air pollution and childhood asthma morbidity in support of EPHT, especially because later surveys address some noted gaps. We plan to employ CHIS 2003 and 2005 data and novel exposure assessment methods to re-examine the questions raised here. PMID

  12. Environmental health in China: progress towards clean air and safe water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Junfeng; Mauzerall, Denise L; Zhu, Tong; Liang, Song; Ezzati, Majid; Remais, Justin V

    2010-03-27

    Environmental risk factors, especially air and water pollution, are a major source of morbidity and mortality in China. Biomass fuel and coal are burned for cooking and heating in almost all rural and many urban households, resulting in severe indoor air pollution that contributes greatly to the burden of disease. Many communities lack access to safe drinking water and sanitation, and thus the risk of waterborne disease in many regions is high. At the same time, China is rapidly industrialising with associated increases in energy use and industrial waste. Although economic growth from industrialisation has improved health and quality of life indicators, it has also increased the release of chemical toxins into the environment and the rate of environmental disasters, with severe effects on health. Air quality in China's cities is among the worst in the world, and industrial water pollution has become a widespread health hazard. Moreover, emissions of climate-warming greenhouse gases from energy use are rapidly increasing. Global climate change will inevitably intensify China's environmental health troubles, with potentially catastrophic outcomes from major shifts in temperature and precipitation. Facing the overlap of traditional, modern, and emerging environmental dilemmas, China has committed substantial resources to environmental improvement. The country has the opportunity to address its national environmental health challenges and to assume a central role in the international effort to improve the global environment.

  13. Core public health functions for BC : evidence review : air quality-indoor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Copes, R.; Ouellette, V.; Lee, K.S.; Brauer, M. [British Columbia Ministry of Health, Victoria, BC (Canada)

    2006-04-15

    Indoor sources of pollutants can have a major impact on the health of Canadians, as pollutant concentrations are often higher indoors than outdoors. This paper assessed data compiled by public health indoor air interventions. The aim of the study was to identify the current state of evidence on the impacts of indoor pollution in order to develop performance improvement plans for public health programs in British Columbia (BC). The literature review used several databases to review interventions involving humidity control; ventilation; particulate matter; indoor allergens; and environmental tobacco smoke. Results of the review showed that improving inadequate ventilation can significantly decrease the prevalence of sick building syndrome as well as other self-reported symptoms attributed to indoor air pollution. A review of the literature also demonstrated that many building ventilation systems are not functioning to design specifications. The poor quality of studies on the health impacts of particulate matter or dust made it difficult to fully assess the benefits of particle filtration on human health. Studies investigating the impacts of controlling indoor allergens suggested that the avoidance of dust mites may benefit people with allergies. Evidence gained from studies on environmental tobacco smoke showed that banning or restricting smoking will reduce the burden of illness from pollutants in indoor air. 20 refs., 3 tabs.

  14. Application of DALYs in Measuring Health Effect of Ambient Air Pollution: A Case Study in Shanghai, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUN-HUI ZHANG; CHANG-HONG CHEN; GUO-HAI CHEN; GUI-XIANG SONG; BING-HENG CHEN; QING-YAN FU; HAI-DONG KAN

    2006-01-01

    To investigate the effect of ambient air pollution on human health and the subsequent disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) lost in Shanghai. Methods We used epidemiology-based exposure-response functions to calculate the attributable number of cases due to air pollution in Shanghai in 2000, and then we estimated the corresponding DALYs lost in Shanghai based on unit DALYs values of the health consequences. Results Ambient air pollution caused 103 064 DALYs lost in Shanghai in 2000. Among all the health endpoints, premature deaths and chronic bronchitis predominated in the value of total DALYs lost. Conclusion The air pollution levels have an adverse effect on the general population health and strengthen the rationale for limiting the levels of air pollution in outdoor air in Shanghai.

  15. Health costs caused by oil extraction air emissions and the benefits from abatement: the case of Kazakhstan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Netalieva, I.; Wesseler, J.H.H.; Heijman, W.J.M.

    2005-01-01

    The methodology and results of a cost–benefit analysis of air quality control during oil production in the Caspian Region in Kazakhstan are presented. The benefits are defined as the decrease in health costs from reduced air pollution. The health costs are the income losses which depend on the attri

  16. Estimating health impacts and economic costs of air pollution in the Republic of Macedonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Craig Meisner

    2015-11-01

    influences a person‟s day-to-day health and their ability to work. Converting lost years of life and disabilities into DALYs - these health effects represent an annual economic cost of approximately €253 million or 3.2% of GDP (midpoint estimate. Premature death accounts for over 90% of the total health burden since this represents a loss of total life-long income. A reduction of even 1μg/m3 in ambient PM10 or PM 2.5 would imply 195 fewer deaths and represent an economic savings of €34 million per year in reduced health costs. Conclusion: Interventions that reduce ambient PM10 or PM2.5 have significant economic savings in both the short and long run. Currently, these benefits (costs are „hidden‟ due to the lack of information linking air quality and health outcomes and translating this into economic terms. Policymakers seeking ways to improve the public‟s health and lessen the burden on the health system could focus on a narrow set of air pollution sources to achieve these goals.

  17. Air

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... house) Industrial emissions (like smoke and chemicals from factories) Household cleaners (spray cleaners, air fresheners) Car emissions (like carbon monoxide) *All of these things make up “particle pollution.” They mostly come from cars, trucks, buses, and ...

  18. Economic evaluation of health losses from air pollution in Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xiaoli; Yu, Xueying; Wang, Ying; Fan, Chunyang

    2016-06-01

    Aggravated air pollution in Beijing, China has caused serious health concern. This paper comprehensively evaluates the health losses from illness and premature death caused by air pollution in monetary terms. We use the concentration of PM10 as an indicator of the pollution since it constitutes the primary pollutant in Beijing. By our estimation, air pollution in Beijing caused a health loss equivalent to Ұ583.02 million or 0.03 % of its GDP. Most of the losses took the form of depreciation in human capital that resulted from premature death. The losses from premature deaths were most salient for people of either old or young ages, with the former group suffering from the highest mortality rates and the latter group the highest per capital losses of human capitals from premature death. Policies that target on PM10 emission reduction, urban vegetation expansion, and protection of vulnerable groups are all proposed as possible solutions to air pollution risks in Beijing. PMID:26944425

  19. Exposure-response functions for health effects of air pollutants based on epidemiological findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aunan, K.

    1995-10-01

    The objective of this report is to provide exposure-response functions for health effects and air pollution, which can be used in cost-effectiveness analyses of abatement measures. When cost-effective abatement strategies for air pollution are analyzed, and when air quality standards are set, it is important to have quantitative knowledge about health damage. In spite of their shortcomings, epidemiological studies provide a sound basis for exposure-response functions because they involve a random cross section of the population. In this report the exposure-response functions apply to the relation between air pollutant concentrations and relative effect frequencies, and involve the following health effect end-points: acute and chronic respiratory symptoms in children and adults, asthma episodes in children and adults, eye irritations, headache, lung damage in children, excess mortality, lung cancer incidence. The effects are attributed to one indicator component, which in many cases is particles, but for some effects NO{sub 2}, SO{sub 2}, O{sub 3}, or CO. A calculation procedure is suggested which makes it possible to estimate excess annual symptom-days for short-term effects using the annual average concentration. 103 refs., 1 table

  20. EC multicentre study on small area variations in air quality and health (SAVIAH)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lebret, E. [National Inst. of Public Health and Environmental Protection (Netherlands); Elliott, P. [London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine (United Kingdom); Briggs, D. [Huddersfield Univ. (United Kingdom). Inst. of Environmental and Policy Analysis; Gorynski, P. [National Inst. of Hygiene, Warsaw (Poland); Kriz, B. [National Inst. of Public Health, Prague (Czech Republic)

    1995-12-31

    SAVIAH is an EC-funded methodological study coordinated by Dr. Paul Elliott at the LSHTM (London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine). The project aims to apply, test and evaluate new and emerging methodologies in the fields of epidemiology, geography, air pollution modelling and small area health statistics, and to bring the data together in a consistent geographic framework. The study was carried out in the U.K., The Netherlands, Poland and the Czech Republic, using the example of childhood wheeze and outdoor air pollution. Specific aims of the study were, in each centre, (1) to carry out a questionnaire survey among parents of guardians of around 4000 to 5000 children aged between 7 and 11, (2) to carry out a series of air pollution surveys for NO{sub 2} as a proxy for the complex of traffic-related pollutants, and SO{sub 2} (PL), using a dense network of passive samplers, (3) to build up a detailed Geographical Information System (GIS) for each of the study areas; (4) to construct an air pollution `map` based on the NO{sub 2} and SO{sub 2} measurements and a health `map` based on `map smoothing` techniques and (5) to explore methods to examine relationships between health, pollution, socio-economic and other data. (author)

  1. Influence of air pollution on pregnant women’s health and pregnancy outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanković Aleksandra

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary Outdoor and indoor air pollution pollutants can be a potential cause to a lot of negative effects on the health of pregnant women and outcome of pregnancy. The objective of this paper was to estimate the influence of outdoor and indoor air pollution on the health of pregnant women and outcome of pregnancy. Material and Methods The study subjects were the pregnant women, non-smokers, who were not professionally exposed to air pollution. They were divided into the exposed group (n=189 and control group (n=178 during the exposure to outdoor air pollution. The data on exposure to sources of indoor air pollution (smoke produced by burning fossil fuels and passive smoking during pregnancy were obtained from the questionnaire. Data on health condition and outcome of pregnancy were obtained from medical records of tested pregnant women. Results. The research results have shown that the frequency of anemia (OR=6.76; 95% CI=1.28-7.72, upper respiratory symptoms (OR=9.53; 95% CI=1.32-3.8 and bleeding (OR=20.5; 95% CI=2.03-6.97 was significantly higher in pregnant women exposed to outdoor air pollution as compared with the control group. The occurrence of upper respiratory symptoms (OR=40.42; 95% CI=2.96-8.91 and bleeding (OR=53.21; 95% CI=4.3-15.73 was significantly higher in pregnant women who had been exposed to fossil fuel smoke. Exposure to passive smoking had significant influence on the development of upper respiratory symptoms (OR=34.58; 95% CI=3.05-11.66.

  2. The health risks of incense use in the home: an underestimated source of indoor air pollution?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Debbie; Pontin, David

    2016-03-01

    The health impact of indoor air pollution is a growing area of interest for public health professionals. People typically spend up to 90 per cent of their time indoors, particularly women, young children and elders. Although the adverse health effects of second-hand tobacco smoke are well recognised, the impact of burning incense in the home has received little attention in Western literature. Incense burning in the home is common in a number of cultures (particularly Asian, North African or Arabic). Many health visitors (HVs) work with communities who use incense regularly for religious/cultural reasons and it is a neglected area of study and research.The literature suggests that home incense use can have significant adverse health effects, particularly on cardiopulmonary morbidity and mortality. Further research is needed to identify which individuals are most susceptible, which types of incense are most harmful, and whether any actions can be taken to minimise exposure.

  3. A multidisciplinary approach to the air quality and health problems in indoor arenas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salonen, R.O.; Pennanen, A.S.; Alm, S.; Randell, J.T.; Haelinen, A.I.; Husman, T.; Jantunen, M.J. [National Public Health Inst., Kuopio (Finland). Div. of Environmental Health; Eklund, T. [Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo (Finland); Lee, Kiyoung; Spengler, J.D. [Harvard School of Public Health, Boston (United States). Dept. of Environmental Health

    1995-12-31

    Most ice resurfacing machines used in indoor ice arenas have internal combustion engines. They use either propane or petrol as fuel. The main exhaust pollutants are carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}), volatile organic compounds (VOC) and fine particles. In general, propane engines emit more NO{sub x} than petrol engines, but their CO emissions are smaller. The levels of these pollutants in indoor air depend on total amount of emissions volume of arena and effectiveness of ventilation. However, due to large variations in engine emissions the air quality in any single arena cannot be estimated without direct measurements. High levels of CO and nitrogen dioxide (NO{sub 2}) have been measured in indoor ice arenas of North America since 1960`s, and it is only recently that high NO{sub 2} levels have been measured also in Sweden. In health studies, attention has been paid mostly to epidemic acute poisonings among ice hockey players and spectators caused by large concentrations of CO. However, some cases of acute NO{sub 2} poisonings have also been described. The aims of this project are: (1) to examine the air quality in Finnish indoor ice arenas, (2) to study associations between the air quality and the major technical features of the arenas, (3) to assess personal exposures of ice hockey players, spectators and maintenance personnel to CO and NO{sub 2}, (4) to investigate short-term and longer-term health effects of CO and NO{sub 2} exposures on ice hockey players and maintenance personnel, (5) to inform the managers of ice arenas and the health authorities on the current air quality problems and health risks in Finnish indoor ice arenas. (author)

  4. Worldwide associations between air quality and health end-points: Are they meaningful?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Wallner

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The World Health Organization (WHO provides data on national indices of health, environment and economy. When we were asked, why air pollution is negatively correlated with cancer mortality, our first response (presumably the mortality data are not age-adjusted was not sufficient to explain the paradox. Material and Methods: A table including all-cause, cancer and childhood mortality, life expectancy, gross national product per person, smoking prevalence, physician density and particulate matter (PM10 per country (N = 193 was developed. For explorative purposes weighted cross-sectional multiple linear regressions models were built. Results: Air pollution is positively correlated with infant and overall mortality and negatively with life expectancy. This might not only depict a true causal effect of PM10 because air quality is also an indicator of a country’s prosperity and general state of environment. Cancer mortality is negatively correlated with PM10. However, this association turns positive when economic or health system indicators are controlled. Conclusions: The World Health Organization’s world-wide data sets demonstrate the large disparity of our world. A careful and professional approach is needed as interpretation is difficult, especially for lay persons. Therefore, with publicly available data WHO should also provide interpretation and guidance.

  5. Evaluation of Health Consequences of Air Pollution Induced by Beam Rolling Mills Factory (Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafiei Masoud

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The increases in air pollution over the metropolitan cities are a threat to human health and environment. An attempt has been made to evaluate the health consequences of indoor air pollution induced by Beam Rolling Mills Factory at Ahwaz (Iran. A questionnaire was prepared to obtain information on health of 481 workers, out of which 200 each were selected from exposed and non-exposed category by stratified randomized method. Fisher exact test and chi-square test were used to calculate the values. The study concludes that more than 80% of the workers have high exposure risk to diseases. Analysis of the health impacts reveals that exposed workers are more prone to various diseases as compared to the non-exposed workers. It is also observed that exposure to air pollutants might be the causative factor for various diseases among the smokers but also nonsmoking workers. The analysis also reveals that there is higher relative risk in occupational fatigue and cardio-vascular disease. Further, the study found that percentage of workers having various diseases is much higher in the indoor environment as compared to the outdoor environment

  6. Air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In recent years several regulations and standards for air quality and limits for air pollution were issued or are in preparation by the European Union, which have severe influence on the environmental monitoring and legislation in Austria. This chapter of the environmental control report of Austria gives an overview about the legal situation of air pollution control in the European Union and in specific the legal situation in Austria. It gives a comprehensive inventory of air pollution measurements for the whole area of Austria of total suspended particulates, ozone, volatile organic compounds, nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxide, carbon monoxide, heavy metals, benzene, dioxin, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and eutrophication. For each of these pollutants the measured emission values throughout Austria are given in tables and geographical charts, the environmental impact is discussed, statistical data and time series of the emission sources are given and legal regulations and measures for an effective environmental pollution control are discussed. In particular the impact of fossil-fuel power plants on the air pollution is analyzed. (a.n.)

  7. The Covariance between Air Pollution Annoyance and Noise Annoyance, and Its Relationship with Health-Related Quality of Life

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel Shepherd; Kim Dirks; David Welch; David McBride; Jason Landon

    2016-01-01

    Air pollution originating from road traffic is a known risk factor of respiratory and cardiovascular disease (both in terms of chronic and acute effects). While adverse effects on cardiovascular health have also been linked with noise (after controlling for air pollution), noise exposure has been commonly linked to sleep impairment and negative emotional reactions. Health is multi-faceted, both conceptually and operationally; Health-Related Quality of Life (HRQOL) is one of many measures capa...

  8. Health and Cellular Impacts of Air Pollutants: From Cytoprotection to Cytotoxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karine Andreau

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Air pollution as one of the ravages of our modern societies is primarily linked to urban centers, industrial activities, or road traffic. These atmospheric pollutants have been incriminated in deleterious health effects by numerous epidemiological and in vitro studies. Environmental air pollutants are a heterogeneous mixture of particles suspended into a liquid and gaseous phase which trigger the disruption of redox homeostasis—known under the term of cellular oxidative stress—in relation with the establishment of inflammation and cell death via necrosis, apoptosis, or autophagy. Activation or repression of the apoptotic process as an adaptative response to xenobiotics might lead to either acute or chronic toxicity. The purpose of this paper is to highlight the central role of oxidative stress induced by air pollutants and to focus on the subsequent cellular impacts ranging from cytoprotection to cytotoxicity by decreasing or stimulating apoptosis, respectively.

  9. Examining Personal Air Pollution Exposure, Intake, and Health Danger Zone Using Time Geography and 3D Geovisualization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongmei Lu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Expanding traditional time geography, this study examines personal exposure to air pollution and personal pollutant intake, and defines personal health danger zones by accounting for individual level space-time behavior. A 3D personal air pollution and health risk map is constructed to visualize individual space-time path, personal Air Quality Indexes (AQIs, and personal health danger zones. Personal air pollution exposure level and its variation through space and time is measured by a portable air pollutant sensor coupled with a portable GPS unit. Personal pollutant intake is estimated by accounting for air pollutant concentration in immediate surroundings, individual’s biophysical characteristics, and individual’s space-time activities. Personal air pollution danger zones are defined by comparing personal pollutant intake with air quality standard; these zones are particular space-time-activity segments along an individual’s space-time path. Being able to identify personal air pollution danger zones can help plan for proper actions aiming at controlling health impacts from air pollution. As a case study, this paper reports on an examination and visualization of an individual’s two-day ozone exposure, intake and danger zones in Houston, Texas.

  10. The Impact of Residential Combustion Emissions on Air Quality and Human Health in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archer-Nicholls, S.; Wiedinmyer, C.; Baumgartner, J.; Brauer, M.; Cohen, A.; Carter, E.; Frostad, J.; Forouzanfar, M.; Xiao, Q.; Liu, Y.; Yang, X.; Hongjiang, N.; Kun, N.

    2015-12-01

    Solid fuel cookstoves are used heavily in rural China for both residential cooking and heating purposes. Their use contributes significantly to regional emissions of several key pollutants, including carbon monoxide, volatile organic compounds, oxides of nitrogen, and aerosol particles. The residential sector was responsible for approximately 36%, 46% and 81% of China's total primary PM2.5, BC and OC emissions respectively in 2005 (Lei et al., 2011). These emissions have serious consequences for household air pollution, ambient air quality, tropospheric ozone formation, and the resulting population health and climate impacts. This paper presents initial findings from the modeling component of a multi-disciplinary energy intervention study currently being conducted in Sichuan, China. The purpose of this effort is to quantify the impact of residential cooking and heating emissions on regional air quality and human health. Simulations with varying levels of residential emissions have been carried out for the whole of 2014 using the Weather Research and Forecasting model with Chemistry (WRF-Chem), a fully-coupled, "online" regional chemical transport model. Model output is evaluated against surface air quality measurements across China and compared with seasonal (winter and summer) ambient air pollution measurements conducted at the Sichuan study site in 2014. The model output is applied to available exposure—response relationships between PM2.5 and cardiopulmonary health outcomes. The sensitivity in different regions across China to the different cookstove emission scenarios and seasonality of impacts are presented. By estimating the mortality and disease burden risk attributable to residential emissions we demonstrate the potential benefits from large-scale energy interventions. Lei Y, Zhang Q, He KB, Streets DG. 2011. Primary anthropogenic aerosol emission trends for China, 1990-2005. Atmos. Chem. Phys. 11:931-954.

  11. Quality of Life, Sleep, and Health of Air Traffic Controllers With Rapid Counterclockwise Shift Rotation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonati, Jaqueline Girnos; De Martino, Milva Maria Figueiredo; Vilarta, Roberto; da Silva Maciel, Érika; Sonati, Renato José Ferreira; Paduan, Paulo Cézar

    2016-08-01

    Rotating shiftwork is common for air traffic controllers and usually causes sleep deprivation, biological adaptations, and life changes for these workers. This study assessed quality of life, the sleep, and the health of 30 air traffic controllers employed at an international airport in Brazil. The objective was to identify health and quality of life concerns of these professionals. The results identified physical inactivity, overweight, excess body fat, low scores for physical and social relationships, and sleep deprivation for workers in all four workshifts. In conclusion, these workers are at risk for chronic non-transmittable diseases and compromised work performance, suggesting the need for more rest time before working nightshifts and work environments that stimulate physical activity and healthy diets. PMID:27147608

  12. Health physics experience in commissioning and operation of radiation and air activity monitoring system at FBTR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Radiation and Air Activity Monitoring System (RAAMS) at Fast Breeder Test Reactor (FBTR) is meant to monitor and record the radiation and air activity levels at various potentially active areas in FBTR complex. Health Physics Group, FBTR was associated during commissioning of RAAMS in fixing the alarm settings for the monitors, their relocation and in formulating the surveillance procedures. The areas were surveyed to check for any release of activity for confirming the observed readings during operation of the reactor. In such cases, augmentation of shielding was recommended and was promptly implemented by the station management. The details of the long and fruitful experience gained by the Health Physics Group, FBTR are described in this paper. (author)

  13. 1st PBWU status seminar on research in the field of 'air pollution and human health'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On February 25th and 26th, the first Status Seminar of the Bavarian Projekt Group for Research on the Effect of Environmental Pollutants (PBWU) concerning research in 'Air pollution and human health' was held at the GSF research centre, Neuherberg. Its aim was to present the current state of the research coordinated by PBWU and funded by the Bavarian ministry for land growth and the environment as a part of environment-related health research in Bavaria. The event centered around the discussion of possible influence of air pollutants on respiratory diseases and allergies. In order to round off the programme, the lectures on projects funded by the Bavarian ministry for land growth and the environment were complemented by lectures on non-Bavarian research initiatives. On all fourteen technical lectures the database contains individual entries. (orig.)

  14. Air quality and human health improvements from reduced deforestation in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddington, C.; Butt, E. W.; Ridley, D. A.; Artaxo, P.; Morgan, W.; Coe, H.; Spracklen, D. V.

    2015-12-01

    Significant areas of the Brazilian Amazon have been deforested over the past few decades, with fire being the dominant method through which forests and vegetation are cleared. Fires emit large quantities of particulate matter into the atmosphere, degrading air quality and negatively impacting human health. Since 2004, Brazil has achieved substantial reductions in deforestation rates and associated deforestation fires. Here we assess the impact of this reduction on air quality and human health. We show that dry season (August - October) aerosol optical depth (AOD) retrieved by satellite over southwest Brazil and Bolivia is positively related to Brazil's annual deforestation rate (r=0.96, Pdeforestation rates compared to years with low deforestation rates, suggesting regional air quality is degraded substantially by fire emissions associated with deforestation. This link is further demonstrated by the positive relationship between observed AOD and satellite-derived particulate emissions from deforestation fires (r=0.89, Pdeforestation have reduced regional dry season mean surface particulate matter concentrations by ~30%. Using concentration response functions we estimate that this reduction in particulate matter may be preventing 1060 (388-1721) premature adult mortalities annually across South America. Future increases in Brazil's deforestation rates and associated fires may threaten the improved air quality reported here.

  15. Does consideration of larger study areas yield more accurate estimates of air pollution health effects?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Marie; Siroux, Valérie; Pin, Isabelle;

    2013-01-01

    were performed to identify the best strategy to limit confounding by unmeasured factors varying with area type. We examined the relation between modeled concentrations and respiratory health in infants using regression models with and without adjustment or interaction terms with area type. RESULTS......: Simulations indicated that adjustment for area limited the bias due to unmeasured confounders varying with area at the costs of a slight decrease in statistical power. In our cohort, rural and urban areas differed for air pollution levels and for many factors associated with respiratory health and exposure...

  16. Exemptions for hookah bars in clean indoor air legislation: a public health concern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noonan, Devon

    2010-01-01

    Popularity of waterpipe smoking or hookah smoking in the United States has been growing for some time now among youth and young adults. Currently, many cities and states have exemptions that allow hookah bars to remain in operation despite the passage of clean indoor air legislation. From a public health perspective this is concerning for many reasons. One public health concern with the increase in popularity of this type of tobacco use is the associated health effects. Another concern is that hookah smoke produces a sweet smelling aroma making it less obvious that patrons and employees of hookah bars are inhaling noxious fumes from mainstream smoke, as well as the toxins from the charcoal that is used to heat the tobacco. The purpose of this paper is to discuss smoke-free air legislation in relation to hookah use, the public health implications of exempting hookah bars from current smoke-free legislation, and implications for the public health nurse in protecting the public from the dangers of second-hand smoke, and limiting this new form of tobacco use.

  17. Epidemiological surveillance - air and health. Surveillance of effects on health linked to air pollution in urban area; Surveillance epidemiologique - air et sante. Surveillance des effets sur la sante lies a la pollution atmospherique en milieu urbain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    In order to quantify the short term relationship between the air pollution and its effects on health and to monitor its evolution, the Institute of Sanitary Watch, with the help of the Department of development and environment and the Department in charge of health, has realised a study in eight towns: Bordeaux, Le Havre, Lille, Lyon, Marseille, Rouen, Strasbourg and Toulouse. These towns have been chosen for the contrasted character of their sources, of their pollution levels and their geo climatic conditions. Paris contributes to the study with the E.R.P.U.R.S results. (N.C.)

  18. Urban air pollution and respiratory health among children with respiratory symptoms in Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pekkanen, J.; Timonen, K.L.; Salonen, R.O.; Alm, S.; Reponen, A.; Jantunen, M.; Vahteristo, M. [National Public Health Inst., Kuopio (Finland); Ruuskanen, J. [Kuopio Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Environmental Sciences; Paerjaelae, E. [City of Kuopio (Finland)

    1995-12-31

    Many recent studies suggest that urban air pollution, especially thoracic particles (PM{sub 10}), are associated with increased respiratory, mortality and morbidity at lower levels than what has previously been known. During the Finnish winter, the dust formed from asphalt ware by studded auto tyres, street sanding and combustion processes is accumulated on the snow. In the spring, when the snow melts from the streets, part of this dust is resuspended by traffic and wind. This creates spring dust episodes, during which TSP and PM{sub 10} levels exceed air quality guidelines in most Finnish cities. The mechanisms through which PM{sub 10} produces its health effects are largely unknown. It has been suggested that the number of particles, especially that of very small particles in the nanometer range, would be as important as the mass or the chemical composition of the particles. In most previous studies, the particles measured have mostly composed of combustion products. There are only sparse data on the size distribution of particles in the Finnish spring dust episode and no studies on it`s possible health effects. The aim of the PEACE project was to develop a common protocol for research on the short-term relationship between respiratory health and changes in air pollution levels. The present report describes the design and preliminary results of Finnish field work of the PEACE study that was carried out in Kuopio, Eastern Finland. (author)

  19. Estimating the health benefit of reducing indoor air pollution in a randomized environmental intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Roger D.; Butz, Arlene M.; Hackstadt, Amber J.; Williams, D'Ann L.; Diette, Gregory B.; Breysse, Patrick N.; Matsui, Elizabeth C.

    2016-01-01

    Recent intervention studies targeted at reducing indoor air pollution have demonstrated both the ability to improve respiratory health outcomes and to reduce particulate matter (PM) levels in the home. However, these studies generally do not address whether it is the reduction of PM levels specifically that improves respiratory health. In this paper we apply the method of principal stratification to data from a randomized air cleaner intervention designed to reduce indoor PM in homes of children with asthma. We estimate the health benefit of the intervention amongst study subjects who would experience a substantial reduction in PM in response to the intervention. For those subjects we find an increase in symptom-free days that is almost three times as large as the overall intention-to-treat effect. We also explore the presence of treatment effects amongst those subjects whose PM levels would not respond to the air cleaner. This analysis demonstrates the usefulness of principal stratification for environmental intervention trials and its potential for much broader application in this area.

  20. Household reporting of childhood respiratory health and air pollution in rural Alaska Native communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desirae N. Ware

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Air pollution is an important contributor to respiratory disease in children. Objective: To examine associations between household reporting of childhood respiratory conditions and household characteristics related to air pollution in Alaska Native communities. Design: In-home surveys were administered in 2 rural regions of Alaska. The 12-month prevalence of respiratory conditions was summarized by region and age. Odds ratios (ORs were calculated to describe associations between respiratory health and household and air quality characteristics. Results: Household-reported respiratory health data were collected for 561 children in 328 households. In 1 region, 33.6% of children aged <5 years had a recent history of pneumonia and/or bronchitis. Children with these conditions were 2 times more likely to live in a wood-heated home, but these findings were imprecise. Resident concern with mould was associated with elevated prevalence of respiratory infections in children (ORs 1.6–2.5, while reported wheezing was associated with 1 or more smokers living in the household. Reported asthma in 1 region (7.6% was lower than national prevalence estimates. Conclusions: Findings suggest that there may be preventable exposures, including wood smoke and mould that affect childhood respiratory disease in these rural areas. Additional research is needed to quantify particulate matter 2.5 microns in aerodynamic diameter or less and mould exposures in these communities, and to objectively evaluate childhood respiratory health.

  1. Air Quality and Respiratory Health among Adolescents from the United Arab Emirates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Barakat-Haddad

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To examine the role of air quality in relation to chronic bronchitis, emphysema, asthma, wheeze, and dry cough among adolescents from the United Arab Emirates (UAE. Methods. A survey was administered on 6,363 adolescents from 9 UAE regions. Data consists of demographic, socioeconomic, residential, and behavioural variables, such as location of residence, residing near industry/gas stations/dumpsites/construction sites, residing near overhead power line/plants, exposure to tobacco, residential exposure, ethnicity, concern over air pollution, smoking, and purposely smelling gasoline fumes/glue/correctors/car exhaust/burning black ants. Logistic regression modeling was used to determine significant predictors of respiratory health. Results. Asthma prevalence was 12.3%, followed by chronic bronchitis (1.8% and emphysema (0.5%. Overall 12.2% reported wheeze and 34.8% reported a dry nocturnal cough in the past year. Multivariate analyses suggest that sex is a significant predictor of asthma and dry cough. Exposure to tobacco and arts/crafts/ceramics/stain is significant predictor of respiratory health. Tobacco smoking and purposely smelling gasoline fumes/glue/correctors/car exhaust/burning black ants are significant predictors of wheeze and dry cough. Conclusions. This study suggests that exposure to air quality and behavioral factors such as smoking and purposely smelling gasoline fumes, glue, correctors, car exhaust, or burning black ants are significant predictors of respiratory health among UAE adolescents.

  2. Estimating the health benefit of reducing indoor air pollution in a randomized environmental intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Roger D.; Butz, Arlene M.; Hackstadt, Amber J.; Williams, D'Ann L.; Diette, Gregory B.; Breysse, Patrick N.; Matsui, Elizabeth C.

    2016-01-01

    Recent intervention studies targeted at reducing indoor air pollution have demonstrated both the ability to improve respiratory health outcomes and to reduce particulate matter (PM) levels in the home. However, these studies generally do not address whether it is the reduction of PM levels specifically that improves respiratory health. In this paper we apply the method of principal stratification to data from a randomized air cleaner intervention designed to reduce indoor PM in homes of children with asthma. We estimate the health benefit of the intervention amongst study subjects who would experience a substantial reduction in PM in response to the intervention. For those subjects we find an increase in symptom-free days that is almost three times as large as the overall intention-to-treat effect. We also explore the presence of treatment effects amongst those subjects whose PM levels would not respond to the air cleaner. This analysis demonstrates the usefulness of principal stratification for environmental intervention trials and its potential for much broader application in this area. PMID:27695203

  3. Nutritional Solutions to Reduce Risks of Negative Health Impacts of Air Pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szabolcs Péter

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Air pollution worldwide has been associated with cardiovascular and respiratory morbidity and mortality, particularly in urban settings with elevated concentrations of primary pollutants. Air pollution is a very complex mixture of primary and secondary gases and particles, and its potential to cause harm can depend on multiple factors—including physical and chemical characteristics of pollutants, which varies with fine-scale location (e.g., by proximity to local emission sources—as well as local meteorology, topography, and population susceptibility. It has been hypothesized that the intake of anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory nutrients may ameliorate various respiratory and cardiovascular effects of air pollution through reductions in oxidative stress and inflammation. To date, several studies have suggested that some harmful effects of air pollution may be modified by intake of essential micronutrients (such as B vitamins, and vitamins C, D, and E and long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids. Here, we review the existing literature related to the potential for nutrition to modify the health impacts of air pollution, and offer a framework for examining these interactions.

  4. Nutritional Solutions to Reduce Risks of Negative Health Impacts of Air Pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Péter, Szabolcs; Holguin, Fernando; Wood, Lisa G; Clougherty, Jane E; Raederstorff, Daniel; Antal, Magda; Weber, Peter; Eggersdorfer, Manfred

    2015-12-01

    Air pollution worldwide has been associated with cardiovascular and respiratory morbidity and mortality, particularly in urban settings with elevated concentrations of primary pollutants. Air pollution is a very complex mixture of primary and secondary gases and particles, and its potential to cause harm can depend on multiple factors-including physical and chemical characteristics of pollutants, which varies with fine-scale location (e.g., by proximity to local emission sources)-as well as local meteorology, topography, and population susceptibility. It has been hypothesized that the intake of anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory nutrients may ameliorate various respiratory and cardiovascular effects of air pollution through reductions in oxidative stress and inflammation. To date, several studies have suggested that some harmful effects of air pollution may be modified by intake of essential micronutrients (such as B vitamins, and vitamins C, D, and E) and long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids. Here, we review the existing literature related to the potential for nutrition to modify the health impacts of air pollution, and offer a framework for examining these interactions.

  5. City air pollution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and other mutagens: occurrence, sources and health effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, T.; Ejsing Jørgensen, Hans; Larsen, J.C.;

    1996-01-01

    The presence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), mutagens and other air pollutants was investigated in a busy street in central Copenhagen and in a park area adjacent to the street. The winter concentration of benzo(a)pyrene was 4.4+/-1.2 ng/m(3) in the street air and 1.4+/-0.6 ng/m(3) in ...... was estimated to be 40%. Four different approaches to evaluate the health effects are discussed. The direct effect of PAH air pollution, and other mutagens, is considered to be a maximum of five lung cancer cases each year out of one million people.......The presence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), mutagens and other air pollutants was investigated in a busy street in central Copenhagen and in a park area adjacent to the street. The winter concentration of benzo(a)pyrene was 4.4+/-1.2 ng/m(3) in the street air and 1.4+/-0.6 ng/m(3...

  6. Measuring the Impact of Urban Air Pollution: Hedonic Price Analysis and Health Production Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Endah Saptutyningsih

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to value air quality from the urban housing market in Yogyakarta City. It is also provides estimation of marginal willingness to pay for the air quality improvement and estimation of the consumer surplus due to reduce of air quality. The methodological framework for estimation is based on a hedonic price model. The result of hedonic price method concludes that by adopting a two-stage estimation procedure to estimate the relationship between air quality and property value, on the average, an increase in the level of O3 by one percent will increases the property price by 0.063 percent. By using a health production function and demand function mitigation can be seen that the medical history of the individual has effect on the number of working days lost. Meanwhile, O3 pollution has positive effect on the amount of medical expenses for mitigation. Decreasing in O3 pollution causes a decrease in the level of medical expenses to mitigate. Therefore, it is important to reduce the negative impacts of air pollution.

  7. Health effects of long-term exposure to air pollution: An overview of major respiratory and cardiovascular diseases and diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanovic-Andersen Zorana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Large number of studies provided convincing evidence for adverse effects of exposure to outdoor air pollution on human health, and served as basis for current USA and EU Air Quality Standards and limit values. Still, new knowledge is emerging, expanding our understanding of vast effects of exposure to air pollution on human health of this ubiquitous exposure affecting millions of people in urban setting. This paper focuses on the studies of health effects of long-term (chronic exposures to air pollution, and includes major chronic and acute diseases in adults and especially elderly, which will present increasing public health burden, due to improving longevity and projected increasing numbers of elderly. The paper gives overview over the most relevant and latest literature presented by different health outcomes: chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, asthma, pneumonia, cardiovascular disease, and diabetes.

  8. Mapping real-time air pollution health risk for environmental management: Combining mobile and stationary air pollution monitoring with neural network models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Matthew D; Kanaroglou, Pavlos S

    2016-03-01

    Air pollution poses health concerns at the global scale. The challenge of managing air pollution is significant because of the many air pollutants, insufficient funds for monitoring and abatement programs, and political and social challenges in defining policy to limit emissions. Some governments provide citizens with air pollution health risk information to allow them to limit their exposure. However, many regions still have insufficient air pollution monitoring networks to provide real-time mapping. Where available, these risk mapping systems either provide absolute concentration data or the concentrations are used to derive an Air Quality Index, which provides the air pollution risk for a mix of air pollutants with a single value. When risk information is presented as a single value for an entire region it does not inform on the spatial variation within the region. Without an understanding of the local variation residents can only make a partially informed decision when choosing daily activities. The single value is typically provided because of a limited number of active monitoring units in the area. In our work, we overcome this issue by leveraging mobile air pollution monitoring techniques, meteorological information and land use information to map real-time air pollution health risks. We propose an approach that can provide improved health risk information to the public by applying neural network models within a framework that is inspired by land use regression. Mobile air pollution monitoring campaigns were conducted across Hamilton from 2005 to 2013. These mobile air pollution data were modelled with a number of predictor variables that included information on the surrounding land use characteristics, the meteorological conditions, air pollution concentrations from fixed location monitors, and traffic information during the time of collection. Fine particulate matter and nitrogen dioxide were both modelled. During the model fitting process we reserved

  9. Mapping real-time air pollution health risk for environmental management: Combining mobile and stationary air pollution monitoring with neural network models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Matthew D; Kanaroglou, Pavlos S

    2016-03-01

    Air pollution poses health concerns at the global scale. The challenge of managing air pollution is significant because of the many air pollutants, insufficient funds for monitoring and abatement programs, and political and social challenges in defining policy to limit emissions. Some governments provide citizens with air pollution health risk information to allow them to limit their exposure. However, many regions still have insufficient air pollution monitoring networks to provide real-time mapping. Where available, these risk mapping systems either provide absolute concentration data or the concentrations are used to derive an Air Quality Index, which provides the air pollution risk for a mix of air pollutants with a single value. When risk information is presented as a single value for an entire region it does not inform on the spatial variation within the region. Without an understanding of the local variation residents can only make a partially informed decision when choosing daily activities. The single value is typically provided because of a limited number of active monitoring units in the area. In our work, we overcome this issue by leveraging mobile air pollution monitoring techniques, meteorological information and land use information to map real-time air pollution health risks. We propose an approach that can provide improved health risk information to the public by applying neural network models within a framework that is inspired by land use regression. Mobile air pollution monitoring campaigns were conducted across Hamilton from 2005 to 2013. These mobile air pollution data were modelled with a number of predictor variables that included information on the surrounding land use characteristics, the meteorological conditions, air pollution concentrations from fixed location monitors, and traffic information during the time of collection. Fine particulate matter and nitrogen dioxide were both modelled. During the model fitting process we reserved

  10. The air quality health index and emergency department visits for urticaria in Windsor, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kousha, Termeh; Valacchi, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    Ambient air pollution exposure has been associated with several health conditions, limited not only to respiratory and cardiovascular systems but also to cutaneous tissues. However, few epidemiological studies examined pollution exposure on skin problems. Basically, the common mechanism by which pollution may affect skin physiology is by induction of oxidative stress and inflammation. Urticaria is among the skin pathologies that have been associated with pollution. Based on the combined effects of three ambient air pollutants, ozone (O₃), nitrogen dioxide (NO₂), and fine particulate matter (PM) with a median aerodynamic diameter of less than 2.5 μm (PM(2.5)), on mortality, the Air Quality Health Index (AQHI) in Canada was developed. The aim of this study was to examine the associations of short-term changes in AQHI with emergency department (ED) visits for urticaria in Windsor-area hospitals in Canada. Diagnosed ED visits were retrieved from the National Ambulatory Care Reporting System (NACRS). A time-stratified case-crossover design was applied to 2905 ED visits (males = 1215; females = 1690) for urticaria from April 2004 through December 2010. Odds ratios (OR) and their corresponding 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) for ED visits associated with increase by one unit of risk index were calculated employing conditional logistic regression. Positive and significant results were observed between AQHI levels and OR for ED visits for urticaria in Windsor for lags 2 and 3 days. A distributed lag nonlinear model technique was applied to daily counts of ED visits for lags 0 to 10 and significant results were obtained from lag 2 to lag 5 and for lag 9. These findings demonstrated associations between ambient air pollution and urticarial confirming that air pollution affects skin conditions.

  11. Application environmental epidemiology to vehicular air pollution and health effects research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Rajan R; Chetlapally, Satish Kumar; Bagvandas, M

    2015-01-01

    Vehicular pollution is one of the major contributors to the air pollution in urban areas and perhaps and accounts for the major share of anthropogenic green-house gases such as carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides. Knowledge of human health risks related to environmental exposure to vehicular pollution is a current concern. Analyze the range health effects are attributed varied constituents of vehicular air pollution examine evidence for a causal association to specific health effect. In many instances scenario involves exposure to very low doses of putative agents for extended periods, sometimes the period could mean over a lifetime of an individual and yet may result in small increase in health risk that may be imperceptible. Secondary data analysis and literature review. In environmental exposures, traditional epidemiological approaches evaluating mortality and morbidity indicators display many limiting factors such as nonspecificity of biological effects latency time between exposure and magnitude of the effect. Long latency period between exposure and resultant disease, principally for carcinogenic effects and limitation of epidemiological studies for detecting small risk increments. The present paper discusses the methodological challenges in studying vehicular epidemiology and highlights issues that affect the validity of epidemiological studies in vehicular pollution.

  12. Application environmental epidemiology to vehicular air pollution and health effects research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Rajan R; Chetlapally, Satish Kumar; Bagvandas, M

    2015-01-01

    Vehicular pollution is one of the major contributors to the air pollution in urban areas and perhaps and accounts for the major share of anthropogenic green-house gases such as carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides. Knowledge of human health risks related to environmental exposure to vehicular pollution is a current concern. Analyze the range health effects are attributed varied constituents of vehicular air pollution examine evidence for a causal association to specific health effect. In many instances scenario involves exposure to very low doses of putative agents for extended periods, sometimes the period could mean over a lifetime of an individual and yet may result in small increase in health risk that may be imperceptible. Secondary data analysis and literature review. In environmental exposures, traditional epidemiological approaches evaluating mortality and morbidity indicators display many limiting factors such as nonspecificity of biological effects latency time between exposure and magnitude of the effect. Long latency period between exposure and resultant disease, principally for carcinogenic effects and limitation of epidemiological studies for detecting small risk increments. The present paper discusses the methodological challenges in studying vehicular epidemiology and highlights issues that affect the validity of epidemiological studies in vehicular pollution. PMID:26023265

  13. Application environmental epidemiology to vehicular air pollution and health effects research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajan R Patil

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Vehicular pollution is one of the major contributors to the air pollution in urban areas and perhaps and accounts for the major share of anthropogenic green-house gases such as carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides. Knowledge of human health risks related to environmental exposure to vehicular pollution is a current concern. Analyze the range health effects are attributed varied constituents of vehicular air pollution examine evidence for a causal association to specific health effect. In many instances scenario involves exposure to very low doses of putative agents for extended periods, sometimes the period could mean over a lifetime of an individual and yet may result in small increase in health risk that may be imperceptible. Secondary data analysis and literature review. In environmental exposures, traditional epidemiological approaches evaluating mortality and morbidity indicators display many limiting factors such as nonspecificity of biological effects latency time between exposure and magnitude of the effect. Long latency period between exposure and resultant disease, principally for carcinogenic effects and limitation of epidemiological studies for detecting small risk increments. The present paper discusses the methodological challenges in studying vehicular epidemiology and highlights issues that affect the validity of epidemiological studies in vehicular pollution.

  14. [Air Microbial Pollution and Health Risk of Urban Black Odorous Water].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jian-fu; Chen, Jing-xiong; Gu, Shi-you

    2016-04-15

    Aiming at the possihle air microhial pollution of urhan hlack odorous water the contamination characteristics of hacteria, fungi and total microhe as well as health risks of different types of population within certain distance from the urhan hlack odorous water were studied. The results showed that hacteria and fungi pollution was primary within offshore 200 m; under near calm condition, there was an aggregation phenomenon of microorganisms within offshore 20 m; the concentrations of hacteria, fungi and total microhe were the highest in the morning, the middle at noon, and the lowest in the afternoon; within offshore 200 m, the width of hlack odorous water was significantly correlated with the concentrations of hacteria, fungi and total microorganisms; the microhial health risk of residents mainly existed in the offshore 100 m range; at the same offshore distance, the short-term exposure health risk to children was the greatest, followed hy women, men to a minimum. PMID:27548945

  15. Health impacts due to particulate air pollution in Volos City, Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moustris, Konstantinos P; Proias, George T; Larissi, Ioanna K; Nastos, Panagiotis T; Koukouletsos, Konstantinos V; Paliatsos, Athanasios G

    2016-01-01

    There is great consensus among the scientific community that suspended particulate matter is considered as one of the most harmful pollutants, particularly the inhalable particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter less than 10 μm (PM10) causing respiratory health problems and heart disorders. Average daily concentrations exceeding established standard values appear, among other cases, to be the main cause of such episodes, especially during Saharan dust episodes, a natural phenomenon that degrades air quality in the urban area of Volos. In this study the AirQ2.2.3 model, developed by the World Health Organization (WHO) European Center for Environment and Health, was used to evaluate adverse health effects by PM10 pollution in the city of Volos during a 5-year period (2007-2011). Volos is a coastal medium size city in the Thessaly region. The city is located on the northern side of the Gulf of Pagassitikos, on the east coast of Central Greece. Air pollution data were obtained by a fully automated monitoring station, which was established by the Municipal Water Supply and Sewage Department in the Greater Area of Volos, located in the centre of the city. The results of the current study indicate that when the mean annual PM10 concentration exceeds the corresponding European Union (EU) threshold value, the number of hospital admissions for respiratory disease (HARD) is increased by 25% on average. There is also an estimated increase of about 2.5% in HARD compared to the expected annual HARD cases for Volos. Finally, a strong correlation was found between the number of days exceeding the EU daily threshold concentration ([PM10] ≥ 50 μg m(-3)) and the annual HARD cases. PMID:26421944

  16. The Covariance between Air Pollution Annoyance and Noise Annoyance, and Its Relationship with Health-Related Quality of Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepherd, Daniel; Dirks, Kim; Welch, David; McBride, David; Landon, Jason

    2016-01-01

    Air pollution originating from road traffic is a known risk factor of respiratory and cardiovascular disease (both in terms of chronic and acute effects). While adverse effects on cardiovascular health have also been linked with noise (after controlling for air pollution), noise exposure has been commonly linked to sleep impairment and negative emotional reactions. Health is multi-faceted, both conceptually and operationally; Health-Related Quality of Life (HRQOL) is one of many measures capable of probing health. In this study, we examine pre-collected data from postal surveys probing HRQOL obtained from a variety of urban, suburban, and rural contexts across the North Island of New Zealand. Analyses focus on the covariance between air pollution annoyance and noise annoyances, and their independent and combined effects on HRQOL. Results indicate that the highest ratings of air pollution annoyance and noise annoyances were for residents living close to the motorway, while the lowest were for rural residents. Most of the city samples indicated no significant difference between air pollution- and noise-annoyance ratings, and of all of the correlations between air pollution- and noise-annoyance, the highest were found in the city samples. These findings suggest that annoyance is driven by exposure to environmental factors and not personality characteristics. Analysis of HRQOL indicated that air pollution annoyance predicts greater variability in the physical HRQOL domain while noise annoyance predicts greater variability in the psychological, social and environmental domains. The lack of an interaction effect between air pollution annoyance and noise annoyance suggests that air pollution and noise impact on health independently. These results echo those obtained from objective measures of health and suggest that mitigation of traffic effects should address both air and noise pollution. PMID:27509512

  17. The Covariance between Air Pollution Annoyance and Noise Annoyance, and Its Relationship with Health-Related Quality of Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepherd, Daniel; Dirks, Kim; Welch, David; McBride, David; Landon, Jason

    2016-08-06

    Air pollution originating from road traffic is a known risk factor of respiratory and cardiovascular disease (both in terms of chronic and acute effects). While adverse effects on cardiovascular health have also been linked with noise (after controlling for air pollution), noise exposure has been commonly linked to sleep impairment and negative emotional reactions. Health is multi-faceted, both conceptually and operationally; Health-Related Quality of Life (HRQOL) is one of many measures capable of probing health. In this study, we examine pre-collected data from postal surveys probing HRQOL obtained from a variety of urban, suburban, and rural contexts across the North Island of New Zealand. Analyses focus on the covariance between air pollution annoyance and noise annoyances, and their independent and combined effects on HRQOL. Results indicate that the highest ratings of air pollution annoyance and noise annoyances were for residents living close to the motorway, while the lowest were for rural residents. Most of the city samples indicated no significant difference between air pollution- and noise-annoyance ratings, and of all of the correlations between air pollution- and noise-annoyance, the highest were found in the city samples. These findings suggest that annoyance is driven by exposure to environmental factors and not personality characteristics. Analysis of HRQOL indicated that air pollution annoyance predicts greater variability in the physical HRQOL domain while noise annoyance predicts greater variability in the psychological, social and environmental domains. The lack of an interaction effect between air pollution annoyance and noise annoyance suggests that air pollution and noise impact on health independently. These results echo those obtained from objective measures of health and suggest that mitigation of traffic effects should address both air and noise pollution.

  18. The Covariance between Air Pollution Annoyance and Noise Annoyance, and Its Relationship with Health-Related Quality of Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepherd, Daniel; Dirks, Kim; Welch, David; McBride, David; Landon, Jason

    2016-01-01

    Air pollution originating from road traffic is a known risk factor of respiratory and cardiovascular disease (both in terms of chronic and acute effects). While adverse effects on cardiovascular health have also been linked with noise (after controlling for air pollution), noise exposure has been commonly linked to sleep impairment and negative emotional reactions. Health is multi-faceted, both conceptually and operationally; Health-Related Quality of Life (HRQOL) is one of many measures capable of probing health. In this study, we examine pre-collected data from postal surveys probing HRQOL obtained from a variety of urban, suburban, and rural contexts across the North Island of New Zealand. Analyses focus on the covariance between air pollution annoyance and noise annoyances, and their independent and combined effects on HRQOL. Results indicate that the highest ratings of air pollution annoyance and noise annoyances were for residents living close to the motorway, while the lowest were for rural residents. Most of the city samples indicated no significant difference between air pollution- and noise-annoyance ratings, and of all of the correlations between air pollution- and noise-annoyance, the highest were found in the city samples. These findings suggest that annoyance is driven by exposure to environmental factors and not personality characteristics. Analysis of HRQOL indicated that air pollution annoyance predicts greater variability in the physical HRQOL domain while noise annoyance predicts greater variability in the psychological, social and environmental domains. The lack of an interaction effect between air pollution annoyance and noise annoyance suggests that air pollution and noise impact on health independently. These results echo those obtained from objective measures of health and suggest that mitigation of traffic effects should address both air and noise pollution. PMID:27509512

  19. The Impact of Air Pollution on Human Health: Focusing on the Rudnyi Altay Industrial Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitaliy G. Salnikov

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Air pollution in Kazakhstan is significant environmental problem. The air pollution level of cities and industrial centers remains rather high. The highest level of air pollution is registered in Ridder, Ust-Kamenogorsk, Almaty, Zyryanovsk, Aktau, Atyrau, Shymkent, Taraz, Petropavlovsk and Temirtau. The enterprises of the Rudnyi Altay, Pavlodar Oblast and enterprises of oil and gas complex in West-Kazakhstan, Atyrau and Mangistau Oblasts play the negative role in air pollution. About one third of industrial enterprises have no sanitary protective zones of standard sizes. A considerable part of the population of industrial centers live in the zone of a direct impact of harmful industrial factors emissions of polluting substances into the air, noise, vibration, electrical magnet fields and other physical factors (Dahl et al., 2001; Kaiser and Pulsipher, 2007; Farmer and Farmer, 2000. Under the conditions of the air polluter impact there is high morbidity and mortality from cardio-vascular diseases, respiratory disease, nervous system and sensory organ disturbances, gastrointestinal disease and circulatory disease. Poor air quality has been cited as a factor in these conditions (Jensena et al., 1997; Namazbaeva et al., 2010. Then we provide details a correlation between the level of disease of malignant tumors and the emissions from stationary sources in Rudnyi Altay industrial area. To reveal the quantitative relationship between the disease of malignant tumors and the change in the quantity of emissions was carried out regression analysis and model. Regression analysis and model confirms a significant direct correlation between the incidence of malignant tumors and the amount of emissions from stationary sources (correlation coefficient R = 0,6. Analysis of vital statistics revealed the increased disease rate. Conclusion: Health status of the populations is negatively affected by the unfavorable environmental

  20. Dispersion Modeling of Traffic-Related Air Pollutant Exposures and Health Effects Among Children with Asthma in Detroit, Michigan

    OpenAIRE

    Batterman, Stuart; Ganguly, Rajiv; Isakov, Vlad; Burke, Janet; Arunachalam, Saravanan; Snyder, Michelle; Robins, Thomas; Lewis, Toby

    2014-01-01

    Vehicular traffic is a major source of ambient air pollution in urban areas. Traffic-related air pollutants, including carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, particulate matter less than 2.5 μm in diameter, and diesel exhaust emissions, have been associated with adverse human health effects, especially in areas near major roads. In addition to emissions from vehicles, ambient concentrations of air pollutants include contributions from stationary sources and background (or regional) sources. Althou...

  1. [Indoor air and human health--sick house syndrome and multiple chemical sensitivity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ando, Masanori

    2002-01-01

    The number of complaints about the quality of indoor air has increased during the past two decades. These complaints have been frequent enough that the term "Sick House Syndrome or Sick Building Syndrome" and "Multiple Chemical Sensitivity" has been coined. Complaints are likely related to the increased use of synthetic organic materials in house, furnishing, and consumer products; and the buildings, furnishings, and consumer products; and the decreased ventilation for energy conservation in homes. Approximately thousand volatile chemicals have been identified in indoor air. The main sources of these chemicals are house materials, combustion fumes, cleaning compounds, and paints or stains. Exposure to high levels of these emissions and to others, coupled with the fact that most people spend more time indoors than outdoors, raises the possibility that the risk to human health from indoor air pollution may be potentially greater than the risk posed from outdoor pollutants. The complaints most frequently voiced with respect to Sick House Syndrome are irritations of the eye, nose, and throat; cough and hoarseness of voice; headache and mental fatigue. The syndrome of multiple chemical sensitivities is controversial subject with increasing impact on the field of indoor air quality. The controversy surrounding Multiple Chemical Sensitivity includes its definition, theories of etiology and pathogenesis, diagnostic, and life style. Multiple Chemical Sensitivity is considered the hypothesis that is a disease caused by exposure to many chemically distinct environmental substances at very low.

  2. Changes in air pollution and children`s health in East Germany between 1991 and 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kraemer, U.; Schlipkoeter, H.W.; Dolgner, R. [Medical Inst. of Environmental Hygiene, Duesseldorf (Germany); Willer, H.M. [State Inst. of Hygiene, Magdeburg (Germany)

    1995-12-31

    Already in the 1960s a lot of cross-sectional studies were conducted to determine the effects of air-pollution on respiratory diseases or symptoms of children. According to the then dominating type of air-pollution, effects of SO{sub 2} and TSP were mainly studied. Usually SO{sub 2} and TSP were highly correlated and their effects could not be separated satisfactorily. Such a high correlation was not seen when comparing annual mean concentrations in different towns of East and West Germany in 1989. The range of SO{sub 2} values was from 20 to 310 g/m{sup 3} whereas the range of TSP was narrower, from 65 to 123 {mu}g/m{sup 3} In 1991 therefore a study was started to compare the effects of different types and amounts of air pollution on children`s health. The results of the first cross-sectional study, in 1991, were presented at the 9{sup th} World Clean Air Congress. It was found that airway diseases and respiratory symptoms were clearly related to the SO{sub 2} pollution load. This was not true for allergic manifestations. Since 1990 there is a considerable reduction of SO{sub 2} pollution in East Germany. The aim of this presentation is to show that the associations which had been found on an spatial scale can be seen on an temporal scale, too. (author)

  3. The use of chained two-point clusters for the examination of associations of air pollution with health conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Mieczysław Szyszkowicz; Wesley S. Burr

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: There are a few accepted and intensively applied statistical methods used to study associations of ambient air pollution with health conditions. Among the most popular methods applied to assess short term air health effects are case-crossover (using events) and time-series methodologies (using counts). A few other techniques for studying counts of events have been proposed, including the Generalized Linear Mixed Models (GLMM). One suggested GLMM technique uses cluster structures b...

  4. Valuation of social and health effects of transport-related air pollution in Madrid (Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monzón, Andrés; Guerrero, María-José

    2004-12-01

    Social impacts of pollutants from mobile sources are a key element in urban design and traffic planning. One of the most relevant impacts is health effects associated with high pollution periods. Madrid is a city that suffers chronic congestion levels and some periods of very stable atmospheric conditions; as a result, pollution levels exceed air quality standards for certain pollutants. This paper focuses on the social evaluation of transport-related emissions. A new methodology to evaluate those impacts in monetary terms has been designed and applied to Madrid. The method takes into account costs associated with losses in working time, mortality and human suffering; calculated using an impact pathway approach linked to CORINAIR emissions. This also allows the calculation of social costs associated with greenhouse gas impacts. As costs have been calculated individually by effect and mode of transport, they can be used to design pricing policies based on real social costs. This paper concludes that the health and social costs of transport-related air pollution in Madrid is 357 Meuro. In these circumstances, the recent public health tax applied in Madrid is clearly correct and sensible with a fair pricing policy on car use. PMID:15504528

  5. Metropolitan New York in the greenhouse: Air quality and health effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kleinman, L.I.; Lipfert, F.

    1996-01-01

    A variety of potential effects on human health resulting from climate change have been identified in several assessments. According to an international panel{sup 1} they include direct effects of extreme temperatures on cardiovascular deaths, secondary effects due to vector-borne diseases or crop yields, and tertiary effects such as those that might arise from conflicts over freshwater supplies. To this fist we add the secondary effects of increased air pollution, which may result either directly from climate change or indirectly from increased air conditioning loads and the corresponding pollutant emissions from electric utilities. Higher ozone concentrations have been linked to increased ambient temperatures by both theory and observations of monitoring data. A similar association with particulate matter has been limited to observations, thus far. The pollution-heat linkage has been recognized before` but health effects have not been evaluated in terms of predictions of the joint effects of both agents. This paper has been prepared in two sections. First, we discuss the ozone situation with special reference to the Northeast Corridor and New York. In the second section, we present estimates of the health effects of climate change on New York and discuss some mitigation options.

  6. Air Pollution and Forest Health: Establishing Cause and Effect in the Forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William J. Manning

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available I participated in a NATO Advanced Research Workshop titled “Effects of Air Pollution on Forest Health and Biodiversity in Forests of the Carpathian Mountains,” in Stara Lesna, Slovakia from May 22–26, 2001. Researchers from Canada, Czech Republic, Poland, Romania, Slovakia, Ukraine, and the U.S. met to present their results from a three-year cooperative study of tree health and air quality monitoring in forests of the Carpathian Mountains in Central Europe. Much of the work reported related to assessing the crown condition of trees in permanent plots in natural or managed (planted forests in the mountains. The endpoint was tree condition, with results extrapolated to the forests in the Carpathian range. From this I learned that, of the 50,000 trees evaluated, European beech (Fagus sylvatica was the most healthy, while Norway spruce (Picea abies (the principal forest tree and white fir (Abies alba sustained crown defoliation of up to 12.8%. The cause of this crown defoliation and tree decline was usually attributed to “air pollution” as a generic term and an automatic assumption. It is well known that deposition of heavy metals and acidic sulfur and nitrogen compounds can cause tree decline and predispose affected trees to bark beetles and climatic damage. Chemical analyses can also be done to detect metals and sulfur compounds in trees and soils. Sometimes these analyses were done, but most often the assumption was that crown defoliation was caused by air pollution. The assumption was that given sufficient exposure to high enough concentrations of toxic elements, sooner or later there will be a visible adverse response.

  7. Exposure information in environmental health research: Current opportunities and future directions for particulate matter, ozone, and toxic air pollutants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKone, Thomas E.; Ryan, P. Barry; Ozkaynak, Haluk

    2007-02-01

    Understanding and quantifying outdoor and indoor sources of human exposure are essential but often not adequately addressed in health-effects studies for air pollution. Air pollution epidemiology, risk assessment, health tracking and accountability assessments are examples of health-effects studies that require but often lack adequate exposure information. Recent advances in exposure modeling along with better information on time-activity and exposure factors data provide us with unique opportunities to improve the assignment of exposures for both future and ongoing studies linking air pollution to health impacts. In September 2006, scientists from the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) along with scientists from the academic community and state health departments convened a symposium on air pollution exposure and health in order to identify, evaluate, and improve current approaches for linking air pollution exposures to disease. This manuscript presents the key issues, challenges and recommendations identified by the exposure working group, who used cases studies of particulate matter, ozone, and toxic air pollutant exposure to evaluate health-effects for air pollution. One of the over-arching lessons of this workshop is that obtaining better exposure information for these different health-effects studies requires both goal-setting for what is needed and mapping out the transition pathway from current capabilities to meeting these goals. Meeting our long-term goals requires definition of incremental steps that provide useful information for the interim and move us toward our long-term goals. Another over-arching theme among the three different pollutants and the different health study approaches is the need for integration among alternate exposure assessment approaches. For example, different groups may advocate exposure indicators, biomonitoring, mapping methods (GIS), modeling, environmental media

  8. Influence of air quality model resolution on uncertainty associated with health impacts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. M. Thompson

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available We use regional air quality modeling to evaluate the impact of model resolution on uncertainty associated with the human health benefits resulting from proposed air quality regulations. Using a regional photochemical model (CAMx, we ran a modeling episode with meteorological inputs simulating conditions as they occurred during August through September 2006 (a period representative of conditions leading to high ozone, and two emissions inventories (a 2006 base case and a 2018 proposed control scenario, both for Houston, Texas at 36, 12, 4 and 2 km resolution. The base case model performance was evaluated for each resolution against daily maximum 8-h averaged ozone measured at monitoring stations. Results from each resolution were more similar to each other than they were to measured values. Population-weighted ozone concentrations were calculated for each resolution and applied to concentration response functions (with 95% confidence intervals to estimate the health impacts of modeled ozone reduction from the base case to the control scenario. We found that estimated avoided mortalities were not significantly different between the 2, 4 and 12 km resolution runs, but the 36 km resolution may over-predict some potential health impacts. Given the cost/benefit analysis requirements motivated by Executive Order 12866 as it applies to the Clean Air Act, the uncertainty associated with human health impacts and therefore the results reported in this study, we conclude that health impacts calculated from population weighted ozone concentrations obtained using regional photochemical models at 36 km resolution fall within the range of values obtained using fine (12 km or finer resolution modeling. However, in some cases, 36 km resolution may not be fine enough to statistically replicate the results achieved using 2, 4 or 12 km resolution. On average, when modeling at 36 km resolution, an estimated 5 deaths per week during the May through September ozone

  9. [Influence of smoking and industrial air pollutants on respiratory health of nickel industry workers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shilov, V V; Siurin, S A

    2015-01-01

    Studies covered respiratory health of 1530 workers of nickel industry, among which were 796 (52.0%) smokers. Findings are that tobacco smoke combined with nickel industry hazards cause potentized negative effects in respiratory organs, with earlier and more frequent chronic bronchitis. For isolated influence of these factors, chronic bronchitis risk is higher from exposure to tobacco smoke vs. occupational hazards (OR = 2.48; DI 1.49-4.13). Chronic obstructive lung disease development in nickel industry workers is caused by smoking. Industrial air pollutants appeared to have no potentizing effect on COLD formation, as well as on toxic pneumosclerosis formation.

  10. Air pollutants and human health. Literature documentation. As of March 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This literature documentation for the subject 'Air pollutants and human health' lists 1180 quotations up to 1993 arranged in alphabetical order according to the first-named author. Each entry contains the ordinal number, author(s), title, source, and keywords. The appendix of the documentation contains a keyword index indicating the numbers of the relevant quotations and an authors' index permitting the retrieval of the second and next named authors via the quotation number. The quoted literature is largely present in the archives of the PBWU where it can be either consulted or borrowed. Computer-aided literature searches are performed on request. (UHE)

  11. Air pollution from household solid fuel combustion in India: an overview of exposure and health related information to inform health research priorities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalpana Balakrishnan

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Environmental and occupational risk factors contribute to nearly 40% of the national burden of disease in India, with air pollution in the indoor and outdoor environment ranking amongst leading risk factors. It is now recognized that the health burden from air pollution exposures that primarily occur in the rural indoors, from pollutants released during the incomplete combustion of solid fuels in households, may rival or even exceed the burden attributable to urban outdoor exposures. Few environmental epidemiological efforts have been devoted to this setting, however. We provide an overview of important available information on exposures and health effects related to household solid fuel use in India, with a view to inform health research priorities for household air pollution and facilitate being able to address air pollution within an integrated rural–urban framework in the future.

  12. Effect of Air Pollution and Rural-Urban Difference on Mental Health of the Elderly in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao TIAN

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: China has become an aging society, and the mental health problem of the elderly is increasingly becom-ing prominent. This paper aimed to analyze the effect of air pollution and rural-urban difference on mental health of the elderly in China.Methods: Using the data from the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Survey (CHARLS, 2013, after control-ling the social demography variable via Tobit and Probit, a regression analysis of the effect of air pollution and rural-urban difference on mental health and psychological disorder was conducted on 6,630 old people (≧60 yr old of Chi-na from February to April 2015. Mental health and psychological disorder of the elderly were measured by the CES-D score of respondents. Air pollution degree of counties and cities (n=123 were measured by SO2 emission.Results: 27.8% of old people had psychological disorders. Air pollution significantly influenced the mental health of the elderly, showing a positive “U-shaped” curve (P<0.001. In China, the urban elderly had better psychological sta-tus than the rural elderly had. The female elderly had more serious mental health problems. Marriage, education, and social activities had positive effects on the mental health of the elderly.Conclusion: China’s local governments should consider the influence of air pollution on the mental health of the elderly during economic development. This paper recommends paying attention to the difference in mental health between the urban and rural elderly when making public health policies. Governments could improve the mental health of the elderly by enriching social activities and increasing employment opportunities of the elderly.

  13. Effect of central ventilation and air conditioner system on the concentration and health risk from airborne polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jinze LV; Lizhong Zhu

    2013-01-01

    Central ventilation and air conditioner systems are widely utilized nowadays in public places for air exchange and temperature control,which significantly influences the transfer of pollutants between indoors and outdoors.To study the effect of central ventilation and air conditioner systems on the concentration and health risk from airborne pollutants,a spatial and temporal survey was carried out using polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) as agent pollutants.During the period when the central ventilation system operated without air conditioning (AC-off period),concentrations of 2-4 ring PAHs in the model supermarket were dominated by outdoor levels,due to the good linearity between indoor air and outdoor air (rp > 0.769,p < 0.05),and the slopes (1.2-4.54) indicated that ventilating like the model supermarket increased the potential health risks from low molecular weight PAHs.During the period when the central ventilation and air conditioner systems were working simultaneously (AC-on period),although the total levels of PAHs were increased,the concentrations and percentage of the particulate PAHs indoors declined significantly.The BaP equivalency (BaPeq concentration indicated that utilization of air conditioning reduced the health risks from PAHs in the model supermarket.

  14. BTEX air concentrations and self-reported common health problems in gasoline sellers from Cotonou, Benin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tohon, Honesty Gbèdolo; Fayomi, Benjamin; Valcke, Mathieu; Coppieters, Yves; Bouland, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    To examine the relation between BTEX exposure levels and common self-reported health problems in 140 gasoline sellers in Cotonou, Benin, a questionnaire documenting their socioeconomic status and their health problems was used, whereas 18 of them went through semi-directed qualitative individual interviews and 17 had air samples taken on their workplace for BTEX analysis. Median concentrations for BTEX were significantly lower on official (range of medians: 54-207 μg/m³, n = 9) vs unofficial (148-1449 μg/m³, n = 8) gasoline-selling sites (p sellers from unofficial vs official selling sites (p sellers, leading to their, in some cases, preoccupying BTEX exposure.

  15. Influence of air quality model resolution on uncertainty associated with health impacts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. M. Thompson

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available We use regional air quality modeling to evaluate the impact of model resolution on uncertainty associated with the human health benefits resulting from proposed air quality regulations. Using a regional photochemical model (CAMx, we ran a modeling episode with meteorological inputs representing conditions as they occurred during August through September 2006, and two emissions inventories (a 2006 base case and a 2018 proposed control scenario, both for Houston, Texas at 36, 12, 4 and 2 km resolution. The base case model performance was evaluated for each resolution against daily maximum 8-h averaged ozone measured at monitoring stations. Results from each resolution were more similar to each other than they were to measured values. Population-weighted ozone concentrations were calculated for each resolution and applied to concentration response functions (with 95% confidence intervals to estimate the health impacts of modeled ozone reduction from the base case to the control scenario. We found that estimated avoided mortalities were not significantly different between 2, 4 and 12 km resolution runs, but 36 km resolution may over-predict some potential health impacts. Given the cost/benefit analysis requirements of the Clean Air Act, the uncertainty associated with human health impacts and therefore the results reported in this study, we conclude that health impacts calculated from population weighted ozone concentrations obtained using regional photochemical models at 36 km resolution fall within the range of values obtained using fine (12 km or finer resolution modeling. However, in some cases, 36 km resolution may not be fine enough to statistically replicate the results achieved using 2 and 4 km resolution. On average, when modeling at 36 km resolution, 7 deaths per ozone month were avoided because of ozone reductions resulting from the proposed emissions reductions (95% confidence interval was 2–9. When modeling at 2, 4 or 12 km finer

  16. Impact of air pollutants from surface transport sources on human health: A modeling and epidemiological approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, Preeti; Jain, Suresh

    2015-10-01

    This study adopted an integrated 'source-to-receptor' assessment paradigm in order to determine the effects of emissions from passenger transport on urban air quality and human health in the megacity, Delhi. The emission modeling was carried out for the base year 2007 and three alternate (ALT) policy scenarios along with a business as usual (BAU) scenario for the year 2021. An Activity-Structure-Emission Factor (ASF) framework was adapted for emission modeling, followed by a grid-wise air quality assessment using AERMOD and a health impact assessment using an epidemiological approach. It was observed that a 2021-ALT-III scenario resulted in a maximum concentration reduction of ~24%, ~42% and ~58% for carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and particulate matter (PM), respectively, compared to a 2021-BAU scenario. Further, it results in significant reductions in respiratory and cardiovascular mortality, morbidity and Disability Adjusted Life Years (DALY) by 41% and 58% on exposure to PM2.5 and NO2 concentrations when compared to the 2021-BAU scenario, respectively. In other words, a mix of proposed policy interventions namely the full-phased introduction of the Integrated Mass Transit System, fixed bus speed, stringent vehicle emission norms and a hike in parking fees for private vehicles would help in strengthening the capability of passenger transport to cater to a growing transport demand with a minimum health burden in the Delhi region. Further, the study estimated that the transport of goods would be responsible for ~5.5% additional VKT in the 2021-BAU scenario; however, it will contribute ~49% and ~55% additional NO2 and PM2.5 concentrations, respectively, in the Delhi region. Implementation of diesel particulate filters for goods vehicles in the 2021-ALT-IV-O scenario would help in the reduction of ~87% of PM2.5 concentration, compared to the 2021-BAU scenario; translating into a gain of 1267 and 505 DALY per million people from exposure to PM2.5 and NO

  17. Commentary: Is the Air Pollution Health Research Community Prepared to Support a Multipollutant Air Quality Management Framework?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambient air pollution is always encountered as a complex mixture, but past regulatory and research strategies largely focused on single pollutants, pollutant classes, and sources one-at-a-time. There is a trend toward managing air quality in a progressively “multipollutant” manne...

  18. Environment and air pollution like gun and bullet for low-income countries: war for better health and wealth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Xiang; Azam, Muhammad; Islam, Talat; Zaman, Khalid

    2016-02-01

    The objective of the study is to examine the impact of environmental indicators and air pollution on "health" and "wealth" for the low-income countries. The study used a number of promising variables including arable land, fossil fuel energy consumption, population density, and carbon dioxide emissions that simultaneously affect the health (i.e., health expenditures per capita) and wealth (i.e., GDP per capita) of the low-income countries. The general representation for low-income countries has shown by aggregate data that consist of 39 observations from the period of 1975-2013. The study decomposes the data set from different econometric tests for managing robust inferences. The study uses temporal forecasting for the health and wealth model by a vector error correction model (VECM) and an innovation accounting technique. The results show that environment and air pollution is the menace for low-income countries' health and wealth. Among environmental indicators, arable land has the largest variance to affect health and wealth for the next 10-year period, while air pollution exerts the least contribution to change health and wealth of low-income countries. These results indicate the prevalence of war situation, where environment and air pollution become visible like "gun" and "bullet" for low-income countries. There are required sound and effective macroeconomic policies to combat with the environmental evils that affect the health and wealth of the low-income countries.

  19. Health risks from indoor air pollutants: public alarm and toxicological reality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The air, particularly the indoor air, contains a considerable burden of unwanted pollution. Overall there may be thousands of pollutants. They are brought in with the outside air or are generated from or within buildings. Most will be present in minute amounts but several will be present in measurable quantities. The reaction of people to the components of this pollution has little to do with toxicological assessment but is more concerned with political responses and media scares. The health effects from exposure to the very low levels commonly found in the indoor environment of materials such as combustion products, whether from coal, petrol or tobacco or to lead or asbestos fibres, are probably negligible but we worry about them. On the other hand, gases such as carbon monoxide or nitrogen dioxide which are not infrequently present in dangerous concentrations, many solvents and dust-generating DIY projects cause little concern. The distinction between concern and indifference is made without reference to any toxicological knowledge. Although it is certainly prudent, through source control, design and ventilation of buildings, to reduce all pollutants to the lowest level, concentrating on media favourites rather than more important dangers, including disease transmission, may well be a poor use of resources. (author)

  20. The effect of ambient air pollution on respiratory health of school children: a panel study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McLeod Susan

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adverse respiratory effects of particulate air pollution have been identified by epidemiological studies. We aimed to examine the health effects of ambient particulate air pollution from wood burning on school-age students in Christchurch, New Zealand, and to explore the utility of urine and exhaled breath condensate biomarkers of exposure in this population. Methods A panel study of 93 male students (26 with asthma living in the boarding house of a metropolitan school was undertaken in the winter of 2004. Indoor and outdoor pollution data was continuously monitored. Longitudinal assessment of lung function (FEV1 and peak flow and symptoms were undertaken, with event studies of high pollution on biomarkers of exposure (urinary 1-hydroxypyrene and effect (exhaled breath condensate (EBC pH and hydrogen peroxide concentration. Results Peak levels of air pollution were associated with small but statistically significant effects on lung function in the asthmatic students, but not healthy students. No significant effect of pollution could be seen either on airway inflammation and oxidative stress either in healthy students or students with asthma. Minor increases in respiratory symptoms were associated with high pollution exposure. Urinary 1-hydroxypyrene levels were raised in association with pollution events by comparison with low pollution control days. Conclusion There is no significant effect of ambient wood-smoke particulate air pollution on lung function of healthy school-aged students, but a small effect on respiratory symptoms. Asthmatic students show small effects of peak pollution levels on lung function. Urinary 1-hydroxypyrene shows potential as a biomarker of exposure to wood smoke in this population; however measurement of EBC pH and hydrogen peroxide appears not to be useful for assessment of population health effects of air pollution. Some of the data presented in this paper has previously been published in Kingham

  1. Indoor Air Quality and Respiratory Health among Malay Preschool Children in Selangor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Azwani Mohd Nor Rawi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Indoor air quality (IAQ has been the object of several studies due to its adverse health effects on children. Methods. A cross-sectional comparative study was carried out among Malay children in Balakong (2 studied preschools and Bangi (2 comparative preschools, Selangor, with the aims of determining IAQ and its association with respiratory health. 61 and 50 children aged 5-6 years were selected as studied and comparative groups. A questionnaire was used to obtain an exposure history and respiratory symptoms. Lung function test was carried out. IAQ parameters obtained include indoor concentration of particulate matter (PM, volatile organic compounds (VOCs, carbon monoxide (CO, carbon dioxide (CO2, temperature, air velocity (AV, and relative humidity. Results. There was a significant difference between IAQ in studied and comparative preschools for all parameters measured (P<0.001 except for CO2 and AV. Studied preschools had higher PM and CO concentration. FVC, FEV1, FVC% and FEV1% predicted values were significantly lower among studied group. Exposures to PM, VOCs, and CO were associated with wheezing. Conclusion. The finding concluded that exposures to poor IAQ might increase the risk of getting lung function abnormality and respiratory problems among study respondents.

  2. Asthma and Air Quality in the Presence of Fires - A Foundation for Public Health Policy in Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosson, William; Al-Hamdan, Mohammad; Estes, Maurice, Jr.; Estes, Sue; Luvall, Jeffrey; Sifford, Cody; Young, Linda

    2012-01-01

    Outdoor air quality and its associated impacts on respiratory problems in Florida are of public health significance. Air quality in Florida can be poor during the extended wildfire season, threatening persons with compromised respiratory systems each year. Studies have demonstrated that particulate matter, which is generally elevated in the vicinity of wildfires, is associated with increases in hospital admissions and occurrences of acute asthma exacerbations. However, few studies have examined the modifying effect of socio-demographic characteristics of cities or regional areas on the relationship between air quality and health outcomes. In an ongoing university/multi-agency project, asthma hospital/emergency room (patient) data are being used to create a health outcome indicator of human response to environmental air quality. Environmental data are derived from satellite measurements, with special attention being given to the effect of wildfires and prescribed burns on air quality. This presentation will focus on the environmental data sets particulate matter, location of fires, smoke plumes that are being collected and processed for linkage with health data. After this linkage has been performed, space-time models of asthma rates as a function of air quality data and socio-demographic variables will be developed and validated. The Florida Department of Health (FDOH) will work with county health department staff and representatives from the medical community to establish a protocol with triggers for issuing public health advisories/alerts based on the developed and validated health outcome indicators. From this effort, a science-based policy for issuing public health advisories/alerts for asthma relating to air quality will be developed, giving FDOH the ability to (1) predict, with stated levels of uncertainty, case load of hospital admissions based on air quality, (2) reduce asthma exacerbations by forewarning asthmatics to limit outside activities on poor air

  3. Air quality and students' health in Shanghai (China): an educational and scientific project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigot-Cormier, Florence; Nicolaï, Marie-Pierre; Martinez, Claire-Marie; Bethmont, Valérie; Guinot, Benjamin

    2014-05-01

    The quality of our environment and especially air quality is a hot topic in any urban environment. Hourly air quality data tend to be easily available to the populations either in the news or on mobile phones. Studies underlining the relationship between environment and health exist in developed countries, but the results cannot be used in such different environmental and sociological contexts as the ones we have in China. In collaboration with the CNRS, students from the Lycée Français de Shanghai (LFS- 5th and 2nd grade) undertake a study in order to obtain an empiric relationship between the atmospheric pollutants they are exposed to in and out the classrooms, and their own health. This study is a part of a scientific and educational project including Beijing, and possibly other foreign schools in Asia later on. The atmospheric pollution in China is essentially caused by particles from different sizes mainly coming from coal combustion. First, in order to quantify the pollution at Shanghai, the students are recording information regarding fine particles as PM2.5 and PM1.0, NO2, SO2, and O3 using active and passive sensors indoors and outdoors, within the school campus. CO2, temperature and relative humidity are used to qualify the confinement rate indoors. In parallel, approximately 100 students (chosen regarding their age, health records, residence time in China…) and some teachers are going to complete a monthly survey regarding their health. Moreover, they will perform some specific measurements to obtain their breathing performances by spirometry, and an indication of the inflammation of their lower airways by exhaled NO measurements. The protocol of these experimentations and the first results will be presented in the poster. At the end of the project, these results will allow us to get a better knowledge about the air pollution we are exposed to, within the school campus, which will help us to adopt an optimized risk management protocol when pollution

  4. Public Health Hotspots Of Exposure To Air Pollution From Biomass Burning In Southeast Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marlier, M. E.; Defries, R. S.; Kasibhatla, P. S.; Shindell, D. T.; Voulgarakis, A.; Kinney, P. L.; Randerson, J. T.

    2010-12-01

    Fire is one of the most significant instruments of land use change; forests and grasslands are burned to create and maintain agricultural fields or other anthropogenic landscapes. Although fire emissions have been studied for their climatic and atmospheric effects, less is known about their impact on global public health. In this study, we combine satellite-derived fire emissions and atmospheric modeling to estimate exposure in Southeast Asia to particulate matter and ozone, which have a demonstrated detrimental health impact. Regional emissions can vary by a factor of twenty or more interannually due to the combined influence of prolonged drought conditions from El Nino, land use policies, and high fuel loads in tropical forests and peat. High fire years in the region, such as the 1997-1998 El Nino, can have a profound effect on global trace gas and aerosol loads. We conducted daily simulations of surface fine particulate matter and ozone concentrations for the 1997-2007 period using the Global Fire Emissions Database (GFEDv2) within two atmospheric models: Harvard’s GEOS-CHEM and the NASA GISS Global Climate Model. The results from each model are compared and validated by field-based and remote sensing datasets. The public health risk from each pollutant is assessed with current air quality regulations published by the World Health Organization (WHO). Our preliminary results demonstrate that regions experiencing substantial fire activity can increase the percentage of days per year exceeding WHO air quality guidelines by more than 20%. These anomalies are localized in regions close to burning centers, and more so for heavier pollutants like particulate matter. In addition, the population exposed to particulate matter and ozone above WHO guidelines can increase during high fire years by up to 70% and 50% over the decadal mean, respectively. Our results implicate fires as a serious public health risk to cardiovascular diseases, which the WHO estimates are a

  5. Programme of air surveillance Air and Health 9 towns. Surveillance of effects on health in relation with air pollution in urban area. Phase 2; Programme de surveillance Air et Sante 9 villes. Surveillance des effets sur la sante lies a la pollution atmospherique en milieu urbain. Phase 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-06-15

    The InVS published its first results on the Nine-City Air and Health Surveillance Programme (PSAS-9) in March 1999. This phase I pointed out that it was possible for various specialists in the field of air pollution and health to gather around a common set of problems. They also found a link between the daily variations of all the urban air pollution indicators and the total, cardio-vascular and respiratory mortality which, based on French data, contributed to strengthen scientific knowledge in this field. Today's report presents the results of phase Il of the PSAS-9 programme which essentially aimed at assessing the short-term exposure-risk relationships between pollution indicators and hospital admission indicators. This second phase also allowed to confirm the results of phase I on the short-term effect of air pollution on mortality thanks to longer periods of study. Exploratory analysis using new indicators and sensitivity analysis on the pertinence of results were also conducted. Finally, methodological tools were developed in order to optimise data collection and statistical modelization. All these results enabled the quantification of the short-term health impact of air pollution on the PSAS-9 cities. PSAS-9 is now an ongoing epidemiological surveillance programme on the effects of urban air pollution on health, providing information tools to decision-makers and the general population. (author)

  6. Short-term health effects of particulate air pollution with special reference to the needs of southern European countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katsouyanni Klea

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to air pollution, especially from particulate matter, is generally accepted to be one of the most important public health problems in Europe and worldwide. The effects caused in the general population are associated with relatively small relative risks, but if the ubiquity of exposure is considered, the attributable number of events is large. Furthermore, there is evidence that the effects in sensitive population subgroups (such as the elderly, those with chronic diseases and children are stronger. Within large European Union funded collaborative projects (such as the Air Pollution and Health: a European Approach-APHEA, effect modification by geographical characteristics has been investigated and it was found that in warmer countries, in locations where particles come from traffic and where the proportion of the elderly is greater, particle toxicity is increased. These characteristics are particularly relevant to Southern European locations. From other projects we know that meteorological, climatic, environmental and socioeconomic factors are effect modifiers of the effects of specific air pollutants. In this presentation we will show the evidence on the short-term health effects of particulate and gaseous air pollutants and emphasize particularly results concerning southern Europe and potential effect modifiers. The gaps in knowledge and the need to study air pollution in Southern European countries more extensively will be demonstrated. To conduct useful research, good quality air pollution and health data are needed.

  7. Air pollution policies in Europe: efficiency gains from integrating climate effects with damage costs to health and crops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emissions of air pollutants cause damage to health and crops, but several air pollutants also have an effect on climate through radiative forcing. We investigate efficiency gains achieved by integrating climate impacts of air pollutants into air quality strategies for the EU region. The pollutants included in this study are SO2, NH3, VOC, CO, NOx, black carbon, organic carbon, PM2.5, and CH4. We illustrate the relative importance of climate change effects compared to damage to health and crops, as well as monetary gains of including climate change contributions. The analysis considers marginal abatement costs and compares air quality and climate damage in Euros. We optimize abatement policies with respect to both climate and health impacts, which imply implementing all measures that yield a net benefit. The efficiency gains of the integrated policy are in the order of 2.5 billion Euros, compared to optimal abatement based on health and crop damage only, justifying increased abatement efforts of close to 50%. Climate effect of methane is the single most important factor. If climate change is considered on a 20- instead of a 100-year time-scale, the efficiency gain almost doubles. Our results indicate that air pollution policies should be supplemented with climate damage considerations.

  8. Effectiveness of heating, ventilation and air conditioning system with HEPA filter unit on indoor air quality and asthmatic children's health

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Ying; Raja, Suresh; Ferro, Andrea R.; Jaques, Peter A.; Hopke, Philip K. [Clarkson University, 8 Clarkson Avenue, Center for Air Resources Engineering and Science, Potsdam, NY 13699 (United States); Gressani, Cheryl; Wetzel, Larry E. [Air Innovations, Inc, 7000 Performance Drive, North Syracuse, NY 13212 (United States)

    2010-02-15

    Poor indoor air quality has been linked to the exacerbation of asthma symptoms in children. Because people spend most of their time indoors, improving indoor air quality may provide some relief to asthma sufferers. A study was conducted to assess whether operating an air cleaning/ventilating unit (HEPAiRx {sup registered}) in a child's bedroom can improve his/her respiratory health. Thirty children diagnosed with asthma were randomly split into two groups. For the first six weeks, group A had the air cleaning/ventilating unit (HEPAiRx {sup registered}) running in the bedrooms of the participants and group B did not; for the second six weeks, both groups had the cleaners running in the bedrooms; and, for the final six weeks, group A turned the cleaners off and group B kept theirs running. Indoor air quality parameters, including temperature, relative humidity, particulate matter (PM 0.5-10 {mu}m), carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide and total volatile organic compound (TVOC) concentrations, were monitored in each bedroom using an AirAdvice indoor air quality multi-meter. As a measure of pulmonary inflammation, exhaled breath condensate (EBC) was collected every sixth day and analyzed for nitrate and pH. Peak expiratory flow (PEF) was also measured. PM and TVOC concentrations decreased with operation of the HEPAiRx an average of 72% and 59%, respectively. The EBC nitrate concentrations decreased significantly and the EBC pH and PEF values increased significantly with operation of the unit (p < 0.001 when comparing on/off sample means). These results indicate that air cleaning in combination with ventilation can effectively reduce symptoms for asthma sufferers. (author)

  9. Health effects of outdoor air pollution. Committee of the Environmental and Occupational Health Assembly of the American Thoracic Society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    Particles, SOx, and acid aerosols are a complex group of distinct pollutants that have common sources and usually covary in concentration. During the past two decades, the chemical characteristics and the geographic distribution of sulfur oxide and particulate pollution have been altered by control strategies, specifically taller stacks for power plants, put in place in response to air pollution regulations adopted in the early 1970s. While the increasing stack heights have lowered local ambient levels, the residence time of SOx and particles in the air have been increased, thereby promoting transformation to various particulate sulfate compounds, including acidic sulfates. These sulfate particles constitute a large fraction of the total mass of smaller particles (Epidemiologic studies have consistently provided evidence of adverse health effects of these air pollutants. Particulate and SO2 pollution were strongly implicated in the acute morbidity and mortality associated with the severe pollution episodes in Donora (Pennsylvania), London, and New York in the 1940s, 1950s, and 1960s. There is new evidence that even current ambient levels of PM10 (30 to 150 micrograms/m3) are associated with increases in daily cardiorespiratory mortality and in total mortality, excluding accidental and suicide deaths. These associations have been shown in many different communities, as widely different in particle composition and climate as Philadelphia, St. Louis, Utah Valley, and Santa Clara County, California. It has recently been shown in a long-term prospective study of adults in the United States that chronic levels of higher PM10 pollution are associated with increased mortality after adjusting for several individual risk factors. Daily fluctuations in PM10 levels have also been shown to be related to acute respiratory hospital admissions in children, to school and kindergarten absences, to decrements in peak flow rates in normal children, and to increased medication use in

  10. Does respiratory health contribute to the effects of long-term air pollution exposure on cardiovascular mortality?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heinrich Joachim

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is growing epidemiological evidence that short-term and long-term exposure to high levels of air pollution may increase cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. In addition, epidemiological studies have shown an association between air pollution exposure and respiratory health. To what extent the association between cardiovascular mortality and air pollution is driven by the impact of air pollution on respiratory health is unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate whether respiratory health at baseline contributes to the effects of long-term exposure to high levels of air pollution on cardiovascular mortality in a cohort of elderly women. Method We analyzed data from 4750 women, aged 55 at the baseline investigation in the years 1985–1994. 2593 of these women had their lung function tested by spirometry. Respiratory diseases and symptoms were asked by questionnaire. Ambient air pollution exposure was assessed by the concentrations of NO2 and total suspended particles at fixed monitoring sites and by the distance of residency to a major road. A mortality follow-up of these women was conducted between 2001 and 2003. For the statistical analysis, Cox' regression was used. Results Women with impaired lung function or pre-existing respiratory diseases had a higher risk of dying from cardiovascular causes. The impact of impaired lung function declined over time. The risk ratio (RR of women with forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1 of less than 80% predicted to die from cardiovascular causes was RR = 3.79 (95%CI: 1.64–8.74 at 5 years survival time and RR = 1.35 (95%CI: 0.66–2.77 at 12 years. The association between air pollution levels and cardiovascular death rate was strong and statistically significant. However, this association did only change marginally when including indicators of respiratory health into the regression analysis. Furthermore, no interaction between air pollution and respiratory health

  11. Healthy Air Outdoors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... lung.org > Our Initiatives > Healthy Air > Outdoor Healthy Air Outdoors The quality of the air we breathe ... families and can even shorten their lives. Outdoor Air Pollution and Health Outdoor air pollution continues to ...

  12. Applicability of the Environmental Relative Moldiness Index for Quantification of Residential Mold Contamination in an Air Pollution Health Effects Study

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Kamal; Janet Burke; Stephen Vesper; Stuart Batterman; Alan Vette; Christopher Godwin; Marina Chavez-Camarena; Gary Norris

    2014-01-01

    The Near-Road Exposures and Effects of Urban Air Pollutants Study (NEXUS) investigated the impact of exposure to traffic-related air pollution on the respiratory health of asthmatic children in Detroit, Michigan. Since indoor mold exposure may also contribute to asthma, floor dust samples were collected in participants homes (n = 112) to assess mold contamination using the Environmental Relative Moldiness Index (ERMI). The repeatability of the ERMI over time, as well as ERMI differences betwe...

  13. Proposed pathophysiologic framework to explain some excess cardiovascular death associated with ambient air particle pollution: Insights for public health translation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cascio, Wayne E

    2016-12-01

    The paper proposes a pathophysiologic framework to explain the well-established epidemiological association between exposure to ambient air particle pollution and premature cardiovascular mortality, and offers insights into public health solutions that extend beyond regulatory environmental protections to actions that can be taken by individuals, public health officials, healthcare professionals, city and regional planners, local and state governmental officials and all those who possess the capacity to improve cardiovascular health within the population. The foundation of the framework rests on the contribution of traditional cardiovascular risk factors acting alone and in concert with long-term exposures to air pollutants to create a conditional susceptibility for clinical vascular events, such as myocardial ischemia and infarction; stroke and lethal ventricular arrhythmias. The conceptual framework focuses on the fact that short-term exposures to ambient air particulate matter (PM) are associated with vascular thrombosis (acute coronary syndrome, stroke, deep venous thrombosis, and pulmonary embolism) and electrical dysfunction (ventricular arrhythmia); and that individuals having prevalent heart disease are at greatest risk. Moreover, exposure is concomitant with changes in autonomic nervous system balance, systemic inflammation, and prothrombotic/anti-thrombotic and profibrinolytic-antifibrinolytic balance. Thus, a comprehensive solution to the problem of premature mortality triggered by air pollutant exposure will require compliance with regulations to control ambient air particle pollution levels, minimize exposures to air pollutants, as well as a concerted effort to decrease the number of people at-risk for serious clinical cardiovascular events triggered by air pollutant exposure by improving the overall state of cardiovascular health in the population. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Air Pollution, edited by Wenjun Ding, Andrew J. Ghio

  14. Evaluation of indoor air pollution and its effect on human health in Beijing's rural areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Hansheng; Liu, Youcheng (Beijing Medical Univ. (China))

    1989-01-01

    Average exposures to SO{sub 2}, NO{sub 2}, CO{sub 2}, CO, Inhalable Particles (IP), common bacteria and streptococci were monitored in 1986 in 24 new and old village households in the northern suburb of Beijing. Four hundred and fifty school children were also measured and observed for chronic and acute respiratory symptoms and illnesses, pulmonary function, immune response, carboxyhemoglobin level and eye response time to signals so as to evaluate the effects of rural indoor air pollution on human health. The results of air monitoring data showed that the new heating systems were effective in reducing the indoor concentrations of the measured pollutants by 23 to 76% in winter, but present concentrations still exceed China's Standard because of inadequate house design. Health outcomes suggested that children in the new village demonstrated signs of improvement for better health. The implications of different factors affecting indoor air pollution are evaluated and discussed.

  15. The Economic Value of Air Quality Forecasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson-Sumo, Tasha

    Both long-term and daily air quality forecasts provide an essential component to human health and impact costs. According the American Lung Association, the estimated current annual cost of air pollution related illness in the United States, adjusted for inflation (3% per year), is approximately $152 billion. Many of the risks such as hospital visits and morality are associated with poor air quality days (where the Air Quality Index is greater than 100). Groups such as sensitive groups become more susceptible to the resulting conditions and more accurate forecasts would help to take more appropriate precautions. This research focuses on evaluating the utility of air quality forecasting in terms of its potential impacts by building on air quality forecasting and economical metrics. Our analysis includes data collected during the summertime ozone seasons between 2010 and 2012 from air quality models for the Washington, DC/Baltimore, MD region. The metrics that are relevant to our analysis include: (1) The number of times that a high ozone or particulate matter (PM) episode is correctly forecasted, (2) the number of times that high ozone or PM episode is forecasted when it does not occur and (3) the number of times when the air quality forecast predicts a cleaner air episode when the air was observed to have high ozone or PM. Our collection of data included available air quality model forecasts of ozone and particulate matter data from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)'s AIRNOW as well as observational data of ozone and particulate matter from Clean Air Partners. We evaluated the performance of the air quality forecasts with that of the observational data and found that the forecast models perform well for the Baltimore/Washington region and the time interval observed. We estimate the potential amount for the Baltimore/Washington region accrues to a savings of up to 5,905 lives and 5.9 billion dollars per year. This total assumes perfect compliance with

  16. Fighting ambient air pollution and its impact on health: from human rights to the right to a clean environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillerm, N; Cesari, G

    2015-08-01

    Clean air is one of the basic requirements of human health and well-being. However, almost nine out of 10 individuals living in urban areas are affected by air pollution. Populations living in Africa, South-East Asia, and in low- and middle-income countries across all regions are the most exposed. Exposure to outdoor air pollution ranks as the ninth leading risk factor for mortality, killing 3.2 million people each year, especially young children, the elderly, persons with lung or cardiovascular disease, those who work or exercise outdoors and low-income populations. In October 2013, the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) classified outdoor air pollution as carcinogenic to humans, calling air pollution 'a major environmental health problem'. Human rights and environmental norms are powerful tools to combat air pollution and its impact on health. The dependence of human rights on environmental quality has been recognised in international texts and by human rights treaty bodies. The growing awareness of the environment has already yielded considerable legislative and regulatory output. However, the implementation of standards remains a pervasive problem. In the fight against violations of norms, citizens have a crucial role to play. We discuss the relevance of a yet to be proclaimed standalone right to a healthy environment.

  17. THE IMPACT OFWEATHER TYPES ON AIR POLLUTION AND HEALTH OF THE RESIDENTS OF KRAKOW(POLAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PIOTROWICZ KATARZYNA

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This study set out to identify the impact of weather types in Krakow on the frequency of suicides by hanging in the period 1991-2002, on cases of acute coronary syndrome (2002-2004, high concentration of suspended particles PM10 and tropospheric ozone (2005-2012 and on the pollen seasons of hazel and birch (1991-2012. Attention was also given to trends of change in selected weather types over the study period (1901-2012. The weather types to be investigated were identified using a number of factors, including: air temperature, relative sunshine duration, precipitation, snow cover, thunderstorms, and sultriness. It was found that some of these weather types could have an adverse effect on human health and even contribute to death.

  18. Air Force School of Health Care Science's quality of life study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, R D; Buckingham, R S; Chitwood, J L; Carlsen, J S

    1998-01-01

    This was an empirically based assessment of non-prior service students' quality of life in the Air Force's School of Health Care Sciences. Analysis provided five results: (1) The overall quality of life at the school was good. (2) The variables accounting for student unhappiness were dormitory unsuitability and the students not being in their top-three career choices. (3) Structural changes were required at the dormitories. (4) The desire to succeed and how to achieve that success were the most important interests for students. (5) Loved ones and student independence were the greatest indicators of motivation. The findings resulted in three immediate corrections and two long-term recommendations to improve students' quality of life. The two long-term recommendations were to have an educational psychologist intervene when students are having significant learning problems, and to alter the selection process for recruiting. Both immediate corrections and long-term recommendations are useful for sister services. PMID:9465569

  19. Indoor Air Pollutant Exposure for Life Cycle Assessment: Regional Health Impact Factors for Households

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenbaum, Ralph K.; Meijer, Arjen; Demou, Evangelia;

    2015-01-01

    in non-OECD countries. This study demonstrates the appropriateness and significance of integrating indoor environments into LCA, which ensures a more holistic account of all exposure environments and allows for a better accountability of health impacts. The model, intake fractions, and characterization......Human exposure to indoor pollutant concentrations is receiving increasing interest in Life Cycle Assessment (LCA). We address this issue by incorporating an indoor compartment into the USEtox model, as well as by providing recommended parameter values for households in four different regions...... of the world differing geographically, economically, and socially. With these parameter values, intake fractions and comparative toxicity potentials for indoor emissions of dwellings for different air tightness levels were calculated. The resulting intake fractions for indoor exposure vary by 2 orders...

  20. A strategy for studying the air pollution effects on climate and public health in Asia (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima, T.; Goto, D.; Misawa, S.; Oikawa, E.; Hashimoto, M.; Uchida, J.; Dai, T.; Schutgens, N.

    2013-12-01

    In this paper, we like to discuss observational and modeling strategy for understanding the air pollution effects on climate and public health in Asia. Satellite remote sensing of aerosol signature and radiative forcing is important but still has a large uncertainties because of various bias in passive imaging and active sensing by, for example, MODIS and CALIPSO. We summarize the uncertainty in the total aerosol direct effect from satellite observation and modeling as about 4 Wm-2 (Schutgens et al., Remote Sens. 2012; Oikawa et al., JGR 2013). This situation suggests that important activities should be in development of good surface and satellite measurements of aerosols as well as establishing aerosol assimilation system. In this direction, we have developed a flexible aerosol assimilation system based on the NICAM non-hydrostatic finite grid atmospheric model (Tomita and Satoh, Fluid Dyn. Res. 2004) with flexible grid system and good mass conservation coupled with the SPRINTARS aerosol model (Takemura et al., JGR 2000). We like to present our assessment of aerosol fields in Asian continental scale as well as a mega-city basin scale around Tokyo. Health care effects are also evaluated to show that the mortality rate by air pollution will increase even with RCP4.5 scenario in which PM2.5 decreases in future (2030 horizon) in Tokyo mega-city region, because of the shifted age composition of population. We will extend our discussion to a strategy to utilize the next generation satellite systems, such as EarthCARE, Himawari-8 and 9, GCOM/C, and GOSAT-2 which are equipped with advanced functions of aerosol remote sensing.

  1. Study of particulate matters pollution related with meteorological factors for a city from South-Central of Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela MITRAN

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Reducing the effects of climate change and air pollution is at present a global priority. Development and implementation of effective policies in order to achieve these  reductions is a challenge that requires a good understanding of the underlying phenomena  of climate change and air pollution. This paper aims to highlight the seasonal variation of PM10 concentration in Pitesti city depending on major meteorological factors (temperature, intensity of solar radiation, and relative humidity. The applied methodology consists in statistical processing, using specialized software, of a database containing historical records of concentration values of this pollutant and of meteorological parameters recorded concurrently. The results of processing a series of approximately 30000 values recorded from 2008 to 2011 indicate the fact that in every season (winter,spring, summer, and autumn the concentration of PM10 varies according to a sixth degree polynomial function, whose variable is one of the considered meteorological factors. The mathematical relationship that best approximates the variation of average PM10 concentration in relation with the three meteorological factors is by the form of a multiple linear regression equation.Keywords: air pollution and human health, particulate matters related with meteorological factors, statistical analysis

  2. The 1997 haze disaster in Indonesia: its air quality and health effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunii, Osamu; Kanagawa, Shuzo; Yajima, Iwao; Hisamatsu, Yoshiharu; Yamamura, Sombo; Amagai, Takashi; Ismail, Ir T Sachrul

    2002-01-01

    In this study, the authors assessed air quality and health effects of the 1997 haze disaster in Indonesia. The authors measured carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, ozone, particulate matter with diameters less than or equal to 10 microm, inorganic ions, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. The authors also interviewed 543 people and conducted lung-function tests and determined spirometric values for these individuals. Concentrations of carbon monoxide and particulate matter with diameters less than or equal to 10 microm reached "very unhealthy" and "hazardous" levels, as defined by the Pollution Standards Index. Concentrations of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were 6-14 times higher than levels in the unaffected area. More than 90% of the respondents had respiratory symptoms, and elderly individuals suffered a serious deterioration of overall health. In multivariate analysis, the authors determined that gender, history of asthma, and frequency of wearing a mask were associated with severity of respiratory problems. The results of our study demonstrate the need for special care of the elderly and for care of those with a history of asthma. In addition, the use of a proper mask may afford protection.

  3. Indoor Air Pollutant Exposure for Life Cycle Assessment: Regional Health Impact Factors for Households.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenbaum, Ralph K; Meijer, Arjen; Demou, Evangelia; Hellweg, Stefanie; Jolliet, Olivier; Lam, Nicholas L; Margni, Manuele; McKone, Thomas E

    2015-11-01

    Human exposure to indoor pollutant concentrations is receiving increasing interest in Life Cycle Assessment (LCA). We address this issue by incorporating an indoor compartment into the USEtox model, as well as by providing recommended parameter values for households in four different regions of the world differing geographically, economically, and socially. With these parameter values, intake fractions and comparative toxicity potentials for indoor emissions of dwellings for different air tightness levels were calculated. The resulting intake fractions for indoor exposure vary by 2 orders of magnitude, due to the variability of ventilation rate, building occupation, and volume. To compare health impacts as a result of indoor exposure with those from outdoor exposure, the indoor exposure characterization factors determined with the modified USEtox model were applied in a case study on cooking in non-OECD countries. This study demonstrates the appropriateness and significance of integrating indoor environments into LCA, which ensures a more holistic account of all exposure environments and allows for a better accountability of health impacts. The model, intake fractions, and characterization factors are made available for use in standard LCA studies via www.usetox.org and in standard LCA software. PMID:26444519

  4. Indoor metallic pollution related to mining activity in the Bolivian Altiplano.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontúrbel, Francisco E; Barbieri, Enio; Herbas, Cristian; Barbieri, Flavia L; Gardon, Jacques

    2011-10-01

    The environmental pollution associated with mining and metallurgical activities reaches its greatest extent in several Andean cities and villages. Many locations in this area have accumulated through centuries a large amount of mining wastes, often disregarding the magnitude of this situation. However, in these naturally mineralized regions, there is little information available stating the exact role of mining and metallurgical industries in urban pollution. In this study, we demonstrated that the various metallic elements present in indoor dust (As, Cd, Cu, Pb, Sb, Sn, Zn) had a common origin and this contamination was increased by the proximity to the mines. Lead dust concentration was found at concerning levels for public health. In addition, wrong behaviors such as carrying mining workwear home contributed to this indoor dust pollution. Consequently, the constant exposure of the population could represent a potential health hazard for vulnerable groups, especially children.

  5. Use of Multi-Objective Air Pollution Monitoring Sites and Online Air Pollution Monitoring System for Total Health Risk Assessment in Hyderabad, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. V. Ramani

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available A consensus has been emerging among public health experts in developing countries that air pollution, even at current ambient levels, aggravates respiratory and cardiovascular diseases and leads to premature mortality. Recent studies have also presented well-founded theories concerning the biological mechanisms involved and the groups of people that are probably more susceptible to health effects caused or exacerbated by inhalation of ambient particulate matter (PM.. On the basis of prognostic studies carried out in Center for Environment, JNT University, Hyderabad “it has been estimated that in Hyderabad some 1,700 to 3,000 people per year die prematurely as a result of inhaling PM”. These figures reflect only the effects of acute exposure to air pollution. If the long-term effects of chronic exposure are taken into account, 10,000–15,000 people a year could die prematurely in Hyderabad. This estimate of the chronic effects is based on other studies, which are not completely comparable with the Hyderabad situation. While the study designs and analyses in these other studies may indeed be different or irrelevant to Hyderabad, the fact they were carried out in other countries is irrelevant. Taking into account these considerations, a model for total health risk assessment for the city of Hyderabad, and its state of Andhra Pradesh in India has been developed using a multi-objective air pollution monitoring network and online and real time air pollution monitoring stations. For the model studies a number of potential monitoring sites were screened for general and site-specific criteria in a geographic information system (GIS environment that may, on a local basis, affect the representativeness of the data collected. Local features that may affect either the chemical or meteorological parameters are evaluated to assure a minimum of interference. Finally, for monitoring air pollution, an online and real

  6. Indoor metallic pollution related to mining activity in the Bolivian Altiplano

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fonturbel, Francisco E., E-mail: fonturbel@ug.uchile.cl [Departamento de Ciencias Ecologicas, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Chile, Santiago (Chile); Barbieri, Enio [IRD-HSM (Institut de Recherche pour le Developpement), La Paz (Bolivia, Plurinational State of); Herbas, Cristian [Universidad Mayor de San Andres, IGEMA Institute (Instituto de Investigaciones Geologicas y del Medio Ambiente), La Paz (Bolivia, Plurinational State of); Barbieri, Flavia L.; Gardon, Jacques [IRD-HSM (Institut de Recherche pour le Developpement), La Paz (Bolivia, Plurinational State of); Universidad Mayor de San Andres, SELADIS Institute (Instituto de Servicios de Laboratorio para el Diagnostico e Investigacion en Salud), La Paz (Bolivia, Plurinational State of)

    2011-10-15

    The environmental pollution associated with mining and metallurgical activities reaches its greatest extent in several Andean cities and villages. Many locations in this area have accumulated through centuries a large amount of mining wastes, often disregarding the magnitude of this situation. However, in these naturally mineralized regions, there is little information available stating the exact role of mining and metallurgical industries in urban pollution. In this study, we demonstrated that the various metallic elements present in indoor dust (As, Cd, Cu, Pb, Sb, Sn, Zn) had a common origin and this contamination was increased by the proximity to the mines. Lead dust concentration was found at concerning levels for public health. In addition, wrong behaviors such as carrying mining workwear home contributed to this indoor dust pollution. Consequently, the constant exposure of the population could represent a potential health hazard for vulnerable groups, especially children. - Highlights: > We measured polymetallic pollution in household indoor dust from a mining town. > Toxic elements (Pb, As, Cd, Sb) in dust are correlated, suggesting a common origin. > The most polluted houses are within a 1 km radius around the mining center. > Carrying mining workwear home increases indoor pollution. > Lead concentrations in dust represent a serious concern for Public Health (600 {mu}g/g). - In a typical Andean mining city, the urban indoor pollution with toxic metallic elements is directly related to the closeness of the mining activities.

  7. Assessment of health-cost externalities of air pollution at the national level using the EVA model system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandt, J.; Silver, J.D.; Frohn, L.M. (and others)

    2011-07-15

    Air pollution has significant negative impacts on human health and well-being, which entail substantial economic consequences. We have developed an integrated model system, EVA (External Valuation of Air pollution; Frohn et al., 2005; Andersen et al., 2007; Brandt et al., 2010), to assess health-related economic externalities of air pollution resulting from specific emission sources or sectors. The EVA system was initially developed to assess externalities from power production, but in this study it is extended to evaluate costs at the national level from all major emission sectors. In this study, we estimate the impacts and total externality costs from the main emission sectors in Denmark, representing the 10 major SNAP codes. Furthermore, we assess the impacts and externality costs of all emissions simultaneously from the whole of Europe as well as from international ship traffic in general, since this sector seems to be very important but is currently unregulated. (Author)

  8. (Un)Healthy in the city : Adverse health effects of traffic-related noise and air pollution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zijlema, Wilma

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the adverse health effects of urbanity, traffic-related noise and air pollution. We used harmonized data from multiple European cohort studies: LifeLines, HUNT, FINRISK, EPIC-Oxford and KORA. Based on our studies, we concluded that the living environment may be associated with advers

  9. Acute effects of urban air pollution on respiratory health of children with and without chronic respiratory symptoms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Zee, S; Hoek, G; Boezen, H M; Schouten, J P; van Wijnen, J H; Brunekreef, B

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To investigate to what extent different components of air pollution are associated with acute respiratory health effects in children with and without chronic respiratory symptoms. METHODS: During three consecutive winters starting in 1992-3, peak expiratory flow (PEF) and respiratory sym

  10. The Green Heart Initiative: Using Air Quality Information to Reduce Adverse Health Effects in Patients with Heart and Vascular Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Green Heart Initiatives designed to raise public awareness about the role outdoor air pollution plays in cardiovascular health. Developed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to complement the national Million Hearts” initiative1, Green Heart seeks to teach healt...

  11. Economic evaluation of environmental impacts: methodology of valuation of health impacts due to air pollution around a typical power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper provides methodology for valuation of health impact due to air pollution around a typical power plant expansion project. Inputs from EIA study of a typical coal based thermal power plant (TPP) expansion project (850+210 Mw capacity) performed by NEERI is taken for the valuation purpose. (author)

  12. Air pollution and respiratory health of children: the PEACE panel study in Hettstedt and Zerbst., Eastern Germany.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beyer, U.; Franke, K.; Cyrus, J.; Peters, A.; Heinrich, J.; Wichmann, H.E.; Brunekreef, B.

    1998-01-01

    A multicentre study (Pollution Effects on Asthmatic Children in Europe (PEACE) study) investigated the relationship between the daily variation of respiratory health and air pollution in children with chronic respiratory symptoms. Data were collected for 75 children in Hettstedt (polluted) and 63 ch

  13. Improving Awareness of Health Hazards Associated with Air Pollution in Primary School Children: Design and Test of Didactic Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carducci, Annalaura; Casini, Beatrice; Donzelli, Gabriele; Verani, Marco; Bruni, Beatrice; Ceretti, Elisabetta; Zani, Claudia; Carraro, Elisabetta; Bonetta, Sara; Bagordo, Francesco; Grassi, Tiziana; Villarini, Milena; Bonizzoni, Silvia; Zagni, Licia; Gelatti, Umberto

    2016-01-01

    One of the objectives of the MAPEC-Life project is raising children's awareness on air quality and its health effects. To achieve this goal, we designed didactic tools for primary school students, including leaflets with more information for teachers, a cartoon, and three educational videogames. The tools were then tested with 266 children who…

  14. What Health-Related Information Flows through You Every Day? A Content Analysis of Microblog Messages on Air Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Qinghua; Yang, Fan; Zhou, Chun

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate how the information about haze, a term used in China to describe the air pollution problem, is portrayed on Chinese social media by different types of organizations using the theoretical framework of the health belief model (HBM). Design/methodology/approach: A content analysis was conducted…

  15. Use of health care and drugs by police officers 8.5. years after the air disaster in Amsterdam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P. Slottje (Pauline); N. Smidt (Nynke); J.W.R. Twisk (Jos); A.C. Huizink (Anja); A.B. Witteveen (Anke); W. van Mechelen (Willem); T. Smid (Tjabe)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractThis study examined the use of health care by police officers after the air disaster in Amsterdam. On average 8.5 years post-disaster, involved police officers (n = 834, who reported disaster-related tasks), and their non-involved colleagues (n = 634) completed questionnaires on disaster

  16. Aerosol Health Impact Source Attribution Studies with the CMAQ Adjoint Air Quality Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, M. D.

    Fine particulate matter (PM2.5) is an air pollutant consisting of a mixture of solid and liquid particles suspended in the atmosphere. Knowledge of the sources and distributions of PM2.5 is important for many reasons, two of which are that PM2.5 has an adverse effect on human health and also an effect on climate change. Recent studies have suggested that health benefits resulting from a unit decrease in black carbon (BC) are four to nine times larger than benefits resulting from an equivalent change in PM2.5 mass. The goal of this thesis is to quantify the role of emissions from different sectors and different locations in governing the total health impacts, risk, and maximum individual risk of exposure to BC both nationally and regionally in the US. We develop and use the CMAQ adjoint model to quantify the role of emissions from all modeled sectors, times, and locations on premature deaths attributed to exposure to BC. From a national analysis, we find that damages resulting from anthropogenic emissions of BC are strongly correlated with population and premature death. However, we find little correlation between damages and emission magnitude, suggesting that controls on the largest emissions may not be the most efficient means of reducing damages resulting from BC emissions. Rather, the best proxy for locations with damaging BC emissions is locations where premature deaths occur. Onroad diesel and nonroad vehicle emissions are the largest contributors to premature deaths attributed to exposure to BC, while onroad gasoline emissions cause the highest deaths per amount emitted. Additionally, emissions in fall and winter contribute to more premature deaths (and more per amount emitted) than emissions in spring and summer. From a regional analysis, we find that emissions from outside each of six urban areas account for 7% to 27% of the premature deaths attributed to exposure to BC within the region. Within the region encompassing New York City and Philadelphia

  17. On the system of monitoring ambient air quality in relation to the health of the population of the Czech Republic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kazmarova, H. [National Inst. of Public Health, Prague (Czech Republic)

    1995-12-31

    In 1991 the Government of the Czech republic in Ruling No 369 approved a draft of a system for monitoring the health of the population in relation to the environment on the basis of a need to obtain purposefully targeted information for an appropriate policy for the protection of health and the environment. The aim of monitoring does not and cannot consist of determining the cause and effect relationship between the health status and pollutants. The system of monitoring is an open and comprehensive system of the continual collection, processing and evaluation of data concerned with the load on the organism and damage to human health in relation to environmental pollution. Air pollution and health are one of the six subsystems realised in the whole system (beside drinking water, noise, food, biomarkers, and demographic and health statistics). The aim of the monitoring is to obtain a data base that shall serve three main purposes: (1) Description of the status of health of the population and characteristics of the ambient air, (2) Evaluation of the trend of each index, (3) Assessment and evaluation of the risk to health of the parameters under study. Thirty cities and towns were selected in the Czech Republic for the realisation of the monitoring system. (author)

  18. Municipal solid waste management health risk assessment from air emissions for China by applying life cycle analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hua; Nitivattananon, Vilas; Li, Peng

    2015-05-01

    This study is to quantify and objectively evaluate the extent of environmental health risks from three waste treatment options suggested by the national municipal solid waste management enhancing strategy (No [2011] 9 of the State Council, promulgated on 19 April 2011), which includes sanitary landfill, waste-to-energy incineration and compost, together with the material recovery facility through a case study in Zhangqiu City of China. It addresses potential chronic health risks from air emissions to residential receptors in the impacted area. It combines field survey, analogue survey, design documents and life cycle inventory methods in defining the source strength of chemicals of potential concern. The modelling of life cycle inventory and air dispersion is via integrated waste management(IWM)-2 and Screening Air Dispersion Model (Version 3.0) (SCREEN3). The health risk assessment is in accordance with United States Environmental Protection Agency guidance Risk Assessment Guidance for Superfund (RAGS), Volume I: Human Health Evaluation Manual (Part F, Supplemental Guidance for Inhalation Risk Assessment). The exposure concentration is based on long-term exposure to the maximum ground level contaminant in air under the 'reasonable worst situation' emissions and then directly compared with reference for concentration and unit risk factor/cancer slope factor derived from the national air quality standard (for a conventional pollutant) and toxicological studies (for a specific pollutant). Results from this study suggest that the option of compost with material recovery facility treatment may pose less negative health impacts than other options; the sensitivity analysis shows that the landfill integrated waste management collection rate has a great influence on the impact results. Further investigation is needed to validate or challenge the findings of this study.

  19. Analysis of indoor air pollutants checklist using environmetric technique for health risk assessment of sick building complaint in nonindustrial workplace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syazwan, AI; Rafee, B Mohd; Juahir, Hafizan; Azman, AZF; Nizar, AM; Izwyn, Z; Syahidatussyakirah, K; Muhaimin, AA; Yunos, MA Syafiq; Anita, AR; Hanafiah, J Muhamad; Shaharuddin, MS; Ibthisham, A Mohd; Hasmadi, I Mohd; Azhar, MN Mohamad; Azizan, HS; Zulfadhli, I; Othman, J; Rozalini, M; Kamarul, FT

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To analyze and characterize a multidisciplinary, integrated indoor air quality checklist for evaluating the health risk of building occupants in a nonindustrial workplace setting. Design A cross-sectional study based on a participatory occupational health program conducted by the National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health (Malaysia) and Universiti Putra Malaysia. Method A modified version of the indoor environmental checklist published by the Department of Occupational Health and Safety, based on the literature and discussion with occupational health and safety professionals, was used in the evaluation process. Summated scores were given according to the cluster analysis and principal component analysis in the characterization of risk. Environmetric techniques was used to classify the risk of variables in the checklist. Identification of the possible source of item pollutants was also evaluated from a semiquantitative approach. Result Hierarchical agglomerative cluster analysis resulted in the grouping of factorial components into three clusters (high complaint, moderate-high complaint, moderate complaint), which were further analyzed by discriminant analysis. From this, 15 major variables that influence indoor air quality were determined. Principal component analysis of each cluster revealed that the main factors influencing the high complaint group were fungal-related problems, chemical indoor dispersion, detergent, renovation, thermal comfort, and location of fresh air intake. The moderate-high complaint group showed significant high loading on ventilation, air filters, and smoking-related activities. The moderate complaint group showed high loading on dampness, odor, and thermal comfort. Conclusion This semiquantitative assessment, which graded risk from low to high based on the intensity of the problem, shows promising and reliable results. It should be used as an important tool in the preliminary assessment of indoor air quality and as a

  20. A garage-building programme for the city of Vienna and resulting air quality. Related health aspects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tvrdy, C.; Walter, R. [Inst. of Environmental Medicine of the City Council of Vienna (Austria)

    1995-12-31

    Urban traffic influences air quality in cities considerably. This is particularly true for the medieval parts of the big European cities, which have not been designed for today s heavy traffic. A problem closely associated with city traffic, is the lack of parking lots, particularly for residents. In Vienna, the parking problem is tackled by the building of underground car parks. In the next years more than 50 large garages (>100 sites) are being planned. The main goal is the clearing of the beautiful old places and streets of Vienna from the bulk of parking vehicles and supplying the citizens with parking spaces in the neighbourhood. According to a recent decision of the City Council of Vienna the construction of `large garages` (>100 parking spaces) requires an official approval by various local authorities. Among them are those responsible for town design and architecture, for fire precaution and fire fighting, for city traffic, for planning and building and for environmental health. In this context the Institute of Environmental Medicine of the City Council of Vienna faced the task of establishing criteria for a health risk assessment linked with `large garages`. Health-risks may be caused by air pollution and noise. This presentation deals with the air pollution problem. Air pollution problems may occur due to traffic in and out of the garage, by insufficient ventilation systems and by construction failures. In the garage programme the health officers have to bring evidence that residents of the houses with underground car parks and residents in the close neighbourhood are not exposed to any health risk due to air pollution

  1. Assessing concentrations and health impacts of air quality management strategies: Framework for Rapid Emissions Scenario and Health impact ESTimation (FRESH-EST).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milando, Chad W; Martenies, Sheena E; Batterman, Stuart A

    2016-09-01

    In air quality management, reducing emissions from pollutant sources often forms the primary response to attaining air quality standards and guidelines. Despite the broad success of air quality management in the US, challenges remain. As examples: allocating emissions reductions among multiple sources is complex and can require many rounds of negotiation; health impacts associated with emissions, the ultimate driver for the standards, are not explicitly assessed; and long dispersion model run-times, which result from the increasing size and complexity of model inputs, limit the number of scenarios that can be evaluated, thus increasing the likelihood of missing an optimal strategy. A new modeling framework, called the "Framework for Rapid Emissions Scenario and Health impact ESTimation" (FRESH-EST), is presented to respond to these challenges. FRESH-EST estimates concentrations and health impacts of alternative emissions scenarios at the urban scale, providing efficient computations from emissions to health impacts at the Census block or other desired spatial scale. In addition, FRESH-EST can optimize emission reductions to meet specified environmental and health constraints, and a convenient user interface and graphical displays are provided to facilitate scenario evaluation. The new framework is demonstrated in an SO2 non-attainment area in southeast Michigan with two optimization strategies: the first minimizes emission reductions needed to achieve a target concentration; the second minimizes concentrations while holding constant the cumulative emissions across local sources (e.g., an emissions floor). The optimized strategies match outcomes in the proposed SO2 State Implementation Plan without the proposed stack parameter modifications or shutdowns. In addition, the lower health impacts estimated for these strategies suggest that FRESH-EST could be used to identify potentially more desirable pollution control alternatives in air quality management planning.

  2. Long-termed field survey of indoor air quality and health hazards in sick houses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshino, H.; Amano, K.; Matsumoto, M. [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). Dept. of Urban Planning and Building Science; Ikeda, K. [National Inst. of Public Health, Tokyo (Japan); Nozaki, A. [Tohoku Bunkagakuen Univ., Sendai (Japan); Kakuta, K. [Saka General Hospital (Japan); Hojo, S. [Shokei Woman' s Junior College (Japan); Ishikawa, S. [Kitasato Inst. Hospital (Japan)

    2004-07-01

    A 3 year field study was conducted in which the indoor air quality in 35 hospitals in Japan was measured in order to determine the etiological factor of Sick House Syndrome (SHS). The occupants in the hospitals were suffering from multiple chemical sensitivity (MCS) with symptoms such as mucosa, eye irritation, sore throat and cough. The study examined the concentration of formaldehyde and volatile organic compounds. It also examined airtightness and ventilation rate. The study also consisted of a questionnaire on the environmental conditions, subjective symptoms and lifestyle. Medical exams were conducted on residents with severe symptoms. The formaldehyde concentrations in more than 65 per cent of the rooms was found to be greater than the guidelines set by the Japanese Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare. Total volatile organic compound (TVOC) concentrations also exceeded the recommended value in 66 per cent of the rooms. The study revealed that the respiratory symptoms were more severe in houses with higher concentrations of TVOC. A graph was included to show the relationship between chemical substance concentration and building age. In general, the TVOC was reduced over the three year period, but the formaldehyde concentration did not change. 3 refs., 4 tabs., 9 figs.

  3. Pollution level, phase distribution and health risk of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in indoor air at public places of Hangzhou, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu Hao [Department of Environmental Science, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang, 310028 (China)], E-mail: luhaozju@163.com; Zhu Lizhong [Department of Environmental Science, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang, 310028 (China)], E-mail: zlz@zju.edu.cn; Chen Shuguang [Department of Environmental Science, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang, 310028 (China)], E-mail: chenshuguang@zju.edu.cn

    2008-04-15

    PAHs pollution survey in air of public places was conducted in Hangzhou, China. The most serious PAHs pollution was observed in indoor air of shopping centers and the slightest was in train stations. The molecular weight of chrysene (MW 228) appeared to be the dividing line for the PAHs with a larger or smaller distribution in the vapor or particulate phase. Concentrations of 15 PAHs on PM{sub 2.5} accounted for 71.3% of total particulate PAHs, and followed by PM{sub 2.5-10} fraction (17.6%) and >PM{sub 10} fraction (11.1%). In shopping centers and supermarkets, emission of 2-4 rings PAHs occurred from indoor sources, whereas 5-6 rings PAHs predominantly originated from transport of outdoor air. In temples, PAHs in indoor air mainly originated from incense burning. Health risks associated with the inhalation of PAHs were assessed, and naphthalene made the greatest contribution (62.4%) to the total health risks. - Concentrations of PAHs in the air of selected public places in Hangzhou correspond to 10{sup -3} life-time lung cancer risk.

  4. Activity change in response to bad air quality, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2007-2010.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellen M Wells

    Full Text Available Air pollution contributes to poor respiratory and cardiovascular health. Susceptible individuals may be advised to mitigate effects of air pollution through actions such as reducing outdoor physical activity on days with high pollution. Our analysis identifies the extent to which susceptible individuals changed activities due to bad air quality. This cross-sectional study included 10,898 adults from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES 2007-2010. Participants reported if they did something differently when air quality was bad. Susceptible categories included respiratory conditions, cardiovascular conditions and older age (≥ 65 years. Analyses accounted for complex survey design; logistic regression models controlled for gender, race, education, smoking, and body mass index. 1305 individuals reported doing something differently (12.0%, 95% confidence interval (CI: 10.9, 13.1. This percentage was 14.2% (95% CI: 11.6, 16.8, 25.1% (95% CI: 21.7, 28.6, and 15.5% (95% CI: 12.2, 18.9 among older adults, those with a respiratory condition, and those with a cardiovascular condition, respectively. In adjusted regression models the following were significantly more likely to have changed activity compared to those who did not belong to any susceptible group: respiratory conditions (adjusted odds ratio (aOR: 2.61, 95% CI: 2.03, 3.35; respiratory and cardiovascular conditions (aOR: 4.36, 95% CI: 2.47, 7.69; respiratory conditions and older age (aOR: 3.83; 95% CI: 2.47, 5.96; or all three groups (aOR: 3.52; 95% CI: (2.33, 5.32. Having cardiovascular conditions alone was not statistically significant. Some individuals, especially those with a respiratory condition, reported changing activities due to poor air quality. However, efforts should continue to educate the public about air quality and health.

  5. A survey and critical review of the literature on indoor air quality, ventilation and health symptoms in schools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daisey, J.M. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States). Energy and Environment Div.; Angell, W.J. [Univ. of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN (United States)

    1998-03-01

    A survey and critical review were undertaken of existing published literature and reports on indoor air quality (IAQ), ventilation, and IAQ- and building-related health problems in schools, including California schools. Over 450 relevant publications were obtained and reviewed, including papers published in the archival peer-reviewed scientific literature, proceedings of scientific meetings, government reports, 77 NIOSH Health Hazard Evaluation Reports (HHER) and 70 reports on investigations of problem schools in California. Most of the reviewed literature was for complaint or problem schools. The types of health symptoms reported in schools were very similar to those defined as sick building syndrome (SBS) symptoms, although this may be due, at least in part, to the type of health symptom questionnaires used. Some of the symptoms, e.g., wheezing, are indicative of asthma. In the studies in which complaint and noncomplaint buildings or areas were compared, complaint buildings generally had higher rates of health symptoms.

  6. Health damage cost of automotive air pollution: Cost benefit analysis of fuel quality upgradation for Indian cities.

    OpenAIRE

    Sengupta, Ramprasad; Mandal, Subrata

    2005-01-01

    The paper has analysed the economic implication of judicial activism of the apex court of India in the regulation of automotive air pollution. It estimates the health damage cost of urban air pollution for 35 major urban agglomerations of India arising from automotive emissions and the savings that can be achieved by the regulation of fuel quality so as to conform to the Euro norms. It has used the results of some US based study and has applied the transfer of benefit method from the US to th...

  7. Analysis of indoor air pollutants checklist using environmetric technique for health risk assessment of sick building complaint in nonindustrial workplace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syazwan AI

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available AI Syazwan,1 B Mohd Rafee,1 Hafizan Juahir,2 AZF Azman,1 AM Nizar,3 Z Izwyn,4 K Syahidatussyakirah,1 AA Muhaimin,5 MA Syafiq Yunos,6 AR Anita,1 J Muhamad Hanafiah,1 MS Shaharuddin,7 A Mohd Ibthisham,8 I Mohd Hasmadi,9 MN Mohamad Azhar,1 HS Azizan,1 I Zulfadhli,10 J Othman,11 M Rozalini,12 FT Kamarul131Department of Community Health, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Selangor, 2Department of Environmental Science/ Environmental Forensics Research Center (ENFORCE, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Selangor, 3Pharmacology Unit, Department of Human Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang, Selangor, 4Department of Therapy and Rehabilitation, Faculty of Health Science and Biomedical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Johor, 5Department of Environmental Management, Faculty of Environmental Studies, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Selangor, 6Plant Assessment Technology (PAT, Industrial Technology Division, Malaysian Nuclear Agency, Bangi, 7Department of Environmental and Occupational Health Science, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Selangor, 8Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Johor, 9Department of Forest Production, Faculty of Forestry, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Selangor, 10Faculty of Built Environment and Architect, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Johor, 11Department of Counselor Education and Psychology Counseling, Faculty of Educational Studies, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Selangor, 12Occupational Safety, Health and Environment Unit, Multimedia University, Jalan Multimedia 63100 Cyberjaya, Selangor, 13ERALAB SDN. BHD. (Environmental Research and Analytical Laboratory Sdn. Bhd., Selangor, MALAYSIAPurpose: To analyze and characterize a multidisciplinary, integrated indoor air quality checklist for evaluating the health risk of building occupants in a nonindustrial

  8. Integrating High-Resolution Datasets to Target Mitigation Efforts for Improving Air Quality and Public Health in Urban Neighborhoods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shandas, Vivek; Voelkel, Jackson; Rao, Meenakshi; George, Linda

    2016-01-01

    Reducing exposure to degraded air quality is essential for building healthy cities. Although air quality and population vary at fine spatial scales, current regulatory and public health frameworks assess human exposures using county- or city-scales. We build on a spatial analysis technique, dasymetric mapping, for allocating urban populations that, together with emerging fine-scale measurements of air pollution, addresses three objectives: (1) evaluate the role of spatial scale in estimating exposure; (2) identify urban communities that are disproportionately burdened by poor air quality; and (3) estimate reduction in mobile sources of pollutants due to local tree-planting efforts using nitrogen dioxide. Our results show a maximum value of 197% difference between cadastrally-informed dasymetric system (CIDS) and standard estimations of population exposure to degraded air quality for small spatial extent analyses, and a lack of substantial difference for large spatial extent analyses. These results provide the foundation for improving policies for managing air quality, and targeting mitigation efforts to address challenges of environmental justice.

  9. Integrating High-Resolution Datasets to Target Mitigation Efforts for Improving Air Quality and Public Health in Urban Neighborhoods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shandas, Vivek; Voelkel, Jackson; Rao, Meenakshi; George, Linda

    2016-01-01

    Reducing exposure to degraded air quality is essential for building healthy cities. Although air quality and population vary at fine spatial scales, current regulatory and public health frameworks assess human exposures using county- or city-scales. We build on a spatial analysis technique, dasymetric mapping, for allocating urban populations that, together with emerging fine-scale measurements of air pollution, addresses three objectives: (1) evaluate the role of spatial scale in estimating exposure; (2) identify urban communities that are disproportionately burdened by poor air quality; and (3) estimate reduction in mobile sources of pollutants due to local tree-planting efforts using nitrogen dioxide. Our results show a maximum value of 197% difference between cadastrally-informed dasymetric system (CIDS) and standard estimations of population exposure to degraded air quality for small spatial extent analyses, and a lack of substantial difference for large spatial extent analyses. These results provide the foundation for improving policies for managing air quality, and targeting mitigation efforts to address challenges of environmental justice. PMID:27527205

  10. Measurement and estimated health risks of volatile organic compounds and polychlorinated biphenyls in air at the Hanford Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A variety of radioactive and nonradioactive chemicals have been released in effluent streams and discharged to waste disposal facilities during the nuclear materials production period at the Hanford Site. Extensive environmental surveillance for radioactive materials has occurred at Hanford; however, only limited information is available on the types and concentrations of organic pollutants potentially present. This report describes work performed to provide the Hanford Site Surface Environmental Surveillance Project with representative air concentration data for volatile organic compounds and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) volatile organic compound sampling methods evaluated for Hanford Site use were carbon-based adsorbent traps (TO-2) and Summa air canisters (TO-14). Polychlorinated biphenyls were sampled using USEPA method (TO-4), which uses glass fiber filters and polyurethane foam adsorbent beds to collect the PCBS. This report also presents results for environmental surveillance samples collected for volatile organic compound and PCB analyses from 1990 to 1993. All measured air concentrations of volatile organic compounds and PCBs were well below applicable maximum allowable concentration standards for air contaminants. Because of the lack of ambient air concentration standards, a conservative estimate is provided of the potential human health impacts from exposure to the ambient air concentrations measured on the Hanford Site

  11. Hazardous Air Pollutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Facebook Twitter Google+ Pinterest Contact Us Hazardous Air Pollutants Hazardous air pollutants are those known to cause ... protect against adverse environmental effects. About Hazardous Air Pollutants What are hazardous air pollutants? Health and Environmental ...

  12. Behavioural Change, Indoor Air Pollution and Child Respiratory Health in Developing Countries: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Barnes, Brendon R.

    2014-01-01

    Indoor air pollution caused by the indoor burning of solid biomass fuels has been associated with Acute Respiratory Infections such as pneumonia amongst children of less than five years of age. Behavioural change interventions have been identified as a potential strategy to reduce child indoor air pollution exposure, yet very little is known about the impact of behavioural change interventions to reduce indoor air pollution. Even less is known about how behaviour change theory has been incorp...

  13. A Modeling Methodology to Support Evaluation Public Health Impacts on Air Pollution Reduction Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental public health protection requires a good understanding of types and locations of pollutant emissions of health concern and their relationship to environmental public health indicators. Therefore, it is necessary to develop the methodologies, data sources, and tools...

  14. Primary and oxidative DNA damage in salivary leukocytes as a tool for the evaluation of air pollution early biological effects in children: current status of the MAPEC (Monitoring Air Pollution Effects on Children for supporting public health policy) study

    OpenAIRE

    Samuele Vannini; Sara Levorato; Elisabetta Ceretti; Sara Bonetta; Annalaura Carducci; Antonella De Donno; Alessio Perotti; Silvia Bonizzoni; Alberto Bonetti

    2015-01-01

    Background - Air pollution is a global problem: airborne or deposited pollutants are present everywhere on the planet, from highly polluted to remote areas. Twenty per cent of the EU urban population lives in areas where the EU air quality 24-hour limit value for particulate matter (PM10) is exceeded. At present, PM is Europe's most problematic pollutant in terms of harm to health, as reported by European Environmental Agency (EEA) in the EEA Technical Report on Air quality in Europe, 2011. A...

  15. Characterization and health risk assessment of VOCs in occupational environments in Buenos Aires, Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colman Lerner, J. E.; Sanchez, E. Y.; Sambeth, J. E.; Porta, A. A.

    2012-08-01

    To detect volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in indoor air in small enterprises in La Plata city and surrounding areas, sampling was conducted using passive diffusion monitors (3M-3500) and analysis of the samples were performed byCG-FID. Analytic methodology was optimized for 23 VOCs (n-alkanes, cycloalkanes, aromatic and chlorinated compounds, ketones and terpenes compounds) by determining the recovery factor and detection limit for each analyte. Different recovery values were obtained by desorbing with a mixture of dichloromethane: methanol (50:50), with a standard deviation lower than 5%. Enterprise analyzed included chemical analysis laboratories, sewing workrooms, electromechanical repair and car painting centers, take away food shops, and a photocopy center. The highest levels of VOCs were found to be in electromechanical repair and car painting centers (hexane, BTEX, CHCl3, CCl4) followed by chemical analysis laboratories and sewing workrooms. Cancer and noncancer risks were assessed using conventional approaches (HQ and LCR, US EPA) using the benzene, trichloroethylene, chloroform for cancer risk, and toluene, xylene and n-hexane, for noncancer risks as markers. The results showed different LCR for benzene and trichloroethylene between the different indoor environments analyzed (electromechanical repair and car painting center ≫ others) and chloroform (laboratory > others), but comparing with the results obtained by other research, are in similar order of magnitude for equivalents activities. Similar finding were founded for HQ. Comparing these results with the worker protection legislation the electromechanical repair and car painting center and chemical analysis laboratories are close to the limits advised by OSHA and ACGIH. These facts show the importance of the use of abatement technologies for the complete reduction of VOCs levels, to mitigate their impact in the worker's health and their venting to the atmosphere.

  16. Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices (KAP) of the Relationship between Air Pollution and Children’s Respiratory Health in Shanghai, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Rui; Yang, Yingying; Chen, Renjie; Kan, Haidong; Wu, Jinyi; Wang, Keran; Maddock, Jay E.; Lu, Yuanan

    2015-01-01

    To assess the status of, and factors associated with, residents’ knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP) related to air pollution and respiratory health of children in Shanghai, we conducted a cross-sectional survey. Demographic factors associated with residents’ knowledge were identified by multiple logistic regressions. The questionnaires were completed by 972 participants, half from the Shanghai Children Hospital and the other half from the Jiading communities. Half of the participants’ scores of knowledge and attitudes were equal or greater than 8.0 on a 9-point scale, over 75% of respondents’ practice scores were equal to or less than 4.0. Our studies demonstrated a significant difference of average knowledge scores between the two groups (t = 1.27, p air quality and their perception of the government’s efforts to alleviate it. The hospital and community groups also showed significant differences in practices geared towards protecting their children’s health. Nearly 90% of the respondents agreed that improving air quality is the responsibility of every citizen, and the joint action of governments and all citizens should be utilized for enhanced control. In addition, more resources should be allocated towards providing citizens with appropriate practices to help lessen the effects of poor air quality. PMID:25664694

  17. How robust are the estimated effects of air pollution on health? Accounting for model uncertainty using Bayesian model averaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pannullo, Francesca; Lee, Duncan; Waclawski, Eugene; Leyland, Alastair H

    2016-08-01

    The long-term impact of air pollution on human health can be estimated from small-area ecological studies in which the health outcome is regressed against air pollution concentrations and other covariates, such as socio-economic deprivation. Socio-economic deprivation is multi-factorial and difficult to measure, and includes aspects of income, education, and housing as well as others. However, these variables are potentially highly correlated, meaning one can either create an overall deprivation index, or use the individual characteristics, which can result in a variety of pollution-health effects. Other aspects of model choice may affect the pollution-health estimate, such as the estimation of pollution, and spatial autocorrelation model. Therefore, we propose a Bayesian model averaging approach to combine the results from multiple statistical models to produce a more robust representation of the overall pollution-health effect. We investigate the relationship between nitrogen dioxide concentrations and cardio-respiratory mortality in West Central Scotland between 2006 and 2012.

  18. Effects of war exposure on Air Force personnel’s mental health, job burnout and other organizational related outcomes

    OpenAIRE

    Vinokur, Amiram D.; Pierce, Penny F.; Lewandowski-Romps, Lisa; Hobfoll, Stevan E.; Galea, Sandro

    2011-01-01

    Longitudinal data from a stratified representative sample of U.S. Air Force personnel (N = 1009) deployed to the wars in Iraq, Afghanistan, and other locations were analyzed in this study. Using structural equation models, we examined the effects of war exposure on traumatic experiences, Post Traumatic Stress (PTS) symptoms, resource loss, and on subsequent functioning, perceived health, and on job and organizationally relevant outcomes. The job and organizational outcomes included job burnou...

  19. Incidence and prevalence of lupus in Buenos Aires, Argentina: a 11-year health management organisation-based study

    OpenAIRE

    Scolnik, M; Marin, J.; Valeiras, S M; Marchese, M F; Talani, A S; Avellaneda, N L; Etchepare, A; Etchepare, P; Plou, M S; Soriano, E. R.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Studies regarding the epidemiology of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) are lacking in Argentina. Our purpose was to estimate the incidence and prevalence of SLE in a university hospital-based health management organisation in Buenos Aires (HIMCP). Methods For incidence calculation, the population at risk included all adult members of the HIMCP, with continuous affiliation for at least 1 year from January 1998 to January 2009. Each person was followed until he/she voluntarily left...

  20. The modifying effect of socioeconomic status on the relationship between traffic, air pollution and respiratory health in elementary schoolchildren.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cakmak, Sabit; Hebbern, Christopher; Cakmak, Jasmine D; Vanos, Jennifer

    2016-07-15

    The volume and type of traffic and exposure to air pollution have been found to be associated with respiratory health, but few studies have considered the interaction with socioeconomic status at the household level. We investigated the relationships of respiratory health related to traffic type, traffic volume, and air pollution, stratifying by socioeconomic status, based on household income and education, in 3591 schoolchildren in Windsor, Canada. Interquartile range changes in traffic exposure and pollutant levels were linked to respiratory symptoms and objective measures of lung function using generalised linear models for three levels of income and education. In 95% of the relationships among all cases, the odds ratios for reported respiratory symptoms (a decrease in measured lung function), based on an interquartile range change in traffic exposure or pollutant, were greater in the lower income/education groups than the higher, although the odds ratios were in most cases not significant. However, in up to 62% of the cases, the differences between high and low socioeconomic groups were statistically significant, thus indicating socioeconomic status (SES) as a significant effect modifier. Our findings indicate that children from lower socioeconomic households have a higher risk of specific respiratory health problems (chest congestion, wheezing) due to traffic volume and air pollution exposure. PMID:27064731

  1. The modifying effect of socioeconomic status on the relationship between traffic, air pollution and respiratory health in elementary schoolchildren.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cakmak, Sabit; Hebbern, Christopher; Cakmak, Jasmine D; Vanos, Jennifer

    2016-07-15

    The volume and type of traffic and exposure to air pollution have been found to be associated with respiratory health, but few studies have considered the interaction with socioeconomic status at the household level. We investigated the relationships of respiratory health related to traffic type, traffic volume, and air pollution, stratifying by socioeconomic status, based on household income and education, in 3591 schoolchildren in Windsor, Canada. Interquartile range changes in traffic exposure and pollutant levels were linked to respiratory symptoms and objective measures of lung function using generalised linear models for three levels of income and education. In 95% of the relationships among all cases, the odds ratios for reported respiratory symptoms (a decrease in measured lung function), based on an interquartile range change in traffic exposure or pollutant, were greater in the lower income/education groups than the higher, although the odds ratios were in most cases not significant. However, in up to 62% of the cases, the differences between high and low socioeconomic groups were statistically significant, thus indicating socioeconomic status (SES) as a significant effect modifier. Our findings indicate that children from lower socioeconomic households have a higher risk of specific respiratory health problems (chest congestion, wheezing) due to traffic volume and air pollution exposure.

  2. Associations between Parents' Perceived Air Quality in Homes and Health among Children in Nanjing, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua Qian

    Full Text Available The increasing prevalence of respiratory diseases in Chinese children has focused attention on indoor environmental quality. We investigated associations between perceived air quality in domestic environments and children's allergic diseases with a questionnaire survey study. A total of 4017 children aged 1-8 years old from 23 kindergartens in urban, suburban and industrial areas in Nanjing were randomly recruited for this study. Parents' perceived odors, including stuffy odor, unpleasant odor, pungent odor, moldy odor, humid air and dry air were found to be associated with asthma, wheeze, dry cough and rhinitis (P < 0.05. Both perceived dry and humid air were found to be positively associated with dampness indices, and we present evidence that the sensation of dryness may not be due to the actual indoor relative humidity, but rather to indoor air irritants. Parents' perception of odors and relative humidity may be indicators of environment pollutants, which are likely the real factors associated with children's allergic diseases.

  3. Estimation of health and economic costs of air pollution over the Pearl River Delta region in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xingcheng; Yao, Teng; Fung, Jimmy C H; Lin, Changqing

    2016-10-01

    The Pearl River Delta region (PRD) is the economic growth engine of China and also one of the most urbanized regions in the world. As a two-sided sword, rapid economic development causes air pollution and poses adverse health effects to the citizens in this area. This work estimated the negative health effects in the PRD caused by the four major ambient pollutants (SO2, NO2, O3 and PM10) from 2010 to 2013 by using a log linear exposure-response function and the WRF-CMAQ modeling system. Economic loss due to mortality and morbidity was evaluated by the value of statistical life (VSL) and cost of illness (COI) methods. The results show that the overall possible short-term all-cause mortality due to NO2, O3 and PM10 reached the highest in 2013 with the values being 13,217-22,800. The highest total economic loss, which ranged from 14,768 to 25,305million USD, occurred in 2013 and was equivalent to 1.4%-2.3% of the local gross domestic product. The monthly profile of cases of negative health effects varied by city and the types of ambient pollutants. The ratio of mortality attributed to air pollutants to total population was higher in urban areas than in rural areas. People living in the countryside should consider the possible adverse health effects of urban areas before they plan a move to the city. The results show that the health burden caused by the ambient pollutants over this region is serious and suggest that tighter control policies should be implemented in the future to reduce the level of air pollution. PMID:27220091

  4. Maquiladoras, Air Pollution, and Human Health in Ciudad Juarez and El Paso

    OpenAIRE

    Blackman, Allen; Batz, Michael; Evans, David

    2003-01-01

    Ciudad Juárez, Chihuahua, is home to the U.S.–Mexico border’s largest maquiladora labor force, and also its worst air pollution. We marshal two types of evidence to examine the link between maquiladoras and air pollution in Ciudad Juárez, and in its sister city, El Paso, Texas. First, we use a publicly available sector-level emissions inventory for Ciudad Juárez to determine the importance of all industrial facilities (including maquiladoras) as a source of air pollution. Second, we use origi...

  5. Effects of air pollution on children's health in Niš and Niška Banja

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikić Dragana

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Epidemiological studies point out that air pollution in the cities was a major risk for health of the exposed population. In particular, the effects of air pollutants were adverse to the respiratory tract. In Niš and Niška Banja, the concentrations of pollutants were mainly below the threshold values. However, according to the literature, even these concentrations could exert negative effects, especially the health of the most sensitive group, such as the preschool children. The aim of our study was to evaluate the effects of the current levels of air pollutants in the city of Niš on respiratory symptoms and diseases. Methods. A pilot, cohort, retrospective study included 1 385 children of 1-5 years of age from the zones with statistically significant concentrations of air pollutants, in the period after the birth of the children. The prevalence of respiratory symptoms and diseases was determined on the basis of a modified WHO standard questionnaire completed by the parents. Results. It was revealed that in the more polluted of the studied zones, the prevalence of some respiratory symptoms (cough with cold and phlegm, and the lower respiratory tract diseases was significantly higher. Conclusion. The results of our study showed that the current concentrations of air pollutants in Niš and Niška Banja could represent the important etiological factor for the development of respiratory symptoms and diseases. Our study showed that in the children of up to 5 years of age, the frequency of respiratory symptoms and diseases was significantly higher in more polluted than in less polluted environments.

  6. [The direct health effects of air pollution in Vratsa in 1991].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabakova, S; Koleva, Ts; Petrov, P; Simeonov, G

    1993-01-01

    The effect of air pollution in the town of Vratsa on the daily morbidity of the population has been studied during the first half of 1991. Studies are performed on the correlation between the daily dynamics in the pollution according to specific for the town indices ammonia, hydrogen sulfide, sulphur dioxide, nitric oxides, dust, meteorological parameters temperature of the air, relative humidity, air velocity, barometric pressure and some respiratory and allergic diseases among the population. It is already established that the level of the air pollution in the town of Vratsa, among which dominate ammonia and hydrogen sulfide, have a direct effect on the acute respiratory morbidity, more expressed among the children. This influence is traced both in episodes of increased pollution, and in the course of several days afterwards and is conductive by the combination of unfavourable meteorological conditions, hindering the dispersion of the atmospheric pollutants.

  7. Environmental Impacts of the U.S. Health Care System and Effects on Public Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckelman, Matthew J.; Sherman, Jodi

    2016-01-01

    The U.S. health care sector is highly interconnected with industrial activities that emit much of the nation’s pollution to air, water, and soils. We estimate emissions directly and indirectly attributable to the health care sector, and potential harmful effects on public health. Negative environmental and public health outcomes were estimated through economic input-output life cycle assessment (EIOLCA) modeling using National Health Expenditures (NHE) for the decade 2003–2013 and compared to national totals. In 2013, the health care sector was also responsible for significant fractions of national air pollution emissions and impacts, including acid rain (12%), greenhouse gas emissions (10%), smog formation (10%) criteria air pollutants (9%), stratospheric ozone depletion (1%), and carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic air toxics (1–2%). The largest contributors to impacts are discussed from both the supply side (EIOLCA economic sectors) and demand side (NHE categories), as are trends over the study period. Health damages from these pollutants are estimated at 470,000 DALYs lost from pollution-related disease, or 405,000 DALYs when adjusted for recent shifts in power generation sector emissions. These indirect health burdens are commensurate with the 44,000–98,000 people who die in hospitals each year in the U.S. as a result of preventable medical errors, but are currently not attributed to our health system. Concerted efforts to improve environmental performance of health care could reduce expenditures directly through waste reduction and energy savings, and indirectly through reducing pollution burden on public health, and ought to be included in efforts to improve health care quality and safety. PMID:27280706

  8. Environmental Impacts of the U.S. Health Care System and Effects on Public Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckelman, Matthew J; Sherman, Jodi

    2016-01-01

    The U.S. health care sector is highly interconnected with industrial activities that emit much of the nation's pollution to air, water, and soils. We estimate emissions directly and indirectly attributable to the health care sector, and potential harmful effects on public health. Negative environmental and public health outcomes were estimated through economic input-output life cycle assessment (EIOLCA) modeling using National Health Expenditures (NHE) for the decade 2003-2013 and compared to national totals. In 2013, the health care sector was also responsible for significant fractions of national air pollution emissions and impacts, including acid rain (12%), greenhouse gas emissions (10%), smog formation (10%) criteria air pollutants (9%), stratospheric ozone depletion (1%), and carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic air toxics (1-2%). The largest contributors to impacts are discussed from both the supply side (EIOLCA economic sectors) and demand side (NHE categories), as are trends over the study period. Health damages from these pollutants are estimated at 470,000 DALYs lost from pollution-related disease, or 405,000 DALYs when adjusted for recent shifts in power generation sector emissions. These indirect health burdens are commensurate with the 44,000-98,000 people who die in hospitals each year in the U.S. as a result of preventable medical errors, but are currently not attributed to our health system. Concerted efforts to improve environmental performance of health care could reduce expenditures directly through waste reduction and energy savings, and indirectly through reducing pollution burden on public health, and ought to be included in efforts to improve health care quality and safety. PMID:27280706

  9. Economic Status, Air Quality, and Child Health: Evidence from Inversion Episodes

    OpenAIRE

    Jans, Jenny; Johansson, Per; Nilsson, Peter

    2014-01-01

    On normal days, the temperature decreases with altitude, allowing air pollutants to rise and disperse. During inversion episodes, a warmer air layer at higher altitude traps pollutants close to the ground. We show how readily available NASA satellite data on vertical temperature profiles can be used to measure inversion episodes on a global scale with high spatial and temporal resolution. Then, we link inversion episode data to ground level pollution monitors and to daily in- and outpatient r...

  10. Behavioural Change, Indoor Air Pollution and Child Respiratory Health in Developing Countries: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brendon R. Barnes

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Indoor air pollution caused by the indoor burning of solid biomass fuels has been associated with Acute Respiratory Infections such as pneumonia amongst children of less than five years of age. Behavioural change interventions have been identified as a potential strategy to reduce child indoor air pollution exposure, yet very little is known about the impact of behavioural change interventions to reduce indoor air pollution. Even less is known about how behaviour change theory has been incorporated into indoor air pollution behaviour change interventions. A review of published studies spanning 1983–2013 suggests that behavioural change strategies have the potential to reduce indoor air pollution exposure by 20%–98% in laboratory settings and 31%–94% in field settings. However, the evidence is: (1 based on studies that are methodologically weak; and (2 have little or no underlying theory. The paper concludes with a call for more rigorous studies to evaluate the role of behavioural change strategies (with or without improved technologies to reduce indoor air pollution exposure in developing countries as well as interventions that draw more strongly on existing behavioural change theory and practice.

  11. Behavioural change, indoor air pollution and child respiratory health in developing countries: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Brendon R

    2014-05-01

    Indoor air pollution caused by the indoor burning of solid biomass fuels has been associated with Acute Respiratory Infections such as pneumonia amongst children of less than five years of age. Behavioural change interventions have been identified as a potential strategy to reduce child indoor air pollution exposure, yet very little is known about the impact of behavioural change interventions to reduce indoor air pollution. Even less is known about how behaviour change theory has been incorporated into indoor air pollution behaviour change interventions. A review of published studies spanning 1983-2013 suggests that behavioural change strategies have the potential to reduce indoor air pollution exposure by 20%-98% in laboratory settings and 31%-94% in field settings. However, the evidence is: (1) based on studies that are methodologically weak; and (2) have little or no underlying theory. The paper concludes with a call for more rigorous studies to evaluate the role of behavioural change strategies (with or without improved technologies) to reduce indoor air pollution exposure in developing countries as well as interventions that draw more strongly on existing behavioural change theory and practice. PMID:24776723

  12. Use of health care and drugs by police officers 8.5 years after the air disaster in Amsterdam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slottje, Pauline; Smidt, Nynke; Twisk, Jos W R; Huizink, Anja C; Witteveen, Anke B; van Mechelen, Willem; Smid, Tjabe

    2008-02-01

    This study examined the use of health care by police officers after the air disaster in Amsterdam. On average 8.5 years post-disaster, involved police officers (n = 834, who reported disaster-related tasks), and their non-involved colleagues (n = 634) completed questionnaires on disaster involvement and health care in the preceding 12 months. Logistic regression showed that involved police officers more often used drugs on their own initiative, sleeping pills or tranquillisers, and consulted a general practitioner or medical specialist, a paramedical specialist, and a privately practicing psychologist or psychiatrist. Thus, even after years, police officers involved in disaster work may use more self-initiated health care. PMID:17644527

  13. Indoor environmental and air quality characteristics, building-related health symptoms, and worker productivity in a federal government building complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukcso, David; Guidotti, Tee Lamont; Franklin, Donald E; Burt, Allan

    2016-01-01

    Building Health Sciences, Inc. (BHS), investigated environmental conditions by many modalities in 71 discreet areas of 12 buildings in a government building complex that had experienced persistent occupant complaints despite correction of deficiencies following a prior survey. An online health survey was completed by 7,637 building occupants (49% response rate), a subset of whom voluntarily wore personal sampling apparatus and underwent medical evaluation. Building environmental measures were within current standards and guidelines, with few outliers. Four environmental factors were consistently associated with group-level building-related health complaints: physical comfort/discomfort, odor, job stress, and glare. Several other factors were frequently commented on by participants, including cleanliness, renovation and construction activities, and noise. Low relative humidity was significantly associated with lower respiratory and "sick building syndrome"-type symptoms. No other environmental conditions (including formaldehyde, PM10 [particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter conditions, or together, were hierarchically associated with the following: increased absence, increased presenteeism (presence at work but at reduced capacity), and increase in reported symptom-days, including symptoms not related to respiratory disease. We found that in buildings without unusual hazards and with environmental and air quality indicators within the range of acceptable indoor air quality standards, there is an identifiable population of occupants with a high prevalence of asthma and allergic disease who disproportionately report discomfort and lost productivity due to symptoms and that in "normal" buildings these outcome indicators are more closely associated with host factors than with environmental conditions. We concluded from the experience of this study that building-related health complaints should be investigated at the work-area level and not at a building

  14. Indoor environmental and air quality characteristics, building-related health symptoms, and worker productivity in a federal government building complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukcso, David; Guidotti, Tee Lamont; Franklin, Donald E; Burt, Allan

    2016-01-01

    Building Health Sciences, Inc. (BHS), investigated environmental conditions by many modalities in 71 discreet areas of 12 buildings in a government building complex that had experienced persistent occupant complaints despite correction of deficiencies following a prior survey. An online health survey was completed by 7,637 building occupants (49% response rate), a subset of whom voluntarily wore personal sampling apparatus and underwent medical evaluation. Building environmental measures were within current standards and guidelines, with few outliers. Four environmental factors were consistently associated with group-level building-related health complaints: physical comfort/discomfort, odor, job stress, and glare. Several other factors were frequently commented on by participants, including cleanliness, renovation and construction activities, and noise. Low relative humidity was significantly associated with lower respiratory and "sick building syndrome"-type symptoms. No other environmental conditions (including formaldehyde, PM10 [particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter air quality indicators within the range of acceptable indoor air quality standards, there is an identifiable population of occupants with a high prevalence of asthma and allergic disease who disproportionately report discomfort and lost productivity due to symptoms and that in "normal" buildings these outcome indicators are more closely associated with host factors than with environmental conditions. We concluded from the experience of this study that building-related health complaints should be investigated at the work-area level and not at a building-wide level. An occupant-centric medical evaluation should guide environmental investigations, especially when screening results of building indoor environmental and air quality measurements show that the building and its work areas are within regulatory standards and industry guidelines.

  15. ASSESSMENT OF SO2 CONCENTRATION IN AMBIENT AIR AND ITS IMPACT ON HUMAN HEALTH IN THE CITY OF GWALIOR, INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ishfaq Ahmad

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Gwalior is a historical and major city in the Indian state of Madhya Pradesh. It is located south of Delhi the capital city of India, and 423 kilometers north of Bhopal, the state capital. Gwalior is being called as The Heart of Incredible India. Gwalior is surrounded by industrial and commercial zones of neighboring districts (Malanpur – Bhind, Banmor – Morena on all three main directions. Rapid increase in urbanization with vehicle congestion has increased enormously on the roads of Gwalior city. As a result of this, gaseous pollutants (SOx, NOx and Respirable and suspended particulate matter pollutants are continuously increasing in the ambient air of Gwalior city. Levels of SO2 were monitored at 4 locations of Gwalior city by using high volume air sampler (Envirotech APM 415 and 411. The average ambient air concentration of SO2 was found below the permissible limits of NAAQS of CPCB at all the sites. Comparatively somewhat higher concentration of SO2 was observed during these months. A health survey was also carried out which demonstrated that symptoms were developed such as sneezing, sore throat, shortness of breath, wheezing, chest tightness, skin irritation, nausea etc. In this study, an exposure–response assessment (aged 10 to 60 years was carried out related to health problems due to vehicular pollution between the months of November-2013 to May-2014 (winter. The main objectives of this study are to investigate the state of vehicular emission in Gwalior and to investigate the impact of vehicular emission on people.

  16. Applicability of the Environmental Relative Moldiness Index for Quantification of Residential Mold Contamination in an Air Pollution Health Effects Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamal, Ali; Vesper, Stephen; Batterman, Stuart; Godwin, Christopher; Chavez-Camarena, Marina; Norris, Gary

    2014-01-01

    The Near-Road Exposures and Effects of Urban Air Pollutants Study (NEXUS) investigated the impact of exposure to traffic-related air pollution on the respiratory health of asthmatic children in Detroit, Michigan. Since indoor mold exposure may also contribute to asthma, floor dust samples were collected in participants homes (n = 112) to assess mold contamination using the Environmental Relative Moldiness Index (ERMI). The repeatability of the ERMI over time, as well as ERMI differences between rooms and dust collection methods, was evaluated for insights into the application of the ERMI metric. ERMI values for the standard settled floor dust samples had a mean ± standard deviation of 14.5 ± 7.9, indicating high levels of mold contamination. ERMI values for samples collected from the same home 1 to 7 months apart (n = 52) were consistent and without systematic bias. ERMI values for separate bedroom and living room samples were highly correlated (r = 0.69, n = 66). Vacuum bag dust ERMI values were lower than for floor dust but correlated (r = 0.58, n = 28). These results support the use of the ERMI to evaluate residential mold exposure as a confounder in air pollution health effects studies. PMID:25431602

  17. Applicability of the Environmental Relative Moldiness Index for Quantification of Residential Mold Contamination in an Air Pollution Health Effects Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Kamal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Near-Road Exposures and Effects of Urban Air Pollutants Study (NEXUS investigated the impact of exposure to traffic-related air pollution on the respiratory health of asthmatic children in Detroit, Michigan. Since indoor mold exposure may also contribute to asthma, floor dust samples were collected in participants homes (n=112 to assess mold contamination using the Environmental Relative Moldiness Index (ERMI. The repeatability of the ERMI over time, as well as ERMI differences between rooms and dust collection methods, was evaluated for insights into the application of the ERMI metric. ERMI values for the standard settled floor dust samples had a mean ± standard deviation of 14.5±7.9, indicating high levels of mold contamination. ERMI values for samples collected from the same home 1 to 7 months apart (n=52 were consistent and without systematic bias. ERMI values for separate bedroom and living room samples were highly correlated (r=0.69, n=66. Vacuum bag dust ERMI values were lower than for floor dust but correlated (r=0.58, n=28. These results support the use of the ERMI to evaluate residential mold exposure as a confounder in air pollution health effects studies.

  18. Salud auto-referida y desigualdades sociales, ciudad de Buenos Aires, Argentina, 2005 Self-rated health and social inequalities, Buenos Aires, Argentina, 2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcio Alazraqui

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available La salud auto-referida es un indicador de calidad de vida. ¿Cuál es el impacto de las características socioeconómicas a nivel individual y a nivel de la vecindad, consideradas simultáneamente, en el estado de salud auto-referida a nivel individual? Diseño de análisis multinivel con dos niveles: individual y vecindad. Las fuentes de información fueron: Encuesta Nacional de Factores de Riesgo (muestreo probabilístico multietápico y Censo Poblacional. La regresión lineal muestra que mayores niveles de educación, de ingresos y de categoría laboral se relacionan con mejor salud auto-referida; y el aumento de la edad con peor salud. En el análisis multinivel, a medida que la proporción de individuos con educación inferior aumentaba en la fracción censal, aumentaba también la proporción de individuos con peor salud auto-referida. Mejorar la salud general de la población requerirá estrategias y acciones que disminuyan los niveles de desigualdad social en sus múltiples dimensiones, individual y de vecindad.Self-rated health is a quality-of-life indicator. This study investigates the impact of individual-level and neighborhood-level socioeconomic characteristics, considered simultaneously, on the state of self-rated health at the individual level in Buenos Aires, Argentina. The study employs a two-level (individual and neighborhood multilevel analysis, and the data sources were the 2005 Argentina National Risk Factor Survey (multistage probabilistic sample and the 2001 Population Census. Linear regression shows that higher schooling and income, as well as occupational category, are related to better self-rated health, and increasing age with worse health. In the multilevel analysis, an increase in the proportion (per census tract of individuals with less schooling was associated with an increase in the proportion of individuals with worse self-rated health. Improving the general health of the population requires strategies and action

  19. Causation mechanism analysis for haze pollution related to vehicle emission in Guangzhou, China by employing the fault tree approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Weiqing; Fan, Hongbo; Qiu, Yongfu; Cheng, Zhiyu; Xu, Pingru; Qian, Yu

    2016-05-01

    Recently, China has frequently experienced large-scale, severe and persistent haze pollution due to surging urbanization and industrialization and a rapid growth in the number of motor vehicles and energy consumption. The vehicle emission due to the consumption of a large number of fossil fuels is no doubt a critical factor of the haze pollution. This work is focused on the causation mechanism of haze pollution related to the vehicle emission for Guangzhou city by employing the Fault Tree Analysis (FTA) method for the first time. With the establishment of the fault tree system of "Haze weather-Vehicle exhausts explosive emission", all of the important risk factors are discussed and identified by using this deductive FTA method. The qualitative and quantitative assessments of the fault tree system are carried out based on the structure, probability and critical importance degree analysis of the risk factors. The study may provide a new simple and effective tool/strategy for the causation mechanism analysis and risk management of haze pollution in China. PMID:26923237

  20. Causation mechanism analysis for haze pollution related to vehicle emission in Guangzhou, China by employing the fault tree approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Weiqing; Fan, Hongbo; Qiu, Yongfu; Cheng, Zhiyu; Xu, Pingru; Qian, Yu

    2016-05-01

    Recently, China has frequently experienced large-scale, severe and persistent haze pollution due to surging urbanization and industrialization and a rapid growth in the number of motor vehicles and energy consumption. The vehicle emission due to the consumption of a large number of fossil fuels is no doubt a critical factor of the haze pollution. This work is focused on the causation mechanism of haze pollution related to the vehicle emission for Guangzhou city by employing the Fault Tree Analysis (FTA) method for the first time. With the establishment of the fault tree system of "Haze weather-Vehicle exhausts explosive emission", all of the important risk factors are discussed and identified by using this deductive FTA method. The qualitative and quantitative assessments of the fault tree system are carried out based on the structure, probability and critical importance degree analysis of the risk factors. The study may provide a new simple and effective tool/strategy for the causation mechanism analysis and risk management of haze pollution in China.

  1. Effect of air pollution and racism on ethnic differences in respiratory health among adolescents living in an urban environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astell-Burt, Thomas; Maynard, Maria J; Lenguerrand, Erik; Whitrow, Melissa J; Molaodi, Oarabile R; Harding, Seeromanie

    2013-09-01

    Recent studies suggest that stress can amplify the harm of air pollution. We examined whether experience of racism and exposure to particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter of less than 2.5 µm and 10 µm (PM2.5 and PM10) had a synergistic influence on ethnic differences in asthma and lung function across adolescence. Analyses using multilevel models showed lower forced expiratory volume (FEV1), forced vital capacity (FVC) and lower rates of asthma among some ethnic minorities compared to Whites, but higher exposure to PM2.5, PM10 and racism. Racism appeared to amplify the relationship between asthma and air pollution for all ethnic groups, but did not explain ethnic differences in respiratory health.

  2. Gender Differences in Respiratory Health of School Children Exposed to Rail Yard-Generated Air Pollution: The ENRRICH Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer-Hwang, Rhonda; Soret, Sam; Ghamsary, Mark; Rizzo, Nico; Baum, Marti; Juma, David; Montgomery, Susanne

    2016-01-01

    Studies about environmental burdens often explore overall community risk. Increasing evidence suggests, however, differential burdens by gender and age. The purpose of the authors' research was to determine if gender-related difference exists among children in a region plagued with poor air quality and if increased exposure to pollutants from a major goods movement rail yard influences the relationship. Using a cross-sectional study design, the authors provided respiratory screening for children at two elementary schools. Compared to females, males were at significantly greater odds of exhibiting elevated fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) but less likely to exhibit reduced lung volume. Even in an area of overall poor air quality, the authors found that male children were a vulnerable subpopulation for greater elevated FeNO, while females were at increased risk for reduced lung capacity. Understanding differential burdens in vulnerable subpopulations is critical to providing timely and responsive strategies targeted towards health-based prevention and intervention activities.

  3. Air pollution around the Keihin heavy chemical industrial zone, and living environment and health injury in the inhabitants therein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyazaki, I.

    1975-08-01

    A survey of air pollution levels and the health of high school pupils and their parents was conducted in a heavily industrialized area of Kawasaki, Japan. The concentration of sulfur oxides in 1974 was about half of that in 1970 (0.029 ppM). The concentration of nitrogen oxides ranged from 0.030 to 0.040 ppM. There was a correlation between the concentrations of oxides of sulfur nitrogen. According to questionnaires, about 32 percent of the inhabitants showed concern about air pollution and photochemical smog. About 22 percent of the inhabitants complained of symptoms such as cold, rhinitis, and pharyngitis; and there was a correlation between total subjective symptoms and concentration of sulfur oxides. Near roadsides the concentration of nitrogen oxides was very high. Green plants are gradually disappearing from the heavily polluted area. Further industrialization in this area appears to be very dangerous for man and other living things.

  4. Possible health effects of energy conservation: impairment of indoor air quality due to reduction of ventilation rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Efforts to reduce the energy needs to heat or cool dwellings have the potential to create new health hazards. Increases in indoor levels of radon and its progeny from the reduction in air exchange rates add a substantial radioactive burden to the general population. Other indoor pollutants reaching critical concentrations in homes with low air exchange rates are CO and NO2 from unvented combustion in gas stoves and heaters, tobacco smoke, and asbestos fibers. In addition, insulation materials and certain types of furniture may contribute the toxicant formaldehyde diffusing from foam injected walls or chipboard. Risk estimations using linear dose-response relationships show risk factors per kWh saved which are orders of magnitude greater than for a kWh produced by large power plants using coal, oil, gas, or uranium. (author)

  5. Monitoring the effect of air pollution episodes on health care consultations and ambulance call-outs in England during March/April 2014: A retrospective observational analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliot, Alex J; Smith, Sue; Dobney, Alec; Thornes, John; Smith, Gillian E; Vardoulakis, Sotiris

    2016-07-01

    There is an increasing body of evidence illustrating the negative health effects of air pollution including increased risk of respiratory, cardiac and other morbid conditions. During March and April 2014 there were two air pollution episodes in England that occurred in close succession. We used national real-time syndromic surveillance systems, including general practitioner (GP) consultations, emergency department attendances, telehealth calls and ambulance dispatch calls to further understand the impact of these short term acute air pollution periods on the health seeking behaviour of the general public. Each air pollution period was comparable with respect to particulate matter concentrations (PM10 and PM2.5), however, the second period was longer in duration (6 days vs 3 days) and meteorologically driven 'Sahara dust' contributed to the pollution. Health surveillance data revealed a greater impact during the second period, with GP consultations, emergency department attendances and telehealth (NHS 111) calls increasing for asthma, wheeze and difficulty breathing indicators, particularly in patients aged 15-64 years. Across regions of England there was good agreement between air quality levels and health care seeking behaviour. The results further demonstrate the acute impact of short term air pollution episodes on public health and also illustrate the potential role of mass media reporting in escalating health care seeking behaviour.

  6. Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices (KAP of the Relationship between Air Pollution and Children’s Respiratory Health in Shanghai, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Wang

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available To assess the status of, and factors associated with, residents’ knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP related to air pollution and respiratory health of children in Shanghai, we conducted a cross-sectional survey. Demographic factors associated with residents’ knowledge were identified by multiple logistic regressions. The questionnaires were completed by 972 participants, half from the Shanghai Children Hospital and the other half from the Jiading communities. Half of the participants’ scores of knowledge and attitudes were equal or greater than 8.0 on a 9-point scale, over 75% of respondents’ practice scores were equal to or less than 4.0. Our studies demonstrated a significant difference of average knowledge scores between the two groups (t = 1.27, p < 0.05. The parents’ educational level (OR = 1.89, 2.48 and average annual household income (AAHI (OR = 2.37, 2.40, 2.12 were the two strongest factors on knowledge awareness. In addition, statistical analysis revealed a significant difference between the two groups in their attitudes towards air quality and their perception of the government’s efforts to alleviate it. The hospital and community groups also showed significant differences in practices geared towards protecting their children’s health. Nearly 90% of the respondents agreed that improving air quality is the responsibility of every citizen, and the joint action of governments and all citizens should be utilized for enhanced control. In addition, more resources should be allocated towards providing citizens with appropriate practices to help lessen the effects of poor air quality.

  7. Air pollution, health and social deprivation: A fine-scale risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morelli, Xavier; Rieux, Camille; Cyrys, Josef; Forsberg, Bertil; Slama, Rémy

    2016-05-01

    Risk assessment studies often ignore within-city variations of air pollutants. Our objective was to quantify the risk associated with fine particulate matter (PM2.5) exposure in 2 urban areas using fine-scale air pollution modeling and to characterize how this risk varied according to social deprivation. In Grenoble and Lyon areas (0.4 and 1.2 million inhabitants, respectively) in 2012, PM2.5 exposure was estimated on a 10×10m grid by coupling a dispersion model to population density. Outcomes were mortality, lung cancer and term low birth weight incidences. Cases attributable to air pollution were estimated overall and stratifying areas according to the European Deprivation Index (EDI), taking 10µg/m(3) yearly average as reference (counterfactual) level. Estimations were repeated assuming spatial homogeneity of air pollutants within urban area. Median PM2.5 levels were 18.1 and 19.6μg/m(3) in Grenoble and Lyon urban areas, respectively, corresponding to 114 (5.1% of total, 95% confidence interval, CI, 3.2-7.0%) and 491 non-accidental deaths (6.0% of total, 95% CI 3.7-8.3%) attributable to long-term exposure to PM2.5, respectively. Attributable term low birth weight cases represented 23.6% of total cases (9.0-37.1%) in Grenoble and 27.6% of cases (10.7-42.6%) in Lyon. In Grenoble, 6.8% of incident lung cancer cases were attributable to air pollution (95% CI 3.1-10.1%). Risk was lower by 8 to 20% when estimating exposure through background stations. Risk was highest in neighborhoods with intermediate to higher social deprivation. Risk assessment studies relying on background stations to estimate air pollution levels may underestimate the attributable risk.

  8. Air pollution, health and social deprivation: A fine-scale risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morelli, Xavier; Rieux, Camille; Cyrys, Josef; Forsberg, Bertil; Slama, Rémy

    2016-05-01

    Risk assessment studies often ignore within-city variations of air pollutants. Our objective was to quantify the risk associated with fine particulate matter (PM2.5) exposure in 2 urban areas using fine-scale air pollution modeling and to characterize how this risk varied according to social deprivation. In Grenoble and Lyon areas (0.4 and 1.2 million inhabitants, respectively) in 2012, PM2.5 exposure was estimated on a 10×10m grid by coupling a dispersion model to population density. Outcomes were mortality, lung cancer and term low birth weight incidences. Cases attributable to air pollution were estimated overall and stratifying areas according to the European Deprivation Index (EDI), taking 10µg/m(3) yearly average as reference (counterfactual) level. Estimations were repeated assuming spatial homogeneity of air pollutants within urban area. Median PM2.5 levels were 18.1 and 19.6μg/m(3) in Grenoble and Lyon urban areas, respectively, corresponding to 114 (5.1% of total, 95% confidence interval, CI, 3.2-7.0%) and 491 non-accidental deaths (6.0% of total, 95% CI 3.7-8.3%) attributable to long-term exposure to PM2.5, respectively. Attributable term low birth weight cases represented 23.6% of total cases (9.0-37.1%) in Grenoble and 27.6% of cases (10.7-42.6%) in Lyon. In Grenoble, 6.8% of incident lung cancer cases were attributable to air pollution (95% CI 3.1-10.1%). Risk was lower by 8 to 20% when estimating exposure through background stations. Risk was highest in neighborhoods with intermediate to higher social deprivation. Risk assessment studies relying on background stations to estimate air pollution levels may underestimate the attributable risk. PMID:26852006

  9. A Non-linear Eulerian Approach for Assessment of Health-cost Externalities of Air Pollution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mikael Skou; Frohn, Lise Marie; Nielsen, Jytte Seested;

    Integrated assessment models which are used in Europe to account for the external costs of air pollution as a support for policy-making and cost-benefit analysis have in order to cope with complexity resorted to simplifications of the non-linear dynamics of atmospheric sciences. In this paper we...... explore the possible significance of such simplifications by reviewing the improvements that result from applying a state-of-the-art atmospheric model for regional transport and non-linear chemical transformations of air pollutants to the impact-pathway approach of the ExternE-method. The more rigorous...

  10. The relationship between health complaints, the quality of indoor air and housing characteristics

    OpenAIRE

    Hady, M.; van Ginkel, J.T.; Hasselaar, E.; Schrijvers, G.

    2009-01-01

    The energy performance for new houses in the Netherlands increased during the last decade with 45%. A shift from Conventional Mechanical Ventilation (natural inlet and mechanical exhaust or CMV) to balanced flow Heat Recovery Ventilation (HRV) can be seen. Several occupants of the newly constructed neighbourhood of Vathorst in Amersfoort reported health complaints that they relate to HRV. The regional Health Board commissioned a study on health complaints and indoor environmental quality in r...

  11. The air quality and human health effects of integrating utility-scale batteries into the New York State electricity grid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmore, Elisabeth A.; Apt, Jay; Walawalkar, Rahul; Adams, Peter J.; Lave, Lester B.

    In a restructured electricity market, utility-scale energy storage technologies such as advanced batteries can generate revenue by charging at low electricity prices and discharging at high prices. This strategy changes the magnitude and distribution of air quality emissions and the total carbon dioxide (CO 2) emissions. We evaluate the social costs associated with these changes using a case study of 500 MW sodium-sulfur battery installations with 80% round-trip efficiency. The batteries displace peaking generators in New York City and charge using off-peak generation in the New York Independent System Operator (NYISO) electricity grid during the summer. We identify and map charging and displaced plant types to generators in the NYISO. We then convert the emissions into ambient concentrations with a chemical transport model, the Particulate Matter Comprehensive Air Quality Model with extensions (PMCAM x). Finally, we transform the concentrations into their equivalent human health effects and social benefits and costs. Reductions in premature mortality from fine particulate matter (PM 2.5) result in a benefit of 4.5 ¢ kWh -1 and 17 ¢ kWh -1 from displacing a natural gas and distillate fuel oil fueled peaking plant, respectively, in New York City. Ozone (O 3) concentrations increase due to decreases in nitrogen oxide (NO x) emissions, although the magnitude of the social cost is less certain. Adding the costs from charging, displacing a distillate fuel oil plant yields a net social benefit, while displacing the natural gas plant has a net social cost. With the existing base-load capacity, the upstate population experiences an increase in adverse health effects. If wind generation is charging the battery, both the upstate charging location and New York City benefit. At 20 per tonne of CO 2, the costs from CO 2 are small compared to those from air quality. We conclude that storage could be added to existing electricity grids as part of an integrated strategy from a

  12. Assessment of Air Pollution and its Effects on Health of Workers of Steel Re-Rolling Mills in Hyderabad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Altaf Alam Noonari

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The SRRMs (Steel Re-Rolling Mills are being releasing air pollutants in the environment. In order to evaluate their effect on the health of the workers, health and safety issues were analyzed by first measuring the concentrations of SO x (OIxides of Sulphur, NO x (Oxides of Nitrogen, CO (Carbon Monoxide and O2 (Oxygen produced in the three SRRMs located in SITE area Hyderabad. The mean concentration of SO x , NO x and CO were in the order of 0.35, 0.280, 6.333 ppm, respectively, whereas the mean concentration of O 2 was 203.53 thousand ppm. As per results, the concentration ofair pollutants, including SOx and NO x were significantly higher than to the NEQS (National Environmental Quality Standards and NAAQS (National Ambient Air Quality Standards. The concentration ofCO was lower than to the NAAQS, but higher than to the NEQs, while the concentration of O2 was slightly lower than to the standard value. The workers who were exposed to these air pollutants are being suffering from chronic diseases related to breathing and allergies. Moreover, labour staff was lifting heavy loads manually, which causes them to muscular and joint problems. In all the SRRMs under study, the electrical and mechanical equipments were used without any safety. The MSDS were not displayed on the workstations, the housekeeping was inadequate and most of the workers were performing their jobs without personal protective equipment. In addition to these, the other serious issues related to the occupational health and safety were an unhygienic supply of water, higher noise level, placement of explosive cylinders in the open atmosphere and unavailability of the first aid facilities in the Mill premises.

  13. [Prevention of cervical and breast cancer in health services and non-governmental organizations in the city of Buenos Aires].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponce, Marisa

    2013-08-01

    The article analyzes actions for the prevention of cervical and breast cancer in public, private, and employment-based health services and in non-governmental organizations in the city of Buenos Aires. The article seeks to reflect on the reach and limitations of the approaches implemented in the three subsectors of the health care system and the community to prevent women from suffering or eventually dying as a consequence of these diseases, in the fragmented context of a health system with great heterogeneity in access and deep social inequalities in the use of preventive actions. The study utilizes a broad definition of prevention which integrates education, awareness-building and early detection of pre-carcinogenic and carcinogenic lesions, among other medical and non-medical components. The results were obtained using semi-structured interviews with subjects from public hospitals, employment-based health care services, private medical companies and non-governmental organizations with work in cancer prevention. These results show that contrary to a comprehensive approach, each institution limits its actions to only one aspect of prevention, implementing predominately isolated or disconnected actions inadequate to generate an autonomous and well-informed demand for treatment and health care among women. PMID:23989627

  14. Preliminary assessment of the health and environmental effects of coal utilization in the midwest. Volume I. Energy scenarios, technology characterizations, air and water resource impacts, and health effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1977-01-01

    An initial evaluation of the major health and environmental issues associated with increased coal use in the six midwestern states of Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Minnesota, Ohio, and Wisconsin is presented. Using an integrated assessment approach, the evaluation proceeds from a base-line scenario of energy demand and facility siting for the period 1975 to 2020. Emphasis is placed on impacts from coal extraction, land reclamation, coal combustion for electrical generation, and coal gasification. The range of potential impacts and constraints is illustrated by a second scenario that represents an expected upper limit for coal utilization in Illinois. Included are: (1) a characterization of the energy demand and siting scenarios, coal related technologies, and coal resources, and (2) the related impacts on air quality, water availability, water quality, and human health.

  15. 77 FR 33742 - Announcement of Requirements and Registration for “My Air, My Health Challenge”

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-07

    ... of those connections. New portable sensors have the potential to transform the way we measure and... future in which powerful, affordable, and portable sensors provide a rich awareness of environmental... air quality and physiologic sensors, and experimental analysis tools for handling data that is...

  16. Air pollution and respiratory health of children: the PEACE panel study in Umea., Sweden.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Forsberg, B.; Segerstedt, B.; Stjernberg, N.; Roemer, W.

    1998-01-01

    The Pollution Effects on Asthmatic Children in Europe (PEACE) study examined the acute effects of short-term changes in air pollution on symptomatic children. We were one of 14 research centres in Europe that used a common study protocol. Seventy five children in an urban panel and 72 children in a

  17. Air pollutant monitoring for the East Bay Children's Respiratory Health Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singer, Brett C.; Hotchi, Toshifumi; Hodgson, Alfred T.

    2002-11-01

    This report describes the methodology and presents the summary results of the air pollutant monitoring program conducted by Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory in support of the East Bay Children's Respiratory Health Study. The full study is examining the effects of chronic exposure to traffic-related pollutants on respiratory health among 3rd and 4th grade children attending ten neighborhood elementary schools in the San Francisco East Bay Area (Hayward, San Leandro and Oakland, CA). The demographically similar schools are located at varying distances from the I-880 and CA-92 freeways. Several schools were selected because they are located within 300 m in the predominant downwind direction (east) from either of the freeways. Measurements of multiple pollutants were made outdoors at the schools over 1-2 week intervals for 14 weeks in spring and eight weeks in fall 2001 using a custom-designed and validated package of commercially available monitoring equipment. Particulate matter was sampled over all hours (24 h per day) or during schools hours only with battery-operated programmable pumps and inlet devices for PM{sub 10} and PM{sub 2.5}. These pumps were modified to allow for up to 10 days of continuous operation. Fine particle mass and black carbon (BC) were determined from the collected filters. Nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x} and NO{sub 2}) were measured with passive samplers. Carbon monoxide (CO) was measured continuously with an electrochemical sensor. Gasoline-related volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were measured with passive samplers during three 4-week intervals in spring 2001 and two 4-week periods in early 2002. All samplers were deployed in a metal cabinet located outside at each school. Ranges of study average pollutant concentrations (all-hours) at the ten individual schools were: NO{sub x}, 33-68 ppb; NO{sub 2}, 19-31 ppb; PM{sub 10} mass, 27-32 {micro}g/m{sup 3}; PM{sub 2.5} mass, 12-15 {micro}g/m{sup 3}; and BC associated with PM{sub 2.5}, 0

  18. In-car particles and cardiovascular health: an air conditioning-based intervention study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Hsiao-Chi; Lin, Lian-Yu; Hsu, Ya-Wen; Ma, Chih-Ming; Chuang, Kai-Jen

    2013-05-01

    Exposure to traffic-related particulate matter (PM) is considered a potential risk for cardiovascular events. Little is known about whether improving air quality in car can modify cardiovascular effects among human subjects during commuting. We recruited a panel of 60 healthy subjects to commute for 2 h by a car equipped with an air conditioning (AC) system during the morning rush hour in Taipei. Operation modes of AC system using outside air (OA-mode), circulating inside air (IA-mode) and turning off (Off-mode) were examined. Repeated measurements of heart rate variability (HRV) indices, PM≤2.5 μm in aerodynamic diameter (PM2.5) and noise level were conducted for each participant in different modes during the commute. We used linear mixed-effects models to associate HRV indices with in-car PM2.5. We found that decreases in HRV indices were associated with increased levels of in-car PM2.5. For Off-mode, an interquartile range (IQR) increase in in-car PM2.5 with 15-min moving average was associated with 2.7% and 4.1% decreases in standard deviation of NN intervals (SDNN) and the square root of the mean of the sum of the squares of differences between adjacent NN intervals (r-MSSD), respectively. During OA and IA modes, participants showed slight decreases in SDNN (OA mode: 0.1%; IA mode: 1.3%) and r-MSSD (OA mode: 1.1%; IA mode: 1.8%) by an IQR increase in in-car PM2.5 with 15-min moving average. We concluded that in-car PM2.5 is associated with autonomic alteration. Utilization of the car's AC system can improve air quality and modify the effects of in-car PM2.5 on HRV indices among human subjects during the commute.

  19. Ventilation, indoor air quality, and human health and comfort in dwellings and day-care centers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruotsalainen, R.

    1995-12-31

    The objective of the study was to assess the actual ventilation and indoor air quality in the Finnish building stock (dwellings and day-care centers) with special reference to the existing guideline values. Furthermore, the objective was to evaluate the occurrence of symptoms and perceptions among occupants (adult residents, children, workers) in relation to ventilation system, ventilation rate and dampness. The measurements of ventilation and indoor air quality in the dwellings and day-care centers included ventilation rate, CO{sub 2} concentration, and temperature and humidity. Self- and parent-administered questionnaires were distributed to the occupants inquiring their personal characteristics, occurrence of symptoms of interest, perceived indoor air quality and details of their home and work environments. Airflows and air change rates varied remarkably both in the dwellings and day-care centers. In the majority of the dwellings and day-care centers, the Finnish guideline values of ventilation rates were not achieved. No consistent associations were observed between the magnitude of mechanical ventilation rates and the occurrence of eye, respiratory, skin and general symptoms, that is, symptoms of sick building syndrome (SBS) among the day-care workers. The results indicate that there is much room for improvement in the ventilation and indoor air quality of Finnish dwellings and day-care centers. The control of ventilation, temperature and humidity and the prevention of water damage are important issues on which to concentrate in the future. There is need to improve the quality in all phases of construction: design, installation, adjustment, operation, and maintenance

  20. Assessing theEffects of Nitrogen Dioxide in Urban Air on Health of West and Southwest Cities of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zallaghi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background Nitrogen dioxide (NO2 is a corrosive, strong oxidant and a physiologic stimulant of lower respiratory tract. Every human being inhales an average of 10-m3 air per day; therefore, assessment of the effect of inhaled air on health is a vital issue. The main source NO2 in urban regions is intra-urban public transport system. The annual average of determined air quality for NO2 is 40 μg/m3. Objectives The present study aimed to estimate and compare epidemiologic indices attributed to the pollutant NO2 in the urban air of southwest cities of Iran, namely, Ahvaz, Kermanshah, and Bushehr, in 2011. Materials and Methods In the present study, data relevant to the air-pollutant NO2 in 2011 was obtained from the Iranian Department of Environment and meteorological organizations of the studied cities. Raw data processing by Excel software included instruction set correction of averaging, coding, and filtering. Then the meteorological parameters were converted as input file to the Air Q model. Finally, by using epidemiologic formulas, relative risk (RR and attributed part to NO2 in the three studied cites were estimated. Results The results showed that in summer, winter, and the whole year, Kermanshah and Bushehr had on average the maximum and minimum NO2 concentration, respectively, in 2011. In addition, accumulative number of cases attributed to exposure with NO2 in the studied cities was maximum in Kermanshah (21 cases and minimum in Bushehr (one case. The results revealed that approximately, the maximum number of death cases attributed to NO2 were observed in Kermanshah due to heart problems (1.06%, acute infarction (1.8%, and obstructive pulmonary disease (1.9% with concentration > 20 μg/m3. Conclusions Every 10 μg/m3 increase in the concentration of the pollutant NO2 in the studied cities led to increase in the RR of myocardial infarction, cardiovascular diseases, and obstructive pulmonary disease by 0.4%, 0.2%, and 0.4%, respectively, in

  1. Early-life exposure to outdoor air pollution and respiratory health, ear infections, and eczema in infants from the INMA study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aguilera, Inmaculada; Pedersen, Marie; Garcia-Esteban, Raquel;

    2013-01-01

    (2)) and benzene with temporally adjusted land use regression models. We used log-binomial regression models and a combined random-effects meta-analysis to estimate the effects of air pollution exposure on health outcomes across the four study locations. RESULTS: A 10-µg/m(3) increase in average NO(2......BACKGROUND: Prenatal and early-life periods may be critical windows for harmful effects of air pollution on infant health. OBJECTIVES: We studied the association of air pollution exposure during pregnancy and the first year of life with respiratory illnesses, ear infections, and eczema during the....... Air pollution exposure during the first year was highly correlated with prenatal exposure, so we were unable to discern the relative importance of each exposure period. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings support the hypothesis that early-life exposure to ambient air pollution may increase the risk of upper and...

  2. Revealing the Hidden Health Costs Embodied in Chinese Exports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, X.; Zhang, Q.; He, K.; Guan, D.; Lin, J.

    2015-12-01

    China emits a considerable amount of air pollutants when producing goods for export. Previous efforts have emphasized the magnitude of export-related emissions; however, their health consequences on the Chinese population have not been quantified. Here, we present an interdisciplinary study to estimate the health impact of export-related air pollution. The results show that export-related emissions elevated the annual mean population weighted PM2.5 by 8.3mg/m3 (15% of the total) in 2007, causing 157,000 deaths and accounting for 12% of the total mortality attributable to PM2.5-related air pollution. Compared to the eastern coastal provinces, the inner regions experience much larger export-related health losses relative to their economic production gains, owing to huge inter-regional disparities in export structures and technology levels. A shift away from emission-intensive production structure and export patterns, especially in inner regions, could significantly help improve national exports while alleviating the inter-regional cost-benefit inequality. Our results provide the first quantification of health consequences from air pollution related to Chinese exports. The proposed policy recommendations, based on health burden, economic production gains and emission analysis, would be helpful to develop more sustainable and effective national and regional export strategies.

  3. Evaluating the Intersections of Socioeconomic Status and Health Impacts from Exposure to Air Pollution in Bogotá, Colombia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baublitz, C. B.; Henderson, B. H.; Pachon, J. E.; Galvis, B. R.

    2014-12-01

    Colombia has strict economic divisions, which may be represented by six strata assigned by the National Planning Department. These are assigned by housing conditions and are arranged such that the divisions with subpar living conditions (strata levels one through three) may receive support from those with better than acceptable living conditions (strata levels five and six). Notably, division three no longer receives aid, and division four neither contributes to this system nor receives support. About ten percent of the population is in the upper three strata, while the remaining populace experiences subpar living conditions. Bogotá, DC has poor air quality that sometimes puts sensitive populations at risk due to particulate matter (PM). The local environmental agency has developed seven strategies to reduce air pollution, predominantly by regulating fixed and mobile sources, for the promotion of public health. Preliminary mapping of results indicates there may be higher concentrations of pollutants in areas whose residents are of a lower socioeconomic status (SES). Because it's more difficult for impoverished people to miss work or afford healthcare, higher exposure could have more significance for the city's overall health burden. The aim of this project is to determine the effective impactful regulatory strategy for the benefit of public health as a result of emission reductions. This will be done by using CMAQ results and BenMAP with information for long-term relative risk estimates for PM to find premature mortality rates per source type and location, segregated by strata division. A statistical regression will define the correspondence between health impact and SES. The benefit per reduction will be given in premature mortalities avoided per ton of PM emissions reduced per source type. For each of seven proposed regulatory strategies, this project provides results in mortalities avoided per ton of emissions of PM reduced per source type. It also compares

  4. Bad Air Day

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... link, please review our exit disclaimer . Subscribe Bad Air Day Air Quality and Your Health In many parts of the country, summer has the worst air quality of any season. When the forecast says ...

  5. [Peers contribution to mental health work: considerations on the relationship between formal and informal help. A case study in a mental health facility in Buenos Aires].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardila Gómez, Sara; Agrest, Martín; Abadi, Daniel; Cáceres, Carmen

    2013-01-01

    Including peers to the mental health workforce has been part of a larger debate regarding specificity and incumbencies of peers' work, as well as their relationship with other workers. While some members of the workforce are proposing to train peers to have them help in different settings and interventions, others see them as unfair and underprepared competitors trying to replace them. Based on this debate, and from a Collective Health perspective on the concept of "care", this paper supports the idea that, since they put "care" as central to anything done by the mental health workforce, peers could be crucial to practices in Mental Health. An experience that took place in a Day Hospital in Buenos Aires City, conversed within a group dedicated to reflect on peers' support, is analyzed in order to unveil the relationship between peers and professionals, as well as peers' specificity. It is withstand that one of the main contributions of including peers is to help professionals think more about the relational dimension of their work and about the way they treat, call and refer to patients.

  6. Automobile air pollution: public health (citations from the NTIS data base). Report for 1964-Mar 80

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cavagnaro, D.M.

    1980-03-01

    The annotated bibliography deals with information on the human effects of the major components of automobile exhaust gases. These include carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, aldehydes, hydrocarbons, and lead. Also included are data on platinum, palladium, and manganese salts, which are exhausts from air pollution control devices, specifically catalytic converters. Studies which do not identify the automobile as the source of these gases have been excluded. (This updated bibliography contains 75 abstracts, 5 of which are new entries to the previous edition.)

  7. Stretching the stress boundary: Linking air pollution health effects to a neurohormonal stress response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodavanti, Urmila P

    2016-12-01

    Inhaled pollutants produce effects in virtually all organ systems in our body and have been linked to chronic diseases including hypertension, atherosclerosis, Alzheimer's and diabetes. A neurohormonal stress response (referred to here as a systemic response produced by activation of the sympathetic nervous system and hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA)-axis) has been implicated in a variety of psychological and physical stresses, which involves immune and metabolic homeostatic mechanisms affecting all organs in the body. In this review, we provide new evidence for the involvement of this well-characterized neurohormonal stress response in mediating systemic and pulmonary effects of a prototypic air pollutant - ozone. A plethora of systemic metabolic and immune effects are induced in animals exposed to inhaled pollutants, which could result from increased circulating stress hormones. The release of adrenal-derived stress hormones in response to ozone exposure not only mediates systemic immune and metabolic responses, but by doing so, also modulates pulmonary injury and inflammation. With recurring pollutant exposures, these effects can contribute to multi-organ chronic conditions associated with air pollution. This review will cover, 1) the potential mechanisms by which air pollutants can initiate the relay of signals from respiratory tract to brain through trigeminal and vagus nerves, and activate stress responsive regions including hypothalamus; and 2) the contribution of sympathetic and HPA-axis activation in mediating systemic homeostatic metabolic and immune effects of ozone in various organs. The potential contribution of chronic environmental stress in cardiovascular, neurological, reproductive and metabolic diseases, and the knowledge gaps are also discussed. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Air Pollution, edited by Wenjun Ding, Andrew J. Ghio and Weidong Wu.

  8. The value of health benefits from ambient air quality improvements in Central and Eastern Europe. An exercise in benefits transfer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krupnick, A.; Harrison, K.; Nickell, E.; Toman, M. [Resources for the Future, Washington, DC (United States)

    1996-06-01

    The study on the title subject is an initial effort to estimate the effects of air pollution on human health in Bulgaria, Hungary, Poland and Ukraine. The estimates are derived from data on ambient air quality in those countries, together with a model that links these ambient conditions to physical impacts on health and attaches economic values (dollars) to these impacts. The focus is on particulates, SO{sub 2} and Pb. Dose response functions, taken from the clinical and epidemiological literature in the USA, Canada, and Western Europe are used to generate estimates of the change in physical effects. These effects then are given an economic value by applying two approaches for scaling unit valuation figures, applicable to the USA. A Monte Carlo model is constructed to propagate the uncertainties of the dose-response functions and unit values to obtain confidence intervals on the total benefits from pollutant reductions in each country. Scenarios are examined where the above-mentioned countries improve ambient conditions for the pollutants in question to meet the European Community standards and then compare these scenarios to ones involving uniform percentage ambient reductions across locations in each country. 3 figs., 9 tabs., 33 refs.

  9. Health and Economic Impacts of Air Pollution in China: A Comparison of the General Equilibrium Approach and Human Capital Approach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUE WAN; HONG-WEI YANG; TOSHIHIKO MASUI

    2005-01-01

    In China, combustion of fossil fuels and biomass has produced serious air pollution that does harm to human health. Based on dose-response relationships derived from epidemiological studies, the authors calculated the number of deaths and people with health problems which were thought to be attributable to China's air pollution in the year of 2000. In order to estimate the corresponding economic impacts from the national point of view, the general equilibrium approach was selected as an analysis tool for this study. A computable general equilibrium (CGE) model was constructed involving 39 sectors and 32 commodities.The human capital approach (HCA) was also used for comparison. The economic burden of disease for people estimated by HCA was equivalent to 1.26‰ (ranging from 0.44‰ to 1.84‰) of China's gross domestic product (GDP). China's GDP loss estimated by the general equilibrium approach reached 0.38‰ (ranging from 0.16‰ to 0.51‰). The difference between the two approaches and the implications of the results were discussed.

  10. Methodologies of health impact assessment as part of an integrated approach to reduce effects of air pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aunan, K.; Seip, H.M.

    1995-12-01

    Quantification of average frequencies of health effects on a population level is an essential part of an integrated assessment of pollution effects. Epidemiological studies seem to provide the best basis for such estimates. This paper gives an introduction to a methodology for health impact assessment and also the results from selected parts of a case study in Hungary. This case study is aimed at testing and improving the methodology for integrated assessment and focuses on energy production and consumption and implications for air pollution. Using monitoring data from Budapest, the paper gives estimates of excess frequencies of respiratory illness, mortality and other health end-points. For a number of health end-points, particles probably may serve as a good indicator component. Stochastic simulation is used to illustrate the uncertainties imbedded in the exposure-response function applied. The paper uses the ``bottom up approach`` to find cost-effective abatement strategies against pollution damages, where specific abatement measures such as emission standards for vehicles are explored in detail. It is concluded that in spite of large uncertainties in every step of the analysis, an integrated assessment of costs and benefits of different abatement measures is valuable as it clarifies the main objectives of an abatement policy and explicitly describes the adverse impacts of different activities and their relative importance. 46 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs.

  11. University of Akron study on air pollution and human health effects. 1 - methodology, baseline data, and aerometrics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mostardi, R.A.; Ely, D.L.; Woebkenberg, N.R.; Richardson, B.; Jarrett, M.T.

    1981-09-01

    This study determined the health effects of ambient air pollutants in two grade school populations in Akron, Ohio. One school is adjacent to industry and has elevated levels of sulfur dioxide (SO/sub 2/) and moderate levels of nitrogen dioxide (NO/sub 2/), while the other school is 4 km east and unpolluted. This study was designed in this manner for two purposes: (1) to identify and monitor ambient levels of air pollutants in an area proximal to the grade school so that the levels could be accurately assessed, and (2) to determine baseline pulmonary function values and questionnaire responses from the parents indicating any acute and/or chronic respiratory problem in the child. Ninety-five percent of the children enrolled in this study lived within 2 km of the schools and aerometric stations, thus providing for careful control in the study design. The results of this study indicate that SO/sub 2/ and NO/sub 2/ levels are significantly higher in the school adjacent to industry. Although pulmonary function data were not significantly different between schools, the frequency of questionnaire responses to acute and chronic pulmonary problems was greater in the children at the school adjacent to industry. The data tend to indicate early pulmonary effects of air pollution in children living adjacent to industry and exposed to elevated levels of SO/sub 2/ and NO/sub 2/. We suggest that additional longitudinal work that carefully monitors total suspended particulates, NO/sub 2/, SO/sub 2/, and health data should be conducted to confirm these results.

  12. Geostatistical uncertainty of assessing air quality using high-spatial-resolution lichen data: A health study in the urban area of Sines, Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Manuel C; Pinho, P; Branquinho, C; Llop, Esteve; Pereira, Maria J

    2016-08-15

    In most studies correlating health outcomes with air pollution, personal exposure assignments are based on measurements collected at air-quality monitoring stations not coinciding with health data locations. In such cases, interpolators are needed to predict air quality in unsampled locations and to assign personal exposures. Moreover, a measure of the spatial uncertainty of exposures should be incorporated, especially in urban areas where concentrations vary at short distances due to changes in land use and pollution intensity. These studies are limited by the lack of literature comparing exposure uncertainty derived from distinct spatial interpolators. Here, we addressed these issues with two interpolation methods: regression Kriging (RK) and ordinary Kriging (OK). These methods were used to generate air-quality simulations with a geostatistical algorithm. For each method, the geostatistical uncertainty was drawn from generalized linear model (GLM) analysis. We analyzed the association between air quality and birth weight. Personal health data (n=227) and exposure data were collected in Sines (Portugal) during 2007-2010. Because air-quality monitoring stations in the city do not offer high-spatial-resolution measurements (n=1), we used lichen data as an ecological indicator of air quality (n=83). We found no significant difference in the fit of GLMs with any of the geostatistical methods. With RK, however, the models tended to fit better more often and worse less often. Moreover, the geostatistical uncertainty results showed a marginally higher mean and precision with RK. Combined with lichen data and land-use data of high spatial resolution, RK is a more effective geostatistical method for relating health outcomes with air quality in urban areas. This is particularly important in small cities, which generally do not have expensive air-quality monitoring stations with high spatial resolution. Further, alternative ways of linking human activities with their

  13. Geostatistical uncertainty of assessing air quality using high-spatial-resolution lichen data: A health study in the urban area of Sines, Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Manuel C; Pinho, P; Branquinho, C; Llop, Esteve; Pereira, Maria J

    2016-08-15

    In most studies correlating health outcomes with air pollution, personal exposure assignments are based on measurements collected at air-quality monitoring stations not coinciding with health data locations. In such cases, interpolators are needed to predict air quality in unsampled locations and to assign personal exposures. Moreover, a measure of the spatial uncertainty of exposures should be incorporated, especially in urban areas where concentrations vary at short distances due to changes in land use and pollution intensity. These studies are limited by the lack of literature comparing exposure uncertainty derived from distinct spatial interpolators. Here, we addressed these issues with two interpolation methods: regression Kriging (RK) and ordinary Kriging (OK). These methods were used to generate air-quality simulations with a geostatistical algorithm. For each method, the geostatistical uncertainty was drawn from generalized linear model (GLM) analysis. We analyzed the association between air quality and birth weight. Personal health data (n=227) and exposure data were collected in Sines (Portugal) during 2007-2010. Because air-quality monitoring stations in the city do not offer high-spatial-resolution measurements (n=1), we used lichen data as an ecological indicator of air quality (n=83). We found no significant difference in the fit of GLMs with any of the geostatistical methods. With RK, however, the models tended to fit better more often and worse less often. Moreover, the geostatistical uncertainty results showed a marginally higher mean and precision with RK. Combined with lichen data and land-use data of high spatial resolution, RK is a more effective geostatistical method for relating health outcomes with air quality in urban areas. This is particularly important in small cities, which generally do not have expensive air-quality monitoring stations with high spatial resolution. Further, alternative ways of linking human activities with their

  14. Outdoor Air Pollution (PM2.5) and Ill-Health Attributable to Residential Wood Combustion in the San Francisco Bay Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chafe, Z.; Fairley, D.; Smith, K. R.

    2015-12-01

    Residential wood combustion is recognized as a major source of fine particulate (PM2.5) air pollution in the San Francisco Bay Area, especially during the winter heating season. Both indoor and outdoor exposure to air pollution from residential wood combustion negatively impact human health, causing premature deaths and ill-health. Previous research has described the regional impact of wood smoke on air quality. Here, we estimate by county the proportion of ambient (outdoor) PM2.5 air pollution attributable to residential wood combustion in the San Francisco Bay Area. We also explore the implications of residential wood burning emissions for human health in the San Francisco Bay Area, reporting the burden of disease associated with this emission source by county. We also describe differences between counties in wood burning behavior, air pollution levels, and human health effects. The results of this research have relevance for air quality regulation and source abatement prioritization in the San Francisco Bay Area and beyond.

  15. Research of the influence of air chemical pollutions on the health of urban population

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naumenko, T.; Smirnov, M.; Amvrosiev, P.; Kurganskaya, G.; Gritsenko, T. [The Byelorussian Sanitation and Hygiene Research Inst., Minsk (Russian Federation)

    1995-12-31

    The main problem of environmental hygiene in the Republic of Belarus is ecological situation health effects extent determination and risk assessment. The different epidemiological studies of ecological risk for public health due to atmosphere industry emissions, directed to hygiene standards correction and epidemiological and ecological situation management were conducted by the Belarussian Sanitation and Hygiene Research Institute. Atmosphere pollution of heavy industry enterprises, pharmaceutical production, the electric power stations and its impact on people morbidity in adjacent and sanitary protection areas was studied. The objective of the research is hygienic assessment and determination of public health changes, caused by atmosphere pollution, and preventive measures programs elaboration in such industrial cities as Brest, Gomel, Minsk, Grodno, Mogilev, Novopolotsk. (author)

  16. Respiratory, sensory and general health symptoms in populations exposed to air pollution from biodegradable wastes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blanes-Vidal, Victoria; Bælum, Jesper; Schwartz, Joel;

    ecological and did not investigate whether these potential associations were direct or indirect (stress-mediated). Methods: In this study, individual-specific exposures to a proxy indicator of biodegradable waste pollution (ammonia, NH3) in non-urban residences (n=454) during 2005-2010 were calculated...... exposure)). The results on mediation indicated indirect (annoyance-mediated) associations between exposures and increased occurrence of nose itching, dryness or irritation, runny nose, nausea, headache, dizziness, difficulty concentrating and unnatural fatigue. Conclusions: We found evidence...... that individual exposures to air pollution from biodegradable wastes are associated with increased occurrence of symptoms among residents. Stress-related mechanisms appear to underlie these effects....

  17. Work place air particulate monitoring of automobile workshops for public health and safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Twenty-eight pairs of coarse and fine air particulate samples were collected in front of an automotive workshop located at Tasmasipabad on Chaklala Road in Rawalpindi using a Gent sampler and polycarbonate filters. These samples were collected during the period; 7th to 27th of April 2009. The gravimetric data (PM2.5 and PM10) were obtained for these samples and were found to exceed the Pakistani standards. Black carbon (BC) was also determined using reflectance measurements and it was found that BC contributed significantly more to the fine mass than to the coarse fraction; i.e. ∼10 to ∼3 %, respectively. This is not surprising as soot is emitted by combustion processes and is usually found in the fine particulate mass. Using instrumental neutron activation analysis technique all 28 pairs of filters were analyzed for >30 elements. Major elements, in the coarse mass fraction, include Al, K, Fe, Sr, Na, and Zn implying soil as the major source while BC was found to be a higher contributor of PM2.5. An episode of high PM2.5 was observed on the 18th of April 2009. Back trajectory analysis showed that the air mass originated from the Middle East where a dust storm was in progress over Iraq. (author)

  18. Air quality of Beijing (China) and Delhi (India) and impact on Human Health and Climate in Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, S.; Singh, R. P.; Wu, Y.; Wu, C.

    2015-12-01

    Air pollution has been estimated to represent a significant fraction of the total mortality attributable to 26 risk factors assessed by the World Health Organization global burden of disease project. Delhi is distributed over 1484 km2 with population density of 11297/km2 (as in 2011) and surrounded by highly industrialized National Capital region (NCR) with population density of 1050/km2. Beijing covers an area of 16,800 km2, with population density of 1300/km2 (upto 2014). It is located at the foothills of Yan Mountains and Taihang Mountains, in the North China Plain. Both these cities suffer with poor air quality and are severely affected by dense haze, fog and smog during summer and winter seasons. Earlier studies in developing countries have concentrated on limited air quality parameters. Detailed results from trace gases (O3, NO, NO2, and CO) and particulate matter (PM10 and PM2.5) in two Asian megacities, Delhi (India) and Beijing (China), will be presented. Trace gases and particulate matter in Beijing were collected at 31 sites during 2013-2014. The measurements in Delhi were carried out at 8 sites during October 2010 - March 2013. The annual average of PM10, PM2.5, O3, NO, NO2, and CO over Delhi in 2013 is 199 ug/m3, 123 ug/m3, 25.6 ppb, 21.5 ppb, 15.8 ppb, 1.7 ppb, respectively. The annual average of PM10, PM2.5, O3, NO2, CO, and SO2 over Beijing is 113 ug/m3, 85 ug/m3, 51 ug/m3, 46 ug/m3, 1.3 mg/m3, 23 ug/m3, respectively. The annual and seasonal variations of trace gases and particulate matter in Beijing and Delhi are also analyzed, as well as spatial changes of air pollution in these two cities. A comparative analysis in these two cities and the sources of pollution and their impact on human health and Asian climate will be discussed.

  19. Knowledge of the Effects of Indoor Air Quality on Health among Women in Jordan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madanat, Hala; Barnes, Michael D.; Cole, Eugene C.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To assess the extent of knowledge about symptoms relating to respiratory illnesses and home environments among a random sample of 200 urban Jordanian women. Method: This customized, validated, cross-sectional questionnaire evaluated the knowledge of these women about the association between the indoor environment and health, the…

  20. TRAFFIC-RELATED AIR POLLUTANTS AND CHILDREN'S RESPIRATORY HEALTH IN EL PASO AND DETROIT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hypotheses -Specific Agent • Diesel exhaust particles • Ultrafine particles • Coarse-mode particles (road dust) • Noise and stress • Nonspecific irritants Previous Epidemiology • Kanawha Valley Health Study • Munich Traffic Study • Dutch Traffic Studies • S....

  1. Association of air pollution on birth outcomes in New Delhi – a pilot study on the potential of HMIS data for environmental public health tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magsumbol, Melina S.; Singh, Archna; Ghosh, Arpita; Kler, Neelam; Garg, Pankaj; Thakur, Anup; Beg, Arshad; Srivastava, Atul; Hajat, Shakoor

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The study objective was to assess the gaps in current hospital health management information systems (ie. paper based records of prenatal, delivery, neonatal, discharge data) for environmental studies. This study also considers the feasibility of linking patient-level hospital data with ambient air pollution data recorded in real time by air quality monitoring stations. Methods This retrospective hospital based cohort study used a semi-ecologic design to explore the association of air pollution with a neonate’s birth weight and gestational age. Maternal and neonatal data from 2007-2012 were encoded and linked with air pollution data based on distance to the nearest air quality monitoring station. Completeness and accuracy of neonatal anthropometric measures, maternal demographic information, nutritional status and maternal risk factors (gestational diabetes, anaemia, hypertension, etc.) were assessed. Results The records of 10,565 births in Sir Ganga Ram hospital in New Delhi were encoded and linked with real time air quality data. These were records of women who reported a New Delhi address during the time of delivery. The distance of each address to all the monitoring stations were recorded. Birth records were assigned pollution exposure levels averaged across records from monitoring stations within 10 kilometers of the address during the pregnancy period. Conclusion This pilot study will highlight the potential of hospital management information system in linking administrative hospital record data with information on environmental exposure. The linked health-exposure dataset can then be used for studying the impact of various environmental exposures on health outcomes. Mother’s educational attainment, occupation, residential history, nutritional status, tobacco and alcohol use during pregnancy need to be documented for better health risk assessments or case management. Health institutions can provide data for public health researchers and

  2. Regionalized life cycle impact assessment of air pollution on the global scale: Damage to human health and vegetation

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Zelm, Rosalie; Preiss, Philipp; van Goethem, Thomas; Van Dingenen, Rita; Huijbregts, Mark

    2016-06-01

    We developed regionalized characterization factors (CFs) for human health damage from particulate matter (PM2.5) and ozone, and for damage to vegetation from ozone, at the global scale. These factors can be used in the impact assessment phase of an environmental life cycle assessment. CFs express the overall damage of a certain pollutant per unit of emission of a precursor, i.e. primary PM2.5, nitrogen oxides (NOx), ammonia (NH3), sulfur dioxide (SO2) and non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOCs). The global chemical transport model TM5 was used to calculate intake fractions of PM2.5 and ozone for 56 world regions covering the whole globe. Furthermore, region-specific effect and damage factors were derived, using mortality rates, background concentrations and years of life lost. The emission-weighted world average CF for primary PM2.5 emissions is 629 yr kton-1, varying up to 3 orders of magnitude over the regions. Larger CFs were obtained for emissions in central Asia and Europe, and smaller factors in Australia and South America. The world average CFs for PM2.5 from secondary aerosols, i.e. NOx, NH3, and SO2, is 67.2 to 183.4 yr kton-1. We found that the CFs for ozone human health damage are 2-4 orders of magnitude lower compared to the CFs for damage due to primary PM2.5 and PM2.5 precursor emissions. Human health damage due to the priority air pollutants considered in this study was 1.7·10-2 yr capita-1 worldwide in year 2010, with primary PM2.5 emissions as the main contributor (62%). The emission-weighted world average CF for ecosystem damage due to ozone was 2.5 km2 yr kton-1 for NMVOCs and 8.7 m2 yr kg-1 for NOx emissions, varying 2-3 orders of magnitude over the regions. Ecosystem damage due to the priority air pollutants considered in this study was 1.6·10-4 km2 capita-1 worldwide in 2010, with NOx as the main contributor (72%). The spatial range in CFs stresses the importance of including spatial variation in life cycle impact assessment of

  3. Review of recent studies from central and Eastern Europe associating respiratory health effects with high levels of exposure to "traditional" air pollutants.

    OpenAIRE

    Jedrychowski, W

    1995-01-01

    The serious environmental problems caused by decades of Communist mismanagement of natural resources in countries of Central and Eastern Europe have been brought to light in recent years. All environmental media, including air, water, food, and soil have been burdened with toxic chemicals. Large segments of the population have been, and are now being exposed to air pollution levels exceeding guidelines established by western countries and by international health organizations. This review foc...

  4. Particulate matter in ambient air - Assessment of health risks. Partiklar i omgivningsluften - en bedoemning av haelsorisker

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camner, P.

    1986-07-01

    An investigation, based on literature data and research at SML, was made on deposition of particulate matter in lungs. The importance of mouth and nose breathing respectively is illustrated. By nose breathing only substances <10 micrometers reach the lung as compared to mouth breathing where substances >10 micrometers may deposit in the lung. Swedish limit values of total suspended particulate matter (TSP) of 50 micrograms/cubic meter are recommended as a 6 month mean value and 150 micrograms/cubic meter as a day mean value. For the PM/sub 10/ fraction, which is a measure of the mass fraction of particulate matter in the air that is deposited in the lung by mouth breathing, it is not possible to give a corresponding recommendation. Epidemiological data are lacking and the proposed method of measuring the PM/sub 10/ fraction would underestimate the importance of particles larger than 10 micrometers. (O.S.).

  5. The Role of Air Quality in Perception of Health of the Local Population

    OpenAIRE

    Valentić, Damir; Mićović, Vladimir; Kolarić, Branko; Brnčić, Nada; Ljubotina, Aleksandar

    2010-01-01

    The research aim was to investigate and establish the perception of health among population groups with different number of industrial polluters in their living environment. Namely, the Kostrena living area (3250 inhabitants) is situated near big industrial pollutant producers: INA oil refinery Urinj, thermo power plant Rijeka, shipyard »Viktor Lenac«, while in Crikvenica living area such pollutant producers do not exist. In this research 146 subjects from Kostrena participated (74 men and 72...

  6. Indoor air pollution: Health effects. (Latest citations from the EI compendex*plus database). Published Search

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-11-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning health hazards associated with indoor pollutants. Pollutants discussed include carbon dioxides, nitrogen oxides, particulates, formaldehydes, carbon monoxides, paints, pesticides, solvents, smoke, sealants, soils, adhesives, aerosols, dusts, cleaners, and moisture. The citations address effects such as simple discomfort, sick building syndrome, Legionnaires` disease, and cancer.(Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  7. Waterpipes and e-cigarettes: Impact of alternative smoking techniques on indoor air quality and health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fromme, Hermann; Schober, Wolfgang

    2015-04-01

    Waterpipe (WP) smoking is growing as an alternative to cigarette smoking, especially in younger age groups. E-cigarette use has also increased in recent years. A majority of smokers mistakenly believe that WP smoking is a social entertainment practice that leads to more social behavior and relaxation and that this type of smoking is safe or less harmful and less addictive than cigarette smoking. In reality, WP smokers are exposed to hundreds of toxic substances that include known carcinogens. High exposures to carbon monoxide and nicotine are major health threats. Persons exposed to secondhand WP smoke are also at risk. There is growing evidence that WP smoke causes adverse effects on the pulmonary and cardiovascular systems and is responsible for cancer. E-cigarettes are marketed as a smokeless and safe way to inhale nicotine without being exposed to the many toxic components of tobacco cigarettes, and as an aid to smoking cessation. In fact, consumers (vapers) and secondhand vapers can be exposed to substantial amounts of VOC, PAH or other potentially harmful substances. Of major health concern is the inhalation of fine and ultrafine particles formed from supersaturated 1,2-propanediol vapor. Such particles can be deposited in the deeper parts of the lung and may harm the respiratory system or increase the risk of acquiring asthma. More research on the safety of e-cigarettes needs to be conducted to ensure a high level of public health protection in the long-term.

  8. Optimal Design of Air Quality Monitoring Network and its Application in an Oil Refinery Plant: An Approach to Keep Health Satus of Workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaled ZoroufchiBenis

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Industrial air pollution is a growing challenge to humane health, especially in developing countries, where there is no systematic monitoring of air pollution. Given the importance of the availabil­ity of valid information on population exposure to air pollutants, it is important to design an optimal Air Quality Monitoring Network (AQMN for assessing population exposure to air pollution and predicting the magnitude of the health risks to the population. Methods: A multi-pollutant method (implemented as a MATLAB program was explored for configur­ing an AQMN to detect the highest level of pollution around an oil refinery plant. The method ranks potential monitoring sites (grids according to their ability to represent the ambient concentra­tion. The term of cluster of contiguous grids that exceed a threshold value was used to calculate the Station Dosage. Selection of the best configuration of AQMN was done based on the ratio of a sta­tion’s dosage to the total dosage in the network. Results: Six monitoring stations were needed to detect the pollutants concentrations around the study area for estimating the level and distribution of exposure in the population with total network effi­ciency of about 99%. An analysis of the design procedure showed that wind regimes have greatest effect on the location of monitoring stations. Conclusion: The optimal AQMN enables authorities to implement an effective program of air quality management for protecting human health.

  9. [From educational and health tourism for children to social tourism: vacation camps in the Province of Buenos Aires, Argentina].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruno, Perla

    2015-12-01

    The early twentieth century saw the rise of vacation camps for frail children as educational and health-giving experiences provided by medical and philanthropic organizations. This article analyzes some of these early experiences, seen here as the predecessors of social tourism, in the Province of Buenos Aires. A combination of written sources are examined, mainly institutional reports, periodicals such as the Monitor de la Educación Común - published by the Consejo Nacional de Educación (National Board of Education) - or laws, with photographs and plans for different examples. I argue that these buildings were both physical and cultural "brands" in the places where they were located, and that their architectural structure encapsulated ideas about leisure space and cures in unique natural environments.

  10. [From educational and health tourism for children to social tourism: vacation camps in the Province of Buenos Aires, Argentina].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruno, Perla

    2015-12-01

    The early twentieth century saw the rise of vacation camps for frail children as educational and health-giving experiences provided by medical and philanthropic organizations. This article analyzes some of these early experiences, seen here as the predecessors of social tourism, in the Province of Buenos Aires. A combination of written sources are examined, mainly institutional reports, periodicals such as the Monitor de la Educación Común - published by the Consejo Nacional de Educación (National Board of Education) - or laws, with photographs and plans for different examples. I argue that these buildings were both physical and cultural "brands" in the places where they were located, and that their architectural structure encapsulated ideas about leisure space and cures in unique natural environments. PMID:26625926

  11. The Proceedings of the Panel “Effects of Air Pollution on Human Health, Air Pollution Problem in the World, Turkey and Our Region” (The Conference Hall of Dicle University, Diyarbakır 24.12.2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Bayram

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Air pollution still exceeds safe limits worldwide, particularly in big metropolitans, despite regular monitoring facilities and measures taken. It is usually originated from industrial activities, fossil fuel use in domestic settings and vehicle exhaust emission. Although there is a decrease in air pollution in big cities of Turkey due to use of natural gas, it is still a serious health concern. In Diyarbakır, because of a rapid increase in its population recently, wrong urbanisation and a relative increase in industrialisation, air pollution leads to dangerous levels, particularly in the winter. Epidemiological studies from all over the world, and Turkey have reported a close relation between air pollution and respiratory morbidity and mortality. Studies investigating the mechanisms underlying respiratory effects of air pollution demonstrated that pollutants lead to increased respiratory symptoms, decreased respiratory function and induce inflammatory changes in airways. In vitro studies have shown that air pollutants exert their effects by causing cellular injury directly, and by activating intracellular oxidative pathways indirectly. The attempts to reduce air pollution levels have been implemented in Turkey and worldwide. In order to solve the problem in Diyarbakır, several measures such as prevention the use of out standardized fuel, use of reliable burning techniques, and a close car emission monitoring system need to be implemented.

  12. Health effects of tropospheric ozone: Review of recent research findings and their implications to ambient air quality standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lippmann, M. (New York Univ. Medical Center, Tuxedo (United States))

    1993-01-01

    The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Administrator proposed (on August 3, 1992) to retain the current National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) for ozone (O3) on the basis of data assembled in a draft Criteria Document (1986) and its Addendum (1988) which, together with a draft Staff Paper (1988), received public comment and review comments by the EPA's Clean Air Scientific Advisory Committee (CASAC). This paper summarizes and discusses research findings presented since 1988 which, based on the author's experience as a Chairman of CASAC, are most relevant to the promulgation of a primary (health based) NAAQS for O3. These newer findings include substantial evidence from controlled chamber exposure studies and field studies in natural settings that the current NAAQS contains no margin of safety against short-term effects that the EPA has considered to be adverse. They also include evidence from epidemiologic studies that current ambient exposures are associated with reduced baseline lung function, exacerbation of asthma and premature mortality, as well as evidence from chronic animal exposure studies at concentrations within current ambient peak levels that indicate progressive and persistent lung function and structural abnormalities. The current NAAQS, if retained, may therefore also be inadequate to protect the public from effects resulting from chronic exposure to O3. 96 refs.

  13. Comparison of Remote Sensing and Fixed-Site Monitoring Approaches for Examining Air Pollution and Health in a National Study Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prud'homme, Genevieve; Dobbin, Nina A.; Sun, Liu; Burnet, Richard T.; Martin, Randall V.; Davidson, Andrew; Cakmak, Sabit; Villeneuve, Paul J.; Lamsal, Lok N.; vanDonkelaar, Aaron; Peters, Paul A.; Johnson, Markey

    2013-01-01

    Satellite remote sensing (RS) has emerged as a cutting edge approach for estimating ground level ambient air pollution. Previous studies have reported a high correlation between ground level PM2.5 and NO2 estimated by RS and measurements collected at regulatory monitoring sites. The current study examined associations between air pollution and adverse respiratory and allergic health outcomes using multi-year averages of NO2 and PM2.5 from RS and from regulatory monitoring. RS estimates were derived using satellite measurements from OMI, MODIS, and MISR instruments. Regulatory monitoring data were obtained from Canada's National Air Pollution Surveillance Network. Self-reported prevalence of doctor-diagnosed asthma, current asthma, allergies, and chronic bronchitis were obtained from the Canadian Community Health Survey (a national sample of individuals 12 years of age and older). Multi-year ambient pollutant averages were assigned to each study participant based on their six digit postal code at the time of health survey, and were used as a marker for long-term exposure to air pollution. RS derived estimates of NO2 and PM2.5 were associated with 6e10% increases in respiratory and allergic health outcomes per interquartile range (3.97 mg m3 for PM2.5 and 1.03 ppb for NO2) among adults (aged 20e64) in the national study population. Risk estimates for air pollution and respiratory/ allergic health outcomes based on RS were similar to risk estimates based on regulatory monitoring for areas where regulatory monitoring data were available (within 40 km of a regulatory monitoring station). RS derived estimates of air pollution were also associated with adverse health outcomes among participants residing outside the catchment area of the regulatory monitoring network (p < 0.05).

  14. Assessment of Children’s Health and Indoor Air Contaminants of Day Care Centre in Industrial Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tezara CIONITA

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Carbon dioxide (CO2 is one of the most commonly used indicators of indoor air quality (IAQ in industrial area. The higher concentration level of CO2 and particulate matter (PM10 in day care centre could affect children’s health. The objective of this study was to assess children’s health symptom, and measure the CO2 and PM10 concentration level as IAQ parameters in different locations of day care centres near the industrial area at Kuala Lumpur, Selangor and Hulu Langat as urban, suburban and rural areas respectively.Methods: The data of children’s health symptom were collected from the distributed questionnaire.Results: The day care centres (DCC in Kuala Lumpur has the highest number of children’s illness frequency of more than four times annually (11%, followed by the highest number of children who experienced asthma (5.3%, wheezing (3.3% and coughing (10%. The results of data collection of day care centres in Kuala Lumpur, Selangor and Hulu Langat ranged between 629-830 ppm, 587-823 ppm and 600-830 ppm for CO2 level, and 60.80-78.60 mg/m3, 56.90-80.50 mg/m3 and 59.90-79.10 mg/m3 for PM10 level. The statistical analysis for CO2 level between areas was significantly different (P<0.05.Conclusion: Day care centers in Kuala Lumpur have the highest mean rate of CO2 and PM10 as well as frequency of children’ illness which could identify traffic congestion and less greenery of a densely populated city. Keywords: Day care centre (DCC, IAQ, CO2, PM10, Health symptoms

  15. Epidemiology and air pollution. A report of the Committee on the Epidemiology of Air Pollutants, Board on Toxicology and Environmental Health Hazards, Commission on Life Sciences, National Research Council

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report examines the role of epidemiology in the study of the health effects of air pollution. The four health effects of concern in the report art acute respiratory infection, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, asthma and lung cancer. The five types of pollution said to be of continuing concern are woodsmoke, nitrogen oxides, persistant ozone and acid aerosols, episodic ozone and acid aerosol haze and radon. The advantages of using epidemiological studies are discussed. They include: direct determination of public health problems and estimation of their magnitude; evaluation of the impact of decreases in exposure; and defining characteristics of the problem that can guide intervention even before the mechanics are understood

  16. High-resolution modelling of health impacts and related external cost from air pollution over 36 years using the integrated model system EVA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Jørgen; Andersen, Mikael S.; Bønløkke, Jakob; Christensen, Jesper H.; Geels, Camilla; Hansen, Kaj M.; Hertel, Ole; Im, Ulas; Jensen, Steen S.; Ketzel, Matthias; Nielsen, Ole-Kenneth; Plejdrup, Marlene S.; Sigsgaard, Torben

    2016-04-01

    A high-resolution assessment of health impacts from air pollution and related external cost has been conducted for Denmark using the integrated EVA model system. The EVA system is based on the impact-pathway methodology, where the site-specific emissions will result, via atmospheric transport and chemistry, in a concentration distribution, which together with detailed population data, is used to estimate the population-level exposure. Using exposure-response functions and economic valuations, the exposure is transformed into impacts on human health and related external costs. In this study we have used a coupling of two chemistry transport models to calculate the air pollution concentration at different domain and scales; the Danish Eulerian Hemispheric Model (DEHM) to calculate the air pollution levels in the Northern Hemisphere with a resolution down to 5.6 km x 5.6 km and the Urban Background Model (UBM) to further calculate the air pollution in Denmark at 1 km x 1 km resolution using results from DEHM as boundary conditions. Both the emission data as well as the population density has been represented in the model system with the same high resolution. Previous health impact assessments related to air pollution have been made on a lower resolution. In this study, the integrated model system, EVA, has been used to estimate the health impacts and related external cost for Denmark at a 1 km x 1 km resolution. New developments of the integrated model system will be presented as well as the development of health impacts and related external costs in Europe and Denmark over a period of 36 years (1979-2014). Acknowledgements This work was funded by: DCE - National Centre for Environment and Energy. Project: "Health impacts and external costs from air pollution in Denmark over 25 years" and NordForsk under the Nordic Programme on Health and Welfare. Project: "Understanding the link between air pollution and distribution of related health impacts and welfare in the

  17. The impact of air pollution from used ventilation filters on human comfort and health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Geo; Alm, O.; Fanger, Povl Ole

    2002-01-01

    The comfort and health of 30 women was studied during 4 hours´ exposure in an experimental room with either a used or a new filter present in the ventilation system. All other environmental parameters were kept constant. The presence of the used filter in the ventilation system had a significant ...... adverse impact on several perceptions and symptoms, both immediately upon entering the office and throughout the exposure period. None of the perceptions or symptoms were better when the used filter was in the system....

  18. Health effects from air pollution - calculation prices; Sundhedseffekter af luftforurening - beregningspriser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skou Andersen, Mikael; Seested Nielsen, Jytte; Borgen Soerensen, Peter [DMU, Afdeling for Systemanalyse, Roskilde (Denmark); Frohn, Lise Marie; Solvang Jensen, Steen; Hertel, Ole; Brandt, Joergen; Christensen, Jesper [DMU, Afdeling for Atmosfaerisk Miljoe, Roskilde (Denmark)

    2004-10-01

    The basic aim of research focusing on the accounting of external effects is to provide estimates for the possible benefits of environmental policy projects. There is a demand within the field of environmental economic analysis for evaluations and estimates of the economic benefits arising from pollution reductions. Where benefits arising out of reduced emissions of harmful substances are concerned, these can be estimated according to the avoided damage costs associated with negative pollution impacts. A scientifically based method designed for this purpose has been developed in the pan-European ExternE project via the EU research programmes. The ExternE project has been implemented with the aim of estimating monetary values for externalities attached to air pollution accruing from energy production and transport. For this purpose, complex model-based environmental impact estimations have been coupled with corresponding monetary valuations via the modelling tool, Ecosense. A problem arising in relation to Ecosense methodology has been that externalities are often of local nature - pollution impact depending on the particular locality of the emission and dispersal characteristics in the surrounding environment. Therefore, the economic estimation of the impacts of pollution is based on a location-specific modelling system. (BA)

  19. Effects of air pollution on the respiratory health of asthmatic children living in Mexico City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romieu, I; Meneses, F; Ruiz, S; Sienra, J J; Huerta, J; White, M C; Etzel, R A

    1996-08-01

    The relation between air pollution and the exacerbation of childhood asthma was studied in a panel of 71 children (aged 5 to 7 yr) with mild asthma who resided in the northern part of mexico City. During the follow-up, ambient measures of particulate matter less than 10 microns (PM10, 24-h average) and ozone (1-h maximum) frequently exceeded the Mexican standards for these contaminants. The peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR) was strongly associated with PM10 levels and marginally with ozone levels. Respiratory symptoms (coughing, phlegm production, wheezing, and difficulty breathing) were associated with both PM10 and ozone levels. An increase of 20 micrograms/m3 of PM10 was related to an 8% increase in lower respiratory illness (LRI) among children on the same day (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.04-1.15), and an increase of 10 micrograms/m3 in the weekly mean of particulate matter less than 2.5 microns (PM2.5) was related to a 21% increase in LRI (95% CI = 1.08-1.35). A 50 parts per billion (ppb) increase in ozone was associated with a 9% increase in LRI (95% CI = 1.03-1.15) on the same day. We concluded that children with mild asthma are affected by the high ambient levels of particulate matter and ozone observed in the northern part of Mexico City.

  20. A Systems Approach to the Estimation of Ecosystem and Human Health Stressors in Air, Land and Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooter, E. J.; Dennis, R. L.; Bash, J. O.

    2013-12-01

    Nitrogen (N) and sulfur oxides (SOx) in air, land and water media are parts of tightly coupled geophysical systems resulting in multiple routes for human and ecosystem exposure. For instance, excess forms of total reactive N in water can lead to harmful algal blooms, with the depletion of oxygen and adverse impacts to aquatic ecosystem productivity in coastal estuaries. Acidic deposition can result in lost forest productivity for terrestrial ecosystem and impacts to trout and other fishery resources in inland waters. Human pulmonary health can be impaired when N and SOx in the atmosphere lead to the generation of ozone and particulate matter (PM). Atmospheric N deposition can also contribute to eutrophication of drinking water sources. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) Office of Research and Development (ORD) has embarked on the development of a multi-media 'one environment' systems approach to these issues to help develop management decisions that create win-win policies. The purpose of this project is to develop a 'one environment' set of models that can inform protection of ecosystems and human health in both the current state and under future climate scenarios. The research framework focuses on three interrelated themes; coupling air quality with land use and agricultural land management, connecting the hydrosphere (i.e., coupling meteorology and hydrology) and linking the air/land/hydrosphere with ecosystem models and benefits models. We will present an overall modeling framework and then move to the presentation of on-going research results related to direct linkage of air quality with land use and agricultural land management. A modeling interface system has been developed that facilitates the simulation of field-scale agricultural land management decisions over a gridded domain at multiple grid resolutions for the Contiguous United States (CONUS) using a modified version of the USDA EPIC (Environmental Policy Integrated Climate) model. EPIC

  1. Air pollution and air cleaning equipment in buildings

    OpenAIRE

    Evdokimova, Ekaterina

    2011-01-01

    The subject of this thesis work is air pollution and air cleaners in building. Clean air has big significance for human health because different pollutions can cause allergy and disease. The quality of indoor air affects health and effective working. The aim of this thesis is to present methods and devices for cleaning the air.

  2. Fine particulate matter in the indoor air of barbeque restaurants: Elemental compositions, sources and health risks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taner, Simge; Pekey, Beyhan, E-mail: bpekey@kocaeli.edu.tr; Pekey, Hakan

    2013-06-01

    Cooking is a significant source of indoor particulate matter that can cause adverse health effects. In this study, a 5-stage cascade impactor was used to collect particulate matter from 14 restaurants that cooked with charcoal in Kocaeli, the second largest city in Turkey. A total of 24 elements were quantified using ICP-MS. All of the element contents except for Mn were higher for fine particles (PM{sub 2.5}) than coarse particles (PM{sub >2.5}), and the major trace elements identified in the PM{sub 2.5} included V, Se, Zn, Cr, As, Cu, Ni, and Pb. Principle component analysis (PCA) and enrichment factor (EF) calculations were used to determine the sources of PM{sub 2.5}. Four factors that explained over 77% of the total variance were identified by the PCA. These factors included charcoal combustion, indoor activities, crustal components, and road dust. The Se, As, Cd, and V contents in the PM{sub 2.5} were highly enriched (EF > 100). The health risks posed by the individual metals were calculated to assess the potential health risks associated with inhaling the fine particles released during charcoal cooking. The total hazard quotient (total HQ) for a PM{sub 2.5} of 4.09 was four times greater than the acceptable limit (i.e., 1.0). In addition, the excess lifetime cancer risk (total ELCR) for PM{sub 2.5} was 1.57 × 10{sup −4}, which is higher than the acceptable limit of 1.0 × 10{sup −6}. Among all of the carcinogenic elements present in the PM{sub 2.5}, the cancer risks resulting from Cr(VI) and As exposure were the highest (i.e., 1.16 × 10{sup −4} and 3.89 × 10{sup −5}, respectively). Overall, these results indicate that the lifetime cancer risk associated with As and Cr(VI) exposure is significant at selected restaurants, which is of concern for restaurant workers. - Highlights: • Particulate emissions from charcoal combustion in the BBQ restaurants were studied. • Vanadium, Se, Zn, Cr and As were found as high concentrations in PM{sub 2.5}.

  3. Seeing through the Smoke: A collaborative, multidisciplinary effort to address the interplay between wildfire, climate, air quality, and health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brey, S. J.; Fischer, E. V.; Pierce, J. R.; Ford, B.; Lassman, W.; Pfister, G.; Volckens, J.; Gan, R.; Magzamen, S.; Barnes, E. A.

    2015-12-01

    Exposure to wildfire smoke plumes represents an episodic, uncertain, and potentially growing threat to public health in the western United States. The area burned by wildfires in this region has increased over recent decades, and the future of fires within this region is largely unknown. Future fire emissions are intimately linked to future meteorological conditions, which are uncertain due to the variability of climate model outputs and differences between representative concentration pathways (RCP) scenarios. We know that exposure to wildfire smoke is harmful, particularly for vulnerable populations. However the literature on the heath effects of wildfire smoke exposure is thin, particularly when compared to the depth of information we have on the effects of exposure to smoke of anthropogenic origin. We are exploring the relationships between climate, fires, air quality and public health through multiple interdisciplinary collaborations. We will present several examples from these projects including 1) an analysis of the influence of fire on ozone abundances over the United States, and 2) efforts to use a high-resolution weather forecasting model to nail down exposure within specific smoke plumes. We will also highlight how our team works together. This discussion will include examples of the university structure that facilitates our current collaborations, and the lessons we have learned by seeking stakeholder input to make our science more useful.

  4. To what extent can China’s near-term air pollution control policy protect air quality and human health? A case study of the Pearl River Delta region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Following a series of extreme air pollution events, the Chinese government released the Air Pollution Prevention and Control Action Plan in 2013 (China’s State Council 2013). The Action Plan sets clear goals for key regions (i.e. cities above the prefecture level, Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei Province, the Yangtze River Delta and the Pearl River Delta) and establishes near-term control efforts for the next five years. However, the extent to which the Action Plan can direct local governments’ activities on air pollution control remains unknown. Here we seek to evaluate the air quality improvement and associated health benefits achievable under the Action Plan in the Pearl River Delta (PRD) area from 2012 to 2017. Measure-by-measure quantification results show that the Action Plan would promise effective emissions reductions of 34% of SO2, 28% of NOx, 26% of PM2.5 (particulate matter less than 2.5 μm in diameter), and 10% of VOCs (volatile organic compounds). These emissions abatements would lower the PM2.5 concentration by 17%, surpassing the 15% target established in the Action Plan, thereby avoiding more than 2900 deaths and 4300 hospital admissions annually. We expect the implementation of the Action Plan in the PRD would be productive; the anticipated impacts, however, fall short of the goal of protecting the health of local residents, as there are still more than 33 million people living in places where the annual mean ambient PM2.5 concentrations are greater than 35 μg m−3, the interim target-3 of the World Health Organization (WHO). We therefore propose the next steps for air pollution control that are important not only for the PRD but also for all other regions of China as they develop and implement effective air pollution control policies. (letter)

  5. To what extent can China’s near-term air pollution control policy protect air quality and human health? A case study of the Pearl River Delta region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xujia; Hong, Chaopeng; Zheng, Yixuan; Zheng, Bo; Guan, Dabo; Gouldson, Andy; Zhang, Qiang; He, Kebin

    2015-10-01

    Following a series of extreme air pollution events, the Chinese government released the Air Pollution Prevention and Control Action Plan in 2013 (China’s State Council 2013). The Action Plan sets clear goals for key regions (i.e. cities above the prefecture level, Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei Province, the Yangtze River Delta and the Pearl River Delta) and establishes near-term control efforts for the next five years. However, the extent to which the Action Plan can direct local governments’ activities on air pollution control remains unknown. Here we seek to evaluate the air quality improvement and associated health benefits achievable under the Action Plan in the Pearl River Delta (PRD) area from 2012 to 2017. Measure-by-measure quantification results show that the Action Plan would promise effective emissions reductions of 34% of SO2, 28% of NOx, 26% of PM2.5 (particulate matter less than 2.5 μm in diameter), and 10% of VOCs (volatile organic compounds). These emissions abatements would lower the PM2.5 concentration by 17%, surpassing the 15% target established in the Action Plan, thereby avoiding more than 2900 deaths and 4300 hospital admissions annually. We expect the implementation of the Action Plan in the PRD would be productive; the anticipated impacts, however, fall short of the goal of protecting the health of local residents, as there are still more than 33 million people living in places where the annual mean ambient PM2.5 concentrations are greater than 35 μg m-3, the interim target-3 of the World Health Organization (WHO). We therefore propose the next steps for air pollution control that are important not only for the PRD but also for all other regions of China as they develop and implement effective air pollution control policies.

  6. Clean air plans and action plans: perspectives from the viewpoint of environmental and public health; Luftreinhalteplaene und Aktionsplaene - eine Bewertung aus umweltmedizinischer Sicht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eikmann, T.; Herr, C. [Inst. fuer Hygiene und Umweltmedizin, Universitaetsklinikum Giessen und Marburg, Justus-Liebig-Univ. Giessen, Giessen (Germany); [Technische Univ. Dreden, Pirna (Germany). Inst. fuer Abfallwirtschaft und Altlasten; Koeckler, H. [Center for Environmental Systems Research (CESR), Univ. Kassel (Germany); [Mentec GmbH, Aue/Sa. (Germany); Nieden, A. zur [Inst. fuer Hygiene und Umweltmedizin, Universitaetsklinikum Giessen und Marburg, Justus-Liebig-Univ. Giessen, Giessen (Germany); FG Stadtklimatologie, Univ. Kassel (Germany); Katzschner, L. [FG Stadtklimatologie, Univ. Kassel (Germany); [INTECUS Dresden GmbH (Germany); Schimmelpfennig, M. [Gesundheitsamt der Stadt Kassel (Germany); Eikmann, S. [GUK - Gesellschaft fuer Umwelttoxikologie und Krankenhaushygiene mbH, Wetzlar (Germany)

    2005-07-01

    The present discussion on the health effects associated with airborne fine particulate matter has lead to an increased public interest in the general framework of compilation and evaluation of clean air plans and actions plans. While the surveys of the ''old'' clean air plans of the 80ies and 90ies of the last century relied on assessment of direct and indirect effects of air pollution on human health (and ecology), theses surveys are not part of the ''new'' clean air plans according to European law. This reduction of surveys and actions directed at threshold compliance only, abandons assessing, i.e., documentation and evaluation the health status and quality of life of populations. Assessment of individual and focus group specific sensibility and vulnerability becomes possible once health related, sociodemographic and environmental data are combined. By this, unequal life chance, i.e., unimpaired health as well as reasonable strategies towards minimizing environmental injustice can be identified. As of yet it is unclear, to what extend quality of life and quality of environment of populations living in air polluted areas are attributable to socioeconomic factors. Likewise, it is not known to which degree the environmental quality of individuals and families is self determined. This has to be considered especially for children, immigrants and women. These issues i.e., environmental justice/injustice should be considered in future projects on the development of clean air plans and especially actions plans derived thereof. Scientists, government officials and physicians working in field of preventive or environmental medicine cannot agree to a limitation of the cautionary principle to the bare compliance with thresholds. (orig.)

  7. The Hyperspectral Infrared Imager (HyspIRI) Public Health & Air Quality Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luvall, Jeffrey C.; Hook, Simon J.

    2013-01-01

    The neglected tropical diseases (NTDs), a group of chronic, debilitating, and poverty-promoting parasitic, bacterial, and some viral and fungal infections, are among the most common causes of illness of the poorest people living in developing countries. Abiotic environmental factors are important in determining the distribution of disease-causing vectors and their life-cycles. HyspIRI observations can be merged through a Land Data Assimilation System (LDAS) be used to drive spatially-explicit ecological models of NTD vectors distribution & life cycles. Assimilations will be driven by observational data LDAS and satellite-derived meteorological forcing data, parameter datasets, and assimilation observations. HyspIRI hyperspectral measurements would provide global measurements of surface mineralogy and biotic crusts important in accessing the impact of dust in human health. HyspIRI surface thermal measurements would also help identify the variability of dust sources due to surface moisture conditions and map mineralogy.

  8. The Hyperspectral Infrared Imager (HyspIRI) Public Health and Air Quality Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luvall, Jeffrey C.; Hook, Simon J.

    2014-01-01

    The neglected tropical diseases (NTDs), a group of chronic, debilitating, and poverty-promoting parasitic, bacterial, and some viral and fungal infections, are among the most common causes of illness of the poorest people living in developing countries. Abiotic environmental factors are important in determining the distribution of disease-causing vectors and their life-cycles. HyspIRI observations can be merged through a Land Data Assimilation System (LDAS) be used to drive spatially-explicit ecological models of NTD vectors distribution and life cycles. Assimilations will be driven by observational data LDAS and satellite-derived meteorological forcing data, parameter datasets, and assimilation observations. HyspIRI hyperspectral measurements would provide global measurements of surface mineralogy and biotic crusts important in accessing the impact of dust in human health. HyspIRI surface thermal measurements would also help identify the variability of dust sources due to surface moisture conditions and map mineralogy.

  9. Review of the health risks associated with nitrogen dioxide and sulfur dioxide in indoor air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The scientific literature on the health effects of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and sulfur dioxide (SO2) were reviewed with particular focus on the chemical and physical properties of the 2 gases and the toxicological characteristics identified in animal studies at exposure concentrations near the rate of ambient human exposures. The study also examined the expected levels of non-industrial indoor exposure of Canadians compared to other regions with similar climates. The sources of indoor pollution were also reviewed, along with the contribution of outdoor pollution to indoor levels. Results from epidemiological studies of indoor exposures in homes, offices and schools were also presented. For each pollutant, the study identified anthropogenic sources, indoor sources, toxicological characteristics, biochemistry, pulmonary effects, immune response, and other effects. Indoor sources of NO2 include gas-fired appliances, pilot lights, hot water heaters, kerosene heaters, and tobacco smoke. The impact of ventilation on both NO2 and SO2 levels was also examined. Outdoor sources such as traffic can also contribute to indoor levels, particularly in urban areas. In the case of SO2, coal heating and cooling appear to be associated in increased indoor levels. The epidemiological studies that were reviewed failed in general to indicate an association between NO2 exposure and a wide range of health impacts. The studies, however, indicate that asthmatics are more susceptible to the effects of NO2 exposure. In the case of SO2, evidence suggests that it has a chronic effect on lung function and respiratory symptoms and disease. 243 refs., 13 tabs

  10. Indoor air pollution from biomass combustion and its adverse health effects in central India: An exposure-response study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neelam D Sukhsohale

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Some of the highest exposures to air pollutants in developing countries occur inside homes where biofuels are used for daily cooking. Inhalation of these pollutants may cause deleterious effects on health. Objectives: To assess the respiratory and other morbidities associated with use of various types of cooking fuels in rural area of Nagpur and to study the relationship between the duration of exposure (exposure index [EI] and various morbidities. Materials and Methods: A total of 760 non-smoking, non-pregnant women aged 15 years and above (mean age 32.51 ΁ 14.90 years exposed to domestic smoke from cooking fuels from an early age, working in poorly ventilated kitchen were selected and on examination presented with various health problems. Exposure was calculated as the average hours spent daily for cooking multiplied by the number of years. Symptoms were enquired by means of a standard questionnaire adopted from that of the British Medical Research Council. Lung function was assessed by the measurement of peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR. PEFR less than 80% of the predicted was considered as abnormal pulmonary function. Results and Conclusions: Symptoms like eye irritation, headache, and diminution of vision were found to be significantly higher in biomass users (P < 0.05. Abnormal pulmonary function, chronic bronchitis, and cataract in biomass users was significantly higher than other fuel users (P < 0.05. Moreover an increasing trend in prevalence of symptoms/morbid conditions was observed with increase in EI. The presence of respiratory symptoms/morbid conditions was associated with lower values of both observed and percent predicted PEFR (P < 0.05 to 0.001. Thus women exposed to biofuels smoke suffer more from health problems and respiratory illnesses when compared with other fuel users.

  11. Indoor air quality in hair salons: Screening of volatile organic compounds and indicators based on health risk assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Gennaro, Gianluigi; de Gennaro, Lucrezia; Mazzone, Antonio; Porcelli, Francesca; Tutino, Maria

    2014-02-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are common ingredients in cosmetic products which can impact human health. This study monitored 12 hairdressing salons in order to assess the individual exposure of the people working in or frequenting these environments as well as identify the main products or activities responsible for the presence of these compounds. In each site halogenated, oxygenated, aliphatic and aromatic compounds were monitored during the work week with diffusive samplers suitable for thermal desorption and analysed using GC-MS. The study of indoor-outdoor concentration ratios and a knowledge of the composition of most of the products, whether ecological or traditional, used in the hair salons verified the presence of compounds linked to hairdressing activities. In particular, compounds widely used in products for hair care as spray lacquer and foam (butane), shampoo, balms, hair masks and oils (camphene, camphor, limonene, eucalyptol, alpha pinene, 1-methoxy-2-propanol, n-butanol and menthol), and hair dye (benzyl alcohol, isopropanol, limonene, hexane and methyl ethyl ketone) were found at much higher levels inside rather than outside the salons (mean I/O > 10). The importance of this finding is linked to the potential health hazards of some of the VOCs detected. Integrated indicators of health risk were proposed in this study to assess the criticality level and rank the investigated environments accordingly. The results of this study indicate that the level of VOC concentrations was most affected by the type of products used while the size of the environment, the efficiency of air exchange and the number of customers had less impact on those levels.

  12. Concentrations and potential health risks of methyl tertiary-butyl ether (MTBE) in air and drinking water from Nanning, South China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li'e; Qin, Jian; Zhang, Zhiyong; Li, Qin; Huang, Jiongli; Peng, Xiaowu; Qing, Li; Liang, Guiqiang; Liang, Linhan; Huang, Yuman; Yang, Xiaobo; Zou, Yunfeng

    2016-01-15

    Levels of methyl tertiary-butyl ether (MTBE) in occupational air, ambient air, and drinking water in Nanning, South China, were investigated, and then their potential health risks to occupational workers and the general public were evaluated. Results show that the MTBE concentration in occupational air from 13 service stations was significantly higher than that in ambient air from residential areas (pwater samples from household taps yielded detectable MTBE in the range of 0.04-0.33 μg/L, which is below the US drinking water standard of 20-40 μg/L. The non-carcinogenic risk of MTBE from air inhalation may be negligible because the calculated hazard quotient was less than 1. The mean MTBE lifetime cancer risk was within the acceptable limit of 1 × 10(-6) to 1 × 10(-4), but the lifetime cancer risk of refueling workers in the urban service station at the 95th percentile slightly exceeded the maximum acceptable carcinogen risk (1 × 10(-4)), indicating the potential carcinogenic health effects on the population highly exposed to MTBE in this region. The hazard index and carcinogenic risk of MTBE in drinking water were significantly lower than the safe limit of US Environmental Protection Agency, suggesting that drinking water unlikely poses significant health risks to the residents in Nanning.

  13. Potential hazards of air pollutant emissions from unconventional oil and natural gas operations on the respiratory health of children and infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Ellen; Hays, Jake; Dyrszka, Larysa; Rodriguez, Brian; Cox, Caroline; Huffling, Katie; Bushkin-Bedient, Sheila

    2016-06-01

    Research on air pollutant emissions associated with unconventional oil and gas (UOG) development has grown significantly in recent years. Empirical investigations have focused on the identification and measurement of oil and gas air pollutants [e.g. volatile organic compounds (VOCs), particulate matter (PM), methane] and the influence of UOG on local and regional ambient air quality (e.g. tropospheric ozone). While more studies to better characterize spatial and temporal trends in exposure among children and newborns near UOG sites are needed, existing research suggests that exposure to air pollutants emitted during lifecycle operations can potentially lead to adverse respiratory outcomes in this population. Children are known to be at a greater risk from exposure to air pollutants, which can impair lung function and neurodevelopment, or exacerbate existing conditions, such as asthma, because the respiratory system is particularly vulnerable during development in-utero, the postnatal period, and early childhood. In this article, we review the literature relevant to respiratory risks of UOG on infants and children. Existing epidemiology studies document the impact of air pollutant exposure on children in other contexts and suggest impacts near UOG. Research is sparse on long-term health risks associated with frequent acute exposures - especially in children - hence our interpretation of these findings may be conservative. Many data gaps remain, but existing data support precautionary measures to protect the health of infants and children. PMID:27171386

  14. Indoor air quality and health does fungal contamination play a significant role?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardana, Emil J

    2003-05-01

    Fungal contamination in buildings can vary greatly, and their presence in a dwelling does not necessarily constitute exposure. Measurement of mold spores and fragments varies depending on the methodology and instruments used. Meaningful comparison of data is rarely possible. The presence of a specific immune response to a fungal antigen only connotes that exposure to one or more related species has occurred, but not that there is a symptomatic clinical state. The response of individuals to indoor bioaerosols is complex and depends on age, gender, state of health, genetic makeup, and degree and time of bioaerosol exposure. In general, mold contamination in buildings is associated with incursion of water or moisture, which should be remedied as efficiently as possible. When disease occurs, it more likely is related to transient annoyance or irritational reactions. Allergic symptoms may be related to mold proliferation in the home environment. Because molds are encountered both indoors and outdoors, it is difficult to determine where the sensitivity initially arose and if the response is solely provoked by either an indoor or outdoor source. As an indoor allergen, mold is considered to be an infrequent participant in the induction of allergic disease when compared with housedust mites, animal dander, and cockroach allergens. Infection in healthy individuals is rare and usually is caused by an outdoor source. Building-related disease caused by mycotoxicosis has not been proved in the medical literature. PMID:12803364

  15. Comparative assessment of air quality in two health resorts using carbon isotopes and palynological analyses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorka, M.; Jedrysek, M.O.; Maj, J.; Worobiec, A.; Buczynska, A.; Stefaniak, E.; Krata, A.; Van Grieken, R.; Zwozdziak, A.; Sowka, I.; Zwozdziak, J.; Lewicka-Szczebak, D. [University of Wroclaw, Wroclaw (Poland). Inst. of Geological Science

    2009-01-15

    This paper describes results of applying the palynological and carbon isotopic analysis of the organic fraction of Total Suspended Particles (TSP) to discriminate distinct pollution sources and assess the anthropogenic impact for the investigated areas. The samples of atmospheric particles were collected in Czerniawa and Cieplice (two health resorts in Lower Silesia, SW Poland) twice a year in summer and winter season (from July 2006 to February 2008). The palynological spectra represent in the vast majority local plant communities without a noticeable contribution of long-transported plant particles. Palynological analysis revealed also differences in the specificity of the two sampling areas, i.e. the higher contribution of identified organic material in Czerniawa stands for more natural character of this site, but is also responsible for the higher allergic pressure when compared to Cieplice. The carbon isotopic composition of TSP varied seasonally ({delta}{sup 13}C value from -27.09 parts per thousand in summer to -25.47 parts per thousand in winter). The increased {delta} {sup 13}C value in winter (heating period) is most probably caused by uncontrolled contribution of coal soot. On the basis of isotopic mass balance the calculated contribution of anthropogenic organic particles in the atmosphere reached in winter season 72% in Czerniawa and 79% in Cieplice.

  16. Health effects of air pollution in Japan and comparison of hazard indices of effluents from fossil fuel and nuclear plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The dose-response relationship between prevalence rates of chronic bronchitis and sulphur dioxide are introduced. Based on the Air Quality Standards, various efforts have been made to reduce the concentrations of sulphur dioxide in the atmosphere. Consequently, the sulphur dioxide concentrations decreased. However, the atmospheric concentrations of nitrogen dioxide tended to increase gradually. It was therefore considered important to study the health effects of nitrogen dioxide. In six different areas in Japan with varying atmospheric concentrations of nitrogen dioxide, an extensive epidemiological survey was conducted with over 10.000 schoolchildren 6 to 15 years old during the period 1979 to 1981. The prevalence rate of asthma was estimated to be 4.7 % for males and 2.1 % for females in the high NO2 concentration area, and 1.9 % for males and 0.9% for females in the low NO2 concentration area. For asthma-like symptoms, 12.2 % for males and 11.9 % for females was observed at the high NO2 concentration area, and 7.1 % for males and 5.9 % for females in the low NO2 concentration area. The natural radioactivity from fossil-fuel power plants is also discussed. From the comparison of hazard indices of effluents from fossil-fuel and nuclear power plants, the hazard indices of air pollution by SO2 and NO2 may be considered most significant. In decision-making on environmental protection and safety, it should be carefully considered whether a reduction of one type of risk might increase another type of risk. In order to ensure clean environment and to prevent acid rain disaster on forest it may be important to encourage development of cleaner nuclear power plants with smaller hazard indices. (Author)

  17. Community air monitoring for pesticides. Part 3: using health-based screening levels to evaluate results collected for a year.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wofford, Pamela; Segawa, Randy; Schreider, Jay; Federighi, Veda; Neal, Rosemary; Brattesani, Madeline

    2014-03-01

    The CA Department of Pesticide Regulation (CDPR) and the CA Air Resources Board monitored 40 pesticides, including five degradation products, in Parlier, CA, to determine if its residents were exposed to any of these pesticides and, if so, in what amounts. They included 1,3-dichloropropene, acrolein, arsenic, azinphos-methyl, carbon disulfide, chlorpyrifos and its degradation product, chlorthalonil, copper, cypermethrin, diazinon and its degradation product, dichlorvos, dicofol, dimethoate and its degradation product, diuron, endosulfan and its degradation product, S-ethyl dipropylcarbamothioate (EPTC), formaldehyde, malathion and its degradation product, methyl isothiocyanate (MITC), methyl bromide, metolachlor, molinate, norflurazon, oryzalin, oxyfluorfen, permethrin, phosmet, propanil, propargite, simazine, SSS-tributylphosphorotrithioate, sulfur, thiobencarb, trifluralin, and xylene. Monitoring was conducted 3 days per week for a year. Twenty-three pesticides and degradation products were detected. Acrolein, arsenic, carbon disulfide, chlorpyrifos, copper, formaldehyde, methyl bromide, MITC, and sulfur were detected in more than half the samples. Since no regulatory ambient air standards exist for these pesticides, CDPR developed advisory, health-based non-cancer screening levels (SLs) to assess acute, subchronic, and chronic exposures. For carcinogenic pesticides, CDPR assessed risk using cancer potency values. Amongst non-carcinogenic agricultural use pesticides, only diazinon exceeded its SL. For carcinogens, 1,3-dichloropropene concentrations exceeded its cancer potency value. Based on these findings, CDPR has undertaken a more comprehensive evaluation of 1,3-dichloropropene, diazinon, and the closely related chlorpyrifos that was frequently detected. Four chemicals-acrolein, arsenic, carbon disulfide, and formaldehyde-sometimes used as pesticides were detected, although no pesticidal use was reported in the area during this study. Their presence was most

  18. Risk tradeoffs and public health protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text of publication follows: over the last 25 years, the traditional command-and-control, chemical-by-chemical environmental medium-by-environmental medium, risk-by-risk approach to protecting public health from environmental risks has worked well to greatly improve the quality of our food, air, water, and workplaces, but we are now left with the more complex problems, like urban air pollution or personal dietary behavior, that a chemical-by-chemical approach is not going to solve. Because current environmental regulatory programs have curbed the 'low-hanging fruit' and because of today's emphasis on achieving risk reductions cost-effectively, new and creative public health-based approaches to risk management are needed. Since public concern about pollution-related disease become serious in the 1960's and 1970's and regulatory agencies and laws began to proliferate, the public health goals of environmental protection have been obscured. As a society, we have made a tradeoff between environmental health and public health. The public health foundation of environmental health protection has been obscured by legalistic, technical, centralized decision-making processes that have often mistaken hazard for risk. A greater focus on public health would help us to assess aggregate risks and to target risk management resources by focusing on a problem and then identifying what is causing the problem as a guide to determining how best to solve it. Most of our current approaches start with a cause and then try to eliminate it without determining the extent to which it actually may contribute to a problem, making it difficult to set priorities among risks or to evaluate the impact of risk management actions on public health. (author)

  19. Developing and Transitioning Numerical Air Quality Models to Improve Air Quality and Public Health Decision-Making in El Salvador and Costa Rica As Part of the Servir Applied Sciences Team

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, A.; Huff, A. K.; Gomori, S. G.; Sadoff, N.

    2014-12-01

    In order to enhance the capacity for air quality modeling and improve air quality monitoring and management in the SERVIR Mesoamerica region, members of SERVIR's Applied Sciences Team (AST) are developing national numerical air quality models for El Salvador and Costa Rica. We are working with stakeholders from the El Salvador Ministry of the Environment and Natural Resources (MARN); National University of Costa Rica (UNA); the Costa Rica Ministry of the Environment, Energy, and Telecommunications (MINAET); and Costa Rica National Meteorological Institute (IMN), who are leaders in air quality monitoring and management in the Mesoamerica region. Focusing initially on these institutions will build sustainability in regional modeling activities by developing air quality modeling capability that can be shared with other countries in Mesoamerica. The air quality models are based on the Community Multi-scale Air Quality (CMAQ) model and incorporate meteorological inputs from the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model, as well as national emissions inventories from El Salvador and Costa Rica. The models are being optimized for urban air quality, which is a priority of decision-makers in Mesoamerica. Once experimental versions of the modeling systems are complete, they will be transitioned to servers run by stakeholders in El Salvador and Costa Rica. The numerical air quality models will provide decision support for stakeholders to identify 1) high-priority areas for expanding national ambient air monitoring networks, 2) needed revisions to national air quality regulations, and 3) gaps in national emissions inventories. This project illustrates SERVIR's goal of the transition of science to support decision-making through capacity building in Mesoamerica, and it aligns with the Group on Earth Observations' health societal benefit theme. This presentation will describe technical aspects of the development of the models and outline key steps in our successful

  20. Use of doubly stochastic poisson processes in estimating health effects due to air pollution. [Effects of air pollution on incidence of acute respiratory diseases in New York City area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cuzick, J.M.

    1976-01-01

    Some questions associated with statistical inference of doubly stochastic Poisson processes are discussed. This general model appears to be of value in studying a number of problems in environmental health in which the factors which affect the rate at which certain diseases occur cannot be deterministically characterized. The model's applicability to a study of air pollution and incidence of acute respiratory diseases in the New York City area is examined.

  1. 14th congress of combustion by-products and their health effects-origin, fate, and health effects of combustion-related air pollutants in the coming era of bio-based energy sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weidemann, Eva; Andersson, Patrik L; Bidleman, Terry; Boman, Christoffer; Carlin, Danielle J; Collina, Elena; Cormier, Stephania A; Gouveia-Figueira, Sandra C; Gullett, Brian K; Johansson, Christer; Lucas, Donald; Lundin, Lisa; Lundstedt, Staffan; Marklund, Stellan; Nording, Malin L; Ortuño, Nuria; Sallam, Asmaa A; Schmidt, Florian M; Jansson, Stina

    2016-04-01

    The 14th International Congress on Combustion By-Products and Their Health Effects was held in Umeå, Sweden from June 14th to 17th, 2015. The Congress, mainly sponsored by the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences Superfund Research Program and the Swedish Research Council for Environment, Agricultural Sciences and Spatial Planning, focused on the "Origin, fate and health effects of combustion-related air pollutants in the coming era of bio-based energy sources". The international delegates included academic and government researchers, engineers, scientists, policymakers and representatives of industrial partners. The Congress provided a unique forum for the discussion of scientific advances in this research area since it addressed in combination the health-related issues and the environmental implications of combustion by-products. The scientific outcomes of the Congress included the consensus opinions that: (a) there is a correlation between human exposure to particulate matter and increased cardiac and respiratory morbidity and mortality; (b) because currently available data does not support the assessment of differences in health outcomes between biomass smoke and other particulates in outdoor air, the potential human health and environmental impacts of emerging air-pollution sources must be addressed. Assessment will require the development of new approaches to characterize combustion emissions through advanced sampling and analytical methods. The Congress also concluded the need for better and more sustainable e-waste management and improved policies, usage and disposal methods for materials containing flame retardants.

  2. Assessing Air Pollutant-Induced, Health-Related External Costs in the Context of Nonmarginal System Changes: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachmann, Till M

    2015-08-18

    Marginal analysis is the usual approach to environmental economic assessment, for instance, of health-related external costs due to energy-associated air pollutant emissions. However, nonlinearity exists in all steps of their assessment, i.e., atmospheric dispersion, impact assessment, and monetary valuation. Dedicated assessments thus appear necessary when evaluating large systems or their changes such as in green accounting or the implications of economy-wide energy transitions. Corresponding approaches are reviewed. Tools already exist that allow assessing a marginal change (e.g., one power plant's emissions) for different background emission scenarios that merely need to be defined and implemented. When assessing nonmarginal changes, the top-down approach is considered obsolete, and four variants of the bottom-up approach with different application domains were identified. Variants 1 and 2 use precalculated external cost factors with different levels of sophistication, suitable for energy systems modeling, optimizing for social (i.e., private and external) costs. Providing more reliable results due to more detailed modeling, emission sources are assessed individually or jointly in variants 3 and 4, respectively. Aiming at considering nonlinearity more fully and simultaneously following marginal analysis principles, I propose a variant 3-based approach, subdividing an aggregate (i.e., a nonmarginal change) into several smaller changes. Its strengths and drawbacks, notably the associated effort, are discussed. PMID:26237285

  3. Mental health diagnoses and counseling among pilots of remotely piloted aircraft in the United States Air Force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otto, Jean L; Webber, Bryant J

    2013-03-01

    Remotely piloted aircraft (RPA), also known as drones, have been used extensively in the recent conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan. Although RPA pilots in the U.S. Air Force (USAF) have reported high levels of stress and fatigue, rates of mental health (MH) diagnoses and counseling in this population are unknown. We calculated incidence rates of 12 specific MH outcomes among all active component USAF RPA pilots between 1 October 2003 and 31 December 2011, and by various demographic and military variables. We compared these rates to those among all active component USAF manned aircraft (MA) pilots deployed to Iraq/Afghanistan during the same period. The unadjusted incidence rates of all MH outcomes among RPA pilots (n=709) and MA pilots (n=5,256) were 25.0 per 1,000 person-years and 15.9 per 1,000 person-years, respectively (adjusted incidence rate ratio=1.1, 95% confidence interval=0.9-1.5; adjusted for age, number of deployments, time in service, and history of any MH outcome). Th ere was no significant difference in the rates of MH diagnoses, including post-traumatic stress disorder, depressive disorders, and anxiety disorders between RPA and MA pilots. Military policymakers and clinicians should recognize that RPA and MA pilots have similar MH risk profiles.

  4. Mental health diagnoses and counseling among pilots of remotely piloted aircraft in the United States Air Force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otto, Jean L; Webber, Bryant J

    2013-03-01

    Remotely piloted aircraft (RPA), also known as drones, have been used extensively in the recent conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan. Although RPA pilots in the U.S. Air Force (USAF) have reported high levels of stress and fatigue, rates of mental health (MH) diagnoses and counseling in this population are unknown. We calculated incidence rates of 12 specific MH outcomes among all active component USAF RPA pilots between 1 October 2003 and 31 December 2011, and by various demographic and military variables. We compared these rates to those among all active component USAF manned aircraft (MA) pilots deployed to Iraq/Afghanistan during the same period. The unadjusted incidence rates of all MH outcomes among RPA pilots (n=709) and MA pilots (n=5,256) were 25.0 per 1,000 person-years and 15.9 per 1,000 person-years, respectively (adjusted incidence rate ratio=1.1, 95% confidence interval=0.9-1.5; adjusted for age, number of deployments, time in service, and history of any MH outcome). Th ere was no significant difference in the rates of MH diagnoses, including post-traumatic stress disorder, depressive disorders, and anxiety disorders between RPA and MA pilots. Military policymakers and clinicians should recognize that RPA and MA pilots have similar MH risk profiles. PMID:23550927

  5. Allegheny County Air Quality

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Air quality data from Allegheny County Health Department monitors throughout the county. Air quality monitored data must be verified by qualified individuals...

  6. A.P.H.E.I.S.:air Pollution and Health: A European Information System Health Impact Assessment of Air Pollution In 26 European Cities; Synthese des resultats europeens et resultats detailles des villes francaises issus du rapport paru en octobre 2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-10-15

    Air pollution is a public health problem, in spite of more severe norms in matter of emissions rates, a stricter surveillance of the atmospheric pollution and the decrease of levels of some atmospheric pollutants. this situation has lead to the creation of a programme A.p.h.e.i.s. in 1999, in order to supply to Europeans authorities information on air pollution. In the report are presented the results of E.I.S. (evaluation of sanitary impact) made in towns.

  7. Effects of Exposure to Carbon Dioxide and Bioeffluents on Perceived Air Quality, Self-assessed Acute Health Symptoms and Cognitive Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Xiaojing; Wargocki, Pawel; Lian, Zhiwei;

    2016-01-01

    quality, increased the intensity of reported headache, fatigue, sleepiness and difficulty in thinking clearly, and reduced speed of addition, the response time in a redirection task and the number of correct links made in the cue-utilisation test. This suggests that moderate concentrations of bioeffluents...... ratings, physiological responses and cognitive performance were measured. No statistically significant effects on perceived air quality, acute health symptoms or cognitive performance were seen during exposures when CO2 was added. Exposures to bioeffluents with CO2 at 3,000 ppm reduced perceived air...

  8. [Environmental investigation of ground water contamination at Wright- Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio]. Volume 4, Health and Safety Plan (HSP); Phase 1, Task 4 Field Investigation report: Draft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-10-01

    This Health and Safety Plan (HSP) was developed for the Environmental Investigation of Ground-water Contamination Investigation at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base near Dayton, Ohio, based on the projected scope of work for the Phase 1, Task 4 Field Investigation. The HSP describes hazards that may be encountered during the investigation, assesses the hazards, and indicates what type of personal protective equipment is to be used for each task performed. The HSP also addresses the medical monitoring program, decontamination procedures, air monitoring, training, site control, accident prevention, and emergency response.

  9. Contribution from the ten major emission sectors in Europe to the Health-Cost Externalities of Air Pollution using the EVA Model System - an integrated modelling approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Jørgen; Silver, Jeremy D.; Christensen, Jesper H.; Andersen, Mikael S.; Bønløkke, Jakob H.; Sigsgaard, Torben; Geels, Camilla; Gross, Allan; Hansen, Ayoe B.; Hansen, Kaj M.; Hedegaard, Gitte B.; Kaas, Eigil; Frohn, Lise M.

    2013-04-01

    We have developed an integrated model system, EVA (Economic Valuation of Air pollution), based on the impact-pathway chain, to assess the health-related economic externalities of air pollution resulting from specific emission sources or sectors, which can be used to support policy-making with respect to emission control. Central for the system is a tagging method capable of calculating the contribution from a specific emission source or sector to the overall air pollution levels, taking into account the non-linear atmospheric chemistry. The main objective of this work is to identify the anthropogenic emission sources in Europe and Denmark that contribute the most to human health impacts. In this study, we applied the EVA system to Europe and Denmark, with a detailed analysis of health-related external costs from the ten major emission sectors and their relative contributions. The paper contains a thorough description of the EVA system. The conclusions in the paper are sensitive to the toxicity of the different types of atmospheric particles, and therefore the existing knowledge of health impacts from particles is reviewed. We conclude that with our present knowledge we are not able to distinguish between the impacts from different particle types and therefore the toxicity of the particles is handled equally in the overall results. The main conclusion from the analysis of the ten major emission sectors in Europe and Denmark is that the major contributors to health-related external costs are major power production, agriculture, road traffic, and non-industrial domestic combustion, including wood combustion. The major power plants in Europe contribute with around 25% of the total health related external costs relative to all sources in Europe, while the Danish power plants only contribute with less than 10% relative to all Danish sources. Our results suggest that the agricultural sector contributes with 25% to health impacts and related external costs. We conclude

  10. Indoor air quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Trine Susanne; Recevska, Ieva

     The objective of the 35th specific agreement is to provide support to the EEA activities in Environment and Health (E&H) on the topic of indoor air quality. The specific objectives have been to provide an overview of indoor air related projects in EU and indoor air related policies as well...... as idenfiying "good practices" to reduce health impact of indoor air exposure and suggest areas for future improvements....

  11. Atmospheric pollution due to mobile sources and effects on human health in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagawa, J

    1994-10-01

    Following the rapid economic growth after World War II, diseases associated with environmental pollution frequently occurred due to delayed implementation of countermeasures against environmental pollution. These diseases are exemplified by Minamata disease, Itai-itai disease, chronic arsenic poisoning, and Yokkaichi asthma. After multiple episodes of these pollution-related diseases were experienced, the government and the private sector made joint efforts to reduce environmental pollution. As a result of these efforts and because of changes in the industrial structure, pollution-related diseases have declined. Instead, however, air pollution from automobile exhaust and the health effects of automobile exhaust on people living along roads with heavy traffic began to attract the public's attention after an increase in the use of automobiles. The epidemiological surveys carried out by the Environmental Agency and the Tokyo Metropolitan Government also have suggested unfavorable effects of automobile-caused air pollution on people living in large cities or along major roads. To solve this problem, it seems imperative to promote the reasonable use of automobiles and to work toward more efficient transportation of goods based on analyses of city structure, the life-styles of city dwellers, and the socioeconomic composition of cities. In addition, the discharge of pollutants from automobiles could be controlled.

  12. Assessment of air pollution and its effects on the health status of the workers in beam rolling mills factory (Iran National Steel Industrial Group from Ahvaz-Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafiei Masoud

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Air pollutants of iron- and steel-making operations have historically been an environmental and health hazard. These pollutants include gaseous substances such as sulfur oxide, nitrogen dioxide, and carbon monoxide. The Iran National Steel Industrial Group beam rolling mills factory has two production lines viz. line 630 and line 650, with different beam production capabilities and is capable of producing different types of beams. Materials and Methods: A retrospective cross-sectional study on 400 workers in different exposure levels to environmental pollution was performed during 2005 to determine the mean value of respirable particulate matter (RPM concentrations and its effects on the health status of workers. To elicit information regarding the health status of the worker, the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health standard questionnaire was used. Fisher′s exact test was performed to assess the relative risk (RR of exposure to air pollution on cardiovascular diseases, chest tightness, cough, difficulty in retention, i.e. loss of memory, tension, occupational fatigue, and occupational stress in exposed workers. Results: There was significant difference in RPM pollution level between two product lines. The RR of exposure to air pollution on cardiovascular diseases, chest tightness, cough, difficulty in retention, i.e. loss of memory, tension, occupational fatigue, and occupational stress in exposed workers were 2.78, 2.44, 2.15, 1.92, 1.57, 3.90, and 2.09, respectively.

  13. Introduction to Indoor Air Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... US Environmental Protection Agency Search Search Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) Share Facebook Twitter Google+ Pinterest Contact Us ... Indoor Air Quality An Introduction to Indoor Air Quality IAQ & Health Causes of IAQ Problems Identifying IAQ ...

  14. Assessment of past, present and future health-cost externalities of air pollution in Europe and the contribution from international ship traffic using the EVA model system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Brandt

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available An integrated model system, EVA (Economic Valuation of Air pollution, based on the impact-pathway chain has been developed, to assess the health-related economic externalities of air pollution resulting from specific emission sources or sectors. The model system can be used to support policy-making with respect to emission control. In this study, we apply the EVA system to Europe, and perform a more detailed assessment of past, present, and future health-cost externalities of the total air pollution levels in Europe (including both natural and anthropogenic sources, represented by the years 2000, 2007, 2011, and 2020. We also assess the contribution to the health-related external costs from international ship traffic with special attention to the international ship traffic in the Baltic and North Seas, since special regulatory actions on sulphur emissions, called SECA (sulphur emission control area, have been introduced in these areas,. We conclude that despite efficient regulatory actions in Europe in recent decades, air pollution still constitutes a serious problem to human health, hence the related external costs are considerable. The total health-related external costs for the whole of Europe is estimated at 803 bn Euro yr−1 for the year 2000, decreasing to 537 bn Euro yr−1 in the year 2020. We estimate the total number of premature deaths in Europe in the year 2000 due to air pollution to be around 680 000 yr−1, decreasing to approximately 450 000 in the year 2020. The contribution from international ship traffic in the Northern Hemisphere was estimated to 7% of the total health-related external costs in Europe in the year 2000, increasing to 12% in the year 2020. In contrast, the contribution from international ship traffic in the Baltic Sea and the North Sea decreases 36% due to the regulatory efforts of reducing sulphur emissions from ship traffic in SECA. Introducing this regulatory instrument for all international ship traffic in

  15. Gender differences and effect of air pollution on asthma in children with and without allergic predisposition: northeast Chinese children health study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guang-Hui Dong

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Males and females exhibit different health responses to air pollution, but little is known about how exposure to air pollution affects juvenile respiratory health after analysis stratified by allergic predisposition. The aim of the present study was to assess the relationship between air pollutants and asthmatic symptoms in Chinese children selected from multiple sites in a heavily industrialized province of China, and investigate whether allergic predisposition modifies this relationship. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: 30139 Chinese children aged 3-to-12 years were selected from 25 districts of seven cities in northeast China in 2009. Information on respiratory health was obtained using a standard questionnaire from the American Thoracic Society. Routine air-pollution monitoring data was used for particles with an aerodynamic diameter ≤10 µm (PM(10, sulfur dioxide (SO(2, nitrogen dioxides (NO(2, ozone (O(3 and carbon monoxide (CO. A two-stage regression approach was applied in data analyses. The effect estimates were presented as odds ratios (ORs per interquartile changes for PM(10, SO(2, NO(2, O(3, and CO. The results showed that children with allergic predisposition were more susceptible to air pollutants than children without allergic predisposition. Amongst children without an allergic predisposition, air pollution effects on asthma were stronger in males compared to females; Current asthma prevalence was related to PM(10 (ORs = 1.36 per 31 µg/m(3; 95% CI, 1.08-1.72, SO(2 (ORs = 1.38 per 21 µg/m(3; 95%CI, 1.12-1.69 only among males. However, among children with allergic predisposition, more positively associations between air pollutants and respiratory symptoms and diseases were detected in females; An increased prevalence of doctor-diagnosed asthma was significantly associated with SO(2 (ORs = 1.48 per 21 µg/m(3; 95%CI, 1.21-1.80, NO(2 (ORs = 1.26 per 10 µg/m(3; 95%CI, 1.01-1.56, and current asthma with

  16. Increasing incidence of multiple sclerosis among women in Buenos Aires: a 22 year health maintenance organization based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cristiano, E; Patrucco, L; Miguez, J; Giunta, D; Peroni, J; Rojas, J I

    2016-10-01

    Studies in multiple sclerosis (MS) suggest a trend of increasing disease prevalence and incidence, and especially, a disproportional increase in the incidence of multiple sclerosis in women. The objective of this study was to evaluate the incidence of MS over 22 years and to determine the ratio in incidence of men to women in a health maintenance organization from Buenos Aires, Argentina. The population was made up of all members of a hospital-based HMO affiliated between January 1992 and December 2013. Each person was followed contributing time at risk. Cases with definite diagnosis of MS were included. Incidence density was calculated with 95 % confidence intervals and compared between women and men. 165,456 subjects were followed for a total of 1,488,575 person-years, of whom 42 developed MS. Incidence density was 3/100,000 person-years (95 % CI 2.1-3.5/100,000 person-years). During this period (1992-2013), the incidence rate in women increased from 1/100,000 (95 % CI 0.8-1.6) to 4.9/100,000 (95 % CI 4.1-5.4) (p incidence ranged from 1.4/100,000 (95 % CI 1-1.7) to 1.8 (1.3-2.1) (p = 0.16). Incidence density during the study period increased significantly in women but not in men. This is the first report of this phenomenon in Latin America region.

  17. Indoor air quality and allergy. Airborne dust and its effect of health; Shitsunai kukishitsu to seitai allergy. Fuyu funjin to seitai eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Irie, T. [Shinshu University, Nagano (Japan). Faculty of Education

    1998-05-05

    This paper describes the effect of airborne dust on health. Among fiber dusts in usual houses, cotton-derived dust occupies 71%, paper-derived 11%, chemical fiber-derived 10%, hair-derived 5%, and others occupy the rest. Cotton, silk and hair can be allergens which are antigens causing allergy. Cigarette smoke composes of various gaseous substances, and by-flow smoke from the ignition part is hazardous. The dust generation by smoking provides ten times of standard concentration in a Japanese 6 rush-mat room per one cigarette. Asbestos can be a carcinogen due to their accumulation. They do not have an allowable standard for absolute safety, and they should be removed by manual method under an obligation. This paper also describes the effect of ticks and mold particles as allergen dusts on health, and the measures for them. Pollens and their measures are described. Air cleaners are usually used for removing airborne dusts in the houses with high air-tightness. Nearly 100% of particles with a diameter more than several {mu}m can be collected with a fan filter-type air cleaner. However, the collecting performance is decreased to 70 to 80% for submicron particles such as cigarette smoke. An ion-type air cleaner can not be so promising. 24 refs., 5 figs., 5 tabs.

  18. Implications of different approaches for characterizing ambient air pollutant concentrations within the urban airshed for time-series studies and health benefits analyses

    OpenAIRE

    Winquist Andrea; Flanders W Dana; Klein Mitchel; Mulholland James A; Darrow Lyndsey A; Strickland Matthew J; Tolbert Paige E

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background In time-series studies of the health effects of urban air pollutants, decisions must be made about how to characterize pollutant levels within the airshed. Methods Emergency department visits for pediatric asthma exacerbations were collected from Atlanta hospitals. Concentrations of carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, ozone, sulfur dioxide, particulate matter less than 10 microns in diameter (PM10), particulate matter less than 2.5 microns in diameter (PM2.5), and the PM2.5...

  19. Designing a Choice Modelling Survey to Value the Health and Environmental Impacts of Air Pollution from the Transport Sector in the Jakarta Metropolitan Area

    OpenAIRE

    Mia Amalia

    2010-01-01

    Poor air quality in Indonesia's capital city is having a significant impact on residents' health and there is an urgent need to introduce new initiatives to deal with the problem. To help justify investment in such new strategies, a recent EEPSEA study has looked at the value that citizens in the Jakarta Metropolitan Area (JMA) place on pollution reduction policies for the transportation sector. The study shows that, although many residents are mistrustful of the government's ability to clean...

  20. Dispersion Modeling of Traffic-Related Air Pollutant Exposures and Health Effects among Children with Asthma in Detroit, Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vehicular traffic is a major source of ambient air pollution in urban areas, and traffic-related air pollutants, including carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, particulate matter under 2.5 microns in diameter (PM2.5) and diesel exhaust emissions, have been associated with...

  1. Modeled effects of an improved building insulation scenario in Europe on air pollution, health and societal costs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bønløkke, Jakob Hjort; Holst, Gitte Juel; Sigsgaard, Torben;

    2015-01-01

    Background: In Europe a substantial share of the energy supply is used for domestic heating and cooling. The quality of building insulation thus significantly impacts air pollution. Objectives: To model the effects of an improved building insulation scenario in Europe on air pollution levels and ...

  2. High-resolution modelling of health impacts and related external cost from air pollution using the integrated model system EVA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Jørgen; Andersen, Mikael Skou; Bønløkke, Jakob;

    2015-01-01

    Proceedings from ITM 2015, 34th International Technical Meeting on Air Pollution Modelling and its Application. 4-8 May, 2015, Montpellier, France. 4 pp......Proceedings from ITM 2015, 34th International Technical Meeting on Air Pollution Modelling and its Application. 4-8 May, 2015, Montpellier, France. 4 pp...

  3. Evaluation of the impact of air pollution on health La evaluación del impacto en salud de la contaminación atmosférica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferrán Ballester Díez

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, an important number of studies, carried out in different cities, have found that, even bellow air quality levels considered as safe, increases in the levels of air pollution are associated with harmful effects on health. Epidemiology has played a major role in the evaluation of the impact of air pollution on health, since it provides proofs of the association among human populations within natural conditions. Also, toxicology and clinical sciences provide convincing proofs on the etiopathogenic mechanisms of such associations.The purpose of the evaluation of impact on health is to quantify the expected number of people whose health is affected due to a specific exposure situation. In Europe, since three years ago, the APHEIS project, with 26 participating cities, has established an environmental health surveillance system which includes a database of air pollution and health. This is aimed at quantifying the effects of air pollution on public health at local, national and European levels, as well as distributing standardised reports about air pollution impact on public health.En los últimos años un número importante de estudios realizados en distintas ciudades han encontrado que, aún por debajo de los niveles de calidad del aire considerados como seguros, los incrementos de los niveles de la contaminación atmosférica se asocian con efectos nocivos sobre la salud. La epidemiología ha jugado un papel crucial en la evaluación de impacto en salud de la contaminación atmosférica al proporcionar pruebas de la asociación en poblaciones humanas en condiciones naturales. Por su parte la toxicología y las ciencias clínicas aportan pruebas convincentes acerca de los mecanismos etiopatogénicos de dichas asociaciones.El propósito de la evaluación de impacto en salud es cuantificar el número esperado de personas con un efecto en salud que puede ser atribuido a una situación específica de exposición. En Europa, desde hace

  4. Exposure of health care workers and occupants to coughed air in a hospital room with displacement air distribution: impact of ventilation rate and distance from coughing patient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melikov, Arsen Krikor; Bolashikov, Zhecho Dimitrov; Kostadinov, Kamen;

    temperature distribution was used as the doctor standing 0.55, 1.1 or 2.8 m downstream the cough. A coughing thermal dummy, lying in one bed and a second thermal manikin in the other bed (1.3 m away), were used as the “sick” and the “exposed” patients. The cough consisted of 100% CO2. The doctor...... and the coughing patient faced each other. The Peak Cough Time (PCT) was around 6 s, when the doctor was 0.55 m downstream the cough and increased when the distance between the sick patient and the doctor increased. The highest Peak Concentration Level (PCL) for the doctor, i.e. excess of CO2 level in inhaled air...

  5. PLAN or get SLAM'ed: Optimal management of invasive species in the presence of indirect health externalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Benjamin A; McDermott, Shana M; Chermak, Janie M

    2016-09-15

    This paper examines invasive species management when invasive species impact health outcomes indirectly through changes to environmental quality. For example, the emerald ash borer (EAB) has destroyed millions of ash trees throughout North America and has the potential to impact rates of cardiorespiratory mortality and morbidity through ash trees' ability to capture airborne pollutants. Optimal management inclusive of indirect health externalities may be different than status quo plans because the links between nature and health are complex, dynamic, and spatially heterogeneous. We produce a novel dynamic bioeconomic-health model to determine optimal EAB management in the face of such health effects. Our results show that including health increases net benefits of management substantially and that a "one size fits all" management approach is suboptimal given forest cover and demographic spatial heterogeneity. Net benefits to society are 873% higher and air pollution related mortality incidence is 82% lower when health externalities are included in management profiles using insecticide treatments and non-ash tree preemptive plantings without removal. Additionally, constrained managers optimally substitute toward preemptive tree plantings and away from insecticide use in the presence of indirect health externalities as a way to minimize disruptions to air quality. This paper has policy implications for the optimal management of environmental amenities. PMID:27318589

  6. We Pollute the Air

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    1.Clean air is important to good health.If the aircontains impurities,they may be absorbed by ourbodies and make us ill.We need clean air,butunfortunately,air pollution is generally present,especially in cities. 2.Our cities have many factories,which we need tomake food products,clothing and many other things.

  7. EVA – a non-linear Eulerian approach for assessment of health-cost externalities of air pollution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mikael Skou; Frohn, Lise Marie; Nielsen, Jytte Seested;

    2006-01-01

    Integrated models which are used to account for the external costs of air pollution have to a considerable extent ignored the non-linear dynamics of atmospheric science. In order to bridge the gap between economic analysis and environmental modelling an integrated model EVA, based on a Eulerian a...... not be neglected when interpreting estimates for external effects. EVA is an abbreviation of Economic Valuation of Air Pollution....

  8. Air pollution and doctors' house calls: results from the ERPURS system for monitoring the effects of air pollution on public health in Greater Paris, France, 1991-1995. Evaluation des Risques de la Pollution Urbaine pour la Santé.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina, S; Le Tertre, A; Quénel, P; Le Moullec, Y; Lameloise, P; Guzzo, J C; Festy, B; Ferry, R; Dab, W

    1997-10-01

    This study examines short-term relationships between doctors' house calls and urban air pollution in Greater Paris for the period 1991-1995. Poisson regressions using nonparametric smoothing functions controlled for time trend, seasonal patterns, pollen counts, influenza epidemics, and weather. The relationship between asthma visits and air pollution was stronger for children. A relative risk (RRP95/P5) of 1.32 [95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.17-1.47)] was observed for an increase from the 5th to the 95th percentile (7-51 micrograms/m3) in daily concentrations of black smoke (BS). The risks for 24-hr sulfur dioxide and nitrogen dioxide levels were in the same range. Cardiovascular conditions, considered globally, showed weaker associations than angina pectoris/myocardial infarction, for which RRP95/P5 was 1.63 (95% CI = 1.10-2.41) in relation to ozone ambient levels. Eye conditions were exclusively related to ozone (RRP95/P5 = 1.17, 95% CI 1.02-1.33). Asthma visits and ozone showed an interaction with minimum temperature: an effect was observed only at 10 degrees C or higher. In two-pollutant models including BS with, successively, SO2, NO2, and O3, only BS and O3 effects remained stable. Along with mortality and hospital admissions, house call activity data, available on a regular basis, may be a sensitive indicator for monitoring health effects related to air pollution. PMID:9356196

  9. Contaminación aérea y sus efectos en la salud Air pollution an its effects on health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MANUEL OYARZÚN G

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available El término “contaminación del aire” incluye una amplia variedad de componentes químicos y biológicos de la atmósfera intra y extradomiciliaria. Este artículo intenta realizar una revisión crítica de los efectos de la contaminación intra y extradomiciliaria sobre la salud humana, poniendo especial énfasis en la situación de los habitantes de ciudades chilenas con niveles críticamente altos de contaminación atmosférica. Los contaminantes atmosféricos riesgosos para la salud humana son el material particulado inhalable (PM10; PM2,5 y PM0,1 y compuestos químicos gaseosos tales como dióxido de nitrógeno, ozono, dióxido de azufre y monóxido de carbono. El aire intradomiciliario contiene una variedad de compuestos nocivos que derivan de múltiples fuentes. Las más importantes son el humo de cigarrillo, artefactos de calefacción y para cocción de alimentos y los agentes biológicos y sus sub-productos. La exposición a contaminantes del aire no solo puede aumentar la tasa de morbilidad sino la tasa de mortalidad como también puede aumentar el número de ingresos hospitalarios de pacientes con síntomas respiratorios y cardiovasculares. La contaminación del aire es importante en la determinación de la calidad de vida de niños menores, ancianos y en pacientes con enfermedades respiratorias y cardiovasculares. Los profesionales de la salud deberían abogar por una atmósfera intra y extradomiciliaria más limpia a través de la difusión del conocimiento que disponemos sobre los efectos respiratorios y no respiratorios de la contaminación del aire.The term “air pollution” comprises a wide variety of chemical and biological components of the outdoor and indoor atmosphere. Air pollution and its effect on human health is critically reviewed in this article with emphasis in the situation of inhabitants of Chilean cities with critical high levels of atmospheric pollution. Atmospheric contaminants that are hazardous for the

  10. Percepción de riesgo a la salud por contaminación del aire en adolescentes de la Ciudad de México Perception of health risks due to air pollution in adolescents in Mexico City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minerva Catalán-Vázquez

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Analizar las relaciones que se establecen entre contaminación del aire y salud-enfermedad-muerte en una muestra de estudiantes de la Ciudad de México. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Se realizó una encuesta a 1 274 alumnos de secundaria de 14 escuelas en cinco zonas del Distrito Federal, entre marzo y abril de 2003. Muestreo polietápico de áreas geoestadísticas básicas (AGEB. RESULTADOS: El 84.4% considera alta o muy alta la contaminación del aire en la Ciudad de México, que disminuye al aproximarse al espacio más inmediato del alumno. Los riesgos a la salud van desde efectos en la salud respiratoria, 66.9%, a otras consecuencias en la vida diaria, 2.2%. Los predictores de percibir la contaminación como grave/muy grave son: a que la asocien con la posibilidad de causar la muerte (RM= 1.35, IC 95%= 1.02-1.77, y b asistencia a escuelas en la zona de La Merced (RM= 2.23, IC 95%= 1.56-3.21. CONCLUSIONES: Los determinantes de la percepción para esta población de adolescentes son: género, zona de ubicación de la escuela y las diferencias en la calidad del aire percibidas en la ciudad/colonia/plantel educativo. Lo anterior permite sugerir que en la política ambiental debe incorporarse el componente de la focalización, de tal manera que los programas ambientales sean más eficientes en el ámbito local.OBJECTIVE: Analyze the relations established between air pollution and health-disease-death in a sample of students in Mexico City. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Survey of 1274 students from 14 secondary schools in five areas in Mexico City was conducted between March and April of 2003. We used a multi-stage sampling, based in a basic geostatistical areas (AGEB. RESULTS: A total of 84.4% believed that Mexico City has a high, or very high air pollution; that valuation decreases as it approaches the most immediate place in which the students live. The health risks range from effects on respiratory health, 66.9%, to other effects on daily life, 2

  11. Contribution from the ten major emission sectors in Europe and Denmark to the health-cost externalities of air pollution using the EVA model system – an integrated modelling approach

    OpenAIRE

    Brandt, J; J. D. Silver; J. H. Christensen; M. S. Andersen; J. H. Bønløkke; T. Sigsgaard; Geels, C.; Gross, A.; Hansen, A. B.; K. M. Hansen; G. B. Hedegaard; Kaas, E.; Frohn, L.M.

    2013-01-01

    We have developed an integrated model system, EVA (Economic Valuation of Air pollution), based on the impact-pathway chain, to assess the health-related economic externalities of air pollution resulting from specific emission sources or sectors, which can be used to support policy-making with respect to emission control. Central for the system is a newly developed tagging method capable of calculating the contribution from a specific emission source or sector to the overall air pollution leve...

  12. Air pollution and mortality in São Paulo, Brazil: Effects of multiple pollutants and analysis of susceptible populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravo, Mercedes A; Son, Jiyoung; de Freitas, Clarice Umbelino; Gouveia, Nelson; Bell, Michelle L

    2016-01-01

    Health impacts of air pollution may differ depending on sex, education, socioeconomic status (SES), location at time of death, and other factors. In São Paulo, Brazil, questions remain regarding roles of individual and community characteristics. We estimate susceptibility to air pollution based on individual characteristics, residential SES, and location at time of death (May 1996-December 2010). Exposures for particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter ≤ 10 μm (PM10), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), sulfur dioxide (SO2), carbon monoxide (CO), and ozone (O3) were estimated using ambient monitors. Time-stratified case-crossover analysis was used with individual-level health data. Increased risk of non-accidental, cardiovascular, and respiratory mortality were associated with all pollutants (P 11 years education were lower than estimates for those with 0 years education for NO2, SO2, and CO (1.66% (95% confidence interval: 0.23%, 3.08%); 1.51% (0.51%, 2.51%); and 2.82% (0.23%, 5.35%), respectively). PM10 cardiovascular mortality effects were (3.74% (0.044%, 7.30%)) lower for the high education group (> 11 years) compared with the no education group. Positive, significant associations between pollutants and mortality were observed for in-hospital deaths, but evidence of differences in air pollution-related mortality risk by location at time of death was not strong. PMID:25586330

  13. Clean Air and Water

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2007-04-10

    The air we breathe and the water we drink are both vital components of our health. Nevertheless, bacteria, pollutants, and other contaminates can alter life-giving air and water into health-threatening hazards. Learn about how scientists at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention work to protect the public from air and water-related health risks.  Created: 4/10/2007 by CDC National Center for Environmental Health.   Date Released: 4/13/2007.

  14. Implications of different approaches for characterizing ambient air pollutant concentrations within the urban airshed for time-series studies and health benefits analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Winquist Andrea

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In time-series studies of the health effects of urban air pollutants, decisions must be made about how to characterize pollutant levels within the airshed. Methods Emergency department visits for pediatric asthma exacerbations were collected from Atlanta hospitals. Concentrations of carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, ozone, sulfur dioxide, particulate matter less than 10 microns in diameter (PM10, particulate matter less than 2.5 microns in diameter (PM2.5, and the PM2.5 components elemental carbon, organic carbon, and sulfate were obtained from networks of ambient air quality monitors. For each pollutant we created three different daily metrics. For one metric we used the measurements from a centrally-located monitor; for the second we averaged measurements across the network of monitors; and for the third we estimated the population-weighted average concentration using an isotropic spatial model. Rate ratios for each of the metrics were estimated from time-series models. Results For pollutants with relatively homogeneous spatial distributions we observed only small differences in the rate ratio across the three metrics. Conversely, for spatially heterogeneous pollutants we observed larger differences in the rate ratios. For a given pollutant, the strength of evidence for an association (i.e., chi-square statistics tended to be similar across metrics. Conclusions Given that the chi-square statistics were similar across the metrics, the differences in the rate ratios for the spatially heterogeneous pollutants may seem like a relatively small issue. However, these differences are important for health benefits analyses, where results from epidemiological studies on the health effects of pollutants (per unit change in concentration are used to predict the health impacts of a reduction in pollutant concentrations. We discuss the relative merits of the different metrics as they pertain to time-series studies and health benefits

  15. Overview of ozone human exposure and health risk analyses used in the U.S. EPA's review of the ozone air quality standard.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitfield, R. G.

    1999-03-04

    This paper presents an overview of the ozone human exposure and health risk analyses developed under sponsorship of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). These analyses are being used in the current review of the national ambient air quality standards (NAAQS) for ozone. The analyses consist of three principal steps: (1) estimating short-term ozone exposure for particular populations (exposure model); (2) estimating population response to exposures or concentrations (exposure-response or concentration-response models); and (3) integrating concentrations or exposure with concentration-response or exposure-response models to produce overall risk estimates (risk model). The exposure model, called the probabilistic NAAQS exposure model for ozone (pNEM/03), incorporates the following factors: hourly ambient ozone concentrations; spatial distribution of concentrations; ventilation state of individuals at time of exposure; and movement of people through various microenvironments (e.g., outdoors, indoors, inside a vehicle) of varying air quality. Exposure estimates are represented by probability distributions. Exposure-response relationships have been developed for several respiratory symptom and lung function health effects, based on the results of controlled human exposure studies. These relationships also are probabilistic and reflect uncertainties associated with sample size and variability of response among subjects. The analyses also provide estimates of excess hospital admissions in the New York City area based on results from an epidemiology study. Overall risk results for selected health endpoints and recently analyzed air quality scenarios associated with alternative 8-hour NAAQS and the current 1-hour standard for outdoor children are used to illustrate application of the methodology.

  16. Long-term exposure to air pollution and mammographic density in the Danish Diet, Cancer and Health cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huynh, Stephanie; von Euler-Chelpin, My; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole;

    2015-01-01

    in Copenhagen (1993-2001), we used MD assessed at the first screening after cohort entry. MD was defined as mixed/dense or fatty. Traffic-related air pollution at residence was assessed by modeled levels of nitrogen oxides (NOx) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2). The association between mean NOx and NO2 levels since...

  17. Future research needs associated with the assessment of potential human health risks from exposure to toxic ambient air pollutants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Möller, Lennart; Schuetzle, Dennis; Autrup, Herman

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents key conclusions and future research needs from a Workshop on the Risk Assessment of Urban Air, Emissions, Exposure, Risk Identification, and Quantification, which was held in Stockholm during June 1992 by 41 participants from 13 countries. Research is recommended in the areas ...

  18. A Breath of Fresh Air: Addressing Indoor Air Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palliser, Janna

    2011-01-01

    Indoor air pollution refers to "chemical, biological, and physical contamination of indoor air," which may result in adverse health effects (OECD 2003). The causes, sources, and types of indoor air pollutants will be addressed in this article, as well as health effects and how to reduce exposure. Learning more about potential pollutants in home…

  19. Rat Models of Cardiometabolic Diseases: Baseline Clinical Chemistries, and Rationale for their Use in Examining Air Pollution Health Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    This is the first of a series of 8 papers examining susceptibility of various rodent cardiometabolic disease models to ozone induced health effects. Individuals with cardiovascular and metabolic diseases (CVD) are shown to be more susceptible to adverse health effects o...

  20. Los efectos agudos de la contaminación del aire en la salud de la población: evidencias de estudios epidemiológicos Acute effects of air pollution on health: evidence from epidemiological studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Alberto Rosales-Castillo

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Sintetizar las evidencias de los efectos en la salud de la población por la exposición a contaminación del aire por ozono y partículas suspendidas. Material y métodos. A partir de las principales publicaciones internacionales y mexicanas, publicadas y referidas hasta junio del año 2000, se realizó un metanálisis para resumir los efectos reportados a través del empleo de modelos de efectos aleatorios. Resultados. Los resultados se expresaron como porcentajes de incremento por 10 unidades de concentración de PM10 (µg/m³ y ozono (ppb. Entre los efectos de PM10 cabe destacar el efecto agudo en la mortalidad (0.96%, hospitalizaciones (1.39%, visitas a salas de urgencias (3.11%, síntomas respiratorios (7.72%, parámetros de función pulmonar (1.42%, para capacidad vital forzada (CVF y días de actividad restringida (7.74%. Los efectos de la exposición a ozono son igualmente significativos. Conclusiones. Estos resultados muestran el gran impacto que las concentraciones de contaminantes del aire podrían tener en la salud de las poblaciones urbanas de las grandes metrópolis. El texto completo en inglés de este artículo está disponible en: http://www.insp.mx/salud/index.html Objective. To summarize the evidence of acute health effects from exposure to particulate matter and ozone. Material and Methods. A meta-analysis was performed using random effect models, to summarize the health effects of pollution, published in major international and Mexican journals up to June 2000. Results. Results were given as percent increase in ten units of PM10 (µg/m3 and ozone (ppb. PM10 was found to have an effect on mortality (0.96%, hospital admissions (1.39%, emergency room visits (3.11%, respiratory symptoms (7.72%, pulmonary forced vital capacity (1.42%, and restricted activity days (7.74%. Ozone effects were equally significant. Conclusions. These findings show the great impact that air pollutants may have on the health of populations

  1. Hygiene guideline for the planning, installation, and operation of ventilation and air-conditioning systems in health-care settings – Guideline of the German Society for Hospital Hygiene (DGKH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Külpmann, Rüdiger

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Since the publication of the first “Hospital Hygiene Guideline for the implementation and operation of air conditioning systems (HVAC systems in hospitals” ( in 2002, it was necessary due to the increase in knowledge, new regulations, improved air-conditioning systems and advanced test methods to revise the guideline. Based on the description of the basic features of ventilation concepts, its hygienic test and the usage-based requirements for ventilation, the DGKH section “Ventilation and air conditioning technology” attempts to provide answers for the major air quality issues in the planning, design and the hygienically safe operation of HVAC systems in rooms of health care.

  2. Social and environmental health determinants and their relationship with parasitic diseases in asymptomatic children from a shantytown in Buenos Aires, Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garbossa, Graciela; Pía Buyayisqui, María; Geffner, Laura; López Arias, Ludmila; de la Fournière, Sofía; Haedo, Ana S; Marconi, Adela E; Frid, Juan C; Nesse, Alcira B; Bordoni, Noemí

    2013-01-01

    Health inequities are a common problem for all countries and are the result of not only adverse social conditions but also poor public policies. Today chronic diseases represent the most relevant threats and are a current challenge. Parasitic infections, a leading cause of child morbidity affecting low-income populations, can be transmitted because of an unhealthy environment. Notwithstanding, scarce data have been published on the epidemiological profile of intestinal parasitoses in asymptomatic children living in shantytowns. Vulnerable populations settled in slums are growing in Argentina, particularly in Buenos Aires city. Consequently, this work intended to screen healthy carriers of enteric parasites and determine the epidemiologic profile in asymptomatic children residing in one of those communities, to explore risk factors associated with the transmission of parasites, and to initiate a basic health education campaign to promote healthy behavior in the community. Fecal samples (n = 138) were analyzed by conventional parasitological methods and a survey gathered data on symptoms, family composition, and environmental and hygiene-related variables. High prevalence of feco-orally-transmitted parasitoses (83.3%) and polyparasitism were remarkable findings. The main environmental health determinants were those related to excreta disposal and water provision. Health promotion actions were performed through the diffusion of a set of posters with iconic images and brief messages for health education. Results suggest the need for an environmental sanitation policy to complement health promotion actions. It is essential to spread the results of investigations that address inequities and social determinants of health in order to integrate data with local political processes and alert on acceptable actions for developing appropriate interventions. PMID:23683369

  3. Climate, Health, Agricultural and Economic Impacts of Tighter Vehicle-Emission Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shindell, Drew; Faluvegi, Greg; Walsh, Michael; Anenberg, Susan C.; VanDingen, Rita; Muller, Nicholas Z.; Austin, Jeff; Koch, Dorothy; Milly, George

    2011-01-01

    Non-CO2 air pollutants from motor vehicles have traditionally been controlled to protect air quality and health, but also affect climate. We use global composition climate modelling to examine the integrated impacts of adopting stringent European on-road vehicle-emission standards for these pollutants in 2015 in many developing countries. Relative to no extra controls, the tight standards lead to annual benefits in 2030 and beyond of 120,000-280,000 avoided premature air pollution-related deaths, 6.1-19.7 million metric tons of avoided ozone-related yield losses of major food crops, $US0.6-2.4 trillion avoided health damage and $US1.1-4.3 billion avoided agricultural damage, and mitigation of 0.20 (+0.14/-0.17) C of Northern Hemisphere extratropical warming during 2040-2070. Tighter vehicle-emission standards are thus extremely likely to mitigate short-term climate change in most cases, in addition to providing large improvements in human health and food security. These standards will not reduce CO2 emissions, however, which is required to mitigate long-term climate change.

  4. MP2.5对人体的影响及净化--浅谈 PM2.5对人体健康的影响及空调的空气净化对建筑物室内空气品质的论证%The Effection of MP2.5 on Human Body and Purification--On PM2.5 Effects on Human Health and the Argument of Air Conditioning Air Purification for Buildings Indoor Air Quality

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭晓东

    2013-01-01

      本文就中国目前糟糕的空气质量和时下最为大众关注的 PM2.5问题,以及空气质量对人体健康的影响,论证空调净化空气尤其是 PM2.5的可行性。通过分析我国空气质量现状以及空调的空气净化功能,指出空气品质对于生活工作在建筑内的人的健康的影响,提出通过空调净化空气 PM2.5值到适宜人类居住标准的方案。%This paper talks about the most popular concerned PM2.5 problem of China at present poor air quality, and the in-fluence of air quality on human health, demonstrates air puri-fycation especial y the feasibility of PM2.5. Through the ana-lysis of the status of China's air quality and air conditioning air purification function, pointes out that the impact on air qualit-y for living and working in the construction of human health, puts forward by air purification air PM2.5 value to the habitab-le standard solution.

  5. Results from prototypes of environmental and health alarm devices based on gaseous detectors operating in air in counting mode

    CERN Document Server

    Martinengo, P; Peskov, V; Benaben, P; Charpak, G; Breuil, P

    2011-01-01

    We have developed and successfully tested two prototypes of detectors of dangerous gases based on wire-type counters operating in air in avalanche mode: one is for radon (Rn) detection whereas the other one is for the detection of gases with an ionization potential less than the air components. Due to the operation in pulse counting mode these prototypes have sensitivities comparable to (in the case of the Rn detector) or much higher than (in the case of the detector for low ionization gases) the best commercial devices currently available on the market. We believe that due to their high sensitivity, simplicity and low cost such new detectors will find massive applications. One of them, discussed in this paper, could be the on-line monitoring of Rn for the prediction of earthquakes. (C) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Integrated Health Monitoring and Fast on-Line Actuator Reconfiguration Enhancement (IHM-FLARE) System for Air Vehicles Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — SSCI proposes to develop innovative algorithms for the integration of Health Monitoring (HM) subsystem with the existing FLARE (Fast on-Line Actuator...

  7. [Short-term modeling of the effect of air pollution on health. Example: SO2 and total mortality, Paris 1987-1999].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Tertre, A; Quénel, P; Medina, S; Le Moullec, Y; Festy, B; Ferry, R; Dab, W

    1998-09-01

    Since 1990, many epidemiological time series studies have provided evidence that ambient air pollution levels have adverse health effects. The ERPURS study (Evaluation des Risques de la Pollution Urbaine pour la Santé) has permitted to quantify this impact in the Paris region. This study was based on an ecological time series approach. We present, step by step, the method used, illustrated by an example: association between SO2 levels and total mortality (excluding external causes), 1987-1990. Mortality modelling has taken trend into account by a linear term, seasons by trigonometrics functions sum, day of the week effects by 6 dummy variables, temperature peak by a dummy variable, influenza epidemics by appropriate variables, mean temperature by linear and quadratic terms, relative humidity by a linear term. SO2 1 day lag was introduced in the model by a linear term. The central issue is the control of seasonal variations and long term trend. An inadequate control can lead to some spurious results. The relationship between mortality and weather variables is generally nonlinear. The use of statistical and graphical diagnostics, are necessary at each step. Time series analysis are important tools to study short term relationship between air pollutants and health indicators. The method applied in the ERPURS study is only one of the possible approaches. Whatever the method used, it is important to understand the underlying process of the data and to control for confounding factors with the appropriate method for the temporal structure of the data. PMID:9805736

  8. Health-related external cost assessment in Europe: methodological developments from ExternE to the 2013 Clean Air Policy Package.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Kamp, Jonathan; Bachmann, Till M

    2015-03-01

    "Getting the prices right" through internalizing external costs is a guiding principle of environmental policy making, one recent example being the EU Clean Air Policy Package released at the end of 2013. It is supported by impact assessments, including monetary valuation of environmental and health damages. For over 20 years, related methodologies have been developed in Europe in the Externalities of Energy (ExternE) project series and follow-up activities. In this study, we aim at analyzing the main methodological developments over time from the 1990s until today with a focus on classical air pollution-induced human health damage costs. An up-to-date assessment including the latest European recommendations is also applied. Using a case from the energy sector, we identify major influencing parameters: differences in exposure modeling and related data lead to variations in damage costs of up to 21%; concerning risk assessment and monetary valuation, differences in assessing long-term exposure mortality risks together with assumptions on particle toxicity explain most of the observed changes in damage costs. These still debated influencing parameters deserve particular attention when damage costs are used to support environmental policy making. PMID:25664763

  9. Impact of climate and land cover changes on tropospheric ozone air quality and public health in East Asia between 1980 and 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Y.; Tai, A. P. K.

    2015-09-01

    Understanding how historical climate and land cover changes have affected tropospheric ozone in East Asia would help constrain the large uncertainties associated with future East Asian air quality projections. We perform a series of simulations using a global chemical transport model driven by assimilated meteorological data and a suite of land cover and land use data to examine the public health effects associated with changes in climate, land cover, land use, and anthropogenic emissions between the 5-year periods 1981-1985 and 2007-2011 in East Asia. We find that between these two periods land cover change alone could lead to a decrease in summertime surface ozone by up to 4 ppbv in East Asia and ~ 2000 fewer ozone-related premature deaths per year, driven mostly by enhanced dry deposition resulting from climate- and CO2-induced increase in vegetation density, which more than offsets the effect of reduced isoprene emission arising from cropland expansion. Climate change alone could lead to an increase in summertime ozone by 2-10 ppbv in most regions of East Asia and ~ 6000 more premature deaths annually, mostly attributable to warming. The combined impacts (-2 to +12 ppbv) show that while the effect of climate change is more pronounced, land cover change could offset part of the climate effect and lead to a previously unknown public health benefit. While the changes in anthropogenic emissions remain the largest contributor to deteriorating ozone air quality in East Asia over the past 30 years, we show that climate change and land cover changes could lead to a substantial modification of ozone levels, and thus should come into consideration when formulating future air quality management strategies. We also show that the sensitivity of surface ozone to land cover change is more dependent on dry deposition than on isoprene emission in most of East Asia, leading to ozone responses that are quite distinct from that in North America, where most ozone

  10. Indoor air pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although official efforts to control air pollution have traditionally focused on outdoor air, it is now apparent that elevated contaminant concentrations are common inside some private and public buildings. Concerns about potential public health problems due to indoor air pollution are based on evidence that urban residents typically spend more than 90 percent of their time indoors, concentrations of some contaminants are higher indoors than outdoors, and for some pollutants personal exposures are not characterized adequately by outdoor measurements. Among the more important indoor contaminants associated with health or irritation effects are passive tobacco smoke, radon decay products, carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, formaldehyde, asbestos fibers, microorganisms and aeroallergens. Efforts to assess health risks associated with indoor air pollution are limited by insufficient information about the number of people exposed, the pattern and severity of exposures, and the health consequences of exposures. An overall strategy should be developed to investigate indoor exposures, health effects, control options, and public policy alternatives

  11. A critical comparative study of indoor air pollution from household cooking fuels and its effect on health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basant Shubhankar

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper throws light on household cooking related exposures and level of indoor air pollutants (particulate matter and gaseous pollutants CO, CO2, SO2, NO, NO2 in different exposure area from the different types of cooking fuels used. Still the prevalence of biomass fuels exists in Indian households, combustion of which releases higher levels of solid and gaseous pollutants during the cooking hours. The indoor air pollutants (SPM, CO, CO2, SO2, NO, NO2 were measured with handy samplers with different types of cooking fuels (biomass and LPG. For this purpose 50 randomly selected sampled of the indoor air quality were monitored. The results suggests that average concentration of PM10 (394.07 μg/m3 and gaseous pollutants (CO-3.15 ppm, CO2- 492.63 ppm, SO2-0.56 ppm, NO-0.58 ppm, NO2-0.52 ppm were highest during cooking hours with biofuels cooking places. Thus, not only the women who are involved in cooking suffer from the various ill effects, but also other family members who are inside the house during cooking hours also face exposures. The recorded SPM (114.73 μg/m3 for PM10 and gaseous pollutants (CO-1.34 ppm, CO2-379.83 ppm, SO2-0.52 ppm, NO-0.54 ppm, NO2-0.52 ppm in LPG using households were lower as compared to biomass fuel using households. Due to the LPG efficiency the time involved in cooking is also low leading to less exposure to the pollutants released.

  12. Health effects from the inhalation of oxidant air pollutants as related to the immune system. Final report. Research report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osebold, J.W.; Zee, Y.C.

    1985-07-01

    The investigations dealt with links between ozone inhalation and lung diseases. Mice exposed to ozone both continuously and intermittently in four-day cycles showed allergic sensitization to the test antigen (ovalbumin) when compaired to mice maintained in ambeint air. An adjuvant (inactivated Bordetella pertussis cells) administered to mice augmented the immunological response to the test antigen with periodic exposure to ozone. Guinea pigs were tested for allergic sensitization from ozone exposure similar to human asthma, but this trial was not definitive. Ozone inhalation reduced the severity of pneumonia in mice from influenza virus infection, even when ozone and virus exposures were timed to produce maximal edema in the lung.

  13. The debate on abortion rights: The involvement of Catholic groups in the Health Committee of the Buenos Aires Legislature

    OpenAIRE

    Gabriela Irrazábal

    2010-01-01

    El presente trabajo da cuenta de la participación de grupos católicos especializados en bioética y "bioderecho" en los debates parlamentarios sobre aborto no punible en la Comisión de Salud de la Ciudad de Buenos Aires a fines de 2008. Teniendo en cuenta las múltiples transferencias e influencias entre los campos político y religioso en Argentina, se intentará abordar la estrategia política que ciertos actores del catolicismo utilizan para consolidar la hegemonía simbólica de la Iglesia Catól...

  14. A review of air quality, biological indicators and health effects of second-hand waterpipe smoke exposure

    OpenAIRE

    Sumit R Kumar; Davies, Shelby; Weitzman, Michael; Sherman, Scott

    2014-01-01

    Objective There has been a rapid increase in the use of waterpipe tobacco and non-tobacco based shisha in many countries. Understanding the impact and effects of second-hand smoke (SHS) from cigarette was a crucial factor in reducing cigarette use, leading to clean indoor air laws and smoking bans. This article reviews what is known about the effects of SHS exposure from waterpipes. Data sources We used PubMed and EMBASE to review the literature. Articles were grouped into quantitative measur...

  15. Association of Traffic-Related Air Pollution with Children’s Neurobehavioral Functions in Quanzhou, China

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Shunqin; Zhang, Jinliang; Zeng, Xiaodong; Zeng, Yimin; Wang, Shengchun; Chen, Shuyun

    2009-01-01

    Background With the increase of motor vehicles, ambient air pollution related to traffic exhaust has become an important environmental issue in China. Because of their fast growth and development, children are more susceptible to ambient air pollution exposure. Many chemicals from traffic exhaust, such as carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, and lead, have been reported to show adverse effects on neurobehavioral functions. Several studies in China have suggested that traffic exhaust might affec...

  16. Influences of air and controlled atmosphere storage on the concentration of potentially healthful phenolics in apples and other fruits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Awad, M.A.; Jager, de A.

    2003-01-01

    A diverse array of fruit and vegetable constituents including vitamins such as C, E and A, phytochemicals such as folates, glucosinolates, carotenoids, flavonoids and phenolic acids, lycopene, selenium and dietary fibres form an antioxidant network that is essential in maintaining human health. In t

  17. Geographical information system and environmental epidemiology: a cross-sectional spatial analysis of the effects of traffic-related air pollution on population respiratory health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carrozzi Laura

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Traffic-related air pollution is a potential risk factor for human respiratory health. A Geographical Information System (GIS approach was used to examine whether distance from a main road (the Tosco-Romagnola road affected respiratory health status. Methods We used data collected during an epidemiological survey performed in the Pisa-Cascina area (central Italy in the period 1991-93. A total of 2841 subjects participated in the survey and filled out a standardized questionnaire on health status, socio-demographic information, and personal habits. A variable proportion of subjects performed lung function and allergy tests. Highly exposed subjects were defined as those living within 100 m of the main road, moderately exposed as those living between 100 and 250 m from the road, and unexposed as those living between 250 and 800 m from the road. Statistical analyses were conducted to compare the risks for respiratory symptoms and diseases between exposed and unexposed. All analyses were stratified by gender. Results The study comprised 2062 subjects: mean age was 45.9 years for men and 48.9 years for women. Compared to subjects living between 250 m and 800 m from the main road, subjects living within 100 m of the main road had increased adjusted risks for persistent wheeze (OR = 1.76, 95% CI = 1.08-2.87, COPD diagnosis (OR = 1.80, 95% CI = 1.03-3.08, and reduced FEV1/FVC ratio (OR = 2.07, 95% CI = 1.11-3.87 among males, and for dyspnea (OR = 1.61, 95% CI = 1.13-2.27, positivity to skin prick test (OR = 1.83, 95% CI = 1.11-3.00, asthma diagnosis (OR = 1.68, 95% CI = 0.97-2.88 and attacks of shortness of breath with wheeze (OR = 1.67, 95% CI = 0.98-2.84 among females. Conclusion This study points out the potential effects of traffic-related air pollution on respiratory health status, including lung function impairment. It also highlights the added value of GIS in environmental health research.

  18. Geographical information system and environmental epidemiology: a cross-sectional spatial analysis of the effects of traffic-related air pollution on population respiratory health

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Traffic-related air pollution is a potential risk factor for human respiratory health. A Geographical Information System (GIS) approach was used to examine whether distance from a main road (the Tosco-Romagnola road) affected respiratory health status. Methods We used data collected during an epidemiological survey performed in the Pisa-Cascina area (central Italy) in the period 1991-93. A total of 2841 subjects participated in the survey and filled out a standardized questionnaire on health status, socio-demographic information, and personal habits. A variable proportion of subjects performed lung function and allergy tests. Highly exposed subjects were defined as those living within 100 m of the main road, moderately exposed as those living between 100 and 250 m from the road, and unexposed as those living between 250 and 800 m from the road. Statistical analyses were conducted to compare the risks for respiratory symptoms and diseases between exposed and unexposed. All analyses were stratified by gender. Results The study comprised 2062 subjects: mean age was 45.9 years for men and 48.9 years for women. Compared to subjects living between 250 m and 800 m from the main road, subjects living within 100 m of the main road had increased adjusted risks for persistent wheeze (OR = 1.76, 95% CI = 1.08-2.87), COPD diagnosis (OR = 1.80, 95% CI = 1.03-3.08), and reduced FEV1/FVC ratio (OR = 2.07, 95% CI = 1.11-3.87) among males, and for dyspnea (OR = 1.61, 95% CI = 1.13-2.27), positivity to skin prick test (OR = 1.83, 95% CI = 1.11-3.00), asthma diagnosis (OR = 1.68, 95% CI = 0.97-2.88) and attacks of shortness of breath with wheeze (OR = 1.67, 95% CI = 0.98-2.84) among females. Conclusion This study points out the potential effects of traffic-related air pollution on respiratory health status, including lung function impairment. It also highlights the added value of GIS in environmental health research. PMID:21362158

  19. The Impact of Environment and Occupation on the Health and Safety of Active Duty Air Force Members: Database Development and De-Identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erich, Roger; Eaton, Melinda; Mayes, Ryan; Pierce, Lamar; Knight, Andrew; Genovesi, Paul; Escobar, James; Mychalczuk, George; Selent, Monica

    2016-08-01

    Preparing data for medical research can be challenging, detail oriented, and time consuming. Transcription errors, missing or nonsensical data, and records not applicable to the study population may hamper progress and, if unaddressed, can lead to erroneous conclusions. In addition, study data may be housed in multiple disparate databases and complex formats. Merging methods may be incomplete to obtain temporally synchronized data elements. We created a comprehensive database to explore the general hypothesis that environmental and occupational factors influence health outcomes and risk-taking behavior among active duty Air Force personnel. Several databases containing demographics, medical records, health survey responses, and safety incident reports were cleaned, validated, and linked to form a comprehensive, relational database. The final step involved removing and transforming personally identifiable information to form a Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act compliant limited database. Initial data consisted of over 62.8 million records containing 221 variables. When completed, approximately 23.9 million clean and valid records with 214 variables remained. With a clean, robust database, future analysis aims to identify high-risk career fields for targeted interventions or uncover potential protective factors in low-risk career fields. PMID:27483519

  20. Air Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Air pollution is a mixture of solid particles and gases in the air. Car emissions, chemicals from factories, dust, pollen and ... Ozone, a gas, is a major part of air pollution in cities. When ozone forms air pollution, ...

  1. Air Quality in Lithuania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pietilae, P. [Tampere University of Technology / ECAT-Lithuania (Lithuania); Kliucininkas, L. [Department for Environmental Engineering, Kaunas University of Technology (Lithuania)

    2000-07-01

    Sustainable monitoring of the ambient air is the major preventive measure of ensuring its proper quality. Only with a monitoring procedure going-on a continuous basis it is possible to make an objective evaluation of air pollution trends, of the efficiency of air protection measures and, partially, to a certain extent of the impact the pollution exerts on a human health. The information stemming from the monitoring procedure must be reliable, sustainable and efficient. (orig.)

  2. Bad traffic, bad air

    OpenAIRE

    Duca, Edward

    2012-01-01

    Air pollution is one of Malta’s greatest concerns. Transportation is the principal source with over 300,000 vehicles belching out smoke, which damages our environment and health. Emissions from vehicles need to be monitored and controlled, and the information used to improve the current system and ensure an acceptable air quality. By using the pollution data set, Nicolette Formosa (supervised by Dr Kenneth Scerri) mapped the air pollution levels and major sources around Malta. http://www....

  3. Genotoxic and oxidative damage of PM0.5 organic extracts from different Italian towns: preliminary results of the MAPEC (Monitoring Air Pollution Effects on Children for supporting public health policy) study

    OpenAIRE

    Sara Bonetta; Elisabetta Ceretti; Massimo Moretti; Marco Verani; Antonella De Donno; Silvia Bonizzoni; Alberto Bonetti

    2015-01-01

    Background – Air pollution is one of the most important worldwide health concern (WHO_Europe, 2013). In the last years, in both the US and Europe, new directives and regulations supporting more restrictive pollution limits were published (Krzyzanowski, 2008). However, the early effects of air pollution cannot be avoided, especially for the urban population (EEA, 2012). Several epidemiological and toxicological studies have documented the remarkable effect of particulate matter (PM) in increa...

  4. Asthma and air pollution in the Bronx: methodological and data considerations in using GIS for environmental justice and health research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maantay, Juliana

    2007-03-01

    This paper examines methods of environmental justice assessment with Geographic Information Systems, using research on the spatial correspondence between asthma and air pollution in the Bronx, New York City as a case study. Issues of spatial extent and resolution, the selection of environmental burdens to analyze, data and methodological limitations, and different approaches to delineating exposure are discussed in the context of the asthma study, which, through proximity analysis, found that people living near (within specified distance buffers) noxious land uses were up to 66 percent more likely to be hospitalized for asthma, and were 30 percent more likely to be poor and 13 percent more likely to be a minority than those outside the buffers.

  5. Effects of commuting mode on air pollution exposure and cardiovascular health among young adults in Taipei, Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wen-Te; Ma, Chih-Ming; Liu, I-Jung; Han, Bor-Cheng; Chuang, Hsiao-Chi; Chuang, Kai-Jen

    2015-05-01

    The association between traffic-related air pollution and adverse cardiovascular effects has been well documented; however, little is known about whether different commuting modes can modify the effects of air pollution on the cardiovascular system in human subjects in urban areas with heavy traffic. We recruited 120 young, healthy subjects in Taipei, Taiwan. Each participant was classified with different commuting modes according to his/her own commuting style. Three repeated measurements of heart rate variability (HRV) indices {standard deviation of NN intervals (SDNN) and the square root of the mean of the sum of the squares of differences between adjacent NN intervals (r-MSSD)}, particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter ≤ 2.5 μm (PM2.5), temperature, humidity and noise level were conducted for each subject during 1-h morning commutes (0900-1000 h) in four different commuting modes, including an electrically powered subway, a gas-powered bus, a gasoline-powered car, and walking. Linear mixed-effects models were used to investigate the association of PM2.5 with HRV indices. The results showed that decreases in the HRV indices were associated with increased levels of PM2.5. The personal exposure levels to PM2.5 were the highest in the walking mode. The effects of PM2.5 on cardiovascular endpoints were the lowest in the subway mode compared to the effects in the walking mode. The participants in the car and bus modes had reduced effects on their cardiovascular endpoints compared to the participants in the walking mode. We concluded that traffic-related PM2.5 is associated with autonomic alteration. Commuting modes can modify the effects of PM2.5 on HRV indices among young, healthy subjects.

  6. A Method for Estimating Urban Background Concentrations in Support of Hybrid Air Pollution Modeling for Environmental Health Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saravanan Arunachalam

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Exposure studies rely on detailed characterization of air quality, either from sparsely located routine ambient monitors or from central monitoring sites that may lack spatial representativeness. Alternatively, some studies use models of various complexities to characterize local-scale air quality, but often with poor representation of background concentrations. A hybrid approach that addresses this drawback combines a regional-scale model to provide background concentrations and a local-scale model to assess impacts of local sources. However, this approach may double-count sources in the study regions. To address these limitations, we carefully define the background concentration as the concentration that would be measured if local sources were not present, and to estimate these background concentrations we developed a novel technique that combines space-time ordinary kriging (STOK of observations with outputs from a detailed chemistry-transport model with local sources zeroed out. We applied this technique to support an exposure study in Detroit, Michigan, for several pollutants (including NOx and PM2.5, and evaluated the estimated hybrid concentrations (calculated by combining the background estimates that addresses this issue of double counting with local-scale dispersion model estimates using observations. Our results demonstrate the strength of this approach specifically by eliminating the problem of double-counting reported in previous hybrid modeling approaches leading to improved estimates of background concentrations, and further highlight the relative importance of NOx vs. PM2.5 in their relative contributions to total concentrations. While a key limitation of this approach is the requirement for another detailed model simulation to avoid double-counting, STOK improves the overall characterization of background concentrations at very fine spatial scales.

  7. A Method for Estimating Urban Background Concentrations in Support of Hybrid Air Pollution Modeling for Environmental Health Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arunachalam, Saravanan; Valencia, Alejandro; Akita, Yasuyuki; Serre, Marc L.; Omary, Mohammad; Garcia, Valerie; Isakov, Vlad

    2014-01-01

    Exposure studies rely on detailed characterization of air quality, either from sparsely located routine ambient monitors or from central monitoring sites that may lack spatial representativeness. Alternatively, some studies use models of various complexities to characterize local-scale air quality, but often with poor representation of background concentrations. A hybrid approach that addresses this drawback combines a regional-scale model to provide background concentrations and a local-scale model to assess impacts of local sources. However, this approach may double-count sources in the study regions. To address these limitations, we carefully define the background concentration as the concentration that would be measured if local sources were not present, and to estimate these background concentrations we developed a novel technique that combines space-time ordinary kriging (STOK) of observations with outputs from a detailed chemistry-transport model with local sources zeroed out. We applied this technique to support an exposure study in Detroit, Michigan, for several pollutants (including NOx and PM2.5), and evaluated the estimated hybrid concentrations (calculated by combining the background estimates that addresses this issue of double counting with local-scale dispersion model estimates) using observations. Our results demonstrate the strength of this approach specifically by eliminating the problem of double-counting reported in previous hybrid modeling approaches leading to improved estimates of background concentrations, and further highlight the relative importance of NOx vs. PM2.5 in their relative contributions to total concentrations. While a key limitation of this approach is the requirement for another detailed model simulation to avoid double-counting, STOK improves the overall characterization of background concentrations at very fine spatial scales. PMID:25321872

  8. Air Quality and Exercise-Related Health Benefits from Reduced Car Travel in the Midwestern United States

    OpenAIRE

    Grabow, Maggie L; Spak, Scott N.; Holloway, Tracey; Stone, Brian; Mednick, Adam C.; Jonathan A Patz

    2011-01-01

    Background: Automobile exhaust contains precursors to ozone and fine particulate matter (PM ≤ 2.5 µm in aerodynamic diameter; PM2.5), posing health risks. Dependency on car commuting also reduces physical fitness opportunities. Objective: In this study we sought to quantify benefits from reducing automobile usage for short urban and suburban trips. Methods: We simulated census-tract level changes in hourly pollutant concentrations from the elimination of automobile round trips ≤ 8 km in 11 me...

  9. Air monitoring of volatile organic compounds at relevant receptors during hydraulic fracturing operations in Washington County, Pennsylvania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maskrey, Joshua R; Insley, Allison L; Hynds, Erin S; Panko, Julie M

    2016-07-01

    A 3-month air monitoring study was conducted in Washington County, Pennsylvania, at the request of local community members regarding the potential risks resulting from air emissions of pollutants related to hydraulic fracturing operations. Continuous air monitoring for total volatile organic compounds was performed at two sampling sites, including a school and a residence, located within 900 m of a hydraulic fracturing well pad that had been drilled prior to the study. Intermittent 24-hour air samples for 62 individual volatile organic compounds were also collected. The ambient air at both sites was monitored during four distinct periods of unconventional natural gas extraction activity: an inactive period prior to fracturing operations, during fracturing operations, during flaring operations, and during another inactive period after operations. The results of the continuous monitoring during fracturing and flaring sampling periods for total volatile organic compounds were similar to the results obtained during inactive periods. Total volatile organic compound 24-hour average concentrations ranged between 0.16 and 80 ppb during all sampling periods. Several individual volatile compounds were detected in the 24-hour samples, but they were consistent with background atmospheric levels measured previously at nearby sampling sites and in other areas in Washington County. Furthermore, a basic yet conservative screening level evaluation demonstrated that the detected volatile organic compounds were well below health-protective levels. The primary finding of this study was that the operation of a hydraulic fracturing well pad in Washington County did not substantially affect local air concentrations of total and individual volatile organic compounds.

  10. Air monitoring of volatile organic compounds at relevant receptors during hydraulic fracturing operations in Washington County, Pennsylvania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maskrey, Joshua R; Insley, Allison L; Hynds, Erin S; Panko, Julie M

    2016-07-01

    A 3-month air monitoring study was conducted in Washington County, Pennsylvania, at the request of local community members regarding the potential risks resulting from air emissions of pollutants related to hydraulic fracturing operations. Continuous air monitoring for total volatile organic compounds was performed at two sampling sites, including a school and a residence, located within 900 m of a hydraulic fracturing well pad that had been drilled prior to the study. Intermittent 24-hour air samples for 62 individual volatile organic compounds were also collected. The ambient air at both sites was monitored during four distinct periods of unconventional natural gas extraction activity: an inactive period prior to fracturing operations, during fracturing operations, during flaring operations, and during another inactive period after operations. The results of the continuous monitoring during fracturing and flaring sampling periods for total volatile organic compounds were similar to the results obtained during inactive periods. Total volatile organic compound 24-hour average concentrations ranged between 0.16 and 80 ppb during all sampling periods. Several individual volatile compounds were detected in the 24-hour samples, but they were consistent with background atmospheric levels measured previously at nearby sampling sites and in other areas in Washington County. Furthermore, a basic yet conservative screening level evaluation demonstrated that the detected volatile organic compounds were well below health-protective levels. The primary finding of this study was that the operation of a hydraulic fracturing well pad in Washington County did not substantially affect local air concentrations of total and individual volatile organic compounds. PMID:27312253

  11. Particulate air pollution and health effects for cardiovascular and respiratory causes in Temuco, Chile: a wood-smoke-polluted urban area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanhueza, Pedro A; Torreblanca, Monica A; Diaz-Robles, Luis A; Schiappacasse, L Nicolas; Silva, Maria P; Astete, Teresa D

    2009-12-01

    Temuco is one of the most highly wood-smoke-polluted cities in the world. Its population in 2004 was 340,000 inhabitants with 1587 annual deaths, of which 24% were due to cardiovascular and 11% to respiratory causes. For hospital admissions, cardiovascular diseases represented 6% and respiratory diseases 13%. Emergency room visits for acute respiratory infections represented 28%. The objective of the study presented here was to determine the relationship between air pollution from particulate matter less than or equal to 10 microm in aerodynamic diameter (PM10; mostly PM2.5, or particulate matter effects measured as the daily number of deaths, hospital admissions, and emergency room visits for cardiovascular, respiratory, and acute respiratory infection (ARI) diseases. The Air Pollution Health Effects European Approach (APHEA2) protocol was followed, and a multivariate Poisson regression model was fitted, controlling for trend, seasonality, and confounders for Temuco during 1998-2006. The results show that PM10 had a significant association with daily mortality and morbidity, with the elderly (population >65 yr of age) being the group that presented the greatest risk. The relative risk for respiratory causes, with an increase of 100 microg/m3 of PM10, was 1.163 with a 95% confidence interval (CI) of 1.057-1.279 for mortality, 1.137 (CI 1.096-1.178) for hospital admissions, and 1.162 for ARI (CI 1.144-1.181). There is evidence in Temuco of positive relationships between ambient particulate levels and mortality, hospital admissions, and ARI for cardiovascular and respiratory diseases. These results are consistent with those of comparable studies in other similar cities where wood smoke is the most important air pollution problem.

  12. Does the Dutch Building Decree 2012 guarantee air quality? Quality is essential for productivity and health; Bouwbesluit 2012 garantie voor luchtkwaliteit? Kwaliteit essentieel voor productiviteit en gezondheid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vollebregt, R.

    2011-10-15

    Poor indoor air quality in new buildings is a common problem. According to the Health Council scientific evidence is lacking that it is necessary to tighten ventilation requirements in the Building Decree . GGD Netherlands are advocates for stricter rules. Several studies show that the productivity in offices and the academic performance of children will benefit. [Dutch] Slechte kwaliteit van de binnenlucht in nieuwe gebouwen is een veel voorkomend probleem. Volgens de Gezondheidsraad ontbreken echter wetenschappelijke aanwijzingen dat het noodzakelijk is de ventilatie-eisen in het Bouwbesluit aan te scherpen. GGD Nederland pleit wel voor strengere regels. Diverse onderzoeken laten zien dat de productiviteit op kantoor en de leerprestaties van kinderen daarbij gebaat zijn.

  13. The development of land use regression technique. Use in public health effects of air pollution; Land use regression techniek in opkomst. Toepassing bij gezondheidseffecten door luchtverontreiniging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, P.; Marra, M. [Centrum voor Milieu-Gezondheid Onderzoek, Sector Milieu en Veiligheid, Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieuhygiene RIVM, Bilthoven (Netherlands); Hoek, G.; Beelen, R. [Institute for Risk Assesment Sciences, Utrecht University, Utrecht (Netherlands); Briggs, D.; De Hoogh, K. [Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, Imperial College, London (United Kingdom)

    2009-07-01

    Epidemiological research of the relations between air pollution and health and the municipal practice both feel the need for valid and detailed information on spatial variation of open air pollution. Existing technologies such as interpolation of measurements and distribution models have their limitations, resulting in increasing international deployment of the 'land use regression' technique. This technique combines spatially distributed measurements and geographical information in a statistical model and has several advantages compared to distribution models; less input data is required and there is a direct link with measurements. By means of several examples this article illustrates that the technique can be a useful alternative for existing techniques [mk]. [Dutch] Zowel vanuit epidemiologisch onderzoek naar relaties tussen luchtverontreiniging en gezondheid als vanuit de gemeentelijke praktijk is behoefte aan valide en gedetailleerde informatie over ruimtelijke variatie van buitenluchtverontreiniging. Bestaande technieken zoals interpolatie van metingen en verspreidingsmodellen hebben beperkingen, waardoor er internationaal steeds meer gebruik gemaakt wordt van de 'land use regressie' techniek. De techniek combineert ruimtelijk verspreide metingen en geografische informatie in een statistisch model en heeft een aantal voordelen ten opzichte van verspreidingsmodellen: er zijn minder invoergegevens nodig en er is een directe link met metingen. Dit artikel illustreert aan de hand van een aantal voorbeelden dat de techniek een nuttig alternatief voor bestaande technieken kan zijn.

  14. Global Air Quality and Health Co-benefits of Mitigating Near-term Climate Change Through Methane and Black Carbon Emission Controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anenberg, Susan C.; Schwartz, Joel; Shindell, Drew Todd; Amann, Markus; Faluvegi, Gregory S.; Klimont, Zbigniew; Janssens-Maenhout, Greet; Pozzoli, Luca; Dingenen, Rita Van; Vignati, Elisabetta; Emberson, Lisa; Muller, Nicholas Z.; West, J. Jason; Williams, Martin; Demkine, Volodymyr; Hicks, W. Kevin; Kuylenstierna, Johan; Raes, Frank; Ramanathan, Veerabhadran

    2012-01-01

    Tropospheric ozone and black carbon (BC), a component of fine particulate matter (PM emission control measures targeting BC and methane, an ozone precursor, that were selected because of their potential to reduce the rate of climate change over the next 20-40 years. Methods: We simulated the impacts of mitigation measures on outdoor concentrations of PM2.5 and ozone using two composition-climate models, and calculated associated changes in premature PM2.5- and ozone-related deaths using epidemiologically derived concentration-response functions. Results: We estimated that, for PM2.5 and ozone, respectively, fully implementing these measures could reduce global population-weighted average surface concentrations by 23-34% and 7-17% and avoid 0.6-4.4 and 0.04-0.52 million annual premature deaths globally in 2030. More than 80% of the health benefits are estimated to occur in Asia. We estimated that BC mitigation measures would achieve approximately 98% of the deaths that would be avoided if all BC and methane mitigation measures were implemented, due to reduced BC and associated reductions of nonmethane ozone precursor and organic carbon emissions as well as stronger mortality relationships for PM2.5 relative to ozone. Although subject to large uncertainty, these estimates and conclusions are not strongly dependent on assumptions for the concentration-response function. Conclusions: In addition to climate benefits, our findings indicate that the methane and BC emission control measures would have substantial co-benefits for air quality and public health worldwide, potentially reversing trends of increasing air pollution concentrations and mortality in Africa and South, West, and Central Asia. These projected benefits are independent of carbon dioxide mitigation measures. Benefits of BC measures are underestimated because we did not account for benefits from reduced indoor exposures and because outdoor exposure estimates were limited by model spatial resolution.

  15. Assessment of indoor air concentrations of VOCs and their associated health risks in the library of Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Amit; Singh, Bhupendra Pratap; Punia, Monika; Singh, Deepak; Kumar, Krishan; Jain, V K

    2014-02-01

    The present work investigated the levels of total volatile organic compounds (TVOC) and benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, m/p-xylene, and o-xylene (BTEX) in different microenvironments in the library of Jawaharlal Nehru University in summer and winter during 2011-2012. Carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic health risks due to organic compounds were also evaluated using US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) conventional approaches. Real-time monitoring was done for TVOC using a data-logging photo-ionization detector. For BTEX measurements, the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) standard method which consists of active sampling of air through activated charcoal, followed by analysis with gas chromatography, was performed. Simultaneously, outdoor measurements for TVOC and BTEX were carried out. Indoor concentrations of TVOC and BTEX (except benzene) were higher as compared to the outdoor for both seasons. Toluene and m/p-xylene were the most abundant organic contaminant observed in this study. Indoor to outdoor (I/O) ratios of BTEX compounds were generally greater than unity and ranged from 0.2 to 8.7 and 0.2 to 4.3 in winter and summer, respectively. Statistical analysis and I/O ratios showed that the dominant pollution sources mainly came from indoors. The observed mean concentrations of TVOC lie within the second group of the Molhave criteria of indoor air quality, indicating a multifactorial exposure range. The estimated lifetime cancer risk (LCR) due to benzene in this study exceeded the value of 1 × 10(-6) recommended by USEPA, and the hazard quotient (HQ) of non-cancer risk came under an acceptable range.

  16. Structure, development and health status of spruce forests affected by air pollution in the western Krkonoše Mts. in 1979–2014

    Direc