WorldWideScience

Sample records for air pollution-related health

  1. Societal costs of air pollution-related health hazards: A review of methods and results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerdtham Ulf-G

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper aims to provide a critical and systematic review of the societal costs of air pollution-related ill health (CAP, to explore methodological issues that may be important when assessing or comparing CAP across countries and to suggest ways in which future CAP studies can be made more useful for policy analysis. The methodology includes a systematic search based on the major electronic databases and the websites of a number of major international organizations. Studies are categorized by origin – OECD countries or non-OECD countries – and by publication status. Seventeen studies are included, eight from OECD countries and nine from non-OECD countries. A number of studies based on the ExternE methodology and the USA studies conducted by the Institute of Transportation are also summarized and discussed separately. The present review shows that considerable societal costs are attributable to air pollution-related health hazards. Nevertheless, given the variations in the methodologies used to calculate the estimated costs (e.g. cost estimation methods and cost components included, and inter-country differences in demographic composition and health care systems, it is difficult to compare CAP estimates across studies and countries. To increase awareness concerning the air pollution-related burden of disease, and to build links to health policy analyses, future research efforts should be directed towards theoretically sound and comprehensive CAP estimates with use of rich data. In particular, a more explicit approach should be followed to deal with uncertainties in the estimations. Along with monetary estimates, future research should also report all physical impacts and source-specific cost estimates, and should attempt to estimate 'avoidable cost' using alternative counterfactual scenarios.

  2. Air pollution-related health and climate benefits of clean cookstove programs in Mozambique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anenberg, Susan C.; Henze, Daven K.; Lacey, Forrest; Irfan, Ans; Kinney, Patrick; Kleiman, Gary; Pillarisetti, Ajay

    2017-02-01

    Approximately 95% of households in Mozambique burn solid fuels for cooking, contributing to elevated indoor and outdoor fine particulate matter (PM2.5) concentrations and subsequent health and climate impacts. Little is known about the potential health and climate benefits of various approaches for expanding the use of cleaner stoves and fuels in Mozambique. We use state-of-the-science methods to provide a first-order estimation of potential air pollution-related health and climate benefits of four illustrative scenarios in which traditional cooking fires and stoves are displaced by cleaner and more efficient technologies. For rural areas, we find that a 10% increase in the number of households using forced draft wood-burning stoves could achieve >2.5 times more health benefits from reduced PM2.5 exposure (200 avoided premature deaths and 14 000 avoided disability adjusted life years, DALYs, over a three-year project lifetime) compared to natural draft stoves in the same households, assuming 70% of households use the new technology for both cases. Expanding use of LPG stoves to 10% of households in five major cities is estimated to avoid 160 premature deaths and 11 000 DALYs from reduced PM2.5 exposure for a three-year intervention, assuming 60% of households use the new stove. Advanced charcoal stoves would achieve ∽80% of the PM2.5-related health benefits of LPG stoves. Approximately 2%–5% additional health benefits would result from reduced ambient PM2.5, depending on the scenario. Although climate impacts are uncertain, we estimate that all scenarios would reduce expected climate change-related temperature increases from continued solid fuel use by 4%–6% over the next century. All results are based on an assumed adjustment factor of 0.8 to convert from laboratory-based emission reduction measurements to exposure reductions, which could be optimistic in reality given potential for continued use of the traditional stove. We conclude that cleaner cooking

  3. Application of utility theory to the valuing of air pollution-related health effects: Three proposed pilot studies on subjective judgments of asthma. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnston, A.C.

    1991-04-01

    Utility under uncertainty is a field of decision theory that has received increasing attention in the field of health. The report reviews its uses during the past decade and suggests its possible use in national air quality standard setting procedures. It is common practice in standard setting to assess the likelihood of air pollution effects on sensitive populations. One such poplation, asthmatics, is selected in the report and the relationship between air pollution and asthma is reviewed. In addition, three possible pilot studies are suggested which use aspects of utility under uncertainty theory to elicit values concerning asthma health effects. The results of such studies would provide the US EPA with information for their ambient air quality standard setting and increase the awareness of the possible uses of utility theory in such applications.

  4. A Need for Better Studies to Identify Those Populations at Greatest Risk of a Pollutant-Related Health Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    This invited editorial on a paper accepted for publication in the Journal of Pediatrics details scientific advances needed to improve the identification of those populations at greatest risk of a pollutant-related health effect with a primary focus on air pollution.

  5. Spatiotemporally-Resolved Air Exchange Rate as a Modifier of Acute Air Pollution-Related Morbidity

    Science.gov (United States)

    The National Exposure Research Laboratory (NERL) Human Exposure and Atmospheric Sciences Division (HEASD) conducts research in support of EPA mission to protect human health and the environment. HEASD research program supports Goal 1 (Clean Air) and Goal 4 (Healthy People) of EP...

  6. Characterization of Somatic Mutations in Air Pollution-Related Lung Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xian-Jun; Yang, Min-Jun; Zhou, Bo; Wang, Gui-Zhen; Huang, Yun-Chao; Wu, Li-Chuan; Cheng, Xin; Wen, Zhe-Sheng; Huang, Jin-Yan; Zhang, Yun-Dong; Gao, Xiao-Hong; Li, Gao-Feng; He, Shui-Wang; Gu, Zhao-Hui; Ma, Liang; Pan, Chun-Ming; Wang, Ping; Chen, Hao-Bin; Hong, Zhi-Peng; Wang, Xiao-Lu; Mao, Wen-Jing; Jin, Xiao-Long; Kang, Hui; Chen, Shu-Ting; Zhu, Yong-Qiang; Gu, Wen-Yi; Liu, Zi; Dong, Hui; Tian, Lin-Wei; Chen, Sai-Juan; Cao, Yi; Wang, Sheng-Yue; Zhou, Guang-Biao

    2015-01-01

    Air pollution has been classified as Group 1 carcinogenic to humans, but the underlying tumorigenesis remains unclear. In Xuanwei City of Yunnan Province, the lung cancer incidence is among the highest in China attributed to severe air pollution generated by combustion of smoky coal, providing a unique opportunity to dissect lung carcinogenesis of air pollution. Here we analyzed the somatic mutations of 164 non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLCs) from Xuanwei and control regions (CR) where smoky coal was not used. Whole genome sequencing revealed a mean of 289 somatic exonic mutations per tumor and the frequent C:G → A:T nucleotide substitutions in Xuanwei NSCLCs. Exome sequencing of 2010 genes showed that Xuanwei and CR NSCLCs had a mean of 68 and 22 mutated genes per tumor, respectively (p < 0.0001). We found 167 genes (including TP53, RYR2, KRAS, CACNA1E) which had significantly higher mutation frequencies in Xuanwei than CR patients, and mutations in most genes in Xuanwei NSCLCs differed from those in CR cases. The mutation rates of 70 genes (e.g., RYR2, MYH3, GPR144, CACNA1E) were associated with patients' lifetime benzo(a)pyrene exposure. This study uncovers the mutation spectrum of air pollution-related lung cancers, and provides evidence for pollution exposure–genomic mutation relationship at a large scale. PMID:26288819

  7. Characterization of Somatic Mutations in Air Pollution-Related Lung Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xian-Jun Yu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Air pollution has been classified as Group 1 carcinogenic to humans, but the underlying tumorigenesis remains unclear. In Xuanwei City of Yunnan Province, the lung cancer incidence is among the highest in China attributed to severe air pollution generated by combustion of smoky coal, providing a unique opportunity to dissect lung carcinogenesis of air pollution. Here we analyzed the somatic mutations of 164 non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLCs from Xuanwei and control regions (CR where smoky coal was not used. Whole genome sequencing revealed a mean of 289 somatic exonic mutations per tumor and the frequent C:G → A:T nucleotide substitutions in Xuanwei NSCLCs. Exome sequencing of 2010 genes showed that Xuanwei and CR NSCLCs had a mean of 68 and 22 mutated genes per tumor, respectively (p < 0.0001. We found 167 genes (including TP53, RYR2, KRAS, CACNA1E which had significantly higher mutation frequencies in Xuanwei than CR patients, and mutations in most genes in Xuanwei NSCLCs differed from those in CR cases. The mutation rates of 70 genes (e.g., RYR2, MYH3, GPR144, CACNA1E were associated with patients' lifetime benzo(apyrene exposure. This study uncovers the mutation spectrum of air pollution-related lung cancers, and provides evidence for pollution exposure–genomic mutation relationship at a large scale.

  8. Impact of haze and air pollution-related hazards on hospital admissions in Guangzhou, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zili; Wang, Jian; Chen, Lianghua; Chen, Xinyu; Sun, Guiyuan; Zhong, Nanshan; Kan, Haidong; Lu, Wenju

    2014-03-01

    Guangzhou is a metropolitan in south China with unique pollutants and geographic location. Unlike those in western countries and the rest of China, the appearance of haze in Guangzhou is often (about 278 days per year on average of 4 years). Little is known about the influence of these hazes on health. In this study, we investigated whether short-term exposures to haze and air pollution are associated with hospital admissions in Guangzhou. The relationships between haze, air pollution, and daily hospital admissions during 2008-2011 were assessed using generalized additive model. Studies were categorized by gender, age, season, lag, and disease category. In haze episodes, an increase in air pollutant emissions corresponded to 3.46 (95 % CI, 1.67, 5.27) increase in excessive risk (ER) of total hospital admissions at lag 1, 11.42 (95 % CI, 4.32, 18.99) and 11.57 (95 % CI, 4.38, 19.26) increases in ERs of cardiovascular illnesses at lags 2 and 4 days, respectively. As to total hospital admissions, an increase in NO2 was associated with a 0.73 (95 % CI, 0.11, 1.35) and a 0.28 (95 % CI, 0.11, 0.46) increases in ERs at lag 5 and lag 05, respectively. For respiratory illnesses, increases in NO2 was associated with a 1.94 (95 % CI, 0.50, 3.40) increase in ER at lag 0, especially among chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Haze (at lag1) and air pollution (for NO2 at lag 5 and for SO2 at lag3) both presented more drastic effects on the 19 to 64 years old and in the females. Together, we demonstrated that haze pollution was associated with total and cardiovascular illnesses. NO2 was the sole pollutant with the largest risk of hospital admissions for total and respiratory diseases in both single- and multi-pollutant models.

  9. Effects of air pollution related respiratory symptoms in school children in industrial areas Rayong, Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paradee Asa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The chronic effects of air pollution in school children living near industrial sites were investigated. The respiratory symptoms of 806 school children aged 9-12 years were examined by the American Thoracic Society's Division of Lung Diseases (ATS-DLD-78-C questionnaire during February- August 2013. The selected elementary schools in this survey was based on the distance from Map Ta Phut Industrial Estate, area A within 1 km., area B 5 km. and area C 10 km. Logistic regression techniques were used to assess the association between prevalence of respiratory symptoms and independent variables. The average 24 hrs PM10 and VOCs concentrations from 2011-2014 in area A were significantly higher than in area C (p < 0.05. Relatively, the prevalence of respiratory symptoms in area A were high with odds ratios (OR = 3.41, (95% confidence intervals (CI = 1.70-6.85 and in area B with OR = 1.36, (95% CI = 0.54-3.45, in comparison to area C. The prevalent of non-specific respiratory diseases (NSRD and Persistent Cough and Phlegm (PCP in boy student were higher than girls students with OR=2.17, (95%CI=1.33-3.53, whereas those factors such as age, residential years, home size, parental smoking habits, use of air conditioners and domestic pets were not associated. Exposure to particulate matter and volatile organic compounds arising from Industrial sites was associated with worse respiratory impairments in children.

  10. Economic Impacts from PM2.5 Pollution-Related Health Effects in China: A Provincial-Level Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Yang; Dai, Hancheng; Dong, Huijuan; Hanaoka, Tatsuya; Masui, Toshihiko

    2016-05-03

    This study evaluates the PM2.5 pollution-related health impacts on the national and provincial economy of China using a computable general equilibrium (CGE) model and the latest nonlinear exposure-response functions. Results show that the health and economic impacts may be substantial in provinces with a high PM2.5 concentration. In the WoPol scenario without PM2.5 pollution control policy, we estimate that China experiences a 2.00% GDP loss and 25.2 billion USD in health expenditure from PM2.5 pollution in 2030. In contrast, with control policy in the WPol scenario, a control investment of 101.8 billion USD (0.79% of GDP) and a gain of 1.17% of China's GDP from improving PM2.5 pollution are projected. At the provincial level, GDP loss in 2030 in the WoPol scenario is high in Tianjin (3.08%), Shanghai (2.98%), Henan (2.32%), Beijing (2.75%), and Hebei (2.60%) and the top five provinces with the highest additional health expenditure are Henan, Sichuan, Shandong, Hebei, and Jiangsu. Controlling PM2.5 pollution could bring positive benefits in two-thirds of provinces. Tianjin, Shanghai, Beijing, Henan, Jiangsu, and Hebei experience most benefits from PM2.5 pollution control as a result of a higher PM2.5 pollution and dense population distribution. Conversely, the control investment is higher than GDP gain in some underdeveloped provinces, such as Ningxia, Guizhou, Shanxi, Gansu, and Yunnan.

  11. [Air pollution and health - counselling options for physicians].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Künzli, Nino; Kutlar, Meltem

    2013-12-01

    While air quality is usually an environmental condition patients can little do about, there are a few options and decisions that modify the personal exposure and risk. Location - in particular the residence - time and activity are the key determinants of personal exposure. Traffic-related primary pollutants such as ultrafine particles or diesel soot are highly concentrated along busy roads but reach urban background concentrations already some 100 - 200 meters off. Morbidity and mortality follow this spatial pattern, which is usually attributed to these pollutants. Depending on ventilation systems, indoor exposure can be substantially lower. Studies done in China confirm that the use of face masks in extremely polluted cities can reduce exposure, resulting in lower inflammatory and cardiovascular responses. A diet rich in antioxidants appears to also reduce some of the oxidative and inflammatory effects of air pollution and treatments such as leucotrien receptor antagonists or statins pay interfere with some of the adverse effects of pollution. However, the benefits, if any, are unlikely to be large. A quantitative comparison of the various pollution related health effects - namely from smoking, passive smoking and air pollution - reveal a typical paradox to be well understood: the individual risks related to air pollution and that one may reduce through personal decisions are rather small. However, given the large number of people exposed (i. e. in essence the entire population), the overall air pollution related health burden is rather substantial. This underscores that sustained clean air policies are indeed the most important and efficient solution to reduce the air pollution related health effects.

  12. Air Pollution Affects Community Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shy, Carl M.; Finklea, John F.

    1973-01-01

    Community Health and Environmental Surveillance System (CHESS), a nationwide program relating community health to environmental quality, is designed to evaluate existing environmental standards, obtain health intelligence for new standards, and document health benefits of air pollution control. (BL)

  13. pH in exhaled breath condensate and nasal lavage as a biomarker of air pollution-related inflammation in street traffic-controllers and office-workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thamires Marques de Lima

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To utilize low-cost and simple methods to assess airway and lung inflammation biomarkers related to air pollution. METHODS: A total of 87 male, non-smoking, healthy subjects working as street traffic-controllers or office-workers were examined to determine carbon monoxide in exhaled breath and to measure the pH in nasal lavage fluid and exhaled breath condensate. Air pollution exposure was measured by particulate matter concentration, and data were obtained from fixed monitoring stations (8-h work intervals per day, during the 5 consecutive days prior to the study. RESULTS: Exhaled carbon monoxide was two-fold greater in traffic-controllers than in office-workers. The mean pH values were 8.12 in exhaled breath condensate and 7.99 in nasal lavage fluid in office-workers; these values were lower in traffic-controllers (7.80 and 7.30, respectively. Both groups presented similar cytokines concentrations in both substrates, however, IL-1β and IL-8 were elevated in nasal lavage fluid compared with exhaled breath condensate. The particulate matter concentration was greater at the workplace of traffic-controllers compared with that of office-workers. CONCLUSION: The pH values of nasal lavage fluid and exhaled breath condensate are important, robust, easy to measure and reproducible biomarkers that can be used to monitor occupational exposure to air pollution. Additionally, traffic-controllers are at an increased risk of airway and lung inflammation during their occupational activities compared with office-workers.

  14. Indoor Air Pollution (Environmental Health Student Portal)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip Navigation National Library of Medicine Environmental Health Student Portal Connecting Middle School Students to Environmental Health Information Menu Home Air Pollution Air Pollution Home Indoor Air Pollution Outdoor Air ...

  15. Public's Health Risk Awareness on Urban Air Pollution in Chinese Megacities: The Cases of Shanghai, Wuhan and Nanchang.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaojun; Zhu, Hui; Hu, Yongxin; Feng, Sha; Chu, Yuanyuan; Wu, Yanyan; Wang, Chiyu; Zhang, Yuxuan; Yuan, Zhaokang; Lu, Yuanan

    2016-08-25

    This study assessed the public's health risk awareness of urban air pollution triggered by three megacities in China, and the data are the responses from a sample size of 3868 megacity inhabitants from Shanghai, Nanchang and Wuhan. Descriptive analyses were used to summarize the respondents' demographics, perceived health risks from air pollution and sources of health-related knowledge on urban air pollution. Chi-square tests were used to examine if participants' demographics were associated with participant's general attitudes towards current air quality and the three perceived highest health risks due to urban air pollution. We found low rate of satisfaction of current urban air quality as well as poor knowledge of air pollution related indicator. Participants' gender, age and travel experience were found to be associated with the satisfaction of current air quality. The knowledge of air pollution related indicator was significantly affected by respondents' education, monthly income, health status, and sites of study. As many as 46.23% of the participants expressed their feelings of anxiety when exposed to polluted air, especially females, older adults and those with poor health conditions. Most participants believed that coughs/colds, eye problems and skin allergies were the three highest health risks due to urban air pollution based on public education through television/radio, internet and newspaper/magazine. Further public health education is needed to improve public awareness of air pollution and its effects.

  16. Urban air pollution, poverty, violence and health--Neurological and immunological aspects as mediating factors.

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    Kristiansson, Marianne; Sörman, Karolina; Tekwe, Carmen; Calderón-Garcidueñas, Lilian

    2015-07-01

    Rapid rural-urban migration has created overcrowded areas characterized by concentrated poverty and increases in indoor and outdoor air pollutants. These "hotspots" constitute an increased risk of violence and disease outbreaks. We hypothesize that the effects of poverty and associated air pollution-related stress on impaired cognitive skills are mediated by inflammatory cytokines. A research framework is proposed, encompassing (i) an epidemiological investigation of associations between poverty, high concentrations of air pollutants, violence and health, (ii) a longitudinal follow-up of working memory capacities and inflammatory markers, and (iii) intervention programs aiming to strengthen employability and decreased exposures to toxic air pollutants.

  17. Health Effects of Air Pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental Education Report and Newsletter, 1985

    1985-01-01

    Summarizes health hazards associated with air pollution, highlighting the difficulty in establishing acceptable thresholds of exposure. Respiratory disease, asthma, cancer, cardiovascular disease, and other problems are addressed. Indicates that a wide range of effects from any one chemical exists and that there are differences in sensitivity to…

  18. Impact of Ambient Air Pollution on Public Health under Various Traffic Policies in Shanghai,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHAN-GHONG CHEN; HAI-DONG KAN; CHENG HUANG; LI LI; YUN-HUI ZHANG; REN-JIE CHEN; BING-HENG CHEN

    2009-01-01

    Objective To investigate the potential impact of ambient air pollution on public health under various traffic policies in Shanghai. Methods The exposure level of Shanghai residents to air pollution under various planned traffic scenarios was estimated,and the public health impact was assessed using concentration-response functions derived from available epidemiological studies. Results Our results showed that ambient air pollution in relation to traffic scenarios had a significant impact on the future health status of Shanghai residents.Compared with the base case scenario,implementation of various traffic scenarios could prevent 759-1574,1885-2420,and 2277-2650 PM10-related avoidable deaths (mean-value) in 2010,2015,and 2020,respectively.It could also decrease the incidence of several relevant diseases. Conclusion Our findings emphasize the need to consider air pollution-related health effects as an important impact of traffic policy in Shanghai.

  19. Indoor air quality and health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, A. P.

    During the last two decades there has been increasing concern within the scientific community over the effects of indoor air quality on health. Changes in building design devised to improve energy efficiency have meant that modern homes and offices are frequently more airtight than older structures. Furthermore, advances in construction technology have caused a much greater use of synthetic building materials. Whilst these improvements have led to more comfortable buildings with lower running costs, they also provide indoor environments in which contaminants are readily produced and may build up to much higher concentrations than are found outside. This article reviews our current understanding of the relationship between indoor air pollution and health. Indoor pollutants can emanate from a range of sources. The health impacts from indoor exposure to combustion products from heating, cooking, and the smoking of tobacco are examined. Also discussed are the symptoms associated with pollutants emitted from building materials. Of particular importance might be substances known as volatile organic compounds (VOCs), which arise from sources including paints, varnishes, solvents, and preservatives. Furthermore, if the structure of a building begins to deteriorate, exposure to asbestos may be an important risk factor for the chronic respiratory disease mesothelioma. The health effects of inhaled biological particles can be significant, as a large variety of biological materials are present in indoor environments. Their role in inducing illness through immune mechanisms, infectious processes, and direct toxicity is considered. Outdoor sources can be the main contributors to indoor concentrations of some contaminants. Of particular significance is Radon, the radioactive gas that arises from outside, yet only presents a serious health risk when found inside buildings. Radon and its decay products are now recognised as important indoor pollutants, and their effects are

  20. Solid Waste, Air Pollution and Health

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    Kupchik, George J.; Franz, Gerald J.

    1976-01-01

    This article examines the relationships among solid waste disposal, air pollution, and human disease. It is estimated that solid waste disposal contributes 9.7 percent of the total air pollution and 9.9 percent of the total air pollution health effect. Certain disposal-resource recovery systems can be implemented to meet air quality standards. (MR)

  1. Climate change, extreme weather events, air pollution and respiratory health in Europe.

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    De Sario, M; Katsouyanni, K; Michelozzi, P

    2013-09-01

    Due to climate change and other factors, air pollution patterns are changing in several urbanised areas of the world, with a significant effect on respiratory health both independently and synergistically with weather conditions; climate scenarios show Europe as one of the most vulnerable regions. European studies on heatwave episodes have consistently shown a synergistic effect of air pollution and high temperatures, while the potential weather-air pollution interaction during wildfires and dust storms is unknown. Allergen patterns are also changing in response to climate change, and air pollution can modify the allergenic potential of pollens, especially in the presence of specific weather conditions. The underlying mechanisms of all these interactions are not well known; the health consequences vary from decreases in lung function to allergic diseases, new onset of diseases, exacerbation of chronic respiratory diseases, and premature death. These multidimensional climate-pollution-allergen effects need to be taken into account in estimating both climate and air pollution-related respiratory effects, in order to set up adequate policy and public health actions to face both the current and future climate and pollution challenges.

  2. Health effects of air conditioning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molina, C.; Caillaud, D.

    The air conditioning used in residential or commercial buildings (offices, hotels, sterile areas of hospitals, computer and electronics industries) is responsible for a certain number of well identified ailments which can be classified in three groups: infections (legionnaires'disease, ornithosis), allergies (mainly respiratory) eg. rhinitis, asthma, alveolitis but also Monday morning illness or humidifier fever, various functional disorders grouped under the name Sick Building Syndrome. To avoid these problems, a certain number of recommendations may be made. They concern: installation of air conditioning, humidification which is the cause of bacterial and fungal contamination, filtration, monitoring of the installation by qualitative and quantitative measurements, maintenance. The legal problems relating to these illnesses, the responsibility for which is ultimately laid at the door of the installers, should also be mentioned. Allergies are recognized to be of professional origin in Table 66 of allergic illnesses issued by the Social Security.

  3. Traffic-related air pollution - the health effects scrutinized

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijland, M.E.

    2013-01-01

    Numerous studies have been published on the health effects associated with exposure to air pollution. Air pollution is acknowledged as a public health risk and air quality regulations are set for specific air pollutants to protect human health. A major pollutant, well known for its adverse health im

  4. Traffic-related air pollution - the health effects scrutinized

    OpenAIRE

    Nijland, M.E.

    2013-01-01

    Numerous studies have been published on the health effects associated with exposure to air pollution. Air pollution is acknowledged as a public health risk and air quality regulations are set for specific air pollutants to protect human health. A major pollutant, well known for its adverse health impact, is particulate matter (PM) of which road traffic is a major source. Therefore, the health effects of traffic-related air pollution have been under considerable scrutiny. We examined in vivo t...

  5. LINKING PUBLIC HEALTH AND AIR QUALITY DATA FOR ACCOUNTABILITY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Program Area: Environmental HealthTopic Area: Linking Public Health Data into ActionTitle of Presentation: Linking Public Health and Air Quality Data for AccountabilityBackground and Significance Tracking environmental exposures to air pollutan...

  6. [Airport related air pollution and health effects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iavicoli, Ivo; Fontana, Luca; Ancona, Carla; Forastiere, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    Airport is an extremely complex emission source of airborne pollutants that can have a significant impact on the environment. Indeed, several airborne chemicals emitted during airport activities may significantly get worse air quality and increase exposure level of both airport workers and general population living nearby the airports. In recent years airport traffic has increased and consequently several studies investigated the association between airport-related air pollution and occurrence of adverse health effects, particularly on respiratory system, in exposed workers and general population resident nearby. In this context, we carried out a critical evaluation of the studies that investigated this correlation in order to obtain a deeper knowledge of this issue and to identify the future research needs. Results show that the evidence of association between airport-related air pollution and health effects on workers and residents is still limited.

  7. Air Travel and Health A Systems Perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Seabridge, Allan

    2010-01-01

    Providing a detailed examination of the issues that affect the long term health of aircrew, cabin crew and passengers, Air Travel and Health offers guidance to engineers designing aircraft in the difficult field of legislation and product liability. Examining the facts, anecdotes and myths associated with health and travel, Seabridge and Morgan draw balanced conclusions on which the aircraft operations and design communities can act to provide cost-effective solutions. The authors present a useful reference for aircrew, regulatory authorities, engineers and managers within the aerospace indust

  8. Indoor air and human health: major indoor air pollutants and their health implications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-01-01

    This publication is a collection of abstracts of papers presented at the Indoor Air and Human Health symposium. Session titles include: Radon, Microorganisms, Passive Cigarette Smoke, Combustion Products, Organics, and Panel and Audience Discussion.

  9. SIMS three year study on statistics and environmental factors in health. Technical progress report No. 1. [Hazards of air pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1976-12-01

    Progress is reported for the activities of the Siam Institute for mathematics and society (SIMS), Columbia University, and Stanford University. The SIMS report is concerned with the use of animal experiments in establishing tolerance limits for human exposure to environmental toxicants; valid assessment of the health consequences of occupational and other specialized toxic exposures; mathematical theories for the kinetics of carcinogenesis; data coding, storage, access, and analysis, relationship between air pollution and respiratory diseases; and air pollution assessment. The Columbia University report is concerned with development of statistical methods and models for describing the effects of the environment, measured by pollution and weather variables, on respiratory diseases. The Stanford University report is concerned with spatial distribution of air pollutants, relation of pollutant concentrations to morbidity and mortality statistics, and other topics. (HLW)

  10. Civil aviation, air pollution and human health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Roy M.; Masiol, Mauro; Vardoulakis, Sotiris

    2015-04-01

    Air pollutant emissions from aircraft have been subjected to less rigorous control than road traffic emissions, and the rapid growth of global aviation is a matter of concern in relation to human exposures to pollutants, and consequent effects upon health. Yim et al (2015 Environ. Res. Lett. 3 034001) estimate exposures globally arising from aircraft engine emissions of primary particulate matter, and from secondary sulphates and ozone, and use concentration-response functions to calculate the impact upon mortality, which is monetised using the value of statistical life. This study makes a valuable contribution to estimating the magnitude of public health impact at various scales, ranging from local, near airport, regional and global. The results highlight the need to implement future mitigation actions to limit impacts of aviation upon air quality and public health. The approach adopted in Yim et al only accounts for the air pollutants emitted by aircraft engine exhausts. Whilst aircraft emissions are often considered as dominant near runways, there are a number of other sources and processes related to aviation that still need to be accounted for. This includes impacts of nitrate aerosol formed from NOx emissions, but probably more important, are the other airport-related emissions from ground service equipment and road traffic. By inclusion of these, and consideration of non-fatal impacts, future research will generate comprehensive estimates of impact related to aviation and airports.

  11. Implications of Nitrogen-Climate Interactions for Ambient Air Pollution and Human Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haeuber, R.; Peel, J. L.; Garcia, V.; Neas, L.; Russell, A. G.

    2011-12-01

    Nitrogen oxides (NOX) are important components of ambient and indoor air pollution and are emitted from a range of combustion sources, including on-road mobile sources, electric power generators, and non-road mobile sources. While anthropogenic sources dominate, NOX is also formed by lightning and wildland fires and is emitted by soil. Reduced nitrogen (e.g., ammonia, NH3) is also emitted by various sources, including fertilizer application and animal waste decomposition. NOX, ozone and PM2.5 pollution related to atmospheric emissions of nitrogen and other pollutants can cause premature death and a variety of serious health effects. Climate change is expected to impact how nitrogen-related pollutants affect human health. For example, changes in temperature and precipitation patterns are projected to both lengthen the ozone season and intensify high ozone episodes in some areas. Other climate-related changes may increase the atmospheric release of nitrogen compounds through impacts on wildfire regimes, soil emissions, and biogenic emissions from terrestrial ecosystems. This session will examine the potential human health implications of climate change and nitrogen cycle interactions related to ambient air pollution.

  12. Health impact of air pollution to children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sram, Radim J; Binkova, Blanka; Dostal, Miroslav; Merkerova-Dostalova, Michaela; Libalova, Helena; Milcova, Alena; Rossner, Pavel; Rossnerova, Andrea; Schmuczerova, Jana; Svecova, Vlasta; Topinka, Jan; Votavova, Hana

    2013-08-01

    Health impact of air pollution to children was studied over the last twenty years in heavily polluted parts of the Czech Republic during. The research program (Teplice Program) analyzed these effects in the polluted district Teplice (North Bohemia) and control district Prachatice (Southern Bohemia). Study of pregnancy outcomes for newborns delivered between 1994 and 1998 demonstrated that increase in intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) was associated with PM10 and c-PAHs exposure (carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) in the first month of gestation. Morbidity was followed in the cohort of newborns (N=1492) up to the age of 10years. Coal combustion in homes was associated with increased incidence of lower respiratory track illness and impaired early childhood skeletal growth up to the age of 3years. In preschool children, we observed the effect of increased concentrations of PM2.5 and PAHs on development of bronchitis. The Northern Moravia Region (Silesia) is characterized by high concentrations of c-PAHs due to industrial air pollution. Exposure to B[a]P (benzo[a]pyrene) in Ostrava-Radvanice is the highest in the EU. Children from this part of the city of Ostrava suffered higher incidence of acute respiratory diseases in the first year of life. Gene expression profiles in leukocytes of asthmatic children compared to children without asthma were evaluated in groups from Ostrava-Radvanice and Prachatice. The results suggest the distinct molecular phenotype of asthma bronchiale in children living in polluted Ostrava region compared to children living in Prachatice. The effect of exposure to air pollution to biomarkers in newborns was analyzed in Prague vs. Ceske Budejovice, two locations with different levels of pollution in winter season. B[a]P concentrations were higher in Ceske Budejovice. DNA adducts and micronuclei were also elevated in cord blood in Ceske Budejovice in comparison to Prague. Study of gene expression profiles in the cord blood showed

  13. Air pollution epidemiology. Assessment of health effects and risks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katsouyanni, K. [Athens Univ. (Greece). Dept. of Hygiene and Epidemiology

    1995-12-31

    Air pollution epidemiology is the study of the occurrence and distribution of health outcomes in association with community air pollution exposure. It is therefore specific in the exposure variable. Air pollution health effects became evident during high air pollution episodes which occurred in the first decades of our century. Since then, legal and other control measures have led to lower air pollution levels. However, recent results from several studies indicate that lower levels of air pollution than the previously considered safe have serious adverse health effects. Although, there is increasingly agreement that air pollution, at levels measured today, affects health, there is still a lot to be understood concerning specific causal pollutants, biologic mechanisms involved and sensitive groups of individuals. The extent of potential confounding, time-considerations in air pollution effects, individual variation in air pollution exposure and exposure misclassification are some factors which complicate the study of these issues. (author)

  14. Proceedings of the symposium on air pollution and public health[Organized under the auspices of the Conference of New England Governors and Eastern Canadian Premiers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoen, D.; Drouin, L. [National Public Health Inst. of Quebec, PQ (Canada)]|[Direction de la sante publique de Montreal, PQ (Canada)

    2003-09-01

    Air pollution levels throughout New England and southeastern Canada generally exceed U.S. and Canadian ambient air quality limits, most notably for ozone and particulate matter. The pollutants can reduce respiratory function and trigger asthma attacks. Acute effects are also associated with short-term peaks in air pollution levels. This two-day symposium featured presentations by scientists from Canada, the United States and Europe who described recent advances in their areas of expertise and presented recommendations to reduce air pollution and its impact on human health. The recommendations, which were compiled according to individual presentations as well as the plenary sessions of the symposium, have been classified as follows: improving the air quality database; epidemiological and toxicological research needs; and, concrete intervention to reduce air pollution-related health impacts. The six sessions were entitled as follows: (1) levels and sources of air pollution in northeastern America, (2) specific sources of air pollution, (3) human health effects, (4) air pollution and asthma, (5) epidemiology, and (6) scientific basis for regulatory approaches to air pollution standards. refs.

  15. Generating scenarios to predict air quality impact in public health

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, J.M.; Coelho, L.M.R.; Gouveia, C.; Cerdeira, R. [Escola Superior de Tecnologia de Setubal (EST-IPS), Setubal (Portugal); Ferreira, T.; Baptista, M.N. [Hospital Na. Sa. do Rosario, Servico de Pediatria, Barreiro (Portugal)

    2004-07-01

    This study intends to associate air quality with public health by generating air quality scenarios, under different future perspectives in Barreiro. This city is located in middle south of Portugal nearby Lisbon and it has a large resident population, an important industrial area and intense traffic. In this study ADMS-urban was used to simulate the possible scenarios of future air quality in this city, taking into consideration the probable city development and future activities. Special attention was given to the future evolutions of traffic, industrial activities, demographical and geographical expansion. The new EU directives about air quality and the CAFE program were also considered. To correlate the impact of the future air quality of the city and public health, a children population sample was used. This study team is also composed by paediatric doctors from Hospital N{sup a}. S{sup a}. do Rosario that contribute with public health information and helped to identify air quality related diseases. (orig.)

  16. A new air quality perception scale for global assessment of air pollution health effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deguen, Séverine; Ségala, Claire; Pédrono, Gaëlle; Mesbah, Mounir

    2012-12-01

    Despite improvements in air quality in developed countries, air pollution remains a major public health issue. To fully assess the health impact, we must consider that air pollution exposure has both physical and psychological effects; this latter dimension, less documented, is more difficult to measure and subjective indicators constitute an appropriate alternative. In this context, this work presents the methodological development of a new scale to measure the perception of air quality, useful as an exposure or risk appraisal metric in public health contexts. On the basis of the responses from 2,522 subjects in eight French cities, psychometric methods are used to construct the scale from 22 items that assess risk perception (anxiety about health and quality of life) and the extent to which air pollution is a nuisance (sensorial perception and symptoms). The scale is robust, reproducible, and discriminates between subpopulations more susceptible to poor air pollution perception. The individual risk factors of poor air pollution perception are coherent with those findings in the risk perception literature. Perception of air pollution by the general public is a key issue in the development of comprehensive risk assessment studies as well as in air pollution risk management and policy. This study offers a useful new tool to measure such efforts and to help set priorities for air quality improvements in combination with air quality measurements.

  17. Air quality as respiratory health indicator: a critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moshammer, Hanns; Wallner, Peter

    2011-09-01

    As part of the European Public Health project IMCA II validity and practicability of "air pollution" as a respiratory health indicator were analyzed. The definitions of air quality as an indicator proposed by the WHO project ECOEHIS and by IMCA I were compared. The public availability of the necessary data was checked through access to web-based data-bases. Practicability and interpretation of the indicator were discussed with project partners and external experts. Air quality serves as a kind of benchmark for the good health-related environmental policy. In this sense, it is a relevant health indicator. Although air quality is not directly in the responsibility of health policy, its vital importance for the population's health should not be neglected. In principle, data is available to calculate this IMCA indicator for any chosen area in Europe. The indicator is relevant and informative, but calculation and interpretation need input from local expert knowledge. The European health policy is well advised to take air quality into account. To that end, an interdisciplinary approach is warranted. The proposed definition of air quality as a (respiratory) health indicator is workable, but correct interpretation depends on expert and local knowledge.

  18. The Outdoor Air Pollution and Brain Health Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Accumulating evidence suggests that air pollution may have a significant impact on central nervous system (CNS) health and disease. To address this issue, the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences/National Institute of Health convened a panel of research scientists...

  19. Effects on health of air pollution: a narrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannucci, Pier Mannuccio; Harari, Sergio; Martinelli, Ida; Franchini, Massimo

    2015-09-01

    Air pollution is a complex and ubiquitous mixture of pollutants including particulate matter, chemical substances and biological materials. There is growing awareness of the adverse effects on health of air pollution following both acute and chronic exposure, with a rapidly expanding body of evidence linking air pollution with an increased risk of respiratory (e.g., asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, lung cancer) and cardiovascular disease (e.g., myocardial infarction, heart failure, cerebrovascular accidents). Elderly subjects, pregnant women, infants and people with prior diseases appear especially susceptible to the deleterious effects of ambient air pollution. The main diseases associated with exposure to air pollutants will be summarized in this narrative review.

  20. Household air pollution and its effects on health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apte, Komalkirti; Salvi, Sundeep

    2016-01-01

    Household air pollution is a leading cause of disability-adjusted life years in Southeast Asia and the third leading cause of disability-adjusted life years globally. There are at least sixty sources of household air pollution, and these vary from country to country. Indoor tobacco smoking, construction material used in building houses, fuel used for cooking, heating and lighting, use of incense and various forms of mosquito repellents, use of pesticides and chemicals used for cleaning at home, and use of artificial fragrances are some of the various sources that contribute to household air pollution. Household air pollution affects all stages of life with multi-systemic health effects, and its effects are evident right from pre-conception to old age. In utero exposure to household air pollutants has been shown to have health effects which resonate over the entire lifetime. Exposures to indoor air pollutants in early childhood also tend to have repercussions throughout life. The respiratory system bears the maximum brunt, but effects on the cardiovascular system, endocrine system, and nervous system are largely underplayed. Household air pollutants have also been implicated in the development of various types of cancers. Identifying household air pollutants and their health implications helps us prepare for various health-related issues. However, the real challenge is adopting changes to reduce the health effects of household air pollution and designing innovative interventions to minimize the risk of further exposure. This review is an attempt to understand the various sources of household air pollution, the effects on health, and strategies to deal with this emergent risk factor of global mortality and morbidity.

  1. Air Quality Measures on the National Environmental Health Tracking Network

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) provides air pollution data about ozone and particulate matter (PM2.5) to CDC for the Tracking Network. The EPA maintains a...

  2. Health and air quality 2005 : phase 2 : valuation of health impacts from air quality in the Lower Fraser Valley airshed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furberg, M.; Preston, K. [RWDI West Inc., Vancouver, BC (Canada); Sawyer, D. [Marbek Resource Consultants Ltd., Ottawa, ON (Canada); Brauer, M. [British Columbia Univ., Vancouver, BC (Canada). School of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene; Hanvelt, R. [British Columbia Univ., Vancouver, BC (Canada). Dept. of Health Care and Epidemiology

    2005-07-15

    This study provided estimates the health benefits and costs associated with specified changes in ambient air concentrations of particulate matter (PM) and ozone in the Lower Fraser Valley (LFV). Estimates were developed on a regional level. The study focused on PM and ozone, as current air quality monitoring data and scientific findings have indicated that these are the air contaminants of greatest concern in the region. Known air quality health outcome relationships were applied in a spreadsheet model to predict changes in health outcomes associated with 6 ambient air quality scenarios for 3 sub-regions within the LFV airshed. Concentration response functions based on epidemiological studies were used to estimate the number of health events associated with changes in air quality. For each scenario, the model calculated the expected number of the following health outcomes: mortality; chronic bronchitis; respiratory hospital admissions; cardiac hospital admissions; emergency room visits; child acute bronchitis; restricted activity days; asthma symptom days; minor restricted activity days and acute respiratory symptom days. The model also produced the dollar value of the health outcomes. A dollar metric was used so that the health outcomes could be aggregated and compared with other air quality management actions such the costs of improving ambient air quality. Results indicated that improving ambient air quality in the LFV will produce valued and socially desirable benefits, including reduced mortality and morbidity. The measures contemplated by decision-makers to maintain and improve air quality in the LFV will trigger benefits that are likely to be significant. 101 refs., 7 tabs., 7 figs.

  3. Air pollution and health studies in China--policy implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bingheng; Kan, Haidong; Chen, Renjie; Jiang, Songhui; Hong, Chuanjie

    2011-11-01

    During the rapid economic development in China, ambient air pollutants in major cities, including PM10 (particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter air pollution levels in China are still at the higher end of the world level. Less information is available regarding changes in national levels of other pollutants such as PM2.5 and ozone. The Chinese Ministry of Environmental Protection (MOEP) set an index for "controlling/reducing total SO2 emissions" to evaluate the efficacy of air pollution control strategy in the country. Total SO2 emissions declined for the first time in 2007. Chinese epidemiologic studies evidenced adverse health effects of ambient air pollution similar to those reported from developed countries, though risk estimates on mortality/morbidity per unit increase of air pollutant are somewhat smaller than those reported in developed countries. Disease burden on health attributable to air pollution is relatively greater in China because of higher pollution levels. Improving ambient air quality has substantial and measurable public health benefits in China. It is recommended that the current Chinese air quality standards be updated/revised and the target for "controlling/reducing total SO2 emissions" be maintained and another target for "reducing total NO2 emissions" be added in view of rapid increase in motor vehicles. Continuous and persistent efforts should be taken to improve ambient air quality.

  4. Air Quality and Health Impacts of Future Ethanol Production and Use in São Paulo State, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scovronick, Noah; França, Daniela; Alonso, Marcelo; Almeida, Claudia; Longo, Karla; Freitas, Saulo; Rudorff, Bernardo; Wilkinson, Paul

    2016-01-01

    It is often argued that liquid biofuels are cleaner than fossil fuels, and therefore better for human health, however, the evidence on this issue is still unclear. Brazil’s high uptake of ethanol and role as a major producer makes it the most appropriate case study to assess the merits of different biofuel policies. Accordingly, we modeled the impact on air quality and health of two future fuel scenarios in São Paulo State: a business-as-usual scenario where ethanol production and use proceeds according to government predictions and a counterfactual scenario where ethanol is frozen at 2010 levels and future transport fuel demand is met with gasoline. The population-weighted exposure to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and ozone was 3.0 μg/m3 and 0.3 ppb lower, respectively, in 2020 in the scenario emphasizing gasoline compared with the business-as-usual (ethanol) scenario. The lower exposure to both pollutants in the gasoline scenario would result in the population living 1100 additional life-years in the first year, and if sustained, would increase to 40,000 life-years in year 20 and continue to rise. Without additional measures to limit emissions, increasing the use of ethanol in Brazil could lead to higher air pollution-related population health burdens when compared to policy that prioritizes gasoline. PMID:27409628

  5. Air Quality and Health Impacts of Future Ethanol Production and Use in São Paulo State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noah Scovronick

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available It is often argued that liquid biofuels are cleaner than fossil fuels, and therefore better for human health, however, the evidence on this issue is still unclear. Brazil’s high uptake of ethanol and role as a major producer makes it the most appropriate case study to assess the merits of different biofuel policies. Accordingly, we modeled the impact on air quality and health of two future fuel scenarios in São Paulo State: a business-as-usual scenario where ethanol production and use proceeds according to government predictions and a counterfactual scenario where ethanol is frozen at 2010 levels and future transport fuel demand is met with gasoline. The population-weighted exposure to fine particulate matter (PM2.5 and ozone was 3.0 μg/m3 and 0.3 ppb lower, respectively, in 2020 in the scenario emphasizing gasoline compared with the business-as-usual (ethanol scenario. The lower exposure to both pollutants in the gasoline scenario would result in the population living 1100 additional life-years in the first year, and if sustained, would increase to 40,000 life-years in year 20 and continue to rise. Without additional measures to limit emissions, increasing the use of ethanol in Brazil could lead to higher air pollution-related population health burdens when compared to policy that prioritizes gasoline.

  6. Air Quality and Health Impacts of Future Ethanol Production and Use in São Paulo State, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scovronick, Noah; França, Daniela; Alonso, Marcelo; Almeida, Claudia; Longo, Karla; Freitas, Saulo; Rudorff, Bernardo; Wilkinson, Paul

    2016-07-11

    It is often argued that liquid biofuels are cleaner than fossil fuels, and therefore better for human health, however, the evidence on this issue is still unclear. Brazil's high uptake of ethanol and role as a major producer makes it the most appropriate case study to assess the merits of different biofuel policies. Accordingly, we modeled the impact on air quality and health of two future fuel scenarios in São Paulo State: a business-as-usual scenario where ethanol production and use proceeds according to government predictions and a counterfactual scenario where ethanol is frozen at 2010 levels and future transport fuel demand is met with gasoline. The population-weighted exposure to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and ozone was 3.0 μg/m³ and 0.3 ppb lower, respectively, in 2020 in the scenario emphasizing gasoline compared with the business-as-usual (ethanol) scenario. The lower exposure to both pollutants in the gasoline scenario would result in the population living 1100 additional life-years in the first year, and if sustained, would increase to 40,000 life-years in year 20 and continue to rise. Without additional measures to limit emissions, increasing the use of ethanol in Brazil could lead to higher air pollution-related population health burdens when compared to policy that prioritizes gasoline.

  7. Air Quality Index (AQI) -- A Guide to Air Quality and Your Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... number of people who are unusually sensitive to air pollution. Unhealthy for Sensitive Groups 101 to 150 Members of sensitive groups may experience health effects. The general public is not likely to be ...

  8. Air Quality Strategies on Public Health and Health Equity in Europe—A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Wang

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Air pollution is an important public health problem in Europe and there is evidence that it exacerbates health inequities. This calls for effective strategies and targeted interventions. In this study, we conducted a systematic review to evaluate the effectiveness of strategies relating to air pollution control on public health and health equity in Europe. Three databases, Web of Science, PubMed, and Trials Register of Promoting Health Interventions (TRoPHI, were searched for scientific publications investigating the effectiveness of strategies on outdoor air pollution control, public health and health equity in Europe from 1995 to 2015. A total of 15 scientific papers were included in the review after screening 1626 articles. Four groups of strategy types, namely, general regulations on air quality control, road traffic related emission control interventions, energy generation related emission control interventions and greenhouse gas emission control interventions for climate change mitigation were identified. All of the strategies reviewed reported some improvement in air quality and subsequently in public health. The reduction of the air pollutant concentrations and the reported subsequent health benefits were more significant within the geographic areas affected by traffic related interventions. Among the various traffic related interventions, low emission zones appeared to be more effective in reducing ambient nitrogen dioxide (NO2 and particulate matter levels. Only few studies considered implications for health equity, three out of 15, and no consistent results were found indicating that these strategies could reduce health inequity associated with air pollution. Particulate matter (particularly fine particulate matter and NO2 were the dominant outdoor air pollutants examined in the studies in Europe in recent years. Health benefits were gained either as a direct, intended objective or as a co-benefit from all of the strategies examined

  9. Air Quality Strategies on Public Health and Health Equity in Europe—A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li; Zhong, Buqing; Vardoulakis, Sotiris; Zhang, Fengying; Pilot, Eva; Li, Yonghua; Yang, Linsheng; Wang, Wuyi; Krafft, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Air pollution is an important public health problem in Europe and there is evidence that it exacerbates health inequities. This calls for effective strategies and targeted interventions. In this study, we conducted a systematic review to evaluate the effectiveness of strategies relating to air pollution control on public health and health equity in Europe. Three databases, Web of Science, PubMed, and Trials Register of Promoting Health Interventions (TRoPHI), were searched for scientific publications investigating the effectiveness of strategies on outdoor air pollution control, public health and health equity in Europe from 1995 to 2015. A total of 15 scientific papers were included in the review after screening 1626 articles. Four groups of strategy types, namely, general regulations on air quality control, road traffic related emission control interventions, energy generation related emission control interventions and greenhouse gas emission control interventions for climate change mitigation were identified. All of the strategies reviewed reported some improvement in air quality and subsequently in public health. The reduction of the air pollutant concentrations and the reported subsequent health benefits were more significant within the geographic areas affected by traffic related interventions. Among the various traffic related interventions, low emission zones appeared to be more effective in reducing ambient nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and particulate matter levels. Only few studies considered implications for health equity, three out of 15, and no consistent results were found indicating that these strategies could reduce health inequity associated with air pollution. Particulate matter (particularly fine particulate matter) and NO2 were the dominant outdoor air pollutants examined in the studies in Europe in recent years. Health benefits were gained either as a direct, intended objective or as a co-benefit from all of the strategies examined, but no consistent

  10. Review of air pollution and health impacts in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afroz, Rafia; Hassan, Mohd Nasir; Ibrahim, Noor Akma

    2003-06-01

    In the early days of abundant resources and minimal development pressures, little attention was paid to growing environmental concerns in Malaysia. The haze episodes in Southeast Asia in 1983, 1984, 1991, 1994, and 1997 imposed threats to the environmental management of Malaysia and increased awareness of the environment. As a consequence, the government established Malaysian Air Quality Guidelines, the Air Pollution Index, and the Haze Action Plan to improve air quality. Air quality monitoring is part of the initial strategy in the pollution prevention program in Malaysia. Review of air pollution in Malaysia is based on the reports of the air quality monitoring in several large cities in Malaysia, which cover air pollutants such as Carbon monoxide (CO), Sulphur Dioxide (SO2), Nitrogen Dioxide (NO2), Ozone (O3), and Suspended Particulate Matter (SPM). The results of the monitoring indicate that Suspended Particulate Matter (SPM) and Nitrogen Dioxide (NO2) are the predominant pollutants. Other pollutants such as CO, O(x), SO2, and Pb are also observed in several big cities in Malaysia. The air pollution comes mainly from land transportation, industrial emissions, and open burning sources. Among them, land transportation contributes the most to air pollution. This paper reviews the results of the ambient air quality monitoring and studies related to air pollution and health impacts.

  11. Some current challenges in research on air pollution and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samet, Jonathan M

    2014-01-01

    This commentary addresses some of the diverse questions of current interest with regard to the health effects of air pollution, including exposure-response relationships, toxicity of inhaled particles and risks to health, multipollutant mixtures, traffic-related pollution, accountability research, and issues with susceptibility and vulnerability. It considers the challenges posed to researchers as they attempt to provide useful evidence for policy-makers relevant to these issues. This commentary accompanies papers giving the results from the ESCALA project, a multi-city study in Latin America that has an overall goal of providing policy-relevant results. While progress has been made in improving air quality, driven by epidemiological evidence that air pollution is adversely affecting public health, the research questions have become more subtle and challenging as levels of air pollution dropped. More research is still needed, but also novel methods and approaches to address these new questions.

  12. Impact of traffic-related air pollution on health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakubiak-Lasocka, J; Lasocki, J; Siekmeier, R; Chłopek, Z

    2015-01-01

    Road transport contributes significantly to air quality problems through vehicle emissions, which have various detrimental impacts on public health and the environment. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of traffic-related air pollution on health of Warsaw citizens, following the basics of the Health Impact Assessment (HIA) method, and evaluate its social cost. PM10 was chosen as an indicator of traffic-related air pollution. Exposure-response functions between air pollution and health impacts were employed. The value of statistical life (VSL) approach was used for the estimation of the cost of mortality attributable to traffic-related air pollution. Costs of hospitalizations and restricted activity days were assessed basing on the cost of illness (COI) method. According to the calculations, about 827 Warsaw citizens die in a year as a result of traffic-related air pollution. Also, about 566 and 250 hospital admissions due to cardiovascular and respiratory diseases, respectively, and more than 128,453 restricted activity days can be attributed to the traffic emissions. From the social perspective, these losses generate the cost of 1,604 million PLN (1 EUR-approx. 4.2 PLN). This cost is very high and, therefore, more attention should be paid for the integrated environmental health policy.

  13. Impact of air quality on lung health: myth or reality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marino, Elisa; Caruso, Massimo; Campagna, Davide; Polosa, Riccardo

    2015-09-01

    The respiratory system is a primary target of the harmful effects of key air pollutants of health concern. Several air pollutants have been implicated including particulate matter (PM), ozone (O3), nitrogen dioxide (NO2) polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs). It is well known that episodes of exposure to high concentrations of outdoor air pollutants can cause acute respiratory exacerbations. However, there is now increasing evidence suggesting that significant exposure to outdoor air pollutants may be also associated with development of lung cancer and with incident cases of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and respiratory allergies. Here we provide a critical appraisal of the impact of air pollution on respiratory diseases and discuss strategies for preventing excessive exposure to harmful air pollutants. However, the evidence that significant exposure to air pollutants is causing COPD, lung cancer or respiratory allergies is not conclusive and therefore regulators must be aware that execution of clean air policies may not be that cost-effective and may lead to unintended consequences. Addressing the lung health effects of air pollution must be considered work in progress.

  14. Ambient air pollution, climate change, and population health in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kan, Haidong; Chen, Renjie; Tong, Shilu

    2012-07-01

    As the largest developing country, China has been changing rapidly over the last three decades and its economic expansion is largely driven by the use of fossil fuels, which leads to a dramatic increase in emissions of both ambient air pollutants and greenhouse gases (GHGs). China is now facing the worst air pollution problem in the world, and is also the largest emitter of carbon dioxide. A number of epidemiological studies on air pollution and population health have been conducted in China, using time-series, case-crossover, cross-sectional, cohort, panel or intervention designs. The increased health risks observed among Chinese population are somewhat lower in magnitude, per amount of pollution, than the risks found in developed countries. However, the importance of these increased health risks is greater than that in North America or Europe, because the levels of air pollution in China are very high in general and Chinese population accounts for more than one fourth of the world's totals. Meanwhile, evidence is mounting that climate change has already affected human health directly and indirectly in China, including mortality from extreme weather events; changes in air and water quality; and changes in the ecology of infectious diseases. If China acts to reduce the combustion of fossil fuels and the resultant air pollution, it will reap not only the health benefits associated with improvement of air quality but also the reduced GHG emissions. Consideration of the health impact of air pollution and climate change can help the Chinese government move forward towards sustainable development with appropriate urgency.

  15. Remote Sensing, Air Quality, and Public Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quattrochi, Dale A.; Rickman, Douglas; Mohammad, Al-Hamdan; Crosson, William; Estes, Maurice, Jr.; Limaye, Ashutosh; Qualters, Judith

    2008-01-01

    HELIX-Atlanta was developed to support current and future state and local EPHT programs to implement data linking demonstratio'n projects which could be part of the EPHT Network. HELIX-Atlanta is a pilot linking project in Atlanta for CDC to learn about the challenges the states will encounter. NASA/MSFC and the CDC are partners in linking environmental and health data to enhance public health surveillance. The use of NASA technology creates value - added geospatial products from existing environmental data sources to facilitate public health linkages. Proving the feasibility of the approach is the main objective

  16. Impacts of Climate Policy on Regional Air Quality, Health, and Air Quality Regulatory Procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, T. M.; Selin, N. E.

    2011-12-01

    Both the changing climate, and the policy implemented to address climate change can impact regional air quality. We evaluate the impacts of potential selected climate policies on modeled regional air quality with respect to national pollution standards, human health and the sensitivity of health uncertainty ranges. To assess changes in air quality due to climate policy, we couple output from a regional computable general equilibrium economic model (the US Regional Energy Policy [USREP] model), with a regional air quality model (the Comprehensive Air Quality Model with Extensions [CAMx]). USREP uses economic variables to determine how potential future U.S. climate policy would change emissions of regional pollutants (CO, VOC, NOx, SO2, NH3, black carbon, and organic carbon) from ten emissions-heavy sectors of the economy (electricity, coal, gas, crude oil, refined oil, energy intensive industry, other industry, service, agriculture, and transportation [light duty and heavy duty]). Changes in emissions are then modeled using CAMx to determine the impact on air quality in several cities in the Northeast US. We first calculate the impact of climate policy by using regulatory procedures used to show attainment with National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for ozone and particulate matter. Building on previous work, we compare those results with the calculated results and uncertainties associated with human health impacts due to climate policy. This work addresses a potential disconnect between NAAQS regulatory procedures and the cost/benefit analysis required for and by the Clean Air Act.

  17. Health effects of air quality regulations in Delhi, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Andrew; Kumar, Naresh

    2011-03-01

    This, the first systematic study, quantifies the health effects of air quality regulations in Delhi, which adopted radical measures to improve air quality, including, for example, the conversion of all commercial vehicles to compressed natural gas (CNG), and the closure of polluting industries in residential areas from 2000 to 2002. Air pollution data, collected at 113 sites (spread across Delhi and its neighboring areas) from July-December 2003, were used to compute exposure at the place of residence of 3989 subjects. A socio-economic and respiratory health survey was administered in 1576 households. This survey collected time-use, residence histories, demographic information, and direct measurements of lung function with subjects. The optimal interpolation methods were used to link air pollution and respiratory health data at the place of their residence. Resident histories, in combination with secondary data, were used to impute cumulative exposure prior to the air-quality interventions, and the effects of recent air quality measures on lung function were then evaluated. Three important findings emerge from the analysis. First, the interventions were associated with a significant improvement in respiratory health. Second, the effect of these interventions varied significantly by gender and income. Third, consistent with a causal interpretation of these results, effects were the strongest among those individuals who spend a disproportionate share of their time out-of-doors.

  18. Population Dynamics and Air Pollution: The Impact of Demographics on Health Impact Assessment of Air Pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esben Meulengracht Flachs

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To explore how three different assumptions on demographics affect the health impact of Danish emitted air pollution in Denmark from 2005 to 2030, with health impact modeled from 2005 to 2050. Methods. Modeled air pollution from Danish sources was used as exposure in a newly developed health impact assessment model, which models four major diseases and mortality causes in addition to all-cause mortality. The modeling was at the municipal level, which divides the approximately 5.5 M residents in Denmark into 99 municipalities. Three sets of demographic assumptions were used: (1 a static year 2005 population, (2 morbidity and mortality fixed at the year 2005 level, or (3 an expected development. Results. The health impact of air pollution was estimated at 672,000, 290,000, and 280,000 lost life years depending on demographic assumptions and the corresponding social costs at 430.4 M€, 317.5 M€, and 261.6 M€ through the modeled years 2005–2050. Conclusion. The modeled health impact of air pollution differed widely with the demographic assumptions, and thus demographics and assumptions on demographics played a key role in making health impact assessments on air pollution.

  19. Effects of Indoor Air Pollution on Human Health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berglund, B.; Brunekreef, B.; Knöppel, H.

    1992-01-01

    This article contains a summary discussion of human health effects linked to indoor air pollution (UP) in homes and other non-industrial environments. Rather than discussing the health effects of the many different pollutants which can be found in indoor air, the approach has been to group broad...... categories of adverse health effects in separate chapters, and describe the relevant indoor exposures which may give rise to these health effects. The following groups of effects have been comdered: effects on the respiratory system; allergy and other effects on the immune system; cancer and effects...... the principal agents and sources, evidence linking IAP to the effects, susceptible groups, the public health relevance, methods for assessment, and major research needs are briefly discussed. For some groups of effects, clear relationships with exposure to IAP have been reported in the world literature. Among...

  20. Survey of Ambient Air Pollution Health Risk Assessment Tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anenberg, Susan C; Belova, Anna; Brandt, Jørgen; Fann, Neal; Greco, Sue; Guttikunda, Sarath; Heroux, Marie-Eve; Hurley, Fintan; Krzyzanowski, Michal; Medina, Sylvia; Miller, Brian; Pandey, Kiran; Roos, Joachim; Van Dingenen, Rita

    2016-09-01

    Designing air quality policies that improve public health can benefit from information about air pollution health risks and impacts, which include respiratory and cardiovascular diseases and premature death. Several computer-based tools help automate air pollution health impact assessments and are being used for a variety of contexts. Expanding information gathered for a May 2014 World Health Organization expert meeting, we survey 12 multinational air pollution health impact assessment tools, categorize them according to key technical and operational characteristics, and identify limitations and challenges. Key characteristics include spatial resolution, pollutants and health effect outcomes evaluated, and method for characterizing population exposure, as well as tool format, accessibility, complexity, and degree of peer review and application in policy contexts. While many of the tools use common data sources for concentration-response associations, population, and baseline mortality rates, they vary in the exposure information source, format, and degree of technical complexity. We find that there is an important tradeoff between technical refinement and accessibility for a broad range of applications. Analysts should apply tools that provide the appropriate geographic scope, resolution, and maximum degree of technical rigor for the intended assessment, within resources constraints. A systematic intercomparison of the tools' inputs, assumptions, calculations, and results would be helpful to determine the appropriateness of each for different types of assessment. Future work would benefit from accounting for multiple uncertainty sources and integrating ambient air pollution health impact assessment tools with those addressing other related health risks (e.g., smoking, indoor pollution, climate change, vehicle accidents, physical activity).

  1. Air quality monitoring in NIS (SERBIA) and health impact assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikic, Dragana; Bogdanovic, Dragan; Nikolic, Maja; Stankovic, Aleksandra; Zivkovic, Nenad; Djordjevic, Amelija

    2009-11-01

    The aim of this study is to indicate the significance of air quality monitoring and to determine the air quality fields for the assessment of air pollution health effects, with special attention to risk population. Radial basis function network was used for air quality index mapping. Between 1991 and 2005, on the territory of Nis, several epidemiological studies were performed on risk groups (pre-school children, school children, pregnant women and persons older than 65). The total number of subjects was 5837. The exposed group comprised individuals living in the areas with unhealthy AQI, while the control group comprised individuals living in city areas with good or moderate AQI. It was determined that even relatively low levels of air pollution had impact on respiratory system and the occurrence of anaemia, allergy and skin symptoms.

  2. Uptake of chemicals from indoor air: Pathways and health effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bekö, Gabriel

    2016-01-01

    Building occupants are exposed to manufactured chemicals. Exposure in the indoor environment can occur via non-dietary ingestion (e.g. indoor dust), inhalation and dermal absorption including dermal uptake directly from air. The extent of dermal uptake from air has been previously studied...... intake from inhalation. Further experiments have been conducted with nicotine and the results are similar. Some of the SVOCs present indoors may have adverse health effects or are categorized as potential endocrine-disrupting compounds. It has been suggested that the health effects of a chemical may...

  3. Monitoring Indoor Air Quality for Enhanced Occupational Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitarma, Rui; Marques, Gonçalo; Ferreira, Bárbara Roque

    2017-02-01

    Indoor environments are characterized by several pollutant sources. Because people spend more than 90% of their time in indoor environments, several studies have pointed out the impact of indoor air quality on the etiopathogenesis of a wide number of non-specific symptoms which characterizes the "Sick Building Syndrome", involving the skin, the upper and lower respiratory tract, the eyes and the nervous system, as well as many building related diseases. Thus, indoor air quality (IAQ) is recognized as an important factor to be controlled for the occupants' health and comfort. The majority of the monitoring systems presently available is very expensive and only allow to collect random samples. This work describes the system (iAQ), a low-cost indoor air quality monitoring wireless sensor network system, developed using Arduino, XBee modules and micro sensors, for storage and availability of monitoring data on a web portal in real time. Five micro sensors of environmental parameters (air temperature, humidity, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide and luminosity) were used. Other sensors can be added for monitoring specific pollutants. The results reveal that the system can provide an effective indoor air quality assessment to prevent exposure risk. In fact, the indoor air quality may be extremely different compared to what is expected for a quality living environment. Systems like this would have benefit as public health interventions to reduce the burden of symptoms and diseases related to "sick buildings".

  4. Traffic related air pollution : spatial variation, health effects and mitigation measures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkema, M.B.A.

    2011-01-01

    Air pollution is probably the most intensely studied field in today’s environmental health research. The extensive body of literature on health effects associated with air pollution exposure has lead to prioritization of air pollution as public health risk factor and air quality regulations worldwid

  5. Priority One: Environment. Air Pollution and Your Health, Teacher's Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCutcheon, Patricia; And Others

    This teaching guide is designed to be used with secondary school students and the unit Air Pollution and Your Health. Material for the teacher includes the following: (1) an introduction to the unit; (2) a discussion of the sections of the unit; (3) instructional objectives; (4) suggestions for use of filmstrips, worksheets, reference materials,…

  6. Acute effects of winter air pollution on respiratory health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zee, van der S.

    1999-01-01

    In this thesis, acute respiratory health effects of exposure to winter air pollution are investigated in panels of children (7-11 yr) and adults (50-70 yr) with and without chronic respiratory symptoms, living in urban and non-urban areas in the Netherlands. The study was performed during three cons

  7. Public health implications of urban air pollution in developing countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwela, D.H. [World Health Organisation, Geneva (Switzerland)

    1995-12-31

    Exposure to air pollution is an almost inescapable part of urban life throughout the world. Ambient air pollutant levels in urban areas are generally a reflection of emissions. For sulphur dioxide, total suspended particulate matter and lead, ambient concentrations are declining in the industrialized western countries. For nitrogen dioxide, ambient levels in cities are generally constant, or slightly increasing. For carbon dioxide, they are variable, declining where controls are being applied. In a substantial number of cities, particularly in developing countries, WHO guidelines are being often exceeded for the compounds mentioned. Given the rate at which these cities are growing, the air pollution situation will probably worsen if environmental control measures are not implemented. As a consequence, the health and well-being of urban residents will further deteriorate with high ambient air pollutant concentrations causing increased mortality, morbidity, deficits on pulmonary functions and cardiovascular and neurobehavioural effects. (author)

  8. Is the air pollution health research community prepared to support a multipollutant air quality management framework?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauderly, Joe L; Burnett, Richard T; Castillejos, Margarita; Ozkaynak, Halûk; Samet, Jonathan M; Stieb, David M; Vedal, Sverre; Wyzga, Ronald E

    2010-06-01

    Ambient air pollution is always encountered as a complex mixture, but past regulatory and research strategies largely focused on single pollutants, pollutant classes, and sources one-at-a-time. There is a trend toward managing air quality in a progressively "multipollutant" manner, with the idealized goal of controlling as many air contaminants as possible in an integrated manner to achieve the greatest total reduction of adverse health and environmental impacts. This commentary considers the current ability of the environmental air pollution exposure and health research communities to provide evidence to inform the development of multipollutant air quality management strategies and assess their effectiveness. The commentary is not a literature review, but a summary of key issues and information gaps, strategies for filling the gaps, and realistic expectations for progress that could be made during the next decade. The greatest need is for researchers and sponsors to address air quality health impacts from a truly multipollutant perspective, and the most limiting current information gap is knowledge of personal exposures of different subpopulations, considering activities and microenvironments. Emphasis is needed on clarifying the roles of a broader range of pollutants and their combinations in a more forward-looking manner; that is not driven by current regulatory structures. Although advances in research tools and outcome data will enhance progress, the greater need is to direct existing capabilities toward strategies aimed at placing into proper context the contributions of multiple pollutants and their combinations to the health burdens, and the relative contributions of pollutants and other factors influencing the same outcomes. The authors conclude that the research community has very limited ability to advise multipollutant air quality management and assess its effectiveness at this time, but that considerable progress can be made in a decade, even at

  9. "What We Breathe Impacts Our Health : Improving Understanding of the Link between Air Pollution and Health"

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    West, J Jason; Cohen, Aaron; Dentener, Frank; Brunekreef, Bert; Zhu, Tong; Armstrong, Ben; Bell, Michelle L; Brauer, Michael; Carmichael, Gregory; Costa, Dan L; Dockery, Douglas W; Kleeman, Michael; Krzyzanowski, Michal; Künzli, Nino; Liousse, Catherine; Lung, Shih-Chun Candice; Martin, Randall V; Pöschl, Ulrich; Pope, C Arden; Roberts, James M; Russell, Armistead G; Wiedinmyer, Christine

    2016-01-01

    Air pollution contributes to the premature deaths of millions of people each year around the world, and air quality problems are growing in many developing nations. While past policy efforts have succeeded in reducing particulate matter and trace gases in North America and Europe, adverse health eff

  10. Outdoor air pollution and respiratory health in Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Kian Fan; Zhang, Junfeng; Zhong, Nanshan

    2011-10-01

    With the rapid economic development occurring in the last decade in many countries of Asia, the level of air pollution has increased from both industrial and motor vehicle emissions. Compared with Europe and North America, the potential health effects of this increasing air pollution in Asia remain largely unmeasured. Recent data published by the Health Effects Institute from some major cities in India and China reveal that a 10 µg/m(3) increase in PM(10) was associated with an increase in mortality of 0.6% in daily all-natural cause mortality, with higher risks being found at extremes of high temperatures and in the lowest economically advantaged population. Other Asian studies have confirmed the link between hospital admissions for the worsening of COPD and the increase in asthma prevalence to levels of outdoor air pollutants. Although potential health effects appear to be similar to already-published Western data, it is important that further studies be carried out in Asia that will inform the public and the authorities of the necessity to curb levels of outdoor air pollutants to acceptable levels.

  11. Vaal Triangle air pollution health study. Addressing South African problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terblanche, P.; Nel, R. [CSIR Environmental Services, Pretoria (South Africa); Surridge, T. [Dept. of Mineral and Energy Affairs (South Africa); Annegarn, H. [Annegarn Environmental Research, Johannesburg (South Africa); Tosen, G. [Eskom, Johannesburg (South Africa); Pols, A. [CSIR Informationtek, Pretoria (South Africa)

    1995-12-31

    Situated in the central region of South Africa, the Vaal Triangle is an area which plays a vital role in driving the economic dynamo of South Africa. Also, because of the concentration of heavy industry, it is an area which provides a challenge in effective air pollution control. The Vaal Triangle lies within the Vaal River Basin, at an altitude of 1 500 m above sea level. Meteorological conditions in the area are highly conducive to the formation of surface temperature inversions, resulting in a poor dispersion potential. Because of multiple sources of air pollution in the area, poor dispersion conditions increase the risk pollution build-up and subsequent adverse impacts. The situation is further exacerbated by the continued combustion of coal in households, even after the electrification of residences. This is particularly chronic in the developing communities and during winter. Vaal Triangle Air Pollution Health Study (VAPS) was initiated in 1990 by the Department of Health, the Medical Research Council and major industries in the area to determine effects of air pollution on the health of the community. The final results of that study summarised in this article, and options to ameliorate problems are addressed. (author)

  12. Air pollution threatens the health of children in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Millman, A.; Tang, D.L.; Perera, F.P. [Columbia University, New York, NY (United States)

    2008-09-15

    China's rapid economic development has come at the cost of severe environmental degradation, most notably from coal combustion. Outdoor air pollution is associated with >300 000 deaths, 20 million cases of respiratory illness, and a health cost of >500 billion renminbi (>3% of gross domestic product) annually. The young are particularly susceptible to air pollution, yet there has been only limited recognition of its effects on children's health and development. To fill this gap, we reviewed relevant published environmental studies, biomedical and molecular/epidemiologic research, and economic and policy analyses. China relies on coal for about 70% to 75% of its energy needs, consuming 1.9 billion tons of coal each year. In addition to CO{sub 2}, the major greenhouse gas, coal burning in China emits vast quantities of particulate matter, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, sulfur dioxide, arsenic, and mercury. Seventy percent of Chinese households burn coal or biomass for cooking and heating, which contaminates indoor air. Adverse effects of combustion-related air pollution include reduced fetal and child growth, pulmonary disease including asthma, developmental impairment, and increased risk of cancer. A prospective molecular epidemiologic study of newborns in Chongqing has demonstrated direct benefits to children's health and development from the elimination of a coal-burning plant. Recognition of the full health and economic cost of air pollution to Chinese children and the benefits of pollution reduction should spur increased use of renewable energy, energy efficiency, and clean-fuel vehicles. This is a necessary investment for China's future.

  13. Environment and air pollution: health services bequeath to grotesque menace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qureshi, Muhammad Imran; Rasli, Amran Md; Awan, Usama; Ma, Jian; Ali, Ghulam; Faridullah; Alam, Arif; Sajjad, Faiza; Zaman, Khalid

    2015-03-01

    The objective of the study is to establish the link between air pollution, fossil fuel energy consumption, industrialization, alternative and nuclear energy, combustible renewable and wastes, urbanization, and resulting impact on health services in Malaysia. The study employed two-stage least square regression technique on the time series data from 1975 to 2012 to possibly minimize the problem of endogeniety in the health services model. The results in general show that air pollution and environmental indicators act as a strong contributor to influence Malaysian health services. Urbanization and nuclear energy consumption both significantly increases the life expectancy in Malaysia, while fertility rate decreases along with the increasing urbanization in a country. Fossil fuel energy consumption and industrialization both have an indirect relationship with the infant mortality rate, whereas, carbon dioxide emissions have a direct relationship with the sanitation facility in a country. The results conclude that balancing the air pollution, environment, and health services needs strong policy vistas on the end of the government officials.

  14. The health benefits of reducing air pollution in Sydney, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broome, Richard A; Fann, Neal; Cristina, Tina J Navin; Fulcher, Charles; Duc, Hiep; Morgan, Geoffrey G

    2015-11-01

    Among industrialised countries, fine particle (PM2.5) and ozone levels in the Sydney metropolitan area of Australia are relatively low. Annual mean PM2.5 levels have historically remained below 8 μg/m(3) while warm season (November-March) ozone levels occasionally exceed the Australian guideline value of 0.10 ppm (daily 1 h max). Yet, these levels are still below those seen in the United States and Europe. This analysis focuses on two related questions: (1) what is the public health burden associated with air pollution in Sydney; and (2) to what extent would reducing air pollution reduce the number of hospital admissions, premature deaths and number of years of life lost (YLL)? We addressed these questions by applying a damage function approach to Sydney population, health, PM2.5 and ozone data for 2007 within the BenMAP-CE software tool to estimate health impacts and economic benefits. We found that 430 premature deaths (90% CI: 310-540) and 5800 YLL (95% CI: 3900-7600) are attributable to 2007 levels of PM2.5 (about 2% of total deaths and 1.8% of YLL in 2007). We also estimate about 630 (95% CI: 410-840) respiratory and cardiovascular hospital admissions attributable to 2007 PM2.5 and ozone exposures. Reducing air pollution levels by even a small amount will yield a range of health benefits. Reducing 2007 PM2.5 exposure in Sydney by 10% would, over 10 years, result in about 650 (95% CI: 430-850) fewer premature deaths, a gain of 3500 (95% CI: 2300-4600) life-years and about 700 (95% CI: 450-930) fewer respiratory and cardiovascular hospital visits. These results suggest that substantial health benefits are attainable in Sydney with even modest reductions in air pollution.

  15. Health effects of SRS non-radiological air emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stewart, J.

    1997-06-16

    This report examines the potential health effects of non radiological emissions to the air resulting from operations at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The scope of this study was limited to the 55 air contaminants for which the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has quantified risk by determining unit risk factors (excess cancer risks) and/or reference concentrations (deleterious non cancer risks). Potential health impacts have been assessed in relation to the maximally exposed individual. This is a hypothetical person who resides for a lifetime at the SRS boundary. The most recent (1994) quality assured SRS emissions data available were used. Estimated maximum site boundary concentrations of the air contaminants were calculated using air dispersion modeling and 24-hour and annual averaging times. For the emissions studied, the excess cancer risk was found to be less than the generally accepted risk level of 1 in 100,000 and, in most cases, was less than 1 in 1,000,000. Deleterious non cancer effects were also found to be very unlikely.

  16. Indoor air and human health revisited: A recent IAQ symposium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gammage, R.B.

    1994-12-31

    Indoor Air and Human Health Revisited was a speciality symposium examining the scientific underpinnings of sensory and sensitivity effects, allergy and respiratory disease, neurotoxicity and cancer. An organizing committee selected four persons to chain the sessions and invite experts to give state-of-the-art presentations that will be published as a book. A summary of the presentations is made and some critical issues identified.

  17. Household energy, air pollution and health in Maputo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellegaard, A.

    1997-05-01

    A survey was carried out in 1188 low-income households in Maputo, Mocambique, in order to assess the degree of exposure to air pollution and health effects associated with this exposure. The hypothesis was that pollution from biomass fuels, especially wood, impairs the health of the women using them, and that it would be possible to discern this effect in a general population. Average exposure levels during cooking time were found to be high, with a level of respirable particulates at 1200, 540 and 380 {mu}g/m{sup 3} for wood, charcoal and electricity users respectively. Similarly carbon monoxide levels were 42, 37 and 5 ppm for the same groups. Wood users were found to have significantly more symptoms of respiratory problems than users of other fuels, but also significantly more symptoms that could not be immediately associated with household fuel pollution. Thus, wood users had lower literacy, poorer housing, and more primitive access to water and sanitation. There was little difference in health aspects between charcoal users and users of modern fuels, though exposure to air pollution was higher among charcoal users. In statistical analysis it was found that cough were significantly associated with the use of wood as a principal fuel, but not with the use of charcoal. Other variables that influenced the health outcome were the age when a woman started helping her mother to cook, daily cooking time and kitchen ventilation. Most of the variables associated to ill health were correlated to wood use. In contrast, charcoal use was associated with a better health status in many respects. From the point of pollution exposure and health, wood use should be limited, while charcoal appears to be a feasible intermediate substitute for wood in the short term in Maputo. 48 refs, 31 figs, 33 tabs

  18. Impact of air pollution on health in Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kruzyzanowski, M. [WHO European Centre for Environment and Health, Bilthoven (Netherlands)

    1995-12-31

    Assessment of health risks due to air pollution should be an important indicator for setting the priorities for the environmental policies and for the abatement of the pollution. The scale of such assessment depends on the level, and scope, of the policy decisions relying on the evaluation. The analysis may range from an estimate of the health impact of a single pollution source, through the risk assessment in a community or a region of a country, to an international, or pan-continental approach. Such assessment, addressing population of all Europe, was one of the aims of the project `Concern for Europe`s Tomorrow` (CET). The WHO European Centre for Environment and Health completed this project, and the corresponding report, as a contribution to the Second European Conference on Environment and Health which gathered ministries of health and of environment from all European countries in Helsinki in June 1994. Using the report as the background information, the ministries have endorsed the `Environmental Health Action Plan for Europe`, the document formulating common environmental health policy of the Region. In this article, the summary of the evaluation will be presented and the main constraints of the pan-European approach will be addressed. (author)

  19. Health Impacts of Air Pollution Under a Changing Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinney, P. L.; Knowlton, K.; Rosenthal, J.; Hogrefe, C.; Rosenzweig, C.; Solecki, W.

    2003-12-01

    Outdoor air pollution remains a serious public health problem in cities throughout the world. In the US, despite considerable progress in reducing emissions over the past 30 years, as many as 50,000 premature deaths each year have been attributed to airborne particulate matter alone. Tropospheric ozone has been associated with increased daily mortality and hospitalization rates, and with a variety of related respiratory problems. Weather plays an important role in the transport and transformation of air pollution. In particular, a warming climate is likely to promote the atmospheric reactions that are responsible for ozone and secondary aerosol production, as well as increasing emissions of many of their volatile precursors. Increasingly, efforts to address urban air pollution problems throughout the world will be complicated by trends and variability in climate. The New York Climate and Health Project (NYCHP) is developing and applying tools for integrated assessment of health impacts from air pollution and heat associated with climate and land-use changes in the New York City metropolitan region. Global climate change is modeled over the 21st century based on the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) A2 greenhouse gas emissions scenario using the Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS) Global Atmosphere-Ocean Model (GCM). Meteorological fields are downscaled to a 36 km grid over the eastern US using the Penn State/NCAR MM5 mesoscale meteorological model. MM5 results are then used as input to the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model for simulating air quality, with emissions based on the Sparse Matrix Operator Kernel Emissions Modeling System (SMOKE). To date, simulations have been performed for five summer seasons each during the 1990s and the 2050s. An evaluation of the present-day climate and air quality predictions indicates that the modeling system largely captures the observed climate-ozone system. Analysis of future-year predictions

  20. Can the Air Pollution Index be used to communicate the health risks of air pollution?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li; Lin, Guo-Zhen; Liu, Hua-Zhang; Guo, Yuming; Ou, Chun-Quan; Chen, Ping-Yan

    2015-10-01

    The validity of using the Air Pollution Index (API) to assess health impacts of air pollution and potential modification by individual characteristics on air pollution effects remain uncertain. We applied distributed lag non-linear models (DLNMs) to assess associations of daily API, specific pollution indices for PM10, SO2, NO2 and the weighted combined API (APIw) with mortality during 2003-2011 in Guangzhou, China. An increase of 10 in API was associated with a 0.88% (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.50, 1.27%) increase of non-accidental mortality at lag 0-2 days. Harvesting effects appeared after 2 days' exposure. The effect estimate of API over lag 0-15 days was statistically significant and similar with those of pollutant-specific indices and APIw. Stronger associations between API and mortality were observed in the elderly, females and residents with low educational attainment. In conclusion, the API can be used to communicate health risks of air pollution.

  1. Air pollutants and health outcomes: Assessment of confounding by influenza

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thach, Thuan-Quoc; Wong, Chit-Ming; Chan, King-Pan; Chau, Yuen-Kwan; Neil Thomas, G.; Ou, Chun-Quan; Yang, Lin; Peiris, Joseph S. M.; Lam, Tai-Hing; Hedley, Anthony J.

    2010-04-01

    We assessed confounding of associations between short-term effects of air pollution and health outcomes by influenza using Hong Kong mortality and hospitalization data for 1996-2002. Three measures of influenza were defined: (i) intensity: weekly proportion of positive influenza viruses, (ii) epidemic: weekly number of positive influenza viruses ≥4% of the annual number for ≥2 consecutive weeks, and (iii) predominance: an epidemic period with co-circulation of respiratory syncytial virus influenza on associations between nitrogen dioxide (NO 2), sulfur dioxide (SO 2), particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter ≤10 μm (PM 10) and ozone (O 3) and health outcomes including all natural causes mortality, cardiorespiratory mortality and hospitalization. Generalized additive Poisson regression model with natural cubic splines was fitted to control for time-varying covariates to estimate air pollution health effects. Confounding with influenza was assessed using an absolute difference of >0.1% between unadjusted and adjusted excess risks (ER%). Without adjustment, pollutants were associated with positive ER% for all health outcomes except asthma and stroke hospitalization with SO 2 and stroke hospitalization with O 3. Following adjustment, changes in ER% for all pollutants were 0.1% for mortality from stroke with NO 2 and SO 2, cardiac or heart disease with NO 2, PM 10 and O 3, lower respiratory infections with NO 2 and O 3 and mortality from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease with all pollutants. Changes >0.1% were seen for acute respiratory disease hospitalization with NO 2, SO 2 and O 3 and acute lower respiratory infections hospitalization with PM 10. Generally, influenza does not confound the observed associations of air pollutants with all natural causes mortality and cardiovascular hospitalization, but for some pollutants and subgroups of cardiorespiratory mortality and respiratory hospitalization there was evidence to suggest confounding by influenza.

  2. Energy, Transportation, Air Quality, Climate Change, Health Nexus: Sustainable Energy is Good for Our Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larry E. Erickson

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The Paris Agreement on Climate Change has the potential to improve air quality and human health by encouraging the electrification of transportation and a transition from coal to sustainable energy. There will be human health benefits from reducing combustion emissions in all parts of the world. Solar powered charging infrastructure for electric vehicles adds renewable energy to generate electricity, shaded parking, and a needed charging infrastructure for electric vehicles that will reduce range anxiety. The costs of wind power, solar panels, and batteries are falling because of technological progress, magnitude of commercial activity, production experience, and competition associated with new trillion dollar markets. These energy and transportation transitions can have a very positive impact on health. The energy, transportation, air quality, climate change, health nexus may benefit from additional progress in developing solar powered charging infrastructure.

  3. Characterization of ambient air pollution for stochastic health models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batterman, S.A.

    1981-08-01

    This research is an analysis of various measures of ambient air pollution useful in cross-sectional epidemiological investigations and rick assessments. The Chestnut Ridge area health effects investigation, which includes a cross-sectional study of respiratory symptoms in young children, is used as a case study. Four large coal-fired electric generating power plants are the dominant pollution sources in this area of western Pennsylvania. The air pollution data base includes four years of sulfur dioxide and five years of total suspended particulate concentrations at seventeen monitors. Some 70 different characterizations of pollution are constructed and tested. These include pollutant concentrations at various percentiles and averaging times, exceedence measures which show the amount of time a specified threshold concentration is exceeded, and several dosage measures which transform non-linear dose-response relationships onto pollutant concentrations.

  4. Fiber Optic Sensors for Structural Health Monitoring of Air Platforms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianping Yao

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Aircraft operators are faced with increasing requirements to extend the service life of air platforms beyond their designed life cycles, resulting in heavy maintenance and inspection burdens as well as economic pressure. Structural health monitoring (SHM based on advanced sensor technology is potentially a cost-effective approach to meet operational requirements, and to reduce maintenance costs. Fiber optic sensor technology is being developed to provide existing and future aircrafts with SHM capability due to its unique superior characteristics. This review paper covers the aerospace SHM requirements and an overview of the fiber optic sensor technologies. In particular, fiber Bragg grating (FBG sensor technology is evaluated as the most promising tool for load monitoring and damage detection, the two critical SHM aspects of air platforms. At last, recommendations on the implementation and integration of FBG sensors into an SHM system are provided.

  5. A methodology of estimation on air pollution and its health effects in large Japanese cities.

    OpenAIRE

    Hirota, Keiko; Shibuya, Satoshi; Sakamoto, Shogo; Kashima, Shigeru

    2011-01-01

    The correlation between air pollution and health effects in large Japanese cities presents a great challenge owing to the limited availability of data on the exposure to pollution, health effects and the uncertainty of mixed causes. A methodology for quantitative relationships (between the emission volume and air quality, and the air quality and health effects) is analysed with a statistical method in this article; the correlation of air pollution reduction policy in Japan from 1974 to 2007. ...

  6. Ambient air pollution exposure and the incidence of related health effects among racial/ethnic minorities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nieves, L.A.; Wernette, D.R.

    1997-02-01

    Differences among racial and ethnic groups in morbidity and mortality rates for diseases, including diseases with environmental causes, have been extensively documented. However, documenting the linkages between environmental contaminants, individual exposures, and disease incidence has been hindered by difficulties in measuring exposure for the population in general and for minority populations in particular. After briefly discussing research findings on associations of common air pollutants with disease incidence, the authors summarize recent studies of radial/ethnic subgroup differences in incidence of these diseases in the US. They then present evidence of both historic and current patterns of disproportionate minority group exposure to air pollution as measured by residence in areas where ambient air quality standards are violated. The current indications of disproportionate potential exposures of minority and low-income populations to air pollutants represent the continuation of a historical trend. The evidence of linkage between disproportionate exposure to air pollution of racial/ethnic minorities and low-income groups and their higher rates of some air pollution-related diseases is largely circumstantial. Differences in disease incidence and mortality rates among racial/ethnic groups are discussed for respiratory diseases, cancers, and lead poisoning. Pollutants of concern include CO, Pb, SO{sub 2}, O{sub 3}, and particulates.

  7. Health Impacts of Air Pollution around Major Industrial Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathilde Pascal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We performed a literature review to investigate how epidemiological studies have been used to assess the health consequences of living in the vicinity of industries. 77 papers on the chronic effects of air pollution around major industrial areas were reviewed. Major health themes were cancers (27 studies, morbidity (25 studies, mortality (7 studies, and birth outcome (7 studies. Only 3 studies investigated mental health. While studies were available from many different countries, a majority of papers came from the United Kingdom, Italy, and Spain. Several studies were motivated by concerns from the population or by previous observations of an overincidence of cases. Geographical ecological designs were largely used for studying cancer and mortality, including statistical designs to quantify a relationship between health indicators and exposure. Morbidity was frequently investigated through cross-sectional surveys on the respiratory health of children. Few multicenter studies were performed. In a majority of papers, exposed areas were defined based on the distance to the industry and were located from 20 km from the plants. Improving the exposure assessment would be an asset to future studies. Criteria to include industries in multicenter studies should be defined.

  8. Health and efficiency in trimix versus air breathing in compressed air workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Rees Vellinga, T P; Verhoeven, A C; Van Dijk, F J H; Sterk, W

    2006-01-01

    The Western Scheldt Tunneling Project in the Netherlands provided a unique opportunity to evaluate the effects of trimix usage on the health of compressed air workers and the efficiency of the project. Data analysis addressed 318 exposures to compressed air at 3.9-4.4 bar gauge and 52 exposures to trimix (25% oxygen, 25% helium, and 50% nitrogen) at 4.6-4.8 bar gauge. Results revealed three incidents of decompression sickness all of which involved the use of compressed air. During exposure to compressed air, the effects of nitrogen narcosis were manifested in operational errors and increased fatigue among the workers. When using trimix, less effort was required for breathing, and mandatory decompression times for stays of a specific duration and maximum depth were considerably shorter. We conclude that it might be rational--for both medical and operational reasons--to use breathing gases with lower nitrogen fractions (e.g., trimix) for deep-caisson work at pressures exceeding 3 bar gauge, although definitive studies are needed.

  9. Effect of air pollution on athlete health and performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rundell, Kenneth William

    2012-05-01

    Unfavourable effects on the respiratory and the cardiovascular systems from short-term and long-term inhalation of air pollution are well documented. Exposure to freshly generated mixed combustion emissions such as those observed in proximity to roadways with high volumes of traffic and those from ice-resurfacing equipment are of particular concern. This is because there is a greater toxicity from freshly generated whole exhaust than from its component parts. The particles released from emissions are considered to cause oxidative damage and inflammation in the airways and the vascular system, and may be related to decreased exercise performance. However, few studies have examined this aspect. Several papers describe deleterious effects on health from chronic and acute air pollution exposure. However, there has been no research into the effects of long-term exposure to air pollution on athletic performance and a paucity of studies that describe the effects of acute exposure on exercise performance. The current knowledge of exercising in the high-pollution environment and the consequences that it may have on athlete performance are reviewed.

  10. The impact of European measures to reduce air pollutants on air quality, human health and climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turnock, S.; Butt, E. W.; Richardson, T.; Mann, G.; Forster, P.; Haywood, J. M.; Crippa, M.; Janssens-Maenhout, G. G. A.; Johnson, C.; Bellouin, N.; Spracklen, D. V.; Carslaw, K. S.; Reddington, C.

    2015-12-01

    European air quality legislation has reduced emissions of air pollutants across Europe since the 1970s, resulting in improved air quality and benefits to human health but also an unintended impact on regional climate. Here we used a coupled chemistry-climate model and a new policy relevant emission scenario to determine the impact of air pollutant emission reductions over Europe. The emission scenario shows that a combination of technological improvements and end-of-pipe abatement measures in the energy, industrial and road transport sectors reduced European emissions of sulphur dioxide, black carbon and organic carbon by 53%, 59% and 32% respectively. We estimate that these emission reductions decreased European annual mean concentrations of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) by 35%, sulphate by 44%, black carbon (BC) by 56% and particulate organic matter (POM) by 23%. The reduction in PM2.5 concentrations is calculated to have prevented 107,000 (40,000-172,000, 5-95% confidence intervals) premature deaths annually from cardiopulmonary disease and lung cancer across the EU member states. The decrease in aerosol concentrations caused a positive all-sky aerosol radiative forcing at the top of atmosphere over Europe of 2.3±0.06 W m-2 and a positive clear-sky forcing of 1.7±0.05 W m-2. Additionally, the amount of solar radiation incident at the surface over Europe increased by 3.3±0.07 W m-2 under all-sky and by 2.7±0.05 W m-2 under clear-sky conditions. Reductions in BC concentrations caused a 1 Wm-2 reduction in atmospheric absorption. We use an energy budget approximation to show that the aerosol induced radiative changes caused both temperature and precipitation to increase globally and over Europe. Our results show that the implementation of European legislation to reduce the emission of air pollutants has improved air quality and human health over Europe, as well as altered the regional radiative balance and climate.

  11. Air pollution and children's health: sickle cell disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Maria de Macedo Barbosa

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The hallmarks of sickle cell disease are anemia and vasculopathy. The aim of this study was to assess the association between air pollution and children's emergency room visits of sickle cell patients. We adopted a case-crossover design. Daily counts of children's and adolescents' sickle cell disease emergency room visits from the pediatric emergency unit in São Paulo, Brazil, were evaluated from September 1999 to December 2004, matching by temperature, humidity and controlling for day of the week. Interquartile range increases of the four-day moving averages of PM10, NO2, SO2, CO, and O3 were associated with increases of 18.9% (95%CI: 11.2-26.5, 19% (95%CI: 8.3-29.6, 14.4% (95%CI: 6.5-22.4, 16,5% (95%CI: 8.9-24.0, and 9.8% (95%CI: 1.1-18.6 in total sickle cell emergency room visits, respectively. When the analyses were stratified by pain, PM10 was found to be 40.3% higher than in sickle cell patients without pain symptoms. Exposure to air pollution can affect the cardiovascular health of children and may promote a significant health burden in a sensitive group.

  12. Air pollution and health risks due to vehicle traffic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kai; Batterman, Stuart

    2014-01-01

    Traffic congestion increases vehicle emissions and degrades ambient air quality, and recent studies have shown excess morbidity and mortality for drivers, commuters and individuals living near major roadways. Presently, our understanding of the air pollution impacts from congestion on roads is very limited. This study demonstrates an approach to characterize risks of traffic for on- and near-road populations. Simulation modeling was used to estimate on- and near-road NO2 concentrations and health risks for freeway and arterial scenarios attributable to traffic for different traffic volumes during rush hour periods. The modeling used emission factors from two different models (Comprehensive Modal Emissions Model and Motor Vehicle Emissions Factor Model version 6.2), an empirical traffic speed–volume relationship, the California Line Source Dispersion Model, an empirical NO2–NOx relationship, estimated travel time changes during congestion, and concentration–response relationships from the literature, which give emergency doctor visits, hospital admissions and mortality attributed to NO2 exposure. An incremental analysis, which expresses the change in health risks for small increases in traffic volume, showed non-linear effects. For a freeway, “U” shaped trends of incremental risks were predicted for on-road populations, and incremental risks are flat at low traffic volumes for near-road populations. For an arterial road, incremental risks increased sharply for both on- and near-road populations as traffic increased. These patterns result from changes in emission factors, the NO2–NOx relationship, the travel delay for the on-road population, and the extended duration of rush hour for the near-road population. This study suggests that health risks from congestion are potentially significant, and that additional traffic can significantly increase risks, depending on the type of road and other factors. Further, evaluations of risk associated with congestion

  13. Air pollution and health risks due to vehicle traffic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kai; Batterman, Stuart

    2013-04-15

    Traffic congestion increases vehicle emissions and degrades ambient air quality, and recent studies have shown excess morbidity and mortality for drivers, commuters and individuals living near major roadways. Presently, our understanding of the air pollution impacts from congestion on roads is very limited. This study demonstrates an approach to characterize risks of traffic for on- and near-road populations. Simulation modeling was used to estimate on- and near-road NO2 concentrations and health risks for freeway and arterial scenarios attributable to traffic for different traffic volumes during rush hour periods. The modeling used emission factors from two different models (Comprehensive Modal Emissions Model and Motor Vehicle Emissions Factor Model version 6.2), an empirical traffic speed-volume relationship, the California Line Source Dispersion Model, an empirical NO2-NOx relationship, estimated travel time changes during congestion, and concentration-response relationships from the literature, which give emergency doctor visits, hospital admissions and mortality attributed to NO2 exposure. An incremental analysis, which expresses the change in health risks for small increases in traffic volume, showed non-linear effects. For a freeway, "U" shaped trends of incremental risks were predicted for on-road populations, and incremental risks are flat at low traffic volumes for near-road populations. For an arterial road, incremental risks increased sharply for both on- and near-road populations as traffic increased. These patterns result from changes in emission factors, the NO2-NOx relationship, the travel delay for the on-road population, and the extended duration of rush hour for the near-road population. This study suggests that health risks from congestion are potentially significant, and that additional traffic can significantly increase risks, depending on the type of road and other factors. Further, evaluations of risk associated with congestion must

  14. Particulate Air Pollution and Health: Emerging Issues and Research Needs Related to the Development of Air Quality Standards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick A Hessel

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available The health effects of particulate air pollution were highlighted at the Eighth Annual Conference of the International Society for Environmental Epidemiology, held in Edmonton, Alberta in August 1996. Despite consistent evidence for adverse respiratory and cardiovascular health effects related to particulate air pollution, there are significant gaps in the knowledge of the mechanisms whereby particulate air pollution affects human health. Questions regarding the appropriate measure of dose for assessing exposures relevant to health outcomes and the methods used to analyze dose-response data remain unanswered. Health effects have been demonstrated across the range of exposures that have been examined, and further research in low exposure settings is necessary to explore the lower end of the dose-response curve. Although a significant body of literature has been generated, comprehensive risk assessments have not been undertaken. Examination of the chronic effects of particulate air pollution and identification of high risk populations are necessary. Although there are significant unanswered questions regarding the health effects of particulate air pollution, the available information suggests that particulate air pollution at levels consistent with current standards is associated with measurable health effects.

  15. Clearing the air: a review of the effects of particulate matter air pollution on human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Jonathan O; Thundiyil, Josef G; Stolbach, Andrew

    2012-06-01

    The World Health Organization estimates that particulate matter (PM) air pollution contributes to approximately 800,000 premature deaths each year, ranking it the 13th leading cause of mortality worldwide. However, many studies show that the relationship is deeper and far more complicated than originally thought. PM is a portion of air pollution that is made up of extremely small particles and liquid droplets containing acids, organic chemicals, metals, and soil or dust particles. PM is categorized by size and continues to be the fraction of air pollution that is most reliably associated with human disease. PM is thought to contribute to cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease by the mechanisms of systemic inflammation, direct and indirect coagulation activation, and direct translocation into systemic circulation. The data demonstrating PM's effect on the cardiovascular system are strong. Populations subjected to long-term exposure to PM have a significantly higher cardiovascular incident and mortality rate. Short-term acute exposures subtly increase the rate of cardiovascular events within days of a pollution spike. The data are not as strong for PM's effects on cerebrovascular disease, though some data and similar mechanisms suggest a lesser result with smaller amplitude. Respiratory diseases are also exacerbated by exposure to PM. PM causes respiratory morbidity and mortality by creating oxidative stress and inflammation that leads to pulmonary anatomic and physiologic remodeling. The literature shows PM causes worsening respiratory symptoms, more frequent medication use, decreased lung function, recurrent health care utilization, and increased mortality. PM exposure has been shown to have a small but significant adverse effect on cardiovascular, respiratory, and to a lesser extent, cerebrovascular disease. These consistent results are shown by multiple studies with varying populations, protocols, and regions. The data demonstrate a dose

  16. Evaluating the Impact of Air Pollution on Human Health in China: the Price of Clean Air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, X.; Mauzerall, D. L.; Hu, Y.; Russell, A. G.; Woo, J.; Streets, D. G.

    2003-12-01

    Population growth, rapid urbanization and economic development are contributing to increased energy consumption in China. One of the unintended consequences is poor air quality due to a lack of environmental controls. The coal dependent energy structure in China only worsens the situation. Quantification of the environmental costs resulting from air pollution is needed in order to provide a mechanism for making strategic energy policy that accounts for the life-cycle cost of energy use. However, few such studies have been conducted for China that examine the entire energy system. Here we examine the extent to which public health has been compromised due to elevated air pollution and how China could incorporate environmental costs into future energy and environmental policies. Taking the Shandong region in eastern China as a case study, we develop a high-resolution regional inventory for anthropogenic emissions of NOx, CO, PM2.5, PM10, VOCs, NH3 and SO2. SMOKE (Sparse Matrix Operator Kernel Emissions Modeling System) is used to process spatial and temporal distributions and chemical speciation of the regional emissions, MM5 (the Fifth-Generation NCAR/Penn State Meso-scale Model, Version 3) is used to generate meteorology and Models3/CMAQ (Community Multi-scale Air Quality Modeling System) is used to simulate ambient concentrations of particulates and other gaseous species in this region. We then estimate the mortality and morbidity in this region resulting from exposure to these air pollutants. We also estimate the monetary values associated with the resulting mortality and morbidity and quantify the contributions from various economic sectors (i.e. power generation, transportation, industry, residential and others). Finally, we examine the potential health benefits that adoption of best available or advanced energy (coal-based, in particular) and environmental technologies in different sectors could bring about. The results of these analyses are intended to provide

  17. The effects of Air Pollution on Health Status in Great Britain

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    This study explores the effects of air pollution on self-reported health status. Moreover, this study explores the willingness to pay for improving the air quality in UK. The estimates are based on data from the British Household Panel Survey (BHPS). The effects of air pollution on individuals’ health status are estimated and their monetary value is calculated. In particular, two main air pollutants are examined; ground-level ozone (O3) and carbon monoxide (CO). Moreover, various approaches ...

  18. Effects of air pollution on human health and practical measures for prevention in Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Adel Ghorani-Azam; Bamdad Riahi-Zanjani; Mahdi Balali-Mood

    2016-01-01

    Air pollution is a major concern of new civilized world, which has a serious toxicological impact on human health and the environment. It has a number of different emission sources, but motor vehicles and industrial processes contribute the major part of air pollution. According to the World Health Organization, six major air pollutants include particle pollution, ground-level ozone, carbon monoxide, sulfur oxides, nitrogen oxides, and lead. Long and short term exposure to air suspended toxic...

  19. The state of scientific evidence on air pollution and human health in Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurung, Anobha; Bell, Michelle L

    2013-07-01

    Air pollution has been linked to acute and chronic health effects. However, the majority of evidence is based in North America and Europe, with a growing number of studies in Asia and Latin America. Nepal is one of the many South Asian countries where little such research has been conducted. We summarized the state of scientific evidence and identify research gaps based on the existing literature on air pollution and human health in Nepal. We performed a systematic literature search to identify relevant studies. Studies were categorized as those that estimate: (1) health impacts of indoor air pollution, (2) health impacts of outdoor air pollution, (3) health burdens from outdoor air pollution in Nepal based on existing concentration-response relationships from elsewhere, or (4) exposure and air quality but do not link to health. We identified 89 studies, of which 23 linked air pollution to health impacts. The remainder focused on exposure and air quality, demonstrating high pollution levels. The few health studies focused mainly on indoor air (n=15), especially in rural areas and during cooking. Direct exposure measurements were for short time periods; most studies used indirect exposure methods (e.g., questionnaire). Most health studies had small sample sizes with almost all focusing on respiratory health. Although few studies have examined air pollution and health in Nepal, the existing studies indicate high pollution levels and suggest large health impacts. Nepal's dearth of scientific research on air pollution and health is not unique and likely is similar to that of many other developing regions. Future research with larger studies and more health outcomes is needed. Key challenges include data availability.

  20. Health effects of ambient air pollution – recent research development and contemporary methodological challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ren Cizao

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Exposure to high levels of air pollution can cause a variety of adverse health outcomes. Air quality in developed countries has been generally improved over the last three decades. However, many recent epidemiological studies have consistently shown positive associations between low-level exposure to air pollution and health outcomes. Thus, adverse health effects of air pollution, even at relatively low levels, remain a public concern. This paper aims to provide an overview of recent research development and contemporary methodological challenges in this field and to identify future research directions for air pollution epidemiological studies.

  1. Evaluating impacts of air pollution in China on public health: Implications for future air pollution and energy policies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, X.P.; Mauzerall, D.L. [Princeton University, Princeton, NJ (United States). Woodrow Wilson School of Public & Internal Affairs

    2006-03-15

    Our objective is to establish the link between energy consumption and technologies, air pollution concentrations, and resulting impacts on public health in eastern China. We use Zaozhuang, a city in eastern China heavily dependent on coal, as a case study to quantify the impacts that air pollution in eastern China had on public health in 2000 and the benefits in improved air quality and health that could be obtained by 2020, relative to business-as-usual (BAU), through the implementation of best available emission control technology (BACT) and advanced coal gasification technologies (ACGT). We use an integrated assessment approach, utilizing state-of-the-science air quality and meteorological models, engineering, epidemiology, and economics, to achieve this objective. We find that total health damages due to year 2000 anthropogenic emissions from Zaozhuang, using the 'willingness-to-pay' metric, was equivalent to 10% of Zaozhuang's GDP. If all health damages resulting from coal use were internalized in the market price of coal, the year 2000 price would have more than tripled. With no new air pollution controls implemented between 2000 and 2020 but with projected increases in energy use, we estimate health damages from air pollution exposure to be equivalent to 16% of Zaozhuang's projected 2020 GDP. BACT and ACGT (with only 24% penetration in Zaozhuang and providing 2% of energy needs in three surrounding municipalities) could reduce the potential health damage of air pollution in 2020 to 13% and 8% of projected GDP, respectively. Benefits to public health, of substantial monetary value, can be achieved through the use of BACT; health benefits from the use of ACGT could be even larger.

  2. What can individuals do to reduce personal health risks from air pollution?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laumbach, Robert; Meng, Qingyu; Kipen, Howard

    2015-01-01

    In many areas of the world, concentrations of ambient air pollutants exceed levels associated with increased risk of acute and chronic health problems. While effective policies to reduce emissions at their sources are clearly preferable, some evidence supports the effectiveness of individual actions to reduce exposure and health risks. Personal exposure to ambient air pollution can be reduced on high air pollution days by staying indoors, reducing outdoor air infiltration to indoors, cleaning indoor air with air filters, and limiting physical exertion, especially outdoors and near air pollution sources. Limited evidence suggests that the use of respirators may be effective in some circumstances. Awareness of air pollution levels is facilitated by a growing number of public air quality alert systems. Avoiding exposure to air pollutants is especially important for susceptible individuals with chronic cardiovascular or pulmonary disease, children, and the elderly. Research on mechanisms underlying the adverse health effects of air pollution have suggested potential pharmaceutical or chemopreventive interventions, such as antioxidant or antithrombotic agents, but in the absence of data on health outcomes, no sound recommendations can be made for primary prevention. Health care providers and their patients should carefully consider individual circumstances related to outdoor and indoor air pollutant exposure levels and susceptibility to those air pollutants when deciding on a course of action to reduce personal exposure and health risks from ambient air pollutants. Careful consideration is especially warranted when interventions may have unintended negative consequences, such as when efforts to avoid exposure to air pollutants lead to reduced physical activity or when there is evidence that dietary supplements, such as antioxidants, have potential adverse health effects. These potential complications of partially effective personal interventions to reduce exposure or

  3. Air Quality in Lanzhou, a Major Industrial City in China: Characteristics of Air Pollution and Review of Existing Evidence from Air Pollution and Health Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yaqun; Li, Min; Bravo, Mercedes A; Jin, Lan; Nori-Sarma, Amruta; Xu, Yanwen; Guan, Donghong; Wang, Chengyuan; Chen, Mingxia; Wang, Xiao; Tao, Wei; Qiu, Weitao; Zhang, Yawei; Bell, Michelle L

    2014-10-01

    Air pollution contributes substantially to global health burdens; however, less is known about pollution patterns in China and whether they differ from those elsewhere. We evaluated temporal and spatial heterogeneity of air pollution in Lanzhou, an urban Chinese city (April 2009-December 2012), and conducted a systematic review of literature on air pollution and health in Lanzhou. Average levels were 141.5, 42.3, and 47.2 µg/m(3) for particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter ≤10 µm (PM10), NO2, and SO2, respectively. Findings suggest some seasonality, particularly for SO2, with higher concentrations during colder months relative to warmer months, although a longer time frame of data is needed to evaluate seasonality fully. Correlation coefficients generally declined with distance between monitors, while coefficients of divergence increased with distance. However, these trends were not statistically significant. PM10 levels exceeded Chinese and other health-based standards and guidelines. The review identified 13 studies on outdoor air pollution and health. Although limited, the studies indicate that air pollution is associated with increased risk of health outcomes in Lanzhou. These studies and the high air pollution levels suggest potentially serious health consequences. Findings can provide guidance to future epidemiological studies, monitor placement programs, and air quality policies.

  4. Public-health impact of outdoor air pollution for 2nd air pollution management policy in Seoul metropolitan area, Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Leem, Jong Han; Kim, Soon Tae; Kim, Hwan Cheol

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Air pollution contributes to mortality and morbidity. We estimated the impact of outdoor air pollution on public health in Seoul metropolitan area, Korea. Attributable cases of morbidity and mortality were estimated. Methods Epidemiology-based exposure-response functions for a 10 μg/m3 increase in particulate matter (PM2.5 and PM10) were used to quantify the effects of air pollution. Cases attributable to air pollution were estimated for mortality (adults ≥ 30 years), respiratory a...

  5. Health benefits from improved outdoor air quality and intervention in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shanshan; Williams, Gail; Guo, Yuming

    2016-07-01

    China is at its most critical stage of outdoor air quality management. In order to prevent further deterioration of air quality and to protect human health, the Chinese government has made a series of attempts to reduce ambient air pollution. Unlike previous literature reviews on the widespread hazards of air pollution on health, this review article firstly summarized the existing evidence of human health benefits from intermittently improved outdoor air quality and intervention in China. Contents of this paper provide concrete and direct clue that improvement in outdoor air quality generates various health benefits in China, and confirm from a new perspective that it is worthwhile for China to shift its development strategy from economic growth to environmental economic sustainability. Greater emphasis on sustainable environment design, consistently strict regulatory enforcement, and specific monitoring actions should be regarded in China to decrease the health risks and to avoid long-term environmental threats.

  6. Health effects of particulate air pollution and airborne desert dust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lelieveld, J.; Pozzer, A.; Giannadaki, D.; Fnais, M.

    2013-12-01

    Air pollution by fine particulate matter (PM2.5) has increased strongly with industrialization and urbanization. In the past decades this increase has taken place at a particularly high pace in South and East Asia. We estimate the premature mortality and the years of human life lost (YLL) caused by anthropogenic PM2.5 and airborne desert dust (DU2.5) on regional and national scales (Giannadaki et al., 2013; Lelieveld et al., 2013). This is based on high-resolution global model calculations that resolve urban and industrial regions in relatively great detail. We apply an epidemiological health impact function and find that especially in large countries with extensive suburban and rural populations, air pollution-induced mortality rates have been underestimated given that previous studies largely focused on the urban environment. We calculate a global premature mortality by anthropogenic aerosols of 2.2 million/year (YLL ≈ 16 million/year) due to lung cancer and cardiopulmonary disease. High mortality rates by PM2.5 are found in China, India, Bangladesh, Pakistan and Indonesia. Desert dust DU2.5 aerosols add about 0.4 million/year (YLL ≈ 3.6 million/year). Particularly significant mortality rates by DU2.5 occur in Pakistan, China and India. The estimated global mean per capita mortality caused by airborne particulates is about 0.1%/year (about two thirds of that caused by tobacco smoking). We show that the highest premature mortality rates are found in the Southeast Asia and Western Pacific regions (about 25% and 46% of the global rate, respectively) where more than a dozen of the most highly polluted megacities are located. References: Giannadaki, D., A. Pozzer, and J. Lelieveld, Modeled global effects of airborne desert dust on air quality and premature mortality, Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss. (submitted), 2013. Lelieveld, J., C. Barlas, D. Giannadaki, and A. Pozzer, Model calculated global, regional and megacity premature mortality due to air pollution by ozone

  7. The effects of congestions tax on air quality and health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, Christer; Burman, Lars; Forsberg, Bertil

    -berg since reductions are expected in both respiratory and cardiovascular morbidity. This study demonstrates the importance of not only assessing the effects on air quality limit values, but also to make quantitative estimates of health impacts, in order to justify actions to reduce air pollution.

  8. Impacts of Air Pollution on Health in Eastern China: Implications for future air pollution and energy policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, X.; Mauzerall, D.

    2004-12-01

    Our objective is to establish the link between energy consumption and technologies, air pollution and resulting impacts on public health in eastern China. We quantify the impacts that air pollution in the Shandong region of eastern China has on public health in 2000 and quantify the benefits in improved air quality and health that could be obtained by 2020, relative to business-as-usual, through the implementation of new energy technology. We first develop a highly-resolved emission inventory for the year 2000 for the Shandong region of China including emissions from large point, area, mobile and biogenic sources. We use the Sparse Matrix Operator Kernel Emissions Modeling System (SMOKE) to process emissions from this inventory for use in the Community Multi-scale Air Quality modeling system (CMAQ) which we drive with the NCAR/PSU MM5 meso-scale meteorology model. We evaluate the inventory by comparing CMAQ results with available measurements of PM10 and SO2 from air pollution indices (APIs) reported in various Chinese municipalities during 2002-2004. We use epidemiological dose-response functions to quantify health impacts and values of a statistical life (VSL) and years-of-life-lost (YLL) to establish a range for the monetary value of these impacts. To examine health impacts and their monetary value, we focus explicitly on Zaozhuang, a coal-intensive city in the Shandong region of eastern China, and quantify the mortalities and morbidities resulting from air pollutants emitted from this city in 2000, and in 2020 using business-as-usual, best-available control technology, and advanced coal gasification technology scenarios. In all scenarios most health damages arise from exposure to particulate matter. We find that total health damages due to year 2000 anthropogenic emissions from Zaozhuang accounted for 4-10% of its GDP. If all health damages resulting from coal use were internalized in the market price of coal, the year 2000 price would have doubled. With no new

  9. Air pollution in perspective : Health risks of air pollution expressed in equivalent numbers of passively smoked cigarettes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Zee, Saskia C; Fischer, Paul H; Hoek, Gerard

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Although the health effects of long term exposure to air pollution are well established, it is difficult to effectively communicate the health risks of this (largely invisible) risk factor to the public and policy makers. The purpose of this study is to develop a method that expresses th

  10. Particulate air pollution in urban areas of Shanghai, China: health-based economic assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kan, Haidong; Chen, Bingheng

    2004-04-25

    Urban air quality is becoming a serious public health concern in China. To obtain the quantitative result of the impact of particulate air pollution on human health and the subsequent economic costs in Shanghai, we used epidemiology-based exposure-response functions to calculate the attributable number of cases due to particulate air pollution in urban areas of Shanghai in 2001, and then we estimated the corresponding economic costs of the health damage based on unit values of the health outcomes. It was estimated that the total economic cost of health impacts due to particulate air pollution in urban areas of Shanghai in 2001 was approximately 625.40 million US dollars, accounting for 1.03% of gross domestic product of the city. The results suggest that the impact of particulate air pollution on human health could be substantial in urban Shanghai, whether in physical and economic terms.

  11. Do Political Institutions protect the poor? Intra Countries Health Inequalities and Air Pollution in Developing Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Drabo, Alassane

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the link between health inequalities, air pollution and political institutions. In health economics literature, many studies have assessed the association between environmental degradation and health outcomes. This paper extends this literature by investigating how air pollution could explain health inequalities both between and within developing countries, and the role of political institutions in this relationship. Theoretically, we argue that differential in exposition ...

  12. Regulation of air pollution from wood-burning stoves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørner, Thomas Bue; Brandt, Jørgen; Hansen, Lars Gårn

    Air pollution is a major global challenge. Emissions from residential wood-burning stoves make a surprisingly large contribution to total air pollution related health costs. In Denmark, emissions from wood-burning stoves are calculated to cause almost 400 premature deaths each year within Denmark...... and additionally about 300 premature deaths in other parts of Europe. In this article, we present an integrated assessment of the net social benefit of different schemes for regulating wood-burning stoves including bans and taxes. The assessment uses high resolution air pollution emission inventory...

  13. Air Pollution and Its Effects on an Individual's Health and Exercise Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, A. I. Clifford

    1988-01-01

    Air Pollution is a common environmental stressor affecting the training and competitive performance of athletes, commonly irritating the eyes, nose, and throat. The health and exercise effects of such primary and secondary air pollutants as carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, air particulates, ozone, and nitrogen dioxide are discussed. (CB)

  14. Evaluating impacts of air pollution in China on public health: implications for future air pollution and energy policies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiaoping Wang; Mauzerall, D.L. [Princeton University, Princeton, NJ (United States). Science, Technology and Environmental Policy Program

    2006-03-15

    Our objective is to establish the link between energy consumption and technologies, air pollution concentrations, and resulting impacts on public health in eastern China. We use Zaozhuang, a city in eastern China heavily dependent on coal, as a case study to quantify the impacts that air pollution in eastern China had on public health in 2000 and the benefits in improved air quality and health that could be obtained by 2020, relative to business-as-usual (BAU), through the implementation of best available emission control technology (BACT) and advanced coal gasification technologies (ACGT). We use an integrated assessment approach, utilizing state-of-the-science air quality and meteorological models, engineering, epidemiology, and economics, to achieve this objective. We find that total health damages due to year 2000 anthropogenic emissions from Zaozhuang, using the ''willingness-to-pay'' metric, was equivalent to 10% of Zaozhuang's GDP. If all health damages resulting from coal use were internalized in the market price of coal, the year 2000 price would have more than tripled. With no new air pollution controls implemented between 2000 and 2020 but with projected increases in energy use, we estimate health damages from air pollution exposure to be equivalent to 16% of Zaozhuang's projected 2020 GDP. BACT and ACGT (with only 24% penetration in Zaozhuang and providing 2% of energy needs in three surrounding municipalities) could reduce the potential health damage of air pollution in 2020 to 13% and 8% of projected GDP, respectively. Benefits to public health, of substantial monetary value, can be achieved through the use of BACT; health benefits from the use of ACGT could be even larger. Despite significant uncertainty associated with each element of the integrated assessment approach, we demonstrate that substantial benefits to public health could be achieved in this region of eastern China through the use of additional pollution

  15. Evaluating impacts of air pollution in China on public health: Implications for future air pollution and energy policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoping; Mauzerall, Denise L.

    Our objective is to establish the link between energy consumption and technologies, air pollution concentrations, and resulting impacts on public health in eastern China. We use Zaozhuang, a city in eastern China heavily dependent on coal, as a case study to quantify the impacts that air pollution in eastern China had on public health in 2000 and the benefits in improved air quality and health that could be obtained by 2020, relative to business-as-usual (BAU), through the implementation of best available emission control technology (BACT) and advanced coal gasification technologies (ACGT). We use an integrated assessment approach, utilizing state-of-the-science air quality and meteorological models, engineering, epidemiology, and economics, to achieve this objective. We find that total health damages due to year 2000 anthropogenic emissions from Zaozhuang, using the "willingness-to-pay" metric, was equivalent to 10% of Zaozhuang's GDP. If all health damages resulting from coal use were internalized in the market price of coal, the year 2000 price would have more than tripled. With no new air pollution controls implemented between 2000 and 2020 but with projected increases in energy use, we estimate health damages from air pollution exposure to be equivalent to 16% of Zaozhuang's projected 2020 GDP. BACT and ACGT (with only 24% penetration in Zaozhuang and providing 2% of energy needs in three surrounding municipalities) could reduce the potential health damage of air pollution in 2020 to 13% and 8% of projected GDP, respectively. Benefits to public health, of substantial monetary value, can be achieved through the use of BACT; health benefits from the use of ACGT could be even larger. Despite significant uncertainty associated with each element of the integrated assessment approach, we demonstrate that substantial benefits to public health could be achieved in this region of eastern China through the use of additional pollution controls and particularly from the

  16. Air pollution, avoidance behaviour and children's respiratory health: evidence from England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janke, Katharina

    2014-12-01

    Despite progress in air pollution control, concerns remain over the health impact of poor air quality. Governments increasingly issue air quality information to enable vulnerable groups to avoid exposure. Avoidance behaviour potentially biases estimates of the health effects of air pollutants. But avoidance behaviour imposes a cost on individuals and therefore may not be taken in all circumstances. This paper exploits panel data at the English local authority level to estimate the relationship between children's daily hospital emergency admissions for respiratory diseases and common air pollutants, while allowing for avoidance behaviour in response to air pollution warnings. A 1% increase in nitrogen dioxide or ozone concentrations increases hospital admissions by 0.1%. For the subset of asthma admissions - where avoidance is less costly - there is evidence of avoidance behaviour. Ignoring avoidance behaviour, however, does not result in statistically significant underestimation of the health effect of air pollution.

  17. [Research on advance of health effects of nanoparticles on air pollution in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Lilin; Wu, Tianshu; Tang, Meng

    2015-09-01

    The adverse health effects of fine particles in the air pollution has been confirmed, and health consequences induced by ultrafine particles (mass media aerodynamic diameter biological effects and potential toxicity mechanisms of some common nanoparticles in the atmosphere on the major tissues and organs. Finally, the research focus of the nano particles in air pollutants was also presented.

  18. Reducing indoor air pollution by air conditioning is associated with improvements in cardiovascular health among the general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Lian-Yu; Chuang, Hsiao-Chi; Liu, I-Jung; Chen, Hua-Wei; Chuang, Kai-Jen

    2013-10-01

    Indoor air pollution is associated with cardiovascular effects, however, little is known about the effects of improving indoor air quality on cardiovascular health. The aim of this study was to explore whether improving indoor air quality through air conditioning can improve cardiovascular health in human subjects. We recruited a panel of 300 healthy subjects from Taipei, aged 20 and over, to participate in six home visits each, to measure a variety of cardiovascular endpoints, including high sensitivity-C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), fibrinogen in plasma and heart rate variability (HRV). Indoor particles and total volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were measured simultaneously at the participant's home during each visit. Three exposure conditions were investigated in this study: participants were requested to keep their windows open during the first two visits, close their windows during the next two visits, and close the windows and turn on their air conditioners during the last two visits. We used linear mixed-effects models to associate the cardiovascular endpoints with individual indoor air pollutants. The results showed that increases in hs-CRP, 8-OHdG and fibrinogen, and decreases in HRV indices were associated with increased levels of indoor particles and total VOCs in single-pollutant and two-pollutant models. The effects of indoor particles and total VOCs on cardiovascular endpoints were greatest during visits with the windows open. During visits with the air conditioners turned on, no significant changes in cardiovascular endpoints were observed. In conclusion, indoor air pollution is associated with inflammation, oxidative stress, blood coagulation and autonomic dysfunction. Reductions in indoor air pollution and subsequent improvements in cardiovascular health can be achieved by closing windows and turning on air conditioners at home.

  19. [Prevention and control of air pollution needs to strengthen further study on health damage caused by air pollution].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, T C

    2016-08-06

    Heath issues caused by air pollution such as particulate matter (PM) are much concerned and focused among air, water and soil pollutions because human breathe air for whole life span. Present comments will review physical and chemical characteristics of PM2.5 and PM10; Dose-response associations of PM10, PM2.5 and their components with mortality and risk of cardiopulmonary diseases, early health damages such as the decrease of lung functions and heart rate variability, DNA damage; And the roles of genetic variations and epigenetic changes in lung functions and heart rate variability, DNA damage related to PMs and their components. This comments list some limitations and perspectives about the associations of air pollution with health.

  20. Noise Effects on Health in the Context of Air Pollution Exposure

    OpenAIRE

    Stansfeld, Stephen A.

    2015-01-01

    For public health policy and planning it is important to understand the relative contribution of environmental noise on health compared to other environmental stressors. Air pollution is the primary environmental stressor in relation to cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. This paper reports a narrative review of studies in which the associations of both environmental noise and air pollution with health have been examined. Studies of hypertension, myocardial infarction, stroke, mortality a...

  1. Air pollution and public health: emerging hazards and improved understanding of risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Frank J; Fussell, Julia C

    2015-08-01

    Despite past improvements in air quality, very large parts of the population in urban areas breathe air that does not meet European standards let alone the health-based World Health Organisation Air Quality Guidelines. Over the last 10 years, there has been a substantial increase in findings that particulate matter (PM) air pollution is not only exerting a greater impact on established health endpoints, but is also associated with a broader number of disease outcomes. Data strongly suggest that effects have no threshold within the studied range of ambient concentrations, can occur at levels close to PM2.5 background concentrations and that they follow a mostly linear concentration-response function. Having firmly established this significant public health problem, there has been an enormous effort to identify what it is in ambient PM that affects health and to understand the underlying biological basis of toxicity by identifying mechanistic pathways-information that in turn will inform policy makers how best to legislate for cleaner air. Another intervention in moving towards a healthier environment depends upon the achieving the right public attitude and behaviour by the use of optimal air pollution monitoring, forecasting and reporting that exploits increasingly sophisticated information systems. Improving air quality is a considerable but not an intractable challenge. Translating the correct scientific evidence into bold, realistic and effective policies undisputedly has the potential to reduce air pollution so that it no longer poses a damaging and costly toll on public health.

  2. Avoiding Dirty Air (A Cup of Health with CDC)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-05-01

    As summertime approaches and warmer weather moves in, air pollution will become an increasing problem across the U.S. People with asthma are especially impacted by deteriorating air quality. In this podcast, Dr. Suzanne Beavers discusses ways to avoid the negative impacts of air pollution.  Created: 5/1/2014 by MMWR.   Date Released: 5/1/2014.

  3. Illness from air pollution : a Halton perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nosal, R.M. [Ontario Ministry of Health, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2002-03-14

    This report highlights the impact of air pollution on the health of Halton residents and describes how the Health Department will be involved in many initiatives in 2002. The health effects associated with air pollution include asthma and other respiratory problems. The federal government estimates that air pollution can be linked to 5,000 premature deaths each year in eleven major cities. The Ontario Medical Association claims pollution related illnesses cost the province more than $1 billion annually. Approximately 1,000 residents of Toronto die prematurely each year as a result of air pollution. Children, the elderly, and those with respiratory conditions or heart disease are most vulnerable. The actions proposed by the Regional Municipality of Halton at the local level include: the promotion of public transit; expanding Halton's Clean Air Partnership to include private sector partners by 2003; studying the possibility of providing more bicycle paths to reduce reliance on the automobile; and, promoting public awareness of the impact of smog on public health. The Halton Partners for Clean Air is a consortium of 12 public sector organizations which was developed to help reduce smog across the region. In 2002, the Partnership will expand to include local industry where the greatest reductions in air pollution can be achieved. One of the main goals of the Partnership is to reduce traffic congestion and associated environmental and health problems associated with air pollution around schools. 1 tab.

  4. Impact of Climate Change on Air Quality and Public Health in Urban Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Noor Artika; Hashim, Zailina; Hashim, Jamal Hisham

    2016-03-01

    This review discusses how climate undergo changes and the effect of climate change on air quality as well as public health. It also covers the inter relationship between climate and air quality. The air quality discussed here are in relation to the 5 criteria pollutants; ozone (O3), carbon dioxide (CO2), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), sulfur dioxide (SO2), and particulate matter (PM). Urban air pollution is the main concern due to higher anthropogenic activities in urban areas. The implications on health are also discussed. Mitigating measures are presented with the final conclusion.

  5. Avoiding Dirty Air (A Minute of Health with CDC)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-05-01

    As summertime approaches and warmer weather moves in, air pollution becomes an increasing problem across the U.S. This podcast discusses the importance of people with asthma and other respiratory or heart conditions, checking the air quality in their respective areas.  Created: 5/1/2014 by MMWR.   Date Released: 5/1/2014.

  6. Chronic effects of air pollution on respiratory health in Southern California children: findings from the Southern California Children's Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhanghua; Salam, Muhammad T; Eckel, Sandrah P; Breton, Carrie V; Gilliland, Frank D

    2015-01-01

    Outdoor air pollution is one of the leading contributors to adverse respiratory health outcomes in urban areas around the world. Children are highly sensitive to the adverse effects of air pollution due to their rapidly growing lungs, incomplete immune and metabolic functions, patterns of ventilation and high levels of outdoor activity. The Children's Health Study (CHS) is a continuing series of longitudinal studies that first began in 1993 and has focused on demonstrating the chronic impacts of air pollution on respiratory illnesses from early childhood through adolescence. A large body of evidence from the CHS has documented that exposures to both regional ambient air and traffic-related pollutants are associated with increased asthma prevalence, new-onset asthma, risk of bronchitis and wheezing, deficits of lung function growth, and airway inflammation. These associations may be modulated by key genes involved in oxidative-nitrosative stress pathways via gene-environment interactions. Despite successful efforts to reduce pollution over the past 40 years, air pollution at the current levels still brings many challenges to public health. To further ameliorate adverse health effects attributable to air pollution, many more toxic pollutants may require regulation and control of motor vehicle emissions and other combustion sources may need to be strengthened. Individual interventions based on personal susceptibility may be needed to protect children's health while control measures are being implemented.

  7. New concepts in air quality indices-linkage to health effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blagden, P.; Henderson, D. [Environment Canada, Downsview, ON (Canada). Meteorological Service of Canada

    2004-04-07

    The health effects of air pollution were discussed. Air pollution is responsible for thousands of mortalities and hospital admissions for cardiac and respiratory illnesses such as asthma, chronic bronchitis and emphysema. The air quality index is a communications tool that presents air quality information. It simplifies many measurements into a single unit scale with ranges and categories. Canada's current index structure is similar to that in the United States, with a slight difference in the category ranges which in Canada, are used to calculate a subindex for each pollutant. Recent improvements in the index structure include the provision for PM2.5, updated health messaging, and improved air quality forecasts. The air quality index is generally determined by either ozone or PM content. The advantages and disadvantages of the current index structure were also described along with a proposal for a health risk based index. The challenge of developing a risk based formula lies in the estimation of relative health risks, the selection of pollutants, and the fact that linear increase in risk does not yield simple categories. A national health risk based air quality index will require an agreement on health based formula, the ability to forecast multiple pollutants, cooperation with partners, and a well organized transition from old formats. 1 fig.

  8. Impacts of greenhouse and local gases mitigation options on air pollution in the Buenos Aires Metropolitan Area: Valuation of human health effects

    OpenAIRE

    Conte Grand, Mariana; Gaioli, Fabián; Perone, Elizabeth; Sörensson, Anna; Svensson, Tomas; Tarela, Pablo

    2002-01-01

    The objective of this work is to assess through the "avoided health cost method" what would be the economic benefits of undertaking greenhouse (and local) gases mitigation policies in the Buenos Aires Metropolitan Area. To do so, we have developed six steps: Mitigation Scenarios (which policies to undertake), Emissions Inventory according to those, an Ambient Air Pollution Model to calculate the physical impacts, Health Effects Estimation to assess the health consequences of reducing air poll...

  9. A cost-efficiency and health benefit approach to improve urban air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, A I; Ferreira, J; Silveira, C; Relvas, H; Duque, L; Roebeling, P; Lopes, M; Costa, S; Monteiro, A; Gama, C; Sá, E; Borrego, C; Teixeira, J P

    2016-11-01

    When ambient air quality standards established in the EU Directive 2008/50/EC are exceeded, Member States are obliged to develop and implement Air Quality Plans (AQP) to improve air quality and health. Notwithstanding the achievements in emission reductions and air quality improvement, additional efforts need to be undertaken to improve air quality in a sustainable way - i.e. through a cost-efficiency approach. This work was developed in the scope of the recently concluded MAPLIA project "Moving from Air Pollution to Local Integrated Assessment", and focuses on the definition and assessment of emission abatement measures and their associated costs, air quality and health impacts and benefits by means of air quality modelling tools, health impact functions and cost-efficiency analysis. The MAPLIA system was applied to the Grande Porto urban area (Portugal), addressing PM10 and NOx as the most important pollutants in the region. Four different measures to reduce PM10 and NOx emissions were defined and characterized in terms of emissions and implementation costs, and combined into 15 emission scenarios, simulated by the TAPM air quality modelling tool. Air pollutant concentration fields were then used to estimate health benefits in terms of avoided costs (external costs), using dose-response health impact functions. Results revealed that, among the 15 scenarios analysed, the scenario including all 4 measures lead to a total net benefit of 0.3M€·y(-1). The largest net benefit is obtained for the scenario considering the conversion of 50% of open fire places into heat recovery wood stoves. Although the implementation costs of this measure are high, the benefits outweigh the costs. Research outcomes confirm that the MAPLIA system is useful for policy decision support on air quality improvement strategies, and could be applied to other urban areas where AQP need to be implemented and monitored.

  10. Household air pollution and its effects on health [version 1; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Komalkirti Apte

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Household air pollution is a leading cause of disability-adjusted life years in Southeast Asia and the third leading cause of disability-adjusted life years globally. There are at least sixty sources of household air pollution, and these vary from country to country. Indoor tobacco smoking, construction material used in building houses, fuel used for cooking, heating and lighting, use of incense and various forms of mosquito repellents, use of pesticides and chemicals used for cleaning at home, and use of artificial fragrances are some of the various sources that contribute to household air pollution. Household air pollution affects all stages of life with multi-systemic health effects, and its effects are evident right from pre-conception to old age. In utero exposure to household air pollutants has been shown to have health effects which resonate over the entire lifetime. Exposures to indoor air pollutants in early childhood also tend to have repercussions throughout life. The respiratory system bears the maximum brunt, but effects on the cardiovascular system, endocrine system, and nervous system are largely underplayed. Household air pollutants have also been implicated in the development of various types of cancers. Identifying household air pollutants and their health implications helps us prepare for various health-related issues. However, the real challenge is adopting changes to reduce the health effects of household air pollution and designing innovative interventions to minimize the risk of further exposure. This review is an attempt to understand the various sources of household air pollution, the effects on health, and strategies to deal with this emergent risk factor of global mortality and morbidity.

  11. Road traffic and cardiovascular health effects - Road traffic noise and air pollution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kluizenaar, Y. de; Miedema, H.M.E.

    2009-01-01

    Exposure to both environmental noise and air pollution has been associated with cardiovascular health effects. Until now, few studies have considered both stressors simultaneously. Two large studies were carried out investigating the relationship between road traffic noise and several cardiovascular

  12. Ambient Air Quality and Human Health: Current Concepts—Part 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tee L Guidotti

    1995-01-01

    the control of which invites interest in second-order determinants of health. This article attempts to provide a framework for understanding air quality issues that pertain to human health. The objective is to provide the specialist in respiratory medicine with an overview that will assist in educating patients and in responding to their inquiries, and to equip the physician to respond to requests for assistance or interpretation when called upon to comment on public policy issues involving air pollution. The implications of setting air quality standards or objectives to meet arbitrary levels of risk of health effects are examined. The current state of the art does not support risk-based air quality standards. A policy of continuous improvement is most protective of both human health and the environment.

  13. Linking environmental effects to health impacts: a computer modelling approach for air pollution

    OpenAIRE

    Mindell, J; Barrowcliffe, R.

    2005-01-01

    Study objective and Setting: To develop a computer model, using a geographical information system (GIS), to quantify potential health effects of air pollution from a new energy from waste facility on the surrounding urban population.

  14. Tree and forest effects on air quality and human health in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowak, David J; Hirabayashi, Satoshi; Bodine, Allison; Greenfield, Eric

    2014-10-01

    Trees remove air pollution by the interception of particulate matter on plant surfaces and the absorption of gaseous pollutants through the leaf stomata. However, the magnitude and value of the effects of trees and forests on air quality and human health across the United States remains unknown. Computer simulations with local environmental data reveal that trees and forests in the conterminous United States removed 17.4 million tonnes (t) of air pollution in 2010 (range: 9.0-23.2 million t), with human health effects valued at 6.8 billion U.S. dollars (range: $1.5-13.0 billion). This pollution removal equated to an average air quality improvement of less than one percent. Most of the pollution removal occurred in rural areas, while most of the health impacts and values were within urban areas. Health impacts included the avoidance of more than 850 incidences of human mortality and 670,000 incidences of acute respiratory symptoms.

  15. Can we establish relationship between outdoor air ventilation and health based on the published epidemiological data?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carrer, Paolo; Wargocki, Pawel; Fanetti, Annaclara

    2015-01-01

    , multidisciplinary review was carried out of the scientific literature on health and outdoor air ventilation in non-industrial indoor environments (not covered by previous reviews on this topic) and of major reviews on this topic. The results show, that effects on health were seen for wide range of ventilation rates......Appropriate exposure control is prerogative for reducing the burden of disease (BOD) due to inadequate air quality indoors (IAQ). Ventilation with outdoor air is one of the available exposure control methods and is widespread. It is often assumed that this method will bring tangible effects...... on health. This paper examines whether the available archival epidemiological evidence provides information on the link between outdoor air ventilation and health that can be used for regulative purposes, when ventilation requirements for non-industrial built environments are set. To achieve this goal...

  16. Indoor air quality and respiratory health effects in school children: The HITEA study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobs, J.H.

    2013-01-01

    A good air quality of the indoor environment is essential for human health; on average people spend more than 80% of their time indoors. The composition of indoor air is extremely complex and the quality can be influenced by several outdoor and indoor sources. In this thesis the effects of indoor ai

  17. Evaluation of Nationwide Health Costs of Air Pollution and Cigarette Smoking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, J. R.; Justus, C. G.

    1974-01-01

    The findings of this study indicate cigarette smoking causes more respiratory diseases than does air pollution. The 1970 nationwide health cost of respiratory diseases is estimated at $6.22 billion. The effect of air pollution accounts for between 1 and 5 percent of this total cost while cigarette smoking represents 68 percent. (MLB)

  18. Using Air-Purifying Respirators. Module 9. Vocational Education Training in Environmental Health Sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Consumer Dynamics Inc., Rockville, MD.

    This module, one of 25 on vocational education training for careers in environmental health occupations, contains self-instructional materials on using air-purifying respirators. Following guidelines for students and instructors and an introduction that explains what the student will learn are three lessons: (1) describing how air flows through an…

  19. Modeling energy efficiency to improve air quality and health effects of China's cement industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Shaohui; Worrell, Ernst; Crijns-Graus, Wina; Krol, Maarten; de Bruine, Marco; Geng, Guangpo; Wagner, Fabian; Cofala, Janusz

    2016-01-01

    Actions to reduce the combustion of fossil fuels often decrease GHG emissions as well as air pollutants and bring multiple benefits for improvement of energy efficiency, climate change, and air quality associated with human health benefits. The China's cement industry is the second largest energy co

  20. Air pollution and health risks due to vehicle traffic

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Kai; Batterman, Stuart

    2013-01-01

    Traffic congestion increases vehicle emissions and degrades ambient air quality, and recent studies have shown excess morbidity and mortality for drivers, commuters and individuals living near major roadways. Presently, our understanding of the air pollution impacts from congestion on roads is very limited. This study demonstrates an approach to characterize risks of traffic for on- and near-road populations. Simulation modeling was used to estimate on- and near-road NO2 concentrations and he...

  1. Exploration of health risks related to air pollution and temperature in three Latin American cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero-Lankao, Patricia; Qin, Hua; Borbor-Cordova, Mercy

    2013-04-01

    This paper explores whether the health risks related to air pollution and temperature extremes are spatially and socioeconomically differentiated within three Latin American cities: Bogota, Colombia, Mexico City, Mexico, and Santiago, Chile. Based on a theoretical review of three relevant approaches to risk analysis (risk society, environmental justice, and urban vulnerability as impact), we hypothesize that health risks from exposure to air pollution and temperature in these cities do not necessarily depend on socio-economic inequalities. To test this hypothesis, we gathered, validated, and analyzed temperature, air pollution, mortality and socioeconomic vulnerability data from the three study cities. Our results show the association between air pollution levels and socioeconomic vulnerabilities did not always correlate within the study cities. Furthermore, the spatial differences in socioeconomic vulnerabilities within cities do not necessarily correspond with the spatial distribution of health impacts. The present study improves our understanding of the multifaceted nature of health risks and vulnerabilities associated with global environmental change. The findings suggest that health risks from atmospheric conditions and pollutants exist without boundaries or social distinctions, even exhibiting characteristics of a boomerang effect (i.e., affecting rich and poor alike) on a smaller scale such as areas within urban regions. We used human mortality, a severe impact, to measure health risks from air pollution and extreme temperatures. Public health data of better quality (e.g., morbidity, hospital visits) are needed for future research to advance our understanding of the nature of health risks related to climate hazards.

  2. Respiratory health outcomes and air pollution in the Eastern Mediterranean Region: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdo, Nour; Khader, Yousef S; Abdelrahman, Mostafa; Graboski-Bauer, Ashley; Malkawi, Mazen; Al-Sharif, Munjed; Elbetieha, Ahmad M

    2016-06-01

    Exposure to air pollution can cause detrimental health and be an economic burden. With newly developed equipment, monitoring of different air pollutants, identifying the sources, types of air pollutants and their corresponding concentrations, and applying mitigation intervention techniques became a crucial step in public health protection. Countries in the Eastern Mediterranean Region (EMR) are highly exposed to dust storms, have high levels of particulate matter (PM) concentrations, and have a unique climatic as well as topographic and socio-economic structure. This is the first study conducted to systemically and qualitatively assess the health impacts of air pollution in the EMR, identify susceptible populations, and ascertain research and knowledge gaps in the literature to better inform decisions by policy makers. We screened relevant papers and reports published between 2000 and 2014 in research databases. A total of 36 published studies met the inclusion criteria. A variety of indoor and outdoor exposures associated with various acute and chronic respiratory health outcomes were included. Respiratory health outcomes ranged in severity, from allergies and general respiratory complaints to lung cancer and mortality. Several adverse health outcomes were positively associated with various indoor/outdoor air pollutants throughout the EMR. However, epidemiological literature concerning the EMR is limited to a few studies in a few countries. More research is needed to elucidate the health outcomes of air pollution. Standardized reliable assessments on the national level for various air pollutants in different regions should be implemented and made publically available for researchers to utilize in their research. Moreover, advancing and utilizing more sound epidemiological designs and studies on the effect of air pollution on the respiratory health outcomes is needed to portray the actual situation in the region.

  3. Epidemiological surveillance - air and health. Surveillance of effects on health linked to air pollution; Surveillance epidemiologique air et sante. Surveillance des effets sur la sante lies a la pollution atmospherique en milieu urbain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quenel, Ph.; Cassadou, S.; Eilstein, D.; Filleul, L.; Le Goaster, C.; Le Tertre, A.; Medina, S.; Pascal, L.; Prouvost, H.; Saviuc, Ph.; Zeghnoun, A. [Institut National de Veille Sanitaire, 94 - Saint Maurice (France); Declerq, Ch. [Observatoire Regional de Sante Nord Pas de Calais (France)

    1999-03-01

    In the field of air pollution, the France is the first country to be endowed with a device of epidemiological surveillance allowing to to evaluate and monitor the impact of urban air pollution on the health of population. This new approach is based on the analysis of relationship between pollution indicators and health indicators, it leads to confirm the partnership between actors of environment and health, at the national level as well at the local level. It confirms the development of assessment in the field of environmental health. (N.C.)

  4. Biomarker as a Research Tool in Linking Exposure to Air Particles and Respiratory Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Faseeha Suhaimi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Some of the environmental toxicants from air pollution include particulate matter (PM10, fine particulate matter (PM2.5, and ultrafine particles (UFP. Both short- and long-term exposure could result in various degrees of respiratory health outcomes among exposed persons, which rely on the individuals’ health status. Methods. In this paper, we highlight a review of the studies that have used biomarkers to understand the association between air particles exposure and the development of respiratory problems resulting from the damage in the respiratory system. Data from previous epidemiological studies relevant to the application of biomarkers in respiratory system damage reported from exposure to air particles are also summarized. Results. Based on these analyses, the findings agree with the hypothesis that biomarkers are relevant in linking harmful air particles concentrations to increased respiratory health effects. Biomarkers are used in epidemiological studies to provide an understanding of the mechanisms that follow airborne particles exposure in the airway. However, application of biomarkers in epidemiological studies of health effects caused by air particles in both environmental and occupational health is inchoate. Conclusion. Biomarkers unravel the complexity of the connection between exposure to air particles and respiratory health.

  5. Climate Change in the US: Potential Consequences for Human Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maynard, Nancy G.

    2001-01-01

    The U.S. National Assessment identified five major areas of consequences of climate change in the United States: temperature-related illnesses and deaths, health effects related to extreme weather events, air pollution-related health effects, water- and food-borne diseases, and insect-, tick-, and rodent-borne diseases. The U.S. National Assessment final conclusions about these potential health effects will be described. In addition, a summary of some of the new tools for studying human health aspects of climate change as well as environment-health linkages through remotely sensed data and observations will be provided.

  6. [Environment of high temperature or air particle matter pollution, and health promotion of exercise].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jie-xiu; Xu, Min-xiao; Wu, Zhao-zhao

    2014-10-01

    It is important to keep human health in special environment, since the special environment has different effects on health. In this review, we focused on high temperature and air particle matter environment, and health promotion of exercise. Exercise and high temperature are the main non-pharmacological therapeutic interventions of insulin resistance (IR). PGC-1α is key regulatory factor in health promotion of exercise and high temperature. The novel hormone Irisin might be the important pathway through which heat and exercise could have positive function on IR. Air particle matter (PM) is associated with onset of many respiratory diseases and negative effects of exerciser performance. However, regular exercise plays an important role in improving health of respiratory system and lowering the risk induced by PM. Furthermore, free radicals and inflammatory pathways are included in the possible mechanisms of positive physiological effects induced by exercise in air particle matter environment.

  7. Carcinogenic Air Toxics Exposure and Their Cancer-Related Health Impacts in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ying; Li, Chaoyang; Huijbregts, Mark A. J.; Mumtaz, M. Moiz

    2015-01-01

    Public health protection from air pollution can be achieved more effectively by shifting from a single-pollutant approach to a multi-pollutant approach. To develop such multi-pollutant approaches, identifying which air pollutants are present most frequently is essential. This study aims to determine the frequently found carcinogenic air toxics or hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) combinations across the United States as well as to analyze the health impacts of developing cancer due to exposure to these HAPs. To identify the most commonly found carcinogenic air toxics combinations, we first identified HAPs with cancer risk greater than one in a million in more than 5% of the census tracts across the United States, based on the National-Scale Air Toxics Assessment (NATA) by the U.S. EPA for year 2005. We then calculated the frequencies of their two-component (binary), and three-component (ternary) combinations. To quantify the cancer-related health impacts, we focused on the 10 most frequently found HAPs with national average cancer risk greater than one in a million. Their cancer-related health impacts were calculated by converting lifetime cancer risk reported in NATA 2005 to years of healthy life lost or Disability-Adjusted Life Years (DALYs). We found that the most frequently found air toxics with cancer risk greater than one in a million are formaldehyde, carbon tetrachloride, acetaldehyde, and benzene. The most frequently occurring binary pairs and ternary mixtures are the various combinations of these four air toxics. Analysis of urban and rural HAPs did not reveal significant differences in the top combinations of these chemicals. The cumulative annual cancer-related health impacts of inhaling the top 10 carcinogenic air toxics included was about 1,600 DALYs in the United States or 0.6 DALYs per 100,000 people. Formaldehyde and benzene together contribute nearly 60 percent of the total cancer-related health impacts. Our study shows that although there are many

  8. Health risks following ingestion of mercury and zinc air batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolan, M; Tucker, I

    1981-01-01

    This paper reports on a study set up to assess the corrosive behaviour of mercury and zinc air batteries in the gastric juice environment of the stomach. The results show a relatively rapid rate of corrosion for charged mercury batteries. In contrast, the zinc air battery showed no visible corrosion under the same conditions. In view of the toxic dangers from leakage of mercury batteries, it is recommended that steps be taken to ensure that such batteries do not remain in the acidic environment of the stomach, should ingestion occur.

  9. Effects of air pollution on human health and practical measures for prevention in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghorani-Azam, Adel; Riahi-Zanjani, Bamdad; Balali-Mood, Mahdi

    2016-01-01

    Air pollution is a major concern of new civilized world, which has a serious toxicological impact on human health and the environment. It has a number of different emission sources, but motor vehicles and industrial processes contribute the major part of air pollution. According to the World Health Organization, six major air pollutants include particle pollution, ground-level ozone, carbon monoxide, sulfur oxides, nitrogen oxides, and lead. Long and short term exposure to air suspended toxicants has a different toxicological impact on human including respiratory and cardiovascular diseases, neuropsychiatric complications, the eyes irritation, skin diseases, and long-term chronic diseases such as cancer. Several reports have revealed the direct association between exposure to the poor air quality and increasing rate of morbidity and mortality mostly due to cardiovascular and respiratory diseases. Air pollution is considered as the major environmental risk factor in the incidence and progression of some diseases such as asthma, lung cancer, ventricular hypertrophy, Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases, psychological complications, autism, retinopathy, fetal growth, and low birth weight. In this review article, we aimed to discuss toxicology of major air pollutants, sources of emission, and their impact on human health. We have also proposed practical measures to reduce air pollution in Iran.

  10. Co-benefits of mitigating global greenhouse gas emissions for future air quality and human health

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, J. Jason; Smith, Steven J.; Silva, Raquel A.; Naik, Vaishali; Zhang, Yuqiang; Adelman, Zachariah; Fry, Meridith M.; Anenberg, Susan; Horowitz, Larry W.; Lamarque, Jean-Francois

    2013-10-01

    Actions to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions often reduce co-emitted air pollutants, bringing co-benefits for air quality and human health. Past studies typically evaluated near-term and local co-benefits, neglecting the long-range transport of air pollutants, long-term demographic changes, and the influence of climate change on air quality. Here we simulate the co-benefits of global GHG reductions on air quality and human health using a global atmospheric model and consistent future scenarios, via two mechanisms: reducing co-emitted air pollutants, and slowing climate change and its effect on air quality. We use new relationships between chronic mortality and exposure to fine particulate matter and ozone, global modelling methods and new future scenarios. Relative to a reference scenario, global GHG mitigation avoids 0.5+/-0.2, 1.3+/-0.5 and 2.2+/-0.8 million premature deaths in 2030, 2050 and 2100. Global average marginal co-benefits of avoided mortality are US$50-380 per tonne of CO2, which exceed previous estimates, exceed marginal abatement costs in 2030 and 2050, and are within the low range of costs in 2100. East Asian co-benefits are 10-70 times the marginal cost in 2030. Air quality and health co-benefits, especially as they are mainly local and near-term, provide strong additional motivation for transitioning to a low-carbon future.

  11. Rationing health protection: a proposal to exempt nuisance dust from US Clean Air Act regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Centner, Terence J; Colson, Gregory

    2013-03-15

    The US House of Representative has passed a bill called the "Farm Dust Regulation Prevention Act" (Dust Act) that would exempt most types of particulate matter (PM) in rural areas from the air quality controls of the US Clean Air Act. The Dust Act would markedly change the country's air quality standards. An examination of the proposed provisions shows that they would exempt non-combustion PM pollutants from mining, smelting, petroleum production, and power generation from existing air quality standards. Persons downwind from pollutants generated in rural areas could be exposed to concentrations of carcinogenic heavy metals, asbestos, and benzene known to adversely affect their health and ecological resources. Existing federal air quality standards based on science would be replaced by a flexible standard that rations health protection.

  12. The role of Environmental Health System air quality monitors in Space Station Contingency Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limero, Thomas F.; Wilson, Steve; Perlot, Susan; James, John

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes the Space Station Freedom (SSF) Environmental Health System's air-quality monitoring strategy and instrumentation. A two-tier system has been developed, consisting of first-alert instruments that warn the crew of airborne contamination and a volatile organic analyzer that can identify volatile organic contaminants in near-real time. The strategy for air quality monitoring on SSF is designed to provide early detection so that the contamination can be confined to one module and so that crew health and safety can be protected throughout the contingency event. The use of air-quality monitors in fixed and portable modes will be presented as a means of following the progress of decontamination efforts and ensuring acceptable air quality in a module after an incident. The technology of each instrument will be reviewed briefly; the main focus of this paper, however, will be the use of air-quality monitors before, during, and after contingency incidents.

  13. Economic evaluation of health losses from air pollution in Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xiaoli; Yu, Xueying; Wang, Ying; Fan, Chunyang

    2016-06-01

    Aggravated air pollution in Beijing, China has caused serious health concern. This paper comprehensively evaluates the health losses from illness and premature death caused by air pollution in monetary terms. We use the concentration of PM10 as an indicator of the pollution since it constitutes the primary pollutant in Beijing. By our estimation, air pollution in Beijing caused a health loss equivalent to Ұ583.02 million or 0.03 % of its GDP. Most of the losses took the form of depreciation in human capital that resulted from premature death. The losses from premature deaths were most salient for people of either old or young ages, with the former group suffering from the highest mortality rates and the latter group the highest per capital losses of human capitals from premature death. Policies that target on PM10 emission reduction, urban vegetation expansion, and protection of vulnerable groups are all proposed as possible solutions to air pollution risks in Beijing.

  14. Trans-boundary Air Quality and Health Impacts of Emissions in Various Regions in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Y.; Yim, S. H. L.

    2015-12-01

    In last few decades, China has gone through a rapid development, resulting in urbanization and industrialization. However, the abundant economic achievements were gained at the cost of a sharp deterioration of air quality. Previous research has reported the adverse health outcome from outdoor air pollution in China. Nevertheless, the trans-boundary air quality and health impacts due to emissions in various regions in China have yet fully understood. Our study aims to comprehensively apportion the attribution of emissions in seven regions in China, which are defined based on their geographical locations, to air pollutions, as well as the resultant health impacts in their local areas and other regions, provinces, and cities in China. A regional air quality model is applied to simulate the physical and chemical processes of various pollutants in the atmosphere. The resultant health outcome, such as premature death, is estimated by using the concentration-response functions reported in the literature. We anticipate that our results would serve as a critical reference for research community and policy makers to mitigate the air quality and health impacts of emissions in China.

  15. Particulate matter in urban areas: health-based economic assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Fadel, M; Massoud, M

    2000-08-10

    The interest in the association between human health and air pollution has grown substantially in recent years. Based on epidemiological studies in several countries, there is conclusive evidence of a link between particulate air pollution and adverse health effects. Considering that particulate matter may be the most serious pollutant in urban areas and that pollution-related illness results in financial and non-financial welfare losses, the main objective of this study is to assess the economic benefits of reducing particulate air pollution in Lebanese urban areas. Accordingly, the extent and value of health benefits due to decreasing levels of particulate in the air are predicted. Health impacts are expressed in both physical and monetary terms for saved statistical lives, and productivity due to different types of morbidity endpoints. Finally, the study concludes with a range of policy options available to mitigate particulate air pollution in urban areas.

  16. Air Pollution Exposure and Physical Activity in China: Current Knowledge, Public Health Implications, and Future Research Needs

    OpenAIRE

    Jiaojiao Lü; Leichao Liang; Yi Feng; Rena Li; Yu Liu

    2015-01-01

    Deteriorating air quality in China has created global public health concerns in regard to health and health-related behaviors. Although emerging environmental regulations address ambient air pollution in China, the level of enforcement and long-term impact of these measures remain unknown. Exposure to air pollution has been shown to lead to multiple adverse health outcomes, including increased rates of heart disease and mortality. However, a lesser-known but increasingly significant concern i...

  17. Linking Meteorology, Air Quality Models and Observations to Characterize Human Exposures in Support of the Environmental Health Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epidemiologic studies are critical in establishing the association between exposure to air pollutants and adverse health effects. Results of epidemiologic studies are used by U.S. EPA in developing air quality standards to protect the public from the health effects of air polluta...

  18. Noise Effects on Health in the Context of Air Pollution Exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stansfeld, Stephen A

    2015-10-14

    For public health policy and planning it is important to understand the relative contribution of environmental noise on health compared to other environmental stressors. Air pollution is the primary environmental stressor in relation to cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. This paper reports a narrative review of studies in which the associations of both environmental noise and air pollution with health have been examined. Studies of hypertension, myocardial infarction, stroke, mortality and cognitive outcomes were included. Results suggest independent effects of environmental noise from road traffic, aircraft and, with fewer studies, railway noise on cardiovascular outcomes after adjustment for air pollution. Comparative burden of disease studies demonstrate that air pollution is the primary environmental cause of disability adjusted life years lost (DALYs). Environmental noise is ranked second in terms of DALYs in Europe and the DALYs attributed to noise were more than those attributed to lead, ozone and dioxins. In conclusion, in planning and health impact assessment environmental noise should be considered an independent contributor to health risk which has a separate and substantial role in ill-health separate to that of air pollution.

  19. Advanced air distribution: Improving health and comfort while reducing energy use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melikov, Arsen Krikor

    2015-01-01

    Indoor environment affects the health, comfort, and performance of building occupants. The energy used for heating, cooling, ventilating, and air conditioning of buildings is substantial. Ventilation based on total volume air distribution in spaces is not always an efficient way to provide high...... the risk of airborne cross-infection while reducing energy use. This study justifies the need for improving the present air distribution design in occupied spaces, and in general the need for a paradigm shift from the design of collective environments to the design of individually controlled environments....... The focus is on advanced air distribution in spaces, its guiding principles and its advantages and disadvantages. Examples of advanced air distribution solutions in spaces for different use, such as offices, hospital rooms, vehicle compartments, are presented. The potential of advanced air distribution...

  20. Assessment of impact of air pollution on human health and environment in the South Durban Industrial Basin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, P. V.; Hertel, O.; Bøgh, E.

    This study predicts the spatial variation of air quality and estimate the human health risk of air pollution in SDIB. The study is based on the operational air pollution (OML) model which is predicting the dispersion and quantifying the contribution of selected air pollutant as PM10, SO2 and NOX...

  1. Air Pollution Mixtures: Health Effects across Life Stages

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The main objectives of the proposed Center are: 1) to investigate the acute and chronic health effects across life stages of six exposure metrics (short- and long-...

  2. U.S. Air Quality and Health Benefits from Avoided Climate Change under Greenhouse Gas Mitigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Menendez, Fernando; Saari, Rebecca K; Monier, Erwan; Selin, Noelle E

    2015-07-07

    We evaluate the impact of climate change on U.S. air quality and health in 2050 and 2100 using a global modeling framework and integrated economic, climate, and air pollution projections. Three internally consistent socioeconomic scenarios are used to value health benefits of greenhouse gas mitigation policies specifically derived from slowing climate change. Our projections suggest that climate change, exclusive of changes in air pollutant emissions, can significantly impact ozone (O3) and fine particulate matter (PM2.5) pollution across the U.S. and increase associated health effects. Climate policy can substantially reduce these impacts, and climate-related air pollution health benefits alone can offset a significant fraction of mitigation costs. We find that in contrast to cobenefits from reductions to coemitted pollutants, the climate-induced air quality benefits of policy increase with time and are largest between 2050 and 2100. Our projections also suggest that increasing climate policy stringency beyond a certain degree may lead to diminishing returns relative to its cost. However, our results indicate that the air quality impacts of climate change are substantial and should be considered by cost-benefit climate policy analyses.

  3. Can air pollution negate the health benefits of cycling and walking?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tainio, Marko; de Nazelle, Audrey J; Götschi, Thomas; Kahlmeier, Sonja; Rojas-Rueda, David; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J; de Sá, Thiago Hérick; Kelly, Paul; Woodcock, James

    2016-06-01

    Active travel (cycling, walking) is beneficial for the health due to increased physical activity (PA). However, active travel may increase the intake of air pollution, leading to negative health consequences. We examined the risk-benefit balance between active travel related PA and exposure to air pollution across a range of air pollution and PA scenarios. The health effects of active travel and air pollution were estimated through changes in all-cause mortality for different levels of active travel and air pollution. Air pollution exposure was estimated through changes in background concentrations of fine particulate matter (PM2.5), ranging from 5 to 200μg/m3. For active travel exposure, we estimated cycling and walking from 0 up to 16h per day, respectively. These refer to long-term average levels of active travel and PM2.5 exposure. For the global average urban background PM2.5 concentration (22μg/m3) benefits of PA by far outweigh risks from air pollution even under the most extreme levels of active travel. In areas with PM2.5 concentrations of 100μg/m3, harms would exceed benefits after 1h 30min of cycling per day or more than 10h of walking per day. If the counterfactual was driving, rather than staying at home, the benefits of PA would exceed harms from air pollution up to 3h 30min of cycling per day. The results were sensitive to dose-response function (DRF) assumptions for PM2.5 and PA. PA benefits of active travel outweighed the harm caused by air pollution in all but the most extreme air pollution concentrations.

  4. Interaction between Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) and other important health conditions and measurable air pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blagev, D. P.; Mendoza, D. L.; Rea, S.; Sorensen, J.

    2015-12-01

    Adverse health effects have been associated with urban pollutant exposure arising from close proximity to highly-emitting sources and atmospheric mixing. The relative air pollution exposure dose and time effects on various diseases remains unknown. This study compares the increased risk of health complications when patients are exposed to short term high-levels of air pollution vs. longer term exposure to lower levels of air pollution. We used the electronic medical record of an integrated hospital system based in Utah, Intermountain Healthcare, to identify a cohort of patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) who were seen between 2009-2014. We determined patient demographics as well as comorbidity data and healthcare utilization. To determine the approximate air pollution dose and time exposure, we used the Hestia highly-resolved emissions inventory for Salt Lake County, Utah in conjunction with emissions based on the National Emissions Inventory (NEI). Hourly emissions of CO2 and criteria air pollutants were gridded at a 0.002o x 0.002o resolution for the study years. The resulting emissions were transported using the CALPUFF and AERMOD dispersion models to estimate air pollutant concentrations at an hourly 0.002o x 0.002oresolution. Additionally, pollutant concentrations were estimated at each patient's home and work address to estimate exposure. Multivariate analysis adjusting for patient demographics, comorbidities and severity of COPD was performed to determine association between air pollution exposure and the risk of hospitalization or emergency department (ED) visit for COPD exacerbation and an equivalency estimate for air pollution exposure was developed. We noted associations with air pollution levels for each pollutant and hospitalizations and ED visits for COPD and other patient comorbidities. We also present an equivalency estimate for dose of air pollution exposure and health outcomes. This analysis compares the increased risk of

  5. Changing air mass frequencies in Canada: potential links and implications for human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanos, J K; Cakmak, S

    2014-03-01

    Many individual variables have been studied to understand climate change, yet an overall weather situation involves the consideration of many meteorological variables simultaneously at various times diurnally, seasonally, and yearly. The current study identifies a full weather situation as an air mass type using synoptic scale classification, in 30 population centres throughout Canada. Investigative analysis of long-term air mass frequency trends was completed, drawing comparisons between seasons and climate zones. We find that the changing air mass trends are highly dependent on the season and climate zone being studied, with an overall increase of moderate ('warm') air masses and decrease of polar ('cold') air masses. In the summertime, general increased moisture content is present throughout Canada, consistent with the warming air masses. The moist tropical air mass, containing the most hot and humid air, is found to increase in a statistically significant fashion in the summertime in 46% of the areas studied, which encompass six of Canada's ten largest population centres. This emphasises the need for heat adaptation and acclimatisation for a large proportion of the Canadian population. In addition, strong and significant decreases of transition/frontal passage days were found throughout Canada. This result is one of the most remarkable transition frequency results published to date due to its consistency in identifying declining trends, coinciding with research completed in the United States (US). We discuss relative results and implications to similar US air mass trend analyses, and draw upon research studies involving large-scale upper-level air flow and vortex connections to air mass changes, to small-scale meteorological and air pollution interactions. Further research is warranted to better understand such connections, and how these air masses relate to the overall and city-specific health of Canadians.

  6. [Quality of interior air: biological contaminants and their effects on health; bioaerosols and gathering techniques].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bălan, Gabriela

    2007-01-01

    Indoor Air Quality: biological contaminants and health effects; airborne organisms and sampling instruments. Biological contaminants include bacteria, molds, viruses, animal dander and cat saliva, house dust, mites, cockroaches and pollen. Symptoms of health problems caused by biological pollutants include sneezing, watery eyes, coughing, shortness of breath, dizziness, lethargy, fevers. Children, elderly people with breathing problems, allergies and lung diseases are particularly susceptible to disease-causing biological agents in the indoor air. It is convenient to consider microbiological samplers for collecting organisms in air as falling into several broad categories. Many popular microbiological air samplers use the principle of impaction to trap the organisms by impacting them directly on to agar. Further distinct groups are the impingers, which operate by impinging organisms into liquid.

  7. [Effects of air pollution on human health and their importance in Mexico City].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallejo, Maite; Jáuregui-Renaud, Kathrine; Hermosillo, Antonio G; Márquez, Manlio F; Cárdenas, Manuel

    2003-01-01

    The impact of air pollution on human health is a complicated problem. In this review, we describe the main health effects of exposure to ozone, carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, lead and particulate matter. Geographical characteristics of the metropolitan area of Mexico City that favor pollutant persistence with adverse effects on the population are described; the use of the Indice Metropolitano de la Calidad del Aire (IMECA), current norms, and present programs to diminish this problem are discussed. Evidence shows that through these actions, air quality has improved. However, some pollutants such as ozone and particulate matter, still exceed the standard. To further improve air quality in the city, existing programs should continue and multidisciplinary research, both basic and applied, is required.

  8. Systems Health Monitoring — From Ground to Air — The Aerospace Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Mary

    2007-03-01

    The aerospace industry and the government are significantly investing in jet engine systems health monitoring. Government organizations such as the Air Force, Navy, Army, National Labs and NASA are investing in the development of state aware sensing for health monitoring of jet engines such as the Joint Strike Fighter, F119 and F100's. This paper will discuss on-going work in systems health monitoring for jet engines. Topics will include a general discussion of the approaches to engine structural health monitoring and the prognosis of engine component life. Real-world implementation challenges on the ground and in the air will be reviewed. The talk will conclude with a prediction of where engine health monitoring will be in twenty years.

  9. The APHEKOM Project: A literature review of air pollution interventions and their impact of public health

    OpenAIRE

    Henschel, S; Goodman, P; Atkinson, RW; Zeka, A; Analitis, A; Katsouyanni, K; Pascal, M.; Chanel, O; Medina, S; Forsberg, B

    2011-01-01

    Intervention studies play an important role in supporting and complementing scientific validation of results of epidemiological non-intervention studies linking air pollution and health. In this paper a collection of existing published intervention studies is reviewed with the aim to give a summarized overview spanning a variety of approaches regarding the type of the intervention and findings with the main focus on studies that assessed interventions that improved air quality and the associa...

  10. EC multicentre study on short-term effects of air pollution on health. The aphea project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katsouyanni, K. [Univ. of Athens (Greece). Medical School; Zmirou, D. [Grenoble Univ. (France). Faculte de Medecine; Spix, C. [GSF- Forschungszentrum Umwelt und Gesundheit (Germany)

    1995-12-31

    The APHEA project is an attempt to provide quantitative estimates of the short-term health effects of air pollution, using an extensive data base from ten different European countries which represent various social, environmental and air pollution situations. Within the framework of the project, the methodology of analyzing epidemiologic time series data, as well as that of performing meta-analysis, are further developed and standardized

  11. Urban air carcinogens and their effects on health

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lechner, J.F.

    1994-11-01

    Airborne carcinogens may be relevant especially in metropolitan regions with extreme smog as a primary cause of lung cancer. Lung cancer is most common in urban environs and the incidence directly correlates with the size of the city. In addition, several, but not all formal epidemiological studies also suggest a positive correlation between lung cancer incidence and the intensity of air pollution exposure. There is further support for a role of air pollution; as of 1993, 4.4% of all of the bronchogenic adenocarcinoma cancer cases among Mexicans living in industrialized cities are under 40 years of age. It is plausible that chronic inhalation of automobile combustion products, factory emissions, and/or radon is at least partially responsible for the higher incidence of lung cancer exemplified by the never-smoking urban residents. The exceptionally high incidence of lung cancer cases among never-smokers living in highly industrialized Mexican cities offers a unique opportunity to use molecular epidemiology to test whether chronic inhalation of atmospheric pollutants increases the risk for this disease. Overall, the analysis of the genetic alterations in two cancer genes, and possibly the hprt locus should give new insight as to whether the urban never-smokers developed their cancers because of exposure to environmental pollutants.

  12. Urban air pollution and children's asthma: what do parents and health professionals think?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Emma; Cullinan, Paul; Colvile, Roy

    2004-06-01

    Our objective was to explore and compare, in the context of other exposures, lay and professional perceptions of the links between urban air pollution and children's asthma. We used a triangulated survey approach, using quantitative questionnaire surveys enriched by qualitative interviews. Derivation of indicators of actual local air quality used modelled air pollution and a geographical information system. Our setting involved families and community health professionals in the London borough of Ealing, and pediatric respiratory specialists across the United Kingdom. Participants included 863 parents of children aged 3-11 years, 151 reporting currently asthmatic children, of whom 20 were extensively interviewed; 98 local general practitioners and 50 practice nurses; and 75 paediatric respiratory consultants and 55 specialist nurses. Main outcome measures involved views about the links between urban air pollution and children's asthma, relative to other triggers. Comparison of assessments of local air quality, with actual pollution levels, was made by parents with and without asthmatic children. Many parents were unsure as to what factors initiate asthma, but the most frequently cited was traffic pollution; it was also considered important in the exacerbation of asthma. Health professionals' assessments were inconsistent: specialists conformed to the dominant literature dismissing strong links between air pollution and asthma, while local clinicians reflected the views of parents in their community. Surrounding parents' views were difficulties defining exposures to urban air pollution, underlying concerns about risks to general health, perceived lack of control, unclear expert opinion, and widely accepted informal "messages" which assumed strong links. Parents with experience of asthma were found to have significantly less accurate (negatively biased) perceptions of local air quality. In conclusion, reactions to uncertainty surrounding associations between asthma

  13. Air pollution around schools is linked to poorer student health and academic performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohai, Paul; Kweon, Byoung-Suk; Lee, Sangyun; Ard, Kerry

    2011-05-01

    Exposing children to environmental pollutants during important times of physiological development can lead to long-lasting health problems, dysfunction, and disease. The location of children's schools can increase their exposure. We examined the extent of air pollution from industrial sources around public schools in Michigan to find out whether air pollution jeopardizes children's health and academic success. We found that schools located in areas with the highest air pollution levels had the lowest attendance rates-a potential indicator of poor health-and the highest proportions of students who failed to meet state educational testing standards. Michigan and many other states currently do not require officials considering a site for a new school to analyze its environmental quality. Our results show that such requirements are needed. For schools already in existence, we recommend that their environmental quality should be investigated and improved if necessary.

  14. Smartphone Air Quality and Atmospheric Aerosol Characterization for Public Health Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strong, S. B.; Brown, D. M.; Brown, A.

    2014-12-01

    Air quality is a major global concern. Tracking and monitoring air quality provides individuals with the knowledge to make personal decisions about their health and investigate the environment in which they live. Satellite remote sensing and ground-based observations (e.g. Environmental Protection Agency, NASA Aerosol Robotic Network) of air quality is spatially and temporarlly limited and often neglects to provide individuals with the freedom to understand their own personal environment using their personal observations. Given the ubiquitous nature of smartphones, individuals have access to powerful processing and sensing capabilities. When coupled with the appropriate sensor parameters, filters, and algorithms, smartphones can be used both for 'citizen science' air quality applications and 'professional' scientific atmospheric investigations, alike, simplifying data analysis, processing, and improving deployment efficiency. We evaluate the validity of smartphone technology for air quality investigations using standard Cimel CE 318 sun photometry and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroradiometer (FTIR) observations at specific locations.

  15. Health effects associated with passenger vehicles: monetary values of air pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzouk, Mohamed; Madany, Magdy

    2012-01-01

    Air pollution is regarded as one of the highest priorities in environmental protection in both developed and developing countries. High levels of air pollution have adverse effects on human health that might cause premature death. This study presents the monetary value estimates for the adverse human health effects resulted from ambient air pollution. It aids decision makers to set priorities in the public health relevance of pollution abatement. The main driver of policymaker is the need to reduce the avoidable cardiopulmonary morbidity and mortality from pollutant exposures. The monetary valuation involves 2 steps: (i) relate levels of pollutants to mortality and morbidity (concentration-response relationships) and (ii) apply unit economic values. Cost of air pollution associated with passenger vehicles running over a major traffic bridge (6th of October Elevated Highway) is presented as a case study to demonstrate the use of monetary value of air pollution. The study proves that the cost of air pollution is extremely high and should not be overlooked.

  16. Modeling energy efficiency to improve air quality and health effects of China’s cement industry

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Actions to reduce the combustion of fossil fuels often decrease GHG emissions as well as air pollutants and bring multiple benefits for improvement of energy efficiency, climate change, and air quality associated with human health benefits. The China’s cement industry is the second largest energy consumer and key emitter of CO2 and air pollutants, which accounts for 7% of China’s total energy consumption, 15% of CO2, and 14% of PM2.5, respectively. In this study, a state-of-the art modeling f...

  17. Health assessment, review and response to James Bay phase III air quality monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stanwick, R. [Vancouver Island Health Authority, Victoria, BC (Canada)

    2010-06-10

    An increase in cruise ship traffic has been observed and Victoria's harbour becomes a busy place when cruise ship traffic is combined with commercial, pleasure boat traffic and air traffic. Data provided by air quality monitoring surveys in the James Bay community during the summer months indicate that SO2 emissions sometimes exceed international guidelines. The James Bay Neighbourhood Association is concerned about air pollution in Victoria's harbour. Occasionally, the SO2 emissions reach elevated levels that can have an impact on health and could alter the quality of life and well-being of the population.

  18. Household air pollution from coal and biomass fuels in China: Measurements, health impacts, and interventions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, J.J.; Smith, K.R. [University of Medicine & Dentistry New Jersey, Piscataway, NJ (United States). School of Public Health

    2007-06-15

    Nearly all China's rural residents and a shrinking fraction of urban residents use solid fuels (biomass and coal) for household cooking and/or heating. Consequently, global meta-analyses of epidemiologic studies indicate that indoor air pollution from solid fuel use in China is responsible for approximately 420,000 premature deaths annually, more than the approximately 300,000 attributed to urban outdoor air pollution in the country. Our objective in this review was to help elucidate the extent of this indoor air pollution health hazard. We reviewed approximately 200 publications in both Chinese- and English language journals that reported health effects, exposure characteristics, and fuel/stove intervention options. Observed health effects include respiratory illnesses, lung cancer, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, weakening of the immune system, and reduction in lung function. Arsenic poisoning and fluorosis resulting from the use of 'Poisonous' coal have been observed in certain regions of China. Although attempts have been made in a few studies to identify specific coal smoke constituents responsible for specific adverse health effects, the majority of indoor air measurements include those of only particulate matter, carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, and/or nitrogen dioxide. These measurements indicate that pollution levels in households using solid fuel generally exceed China's indoor air quality standards. Intervention technologies ranging from simply adding a chimney to the more complex modernized bioenergy program are available, but they can be viable only with coordinated support from the government and the commercial sector.

  19. The health of our air : toward sustainable agriculture in Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janzen, H.H.; Desjardins, R.L.; Asselin, J.M.R.; Grace, B. [eds.

    1998-12-31

    The interactions between land and atmosphere that occur as a result of agricultural practices in Canada are reviewed and analyzed. While some changes may be benign, or even beneficial to humans and plants, there is evidence to suggest that adverse effects are also occurring. The evidence suggests that these negative changes will continue to increase unless changes are made in the way we manage energy, food and fiber economics. Agriculture is a main source of greenhouse gases, accounting for 25 per cent of carbon dioxide, 50 per cent of methane, and 70 per cent of nitrous oxides released via human activity globally. Agriculture also accounts for more than 50 per cent of ammonia released into the air. The study describes various options available for increasing the efficiency of using agricultural resources. It also examines the feasibility of restoring organic carbon in the soil through conservation tillage and other means, thereby reducing atmospheric carbon dioxide. refs., tabs., figs.

  20. Establishment of Exposure-response Functions of Air Particulate Matter and Adverse Health Outcomes in China and Worldwide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAI-DONG KAN; BING-HENG CHEN; CHANG-HONG CHEN; BING-YAN WANG; QING-YAN FU

    2005-01-01

    Objective To obtain the exposure-response functions that could be used in health-based risk assessment of particulate air pollution in China. Methods Meta analysis was conducted on the literatures on air particulate matter and its adverse health outcomes in China and worldwide. Results For each health outcome from morbidity to mortality changes, the relative risks were estimated when the concentration of air particulate matter increased to some certain units. Conclusion The exposure-response functions recommended here can be further applied to health risk assessment of air particulate matter in China.

  1. Bourdieu does environmental justice? Probing the linkages between population health and air pollution epidemiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buzzelli, Michael

    2007-03-01

    The environmental justice literature faces a number of conceptual and methodological shortcomings. The purpose of this paper is to probe ways in which these shortcomings can be remedied via recent developments in related literatures: population health and air pollution epidemiology. More sophisticated treatment of social structure, particularly if based on Pierre Bourdieu's relational approach to forms of capital, can be combined with the methodological rigour and established biological pathways of air pollution epidemiology. The aim is to reformulate environmental justice research in order to make further meaningful contributions to the wider movement concerned with issues of social justice and equity in health research.

  2. Health Impact Assessment of air Pollution in Megacity of Tehran, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazem Naddafi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aims of the present study were to provide quantitative data on the impact of air pollution on the health of people living in Tehran city, the most populated city of Iran. The approach proposed by the World Health Organization (WHO was applied using the AirQ 2.2.3 software developed by the WHO European Centre for Environment and Health, Bilthoven Division. Concentrations of ozone, nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide and particulate matter of aerodynamic diameter ≤ 10 μm (PM10 were used to assess human exposure and healthimpacts in terms of attributable proportion of the health outcome, annual number of excess cases of mortality for all causes, and cardiovascular and respiratory diseases. The annual average of PM10, SO2, NO2 and O3 in Tehran were 90.58, 89.16, 85 and 68.82 μg/m3, respectively. Considering short-term effects, PM10 had the highest health impact on the 8,700,000 inhabitants of Tehran city, causing an excess of total mortality of 2194 out of 47284 in a year. Sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide and ozone caused about, respectively, 1458, 1050 and 819 excess cases of total mortality. Results indicate that the magnitude of the health impact estimated for the city of Tehranunderscores the need for urgent action to reduce the health burden of air pollution.

  3. Economic Valuation of Air Pollution Health Im¬pacts in the Tehran Area, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Karimzadegan

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Air pollution in Tehran, capital of Iran is responsible for several diverse negative effects. It has been estab­lished that air pollution can affect human health. These health effects include increased hospital admissions due to the ex­acerba­tion of cardiac and respiratory diseases, as well as symptoms such as headache, cough, eye irritation, nausea, sputum and even death in the most vulnerable individuals. In evaluating any policy that would reduce air pollution, it is useful to com­pare the policy's costs to its benefits expressed in monetary units.Methods: Since there is no market available that places value on the benefits of improved air quality, we must undertake non market valuation methods. In this paper we used direct medical cost (DMC, contingent valuation (CV and value of sta­tisti­cal life (VOSL approaches and household production model of health. According to this study marginal health dam­age costs for the following type of pollutants impacts: sulfur dioxide (SO2, nitrogen dioxide (NO2, particulate matter (PM10 and carbon monoxide (CO are quantified using exposure response functions(ERF which relate pollutant con­centra­tion to the resulting impact on a receptor(health. ERFs for health impacts are derived from epidemiological studies.Results: Health damage costs has been estimated at 16224 US$ per each unit increase of PM10, 28816 US$ per each unit in­crease of CO, 1927 US$ per each unit increase of NO2 and 7739 US$ per each unit increase of SO2.Conclusion: Substituting economic incentives for command and control approach to regulating air quality.

  4. The impact of European legislative and technology measures to reduce air pollutants on air quality, human health and climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turnock, S. T.; Butt, E. W.; Richardson, T. B.; Mann, G. W.; Reddington, C. L.; Forster, P. M.; Haywood, J.; Crippa, M.; Janssens-Maenhout, G.; Johnson, C. E.; Bellouin, N.; Carslaw, K. S.; Spracklen, D. V.

    2016-02-01

    European air quality legislation has reduced emissions of air pollutants across Europe since the 1970s, affecting air quality, human health and regional climate. We used a coupled composition-climate model to simulate the impacts of European air quality legislation and technology measures implemented between 1970 and 2010. We contrast simulations using two emission scenarios; one with actual emissions in 2010 and the other with emissions that would have occurred in 2010 in the absence of technological improvements and end-of-pipe treatment measures in the energy, industrial and road transport sectors. European emissions of sulphur dioxide, black carbon (BC) and organic carbon in 2010 are 53%, 59% and 32% lower respectively compared to emissions that would have occurred in 2010 in the absence of legislative and technology measures. These emission reductions decreased simulated European annual mean concentrations of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) by 35%, sulphate by 44%, BC by 56% and particulate organic matter by 23%. The reduction in PM2.5 concentrations is calculated to have prevented 80 000 (37 000-116 000, at 95% confidence intervals) premature deaths annually across the European Union, resulting in a perceived financial benefit to society of US232 billion annually (1.4% of 2010 EU GDP). The reduction in aerosol concentrations due to legislative and technology measures caused a positive change in the aerosol radiative effect at the top of atmosphere, reduced atmospheric absorption and also increased the amount of solar radiation incident at the surface over Europe. We used an energy budget approximation to estimate that these changes in the radiative balance have increased European annual mean surface temperatures and precipitation by 0.45 ± 0.11 °C and by 13 ± 0.8 mm yr-1 respectively. Our results show that the implementation of European legislation and technological improvements to reduce the emission of air pollutants has improved air quality and human

  5. City air pollution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and other mutagens: occurrence, sources and health effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, T.; Ejsing Jørgensen, Hans; Larsen, J.C.

    1996-01-01

    The presence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), mutagens and other air pollutants was investigated in a busy street in central Copenhagen and in a park area adjacent to the street. The winter concentration of benzo(a)pyrene was 4.4+/-1.2 ng/m(3) in the street air and 1.4+/-0.6 ng/m(3) in ...... was estimated to be 40%. Four different approaches to evaluate the health effects are discussed. The direct effect of PAH air pollution, and other mutagens, is considered to be a maximum of five lung cancer cases each year out of one million people.......The presence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), mutagens and other air pollutants was investigated in a busy street in central Copenhagen and in a park area adjacent to the street. The winter concentration of benzo(a)pyrene was 4.4+/-1.2 ng/m(3) in the street air and 1.4+/-0.6 ng/m(3......) in the city park. The atmospheric concentrations of PAH decreased in the order of: street > city background air similar to suburbs > village > open land. The traffic contribution of PAH to street air was estimated to be 90% on working days and 60% during weekends and its contribution to city background air...

  6. Air Pollution Exposure and Physical Activity in China: Current Knowledge, Public Health Implications, and Future Research Needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lü, Jiaojiao; Liang, Leichao; Feng, Yi; Li, Rena; Liu, Yu

    2015-11-20

    Deteriorating air quality in China has created global public health concerns in regard to health and health-related behaviors. Although emerging environmental regulations address ambient air pollution in China, the level of enforcement and long-term impact of these measures remain unknown. Exposure to air pollution has been shown to lead to multiple adverse health outcomes, including increased rates of heart disease and mortality. However, a lesser-known but increasingly significant concern is the relationship between air pollution and its effects on outdoor exercise. This is especially important in China, which has a culturally rooted lifestyle that encourages participation in outdoor physical activity. This article evaluates the intersection of air pollution and outdoor exercise and provides a discussion of issues related to its public health impact in China, where efforts to promote a healthy lifestyle may be adversely affected by the ambient air pollution that has accompanied rapid economic development and urbanization.

  7. Air Pollution Exposure and Physical Activity in China: Current Knowledge, Public Health Implications, and Future Research Needs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiaojiao Lü

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Deteriorating air quality in China has created global public health concerns in regard to health and health-related behaviors. Although emerging environmental regulations address ambient air pollution in China, the level of enforcement and long-term impact of these measures remain unknown. Exposure to air pollution has been shown to lead to multiple adverse health outcomes, including increased rates of heart disease and mortality. However, a lesser-known but increasingly significant concern is the relationship between air pollution and its effects on outdoor exercise. This is especially important in China, which has a culturally rooted lifestyle that encourages participation in outdoor physical activity. This article evaluates the intersection of air pollution and outdoor exercise and provides a discussion of issues related to its public health impact in China, where efforts to promote a healthy lifestyle may be adversely affected by the ambient air pollution that has accompanied rapid economic development and urbanization.

  8. Valuing health effects from the industrial air pollution in rural Tianjin,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Zhi-feng; XU Lin-yu

    2004-01-01

    High concentrations of air pollutants such as total suspended particulates(TSP) and sulfur dioxide(SO2 ) have serious impacts on nearby populations. In this paper, a survey of rural Tianjin residents' willingness-to-pay for health improvement was reported on, and the MBDC( multiple bounded discrete choice) model was adopted to study the respondents' willingness-to-pay to prevent respiratory illnesses.The results showed that the willingness-to-pay for health improvement was affected by respondents' health condition, work situation and environmental awareness, but not by personal habits, such as smoking. If person's willingness-to-pay to avoid respiratory diseases can be considered equal to the cost to personal health caused by air pollution, the total cost will reach 538 x 106 RMB Yuan( RMB, equal to 65million USD) per year.

  9. Health impact assessment of air pollution using a dynamic exposure profile: Implications for exposure and health impact estimates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dhondt, Stijn, E-mail: stijn.dhondt@vub.ac.be [Department of Medical Sociology and Health Sciences, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Laarbeeklaan 103, B-1090, Brussels (Belgium); Beckx, Carolien, E-mail: Carolien.Beckx@vito.be [Flemish Institute for Technological Research (VITO), Boeretang 200, 2400 Mol (Belgium); Degraeuwe, Bart, E-mail: Bart.Degraeuwe@vito.be [Flemish Institute for Technological Research (VITO), Boeretang 200, 2400 Mol (Belgium); Lefebvre, Wouter, E-mail: Wouter.Lefebvre@vito.be [Flemish Institute for Technological Research (VITO), Boeretang 200, 2400 Mol (Belgium); Kochan, Bruno, E-mail: Bruno.Kochan@uhasselt.be [Transportation Research Institute, Hasselt University, Wetenschapspark 5 bus 6, 3590 Diepenbeek (Belgium); Bellemans, Tom, E-mail: Tom.Bellemans@uhasselt.be [Transportation Research Institute, Hasselt University, Wetenschapspark 5 bus 6, 3590 Diepenbeek (Belgium); Int Panis, Luc, E-mail: Luc.intpanis@vito.be [Flemish Institute for Technological Research (VITO), Boeretang 200, 2400 Mol (Belgium); Transportation Research Institute, Hasselt University, Wetenschapspark 5 bus 6, 3590 Diepenbeek (Belgium); Macharis, Cathy, E-mail: cjmachar@vub.ac.be [Department MOSI-Transport and Logistics, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Pleinlaan 2, B-1050, Brussels (Belgium); Putman, Koen, E-mail: kputman@vub.ac.be [Department of Medical Sociology and Health Sciences, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Laarbeeklaan 103, B-1090, Brussels (Belgium); Interuniversity Centre for Health Economics Research (I-CHER), Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Brussels (Belgium)

    2012-09-15

    In both ambient air pollution epidemiology and health impact assessment an accurate assessment of the population exposure is crucial. Although considerable advances have been made in assessing human exposure outdoors, the assessments often do not consider the impact of individual travel behavior on such exposures. Population-based exposures to NO{sub 2} and O{sub 3} using only home addresses were compared with models that integrate all time-activity patterns-including time in commute-for Flanders and Brussels. The exposure estimates were used to estimate the air pollution impact on years of life lost due to respiratory mortality. Health impact of NO{sub 2} using an exposure that integrates time-activity information was on average 1.2% higher than when assuming that people are always at their home address. For ozone the overall estimated health impact was 0.8% lower. Local differences could be much larger, with estimates that differ up to 12% from the exposure using residential addresses only. Depending on age and gender, deviations from the population average were seen. Our results showed modest differences on a regional level. At the local level, however, time-activity patterns indicated larger differences in exposure and health impact estimates, mainly for people living in more rural areas. These results suggest that for local analyses the dynamic approach can contribute to an improved assessment of the health impact of various types of pollution and to the understanding of exposure differences between population groups. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Exposure to ambient air pollution was assessed integrating population mobility. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This dynamic exposure was integrated into a health impact assessment. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Differences between the dynamic and residential exposure were quantified. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Modest differences in health impact were found at a regional level. Black

  10. Comparative Health Impact Assessment of Local and Regional Particulate Air Pollutants in Scandinavia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forsberg, Bertil; Jaervholm, Bengt [Umeaa Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Public Health and Clinical Medicine; Hansson, Hans-Christen; Johansson, Christer; Areskoug, Hans [Stockholm Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Applied Environmental Science; Persson, Karin [Swedish Environmental Research Institute, Goeteborg (Sweden)

    2005-02-01

    The ongoing program Clean Air for Europe (CAFE) is an initiative from the EU Commission to establish a coordinated effort to reach better air quality in the EU. The focus is on particulate matter as it has been shown to have large impact on human health. CAFE requested that WHO make a review of the latest findings on air pollutants and health to facilitate assessments of the different air pollutants and their health effects. The WHO review project on health aspects of air pollution in Europe confirmed that exposure to particulate matter (PM), despite the lower levels we face today, still poses a significant risk to human health. Using the recommended uniform risk coefficients for health impact assessment of PM, regardless of sources, premature mortality related to long-range transported anthropogenic particles has been estimated to be about 3,500 deaths per year for the Swedish population, corresponding to a reduction in life expectancy of up to about seven months. The influence of local sources is more difficult to estimate due to large uncertainties when linking available risk coefficients to exposure data, but the estimates indicate about 1,800 deaths brought forward each year with a life expectancy reduction of about 2-3 months. However, some sectors of the population are exposed to quite high locally induced concentrations and are likely to suffer excessive reductions in life expectancy. Since the literature increasingly supports assumptions that combustion related particles are associated with higher relative risks, further studies may shift the focus for abatement strategies. CAFE sets out to establish a general cost effective abatement strategy for atmospheric particles. Our results, based on studies of background exposure, show that long-range transported sulfate rich particles dominate the health effects of PM in Sweden. The same results would be found for the whole of Scandinavia and many countries influenced by transboundary air pollution. However

  11. Identifying and Reducing Health Risks Associated with Open-Air Burn Pits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-01

    results in the Periodic Occupational Exposure Monitoring Summary ( POEMS ). Based on his review of the POEMS data, CPT Pratt opined: “The long term...is inconclusive regarding whether exposure to burn pit emissions creates a long -term health risk for deployed personnel. Contrary to this position...Air Field was "unhealthy" and concluded that the primary contributor was the burn pit. He also listed potential long -term health risks associated

  12. Indoor Air Nuclear, Biological, and Chemical Health Modeling and Assessment System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stenner, Robert D.; Hadley, Donald L.; Armstrong, Peter R.; Buck, John W.; Hoopes, Bonnie L.; Janus, Michael C.

    2001-03-01

    Indoor air quality effects on human health are of increasing concern to public health agencies and building owners. The prevention and treatment of 'sick building' syndrome and the spread of air-borne diseases in hospitals, for example, are well known priorities. However, increasing attention is being directed to the vulnerability of our public buildings/places, public security and national defense facilities to terrorist attack or the accidental release of air-borne biological pathogens, harmful chemicals, or radioactive contaminants. The Indoor Air Nuclear, Biological, and Chemical Health Modeling and Assessment System (IA-NBC-HMAS) was developed to serve as a health impact analysis tool for use in addressing these concerns. The overall goal was to develop a user-friendly fully functional prototype Health Modeling and Assessment system, which will operate under the PNNL FRAMES system for ease of use and to maximize its integration with other modeling and assessment capabilities accessible within the FRAMES system (e.g., ambient air fate and transport models, water borne fate and transport models, Physiologically Based Pharmacokinetic models, etc.). The prototype IA-NBC-HMAS is designed to serve as a functional Health Modeling and Assessment system that can be easily tailored to meet specific building analysis needs of a customer. The prototype system was developed and tested using an actual building (i.e., the Churchville Building located at the Aberdeen Proving Ground) and release scenario (i.e., the release and measurement of tracer materials within the building) to ensure realism and practicality in the design and development of the prototype system. A user-friendly "demo" accompanies this report to allow the reader the opportunity for a "hands on" review of the prototype system's capability.

  13. Linking Asthma Exacerbation and Air Pollution Data: A Step Toward Public Health and Environmental Data Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faruque, Fazlay; Finley, Richard; Marshall, Gailen; Brackin, Bruce; Li, Hui; Williams, Worth; Al-Hamdan, Mohammad; Luvall, Jeffrey; Rickman, Doug; Crosson, Bill

    2006-01-01

    Studies have shown that reducing exposure to triggers such as air pollutants can reduce symptoms and the need for medication in asthma patients. However, systems that track asthma are generally not integrated with those that track environmental hazards related to asthma. Tlvs lack of integration hinders public health awareness and responsiveness to these environmental triggers. The current study is a collaboration between health and environmental professionals to utilize NASA-derived environmental data to develop a decision support system (DSS) for asthma prediction, surveillance, and intervention. The investigators link asthma morbidity data from the University of Mississippi Medical Center (UMMC) and Mississippi Department of Health (MDH) with air quality data from the Mississippi Department of Environmental Quality (MDEQ) and remote sensing data from NASA. Daily ambient environmental hazard data for PM2.5 and ozone are obtained from the MDEQ air quality monitoring locations and are combined with remotely sensed data from NASA to develop a state-wide spatial and time series profile of environmental air quality. These data are then used to study the correlation of these measures of air quality variation with the asthma exacerbation incidence throughout the state over time. The goal is to utilize these readily available measures to allow real-time risk assessment for asthma exacerbations. GeoMedStat, a DSS previously developed for biosurveillance, will integrate these measures to monitor, analyze and report the real-time risk assessment for asthma exacerbation throughout the state.

  14. Assessment of human health impact from exposure to multiple air pollutants in China based on satellite observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Tao; Wang, Wen; Ciren, Pubu; Zhu, Yan

    2016-10-01

    Assessment of human health impact caused by air pollution is crucial for evaluating environmental hazards. In this paper, concentrations of six air pollutants (PM10, PM2.5, NO2, SO2, O3, and CO) were first derived from satellite observations, and then the overall human health risks in China caused by multiple air pollutants were assessed using an aggregated health risks index. Unlike traditional approach for human health risks assessment, which relied on the in-situ air pollution measurements, the spatial distribution of aggregated human health risks in China were obtained using satellite observations in this research. It was indicated that the remote sensing data have advantages over in-situ data in accessing human health impact caused by air pollution.

  15. The impact of communicating information about air pollution events on public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaren, J; Williams, I D

    2015-12-15

    Short-term exposure to air pollution has been associated with exacerbation of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). This study investigated the relationship between emergency hospital admissions for asthma, COPD and episodes of poor air quality in an English city (Southampton) from 2008-2013. The city's council provides a forecasting service for poor air quality to individuals with respiratory disease to reduce preventable admissions to hospital and this has been evaluated. Trends in nitrogen dioxide, ozone and particulate matter concentrations were related to hospital admissions data using regression analysis. The impacts of air quality on emergency admissions were quantified using the relative risks associated with each pollutant. Seasonal and weekly trends were apparent for both air pollution and hospital admissions, although there was a weak relationship between the two. The air quality forecasting service proved ineffective at reducing hospital admissions. Improvements to the health forecasting service are necessary to protect the health of susceptible individuals, as there is likely to be an increasing need for such services in the future.

  16. Inside environment, air quality and health; Environnement interieur, qualite de l'air et sante

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collignan, B. [Centre Scientifique et Technique du Batiment (CSTB), 77 - Marne la Vallee (France); Pirard, Ph. [Institut de Veille Sanitaire (InVS), 94 - Saint Maurice (France)

    2005-07-15

    It is now obvious that there is a risk of lung cancer because of the radon exposure in houses. The domestic exposure is the second cause of the lung cancer after tobacco. It is possible to reduce the concentration in radon in houses. The domestic exposure to radon is a problem of public health that we have to manage. The question is to know to what point from a technical, economical and public health point of view. Studies about cost-efficiency should be made to better direct the political actions on radon. Two points are important to fight against bad effects of radon, the reduction of radon levels in houses and the fight against addiction to smoking. (N.C.)

  17. Contribution of smoking and air pollution exposure in urban areas to social differences in respiratory health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranft Ulrich

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Socio-economic status, smoking, and exposure to increased levels of environmental air pollution are associated with adverse effects on respiratory health. We assessed the contribution of occupational exposures, smoking and outdoor air pollution as competing factors for the association between socio-economic status and respiratory health indicators in a cohort of women from the Ruhr area aged 55 at the time of investigation between 1985 and 1990. Methods Data of 1251 women with spirometry and complete questionnaire information about respiratory diseases, smoking and potential confounders were used in the analyses. Exposure to large-scale air pollution was assessed with data from monitoring stations. Exposure to small-scale air pollution was assessed as traffic-related exposure by distance to the nearest major road. Socio-economic status was defined by educational level. Multiple regression models were used to estimate the contribution of occupational exposures, smoking and outdoor air pollution to social differences in respiratory health. Results Women with less than 10 years of school education in comparison to more than 10 years of school education were more often occupationally exposed (16.4% vs. 10.1%, smoked more often (20.3% vs. 13.9%, and lived more often close to major roads (26.0% vs. 22.9%. Long-term exposure to increased levels of PM10 was significantly associated with lower school education. Women with low school education were more likely to suffer from respiratory symptoms and had reduced lung function. In the multivariate analysis the associations between education and respiratory health attenuated after adjusting for occupational exposure, smoking and outdoor air pollution. The crude odds ratio for the association between the lung function indicator FEV1 less than 80% of predicted value and educational level (10 years of school education was 1.83 (95% CI: 1.22–2.74. This changed to 1.56 (95% CI: 1.03–2

  18. Assessing the health benefits of improved air quality in Central and Eastern Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krupnick, A.J.; Harrison, K.W.; Nickell, E.J.; Toman, M.A.

    Assessments of the benefits of improvements in environmental quality in Central and Eastern Europe are needed to determine priorities for pollution abatement activities in the region. A recent study conducted by researchers at Resources for the Future suggests that the human health benefits attributable to reductions in emissions of three air pollutants in five of the region's countries are potentially large. However, the study also highlights the uncertainties surrounding measurements of decreases in adverse health effects and economic valuations of improved air quality. Attempts to account for these uncertainties yield findings that strengthen the researchers' assertion that air pollution control should be a target of environmental and economic policies in Central and Eastern Europe.

  19. Chemicals in the air of the work environment and health risks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin reinhold

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The study focuses on indoor air quality (microclimate andchemicals in industrial premises. The health risk is determined.The model is presented for taking into consideration theconcentration of chemicals in the air of the work environment andpossible negative health effects. Practical examples and the resultsof measurements of microclimate and chemicals concentration inthe workplace air in five industries (mechanical, printing, wood,plastic and clothing industries are presented. The microclimate isunder control except during very hot climate in summer. Thechemicals are under control in printing, mechanical (exceptwelding in closed workrooms, and clothing industry. Thechemicals are often over the limits in wood processing industryand in some of the premises of plastic (manufacturing of rubberdetails industry.

  20. Health Impact Assessment of Air Pollution in São Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Karina Camasmie; Miraglia, Simone Georges El Khouri

    2016-07-11

    Epidemiological research suggests that air pollution may cause chronic diseases, as well as exacerbation of related pathologies such as cardiovascular and respiratory morbidity and mortality. This study evaluates air pollution scenarios considering a Health Impact Assessment approach in São Paulo, Brazil. We have analyzed abatement scenarios of Particulate Matter (PM) with an aerodynamic diameter health effects on respiratory and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in the period from 2009 to 2011 through the APHEKOM tool, as well as the associated health costs. Considering World Health Organization (WHO) standards of PM2.5 (10 μg/m³), São Paulo would avoid more than 5012 premature deaths (equivalent to 266,486 life years' gain) and save US$15.1 billion annually. If São Paulo could even diminish the mean of PM2.5 by 5 μg/m³, nearly 1724 deaths would be avoided, resulting in a gain of US$ 4.96 billion annually. Reduced levels of PM10, PM2.5 and ozone could save lives and an impressive amount of money in a country where economic resources are scarce. Moreover, the reduced levels of air pollution would also lower the demand for hospital care, since hospitalizations would diminish. In this sense, Brazil should urgently adopt WHO air pollution standards in order to improve the quality of life of its population.

  1. EFFECTS OF AIR POLLUTION ON RESPIRATORY HEALTH OF ADULTS IN THREE CHINESE CITIES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The authors examined potential associations between air-pollution exposures and respiratory symptoms and illnesses of 4,108 adults who resided in 4 districts of 3 large, distinct Chinese cities. Data on respiratory health outcomes and relevant risk factors for parents and childre...

  2. Acute effects of air pollution on respiratory health of 50-70 yr old adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Zee, S C; Hoek, G; Boezen, Hendrika; Schouten, J P; van Wijnen, J H; Brunekreef, B

    2000-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the association between daily changes in respiratory health and air pollution in 489 adults, aged 50-70 yrs, with and without chronic respiratory symptoms, living in urban and nonurban areas in the Netherlands. Subjects were selected from the general populati

  3. Acute effects of ozone on mortality from the "Air pollution and health : A European approach" project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gryparis, A; Forsberg, B; Katsouyanni, K; Analitis, A; Touloumi, G; Schwartz, J; Samoli, E; Medina, S; Anderson, HR; Niciu, EM; Wichmann, HE; Kriz, B; Kosnik, M; Skorkovsky, J; Vonk, JM; Dortbudak, Z

    2004-01-01

    In the Air Pollution and Health: A European Approach (APHEA2) project, the effects of ambient ozone concentrations on mortality were investigated. Data were collected on daily ozone concentrations, the daily number of deaths, confounders, and potential effect modifiers from 23 cities/areas for at le

  4. Acute effects of ambient air pollution episodes on respiratory health of children.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoek, G.

    1992-01-01

    In this thesis the acute effects of air pollution episodes on respiratory health of seven to eleven year old children living in non-urban communities in the Netherlands are discussed. Repeated measurements of pulmonary function (spirometry) and the occurrence of acute respiratory symptoms using a da

  5. Air pollution and respiratory health of children: the PEACE panel study in Prague, Czech Republic.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vondra, V.; Branis, M.; Reisova, M.; Maly, M.; Hoek, G.

    1998-01-01

    A multicentre study (Pollution Effects on Asthmatic Children in Europe (PEACE)) project investigated the relationship between the air pollution and daily variation of respiratory health in children with chronic respiratory symptoms. Data were collected on 66 children in Prague and 68 children in Ben

  6. Air pollution and respiratory health of children: the PEACE panel study in Teplice, Czech Republic.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kotesovec, F.; Vitnerova, N.; Leixner, M.; Benes, I.; Skoorkovsky, J.; Roemer, W.

    1998-01-01

    As part of a multicentre study (the Pollution Effects on Asthmatic Children in Europe (PEACE) project) the acute effects of air pollution on the health of susceptible children was investigated. Eighty nine children in the urban and 77 children in the rural area were followed during the study period

  7. Air pollution and respiratory health of children: the PEACE panel study in Krakow., Poland.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haluszka, J.; Pisiewics, K.; Miczynski, J.; Roemer, W.; Tomalak, W.

    1998-01-01

    The Krakow panel study was performed as part of the Pollution Effects on Asthmatic Children in Europe (PEACE) project. The aim of the study was to examine the acute effects of short-term changes in air pollution on symptomatic children. Krakow served as the urban area and Rabka, a small health resor

  8. Does consideration of larger study areas yield more accurate estimates of air pollution health effects?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Marie; Siroux, Valérie; Pin, Isabelle

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Spatially-resolved air pollution models can be developed in large areas. The resulting increased exposure contrasts and population size offer opportunities to better characterize the effect of atmospheric pollutants on respiratory health. However the heterogeneity of these areas may a...

  9. Impact of air pollution on vitamin D deficiency and bone health in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feizabad, Elham; Hossein-Nezhad, Arash; Maghbooli, Zhila; Ramezani, Majid; Hashemian, Roxana; Moattari, Syamak

    2017-12-01

    The association between air pollution and bone health was evaluated in adolescents in the city of Tehran. This study is essentially ecological. Vitamin D deficiency among adolescents has been reported at higher rates in polluted areas than in non-polluted areas. Additionally, residence in polluted areas is associated with lower levels of bone alkaline phosphatase.

  10. Public Health and Air Pollution in Asia (PAPA): A multicity study of short-term effects of air pollution on mortality

    OpenAIRE

    Wong, Chit-Ming; Vichit-Vadakan, Nuntavarn; Kan, Haidong; Qian, Zhengmin

    2008-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Although the deleterious effects of air pollution from fossil fuel combustion have been demonstrated in many Western nations, fewer studies have been conducted in Asia. The Public Health and Air Pollution in Asia (PAPA) project assessed the effects of short-term exposure to air pollution on daily mortality in Bangkok, Thailand, and in three cities in China: Hong Kong, Shanghai, and Wuhan. Methods: Poisson regression models incorporating natural spline smoothing func...

  11. Environmental Public Health Tracking of Childhood Asthma Using California Health Interview Survey, Traffic, and Outdoor Air Pollution Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilhelm, Michelle; Meng, Ying-Ying; Rull, Rudolph P.; English, Paul; Balmes, John; Ritz, Beate

    2008-01-01

    Background Despite extensive evidence that air pollution affects childhood asthma, state-level and national-level tracking of asthma outcomes in relation to air pollution is limited. Objectives Our goals were to evaluate the feasibility of linking the 2001 California Health Interview Survey (CHIS), air monitoring, and traffic data; estimate associations between traffic density (TD) or outdoor air pollutant concentrations and childhood asthma morbidity; and evaluate the usefulness of such databases, linkages, and analyses to Environmental Public Health Tracking (EPHT). Methods We estimated TD within 500 feet of residential cross-streets of respondents and annual average pollutant concentrations based on monitoring station measurements. We used logistic regression to examine associations with reported asthma symptoms and emergency department (ED) visits/hospitalizations. Results Assignment of TD and air pollution exposures for cross-streets was successful for 82% of children with asthma in Los Angeles and San Diego, California, Counties. Children with asthma living in high ozone areas and areas with high concentrations of particulate matter < 10 μm in aerodynamic diameter experienced symptoms more frequently, and those living close to heavy traffic reported more ED visits/hospitalizations. The advantages of the CHIS for asthma EPHT include a large and representative sample, biennial data collection, and ascertainment of important socio-demographic and residential address information. Disadvantages are its cross-sectional design, reliance on parental reports of diagnoses and symptoms, and lack of information on some potential confounders. Conclusions Despite limitations, the CHIS provides a useful framework for examining air pollution and childhood asthma morbidity in support of EPHT, especially because later surveys address some noted gaps. We plan to employ CHIS 2003 and 2005 data and novel exposure assessment methods to re-examine the questions raised here. PMID

  12. Indoor air quality, ventilation and respiratory health in elderly residents living in nursing homes in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentayeb, Malek; Norback, Dan; Bednarek, Micha

    2015-01-01

    European countries. 600 elderly people from 50 nursing homes underwent a medical examination and completed a standardised questionnaire. Air quality and comfort parameters were objectively assessed in situ in the nursing home. Mean concentrations of air pollutants did not exceed the existing standards...... cough. Elderly subjects aged ≥80 years were at higher risk. Pollutant effects were more pronounced in the case of poor ventilation. Even at low levels, indoor air quality affected respiratory health in elderly people permanently living in nursing homes, with frailty increasing with age. The effects were......Few data exist on respiratory effects of indoor air quality and comfort parameters in the elderly. In the context of the GERIE study, we investigated for the first time the relationships of these factors to respiratory morbidity among elderly people permanently living in nursing homes in seven...

  13. Transboundary health impacts of transported global air pollution and international trade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qiang; Jiang, Xujia; Tong, Dan; Davis, Steven J; Zhao, Hongyan; Geng, Guannan; Feng, Tong; Zheng, Bo; Lu, Zifeng; Streets, David G; Ni, Ruijing; Brauer, Michael; van Donkelaar, Aaron; Martin, Randall V; Huo, Hong; Liu, Zhu; Pan, Da; Kan, Haidong; Yan, Yingying; Lin, Jintai; He, Kebin; Guan, Dabo

    2017-03-29

    Millions of people die every year from diseases caused by exposure to outdoor air pollution. Some studies have estimated premature mortality related to local sources of air pollution, but local air quality can also be affected by atmospheric transport of pollution from distant sources. International trade is contributing to the globalization of emission and pollution as a result of the production of goods (and their associated emissions) in one region for consumption in another region. The effects of international trade on air pollutant emissions, air quality and health have been investigated regionally, but a combined, global assessment of the health impacts related to international trade and the transport of atmospheric air pollution is lacking. Here we combine four global models to estimate premature mortality caused by fine particulate matter (PM2.5) pollution as a result of atmospheric transport and the production and consumption of goods and services in different world regions. We find that, of the 3.45 million premature deaths related to PM2.5 pollution in 2007 worldwide, about 12 per cent (411,100 deaths) were related to air pollutants emitted in a region of the world other than that in which the death occurred, and about 22 per cent (762,400 deaths) were associated with goods and services produced in one region for consumption in another. For example, PM2.5 pollution produced in China in 2007 is linked to more than 64,800 premature deaths in regions other than China, including more than 3,100 premature deaths in western Europe and the USA; on the other hand, consumption in western Europe and the USA is linked to more than 108,600 premature deaths in China. Our results reveal that the transboundary health impacts of PM2.5 pollution associated with international trade are greater than those associated with long-distance atmospheric pollutant transport.

  14. C-C1-02: Creating a GIS Infrastructure to Evaluate Air Quality’s Effect on Health Outcomes

    OpenAIRE

    Krajenta, Rick; Lamerato, Lois; Booza, Jason; Grgicak-Mannion, Alice; Krause, Helen; Reiners, John; Raymond, Delbert; Weglicki, Linda

    2010-01-01

    Background and Aims: Air pollution exposure is a complex and heterogeneous condition. The association of air pollution with disease is consistently established in many epidemiological studies. This creates a need for an infrastructure to measure both air pollution levels and health outcomes geospatially.

  15. Economic evaluation of the air pollution effect on public health in China's 74 cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li; Lei, Yalin; Pan, Dongyan; Yu, Chen; Si, Chunyan

    2016-01-01

    Air deterioration caused by pollution has harmed public health. The existing studies on the economic loss caused by a variety of air pollutants in multiple cities are lacking. To understand the effect of different pollutants on public health and to provide the basis of the environmental governance for governments, based on the dose-response relation and the willingness to pay, this paper used the latest available data of the inhalable particulate matter (PM10) and sulphur dioxide (SO2) from January 2015 to June 2015 in 74 cities by establishing the lowest and the highest limit scenarios. The results show that (1) in the lowest and highest limit scenario, the health-related economic loss caused by PM10 and SO2 represented 1.63 and 2.32 % of the GDP, respectively; (2) For a single city, in the lowest and the highest limit scenarios, the highest economic loss of the public health effect caused by PM10 and SO2 was observed in Chongqing; the highest economic loss of the public health effect per capita occurred in Hebei Baoding. The highest proportion of the health-related economic loss accounting for GDP was found in Hebei Xingtai. The main reason is that the terrain conditions are not conducive to the spread of air pollutants in Chongqing, Baoding and Xingtai, and the three cities are typical heavy industrial cities that are based on coal resources. Therefore, this paper proposes to improve the energy structure, use the advanced production process, reasonably control the urban population growth, and adopt the emissions trading system in order to reduce the economic loss caused by the effects of air pollution on public health.

  16. Evaluation of health effects of air pollution in the Chestnut Ridge area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gruhl, J.; Schweppe, F.C.

    1980-01-01

    This project involves several tasks designed to take advantage of a very extensive air pollution monitoring system that is operating in the Chestnut Ridge region of Western Pennsylvania and the very well developed analytic dispersion models that have been previously fine-tuned to this particular area. The major task in this project is to establish, through several distinct epidemiologic approaches, health data to be used to test hypotheses about relations of air pollution exposures to morbidity and mortality rates in this region. This project affords a cost-effective opportunity for state-of-the-art techniques to be used in both costly areas of air pollution and health effects data collection. The closely spaced network of monitors, plus the dispersion modeling capabilities, allow for the investigation of health impacts of various pollutant gradients in neighboring geographic areas, thus minimizing the confounding effects of social, ethnic, and economic factors. The pollutants that are monitored in this network include total gaseous sulfur, sulfates, total suspended particulates, NOx, NO, ozone/oxidants, and coefficient of haze. In addition to enabling the simulation of exposure profiles between monitors, the air quality modeling, along with extensive source and background inventories, will allow for upgrading the quality of the monitored data as well as simulating the exposure levels for about 25 additional air pollutants. Another important goal of this project is to collect and test the many available models for associating health effects with air pollution, to determine their predictive validity and their usefulness in the choice and siting of future energy facilities.

  17. Air Force Health Study. An Epidemiologic Investigation of Health Effects in Air Force Personnel Following Exposure to Herbicides. Volume 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-03-01

    M.S. Col Judson C. Miner, D.V.M., M.P.H. Amy S. Brockman, M.S. Scott C. Henderson, M.S. David E. Williams. M.D., SC2F Prolect Manager: R.H. Roe-ner...health effects of environmental 2,3,7,8-TCDD in Missouri. Am. J. of Ind. Med. 11:685-91. 20. Webb, K.B., R.G. Evans, A.P. Knutsen, S.T. Roodman , D.W

  18. The effect of future outdoor air pollution on human health and the contribution of climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, R.; West, J. J.; Lamarque, J.; Shindell, D.; Collins, W.; Dalsoren, S. B.; Faluvegi, G. S.; Folberth, G.; Horowitz, L. W.; Nagashima, T.; Naik, V.; Rumbold, S.; Skeie, R.; Sudo, K.; Takemura, T.; Bergmann, D. J.; Cameron-Smith, P. J.; Cionni, I.; Doherty, R. M.; Eyring, V.; Josse, B.; MacKenzie, I. A.; Plummer, D.; Righi, M.; Stevenson, D. S.; Strode, S. A.; Szopa, S.; Zeng, G.

    2013-12-01

    At present, exposure to outdoor air pollution from ozone and fine particulate matter (PM2.5) causes over 2 million deaths per year, due to respiratory and cardiovascular diseases and lung cancer. Future ambient concentrations of ozone and PM2.5 will be affected by both air pollutant emissions and climate change. Here we estimate the potential impact of future outdoor air pollution on premature human mortality, and isolate the contribution of future climate change due to its effect on air quality. We use modeled present-day (2000) and future global ozone and PM2.5 concentrations from simulations with an ensemble of chemistry-climate models from the Atmospheric Chemistry and Climate Model Intercomparison Project (ACCMIP). Future air pollution was modeled for global greenhouse gas and air pollutant emissions in the four IPCC AR5 Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) scenarios, for 2030, 2050 and 2100. All model outputs are regridded to a common 0.5°x0.5° horizontal resolution. Future premature mortality is estimated for each RCP scenario and year based on changes in concentrations of ozone and PM2.5 relative to 2000. Using a health impact function, changes in concentrations for each RCP scenario are combined with future population and cause-specific baseline mortality rates as projected by a single independent scenario in which the global incidence of cardiopulmonary diseases is expected to increase. The effect of climate change is isolated by considering the difference between air pollutant concentrations from simulations with 2000 emissions and a future year climate and simulations with 2000 emissions and climate. Uncertainties in the results reflect the uncertainty in the concentration-response function and that associated with variability among models. Few previous studies have quantified the effects of future climate change on global human health via changes in air quality, and this is the first such study to use an ensemble of global models.

  19. Application of DALYs in Measuring Health Effect of Ambient Air Pollution: A Case Study in Shanghai, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUN-HUI ZHANG; CHANG-HONG CHEN; GUO-HAI CHEN; GUI-XIANG SONG; BING-HENG CHEN; QING-YAN FU; HAI-DONG KAN

    2006-01-01

    To investigate the effect of ambient air pollution on human health and the subsequent disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) lost in Shanghai. Methods We used epidemiology-based exposure-response functions to calculate the attributable number of cases due to air pollution in Shanghai in 2000, and then we estimated the corresponding DALYs lost in Shanghai based on unit DALYs values of the health consequences. Results Ambient air pollution caused 103 064 DALYs lost in Shanghai in 2000. Among all the health endpoints, premature deaths and chronic bronchitis predominated in the value of total DALYs lost. Conclusion The air pollution levels have an adverse effect on the general population health and strengthen the rationale for limiting the levels of air pollution in outdoor air in Shanghai.

  20. Health costs caused by oil extraction air emissions and the benefits from abatement: the case of Kazakhstan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Netalieva, I.; Wesseler, J.H.H.; Heijman, W.J.M.

    2005-01-01

    The methodology and results of a cost–benefit analysis of air quality control during oil production in the Caspian Region in Kazakhstan are presented. The benefits are defined as the decrease in health costs from reduced air pollution. The health costs are the income losses which depend on the attri

  1. Environmental health in China: progress towards clean air and safe water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Junfeng; Mauzerall, Denise L; Zhu, Tong; Liang, Song; Ezzati, Majid; Remais, Justin V

    2010-03-27

    Environmental risk factors, especially air and water pollution, are a major source of morbidity and mortality in China. Biomass fuel and coal are burned for cooking and heating in almost all rural and many urban households, resulting in severe indoor air pollution that contributes greatly to the burden of disease. Many communities lack access to safe drinking water and sanitation, and thus the risk of waterborne disease in many regions is high. At the same time, China is rapidly industrialising with associated increases in energy use and industrial waste. Although economic growth from industrialisation has improved health and quality of life indicators, it has also increased the release of chemical toxins into the environment and the rate of environmental disasters, with severe effects on health. Air quality in China's cities is among the worst in the world, and industrial water pollution has become a widespread health hazard. Moreover, emissions of climate-warming greenhouse gases from energy use are rapidly increasing. Global climate change will inevitably intensify China's environmental health troubles, with potentially catastrophic outcomes from major shifts in temperature and precipitation. Facing the overlap of traditional, modern, and emerging environmental dilemmas, China has committed substantial resources to environmental improvement. The country has the opportunity to address its national environmental health challenges and to assume a central role in the international effort to improve the global environment.

  2. The Gap in Knowledge of Clinical Practice Guidelines by Mental Health Residents in Buenos Aires (Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Fabrissin

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this pilot study was to evaluate if the residents of psychiatry and clinical psychology from the city of Buenos Aires knew any of the existing mental health Clinical Practice and Treatment Guidelines (CPTGs. We asked residents their opinion about CPTGs and, also, if they followed their recommendations in clinical practice. We asked 59 mental health residents (28 physicians and 29 psychologists with different years of clinical training to fill a questionnaire to know their opinion about CPTGs and also if they follow the CPTG recommendations in their clinical practice. We found that 79.31% of residents did not know any CPTG. Eighty percent of the residents who did know any CPTG have a positive opinion about CPTGs. Finally, the American Psychiatric Association Guidelines were the most known CPTGs. The authors emphasize the need for a clinical guidelines diffusion policy in Buenos Aires city and particularly as a clinical and training resource for mental health residents.

  3. Estimating health impacts and economic costs of air pollution in the Republic of Macedonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Craig Meisner

    2015-11-01

    influences a person‟s day-to-day health and their ability to work. Converting lost years of life and disabilities into DALYs - these health effects represent an annual economic cost of approximately €253 million or 3.2% of GDP (midpoint estimate. Premature death accounts for over 90% of the total health burden since this represents a loss of total life-long income. A reduction of even 1μg/m3 in ambient PM10 or PM 2.5 would imply 195 fewer deaths and represent an economic savings of €34 million per year in reduced health costs. Conclusion: Interventions that reduce ambient PM10 or PM2.5 have significant economic savings in both the short and long run. Currently, these benefits (costs are „hidden‟ due to the lack of information linking air quality and health outcomes and translating this into economic terms. Policymakers seeking ways to improve the public‟s health and lessen the burden on the health system could focus on a narrow set of air pollution sources to achieve these goals.

  4. The effects of outdoor air pollution on the respiratory health of Canadian children: A systematic review of epidemiological studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Villamizar, Laura A; Magico, Adam; Osornio-Vargas, Alvaro; Rowe, Brian H

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Outdoor air pollution is a global problem with serious effects on human health, and children are considered to be highly susceptible to the effects of air pollution. OBJECTIVE: To conduct a comprehensive and updated systematic review of the literature reporting the effects of outdoor air pollution on the respiratory health of children in Canada. METHODS: Searches of four electronic databases between January 2004 and November 2014 were conducted to identify epidemiological studies evaluating the effect of exposure to outdoor air pollutants on respiratory symptoms, lung function measurements and the use of health services due to respiratory conditions in Canadian children. The selection process and quality assessment, using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale, were conducted independently by two reviewers. RESULTS: Twenty-seven studies that were heterogeneous with regard to study design, population, respiratory outcome and air pollution exposure were identified. Overall, the included studies reported adverse effects of outdoor air pollution at concentrations that were below Canadian and United States standards. Heterogeneous effects of air pollutants were reported according to city, sex, socioeconomic status and seasonality. The present review also describes trends in research related to the effect of air pollution on Canadian children over the past 25 years. CONCLUSION: The present study reconfirms the adverse effects of outdoor air pollution on the respiratory health of children in Canada. It will help researchers, clinicians and environmental health authorities identify the available evidence of the adverse effect of outdoor air pollution, research gaps and the limitations for further research. PMID:25961280

  5. A Bayesian localized conditional autoregressive model for estimating the health effects of air pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Duncan; Rushworth, Alastair; Sahu, Sujit K

    2014-06-01

    Estimation of the long-term health effects of air pollution is a challenging task, especially when modeling spatial small-area disease incidence data in an ecological study design. The challenge comes from the unobserved underlying spatial autocorrelation structure in these data, which is accounted for using random effects modeled by a globally smooth conditional autoregressive model. These smooth random effects confound the effects of air pollution, which are also globally smooth. To avoid this collinearity a Bayesian localized conditional autoregressive model is developed for the random effects. This localized model is flexible spatially, in the sense that it is not only able to model areas of spatial smoothness, but also it is able to capture step changes in the random effects surface. This methodological development allows us to improve the estimation performance of the covariate effects, compared to using traditional conditional auto-regressive models. These results are established using a simulation study, and are then illustrated with our motivating study on air pollution and respiratory ill health in Greater Glasgow, Scotland in 2011. The model shows substantial health effects of particulate matter air pollution and nitrogen dioxide, whose effects have been consistently attenuated by the currently available globally smooth models.

  6. Exposure-response functions for health effects of air pollutants based on epidemiological findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aunan, K.

    1995-10-01

    The objective of this report is to provide exposure-response functions for health effects and air pollution, which can be used in cost-effectiveness analyses of abatement measures. When cost-effective abatement strategies for air pollution are analyzed, and when air quality standards are set, it is important to have quantitative knowledge about health damage. In spite of their shortcomings, epidemiological studies provide a sound basis for exposure-response functions because they involve a random cross section of the population. In this report the exposure-response functions apply to the relation between air pollutant concentrations and relative effect frequencies, and involve the following health effect end-points: acute and chronic respiratory symptoms in children and adults, asthma episodes in children and adults, eye irritations, headache, lung damage in children, excess mortality, lung cancer incidence. The effects are attributed to one indicator component, which in many cases is particles, but for some effects NO{sub 2}, SO{sub 2}, O{sub 3}, or CO. A calculation procedure is suggested which makes it possible to estimate excess annual symptom-days for short-term effects using the annual average concentration. 103 refs., 1 table

  7. Racial Differences in Perceptions of Air Pollution Health Risk: Does Environmental Exposure Matter?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayajit Chakraborty

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This article extends environmental risk perception research by exploring how potential health risk from exposure to industrial and vehicular air pollutants, as well as other contextual and socio-demographic factors, influence racial/ethnic differences in air pollution health risk perception. Our study site is the Greater Houston metropolitan area, Texas, USA—a racially/ethnically diverse area facing high levels of exposure to pollutants from both industrial and transportation sources. We integrate primary household-level survey data with estimates of excess cancer risk from ambient exposure to industrial and on-road mobile source emissions of air toxics obtained from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Statistical analysis is based on multivariate generalized estimation equation models which account for geographic clustering of surveyed households. Our results reveal significantly higher risk perceptions for non-Hispanic Black residents and those exposed to greater cancer risk from industrial pollutants, and also indicate that gender influences the relationship between race/ethnicity and air pollution risk perception. These findings highlight the need to incorporate measures of environmental health risk exposure in future analysis of social disparities in risk perception.

  8. EC multicentre study on small area variations in air quality and health (SAVIAH)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lebret, E. [National Inst. of Public Health and Environmental Protection (Netherlands); Elliott, P. [London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine (United Kingdom); Briggs, D. [Huddersfield Univ. (United Kingdom). Inst. of Environmental and Policy Analysis; Gorynski, P. [National Inst. of Hygiene, Warsaw (Poland); Kriz, B. [National Inst. of Public Health, Prague (Czech Republic)

    1995-12-31

    SAVIAH is an EC-funded methodological study coordinated by Dr. Paul Elliott at the LSHTM (London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine). The project aims to apply, test and evaluate new and emerging methodologies in the fields of epidemiology, geography, air pollution modelling and small area health statistics, and to bring the data together in a consistent geographic framework. The study was carried out in the U.K., The Netherlands, Poland and the Czech Republic, using the example of childhood wheeze and outdoor air pollution. Specific aims of the study were, in each centre, (1) to carry out a questionnaire survey among parents of guardians of around 4000 to 5000 children aged between 7 and 11, (2) to carry out a series of air pollution surveys for NO{sub 2} as a proxy for the complex of traffic-related pollutants, and SO{sub 2} (PL), using a dense network of passive samplers, (3) to build up a detailed Geographical Information System (GIS) for each of the study areas; (4) to construct an air pollution `map` based on the NO{sub 2} and SO{sub 2} measurements and a health `map` based on `map smoothing` techniques and (5) to explore methods to examine relationships between health, pollution, socio-economic and other data. (author)

  9. Influence of air pollution on pregnant women’s health and pregnancy outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanković Aleksandra

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary Outdoor and indoor air pollution pollutants can be a potential cause to a lot of negative effects on the health of pregnant women and outcome of pregnancy. The objective of this paper was to estimate the influence of outdoor and indoor air pollution on the health of pregnant women and outcome of pregnancy. Material and Methods The study subjects were the pregnant women, non-smokers, who were not professionally exposed to air pollution. They were divided into the exposed group (n=189 and control group (n=178 during the exposure to outdoor air pollution. The data on exposure to sources of indoor air pollution (smoke produced by burning fossil fuels and passive smoking during pregnancy were obtained from the questionnaire. Data on health condition and outcome of pregnancy were obtained from medical records of tested pregnant women. Results. The research results have shown that the frequency of anemia (OR=6.76; 95% CI=1.28-7.72, upper respiratory symptoms (OR=9.53; 95% CI=1.32-3.8 and bleeding (OR=20.5; 95% CI=2.03-6.97 was significantly higher in pregnant women exposed to outdoor air pollution as compared with the control group. The occurrence of upper respiratory symptoms (OR=40.42; 95% CI=2.96-8.91 and bleeding (OR=53.21; 95% CI=4.3-15.73 was significantly higher in pregnant women who had been exposed to fossil fuel smoke. Exposure to passive smoking had significant influence on the development of upper respiratory symptoms (OR=34.58; 95% CI=3.05-11.66.

  10. The health risks of incense use in the home: an underestimated source of indoor air pollution?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Debbie; Pontin, David

    2016-03-01

    The health impact of indoor air pollution is a growing area of interest for public health professionals. People typically spend up to 90 per cent of their time indoors, particularly women, young children and elders. Although the adverse health effects of second-hand tobacco smoke are well recognised, the impact of burning incense in the home has received little attention in Western literature. Incense burning in the home is common in a number of cultures (particularly Asian, North African or Arabic). Many health visitors (HVs) work with communities who use incense regularly for religious/cultural reasons and it is a neglected area of study and research.The literature suggests that home incense use can have significant adverse health effects, particularly on cardiopulmonary morbidity and mortality. Further research is needed to identify which individuals are most susceptible, which types of incense are most harmful, and whether any actions can be taken to minimise exposure.

  11. A multidisciplinary approach to the air quality and health problems in indoor arenas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salonen, R.O.; Pennanen, A.S.; Alm, S.; Randell, J.T.; Haelinen, A.I.; Husman, T.; Jantunen, M.J. [National Public Health Inst., Kuopio (Finland). Div. of Environmental Health; Eklund, T. [Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo (Finland); Lee, Kiyoung; Spengler, J.D. [Harvard School of Public Health, Boston (United States). Dept. of Environmental Health

    1995-12-31

    Most ice resurfacing machines used in indoor ice arenas have internal combustion engines. They use either propane or petrol as fuel. The main exhaust pollutants are carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}), volatile organic compounds (VOC) and fine particles. In general, propane engines emit more NO{sub x} than petrol engines, but their CO emissions are smaller. The levels of these pollutants in indoor air depend on total amount of emissions volume of arena and effectiveness of ventilation. However, due to large variations in engine emissions the air quality in any single arena cannot be estimated without direct measurements. High levels of CO and nitrogen dioxide (NO{sub 2}) have been measured in indoor ice arenas of North America since 1960`s, and it is only recently that high NO{sub 2} levels have been measured also in Sweden. In health studies, attention has been paid mostly to epidemic acute poisonings among ice hockey players and spectators caused by large concentrations of CO. However, some cases of acute NO{sub 2} poisonings have also been described. The aims of this project are: (1) to examine the air quality in Finnish indoor ice arenas, (2) to study associations between the air quality and the major technical features of the arenas, (3) to assess personal exposures of ice hockey players, spectators and maintenance personnel to CO and NO{sub 2}, (4) to investigate short-term and longer-term health effects of CO and NO{sub 2} exposures on ice hockey players and maintenance personnel, (5) to inform the managers of ice arenas and the health authorities on the current air quality problems and health risks in Finnish indoor ice arenas. (author)

  12. Integrated Assessment of Health-related Economic Impacts of U.S. Air Pollution Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saari, R. K.; Rausch, S.; Selin, N. E.

    2012-12-01

    We examine the environmental impacts, health-related economic benefits, and distributional effects of new US regulations to reduce smog from power plants, namely: the Cross-State Air Pollution Rule. Using integrated assessment methods, linking atmospheric and economic models, we assess the magnitude of economy-wide effects and distributional consequences that are not captured by traditional regulatory impact assessment methods. We study the Cross-State Air Pollution Rule, a modified allowance trading scheme that caps emissions of nitrogen oxides and sulfur dioxide from power plants in the eastern United States and thus reduces ozone and particulate matter pollution. We use results from the regulatory regional air quality model, CAMx (the Comprehensive Air Quality Model with extensions), and epidemiologic studies in BenMAP (Environmental Benefits Mapping and Analysis Program), to quantify differences in morbidities and mortalities due to this policy. To assess the economy-wide and distributional consequences of these health impacts, we apply a recently developed economic and policy model, the US Regional Energy and Environmental Policy Model (USREP), a multi-region, multi-sector, multi-household, recursive dynamic computable general equilibrium economic model of the US that provides a detailed representation of the energy sector, and the ability to represent energy and environmental policies. We add to USREP a representation of air pollution impacts, including the estimation and valuation of health outcomes and their effects on health services, welfare, and factor markets. We find that the economic welfare benefits of the Rule are underestimated by traditional methods, which omit economy-wide impacts. We also quantify the distribution of benefits, which have varying effects across US regions, income groups, and pollutants, and we identify factors influencing this distribution, including the geographic variation of pollution and population as well as underlying

  13. [EVALUATION OF THE AIR POLLUTION HEALTH RISK FOR THE POPULATION OF THE CITY OF UFA].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuenkova, G A; Karelin, A O; Askarov, R A; Askarova, Z F

    2015-01-01

    There are presented results of the calculation of carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic risks due to the impact of chemical air pollutants for the human health of a large industrial city. Maximal levels of carcinogenic hazards under inhalation route of substances from the air were established to be noted on gasoline, manganese, sulfur dioxide, copper oxide, formaldehyde. In the formation of carcinogenic risk the greatest contribution is made by chromium, gasoline, formaldehyde, benzol. The risk of non-carcinogenic and carcinogenic effects for the population of the city continues to remain to be high, that requires the development and implementation of planned recreational measures.

  14. An evaluation of public health impact of ambient air pollution under various energy scenarios in Shanghai, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haidong Kan; Bingheng Chen [Fudan Univ., Dept. of Environmental Health, Shanghai (China); Changhong Chen; Qingyan Fu; Minghua Chen [Shanghai Academy of Environmental Sciences, Shanghai (China)

    2004-01-01

    To investigate the potential public health impact of ambient air pollution under various energy scenarios in Shanghai, we estimated the air pollution exposure level of the general population under various planned energy scenarios, and assessed the potential public health impact using the concentration-response functions derived from available epidemiologic studies. The results show that ambient air pollution in relation to various energy scenarios could have significant impact on the health status of Shanghai residents. Compared with base case scenario, implementation of various energy scenarios could prevent 608-5144 and 1189-10,462 PM{sub 10}-related avoidable deaths (mid-value) in 2010 and 2020, respectively; and it could also decrease substantial cases of relevant diseases. These findings illustrate that an effective energy and environmental policy will play an active role in reduction of air pollutant emissions, improvement of air quality, and public health. (Author)

  15. Health and Cellular Impacts of Air Pollutants: From Cytoprotection to Cytotoxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karine Andreau

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Air pollution as one of the ravages of our modern societies is primarily linked to urban centers, industrial activities, or road traffic. These atmospheric pollutants have been incriminated in deleterious health effects by numerous epidemiological and in vitro studies. Environmental air pollutants are a heterogeneous mixture of particles suspended into a liquid and gaseous phase which trigger the disruption of redox homeostasis—known under the term of cellular oxidative stress—in relation with the establishment of inflammation and cell death via necrosis, apoptosis, or autophagy. Activation or repression of the apoptotic process as an adaptative response to xenobiotics might lead to either acute or chronic toxicity. The purpose of this paper is to highlight the central role of oxidative stress induced by air pollutants and to focus on the subsequent cellular impacts ranging from cytoprotection to cytotoxicity by decreasing or stimulating apoptosis, respectively.

  16. Respiratory, sensory and general health symptoms in populations exposed to air pollution from biodegradable wastes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blanes-Vidal, Victoria; Bælum, Jesper; Schwartz, Joel

    Background: Adverse health effects of exposure to high levels of air pollutants from biodegradable wastes have been well-studied. However, few investigations have examined effects of chronic exposures to low-to-moderate levels, on health symptoms among residents. Besides, most studies have been...... that individual exposures to air pollution from biodegradable wastes are associated with increased occurrence of symptoms among residents. Stress-related mechanisms appear to underlie these effects....... ecological and did not investigate whether these potential associations were direct or indirect (stress-mediated). Methods: In this study, individual-specific exposures to a proxy indicator of biodegradable waste pollution (ammonia, NH3) in non-urban residences (n=454) during 2005-2010 were calculated...

  17. Air pollution from biodegradable wastes and non-specific health symptoms among residents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blanes-Vidal, Victoria

    2015-01-01

    Adverse health effects of exposure to high levels of air pollutants from biodegradable wastes have been well-studied. However, few investigations have examined the potential effects of chronic exposure to low-to-moderate levels on non-specific health symptoms among residents. Besides, most studies...... that environmental exposures play an important role in the genesis of non-specific symptoms among residents exposed to low-to-moderate air pollution from biodegradable wastes, although the effects seem to be indirect, relayed through stress-related mechanisms....... have relied on distances to waste sites to assign exposure status, and have not investigated whether the exposure-symptoms associations are direct or mediated by odor annoyance. In this study, individual-level exposures to a proxy indicator of biodegradable waste pollution (ammonia, NH3) in non...

  18. Stigma and barriers to accessing mental health services perceived by Air Force nursing personnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Stephen H A; Bedrick, Edward J; Parshall, Mark B

    2014-11-01

    We investigated perceptions of stigma and barriers associated with accessing mental health services among active component U.S. Air Force officer and enlisted nursing personnel (N = 211). The Britt and Hoge et al Stigma scale and Hoge et al Barriers to Care scale were administered via an anonymous, online survey. Stigma items pertained to concerns that might affect decisions to seek mental health treatment. Most of the sample agreed with the items "Members of my unit might have less confidence in me" and "My unit leadership might treat me differently." Approximately 20% to 46% agreed with the other four stigma items. Officer nursing personnel were significantly more likely than enlisted to agree that accessing mental health services would be embarrassing, harm their career, or cause leaders to blame them for the problem (p ≤ 0.03 for each comparison). Getting time off from work for treatment and scheduling appointments were perceived as barriers by 41% and 21% of respondents, respectively. We conclude that proportions of Air Force nursing personnel reporting concerns about potential stigmatizing consequences of seeking mental health care are substantial and similar to ranges previously reported by military service members screening positive for mental health problems after deployment.

  19. Exemptions for hookah bars in clean indoor air legislation: a public health concern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noonan, Devon

    2010-01-01

    Popularity of waterpipe smoking or hookah smoking in the United States has been growing for some time now among youth and young adults. Currently, many cities and states have exemptions that allow hookah bars to remain in operation despite the passage of clean indoor air legislation. From a public health perspective this is concerning for many reasons. One public health concern with the increase in popularity of this type of tobacco use is the associated health effects. Another concern is that hookah smoke produces a sweet smelling aroma making it less obvious that patrons and employees of hookah bars are inhaling noxious fumes from mainstream smoke, as well as the toxins from the charcoal that is used to heat the tobacco. The purpose of this paper is to discuss smoke-free air legislation in relation to hookah use, the public health implications of exempting hookah bars from current smoke-free legislation, and implications for the public health nurse in protecting the public from the dangers of second-hand smoke, and limiting this new form of tobacco use.

  20. House-plant placement for indoor air purification and health benefits on asthmatics

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Some plants were placed in indoor locations frequented by asthmatics in order to evaluate the quality of indoor air and examine the health benefits to asthmatics. Methods The present study classified the participants into two groups: households of continuation and households of withdrawal by a quasi-experimental design. The households of continuation spent the two observation terms with indoor plants, whereas the households of withdrawal passed the former observation terms with ind...

  1. Health effects of long-term exposure to air pollution: An overview of major respiratory and cardiovascular diseases and diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanovic-Andersen Zorana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Large number of studies provided convincing evidence for adverse effects of exposure to outdoor air pollution on human health, and served as basis for current USA and EU Air Quality Standards and limit values. Still, new knowledge is emerging, expanding our understanding of vast effects of exposure to air pollution on human health of this ubiquitous exposure affecting millions of people in urban setting. This paper focuses on the studies of health effects of long-term (chronic exposures to air pollution, and includes major chronic and acute diseases in adults and especially elderly, which will present increasing public health burden, due to improving longevity and projected increasing numbers of elderly. The paper gives overview over the most relevant and latest literature presented by different health outcomes: chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, asthma, pneumonia, cardiovascular disease, and diabetes.

  2. Epidemiological surveillance - air and health. Surveillance of effects on health linked to air pollution in urban area; Surveillance epidemiologique - air et sante. Surveillance des effets sur la sante lies a la pollution atmospherique en milieu urbain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    In order to quantify the short term relationship between the air pollution and its effects on health and to monitor its evolution, the Institute of Sanitary Watch, with the help of the Department of development and environment and the Department in charge of health, has realised a study in eight towns: Bordeaux, Le Havre, Lille, Lyon, Marseille, Rouen, Strasbourg and Toulouse. These towns have been chosen for the contrasted character of their sources, of their pollution levels and their geo climatic conditions. Paris contributes to the study with the E.R.P.U.R.S results. (N.C.)

  3. Air Quality and Respiratory Health among Adolescents from the United Arab Emirates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Barakat-Haddad

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To examine the role of air quality in relation to chronic bronchitis, emphysema, asthma, wheeze, and dry cough among adolescents from the United Arab Emirates (UAE. Methods. A survey was administered on 6,363 adolescents from 9 UAE regions. Data consists of demographic, socioeconomic, residential, and behavioural variables, such as location of residence, residing near industry/gas stations/dumpsites/construction sites, residing near overhead power line/plants, exposure to tobacco, residential exposure, ethnicity, concern over air pollution, smoking, and purposely smelling gasoline fumes/glue/correctors/car exhaust/burning black ants. Logistic regression modeling was used to determine significant predictors of respiratory health. Results. Asthma prevalence was 12.3%, followed by chronic bronchitis (1.8% and emphysema (0.5%. Overall 12.2% reported wheeze and 34.8% reported a dry nocturnal cough in the past year. Multivariate analyses suggest that sex is a significant predictor of asthma and dry cough. Exposure to tobacco and arts/crafts/ceramics/stain is significant predictor of respiratory health. Tobacco smoking and purposely smelling gasoline fumes/glue/correctors/car exhaust/burning black ants are significant predictors of wheeze and dry cough. Conclusions. This study suggests that exposure to air quality and behavioral factors such as smoking and purposely smelling gasoline fumes, glue, correctors, car exhaust, or burning black ants are significant predictors of respiratory health among UAE adolescents.

  4. Urban air pollution and respiratory health among children with respiratory symptoms in Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pekkanen, J.; Timonen, K.L.; Salonen, R.O.; Alm, S.; Reponen, A.; Jantunen, M.; Vahteristo, M. [National Public Health Inst., Kuopio (Finland); Ruuskanen, J. [Kuopio Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Environmental Sciences; Paerjaelae, E. [City of Kuopio (Finland)

    1995-12-31

    Many recent studies suggest that urban air pollution, especially thoracic particles (PM{sub 10}), are associated with increased respiratory, mortality and morbidity at lower levels than what has previously been known. During the Finnish winter, the dust formed from asphalt ware by studded auto tyres, street sanding and combustion processes is accumulated on the snow. In the spring, when the snow melts from the streets, part of this dust is resuspended by traffic and wind. This creates spring dust episodes, during which TSP and PM{sub 10} levels exceed air quality guidelines in most Finnish cities. The mechanisms through which PM{sub 10} produces its health effects are largely unknown. It has been suggested that the number of particles, especially that of very small particles in the nanometer range, would be as important as the mass or the chemical composition of the particles. In most previous studies, the particles measured have mostly composed of combustion products. There are only sparse data on the size distribution of particles in the Finnish spring dust episode and no studies on it`s possible health effects. The aim of the PEACE project was to develop a common protocol for research on the short-term relationship between respiratory health and changes in air pollution levels. The present report describes the design and preliminary results of Finnish field work of the PEACE study that was carried out in Kuopio, Eastern Finland. (author)

  5. Household reporting of childhood respiratory health and air pollution in rural Alaska Native communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desirae N. Ware

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Air pollution is an important contributor to respiratory disease in children. Objective: To examine associations between household reporting of childhood respiratory conditions and household characteristics related to air pollution in Alaska Native communities. Design: In-home surveys were administered in 2 rural regions of Alaska. The 12-month prevalence of respiratory conditions was summarized by region and age. Odds ratios (ORs were calculated to describe associations between respiratory health and household and air quality characteristics. Results: Household-reported respiratory health data were collected for 561 children in 328 households. In 1 region, 33.6% of children aged <5 years had a recent history of pneumonia and/or bronchitis. Children with these conditions were 2 times more likely to live in a wood-heated home, but these findings were imprecise. Resident concern with mould was associated with elevated prevalence of respiratory infections in children (ORs 1.6–2.5, while reported wheezing was associated with 1 or more smokers living in the household. Reported asthma in 1 region (7.6% was lower than national prevalence estimates. Conclusions: Findings suggest that there may be preventable exposures, including wood smoke and mould that affect childhood respiratory disease in these rural areas. Additional research is needed to quantify particulate matter 2.5 microns in aerodynamic diameter or less and mould exposures in these communities, and to objectively evaluate childhood respiratory health.

  6. Estimating the health benefit of reducing indoor air pollution in a randomized environmental intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Roger D.; Butz, Arlene M.; Hackstadt, Amber J.; Williams, D'Ann L.; Diette, Gregory B.; Breysse, Patrick N.; Matsui, Elizabeth C.

    2016-01-01

    Recent intervention studies targeted at reducing indoor air pollution have demonstrated both the ability to improve respiratory health outcomes and to reduce particulate matter (PM) levels in the home. However, these studies generally do not address whether it is the reduction of PM levels specifically that improves respiratory health. In this paper we apply the method of principal stratification to data from a randomized air cleaner intervention designed to reduce indoor PM in homes of children with asthma. We estimate the health benefit of the intervention amongst study subjects who would experience a substantial reduction in PM in response to the intervention. For those subjects we find an increase in symptom-free days that is almost three times as large as the overall intention-to-treat effect. We also explore the presence of treatment effects amongst those subjects whose PM levels would not respond to the air cleaner. This analysis demonstrates the usefulness of principal stratification for environmental intervention trials and its potential for much broader application in this area. PMID:27695203

  7. Nutritional Solutions to Reduce Risks of Negative Health Impacts of Air Pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Péter, Szabolcs; Holguin, Fernando; Wood, Lisa G; Clougherty, Jane E; Raederstorff, Daniel; Antal, Magda; Weber, Peter; Eggersdorfer, Manfred

    2015-12-10

    Air pollution worldwide has been associated with cardiovascular and respiratory morbidity and mortality, particularly in urban settings with elevated concentrations of primary pollutants. Air pollution is a very complex mixture of primary and secondary gases and particles, and its potential to cause harm can depend on multiple factors-including physical and chemical characteristics of pollutants, which varies with fine-scale location (e.g., by proximity to local emission sources)-as well as local meteorology, topography, and population susceptibility. It has been hypothesized that the intake of anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory nutrients may ameliorate various respiratory and cardiovascular effects of air pollution through reductions in oxidative stress and inflammation. To date, several studies have suggested that some harmful effects of air pollution may be modified by intake of essential micronutrients (such as B vitamins, and vitamins C, D, and E) and long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids. Here, we review the existing literature related to the potential for nutrition to modify the health impacts of air pollution, and offer a framework for examining these interactions.

  8. Nutritional Solutions to Reduce Risks of Negative Health Impacts of Air Pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szabolcs Péter

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Air pollution worldwide has been associated with cardiovascular and respiratory morbidity and mortality, particularly in urban settings with elevated concentrations of primary pollutants. Air pollution is a very complex mixture of primary and secondary gases and particles, and its potential to cause harm can depend on multiple factors—including physical and chemical characteristics of pollutants, which varies with fine-scale location (e.g., by proximity to local emission sources—as well as local meteorology, topography, and population susceptibility. It has been hypothesized that the intake of anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory nutrients may ameliorate various respiratory and cardiovascular effects of air pollution through reductions in oxidative stress and inflammation. To date, several studies have suggested that some harmful effects of air pollution may be modified by intake of essential micronutrients (such as B vitamins, and vitamins C, D, and E and long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids. Here, we review the existing literature related to the potential for nutrition to modify the health impacts of air pollution, and offer a framework for examining these interactions.

  9. Measuring the Impact of Urban Air Pollution: Hedonic Price Analysis and Health Production Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Endah Saptutyningsih

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to value air quality from the urban housing market in Yogyakarta City. It is also provides estimation of marginal willingness to pay for the air quality improvement and estimation of the consumer surplus due to reduce of air quality. The methodological framework for estimation is based on a hedonic price model. The result of hedonic price method concludes that by adopting a two-stage estimation procedure to estimate the relationship between air quality and property value, on the average, an increase in the level of O3 by one percent will increases the property price by 0.063 percent. By using a health production function and demand function mitigation can be seen that the medical history of the individual has effect on the number of working days lost. Meanwhile, O3 pollution has positive effect on the amount of medical expenses for mitigation. Decreasing in O3 pollution causes a decrease in the level of medical expenses to mitigate. Therefore, it is important to reduce the negative impacts of air pollution.

  10. Transboundary health impacts of transported global air pollution and international trade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Qiang; Jiang, Xujia; Tong, Dan; Davis, Steven J.; Zhao, Hongyan; Geng, Guannan; Feng, Tong; Zheng, Bo; Lu, Zifeng; Streets, David G.; Ni, Ruijing; Brauer, Michael; van Donkelaar, Aaron; Martin, Randall V.; Huo, Hong; Liu, Zhu; Pan, Da; Kan, Haidong; Yan, Yingying; Lin, Jintai; He, Kebin; Guan, Dabo

    2017-03-29

    Millions of people die every year from diseases caused by exposure to outdoor air pollution1, 2, 3, 4, 5. Some studies have estimated premature mortality related to local sources of air pollution6, 7, but local air quality can also be affected by atmospheric transport of pollution from distant sources8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18. International trade is contributing to the globalization of emission and pollution as a result of the production of goods (and their associated emissions) in one region for consumption in another region14, 19, 20, 21, 22. The effects of international trade on air pollutant emissions23, air quality14 and health24 have been investigated regionally, but a combined, global assessment of the health impacts related to international trade and the transport of atmospheric air pollution is lacking. Here we combine four global models to estimate premature mortality caused by fine particulate matter (PM2.5) pollution as a result of atmospheric transport and the production and consumption of goods and services in different world regions. We find that, of the 3.45 million premature deaths related to PM2.5 pollution in 2007 worldwide, about 12 per cent (411,100 deaths) were related to air pollutants emitted in a region of the world other than that in which the death occurred, and about 22 per cent (762,400 deaths) were associated with goods and services produced in one region for consumption in another. For example, PM2.5 pollution produced in China in 2007 is linked to more than 64,800 premature deaths in regions other than China, including more than 3,100 premature deaths in western Europe and the USA; on the other hand, consumption in western Europe and the USA is linked to more than 108,600 premature deaths in China. Our results reveal that the transboundary health impacts of PM2.5 pollution associated with international trade are greater than those associated with long-distance atmospheric pollutant transport.

  11. Handle With Care: An Air Pollution Module for Sixth, Seventh, and Eighth Grade Teachers of Health Education, Science, and Other Subject Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerin, Dolores

    Presented is a module on air pollution for sixth through eighth graders. Six subsections address the many aspects of air and air pollution: (1) sensory awareness, (2) the nature of the atmosphere, (3) air pollution's effects on health and property, (4) values conflicts, (5) air quality control, and (6) individual responsibility. Learning…

  12. Mapping real-time air pollution health risk for environmental management: Combining mobile and stationary air pollution monitoring with neural network models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Matthew D; Kanaroglou, Pavlos S

    2016-03-01

    Air pollution poses health concerns at the global scale. The challenge of managing air pollution is significant because of the many air pollutants, insufficient funds for monitoring and abatement programs, and political and social challenges in defining policy to limit emissions. Some governments provide citizens with air pollution health risk information to allow them to limit their exposure. However, many regions still have insufficient air pollution monitoring networks to provide real-time mapping. Where available, these risk mapping systems either provide absolute concentration data or the concentrations are used to derive an Air Quality Index, which provides the air pollution risk for a mix of air pollutants with a single value. When risk information is presented as a single value for an entire region it does not inform on the spatial variation within the region. Without an understanding of the local variation residents can only make a partially informed decision when choosing daily activities. The single value is typically provided because of a limited number of active monitoring units in the area. In our work, we overcome this issue by leveraging mobile air pollution monitoring techniques, meteorological information and land use information to map real-time air pollution health risks. We propose an approach that can provide improved health risk information to the public by applying neural network models within a framework that is inspired by land use regression. Mobile air pollution monitoring campaigns were conducted across Hamilton from 2005 to 2013. These mobile air pollution data were modelled with a number of predictor variables that included information on the surrounding land use characteristics, the meteorological conditions, air pollution concentrations from fixed location monitors, and traffic information during the time of collection. Fine particulate matter and nitrogen dioxide were both modelled. During the model fitting process we reserved

  13. The air quality health index and emergency department visits for urticaria in Windsor, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kousha, Termeh; Valacchi, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    Ambient air pollution exposure has been associated with several health conditions, limited not only to respiratory and cardiovascular systems but also to cutaneous tissues. However, few epidemiological studies examined pollution exposure on skin problems. Basically, the common mechanism by which pollution may affect skin physiology is by induction of oxidative stress and inflammation. Urticaria is among the skin pathologies that have been associated with pollution. Based on the combined effects of three ambient air pollutants, ozone (O₃), nitrogen dioxide (NO₂), and fine particulate matter (PM) with a median aerodynamic diameter of less than 2.5 μm (PM(2.5)), on mortality, the Air Quality Health Index (AQHI) in Canada was developed. The aim of this study was to examine the associations of short-term changes in AQHI with emergency department (ED) visits for urticaria in Windsor-area hospitals in Canada. Diagnosed ED visits were retrieved from the National Ambulatory Care Reporting System (NACRS). A time-stratified case-crossover design was applied to 2905 ED visits (males = 1215; females = 1690) for urticaria from April 2004 through December 2010. Odds ratios (OR) and their corresponding 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) for ED visits associated with increase by one unit of risk index were calculated employing conditional logistic regression. Positive and significant results were observed between AQHI levels and OR for ED visits for urticaria in Windsor for lags 2 and 3 days. A distributed lag nonlinear model technique was applied to daily counts of ED visits for lags 0 to 10 and significant results were obtained from lag 2 to lag 5 and for lag 9. These findings demonstrated associations between ambient air pollution and urticarial confirming that air pollution affects skin conditions.

  14. The Effects of Urban Form on Ambient Air Pollution and Public Health Risk: A Case Study in Raleigh, North Carolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansfield, Theodore J; Rodriguez, Daniel A; Huegy, Joseph; Gibson, Jacqueline MacDonald

    2015-05-01

    Since motor vehicles are a major air pollution source, urban designs that decrease private automobile use could improve air quality and decrease air pollution health risks. Yet, the relationships among urban form, air quality, and health are complex and not fully understood. To explore these relationships, we model the effects of three alternative development scenarios on annual average fine particulate matter (PM2.5 ) concentrations in ambient air and associated health risks from PM2.5 exposure in North Carolina's Raleigh-Durham-Chapel Hill area. We integrate transportation demand, land-use regression, and health risk assessment models to predict air quality and health impacts for three development scenarios: current conditions, compact development, and sprawling development. Compact development slightly decreases (-0.2%) point estimates of regional annual average PM2.5 concentrations, while sprawling development slightly increases (+1%) concentrations. However, point estimates of health impacts are in opposite directions: compact development increases (+39%) and sprawling development decreases (-33%) PM2.5-attributable mortality. Furthermore, compactness increases local variation in PM2.5 concentrations and increases the severity of local air pollution hotspots. Hence, this research suggests that while compact development may improve air quality from a regional perspective, it may also increase the concentration of PM2.5 in local hotspots and increase population exposure to PM2.5 . Health effects may be magnified if compact neighborhoods and PM2.5 hotspots are spatially co-located. We conclude that compactness alone is an insufficient means of reducing the public health impacts of transportation emissions in automobile-dependent regions. Rather, additional measures are needed to decrease automobile dependence and the health risks of transportation emissions.

  15. High-resolution modelling of health impacts from air pollution using the integrated model system EVA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Jørgen; Andersen, Mikael S.; Bønløkke, Jakob; Christensen, Jesper H.; Geels, Camilla; Hansen, Kaj M.; Jensen, Steen S.; Ketzel, Matthias; Plejdrup, Marlene S.; Sigsgaard, Torben; Silver, Jeremy D.

    2014-05-01

    A high-resolution assessment of health impacts from air pollution and related external cost has been conducted for Denmark using the integrated EVA model system. The EVA system has been further developed by implementing an air quality model with a 1 km x 1 km resolution covering the whole of Denmark. New developments of the integrated model system will be presented as well as results for health impacts and related external costs over several decades. Furthermore, the sensitivity of health impacts to model resolution will be studied. We have developed an integrated model system EVA (Economic Valuation of Air pollution), based on the impact-pathway chain, to assess the health impacts and health-related economic externalities of air pollution resulting from specific emission sources or sectors. The system is used to support policymaking with respect to emission control. In Brandt et al. (2013a; 2013b), the EVA system was used to assess the impacts in Europe and Denmark from the past, present and future total air pollution levels as well as the contribution from the major anthropogenic emission sectors. The EVA system was applied using the hemispheric chemistry-transport model, the Danish Eulerian Hemispheric Model (DEHM), with nesting capability for higher resolution over Europe (50 km x 50 km) and Northern Europe (16.7 km x 16.7 km). In this study an Urban Background Model (UBM) has been further developed to cover the whole of Denmark with a 1 km x 1 km resolution and the model has been implemented as a part of the integrated model system, EVA. The EVA system is based on the impact-pathway methodology. The site-specific emissions will result (via atmospheric transport and chemistry) in a concentration distribution, which together with detailed population data, are used to estimate the population-level exposure. Using exposure-response functions and economic valuations, the exposure is transformed into impacts on human health and related external costs. In this study

  16. Assessing exposures to household air pollution in public health research and program evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Northcross, Amanda L; Hwang, Nina; Balakrishnan, Kalpana; Mehta, Sumi

    2015-03-01

    Exposure to smoke from the use of solid fuels and inefficient stoves for cooking and heating is responsible for approximately 4 million premature deaths yearly. As increasing investments are made to tackle this important public health issue, there is a need for identifying and providing guidance on best practices for exposure and stove performance monitoring, particularly for public health research and evaluation studies. This paper, which builds upon the discussion at an expert consultation on exposure assessment convened by the Global Alliance for Clean Cookstoves, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and PATH in late 2012, aims to provide general guidance on what to monitor, who and where to monitor, and how to monitor household air pollution exposures. In addition, we summarize information about commercially available monitoring equipment and the technical properties of these monitors most important for household air pollution exposure assessment. The target audience includes epidemiologists conducting health studies and program evaluators aiming to quantify changes in exposures to estimate the potential health benefits of cookstoves intervention projects.

  17. Application environmental epidemiology to vehicular air pollution and health effects research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Rajan R; Chetlapally, Satish Kumar; Bagvandas, M

    2015-01-01

    Vehicular pollution is one of the major contributors to the air pollution in urban areas and perhaps and accounts for the major share of anthropogenic green-house gases such as carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides. Knowledge of human health risks related to environmental exposure to vehicular pollution is a current concern. Analyze the range health effects are attributed varied constituents of vehicular air pollution examine evidence for a causal association to specific health effect. In many instances scenario involves exposure to very low doses of putative agents for extended periods, sometimes the period could mean over a lifetime of an individual and yet may result in small increase in health risk that may be imperceptible. Secondary data analysis and literature review. In environmental exposures, traditional epidemiological approaches evaluating mortality and morbidity indicators display many limiting factors such as nonspecificity of biological effects latency time between exposure and magnitude of the effect. Long latency period between exposure and resultant disease, principally for carcinogenic effects and limitation of epidemiological studies for detecting small risk increments. The present paper discusses the methodological challenges in studying vehicular epidemiology and highlights issues that affect the validity of epidemiological studies in vehicular pollution.

  18. Application environmental epidemiology to vehicular air pollution and health effects research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajan R Patil

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Vehicular pollution is one of the major contributors to the air pollution in urban areas and perhaps and accounts for the major share of anthropogenic green-house gases such as carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides. Knowledge of human health risks related to environmental exposure to vehicular pollution is a current concern. Analyze the range health effects are attributed varied constituents of vehicular air pollution examine evidence for a causal association to specific health effect. In many instances scenario involves exposure to very low doses of putative agents for extended periods, sometimes the period could mean over a lifetime of an individual and yet may result in small increase in health risk that may be imperceptible. Secondary data analysis and literature review. In environmental exposures, traditional epidemiological approaches evaluating mortality and morbidity indicators display many limiting factors such as nonspecificity of biological effects latency time between exposure and magnitude of the effect. Long latency period between exposure and resultant disease, principally for carcinogenic effects and limitation of epidemiological studies for detecting small risk increments. The present paper discusses the methodological challenges in studying vehicular epidemiology and highlights issues that affect the validity of epidemiological studies in vehicular pollution.

  19. Health Risk Assessment for Transport Corridors in Delhi through Vehicular Air Polluting Mapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nitin Kumar

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Vehicles are recognized as one of the major sources of air pollution. Delhi having  a very large number of vehicles produces a lot of air pollution. There is an utter need to ascertain the concentration of the pollutants and their impact on the health of the people of the concerned region. This paper makes an attempt towards such an examination. The method employed here is based on Epidemiology. The assessment of health risks due to increased levels of various pollutants on people represented in this paper is based on the spreadsheet model, Risk of Mortality/Morbidity due to Air Pollution (Ri–MAP. This paper presents the findings of the study that evaluates the Impact of increasing air pollution on human health, especially vehicular pollution, in the monitored region, i.e., National Capital Territory of Delhi (NCT Delhi during the year 2015 by choosing fifteen study sites from different parts of the capital city. The findings are in terms of  excess number of cases of cardiovascular and respiratory mortality, and cardiovascular and respiratory morbidity for all fifteen transport corridors. Among others, Noida link road recorded highest excess number of cases of cardiovascular mortality and morbidity and respiratory Morbidity. In case of respiratory mortality, Wazirabad road recorded maximum excess number of cases. With respect to least excess number of cases, it was Connaught Place (Outer circle. The excess number of cases are directly proportional to the population density of the respective region. Also, the regions showing smaller excess number of cases are the planned, less crowded and posh regions of the national capital territory of Delhi.

  20. Future Tree Effects on Air Quality and Human Health in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirabayashi, S.; Nowak, D.

    2014-12-01

    Trees are critical green infrastructure for mitigating adverse effects associated with human population, land use, and climate change (e.g. urban heat island, greenhouse gasses, air pollution, and floods). i-Tree (www.itreetools.org) is a suite of software tools developed by the USDA Forest Service and The Davey Institute that allows users to assess urban forest structure and the ecosystem services provided. Using i-Tree, the annual effects of trees on air quality and human health in urban and rural areas of counties across the conterminous United States have been quantified for 2010 (Nowak et al. 2014). Here, we extended the study to incorporate future forest structure scenarios using a model that accounts for tree growth, mortality and new plantings. Computer simulations using local environmental data and the possible leaf area index (LAI) for deciduous or evergreen tree covers were performed in urban and rural areas of counties across the conterminous United States. The result is a tree effects database on air pollutant removal (CO, NO2, O3, PM10, PM2.5 and SO2), biogenic emission of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), and monetary values associated with human health quantified per unit tree cover area with deciduous or evergreen trees and LAI ranging from 0 to 18 within each modeling domain. With these data, the potential annual effects that trees have on air quality and human health under future scenarios of urban forest extent can be readily derived for anywhere in the conterminous United States. The developed database will be integrated into i-Tree's suite in 2015 to enhance its functionality in estimating tree effects under the future scenarios.

  1. Quantifying the health impacts of air pollution under a changing climate-a review of approaches and methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sujaritpong, Sarunya; Dear, Keith; Cope, Martin; Walsh, Sean; Kjellstrom, Tord

    2014-03-01

    Climate change has been predicted to affect future air quality, with inevitable consequences for health. Quantifying the health effects of air pollution under a changing climate is crucial to provide evidence for actions to safeguard future populations. In this paper, we review published methods for quantifying health impacts to identify optimal approaches and ways in which existing challenges facing this line of research can be addressed. Most studies have employed a simplified methodology, while only a few have reported sensitivity analyses to assess sources of uncertainty. The limited investigations that do exist suggest that examining the health risk estimates should particularly take into account the uncertainty associated with future air pollution emissions scenarios, concentration-response functions, and future population growth and age structures. Knowledge gaps identified for future research include future health impacts from extreme air pollution events, interactions between temperature and air pollution effects on public health under a changing climate, and how population adaptation and behavioural changes in a warmer climate may modify exposure to air pollution and health consequences.

  2. The Covariance between Air Pollution Annoyance and Noise Annoyance, and Its Relationship with Health-Related Quality of Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Shepherd

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Air pollution originating from road traffic is a known risk factor of respiratory and cardiovascular disease (both in terms of chronic and acute effects. While adverse effects on cardiovascular health have also been linked with noise (after controlling for air pollution, noise exposure has been commonly linked to sleep impairment and negative emotional reactions. Health is multi-faceted, both conceptually and operationally; Health-Related Quality of Life (HRQOL is one of many measures capable of probing health. In this study, we examine pre-collected data from postal surveys probing HRQOL obtained from a variety of urban, suburban, and rural contexts across the North Island of New Zealand. Analyses focus on the covariance between air pollution annoyance and noise annoyances, and their independent and combined effects on HRQOL. Results indicate that the highest ratings of air pollution annoyance and noise annoyances were for residents living close to the motorway, while the lowest were for rural residents. Most of the city samples indicated no significant difference between air pollution- and noise-annoyance ratings, and of all of the correlations between air pollution- and noise-annoyance, the highest were found in the city samples. These findings suggest that annoyance is driven by exposure to environmental factors and not personality characteristics. Analysis of HRQOL indicated that air pollution annoyance predicts greater variability in the physical HRQOL domain while noise annoyance predicts greater variability in the psychological, social and environmental domains. The lack of an interaction effect between air pollution annoyance and noise annoyance suggests that air pollution and noise impact on health independently. These results echo those obtained from objective measures of health and suggest that mitigation of traffic effects should address both air and noise pollution.

  3. The Covariance between Air Pollution Annoyance and Noise Annoyance, and Its Relationship with Health-Related Quality of Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepherd, Daniel; Dirks, Kim; Welch, David; McBride, David; Landon, Jason

    2016-08-06

    Air pollution originating from road traffic is a known risk factor of respiratory and cardiovascular disease (both in terms of chronic and acute effects). While adverse effects on cardiovascular health have also been linked with noise (after controlling for air pollution), noise exposure has been commonly linked to sleep impairment and negative emotional reactions. Health is multi-faceted, both conceptually and operationally; Health-Related Quality of Life (HRQOL) is one of many measures capable of probing health. In this study, we examine pre-collected data from postal surveys probing HRQOL obtained from a variety of urban, suburban, and rural contexts across the North Island of New Zealand. Analyses focus on the covariance between air pollution annoyance and noise annoyances, and their independent and combined effects on HRQOL. Results indicate that the highest ratings of air pollution annoyance and noise annoyances were for residents living close to the motorway, while the lowest were for rural residents. Most of the city samples indicated no significant difference between air pollution- and noise-annoyance ratings, and of all of the correlations between air pollution- and noise-annoyance, the highest were found in the city samples. These findings suggest that annoyance is driven by exposure to environmental factors and not personality characteristics. Analysis of HRQOL indicated that air pollution annoyance predicts greater variability in the physical HRQOL domain while noise annoyance predicts greater variability in the psychological, social and environmental domains. The lack of an interaction effect between air pollution annoyance and noise annoyance suggests that air pollution and noise impact on health independently. These results echo those obtained from objective measures of health and suggest that mitigation of traffic effects should address both air and noise pollution.

  4. A joint ERS/ATS policy statement: what constitutes an adverse health effect of air pollution? An analytical framework.

    OpenAIRE

    Thurston, GD; Kipen, H; Annesi-Maesano, I; Balmes, J; Brook, RD; Cromar, K; DE MATTEIS, S.; Forastiere, F; Forsberg, B; Frampton, MW; Grigg, J.; Heederik, D.; Kelly, FJ; Kuenzli, N; Laumbach, R

    2017-01-01

    The American Thoracic Society has previously published statements on what constitutes an adverse effect on health of air pollution in 1985 and 2000. We set out to update and broaden these past statements that focused primarily on effects on the respiratory system. Since then, many studies have documented effects of air pollution on other organ systems, such as on the cardiovascular and central nervous systems. In addition, many new biomarkers of effects have been developed and applied in air ...

  5. Proposed Pathophysiologic Framework to Explain Some Excess Cardiovascular Death Associated with Ambient Air Particle Pollution: Insights for Public Health Translation

    Science.gov (United States)

    The paper proposes a pathophysiologic framework to explain the well-established epidemiological association between exposure to ambient air particle pollution and premature cardiovascular mortality, and offers insights into public health solutions that extend beyond regularory en...

  6. Modeling exposures to traffic-related air pollutants for the NEXUS respiratory health study of asthmatic children in Detroit, MI

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Near-Road EXposures and Effects of Urban Air Pollutants Study (NEXUS) was designed to investigate associations between exposure to traffic-related air pollution and the respiratory health of asthmatic children living near major roadways in Detroit, MI. A combination of modeli...

  7. The Impact of Air Pollution on Human Health: Focusing on the Rudnyi Altay Industrial Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitaliy G. Salnikov

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Air pollution in Kazakhstan is significant environmental problem. The air pollution level of cities and industrial centers remains rather high. The highest level of air pollution is registered in Ridder, Ust-Kamenogorsk, Almaty, Zyryanovsk, Aktau, Atyrau, Shymkent, Taraz, Petropavlovsk and Temirtau. The enterprises of the Rudnyi Altay, Pavlodar Oblast and enterprises of oil and gas complex in West-Kazakhstan, Atyrau and Mangistau Oblasts play the negative role in air pollution. About one third of industrial enterprises have no sanitary protective zones of standard sizes. A considerable part of the population of industrial centers live in the zone of a direct impact of harmful industrial factors emissions of polluting substances into the air, noise, vibration, electrical magnet fields and other physical factors (Dahl et al., 2001; Kaiser and Pulsipher, 2007; Farmer and Farmer, 2000. Under the conditions of the air polluter impact there is high morbidity and mortality from cardio-vascular diseases, respiratory disease, nervous system and sensory organ disturbances, gastrointestinal disease and circulatory disease. Poor air quality has been cited as a factor in these conditions (Jensena et al., 1997; Namazbaeva et al., 2010. Then we provide details a correlation between the level of disease of malignant tumors and the emissions from stationary sources in Rudnyi Altay industrial area. To reveal the quantitative relationship between the disease of malignant tumors and the change in the quantity of emissions was carried out regression analysis and model. Regression analysis and model confirms a significant direct correlation between the incidence of malignant tumors and the amount of emissions from stationary sources (correlation coefficient R = 0,6. Analysis of vital statistics revealed the increased disease rate. Conclusion: Health status of the populations is negatively affected by the unfavorable environmental

  8. Assessment of Air Pollution Impacts on Population Health in Bejaia City, Northern Algeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    BENAISSA, Fatima; ALKAMA, Rezak; ANNESI-MAESANO, Isabella

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background To assess the health impact of air pollution on Bejaia population in the north of Algeria, we carried out a descriptive epidemiologic inquiry near the medical establishments of three areas. Methods From hospital admissions registers, we collected data on the hospital mortality and admissions relating to the various cardiorespiratory pathologies generated by this type of pollution. In parallel, data on the automobile fleet of Bejaia and other measurements were exploited to show that the pollutants concentrations are strongly correlated with the urban traffic concentration. Results This study revealed that the whole of the population is touched, but the sensitivity to pollution can show variations according to the age, the sex and the residence place. Population of Bejaia town marked the most raised death and morbidity rates, followed by that of Kherrata. Weak rates are recorded for the rural population of Feraoun. Stronger correlation (>0.9) is evident amongst CO and deaths due to asthma and COPD in Béjaia city. Conclusion This approach enables us to conclude that the population of Béjaia could not escape the urban pollution generated by her old automobile fleet. Installation of a monitoring and measuring site of air pollution in this city could provide a beneficial tool to protect its inhabitants by informing on air quality they breathe and the measures to following order to minimize the impacts on their health and by alerting the authorities during the critical situations. PMID:26175976

  9. Does Mental Health Status Influence Susceptibility to the Physiologic Effects of Air Pollution? A Population Based Study of Canadian Children

    OpenAIRE

    Dales, Robert E; Cakmak, Sabit

    2016-01-01

    Background Both air pollution exposure and the presence of mental illness are associated with an increased risk of physical illness. Objective To determine whether or not children with less favourable mental health are more susceptible to pulmonary and cardiovascular effects of ambient air pollution, compared to those who are mentally healthy. Methods We carried out a cross-sectional study of 1,883 children between the ages of 6 and 17 years of age who participated in the Canadian Health Meas...

  10. How robust are the estimated effects of air pollution on health? Accounting for model uncertainty using Bayesian model averaging

    OpenAIRE

    Pannullo, Francesca; Lee, Duncan; Waclawski, Eugene; Leyland, Alastair H

    2016-01-01

    The long-term impact of air pollution on human health can be estimated from small-area ecological studies in which the health outcome is regressed against air pollution concentrations and other covariates, such as socio-economic deprivation. Socio-economic deprivation is multi-factorial and difficult to measure, and includes aspects of income, education, and housing as well as others. However, these variables are potentially highly correlated, meaning one can either create an overall deprivat...

  11. Influence of a portable air treatment unit on health-related quality indicators of indoor air in a classroom.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheepers, P.T.J.; Cremers, R.G.H.M.; Hout, S.P. van; Anzion, R.B.M.

    2012-01-01

    During periods of two weeks in February and June 2010 the performance of portable air treatment units (PATUs) was evaluated in a primary school classroom using indicators of indoor air quality. Air samples were collected in an undisturbed setting on weekend days and in an occupied setting during tea

  12. [Indoor air and human health--sick house syndrome and multiple chemical sensitivity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ando, Masanori

    2002-01-01

    The number of complaints about the quality of indoor air has increased during the past two decades. These complaints have been frequent enough that the term "Sick House Syndrome or Sick Building Syndrome" and "Multiple Chemical Sensitivity" has been coined. Complaints are likely related to the increased use of synthetic organic materials in house, furnishing, and consumer products; and the buildings, furnishings, and consumer products; and the decreased ventilation for energy conservation in homes. Approximately thousand volatile chemicals have been identified in indoor air. The main sources of these chemicals are house materials, combustion fumes, cleaning compounds, and paints or stains. Exposure to high levels of these emissions and to others, coupled with the fact that most people spend more time indoors than outdoors, raises the possibility that the risk to human health from indoor air pollution may be potentially greater than the risk posed from outdoor pollutants. The complaints most frequently voiced with respect to Sick House Syndrome are irritations of the eye, nose, and throat; cough and hoarseness of voice; headache and mental fatigue. The syndrome of multiple chemical sensitivities is controversial subject with increasing impact on the field of indoor air quality. The controversy surrounding Multiple Chemical Sensitivity includes its definition, theories of etiology and pathogenesis, diagnostic, and life style. Multiple Chemical Sensitivity is considered the hypothesis that is a disease caused by exposure to many chemically distinct environmental substances at very low.

  13. Impact of current policies on future air quality and health outcomes in Delhi, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dholakia, Hem H.; Purohit, Pallav; Rao, Shilpa; Garg, Amit

    2013-08-01

    A key policy challenge in Indian megacities is to curb high concentrations of PM2.5 and mitigate associated adverse health impacts. Using the Greenhouse Gases and Air Pollution Interactions and Synergies (GAINS) model we carry out an integrated analysis of the air quality regulations across different sectors for the city of Delhi. Our findings show that PM2.5 concentrations for Delhi will not reach the recommended national ambient air quality standards (NAAQS) even by 2030 under the current policies scenario. Adopting advanced control technologies reduces PM2.5 concentrations by about 60% and all-cause mortality by half in 2030. Climate change mitigation policies significantly reduce greenhouse gases, but have a modest impact on reducing PM2.5 concentrations. Stringent policies to control the net flow of air pollution from trans-boundary sources will play a crucial role in reducing pollution levels in Delhi city. Achieving NAAQS requires a stringent policy portfolio that combines advanced control technologies with a switch to cleaner fuels and the control of trans-boundary pollution.

  14. Changes in air pollution and children`s health in East Germany between 1991 and 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kraemer, U.; Schlipkoeter, H.W.; Dolgner, R. [Medical Inst. of Environmental Hygiene, Duesseldorf (Germany); Willer, H.M. [State Inst. of Hygiene, Magdeburg (Germany)

    1995-12-31

    Already in the 1960s a lot of cross-sectional studies were conducted to determine the effects of air-pollution on respiratory diseases or symptoms of children. According to the then dominating type of air-pollution, effects of SO{sub 2} and TSP were mainly studied. Usually SO{sub 2} and TSP were highly correlated and their effects could not be separated satisfactorily. Such a high correlation was not seen when comparing annual mean concentrations in different towns of East and West Germany in 1989. The range of SO{sub 2} values was from 20 to 310 g/m{sup 3} whereas the range of TSP was narrower, from 65 to 123 {mu}g/m{sup 3} In 1991 therefore a study was started to compare the effects of different types and amounts of air pollution on children`s health. The results of the first cross-sectional study, in 1991, were presented at the 9{sup th} World Clean Air Congress. It was found that airway diseases and respiratory symptoms were clearly related to the SO{sub 2} pollution load. This was not true for allergic manifestations. Since 1990 there is a considerable reduction of SO{sub 2} pollution in East Germany. The aim of this presentation is to show that the associations which had been found on an spatial scale can be seen on an temporal scale, too. (author)

  15. Exposure information in environmental health research: Current opportunities and future directions for particulate matter, ozone, and toxic air pollutants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKone, Thomas E.; Ryan, P. Barry; Ozkaynak, Haluk

    2007-02-01

    Understanding and quantifying outdoor and indoor sources of human exposure are essential but often not adequately addressed in health-effects studies for air pollution. Air pollution epidemiology, risk assessment, health tracking and accountability assessments are examples of health-effects studies that require but often lack adequate exposure information. Recent advances in exposure modeling along with better information on time-activity and exposure factors data provide us with unique opportunities to improve the assignment of exposures for both future and ongoing studies linking air pollution to health impacts. In September 2006, scientists from the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) along with scientists from the academic community and state health departments convened a symposium on air pollution exposure and health in order to identify, evaluate, and improve current approaches for linking air pollution exposures to disease. This manuscript presents the key issues, challenges and recommendations identified by the exposure working group, who used cases studies of particulate matter, ozone, and toxic air pollutant exposure to evaluate health-effects for air pollution. One of the over-arching lessons of this workshop is that obtaining better exposure information for these different health-effects studies requires both goal-setting for what is needed and mapping out the transition pathway from current capabilities to meeting these goals. Meeting our long-term goals requires definition of incremental steps that provide useful information for the interim and move us toward our long-term goals. Another over-arching theme among the three different pollutants and the different health study approaches is the need for integration among alternate exposure assessment approaches. For example, different groups may advocate exposure indicators, biomonitoring, mapping methods (GIS), modeling, environmental media

  16. The air quality and health impacts of domestic trans-boundary pollution in various regions of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Y; Yim, S H L

    2016-12-01

    Air pollution is one of the most pressing environmental problems in China. Literature has reported that outdoor air pollution leads to adverse health problems every year in China. Recent measurement studies found the important regional nature of particulates in China. Trans-boundary air pollution within China has yet to be fully understood. This study aimed to comprehensively understand the processes of domestic trans-boundary air pollution in China and to apportion the impacts of emissions in different regions on air quality and public health. We applied a state-of-the-art air quality model to simulate air quality in China and then adapted a form of integrated concentration-response function for China to estimate the resultant amount of premature mortality due to exposures to PM2.5. Our findings show that domestic trans-boundary impacts (TBI), on average, account for 27% of the total PM2.5 in China. We estimated that outdoor air pollution caused ~870,000 (95% CI: 130,000-1500,000) premature mortalities in China in 2010, of which on average 18% are attributed to TBI. Among all the regions, North China is the largest contributor to TBI due to 41% of the health impacts of its emissions occurring in other regions. Taiwan (TW) is the smallest contributor to TBI occurring in China, contributing 2% of the national TBI, while TBI causes 22% of the premature mortalities due to outdoor air pollution in TW. Our findings pinpoint the significant impacts of TBI on public health in China, indicating the need for cross-region cooperation to mitigate the air quality impacts and the nation's resultant health problems.

  17. Air pollution from household solid fuel combustion in India: an overview of exposure and health related information to inform health research priorities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balakrishnan, Kalpana; Ramaswamy, Padmavathi; Sambandam, Sankar; Thangavel, Gurusamy; Ghosh, Santu; Johnson, Priscilla; Mukhopadhyay, Krishnendu; Venugopal, Vidhya; Thanasekaraan, Vijayalakshmi

    2011-01-01

    Environmental and occupational risk factors contribute to nearly 40% of the national burden of disease in India, with air pollution in the indoor and outdoor environment ranking amongst leading risk factors. It is now recognized that the health burden from air pollution exposures that primarily occur in the rural indoors, from pollutants released during the incomplete combustion of solid fuels in households, may rival or even exceed the burden attributable to urban outdoor exposures. Few environmental epidemiological efforts have been devoted to this setting, however. We provide an overview of important available information on exposures and health effects related to household solid fuel use in India, with a view to inform health research priorities for household air pollution and facilitate being able to address air pollution within an integrated rural-urban framework in the future.

  18. Controlling for unmeasured confounding and spatial misalignment in long-term air pollution and health studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Duncan; Sarran, Christophe

    2015-11-01

    The health impact of long-term exposure to air pollution is now routinely estimated using spatial ecological studies, owing to the recent widespread availability of spatial referenced pollution and disease data. However, this areal unit study design presents a number of statistical challenges, which if ignored have the potential to bias the estimated pollution-health relationship. One such challenge is how to control for the spatial autocorrelation present in the data after accounting for the known covariates, which is caused by unmeasured confounding. A second challenge is how to adjust the functional form of the model to account for the spatial misalignment between the pollution and disease data, which causes within-area variation in the pollution data. These challenges have largely been ignored in existing long-term spatial air pollution and health studies, so here we propose a novel Bayesian hierarchical model that addresses both challenges and provide software to allow others to apply our model to their own data. The effectiveness of the proposed model is compared by simulation against a number of state-of-the-art alternatives proposed in the literature and is then used to estimate the impact of nitrogen dioxide and particulate matter concentrations on respiratory hospital admissions in a new epidemiological study in England in 2010 at the local authority level. © 2015 The Authors. Environmetrics published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Metropolitan New York in the greenhouse: Air quality and health effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kleinman, L.I.; Lipfert, F.

    1996-01-01

    A variety of potential effects on human health resulting from climate change have been identified in several assessments. According to an international panel{sup 1} they include direct effects of extreme temperatures on cardiovascular deaths, secondary effects due to vector-borne diseases or crop yields, and tertiary effects such as those that might arise from conflicts over freshwater supplies. To this fist we add the secondary effects of increased air pollution, which may result either directly from climate change or indirectly from increased air conditioning loads and the corresponding pollutant emissions from electric utilities. Higher ozone concentrations have been linked to increased ambient temperatures by both theory and observations of monitoring data. A similar association with particulate matter has been limited to observations, thus far. The pollution-heat linkage has been recognized before` but health effects have not been evaluated in terms of predictions of the joint effects of both agents. This paper has been prepared in two sections. First, we discuss the ozone situation with special reference to the Northeast Corridor and New York. In the second section, we present estimates of the health effects of climate change on New York and discuss some mitigation options.

  20. [Hazard assessment of the impact of high temperature and air pollution on public health in Moscow].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revich, B A; Shaposhnikov, D A; Avaliani, S L; Rubinshtein, K G; Emelina, S V; Shiriaev, M V; Semutnikova, E G; Zakharova, P V; Kislova, O Iu

    2015-01-01

    In the article there are considered the main problems of assessing public health risks of the combined effects of high temperatures and air pollution with the account taken of the consequences of abnormally hot weather observed in summer 2010 in Moscow and without equals in the history of meteorological measurements in the city. The daily average concentrations of fine suspended particles matter (PM10) in the city during peatland fires from 4 to 9 August are emphasized to be within the range of 431-906 μ/m3, being 7.2-15.1 times the Russian maximum permissible concentration (MPCs) (60 μ/m3). The anomalous heat and high levels of air pollution in this period were shown to cause a significant increase in excess mortality among the population of Moscow. There was established the relative gain in mortality from all natural causes per 10 μg/m3 increase in daily average concentrations of PM10 and ozone, which was respectively: 0.47% (95%; CI: 0.31-0.63) and 0.41% (95%; CI: 0.31-1.13). On the base of the statistical analysis of daily mortality rates, meteorological indices, the concentrations of PM10 and ozone there was developed marking scale for the risk assessment of these indices accordingly to 4 gradings--low (permissible), warning, alert, and a hazard level. There has been substantiated the importance of the introduction of the system for the early alert for hazard weather events and the unified rating scale for the hazard of high air temperatures and high levels of air pollution with PM10 and ozone, which allows to take timely measures for the protection of the public health.

  1. Air Pollution and Forest Health: Establishing Cause and Effect in the Forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William J. Manning

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available I participated in a NATO Advanced Research Workshop titled “Effects of Air Pollution on Forest Health and Biodiversity in Forests of the Carpathian Mountains,” in Stara Lesna, Slovakia from May 22–26, 2001. Researchers from Canada, Czech Republic, Poland, Romania, Slovakia, Ukraine, and the U.S. met to present their results from a three-year cooperative study of tree health and air quality monitoring in forests of the Carpathian Mountains in Central Europe. Much of the work reported related to assessing the crown condition of trees in permanent plots in natural or managed (planted forests in the mountains. The endpoint was tree condition, with results extrapolated to the forests in the Carpathian range. From this I learned that, of the 50,000 trees evaluated, European beech (Fagus sylvatica was the most healthy, while Norway spruce (Picea abies (the principal forest tree and white fir (Abies alba sustained crown defoliation of up to 12.8%. The cause of this crown defoliation and tree decline was usually attributed to “air pollution” as a generic term and an automatic assumption. It is well known that deposition of heavy metals and acidic sulfur and nitrogen compounds can cause tree decline and predispose affected trees to bark beetles and climatic damage. Chemical analyses can also be done to detect metals and sulfur compounds in trees and soils. Sometimes these analyses were done, but most often the assumption was that crown defoliation was caused by air pollution. The assumption was that given sufficient exposure to high enough concentrations of toxic elements, sooner or later there will be a visible adverse response.

  2. Low-carbon energy policy and ambient air pollution in Shanghai, China. A health-based economic assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Changhong; Wang, Bingyan [Shanghai Academy of Environmental Sciences, Shanghai 200233 (China); Chen, Bingheng; Kan, Haidong [Department of Environmental Health, School of Public Health, Fudan University, Shanghai 200032 (China); Huang, Cheng; Zhao, Jing; Dai, Yi [East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237 (China)

    2007-02-01

    Energy and related health issues are of growing concern worldwide today. To investigate the potential public health and economic impact of ambient air pollution under various low-carbon energy scenarios in Shanghai, we estimated the exposure level of Shanghai residents to air pollution under various planned scenarios, and assessed the public health impact using concentration-response functions derived from available epidemiologic studies. We then estimated the corresponding economic values of the health effects based on unit values for each health outcome. Our results show that ambient air pollution in relation to low-carbon energy scenarios could have a significant impact on the future health status of Shanghai residents, both in physical and monetary terms. Compared with the base case scenario, implementation of various low-carbon energy scenarios could prevent 2804-8249 and 9870-23,100 PM{sub 10}-related avoidable deaths (mid-value) in 2010 and 2020, respectively. It could also decrease incidence of several relevant diseases. The corresponding economic benefits could reach 507.31-1492.33 and 2642.45-6192.11 million U.S. dollars (mid-value) in 2010 and 2020, respectively. These findings illustrate that a low-carbon energy policy will not only decrease the emission of greenhouse gases, but also play an active role in the reduction of air pollutant emissions, improvement of air quality, and promotion of public health. Our estimates can provide useful information to local decision-makers for further cost-benefit analysis. (author)

  3. Low-carbon energy policy and ambient air pollution in Shanghai, China: A health-based economic assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen Changhong [Shanghai Academy of Environmental Sciences, Shanghai 200233 (China); Chen Bingheng [Department of Environmental Health, School of Public Health, Fudan University, Shanghai 200032 (China); Wang Bingyan [Shanghai Academy of Environmental Sciences, Shanghai 200233 (China); Huang Cheng [East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237 (China); Zhao Jing [East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237 (China); Dai Yi [East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237 (China); Kan Haidong [Department of Environmental Health, School of Public Health, Fudan University, Shanghai 200032 (China)]. E-mail: haidongkan@gmail.com

    2007-02-01

    Energy and related health issues are of growing concern worldwide today. To investigate the potential public health and economic impact of ambient air pollution under various low-carbon energy scenarios in Shanghai, we estimated the exposure level of Shanghai residents to air pollution under various planned scenarios, and assessed the public health impact using concentration-response functions derived from available epidemiologic studies. We then estimated the corresponding economic values of the health effects based on unit values for each health outcome. Our results show that ambient air pollution in relation to low-carbon energy scenarios could have a significant impact on the future health status of Shanghai residents, both in physical and monetary terms. Compared with the base case scenario, implementation of various low-carbon energy scenarios could prevent 2804-8249 and 9870-23,100 PM{sub 10}-related avoidable deaths (mid-value) in 2010 and 2020, respectively. It could also decrease incidence of several relevant diseases. The corresponding economic benefits could reach 507.31-1492.33 and 2642.45-6192.11 million U.S. dollars (mid-value) in 2010 and 2020, respectively. These findings illustrate that a low-carbon energy policy will not only decrease the emission of greenhouse gases, but also play an active role in the reduction of air pollutant emissions, improvement of air quality, and promotion of public health. Our estimates can provide useful information to local decision-makers for further cost-benefit analysis.

  4. Low-carbon energy policy and ambient air pollution in Shanghai, China: a health-based economic assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Changhong; Chen, Bingheng; Wang, Bingyan; Huang, Cheng; Zhao, Jing; Dai, Yi; Kan, Haidong

    2007-02-01

    Energy and related health issues are of growing concern worldwide today. To investigate the potential public health and economic impact of ambient air pollution under various low-carbon energy scenarios in Shanghai, we estimated the exposure level of Shanghai residents to air pollution under various planned scenarios, and assessed the public health impact using concentration-response functions derived from available epidemiologic studies. We then estimated the corresponding economic values of the health effects based on unit values for each health outcome. Our results show that ambient air pollution in relation to low-carbon energy scenarios could have a significant impact on the future health status of Shanghai residents, both in physical and monetary terms. Compared with the base case scenario, implementation of various low-carbon energy scenarios could prevent 2804-8249 and 9870-23,100 PM10-related avoidable deaths (mid-value) in 2010 and 2020, respectively. It could also decrease incidence of several relevant diseases. The corresponding economic benefits could reach 507.31-1492.33 and 2642.45-6192.11 million U.S. dollars (mid-value) in 2010 and 2020, respectively. These findings illustrate that a low-carbon energy policy will not only decrease the emission of greenhouse gases, but also play an active role in the reduction of air pollutant emissions, improvement of air quality, and promotion of public health. Our estimates can provide useful information to local decision-makers for further cost-benefit analysis.

  5. Effect of Air Pollution and Rural-Urban Difference on Mental Health of the Elderly in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao TIAN

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: China has become an aging society, and the mental health problem of the elderly is increasingly becom-ing prominent. This paper aimed to analyze the effect of air pollution and rural-urban difference on mental health of the elderly in China.Methods: Using the data from the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Survey (CHARLS, 2013, after control-ling the social demography variable via Tobit and Probit, a regression analysis of the effect of air pollution and rural-urban difference on mental health and psychological disorder was conducted on 6,630 old people (≧60 yr old of Chi-na from February to April 2015. Mental health and psychological disorder of the elderly were measured by the CES-D score of respondents. Air pollution degree of counties and cities (n=123 were measured by SO2 emission.Results: 27.8% of old people had psychological disorders. Air pollution significantly influenced the mental health of the elderly, showing a positive “U-shaped” curve (P<0.001. In China, the urban elderly had better psychological sta-tus than the rural elderly had. The female elderly had more serious mental health problems. Marriage, education, and social activities had positive effects on the mental health of the elderly.Conclusion: China’s local governments should consider the influence of air pollution on the mental health of the elderly during economic development. This paper recommends paying attention to the difference in mental health between the urban and rural elderly when making public health policies. Governments could improve the mental health of the elderly by enriching social activities and increasing employment opportunities of the elderly.

  6. PROFILE: Potential for Advanced Technology to Improve Air Quality and Human Health in Shanghai.

    Science.gov (United States)

    STREETS; HEDAYAT; CARMICHAEL; ARNDT; CARTER

    1999-04-01

    / Air quality in most Asian cities is poor and getting worse. It will soon become impossible to sustain population, economic, and industrial growth without severe deterioration of the atmospheric environment. This paper addresses the city of Shanghai, the air-quality problems it faces over the next 30 years, and the potential of advanced technology to alleviate these problems. Population, energy consumption, and emission profiles are developed for the city at 0.1 degrees x 0.1 degrees resolution and extrapolated from 1990 to 2020 using sector-specific economic growth factors. Within the context of the RAINS-Asia model, eight technology scenarios are examined for their effects on ambient concentrations of sulfur dioxide and sulfate and their emission control costs. Without new control measures, it is projected that the number of people exposed to sulfur dioxide concentrations in excess of guidelines established by the World Health Organization will rise from 650,000 in 1990 to more than 14 million in 2020. It is apparent that efforts to reduce emissions are likely to have significant health benefits, measured in terms of the cost of reducing the number of people exposed to concentrations in excess of the guidelines ($10-50 annually per person protected). Focusing efforts on the control of new coal-fired power plants and industrial facilities has the greatest benefit. However, none of the scenarios examined is alone capable of arresting the increases in emissions, concentrations, and population exposure. It is concluded that combinations of stringent scenarios in several sectors will be necessary to stabilize the situation, at a potential cost of $500 million annually by the year 2020. KEY WORDS: Coal; China; Shanghai; Sulfur dioxide; Air quality; Health effects

  7. A joint ERS/ATS policy statement: what constitutes an adverse health effect of air pollution? An analytical framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurston, George D; Kipen, Howard; Annesi-Maesano, Isabella; Balmes, John; Brook, Robert D; Cromar, Kevin; De Matteis, Sara; Forastiere, Francesco; Forsberg, Bertil; Frampton, Mark W; Grigg, Jonathan; Heederik, Dick; Kelly, Frank J; Kuenzli, Nino; Laumbach, Robert; Peters, Annette; Rajagopalan, Sanjay T; Rich, David; Ritz, Beate; Samet, Jonathan M; Sandstrom, Thomas; Sigsgaard, Torben; Sunyer, Jordi; Brunekreef, Bert

    2017-01-01

    The American Thoracic Society has previously published statements on what constitutes an adverse effect on health of air pollution in 1985 and 2000. We set out to update and broaden these past statements that focused primarily on effects on the respiratory system. Since then, many studies have documented effects of air pollution on other organ systems, such as on the cardiovascular and central nervous systems. In addition, many new biomarkers of effects have been developed and applied in air pollution studies.This current report seeks to integrate the latest science into a general framework for interpreting the adversity of the human health effects of air pollution. Rather than trying to provide a catalogue of what is and what is not an adverse effect of air pollution, we propose a set of considerations that can be applied in forming judgments of the adversity of not only currently documented, but also emerging and future effects of air pollution on human health. These considerations are illustrated by the inclusion of examples for different types of health effects of air pollution.

  8. Effect of central ventilation and air conditioner system on the concentration and health risk from airborne polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jinze LV; Lizhong Zhu

    2013-01-01

    Central ventilation and air conditioner systems are widely utilized nowadays in public places for air exchange and temperature control,which significantly influences the transfer of pollutants between indoors and outdoors.To study the effect of central ventilation and air conditioner systems on the concentration and health risk from airborne pollutants,a spatial and temporal survey was carried out using polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) as agent pollutants.During the period when the central ventilation system operated without air conditioning (AC-off period),concentrations of 2-4 ring PAHs in the model supermarket were dominated by outdoor levels,due to the good linearity between indoor air and outdoor air (rp > 0.769,p < 0.05),and the slopes (1.2-4.54) indicated that ventilating like the model supermarket increased the potential health risks from low molecular weight PAHs.During the period when the central ventilation and air conditioner systems were working simultaneously (AC-on period),although the total levels of PAHs were increased,the concentrations and percentage of the particulate PAHs indoors declined significantly.The BaP equivalency (BaPeq concentration indicated that utilization of air conditioning reduced the health risks from PAHs in the model supermarket.

  9. [Influence of smoking and industrial air pollutants on respiratory health of nickel industry workers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shilov, V V; Siurin, S A

    2015-01-01

    Studies covered respiratory health of 1530 workers of nickel industry, among which were 796 (52.0%) smokers. Findings are that tobacco smoke combined with nickel industry hazards cause potentized negative effects in respiratory organs, with earlier and more frequent chronic bronchitis. For isolated influence of these factors, chronic bronchitis risk is higher from exposure to tobacco smoke vs. occupational hazards (OR = 2.48; DI 1.49-4.13). Chronic obstructive lung disease development in nickel industry workers is caused by smoking. Industrial air pollutants appeared to have no potentizing effect on COLD formation, as well as on toxic pneumosclerosis formation.

  10. BTEX air concentrations and self-reported common health problems in gasoline sellers from Cotonou, Benin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tohon, Honesty Gbèdolo; Fayomi, Benjamin; Valcke, Mathieu; Coppieters, Yves; Bouland, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    To examine the relation between BTEX exposure levels and common self-reported health problems in 140 gasoline sellers in Cotonou, Benin, a questionnaire documenting their socioeconomic status and their health problems was used, whereas 18 of them went through semi-directed qualitative individual interviews and 17 had air samples taken on their workplace for BTEX analysis. Median concentrations for BTEX were significantly lower on official (range of medians: 54-207 μg/m³, n = 9) vs unofficial (148-1449 μg/m³, n = 8) gasoline-selling sites (p sellers from unofficial vs official selling sites (p sellers, leading to their, in some cases, preoccupying BTEX exposure.

  11. Environment and air pollution like gun and bullet for low-income countries: war for better health and wealth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Xiang; Azam, Muhammad; Islam, Talat; Zaman, Khalid

    2016-02-01

    The objective of the study is to examine the impact of environmental indicators and air pollution on "health" and "wealth" for the low-income countries. The study used a number of promising variables including arable land, fossil fuel energy consumption, population density, and carbon dioxide emissions that simultaneously affect the health (i.e., health expenditures per capita) and wealth (i.e., GDP per capita) of the low-income countries. The general representation for low-income countries has shown by aggregate data that consist of 39 observations from the period of 1975-2013. The study decomposes the data set from different econometric tests for managing robust inferences. The study uses temporal forecasting for the health and wealth model by a vector error correction model (VECM) and an innovation accounting technique. The results show that environment and air pollution is the menace for low-income countries' health and wealth. Among environmental indicators, arable land has the largest variance to affect health and wealth for the next 10-year period, while air pollution exerts the least contribution to change health and wealth of low-income countries. These results indicate the prevalence of war situation, where environment and air pollution become visible like "gun" and "bullet" for low-income countries. There are required sound and effective macroeconomic policies to combat with the environmental evils that affect the health and wealth of the low-income countries.

  12. Effect of Air Pollution and Rural-Urban Difference on Mental Health of the Elderly in China

    OpenAIRE

    Tian, Tao; Yuhuai CHEN; Zhu, Jing; Pengling LIU

    2015-01-01

    Background: China has become an aging society, and the mental health problem of the elderly is increasingly becom-ing prominent. This paper aimed to analyze the effect of air pollution and rural-urban difference on mental health of the elderly in China.Methods: Using the data from the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Survey (CHARLS, 2013), after control-ling the social demography variable via Tobit and Probit, a regression analysis of the effect of air pollution and rural-urban differ...

  13. Air pollution and cardiovascular health in Mandi-Gobindgarh, Punjab, India - a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nautiyal, Jyoti; Garg, M L; Kumar, Manoj Sharma; Khan, Asif Ali; Thakur, Jarnail S; Kumar, Rajesh

    2007-12-01

    Large number of epidemiological studies to know the effect of air pollution on the general mortality and morbidity, and the cardiopulmonary morbidity and mortality are concentrated in USA and Europe. Regional differences in air pollution necessitate regional level health effects studies. Present study is a cross sectional pilot study from India, an Asian country. A sample of population from an industrial town 'Mandi Gobindgarh' and a nonindustrial town 'Morinda' were selected. A cross-sectional household survey was done in both the towns. One hundred subjects were selected from each of the towns. Ambient air quality data was collected for both towns over a period of 10-months to assess seasonal variations. In the present study the average PM10 (particulate matter with pollutants and the higher prevalence of cardiovascular symptoms in Mandi-Gobindgarh (Industrial town) than the Morinda (Non-Industrial town) is because of the association of PM pollution with cardiovascular diseases. Keeping in view the current status of literature, further studies in this direction are needed in a country like India. Such data will also be globally relevant.

  14. Modeled effects of an improved building insulation scenario in Europe on air pollution, health and societal costs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bønløkke, Jakob Hjort; Holst, Gitte Juel; Sigsgaard, Torben

    2015-01-01

    and the resulting effects on health and economy. Methods: Projected energy savings between 2005 and 2020 were calculated for an improved building insulation scenario and a business as usual scenario. The resulting changes in emissions (e.g. from power plants) were used in the Comprehensive Air-Quality Model...... with extensions. Mean annual changes in the main air pollutants were derived for each country. World Health Organization (WHO) and European Union (EU) data on populations and on impacts of pollutants were used to derive health effects and costs. Effects on indoor air quality were not assessed. Results: Projected...... 78678 LY in Europe. A total of 7173 cases of persistent chronic bronchitis could be avoided annually. Several other health outcomes improved similarly. The saved societal costs totaled 6.64 billion € annually. Conclusions: In addition to carbon emission reductions, an improved building insulation...

  15. The effect of ambient air pollution on respiratory health of school children: a panel study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McLeod Susan

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adverse respiratory effects of particulate air pollution have been identified by epidemiological studies. We aimed to examine the health effects of ambient particulate air pollution from wood burning on school-age students in Christchurch, New Zealand, and to explore the utility of urine and exhaled breath condensate biomarkers of exposure in this population. Methods A panel study of 93 male students (26 with asthma living in the boarding house of a metropolitan school was undertaken in the winter of 2004. Indoor and outdoor pollution data was continuously monitored. Longitudinal assessment of lung function (FEV1 and peak flow and symptoms were undertaken, with event studies of high pollution on biomarkers of exposure (urinary 1-hydroxypyrene and effect (exhaled breath condensate (EBC pH and hydrogen peroxide concentration. Results Peak levels of air pollution were associated with small but statistically significant effects on lung function in the asthmatic students, but not healthy students. No significant effect of pollution could be seen either on airway inflammation and oxidative stress either in healthy students or students with asthma. Minor increases in respiratory symptoms were associated with high pollution exposure. Urinary 1-hydroxypyrene levels were raised in association with pollution events by comparison with low pollution control days. Conclusion There is no significant effect of ambient wood-smoke particulate air pollution on lung function of healthy school-aged students, but a small effect on respiratory symptoms. Asthmatic students show small effects of peak pollution levels on lung function. Urinary 1-hydroxypyrene shows potential as a biomarker of exposure to wood smoke in this population; however measurement of EBC pH and hydrogen peroxide appears not to be useful for assessment of population health effects of air pollution. Some of the data presented in this paper has previously been published in Kingham

  16. Asthma and Air Quality in the Presence of Fires - A Foundation for Public Health Policy in Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosson, William; Al-Hamdan, Mohammad; Estes, Maurice, Jr.; Estes, Sue; Luvall, Jeffrey; Sifford, Cody; Young, Linda

    2012-01-01

    Outdoor air quality and its associated impacts on respiratory problems in Florida are of public health significance. Air quality in Florida can be poor during the extended wildfire season, threatening persons with compromised respiratory systems each year. Studies have demonstrated that particulate matter, which is generally elevated in the vicinity of wildfires, is associated with increases in hospital admissions and occurrences of acute asthma exacerbations. However, few studies have examined the modifying effect of socio-demographic characteristics of cities or regional areas on the relationship between air quality and health outcomes. In an ongoing university/multi-agency project, asthma hospital/emergency room (patient) data are being used to create a health outcome indicator of human response to environmental air quality. Environmental data are derived from satellite measurements, with special attention being given to the effect of wildfires and prescribed burns on air quality. This presentation will focus on the environmental data sets particulate matter, location of fires, smoke plumes that are being collected and processed for linkage with health data. After this linkage has been performed, space-time models of asthma rates as a function of air quality data and socio-demographic variables will be developed and validated. The Florida Department of Health (FDOH) will work with county health department staff and representatives from the medical community to establish a protocol with triggers for issuing public health advisories/alerts based on the developed and validated health outcome indicators. From this effort, a science-based policy for issuing public health advisories/alerts for asthma relating to air quality will be developed, giving FDOH the ability to (1) predict, with stated levels of uncertainty, case load of hospital admissions based on air quality, (2) reduce asthma exacerbations by forewarning asthmatics to limit outside activities on poor air

  17. A Review of the Epidemiological Methods Used to Investigate the Health Impacts of Air Pollution around Major Industrial Areas

    OpenAIRE

    Mathilde Pascal; Laurence Pascal; Marie-Laure Bidondo; Amandine Cochet; Hélène Sarter; Morgane Stempfelet; Vérène Wagner

    2013-01-01

    We performed a literature review to investigate how epidemiological studies have been used to assess the health consequences of living in the vicinity of industries. 77 papers on the chronic effects of air pollution around major industrial areas were reviewed. Major health themes were cancers (27 studies), morbidity (25 studies), mortality (7 studies), and birth outcome (7 studies). Only 3 studies investigated mental health. While studies were available from many different countries, a majori...

  18. Air quality and students' health in Shanghai (China): an educational and scientific project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigot-Cormier, Florence; Nicolaï, Marie-Pierre; Martinez, Claire-Marie; Bethmont, Valérie; Guinot, Benjamin

    2014-05-01

    The quality of our environment and especially air quality is a hot topic in any urban environment. Hourly air quality data tend to be easily available to the populations either in the news or on mobile phones. Studies underlining the relationship between environment and health exist in developed countries, but the results cannot be used in such different environmental and sociological contexts as the ones we have in China. In collaboration with the CNRS, students from the Lycée Français de Shanghai (LFS- 5th and 2nd grade) undertake a study in order to obtain an empiric relationship between the atmospheric pollutants they are exposed to in and out the classrooms, and their own health. This study is a part of a scientific and educational project including Beijing, and possibly other foreign schools in Asia later on. The atmospheric pollution in China is essentially caused by particles from different sizes mainly coming from coal combustion. First, in order to quantify the pollution at Shanghai, the students are recording information regarding fine particles as PM2.5 and PM1.0, NO2, SO2, and O3 using active and passive sensors indoors and outdoors, within the school campus. CO2, temperature and relative humidity are used to qualify the confinement rate indoors. In parallel, approximately 100 students (chosen regarding their age, health records, residence time in China…) and some teachers are going to complete a monthly survey regarding their health. Moreover, they will perform some specific measurements to obtain their breathing performances by spirometry, and an indication of the inflammation of their lower airways by exhaled NO measurements. The protocol of these experimentations and the first results will be presented in the poster. At the end of the project, these results will allow us to get a better knowledge about the air pollution we are exposed to, within the school campus, which will help us to adopt an optimized risk management protocol when pollution

  19. Programme of air surveillance Air and Health 9 towns. Surveillance of effects on health in relation with air pollution in urban area. Phase 2; Programme de surveillance Air et Sante 9 villes. Surveillance des effets sur la sante lies a la pollution atmospherique en milieu urbain. Phase 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-06-15

    The InVS published its first results on the Nine-City Air and Health Surveillance Programme (PSAS-9) in March 1999. This phase I pointed out that it was possible for various specialists in the field of air pollution and health to gather around a common set of problems. They also found a link between the daily variations of all the urban air pollution indicators and the total, cardio-vascular and respiratory mortality which, based on French data, contributed to strengthen scientific knowledge in this field. Today's report presents the results of phase Il of the PSAS-9 programme which essentially aimed at assessing the short-term exposure-risk relationships between pollution indicators and hospital admission indicators. This second phase also allowed to confirm the results of phase I on the short-term effect of air pollution on mortality thanks to longer periods of study. Exploratory analysis using new indicators and sensitivity analysis on the pertinence of results were also conducted. Finally, methodological tools were developed in order to optimise data collection and statistical modelization. All these results enabled the quantification of the short-term health impact of air pollution on the PSAS-9 cities. PSAS-9 is now an ongoing epidemiological surveillance programme on the effects of urban air pollution on health, providing information tools to decision-makers and the general population. (author)

  20. Study of particulate matters pollution related with meteorological factors for a city from South-Central of Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela MITRAN

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Reducing the effects of climate change and air pollution is at present a global priority. Development and implementation of effective policies in order to achieve these  reductions is a challenge that requires a good understanding of the underlying phenomena  of climate change and air pollution. This paper aims to highlight the seasonal variation of PM10 concentration in Pitesti city depending on major meteorological factors (temperature, intensity of solar radiation, and relative humidity. The applied methodology consists in statistical processing, using specialized software, of a database containing historical records of concentration values of this pollutant and of meteorological parameters recorded concurrently. The results of processing a series of approximately 30000 values recorded from 2008 to 2011 indicate the fact that in every season (winter,spring, summer, and autumn the concentration of PM10 varies according to a sixth degree polynomial function, whose variable is one of the considered meteorological factors. The mathematical relationship that best approximates the variation of average PM10 concentration in relation with the three meteorological factors is by the form of a multiple linear regression equation.Keywords: air pollution and human health, particulate matters related with meteorological factors, statistical analysis

  1. Air pollution from household solid fuel combustion in India: an overview of exposure and health related information to inform health research priorities

    OpenAIRE

    Balakrishnan, Kalpana; Ramaswamy, Padmavathi; Sambandam, Sankar; Thangavel, Gurusamy; Ghosh, Santu; Johnson, Priscilla; Mukhopadhyay, Krishnendu; Venugopal, Vidhya; Thanasekaraan, Vijayalakshmi

    2011-01-01

    Environmental and occupational risk factors contribute to nearly 40% of the national burden of disease in India, with air pollution in the indoor and outdoor environment ranking amongst leading risk factors. It is now recognized that the health burden from air pollution exposures that primarily occur in the rural indoors, from pollutants released during the incomplete combustion of solid fuels in households, may rival or even exceed the burden attributable to urban outdoor exposures. Few envi...

  2. Over-fitting Time Series Models of Air Pollution Health Effects: Smoothing Tends to Bias Non-Null Associations Towards the Null.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Simulation studies have previously demonstrated that time-series analyses using smoothing splines correctly model null health-air pollution associations. Methods: We repeatedly simulated season, meteorology and air quality for the metropolitan area of Atlanta from cyc...

  3. The Economic Value of Air Quality Forecasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson-Sumo, Tasha

    Both long-term and daily air quality forecasts provide an essential component to human health and impact costs. According the American Lung Association, the estimated current annual cost of air pollution related illness in the United States, adjusted for inflation (3% per year), is approximately $152 billion. Many of the risks such as hospital visits and morality are associated with poor air quality days (where the Air Quality Index is greater than 100). Groups such as sensitive groups become more susceptible to the resulting conditions and more accurate forecasts would help to take more appropriate precautions. This research focuses on evaluating the utility of air quality forecasting in terms of its potential impacts by building on air quality forecasting and economical metrics. Our analysis includes data collected during the summertime ozone seasons between 2010 and 2012 from air quality models for the Washington, DC/Baltimore, MD region. The metrics that are relevant to our analysis include: (1) The number of times that a high ozone or particulate matter (PM) episode is correctly forecasted, (2) the number of times that high ozone or PM episode is forecasted when it does not occur and (3) the number of times when the air quality forecast predicts a cleaner air episode when the air was observed to have high ozone or PM. Our collection of data included available air quality model forecasts of ozone and particulate matter data from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)'s AIRNOW as well as observational data of ozone and particulate matter from Clean Air Partners. We evaluated the performance of the air quality forecasts with that of the observational data and found that the forecast models perform well for the Baltimore/Washington region and the time interval observed. We estimate the potential amount for the Baltimore/Washington region accrues to a savings of up to 5,905 lives and 5.9 billion dollars per year. This total assumes perfect compliance with

  4. Does respiratory health contribute to the effects of long-term air pollution exposure on cardiovascular mortality?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heinrich Joachim

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is growing epidemiological evidence that short-term and long-term exposure to high levels of air pollution may increase cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. In addition, epidemiological studies have shown an association between air pollution exposure and respiratory health. To what extent the association between cardiovascular mortality and air pollution is driven by the impact of air pollution on respiratory health is unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate whether respiratory health at baseline contributes to the effects of long-term exposure to high levels of air pollution on cardiovascular mortality in a cohort of elderly women. Method We analyzed data from 4750 women, aged 55 at the baseline investigation in the years 1985–1994. 2593 of these women had their lung function tested by spirometry. Respiratory diseases and symptoms were asked by questionnaire. Ambient air pollution exposure was assessed by the concentrations of NO2 and total suspended particles at fixed monitoring sites and by the distance of residency to a major road. A mortality follow-up of these women was conducted between 2001 and 2003. For the statistical analysis, Cox' regression was used. Results Women with impaired lung function or pre-existing respiratory diseases had a higher risk of dying from cardiovascular causes. The impact of impaired lung function declined over time. The risk ratio (RR of women with forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1 of less than 80% predicted to die from cardiovascular causes was RR = 3.79 (95%CI: 1.64–8.74 at 5 years survival time and RR = 1.35 (95%CI: 0.66–2.77 at 12 years. The association between air pollution levels and cardiovascular death rate was strong and statistically significant. However, this association did only change marginally when including indicators of respiratory health into the regression analysis. Furthermore, no interaction between air pollution and respiratory health

  5. Health effects of outdoor air pollution. Committee of the Environmental and Occupational Health Assembly of the American Thoracic Society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    Particles, SOx, and acid aerosols are a complex group of distinct pollutants that have common sources and usually covary in concentration. During the past two decades, the chemical characteristics and the geographic distribution of sulfur oxide and particulate pollution have been altered by control strategies, specifically taller stacks for power plants, put in place in response to air pollution regulations adopted in the early 1970s. While the increasing stack heights have lowered local ambient levels, the residence time of SOx and particles in the air have been increased, thereby promoting transformation to various particulate sulfate compounds, including acidic sulfates. These sulfate particles constitute a large fraction of the total mass of smaller particles (Epidemiologic studies have consistently provided evidence of adverse health effects of these air pollutants. Particulate and SO2 pollution were strongly implicated in the acute morbidity and mortality associated with the severe pollution episodes in Donora (Pennsylvania), London, and New York in the 1940s, 1950s, and 1960s. There is new evidence that even current ambient levels of PM10 (30 to 150 micrograms/m3) are associated with increases in daily cardiorespiratory mortality and in total mortality, excluding accidental and suicide deaths. These associations have been shown in many different communities, as widely different in particle composition and climate as Philadelphia, St. Louis, Utah Valley, and Santa Clara County, California. It has recently been shown in a long-term prospective study of adults in the United States that chronic levels of higher PM10 pollution are associated with increased mortality after adjusting for several individual risk factors. Daily fluctuations in PM10 levels have also been shown to be related to acute respiratory hospital admissions in children, to school and kindergarten absences, to decrements in peak flow rates in normal children, and to increased medication use in

  6. Air quality and public health impacts of UK airports. Part II: Impacts and policy assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yim, Steve H. L.; Stettler, Marc E. J.; Barrett, Steven R. H.

    2013-03-01

    The potential adverse human health impacts of emissions from UK airports have become a significant issue of public concern. We produce an inventory of UK airport emissions - including emissions from aircraft landing and takeoff operations, aircraft auxiliary power units (APUs) and ground support equipment (GSE) - with quantified uncertainty. Emissions due to more than 95% of UK passenger enplanements are accounted for. We apply a multi-scale air quality modelling approach to assess the air quality impacts of UK airports. Using a concentration-response function we estimate that 110 (90% CI: 72-160) early deaths occur in the UK each year (based on 2005 data) due to UK airport emissions. We estimate that up to 65% of the health impacts of UK airports could be mitigated by desulphurising jet fuel, electrifying GSE, avoiding use of APUs and use of single engine taxiing. Two plans for the expansion of UK airport capacity are examined - expansion of London Heathrow and new hub airport in the Thames Estuary. Even if capacity is constrained, we find that the health impacts of UK airports still increases by 170% in 2030 due to an increasing and aging population, increasing emissions, and a changing atmosphere. We estimate that if Heathrow were to be expanded as per previous UK Government plans, UK-wide health impacts in 2030 would increase by 4% relative to the 2030 constrained case, but this increase could become a 48% reduction if emissions mitigation measures were employed. We calculate that 24% of UK-wide aviation-attributable early deaths could be avoided in 2030 if Heathrow were replaced by a new airport in Thames Estuary because the location is downwind of London, where this reduction occurs notwithstanding the increase in aircraft emissions. A Thames hub airport would (isolated from knock-on effects at other airports) cause 60-70% fewer early deaths than an expanded Heathrow, or 55-63% fewer early deaths than an unexpanded Heathrow. Finally, replacing Heathrow by a

  7. Effectiveness of heating, ventilation and air conditioning system with HEPA filter unit on indoor air quality and asthmatic children's health

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Ying; Raja, Suresh; Ferro, Andrea R.; Jaques, Peter A.; Hopke, Philip K. [Clarkson University, 8 Clarkson Avenue, Center for Air Resources Engineering and Science, Potsdam, NY 13699 (United States); Gressani, Cheryl; Wetzel, Larry E. [Air Innovations, Inc, 7000 Performance Drive, North Syracuse, NY 13212 (United States)

    2010-02-15

    Poor indoor air quality has been linked to the exacerbation of asthma symptoms in children. Because people spend most of their time indoors, improving indoor air quality may provide some relief to asthma sufferers. A study was conducted to assess whether operating an air cleaning/ventilating unit (HEPAiRx {sup registered}) in a child's bedroom can improve his/her respiratory health. Thirty children diagnosed with asthma were randomly split into two groups. For the first six weeks, group A had the air cleaning/ventilating unit (HEPAiRx {sup registered}) running in the bedrooms of the participants and group B did not; for the second six weeks, both groups had the cleaners running in the bedrooms; and, for the final six weeks, group A turned the cleaners off and group B kept theirs running. Indoor air quality parameters, including temperature, relative humidity, particulate matter (PM 0.5-10 {mu}m), carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide and total volatile organic compound (TVOC) concentrations, were monitored in each bedroom using an AirAdvice indoor air quality multi-meter. As a measure of pulmonary inflammation, exhaled breath condensate (EBC) was collected every sixth day and analyzed for nitrate and pH. Peak expiratory flow (PEF) was also measured. PM and TVOC concentrations decreased with operation of the HEPAiRx an average of 72% and 59%, respectively. The EBC nitrate concentrations decreased significantly and the EBC pH and PEF values increased significantly with operation of the unit (p < 0.001 when comparing on/off sample means). These results indicate that air cleaning in combination with ventilation can effectively reduce symptoms for asthma sufferers. (author)

  8. Indoor metallic pollution related to mining activity in the Bolivian Altiplano.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontúrbel, Francisco E; Barbieri, Enio; Herbas, Cristian; Barbieri, Flavia L; Gardon, Jacques

    2011-10-01

    The environmental pollution associated with mining and metallurgical activities reaches its greatest extent in several Andean cities and villages. Many locations in this area have accumulated through centuries a large amount of mining wastes, often disregarding the magnitude of this situation. However, in these naturally mineralized regions, there is little information available stating the exact role of mining and metallurgical industries in urban pollution. In this study, we demonstrated that the various metallic elements present in indoor dust (As, Cd, Cu, Pb, Sb, Sn, Zn) had a common origin and this contamination was increased by the proximity to the mines. Lead dust concentration was found at concerning levels for public health. In addition, wrong behaviors such as carrying mining workwear home contributed to this indoor dust pollution. Consequently, the constant exposure of the population could represent a potential health hazard for vulnerable groups, especially children.

  9. High pressure air jet in the endoscopic preparation room: risk of noise exposure on occupational health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, King-Wah; Lu, Lung-Sheng; Wu, Cheng-Kun

    2015-01-01

    After high-level disinfection of gastrointestinal endoscopes, they are hung to dry in order to prevent residual water droplets impact on patient health. To allow for quick drying and clinical reuse, some endoscopic units use a high pressure air jet (HPAJ) to remove the water droplets on the endoscopes. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the excessive noise exposure with the use of HPAJ in endoscopic preparation room and to investigate the risk to occupational health. Noise assessment was taken during 7 automatic endoscopic reprocessors (AERs) and combined with/without HPAJ use over an 8-hour time-weighted average (TWA). Analytical procedures of the NIOSH and the ISO for noise-induced hearing loss were estimated to develop analytic models. The peak of the noise spectrum of combined HPAJ and 7 AERs was significantly higher than that of the 7 AERs alone (108.3 ± 1.36 versus 69.3 ± 3.93 dBA, P risk of hearing loss (HL > 2.5 dB) was 2.15% at 90 dBA, 11.6% at 95 dBA, and 51.3% at 100 dBA. The odds ratio was 49.1 (95% CI: 11.9 to 203.6). The noise generated by the HPAJ to work over TWA seriously affected the occupational health and safety of those working in an endoscopic preparation room.

  10. Indoor metallic pollution related to mining activity in the Bolivian Altiplano

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fonturbel, Francisco E., E-mail: fonturbel@ug.uchile.cl [Departamento de Ciencias Ecologicas, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Chile, Santiago (Chile); Barbieri, Enio [IRD-HSM (Institut de Recherche pour le Developpement), La Paz (Bolivia, Plurinational State of); Herbas, Cristian [Universidad Mayor de San Andres, IGEMA Institute (Instituto de Investigaciones Geologicas y del Medio Ambiente), La Paz (Bolivia, Plurinational State of); Barbieri, Flavia L.; Gardon, Jacques [IRD-HSM (Institut de Recherche pour le Developpement), La Paz (Bolivia, Plurinational State of); Universidad Mayor de San Andres, SELADIS Institute (Instituto de Servicios de Laboratorio para el Diagnostico e Investigacion en Salud), La Paz (Bolivia, Plurinational State of)

    2011-10-15

    The environmental pollution associated with mining and metallurgical activities reaches its greatest extent in several Andean cities and villages. Many locations in this area have accumulated through centuries a large amount of mining wastes, often disregarding the magnitude of this situation. However, in these naturally mineralized regions, there is little information available stating the exact role of mining and metallurgical industries in urban pollution. In this study, we demonstrated that the various metallic elements present in indoor dust (As, Cd, Cu, Pb, Sb, Sn, Zn) had a common origin and this contamination was increased by the proximity to the mines. Lead dust concentration was found at concerning levels for public health. In addition, wrong behaviors such as carrying mining workwear home contributed to this indoor dust pollution. Consequently, the constant exposure of the population could represent a potential health hazard for vulnerable groups, especially children. - Highlights: > We measured polymetallic pollution in household indoor dust from a mining town. > Toxic elements (Pb, As, Cd, Sb) in dust are correlated, suggesting a common origin. > The most polluted houses are within a 1 km radius around the mining center. > Carrying mining workwear home increases indoor pollution. > Lead concentrations in dust represent a serious concern for Public Health (600 {mu}g/g). - In a typical Andean mining city, the urban indoor pollution with toxic metallic elements is directly related to the closeness of the mining activities.

  11. The impact of winter heating on air pollution in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Qingyang; Ma, Zongwei; Li, Shenshen; Liu, Yang

    2015-01-01

    Fossil-fuel combustion related winter heating has become a major air quality and public health concern in northern China recently. We analyzed the impact of winter heating on aerosol loadings over China using the MODIS-Aqua Collection 6 aerosol product from 2004-2012. Absolute humidity (AH) and planetary boundary layer height (PBL) -adjusted aerosol optical depth (AOD*) was constructed to reflect ground-level PM2.5 concentrations. GIS analysis, standard statistical tests, and statistical modeling indicate that winter heating is an important factor causing increased PM2.5 levels in more than three-quarters of central and eastern China. The heating season AOD* was more than five times higher as the non-heating season AOD*, and the increase in AOD* in the heating areas was greater than in the non-heating areas. Finally, central heating tend to contribute less to air pollution relative to other means of household heating.

  12. Fighting ambient air pollution and its impact on health: from human rights to the right to a clean environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillerm, N; Cesari, G

    2015-08-01

    Clean air is one of the basic requirements of human health and well-being. However, almost nine out of 10 individuals living in urban areas are affected by air pollution. Populations living in Africa, South-East Asia, and in low- and middle-income countries across all regions are the most exposed. Exposure to outdoor air pollution ranks as the ninth leading risk factor for mortality, killing 3.2 million people each year, especially young children, the elderly, persons with lung or cardiovascular disease, those who work or exercise outdoors and low-income populations. In October 2013, the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) classified outdoor air pollution as carcinogenic to humans, calling air pollution 'a major environmental health problem'. Human rights and environmental norms are powerful tools to combat air pollution and its impact on health. The dependence of human rights on environmental quality has been recognised in international texts and by human rights treaty bodies. The growing awareness of the environment has already yielded considerable legislative and regulatory output. However, the implementation of standards remains a pervasive problem. In the fight against violations of norms, citizens have a crucial role to play. We discuss the relevance of a yet to be proclaimed standalone right to a healthy environment.

  13. A critical assessment of shrinkage-based regression approaches for estimating the adverse health effects of multiple air pollutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Steven; Martin, Michael

    Most investigations of the adverse health effects of multiple air pollutants analyse the time series involved by simultaneously entering the multiple pollutants into a Poisson log-linear model. Concerns have been raised about this type of analysis, and it has been stated that new methodology or models should be developed for investigating the adverse health effects of multiple air pollutants. In this paper, we introduce the use of the lasso for this purpose and compare its statistical properties to those of ridge regression and the Poisson log-linear model. Ridge regression has been used in time series analyses on the adverse health effects of multiple air pollutants but its properties for this purpose have not been investigated. A series of simulation studies was used to compare the performance of the lasso, ridge regression, and the Poisson log-linear model. In these simulations, realistic mortality time series were generated with known air pollution mortality effects permitting the performance of the three models to be compared. Both the lasso and ridge regression produced more accurate estimates of the adverse health effects of the multiple air pollutants than those produced using the Poisson log-linear model. This increase in accuracy came at the expense of increased bias. Ridge regression produced more accurate estimates than the lasso, but the lasso produced more interpretable models. The lasso and ridge regression offer a flexible way of obtaining more accurate estimation of pollutant effects than that provided by the standard Poisson log-linear model.

  14. Diagnostics and air pollution damage appraisals: Are we being sufficiently careful in appraising our forest health?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skelly, J.M. [Dept. of Plant Pathology, Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States)

    1993-04-01

    Numerous forest surveys are conducted annually on a worldwide basis. These surveys have multiple purposes which may include estimates of forest growth and productivity, community structure, biodiversity appraisals and/or forest condition (health) appraisals as examples. Many of these surveys are then utilized by others in developing reports of a more generalized nature. Hence, data collected without attention to detail may become lost in averages and the data itself can more easily become susceptible to accidental or directed misinterpretations and manipulations. Such may very well be the case in surveys previously conducted to determine forest condition (health) and subsequent misinterpretations about generalized symptoms being ascribed to air pollutants as their sole etiological agents. Terms such as forest decline and `Waldsterben` and `neuartige Waldschaeden` have become erroneously associated with air pollutants (acid rain) as the primary etiological agent. (orig.) [Deutsch] Zahlreiche Waldbestandsaufnahmen werden jaehrlich weltweit durchgefuehrt. Sie dienen vielseitigen Zwecken, so z.B. Waldzuwachs- und -ertragsschaetzungen, Feststellung von Struktur und Artenreichtum der Lebensgemeinschaft Wald, und/oder Wald- (Gesundheits-)zustandserhebung. Viele dieser Bestandsaufnahmen werden dann von Dritten bei der Erstellung mehr allgemeiner Berichte praktisch ausgewertet. Damit koennen Daten, die ohne Beachtung von Einzelheiten erhoben wurden, in Durchschnittswerten verloren gehen und die einzelnen Daten selbst leicht Gegenstand zufaelliger oder gezielter Fehlauslegung und Zweckentfremdung werden. Das kann durchaus der Fall sein bei frueheren Wald- (gesundheits-)zustandserhebungen und nachfolgenden Fehleinschaetzungen verallgemeinerter Symptome, die ausschliesslich der Luftverschmutzung zugeschrieben wurden. Ausdruecke wie Rueckgang der Gesundheit des Waldes ``Waldsterben`` und ``neuartige Waldschaeden`` wurden faelschlich mit Luftverschmutzung (saurer Regen) als

  15. Characteristics of environmental pollution related with public complaints in an industrial shipbuilding complex, Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Jae-Woo; Lee, Myoung-Eun; Lee, Hyeon-Don

    2011-06-01

    The shipbuilding industry of Korea, ranked number one in the world in annual amount of ship orders, has contributed to national economic growth; however, this has resulted in various environmental problems. Characteristics of environmental pollution, such as particulate matters, odor, and noise, which are closely related with public complaints, were evaluated in an industrial shipbuilding complex. The concentrations of PM-10 and TSP were significantly affected by the distance between the measurement site and shipbuilding workplace, as well as the height of the measurement site. Average PM-10 concentrations in the residential area ranged from 40.10 to 44.10 μg/m(3), which were not high in comparison with the ambient air quality standard and those of major cities in Korea. Paint particles could affect a wider area than typical particulate matters due to their generation and transport properties. The properties of odor in the study area were widely affected by the work intensity in shipyards and the temperature. Twenty-five out of total 54 samples collected in the residential area exceeded the dilution factor of 10, which is the tolerable limit adopted in Korea. Noise had an influence on a limited area due to the extinction effect with distance from the shipyards, while severe noise levels higher than 90 dB(A) were frequently found inside the shipyards.

  16. The effects of closure and workload privatization on health risks estimated for air toxic emissions from McClellan AFB

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vanderbilt, P.; Castleberry, J. [CH2M Hill, Sacramento, CA (United States); Carroz, J. [SM-ALC/EMPW, McClellan AFB, CA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    In July 1995, McClellan AFB, one of five Air Force Logistics Centers, was included on the Base Realignment and Closure Commission list approved by President Clinton. The base will close by August 2001. Significant manufacturing and repair facilities are scheduled for privatization and/or reuse. The State of California requires major industrial facilities to inventory their air toxic emissions and estimate health risks using California-approved methods. This paper explores and discusses the changes in estimated health risks if McClellan AFB was split up into several parts, reducing or eliminating buffer zones, and moving fence lines closer to major air toxic emissions sources. The health risks for the entire base estimated in prior study are compared to the individual risks associated with separate operation of emission sources in various buildings on the base. For several of the buildings and operations studied, predicted health risks at the sites of maximum exposure are greater than limits proposed by the local air district as acceptable levels. Mitigation measures may be required, such as public notification, risk reduction audits, and implementation and tracking of risk reduction measures. For other buildings and operations, results demonstrate that separate ownership would result in predicted health risks within acceptable levels.

  17. Assessment of the status of urban air pollution and its impact on human health in the city of Kolkata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghose, Mrinal K; Paul, R; Banerjee, R K

    2005-09-01

    Air pollution has significant effects on exacerbation of asthma, allergy and other respiratory diseases. Like many other magacities in the world the ambient air quality of Kolkata is also being deteriorated day by day. Automobile exhausts and certain industrial pollutants produce O(3) by photochemical reactions. The particulate matter, particularly less than 10 microm in size, can pass through the natural protective mechanism of human respiratory system and plays an important role in genesis and augmentation of allergic disorders. Sources of air pollution in the area and the unique problem arising out of the emission from the vehicles, industries, etc. have been described. Ambient air quality was monitored along with micrometeorological data and the results are discussed. The status of air pollution in the area has been evaluated and a questionnaire survey was conducted to estimate the allergic symptoms and exposure to assess the respiratory disorders. The data are analysed to evaluate the critical situation arising out of the emission of air pollutants and the impact on human health due to respirable diseases (RDs) to middle class sub-population (activity-wise) in the area are assessed. A strategic air quality management plan has been proposed. For the mitigation of air pollution problems in the city, the different measures to be adopted to maintain the balance between sustainable development and environmental management have been discussed.

  18. [Attaching importance to study on acute health risk assessment and adaptation of air pollution and climate change].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, X M

    2017-03-10

    Air pollution and climate change have become key environmental and public health problems around the world, which poses serious threat to human health. How to assess and mitigate the health risks and increase the adaptation of the public have become an urgent topic of research in this area. The six papers in this issue will provide important and rich information on design, analysis method, indicator selection and setting about acute health risk assessment and adaptation study of air pollution and climate change in China, reflecting the advanced conceptions of multi-center and area-specific study and multi-pollutant causing acute effect study. However, the number and type of the cities included in these studies were still limited. In future, researchers should further expand detailed multi-center and multi-area study coverage, conduct area specific predicting and early warning study and strengthen adaptation study.

  19. Impact of Air Quality on Human Health In The Vicinity of Construction Sites in Delhi-NCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravinder Singh

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Construction sites are important source of air pollution emitting pollutants like PM10, etc. which adversely affect human health especially the respiratory system. The present study aims at monitoring of PM10, health condition of workers, evaluation of API (Air Pollution Index and development of correlation between API and human health in the vicinity of construction sites. In the present study relevant literature review has also been carried out to study and analyze the impact of air pollution on human health. Reconnaissance survey of 19 selected construction sites in Delhi-NCR has been conducted for the period January 2013 to December 2013 and health related data of people in the vicinity of construction sites has been collected individually through a questionnaire. The air quality data (for pollutant PM10 for the area in which the selected construction sites lie has been obtained from the continuous monitoring stations of Central Pollution Control Board. The monthly average PM10 concentration in the ambient air for the study period has been obtained for all the sites. The annual average PM10 level of all the sites has been estimated and compared with the prescribed value. Also the air pollution index (API (for pollutant PM10 has been calculated for each site and compared with the percentage of people suffering with respiratory problems at the respective sites. The results show that the construction sites where the value of API for PM10 is higher there the percentage of people suffering with respiratory diseases has also been higher.

  20. Accountability studies of air pollution and health effects: lessons learned and recommendations for future natural experiment opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rich, David Q

    2017-03-01

    To address limitations of observational epidemiology studies of air pollution and health effects, including residual confounding by temporal and spatial factors, several studies have taken advantage of 'natural experiments', where an environmental policy or air quality intervention has resulted in reductions in ambient air pollution concentrations. Researchers have examined whether the population impacted by these air quality improvements, also experienced improvements in various health indices (e.g. reduced morbidity/mortality). In this paper, I review key accountability studies done previously and new studies done over the past several years in Beijing, Atlanta, London, Ireland, and other locations, describing study design and analysis strengths and limitations of each. As new 'natural experiment' opportunities arise, several lessons learned from these studies should be applied when planning a new accountability study. Comparison of health outcomes during the intervention to both before and after the intervention in the population of interest, as well as use of a control population to assess whether any temporal changes in the population of interest were also seen in populations not impacted by air quality improvements, should aid in minimizing residual confounding by these long term time trends. Use of either detailed health records for a population, or prospectively collected data on relevant mechanistic biomarkers coupled with such morbidity/mortality data may provide a more thorough assessment of if the intervention beneficially impacted the health of the community, and if so by what mechanism(s). Further, prospective measurement of a large suite of air pollutants may allow a more thorough understanding of what pollutant source(s) is/are responsible for any health benefit observed. The importance of using multiple statistical analysis methods in each paper and the difference in how the timing of the air pollution/outcome association may impact which of these

  1. Air pollution: costs and paths to a solution in Hong Kong--understanding the connections among visibility, air pollution, and health costs in pursuit of accountability, environmental justice, and health protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedley, Anthony J; McGhee, Sarah M; Barron, Bill; Chau, Patsy; Chau, June; Thach, Thuan Q; Wong, Tze-Wai; Loh, Christine; Wong, Chit-Ming

    2008-01-01

    Air quality has deteriorated in Hong Kong over more than 15 yr. As part of a program of public accountability, photographs on Poor and Better visibility days were used as representations of the relationships among visibility, air pollution, adverse health effects, and community costs for health care and lost productivity. Coefficients from time-series models and gazetted costs were used to estimate the health and economic impacts of different levels of pollution. In this population of 6.9 million, air quality improvement from the annual average to the lowest pollutant levels of Better visibility days, comparable to the World Health Organization air quality guidelines, would avoid 1335 deaths, 60,587 hospital bed days, and 6.7 million doctor visits for respiratory complaints each year. Direct costs and productivity losses avoided would be over US$240 million a year. The dissemination of these findings led to increased demands for pollution controls from the public and legislators, but denials of the need for urgent action arose from the government. The outcome demonstrates the need for more effective translation of the scientific evidence base into risk communication and public policy.

  2. The 1997 haze disaster in Indonesia: its air quality and health effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunii, Osamu; Kanagawa, Shuzo; Yajima, Iwao; Hisamatsu, Yoshiharu; Yamamura, Sombo; Amagai, Takashi; Ismail, Ir T Sachrul

    2002-01-01

    In this study, the authors assessed air quality and health effects of the 1997 haze disaster in Indonesia. The authors measured carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, ozone, particulate matter with diameters less than or equal to 10 microm, inorganic ions, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. The authors also interviewed 543 people and conducted lung-function tests and determined spirometric values for these individuals. Concentrations of carbon monoxide and particulate matter with diameters less than or equal to 10 microm reached "very unhealthy" and "hazardous" levels, as defined by the Pollution Standards Index. Concentrations of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were 6-14 times higher than levels in the unaffected area. More than 90% of the respondents had respiratory symptoms, and elderly individuals suffered a serious deterioration of overall health. In multivariate analysis, the authors determined that gender, history of asthma, and frequency of wearing a mask were associated with severity of respiratory problems. The results of our study demonstrate the need for special care of the elderly and for care of those with a history of asthma. In addition, the use of a proper mask may afford protection.

  3. Assessment of health-cost externalities of air pollution at the national level using the EVA model system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandt, J.; Silver, J.D.; Frohn, L.M. (and others)

    2011-07-15

    Air pollution has significant negative impacts on human health and well-being, which entail substantial economic consequences. We have developed an integrated model system, EVA (External Valuation of Air pollution; Frohn et al., 2005; Andersen et al., 2007; Brandt et al., 2010), to assess health-related economic externalities of air pollution resulting from specific emission sources or sectors. The EVA system was initially developed to assess externalities from power production, but in this study it is extended to evaluate costs at the national level from all major emission sectors. In this study, we estimate the impacts and total externality costs from the main emission sectors in Denmark, representing the 10 major SNAP codes. Furthermore, we assess the impacts and externality costs of all emissions simultaneously from the whole of Europe as well as from international ship traffic in general, since this sector seems to be very important but is currently unregulated. (Author)

  4. What Health-Related Information Flows through You Every Day? A Content Analysis of Microblog Messages on Air Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Qinghua; Yang, Fan; Zhou, Chun

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate how the information about haze, a term used in China to describe the air pollution problem, is portrayed on Chinese social media by different types of organizations using the theoretical framework of the health belief model (HBM). Design/methodology/approach: A content analysis was conducted…

  5. (Un)Healthy in the city : Adverse health effects of traffic-related noise and air pollution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zijlema, Wilma

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the adverse health effects of urbanity, traffic-related noise and air pollution. We used harmonized data from multiple European cohort studies: LifeLines, HUNT, FINRISK, EPIC-Oxford and KORA. Based on our studies, we concluded that the living environment may be associated with advers

  6. Improving Awareness of Health Hazards Associated with Air Pollution in Primary School Children: Design and Test of Didactic Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carducci, Annalaura; Casini, Beatrice; Donzelli, Gabriele; Verani, Marco; Bruni, Beatrice; Ceretti, Elisabetta; Zani, Claudia; Carraro, Elisabetta; Bonetta, Sara; Bagordo, Francesco; Grassi, Tiziana; Villarini, Milena; Bonizzoni, Silvia; Zagni, Licia; Gelatti, Umberto

    2016-01-01

    One of the objectives of the MAPEC-Life project is raising children's awareness on air quality and its health effects. To achieve this goal, we designed didactic tools for primary school students, including leaflets with more information for teachers, a cartoon, and three educational videogames. The tools were then tested with 266 children who…

  7. Acute effects of urban air pollution on respiratory health of children with and without chronic respiratory symptoms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Zee, S; Hoek, G; Boezen, H M; Schouten, J P; van Wijnen, J H; Brunekreef, B

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To investigate to what extent different components of air pollution are associated with acute respiratory health effects in children with and without chronic respiratory symptoms. METHODS: During three consecutive winters starting in 1992-3, peak expiratory flow (PEF) and respiratory sym

  8. Air pollution-induced health impacts on the national economy of China: demonstration of a computable general equilibrium approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Yue; Yang, Hongwei; Masui, Toshihiko

    2005-01-01

    At the present time, ambient air pollution is a serious public health problem in China. Based on the concentration-response relationship provided by international and domestic epidemiologic studies, the authors estimated the mortality and morbidity induced by the ambient air pollution of 2000. To address the mechanism of the health impact on the national economy, the authors applied a computable general equilibrium (CGE) model, named AIM/Material China, containing 39 production sectors and 32 commodities. AIM/Material analyzes changes of the gross domestic product (GDP), final demand, and production activity originating from health damages. If ambient air quality met Grade II of China's air quality standard in 2000, then the avoidable GDP loss would be 0.38%o of the national total, of which 95% was led by labor loss. Comparatively, medical expenditure had less impact on national economy, which is explained from the aspect of the final demand by commodities and the production activities by sectors. The authors conclude that the CGE model is a suitable tool for assessing health impacts from a point of view of national economy through the discussion about its applicability.

  9. Air pollution and respiratory health of children: the PEACE panel study in Hettstedt and Zerbst., Eastern Germany.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beyer, U.; Franke, K.; Cyrus, J.; Peters, A.; Heinrich, J.; Wichmann, H.E.; Brunekreef, B.

    1998-01-01

    A multicentre study (Pollution Effects on Asthmatic Children in Europe (PEACE) study) investigated the relationship between the daily variation of respiratory health and air pollution in children with chronic respiratory symptoms. Data were collected for 75 children in Hettstedt (polluted) and 63 ch

  10. Willingness to pay to avoid health risks from road-traffic-related air pollution and noise across five countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Istamto, Tifanny; Houthuijs, Danny; Lebret, Erik

    2014-01-01

    We conducted a multi-country study to estimate the perceived economic values of traffic-related air pollution and noise health risks within the framework of a large European project. We used contingent valuation as a method to assess the willingness-to-pay (WTP) for both types of pollutants simultan

  11. Towards an air pollution health study data management system - A case study from a smoky Swiss railway

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Papoutsoglou, Evangelia; Samourkasidis, Argyrios; Tsai, Ming-Yi; Davey, Mark; Ineichen, Alex; Athanasiadis, Ioannis N.

    2015-01-01

    In air pollution health studies, measurements are conducted intensively but only periodically at numerous locations in a variety of environments (indoors, outdoors, personal). Often a variety of instruments are used to measure various pollutants ranging from gases (eg, CO, NO2, O3, VOCs, PAHs) to pa

  12. On the system of monitoring ambient air quality in relation to the health of the population of the Czech Republic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kazmarova, H. [National Inst. of Public Health, Prague (Czech Republic)

    1995-12-31

    In 1991 the Government of the Czech republic in Ruling No 369 approved a draft of a system for monitoring the health of the population in relation to the environment on the basis of a need to obtain purposefully targeted information for an appropriate policy for the protection of health and the environment. The aim of monitoring does not and cannot consist of determining the cause and effect relationship between the health status and pollutants. The system of monitoring is an open and comprehensive system of the continual collection, processing and evaluation of data concerned with the load on the organism and damage to human health in relation to environmental pollution. Air pollution and health are one of the six subsystems realised in the whole system (beside drinking water, noise, food, biomarkers, and demographic and health statistics). The aim of the monitoring is to obtain a data base that shall serve three main purposes: (1) Description of the status of health of the population and characteristics of the ambient air, (2) Evaluation of the trend of each index, (3) Assessment and evaluation of the risk to health of the parameters under study. Thirty cities and towns were selected in the Czech Republic for the realisation of the monitoring system. (author)

  13. Biomedical Science, Unit I: Respiration in Health and Medicine. Respiratory Anatomy, Physiology and Pathology; The Behavior of Gases; Introductory Chemistry; and Air Pollution. Student Text. Revised Version, 1975.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biomedical Interdisciplinary Curriculum Project, Berkeley, CA.

    This student text deals with the human respiratory system and its relation to the environment. Topics include the process of respiration, the relationship of air to diseases of the respiratory system, the chemical and physical properties of gases, the impact on air quality of human activities and the effect of this air pollution on health.…

  14. Assessment of Health-Cost Externalities of Air Pollution at the National Level using the EVA Model System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Jørgen; Silver, Jeremy David; Heile Christensen, Jesper; Skou Andersen, Mikael; Geels, Camilla; Gross, Allan; Buus Hansen, Ayoe; Mantzius Hansen, Kaj; Brandt Hedegaard, Gitte; Ambelas Skjøth, Carsten

    2010-05-01

    Air pollution has significant negative impacts on human health and well-being, which entail substantial economic consequences. We have developed an integrated model system, EVA (External Valuation of Air pollution), to assess health-related economic externalities of air pollution resulting from specific emission sources/sectors. The EVA system was initially developed to assess externalities from power production, but in this study it is extended to evaluate costs at the national level. The EVA system integrates a regional-scale atmospheric chemistry transport model (DEHM), address-level population data, exposure-response functions and monetary values applicable for Danish/European conditions. Traditionally, systems that assess economic costs of health impacts from air pollution assume linear approximations in the source-receptor relationships. However, atmospheric chemistry is non-linear and therefore the uncertainty involved in the linear assumption can be large. The EVA system has been developed to take into account the non-linear processes by using a comprehensive, state-of-the-art chemical transport model when calculating how specific changes to emissions affect air pollution levels and the subsequent impacts on human health and cost. Furthermore, we present a new "tagging" method, developed to examine how specific emission sources influence air pollution levels without assuming linearity of the non-linear behaviour of atmospheric chemistry. This method is more precise than the traditional approach based on taking the difference between two concentration fields. Using the EVA system, we have estimated the total external costs from the main emission sectors in Denmark, representing the ten major SNAP codes. Finally, we assess the impacts and external costs of emissions from international ship traffic around Denmark, since there is a high volume of ship traffic in the region.

  15. Use of multi-objective air pollution monitoring sites and online air pollution monitoring system for total health risk assessment in Hyderabad, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anjaneyulu, Y; Jayakumar, I; Hima Bindu, V; Sagareswar, G; Mukunda Rao, P V; Rambabu, N; Ramani, K V

    2005-08-01

    A consensus has been emerging among public health experts in developing countries that air pollution, even at current ambient levels, aggravates respiratory and cardiovascular diseases and leads to premature mortality. Recent studies have also presented well-founded theories concerning the biological mechanisms involved and the groups of people that are probably more susceptible to health effects caused or exacerbated by inhalation of ambient particulate matter (PM.). On the basis of prognostic studies carried out in Center for Environment, JNT University, Hyderabad "it has been estimated that in Hyderabad some 1,700 to 3,000 people per year die prematurely as a result of inhaling PM". These figures reflect only the effects of acute exposure to air pollution. If the long-term effects of chronic exposure are taken into account, 10,000-15,000 people a year could die prematurely in Hyderabad. This estimate of the chronic effects is based on other studies, which are not completely comparable with the Hyderabad situation. While the study designs and analyses in these other studies may indeed be different or irrelevant to Hyderabad, the fact they were carried out in other countries is irrelevant. Taking into account these considerations, a model for total health risk assessment for the city of Hyderabad, and its state of Andhra Pradesh in India has been developed using a multi-objective air pollution monitoring network and online and real time air pollution monitoring stations. For the model studies a number of potential monitoring sites were screened for general and site-specific criteria in a geographic information system (GIS) environment that may, on a local basis, affect the representativeness of the data collected. Local features that may affect either the chemical or meteorological parameters are evaluated to assure a minimum of interference. Finally, for monitoring air pollution, an online and real-time monitoring system was designed using advanced

  16. Use of Multi-Objective Air Pollution Monitoring Sites and Online Air Pollution Monitoring System for Total Health Risk Assessment in Hyderabad, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. V. Ramani

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available A consensus has been emerging among public health experts in developing countries that air pollution, even at current ambient levels, aggravates respiratory and cardiovascular diseases and leads to premature mortality. Recent studies have also presented well-founded theories concerning the biological mechanisms involved and the groups of people that are probably more susceptible to health effects caused or exacerbated by inhalation of ambient particulate matter (PM.. On the basis of prognostic studies carried out in Center for Environment, JNT University, Hyderabad “it has been estimated that in Hyderabad some 1,700 to 3,000 people per year die prematurely as a result of inhaling PM”. These figures reflect only the effects of acute exposure to air pollution. If the long-term effects of chronic exposure are taken into account, 10,000–15,000 people a year could die prematurely in Hyderabad. This estimate of the chronic effects is based on other studies, which are not completely comparable with the Hyderabad situation. While the study designs and analyses in these other studies may indeed be different or irrelevant to Hyderabad, the fact they were carried out in other countries is irrelevant. Taking into account these considerations, a model for total health risk assessment for the city of Hyderabad, and its state of Andhra Pradesh in India has been developed using a multi-objective air pollution monitoring network and online and real time air pollution monitoring stations. For the model studies a number of potential monitoring sites were screened for general and site-specific criteria in a geographic information system (GIS environment that may, on a local basis, affect the representativeness of the data collected. Local features that may affect either the chemical or meteorological parameters are evaluated to assure a minimum of interference. Finally, for monitoring air pollution, an online and real

  17. Aerosol Health Impact Source Attribution Studies with the CMAQ Adjoint Air Quality Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, M. D.

    Fine particulate matter (PM2.5) is an air pollutant consisting of a mixture of solid and liquid particles suspended in the atmosphere. Knowledge of the sources and distributions of PM2.5 is important for many reasons, two of which are that PM2.5 has an adverse effect on human health and also an effect on climate change. Recent studies have suggested that health benefits resulting from a unit decrease in black carbon (BC) are four to nine times larger than benefits resulting from an equivalent change in PM2.5 mass. The goal of this thesis is to quantify the role of emissions from different sectors and different locations in governing the total health impacts, risk, and maximum individual risk of exposure to BC both nationally and regionally in the US. We develop and use the CMAQ adjoint model to quantify the role of emissions from all modeled sectors, times, and locations on premature deaths attributed to exposure to BC. From a national analysis, we find that damages resulting from anthropogenic emissions of BC are strongly correlated with population and premature death. However, we find little correlation between damages and emission magnitude, suggesting that controls on the largest emissions may not be the most efficient means of reducing damages resulting from BC emissions. Rather, the best proxy for locations with damaging BC emissions is locations where premature deaths occur. Onroad diesel and nonroad vehicle emissions are the largest contributors to premature deaths attributed to exposure to BC, while onroad gasoline emissions cause the highest deaths per amount emitted. Additionally, emissions in fall and winter contribute to more premature deaths (and more per amount emitted) than emissions in spring and summer. From a regional analysis, we find that emissions from outside each of six urban areas account for 7% to 27% of the premature deaths attributed to exposure to BC within the region. Within the region encompassing New York City and Philadelphia

  18. Analysis of indoor air pollutants checklist using environmetric technique for health risk assessment of sick building complaint in nonindustrial workplace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syazwan, AI; Rafee, B Mohd; Juahir, Hafizan; Azman, AZF; Nizar, AM; Izwyn, Z; Syahidatussyakirah, K; Muhaimin, AA; Yunos, MA Syafiq; Anita, AR; Hanafiah, J Muhamad; Shaharuddin, MS; Ibthisham, A Mohd; Hasmadi, I Mohd; Azhar, MN Mohamad; Azizan, HS; Zulfadhli, I; Othman, J; Rozalini, M; Kamarul, FT

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To analyze and characterize a multidisciplinary, integrated indoor air quality checklist for evaluating the health risk of building occupants in a nonindustrial workplace setting. Design A cross-sectional study based on a participatory occupational health program conducted by the National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health (Malaysia) and Universiti Putra Malaysia. Method A modified version of the indoor environmental checklist published by the Department of Occupational Health and Safety, based on the literature and discussion with occupational health and safety professionals, was used in the evaluation process. Summated scores were given according to the cluster analysis and principal component analysis in the characterization of risk. Environmetric techniques was used to classify the risk of variables in the checklist. Identification of the possible source of item pollutants was also evaluated from a semiquantitative approach. Result Hierarchical agglomerative cluster analysis resulted in the grouping of factorial components into three clusters (high complaint, moderate-high complaint, moderate complaint), which were further analyzed by discriminant analysis. From this, 15 major variables that influence indoor air quality were determined. Principal component analysis of each cluster revealed that the main factors influencing the high complaint group were fungal-related problems, chemical indoor dispersion, detergent, renovation, thermal comfort, and location of fresh air intake. The moderate-high complaint group showed significant high loading on ventilation, air filters, and smoking-related activities. The moderate complaint group showed high loading on dampness, odor, and thermal comfort. Conclusion This semiquantitative assessment, which graded risk from low to high based on the intensity of the problem, shows promising and reliable results. It should be used as an important tool in the preliminary assessment of indoor air quality and as a

  19. A garage-building programme for the city of Vienna and resulting air quality. Related health aspects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tvrdy, C.; Walter, R. [Inst. of Environmental Medicine of the City Council of Vienna (Austria)

    1995-12-31

    Urban traffic influences air quality in cities considerably. This is particularly true for the medieval parts of the big European cities, which have not been designed for today s heavy traffic. A problem closely associated with city traffic, is the lack of parking lots, particularly for residents. In Vienna, the parking problem is tackled by the building of underground car parks. In the next years more than 50 large garages (>100 sites) are being planned. The main goal is the clearing of the beautiful old places and streets of Vienna from the bulk of parking vehicles and supplying the citizens with parking spaces in the neighbourhood. According to a recent decision of the City Council of Vienna the construction of `large garages` (>100 parking spaces) requires an official approval by various local authorities. Among them are those responsible for town design and architecture, for fire precaution and fire fighting, for city traffic, for planning and building and for environmental health. In this context the Institute of Environmental Medicine of the City Council of Vienna faced the task of establishing criteria for a health risk assessment linked with `large garages`. Health-risks may be caused by air pollution and noise. This presentation deals with the air pollution problem. Air pollution problems may occur due to traffic in and out of the garage, by insufficient ventilation systems and by construction failures. In the garage programme the health officers have to bring evidence that residents of the houses with underground car parks and residents in the close neighbourhood are not exposed to any health risk due to air pollution

  20. Municipal solid waste management health risk assessment from air emissions for China by applying life cycle analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hua; Nitivattananon, Vilas; Li, Peng

    2015-05-01

    This study is to quantify and objectively evaluate the extent of environmental health risks from three waste treatment options suggested by the national municipal solid waste management enhancing strategy (No [2011] 9 of the State Council, promulgated on 19 April 2011), which includes sanitary landfill, waste-to-energy incineration and compost, together with the material recovery facility through a case study in Zhangqiu City of China. It addresses potential chronic health risks from air emissions to residential receptors in the impacted area. It combines field survey, analogue survey, design documents and life cycle inventory methods in defining the source strength of chemicals of potential concern. The modelling of life cycle inventory and air dispersion is via integrated waste management(IWM)-2 and Screening Air Dispersion Model (Version 3.0) (SCREEN3). The health risk assessment is in accordance with United States Environmental Protection Agency guidance Risk Assessment Guidance for Superfund (RAGS), Volume I: Human Health Evaluation Manual (Part F, Supplemental Guidance for Inhalation Risk Assessment). The exposure concentration is based on long-term exposure to the maximum ground level contaminant in air under the 'reasonable worst situation' emissions and then directly compared with reference for concentration and unit risk factor/cancer slope factor derived from the national air quality standard (for a conventional pollutant) and toxicological studies (for a specific pollutant). Results from this study suggest that the option of compost with material recovery facility treatment may pose less negative health impacts than other options; the sensitivity analysis shows that the landfill integrated waste management collection rate has a great influence on the impact results. Further investigation is needed to validate or challenge the findings of this study.

  1. Air Pollution and Cardiovascular Health in Mandi-Gobindgarh, Punjab, India - A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh Kumar

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Large number of epidemiological studies to know the effect of air pollution on the general mortality and morbidity, and the cardiopulmonary morbidity and mortality are concentrated in USA and Europe. Regional differences in air pollution necessitate regional level health effects studies. Present study is a cross sectional pilot study from India, an Asian country. A sample of population from an industrial town ‘Mandi Gobindgarh’ and a nonindustrial town ‘Morinda’ were selected. A cross-sectional household survey was done in both the towns. One hundred subjects were selected from each of the towns. Ambient air quality data was collected for both towns over a period of 10-months to assess seasonal variations. In the present study the average PM10 (particulate matter with ≤ 10μm aerodynamic diameter levels in Morinda were 99.54 μg/m3 and in Mandi Gobindgarh 161.20 μg/m3. As per NAAQS the permitted levels of PM10 is 50 μg/m3 taken as annual average (arithmetic mean. Elemental analysis of the aerosol samples found the concentration levels to be higher in Mandi- Gobindgarh than Morinda. The population in Gobindgarh shows a higher prevalence of symptoms of angina and cardiovascular disease considered in the study as compared to Morinda. When the same data is viewed in terms of male and female population, the female population is found to show these symptoms marginally higher than their counterparts. Considering the results of present study it can be stated that the increased levels of different pollutants and the higher prevalence of cardiovascular symptoms in Mandi-Gobindgarh (Industrial town than the Morinda (Non-Industrial town is because of the association of PM pollution with cardiovascular diseases. Keeping in view the current status of literature, further studies in this direction are needed in a country like India. Such data will also be globally relevant.

  2. Co-benefits of Global Greenhouse Gas Mitigation for Future Air Quality and Human Health via Two Mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, J.; Smith, S. J.; Silva, R.; Naik, V.; Adelman, Z.; Fry, M. M.; Anenberg, S.; Zhang, Y.; Horowitz, L. W.; Lamarque, J.; Emmons, L. K.

    2012-12-01

    Global actions to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions will also reduce co-emitted air pollutants, with immediate air quality benefits. Climate change itself affects air quality (e.g., via meteorology and biogenic emissions); therefore, actions to reduce GHG emissions will also influence air quality by slowing global climate change. These two mechanisms of air quality co-benefits - reducing co-emitted air pollutants and slowing climate change - have not previously been quantified in a self-consistent way. Here we simulate the co-benefits of global GHG emission reductions on air quality and human health via these two mechanisms in scenarios to 2100. Future emissions scenarios were developed by the GCAM global energy-economics model as part of the Representative Concentration Pathways (RCP) process. We simulate global air quality for a reference case scenario and a scenario with aggressive GHG controls internationally (RCP4.5). Future meteorology is from the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory general circulation model (AM3) simulations of the RCP8.5 and RCP4.5 scenarios. Using the global chemical transport model MOZART-4, we simulate global changes in surface concentrations of ozone and fine particulate matter (PM2.5) for RCP4.5 relative to the reference case. The two co-benefit mechanisms are isolated by simulating reference case emissions with meteorology from RCP4.5 and RCP8.5. Co-benefits for future human mortality will be assessed using epidemiological concentration-response functions, and projections of future population and baseline mortality rates. Preliminary results indicate that the co-benefits of global GHG mitigation for ozone and PM2.5 are substantial globally and regionally, and that the direct co-benefits from reductions in emissions of co-emitted air pollutants exceed the co-benefits via slowing climate change. We aim to monetize the avoided mortalities as a basis for comparison with the costs of GHG mitigation.

  3. Pollution level, phase distribution and health risk of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in indoor air at public places of Hangzhou, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu Hao [Department of Environmental Science, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang, 310028 (China)], E-mail: luhaozju@163.com; Zhu Lizhong [Department of Environmental Science, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang, 310028 (China)], E-mail: zlz@zju.edu.cn; Chen Shuguang [Department of Environmental Science, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang, 310028 (China)], E-mail: chenshuguang@zju.edu.cn

    2008-04-15

    PAHs pollution survey in air of public places was conducted in Hangzhou, China. The most serious PAHs pollution was observed in indoor air of shopping centers and the slightest was in train stations. The molecular weight of chrysene (MW 228) appeared to be the dividing line for the PAHs with a larger or smaller distribution in the vapor or particulate phase. Concentrations of 15 PAHs on PM{sub 2.5} accounted for 71.3% of total particulate PAHs, and followed by PM{sub 2.5-10} fraction (17.6%) and >PM{sub 10} fraction (11.1%). In shopping centers and supermarkets, emission of 2-4 rings PAHs occurred from indoor sources, whereas 5-6 rings PAHs predominantly originated from transport of outdoor air. In temples, PAHs in indoor air mainly originated from incense burning. Health risks associated with the inhalation of PAHs were assessed, and naphthalene made the greatest contribution (62.4%) to the total health risks. - Concentrations of PAHs in the air of selected public places in Hangzhou correspond to 10{sup -3} life-time lung cancer risk.

  4. Activity change in response to bad air quality, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2007-2010.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellen M Wells

    Full Text Available Air pollution contributes to poor respiratory and cardiovascular health. Susceptible individuals may be advised to mitigate effects of air pollution through actions such as reducing outdoor physical activity on days with high pollution. Our analysis identifies the extent to which susceptible individuals changed activities due to bad air quality. This cross-sectional study included 10,898 adults from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES 2007-2010. Participants reported if they did something differently when air quality was bad. Susceptible categories included respiratory conditions, cardiovascular conditions and older age (≥ 65 years. Analyses accounted for complex survey design; logistic regression models controlled for gender, race, education, smoking, and body mass index. 1305 individuals reported doing something differently (12.0%, 95% confidence interval (CI: 10.9, 13.1. This percentage was 14.2% (95% CI: 11.6, 16.8, 25.1% (95% CI: 21.7, 28.6, and 15.5% (95% CI: 12.2, 18.9 among older adults, those with a respiratory condition, and those with a cardiovascular condition, respectively. In adjusted regression models the following were significantly more likely to have changed activity compared to those who did not belong to any susceptible group: respiratory conditions (adjusted odds ratio (aOR: 2.61, 95% CI: 2.03, 3.35; respiratory and cardiovascular conditions (aOR: 4.36, 95% CI: 2.47, 7.69; respiratory conditions and older age (aOR: 3.83; 95% CI: 2.47, 5.96; or all three groups (aOR: 3.52; 95% CI: (2.33, 5.32. Having cardiovascular conditions alone was not statistically significant. Some individuals, especially those with a respiratory condition, reported changing activities due to poor air quality. However, efforts should continue to educate the public about air quality and health.

  5. Global ozone and air quality: a multi-model assessment of risks to human health and crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Ellingsen

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Within ACCENT, a European Network of Excellence, eighteen atmospheric models from the U.S., Europe, and Japan calculated present (2000 and future (2030 concentrations of ozone at the Earth's surface with hourly temporal resolution. Comparison of model results with surface ozone measurements in 14 world regions indicates that levels and seasonality of surface ozone in North America and Europe are characterized well by global models, with annual average biases typically within 5–10 nmol/mol. However, comparison with rather sparse observations over some regions suggest that most models overestimate annual ozone by 15–20 nmol/mol in some locations. Two scenarios from the International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA and one from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Special Report on Emissions Scenarios (IPCC SRES have been implemented in the models. This study focuses on changes in near-surface ozone and their effects on human health and vegetation. Different indices and air quality standards are used to characterise air quality. We show that often the calculated changes in the different indices are closely inter-related. Indices using lower thresholds are more consistent between the models, and are recommended for global model analysis. Our analysis indicates that currently about two-thirds of the regions considered do not meet health air quality standards, whereas only 2–4 regions remain below the threshold. Calculated air quality exceedances show moderate deterioration by 2030 if current emissions legislation is followed and slight improvements if current emissions reduction technology is used optimally. For the "business as usual" scenario severe air quality problems are predicted. We show that model simulations of air quality indices are particularly sensitive to how well ozone is represented, and improved accuracy is needed for future projections. Additional measurements are needed to allow a more quantitative

  6. Global ozone and air quality: a multi-model assessment of risks to human health and crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellingsen, K.; Gauss, M.; van Dingenen, R.; Dentener, F. J.; Emberson, L.; Fiore, A. M.; Schultz, M. G.; Stevenson, D. S.; Ashmore, M. R.; Atherton, C. S.; Bergmann, D. J.; Bey, I.; Butler, T.; Drevet, J.; Eskes, H.; Hauglustaine, D. A.; Isaksen, I. S. A.; Horowitz, L. W.; Krol, M.; Lamarque, J. F.; Lawrence, M. G.; van Noije, T.; Pyle, J.; Rast, S.; Rodriguez, J.; Savage, N.; Strahan, S.; Sudo, K.; Szopa, S.; Wild, O.

    2008-02-01

    Within ACCENT, a European Network of Excellence, eighteen atmospheric models from the U.S., Europe, and Japan calculated present (2000) and future (2030) concentrations of ozone at the Earth's surface with hourly temporal resolution. Comparison of model results with surface ozone measurements in 14 world regions indicates that levels and seasonality of surface ozone in North America and Europe are characterized well by global models, with annual average biases typically within 5-10 nmol/mol. However, comparison with rather sparse observations over some regions suggest that most models overestimate annual ozone by 15-20 nmol/mol in some locations. Two scenarios from the International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA) and one from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Special Report on Emissions Scenarios (IPCC SRES) have been implemented in the models. This study focuses on changes in near-surface ozone and their effects on human health and vegetation. Different indices and air quality standards are used to characterise air quality. We show that often the calculated changes in the different indices are closely inter-related. Indices using lower thresholds are more consistent between the models, and are recommended for global model analysis. Our analysis indicates that currently about two-thirds of the regions considered do not meet health air quality standards, whereas only 2-4 regions remain below the threshold. Calculated air quality exceedances show moderate deterioration by 2030 if current emissions legislation is followed and slight improvements if current emissions reduction technology is used optimally. For the "business as usual" scenario severe air quality problems are predicted. We show that model simulations of air quality indices are particularly sensitive to how well ozone is represented, and improved accuracy is needed for future projections. Additional measurements are needed to allow a more quantitative assessment of the risks to

  7. A survey and critical review of the literature on indoor air quality, ventilation and health symptoms in schools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daisey, J.M. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States). Energy and Environment Div.; Angell, W.J. [Univ. of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN (United States)

    1998-03-01

    A survey and critical review were undertaken of existing published literature and reports on indoor air quality (IAQ), ventilation, and IAQ- and building-related health problems in schools, including California schools. Over 450 relevant publications were obtained and reviewed, including papers published in the archival peer-reviewed scientific literature, proceedings of scientific meetings, government reports, 77 NIOSH Health Hazard Evaluation Reports (HHER) and 70 reports on investigations of problem schools in California. Most of the reviewed literature was for complaint or problem schools. The types of health symptoms reported in schools were very similar to those defined as sick building syndrome (SBS) symptoms, although this may be due, at least in part, to the type of health symptom questionnaires used. Some of the symptoms, e.g., wheezing, are indicative of asthma. In the studies in which complaint and noncomplaint buildings or areas were compared, complaint buildings generally had higher rates of health symptoms.

  8. Long-termed field survey of indoor air quality and health hazards in sick houses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshino, H.; Amano, K.; Matsumoto, M. [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). Dept. of Urban Planning and Building Science; Ikeda, K. [National Inst. of Public Health, Tokyo (Japan); Nozaki, A. [Tohoku Bunkagakuen Univ., Sendai (Japan); Kakuta, K. [Saka General Hospital (Japan); Hojo, S. [Shokei Woman' s Junior College (Japan); Ishikawa, S. [Kitasato Inst. Hospital (Japan)

    2004-07-01

    A 3 year field study was conducted in which the indoor air quality in 35 hospitals in Japan was measured in order to determine the etiological factor of Sick House Syndrome (SHS). The occupants in the hospitals were suffering from multiple chemical sensitivity (MCS) with symptoms such as mucosa, eye irritation, sore throat and cough. The study examined the concentration of formaldehyde and volatile organic compounds. It also examined airtightness and ventilation rate. The study also consisted of a questionnaire on the environmental conditions, subjective symptoms and lifestyle. Medical exams were conducted on residents with severe symptoms. The formaldehyde concentrations in more than 65 per cent of the rooms was found to be greater than the guidelines set by the Japanese Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare. Total volatile organic compound (TVOC) concentrations also exceeded the recommended value in 66 per cent of the rooms. The study revealed that the respiratory symptoms were more severe in houses with higher concentrations of TVOC. A graph was included to show the relationship between chemical substance concentration and building age. In general, the TVOC was reduced over the three year period, but the formaldehyde concentration did not change. 3 refs., 4 tabs., 9 figs.

  9. The health burden of pollution: the impact of prenatal exposure to air pollutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Sandra E

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to atmospheric pollutants in both open and closed environments is a major cause of morbidity and mortality that may be both controlled and minimized. Despite growing evidence, several controversies and disagreements exist among the studies that have analyzed the effects of prenatal pollutant exposure. This review article aims to analyze primary scientific evidence of the effects of air pollution during pregnancy and the impact of these effects on the fetus, infant health, and in particular, the respiratory system. We performed a review of articles from the PubMed and Web of Science databases that were published in English within the past 5 years, particularly those related to birth cohorts that began in pregnancy with follow-up until the first years of life. The largest reported effects are associated with prenatal exposure to particulate matter, nitrogen dioxide, and tobacco smoke. The primary effects affect birth weight and other parameters of fetal biometry. There is strong evidence regarding the impact of pollutants on morbidity secondary to respiratory problems. Growing evidence links maternal smoking to childhood asthma and wheezing. The role of passive maternal smoking is less clear. Great heterogeneity exists among studies. There is a need for additional studies on birth cohorts to monitor the relationship between the exposure of pregnant women to pollutants and their children's progress during the first years of life.

  10. Effect of air pollution on respiratory health in Indonesia and its economic cost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duki, M I Zulkarnain; Sudarmadi, Sigit; Suzuki, Shosuke; Kawada, Tomoyuki; Tri-Tugaswati, A

    2003-03-01

    A total of 16,663 pairs of junior high school students and their mothers in Indonesian cities were surveyed, using a self-administered questionnaire, to measure the effect of air pollution on respiratory health and the cost of associated illness. Multiple regression analysis showed that the prevalence rates of the symptoms of cough, phlegm, persistent cough, wheezing without a cold, and asthma, in the student and mother groups, were significantly correlated with the nitrogen dioxide (NO2) emitted along large roads near their residences, and to a lesser extent with smoking. In Central Jakarta and Tangerang, where the average NO2 concentrations were highest (37 ppb and 31 ppb, respectively), reduction of NO2 to a proposed level of 25 ppb could yield savings in mean direct out-of-pocket expense per capita for treatment of the above symptom(s) of 15,639-18,165 Indonesian rupiah (6.80-7.90 US dollars), and reduce average work/school days lost per capita by 3.1-5.5 days.

  11. Analysis of indoor air pollutants checklist using environmetric technique for health risk assessment of sick building complaint in nonindustrial workplace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syazwan AI

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available AI Syazwan,1 B Mohd Rafee,1 Hafizan Juahir,2 AZF Azman,1 AM Nizar,3 Z Izwyn,4 K Syahidatussyakirah,1 AA Muhaimin,5 MA Syafiq Yunos,6 AR Anita,1 J Muhamad Hanafiah,1 MS Shaharuddin,7 A Mohd Ibthisham,8 I Mohd Hasmadi,9 MN Mohamad Azhar,1 HS Azizan,1 I Zulfadhli,10 J Othman,11 M Rozalini,12 FT Kamarul131Department of Community Health, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Selangor, 2Department of Environmental Science/ Environmental Forensics Research Center (ENFORCE, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Selangor, 3Pharmacology Unit, Department of Human Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang, Selangor, 4Department of Therapy and Rehabilitation, Faculty of Health Science and Biomedical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Johor, 5Department of Environmental Management, Faculty of Environmental Studies, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Selangor, 6Plant Assessment Technology (PAT, Industrial Technology Division, Malaysian Nuclear Agency, Bangi, 7Department of Environmental and Occupational Health Science, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Selangor, 8Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Johor, 9Department of Forest Production, Faculty of Forestry, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Selangor, 10Faculty of Built Environment and Architect, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Johor, 11Department of Counselor Education and Psychology Counseling, Faculty of Educational Studies, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Selangor, 12Occupational Safety, Health and Environment Unit, Multimedia University, Jalan Multimedia 63100 Cyberjaya, Selangor, 13ERALAB SDN. BHD. (Environmental Research and Analytical Laboratory Sdn. Bhd., Selangor, MALAYSIAPurpose: To analyze and characterize a multidisciplinary, integrated indoor air quality checklist for evaluating the health risk of building occupants in a nonindustrial

  12. Integrating High-Resolution Datasets to Target Mitigation Efforts for Improving Air Quality and Public Health in Urban Neighborhoods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shandas, Vivek; Voelkel, Jackson; Rao, Meenakshi; George, Linda

    2016-08-05

    Reducing exposure to degraded air quality is essential for building healthy cities. Although air quality and population vary at fine spatial scales, current regulatory and public health frameworks assess human exposures using county- or city-scales. We build on a spatial analysis technique, dasymetric mapping, for allocating urban populations that, together with emerging fine-scale measurements of air pollution, addresses three objectives: (1) evaluate the role of spatial scale in estimating exposure; (2) identify urban communities that are disproportionately burdened by poor air quality; and (3) estimate reduction in mobile sources of pollutants due to local tree-planting efforts using nitrogen dioxide. Our results show a maximum value of 197% difference between cadastrally-informed dasymetric system (CIDS) and standard estimations of population exposure to degraded air quality for small spatial extent analyses, and a lack of substantial difference for large spatial extent analyses. These results provide the foundation for improving policies for managing air quality, and targeting mitigation efforts to address challenges of environmental justice.

  13. High-Resolution Modelling of Health Impacts from Air Pollution for Denmark using the Integrated Model System EVA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Jørgen; Andersen, Mikael S.; Bønløkke, Jakob; Christensen, Jesper H.; Hansen, Kaj M.; Hertel, Ole; Im, Ulas; Jensen, Steen S.; Ketzel, Matthias; Nielsen, Ole-Kenneth; Plejdrup, Marlene S.; Sigsgaard, Torben; Geels, Camilla

    2015-04-01

    We have developed an integrated health impact assessment system EVA (Economic Valuation of Air pollution; Brandt et al., 2013a; 2013b), based on the impact-pathway chain, to assess the health impacts and health-related economic externalities of air pollution resulting from specific emission sources or sectors. The system is used to support policymaking with respect to emission control. The EVA system has previously been used to assess the health impacts based on results from a regional model DEHM (the Danish Eulerian Hemispheric Model; Brandt et al., 2012). In this study we have used a coupling of two chemistry transport models to calculate the air pollution concentration at different scales; the DEHM model to calculate the air pollution levels with a resolution down to 5.6 km x 5.6 km and the UBM model (Urban Background Model ; Berkowicz, 2000; Brandt et al., 2001) to further calculate the air pollution at 1 km x 1 km resolution for Denmark using results from DEHM as boundary conditions. Both the emission data based on the SPREAD model (Plejdrup and Gyldenkærne, 2011) as well as the population density has been represented in the model system with the same high resolution. The new developments of the integrated model system will be presented as well as results for health impacts and related external costs over the years 2006-2014 for Denmark. Furthermore, a sensitivity study of the health impact using coarse and fine resolutions in the model system has been carried out to evaluate the effect of improved description of the geographical population distribution with respect to location of local emissions. References Berkowicz, R., 2000. A Simple Model for Urban Background Pollution. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 65, 1/2, 259-267. Brandt, J., J. H. Christensen, L. M. Frohn, F. Palmgren, R. Berkowicz and Z. Zlatev, 2001: "Operational air pollution forecasts from European to local scale". Atmospheric Environment, Vol. 35, Sup. No. 1, pp. S91-S98, 2001 Brandt

  14. [Assessment of children's health risk posed by traffic-related air pollution as exemplified by the city of Salekhard].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lezhnin, V L; Konshina, L G; Sergeyeva, M V

    2014-01-01

    With the aim of determination of the levels of children's health risk from chemical air pollution caused by vehicle emissions, on the territory of the municipal district of the city of Salekhard there was carried out the work on the study of the intensity and the chemical structure of traffic-related air pollution in the locations of 16 children's preschool institutions. There was used the technique of the counting campaign for the structure and intensity of road traffic flows, children's health detriment was calculated according to the method of risk assessment. The main danger in the emissions of vehicles is belonged to nitrogen dioxide (43.6%), benzo(a)pyrene (37.4%), carbon monoxide (6.57%), formaldehyde (4.43%). Being detected at the level of I0(-4)-10(-5) and corresponding to the maximum permissible risk estimated cancer risk is a subject for continuous monitoring.

  15. A Modeling Methodology to Support Evaluation Public Health Impacts on Air Pollution Reduction Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental public health protection requires a good understanding of types and locations of pollutant emissions of health concern and their relationship to environmental public health indicators. Therefore, it is necessary to develop the methodologies, data sources, and tools...

  16. How robust are the estimated effects of air pollution on health? Accounting for model uncertainty using Bayesian model averaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pannullo, Francesca; Lee, Duncan; Waclawski, Eugene; Leyland, Alastair H

    2016-08-01

    The long-term impact of air pollution on human health can be estimated from small-area ecological studies in which the health outcome is regressed against air pollution concentrations and other covariates, such as socio-economic deprivation. Socio-economic deprivation is multi-factorial and difficult to measure, and includes aspects of income, education, and housing as well as others. However, these variables are potentially highly correlated, meaning one can either create an overall deprivation index, or use the individual characteristics, which can result in a variety of pollution-health effects. Other aspects of model choice may affect the pollution-health estimate, such as the estimation of pollution, and spatial autocorrelation model. Therefore, we propose a Bayesian model averaging approach to combine the results from multiple statistical models to produce a more robust representation of the overall pollution-health effect. We investigate the relationship between nitrogen dioxide concentrations and cardio-respiratory mortality in West Central Scotland between 2006 and 2012.

  17. Causation mechanism analysis for haze pollution related to vehicle emission in Guangzhou, China by employing the fault tree approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Weiqing; Fan, Hongbo; Qiu, Yongfu; Cheng, Zhiyu; Xu, Pingru; Qian, Yu

    2016-05-01

    Recently, China has frequently experienced large-scale, severe and persistent haze pollution due to surging urbanization and industrialization and a rapid growth in the number of motor vehicles and energy consumption. The vehicle emission due to the consumption of a large number of fossil fuels is no doubt a critical factor of the haze pollution. This work is focused on the causation mechanism of haze pollution related to the vehicle emission for Guangzhou city by employing the Fault Tree Analysis (FTA) method for the first time. With the establishment of the fault tree system of "Haze weather-Vehicle exhausts explosive emission", all of the important risk factors are discussed and identified by using this deductive FTA method. The qualitative and quantitative assessments of the fault tree system are carried out based on the structure, probability and critical importance degree analysis of the risk factors. The study may provide a new simple and effective tool/strategy for the causation mechanism analysis and risk management of haze pollution in China.

  18. An overview of indoor air quality and its impact on respiratory health among Malaysian school-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choo, Chua Poh; Jalaludin, Juliana

    2015-01-01

    The indoor environment is a major source of human exposure to pollutants. Some pollutants can have concentrations that are several times higher indoors than outdoors. Prolonged exposure may lead to adverse biologic effects, even at low concentrations. Several studies done in Malaysia had underlined the role of indoor air pollution in affecting respiratory health, especially for school-aged children. A critical review was conducted on the quantitative literature linking indoor air pollution with respiratory illnesses among school-aged children. This paper reviews evidence of the association between indoor air quality (IAQ) and its implications on respiratory health among Malaysian school-aged children. This review summarizes six relevant studies conducted in Malaysia for the past 10 years. Previous epidemiologic studies relevant to indoor air pollutants and their implications on school-aged children's respiratory health were obtained from electronic database and included as a reference in this review. The existing reviewed data emphasize the impact of IAQ parameters, namely, indoor temperature, ventilation rates, indoor concentration of carbon dioxide (CO2), carbon monoxide (CO), particulate matters (PM), volatile organic compounds (VOCs), nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and airborne microbes, on children's respiratory health. The study found that most of the Malaysian school-aged children are exposed to the inadequate environment during their times spent either in their houses or in their classrooms, which is not in compliance with the established standards. Children living in households or studying in schools in urban areas are more likely to suffer from respiratory illnesses compared with children living in homes or studying in schools in rural areas.

  19. The modifying effect of socioeconomic status on the relationship between traffic, air pollution and respiratory health in elementary schoolchildren.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cakmak, Sabit; Hebbern, Christopher; Cakmak, Jasmine D; Vanos, Jennifer

    2016-07-15

    The volume and type of traffic and exposure to air pollution have been found to be associated with respiratory health, but few studies have considered the interaction with socioeconomic status at the household level. We investigated the relationships of respiratory health related to traffic type, traffic volume, and air pollution, stratifying by socioeconomic status, based on household income and education, in 3591 schoolchildren in Windsor, Canada. Interquartile range changes in traffic exposure and pollutant levels were linked to respiratory symptoms and objective measures of lung function using generalised linear models for three levels of income and education. In 95% of the relationships among all cases, the odds ratios for reported respiratory symptoms (a decrease in measured lung function), based on an interquartile range change in traffic exposure or pollutant, were greater in the lower income/education groups than the higher, although the odds ratios were in most cases not significant. However, in up to 62% of the cases, the differences between high and low socioeconomic groups were statistically significant, thus indicating socioeconomic status (SES) as a significant effect modifier. Our findings indicate that children from lower socioeconomic households have a higher risk of specific respiratory health problems (chest congestion, wheezing) due to traffic volume and air pollution exposure.

  20. Associations between Parents' Perceived Air Quality in Homes and Health among Children in Nanjing, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua Qian

    Full Text Available The increasing prevalence of respiratory diseases in Chinese children has focused attention on indoor environmental quality. We investigated associations between perceived air quality in domestic environments and children's allergic diseases with a questionnaire survey study. A total of 4017 children aged 1-8 years old from 23 kindergartens in urban, suburban and industrial areas in Nanjing were randomly recruited for this study. Parents' perceived odors, including stuffy odor, unpleasant odor, pungent odor, moldy odor, humid air and dry air were found to be associated with asthma, wheeze, dry cough and rhinitis (P < 0.05. Both perceived dry and humid air were found to be positively associated with dampness indices, and we present evidence that the sensation of dryness may not be due to the actual indoor relative humidity, but rather to indoor air irritants. Parents' perception of odors and relative humidity may be indicators of environment pollutants, which are likely the real factors associated with children's allergic diseases.

  1. The use of wind fields in a land use regression model to predict air pollution concentrations for health exposure studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arain, M. A.; Blair, R.; Finkelstein, N.; Brook, J. R.; Sahsuvaroglu, T.; Beckerman, B.; Zhang, L.; Jerrett, M.

    A methodology is developed to include wind flow effects in land use regression (LUR) models for predicting nitrogen dioxide (NO 2) concentrations for health exposure studies. NO 2 is widely used in health studies as an indicator of traffic-generated air pollution in urban areas. Incorporation of high-resolution interpolated observed wind direction from a network of 38 weather stations in a LUR model improved NO 2 concentration estimates in densely populated, high traffic and industrial/business areas in Toronto-Hamilton urban airshed (THUA) of Ontario, Canada. These small-area variations in air pollution concentrations that are probably more important for health exposure studies may not be detected by sparse continuous air pollution monitoring network or conventional interpolation methods. Observed wind fields were also compared with wind fields generated by Global Environmental Multiscale-High resolution Model Application Project (GEM-HiMAP) to explore the feasibility of using regional weather forecasting model simulated wind fields in LUR models when observed data are either sparse or not available. While GEM-HiMAP predicted wind fields well at large scales, it was unable to resolve wind flow patterns at smaller scales. These results suggest caution and careful evaluation of regional weather forecasting model simulated wind fields before incorporating into human exposure models for health studies. This study has demonstrated that wind fields may be integrated into the land use regression framework. Such integration has a discernable influence on both the overall model prediction and perhaps more importantly for health effects assessment on the relative spatial distribution of traffic pollution throughout the THUA. Methodology developed in this study may be applied in other large urban areas across the world.

  2. Estimation of health and economic costs of air pollution over the Pearl River Delta region in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xingcheng; Yao, Teng; Fung, Jimmy C H; Lin, Changqing

    2016-10-01

    The Pearl River Delta region (PRD) is the economic growth engine of China and also one of the most urbanized regions in the world. As a two-sided sword, rapid economic development causes air pollution and poses adverse health effects to the citizens in this area. This work estimated the negative health effects in the PRD caused by the four major ambient pollutants (SO2, NO2, O3 and PM10) from 2010 to 2013 by using a log linear exposure-response function and the WRF-CMAQ modeling system. Economic loss due to mortality and morbidity was evaluated by the value of statistical life (VSL) and cost of illness (COI) methods. The results show that the overall possible short-term all-cause mortality due to NO2, O3 and PM10 reached the highest in 2013 with the values being 13,217-22,800. The highest total economic loss, which ranged from 14,768 to 25,305million USD, occurred in 2013 and was equivalent to 1.4%-2.3% of the local gross domestic product. The monthly profile of cases of negative health effects varied by city and the types of ambient pollutants. The ratio of mortality attributed to air pollutants to total population was higher in urban areas than in rural areas. People living in the countryside should consider the possible adverse health effects of urban areas before they plan a move to the city. The results show that the health burden caused by the ambient pollutants over this region is serious and suggest that tighter control policies should be implemented in the future to reduce the level of air pollution.

  3. Estimating years of life lost from cardiovascular mortality related to air pollution in Guangzhou, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jun; Ou, Chun-Quan; Song, Yu-Feng; Li, Li; Chen, Ping-Yan; Liu, Qi-Yong

    2016-12-15

    Previous studies have mainly used mortality or morbidity as the health outcome to examine the air pollution-health association. Little evidence is available on relationships between air pollutants and years of life lost (YLL). We aimed to estimate the YLL from cardiovascular mortality due to air pollution. Daily data on weather and air pollutants and individual data of all registered deaths for years 2004-2007 were obtained in Guangzhou, China. The generalized additive model was used to assess the YLL associated with 10μg/m(3) increases in NO2, SO2 and PM10. We found that the mean daily YLL was 248, 87.5 and 73.7 for deaths from cardiovascular disease (CVD), stroke and ischemic heart disease (IHD), respectively. A significant linear correlation was observed between air pollution and YLL due to cardiovascular disease. The effects of air pollutants on YLL were immediate and lasted for two days. A 10μg/m(3) increase above the corresponding threshold of 55.6μg/m(3), 40.4μg/m(3) and 0μg/m(3) in NO2, PM10 and SO2 was related to YLL increase of 1.8 (95% CI: 0.8-2.9), 2.8 (1.7-3.8) and 2.6 (1.2-4.0) years at lag 0-1days for CVD, respectively. The estimates of YLL associated with NO2 and PM10 were higher in men than women. The air pollutants-related YLL was higher among young people and those with low education level, compared to the elderly and those with high education level, respectively. These findings confirmed YLL provides a complementary strategy for assessing the health effect of air pollution. This study underscores the necessity of the reduction of air pollution benefiting public health.

  4. The Role of the Air Force Environmental Health Nurse in Long-Term Health Problems in Natural Disasters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-06-01

    Disasters: Implications for Intervention. Communit Mental Health Journal 18(2):120-134, 19-2. Berren, M.R., Beigel, A., Ghertner, S. A Typology for the...Classification of Disasters. Community Mental Health Journal 16(2):103-111. 1900. Boyer, J.L. Global Summary of Human Response to Natural Hazards: Floods

  5. Revealing the hidden health costs embodied in Chinese exports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xujia; Zhang, Qiang; Zhao, Hongyan; Geng, Guannan; Peng, Liqun; Guan, Dabo; Kan, Haidong; Huo, Hong; Lin, Jintai; Brauer, Michael; Martin, Randall V; He, Kebin

    2015-04-07

    China emits a considerable amount of air pollutants when producing goods for export. Previous efforts have emphasized the magnitude of export-related emissions; however, their health consequences on the Chinese population have not been quantified. Here, we present an interdisciplinary study to estimate the health impact of export-related air pollution. The results show that export-related emissions elevated the annual mean population weighted PM2.5 by 8.3 μg/m(3) (15% of the total) in 2007, causing 157,000 deaths and accounting for 12% of the total mortality attributable to PM2.5-related air pollution. Compared to the eastern coastal provinces, the inner regions experience much larger export-related health losses relative to their economic production gains, owing to huge inter-regional disparities in export structures and technology levels. A shift away from emission-intensive production structure and export patterns, especially in inner regions, could significantly help improve national exports while alleviating the inter-regional cost-benefit inequality. Our results provide the first quantification of health consequences from air pollution related to Chinese exports. The proposed policy recommendations, based on health burden, economic production gains, and emission analysis, would be helpful to develop more sustainable and effective national and regional export strategies.

  6. Revealing the Hidden Health Costs Embodied in Chinese Exports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, X.; Zhang, Q.; He, K.; Guan, D.; Lin, J.

    2015-12-01

    China emits a considerable amount of air pollutants when producing goods for export. Previous efforts have emphasized the magnitude of export-related emissions; however, their health consequences on the Chinese population have not been quantified. Here, we present an interdisciplinary study to estimate the health impact of export-related air pollution. The results show that export-related emissions elevated the annual mean population weighted PM2.5 by 8.3mg/m3 (15% of the total) in 2007, causing 157,000 deaths and accounting for 12% of the total mortality attributable to PM2.5-related air pollution. Compared to the eastern coastal provinces, the inner regions experience much larger export-related health losses relative to their economic production gains, owing to huge inter-regional disparities in export structures and technology levels. A shift away from emission-intensive production structure and export patterns, especially in inner regions, could significantly help improve national exports while alleviating the inter-regional cost-benefit inequality. Our results provide the first quantification of health consequences from air pollution related to Chinese exports. The proposed policy recommendations, based on health burden, economic production gains and emission analysis, would be helpful to develop more sustainable and effective national and regional export strategies.

  7. A cooperative reduction model for regional air pollution control in China that considers adverse health effects and pollutant reduction costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Yujing; Zhao, Laijun; Xue, Jian; Hu, Qingmi; Xu, Xiang; Wang, Hongbo

    2016-12-15

    How to effectively control severe regional air pollution has become a focus of global concern recently. The non-cooperative reduction model (NCRM) is still the main air pollution control pattern in China, but it is both ineffective and costly, because each province must independently fight air pollution. Thus, we proposed a cooperative reduction model (CRM), with the goal of maximizing the reduction in adverse health effects (AHEs) at the lowest cost by encouraging neighboring areas to jointly control air pollution. CRM has two parts: a model of optimal pollutant removal rates using two optimization objectives (maximizing the reduction in AHEs and minimizing pollutant reduction cost) while meeting the regional pollution control targets set by the central government, and a model that allocates the cooperation benefits (i.e., health improvement and cost reduction) among the participants according to their contributions using the Shapley value method. We applied CRM to the case of sulfur dioxide (SO2) reduction in Yangtze River Delta region. Based on data from 2003 to 2013, and using mortality due to respiratory and cardiovascular diseases as the health endpoints, CRM saves 437 more lives than NCRM, amounting to 12.1% of the reduction under NCRM. CRM also reduced costs by US $65.8×10(6) compared with NCRM, which is 5.2% of the total cost of NCRM. Thus, CRM performs significantly better than NCRM. Each province obtains significant benefits from cooperation, which can motivate them to actively cooperate in the long term. A sensitivity analysis was performed to quantify the effects of parameter values on the cooperation benefits. Results shown that the CRM is not sensitive to the changes in each province's pollutant carrying capacity and the minimum pollutant removal capacity, but sensitive to the maximum pollutant reduction capacity. Moreover, higher cooperation benefits will be generated when a province's maximum pollutant reduction capacity increases.

  8. Associations between Parents' Perceived Air Quality in Homes and Health among Children in Nanjing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Hua; Zheng, Xiaohong; Zhang, Min; Weschler, Louise; Sundell, Jan

    2016-01-01

    The increasing prevalence of respiratory diseases in Chinese children has focused attention on indoor environmental quality. We investigated associations between perceived air quality in domestic environments and children's allergic diseases with a questionnaire survey study. A total of 4017 children aged 1-8 years old from 23 kindergartens in urban, suburban and industrial areas in Nanjing were randomly recruited for this study. Parents' perceived odors, including stuffy odor, unpleasant odor, pungent odor, moldy odor, humid air and dry air were found to be associated with asthma, wheeze, dry cough and rhinitis (P sensation of dryness may not be due to the actual indoor relative humidity, but rather to indoor air irritants. Parents' perception of odors and relative humidity may be indicators of environment pollutants, which are likely the real factors associated with children's allergic diseases.

  9. Associations between Parents’ Perceived Air Quality in Homes and Health among Children in Nanjing, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Hua; Zheng, Xiaohong; Zhang, Min; Weschler, Louise; Sundell, Jan

    2016-01-01

    The increasing prevalence of respiratory diseases in Chinese children has focused attention on indoor environmental quality. We investigated associations between perceived air quality in domestic environments and children’s allergic diseases with a questionnaire survey study. A total of 4017 children aged 1–8 years old from 23 kindergartens in urban, suburban and industrial areas in Nanjing were randomly recruited for this study. Parents’ perceived odors, including stuffy odor, unpleasant odor, pungent odor, moldy odor, humid air and dry air were found to be associated with asthma, wheeze, dry cough and rhinitis (P sensation of dryness may not be due to the actual indoor relative humidity, but rather to indoor air irritants. Parents’ perception of odors and relative humidity may be indicators of environment pollutants, which are likely the real factors associated with children’s allergic diseases. PMID:27191186

  10. [The direct health effects of air pollution in Vratsa in 1991].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabakova, S; Koleva, Ts; Petrov, P; Simeonov, G

    1993-01-01

    The effect of air pollution in the town of Vratsa on the daily morbidity of the population has been studied during the first half of 1991. Studies are performed on the correlation between the daily dynamics in the pollution according to specific for the town indices ammonia, hydrogen sulfide, sulphur dioxide, nitric oxides, dust, meteorological parameters temperature of the air, relative humidity, air velocity, barometric pressure and some respiratory and allergic diseases among the population. It is already established that the level of the air pollution in the town of Vratsa, among which dominate ammonia and hydrogen sulfide, have a direct effect on the acute respiratory morbidity, more expressed among the children. This influence is traced both in episodes of increased pollution, and in the course of several days afterwards and is conductive by the combination of unfavourable meteorological conditions, hindering the dispersion of the atmospheric pollutants.

  11. Health impact assessment of traffic-related air pollution at the urban project scale: influence of variability and uncertainty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chart-Asa, Chidsanuphong; Gibson, Jacqueline MacDonald

    2015-02-15

    This paper develops and then demonstrates a new approach for quantifying health impacts of traffic-related particulate matter air pollution at the urban project scale that includes variability and uncertainty in the analysis. We focus on primary particulate matter having a diameter less than 2.5 μm (PM2.5). The new approach accounts for variability in vehicle emissions due to temperature, road grade, and traffic behavior variability; seasonal variability in concentration-response coefficients; demographic variability at a fine spatial scale; uncertainty in air quality model accuracy; and uncertainty in concentration-response coefficients. We demonstrate the approach for a case study roadway corridor with a population of 16,000, where a new extension of the University of North Carolina (UNC) at Chapel Hill campus is slated for construction. The results indicate that at this case study site, health impact estimates increased by factors of 4-9, depending on the health impact considered, compared to using a conventional health impact assessment approach that overlooks these variability and uncertainty sources. In addition, we demonstrate how the method can be used to assess health disparities. For example, in the case study corridor, our method demonstrates the existence of statistically significant racial disparities in exposure to traffic-related PM2.5 under present-day traffic conditions: the correlation between percent black and annual attributable deaths in each census block is 0.37 (t(114)=4.2, p<0.0001). Overall, our results show that the proposed new campus will cause only a small incremental increase in health risks (annual risk 6×10(-10); lifetime risk 4×10(-8)), compared to if the campus is not built. Nonetheless, the approach we illustrate could be useful for improving the quality of information to support decision-making for other urban development projects.

  12. Applicability of the environmental relative moldiness index for quantification of residential mold contamination in an air pollution health effects study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamal, Ali; Burke, Janet; Vesper, Stephen; Batterman, Stuart; Vette, Alan; Godwin, Christopher; Chavez-Camarena, Marina; Norris, Gary

    2014-01-01

    The Near-Road Exposures and Effects of Urban Air Pollutants Study (NEXUS) investigated the impact of exposure to traffic-related air pollution on the respiratory health of asthmatic children in Detroit, Michigan. Since indoor mold exposure may also contribute to asthma, floor dust samples were collected in participants homes (n = 112) to assess mold contamination using the Environmental Relative Moldiness Index (ERMI). The repeatability of the ERMI over time, as well as ERMI differences between rooms and dust collection methods, was evaluated for insights into the application of the ERMI metric. ERMI values for the standard settled floor dust samples had a mean ± standard deviation of 14.5 ± 7.9, indicating high levels of mold contamination. ERMI values for samples collected from the same home 1 to 7 months apart (n = 52) were consistent and without systematic bias. ERMI values for separate bedroom and living room samples were highly correlated (r = 0.69, n = 66). Vacuum bag dust ERMI values were lower than for floor dust but correlated (r = 0.58, n = 28). These results support the use of the ERMI to evaluate residential mold exposure as a confounder in air pollution health effects studies.

  13. Applicability of the Environmental Relative Moldiness Index for Quantification of Residential Mold Contamination in an Air Pollution Health Effects Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Kamal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Near-Road Exposures and Effects of Urban Air Pollutants Study (NEXUS investigated the impact of exposure to traffic-related air pollution on the respiratory health of asthmatic children in Detroit, Michigan. Since indoor mold exposure may also contribute to asthma, floor dust samples were collected in participants homes (n=112 to assess mold contamination using the Environmental Relative Moldiness Index (ERMI. The repeatability of the ERMI over time, as well as ERMI differences between rooms and dust collection methods, was evaluated for insights into the application of the ERMI metric. ERMI values for the standard settled floor dust samples had a mean ± standard deviation of 14.5±7.9, indicating high levels of mold contamination. ERMI values for samples collected from the same home 1 to 7 months apart (n=52 were consistent and without systematic bias. ERMI values for separate bedroom and living room samples were highly correlated (r=0.69, n=66. Vacuum bag dust ERMI values were lower than for floor dust but correlated (r=0.58, n=28. These results support the use of the ERMI to evaluate residential mold exposure as a confounder in air pollution health effects studies.

  14. ASSESSMENT OF SO2 CONCENTRATION IN AMBIENT AIR AND ITS IMPACT ON HUMAN HEALTH IN THE CITY OF GWALIOR, INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ishfaq Ahmad

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Gwalior is a historical and major city in the Indian state of Madhya Pradesh. It is located south of Delhi the capital city of India, and 423 kilometers north of Bhopal, the state capital. Gwalior is being called as The Heart of Incredible India. Gwalior is surrounded by industrial and commercial zones of neighboring districts (Malanpur – Bhind, Banmor – Morena on all three main directions. Rapid increase in urbanization with vehicle congestion has increased enormously on the roads of Gwalior city. As a result of this, gaseous pollutants (SOx, NOx and Respirable and suspended particulate matter pollutants are continuously increasing in the ambient air of Gwalior city. Levels of SO2 were monitored at 4 locations of Gwalior city by using high volume air sampler (Envirotech APM 415 and 411. The average ambient air concentration of SO2 was found below the permissible limits of NAAQS of CPCB at all the sites. Comparatively somewhat higher concentration of SO2 was observed during these months. A health survey was also carried out which demonstrated that symptoms were developed such as sneezing, sore throat, shortness of breath, wheezing, chest tightness, skin irritation, nausea etc. In this study, an exposure–response assessment (aged 10 to 60 years was carried out related to health problems due to vehicular pollution between the months of November-2013 to May-2014 (winter. The main objectives of this study are to investigate the state of vehicular emission in Gwalior and to investigate the impact of vehicular emission on people.

  15. Applicability of the Environmental Relative Moldiness Index for Quantification of Residential Mold Contamination in an Air Pollution Health Effects Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamal, Ali; Vesper, Stephen; Batterman, Stuart; Godwin, Christopher; Chavez-Camarena, Marina; Norris, Gary

    2014-01-01

    The Near-Road Exposures and Effects of Urban Air Pollutants Study (NEXUS) investigated the impact of exposure to traffic-related air pollution on the respiratory health of asthmatic children in Detroit, Michigan. Since indoor mold exposure may also contribute to asthma, floor dust samples were collected in participants homes (n = 112) to assess mold contamination using the Environmental Relative Moldiness Index (ERMI). The repeatability of the ERMI over time, as well as ERMI differences between rooms and dust collection methods, was evaluated for insights into the application of the ERMI metric. ERMI values for the standard settled floor dust samples had a mean ± standard deviation of 14.5 ± 7.9, indicating high levels of mold contamination. ERMI values for samples collected from the same home 1 to 7 months apart (n = 52) were consistent and without systematic bias. ERMI values for separate bedroom and living room samples were highly correlated (r = 0.69, n = 66). Vacuum bag dust ERMI values were lower than for floor dust but correlated (r = 0.58, n = 28). These results support the use of the ERMI to evaluate residential mold exposure as a confounder in air pollution health effects studies. PMID:25431602

  16. Identification of Regional Air Pollution Characteristic and the Correlation with Public Health in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huey H. Hsieh

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to classify regions with different air pollution characteristics into groups in Taiwan, and further to evaluate and compare the air quality of various groups. A selected multivariate analysis technique, cluster analysis, is applied to the pollution monitoring dataset which including PM10, SO2, NO2, CO and O3. The obtained results have proved that the regions with similar air pollution characteristic can be appropriately grouped by applying cluster analysis. All 22 regions are classified into six groups, and the pollution pattern for each group is characterized as: Group 1 (high SO2/NO2; low PM10, Group 2 (high PM10, Group 3 (high SO2/PM10, Group 4 (low SO2/NO2/CO; high O3, Group 5 (low CO/NO2; high O3 and Group 6 (low PM10/SO2/NO2/O3/CO. Results from air quality evaluation indicate that the regions in group 6 (Ilan, Hualien and Taitung have the best air quality while the regions in group 3 (Kaohsiung and Kaohsiung City have the worst air quality in Taiwan. The results from correlation analysis reveal that incidence of the respiratory system disease is significantly positively correlated with pollution of NO2 and CO at 99% confidence level.

  17. Occupational Health Screenings of Aeromedical Evacuation and Critical Care Air Transport Team Crew Members

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-01

    concerning mental health problems. 3.2.2 Physical Exercise Behaviors. Participants were asked the following: how often do you engage in physical... depression ) as a reason for an increase in mental health supp01i utilization. CCATT crew members did not rep01i any other reasons for an increase...health care. However, AE crew members also endorsed emotional distress, such as depression , leading to their increase in seeking mental health care

  18. Occupational Health Screenings of U.S. Air Force Remotely Piloted Aircraft (Drone) Operators

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-01

    these operations are being conducted. There are a number of resources to assist RPA operators with identifying and improving occupational health ...access to flight medicine providers, health and wellness resources (such as the base gym ), and programs (e.g., tobacco cessation). Health ...and behaviors of RPA operators to identify areas for change to improve health and morale. The group e-mail invitation to participate had an

  19. Long-term exposure to air pollution and mammographic density in the Danish Diet, Cancer and Health cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huynh, Stephanie; von Euler-Chelpin, My; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole;

    2015-01-01

    investigated the association between long-term exposure to traffic-related air pollution and MD in a prospective cohort of women 50 years and older. METHODS: For the 4,769 women (3,930 postmenopausal) participants in the Danish Diet, Cancer and Health cohort (1993-1997) who attended mammographic screening...... 1971 until cohort baseline (1993-97) and MD was analyzed using logistic regression, adjusting for confounders, and separately by menopause, smoking status, and obesity. RESULTS: We found inverse, statistically borderline significant associations between long-term exposure to air pollution and having...... mixed/dense MD in our fully adjusted model (OR; 95% CI: 0.96; 0.93-1.01 per 20 μg/m(3) of NOx and 0.89; 0.80- 0.98 per 10 μg/m(3) of NO2). There was no interaction with menopause, smoking, or obesity. CONCLUSION: Traffic-related air pollution exposure does not increase MD, indicating that if air...

  20. Willingness to pay to avoid health risks from road-traffic-related air pollution and noise across five countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Istamto, Tifanny; Houthuijs, Danny; Lebret, Erik

    2014-11-01

    We conducted a multi-country study to estimate the perceived economic values of traffic-related air pollution and noise health risks within the framework of a large European project. We used contingent valuation as a method to assess the willingness-to-pay (WTP) for both types of pollutants simultaneously. We asked respondents how much they would be willing to pay annually to avoid certain health risks from specific pollutants. Three sets of vignettes with different levels of information were provided prior to the WTP questions. These vignettes described qualitative general health risks, a quantitative single health risk related to a pollutant, and a quantitative scenario of combined health risks related to a pollutant. The mean WTP estimates to avoid road-traffic air pollution effects for the three vignettes were: €130 per person per year (pp/y) for general health risks, €80 pp/y for a half year shorter in life expectancy, and €330 pp/y to a 50% decrease in road-traffic air pollution. Their medians were €40 pp/y, €10 pp/y and €50 pp/y, respectively. The mean WTP estimates to avoid road-traffic noise effects for the three vignettes were: €90 pp/y for general health risks, €100 pp/y for a 13% increase in severe annoyance, and €320 pp/y for a combined-risk scenario related to an increase of a noise level from 50 dB to 65 dB. Their medians were €20 pp/y, €20 pp/y and €50 pp/y, respectively. Risk perceptions and attitudes as well as environmental and pollutant concerns significantly affected WTP estimates. The observed differences in crude WTP estimates between countries changed considerably when perception-related variables were included in the WTP regression models. For this reason, great care should be taken when performing benefit transfer from studies in one country to another.

  1. Monitoring the effect of air pollution episodes on health care consultations and ambulance call-outs in England during March/April 2014: A retrospective observational analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliot, Alex J; Smith, Sue; Dobney, Alec; Thornes, John; Smith, Gillian E; Vardoulakis, Sotiris

    2016-07-01

    There is an increasing body of evidence illustrating the negative health effects of air pollution including increased risk of respiratory, cardiac and other morbid conditions. During March and April 2014 there were two air pollution episodes in England that occurred in close succession. We used national real-time syndromic surveillance systems, including general practitioner (GP) consultations, emergency department attendances, telehealth calls and ambulance dispatch calls to further understand the impact of these short term acute air pollution periods on the health seeking behaviour of the general public. Each air pollution period was comparable with respect to particulate matter concentrations (PM10 and PM2.5), however, the second period was longer in duration (6 days vs 3 days) and meteorologically driven 'Sahara dust' contributed to the pollution. Health surveillance data revealed a greater impact during the second period, with GP consultations, emergency department attendances and telehealth (NHS 111) calls increasing for asthma, wheeze and difficulty breathing indicators, particularly in patients aged 15-64 years. Across regions of England there was good agreement between air quality levels and health care seeking behaviour. The results further demonstrate the acute impact of short term air pollution episodes on public health and also illustrate the potential role of mass media reporting in escalating health care seeking behaviour.

  2. Salud auto-referida y desigualdades sociales, ciudad de Buenos Aires, Argentina, 2005 Self-rated health and social inequalities, Buenos Aires, Argentina, 2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcio Alazraqui

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available La salud auto-referida es un indicador de calidad de vida. ¿Cuál es el impacto de las características socioeconómicas a nivel individual y a nivel de la vecindad, consideradas simultáneamente, en el estado de salud auto-referida a nivel individual? Diseño de análisis multinivel con dos niveles: individual y vecindad. Las fuentes de información fueron: Encuesta Nacional de Factores de Riesgo (muestreo probabilístico multietápico y Censo Poblacional. La regresión lineal muestra que mayores niveles de educación, de ingresos y de categoría laboral se relacionan con mejor salud auto-referida; y el aumento de la edad con peor salud. En el análisis multinivel, a medida que la proporción de individuos con educación inferior aumentaba en la fracción censal, aumentaba también la proporción de individuos con peor salud auto-referida. Mejorar la salud general de la población requerirá estrategias y acciones que disminuyan los niveles de desigualdad social en sus múltiples dimensiones, individual y de vecindad.Self-rated health is a quality-of-life indicator. This study investigates the impact of individual-level and neighborhood-level socioeconomic characteristics, considered simultaneously, on the state of self-rated health at the individual level in Buenos Aires, Argentina. The study employs a two-level (individual and neighborhood multilevel analysis, and the data sources were the 2005 Argentina National Risk Factor Survey (multistage probabilistic sample and the 2001 Population Census. Linear regression shows that higher schooling and income, as well as occupational category, are related to better self-rated health, and increasing age with worse health. In the multilevel analysis, an increase in the proportion (per census tract of individuals with less schooling was associated with an increase in the proportion of individuals with worse self-rated health. Improving the general health of the population requires strategies and action

  3. Effect of air pollution and racism on ethnic differences in respiratory health among adolescents living in an urban environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astell-Burt, Thomas; Maynard, Maria J; Lenguerrand, Erik; Whitrow, Melissa J; Molaodi, Oarabile R; Harding, Seeromanie

    2013-09-01

    Recent studies suggest that stress can amplify the harm of air pollution. We examined whether experience of racism and exposure to particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter of less than 2.5 µm and 10 µm (PM2.5 and PM10) had a synergistic influence on ethnic differences in asthma and lung function across adolescence. Analyses using multilevel models showed lower forced expiratory volume (FEV1), forced vital capacity (FVC) and lower rates of asthma among some ethnic minorities compared to Whites, but higher exposure to PM2.5, PM10 and racism. Racism appeared to amplify the relationship between asthma and air pollution for all ethnic groups, but did not explain ethnic differences in respiratory health.

  4. Gender Differences in Respiratory Health of School Children Exposed to Rail Yard-Generated Air Pollution: The ENRRICH Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer-Hwang, Rhonda; Soret, Sam; Ghamsary, Mark; Rizzo, Nico; Baum, Marti; Juma, David; Montgomery, Susanne

    2016-01-01

    Studies about environmental burdens often explore overall community risk. Increasing evidence suggests, however, differential burdens by gender and age. The purpose of the authors' research was to determine if gender-related difference exists among children in a region plagued with poor air quality and if increased exposure to pollutants from a major goods movement rail yard influences the relationship. Using a cross-sectional study design, the authors provided respiratory screening for children at two elementary schools. Compared to females, males were at significantly greater odds of exhibiting elevated fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) but less likely to exhibit reduced lung volume. Even in an area of overall poor air quality, the authors found that male children were a vulnerable subpopulation for greater elevated FeNO, while females were at increased risk for reduced lung capacity. Understanding differential burdens in vulnerable subpopulations is critical to providing timely and responsive strategies targeted towards health-based prevention and intervention activities.

  5. A health-based assessment of particulate air pollution in urban areas of Beijing in 2000-2004.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Minsi; Song, Yu; Cai, Xuhui

    2007-04-15

    Particulate air pollution is a serious problem in Beijing. The annual concentration of particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter less than 10 microm (PM(10)), ranging from 141 to 166 microg m(-3) in 2000-2004, could be very harmful to human health. In this paper, we presented the mortality and morbidity effects of PM(10) pollution based on statistical data and the epidemiological exposure-response function. The economic costs to health during the 5 years were estimated to lie between US$1670 and $3655 million annually, accounting for about 6.55% of Beijing's gross domestic product each year. The total costs were apportioned into two parts caused by: the local emissions and long-range transported pollution. The contribution from local emissions dominated the total costs, accounting on average for 3.60% of GDP. However, the contributions from transported pollution cannot be neglected, and the relative percentage to the total costs from the other regions could account for about 45%. An energy policy and effective measures should be proposed to reduce particulate matter, especially PM(2.5) pollution in Beijing to protect public health. The Beijing government also needs to cooperate with the other local governments to reduce high background level of particulate air pollution.

  6. Preliminary assessment of the health and environmental effects of coal utilization in the midwest. Volume I. Energy scenarios, technology characterizations, air and water resource impacts, and health effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1977-01-01

    An initial evaluation of the major health and environmental issues associated with increased coal use in the six midwestern states of Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Minnesota, Ohio, and Wisconsin is presented. Using an integrated assessment approach, the evaluation proceeds from a base-line scenario of energy demand and facility siting for the period 1975 to 2020. Emphasis is placed on impacts from coal extraction, land reclamation, coal combustion for electrical generation, and coal gasification. The range of potential impacts and constraints is illustrated by a second scenario that represents an expected upper limit for coal utilization in Illinois. Included are: (1) a characterization of the energy demand and siting scenarios, coal related technologies, and coal resources, and (2) the related impacts on air quality, water availability, water quality, and human health.

  7. Respirable particulate monitoring with remote sensors. (Public health ecology: Air pollution)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Severs, R. K.

    1974-01-01

    The feasibility of monitoring atmospheric aerosols in the respirable range from air or space platforms was studied. Secondary reflectance targets were located in the industrial area and near Galveston Bay. Multichannel remote sensor data were utilized to calculate the aerosol extinction coefficient and thus determine the aerosol size distribution. Houston Texas air sampling network high volume data were utilized to generate computer isopleth maps of suspended particulates and to establish the mass loading of the atmosphere. In addition, a five channel nephelometer and a multistage particulate air sampler were used to collect data. The extinction coefficient determined from remote sensor data proved more representative of wide areal phenomena than that calculated from on site measurements. It was also demonstrated that a significant reduction in the standard deviation of the extinction coefficient could be achieved by reducing the bandwidths used in remote sensor.

  8. The air quality and human health effects of integrating utility-scale batteries into the New York State electricity grid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmore, Elisabeth A.; Apt, Jay; Walawalkar, Rahul; Adams, Peter J.; Lave, Lester B.

    In a restructured electricity market, utility-scale energy storage technologies such as advanced batteries can generate revenue by charging at low electricity prices and discharging at high prices. This strategy changes the magnitude and distribution of air quality emissions and the total carbon dioxide (CO 2) emissions. We evaluate the social costs associated with these changes using a case study of 500 MW sodium-sulfur battery installations with 80% round-trip efficiency. The batteries displace peaking generators in New York City and charge using off-peak generation in the New York Independent System Operator (NYISO) electricity grid during the summer. We identify and map charging and displaced plant types to generators in the NYISO. We then convert the emissions into ambient concentrations with a chemical transport model, the Particulate Matter Comprehensive Air Quality Model with extensions (PMCAM x). Finally, we transform the concentrations into their equivalent human health effects and social benefits and costs. Reductions in premature mortality from fine particulate matter (PM 2.5) result in a benefit of 4.5 ¢ kWh -1 and 17 ¢ kWh -1 from displacing a natural gas and distillate fuel oil fueled peaking plant, respectively, in New York City. Ozone (O 3) concentrations increase due to decreases in nitrogen oxide (NO x) emissions, although the magnitude of the social cost is less certain. Adding the costs from charging, displacing a distillate fuel oil plant yields a net social benefit, while displacing the natural gas plant has a net social cost. With the existing base-load capacity, the upstate population experiences an increase in adverse health effects. If wind generation is charging the battery, both the upstate charging location and New York City benefit. At 20 per tonne of CO 2, the costs from CO 2 are small compared to those from air quality. We conclude that storage could be added to existing electricity grids as part of an integrated strategy from a

  9. Assessment of Air Pollution and its Effects on Health of Workers of Steel Re-Rolling Mills in Hyderabad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Altaf Alam Noonari

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The SRRMs (Steel Re-Rolling Mills are being releasing air pollutants in the environment. In order to evaluate their effect on the health of the workers, health and safety issues were analyzed by first measuring the concentrations of SO x (OIxides of Sulphur, NO x (Oxides of Nitrogen, CO (Carbon Monoxide and O2 (Oxygen produced in the three SRRMs located in SITE area Hyderabad. The mean concentration of SO x , NO x and CO were in the order of 0.35, 0.280, 6.333 ppm, respectively, whereas the mean concentration of O 2 was 203.53 thousand ppm. As per results, the concentration ofair pollutants, including SOx and NO x were significantly higher than to the NEQS (National Environmental Quality Standards and NAAQS (National Ambient Air Quality Standards. The concentration ofCO was lower than to the NAAQS, but higher than to the NEQs, while the concentration of O2 was slightly lower than to the standard value. The workers who were exposed to these air pollutants are being suffering from chronic diseases related to breathing and allergies. Moreover, labour staff was lifting heavy loads manually, which causes them to muscular and joint problems. In all the SRRMs under study, the electrical and mechanical equipments were used without any safety. The MSDS were not displayed on the workstations, the housekeeping was inadequate and most of the workers were performing their jobs without personal protective equipment. In addition to these, the other serious issues related to the occupational health and safety were an unhygienic supply of water, higher noise level, placement of explosive cylinders in the open atmosphere and unavailability of the first aid facilities in the Mill premises.

  10. Air pollution, health and social deprivation: A fine-scale risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morelli, Xavier; Rieux, Camille; Cyrys, Josef; Forsberg, Bertil; Slama, Rémy

    2016-05-01

    Risk assessment studies often ignore within-city variations of air pollutants. Our objective was to quantify the risk associated with fine particulate matter (PM2.5) exposure in 2 urban areas using fine-scale air pollution modeling and to characterize how this risk varied according to social deprivation. In Grenoble and Lyon areas (0.4 and 1.2 million inhabitants, respectively) in 2012, PM2.5 exposure was estimated on a 10×10m grid by coupling a dispersion model to population density. Outcomes were mortality, lung cancer and term low birth weight incidences. Cases attributable to air pollution were estimated overall and stratifying areas according to the European Deprivation Index (EDI), taking 10µg/m(3) yearly average as reference (counterfactual) level. Estimations were repeated assuming spatial homogeneity of air pollutants within urban area. Median PM2.5 levels were 18.1 and 19.6μg/m(3) in Grenoble and Lyon urban areas, respectively, corresponding to 114 (5.1% of total, 95% confidence interval, CI, 3.2-7.0%) and 491 non-accidental deaths (6.0% of total, 95% CI 3.7-8.3%) attributable to long-term exposure to PM2.5, respectively. Attributable term low birth weight cases represented 23.6% of total cases (9.0-37.1%) in Grenoble and 27.6% of cases (10.7-42.6%) in Lyon. In Grenoble, 6.8% of incident lung cancer cases were attributable to air pollution (95% CI 3.1-10.1%). Risk was lower by 8 to 20% when estimating exposure through background stations. Risk was highest in neighborhoods with intermediate to higher social deprivation. Risk assessment studies relying on background stations to estimate air pollution levels may underestimate the attributable risk.

  11. A review of the epidemiological methods used to investigate the health impacts of air pollution around major industrial areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascal, Mathilde; Pascal, Laurence; Bidondo, Marie-Laure; Cochet, Amandine; Sarter, Hélène; Stempfelet, Morgane; Wagner, Vérène

    2013-01-01

    We performed a literature review to investigate how epidemiological studies have been used to assess the health consequences of living in the vicinity of industries. 77 papers on the chronic effects of air pollution around major industrial areas were reviewed. Major health themes were cancers (27 studies), morbidity (25 studies), mortality (7 studies), and birth outcome (7 studies). Only 3 studies investigated mental health. While studies were available from many different countries, a majority of papers came from the United Kingdom, Italy, and Spain. Several studies were motivated by concerns from the population or by previous observations of an overincidence of cases. Geographical ecological designs were largely used for studying cancer and mortality, including statistical designs to quantify a relationship between health indicators and exposure. Morbidity was frequently investigated through cross-sectional surveys on the respiratory health of children. Few multicenter studies were performed. In a majority of papers, exposed areas were defined based on the distance to the industry and were located from 20 km from the plants. Improving the exposure assessment would be an asset to future studies. Criteria to include industries in multicenter studies should be defined.

  12. A Non-linear Eulerian Approach for Assessment of Health-cost Externalities of Air Pollution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mikael Skou; Frohn, Lise Marie; Nielsen, Jytte Seested

    Integrated assessment models which are used in Europe to account for the external costs of air pollution as a support for policy-making and cost-benefit analysis have in order to cope with complexity resorted to simplifications of the non-linear dynamics of atmospheric sciences. In this paper we...... explore the possible significance of such simplifications by reviewing the improvements that result from applying a state-of-the-art atmospheric model for regional transport and non-linear chemical transformations of air pollutants to the impact-pathway approach of the ExternE-method. The more rigorous...

  13. Early-life exposure to outdoor air pollution and respiratory health, ear infections, and eczema in infants from the INMA study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aguilera, Inmaculada; Pedersen, Marie; Garcia-Esteban, Raquel

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Prenatal and early-life periods may be critical windows for harmful effects of air pollution on infant health. OBJECTIVES: We studied the association of air pollution exposure during pregnancy and the first year of life with respiratory illnesses, ear infections, and eczema during......(2)) and benzene with temporally adjusted land use regression models. We used log-binomial regression models and a combined random-effects meta-analysis to estimate the effects of air pollution exposure on health outcomes across the four study locations. RESULTS: A 10-µg/m(3) increase in average NO(2....... Air pollution exposure during the first year was highly correlated with prenatal exposure, so we were unable to discern the relative importance of each exposure period. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings support the hypothesis that early-life exposure to ambient air pollution may increase the risk of upper...

  14. Assessing theEffects of Nitrogen Dioxide in Urban Air on Health of West and Southwest Cities of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zallaghi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background Nitrogen dioxide (NO2 is a corrosive, strong oxidant and a physiologic stimulant of lower respiratory tract. Every human being inhales an average of 10-m3 air per day; therefore, assessment of the effect of inhaled air on health is a vital issue. The main source NO2 in urban regions is intra-urban public transport system. The annual average of determined air quality for NO2 is 40 μg/m3. Objectives The present study aimed to estimate and compare epidemiologic indices attributed to the pollutant NO2 in the urban air of southwest cities of Iran, namely, Ahvaz, Kermanshah, and Bushehr, in 2011. Materials and Methods In the present study, data relevant to the air-pollutant NO2 in 2011 was obtained from the Iranian Department of Environment and meteorological organizations of the studied cities. Raw data processing by Excel software included instruction set correction of averaging, coding, and filtering. Then the meteorological parameters were converted as input file to the Air Q model. Finally, by using epidemiologic formulas, relative risk (RR and attributed part to NO2 in the three studied cites were estimated. Results The results showed that in summer, winter, and the whole year, Kermanshah and Bushehr had on average the maximum and minimum NO2 concentration, respectively, in 2011. In addition, accumulative number of cases attributed to exposure with NO2 in the studied cities was maximum in Kermanshah (21 cases and minimum in Bushehr (one case. The results revealed that approximately, the maximum number of death cases attributed to NO2 were observed in Kermanshah due to heart problems (1.06%, acute infarction (1.8%, and obstructive pulmonary disease (1.9% with concentration > 20 μg/m3. Conclusions Every 10 μg/m3 increase in the concentration of the pollutant NO2 in the studied cities led to increase in the RR of myocardial infarction, cardiovascular diseases, and obstructive pulmonary disease by 0.4%, 0.2%, and 0.4%, respectively, in

  15. [Peers contribution to mental health work: considerations on the relationship between formal and informal help. A case study in a mental health facility in Buenos Aires].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardila Gómez, Sara; Agrest, Martín; Abadi, Daniel; Cáceres, Carmen

    2013-01-01

    Including peers to the mental health workforce has been part of a larger debate regarding specificity and incumbencies of peers' work, as well as their relationship with other workers. While some members of the workforce are proposing to train peers to have them help in different settings and interventions, others see them as unfair and underprepared competitors trying to replace them. Based on this debate, and from a Collective Health perspective on the concept of "care", this paper supports the idea that, since they put "care" as central to anything done by the mental health workforce, peers could be crucial to practices in Mental Health. An experience that took place in a Day Hospital in Buenos Aires City, conversed within a group dedicated to reflect on peers' support, is analyzed in order to unveil the relationship between peers and professionals, as well as peers' specificity. It is withstand that one of the main contributions of including peers is to help professionals think more about the relational dimension of their work and about the way they treat, call and refer to patients.

  16. Air pollution and respiratory health of children: the PEACE panel study in Umea., Sweden.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Forsberg, B.; Segerstedt, B.; Stjernberg, N.; Roemer, W.

    1998-01-01

    The Pollution Effects on Asthmatic Children in Europe (PEACE) study examined the acute effects of short-term changes in air pollution on symptomatic children. We were one of 14 research centres in Europe that used a common study protocol. Seventy five children in an urban panel and 72 children in a

  17. Air pollutant monitoring for the East Bay Children's Respiratory Health Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singer, Brett C.; Hotchi, Toshifumi; Hodgson, Alfred T.

    2002-11-01

    This report describes the methodology and presents the summary results of the air pollutant monitoring program conducted by Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory in support of the East Bay Children's Respiratory Health Study. The full study is examining the effects of chronic exposure to traffic-related pollutants on respiratory health among 3rd and 4th grade children attending ten neighborhood elementary schools in the San Francisco East Bay Area (Hayward, San Leandro and Oakland, CA). The demographically similar schools are located at varying distances from the I-880 and CA-92 freeways. Several schools were selected because they are located within 300 m in the predominant downwind direction (east) from either of the freeways. Measurements of multiple pollutants were made outdoors at the schools over 1-2 week intervals for 14 weeks in spring and eight weeks in fall 2001 using a custom-designed and validated package of commercially available monitoring equipment. Particulate matter was sampled over all hours (24 h per day) or during schools hours only with battery-operated programmable pumps and inlet devices for PM{sub 10} and PM{sub 2.5}. These pumps were modified to allow for up to 10 days of continuous operation. Fine particle mass and black carbon (BC) were determined from the collected filters. Nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x} and NO{sub 2}) were measured with passive samplers. Carbon monoxide (CO) was measured continuously with an electrochemical sensor. Gasoline-related volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were measured with passive samplers during three 4-week intervals in spring 2001 and two 4-week periods in early 2002. All samplers were deployed in a metal cabinet located outside at each school. Ranges of study average pollutant concentrations (all-hours) at the ten individual schools were: NO{sub x}, 33-68 ppb; NO{sub 2}, 19-31 ppb; PM{sub 10} mass, 27-32 {micro}g/m{sup 3}; PM{sub 2.5} mass, 12-15 {micro}g/m{sup 3}; and BC associated with PM{sub 2.5}, 0

  18. Can we establish relationship between outdoor air ventilation and health based on the published epidemiological data?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carrer, Paolo; Wargocki, Pawel; Fanetti, Annaclara

    2015-01-01

    from 6-7 L/s per person, which were the lowest ventilation rates, at which no effects on some health outcomes were observed in field studies, until 25-40 L/s per person, which were in some studies the highest ventilation rates needed so no effects on health outcomes were seen. The actual contaminant...

  19. Urban Air Pollution Problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sivertsen, B.

    1995-09-01

    This document focuses on the specific problems of urban air pollution related to emissions, urban climate, meteorology, smog potential, specific locations, air pollution measurements and trends. Examples are given with cases from European cities in particular. The north south differences, coastal and inland problems and data from various parts of Europe are presented. Global trends and results from the UNEP programme are used to illustrate the magnitude of the problem. Special emphasis is placed on the impact of different sources and their importance in selected cities. Different types of atmospheric dispersion models, their development and use, is outlined. The importance of local and regional meteorological data for explanation purposes and for estimating and forecasting urban air quality is presented. Finally, monitoring programmes, mapping, impact assessment and optimum abatement strategy planning are illustrated with examples from different areas in the world. 9 refs., 56 figs., 1 table

  20. In-car particles and cardiovascular health: an air conditioning-based intervention study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Hsiao-Chi; Lin, Lian-Yu; Hsu, Ya-Wen; Ma, Chih-Ming; Chuang, Kai-Jen

    2013-05-01

    Exposure to traffic-related particulate matter (PM) is considered a potential risk for cardiovascular events. Little is known about whether improving air quality in car can modify cardiovascular effects among human subjects during commuting. We recruited a panel of 60 healthy subjects to commute for 2 h by a car equipped with an air conditioning (AC) system during the morning rush hour in Taipei. Operation modes of AC system using outside air (OA-mode), circulating inside air (IA-mode) and turning off (Off-mode) were examined. Repeated measurements of heart rate variability (HRV) indices, PM≤2.5 μm in aerodynamic diameter (PM2.5) and noise level were conducted for each participant in different modes during the commute. We used linear mixed-effects models to associate HRV indices with in-car PM2.5. We found that decreases in HRV indices were associated with increased levels of in-car PM2.5. For Off-mode, an interquartile range (IQR) increase in in-car PM2.5 with 15-min moving average was associated with 2.7% and 4.1% decreases in standard deviation of NN intervals (SDNN) and the square root of the mean of the sum of the squares of differences between adjacent NN intervals (r-MSSD), respectively. During OA and IA modes, participants showed slight decreases in SDNN (OA mode: 0.1%; IA mode: 1.3%) and r-MSSD (OA mode: 1.1%; IA mode: 1.8%) by an IQR increase in in-car PM2.5 with 15-min moving average. We concluded that in-car PM2.5 is associated with autonomic alteration. Utilization of the car's AC system can improve air quality and modify the effects of in-car PM2.5 on HRV indices among human subjects during the commute.

  1. Ventilation, indoor air quality, and human health and comfort in dwellings and day-care centers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruotsalainen, R.

    1995-12-31

    The objective of the study was to assess the actual ventilation and indoor air quality in the Finnish building stock (dwellings and day-care centers) with special reference to the existing guideline values. Furthermore, the objective was to evaluate the occurrence of symptoms and perceptions among occupants (adult residents, children, workers) in relation to ventilation system, ventilation rate and dampness. The measurements of ventilation and indoor air quality in the dwellings and day-care centers included ventilation rate, CO{sub 2} concentration, and temperature and humidity. Self- and parent-administered questionnaires were distributed to the occupants inquiring their personal characteristics, occurrence of symptoms of interest, perceived indoor air quality and details of their home and work environments. Airflows and air change rates varied remarkably both in the dwellings and day-care centers. In the majority of the dwellings and day-care centers, the Finnish guideline values of ventilation rates were not achieved. No consistent associations were observed between the magnitude of mechanical ventilation rates and the occurrence of eye, respiratory, skin and general symptoms, that is, symptoms of sick building syndrome (SBS) among the day-care workers. The results indicate that there is much room for improvement in the ventilation and indoor air quality of Finnish dwellings and day-care centers. The control of ventilation, temperature and humidity and the prevention of water damage are important issues on which to concentrate in the future. There is need to improve the quality in all phases of construction: design, installation, adjustment, operation, and maintenance

  2. Air pollution and health implications of regional electricity transfer at generational centre and design of compensation mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Relhan, Nemika

    India's electricity generation is primarily from coal. As a result of interconnection of grid and establishment of pithead power plants, there has been increased electricity transfer from one region to the other. This results in imbalance of pollution loads between the communities located in generation vis-a-vis consumption region. There may be some states, which are major power generation centres and hence are facing excessive environmental degradation. On the other hand, electricity importing regions are reaping the benefits without paying proper charges for it because present tariff structure does not include the full externalities in it. The present study investigates the distributional implications in terms of air pollution loads between the electricity generation and consumption regions at the state level. It identifies the major electricity importing and exporting states in India. Next, as a case study, it estimates the health damage as a result of air pollution from thermal power plants (TPPs) located in a critically polluted region that is one of the major generator and exporter of electricity. The methodology used to estimate the health damage is based on impact pathway approach. In this method, air pollution modelling has been performed in order to estimate the gridded Particulate Matter (PM) concentration at various receptor locations in the study domain. The air quality modeling exercise helps to quantify the air pollution concentration in each grid and also apportion the contribution of power plants to the total concentration. The health impacts as a result of PM have been estimated in terms of number of mortality and morbidity cases using Concentration Response Function (CRF's) available in the literature. Mortality has been converted into Years of Life Lost (YOLL) using life expectancy table and age wise death distribution. Morbidity has been estimated in terms of number of cases with respect to various health end points. To convert this health

  3. Health and Economic Impacts of Air Pollution in China: A Comparison of the General Equilibrium Approach and Human Capital Approach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUE WAN; HONG-WEI YANG; TOSHIHIKO MASUI

    2005-01-01

    In China, combustion of fossil fuels and biomass has produced serious air pollution that does harm to human health. Based on dose-response relationships derived from epidemiological studies, the authors calculated the number of deaths and people with health problems which were thought to be attributable to China's air pollution in the year of 2000. In order to estimate the corresponding economic impacts from the national point of view, the general equilibrium approach was selected as an analysis tool for this study. A computable general equilibrium (CGE) model was constructed involving 39 sectors and 32 commodities.The human capital approach (HCA) was also used for comparison. The economic burden of disease for people estimated by HCA was equivalent to 1.26‰ (ranging from 0.44‰ to 1.84‰) of China's gross domestic product (GDP). China's GDP loss estimated by the general equilibrium approach reached 0.38‰ (ranging from 0.16‰ to 0.51‰). The difference between the two approaches and the implications of the results were discussed.

  4. Review of urinary hydroxyproline as a biochemical marker on health effects of smoking and air pollution with nitrogen dioxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasuga, H.

    1985-08-01

    A series of epidemiologic studies on the health effects caused by smoking and air pollution with NO/sub 2/ were carried out. Urinary hydroxyproline (HOP) which is excreted into the urine by catabolism of lung collagen was used as a biochemical marker. Urinary HOP of smokers increased dose-dependently with increasing numbers of cigarettes smoked and this result was accepted under blind conditions. Urinary HOP of nonsmokers also increased with increasing the amounts of involuntary smoking caused by smokers in their families although the increases in HOP by passive smoking were less than those by active smoking. Health effects caused by indoor air pollution with NO/sub 2/ in winter and automobile exhaust in summer were also demonstrated using urinary HOP. The effects of cessation of smoking were followed up for 14 weeks by the decrease in urinary HOP. In practice, the HOP to creatinine ratio (HOP ratio) in random urine samples was used as representative of the 24-hour urine samples. Some confounding factors for urinary HOP were taken into consideration in these studies.

  5. Health and economic impacts of air pollution in China: a comparison of the general equilibrium approach and human capital approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Yue; Yang, Hong-Wei; Masui, Toshihiko

    2005-12-01

    In China, combustion of fossil fuels and biomass has produced serious air pollution that does harm to human health. Based on dose-response relationships derived from epidemiological studies, the authors calculated the number of deaths and people with health problems which were thought to be attributable to China's air pollution in the year of 2000. In order to estimate the corresponding economic impacts from the national point of view, the general equilibrium approach was selected as an analysis tool for this study. A computable general equilibrium (CGE) model was constructed involving 39 sectors and 32 commodities. The human capital approach (HCA) was also used for comparison. The economic burden of disease for people estimated by HCA was equivalent to 1.26 per thousand (ranging from 0.44 per thousand to 1.84 per thousand) of China's gross domestic product (GDP). China's GDP loss estimated by the general equilibrium approach reached 0.38 per thousand (ranging from 0.16 per thousand to 0.51 per thousand). The difference between the two approaches and the implications of the results were discussed.

  6. The value of health benefits from ambient air quality improvements in Central and Eastern Europe. An exercise in benefits transfer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krupnick, A.; Harrison, K.; Nickell, E.; Toman, M. [Resources for the Future, Washington, DC (United States)

    1996-06-01

    The study on the title subject is an initial effort to estimate the effects of air pollution on human health in Bulgaria, Hungary, Poland and Ukraine. The estimates are derived from data on ambient air quality in those countries, together with a model that links these ambient conditions to physical impacts on health and attaches economic values (dollars) to these impacts. The focus is on particulates, SO{sub 2} and Pb. Dose response functions, taken from the clinical and epidemiological literature in the USA, Canada, and Western Europe are used to generate estimates of the change in physical effects. These effects then are given an economic value by applying two approaches for scaling unit valuation figures, applicable to the USA. A Monte Carlo model is constructed to propagate the uncertainties of the dose-response functions and unit values to obtain confidence intervals on the total benefits from pollutant reductions in each country. Scenarios are examined where the above-mentioned countries improve ambient conditions for the pollutants in question to meet the European Community standards and then compare these scenarios to ones involving uniform percentage ambient reductions across locations in each country. 3 figs., 9 tabs., 33 refs.

  7. Development of ambient air quality population-weighted metrics for use in time-series health studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivy, Diane; Mulholland, James A; Russell, Armistead G

    2008-05-01

    A robust methodology was developed to compute population-weighted daily measures of ambient air pollution for use in time-series studies of acute health effects. Ambient data, including criteria pollutants and four fine particulate matter (PM) components, from monitors located in the 20-county metropolitan Atlanta area over the time period of 1999-2004 were normalized, spatially resolved using inverse distance-square weighting to Census tracts, denormalized using descriptive spatial models, and population-weighted. Error associated with applying this procedure with fewer than the maximum number of observations was also calculated. In addition to providing more representative measures of ambient air pollution for the health study population than provided by a central monitor alone and dampening effects of measurement error and local source impacts, results were used to evaluate spatial variability and to identify air pollutants for which ambient concentrations are poorly characterized. The decrease in correlation of daily monitor observations with daily population-weighted average values with increasing distance of the monitor from the urban center was much greater for primary pollutants than for secondary pollutants. Of the criteria pollutant gases, sulfur dioxide observations were least representative because of the failure of ambient networks to capture the spatial variability of this pollutant for which concentrations are dominated by point source impacts. Daily fluctuations in PM of particles less than 10 microm in aerodynamic diameter (PM10) mass were less well characterized than PM of particles less than 2.5 microm in aerodynamic diameter (PM2.5) mass because of a smaller number of PM10 monitors with daily observations. Of the PM2.5 components, the carbon fractions were less well spatially characterized than sulfate and nitrate both because of primary emissions of elemental and organic carbon and because of differences in measurement techniques used to assess

  8. Associations between Parents’ Perceived Air Quality in Homes and Health among Children in Nanjing, China

    OpenAIRE

    Hua Qian; Xiaohong Zheng; Min Zhang; Louise Weschler; Jan Sundell

    2016-01-01

    The increasing prevalence of respiratory diseases in Chinese children has focused attention on indoor environmental quality. We investigated associations between perceived air quality in domestic environments and children's allergic diseases with a questionnaire survey study. A total of 4017 children aged 1-8 years old from 23 kindergartens in urban, suburban and industrial areas in Nanjing were randomly recruited for this study. Parents' perceived odors, including stuffy odor, unpleasant odo...

  9. Stretching the stress boundary: Linking air pollution health effects to a neurohormonal stress response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodavanti, Urmila P

    2016-12-01

    Inhaled pollutants produce effects in virtually all organ systems in our body and have been linked to chronic diseases including hypertension, atherosclerosis, Alzheimer's and diabetes. A neurohormonal stress response (referred to here as a systemic response produced by activation of the sympathetic nervous system and hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA)-axis) has been implicated in a variety of psychological and physical stresses, which involves immune and metabolic homeostatic mechanisms affecting all organs in the body. In this review, we provide new evidence for the involvement of this well-characterized neurohormonal stress response in mediating systemic and pulmonary effects of a prototypic air pollutant - ozone. A plethora of systemic metabolic and immune effects are induced in animals exposed to inhaled pollutants, which could result from increased circulating stress hormones. The release of adrenal-derived stress hormones in response to ozone exposure not only mediates systemic immune and metabolic responses, but by doing so, also modulates pulmonary injury and inflammation. With recurring pollutant exposures, these effects can contribute to multi-organ chronic conditions associated with air pollution. This review will cover, 1) the potential mechanisms by which air pollutants can initiate the relay of signals from respiratory tract to brain through trigeminal and vagus nerves, and activate stress responsive regions including hypothalamus; and 2) the contribution of sympathetic and HPA-axis activation in mediating systemic homeostatic metabolic and immune effects of ozone in various organs. The potential contribution of chronic environmental stress in cardiovascular, neurological, reproductive and metabolic diseases, and the knowledge gaps are also discussed. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Air Pollution, edited by Wenjun Ding, Andrew J. Ghio and Weidong Wu.

  10. Exposure to urban air pollution and bone health in clinically healthy six-year-old children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderón-Garcidueñas, Lilian; Mora-Tiscareño, Antonieta; Francolira, Maricela; Torres-Jardón, Ricardo; Peña-Cruz, Bernardo; Palacios-López, Carolina; Zhu, Hongtu; Kong, Linglong; Mendoza-Mendoza, Nicolás; Montesinoscorrea, Hortencia; Romero, Lina; Valencia-Salazar, Gildardo; Kavanaugh, Michael; Frenk, Silvestre

    2013-01-01

    Air pollution induces systemic inflammation, as well as respiratory, myocardial and brain inflammation in children. Peak bone mass is influenced by environmental factors. We tested the hypothesis that six-year-olds with lifetime exposures to urban air pollution will have alterations in inflammatory markers and bone mineral density (BMD) as opposed to low-polluted city residents when matched for BMI, breast feeding history, skin phototype, age, sex and socioeconomic status. This pilot study included 20 children from Mexico City (MC) (6.17 years ± 0.63 years) and 15 controls (6.27 years ± 0.76 years). We performed full paediatric examinations, a history of outdoor exposures, seven-day dietary recalls, serum inflammatory markers and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Children in MC had significantly higher concentrations of IL-6 (p=0.001), marked reductions in total blood neutrophils (p= 0.0002) and an increase in monocytes (p=0.005). MC children also had an insufficient Vitamin D intake and spent less time outdoors than controls (p<0.001) in an environment characterized by decreased UV light, with ozone and fine particulates concentrations above standard values. There were no significant differences between the cohorts in DXA Z scores. The impact of systemic inflammation, vitamin D insufficiency, air pollution, urban violence and poverty may have long-term bone detrimental outcomes in exposed paediatric populations as they grow older, increasing the risk of low bone mass and osteoporosis. The selection of reference populations for DXA must take into account air pollution exposures.

  11. A Public Health Approach to Evaluating the Significance of Air Ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-28

    ions have appeared in publications such as Reader’s Digest, Psychology Today38, Allure, Backpacker 5, and Muscle and Fitness169’ 170 magazines. At the...be capable of bringing about psychological or behavioral changes. The most widely recognized of the theories, based on quite a number of past...manipulation, air ions, and Hatha yoga . 0 3 Piezoelectricity is a phenomenon involving the appearance of electrical charges when a particular

  12. Inner city air pollution and respiratory health and atopy in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirsch, T.; Safeca, A.F.; Leupold, W. [Univ. Children' s Hospital Dresden (Germany); Weiland, S.K.; Duhme, H.; Keil, U. [Univ. of Muenster, Inst. of Epidemiology and Social Medicine (Germany); Mutius, E. von [Univ. Children' s Hospital, Klinikum Innenstadt, Munich (Germany); Graefe, H. [Saxony State Agency for Environment and Geology, Radebeul (Germany); Csaplovics, E. [Univ. of Technology, Inst. of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing, Dresden (Germany)

    1999-09-01

    The impact of inner city air pollution on the development of respiratory and atopic diseases in childhood is still unclear. In a cross sectional study in Dresden, Germany, 5,421 children in two age groups (5-7 yrs and 9-11 yrs) were studied according to the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC) phase II protocol, The prevalences of wheezing and cough as well as doctor diagnosed asthma and bronchitis were assessed by parental questionnaires. Children also underwent skin-prick testing, venepuncture for the measurement of serum immunoglobulin (Ig)E, lung function testing and a bronchial challenge test (4.5% saline) to assess airway hyperresponsiveness. Exposure was assessed on an individual basis by relating mean annual air pollution levels (SO{sub 2}, NO{sub 2}, CO, benzene, and O{sub 3}) which had been measured on a 1 km{sup 2} grid, to the home and school address of each study subject. After adjusting for potential confounding factors an increase in the exposure to benzene of 1 {mu}g{center{underscore}dot}m{sup 3} air was associated with an increased prevalence of morning cough (adjusted odds ratio (aOR): 1.15; 1.04-1.27) and bronchitis (aOR: 1.11; 1.03-1.19). Similar associations were observed for NO{sub 2} and CO. In turn, the prevalences of atopic sensitization, symptoms of atopic diseases and bronchial hyperresponsiveness were not positively associated with exposure to any of these pollutants. It is concluded that in this study a moderate increase in exposure to traffic-related air pollution was associated with an increased prevalence of cough and bronchitis, but not with atopic conditions in children. (au)

  13. Ambient air pollution and lung disease in China: health effects, study design approaches and future research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandel, Jeffrey H; Wendt, Christine; Lo, Charles; Zhou, Guangbiao; Hertz, Marshall; Ramachandran, Gurumurthy

    2015-09-01

    Ambient air pollution in China has worsened following dramatic increases in industrialization, automobile use and energy consumption. Particularly bothersome is the increase in the PM2.5 fraction of pollutants. This fraction has been associated with increasing rates of cardio-respiratory disease in China and elsewhere. Ambient pollutant levels have been described in many of China's cities and are comparable to previous levels in southern California. Lung cancer mortality in China has increased since the 1970s and has been higher in men and in urban areas, the exact explanation for which has not been determined. The estimation of individual risk for Chinese citizens living in areas of air pollution will require further research. Occupational cohort and case-control designs each have unique attributes that could make them helpful to use in this setting. Other important future research considerations include detailed exposure assessment and the possible use of biomarkers as a means to better understand and manage the threat posed by air pollution in China.

  14. Geostatistical uncertainty of assessing air quality using high-spatial-resolution lichen data: A health study in the urban area of Sines, Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Manuel C; Pinho, P; Branquinho, C; Llop, Esteve; Pereira, Maria J

    2016-08-15

    In most studies correlating health outcomes with air pollution, personal exposure assignments are based on measurements collected at air-quality monitoring stations not coinciding with health data locations. In such cases, interpolators are needed to predict air quality in unsampled locations and to assign personal exposures. Moreover, a measure of the spatial uncertainty of exposures should be incorporated, especially in urban areas where concentrations vary at short distances due to changes in land use and pollution intensity. These studies are limited by the lack of literature comparing exposure uncertainty derived from distinct spatial interpolators. Here, we addressed these issues with two interpolation methods: regression Kriging (RK) and ordinary Kriging (OK). These methods were used to generate air-quality simulations with a geostatistical algorithm. For each method, the geostatistical uncertainty was drawn from generalized linear model (GLM) analysis. We analyzed the association between air quality and birth weight. Personal health data (n=227) and exposure data were collected in Sines (Portugal) during 2007-2010. Because air-quality monitoring stations in the city do not offer high-spatial-resolution measurements (n=1), we used lichen data as an ecological indicator of air quality (n=83). We found no significant difference in the fit of GLMs with any of the geostatistical methods. With RK, however, the models tended to fit better more often and worse less often. Moreover, the geostatistical uncertainty results showed a marginally higher mean and precision with RK. Combined with lichen data and land-use data of high spatial resolution, RK is a more effective geostatistical method for relating health outcomes with air quality in urban areas. This is particularly important in small cities, which generally do not have expensive air-quality monitoring stations with high spatial resolution. Further, alternative ways of linking human activities with their

  15. Outdoor Air Pollution (PM2.5) and Ill-Health Attributable to Residential Wood Combustion in the San Francisco Bay Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chafe, Z.; Fairley, D.; Smith, K. R.

    2015-12-01

    Residential wood combustion is recognized as a major source of fine particulate (PM2.5) air pollution in the San Francisco Bay Area, especially during the winter heating season. Both indoor and outdoor exposure to air pollution from residential wood combustion negatively impact human health, causing premature deaths and ill-health. Previous research has described the regional impact of wood smoke on air quality. Here, we estimate by county the proportion of ambient (outdoor) PM2.5 air pollution attributable to residential wood combustion in the San Francisco Bay Area. We also explore the implications of residential wood burning emissions for human health in the San Francisco Bay Area, reporting the burden of disease associated with this emission source by county. We also describe differences between counties in wood burning behavior, air pollution levels, and human health effects. The results of this research have relevance for air quality regulation and source abatement prioritization in the San Francisco Bay Area and beyond.

  16. The role of air quality in perception of health of the local population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentić, Damir; Micović, Vladimir; Kolarić, Branko; Brncić, Nada; Ljubotina, Aleksandar

    2010-04-01

    The research aim was to investigate and establish the perception of health among population groups with different number of industrial polluters in their living environment. Namely, the Kostrena living area (3250 inhabitants) is situated near big industrial pollutant producers: INA oil refinery Urinj, thermo power plant Rijeka, shipyard "Viktor Lenac", while in Crikvenica living area such pollutant producers do not exist. In this research 146 subjects from Kostrena participated (74 men and 72 women with age average 40.8, SD 9.2 years), and 157 subjects from Crikvenica area (79 men and 78 women with age average 39.4, SD 10.1 years). The perception of health was measured by the means of SF-36 questionnaire variables. Lung function (FEV1, FVC, FEV25/75, PEF), cardiovascular function (systolic and diastolic arterial blood pressure, heart rate were also measured, including body proportion measures by the means of waste and hip circumference and silhouette test, in order to establish the eventual objective physical health parameter difference among examined population groups. Subjects from Kostrena perceived their general health, mental health, and vitality worse than subjects from Crikvenica. Group from Kostrena felt themself more limited in their roles due to emotional problems, perceiving more pain than group from Crikvenica. On the opposite site, social functioning of subjects from Kostrena was better in comparison to Crikvenica group. No signifficant differences between groups were found in physical functioning and in role limitation due to physical problems. In addition, there were no significant differences between groups in objective physical health parameters, such as pulmonary function, arterial blood pressure, pulse, and waist to hip ratio. Subjects using sensoric systems and the mental cognition about harmful environmental factors, perceive their health worse if there are present industrial resources in their environment, even when concentration of the

  17. A cohort study with children living in an air-polluted region--a model for public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marth, E; Haselbacher-Marko, S; Schaffler, K

    1996-11-01

    Regions with heavy industry are in many ways regions of crisis. The health of the population is primarily affected by the different air pollutants. Dust, with all its organic (dioxins and furans) and inorganic (heavy metals) contents, makes up the greatest part of the air-borne pollutants. The influence on health of environmental pollution was ascertained through the determination of different parameters (functional methods and determination of physiological parameters). This influence could be observed in children over a period of 8 years with regular investigations (e.g. determination of pulmonary function by spirometry and immunological parameters). Besides this exogenous load the persons are exposed to other environmental stresses-shift work, unemployment, alcoholism and divorce-which have a particular influence on the attitude and the upbringing of the children. Sixty per cent of the children in this polluted region ate no breakfast in the morning. Consequently it could be shown that the blood sugar in 70% of the children was below 70 mg/dl. Additionally, a relatively high amount of COHb (2.5% to 3%), and an increased concentration of serum IgE (47% of children with a concentration over 100 IU/ml), could be detected. Through a change in the environmental awareness of the children and their consequent influence, an effort should be made to achieve a positive effect on the health of the whole population. The children were given a chance to participate in various sports for the whole day during a week in the mountains at 1200 m. The teachers exercised with the children for at least 8 h per day. Besides gymnastics the program consisted of downhill and cross-country skiing. In addition, the children were offered a balanced and natural diet and they were instructed accordingly. This week of activity led to a clear reduction of the concentration of COHb, but to a far less clear improvement in the concentration of blood sugar and the pulmonary function.

  18. Association of air pollution on birth outcomes in New Delhi – a pilot study on the potential of HMIS data for environmental public health tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magsumbol, Melina S.; Singh, Archna; Ghosh, Arpita; Kler, Neelam; Garg, Pankaj; Thakur, Anup; Beg, Arshad; Srivastava, Atul; Hajat, Shakoor

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The study objective was to assess the gaps in current hospital health management information systems (ie. paper based records of prenatal, delivery, neonatal, discharge data) for environmental studies. This study also considers the feasibility of linking patient-level hospital data with ambient air pollution data recorded in real time by air quality monitoring stations. Methods This retrospective hospital based cohort study used a semi-ecologic design to explore the association of air pollution with a neonate’s birth weight and gestational age. Maternal and neonatal data from 2007-2012 were encoded and linked with air pollution data based on distance to the nearest air quality monitoring station. Completeness and accuracy of neonatal anthropometric measures, maternal demographic information, nutritional status and maternal risk factors (gestational diabetes, anaemia, hypertension, etc.) were assessed. Results The records of 10,565 births in Sir Ganga Ram hospital in New Delhi were encoded and linked with real time air quality data. These were records of women who reported a New Delhi address during the time of delivery. The distance of each address to all the monitoring stations were recorded. Birth records were assigned pollution exposure levels averaged across records from monitoring stations within 10 kilometers of the address during the pregnancy period. Conclusion This pilot study will highlight the potential of hospital management information system in linking administrative hospital record data with information on environmental exposure. The linked health-exposure dataset can then be used for studying the impact of various environmental exposures on health outcomes. Mother’s educational attainment, occupation, residential history, nutritional status, tobacco and alcohol use during pregnancy need to be documented for better health risk assessments or case management. Health institutions can provide data for public health researchers and

  19. Research of the influence of air chemical pollutions on the health of urban population

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naumenko, T.; Smirnov, M.; Amvrosiev, P.; Kurganskaya, G.; Gritsenko, T. [The Byelorussian Sanitation and Hygiene Research Inst., Minsk (Russian Federation)

    1995-12-31

    The main problem of environmental hygiene in the Republic of Belarus is ecological situation health effects extent determination and risk assessment. The different epidemiological studies of ecological risk for public health due to atmosphere industry emissions, directed to hygiene standards correction and epidemiological and ecological situation management were conducted by the Belarussian Sanitation and Hygiene Research Institute. Atmosphere pollution of heavy industry enterprises, pharmaceutical production, the electric power stations and its impact on people morbidity in adjacent and sanitary protection areas was studied. The objective of the research is hygienic assessment and determination of public health changes, caused by atmosphere pollution, and preventive measures programs elaboration in such industrial cities as Brest, Gomel, Minsk, Grodno, Mogilev, Novopolotsk. (author)

  20. Health Status and Performance of United States Air Force Airmen Following Mild Traumatic Brain Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    notwithstanding any other provision of law , no person shall be subject to any penalty for failing to comply with a collection of information if it does... Company .1996. 72. Abrams TE, Vaughan Sarrazin M, Rosenthal GE. Variations in the association between psychiatric comorbidity and hospital mortality...Unl1td Sc.t~Air fol"(’tl niMI’I11m (Airntrn) ud othe-r lndh-id.\\Uih ~ith mTBI m•y liUrTt-r Crom ~ith’.r tk>nclu pt.dns: Ch(’ta •• htcrc~ rl5k r<~r~ llb

  1. Air quality of Beijing (China) and Delhi (India) and impact on Human Health and Climate in Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, S.; Singh, R. P.; Wu, Y.; Wu, C.

    2015-12-01

    Air pollution has been estimated to represent a significant fraction of the total mortality attributable to 26 risk factors assessed by the World Health Organization global burden of disease project. Delhi is distributed over 1484 km2 with population density of 11297/km2 (as in 2011) and surrounded by highly industrialized National Capital region (NCR) with population density of 1050/km2. Beijing covers an area of 16,800 km2, with population density of 1300/km2 (upto 2014). It is located at the foothills of Yan Mountains and Taihang Mountains, in the North China Plain. Both these cities suffer with poor air quality and are severely affected by dense haze, fog and smog during summer and winter seasons. Earlier studies in developing countries have concentrated on limited air quality parameters. Detailed results from trace gases (O3, NO, NO2, and CO) and particulate matter (PM10 and PM2.5) in two Asian megacities, Delhi (India) and Beijing (China), will be presented. Trace gases and particulate matter in Beijing were collected at 31 sites during 2013-2014. The measurements in Delhi were carried out at 8 sites during October 2010 - March 2013. The annual average of PM10, PM2.5, O3, NO, NO2, and CO over Delhi in 2013 is 199 ug/m3, 123 ug/m3, 25.6 ppb, 21.5 ppb, 15.8 ppb, 1.7 ppb, respectively. The annual average of PM10, PM2.5, O3, NO2, CO, and SO2 over Beijing is 113 ug/m3, 85 ug/m3, 51 ug/m3, 46 ug/m3, 1.3 mg/m3, 23 ug/m3, respectively. The annual and seasonal variations of trace gases and particulate matter in Beijing and Delhi are also analyzed, as well as spatial changes of air pollution in these two cities. A comparative analysis in these two cities and the sources of pollution and their impact on human health and Asian climate will be discussed.

  2. Evaluation of a smoke-free law on indoor air quality and on workers' health in Portuguese restaurants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madureira, Joana; Mendes, Ana; Teixeira, João Paulo

    2014-01-01

    Workplace bans on smoking are interventions to reduce exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS) to try to prevent harmful health effects. The Portuguese Government on January 1, 2008, introduced the first national law banning smoking in public workplaces, including restaurants. The main aim of this study was to examine the impact of this law on indoor air quality (IAQ) in restaurants and on the respiratory and sensory health of restaurant workers. Concentrations of respirable suspended particulate matter (RSP), total volatile organic compounds (TVOC), carbon monoxide (CO), and carbon dioxide (CO2) in 10 restaurants were measured and compared before and after the ban. Benzene (C6H6) concentrations were also measured in all restaurants. Fifty-two and twenty-eight restaurant workers, respectively, answered questionnaires on exposure to SHS, and respiratory and sensory symptoms in the pre- and post-ban phases. There was a statistically significant decrease in RSP, CO, TVOC, and C6H6 concentrations after the ban. Additionally, in both phases the monitored CO2 concentrations greatly exceeded 1800 mg x m(-3), suggesting inefficient ventilation of the indoor spaces. Between pre- and post-ban phases a significant reduction in self-reported workplace SHS exposure was also observed after the enforcement of the law, as well as a significant marked reduction in dry, itching, irritated, or watery eyes, nasal problems, sore or dry throat, cough, wheeze, and headache. This study provides, in a single investigation, comparison of IAQ and respiratory health in Portugal before and after the introduction of the smoke-free law, the first data reported in the literature to our knowledge. Our findings suggest that a total workplace smoking ban results in a significant reduction in indoor air pollution and an improvement in the respiratory health of restaurant workers. These observations may have implications for policymakers and legislators currently considering the nature and extent of their

  3. Indoor Air Pollutant Exposure for Life Cycle Assessment: Regional Health Impact Factors for Households

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenbaum, Ralph K.; Meijer, Arjen; Demou, Evangelia;

    2015-01-01

    of magnitude, due to the variability of ventilation rate, building occupation, and volume. To compare health impacts as a result of indoor exposure with those from outdoor exposure, the indoor exposure characterization factors determined with the modified USEtox model were applied in a case study on cooking...... in non-OECD countries. This study demonstrates the appropriateness and significance of integrating indoor environments into LCA, which ensures a more holistic account of all exposure environments and allows for a better accountability of health impacts. The model, intake fractions, and characterization...

  4. Review of recent studies from central and Eastern Europe associating respiratory health effects with high levels of exposure to "traditional" air pollutants.

    OpenAIRE

    Jedrychowski, W

    1995-01-01

    The serious environmental problems caused by decades of Communist mismanagement of natural resources in countries of Central and Eastern Europe have been brought to light in recent years. All environmental media, including air, water, food, and soil have been burdened with toxic chemicals. Large segments of the population have been, and are now being exposed to air pollution levels exceeding guidelines established by western countries and by international health organizations. This review foc...

  5. Regionalized life cycle impact assessment of air pollution on the global scale: Damage to human health and vegetation

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Zelm, Rosalie; Preiss, Philipp; van Goethem, Thomas; Van Dingenen, Rita; Huijbregts, Mark

    2016-06-01

    We developed regionalized characterization factors (CFs) for human health damage from particulate matter (PM2.5) and ozone, and for damage to vegetation from ozone, at the global scale. These factors can be used in the impact assessment phase of an environmental life cycle assessment. CFs express the overall damage of a certain pollutant per unit of emission of a precursor, i.e. primary PM2.5, nitrogen oxides (NOx), ammonia (NH3), sulfur dioxide (SO2) and non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOCs). The global chemical transport model TM5 was used to calculate intake fractions of PM2.5 and ozone for 56 world regions covering the whole globe. Furthermore, region-specific effect and damage factors were derived, using mortality rates, background concentrations and years of life lost. The emission-weighted world average CF for primary PM2.5 emissions is 629 yr kton-1, varying up to 3 orders of magnitude over the regions. Larger CFs were obtained for emissions in central Asia and Europe, and smaller factors in Australia and South America. The world average CFs for PM2.5 from secondary aerosols, i.e. NOx, NH3, and SO2, is 67.2 to 183.4 yr kton-1. We found that the CFs for ozone human health damage are 2-4 orders of magnitude lower compared to the CFs for damage due to primary PM2.5 and PM2.5 precursor emissions. Human health damage due to the priority air pollutants considered in this study was 1.7·10-2 yr capita-1 worldwide in year 2010, with primary PM2.5 emissions as the main contributor (62%). The emission-weighted world average CF for ecosystem damage due to ozone was 2.5 km2 yr kton-1 for NMVOCs and 8.7 m2 yr kg-1 for NOx emissions, varying 2-3 orders of magnitude over the regions. Ecosystem damage due to the priority air pollutants considered in this study was 1.6·10-4 km2 capita-1 worldwide in 2010, with NOx as the main contributor (72%). The spatial range in CFs stresses the importance of including spatial variation in life cycle impact assessment of

  6. Final Environmental Assessment: Mental Health Clinic Hanscom Air Force Base Massachusetts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-19

    waste (pallets, packaging), 1,995 tons of compost /organic materials (tree trunks), 77 tons of metals, 179 tons of general recyclables, and 15 tons of...Wastewater No short-term impacts on wastewater facilities are anticipated as a result of the new mental health clinic. Portable toilets may be

  7. Knowledge of the Effects of Indoor Air Quality on Health among Women in Jordan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madanat, Hala; Barnes, Michael D.; Cole, Eugene C.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To assess the extent of knowledge about symptoms relating to respiratory illnesses and home environments among a random sample of 200 urban Jordanian women. Method: This customized, validated, cross-sectional questionnaire evaluated the knowledge of these women about the association between the indoor environment and health, the…

  8. The impact of air pollution from used ventilation filters on human comfort and health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Geo; Alm, O.; Fanger, Povl Ole

    2002-01-01

    The comfort and health of 30 women was studied during 4 hours´ exposure in an experimental room with either a used or a new filter present in the ventilation system. All other environmental parameters were kept constant. The presence of the used filter in the ventilation system had a significant...

  9. 77 FR 33742 - Announcement of Requirements and Registration for “My Air, My Health Challenge”

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... Challenge'' aims to build on this foundation. We are seeking solutions that integrate data from portable... person-oriented metrics such as behaviors and social interactions. The focus, however, will be...

  10. Epidemiologic Investigation of Health Effects in Air Force Personnel Following Exposure to Herbicides: Study Protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-12-01

    the potential effects of herbicide/ dioxin exposure on health outcomes. However, the flexibility of the statis- tical methodulogy, the comprehensive...34routine" work schedule or environment, thus complicating estimates of the level of herbicide and dioxin exposure . Since actual exposure data (e.g., mg of

  11. An Epidemiologic Investigation of Health Effects in Air Force Personnel Following Exposure to Herbicides. Extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    association between glucose intolerance, impaired insulin production, and dioxin exposure was revealed, but cause and effect...remain to be established. Also revealed was a significant association between selected peripheral pulses and dioxin exposure , and a significant...patterns within or across clinical areas that were suggestive of health detriment due to dioxin exposure

  12. An Epidemiologic Investigation of Health Effects in Air Force Personnel Following Exposure to Herbicides. Volume 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    Evidence for a possible association between glucose intolerance, impaired insulin production, and dioxin exposure was revealed, but cause and effect...remain to be established. Also revealed was a significant association between selected peripheral pulses and dioxin exposure , and a significant...patterns within or across clinical areas that were suggestive of health detriment due to dioxin exposure

  13. Optimal Design of Air Quality Monitoring Network and its Application in an Oil Refinery Plant: An Approach to Keep Health Satus of Workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaled ZoroufchiBenis

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Industrial air pollution is a growing challenge to humane health, especially in developing countries, where there is no systematic monitoring of air pollution. Given the importance of the availabil­ity of valid information on population exposure to air pollutants, it is important to design an optimal Air Quality Monitoring Network (AQMN for assessing population exposure to air pollution and predicting the magnitude of the health risks to the population. Methods: A multi-pollutant method (implemented as a MATLAB program was explored for configur­ing an AQMN to detect the highest level of pollution around an oil refinery plant. The method ranks potential monitoring sites (grids according to their ability to represent the ambient concentra­tion. The term of cluster of contiguous grids that exceed a threshold value was used to calculate the Station Dosage. Selection of the best configuration of AQMN was done based on the ratio of a sta­tion’s dosage to the total dosage in the network. Results: Six monitoring stations were needed to detect the pollutants concentrations around the study area for estimating the level and distribution of exposure in the population with total network effi­ciency of about 99%. An analysis of the design procedure showed that wind regimes have greatest effect on the location of monitoring stations. Conclusion: The optimal AQMN enables authorities to implement an effective program of air quality management for protecting human health.

  14. Cardio-Respiratory Effects of Air Pollution in a Panel Study of Outdoor Physical Activity and Health in Rural Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stieb, David M.; Shutt, Robin; Kauri, Lisa; Mason, Sarah; Chen, Li; Szyszkowicz, Mieczyslaw; Dobbin, Nina A.; Rigden, Marc; Jovic, Branka; Mulholland, Marie; Green, Martin S.; Liu, Ling; Pelletier, Guillaume; Weichenthal, Scott A.; Dales, Robert E.; Luginaah, Isaac

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To examine cardio-respiratory effects of air pollution in rural older adults exercising outdoors. Methods: Adults 55 and over completed measurements of blood pressure, peak expiratory flow and oximetry daily, and of heart rate variability, endothelial function, spirometry, fraction of exhaled nitric oxide and urinary oxidative stress markers weekly, before and after outdoor exercise, for 10 weeks. Data were analyzed using linear mixed effect models. Results: Pooled estimates combining 2013 (n = 36 participants) and 2014 (n = 41) indicated that an interquartile increase in the air quality health index (AQHI) was associated with a significant (P air pollution in rural older adults exercising outdoors.

  15. Comparison of Remote Sensing and Fixed-Site Monitoring Approaches for Examining Air Pollution and Health in a National Study Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prud'homme, Genevieve; Dobbin, Nina A.; Sun, Liu; Burnet, Richard T.; Martin, Randall V.; Davidson, Andrew; Cakmak, Sabit; Villeneuve, Paul J.; Lamsal, Lok N.; vanDonkelaar, Aaron; Peters, Paul A.; Johnson, Markey

    2013-01-01

    Satellite remote sensing (RS) has emerged as a cutting edge approach for estimating ground level ambient air pollution. Previous studies have reported a high correlation between ground level PM2.5 and NO2 estimated by RS and measurements collected at regulatory monitoring sites. The current study examined associations between air pollution and adverse respiratory and allergic health outcomes using multi-year averages of NO2 and PM2.5 from RS and from regulatory monitoring. RS estimates were derived using satellite measurements from OMI, MODIS, and MISR instruments. Regulatory monitoring data were obtained from Canada's National Air Pollution Surveillance Network. Self-reported prevalence of doctor-diagnosed asthma, current asthma, allergies, and chronic bronchitis were obtained from the Canadian Community Health Survey (a national sample of individuals 12 years of age and older). Multi-year ambient pollutant averages were assigned to each study participant based on their six digit postal code at the time of health survey, and were used as a marker for long-term exposure to air pollution. RS derived estimates of NO2 and PM2.5 were associated with 6e10% increases in respiratory and allergic health outcomes per interquartile range (3.97 mg m3 for PM2.5 and 1.03 ppb for NO2) among adults (aged 20e64) in the national study population. Risk estimates for air pollution and respiratory/ allergic health outcomes based on RS were similar to risk estimates based on regulatory monitoring for areas where regulatory monitoring data were available (within 40 km of a regulatory monitoring station). RS derived estimates of air pollution were also associated with adverse health outcomes among participants residing outside the catchment area of the regulatory monitoring network (p < 0.05).

  16. The Proceedings of the Panel “Effects of Air Pollution on Human Health, Air Pollution Problem in the World, Turkey and Our Region” (The Conference Hall of Dicle University, Diyarbakır 24.12.2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Bayram

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Air pollution still exceeds safe limits worldwide, particularly in big metropolitans, despite regular monitoring facilities and measures taken. It is usually originated from industrial activities, fossil fuel use in domestic settings and vehicle exhaust emission. Although there is a decrease in air pollution in big cities of Turkey due to use of natural gas, it is still a serious health concern. In Diyarbakır, because of a rapid increase in its population recently, wrong urbanisation and a relative increase in industrialisation, air pollution leads to dangerous levels, particularly in the winter. Epidemiological studies from all over the world, and Turkey have reported a close relation between air pollution and respiratory morbidity and mortality. Studies investigating the mechanisms underlying respiratory effects of air pollution demonstrated that pollutants lead to increased respiratory symptoms, decreased respiratory function and induce inflammatory changes in airways. In vitro studies have shown that air pollutants exert their effects by causing cellular injury directly, and by activating intracellular oxidative pathways indirectly. The attempts to reduce air pollution levels have been implemented in Turkey and worldwide. In order to solve the problem in Diyarbakır, several measures such as prevention the use of out standardized fuel, use of reliable burning techniques, and a close car emission monitoring system need to be implemented.

  17. [Effect of auto-road complex in the city of Surgut on air pollution and population health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinokurova, M V; Vinokurov, M V; Voronin, S A

    2015-01-01

    Currently, due to the increase in motorization, the problem of environmental pollution by emissions of objects of auto-road complex is becoming more and more important not only for cities, butfor dynamically developing regional cities. The negative impact is characterized by the increase of the morbidity rate of environmentally-dependent diseases, primarily respiratory diseases, neoplasms. This exposure is most pronounced near the motorways, at the gas station, and also spreads to residential areas, which requires the optimization of protective and preventive measures. Presented article is devoted to the characterization of air pollution of various areas in the city of Surgut due to emission of sources of auto-road complex with the assessment of public health risks.

  18. [From educational and health tourism for children to social tourism: vacation camps in the Province of Buenos Aires, Argentina].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruno, Perla

    2015-12-01

    The early twentieth century saw the rise of vacation camps for frail children as educational and health-giving experiences provided by medical and philanthropic organizations. This article analyzes some of these early experiences, seen here as the predecessors of social tourism, in the Province of Buenos Aires. A combination of written sources are examined, mainly institutional reports, periodicals such as the Monitor de la Educación Común - published by the Consejo Nacional de Educación (National Board of Education) - or laws, with photographs and plans for different examples. I argue that these buildings were both physical and cultural "brands" in the places where they were located, and that their architectural structure encapsulated ideas about leisure space and cures in unique natural environments.

  19. Evaluation of the air conditioner quality in the health care sector; Uitvoeringskwaliteit luchtbehandelingsunit in de zorgsector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Haperen, K. [Carrier Holland Heating, Waalwijk (Netherlands)

    2009-02-15

    To specify the required quality standards for an air conditioning unit, the user must critically consider a number of criteria in order to decide what design and construction standards the unit and its built in components must meet; and these will depend on the application. The principle criteria involved are undoubtedly energy consumption, durability, reliability and maintenance costs. The choice of the manufacturer or supplier also plays an important part. [Dutch] Voor het vastleggen van het gewenste kwaliteitsniveau van een luchtbehandelingsunit dient de eindgebruiker een aantal zaken kritisch te overwegen om te kunnen beslissen aan welke ontwerp- en constructie-eisen de unit met ingebouwde componenten moet voldoen; e.e.a, afhankelijk van de toepassing. De voor de zorgsector belangrijkste toetsingscriteria hierbij zijn ongetwijfeld energiegebruik, duurzaamheid, betrouwbaarheid en onderhoudskosten. De keuze van de fabrikant/leverancier speelt hierin een belangrijke rol.

  20. Particulate matter in ambient air - Assessment of health risks. Partiklar i omgivningsluften - en bedoemning av haelsorisker

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camner, P.

    1986-07-01

    An investigation, based on literature data and research at SML, was made on deposition of particulate matter in lungs. The importance of mouth and nose breathing respectively is illustrated. By nose breathing only substances <10 micrometers reach the lung as compared to mouth breathing where substances >10 micrometers may deposit in the lung. Swedish limit values of total suspended particulate matter (TSP) of 50 micrograms/cubic meter are recommended as a 6 month mean value and 150 micrograms/cubic meter as a day mean value. For the PM/sub 10/ fraction, which is a measure of the mass fraction of particulate matter in the air that is deposited in the lung by mouth breathing, it is not possible to give a corresponding recommendation. Epidemiological data are lacking and the proposed method of measuring the PM/sub 10/ fraction would underestimate the importance of particles larger than 10 micrometers. (O.S.).

  1. Time series study of air pollution health effects in COPSAC children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersen, Zorana J.; Hermansen, Merete; Scheikel, T.; Hertel, O.; Stage, M.; Bisgaard, H.; Loft, S.

    2005-07-01

    We studied associations between daily levels of ambient air pollutants by monitoring stations and daily airway symptoms among 411 children with atopic predisposition from the COPSAC (Copenhagen Prospective Study on Atopy in Children) cohort. The children were followed from birth to the age of 18 month and wheezing symptoms, if present, were recorded daily by the parents. CO, NO{sub x}, NO{sub 2}, O{sub 3}, PM{sub 1}0, and the concentration of ultrafine particles (TON) were measured at one urban background station at H.C. Oersted Institute and at two street stations at Jagtvej and H.C. Andersens Boulevard. Analyses were performed separately for children from central Copenhagen (n=115), Copenhagen suburbs (n=134) and the rest of Zealand (n=186). Single day exposure and unconstrained distributed lag generalized additive models were used for this. (BA)

  2. Health effects of tropospheric ozone: Review of recent research findings and their implications to ambient air quality standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lippmann, M. (New York Univ. Medical Center, Tuxedo (United States))

    1993-01-01

    The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Administrator proposed (on August 3, 1992) to retain the current National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) for ozone (O3) on the basis of data assembled in a draft Criteria Document (1986) and its Addendum (1988) which, together with a draft Staff Paper (1988), received public comment and review comments by the EPA's Clean Air Scientific Advisory Committee (CASAC). This paper summarizes and discusses research findings presented since 1988 which, based on the author's experience as a Chairman of CASAC, are most relevant to the promulgation of a primary (health based) NAAQS for O3. These newer findings include substantial evidence from controlled chamber exposure studies and field studies in natural settings that the current NAAQS contains no margin of safety against short-term effects that the EPA has considered to be adverse. They also include evidence from epidemiologic studies that current ambient exposures are associated with reduced baseline lung function, exacerbation of asthma and premature mortality, as well as evidence from chronic animal exposure studies at concentrations within current ambient peak levels that indicate progressive and persistent lung function and structural abnormalities. The current NAAQS, if retained, may therefore also be inadequate to protect the public from effects resulting from chronic exposure to O3. 96 refs.

  3. Effects of particulate air pollution on the respiratory health of subjects who live in three areas in Kanpur, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Mukesh; Kumar, V Narendra; Katiyar, Subodh K; Sharma, Richa; Shukla, Bhanu P; Sengupta, Babu

    2004-07-01

    In this study, the authors assessed the relationship between daily changes in respiratory health and particulate levels with diameters of (a) less than 10 microm (PM10) and (b) less than 2.5 microm (PM2.5) in Kanpur, India. The subjects (N = 91) were recruited from 3 areas in Kanpur: (1) Indian Institute of Technology (Kanpur), which was a relatively clean area; (b) Vikas Nagar, a typical commercial area; and (c) finally, the residential area of Juhilal Colony. All subjects resided near to air quality monitoring sites. Air quality and peak expiratory flow rate samplings were conducted for 39 d. Once during the sampling period, lung-function tests (i.e., forced expiratory volume in 1 s, forced vital capacity) were performed on each subject. Subjects who resided at the clean site performed at predicted (i.e., acceptable) values more often than did subjects who lived at the remaining 2 sites. Subjects who lived at all 3 sites demonstrated a substantial average deficit in baseline forced vital capacity and forced expiratory volume in 1 s values. The authors used a statistical model to estimate that an increase of 100 microg/m3 of the pollutant PM10 could reduce the mean peak expiratory flow rate of an individual by approximately 3.2 l/min.

  4. High-resolution modelling of health impacts and related external cost from air pollution over 36 years using the integrated model system EVA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Jørgen; Andersen, Mikael S.; Bønløkke, Jakob; Christensen, Jesper H.; Geels, Camilla; Hansen, Kaj M.; Hertel, Ole; Im, Ulas; Jensen, Steen S.; Ketzel, Matthias; Nielsen, Ole-Kenneth; Plejdrup, Marlene S.; Sigsgaard, Torben

    2016-04-01

    A high-resolution assessment of health impacts from air pollution and related external cost has been conducted for Denmark using the integrated EVA model system. The EVA system is based on the impact-pathway methodology, where the site-specific emissions will result, via atmospheric transport and chemistry, in a concentration distribution, which together with detailed population data, is used to estimate the population-level exposure. Using exposure-response functions and economic valuations, the exposure is transformed into impacts on human health and related external costs. In this study we have used a coupling of two chemistry transport models to calculate the air pollution concentration at different domain and scales; the Danish Eulerian Hemispheric Model (DEHM) to calculate the air pollution levels in the Northern Hemisphere with a resolution down to 5.6 km x 5.6 km and the Urban Background Model (UBM) to further calculate the air pollution in Denmark at 1 km x 1 km resolution using results from DEHM as boundary conditions. Both the emission data as well as the population density has been represented in the model system with the same high resolution. Previous health impact assessments related to air pollution have been made on a lower resolution. In this study, the integrated model system, EVA, has been used to estimate the health impacts and related external cost for Denmark at a 1 km x 1 km resolution. New developments of the integrated model system will be presented as well as the development of health impacts and related external costs in Europe and Denmark over a period of 36 years (1979-2014). Acknowledgements This work was funded by: DCE - National Centre for Environment and Energy. Project: "Health impacts and external costs from air pollution in Denmark over 25 years" and NordForsk under the Nordic Programme on Health and Welfare. Project: "Understanding the link between air pollution and distribution of related health impacts and welfare in the

  5. Seasonal variation in the acute effect of particulate air pollution on mortality in the China Air Pollution and Health Effects Study (CAPES)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Renjie; Peng, Roger D.; Meng, Xia; Zhou, Zhijun; Chen, Bingheng; Kan, Haidong

    2013-01-01

    Epidemiological findings concerning the seasonal variation in the acute effect of particulate matter (PM) are inconsistent. We investigated the seasonality in the association between PM with an aerodynamic diameter of less than 10 μm (PM10) and daily mortality in 17 Chinese cities. We fitted the “main” time-series model after adjustment for time-varying confounders using smooth functions with natural splines. We established a “seasonal” model to obtain the season-specific effect estimates of PM10, and a “harmonic” model to show the seasonal pattern that allows PM10 effects to vary smoothly with the day in a year. At the national level, a 10 μg/m3 increase in the two-day moving average concentrations (lag 01) of PM10 was associated with 0.45% [95% posterior interval (PI), 0.15% to 0.76%], 0.17% (95% PI, −0.09% to 0.43%), 0.55% (95% PI, 0.15% to 0.96%) and 0.25% (95%PI, −0.05% to 0.56%) increases in total mortality for winter, spring, summer and fall, respectively. For the smoothly-varying plots of seasonality, we identified a two-peak pattern in winter and summer. The observed seasonal pattern was generally insensitive to model specifications. Our analyses suggest that the acute effect of particulate air pollution could vary by seasons with the largest effect in winter and summer in China. To our knowledge, this is the first multicity study in developing countries to analyze the seasonal variations of PM-related health effects. PMID:23500824

  6. Screening Health Risk Assessment Burn Pit Exposures, Balad Air Base, Iraq and Addendum Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-05-01

    http://deploymenthealthlibrary.fhp.osd.mil/accessLog.jsp?prodid=313). ii. Health Effects of Dioxin Exposure for Service Members, (http...uncertainty, regulatory agencies try to lower dioxin exposure levels in human populations as much as possible. g. Recent research has shown that some...pit, time spent indoors versus outdoors, frequency of meteorological conditions promoting exposure, or other factors that could impact dioxin

  7. Indoor air pollution: Health effects. (Latest citations from the EI compendex*plus database). Published Search

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-11-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning health hazards associated with indoor pollutants. Pollutants discussed include carbon dioxides, nitrogen oxides, particulates, formaldehydes, carbon monoxides, paints, pesticides, solvents, smoke, sealants, soils, adhesives, aerosols, dusts, cleaners, and moisture. The citations address effects such as simple discomfort, sick building syndrome, Legionnaires` disease, and cancer.(Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  8. Air pollution and fasting blood glucose: A longitudinal study in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Linping; Zhou, Yong; Li, Shanshan; Williams, Gail; Kan, Haidong; Marks, Guy B; Morawska, Lidia; Abramson, Michael J; Chen, Shuohua; Yao, Taicheng; Qin, Tianbang; Wu, Shouling; Guo, Yuming

    2016-01-15

    Limited studies have examined the associations between air pollutants [particles with diameters of 10 μm or less (PM10), sulphur dioxide (SO2), and nitrogen dioxide (NO2)] and fasting blood glucose (FBG). We collected data for 27,685 participants who were followed during 2006 and 2008. Generalized Estimating Equation models were used to examine the effects of air pollutants on FBG while controlling for potential confounders. We found that increased exposure to NO2, SO2 and PM10 was significantly associated with increased FBG levels in single pollutant models (ppollutant models, the effects of SO2 were enhanced, while the effects of NO2 and PM10 were alleviated. The effects of air pollutants on FBG were stronger in female, elderly, and overweight people than in male, young and underweight people. In conclusion, the findings suggest that air pollution increases the levels of FBG. Vulnerable people should pay more attention on highly polluted days to prevent air pollution-related health issues.

  9. Waterpipes and e-cigarettes: Impact of alternative smoking techniques on indoor air quality and health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fromme, Hermann; Schober, Wolfgang

    2015-04-01

    Waterpipe (WP) smoking is growing as an alternative to cigarette smoking, especially in younger age groups. E-cigarette use has also increased in recent years. A majority of smokers mistakenly believe that WP smoking is a social entertainment practice that leads to more social behavior and relaxation and that this type of smoking is safe or less harmful and less addictive than cigarette smoking. In reality, WP smokers are exposed to hundreds of toxic substances that include known carcinogens. High exposures to carbon monoxide and nicotine are major health threats. Persons exposed to secondhand WP smoke are also at risk. There is growing evidence that WP smoke causes adverse effects on the pulmonary and cardiovascular systems and is responsible for cancer. E-cigarettes are marketed as a smokeless and safe way to inhale nicotine without being exposed to the many toxic components of tobacco cigarettes, and as an aid to smoking cessation. In fact, consumers (vapers) and secondhand vapers can be exposed to substantial amounts of VOC, PAH or other potentially harmful substances. Of major health concern is the inhalation of fine and ultrafine particles formed from supersaturated 1,2-propanediol vapor. Such particles can be deposited in the deeper parts of the lung and may harm the respiratory system or increase the risk of acquiring asthma. More research on the safety of e-cigarettes needs to be conducted to ensure a high level of public health protection in the long-term.

  10. The health effects of man-made mineral fibres originating from an air-handling system; Ilmanvaihtojaerjestelmaen mineraalivillakuitujen terveysvaikutukset

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuomainen, M.; Bjoerkroth, M.; Kaemppi, R.; Mussalo-Rauhamaa, H.; Salo, S.P.; Saentti, J.; Tuomi, T.; Voutilainen, R.; Seppaenen, O.

    2003-07-01

    The aim of the research project was to confirm the results obtained in a pilot project according to which the symptoms of the hospital personnel were caused by man-made mineral fibres originating from the air-handling system. The pilot project showed that the prevalence of symptoms decreased after the sound attenuators in the air handling system were treated with a fibre-binding agent, and the wards cleaned thoroughly. The research project ''The health effects of man-made mineral fibres originating from an air-handling system'' was launched and carried out within a tight schedule. HUS- kiinteistoet Oy, the building management company responsible for maintaining the hospital buildings in the Helsinki area, selected two hospitals for the project. The air distribution conduit of the research hospital was large, and to deaden sound its interior surface was lined with a man-made mineral fibre material covered with perforated steel plates. The dust in the air distribution system contained man-made mineral fibres (MMMF) but the concentrations on room surfaces were low. Two wards in both the research and reference hospitals were selected for the study. Their personnel answered a baseline questionnaire in April 2002. When it turned out that the reference hospital was undergoing exterior facade renovations, the personnel of the reference building was excluded from further investigations. The personnel working in the wards under study in the research hospital were invited to take part in nasal lavage in June 2002. The participants answered a questionnaire inquiring into the work environment and work-related symptoms during June. Improvements to the air-handling system were carried out in July. The sound attenuation material was coated and the ventilation ducts cleaned. The quality of the improvements was controlled by assessment of fibre concentrations on duct and room surfaces. Post-intervention lavage of the nasal mucosa was carried out in December 2002

  11. Clean air plans and action plans: perspectives from the viewpoint of environmental and public health; Luftreinhalteplaene und Aktionsplaene - eine Bewertung aus umweltmedizinischer Sicht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eikmann, T.; Herr, C. [Inst. fuer Hygiene und Umweltmedizin, Universitaetsklinikum Giessen und Marburg, Justus-Liebig-Univ. Giessen, Giessen (Germany); [Technische Univ. Dreden, Pirna (Germany). Inst. fuer Abfallwirtschaft und Altlasten; Koeckler, H. [Center for Environmental Systems Research (CESR), Univ. Kassel (Germany); [Mentec GmbH, Aue/Sa. (Germany); Nieden, A. zur [Inst. fuer Hygiene und Umweltmedizin, Universitaetsklinikum Giessen und Marburg, Justus-Liebig-Univ. Giessen, Giessen (Germany); FG Stadtklimatologie, Univ. Kassel (Germany); Katzschner, L. [FG Stadtklimatologie, Univ. Kassel (Germany); [INTECUS Dresden GmbH (Germany); Schimmelpfennig, M. [Gesundheitsamt der Stadt Kassel (Germany); Eikmann, S. [GUK - Gesellschaft fuer Umwelttoxikologie und Krankenhaushygiene mbH, Wetzlar (Germany)

    2005-07-01

    The present discussion on the health effects associated with airborne fine particulate matter has lead to an increased public interest in the general framework of compilation and evaluation of clean air plans and actions plans. While the surveys of the ''old'' clean air plans of the 80ies and 90ies of the last century relied on assessment of direct and indirect effects of air pollution on human health (and ecology), theses surveys are not part of the ''new'' clean air plans according to European law. This reduction of surveys and actions directed at threshold compliance only, abandons assessing, i.e., documentation and evaluation the health status and quality of life of populations. Assessment of individual and focus group specific sensibility and vulnerability becomes possible once health related, sociodemographic and environmental data are combined. By this, unequal life chance, i.e., unimpaired health as well as reasonable strategies towards minimizing environmental injustice can be identified. As of yet it is unclear, to what extend quality of life and quality of environment of populations living in air polluted areas are attributable to socioeconomic factors. Likewise, it is not known to which degree the environmental quality of individuals and families is self determined. This has to be considered especially for children, immigrants and women. These issues i.e., environmental justice/injustice should be considered in future projects on the development of clean air plans and especially actions plans derived thereof. Scientists, government officials and physicians working in field of preventive or environmental medicine cannot agree to a limitation of the cautionary principle to the bare compliance with thresholds. (orig.)

  12. AirPEx: Air Pollution Exposure Model

    OpenAIRE

    Freijer JI; Bloemen HJTh; de Loos S; Marra M; Rombout PJA; Steentjes GM; Veen MP van; LBO

    1997-01-01

    Analysis of inhalatory exposure to air pollution is an important area of investigation when assessing the risks of air pollution for human health. Inhalatory exposure research focuses on the exposure of humans to air pollutants and the entry of these pollutants into the human respiratory tract. The principal grounds for studying the inhalatory exposure of humans to air pollutants are formed by the need for realistic exposure/dose estimates to evaluate the health effects of these pollutants. T...

  13. Climate change and air pollution: Effects on pollen allergy and other allergic respiratory diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Amato, Gennaro; Bergmann, Karl Christian; Cecchi, Lorenzo; Annesi-Maesano, Isabella; Sanduzzi, Alessandro; Liccardi, Gennaro; Vitale, Carolina; Stanziola, Anna; D'Amato, Maria

    The observational evidence indicates that recent regional changes in climate, particularly temperature increases, have already affected a diverse set of physical and biological systems in many parts of the world. Allergens patterns are also changing in response to climate change and air pollution can modify the allergenic potential of pollen grains especially in the presence of specific weather conditions. Although genetic factors are important in the development of asthma and allergic diseases, their rising trend can be explained only by changes occurring in the environment and urban air pollution by motor vehicles has been indicated as one of the major risk factors responsible for this increase. Despite some differences in the air pollution profile and decreasing trends of some key air pollutants, air quality is an important concern for public health in the cities throughout the world. Due to climate change, air pollution patterns are changing in several urbanized areas of the world with a significant effect on respiratory health. The underlying mechanisms of all these interactions are not well known yet. The consequences on health vary from decreases in lung function to allergic diseases, new onset of diseases, and exacerbation of chronic respiratory diseases. In addition, it is important to recall that an individual's response to pollution exposure depends on the source and components of air pollution, as well as meteorological conditions. Indeed, some air pollution-related incidents with asthma aggravation do not depend only on the increased production of air pollution, but rather on atmospheric factors that favor the accumulation of air pollutants at ground level. Associations between thunderstorms and asthma morbidity of pollinosis-affected people have also been identified in multiple locations around the world (Fig.1). Cite this as D'Amato G, Bergmann KC, Cecchi L, Annesi-Maesano I, Sanduzzi A, Liccardi G, Vitale C, Stanziola A, D'Amato M. Climate change

  14. Air pollution, precipitation chemistry and forest health in the Retezat Mountains, Southern Carpathians, Romania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bytnerowicz, Andrzej [USDA Forest Service, Pacific Southwest Research Station, 4955 Canyon Crest Drive, Riverside, CA (United States)]. E-mail: abytnerowicz@fs.fed.us; Badea, Ovidiu [Forest Research and Management Institute, Bucharest (Romania); Popescu, Flaviu [Forest Research and Management Institute, Simeria (Romania); Musselman, Robert [USDA Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fort Collins, CO (United States); Tanase, Mihai [Forest Research and Management Institute, Bucharest (Romania); Barbu, Ioan [Forest Research and Management Institute, Campulung Moldovenecs (Romania); Fraczek, Witold [Environmental Systems Research Institute, Redlands, CA (United States); Gembasu, Nicolae [Forest Research and Management Institute, Bucharest (Romania); Surdu, Aurelia [Forest Research and Management Institute, Bucharest (Romania); Danescu, Florin [Forest Research and Management Institute, Bucharest (Romania); Postelnicu, Daniela [ESRI Romania, Bucharest (Romania); Cenusa, Radu [Forest Research and Management Institute, Campulung Moldovenecs (Romania); Vasile, Cristian [ESRI Romania, Bucharest (Romania)

    2005-10-15

    In the Retezat Mountains concentrations of O{sub 3}, NO{sub 2} and SO{sub 2} in summer season 2000-2002 were low and below toxicity levels for forest trees. While NH{sub 3} concentrations were low in 2000, the 2001 and 2002 concentrations were elevated indicating possibility for increased N deposition to forest stands. More than 90% of the rain events were acidic with pH values <5.5, contributing to increased acidity of soils. Crown condition of Norway spruce (Picea abies) and European beech (Fagus sylvatica) was good, however, defoliation described as >25% of foliage injured increased from 9.1% in 2000 to 16.1% in 2002. Drought that occurred in the southern Carpathians between fall 2000 and summer 2002 and frequent acidic rainfalls could cause the observed decline of forest condition. Both Norway spruce and European beech with higher defoliation had lower annual radial increments compared to the trees with low defoliation. Ambient O{sub 3} levels found in the Retezat did not affect crown condition of Norway spruce or European beech. - Retezat Mountains are characterized by relatively clean air, acidic precipitation, and healthy, well growing forests.

  15. Effects of air pollution on the respiratory health of asthmatic children living in Mexico City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romieu, I; Meneses, F; Ruiz, S; Sienra, J J; Huerta, J; White, M C; Etzel, R A

    1996-08-01

    The relation between air pollution and the exacerbation of childhood asthma was studied in a panel of 71 children (aged 5 to 7 yr) with mild asthma who resided in the northern part of mexico City. During the follow-up, ambient measures of particulate matter less than 10 microns (PM10, 24-h average) and ozone (1-h maximum) frequently exceeded the Mexican standards for these contaminants. The peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR) was strongly associated with PM10 levels and marginally with ozone levels. Respiratory symptoms (coughing, phlegm production, wheezing, and difficulty breathing) were associated with both PM10 and ozone levels. An increase of 20 micrograms/m3 of PM10 was related to an 8% increase in lower respiratory illness (LRI) among children on the same day (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.04-1.15), and an increase of 10 micrograms/m3 in the weekly mean of particulate matter less than 2.5 microns (PM2.5) was related to a 21% increase in LRI (95% CI = 1.08-1.35). A 50 parts per billion (ppb) increase in ozone was associated with a 9% increase in LRI (95% CI = 1.03-1.15) on the same day. We concluded that children with mild asthma are affected by the high ambient levels of particulate matter and ozone observed in the northern part of Mexico City.

  16. Health effects from air pollution - calculation prices; Sundhedseffekter af luftforurening - beregningspriser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skou Andersen, Mikael; Seested Nielsen, Jytte; Borgen Soerensen, Peter [DMU, Afdeling for Systemanalyse, Roskilde (Denmark); Frohn, Lise Marie; Solvang Jensen, Steen; Hertel, Ole; Brandt, Joergen; Christensen, Jesper [DMU, Afdeling for Atmosfaerisk Miljoe, Roskilde (Denmark)

    2004-10-01

    The basic aim of research focusing on the accounting of external effects is to provide estimates for the possible benefits of environmental policy projects. There is a demand within the field of environmental economic analysis for evaluations and estimates of the economic benefits arising from pollution reductions. Where benefits arising out of reduced emissions of harmful substances are concerned, these can be estimated according to the avoided damage costs associated with negative pollution impacts. A scientifically based method designed for this purpose has been developed in the pan-European ExternE project via the EU research programmes. The ExternE project has been implemented with the aim of estimating monetary values for externalities attached to air pollution accruing from energy production and transport. For this purpose, complex model-based environmental impact estimations have been coupled with corresponding monetary valuations via the modelling tool, Ecosense. A problem arising in relation to Ecosense methodology has been that externalities are often of local nature - pollution impact depending on the particular locality of the emission and dispersal characteristics in the surrounding environment. Therefore, the economic estimation of the impacts of pollution is based on a location-specific modelling system. (BA)

  17. Seeing through the Smoke: A collaborative, multidisciplinary effort to address the interplay between wildfire, climate, air quality, and health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brey, S. J.; Fischer, E. V.; Pierce, J. R.; Ford, B.; Lassman, W.; Pfister, G.; Volckens, J.; Gan, R.; Magzamen, S.; Barnes, E. A.

    2015-12-01

    Exposure to wildfire smoke plumes represents an episodic, uncertain, and potentially growing threat to public health in the western United States. The area burned by wildfires in this region has increased over recent decades, and the future of fires within this region is largely unknown. Future fire emissions are intimately linked to future meteorological conditions, which are uncertain due to the variability of climate model outputs and differences between representative concentration pathways (RCP) scenarios. We know that exposure to wildfire smoke is harmful, particularly for vulnerable populations. However the literature on the heath effects of wildfire smoke exposure is thin, particularly when compared to the depth of information we have on the effects of exposure to smoke of anthropogenic origin. We are exploring the relationships between climate, fires, air quality and public health through multiple interdisciplinary collaborations. We will present several examples from these projects including 1) an analysis of the influence of fire on ozone abundances over the United States, and 2) efforts to use a high-resolution weather forecasting model to nail down exposure within specific smoke plumes. We will also highlight how our team works together. This discussion will include examples of the university structure that facilitates our current collaborations, and the lessons we have learned by seeking stakeholder input to make our science more useful.

  18. Aircraft structural health monitoring system development: overview of the Air Force/Navy smart metallic structures program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Way, Craig B.; Kudva, Jayanth N.; Schoess, Jeffrey N.; Zeigler, Michael L.; Alper, James M.

    1995-05-01

    Significant progress in fulfilling the current joint Air Force/Navy `Smart Metallic Structures (SMS)' program primary objective, to demonstrate a viable structural health monitoring system (SHMS) for a large structural aircraft component, is presented. Structural health monitoring and its relation to current Force Management (FM) and Aircraft Structural Integrity Program (ASIP) procedures are first reviewed together with a brief status overview of the relevant sensor technologies (e.g. AE, fiber-optic, corrosion, etc.). Key features of the SHMS architecture are described for the selected F/A-18 bulkhead and T-38 wing spar structural demonstration articles, highlighting sensors, processors, data busses, hardware, and software. Results from acoustic monitoring of the program sub-element structural tests are presented in some detail along with a status review of the SHMS multiplex bus component hardware and software. Finally, structural requirements for an SHMS meeting minimum ASIP guidelines for damage detection are discussed along with foals for future testing and development of the SHMS under the SMS program.

  19. Concentrations and potential health risks of methyl tertiary-butyl ether (MTBE) in air and drinking water from Nanning, South China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li'e; Qin, Jian; Zhang, Zhiyong; Li, Qin; Huang, Jiongli; Peng, Xiaowu; Qing, Li; Liang, Guiqiang; Liang, Linhan; Huang, Yuman; Yang, Xiaobo; Zou, Yunfeng

    2016-01-15

    Levels of methyl tertiary-butyl ether (MTBE) in occupational air, ambient air, and drinking water in Nanning, South China, were investigated, and then their potential health risks to occupational workers and the general public were evaluated. Results show that the MTBE concentration in occupational air from 13 service stations was significantly higher than that in ambient air from residential areas (pwater samples from household taps yielded detectable MTBE in the range of 0.04-0.33 μg/L, which is below the US drinking water standard of 20-40 μg/L. The non-carcinogenic risk of MTBE from air inhalation may be negligible because the calculated hazard quotient was less than 1. The mean MTBE lifetime cancer risk was within the acceptable limit of 1 × 10(-6) to 1 × 10(-4), but the lifetime cancer risk of refueling workers in the urban service station at the 95th percentile slightly exceeded the maximum acceptable carcinogen risk (1 × 10(-4)), indicating the potential carcinogenic health effects on the population highly exposed to MTBE in this region. The hazard index and carcinogenic risk of MTBE in drinking water were significantly lower than the safe limit of US Environmental Protection Agency, suggesting that drinking water unlikely poses significant health risks to the residents in Nanning.

  20. Potential hazards of air pollutant emissions from unconventional oil and natural gas operations on the respiratory health of children and infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Ellen; Hays, Jake; Dyrszka, Larysa; Rodriguez, Brian; Cox, Caroline; Huffling, Katie; Bushkin-Bedient, Sheila

    2016-06-01

    Research on air pollutant emissions associated with unconventional oil and gas (UOG) development has grown significantly in recent years. Empirical investigations have focused on the identification and measurement of oil and gas air pollutants [e.g. volatile organic compounds (VOCs), particulate matter (PM), methane] and the influence of UOG on local and regional ambient air quality (e.g. tropospheric ozone). While more studies to better characterize spatial and temporal trends in exposure among children and newborns near UOG sites are needed, existing research suggests that exposure to air pollutants emitted during lifecycle operations can potentially lead to adverse respiratory outcomes in this population. Children are known to be at a greater risk from exposure to air pollutants, which can impair lung function and neurodevelopment, or exacerbate existing conditions, such as asthma, because the respiratory system is particularly vulnerable during development in-utero, the postnatal period, and early childhood. In this article, we review the literature relevant to respiratory risks of UOG on infants and children. Existing epidemiology studies document the impact of air pollutant exposure on children in other contexts and suggest impacts near UOG. Research is sparse on long-term health risks associated with frequent acute exposures - especially in children - hence our interpretation of these findings may be conservative. Many data gaps remain, but existing data support precautionary measures to protect the health of infants and children.

  1. Indoor air pollution from biomass combustion and its adverse health effects in central India: An exposure-response study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neelam D Sukhsohale

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Some of the highest exposures to air pollutants in developing countries occur inside homes where biofuels are used for daily cooking. Inhalation of these pollutants may cause deleterious effects on health. Objectives: To assess the respiratory and other morbidities associated with use of various types of cooking fuels in rural area of Nagpur and to study the relationship between the duration of exposure (exposure index [EI] and various morbidities. Materials and Methods: A total of 760 non-smoking, non-pregnant women aged 15 years and above (mean age 32.51 ΁ 14.90 years exposed to domestic smoke from cooking fuels from an early age, working in poorly ventilated kitchen were selected and on examination presented with various health problems. Exposure was calculated as the average hours spent daily for cooking multiplied by the number of years. Symptoms were enquired by means of a standard questionnaire adopted from that of the British Medical Research Council. Lung function was assessed by the measurement of peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR. PEFR less than 80% of the predicted was considered as abnormal pulmonary function. Results and Conclusions: Symptoms like eye irritation, headache, and diminution of vision were found to be significantly higher in biomass users (P < 0.05. Abnormal pulmonary function, chronic bronchitis, and cataract in biomass users was significantly higher than other fuel users (P < 0.05. Moreover an increasing trend in prevalence of symptoms/morbid conditions was observed with increase in EI. The presence of respiratory symptoms/morbid conditions was associated with lower values of both observed and percent predicted PEFR (P < 0.05 to 0.001. Thus women exposed to biofuels smoke suffer more from health problems and respiratory illnesses when compared with other fuel users.

  2. The Hyperspectral Infrared Imager (HyspIRI) Public Health and Air Quality Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luvall, Jeffrey C.; Hook, Simon J.

    2014-01-01

    The neglected tropical diseases (NTDs), a group of chronic, debilitating, and poverty-promoting parasitic, bacterial, and some viral and fungal infections, are among the most common causes of illness of the poorest people living in developing countries. Abiotic environmental factors are important in determining the distribution of disease-causing vectors and their life-cycles. HyspIRI observations can be merged through a Land Data Assimilation System (LDAS) be used to drive spatially-explicit ecological models of NTD vectors distribution and life cycles. Assimilations will be driven by observational data LDAS and satellite-derived meteorological forcing data, parameter datasets, and assimilation observations. HyspIRI hyperspectral measurements would provide global measurements of surface mineralogy and biotic crusts important in accessing the impact of dust in human health. HyspIRI surface thermal measurements would also help identify the variability of dust sources due to surface moisture conditions and map mineralogy.

  3. The Hyperspectral Infrared Imager (HyspIRI) Public Health & Air Quality Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luvall, Jeffrey C.; Hook, Simon J.

    2013-01-01

    The neglected tropical diseases (NTDs), a group of chronic, debilitating, and poverty-promoting parasitic, bacterial, and some viral and fungal infections, are among the most common causes of illness of the poorest people living in developing countries. Abiotic environmental factors are important in determining the distribution of disease-causing vectors and their life-cycles. HyspIRI observations can be merged through a Land Data Assimilation System (LDAS) be used to drive spatially-explicit ecological models of NTD vectors distribution & life cycles. Assimilations will be driven by observational data LDAS and satellite-derived meteorological forcing data, parameter datasets, and assimilation observations. HyspIRI hyperspectral measurements would provide global measurements of surface mineralogy and biotic crusts important in accessing the impact of dust in human health. HyspIRI surface thermal measurements would also help identify the variability of dust sources due to surface moisture conditions and map mineralogy.

  4. Archives of Environmental Health, Volume 18 Number 4. Ninth AMA Air Pollution Medical Research Conference, Denver, July 22-24, 1968.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Frank

    Papers read before the Ninth American Medical Association (AMA) Air Pollution Medical Research Conference, Denver, Colorado, July 22-24, 1968, are presented in this document. Topics deal with the relationship and effects of atmospheric pollution to respiratory diseases, epidemiology, human physiological reactions, urban morbidity, health of school…

  5. Community air monitoring for pesticides. Part 3: using health-based screening levels to evaluate results collected for a year.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wofford, Pamela; Segawa, Randy; Schreider, Jay; Federighi, Veda; Neal, Rosemary; Brattesani, Madeline

    2014-03-01

    The CA Department of Pesticide Regulation (CDPR) and the CA Air Resources Board monitored 40 pesticides, including five degradation products, in Parlier, CA, to determine if its residents were exposed to any of these pesticides and, if so, in what amounts. They included 1,3-dichloropropene, acrolein, arsenic, azinphos-methyl, carbon disulfide, chlorpyrifos and its degradation product, chlorthalonil, copper, cypermethrin, diazinon and its degradation product, dichlorvos, dicofol, dimethoate and its degradation product, diuron, endosulfan and its degradation product, S-ethyl dipropylcarbamothioate (EPTC), formaldehyde, malathion and its degradation product, methyl isothiocyanate (MITC), methyl bromide, metolachlor, molinate, norflurazon, oryzalin, oxyfluorfen, permethrin, phosmet, propanil, propargite, simazine, SSS-tributylphosphorotrithioate, sulfur, thiobencarb, trifluralin, and xylene. Monitoring was conducted 3 days per week for a year. Twenty-three pesticides and degradation products were detected. Acrolein, arsenic, carbon disulfide, chlorpyrifos, copper, formaldehyde, methyl bromide, MITC, and sulfur were detected in more than half the samples. Since no regulatory ambient air standards exist for these pesticides, CDPR developed advisory, health-based non-cancer screening levels (SLs) to assess acute, subchronic, and chronic exposures. For carcinogenic pesticides, CDPR assessed risk using cancer potency values. Amongst non-carcinogenic agricultural use pesticides, only diazinon exceeded its SL. For carcinogens, 1,3-dichloropropene concentrations exceeded its cancer potency value. Based on these findings, CDPR has undertaken a more comprehensive evaluation of 1,3-dichloropropene, diazinon, and the closely related chlorpyrifos that was frequently detected. Four chemicals-acrolein, arsenic, carbon disulfide, and formaldehyde-sometimes used as pesticides were detected, although no pesticidal use was reported in the area during this study. Their presence was most

  6. An ex post cost-benefit analysis of the nitrogen dioxide air pollution control program in Tokyo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voorhees, A S; Araki, S; Sakai, R; Sato, H

    2000-03-01

    The benefits and costs of past nitrogen dioxide (NO2) control policies were calculated for Tokyo, Japan, using environmental, economic, political, demographic, and medical data from 1973 to 1994. The benefits of NO2 control were estimated as medical expenses and lost work time due to hypothetical no-control air concentrations of NO2. Direct costs were calculated as annualized capital expenditures and 1 year's operating costs for regulated industries plus governmental agency expenses. The major findings were as follows: (1) Using Tokyo's average medical cost of pollution-related illness, the best net estimate of the avoided medical costs due to incidence of phlegm and sputum in adults was 730 billion yen ($6.08 billion; 1 U.S. dollar = 120 yen). (2) The best net estimate of the avoided medical costs due to incidence of lower respiratory illness in children was 93 billion yen ($775 million). (3) Using Tokyo's average duration of pollution-related illness and average wages, the best net estimate of the avoided costs of lost wages in workers was 760 billion yen ($6.33 billion). (4) The best net estimate of the avoided costs of lost wages in mothers caring for their sick children was 100 billion yen ($833 million). (5) Using Tokyo-specific data, the best net costs were estimated as 280 billion yen ($2.33 billion). (6) Using human health and productivity benefits, and annualized capital cost and operating cost estimates, the best net benefits-to-costs ratio was 6:1 (upper limit 44:1; lower limit 0.3:1). Benefit calculations were sensitive to assumptions of mobile source emissions and certain health impacts that were not included. Cost calculations were highly dependent on assumptions of flue gas volume and fuel use. For comparative purposes, we identified other studies for air pollution-related illness. Assumptions that formed the basis for most of the inputs in the present study, such as duration of illness, medical treatment costs, per person illness in children, and

  7. Comparative assessment of air quality in two health resorts using carbon isotopes and palynological analyses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorka, M.; Jedrysek, M.O.; Maj, J.; Worobiec, A.; Buczynska, A.; Stefaniak, E.; Krata, A.; Van Grieken, R.; Zwozdziak, A.; Sowka, I.; Zwozdziak, J.; Lewicka-Szczebak, D. [University of Wroclaw, Wroclaw (Poland). Inst. of Geological Science

    2009-01-15

    This paper describes results of applying the palynological and carbon isotopic analysis of the organic fraction of Total Suspended Particles (TSP) to discriminate distinct pollution sources and assess the anthropogenic impact for the investigated areas. The samples of atmospheric particles were collected in Czerniawa and Cieplice (two health resorts in Lower Silesia, SW Poland) twice a year in summer and winter season (from July 2006 to February 2008). The palynological spectra represent in the vast majority local plant communities without a noticeable contribution of long-transported plant particles. Palynological analysis revealed also differences in the specificity of the two sampling areas, i.e. the higher contribution of identified organic material in Czerniawa stands for more natural character of this site, but is also responsible for the higher allergic pressure when compared to Cieplice. The carbon isotopic composition of TSP varied seasonally ({delta}{sup 13}C value from -27.09 parts per thousand in summer to -25.47 parts per thousand in winter). The increased {delta} {sup 13}C value in winter (heating period) is most probably caused by uncontrolled contribution of coal soot. On the basis of isotopic mass balance the calculated contribution of anthropogenic organic particles in the atmosphere reached in winter season 72% in Czerniawa and 79% in Cieplice.

  8. Our Breaths We Take: Outdoor Air Quality, Health, and Climate Change Consequences of Household Heating and Cooking with Solid Fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chafe, Zoe Anna

    Worldwide, nearly 3 billion people--40% of the global population--burn wood, coal, and other solid fuels every day to cook their food; this number is even larger when including those who heat their homes with solid fuels as well. Exposure to pollution from heating and cooking fires causes about 3 million deaths each year, making it one of the biggest environmental health problems the world faces. The harm from this smoke is not restricted to those who breathe it, however: it contains gases and particles that contribute to global climate change as well. Chapter 2 shows that household cooking with solid fuels caused an estimated 12% of population-weighted ambient PM2.5 worldwide in 2010. Exposure to this air pollution caused the loss of 370,000 lives and 9.9 million disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) globally in the same year. In Chapter 3 I demonstrate that household heating with solid fuels caused an estimated 21% of population-weighted ambient PM2.5 in 2010 in Central Europe, 13% in Eastern Europe, 12% in Western Europe, and 8% in North America. Exposure to this air pollution results caused approximately 60,000 premature deaths in Europe, and nearly 10,000 deaths in North America, as well as an estimated 1.0 million disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) in Europe and 160,000 DALYs in North America. Chapter 4 addresses drivers of household wood combustion pollution in the San Francisco Bay Area, where the sector is the largest source of PM 2.5 and regulators recently introduced amendments to wood burning rules for the airshed. Fireplaces are the source of the vast majority (84%) of PM 2.5 from residential wood combustion in the San Francisco Bay Area, despite their use primarily as an aesthetic or recreational combustion activity. By evaluating hypothetical fuel and combustion device changeouts, I find that replacing fireplaces with gas would yield significant health and economic benefits. Specifically, retrofitting frequently used fireplaces (300,000 units

  9. Developing and Transitioning Numerical Air Quality Models to Improve Air Quality and Public Health Decision-Making in El Salvador and Costa Rica As Part of the Servir Applied Sciences Team

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, A.; Huff, A. K.; Gomori, S. G.; Sadoff, N.

    2014-12-01

    In order to enhance the capacity for air quality modeling and improve air quality monitoring and management in the SERVIR Mesoamerica region, members of SERVIR's Applied Sciences Team (AST) are developing national numerical air quality models for El Salvador and Costa Rica. We are working with stakeholders from the El Salvador Ministry of the Environment and Natural Resources (MARN); National University of Costa Rica (UNA); the Costa Rica Ministry of the Environment, Energy, and Telecommunications (MINAET); and Costa Rica National Meteorological Institute (IMN), who are leaders in air quality monitoring and management in the Mesoamerica region. Focusing initially on these institutions will build sustainability in regional modeling activities by developing air quality modeling capability that can be shared with other countries in Mesoamerica. The air quality models are based on the Community Multi-scale Air Quality (CMAQ) model and incorporate meteorological inputs from the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model, as well as national emissions inventories from El Salvador and Costa Rica. The models are being optimized for urban air quality, which is a priority of decision-makers in Mesoamerica. Once experimental versions of the modeling systems are complete, they will be transitioned to servers run by stakeholders in El Salvador and Costa Rica. The numerical air quality models will provide decision support for stakeholders to identify 1) high-priority areas for expanding national ambient air monitoring networks, 2) needed revisions to national air quality regulations, and 3) gaps in national emissions inventories. This project illustrates SERVIR's goal of the transition of science to support decision-making through capacity building in Mesoamerica, and it aligns with the Group on Earth Observations' health societal benefit theme. This presentation will describe technical aspects of the development of the models and outline key steps in our successful

  10. 14th congress of combustion by-products and their health effects-origin, fate, and health effects of combustion-related air pollutants in the coming era of bio-based energy sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weidemann, Eva; Andersson, Patrik L; Bidleman, Terry; Boman, Christoffer; Carlin, Danielle J; Collina, Elena; Cormier, Stephania A; Gouveia-Figueira, Sandra C; Gullett, Brian K; Johansson, Christer; Lucas, Donald; Lundin, Lisa; Lundstedt, Staffan; Marklund, Stellan; Nording, Malin L; Ortuño, Nuria; Sallam, Asmaa A; Schmidt, Florian M; Jansson, Stina

    2016-04-01

    The 14th International Congress on Combustion By-Products and Their Health Effects was held in Umeå, Sweden from June 14th to 17th, 2015. The Congress, mainly sponsored by the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences Superfund Research Program and the Swedish Research Council for Environment, Agricultural Sciences and Spatial Planning, focused on the "Origin, fate and health effects of combustion-related air pollutants in the coming era of bio-based energy sources". The international delegates included academic and government researchers, engineers, scientists, policymakers and representatives of industrial partners. The Congress provided a unique forum for the discussion of scientific advances in this research area since it addressed in combination the health-related issues and the environmental implications of combustion by-products. The scientific outcomes of the Congress included the consensus opinions that: (a) there is a correlation between human exposure to particulate matter and increased cardiac and respiratory morbidity and mortality; (b) because currently available data does not support the assessment of differences in health outcomes between biomass smoke and other particulates in outdoor air, the potential human health and environmental impacts of emerging air-pollution sources must be addressed. Assessment will require the development of new approaches to characterize combustion emissions through advanced sampling and analytical methods. The Congress also concluded the need for better and more sustainable e-waste management and improved policies, usage and disposal methods for materials containing flame retardants.

  11. Statistical air quality mapping

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kassteele, van de J.

    2006-01-01

    This thesis handles statistical mapping of air quality data. Policy makers require more and more detailed air quality information to take measures to improve air quality. Besides, researchers need detailed air quality information to assess health effects. Accurate and spatially highly resolved maps

  12. Use of doubly stochastic poisson processes in estimating health effects due to air pollution. [Effects of air pollution on incidence of acute respiratory diseases in New York City area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cuzick, J.M.

    1976-01-01

    Some questions associated with statistical inference of doubly stochastic Poisson processes are discussed. This general model appears to be of value in studying a number of problems in environmental health in which the factors which affect the rate at which certain diseases occur cannot be deterministically characterized. The model's applicability to a study of air pollution and incidence of acute respiratory diseases in the New York City area is examined.

  13. Cumulative health risk assessment of halogenated and parent polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons associated with particulate matters in urban air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jian-Lin; Jing, Xin; Chang, Wen-Jing; Chen, Zheng-Xia; Zeng, Hui

    2015-03-01

    Halogenated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (HPAHs) have been reported to occur widely in urban air. Nevertheless, knowledge about the human health risk associated with inhalation exposure to HPAHs is scarce so far. In the present study, nine HPAHs and 16 PAHs were determined in atmospheric particulate matter (PM) collected from Shenzhen, China to address this issue. Concentrations of Σ9HPAHs varied from 0.1 to 1.5 ng/m(3) and from 0.09 to 0.4 ng/m(3) in PM10 and PM2.5 samples, respectively. As for individuals, 9-bromoanthracene, 7-bromobenz(a)anthracene, and 9,10-dibromoanthracene were the dominant congeners. Levels of Σ16PAHs in PM10 and PM2.5 samples ranged from 3.2 to 81 ng/m(3) and from 2.8 to 85 ng/m(3), respectively. Among individual PAHs, chrysene, benzo[b]fluoranthene, and indeno[1,2,3-c,d]pyrene were the main congeners. According to the season, concentrations of HPAHs and PAHs in atmospheric PM10/PM2.5 samples show a similar decreasing trend with an order: winter>autumn>spring>summer. The daily intake (DI) of PM10/PM2.5-bound HPAHs and PAHs were estimated. Our results indicated that children have the highest DI levels via inhalation exposure. The incremental lifetime cancer risk (ILCR) induced by PM10/PM2.5-bound HPAHs and PAHs were calculated. The ILCR values showed a similar decreasing trend with an order: adults>children>seniors>adolescent. Overall, the ILCR values induced by HPAHs and PAHs were far below the priority risk level (10(-4)), indicating no obvious cancer risk. To our knowledge, this is the first study to investigate the human health risk associated with inhalation exposure to PM10/PM2.5-bound HPAHs.