WorldWideScience

Sample records for air pollution research

  1. RESEARCH AREA -- ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE CONTROL (AIR POLLUTION TECHNOLOGY BRANCH, AIR POLLUTION PREVENTION AND CONTROL DIVISION, NRMRL)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Air Pollution Technology Branch (APTB) of NRMRL's Air Pollution Prevention and Control Division in Research Triangle Park, NC, has conducted several research projects for evaluating the use of artificial intelligence (AI) to improve the control of pollution control systems an...

  2. Committee on air pollution effects research: 40 years of UK air pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, David; Dise, Nancy; Sheppard, Lucy

    2016-01-01

    The UK Committee on Air Pollution Effects Research (CAPER) was established 40 years ago. This special section was compiled to mark this anniversary. During this time there have been dramatic changes in the composition of the air over the UK. The four papers in this special section of Environmental Pollution represent the current air pollution effects research focus on ozone and nitrogen deposition, two related issues and are proving from a policy perspective to be quite intractable issues. The UK CAPER research community continues to advance the underpinning science and engages closely with the user community in government departments.

  3. Air Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Air pollution is a mixture of solid particles and gases in the air. Car emissions, chemicals from factories, dust, pollen and ... Ozone, a gas, is a major part of air pollution in cities. When ozone forms air pollution, ...

  4. Project 'European Research Center for Air Pollution Abatement Measures'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the 5-7th of March 1985 the first status report of the project 'European Research Center for Air Pollution Control Measures' took place in the Nuclear Research Center, Karlsruhe. Progress reports on the following topics assessment and analysis of the impacts of airborne pollutants on forest trees; distinction from other potential causes of recent forest dieback, research into atmospheric dispersion, conversion and deposition of airborne pollutants, development and optimization of industrial-technical processes to reduce or avoid emissions and providing instruments and making recommendations to the industrial and political sectors were presented. This volume is a collection of the work reported there. 42 papers were entered separately. (orig./MG)

  5. microRNAs: Implications for air pollution research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jardim, Melanie J., E-mail: melaniejardim@gmail.com [Environmental Public Health Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, United States Environmental Protection Agency, Chapel Hill, NC (United States)

    2011-12-01

    The purpose of this review is to provide an update of the current understanding on the role of microRNAs in mediating genetic responses to air pollutants and to contemplate on how these responses ultimately control susceptibility to ambient air pollution. Morbidity and mortality attributable to air pollution continues to be a growing public health concern worldwide. Despite several studies on the health effects of ambient air pollution, underlying molecular mechanisms of susceptibility and disease remain elusive. In the last several years, special attention has been given to the role of epigenetics in mediating, not only genetic and physiological responses to certain environmental insults, but also in regulating underlying susceptibility to environmental stressors. Epigenetic mechanisms control the expression of gene products, both basally and as a response to a perturbation, without affecting the sequence of DNA itself. These mechanisms include structural regulation of the chromatin structure, such as DNA methylation and histone modifications, and post-transcriptional gene regulation, such as microRNA mediated repression of gene expression. microRNAs are small noncoding RNAs that have been quickly established as key regulators of gene expression. As such, miRNAs have been found to control several cellular processes including apoptosis, proliferation and differentiation. More recently, research has emerged suggesting that changes in the expression of some miRNAs may be critical for mediating biological, and ultimately physiological, responses to air pollutants. Although the study of microRNAs, and epigenetics as a whole, has come quite far in the field of cancer, the understanding of how these mechanisms regulate gene-environment interactions to environmental exposures in everyday life is unclear. This article does not necessarily reflect the views and policies of the US EPA.

  6. Commentary: Is the Air Pollution Health Research Community Prepared to Support a Multipollutant Air Quality Management Framework?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambient air pollution is always encountered as a complex mixture, but past regulatory and research strategies largely focused on single pollutants, pollutant classes, and sources one-at-a-time. There is a trend toward managing air quality in a progressively “multipollutant” manne...

  7. Hazardous Air Pollutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Facebook Twitter Google+ Pinterest Contact Us Hazardous Air Pollutants Hazardous air pollutants are those known to cause ... protect against adverse environmental effects. About Hazardous Air Pollutants What are hazardous air pollutants? Health and Environmental ...

  8. Applied research on air pollution using nuclear-related analytical techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A co-ordinated research programme (CRP) on applied research on air pollution using nuclear-related techniques is a global CRP which will run from 1992-1996, and will build upon the experience gained by the Agency from the laboratory support that it has been providing for several years to BAPMoN - the Background Air Pollution Monitoring Network programme organized under the auspices of the World Meterological Organization. The purpose of this CRP is to promote the use of nuclear analytical techniques in air pollution studies, e.g. NAA, XFR, and PIXE for the analysis of toxic and other trace elements in suspended particulate matter (including air filter samples), rainwater and fog-water samples, and in biological indicators of air pollution (e.g. lichens and mosses). The main purposes of the core programme are i) to support the use of nuclear and nuclear-related analytical techniques for practically-oriented research and monitoring studies on air pollution ii) to identify major sources of air pollution affecting each of the participating countries with particular reference to toxic heavy metals, and iii) to obtain comparative data on pollution levels in areas of high pollution (e.g. a city centre or a populated area downwind of a large pollution source) and low pollution (e.g. rural areas). This document reports the discussions held during the first Research Co-ordination Meeting (RCM) for the CRP which took place at the IAEA Headquarters in Vienna. Refs, figs and tabs

  9. Air Pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, K.; And Others

    Pollution of the general environment, which exposes an entire population group for an indeterminate period of time, certainly constitutes a problem in public health. Serious aid pollution episodes have resulted in increased mortality and a possible relationship between chronic exposure to a polluted atmosphere and certain diseases has been…

  10. Environmental equity research: review with focus on outdoor air pollution research methods and analytic tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Qun; Chen, Dongmei; Buzzelli, Michael; Aronson, Kristan J

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to review environmental equity research on outdoor air pollution and, specifically, methods and tools used in research, published in English, with the aim of recommending the best methods and analytic tools. English language publications from 2000 to 2012 were identified in Google Scholar, Ovid MEDLINE, and PubMed. Research methodologies and results were reviewed and potential deficiencies and knowledge gaps identified. The publications show that exposure to outdoor air pollution differs by social factors, but findings are inconsistent in Canada. In terms of study designs, most were small and ecological and therefore prone to the ecological fallacy. Newer tools such as geographic information systems, modeling, and biomarkers offer improved precision in exposure measurement. Higher-quality research using large, individual-based samples and more precise analytic tools are needed to provide better evidence for policy-making to reduce environmental inequities.

  11. Indoor Air Pollution (Environmental Health Student Portal)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Students to Environmental Health Information Menu Home Air Pollution Air Pollution Home Indoor Air Pollution Outdoor Air Pollution ... Pollution Indoor Air Pollution Print this Page Air Pollution Air Pollution Home Indoor Air Pollution Outdoor Air Pollution ...

  12. Indoor air pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Indoor air pollution after being a neglected subject for a number of years, is attracting attention recently because it is a side effect of energy crisis. About 50% of world's 6 billion population, mostly in developing countries, depend on biomass and coal in the form of wood, dung and crop residues for domestic energy because of poverty. These materials are burnt in simple stoves with incomplete combustion and infants, children and women are exposed to high levels of indoor air pollution for a considerable period, approximately between 2-4 hours daily. Current worldwide trade in wood fuel is over US $7 billion and about 2 million people are employed full time in production and marketing it. One of the most annoying and common indoor pollutant in both, developing and developed countries, is cigarette smoke. Children in gas-equipped homes had higher incidences of respiratory disease. Babies' DNA can be damaged even before they are born if their mothers breathe polluted air. Exposure to indoor air pollution may be responsible for nearly 2 million excess deaths in developing countries and for 4% of the global burden of the disease. Only a few indoor pollutants have been studied in detail. Indoor air pollution is a major health threat on which further research is needed to define the extent of the problem more precisely and to determine solutions by the policy-makers instead of neglecting it because sufferers mostly belong to Third World countries. (author)

  13. Air Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to a close in June 2013 when the company, Conscious Clothing, was awarded the My Air grand ... Page Options: Request Translation Services Facebook Twitter LinkedIn Google+ Reddit Email Evernote More Increase Font Size Decrease ...

  14. RESEARCH OF AIR POLLUTION FROM TRAFFIC IN «STREET CANYONS» OF CITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. I. Rusakova

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The article is devoted to state analyze of atmospheric air at its pollution with vehicle emissions in Dnipropetrovsk city, the development a numerical model and applied computing program for research of air pollution level with vehicle emissions on the streets when several buildings are located on the scheme «street canyon». Methodology. To achieve the research purpose it was studied the dynamic of change concentration of different pollutants that have been fixed on monitoring station of air quality in Dnipropetrovsk city. It was performed level assessment of air pollution from traffic (according to the Main Statistical Office in Dnipropetrovsk region. It was developed methodology for numerical calculation of concentration the atmospheric air pollution from vehicle emissions. To solve hydrodynamic task of determining velocity field of wind flow in streets the model of separated flows of an inviscid fluid was used; to solve the task of the calculation process of dispersion pollution the equation of convective-diffusion transfer of pollutant was used. To implement the proposed methodology we used implicit difference schemes. Findings.In the work a mathematical numerical model was developed and computing programs on its base were created. It allows conducting the computational experiments for evaluation the level of air pollution from vehicle emissions on the streets when several buildings are located on the scheme «street canyon». As a result of research regulations on change concentration of carbon monoxide near a considered group of buildings at different pollutant emissions were established. Originality.This numerical model was developed which allows accounting the hydrodynamic impact of group buildings on dispersion of pollutants when the wind speed and the vertical diffusion coefficient vary with height. Practical value. Conducting such class of computational experiments is necessary in the case of reconstruction of city

  15. The Federal Air Pollution Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Air Pollution Control Administration (DHEW), Washington, DC.

    Described is the Federal air pollution program as it was in 1967. The booklet is divided into these major topics: History of the Federal Program; Research; Assistance to State and Local Governments; Abatement and Prevention of Air Pollution; Control of Motor Vehicle Pollution; Information and Education; and Conclusion. Federal legislation has…

  16. 1st PBWU status seminar on research in the field of 'air pollution and human health'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On February 25th and 26th, the first Status Seminar of the Bavarian Projekt Group for Research on the Effect of Environmental Pollutants (PBWU) concerning research in 'Air pollution and human health' was held at the GSF research centre, Neuherberg. Its aim was to present the current state of the research coordinated by PBWU and funded by the Bavarian ministry for land growth and the environment as a part of environment-related health research in Bavaria. The event centered around the discussion of possible influence of air pollutants on respiratory diseases and allergies. In order to round off the programme, the lectures on projects funded by the Bavarian ministry for land growth and the environment were complemented by lectures on non-Bavarian research initiatives. On all fourteen technical lectures the database contains individual entries. (orig.)

  17. Applied research on air pollution using nuclear-related analytical techniques. Report on the second research co-ordination meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A co-ordinated research programme (CRP) on applied research on air pollution using nuclear-related techniques is a global CRP which started in 1992, and is scheduled to run until early 1997. The purpose of this CRP is to promote the use of nuclear analytical techniques in air pollution studies, e.g. NAA, XRF, and PIXE for the analysis of toxic and other trace elements in air particulate matter. The main purposes of the core programme are i) to support the use of nuclear and nuclear-related analytical techniques for research and monitoring studies on air pollution, ii) to identify major sources of air pollution affecting each of the participating countries with particular reference to toxic heavy metals, and iii) to obtain comparative data on pollution levels in areas of high pollution (e.g. a city centre or a populated area downwind of a large pollution source) and low pollution (e.g. rural area). This document reports the discussions held during the second Research Co-ordination Meeting (RCM) for the CRP which took place at ANSTO in Menai, Australia. (author)

  18. Air pollution control system research: An iterative approach to developing affordable systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watt, Lewis C.; Cannon, Fred S.; Heinsohn, Robert J.; Spaeder, Timothy A.

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes a Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program (SERDP) funded project led jointly by the Marine Corps Multi-Commodity Maintenance Centers, and the Air and Energy Engineering Research Laboratory (AEERL) of the USEPA. The research focuses on paint booth exhaust minimization using recirculation, and on volatile organic compound (VOC) oxidation by the modules of a hybrid air pollution control system. The research team is applying bench, pilot and full scale systems to accomplish the goals of reduced cost and improved effectiveness of air treatment systems for paint booth exhaust.

  19. Air Pollution Training Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Public Health Service (DHEW), Rockville, MD.

    This catalog lists the universities, both supported and not supported by the Division of Air Pollution, which offer graduate programs in the field of air pollution. The catalog briefly describes the programs and their entrance requirements, the requirements, qualifications and terms of special fellowships offered by the Division of Air Pollution.…

  20. Indoor Air Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    We usually think of air pollution as being outdoors, but the air in your house or office could also be polluted. Sources of indoor pollution ... is known as sick building syndrome. Usually indoor air quality problems only cause discomfort. Most people feel ...

  1. Adaptation of forest ecosystems to air pollution and climate change: a global assessment on research priorities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serengil Y

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Climate change and air pollution are two of the anthropogenic stressors that require international collaboration. Influence mechanisms and combating strategies towards them have similarities to some extent. Impacts of air pollution and climate change have long been studied under IUFRO Research Group 7.01 and state of the art findings are presented at biannual meetings. Monitoring, modelling, assessment of multiple stressors, ecophysiology, and nutrient cycles have been thoroughly studied aspects of climate change and air pollution research for a long time under the umbrella of IUFRO RG 7.01. Recently, social and economic issues together with water relations are gaining more attention in parallel with science requirements on adaptation. In this paper, we summarise the main research needs emphasized at the recent 24th IUFRO RG 7.01 Conference titled “Adaptation of Forest Ecosystems to Air Pollution and Climate Change”. One important conclusion of the conference was the need for information on nutritional status of forest stands for sustainable forest management. It has been suggested to maintain long-term monitoring programs and to account for the effects of extreme years, and past and present management practices. Long-term monitoring can also help to understand the effects of forestry treatments on the nutrient and water budgets of the ecosystems which may enable to improve management practices like water saving silviculture.

  2. A Review of Epidemiological Research on Adverse Neurological Effects of Exposure to Ambient Air Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiaohui; Ha, Sandie Uyen; Basnet, Rakshya

    2016-01-01

    There is a growing body of epidemiological research reporting the neurological effects of ambient air pollution. We examined current evidence, identified the strengths and weaknesses of published epidemiological studies, and suggest future directions for research in this area. Studies were identified through a systematic search of online scientific databases, in addition to a manual search of the reference lists from the identified papers. Despite being a relatively new area of investigation, overall, there is mounting evidence implicating adverse effects of air pollution on neurobehavioral function in both adults and children. Further research is needed to expand our understanding of these relationships, including improvement in the accuracy of exposure assessments; focusing on specific toxicants and their relationships to specific health endpoints, such as neurodevelopmental disorders and neurodegenerative diseases; investigating the combined neurological effects of multiple air pollutants; and further exploration of genetic susceptibility for neurotoxicity of air pollution. In order to achieve these goals collaborative efforts are needed from multidisciplinary teams, including experts in toxicology, biostatistics, geographical science, epidemiology, and neurology. PMID:27547751

  3. A Review of Epidemiological Research on Adverse Neurological Effects of Exposure to Ambient Air Pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiaohui; Ha, Sandie Uyen; Basnet, Rakshya

    2016-01-01

    There is a growing body of epidemiological research reporting the neurological effects of ambient air pollution. We examined current evidence, identified the strengths and weaknesses of published epidemiological studies, and suggest future directions for research in this area. Studies were identified through a systematic search of online scientific databases, in addition to a manual search of the reference lists from the identified papers. Despite being a relatively new area of investigation, overall, there is mounting evidence implicating adverse effects of air pollution on neurobehavioral function in both adults and children. Further research is needed to expand our understanding of these relationships, including improvement in the accuracy of exposure assessments; focusing on specific toxicants and their relationships to specific health endpoints, such as neurodevelopmental disorders and neurodegenerative diseases; investigating the combined neurological effects of multiple air pollutants; and further exploration of genetic susceptibility for neurotoxicity of air pollution. In order to achieve these goals collaborative efforts are needed from multidisciplinary teams, including experts in toxicology, biostatistics, geographical science, epidemiology, and neurology.

  4. Air Pollution, Teachers' Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavaroni, Charles W.; O'Donnell, Patrick A.

    One of three in a series about pollution, this teacher's guide for a unit on air pollution is designed for use in junior high school grades. It offers suggestions for extending the information and activities contained in the textual material for students. Chapter 1 discusses the problem of air pollution and involves students in processes of…

  5. Air Pollution and Watershed Research in the Central Sierra Nevada of California: Nitrogen and Ozone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolyn Hunsaker

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Maintaining healthy forests is the major objective for the Forest Service scientists and managers working for the U.S. Department of Agriculture. Air pollution, specifically ozone (O3 and nitrogenous (N air pollutants, may severely affect the health of forest ecosystems in the western U.S. Thus, the monitoring of air pollution concentration and deposition levels, as well as studies focused on understanding effects mechanisms, are essential for evaluation of risks associated with their presence. Such information is essential for development of proper management strategies for maintaining clean air, clean water, and healthy ecosystems on land managed by the Forest Service. We report on two years of research in the central Sierra Nevada of California, a semi-arid forest at elevations of 1100–2700 m. Information on O3 and N air pollutants is obtained from a network of 18 passive samplers. We relate the atmospheric N concentration to N concentrations in streams, shallow soil water, and bulk deposition collectors within the Kings River Experimental Watershed. This watershed also contains an intensive site that is part of a recent Forest Service effort to calculate critical loads for N, sulfur, and acidity to forest ecosystems. The passive sampler design allows for extensive spatial measurements while the watershed experiment provides intensive spatial data for future analysis of ecosystem processes.

  6. Air pollution and watershed research in the central Sierra Nevada of California: nitrogen and ozone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunsaker, Carolyn; Bytnerowicz, Andrzej; Auman, Jessica; Cisneros, Ricardo

    2007-01-01

    Maintaining healthy forests is the major objective for the Forest Service scientists and managers working for the U.S. Department of Agriculture. Air pollution, specifically ozone (O3) and nitrogenous (N) air pollutants, may severely affect the health of forest ecosystems in the western U.S. Thus, the monitoring of air pollution concentration and deposition levels, as well as studies focused on understanding effects mechanisms, are essential for evaluation of risks associated with their presence. Such information is essential for development of proper management strategies for maintaining clean air, clean water, and healthy ecosystems on land managed by the Forest Service. We report on two years of research in the central Sierra Nevada of California, a semi-arid forest at elevations of 1100-2700 m. Information on O3 and N air pollutants is obtained from a network of 18 passive samplers. We relate the atmospheric N concentration to N concentrations in streams, shallow soil water, and bulk deposition collectors within the Kings River Experimental Watershed. This watershed also contains an intensive site that is part of a recent Forest Service effort to calculate critical loads for N, sulfur, and acidity to forest ecosystems. The passive sampler design allows for extensive spatial measurements while the watershed experiment provides intensive spatial data for future analysis of ecosystem processes.

  7. Forest models: their development and potential applications for air pollution effects research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shugart, H.H.; McLaughlin, S.B.; West, D.C.

    1980-01-01

    As research tools for evaluating the effects of chronic air pollution stress, forest simulation models offer one means of integrating forest growth and development data with generalized indices of pollution stress. This approach permits consideration of both the competitive interactions of trees in the forest stand and the influences of the stage of stand development on sensitivity of component species. A review of forest growth models, including tree, stand, and gap models, is provided as a means of evaluating relative strengths, weaknesses, and limits of applicability of representative examples of each type. Data from recent simulations with a gap model of eastern deciduous forest responses to air pollution stress are presented to emphasize the potential importance of competition in modifying individual species' responses in a forest stand. Recent developments in dendroecology are discussed as a potential mechanism for model validation and extended application.

  8. Forests under climate change and air pollution: Gaps in understanding and future directions for research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matyssek, R.; Wieser, G.; Calfapietra, C.;

    2012-01-01

    Forests in Europe face significant changes in climate, which in interaction with air quality changes, may significantly affect forest productivity, stand composition and carbon sequestration in both vegetation and soils. Identified knowledge gaps and research needs include: (i) interaction between...... for synthesis. This position paper highlights the above focuses, including the global dimension of air pollution as part of climate change and the need for knowledge transfer to enable reliable risk assessment. A new type of research site in forest ecosystems (“supersites”) will be conducive to addressing...

  9. Air Pollution and Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, R. D., Ed.

    This book is an authoritative reference and practical guide designed to help the plant engineer identify and solve industrial air pollution problems in order to be able to meet current air pollution regulations. Prepared under the editorial supervision of an experienced chemical engineer, with each chapter contributed by an expert in his field,…

  10. Health Effects of Air Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... air pollution How to protect yourself from air pollution Chemicals Noise Quizzes Links to more information girlshealth glossary girlshealth.gov home http://www.girlshealth.gov/ Home The environment and your health Air Health effects of air pollution ... Health effects of air pollution Breathing air that ...

  11. We Pollute the Air

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    1.Clean air is important to good health.If the aircontains impurities,they may be absorbed by ourbodies and make us ill.We need clean air,butunfortunately,air pollution is generally present,especially in cities. 2.Our cities have many factories,which we need tomake food products,clothing and many other things.

  12. Impacts of Air Pollution and Climate Change on Forest Ecosystems — Emerging Research Needs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Paoletti

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Outcomes from the 22nd meeting for Specialists in Air Pollution Effects on Forest Ecosystems “Forests under Anthropogenic Pressure Effects of Air Pollution, Climate Change and Urban Development”, September 1016, 2006, Riverside, CA, are summarized. Tropospheric or ground-level ozone (O3 is still the phytotoxic air pollutant of major interest. Challenging issues are how to make O3 standards or critical levels more biologically based and at the same time practical for wide use; quantification of plant detoxification processes in flux modeling; inclusion of multiple environmental stresses in critical load determinations; new concept development for nitrogen saturation; interactions between air pollution, climate, and forest pests; effects of forest fire on air quality; the capacity of forests to sequester carbon under changing climatic conditions and coexposure to elevated levels of air pollutants; enhanced linkage between molecular biology, biochemistry, physiology, and morphological traits.

  13. Indoor air pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although official efforts to control air pollution have traditionally focused on outdoor air, it is now apparent that elevated contaminant concentrations are common inside some private and public buildings. Concerns about potential public health problems due to indoor air pollution are based on evidence that urban residents typically spend more than 90 percent of their time indoors, concentrations of some contaminants are higher indoors than outdoors, and for some pollutants personal exposures are not characterized adequately by outdoor measurements. Among the more important indoor contaminants associated with health or irritation effects are passive tobacco smoke, radon decay products, carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, formaldehyde, asbestos fibers, microorganisms and aeroallergens. Efforts to assess health risks associated with indoor air pollution are limited by insufficient information about the number of people exposed, the pattern and severity of exposures, and the health consequences of exposures. An overall strategy should be developed to investigate indoor exposures, health effects, control options, and public policy alternatives

  14. Research on indoor air pollution of newly decorated buildings in Chongqing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Juan; SHAO Mao-qing; HE Mei

    2005-01-01

    The investigation of indoor-air quality in newly built and newly decorated residences in Chongqing revealed that the average concentration of formaldehyde and ammonia in these residences exceeded the upper limits of the standard. The situation of indoor air pollution varied with the type of rooms. The results of investigation show that the indoor-air pollutants caused by decoration work should not be ignored anymore.

  15. Rapid evolution of air pollution sensor technology for research and consumer product applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Outdoor air pollution measurement approaches have historically been conducted using stationary shelters that require significant space, power, and expertise to operate. The cost and logistical requirements to conduct monitoring have limited the number of locations with continuou...

  16. A Review of the Social Research on Public Perception and Engagement Practices in Urban Air Pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study was to analyze the state of public information in the field of air pollution in Spain. We conducted semi-structured interviews with members of public agencies, technical experts, scientists, and members of non governmental associations together with a documentary analysis of air pollution documents (plans, reports, etc.). We tried to characterize the information actions on air quality carried out in Spanish cities during the last years. In the results section we first analyze the ideas, concerns and considerations that underlie the actions of public information on air pollution, as well as the main challenges of public communication on this subject, according to the documents and the different experts consulted. We analyze the various contents of information transmitted nowadays (on levels of pollution, health impacts and mitigation or protection actions), as well as the mechanisms by which it is communicated, both continuously and in the case of threshold overcoming episodes. We also review the different media used to communicate air pollution information (Internet, mobile applications and other forms) and other issues such as information audiences, or the perceived impacts of information provided. Finally, the implications for more diverse and effective public involvement strategies in air pollution are discussed. (Author)

  17. A Review of the Social Research on Public Perception and Engagement Practices in Urban Air Pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oltra, C.; Sala, R.

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the state of public information in the field of air pollution in Spain. We conducted semi-structured interviews with members of public agencies, technical experts, scientists, and members of non governmental associations together with a documentary analysis of air pollution documents (plans, reports, etc.). We tried to characterize the information actions on air quality carried out in Spanish cities during the last years. In the results section we first analyze the ideas, concerns and considerations that underlie the actions of public information on air pollution, as well as the main challenges of public communication on this subject, according to the documents and the different experts consulted. We analyze the various contents of information transmitted nowadays (on levels of pollution, health impacts and mitigation or protection actions), as well as the mechanisms by which it is communicated, both continuously and in the case of threshold overcoming episodes. We also review the different media used to communicate air pollution information (Internet, mobile applications and other forms) and other issues such as information audiences, or the perceived impacts of information provided. Finally, the implications for more diverse and effective public involvement strategies in air pollution are discussed. (Author)

  18. Pupils' Understanding of Air Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitriou, Anastasia; Christidou, Vasilia

    2007-01-01

    This paper reports on a study of pupils' knowledge and understanding of atmospheric pollution. Specifically, the study is aimed at identifying: 1) the extent to which pupils conceptualise the term "air pollution" in a scientifically appropriate way; 2) pupils' knowledge of air pollution sources and air pollutants; and 3) pupils' knowledge of air…

  19. Photochemical air pollution syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamming, W.J.; MacBeth, W.C.; Chass, R.L.

    1967-01-01

    There are two distinct pollution problems in the Los Angeles Basin - one in winter, the other most frequently in summer and fall. In winter the concentrations of carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxide and black filterable aerosols are higher than in summer, but the secondary pollutants such as ozone and photochemical oxidants are not as high. The photochemical air pollution syndrome is due to a pattern set by previous smog attacks. This pattern is due to low wind speeds, low inversion heights, a trajectory to carry the pollution and sufficient sunlight to photodissociate the nitrogen dioxide formed and to form nitric oxide and atomic oxygen. The results are high levels of oxidant or ozone and large quantities of particles. 5 references, 9 figures, 7 tables.

  20. Environmental health research in the UK and European Union : research priorities in water and air pollution control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The contents are involvement of the European community, integration of research and development programmes ; surface water quality and pollution incidents; surface water pollution in the UK ; eutrophication ; drinking water quality ; causes and current treatment for removal of pollutants ; future causes of water pollution ; and , water and wastewater research

  1. Exposure information in environmental health research: Current opportunities and future directions for particulate matter, ozone, and toxic air pollutants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKone, Thomas E.; Ryan, P. Barry; Ozkaynak, Haluk

    2007-02-01

    Understanding and quantifying outdoor and indoor sources of human exposure are essential but often not adequately addressed in health-effects studies for air pollution. Air pollution epidemiology, risk assessment, health tracking and accountability assessments are examples of health-effects studies that require but often lack adequate exposure information. Recent advances in exposure modeling along with better information on time-activity and exposure factors data provide us with unique opportunities to improve the assignment of exposures for both future and ongoing studies linking air pollution to health impacts. In September 2006, scientists from the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) along with scientists from the academic community and state health departments convened a symposium on air pollution exposure and health in order to identify, evaluate, and improve current approaches for linking air pollution exposures to disease. This manuscript presents the key issues, challenges and recommendations identified by the exposure working group, who used cases studies of particulate matter, ozone, and toxic air pollutant exposure to evaluate health-effects for air pollution. One of the over-arching lessons of this workshop is that obtaining better exposure information for these different health-effects studies requires both goal-setting for what is needed and mapping out the transition pathway from current capabilities to meeting these goals. Meeting our long-term goals requires definition of incremental steps that provide useful information for the interim and move us toward our long-term goals. Another over-arching theme among the three different pollutants and the different health study approaches is the need for integration among alternate exposure assessment approaches. For example, different groups may advocate exposure indicators, biomonitoring, mapping methods (GIS), modeling, environmental media

  2. Large Scale Computations in Air Pollution Modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zlatev, Z.; Brandt, J.; Builtjes, P. J. H.;

    Proceedings of the NATO Advanced Research Workshop on Large Scale Computations in Air Pollution Modelling, Sofia, Bulgaria, 6-10 July 1998......Proceedings of the NATO Advanced Research Workshop on Large Scale Computations in Air Pollution Modelling, Sofia, Bulgaria, 6-10 July 1998...

  3. Evaluating the performance of low cost chemical sensors for air pollution research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Alastair C; Lee, James D; Edwards, Peter M; Shaw, Marvin D; Evans, Mat J; Moller, Sarah J; Smith, Katie R; Buckley, Jack W; Ellis, Matthew; Gillot, Stefan R; White, Andrew

    2016-07-18

    Low cost pollution sensors have been widely publicized, in principle offering increased information on the distribution of air pollution and a democratization of air quality measurements to amateur users. We report a laboratory study of commonly-used electrochemical sensors and quantify a number of cross-interferences with other atmospheric chemicals, some of which become significant at typical suburban air pollution concentrations. We highlight that artefact signals from co-sampled pollutants such as CO2 can be greater than the electrochemical sensor signal generated by the measurand. We subsequently tested in ambient air, over a period of three weeks, twenty identical commercial sensor packages alongside standard measurements and report on the degree of agreement between references and sensors. We then explore potential experimental approaches to improve sensor performance, enhancing outputs from qualitative to quantitative, focusing on low cost VOC photoionization sensors. Careful signal handling, for example, was seen to improve limits of detection by one order of magnitude. The quantity, magnitude and complexity of analytical interferences that must be characterised to convert a signal into a quantitative observation, with known uncertainties, make standard individual parameter regression inappropriate. We show that one potential solution to this problem is the application of supervised machine learning approaches such as boosted regression trees and Gaussian processes emulation. PMID:27104223

  4. Application environmental epidemiology to vehicular air pollution and health effects research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Rajan R; Chetlapally, Satish Kumar; Bagvandas, M

    2015-01-01

    Vehicular pollution is one of the major contributors to the air pollution in urban areas and perhaps and accounts for the major share of anthropogenic green-house gases such as carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides. Knowledge of human health risks related to environmental exposure to vehicular pollution is a current concern. Analyze the range health effects are attributed varied constituents of vehicular air pollution examine evidence for a causal association to specific health effect. In many instances scenario involves exposure to very low doses of putative agents for extended periods, sometimes the period could mean over a lifetime of an individual and yet may result in small increase in health risk that may be imperceptible. Secondary data analysis and literature review. In environmental exposures, traditional epidemiological approaches evaluating mortality and morbidity indicators display many limiting factors such as nonspecificity of biological effects latency time between exposure and magnitude of the effect. Long latency period between exposure and resultant disease, principally for carcinogenic effects and limitation of epidemiological studies for detecting small risk increments. The present paper discusses the methodological challenges in studying vehicular epidemiology and highlights issues that affect the validity of epidemiological studies in vehicular pollution.

  5. Application of MODIS satellite products to the air pollution research in Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Chengcai; MAO Jietai; Alexis K. H. Lau; YUAN Zibing; WANG Meihua; LIU Xiaoyang

    2005-01-01

    The direct correlation between NASA MODIS aerosol optical depth (AOD) products and the air pollution index (API) in Beijing was found relatively low based on the long-term comparison analysis. The correlation improved to some extent after taking account of the seasonal variation of scale height and the vertical distribution of aerosols. The correlation coefficient further improved significantly after considering the influencing factor of Relative Humidity (RH). This study concluded that satellite remote-sensing could serve as an efficient tool for monitoring the spatial distribution of particulate pollutants on the ground-level, as long as corrections have been made in the two aforementioned processes. Taking advantage of the MODIS information, we analyzed a pollution episode occurring in October 2004 in Beijing. It indicated that satellite remote-sensing could describe the formation process of the ground-level pollution episode in detail, and showed that regional transport and the topography were crucial factors to air quality in Beijing. The annual averaged distribution in the urban area of Beijing and its surroundings could be also obtained from the high-resolution retrieval results, implicating that high-resolution satellite remote-sensing might be potential in monitoring the source distribution of particulate pollutants.

  6. Application environmental epidemiology to vehicular air pollution and health effects research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Rajan R; Chetlapally, Satish Kumar; Bagvandas, M

    2015-01-01

    Vehicular pollution is one of the major contributors to the air pollution in urban areas and perhaps and accounts for the major share of anthropogenic green-house gases such as carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides. Knowledge of human health risks related to environmental exposure to vehicular pollution is a current concern. Analyze the range health effects are attributed varied constituents of vehicular air pollution examine evidence for a causal association to specific health effect. In many instances scenario involves exposure to very low doses of putative agents for extended periods, sometimes the period could mean over a lifetime of an individual and yet may result in small increase in health risk that may be imperceptible. Secondary data analysis and literature review. In environmental exposures, traditional epidemiological approaches evaluating mortality and morbidity indicators display many limiting factors such as nonspecificity of biological effects latency time between exposure and magnitude of the effect. Long latency period between exposure and resultant disease, principally for carcinogenic effects and limitation of epidemiological studies for detecting small risk increments. The present paper discusses the methodological challenges in studying vehicular epidemiology and highlights issues that affect the validity of epidemiological studies in vehicular pollution. PMID:26023265

  7. Application environmental epidemiology to vehicular air pollution and health effects research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajan R Patil

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Vehicular pollution is one of the major contributors to the air pollution in urban areas and perhaps and accounts for the major share of anthropogenic green-house gases such as carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides. Knowledge of human health risks related to environmental exposure to vehicular pollution is a current concern. Analyze the range health effects are attributed varied constituents of vehicular air pollution examine evidence for a causal association to specific health effect. In many instances scenario involves exposure to very low doses of putative agents for extended periods, sometimes the period could mean over a lifetime of an individual and yet may result in small increase in health risk that may be imperceptible. Secondary data analysis and literature review. In environmental exposures, traditional epidemiological approaches evaluating mortality and morbidity indicators display many limiting factors such as nonspecificity of biological effects latency time between exposure and magnitude of the effect. Long latency period between exposure and resultant disease, principally for carcinogenic effects and limitation of epidemiological studies for detecting small risk increments. The present paper discusses the methodological challenges in studying vehicular epidemiology and highlights issues that affect the validity of epidemiological studies in vehicular pollution.

  8. Air Pollution and Procyclical Mortality

    OpenAIRE

    Garth Heutel; Ruhm, Christopher J.

    2013-01-01

    Prior research demonstrates that mortality rates increase during economic booms and decrease during economic busts, but little analysis has been conducted investigating the role of environmental risks as potential mechanisms for this relationship. We investigate the contribution of air pollution to the procyclicality of deaths by combining state-level data on overall, cause-specific, and age-specific mortality rates with state-level measures of ambient concentrations of three types of polluta...

  9. Fundamentals of air pollution. Third edition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boubel, R.W.; Fox, D.L.; Turner, D.B.; Stern, A.C.

    1994-12-31

    This book presents an overview of air pollution. In Part I, the history of air pollution and the basic concepts involved with air pollution such as sources, scales, definitions are covered. Part II describes how airborne pollutants damage materials, vegetation, animals, and humans. Six fundamental aspects of air pollution are included in the text: The Elements of Air Pollution; The Effects of Air Pollution; Measurement and Monitoring of Air Pollution; Meterology of Air Pollution; regulatory Control of Air Pollution; and Engineering Control of Air Pollution.

  10. Studies of air pollution effects on vegetation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-01-01

    The report consists of three parts which summarize pollutant-vegetation effects research studies. These include: oxidant effects of primary productivity in ponderosa pine in the San Bernardino National Forest; air pollution effects on vegetation related to geothermal power development; and regional assessment of air pollution impact on vegetation by mathematical modeling. A list of publications that report results of the studies is included in an appendix.

  11. The Cost of Air Pollution

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank; Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation

    2016-01-01

    The Cost of Air Pollution: Strengthening the economic case for action, a joint study of the World Bank and the Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation (IHME), seeks to estimate the costs of premature deaths related to air pollution, to strengthen the case for action and facilitate decision making in the context of scarce resources. An estimated 5.5 million lives were lost in 2013 to diseases associated with outdoor and household air pollution, causing human suffering and reducing economic...

  12. [Air pollution and the lung: epidemiological approach].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annesi-Maesano, Isabella; Dab, William

    2006-01-01

    Epidemiological evidence has concurred with clinical and experimental evidence to correlate current levels of ambient air pollution, both indoors and outdoors, with respiratory effects. In this respect, the use of specific epidemiological methods has been crucial. Common outdoor pollutants are particulate matter, nitrogen dioxide, carbon monoxide, volatile organic compounds and ozone. Short-term effects of outdoor air pollution include changes in lung function, respiratory symptoms and mortality due to respiratory causes. Increase in the use of health care resources has also been associated with short-term effects of air pollution. Long-term effects of cumulated exposure to urban air pollution include lung growth impairment, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), lung cancer, and probably the development of asthma and allergies. Lung cancer and COPD have been related to a shorter life expectancy. Common indoor pollutants are environmental tobacco smoke, particulate matter, nitrogen dioxide, carbon monoxide, volatile organic compounds and biological allergens. Concentrations of these pollutants can be many times higher indoors than outdoors. Indoor air pollution may increase the risk of irritation phenomena, allergic sensitisation, acute and chronic respiratory disorders and lung function impairment. Recent conservative estimates have shown that 1.5-2 million deaths per year worldwide could be attributed to indoor air pollution. Further epidemiological research is necessary to better evaluate the respiratory health effects of air pollution and to implement protective programmes for public health.

  13. RESULTS OF RESEARCH OF AIR POLLUTION BY AUTOMOBILE TRANSPORT IN THE STREETS OF KHARKIV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lezhneva, E.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Results of the research of the atmospheric air of residential area roadside territory at functioning of motor transport are presented. Architectural and planning activities to improve the environmental performance of the local area of Kharkiv are offered.

  14. Biomonitoring air pollution in Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Chile, in general, and Santiago, its capital city, in particular, has serious air pollution problems mainly in winter time when the pollutants could reach dangerous levels which might be detrimental to older people and children. A project was undertaken within the framework of a Co-ordinated Research Programme (CRP) supported by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) to carry out a long term study on atmospheric air pollution in Chile using biomonitors. The present paper describes the activities carried out within this CRP. The lichens, collected in clean areas (native forests), were transplanted to selected sites in Santiago and exposed during three and six months. At a second stage, samples of Tillandsia recurvata were collected in the Metropolitan Area. All samples were carefully cleaned, using only clean plastic materials, milled at liquid nitrogen temperature, freeze dried, re-homogenized and stored at low temperature until analysis. The samples were mainly analysed by INAA, RNAA SS-AAS and ASV. As part of the routine QA/QC programme, analytical laboratories involved in the project participated in intercomparison runs organized by the IAEA for the determination of trace and minor elements in two lichens samples. From the data and its subsequent mapping over the area under study, it was possible to identify places exposed to higher amounts of some elements. Of interest are also the correlations between several elements, perhaps indicating a given source of pollutants. The results indicate the usefulness of biomonitoring air pollution using lichens and Tillandsias, which, jointly with multielemental analytical techniques, such as NAA, open the possibility to study extensive areas without the infrastructure needed for conventional APM sample collection and at reduced costs. (author)

  15. Air pollution, public health, and inflation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostro, B D

    1980-02-01

    Since the passage of the environmental legislation in the early 1970's, critics have attacked these laws as being unnecessary and for contributing significantly to the problem of inflation in the United States. This paper is an attempt to put the inflationary costs of air pollution into perspective by considering them in light of the cost, especially to public health, of not proceeding with pollution control. There is now a great deal of evidence that the concentration of certain pollutants in the air can contribute significantly to the incidence of respiratory and cardiovascular diseases and to certain forms of cancer. On the basis of the results of a recent study of the impacts of pollution control on inflation, the annual reduction in purchasing power of the average family is calculated to be $31 per family. To determine the average costs of air pollution on human health, research by Lave and Seskin is utilized. First, the implications of air pollution for mortality and morbidity rates are determined. Then, the reduction in direct health costs and indirect costs (lost productivity of workers) as a result of pollution abatement is estimated. These annual health costs from pollution total approximately $250 per family. The results suggest that the inflationary costs of air pollution control are more than offset by the damages to public health from unabated air pollution. PMID:6771129

  16. Cough and environmental air pollution in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qingling; Qiu, Minzhi; Lai, Kefang; Zhong, Nanshan

    2015-12-01

    With fast-paced urbanization and increased energy consumption in rapidly industrialized modern China, the level of outdoor and indoor air pollution resulting from industrial and motor vehicle emissions has been increasing at an accelerated rate. Thus, there is a significant increase in the prevalence of respiratory symptoms such as coughing, wheezing, and decreased pulmonary function. Experimental exposure research and epidemiological studies have indicated that exposure to particulate matter, ozone, nitrogen dioxide, and environmental tobacco smoke have a harmful influence on development of respiratory diseases and are significantly associated with cough and wheeze. This review mainly discusses the effect of air pollutants on respiratory health, particularly with respect to cough, the links between air pollutants and microorganisms, and air pollutant sources. Particular attention is paid to studies in urban areas of China where the levels of ambient and indoor air pollution are significantly higher than World Health Organization recommendations.

  17. The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) evaluation of the carcinogenicity of outdoor air pollution:focus on China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dana Loomis; Wei Huang; Guosheng Chen

    2014-01-01

    The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has classified outdoor air pol ution and the particulate matter (PM) in outdoor air pol ution as carcinogenic to humans, as based on sufficient evidence of carcinogenicity in humans and experimental animals and strong support by mechanistic studies. The data with important contributions to the evaluation are reviewed, highlighting the data with particular relevance to China, and implications of the evaluation with respect to China are discussed. The air pol ution levels in Chinese cities are among the highest observed in the world today and frequently exceed health-based national and international guidelines. Data from high-quality epidemiologic studies in Asia, Europe, and North America consistently show positive associations between lung cancer and PM exposure and other indicators of air pol ution, which persist after adjustment for important lung cancer risk factors, such as tobacco smoking. Epidemiologic data from China are limited but nevertheless indicate an increased risk of lung cancer associated with several air pol utants. Excess cancer risk is also observed in experimental animals exposed to pol uted outdoor air or extracted PM. The exposure of several species to outdoor air pollution is associated with markers of genetic damage that have been linked to increased cancer risk in humans. Numerous studies from China, especially genetic biomarker studies in exposed populations, support that the polluted air in China is genotoxic and carcinogenic to humans. The evaluation by IARC indicates both the need for further research into the cancer risks associated with exposure to air pol ution in China and the urgent need to act to reduce exposure to the population.

  18. Ozone as an air pollutant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, Rolf W.

    1996-01-01

    A Danish new book on ozone as an air pollutant has been reviewed. The Book is "Ozon som luftforurening" by Jes Fenger, Published by "Danmarks Miljøundersøgelser, 1995.......A Danish new book on ozone as an air pollutant has been reviewed. The Book is "Ozon som luftforurening" by Jes Fenger, Published by "Danmarks Miljøundersøgelser, 1995....

  19. Population Dynamics and Air Pollution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flachs, Esben Meulengracht; Sørensen, Jan; Bønløkke, Jacob;

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To explore how three different assumptions on demographics affect the health impact of Danish emitted air pollution in Denmark from 2005 to 2030, with health impact modeled from 2005 to 2050. Methods. Modeled air pollution from Danish sources was used as exposure in a newly developed......) a static year 2005 population, (2) morbidity and mortality fixed at the year 2005 level, or (3) an expected development. Results. The health impact of air pollution was estimated at 672,000, 290,000, and 280,000 lost life years depending on demographic assumptions and the corresponding social costs at 430.......4 M€, 317.5 M€, and 261.6 M€ through the modeled years 2005–2050. Conclusion. The modeled health impact of air pollution differed widely with the demographic assumptions, and thus demographics and assumptions on demographics played a key role in making health impact assessments on air pollution....

  20. Research of the influence of air chemical pollutions on the health of urban population

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naumenko, T.; Smirnov, M.; Amvrosiev, P.; Kurganskaya, G.; Gritsenko, T. [The Byelorussian Sanitation and Hygiene Research Inst., Minsk (Russian Federation)

    1995-12-31

    The main problem of environmental hygiene in the Republic of Belarus is ecological situation health effects extent determination and risk assessment. The different epidemiological studies of ecological risk for public health due to atmosphere industry emissions, directed to hygiene standards correction and epidemiological and ecological situation management were conducted by the Belarussian Sanitation and Hygiene Research Institute. Atmosphere pollution of heavy industry enterprises, pharmaceutical production, the electric power stations and its impact on people morbidity in adjacent and sanitary protection areas was studied. The objective of the research is hygienic assessment and determination of public health changes, caused by atmosphere pollution, and preventive measures programs elaboration in such industrial cities as Brest, Gomel, Minsk, Grodno, Mogilev, Novopolotsk. (author)

  1. Atmospheric Chemistry and Air Pollution

    OpenAIRE

    Gaffney, Jeffrey S.; Marley, Nancy A.

    2003-01-01

    Atmospheric chemistry is an important discipline for understanding air pollution and its impacts. This mini-review gives a brief history of air pollution and presents an overview of some of the basic photochemistry involved in the production of ozone and other oxidants in the atmosphere. Urban air quality issues are reviewed with a specific focus on ozone and other oxidants, primary and secondary aerosols, alternative fuels, and the potential for chlorine releases to amplify oxidant chemistry...

  2. As Traffic Piles Up, So Does Air Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 160914.html As Traffic Piles Up, So Does Air Pollution To minimize exposure, researchers recommend shutting windows and ... Doing so can reduce your exposure to toxic air pollution from a traffic jam by up to 76 ...

  3. Atmospheric Chemistry and Air Pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey S. Gaffney

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric chemistry is an important discipline for understanding air pollution and its impacts. This mini-review gives a brief history of air pollution and presents an overview of some of the basic photochemistry involved in the production of ozone and other oxidants in the atmosphere. Urban air quality issues are reviewed with a specific focus on ozone and other oxidants, primary and secondary aerosols, alternative fuels, and the potential for chlorine releases to amplify oxidant chemistry in industrial areas. Regional air pollution issues such as acid rain, long-range transport of aerosols and visibility loss, and the connections of aerosols to ozone and peroxyacetyl nitrate chemistry are examined. Finally, the potential impacts of air pollutants on the global-scale radiative balances of gases and aerosols are discussed briefly.

  4. Air Pollution Exposure and Physical Activity in China: Current Knowledge, Public Health Implications, and Future Research Needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lü, Jiaojiao; Liang, Leichao; Feng, Yi; Li, Rena; Liu, Yu

    2015-11-01

    Deteriorating air quality in China has created global public health concerns in regard to health and health-related behaviors. Although emerging environmental regulations address ambient air pollution in China, the level of enforcement and long-term impact of these measures remain unknown. Exposure to air pollution has been shown to lead to multiple adverse health outcomes, including increased rates of heart disease and mortality. However, a lesser-known but increasingly significant concern is the relationship between air pollution and its effects on outdoor exercise. This is especially important in China, which has a culturally rooted lifestyle that encourages participation in outdoor physical activity. This article evaluates the intersection of air pollution and outdoor exercise and provides a discussion of issues related to its public health impact in China, where efforts to promote a healthy lifestyle may be adversely affected by the ambient air pollution that has accompanied rapid economic development and urbanization.

  5. Air Pollution Exposure and Physical Activity in China: Current Knowledge, Public Health Implications, and Future Research Needs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiaojiao Lü

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Deteriorating air quality in China has created global public health concerns in regard to health and health-related behaviors. Although emerging environmental regulations address ambient air pollution in China, the level of enforcement and long-term impact of these measures remain unknown. Exposure to air pollution has been shown to lead to multiple adverse health outcomes, including increased rates of heart disease and mortality. However, a lesser-known but increasingly significant concern is the relationship between air pollution and its effects on outdoor exercise. This is especially important in China, which has a culturally rooted lifestyle that encourages participation in outdoor physical activity. This article evaluates the intersection of air pollution and outdoor exercise and provides a discussion of issues related to its public health impact in China, where efforts to promote a healthy lifestyle may be adversely affected by the ambient air pollution that has accompanied rapid economic development and urbanization.

  6. Effects of genetic strain on stress-induced weight and body fat loss in rats: Application to air pollution research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exposure to some air pollutants is suspected of contributing to obesity. Hazelton chambers are commonly used in air pollution studies but we found unexpected reductions in body weight and body fat of rats housed in Hazelton chambers under control conditions. We suspect that stres...

  7. Air Pollution Affects Community Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shy, Carl M.; Finklea, John F.

    1973-01-01

    Community Health and Environmental Surveillance System (CHESS), a nationwide program relating community health to environmental quality, is designed to evaluate existing environmental standards, obtain health intelligence for new standards, and document health benefits of air pollution control. (BL)

  8. Air Pollution and the skin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleni eDrakaki

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The increase of air pollution over the years has major effects on the human skin. The skin is exposed to ultraviolet radiation (UVR and environmental air pollutants such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs, volatile organic compounds (VOCs, oxides, particulate matter (PM, ozone (O3 and cigarette smoke. Although human skin acts as a biological shield against pro-oxidative chemical and physical air pollutants, the prolonged or repetitive exposure to high levels of these pollutants may have profound negative effects on the skin. Exposure of the skin to air pollutants has been associated with skin aging and inflammatory or allergic skin conditions such as atopic dermatitis, eczema, psoriasis or acne, while skin cancer is among the most serious effects. On the other hand, some air pollutants (ie, ozone, nitrogen dioxide, and sulfur dioxide and scattering particulates (clouds and soot in the troposphere reduce the effects of shorter wavelength UVR and significant reductions in UV irradiance have been observed in polluted urban areas.

  9. Air pollution from household solid fuel combustion in India: an overview of exposure and health related information to inform health research priorities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalpana Balakrishnan

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Environmental and occupational risk factors contribute to nearly 40% of the national burden of disease in India, with air pollution in the indoor and outdoor environment ranking amongst leading risk factors. It is now recognized that the health burden from air pollution exposures that primarily occur in the rural indoors, from pollutants released during the incomplete combustion of solid fuels in households, may rival or even exceed the burden attributable to urban outdoor exposures. Few environmental epidemiological efforts have been devoted to this setting, however. We provide an overview of important available information on exposures and health effects related to household solid fuel use in India, with a view to inform health research priorities for household air pollution and facilitate being able to address air pollution within an integrated rural–urban framework in the future.

  10. Pigeons home faster through polluted air

    OpenAIRE

    Zhongqiu Li; Franck Courchamp; Blumstein, Daniel T.

    2016-01-01

    Air pollution, especially haze pollution, is creating health issues for both humans and other animals. However, remarkably little is known about how animals behaviourally respond to air pollution. We used multiple linear regression to analyse 415 pigeon races in the North China Plain, an area with considerable air pollution, and found that while the proportion of pigeons successfully homed was not influenced by air pollution, pigeons homed faster when the air was especially polluted. Our resu...

  11. Use of nuclear and related analytical techniques in environmental research as exemplified by selected air pollution studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Among nuclear and nuclear related analytical techniques, neutron activation analysis and X-ray fluorescence spectrometry proved to be particularly useful for environmental studies owing to their nondestructive character and multi element capability. This paper emphasizes their importance among other multielement analytical methods by discussing their specific role due to specific physics basis, quite different to other destructive non-nuclear methods, and by summarizing results obtained in several studies related to air pollution research, including analyses of airborne particulate matter, water samples, lichens and mosses. (author)

  12. Air Pollution Exposure and Physical Activity in China: Current Knowledge, Public Health Implications, and Future Research Needs

    OpenAIRE

    Jiaojiao Lü; Leichao Liang; Yi Feng; Rena Li; Yu Liu

    2015-01-01

    Deteriorating air quality in China has created global public health concerns in regard to health and health-related behaviors. Although emerging environmental regulations address ambient air pollution in China, the level of enforcement and long-term impact of these measures remain unknown. Exposure to air pollution has been shown to lead to multiple adverse health outcomes, including increased rates of heart disease and mortality. However, a lesser-known but increasingly significant concern i...

  13. Air Pollution in the World's Megacities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richman, Barbara T., Ed.

    1994-01-01

    Reports findings of the Global Environment Monitoring System study concerning air pollution in the world's megacities. Discusses sources of air pollution, air pollution impacts, air quality monitoring, air quality trends, and control strategies. Provides profiles of the problem in Beijing, Los Angeles, Mexico City, India, Cairo, Sao Paulo, and…

  14. Air pollution and allergic diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ring, J.

    1987-03-13

    In the discussion on possible adverse effects of air pollution upon human health one has to distinguish between out-door and in-door environment. The most frequent pollutants in out-door air over industrialized areas are particulate substances, sulfur dioxide, nitrous oxide, carbonmonoxide, ozone and lead. Most of these substances have direct irritating effects on mucous surfaces. Hypersensitivity reactions have been described against sulfur dioxide and sulfites occurring as asthma, urticaria or anaphylactoid reactions. In-door air pollution is of much greater practical importance for a variety of diseases. Apart from physio-chemical irritants and microbial organisms leading to infections, organic allergens (e.g. house dust mites, moulds, animal epithelia) can induce a variety of allergic diseases via different pathomechanisms.

  15. Indoor air pollution and health

    OpenAIRE

    World Heath Organization (WHO)

    2005-01-01

    Metadata only record This is a fact sheet summarizing the indoor air pollution problem. The risk factors include health impacts such as respiratory infections and lung cancer. The fact sheet explains that women and children in developing nations are most vulnerable to the pollutants. It links Millennium Development Goals 1, 3, 4 and 7 (eradicate extreme poverty, empowering women, reducing child mortality, and ensure environmental sustainability) with the need for action. The fact sheet end...

  16. Outdoor air pollution and human infertility: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Checa Vizcaíno, Miguel A; González-Comadran, Mireia; Jacquemin, Benedicte

    2016-09-15

    Air pollution is a current research priority because of its adverse effects on human health, including on fertility. However, the mechanisms through which air pollution impairs fertility remain unclear. In this article, we perform a systematic review to evaluate currently available evidence on the impact of air pollution on fertility in humans. Several studies have assessed the impact of air pollutants on the general population, and have found reduced fertility rates and increased risk of miscarriage. In subfertile patients, women exposed to higher concentrations of air pollutants while undergoing IVF showed lower live birth rates and higher rates of miscarriage. After exposure to similar levels of air pollutants, comparable results have been found regardless of the mode of conception (IVF versus spontaneous conception), suggesting that infertile women are not more susceptible to the effects of pollutants than the general population. In addition, previous studies have not observed impaired embryo quality after exposure to air pollution, although evidence for this question is sparse.

  17. Indoor air pollution and airway disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viegi, G.; Simoni, M.; Scognamiglio, A.; Baldacci, S.; Pistelli, F.; Carrozzi, L.; Annesi-Maesano, I. [CNR, Pisa (Italy). Inst. of Clinical Physiology

    2004-12-15

    Growing scientific evidence has shown that because people generally spend the majority of their time indoors, indoor pollution plays a significant role in affecting health and is thus an important health issue. Common indoor pollutants are environmental tobacco smoke, particulate matter, nitrogen dioxide, carbon monoxide, volatile organic compounds and biological allergens. In developing countries, relevant sources of indoor pollution include biomass and coal burning for cooking and heating. Concentrations of these pollutants can be many times higher indoors than outdoors. Indoor air pollution may increase the risk of irritation phenomena, allergic sensitisation, acute and chronic respiratory disorders and lung function impairment. Recent conservative estimates have shown that 1.5-2 million deaths per year worldwide could be attributed to indoor air pollution. Approximately 1 million of these deaths occur in children aged under 5 years due to acute respiratory infections and significant proportions of deaths occur due to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and lung cancer in women. Today, indoor air pollution ranks tenth among preventable risk factors contributing to the global burden of disease. Further research is necessary to better evaluate the respiratory health effects of indoor pollution and to implement protective programmes for public health.

  18. Air pollution in the Slovak Republic, 2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A report on air quality and contribution of individual sources on its pollution in the Slovak Republic in 2001 is presented. This report consists of two parts: (1) Ambient air and (2) Emission. Ambient air part is divided into the following chapters: Regional air pollution and quality of precipitation; Local air pollution; Atmospheric ozone. Emission part is divided into the following chapters: Emission and air pollution source inventory, Greenhouse gas emissions

  19. In Brief: Air pollution app

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showstack, Randy

    2010-10-01

    A new smartphone application takes advantage of various technological capabilities and sensors to help users monitor air quality. Tapping into smartphone cameras, Global Positioning System (GPS) sensors, compasses, and accelerometers, computer scientists with the University of Southern California's (USC) Viterbi School of Engineering have developed a new application, provisionally entitled “Visibility.” Currently available for the Android telephone operating system, the application is available for free download at http://robotics.usc.edu/˜mobilesensing/Projects/AirVisibilityMonitoring. An iPhone application may be introduced soon. Smartphone users can take a picture of the sky and then compare it with models of sky luminance to estimate visibility. While conventional air pollution monitors are costly and thinly deployed in some areas, the smartphone application potentially could help fill in some blanks in existing air pollution maps, according to USC computer science professor Gaurav Sukhatme.

  20. Air pollution in the Slovak Republic, 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A report on air quality and contribution of individual sources on its pollution in the Slovak Republic in 2003 is presented. This report consists of two parts: (1) Pollutants part and (2) Emission part. Pollutants part is divided into the following chapters: Regional air pollution and quality of of precipitation; Local air pollution; Atmospheric ozone. Emission part is divided into the following chapters: Inventory control of emissions and sources of pollution, Emission of greenhouse gases

  1. Air pollution in the Slovak Republic, 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A report on air quality and contribution of individual sources on its pollution in the Slovak Republic in 2004 is presented. This report consists of two parts: (1) Pollutants part and (2) Emission part. Pollutants part is divided into the following chapters: Regional air pollution and quality of precipitation; Local air pollution; Atmospheric ozone. Emission part is divided into the following chapters: Inventory control of emissions and sources of pollution, Emission of greenhouse gases

  2. Organic compounds as indicators of air pollution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mølhave, Lars

    2003-01-01

    The most important indoor air pollutants have already been addressedwith individual national guidelines or recommendations. However, an interna-tional set of guidelines or recommendations for indoor air quality (IAQ) isneeded for these pollutants based on general and uniform rules for setting...... suchstandards. A major research need exist on the less adverse pollutants beforerecommendations or guidelines can be established. In the interim period a pre-caution principle should lead to an ALARA principle for these secondary cau-salities. It should be noted that volatile organic compound (VOC......) is an indicatorfor the presence of VOC indoors. The TVOC indicator can be used in relation toexposure characterization and source identification but for VOCs only, not as anindictor of other pollutants and their health effects. In risk assessment the TVOCindicator can only be used as a screening tool and only...

  3. Asthma and air pollution in the Bronx: methodological and data considerations in using GIS for environmental justice and health research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maantay, Juliana

    2007-03-01

    This paper examines methods of environmental justice assessment with Geographic Information Systems, using research on the spatial correspondence between asthma and air pollution in the Bronx, New York City as a case study. Issues of spatial extent and resolution, the selection of environmental burdens to analyze, data and methodological limitations, and different approaches to delineating exposure are discussed in the context of the asthma study, which, through proximity analysis, found that people living near (within specified distance buffers) noxious land uses were up to 66 percent more likely to be hospitalized for asthma, and were 30 percent more likely to be poor and 13 percent more likely to be a minority than those outside the buffers.

  4. [Airport related air pollution and health effects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iavicoli, Ivo; Fontana, Luca; Ancona, Carla; Forastiere, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    Airport is an extremely complex emission source of airborne pollutants that can have a significant impact on the environment. Indeed, several airborne chemicals emitted during airport activities may significantly get worse air quality and increase exposure level of both airport workers and general population living nearby the airports. In recent years airport traffic has increased and consequently several studies investigated the association between airport-related air pollution and occurrence of adverse health effects, particularly on respiratory system, in exposed workers and general population resident nearby. In this context, we carried out a critical evaluation of the studies that investigated this correlation in order to obtain a deeper knowledge of this issue and to identify the future research needs. Results show that the evidence of association between airport-related air pollution and health effects on workers and residents is still limited.

  5. Land use and cover change as an overarching topic in the Dutch National Research Programme on Global Air Pollution and Climate Change : issues for implementation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fresco, L.O.; Berg, van den M.M.; Zeijl-Rozema, van A.E.

    1996-01-01

    The integration study 'Land Use and Cover Change as an overarching topic in the Dutch National Research Programme on Global Air Pollution and Climate Change (NRP)' aims at identifying research fields in which the NRP can contribute most effectively to the international scientific know-how

  6. Air pollution in Copenhagen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aerosols were monitored in Greater Copenhagen in the period June 1973 to July 1974. Size-fractionated cascade impactor samples and unfractionated filter samples were regularly collected and analyzed be neutron activation analysis, spark emission spectroscopy or proton-induced X-ray emission spectroscopy. Concentrations were determined of the following elements: Al, Si, S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Br, Mo, Cd, Sn, Sb, and Pb. All elements showed orders-of-magnitude fluctuationsthe mean concentrations were roughly the same as in other large cities. In relation to proposed air quality standards, Pb was the most critical component. Statistical analysis of variation patterns, size distributions and interelement correlations indicate that automotive exhaust is the source of Br and Pbfuel-oil combustion is the main source of V and Ni (and partly of S)soil dust raised by wind or by human activity (e.g. traffic) is the main source of Al, Si, Ca, Ti, and Fe. (author)

  7. Air Pollution and Heart Disease, Stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... High Blood Pressure Tools & Resources Stroke More Air Pollution and Heart Disease, Stroke Updated:Aug 30,2016 ... routine or in a less populated place, tiny pollution particles in the air can lead to big ...

  8. Ambient air pollution and low birthweight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Marie; Giorgis-Allemand, Lise; Bernard, Claire;

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Ambient air pollution has been associated with restricted fetal growth, which is linked with adverse respiratory health in childhood. We assessed the effect of maternal exposure to low concentrations of ambient air pollution on birthweight. METHODS: We pooled data from 14 population...... air pollutants and traffic during pregnancy is associated with restricted fetal growth. A substantial proportion of cases of low birthweight at term could be prevented in Europe if urban air pollution was reduced. FUNDING: The European Union....

  9. Stochastic Modeling of Traffic Air Pollution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thoft-Christensen, Palle

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, modeling of traffic air pollution is discussed with special reference to infrastructures. A number of subjects related to health effects of air pollution and the different types of pollutants are briefly presented. A simple model for estimating the social cost of traffic related air...... and using simple Monte Carlo techniques to obtain a stochastic estimate of the costs of traffic air pollution for infrastructures....

  10. Manual for THOR-AirPAS - air pollution assessment system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Steen Solvang; Ketzel, Matthias; Brandt, Jørgen;

    The report provides an outline of the THOR-AirPAS - air pollution assessment system and a brief manual for getting started with the air quality models and input data included in THOR-AirPAS.......The report provides an outline of the THOR-AirPAS - air pollution assessment system and a brief manual for getting started with the air quality models and input data included in THOR-AirPAS....

  11. Long-Term Calculations with Large Air Pollution Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    1999-01-01

    Proceedings of the NATO Advanced Research Workshop on Large Scale Computations in Air Pollution Modelling, Sofia, Bulgaria, 6-10 July 1998......Proceedings of the NATO Advanced Research Workshop on Large Scale Computations in Air Pollution Modelling, Sofia, Bulgaria, 6-10 July 1998...

  12. Application of Parallel Algorithms in an Air Pollution Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    1999-01-01

    Proceedings of the NATO Advanced Research Workshop on Large Scale Computations in Air Pollution Modelling, Sofia, Bulgaria, 6-10 July 1998......Proceedings of the NATO Advanced Research Workshop on Large Scale Computations in Air Pollution Modelling, Sofia, Bulgaria, 6-10 July 1998...

  13. Air pollution and air cleaning equipment in buildings

    OpenAIRE

    Evdokimova, Ekaterina

    2011-01-01

    The subject of this thesis work is air pollution and air cleaners in building. Clean air has big significance for human health because different pollutions can cause allergy and disease. The quality of indoor air affects health and effective working. The aim of this thesis is to present methods and devices for cleaning the air.

  14. Air Pollution in the Mexico Megacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Suarez, L. G.

    2007-05-01

    Mexico City is a megacity whose metropolitan area includes the country federal district, 18 municipalities of the State of Mexico. In year 1992, only 16 municipalities of the State of Mexico were part of MCMA. In year 1940 the Mexico City population was 1.78 millions in an area of 118 km2, in year 2000 the population was 17.9 millions in an area of 1,500 km2. Population has grown a ten fold whereas population density has dropped 20%. Total number of private cars has grown from 2,341,731 in year 1998 to 2,967,893 in year 2004. Nowadays, people and goods travel longer at lower speed to reach school, work and selling points. In addition highly efficient public transport lost a significant share of transport demand from 19.1 in 1986 to 14.3 in 1998. Air pollution is a public concern since early eighties last century; systematic public efforts have been carried out since late eighties. Energy consumption has steadily increased in the MCMA whereas emissions have also decreased. From year 2000 to 2004, the private cars fleet increased 17% whereas CO, NOx and COV emissions decreased between 20-30%. Average concentrations of criteria pollutants have decreased The number of days that the one-hour national standard for bad air quality was exceeded in year 1990 was 160. In year 2005 was 70. Research efforts and public policies on air pollution have been focused on public health. We are now better able to estimate the cost in human lives due to air pollution, or the cost in labor lost due to illness. Little if none at all work has been carried out to look at the effect of air pollution on private and public property or onto the cultural heritage. Few reports have can be found on the impact of air pollution in rural areas, including forest and crops, around the mega city. Mexico City is in the south end of a Valley with mountain ranges higher than 1000 m above the average city altitude. In spite the heavy loss of forested areas to the city, the mountains still retain large

  15. Air pollution and its control in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAO Jiming; HE Kebin; DUAN Lei; LI Junhua; WANG Litao

    2007-01-01

    The rapid growth of China's economy has led to severe air pollution characterized by acid rain,severe pollution in cities,and regional air pollution.High concentrations are found for various pollutants such as sulfur dioxides(SO2),nitrogen oxides(NOx),and fine particulates.Great efforts have thus been undertaken for the control of air pollution in the country.This paper discusses the development and application of appropriate technologies for reducing the major pollutants produced by coal and vehicles,and investi gates air quality modeling as an important support for policy-making.

  16. Vehicles and Particulate Air Pollution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The current scene relating to particles and vehicular emissions in UK is reviewed. The active research topics are health effects of particles, particle size and composition, modeling the fate of particles and assessing individual exposure. There is a National Air Quality Strategy combined with local air quality management which includes monitoring and assessment, dispersion modeling and development of management plans.

  17. EVALUATION OF A PORTABLE FOURIER TRANSFORM INFRARED GAS ANALYZER FOR MEASUREMENTS OF AIR TOXICS IN POLLUTION PREVENTION RESEARCH

    Science.gov (United States)

    A portable Fourier transform infrared gas analyzer with a photoacoustic detector performed reliably during pollution prevention research at two industrial facilities. It exhibited good agreement (within approximately 6%) with other analytical instruments (dispersive infrared and ...

  18. Effects of Air Pollution on Materials and Cultural Heritage: ICP Materials Celebrates 25 Years of Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johan Tidblad

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available An overview is given of all results from the International Co-operative Programme on Effects on Materials including Historic and Cultural Monuments (ICP Materials, which was launched in 1985. Since then, about twenty different materials have been exposed repeatedly in a network of test sites consisting of more than twenty sites with an extensive environmental characterisation and more than sixty official reports have been issued. Recent results on trends in corrosion, soiling, and pollution show that corrosion of carbon steel, zinc, and limestone is today substantially lower than 25 years ago, but while corrosion of carbon steel has decreased until today, corrosion of zinc and limestone has remained more or less constant since the turn of the century. Unique data are given on measured HNO3 concentrations from 2002-2003, 2005-2006, and 2008-2009, and the relative average decrease was about the same from 2002-2003 to 2005-2006 as it was from 2005-2006 to 2008-2009.

  19. Respiratory effects of air pollution on children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldizen, Fiona C; Sly, Peter D; Knibbs, Luke D

    2016-01-01

    A substantial proportion of the global burden of disease is directly or indirectly attributable to exposure to air pollution. Exposures occurring during the periods of organogenesis and rapid lung growth during fetal development and early post-natal life are especially damaging. In this State of the Art review, we discuss air toxicants impacting on children's respiratory health, routes of exposure with an emphasis on unique pathways relevant to young children, methods of exposure assessment and their limitations and the adverse health consequences of exposures. Finally, we point out gaps in knowledge and research needs in this area. A greater understanding of the adverse health consequences of exposure to air pollution in early life is required to encourage policy makers to reduce such exposures and improve human health.

  20. REAL TIME WIRELESS AIR POLLUTION MONITORING SYSTEM

    OpenAIRE

    Raja Vara Prasad Y; Mirza Sami Baig; Mishra, Rahul K; Rajalakshmi, P.; U. B. Desai; S. N. Merchant

    2011-01-01

    Air pollution has significant influence on the concentration of constituents in the atmosphere leading to effects like global warming and acid rains. To avoid such adverse imbalances in the nature, an air pollution monitoring system is utmost important. This paper attempts to develop an effective solution for pollution monitoring using wireless sensor networks (WSN) on a real time basis namely real time wireless air pollution monitoring system. Commercially available discrete gas sensors for ...

  1. [Molybdenum as an air pollutant].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindner, R; Junker, E; Hoheiser, H

    1990-07-01

    Investigations into the reasons for the retarded growth and discolouration of a small area of a field of rape situated on the outskirts of Vienna revealed higher than normal levels of molybdenum in the soil (up to 430 micrograms/l) and in the water (up to 9.7 mg/l). The source of the pollution was traced to a neighbouring industrial plant that was emitting the metal via the chimney stack. A review of the literature on the toxic effects of molybdenum in general and as an air pollutant in particular is provided. This shows that, in contrast to animals, this effect is relatively small in humans and plants. Nevertheless, the occupation-related inhalation of the metal has been shown to be associated with pneumoconiosis and gout-like symptoms.

  2. AIR POLLUTION OF URBAN AREAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MAKAROVA V. N.

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Raising of problem. Any manufacturing processes related to the generation of waste. Year after year, a growing mass of waste is one of the main factors reducing the quality of the environment and destruction of natural landscapes. Industrial development inevitably enhances human impacts on the environment and disrupts the ecological balance [3]. Atmospher air is a vital element of the environment. The development of industry, the growth of cities, increasing the number of transport, active exploration of near-Earth space lead to a change in the gas composition of the atmosphere and disruption of its natural balance. Air quality affects the health of the population [5]. Without water or food a person can do for a while, but without air he can not live a few minutes, therefore saving air breathable is an urgent problem. Purpose. The results of geological studies clearly indicate that the contamination of the surface layer of the atmosphere is the most powerful permanent factor of influence on the human food chain and the environment. This problem was reflected in the scientific literature [2; 3; 6], and the second significant indicator of ecological well-being of the region is the number of generation and accumulation of waste. According to this indicator, Dnipropetrovsk region is in the lead, as relates to the industrialized regions. The idea of the article is to consider the air pollution of the urban environment in terms of the accumulation of waste in the territory of enterprises, in particular slag dumps metallurgical production. Conclusion. Slag dumps located on the premises are a significant source of air pollution urbanized areas due to the permanent nature of the spread of contamination. Slag dump of PAT "Nikopol Ferroalloy Plant" is a source of manganese, zinc, nickel emissions. As a conclusion about the magnitude of pollution of the atmospheric boundary layer can say the following: on the border of the sanitary protection zone (SPZ, in

  3. Diagnosing vegetation injury caused by air pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-02-01

    The structure and function of plants in relation to air pollution injury is discussed. The sources, atmospheric chemistry, monitoring data, symptomatology, factors affecting plant response, injury threshold doses, air quality standards, relative sensitivity of plants, and leaf tissue analysis are discussed for major air pollutants. Among the pollutants discussed are: the photochemical oxidants (ozone, PAN, nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxide, and fluorides). Minor pollutants discussed in the same framework are chlorine, hydrogen chloride, ethylene, ammonia, hydrogen sulfide, carbon monoxide, heavy metals (lead, zinc, cadmium, copper, and mercury), particulates, and pesticides. Other subjects discussed include: interactions between pollutants and between pollutants and pathogens, mimicking symptoms, meteorology and air pollution injury, and basic diagnostic procedures of suspected air pollution injury to vegetation. 76 references, 128 figures, 28 tables.

  4. Urban air pollution climates throughout the world

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertel, Ole; Goodsite, Michael Evan

    2009-01-01

    as well as the transport in and out of the city area. The building obstacles play a crucial role in causing generally high pollutant levels in the urban environment, especially inside street canyons where the canyon vortex flow governs the pollution distribution. Of the pollutants dominating urban air......The extent of the urban area, the local emission density, and the temporal pattern in the releases govern the local contribution to air pollution levels in urban environments. However, meteorological conditions also heavily affect the actual pollution levels as they govern the dispersion conditions...... population and provide the right basis for future urban air pollution management. © Royal Society of Chemistry 2009....

  5. Air pollution monitor for TRISTAN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the summer of 1988, sixteen superconducting RF cavities were installed to increase the beam energy of TRISTAN and they began to be effective operation in November. One of the obvious problems created by the installation of superconducting equipment to the tunnel is oxygen-poor in case of bursting the liquefied gases. Air pollution in the tunnel from poisonous gases formed by synchrotron radiations is also becoming serious problem as upgrading TRISTAN. It is the purpose of this paper to show the special safety control problems and the system used in TRISTAN to give a solution for these problems. 3 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab

  6. Environmental Chemistry: Air and Water Pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoker, H. Stephen; Seager, Spencer L.

    This is a book about air and water pollution whose chapters cover the topics of air pollution--general considerations, carbon monoxide, oxides of nitrogen, hydrocarbons and photochemical oxidants, sulfur oxides, particulates, temperature inversions and the greenhouse effect; and water pollution--general considerations, mercury, lead, detergents,…

  7. Science Shop and NGO activities related to air pollution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Michael Søgaard; Brodersen, Søsser

    2005-01-01

    with focus on development of citizens' capacity for measurement and assessment of air pollution and strategies for abatement and prevention of air pollution. The paper discusses also possibilities for further development of dialogue and co-operation between civil society, science shops and ACCENT researchers....

  8. Extricating sex and gender in air pollution research: a community-based study on cardinal symptoms of exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oiamo, Tor H; Luginaah, Isaac N

    2013-09-01

    This study investigated sex and gender differences in cardinal symptoms of exposure to a mixture of ambient pollutants. A cross sectional population-based study design was utilized in Sarnia, ON, Canada. Stratified random sampling in census tracts of residents aged 18 and over recruited 804 respondents. Respondents completed a community health survey of chronic disease, general health, and socioeconomic indicators. Residential concentrations of NO₂, SO₂, benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and o/m/p-xylene were estimated by land use regression on data collected through environmental monitoring. Classification and Regression Tree (CART) analysis was used to identify variables that interacted with sex and cardinal symptoms of exposure, and a series of logistic regression models were built to predict the reporting of five or more cardinal symptoms (5+ CS). Without controlling for confounders, higher pollution ranks increased the odds ratio (OR) of reporting 5+ CS by 28% (p air pollution, but additionally indicated that stronger effects on females is partly due to autoimmune disorders. Furthermore, gender differences in occupational exposure confound the effect size of exposure in studies based on residential levels of air pollution.

  9. The DMU-ATMI THOR Air Pollution Forecast System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, J.; Christensen, J. H.; Frohn, L. M.;

    A new operational air pollution forecast system, THOR, has been developed at the National Environmental Research Institute, Den-mark. The integrated system consists of a series of different air pollu-tion models, which cover a wide range of scales (from European scale to street scale in cities......) and applications. The goal of the system is, on continuous basis, to produce 3 days air pollution forecasts of the most important air pollution species on different scales. Furthermore, the system will be an integrated part of the national urban and rural monitoring programmes and will be used for emission...... reduction scenarios supporting decision-makers. Currently, the THOR system consists of a numerical weather forecast model, ETA, a long-range air pollution chemistry-transport model, DEOM, an urban background model, BUM, and an operational street pollution model, OSPM. The ETA model is initialized...

  10. The European concerted action on air pollution epidemiology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ackermann-Liebrich, U. [Basel Univ. (Switzerland). Inst. for Social and Preventive Medicine

    1995-12-31

    The European Concerted Action on Air Pollution Epidemiology was started in 1990 with the aim of bringing together European researchers in the field and improving research through collaboration and by preparing documents which would help to this end and by organizing workshops. A further aim was to stimulate cooperative research. Air pollution epidemiology investigates human effects of community air pollution by epidemiological methods. Epidemiology in general investigates the distribution and determinants of health-related states and events in populations. Diseases in which air pollution may play a significant role are mainly diseases of the respiratory system, for example chronic non-specific lung disease and lung cancer. Most diseases caused by air pollution can also be caused by other factors. Air pollution epidemiology is therefore specific in the expo variable (community air pollution) rather than in the type of health effects being studied. Air pollution epidemiology is beset with some specially challenging difficulties: ubiquitous exposure and as a consequence limited heterogeneity in exposure, low relative risks, few or specific health end points, and strong confounding. Further on the exposure-effect relationship is complicated by assumptions inherent to different study designs which relate to the exposure duration necessary to produce a certain health effect. In reports and workshops the concerted action tries to propose strategies to deal with these problems. (author)

  11. Analysis Of Highway Air Pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.SUBRAMANI

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The traffic is growing at rapid rate in urban areas of India and the management of traffic operations on the limited road network of the cities has become a gigantic task to the concerned authorities. Despite the concerted efforts of concerned authorities aimed at augmenting road infrastructure, traffic congestion is continuing to increase leading to environmental degradation. Eventually, a major study was commissioned by the Government of India to quantify urban travel by road and associated air pollutants coming from automobile exhausts in eight cities namely, Delhi, Mumbai, Kolkata, Chennai, Bangalore, Hyderabad, Kanpur and Agra. The main objective was to make an accurate assessment of total number of vehicles and develop database and techniques to estimate road traffic and pollution loads in each city. This paper describes operating characteristics of traffic and quantification of traffic and air pollution loads (base and horizon year on major road network of Chennai city. Comparatively urbanization is moderate in India. This is because the major contributor to the Indian economy is agriculture and it is rural based. As per the Census of India 2001, the urban population of India is around 28 percent of the total population. This proportion of urban population has grown from ten percent in 1901 to twenty eight percent in 2001. The disturbing aspect of the urbanization trends in India is the skewed distribution of the urban population. Nearly seventy percent of the urban population is located in Class-I cities (i.e. population of 100 Thousand and above. Further, 38 percent of the total urban population is located in metropolitan cities (i.e. population of 1 million and above numbering about thirty-five. This heavy concentration of population in a few centers has resulted in the expansion of cities in density as well as area.

  12. Pigeons home faster through polluted air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhongqiu; Courchamp, Franck; Blumstein, Daniel T.

    2016-01-01

    Air pollution, especially haze pollution, is creating health issues for both humans and other animals. However, remarkably little is known about how animals behaviourally respond to air pollution. We used multiple linear regression to analyse 415 pigeon races in the North China Plain, an area with considerable air pollution, and found that while the proportion of pigeons successfully homed was not influenced by air pollution, pigeons homed faster when the air was especially polluted. Our results may be explained by an enhanced homing motivation and possibly an enriched olfactory environment that facilitates homing. Our study provides a unique example of animals’ response to haze pollution; future studies are needed to identify proposed mechanisms underlying this effect.

  13. Combined air and water pollution control system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolverton, Billy C. (Inventor); Jarrell, Lamont (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    A bioaquatic air pollution control system for controlling both water and atmospheric pollution is disclosed. The pollution control system includes an exhaust for directing polluted gases out of a furnace and a fluid circulating system which circulates fluid, such as waste water, from a source, past the furnace where the fluid flow entrains the pollutants from the furnace. The combined fluid and pollutants are then directed through a rock/plant/microbial filtering system. A suction pump pumps the treated waste water from the filter system past the exhaust to again entrain more pollutants from the furnace where they are combined with the fluid (waste water) and directed to the filter system.

  14. Monitoring air pollution in the Bialowieza Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malzahn, Elżbieta; Sondej, Izabela; Paluch, Rafał

    2016-04-01

    Air pollution, as sulfur dioxide(SO2) and nitrous oxides (NOx), affects forest health negatively and can initiate forest dieback. Long-term monitoring (since 1986) and analyses are conducted in the Bialowieza Forest due to the threat by abiotic, biotic and anthropogenic factors. This forest has a special and unique natural value, as confirmed by the various forms of protection of national and international rank. The main aim of monitoring is to determine the level and trends of deposition of air pollutants and their effects on selected forest stands and forest communities in the Bialowieza Forest. Concentration measurements of gaseous pollutants and the chemical composition of the precipitation are performed at seven points within the forest area (62 219 ha). Measurement gauges are measuring gaseous pollutants (SO2 and NOx) by the passive method and collecting precipitation at each point at a height of three meters. The period of measuring by the instruments is 30 days. All analyses are conducted according to the methodology of the European forest monitoring program in the certified Laboratory of Natural Environment Chemistry of the Polish Forest Research Institute (IBL). The concentration of pollutant gases (dry deposition) in the years 2002-2015 accounted for only 6-13% of the limit in Poland, as defined by the Polish Ministry of Environment, and are of no threat to the forest environment. Wet deposition of pollutants, which dependents directly from the amount of precipitation and its concentration of pollutants, varied strongly between different months and years. Total deposition (dry and wet) of sulfur (S) and nitrogen (N) was calculated for seasonal and annual periods. On an annual basis, wet deposition represented approximately 80% of the total deposition of S and N. Total deposition of S did not exceed the average deposition values for forests in north-eastern Europe (5-10 kg ha-1 year-1) at any of the seven measuring points. Total deposition of N did not

  15. APEX (Air Pollution Exercise) Volume 21: Legal References: Air Pollution Control Regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC. Office of Manpower Development.

    The Legal References: Air Pollution Control Regulations Manual is the last in a set of 21 manuals (AA 001 009-001 029) used in APEX (Air Pollution Exercise), a computerized college and professional level "real world" game simulation of a community with urban and rural problems, industrial activities, and air pollution difficulties. The manual…

  16. Future research needs associated with the assessment of potential human health risks from exposure to toxic ambient air pollutants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Möller, Lennart; Schuetzle, Dennis; Autrup, Herman

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents key conclusions and future research needs from a Workshop on the Risk Assessment of Urban Air, Emissions, Exposure, Risk Identification, and Quantification, which was held in Stockholm during June 1992 by 41 participants from 13 countries. Research is recommended in the areas ...

  17. Investigating the Effects of Traffic on Air Pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Sharon

    2001-01-01

    Discusses the benefits of bringing scientists into the classroom to collaborate with children on environmental research projects. Describes one collaborative project that focused on the effects of traffic on air pollution. (DDR)

  18. Progress in the prevention and control of air pollution in 1988: Report to congress. Annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Contents of this study: air quality trends, monitoring, and modeling; air pollution research programs; development of national ambient air; quality standards; assessment and control of toxic air pollutants; status of air quality management programs; control of stationary source emissions; stationary source compliance; control of mobile source emissions; stratospheric ozone protection; indoor air quality; acid deposition; radon assessment and remediation; litigation

  19. Research on the Emission Inventory of Major Air Pollutants in 2012 for the Sichuan City Cluster in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, J.; He, Q.

    2014-12-01

    This paper developed a high resolution emission inventory of major pollutants in city cluster of Sichuan Basin, one of the most polluted regions in China. The city cluster included five cities, which were Chengdu, Deyang, Mianyang, Meishan and Ziyang. Pollution source census and field measurements were conducted for the major emission sources such as the industry sources, on-road mobile sources, catering sources and the dust sources. The inventory results showed that in the year of 2012, the emission of SO2、NOX、CO、PM10、PM2.5、VOCs and NH3 in the region were 143.5、251.9、1659.9、299.3、163.5、464.1 and 995kt respectively. Chengdu, the provincial capital city, had the largest emission load of every pollutant among the cities. The industry sources, including power plants, fuel combustion facilities and non-combustion processes were the largest emission sources for SO2、NOX and CO, contributing to 84%, 46.5%, 35% of total SO2, NOX and CO emissions. On-road mobile sources accounted for 46.5%, 33%, 16% of the total NOx, CO, PM2.5 emissions and 28% of the anthropogenic VOCs emission. Dust and industry sources contributed to 42% and 23% of the PM10 emission with the dust sources also as the largest source of PM2.5, contributing to 27%. Anthropogenic and biogenic sources took 75% and 25% of the total VOCs emission while 36% of anthropogenic VOCs emission was owing to solvent use. Livestock contributed to 62% of NH3 emissions, followed by nitrogen fertilizer application whose contribution was 23%. Based on the developed emission inventory and local meteorological data, the regional air quality modeling system WRF-CMAQ was applied to simulate the status of PM2.5 pollution in a regional scale. The results showed that high PM2.5 concentration was distributed over the urban area of Chengdu and Deyang. On-road mobile sources and dust sources were two major contributors to the PM2.5 pollution in Chengdu, both had an contribution ratio of 27%. In Deyang, Mianyang

  20. Air pollution and human fertility rates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J.; Basagaña, Xavier; Dadvand, Payam; Martinez, David; Cirach, Marta; Beelen, Rob; Jacquemin, Bénédicte

    2014-01-01

    Background: Some reports have suggested effects of air pollution on semen quality and success rates of in vitro fertilization (IVF) in humans and lower fertility rates in mice. However, no studies have evaluated the impact of air pollution on human fertility rates. Aims: We assessed the association

  1. Measurement of Air Pollutants in the Troposphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemitshaw, Kevin C.

    2011-01-01

    This article describes the principles, applications and performances of methods to measure gas-phase air pollutants that either utilise passive or active sampling with subsequent laboratory analysis or involve automated "in situ" sampling and analysis. It focuses on air pollutants that have adverse impacts on human health (nitrogen dioxide, carbon…

  2. Controlling Indoor Air Pollution from Moxibustion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Chung-Yen; Kang, Sy-Yuan; Liu, Shu-Hui; Mai, Cheng-Wei; Tseng, Chao-Heng

    2016-01-01

    Indoor air quality (IAQ) control of hospitals plays a critical role in protecting both hospital staffs and patients, particularly those who are highly susceptible to the adverse effects of indoor noxious hazards. However, moxibustion in outpatient departments (OPDs) of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) may be a source of indoor air pollution in hospitals. Some studies have investigated indoor air pollution during moxibustion in Chinese medicine clinics (CMCs) and moxibustion rooms, demonstrating elevated air pollutants that pose a threat to the health of medical staff and patients. Our study investigated the indoor air pollutants of indoor carbon dioxide (CO2), carbon monoxide (CO), formaldehyde (HCHO), total volatile organic compounds (TVOCs), airborne particulate matter with a diameter of ≤10 µm (PM10) and ≤2.5 µm (PM2.5) during moxibustion in an acupuncture and moxibustion room of the OPD in a hospital in Taipei. To evaluate the different control strategies for indoor air pollution from moxibution, a comparison of air pollutants during moxibution among the methods of using alternative old moxa wools, local exhaust ventilation and an air cleaner was conducted. In this study, burning alternative old moxa wools for moxibustion obviously reduced all gaseous pollutants except for aerosols comparing burning fresh moxa wools. Using local exhaust ventilation reduced most of the aerosols after burning moxa. We also found that using an air cleaner was inefficient for controlling indoor air pollutants, particularly gaseous pollutants. Therefore, combining replacing alternative old moxa wools and local exhaust ventilation could be a suitable design for controlling indoor air pollution during moxibustion therapy. PMID:27331817

  3. Traffic related air pollution : spatial variation, health effects and mitigation measures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkema, M.B.A.

    2011-01-01

    Air pollution is probably the most intensely studied field in today’s environmental health research. The extensive body of literature on health effects associated with air pollution exposure has lead to prioritization of air pollution as public health risk factor and air quality regulations worldwid

  4. Air Quality and Air Pollution Management in Urban Areas in Less Developed Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, P. V.

    2007-01-01

    The working group will address the complexity of air pollution management in the growing urban sphere in the less developed countries, and will discus and evaluate how Danish and Scandinavian research institutions, universities and private companies can initiate a more progressive role...... in development aid and capacity development in relation to air pollution. For further information on the actions objective, activities and dissemination plan...

  5. RAINS: Regional Air Pollution Information and Simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-01

    Only one computer model has ever been at the center of major international environmental negotiations. That model is RAINS. Twice it has been central to renegotiation of the Convention of Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution, the umbrella convention regarding air pollution across all Europe. It also underpins the European Union policy and directives on air pollution. Countries in Southeast Asia are turning to the model for help with their growing air pollution problems. RAINS will be used to determine emission ceilings for emissions of four key pollutants in EU countries - sulphur, ammonia, nitrogen oxides and volatile organic compounds. The same four pollutants are also the subject of a parallel negotiation in Geneva under the convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution. The article and illustrations outline the model`s development and its structure in 1998, the historic role it has played in negotiations and some examples of its output. They highlight the central role of IIASA`s Transboundary Air Pollution project where a team of 12 works on the RAINS model and related issues. IIASA`s next goal is to develop a model of particulates pollution and incorporate it into RAINS. The information needed (such as particle sizes and chemical properties) and at what geographical scale must be identified to create an inventory of emissions suitable for RAINS modelling. 6 figs., 1 tab.

  6. Illness from air pollution : a Halton perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nosal, R.M. [Ontario Ministry of Health, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2002-03-14

    This report highlights the impact of air pollution on the health of Halton residents and describes how the Health Department will be involved in many initiatives in 2002. The health effects associated with air pollution include asthma and other respiratory problems. The federal government estimates that air pollution can be linked to 5,000 premature deaths each year in eleven major cities. The Ontario Medical Association claims pollution related illnesses cost the province more than $1 billion annually. Approximately 1,000 residents of Toronto die prematurely each year as a result of air pollution. Children, the elderly, and those with respiratory conditions or heart disease are most vulnerable. The actions proposed by the Regional Municipality of Halton at the local level include: the promotion of public transit; expanding Halton's Clean Air Partnership to include private sector partners by 2003; studying the possibility of providing more bicycle paths to reduce reliance on the automobile; and, promoting public awareness of the impact of smog on public health. The Halton Partners for Clean Air is a consortium of 12 public sector organizations which was developed to help reduce smog across the region. In 2002, the Partnership will expand to include local industry where the greatest reductions in air pollution can be achieved. One of the main goals of the Partnership is to reduce traffic congestion and associated environmental and health problems associated with air pollution around schools. 1 tab.

  7. Integrated monitoring and assessment of air pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hertel, O.

    2009-09-15

    Improved quality, better understanding of processes and optimisation of allocated resources, these are the main advantages of applying Integrated Monitoring and Assessment (IMA) in air quality management. The IMA is defined as the combined use of measurements and model calculations. The use of IMA is demonstrated with examples with different aims: to obtain data for air pollution in urban streets, to assess human exposure to traffic air pollution, and to assess atmospheric deposition of nitrogen compounds to marine and terrestrial ecosystems. (author)

  8. Controlling Indoor Air Pollution from Moxibustion

    OpenAIRE

    Chung-Yen Lu; Sy-Yuan Kang; Shu-Hui Liu; Cheng-Wei Mai; Chao-Heng Tseng

    2016-01-01

    Indoor air quality (IAQ) control of hospitals plays a critical role in protecting both hospital staffs and patients, particularly those who are highly susceptible to the adverse effects of indoor noxious hazards. However, moxibustion in outpatient departments (OPDs) of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) may be a source of indoor air pollution in hospitals. Some studies have investigated indoor air pollution during moxibustion in Chinese medicine clinics (CMCs) and moxibustion rooms, demonstra...

  9. The effects of air pollution on the health of children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buka, Irena; Koranteng, Samuel; Osornio-Vargas, Alvaro R

    2006-10-01

    The present article is intended to inform paediatricians about the associations between ambient air pollution and adverse health outcomes in children within the context of current epidemiological evidence.The majority of the current literature pertains to adverse respiratory health outcomes, including asthma, other respiratory symptoms, and deficits in lung function and growth, as well as exposure to ambient levels of criteria air pollutants. In addition to the above, the present article highlights mortality, pregnancy outcomes, vitamin D deficiency and alteration in the immune system of children.Some of the data on the impact of improved air quality on children's health are provided, including the reduction of air pollution in former East Germany following the reunification of Germany, as well as the reduction in the rates of childhood asthma events during the 1996 Summer Olympics in Atlanta, Georgia, due to a reduction in local motor vehicle traffic. However, there are many other toxic air pollutants that are regularly released into the air. These pollutants, which are not regularly monitored and have not been adequately researched, are also potentially harmful to children.Significant morbidity and mortality is attributed to ambient air pollution, resulting in a significant economic cost to society. As Canada's cities grow, air pollution issues need to be a priority in order to protect the health of children and support sustainable development for future generations. PMID:19030320

  10. Air pollution and the respiratory system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbex, Marcos Abdo; Santos, Ubiratan de Paula; Martins, Lourdes Conceição; Saldiva, Paulo Hilário Nascimento; Pereira, Luiz Alberto Amador; Braga, Alfésio Luis Ferreira

    2012-01-01

    Over the past 250 years-since the Industrial Revolution accelerated the process of pollutant emission, which, until then, had been limited to the domestic use of fuels (mineral and vegetal) and intermittent volcanic emissions-air pollution has been present in various scenarios. Today, approximately 50% of the people in the world live in cities and urban areas and are exposed to progressively higher levels of air pollutants. This is a non-systematic review on the different types and sources of air pollutants, as well as on the respiratory effects attributed to exposure to such contaminants. Aggravation of the symptoms of disease, together with increases in the demand for emergency treatment, the number of hospitalizations, and the number of deaths, can be attributed to particulate and gaseous pollutants, emitted by various sources. Chronic exposure to air pollutants not only causes decompensation of pre-existing diseases but also increases the number of new cases of asthma, COPD, and lung cancer, even in rural areas. Air pollutants now rival tobacco smoke as the leading risk factor for these diseases. We hope that we can impress upon pulmonologists and clinicians the relevance of investigating exposure to air pollutants and of recognizing this as a risk factor that should be taken into account in the adoption of best practices for the control of the acute decompensation of respiratory diseases and for maintenance treatment between exacerbations.

  11. A Wireless Sensor Network Air Pollution Monitoring System

    CERN Document Server

    Khedo, Kavi K; Mungur, Avinash; Mauritius, University of; Mauritius,; 10.5121/ijwmn.2010.2203

    2010-01-01

    Sensor networks are currently an active research area mainly due to the potential of their applications. In this paper we investigate the use of Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) for air pollution monitoring in Mauritius. With the fast growing industrial activities on the island, the problem of air pollution is becoming a major concern for the health of the population. We proposed an innovative system named Wireless Sensor Network Air Pollution Monitoring System (WAPMS) to monitor air pollution in Mauritius through the use of wireless sensors deployed in huge numbers around the island. The proposed system makes use of an Air Quality Index (AQI) which is presently not available in Mauritius. In order to improve the efficiency of WAPMS, we have designed and implemented a new data aggregation algorithm named Recursive Converging Quartiles (RCQ). The algorithm is used to merge data to eliminate duplicates, filter out invalid readings and summarise them into a simpler form which significantly reduce the amount of dat...

  12. Can air pollutant controls change global warming?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Air pollution policies do not affect long-term climate targets. • Reduction of aerosols counteracts a fraction of the reduction of Kyoto forcing. • Air pollution policies may affect the rate of climate change in the short term. • There is no tradeoff between clean air and climate policies. - Abstract: In this paper we analyze the interaction between climate and air pollution policies using the integrated assessment model REMIND coupled to the reduced-form climate model MAGICC. Since overall, aerosols tend to cool the atmosphere, there is a concern that a reduction of pollutant emissions could accelerate global warming and offset the climate benefits of carbon dioxide emission reductions. We investigate scenarios which independently reduce emissions from either large-scale sources, such as power plants, or small-scale sources, such as cooking and heating stoves. Large-scale sources are likely to be easier to control, but their aerosol emissions are characterized by a relatively high sulfur content, which tends to result in atmospheric cooling. Pollution from small-scale sources, by contrast, is characterized by a high share of carbonaceous aerosol, which is an important contributor to global warming. We find that air pollution policies can significantly reduce aerosol emissions when no climate policies are in place. Stringent climate policies lead to a large reduction of fossil fuel use, and therefore result in a concurrent reduction of air pollutant emissions. These reductions partly reduce aerosol masking, thus initially counteracting the reduction of greenhouse gas forcing, however not overcompensating it. If climate policies are in place, air pollution policies have almost no impacts on medium- and long-term radiative forcing. Therefore there is no conflict of objectives between clean air and limiting global warming. We find that the stringency of air pollution policies may influence the rate of global temperature change in the first decade

  13. Epidemiology and air pollution. A report of the Committee on the Epidemiology of Air Pollutants, Board on Toxicology and Environmental Health Hazards, Commission on Life Sciences, National Research Council

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report examines the role of epidemiology in the study of the health effects of air pollution. The four health effects of concern in the report art acute respiratory infection, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, asthma and lung cancer. The five types of pollution said to be of continuing concern are woodsmoke, nitrogen oxides, persistant ozone and acid aerosols, episodic ozone and acid aerosol haze and radon. The advantages of using epidemiological studies are discussed. They include: direct determination of public health problems and estimation of their magnitude; evaluation of the impact of decreases in exposure; and defining characteristics of the problem that can guide intervention even before the mechanics are understood

  14. AIR POLLUTION IN SHOLAPUR CITY

    OpenAIRE

    Shinde Tukaram Vittal

    2015-01-01

    Pollution is the presentation of contaminants into the regular habitat that cause antagonistic change. Contamination can take the type of substance substances orenergy, for example, commotion, warmth or light. Pollution, the parts of contamination, can be either outside substances/ energies or normally happening contaminants. Contamination is regularly classed as point source or nonpoint source contamination.

  15. Indoor air pollution: a public health perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although official efforts to control air pollution have traditionally focused on outdoor air, it is now apparent that elevated contaminant concentrations are common inside some private and public buildings. Concerns about potential public health problems due to indoor air pollution are based on evidence that urban residents typically spend more than 90 percent of their time indoors, concentrations of some contaminants are higher indoors than outdoors, and for some pollutants personal exposures are not characterized adequately by outdoor measurements. Among the more important indoor contaminants associated with health or irritation effects are passive tobacco smoke, radon decay products, carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, formaldehyde, asbestos fibers, microorganisms, and aeroallergens. Efforts to assess health risks associated with indoor air pollution are limited by insufficient information about the number of people exposed, the pattern and severity of exposures, and the health consequences of exposures. An overall strategy should be developed to investigate indoor exposures, health effects, control options, and public policy alternatives

  16. Air pollution abatement in heating sector in Poland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Dalen, J.; Pytel, P.; Romanczak, A.; Velina, S.; Verkleij, J.; Yasko, D. [Department of Chemistry, Graduate School of Engineering Science, and Research Center for Photoenergetics of Organic Materials, Osaka University, Osaka (Japan)

    1994-12-31

    The aim of the study on the title subject was to formulate recommendations to reduce the air pollution in the heating sector in Poland. influence the use of energy by changing their behaviour. The main question concerns the options, related policy instruments and their effects on air pollution reduction. Five sub-questions were formulated (1) how is the heating sector structured and what are the effects of the related air pollution?; (2) What are the technological, organizational and behavioral options for pollution reduction, and how much do they contribute to pollution abatement?; (3) What are the policy instruments to implement the options?; (4) What are the financial and environmental effects of related options and instruments?; and (5) How can the various options and policy instruments be combined into a policy proposal? The main questions for this research have been elaborated by literature study and by interviews, both in the Netherlands and in Poland. figs., tabs., 67 refs.

  17. Air pollution, public health, and inflation

    OpenAIRE

    Ostro, Bart David

    1980-01-01

    Since the passage of the environmental legislation in the early 1970's, critics have attacked these laws as being unnecessary and for contributing significantly to the problem of inflation in the United States. This paper is an attempt to put the inflationary costs of air pollution into perspective by considering them in light of the cost, especially to public health, of not proceeding with pollution control. There is now a great deal of evidence that the concentration of certain pollutants i...

  18. Air Conditioning Does Reduce Air Pollution Indoors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healy, Bud

    1970-01-01

    Report of the winter meeting of the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers. Subjects covered are--(1) title subject, (2) predictions for the human habitat in 1994, (3) fans, and (4) fire safety in buildings. (JW)

  19. Public Communication on Urban Air Pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study was to analyze the state of public information in the field of air pollution in Spain. We conducted semi-structured interviews with members of public agencies, technical experts, scientists, and members of non governmental associations together with a documentary analysis of air pollution documents (plans, reports, etc.). We tried to characterize the information actions on air quality carried out in Spanish cities during the last years. In the results section we first analyze the ideas, concerns and considerations that underlie the actions of public information on air pollution, as well as the main challenges of public communication on this subject, according to the documents and the different experts consulted. We analyze the various contents of information transmitted nowadays (on levels of pollution, health impacts and mitigation or protection actions), as well as the mechanisms by which it is communicated, both continuously and in the case of threshold overcoming episodes. We also review the different media used to communicate air pollution information (Internet, mobile applications and other forms) and other issues such as information audiences, or the perceived impacts of information provided. Finally, the implications for more diverse and effective public involvement strategies in air pollution are discussed. (Author)

  20. Characterization of ambient air pollution for stochastic health models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batterman, S.A.

    1981-08-01

    This research is an analysis of various measures of ambient air pollution useful in cross-sectional epidemiological investigations and rick assessments. The Chestnut Ridge area health effects investigation, which includes a cross-sectional study of respiratory symptoms in young children, is used as a case study. Four large coal-fired electric generating power plants are the dominant pollution sources in this area of western Pennsylvania. The air pollution data base includes four years of sulfur dioxide and five years of total suspended particulate concentrations at seventeen monitors. Some 70 different characterizations of pollution are constructed and tested. These include pollutant concentrations at various percentiles and averaging times, exceedence measures which show the amount of time a specified threshold concentration is exceeded, and several dosage measures which transform non-linear dose-response relationships onto pollutant concentrations.

  1. GOSAT Air Pollution Watch - Rapid Response System for Local Air Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsunaga, T.; Sawada, Y.; Kamei, A.; Uchiyama, A.

    2015-12-01

    GOSAT (Greenhouse Gases Observing Satellite) launched in 2009 and its successor, GOSAT-2, to be launched in FY 2017, have push-broom imaging systems with more than one UV band with higher spatial resolution than OMI, MODIS, and VIIRS. Such imaging systems are useful for mapping the spatial extent of the optically thick air mass with particulate matters. GOSAT Air Pollution Watch, a rapid response system mainly using GOSAT CAI (Cloud and Aerosol Imager) data for local air pollution issues is being developed in NIES (National Institute for Environmental Studies) GOSAT-2 Project. The current design of GOSAT Air Pollution Watch has three data processing steps as follows: Step 1) Making a cloud mask Step 2) Estimating AOT (Aerosol Optical Thickness) in the UV region (380 nm for CAI) Step 3) Converting AOT to atmospheric pollution parameters such as PM2.5 concentration Data processing algorithms in GOSAT Air Pollution Watch are based on GOSAT/GOSAT-2 algorithms for aerosol product generation with some modification for faster and timely data processing. Data from GOSAT Air Pollution Watch will be used to inform the general public the current distribution of the polluted air. In addition, they will contribute to short term prediction of the spatial extent of the polluted air using atmospheric transport models. In this presentation, the background, the current status, and the future prospect of GOSAT Air Pollution Watch will be reported together with the development status of GOSAT-2.

  2. Technology of Measuring equipment for Air Pollution. Development of Mobile Air Pollution monitoring system (LIDAR)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cha, Hyung Ki; Song, Ky Seok; Rhee, Young Joo; Kim, Duck Hyun; Yang, Ki Ho; Lee, Jong Min; Cha, Byung Heon; Lee, Kang Soo

    1999-01-01

    Most air pollution monitoring technologies accompany a time-consuming sample treatment process and provides pollution information only for a local area. Thus, they have a critical restriction in monitoring time-dependent pollution variation effectively over the wide range of area both in height and in width. LIDAR (Light detection and ranging) is a new technology to overcome such drawbacks of the existing pollution monitoring technologies and has long been investigated in the advanced countries. The goal of this project is to develop the mobile air pollution monitoring system and to apply the system to the detection of various pollutants, such as ozone, nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide and aerosols.

  3. Technology of Measuring equipment for Air Pollution. Development of Mobile Air Pollution monitoring system (LIDAR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Most air pollution monitoring technologies accompany a time-consuming sample treatment process and provides pollution information only for a local area. Thus, they have a critical restriction in monitoring time-dependent pollution variation effectively over the wide range of area both in height and in width. LIDAR (Light detection and ranging) is a new technology to overcome such drawbacks of the existing pollution monitoring technologies and has long been investigated in the advanced countries. The goal of this project is to develop the mobile air pollution monitoring system and to apply the system to the detection of various pollutants, such as ozone, nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide and aerosols

  4. Air pollution and lung cancer incidence in 17 European cohorts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole; Andersen, Zorana Jovanovic; Beelen, Rob;

    2013-01-01

    Ambient air pollution is suspected to cause lung cancer. We aimed to assess the association between long-term exposure to ambient air pollution and lung cancer incidence in European populations.......Ambient air pollution is suspected to cause lung cancer. We aimed to assess the association between long-term exposure to ambient air pollution and lung cancer incidence in European populations....

  5. Air pollution: a smoking gun for cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Zhang

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Once considered a taboo topic or stigma, cancer is the number one public health enemy in the world. Once a product of an almost untouchable industry, tobacco is indisputably recognized as a major cause of cancer and a target for anticancer efforts. With the emergence of new economic powers in the world, especially in highly populated countries such as China, air pollution has rapidly emerged as a smoking gun for cancer and has become a hot topic for public health debate because of the complex political, economic, scientific, and technologic issues surrounding the air pollution problem. This editorial and the referred articles published in this special issue of the Chinese Journal of Cancer discuss these fundamental questions. Does air pollution cause a wide spectrum of cancers? Should air pollution be considered a necessary evil accompanying economic transformation in developing countries? Is an explosion of cancer incidence coming to China and how soon will it arrive? What must be done to prevent this possible human catastrophe? Finally, the approaches for air pollution control are also discussed

  6. Air pollution holiday effect in metropolitan Kaohsiung

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, P.; Chen, P. Y.

    2014-12-01

    Different from Taipei, the metropolitan Kaohsiung which is a coastal and industrial city has the major pollution sources from stationary sources such as coal-fired power plants, petrochemical facilities and steel plants, rather than mobile sources. This study was an attempt to conduct a comprehensive and systematical examination of the holiday effect, defined as the difference in air pollutant concentrations between holiday and non-holiday periods, over the Kaohsiung metropolitan area. We documented evidence of a "holiday effect", where concentrations of NOx, CO, NMHC, SO2 and PM10 were significantly different between holidays and non-holidays, in the Kaohsiung metropolitan area from daily surface measurements of seven air quality monitoring stations of the Taiwan Environmental Protection Administration during the Chinese New Year (CNY) and non-Chinese New Year (NCNY) periods of 1994-2010. Concentrations of the five pollutants were lower in the CNY than in the NCNY period, however, that of O3 was higher in the CNY than in the NCNY period and had no holiday effect. The exclusion of the bad air quality day (PSI > 100) and the Lantern Festival Day showed no significant effects on the holiday effects of air pollutants. Ship transportation data of Kaohsiung Harbor Bureau showed a statistically significant difference in the CNY and NCNY period. This difference was consistent with those found in air pollutant concentrations of some industrial and general stations in coastal areas, implying the possible impact of traffic activity on the air quality of coastal areas. Holiday effects of air pollutants over the Taipei metropolitan area by Tan et al. (2009) are also compared.

  7. Arctic air pollution: Challenges and opportunities for the next decade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.R. Arnold

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The Arctic is a sentinel of global change. This region is influenced by multiple physical and socio-economic drivers and feedbacks, impacting both the natural and human environment. Air pollution is one such driver that impacts Arctic climate change, ecosystems and health but significant uncertainties still surround quantification of these effects. Arctic air pollution includes harmful trace gases (e.g. tropospheric ozone and particles (e.g. black carbon, sulphate and toxic substances (e.g. polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons that can be transported to the Arctic from emission sources located far outside the region, or emitted within the Arctic from activities including shipping, power production, and other industrial activities. This paper qualitatively summarizes the complex science issues motivating the creation of a new international initiative, PACES (air Pollution in the Arctic: Climate, Environment and Societies. Approaches for coordinated, international and interdisciplinary research on this topic are described with the goal to improve predictive capability via new understanding about sources, processes, feedbacks and impacts of Arctic air pollution. Overarching research actions are outlined, in which we describe our recommendations for 1 the development of trans-disciplinary approaches combining social and economic research with investigation of the chemical and physical aspects of Arctic air pollution; 2 increasing the quality and quantity of observations in the Arctic using long-term monitoring and intensive field studies, both at the surface and throughout the troposphere; and 3 developing improved predictive capability across a range of spatial and temporal scales.

  8. Air pollution control policy in Switzerland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leutert, G. [Forests and Landscape, Berne (Switzerland). Federal Office of Environment

    1995-12-31

    The legal basis of the Swiss air pollution control policy is set by the Federal Law on the Protection of the Environment, which came into force in 1985. It aims to protect human beings, animals and plants, their biological communities and habitats against harmful effects or nuisances and to maintain the fertility of the soil. The law is source-oriented (by emission standards) as well as effect-oriented (by ambient air quality standards). To link both elements a two-stage approach is applied. In the first stage preventive measures are taken at the emitting sources, irrespective of existing air pollution levels. Emissions have to be limited by early preventive measures as much as technical and operational conditions allow and as far as economically acceptable (prevention principle). By this, air pollution shall be kept as low as possible as a matter of principle, without the environment having to be in danger first. In a second stage the measures are strengthened or backed up by additional measures if ambient air quality standards laid down in the Ordinance on Air Pollution Control are exceeded. At this second stage, protection of man and his environment has priority over economic considerations. (author)

  9. Heat Waves, Urban Vegetation, and Air Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Churkina, G.; Grote, R.; Butler, T. M.

    2014-12-01

    Fast-track programs to plant millions of trees in cities around the world aim at the reduction of summer temperatures, increase carbon storage, storm water control, provision of space for recreation, as well as poverty alleviation. Although these multiple benefits speak positively for urban greening programs, the programs do not take into account how close human and natural systems are coupled in urban areas. Elevated temperatures together with anthropogenic emissions of air and water pollutants distinguish the urban system. Urban and sub-urban vegetation responds to ambient changes and reacts with pollutants. Neglecting the existence of this coupling may lead to unforeseen drawbacks of urban greening programs. The potential for emissions from urban vegetation combined with anthropogenic emissions to produce ozone has long been recognized. This potential increases under rising temperatures. Here we investigate how global change induced heat waves affect emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOC) from urban vegetation and corresponding ground-level ozone levels. We also quantify other ecosystem services provided by urban vegetation (e.g., cooling and carbon storage) and their sensitivity to climate change. In this study we use Weather Research and Forecasting Model with coupled atmospheric chemistry (WRF-CHEM) to quantify these feedbacks in Berlin, Germany during the heat waves in 2003 and 2006. We highlight the importance of the vegetation for urban areas under changing climate and discuss associated tradeoffs.

  10. Studies on application of neutron activation analysis -Applied research on air pollution monitoring and development of analytical method of environmental samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This research report is written for results of applied research on air pollution monitoring using instrumental neutron activation analysis. For identification and standardization of analytical method, 24 environmental samples are analyzed quantitatively, and accuracy and precision of this method are measured. Using airborne particulate matter and biomonitor chosen as environmental indicators, trace elemental concentrations of sample collected at urban and rural site monthly are determined ant then the calculation of statistics and the factor analysis are carried out for investigation of emission source. Facilities for NAA are installed in a new HANARO reactor, functional test is performed for routine operation. In addition, unified software code for NAA is developed to improve accuracy, precision and abilities of analytical processes. (author). 103 refs., 61 tabs., 19 figs

  11. Ship emissions and air pollution in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Helge Rørdam; Winther, Morten; Ellermann, Thomas;

    A project has been carried out to map the contribution from ship traffic to air pollution in Denmark. A main element in the project is the establishment of a new, improved inventory of ship emissions for the waters around Denmark. The inventory makes use of the so-called AIS system, which...... continuously keeps track of ship positions. The inventory provides basis for model calculations of air quality in Denmark for the years 2007, 2011 and 2020. The study has focus on identifying the contribution from ships, and on assessing the effect of international regulations of ship pollution. A minor...... component of the study concerns the contribution to local air pollution from ships at port....

  12. Transport and urban air pollution in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badami, Madhav G

    2005-08-01

    The rapid growth in motor vehicle activity in India and other rapidly industrializing low-income countries is contributing to high levels of urban air pollution, among other adverse socioeconomic, environmental, health, and welfare impacts. This paper first discusses the local, regional, and global impacts associated with air pollutant emissions resulting from motor vehicle activity, and the technological, behavioral, and institutional factors that have contributed to these emissions, in India. The paper then discusses some implementation issues related to various policy measures that have been undertaken, and the challenges of the policy context. Finally, the paper presents insights and lessons based on the recent Indian experience, for better understanding and more effectively addressing the transport air pollution problem in India and similar countries, in a way that is sensitive to their needs, capabilities, and constraints.

  13. Air pollution epidemiology. Assessment of health effects and risks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katsouyanni, K. [Athens Univ. (Greece). Dept. of Hygiene and Epidemiology

    1995-12-31

    Air pollution epidemiology is the study of the occurrence and distribution of health outcomes in association with community air pollution exposure. It is therefore specific in the exposure variable. Air pollution health effects became evident during high air pollution episodes which occurred in the first decades of our century. Since then, legal and other control measures have led to lower air pollution levels. However, recent results from several studies indicate that lower levels of air pollution than the previously considered safe have serious adverse health effects. Although, there is increasingly agreement that air pollution, at levels measured today, affects health, there is still a lot to be understood concerning specific causal pollutants, biologic mechanisms involved and sensitive groups of individuals. The extent of potential confounding, time-considerations in air pollution effects, individual variation in air pollution exposure and exposure misclassification are some factors which complicate the study of these issues. (author)

  14. Healthy Neighborhoods: Walkability and Air Pollution

    OpenAIRE

    Marshall, Julian D.; Brauer, Michael; Frank, Lawrence D

    2009-01-01

    Background The built environment may influence health in part through the promotion of physical activity and exposure to pollution. To date, no studies have explored interactions between neighborhood walkability and air pollution exposure. Methods We estimated concentrations of nitric oxide (NO), a marker for direct vehicle emissions), and ozone (O3) and a neighborhood walkability score, for 49,702 (89% of total) postal codes in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. NO concentrations were esti...

  15. Photochemical and other air pollutants in the Netherlands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Floor, H.

    1976-01-01

    In 1975, together with the State Institute of Public Health and the Royal Dutch Meteorological Institute, The Institute of Phytopathological Research continued investigations on incidence of air pollution throughout the Netherlands. Culture vessels with indicator plants were placed on 31 test plots of the National Air Pollution Monitoring Network. During the growing season from May until October, the indicator plants were inspected weekly for typical symptoms of air pollution. Until July, photochemical air pollution by ozone caused less injury to Spinacia oleracea than in the preceding year. On Nicotiana tabacum there was as much injury as in 1974, especially in the 33rd, 36th and 37th week, all over the country. An increasing number of injurious effects by peroxyacetyl nitrate was observed on Petunia nyctaginiflora, Poa annua and Urtica urens. Medicago sativa, Fagopyrum esculentuma nd Petunia nyctaginiflora, indicator plants for the pollutants SO2, NO/sub x/ and ethylene, showed little and Solanum tuberosum, possible indicator plant for ethylene and ozone, no injury in 1975. Finally air pollution by HG occurred on the same scale as in 1974, as shown by Tulipa gesneriana in spring and Gladiolus gandavensis in summer. These results corresponded with the figures for F from the limed paper method. As in 1974, data on injury to the plants and from the limed paper method showed a decline from south to north.

  16. Urban air pollution; La pollution de l'air dans la ville

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-07-01

    The theme of this congress concerns air pollution in urban areas. Cities are accumulation of populations and economic activities, and then pollutants activities. The first articles are devoted to pollutants and their effects on health. Then come articles relative to measurements and modeling. Finally, the traffic in city and the automobile pollution are examined. Transportation systems as well technology in matter of gas emissions are reviewed. (N.C.)

  17. PRECOMBUSTION REMOVAL OF HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANT PRECURSORS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unknown

    2000-10-09

    In response to growing environmental concerns reflected in the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendment (CAAA), the United States Department of Energy (DOE) sponsored several research and development projects in late 1995 as part of an initiative entitled Advanced Environmental Control Technologies for Coal-Based Power Systems. The program provided cost-shared support for research and development projects that could accelerate the commercialization of affordable, high-efficiency, low-emission, coal-fueled electric generating technologies. Clean coal technologies developed under this program would serve as prototypes for later generations of technologies to be implemented in the industrial sector. In order to identify technologies with the greatest potential for commercial implementation, projects funded under Phase I of this program were subject to competitive review by DOE before being considered for continuation funding under Phase II. One of the primary topical areas identified under the DOE initiative relates to the development of improved technologies for reducing the emissions of air toxics. Previous studies have suggested that many of the potentially hazardous air pollutant precursors (HAPPs) occur as trace elements in the mineral matter of run-of-mine coals. As a result, these elements have the potential to be removed prior to combustion at the mine site by physical coal cleaning processes (i.e., coal preparation). Unfortunately, existing coal preparation plants are generally limited in their ability to remove HAPPs due to incomplete liberation of the mineral matter and high organic associations of some trace elements. In addition, existing physical coal cleaning plants are not specifically designed or optimized to ensure that high trace element rejections may be achieved.

  18. 75 FR 18142 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Texas; Control of Air Pollution...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-09

    ... Air Pollution From Motor Vehicles AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Proposed rule... Title 30 of the Texas Administrative Code (TAC), Chapter 114, Control of Air Pollution from...

  19. Characterizing multi-pollutant air pollution in China: Comparison of three air quality indices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jianlin; Ying, Qi; Wang, Yungang; Zhang, Hongliang

    2015-11-01

    Multi-pollutant air pollution (i.e., several pollutants reaching very high concentrations simultaneously) frequently occurs in many regions across China. Air quality index (AQI) is used worldwide to inform the public about levels of air pollution and associated health risks. The current AQI approach used in China is based on the maximum value of individual pollutants, and does not consider the combined health effects of exposure to multiple pollutants. In this study, two novel alternative indices--aggregate air quality index (AAQI) and health-risk based air quality index (HAQI)--were calculated based on data collected in six megacities of China (Beijing, Shanghai, Guangzhou, Shjiazhuang, Xi'an, and Wuhan) during 2013 to 2014. Both AAQI and HAQI take into account the combined health effects of various pollutants, and the HAQI considers the exposure (or concentration)-response relationships of pollutants. AAQI and HAQI were compared to AQI to examine the effectiveness of the current AQI in characterizing multi-pollutant air pollution in China. The AAQI and HAQI values are higher than the AQI on days when two or more pollutants simultaneously exceed the Chinese Ambient Air Quality Standards (CAAQS) 24-hour Grade II standards. The results of the comparison of the classification of risk categories based on the three indices indicate that the current AQI approach underestimates the severity of health risk associated with exposure to multi-pollutant air pollution. For the AQI-based risk category of 'unhealthy', 96% and 80% of the days would be 'very unhealthy' or 'hazardous' if based on AAQI and HAQI, respectively; and for the AQI-based risk category of 'very unhealthy', 67% and 75% of the days would be 'hazardous' if based on AAQI and HAQI, respectively. The results suggest that the general public, especially sensitive population groups such as children and the elderly, should take more stringent actions than those currently suggested based on the AQI approach during

  20. Air pollution of urban areas

    OpenAIRE

    Makarova, V. N.

    2016-01-01

    Raising of problem. Any manufacturing processes related to the generation of waste. Year after year, a growing mass of waste is one of the main factors reducing the quality of the environment and destruction of natural landscapes. Industrial development inevitably enhances human impacts on the environment and disrupts the ecological balance [3]. Atmospher air is a vital element of the environment. The development of industry, the growth of cities, increasing the number of transport, active ex...

  1. Air pollution information needs and the knowledge, attitudes and behaviour of Canadians : final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the fall of 2001, the Environics Research Group conducted a national survey of 1,213 Canadians in order to provide Health Canada with public opinion on clean air issues. The topic areas included: concerns regarding air pollution; level of concern regarding air pollution; willingness for personal action; roles and responsibilities of government, industry and individuals; determinants of health; perceived effects of air pollution on health; personal health conditions; receipt of advice on the relationship between air pollution and health; information needs and preferred channels of information; familiarity with the air quality index; and, perceived sources of air pollution. According to survey results, Canadians think air pollution, pollution in general, and water quality are the most important environmental problems. They are most concerned about the manufacture, use and disposal of toxic chemicals, water quality and air quality, and less concerned about the depletion of the ozone layer and the use of biotechnology in agriculture and food products. Results suggest that most Canadians believe that air pollution significantly affects the health of Canadians. Approximately 25 per cent of Canadians feel they suffer from respiratory problems resulting from air pollution. In general, they think indoor and outdoor air pollution have equal effect on their health. The survey also indicated that Canadians think government regulations and enforcement are more effective in combating air pollution than voluntary action by individuals or companies. tabs., figs

  2. Human exposure to urban air pollution.

    OpenAIRE

    Boström, C E; Almén, J; Steen, B; Westerholm, R

    1994-01-01

    This study deals with some methods of making human exposure estimates, aimed at describing the human exposure for selected air pollutants in Sweden that are suspected carcinogens. Nitrogen oxides (NOx) have been chosen as an indicator substance for estimating the concentration of the urban plume. Earlier investigations have shown that the traffic in Swedish cities contributes around 85% to the measured NOx concentrations, and that most of the mutagenicity in urban air originates from traffic....

  3. Regulations Concerning Agriculture and Air Pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Bertora

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The main issues related to the atmospheric pollution are the stratospheric ozone depletion, the transboundary air pollution, the troposphere air quality and the climate change. The three last decades have seen the birth of several measures for the atmosphere safeguard. Agricultural activities play a key role in determining, preventing and mitigating atmospheric pollution. The emission to atmosphere of different ozone-depleting substances is regulated by the Montreal Protocol. The role of agriculture activity in ozone depletion is linked to the utilization of methyl bromide as soil sterilant and to the emission of nitrogen oxides and nitrous oxide, from agricultural soils. The Convention on long-range transboundary air pollution regulates the emission of several pollutants, i.e. sulphur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, ammonia, non methane volatile organic compounds, carbon monoxide, heavy metals, persistent organic pollutants, and tropospheric ozone. The agriculture sector is responsible for a large part of the emissions of ammonia and nitrogen oxides, mainly through manure management and nitrogen fertilization, and of most persistent organic pollutants, largely used in the past as insecticides and fungicides. The increase of the greenhouse gases (GHGs concentration in the atmosphere is under the control of the Kyoto Protocol. Agriculture accounts for 59-63% of global non-CO2 GHGs emissions but at the same time it contributes to the atmospheric CO2 concentration stabilisation through the substitution of fossil fuels by biofuels and the sequestration of C in soil and vegetal biomass. In this paper we provide an outline of the numerous scientific and legislative initiatives aimed at protecting the atmosphere, and we analyse in detail the agriculture sector in order to highlight both its contribution to atmospheric pollution and the actions aimed at preventing and mitigating it.

  4. Exposure to Air Pollutants During Physical Activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ramos, C.A.

    2016-01-01

    The context for this thesis is the concern that people who practice physical activity are more susceptible to air pollution. For the studies presented here, three perspectives of physical activity were considered: in indoor, i) physical activity in fitness centers; in outdoor ii) the use of bicycle

  5. Tracking far-range volcanogenic air pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boichu, Marie; Chiapello, Isabelle; Goloub, Phillipe; Péré, Jean-Christophe; Thieuleux, François; Blarel, Luc; Podvin, Thierry; Mortier, Augustin; Brogniez, Colette; Sohne, Nathalie; Theys, Nicolas; Van Roozendael, Michel; Clarisse, Lieven; Bauduin, Sophie; Tanré, Didier

    2016-04-01

    The 2014-15 Holuhraun lava-flood eruption of Bárdarbunga volcano (Iceland) emitted prodigious amounts of sulfur dioxide to the atmosphere. This eruption triggered a long-distance episode of air pollution in September 2014, the first event of this magnitude recorded in the modern era. We gathered a wealth of complementary observations from satellite sensors (OMI, IASI), ground-based remote sensing (lidar, sunphotometry, differential optical absorption spectroscopy) and ground-level air quality monitoring networks to characterize both the spatial distribution of volcanic SO2 and aerosols as well as the dynamics of the planetary boundary layer. We take advantage of this exceptional panel of observations to quantitatively test our modeling ability to retrospectively simulate this event of far-range air pollution. Although the model captures the correct temporal dynamics, it fails to reproduce the intensity of the pollution. Paths worth exploring to get prepared to accurately forecast a future large-scale event of volcanogenic air pollution are discussed.

  6. Human health effects of air pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kampa, Marilena [Laboratory of Experimental Endocrinology, University of Crete, School of Medicine, P.O. Box 2208, Heraklion, 71003 (Greece)], E-mail: kampa@med.uoc.gr; Castanas, Elias [Laboratory of Experimental Endocrinology, University of Crete, School of Medicine, P.O. Box 2208, Heraklion, 71003 (Greece)], E-mail: castanas@med.uoc.gr

    2008-01-15

    Hazardous chemicals escape to the environment by a number of natural and/or anthropogenic activities and may cause adverse effects on human health and the environment. Increased combustion of fossil fuels in the last century is responsible for the progressive change in the atmospheric composition. Air pollutants, such as carbon monoxide (CO), sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}), nitrogen oxides (NOx), volatile organic compounds (VOCs), ozone (O{sub 3}), heavy metals, and respirable particulate matter (PM2.5 and PM10), differ in their chemical composition, reaction properties, emission, time of disintegration and ability to diffuse in long or short distances. Air pollution has both acute and chronic effects on human health, affecting a number of different systems and organs. It ranges from minor upper respiratory irritation to chronic respiratory and heart disease, lung cancer, acute respiratory infections in children and chronic bronchitis in adults, aggravating pre-existing heart and lung disease, or asthmatic attacks. In addition, short- and long-term exposures have also been linked with premature mortality and reduced life expectancy. These effects of air pollutants on human health and their mechanism of action are briefly discussed. - The effect of air pollutants on human health and underlying mechanisms of cellular action are discussed.

  7. Human health effects of air pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hazardous chemicals escape to the environment by a number of natural and/or anthropogenic activities and may cause adverse effects on human health and the environment. Increased combustion of fossil fuels in the last century is responsible for the progressive change in the atmospheric composition. Air pollutants, such as carbon monoxide (CO), sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen oxides (NOx), volatile organic compounds (VOCs), ozone (O3), heavy metals, and respirable particulate matter (PM2.5 and PM10), differ in their chemical composition, reaction properties, emission, time of disintegration and ability to diffuse in long or short distances. Air pollution has both acute and chronic effects on human health, affecting a number of different systems and organs. It ranges from minor upper respiratory irritation to chronic respiratory and heart disease, lung cancer, acute respiratory infections in children and chronic bronchitis in adults, aggravating pre-existing heart and lung disease, or asthmatic attacks. In addition, short- and long-term exposures have also been linked with premature mortality and reduced life expectancy. These effects of air pollutants on human health and their mechanism of action are briefly discussed. - The effect of air pollutants on human health and underlying mechanisms of cellular action are discussed

  8. Socioeconomic Disparities and Air Pollution Exposure: a Global Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajat, Anjum; Hsia, Charlene; O'Neill, Marie S

    2015-12-01

    The existing reviews and meta-analyses addressing unequal exposure of environmental hazards on certain populations have focused on several environmental pollutants or on the siting of hazardous facilities. This review updates and contributes to the environmental inequality literature by focusing on ambient criteria air pollutants (including NOx), by evaluating studies related to inequality by socioeconomic status (as opposed to race/ethnicity) and by providing a more global perspective. Overall, most North American studies have shown that areas where low-socioeconomic-status (SES) communities dwell experience higher concentrations of criteria air pollutants, while European research has been mixed. Research from Asia, Africa, and other parts of the world has shown a general trend similar to that of North America, but research in these parts of the world is limited. PMID:26381684

  9. Strategies for the long-term climate policy. The results of the Cool project. Final report of the second phase of the Dutch National Research Programme on Global Air Pollution and Climate Change (NRP II) 1995-2001. Part 2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berk M; Hisschemoller M; Mol T; Hordijk L; Kok M; Metz B; NOP

    2002-01-01

    This report, Climate Change, a Permanent Concern, presents the results of research that was conducted in over 90 projects during the second phase of the National Research Programme on Global Air Pollution and Climate Change (NRP-II, 1995-2001). The report is intended for policymakers, members of bu

  10. ANTIQUITY IMPACT OF AIR POLLUTION AT GADARA, JORDAN

    OpenAIRE

    Abu-Allaban, Mahmoud; El-Khalili, Mohammad M.M.

    2013-01-01

    Several recent studies have pointed out that the northern parts of Jordan are exposed to high levels of ground ozone. North Jordan is a wealthy reservoir of ancient heritage including six out of the ten Decapolis Cities. It is alleged that air pollution-via acid deposition - has led to the deterioration and erosion of buildings, structures, statues, and monuments. Therefore, this research is conducted to assess air quality at Gadara, the capital of the ancient Decapolis and to come up with mi...

  11. Ambient Air Pollution and Autism in Los Angeles County, California

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Becerra, Tracy Ann; Wilhelm, Michelle; Olsen, Jørn;

    2013-01-01

    Background: The prevalence of Autistic Disorder (AD), a serious developmental condition, has risen dramatically over the past two decades but high-quality population-based research addressing etiology is limited. Objectives: We studied the influence of exposures to traffic-related air pollution d...... during pregnancy on the development of autism using data from air monitoring stations and a land use regression (LUR) model to estimate exposures....

  12. Forecasting the air pollution episode potential in the Canary Islands

    OpenAIRE

    Milford, C; Marrero, C.; C. Martin; Bustos, J. J.; Querol, X.

    2008-01-01

    International audience In the frame of the WMO Global Atmosphere Watch Urban Research Meteorology and Environment programme (GURME), a system for forecasting air pollution episode potential in the Canary Islands has been developed. Meteorological parameters relevant to air quality (synoptic wind speed, wind direction, boundary layer height and temperature at 91 vertical levels) are obtained from the European Centre for Medium range Weather Forecasting (ECMWF) once a day for up to four days...

  13. Racial gradients of ambient air pollution exposure in Hamilton, Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Michael Buzzelli; Michael Jerrett

    2004-01-01

    Environmental justice research in the United States has coalesced around the notion that visible-minority status, along with socioeconomic position (SEP), conditions exposure to environmental health hazards. In the context of long-standing debates over Canada - USA urban differences, we address the question of whether racial gradients exist in air pollution across Hamilton, Canada. Monitored air quality data are spatially interpolated with a kriging algorithm. These interpolated exposures are...

  14. Air pollution and stroke - an overview of the evidence base.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maheswaran, Ravi

    2016-08-01

    Air pollution is being increasingly recognized as a significant risk factor for stroke. There are numerous sources of air pollution including industry, road transport and domestic use of biomass and solid fuels. Early reports of the association between air pollution and stroke come from studies investigating health effects of severe pollution episodes. Several daily time series and case-crossover studies have reported associations with stroke. There is also evidence linking chronic air pollution exposure with stroke and with reduced survival after stroke. A conceptual framework linking air pollution exposure and stroke is proposed. It links acute and chronic exposure to air pollution with pathways to acute and chronic effects on stroke risk. Current evidence regarding potential mechanisms mainly relate to particulate air pollution. Whilst further evidence would be useful, there is already sufficient evidence to support consideration of reduction in air pollution as a preventative measure to reduce the stroke burden globally.

  15. Long-memory property in air pollutant concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chelani, Asha

    2016-05-01

    In the present paper, long-memory in air pollutant concentrations is reviewed and outcome of the past studies is analyzed to provide the possible mechanism behind temporal evolution of air pollutant concentrations. It is observed that almost all the studies show air pollutant concentrations over time possess persistence up to a certain limit. Self-organized criticality of air pollution, multiplicative process of pollutant concentrations, and uniformity in emission sources leading to self-organized criticality are few of the phenomena behind the persistent property of air pollutant concentrations. The self-organized criticality of air pollution is linked to atmosphere's self-cleansing mechanism. This demonstrates that inspite of increasing anthropogenic emissions, self-organized criticality of air pollution is sustained and has low influence of human interventions. In the future, this property may, however, be perturbed due to continuous air pollution emissions, which may influence the accuracy in predictions.

  16. The Outdoor Air Pollution and Brain Health Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Accumulating evidence suggests that air pollution may have a significant impact on central nervous system (CNS) health and disease. To address this issue, the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences/National Institute of Health convened a panel of research scientists...

  17. The impact of periodic air pollution peaks in Beijing on air quality governance in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schwabe, Julian

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available During the month of January 2013, Beijing suffered air pollution of unprecedented intensity. This event, which was named “airpocalypse” in international media, was followed by vibrant media reporting and public discussion on the topic and prompted the central government to issue unusually ambitious measures to contain air pollution more effectively. This paper explores the impact of the airpocalypse on China’s air quality governance by conducting a qualitative analysis of pollution control policies that followed the airpocalypse and concludes that this event of heavy air pollution was indeed impactful in causing the issuance of stricter national targets for pollution control as well as increased public awareness. In combination with the newly amended environmental protection law, these aspects put local governments under intense pressure to address air pollution more effectively. However, the changes caused by the airpocalypse were not revolutionary in a sense that it led to major structural reforms of government institutions and their interrelationships. The case of the airpocalypse demonstrates that single disruptive events of heavy pollution can cause a recalibration of policy priorities. In this context, the role of “disruptive events” may be worthwhile of more systematic research in order to understand their potential impact on institutional environments.

  18. Air Pollution Contributes in Sunshine Dimming in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    The research team led by Professor Yang Yonghui of Center for Agricultural Resources Research, In- stitute of Genetics and Developmental Biology, CAS, have revealed the magnitude and physical mechanism of the effect of air pollution on sunshine hours in 38 big cities across China. These results have recently been published in Journal of Geophysical Research-Atmospheres (VOL. 117, D00V14, doi. 10. 1029/ 2011JD016753). It was funded by international collaborative proiect from MOST and NSFC.

  19. Research on the Differences of Evaluative Bases About Air Pollutants Emission From Cement Industry in Yunnan Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Y.; Jiang, Y. X.; Wu, J. L.; Yan, L.; Wang, K. D.; Du, Y.

    Environment impact assessment (EIA) and the check and accepts of completed project (CACP) are two evaluative bases usually used to estimate pollutant emission. In order to find out the differences between them, this study collected the EIA approval documents and CACP reports from 50 key cement plants in Yunnan province, by statistical methods to analyze the data. Results as follows: Emission factors (EF) from EIA are much greater than CACP, data distribution difference: SO2 is significant, dust and NOx are insignificant. The EF of EIA and CACP has no relationship with linear regression analysis. Reasons: Original data used in EIA are not fit the actual pollution status completely, CACP operational difficulties and regional variation still exist. This study first found out the statistical differences between EIA and CACP in Yunnan. For increasing the accuracy of EIA, we should reference the local actual emission status in the process of EIA.

  20. Air pollution and multiple acute respiratory outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faustini, Annunziata; Stafoggia, Massimo; Colais, Paola; Berti, Giovanna; Bisanti, Luigi; Cadum, Ennio; Cernigliaro, Achille; Mallone, Sandra; Scarnato, Corrado; Forastiere, Francesco

    2013-08-01

    Short-term effects of air pollutants on respiratory mortality and morbidity have been consistently reported but usually studied separately. To more completely assess air pollution effects, we studied hospitalisations for respiratory diseases together with out-of-hospital respiratory deaths. A time-stratified case-crossover study was carried out in six Italian cities from 2001 to 2005. Daily particulate matter (particles with a 50% cut-off aerodynamic diameter of 10 μm (PM10)) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) associations with hospitalisations for respiratory diseases (n = 100 690), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) (n = 38 577), lower respiratory tract infections (LRTI) among COPD patients (n = 9886) and out-of-hospital respiratory deaths (n = 5490) were estimated for residents aged ≥35 years. For an increase of 10 μg·m(-3) in PM10, we found an immediate 0.59% (lag 0-1 days) increase in hospitalisations for respiratory diseases and a 0.67% increase for COPD; the 1.91% increase in LRTI hospitalisations lasted longer (lag 0-3 days) and the 3.95% increase in respiratory mortality lasted 6 days. Effects of NO2 were stronger and lasted longer (lag 0-5 days). Age, sex and previous ischaemic heart disease acted as effect modifiers for different outcomes. Analysing multiple rather than single respiratory events shows stronger air pollution effects. The temporal relationship between the pollutant increases and hospitalisations or mortality for respiratory diseases differs.

  1. Relationships in indoor/outdoor air pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beryllium-7 and sulphurhexaflourid has been used as tracers in measurements designed to enable an estimate of the ratio of the outdoor to indoor time-integrated concentration for aerosols and non-reactive gasses of outdoor origin with a special reference to the reduction in inhalation dose that can be achieved by staying indoors during a pollution episode, especially a reactor accident. The effect of operating a vacuum cleaner during the pollution episode and airing shortly after is also investigated. Earlier relevant literature is reviewed and shows goos agreement with the results in this study. Protection factor from 1-12 has been found. (author)

  2. Effects on health of air pollution: a narrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannucci, Pier Mannuccio; Harari, Sergio; Martinelli, Ida; Franchini, Massimo

    2015-09-01

    Air pollution is a complex and ubiquitous mixture of pollutants including particulate matter, chemical substances and biological materials. There is growing awareness of the adverse effects on health of air pollution following both acute and chronic exposure, with a rapidly expanding body of evidence linking air pollution with an increased risk of respiratory (e.g., asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, lung cancer) and cardiovascular disease (e.g., myocardial infarction, heart failure, cerebrovascular accidents). Elderly subjects, pregnant women, infants and people with prior diseases appear especially susceptible to the deleterious effects of ambient air pollution. The main diseases associated with exposure to air pollutants will be summarized in this narrative review.

  3. MODELING OF GENERIC AIR POLLUTION DISPERSION ANALYSIS FROM CEMENT FACTORY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moses E EMETERE

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Air pollution from cement factory is classified as one of the sources of air pollution. The control of the air pollution by addressing the wind field dynamics was the main objective of the paper. The dynamics of dispersion showed a three way flow which was calculated and explained accordingly. The 3D model showed good level of accuracy by determining field values of air deposited pollutants. Mean concentration of diffusing pollutants was shown to be directly proportional to the plume angular displacement. The 2D model explained the details of the wind field dynamics and proffers a solution which may be relevant in controlling air pollution from anthropogenic sources.

  4. Vaal Triangle air pollution health study. Addressing South African problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terblanche, P.; Nel, R. [CSIR Environmental Services, Pretoria (South Africa); Surridge, T. [Dept. of Mineral and Energy Affairs (South Africa); Annegarn, H. [Annegarn Environmental Research, Johannesburg (South Africa); Tosen, G. [Eskom, Johannesburg (South Africa); Pols, A. [CSIR Informationtek, Pretoria (South Africa)

    1995-12-31

    Situated in the central region of South Africa, the Vaal Triangle is an area which plays a vital role in driving the economic dynamo of South Africa. Also, because of the concentration of heavy industry, it is an area which provides a challenge in effective air pollution control. The Vaal Triangle lies within the Vaal River Basin, at an altitude of 1 500 m above sea level. Meteorological conditions in the area are highly conducive to the formation of surface temperature inversions, resulting in a poor dispersion potential. Because of multiple sources of air pollution in the area, poor dispersion conditions increase the risk pollution build-up and subsequent adverse impacts. The situation is further exacerbated by the continued combustion of coal in households, even after the electrification of residences. This is particularly chronic in the developing communities and during winter. Vaal Triangle Air Pollution Health Study (VAPS) was initiated in 1990 by the Department of Health, the Medical Research Council and major industries in the area to determine effects of air pollution on the health of the community. The final results of that study summarised in this article, and options to ameliorate problems are addressed. (author)

  5. Air pollution and venous thrombosis: a meta-analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Tang, Liang; Wang, Qing-yun; Cheng, Zhi-Peng; Hu, Bei; Liu, Jing-di; Hu, Yu

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to air pollution has been linked to cardiovascular and respiratory disorders. However, the effect of air pollution on venous thrombotic disorders is uncertain. We performed a meta-analysis to assess the association between air pollution and venous thrombosis. PubMed, Embase, EBM Reviews, Healthstar, Global Health, Nursing Database, and Web of Science were searched for citations on air pollutants (carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, ozone, and particulate matters) and v...

  6. Motor Vehicles Air Pollution in Nairobi, Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Odhiambo

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Air quality monitoring in most developing countries is not routinely conducted, and in some urban areas such information does not even exist, though signs of deteriorating air quality and health problems related to air pollution are visible. By measuring air pollutants (i.e., Nitrogen Oxides, ozone, suspended particulates matter (PM10, and trace elements e.g. lead, this study investigated air quality in Nairobi, one of the largest cities in eastern Africa and the capital of Kenya. Sampling was done once a week from February to April 2003. Hourly average concentrations of NOx and O3 were measured using a technique that is based on "chemilumiscent" reaction at a site connecting two main highways in Nairobi (University and Uhuru from 9:00 a.m. to 5:00 p.m. PM10 was collected using “Gent” Stacked Filter Unit (SFU air sampler fitted with nucleopore filters (0.4 and 8.0 mm pore size for fine and coarse filters, respectively that were analyzed for trace elements by Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescent (EDXRF technique. An automatic vehicle counter was used for determining the vehicle density at the sampling site. Results show that most pollutants, for example, lead (0.05 1 to 1.106 µg/m3, bromine (LLD to 0.43 µg/m3, NO2 (0.011-0.976 ppm, NO (0.001-0.2628 ppm and O3 (LLD-0.1258 ppm are within the WHO guidelines. PM10 levels (66.66 - 444.45 µg/m3 were above the WHO guidelines for most of the days, with coarse particulate accounting for more than 70%. Strong correlation (r = 0.966 between fine (0.4 µm particulates, NOx, and motor vehicle density, indicate the importance of traffic as a common source for both fine particulates and NOx.

  7. AIR POLLUTION AND LUNG CAPACITY OF PEOPLE LIVING AROUND THE CEMENT INDUSTRY, INDONESIA

    OpenAIRE

    Erwin Azizi Jayadipraja; Anwar Daud; Alimuddin Hamzah Assegaf; Maming

    2016-01-01

    Backgrounds: A cement industry is one of anthropogenic sources of air pollution. In polluting the air, the industry creates some dust particles, nitrogen oxide (NO2), sulfur oxide (SO2), and carbon monoxide (CO). Research Purpose: The research aimed at finding out the ambient air quality around a cement industry and relating it with the lung capacity of people living around the area. Methodology: This was a cross sectional studies by measuring the ambient air quality in the morning, noo...

  8. A Wireless Sensor Network Air Pollution Monitoring System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kavi K. Khedo

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Sensor networks are currently an active research area mainly due to the potential of their applications. Inthis paper we investigate the use of Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN for air pollution monitoring inMauritius. With the fast growing industrial activities on the island, the problem of air pollution isbecoming a major concern for the health of the population. We proposed an innovative system namedWireless Sensor Network Air Pollution Monitoring System (WAPMS to monitor air pollution inMauritius through the use of wireless sensors deployed in huge numbers around the island. The proposedsystem makes use of an Air Quality Index (AQI which is presently not available in Mauritius. In order toimprove the efficiency of WAPMS, we have designed and implemented a new data aggregation algorithmnamed Recursive Converging Quartiles (RCQ. The algorithm is used to merge data to eliminateduplicates, filter out invalid readings and summarise them into a simpler form which significantly reducethe amount of data to be transmitted to the sink and thus saving energy. For better power management weused a hierarchical routing protocol in WAPMS and caused the motes to sleep during idle time.

  9. Urban air pollution, study of Mexico City

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauer, M. [PUE-UNAM (Mexico); Guzman, F. [Inst. Mexicano del Petroleo (Mexico); Navarro, B. [Univ. Autonoma Metropolitana (Mexico)

    1996-12-01

    The Metropolitan Area of Mexico City (MAMC) is an outstanding case of a fast urban development with lagging, and thus insufficient, massive transportation facilities. This has given rise to a distorted transportation system that accounts for most of the air pollution problem of the city and constitutes a drag on economic development. In this paper, we first describe the MAMC geographical conditions, its growth in physical and economic terms, its transportation system, the ensuring air pollution problems together with some of the mitigation actions undertaken. Afterwards the results of a survey of the displacements of individuals within the city and the time spent on these are presented, to then draw some considerations on the negative economic impact it represents. (EG)

  10. 40 CFR 49.137 - Rule for air pollution episodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Rule for air pollution episodes. 49.137... Application to Indian Reservations in Epa Region 10 § 49.137 Rule for air pollution episodes. (a) What is the... of an air pollution emergency within the Indian reservation due to the effects of these...

  11. Conclusions of the NATO ARW on Large Scale Computations in Air Pollution Modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    1999-01-01

    Proceedings of the NATO Advanced Research Workshop on Large Scale Computations in Air Pollution Modelling, Sofia, Bulgaria, 6-10 July 1998......Proceedings of the NATO Advanced Research Workshop on Large Scale Computations in Air Pollution Modelling, Sofia, Bulgaria, 6-10 July 1998...

  12. Personal exposure of children to air pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashmore, M. R.; Dimitroulopoulou, C.

    Changes over recent decades in outdoor concentrations of air pollutants are well documented. However, the impacts of air pollution on an individual's health actually relate not to these outdoor concentrations but to their personal exposure in the different locations in which they spend time. Assessing how personal exposures differ from outdoor concentrations, and how they have changed over recent decades, is challenging. This review focuses on the exposure of children, since they are a particularly sensitive group. Much of children's time is spent indoors, and childhood exposure is closely related to concentrations in the home, at school, and in transport. For this reason, children's personal exposures to air pollutants differ significantly from both those of adults and from outdoor concentrations. They depend on a range of factors, including urbanisation, energy use, building design, travel patterns, and activity profiles; analysis of these factors can identify a wider range of policy measures to reduce children's exposure than direct emission control. There is a very large variation in personal exposure between individual children, caused by differences in building design, indoor and outdoor sources, and activity patterns. Identifying groups of children with high personal exposure, and their underlying causes, is particularly important in regions of the world where emissions are increasing, but there are limited resources for environmental and health protection. Although the science of personal exposure assessment, with the associated measurement and modelling techniques, has developed to maturity in North America and western Europe over the last 50 years, there is an urgent need to apply this science in other parts of the world where the effects of air pollution are now much more serious.

  13. ARAMIS a regional air quality model for air pollution management: evaluation and validation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this research was to better understand the dynamics of air pollutants and to forecast the air quality over regional areas in order to develop emission abatement strategies for air pollution and adverse health effects. To accomplish this objective, we developed and applied a high resolution Eulerian system named ARAMIS (A Regional Air Quality Modelling Integrated System) over the north-east of Spain (Catalonia), where several pollutants exceed threshold values for the protection of human health. The results indicate that the model reproduced reasonably well observed concentrations, as statistical values fell within Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) recommendations and European (EU) regulations. Nevertheless, some hourly O3 exceedances in summer and hourly peaks of NO2 in winter were underestimated. Concerning PM10 concentrations less accurate model levels were obtained with a moderate trend towards underestimation during the day. (Author)

  14. Assessment of health risks caused by air pollutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is a support document to an other report from the Swedish Environmental Protection Agency 'Risk assessment - a research programme aimed at health risks from air pollution in the general environment', report 3890, 1991 and is a survey of the scientific 'state of the art' in the different parts of risk assessment. Furthermore certain proposals are made concerning the scientific content of the future research in this area. (au)

  15. Health effects from the inhalation of oxidant air pollutants as related to the immune system. Final report. Research report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osebold, J.W.; Zee, Y.C.

    1985-07-01

    The investigations dealt with links between ozone inhalation and lung diseases. Mice exposed to ozone both continuously and intermittently in four-day cycles showed allergic sensitization to the test antigen (ovalbumin) when compaired to mice maintained in ambeint air. An adjuvant (inactivated Bordetella pertussis cells) administered to mice augmented the immunological response to the test antigen with periodic exposure to ozone. Guinea pigs were tested for allergic sensitization from ozone exposure similar to human asthma, but this trial was not definitive. Ozone inhalation reduced the severity of pneumonia in mice from influenza virus infection, even when ozone and virus exposures were timed to produce maximal edema in the lung.

  16. Air pollution-related burden of illness in Toronto : 2004 update, technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pengelly, D.; Sommerfreund, J. [McMaster Univ., Hamilton, ON (Canada). McMaster Inst. of Environment and Health

    2004-03-01

    A study was conducted to assess the air pollution burden of illness (BOI) related to air quality measurements in Toronto. BOI estimates can assess the human health risk of existing or expected levels of air pollution. New scientific literature, data and measuring methods allow for the quantification of adverse health effects associated with exposure to air pollution. The information provides numerical coefficients associating a broad range of health end points with air pollutants. The coefficients can be used to estimate the air pollution BOI in a community if the air pollution levels have been measured and if the disease specific overall BOI data from hospitals are also available. This report described the factors influencing the direction of scientific research in air pollution. It also provided a literature review of epidemiological studies. The risk coefficients for BOI estimation, air quality measurements, and health outcome data were also described. Air pollution-related BOI was discussed in terms of premature non-traumatic mortality and hospital admissions for respiratory and cardiovascular disease. The report reveals that Toronto has seen an increase in air pollution related to fossil-fuelled electrical generation, a decrease in transportation related primary pollutants, and a large increase in ozone. The dominant air problem in Toronto is the impact of transportation-related pollutants, particularly from diesel-powered heavy vehicles. In terms of policy implications, the literature suggests that focus should be placed on susceptible groups such as infants, children and the elderly. It was suggested that more studies should examine the role of the pollutant mix on susceptible groups instead of examining the effects of individual pollutants on the entire population. It was also suggested that air quality management strategies should be aimed at the sources of the most toxic components of the pollutant mix. 57 refs., 9 tabs., 2 figs., 3 appendices.

  17. Can the Air Pollution Index be used to communicate the health risks of air pollution?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li; Lin, Guo-Zhen; Liu, Hua-Zhang; Guo, Yuming; Ou, Chun-Quan; Chen, Ping-Yan

    2015-10-01

    The validity of using the Air Pollution Index (API) to assess health impacts of air pollution and potential modification by individual characteristics on air pollution effects remain uncertain. We applied distributed lag non-linear models (DLNMs) to assess associations of daily API, specific pollution indices for PM10, SO2, NO2 and the weighted combined API (APIw) with mortality during 2003-2011 in Guangzhou, China. An increase of 10 in API was associated with a 0.88% (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.50, 1.27%) increase of non-accidental mortality at lag 0-2 days. Harvesting effects appeared after 2 days' exposure. The effect estimate of API over lag 0-15 days was statistically significant and similar with those of pollutant-specific indices and APIw. Stronger associations between API and mortality were observed in the elderly, females and residents with low educational attainment. In conclusion, the API can be used to communicate health risks of air pollution. PMID:26057478

  18. Population Dynamics and Air Pollution: The Impact of Demographics on Health Impact Assessment of Air Pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esben Meulengracht Flachs

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To explore how three different assumptions on demographics affect the health impact of Danish emitted air pollution in Denmark from 2005 to 2030, with health impact modeled from 2005 to 2050. Methods. Modeled air pollution from Danish sources was used as exposure in a newly developed health impact assessment model, which models four major diseases and mortality causes in addition to all-cause mortality. The modeling was at the municipal level, which divides the approximately 5.5 M residents in Denmark into 99 municipalities. Three sets of demographic assumptions were used: (1 a static year 2005 population, (2 morbidity and mortality fixed at the year 2005 level, or (3 an expected development. Results. The health impact of air pollution was estimated at 672,000, 290,000, and 280,000 lost life years depending on demographic assumptions and the corresponding social costs at 430.4 M€, 317.5 M€, and 261.6 M€ through the modeled years 2005–2050. Conclusion. The modeled health impact of air pollution differed widely with the demographic assumptions, and thus demographics and assumptions on demographics played a key role in making health impact assessments on air pollution.

  19. Air pollution and environmental justice in the Great Lakes region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comer, Bryan

    While it is true that air quality has steadily improved in the Great Lakes region, air pollution remains at unhealthy concentrations in many areas. Research suggests that vulnerable and susceptible groups in society -- e.g., minorities, the poor, children, and poorly educated -- are often disproportionately impacted by exposure to environmental hazards, including air pollution. This dissertation explores the relationship between exposure to ambient air pollution (interpolated concentrations of fine particulate matter, PM2.5) and sociodemographic factors (race, housing value, housing status, education, age, and population density) at the Census block-group level in the Great Lakes region of the United States. A relatively novel approach to quantitative environmental justice analysis, geographically weighted regression (GWR), is compared with a simplified approach: ordinary least squares (OLS) regression. While OLS creates one global model to describe the relationship between air pollution exposure and sociodemographic factors, GWR creates many local models (one at each Census block group) that account for local variations in this relationship by allowing the value of regression coefficients to vary over space, overcoming OLS's assumption of homogeneity and spatial independence. Results suggest that GWR can elucidate patterns of potential environmental injustices that OLS models may miss. In fact, GWR results show that the relationship between exposure to ambient air pollution and sociodemographic characteristics is non-stationary and can vary geographically and temporally throughout the Great Lakes region. This suggests that regulators may need to address environmental justice issues at the neighborhood level, while understanding that the severity of environmental injustices can change throughout the year.

  20. Public Perception of Urban Air Pollution: An Exploratory Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents the results of a qualitative study using focus groups aimed at understanding the beliefs and attitudes of the population towards air pollution, its levels, causes, health impacts and possible mitigation and protection actions. The study sample consisted of members of the general population, between 18 and 65 years living in Barcelona. The analysis of the group discussion indicates that there is little awareness among participants about air pollution risks. The causes of air pollution are relatively known but there is little knowledge about pollution levels and types of pollutants. We found a low level of perceived personal risk associated to air pollution that coexists with a general awareness of the health impacts of air pollution, a low level of concern about the problem and a low level of personal involvement in mitigation and self protection measures. Participants reported no use of existing information services about air pollution. (Author)

  1. Comet assay in salivary leukocytes: evaluation of early effects of air pollution exposure in pre-school children.

    OpenAIRE

    Elisabetta Ceretti

    2015-01-01

    Background Air pollution is a global problem: airborne or deposited pollutants can be found worldwide, from highly polluted to remote areas. Epidemiological studies attribute the most severe health effects from air pollution to particulate matter which has been associated with cardiovascular diseases, lung cancer and other chronic diseases. In 2013, the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) classified air pollution and particulate matter as carcinogenic to human. Among the...

  2. Protection of plants against air pollutants: Role of chemical protectants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pandey, J.; Agrawal, M. (Banaras Hindu Univ., Varanasi (India))

    1993-03-01

    The protection of plants against air pollution damage can best be achieved either by developing pollution-tolerant cultivars or by using chemical protectants. Use of chemical protectants such as pesticides, growth regulators, anti-oxidants, fertilizers, etc. is a short-term solution to reduce the risk of air pollution damage. In addition, these protectants help in understanding the mechanism of air pollution toxicity and provide a scientific basis for assessing crop losses in field conditions. 95 refs.

  3. Air pollution and sports performance in Beijing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippi, G; Guidi, G C; Maffulli, N

    2008-08-01

    The Beijing Olympics will begin in August 2008 and athletes will face an unpredictable challenge. Based on present data, Beijing is one of the most polluted megacities in the world; the air concentrations of carbon monoxide (CO), ozone, nitrogen oxides (NO and NO2), sulphur dioxide (SO2) and particulate matter approach or exceed the current limits established by U. S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Although the athletes who will be competing in Beijing are physiologically very different to the participants in most published studies, and it is therefore difficult to predict individual responses, there is little doubt that the presence of these air pollutants might be detrimental to athletic performance due to the marked increase (up to 20-fold) in ventilatory rate and concomitant nasal and oral breathing. Moreover, mouth breathing often bypasses the noise during strenuous exercise, increasing the deleterious effects of pollutants on health and athletic performance. Although limited, each decrement in athletic performance would have a potentially deleterious impact on top-class athletes competing in the next Olympics in China. Several Olympic records are regularly broken during the Olympics. Will this be the case for Beijing? PMID:18512178

  4. Source apportionment of indoor air pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sexton, Ken; Hayward, Steven B.

    An understanding of the relative contributions from important pollutant sources to human exposures is necessary for the design and implementation of effective control strategies. In the past, societal efforts to control air pollution have focused almost exclusively on the outdoor (ambient) environment. As a result, substantial amounts of time and money have been spent to limit airborne discharges from mobile and stationary sources. Yet it is now recognized that exposures to elevated pollutant concentrations often occur as a result of indoor, rather than outdoor, emissions. While the major indoor sources have been identified, their relative impacts on indoor air quality have not been well defined. Application of existing source apportionment models to nonindustrial indoor environments is only just beginning. It is possible that these models might be used to distinguish between indoor and outdoor emissions, as well as to distinguish among indoor sources themselves. However, before the feasibility and suitability of source-apportionment methods for indoor applications can be assessed adequately, it is necessary to take account of model assumptions and associated data requirements. This paper examines the issue of indoor source apportionment and reviews the need for emission characterization studies to support such source-apportionment efforts.

  5. Health Impact Assessment of Air Pollution in São Paulo, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Karina Camasmie; Miraglia, Simone Georges El Khouri

    2016-01-01

    Epidemiological research suggests that air pollution may cause chronic diseases, as well as exacerbation of related pathologies such as cardiovascular and respiratory morbidity and mortality. This study evaluates air pollution scenarios considering a Health Impact Assessment approach in São Paulo, Brazil. We have analyzed abatement scenarios of Particulate Matter (PM) with an aerodynamic diameter air pollution would also lower the demand for hospital care, since hospitalizations would diminish. In this sense, Brazil should urgently adopt WHO air pollution standards in order to improve the quality of life of its population. PMID:27409629

  6. Health Impact Assessment of Air Pollution in São Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Karina Camasmie; Miraglia, Simone Georges El Khouri

    2016-01-01

    Epidemiological research suggests that air pollution may cause chronic diseases, as well as exacerbation of related pathologies such as cardiovascular and respiratory morbidity and mortality. This study evaluates air pollution scenarios considering a Health Impact Assessment approach in São Paulo, Brazil. We have analyzed abatement scenarios of Particulate Matter (PM) with an aerodynamic diameter resources are scarce. Moreover, the reduced levels of air pollution would also lower the demand for hospital care, since hospitalizations would diminish. In this sense, Brazil should urgently adopt WHO air pollution standards in order to improve the quality of life of its population. PMID:27409629

  7. Urban air pollution, poverty, violence and health--Neurological and immunological aspects as mediating factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristiansson, Marianne; Sörman, Karolina; Tekwe, Carmen; Calderón-Garcidueñas, Lilian

    2015-07-01

    Rapid rural-urban migration has created overcrowded areas characterized by concentrated poverty and increases in indoor and outdoor air pollutants. These "hotspots" constitute an increased risk of violence and disease outbreaks. We hypothesize that the effects of poverty and associated air pollution-related stress on impaired cognitive skills are mediated by inflammatory cytokines. A research framework is proposed, encompassing (i) an epidemiological investigation of associations between poverty, high concentrations of air pollutants, violence and health, (ii) a longitudinal follow-up of working memory capacities and inflammatory markers, and (iii) intervention programs aiming to strengthen employability and decreased exposures to toxic air pollutants. PMID:26005121

  8. Urban air pollution, poverty, violence and health--Neurological and immunological aspects as mediating factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristiansson, Marianne; Sörman, Karolina; Tekwe, Carmen; Calderón-Garcidueñas, Lilian

    2015-07-01

    Rapid rural-urban migration has created overcrowded areas characterized by concentrated poverty and increases in indoor and outdoor air pollutants. These "hotspots" constitute an increased risk of violence and disease outbreaks. We hypothesize that the effects of poverty and associated air pollution-related stress on impaired cognitive skills are mediated by inflammatory cytokines. A research framework is proposed, encompassing (i) an epidemiological investigation of associations between poverty, high concentrations of air pollutants, violence and health, (ii) a longitudinal follow-up of working memory capacities and inflammatory markers, and (iii) intervention programs aiming to strengthen employability and decreased exposures to toxic air pollutants.

  9. Winter season air pollution in El Paso-Ciudad Juarez. A review of air pollution studies in an international airshed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Einfeld, W.; Church, H.W.

    1995-03-01

    This report summarizes a number of research efforts completed over the past 20 years in the El Paso del Norte region to characterize pollution sources and air quality trends. The El Paso del Norte region encompasses the cities of El Paso, Texas and Ciudad Juarez, Chihuahua and is representative of many US-Mexico border communities that are facing important air quality issues as population growth and industrialization of Mexican border communities continue. Special attention is given to a group of studies carried out under special US Congressional funding and administered by the US Environmental Protection Agency. Many of these studies were fielded within the last several years to develop a better understanding of air pollution sources and trends in this typical border community. Summary findings from a wide range of studies dealing with such issues as the temporal and spatial distribution of pollutants and pollution potential from both stationary and mobile sources in both cities are presented. Particular emphasis is given to a recent study in El Paso-Ciudad Juarez that focussed on winter season PM{sub 10} pollution in El Paso-Ciudad Juarez. Preliminary estimates from this short-term study reveal that biomass combustion products and crustal material are significant components of winter season PM{sub 10} in this international border community.

  10. The emerging role of outdoor and indoor air pollution in cardiovascular disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacinta C Uzoigwe

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Outdoor and indoor air pollution poses a significant cardiovascular risk, and has been associated with atherosclerosis, the main underlying pathology in many cardiovascular diseases. Although, it is well known that exposure to air pollution causes pulmonary disease, recent studies have shown that cardiovascular health consequences of air pollution generally equal or exceed those due to pulmonary diseases. The objective of this article is to evaluate the current evidence on the emerging role of environmental air pollutions in cardiovascular disease, with specific focus on the types of air pollutants and mechanisms of air pollution-induced cardiotoxicity. Published literature on pollution was systematically reviewed and cited in this article. It is hoped that this review will provide a better understanding of the harmful cardiovascular effects induced by air pollution exposure. This will help to bring a better understanding on the possible preventive health measures and will also serve regulatory agencies and researchers. In addition, elucidating the biological mechanisms underlying the link between air pollution and cardiovascular disease is an essential target in developing novel pharmacological strategies aimed at decreasing adverse effects of air pollution on cardiovascular system.

  11. Bangkok and its air pollution problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panich, S.

    1995-12-31

    Bangkok is the city on a former river delta and is a very flat area. The topography is unremarkable but being only a few kilometers (about 20) from the sea in the Gulf of Bangkok, the City experiences the sea breeze every afternoon and evening. The natural phenomenon is caused by the uplifting of hot air from the sun-baked ground and heat generation in the city, to be replaced by the cooler air from the sea, which is to the south. During the nighttime the sea breeze ceases to operate as the ground temperature cools down. The late night and early morning is characterized by the calm or no wind. With 2.1 million vehicles, the city has a serious problem of carbon monoxide from the gasoline vehicles stuck in the traffic on start and stop cycles, while particulate matter is the result of diesel vehicles. Hydrocarbons mainly result from two-stroke motorcycles and tuk-tuk (three-wheeled) taxis. Air pollution in Bangkok and major cities of Thailand is the result of emissions from gasoline, diesel, and LPG fueled vehicles, which contribute to the observed levels of carbon monoxide, lead, particulate matter, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, ozone and hydrocarbons. The industrial activities contribute smaller share due to tall stacks and more efficient combusting processes and pollution control.

  12. Evaluating Hong Kong's air pollution legislation and policies

    OpenAIRE

    Wong, Ping-hei, Benny; 黃丙熙

    2014-01-01

    Air pollution is a major environmental problem that poses numerous health risks to those exposed to it. The adverse health effects are compounded in a place as dense as Hong Kong and further intensified due to its proximity to industrial and manufacturing plants across the border in Mainland China. Hong Kong has attempted to address the issue of air pollution through the enactment of legislation and policies such as the 1983 Air Pollution Control Ordinance and Air Quality Objectives, but so f...

  13. Air pollution prevention at the Hanford Site: Status and recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the introduction of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 and other air and pollution prevention regulations, there has been increased focus on both pollution prevention and air emissions at US DOE sites. The Pollution Prevention (P2) Group of WHC reviewed the status of air pollution prevention with the goal of making recommendations on how to address air emissions at Hanford through pollution prevention. Using the air emissions inventory from Hanford's Title V permit, the P2 Group was able to identify major and significant air sources. By reviewing the literature and benchmarking two other DOE Sites, two major activities were recommended to reduce air pollution and reduce costs at the Hanford Site. First, a pollution prevention opportunity assessment (P2OA) should be conducted on the significant painting sources in the Maintenance group and credit should be taken for reducing the burning of tumbleweeds, another significant source of air pollution. Since they are significant sources, reducing these emissions will reduce air emission fees, as well as have the potential to reduce material and labor costs, and increase worker safety. Second, a P2OA should be conducted on alternatives to the three coal-fired powerhouses (steam plants) on-site, including a significant costs analysis of alternatives. This analysis could be of significant value to other DOE sites. Overall, these two activities would reduce pollution, ease regulatory requirements and fees, save money, and help Hanford take a leadership role in air pollution prevention

  14. Mortality and air pollution: lessons from statistics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cross sectional studies which attempt to link persistent geographic differences in mortality rates with air pollution are reviewed. Some early studies are mentioned and detailed results are given for seven major contemporary studies, two of which are still in the publication process. Differences among the studies are discussed with regard to statistical techniques, trends in the results over time (1959 to 1974), and interpretation and use of the results. The analysis concludes that there are far too many problems with this technique to allow causality to be firmly established, and thus the results should not be used for cost benefit or policy analysis

  15. Electrodialytic remediation of air pollution control residues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Pernille Erland

    Air pollution control (APC) residue from municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) consists of the fly ash, and, in dry and semi-dry systems, also the reaction products from the flue gas cleaning process. APC residue is considered a hazardous waste due to its high alkalinity, high content of salts...... solutions are concerned with deposition; e.g. in abandoned mines. A demand for more environmentally friendly alternatives exists. Electrodialysis could be such an alternative, and the potential is being explored. Some main challenges are the extremely high soluble fraction together with the fact that many...

  16. Air pollution: a smoking gun for cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Wei Zhang; Chao-Nan Qian; Yi-Xin Zeng

    2014-01-01

    Once considered a taboo topic or stigma, cancer is the number one public health enemy in the world. Once a product of an almost untouchable industry, tobacco is indisputably recognized as a major cause of cancer and a target for anticancer efforts. With the emergence of new economic powers in the world, especially in highly populated countries such as China, air pollution has rapidly emerged as a smoking gun for cancer and has become a hot topic for public health debate because of the complex...

  17. Elemental bioaccumulators in air pollution studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    K0-Based instrumental neutron activation analysis (k0 INAA) was used to determine the concentrations of Cr, Fe, Co, Zn, Se, Sb and Hg in the vascular plants Cistus salvifolius and Inula viscosa and in the lichen Parmelia sulcata. The samples were collected in the neighbourhood of industrial complexes. The elemental accumulation in the vascular plants and the lichen are compared to optimize the choice of the bioaccumulator. It is concluded that P.sulcata seems to be the best accumulator of the three species for the element studied; Cistus salvifolius is sensitive to the contents of Zn, Fe, Cr and Sb in the air; Inula viscosa seems to accumulate Fe, Sb, Co, Cr and Zn. Nevertheless, it is concluded that lichen is a good air pollution indicator, while the vascular plants are not due to the large seasonal variations found in the elemental concentrations. (author) 11 refs.; 7 figs.; 2 tabs

  18. Degradation of air polluted by organic compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    According to the Mexican standard NOM-010-STPS-1994 it has been established concentrations of maximum permissible levels in workable air for styrene in the range 420-1710 mg/m3 and for xylene between 218-870 mg/m3. In this work it is studied a biological treatment (bio filtration) for air polluted by xylene and styrene where the microorganisms are adhered at synthetic fiber, these degrade to the organic compounds that across in gaseous state and they are mineralized toward CO2 and H2O. The characteristics of temperature, p H, concentration of organic compound and mineral parameters, as well as, the biomass quantity have been optimized for that bio filters efficiency were greater than those reported in other works. (Author)

  19. Geospatial Modeling of Asthma Population in Relation to Air Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kethireddy, Swatantra R.; Tchounwou, Paul B.; Young, John H.; Luvall, Jeffrey C.; Alhamdan, Mohammad

    2013-01-01

    Current observations indicate that asthma is growing every year in the United States, specific reasons for this are not well understood. This study stems from an ongoing research effort to investigate the spatio-temporal behavior of asthma and its relatedness to air pollution. The association between environmental variables such as air quality and asthma related health issues over Mississippi State are investigated using Geographic Information Systems (GIS) tools and applications. Health data concerning asthma obtained from Mississippi State Department of Health (MSDH) for 9-year period of 2003-2011, and data of air pollutant concentrations (PM2.5) collected from USEPA web resources, and are analyzed geospatially to establish the impacts of air quality on human health specifically related to asthma. Disease mapping using geospatial techniques provides valuable insights into the spatial nature, variability, and association of asthma to air pollution. Asthma patient hospitalization data of Mississippi has been analyzed and mapped using quantitative Choropleth techniques in ArcGIS. Patients have been geocoded to their respective zip codes. Potential air pollutant sources of Interstate highways, Industries, and other land use data have been integrated in common geospatial platform to understand their adverse contribution on human health. Existing hospitals and emergency clinics are being injected into analysis to further understand their proximity and easy access to patient locations. At the current level of analysis and understanding, spatial distribution of Asthma is observed in the populations of Zip code regions in gulf coast, along the interstates of south, and in counties of Northeast Mississippi. It is also found that asthma is prevalent in most of the urban population. This GIS based project would be useful to make health risk assessment and provide information support to the administrators and decision makers for establishing satellite clinics in future.

  20. Research of Environmental Air Pollution in Jiyuan Area%济源区域环境空气污染状况研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王红果; 李继明

    2014-01-01

    Using real-time data of rural Potou automatic air quality monitoring stations of Jiyuan , from the monthly average , daily mean , mean different time periods when the pollution situation in -depth analysis , the quality of ambient air pollution in rural areas and the distribution were found out preliminarily , which had important reference value for ambient air pollution protection.%利用济源市坡头农村空气质量自动监测站实时数据,从月均值、日均值、时均值不同时间段对污染状况进行深入分析,初步摸清了农村地区环境空气质量污染状况及分布规律,对现阶段的农村地区环境空气污染防治具有重要的参考价值。

  1. Evaluating strategies to reduce urban air pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duque, L.; Relvas, H.; Silveira, C.; Ferreira, J.; Monteiro, A.; Gama, C.; Rafael, S.; Freitas, S.; Borrego, C.; Miranda, A. I.

    2016-02-01

    During the last years, specific air quality problems have been detected in the urban area of Porto (Portugal). Both PM10 and NO2 limit values have been surpassed in several air quality monitoring stations and, following the European legislation requirements, Air Quality Plans were designed and implemented to reduce those levels. In this sense, measures to decrease PM10 and NO2 emissions have been selected, these mainly related to the traffic sector, but also regarding the industrial and residential combustion sectors. The main objective of this study is to investigate the efficiency of these reduction measures with regard to the improvement of PM10 and NO2 concentration levels over the Porto urban region using a numerical modelling tool - The Air Pollution Model (TAPM). TAPM was applied over the study region, for a simulation domain of 80 × 80 km2 with a spatial resolution of 1 × 1 km2. The entire year of 2012 was simulated and set as the base year for the analysis of the impacts of the selected measures. Taking into account the main activity sectors, four main scenarios have been defined and simulated, with focus on: (1) hybrid cars; (2) a Low Emission Zone (LEZ); (3) fireplaces and (4) industry. The modelling results indicate that measures to reduce PM10 should be focused on residential combustion (fireplaces) and industrial activity and for NO2 the strategy should be based on the traffic sector. The implementation of all the defined scenarios will allow a total maximum reduction of 4.5% on the levels of both pollutants.

  2. Does urban vegetation mitigate air pollution in northern conditions?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is generally accepted that urban vegetation improves air quality and thereby enhances the well-being of citizens. However, empirical evidence on the potential of urban trees to mitigate air pollution is meager, particularly in northern climates with a short growing season. We studied the ability of urban park/forest vegetation to remove air pollutants (NO2, anthropogenic VOCs and particle deposition) using passive samplers in two Finnish cities. Concentrations of each pollutant in August (summer; leaf-period) and March (winter, leaf-free period) were slightly but often insignificantly lower under tree canopies than in adjacent open areas, suggesting that the role of foliage in removing air pollutants is insignificant. Furthermore, vegetation-related environmental variables (canopy closure, number and size of trees, density of understorey vegetation) did not explain the variation in pollution concentrations. Our results suggest that the ability of urban vegetation to remove air pollutants is minor in northern climates. -- Highlights: ► The ability of northern urban vegetation to remove air pollutants is minor. ► Vegetation-related environmental variables had no effect on air pollution levels. ► The ability of vegetation to clean air did not differ between summer and winter. ► Dry deposition passive samplers proved applicable in urban air pollution study. -- The ability of urban vegetation to remove air pollutants seems to be minor in northern climates

  3. Review of air pollution and health impacts in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the early days of abundant resources and minimal development pressures, little attention was paid to growing environmental concerns in Malaysia. The haze episodes in Southeast Asia in 1983, 1984, 1991, 1994, and 1997 imposed threats to the environmental management of Malaysia and increased awareness of the environment. As a consequence, the government established Malaysian Air Quality Guidelines, the Air Pollution Index, and the Haze Action Plan to improve air quality. Air quality monitoring is part of the initial strategy in the pollution prevention program in Malaysia. Review of air pollution in Malaysia is based on the reports of the air quality monitoring in several large cities in Malaysia, which cover air pollutants such as Carbon monoxide (CO), Sulphur Dioxide (SO2), Nitrogen Dioxide (NO2), Ozone (O3), and Suspended Particulate Matter (SPM). The results of the monitoring indicate that Suspended Particulate Matter (SPM) and Nitrogen Dioxide (NO2) are the predominant pollutants. Other pollutants such as CO, Ox, SO2, and Pb are also observed in several big cities in Malaysia. The air pollution comes mainly from land transportation, industrial emissions, and open burning sources. Among them, land transportation contributes the most to air pollution. This paper reviews the results of the ambient air quality monitoring and studies related to air pollution and health impacts

  4. Review of air pollution and health impacts in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afroz, Rafia; Hassan, Mohd Nasir; Ibrahim, Noor Akma

    2003-06-01

    In the early days of abundant resources and minimal development pressures, little attention was paid to growing environmental concerns in Malaysia. The haze episodes in Southeast Asia in 1983, 1984, 1991, 1994, and 1997 imposed threats to the environmental management of Malaysia and increased awareness of the environment. As a consequence, the government established Malaysian Air Quality Guidelines, the Air Pollution Index, and the Haze Action Plan to improve air quality. Air quality monitoring is part of the initial strategy in the pollution prevention program in Malaysia. Review of air pollution in Malaysia is based on the reports of the air quality monitoring in several large cities in Malaysia, which cover air pollutants such as Carbon monoxide (CO), Sulphur Dioxide (SO2), Nitrogen Dioxide (NO2), Ozone (O3), and Suspended Particulate Matter (SPM). The results of the monitoring indicate that Suspended Particulate Matter (SPM) and Nitrogen Dioxide (NO2) are the predominant pollutants. Other pollutants such as CO, O(x), SO2, and Pb are also observed in several big cities in Malaysia. The air pollution comes mainly from land transportation, industrial emissions, and open burning sources. Among them, land transportation contributes the most to air pollution. This paper reviews the results of the ambient air quality monitoring and studies related to air pollution and health impacts.

  5. Pollution: A Selected Bibliography of U.S. Government Publications on Air, Water, and Land Pollution 1965-1970.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiraldi, Louis, Comp.; Burk, Janet L., Comp.

    Materials on environmental pollution published by the various offices of the federal government are presented in this select bibliography. Limited in scope to publications on air, water, and land pollution, the document is designed to serve teachers and researchers working in the field of environmental problems who wish reference to public…

  6. A review on air pollution and various dust models for open cast mines in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Open cast coal mining continues to create significant environmental problems in India. In particular, this type of mining creates high rates of air pollution SPM, RPM, SO2 and NOx. In these particulate matter i.e. SPM and RPM is major pollution in the open cast mines. It creates several heath hazards to mine workers and surrounding peoples and high environmental deterioration occurs. Several studies are carried out in the field of air pollution and air quality modeling of open cast projects and many researchers suggested several control measures for the air pollution control in mines. Different dust models FDM, ISC3 are available for prediction and transport of the pollutants. In this paper a review has been studied about air pollution in the open cast mines and dust dispersion models for open cast mines in India. (author)

  7. Elderly exposure to indoor air pollutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida-Silva, M.; Wolterbeek, H. T.; Almeida, S. M.

    2014-03-01

    The aim of this work was to characterize the indoor air quality in Elderly Care Centers (ECCs) in order to assess the elders' daily exposure to air pollutants. Ten ECCs hosting 384 elderly were selected in Lisbon and Loures. Firstly, a time-budget survey was created based on questionnaires applied in the studied sites. Results showed that in average elders spend 95% of their time indoors splitted between bedrooms and living-rooms. Therefore, a set of physical and chemical parameters were measured continuously during the occupancy period in these two indoor micro-environments and in the outdoor. Results showed that indoor was the main environment contributing for the elders' daily exposure living in ECCs. In the indoor, the principal micro-environment contributing for the elders' daily exposure varied between bedrooms and living-rooms depending not only on the characteristics of the ECCs but also on the pollutants. The concentrations of CO2, VOCt, O3 and PM10 exceeded the limit values predominantly due to the insufficient ventilation preconized in the studied sites.

  8. Athletic performance and urban air pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shephard, R.J.

    1984-07-15

    Air pollution may affect athletic performance. In Los Angeles, contaminants include carbon monoxide, ozone, peroxyacetylnitrate (PAN) and nitrogen oxides, whereas in older European cities, such as Sarajevo, ''reducing smog'' of sulfur dioxide is the main hazard. The carbon monoxide and ozone levels expected in Los Angeles this summer could affect the athletes performance in endurance events at the Olympic Games. Carbon monoxide may also impair psychomotor abilities, and PAN causes visual disturbances. The only likely physiologic consequence from reducing smog is an increase in the workload of the respiratory system and thus a decrease in endurance performance. While carbon monoxide has been blamed for myocardial infarctions, nitrogen oxides for pulmonary edema and sulfur dioxide for deaths due to respiratory failure, the only illnesses that are likely to be more frequent than usual among young athletes exposed to high levels of these pollutants are upper respiratory tract infections. Therapeutic tactics include the avoidance of pollution, the administration of oxygen, vitamin C and vitamin E, and general reassurance.

  9. Monitoring of pyrocatechol indoor air pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eškinja, I.; Grabarić, Z.; Grabarić, B. S.

    Spectrophotometric and electrochemical methods for monitoring of pyrocatechol (PC) indoor air pollution have been investigated. Spectrophotometric determination was performed using Fe(III) and iodine methods. The adherence to Beer's law was found in the concentration range between 0 and 12 μg ml - for iodine method at pH = 5.7 measuring absorbance at 725 nm, and in the range 0-30 μg ml - for Fe(III) method at pH = 9.5 measuring absorbance at 510 nm. The former method showed greater sensitivity than the latter one. Differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) and chronoamperometric (CA) detection in flow injection analysis (FIA) using carbon paste electrode in phosphate buffer solution of pH = 6.5 was also used for pyrocatechol determination. The electrochemical methods allowed pyrocatechol quantitation in submicromolar concentration level with an overall reproducibility of ± 1%. The efficiency of pyrocatechol sampling collection was investigated at two temperatures (27 and 40°C) in water, 0.1 M NaOH and 0.1 M HCl solutions. Solution of 0.1 M HCl gave the best collection efficiency (95.5-98.5%). A chamber testing simulating the indoor pollution has been performed. In order to check the reliability of the proposed methods for monitoring of the indoor pyrocatechol pollution, the air in working premises with pyrocatechol released from meteorological charts during mapping and paper drying was analyzed using proposed methods. The concentration of pyrocatechol in the air during mapping was found to be 1.8 mg m -3 which is below the hygienic standard of permissible exposure of 20 mg m -3 (≈ 5 ppm). The release of pyrocatechol from the paper impregnated with pyrocatechol standing at room temperature during one year was also measured. The proposed methods can be used for indoor pyrocatechol pollution monitoring in working premises of photographic, rubber, oil and dye industries, fur and furniture dyeing and cosmetic or pharmaceutical premises where pyrocatechol and related

  10. Using Cellular Communication Networks To Detect Air Pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Noam; Gao, H Oliver

    2016-09-01

    Accurate real time monitoring of atmospheric conditions at ground level is vital for hazard warning, meteorological forecasting, and various environmental applications required for public health and safety. However, conventional monitoring facilities are costly and often insufficient, for example, since they are not representative of the larger space and are not deployed densely enough in the field. There have been numerous scientific works showing the ability of commercial microwave links that comprise the data transmission infrastructure in cellular communication networks to monitor hydrometeors as a potential complementary solution. However, despite the large volume of research carried out in this emerging field during the past decade, no study has shown the ability of the system to provide critical information regarding air quality. Here we reveal the potential for identifying atmospheric conditions prone to air pollution by detecting temperature inversions that trap pollutants at ground level. The technique is based on utilizing standard signal measurements from an existing cellular network during routine operation.

  11. Using Cellular Communication Networks To Detect Air Pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Noam; Gao, H Oliver

    2016-09-01

    Accurate real time monitoring of atmospheric conditions at ground level is vital for hazard warning, meteorological forecasting, and various environmental applications required for public health and safety. However, conventional monitoring facilities are costly and often insufficient, for example, since they are not representative of the larger space and are not deployed densely enough in the field. There have been numerous scientific works showing the ability of commercial microwave links that comprise the data transmission infrastructure in cellular communication networks to monitor hydrometeors as a potential complementary solution. However, despite the large volume of research carried out in this emerging field during the past decade, no study has shown the ability of the system to provide critical information regarding air quality. Here we reveal the potential for identifying atmospheric conditions prone to air pollution by detecting temperature inversions that trap pollutants at ground level. The technique is based on utilizing standard signal measurements from an existing cellular network during routine operation. PMID:27490182

  12. Ambient Air Pollution and the Risk of Stillbirth

    OpenAIRE

    Faiz, Ambarina S.; Rhoads, George G.; Demissie, Kitaw; Kruse, Lakota; Lin, Yong; Rich, David Q.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the risk of stillbirth associated with ambient air pollution during pregnancy. Using live birth and fetal death data from New Jersey from 1998 to 2004, the authors assigned daily concentrations of air pollution to each birth or fetal death. Generalized estimating equation models were used to estimate the relative odds of stillbirth associated with interquartile range increases in mean air pollutant concentrations in the first, second, and third ...

  13. Air pollution burden of illness from traffic in Toronto

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper examined the health impacts of air pollution from traffic in Toronto. The paper provided a review of scientific studies on the health effects of vehicle pollution as well as a quantitative assessment of the economic costs and the burden of illness attributed to traffic pollution in Toronto. The report also assessed air pollution and traffic trends in the city, and outlined initiatives being conducted to reduce vehicle-related pollution. The study used the new air quality benefits tool (AQBAT) which determines the burden of illness and the economic impacts of traffic-related air pollution. Air modelling specialists were consulted in order to determine the contribution of traffic-related pollutants to overall pollution levels using data on traffic counts and vehicle emissions factors. The air model also considered dispersion, transport and and the transformation of compounds emitted from vehicles. Results of the study showed that traffic pollution caused approximately 440 premature deaths and 1700 hospitalizations per year. Children in the city experienced more than 1200 acute bronchitis episodes per year as a result of air pollution from traffic. Mortality-related costs associated with traffic pollution in Toronto were estimated at $2.2 billion. It was concluded that the city must pursue the implementation of sustainable transportation policies and programs which foster and enable the expansion and use of public transport. 47 refs., 8 tabs., 9 figs

  14. Air pollution burden of illness from traffic in Toronto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKeown, D.; Campbell, M.; Bassil, K.; Morgan, C.; Lalani, M.; Macfarlane, R.; Bienefeld, M. [Toronto Public Health, ON (Canada)

    2007-11-15

    This paper examined the health impacts of air pollution from traffic in Toronto. The paper provided a review of scientific studies on the health effects of vehicle pollution as well as a quantitative assessment of the economic costs and the burden of illness attributed to traffic pollution in Toronto. The report also assessed air pollution and traffic trends in the city, and outlined initiatives being conducted to reduce vehicle-related pollution. The study used the new air quality benefits tool (AQBAT) which determines the burden of illness and the economic impacts of traffic-related air pollution. Air modelling specialists were consulted in order to determine the contribution of traffic-related pollutants to overall pollution levels using data on traffic counts and vehicle emissions factors. The air model also considered dispersion, transport and and the transformation of compounds emitted from vehicles. Results of the study showed that traffic pollution caused approximately 440 premature deaths and 1700 hospitalizations per year. Children in the city experienced more than 1200 acute bronchitis episodes per year as a result of air pollution from traffic. Mortality-related costs associated with traffic pollution in Toronto were estimated at $2.2 billion. It was concluded that the city must pursue the implementation of sustainable transportation policies and programs which foster and enable the expansion and use of public transport. 47 refs., 8 tabs., 9 figs.

  15. Epidemiological studies of the respiratory effects of air pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebowitz, M D

    1996-05-01

    Environmental epidemiological studies of the health effects of air pollution have been major contributors to the understanding of such effects. The chronic effects of atmospheric pollutants have been studied, but, except for the known respiratory effects of particulate matter (PM), they have not been studied conclusively. There are ongoing studies of the chronic effects of certain pollutant classes, such as ozone, acid rain, airborne toxics, and the chemical form of PM (including diesel exhaust). Acute effects on humans due to outdoor and indoor exposures to several gases/fumes and PM have been demonstrated in epidemiological studies. However, the effects of these environmental factors on susceptible individuals are not known conclusively. These acute effects are especially important because they increase the human burden of minor illnesses, increase disability, and are thought to decrease productivity. They may be related to the increased likelihood of chronic disease as well. Further research is needed in this latter area, to determine the contributions of the time-related activities of individuals in different microenvironments (outdoors, in homes, in transit). Key elements of further studies are the assessment of total exposure to the different pollutants (occurring from indoor and outdoor source) and the interactive effects of pollutants. Major research areas include determination of the contributions of indoor sources and of vehicle emissions to total exposure, how to measure such exposures, and how to measure human susceptibility and responses (including those at the cellular and molecular level). Biomarkers of exposures, doses and responses, including immunochemicals, biochemicals and deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) adducts, are beginning to promote some basic knowledge of exposure-response, especially the mechanisms. These will be extremely useful additions to standard physiological, immunological, and clinical instruments, and the understanding of biological

  16. Future challenges regarding personal exposure to air pollutants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascual Pérez Ballesta

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The concept of population exposure as a direct indicator of the impact of pollution on public health is a consequence of the fact that the final aim of air quality measurements is the protection of the individuals' health. This article presents a picture of the exposure to air pollutants in different environments: industrial hygiene, indoor pollution and air quality legislation. The reduction of the health risk of the population to air pollution exposure opens new challenges when defining exposure indicators, control strategies and an effective assessment human exposure.

  17. Development of mobile air pollution monitoring system (LIDAR)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cha, Hyung Ki; Song, Kyu Seok; Kim, Dukh Yeon; Yang, Ki Ho; Lee, Jong Min; Yoon, S.; Rostov, A

    2001-01-01

    Most air pollution monitoring technologies accompany a time-consuming sample treatment and provide pollution information only for a local area. Thus, they have a critical restriction in monitoring time-dependent pollution variation effectively over the wide range of area both in height and in width. LIDAR(Light Detection And Ranging) is a new technology to overcome such drawbacks of the existing pollution monitoring technologies and has long been investigated in the advanced countries. The coal of this project is to develop the mobile air pollution monitoring system and to apply the system to the detection of various pollutants, such as ozone, nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide and aerosols.

  18. 空气污染对气候变化的影响与反馈研究%Progress of Research on Impacts and Feedback of Air Pollution on Climate Change

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高庆先; 师华定; 张时煌; 吕连宏; 陈东升; 杜吴鹏; 付加锋

    2012-01-01

    本文总结了由中国环境科学研究院、中国科学院地理资源所、北京工业大学、北京市气候中心共同承担环保公益性行业科研专项“空气污染对气候变化的影响与反馈研究”课题有关研究成果。包括污染物和温室气体排放现状和趋势、空气质量模拟及应用、区域气候模拟及应用、未来气候变化情景及对污染物影响以及应对气候变化的污染物防控措施和效果的研究进展。主要阶段性成果包括:建立了基准年典型空气污染物和主要温室气体排放数据库,并分区域和行业综合评估了我国空气污染物和温室气体排放现状和趋势;利用区域气候模型对全国近十年气候状况进行了模拟分析,开展了典型地区的敏感性试验;分析了典型地区(京津冀、长三角和珠三角3个城市群)空气污染指数(API)与不同气象要素的相关性,揭示了气象因子对空气污染的影响机理;对比分析了典型发达国家或组织和典型发展中国家的污染物防控和应对气候变化的政策措施及效果,并对未来空气污染对气候变化的影响与反馈研究的方向和重点进行了展望。%Climate change and air pollution are important environmental issues that human have to face. The research on impacts of air pollution on climate change and the feedback has an important theoretical value and can provide technical support for policy makers. This paper has summarized the research results of the ongoing projects, which were funded by The National Environmental Protection Public Welfare Industry Targeted Research Fund, named "Research on Impacts and Feedback of Air Pollution on Climate Change". The research groups are made up of experts from Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing University of Technology, and Climate Center of

  19. A Study on Public Opinion Poll and Policy on Indoor Air Pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, K.S.; Lee, H.S.; Kong, S.Y.; Ku, H.J. [Korea Environment Institute, Seoul (Korea)

    2001-12-01

    The purpose of this study is to review previous studies on indoor air pollution and to propose national strategies and policy measures for protecting public health from indoor air pollution based on the results of public survey research. Indoor air has the potential to be polluted by hazardous materials that might lead to serious health problems. It is well known that the indoor spaces are more polluted than outdoor ones, which can be a major health problem for those that live in urban areas who spend most of their time indoors. In Korea, studies on indoor air pollution are usually conducted under the auspices of academic research, which only focus on particular types of indoor spaces and certain concepts of indoor air quality. Thus, at present, the studies on the policies or policy measures concerning indoor air quality management are difficult to find in the country. The governmental agencies that are presently involved in the management of indoor air quality include: the Ministry of Health and Welfare, Ministry of Construction and Transportation, Ministry of Education and Human Resources Development, and Ministry of Environment. However, due to differing regulatory standards between the concerned agencies, the national management of indoor air quality has so far proven to be ineffective. Although the Ministry of Environment recently proposed a law to manage indoor air quality, it is only focuses on managing particular types of indoor spaces not regulated by other governmental bodies and is not effective in the effort towards a national managing system for indoor air pollution. According to a survey conducted by the Korea Environment Institute (KEI), the residents of the Seoul metropolitan area have been felt that environmental pollution negatively affects their health, and especially consider outdoor air pollution to be the most harmful type of pollution. Although these urban residents spend more than 20 hours a day indoors, the survey shows that they do not

  20. Traffic air pollution and oxidized LDL.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lotte Jacobs

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Epidemiologic studies indirectly suggest that air pollution accelerates atherosclerosis. We hypothesized that individual exposure to particulate matter (PM derived from fossil fuel would correlate with plasma concentrations of oxidized low-density lipoprotein (LDL, taken as a marker of atherosclerosis. We tested this hypothesis in patients with diabetes, who are at high risk for atherosclerosis. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In a cross-sectional study of non-smoking adult outpatients with diabetes we assessed individual chronic exposure to PM by measuring the area occupied by carbon in airway macrophages, collected by sputum induction and by determining the distance from the patient's residence to a major road, through geocoding. These exposure indices were regressed against plasma concentrations of oxidized LDL, von Willebrand factor and plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1. We could assess the carbon load of airway macrophages in 79 subjects (58 percent. Each doubling in the distance of residence from major roads was associated with a 0.027 µm(2 decrease (95% confidence interval (CI: -0.048 to -0.0051 in the carbon load of airway macrophages. Independently from other covariates, we found that each increase of 0.25 µm(2 [interquartile range (IQR] in carbon load was associated with an increase of 7.3 U/L (95% CI: 1.3 to 13.3 in plasma oxidized LDL. Each doubling in distance of residence from major roads was associated with a decrease of -2.9 U/L (95% CI: -5.2 to -0.72 in oxidized LDL. Neither the carbon load of macrophages nor the distance from residence to major roads, were associated with plasma von Willebrand factor or PAI-1. CONCLUSIONS: The observed positive association, in a susceptible group of the general population, between plasma oxidized LDL levels and either the carbon load of airway macrophages or the proximity of the subject's residence to busy roads suggests a proatherogenic effect of traffic air pollution.

  1. Urban air pollution control in Peru

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-12-20

    Our central health cost estimate from particulate matter (PM) concentrations in larger Peruvian cities is approximately USD 790 million/year. More than 60 percent of these costs occur in Lima-Callao. Diesel vehicles are the most important emission source. Various abatement actions could yield health benefits of around USD 50 million in 2008 and USD 185 million after 2010. Some of the most important cost effective actions would be an inspection and maintenance (I&M) program for vehicles (planned to start in 2006) and introduction of low sulphur diesel (<50 ppm) from 2010. When low sulphur diesel is available, installing retrofit particle control technology on existing vehicles could be very cost effective. Some actions towards stationary sources could also be cost effective. In addition a mixture of several measures like tax incentives to promote use of gasoline cars at the expense of diesel cars, accelerated scrapping of old, polluting vehicles, ban on the use of some diesel vehicles and import restrictions on used cars could be chosen to yield short and long term air pollution benefits.

  2. 40 CFR 63.60 - Deletion of caprolactam from the list of hazardous air pollutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... of hazardous air pollutants. 63.60 Section 63.60 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES List of Hazardous Air Pollutants, Petitions Process, Lesser Quantity...

  3. Indoor air pollution in slum neighbourhoods of Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanbata, Habtamu; Asfaw, Araya; Kumie, Abera

    2014-06-01

    An estimated 95% of the population of Ethiopia uses traditional biomass fuels, such as wood, dung, charcoal, or crop residues, to meet household energy needs. As a result of the harmful smoke emitted from the combustion of biomass fuels, indoor air pollution is responsible for more than 50,000 deaths annually and causes nearly 5% of the burden of disease in Ethiopia. Very limited research on indoor air pollution and its health impacts exists in Ethiopia. This study was, therefore, undertaken to assess the magnitude of indoor air pollution from household fuel use in Addis Ababa, the capital city of Ethiopia. During January and February, 2012, the concentration of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) in 59 households was measured using the University of California at Berkeley Particle Monitor (UCB PM). The raw data was analysed using Statistical Package of Social Science (SPSS version 20.0) software to determine variance between groups and descriptive statistics. The geometric mean of 24-h indoor PM2.5 concentration is approximately 818 μg m-3 (Standard deviation (SD = 3.61)). The highest 24-h geometric mean of PM2.5 concentration observed were 1134 μg m-3 (SD = 3.36), 637 μg m-3 (SD = 4.44), and 335 μg m-3 (SD = 2.51), respectively, in households using predominantly solid fuel, kerosene, and clean fuel. Although 24-h mean PM2.5 concentration between fuel types differed statistically (P mean concentration of PM2.5 between improved biomass stoves and traditional stoves (P > 0.05). The study revealed indoor air pollution is a major environmental and health hazard from home using biomass fuel in Addis Ababa. The use of clean fuels and efficient cooking stoves is recommended.

  4. Ambient air quality and the effects of air pollutants on otolaryngology in Beijing

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Fengying; Xu, Jin; Zhang, Ziying; Meng, Haiying; Wang, Li; Lu, Jinmei; Wang, Wuyi; Kraft, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Accepted manuscript version. Published version available at http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10661-015-4711-3 Abstract To investigate temporal patterns, pollution concentrations and the health effects of air pollutants in Beijing we carried out time-series analyses on daily concentrations of ambient air pollutants and daily numbers of outpatient visits for otolaryngology over 2 years (2011– 2012) to identify possible health effects of air pollutants. The results showed that PM1...

  5. Air pollution and allergy: experimental studies on modulation of allergen release from pollen by air pollutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrendt, H; Becker, W M; Fritzsche, C; Sliwa-Tomczok, W; Tomczok, J; Friedrichs, K H; Ring, J

    1997-01-01

    The fact that allergic diseases increase in prevalence is a generally accepted and worldwide phenomenon. The causes for this increase are not known: only hypothetical concepts exist. Epidemiological studies comparing Eastern and Western European populations have shown a striking difference in the prevalence of respiratory atopic diseases, which is lower in the East. At the same time, different patterns of air pollution have been described, namely 'classical' type I, characterized by SO2 and dust prevailing in the East, and 'modern' type II, characterized by organic compounds, fine particles and ozone, which is more prominent in the West. Type II was associated in multivariate regression analysis with increased prevalence of IgE-mediated allergy. Pollen grains collected from industrial regions with high polyaromatic hydrocarbon load in West Germany, but not in East Germany, were shown to be agglomerated with airborne particles. In vitro exposure of pollen to particles indicated morphological changes and increased allergen release from the pollen. In vitro exposure of pollen to gaseous pollutants (SO2 and NO2) under different conditions of humidity resulted in SO2-induced, but not NO2-induced reduction of allergen release from pollen. It is concluded that the bioavailability of grass pollen allergens may be modulated by air pollutants, supporting the concept of an interaction between pollen and pollutants in the atmosphere outside the organism which in turn may affect allergy-relevant phenomena.

  6. A Research about the Competitive Effcets of the Air Pollution Regulation among Lacal Governments%地方政府间大气污染管制的竞争效应研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪鲸

    2015-01-01

    Is there a race to the bottom among local governments in air pollution regulation ?We test this effect by analyzing the mechanism of interaction between local governments and doing empirical research through provincial panel data .The results show that there is a clear evidence of strategic interaction in local governments’air pollution regulationn behavior, adjacent provinces’intensity of regulation has a negative effect on local province,and this interrelation is related to neighbor’s economic level.These finds confirm the existence of race to the bottom in air pollution regulation,signified that,to improve the governance effect of air pollution,we need to change present competition mode of local governments and raise their enthusiasm of pollution control.%针对地方政府在大气污染管制中是否存在逐底竞争现象,通过机理分析并结合省际数据对此进行实证检验。研究发现,中国省级地方政府间在大气污染管制上存在显著的策略性行为,相邻地方政府大气污染管制强度对本地区管制强度的作用方向为负,且这种相互影响跟对方的经济发展水平有关。该结论证实了大气污染管制中逐底竞争的存在,也意味着要改善治污效果首先要改变地方政府在大气污染治理上的竞争模式,提高其治污积极性。

  7. Can the Air Pollution Index be used to communicate the health risks of air pollution?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The validity of using the Air Pollution Index (API) to assess health impacts of air pollution and potential modification by individual characteristics on air pollution effects remain uncertain. We applied distributed lag non-linear models (DLNMs) to assess associations of daily API, specific pollution indices for PM10, SO2, NO2 and the weighted combined API (APIw) with mortality during 2003–2011 in Guangzhou, China. An increase of 10 in API was associated with a 0.88% (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.50, 1.27%) increase of non-accidental mortality at lag 0–2 days. Harvesting effects appeared after 2 days’ exposure. The effect estimate of API over lag 0–15 days was statistically significant and similar with those of pollutant-specific indices and APIw. Stronger associations between API and mortality were observed in the elderly, females and residents with low educational attainment. In conclusion, the API can be used to communicate health risks of air pollution. - Highlights: • The cumulative effects of API on mortality over lag 0–15 days remained significant. • The indices for three specific pollutants had similar associations with mortality. • The effects of API were modified by age, gender and educational attainment. • Our findings can help to communicate health risks of air pollution to the public. - The Air Pollution Index communicates health risks of air pollution

  8. Ambient air quality and the effects of air pollutants on otolaryngology in Beijing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fengying; Xu, Jin; Zhang, Ziying; Meng, Haiying; Wang, Li; Lu, Jinmei; Wang, Wuyi; Krafft, Thomas

    2015-08-01

    To investigate temporal patterns, pollution concentrations and the health effects of air pollutants in Beijing we carried out time-series analyses on daily concentrations of ambient air pollutants and daily numbers of outpatient visits for otolaryngology over 2 years (2011-2012) to identify possible health effects of air pollutants. The results showed that PM10 was the major air pollutant in Beijing and that air quality was slightly better in 2012 than in 2011. Seasonal differences were apparent for SO2 and NO2. Both the background and urban areas of Beijing experienced particulate matter pollution in 2011. In addition to local air pollution, Beijing was also affected by pollutants transported from other regions, especially during heavy air pollution episodes. PM10, NO2, and SO2 concentrations showed positive associations with numbers of outpatient visits for otolaryngology during winter. NO2 and SO2 also had adverse ear, nose, and throat health effects outside of winter. The ear, nose, and throat health risks caused by air pollutants were higher during the winter than during the summer. NO2 had stronger influence on increased the likelihood of outpatient visits than SO2. The findings provide additional information about air quality and health effects of air pollution in Beijing.

  9. Running Large-Scale Air Pollution Models on Parallel Computers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Georgiev, K.; Zlatev, Z.

    2000-01-01

    Proceedings of the 23rd NATO/CCMS International Technical Meeting on Air Pollution Modeling and Its Application, held 28 September - 2 October 1998, in Varna, Bulgaria.......Proceedings of the 23rd NATO/CCMS International Technical Meeting on Air Pollution Modeling and Its Application, held 28 September - 2 October 1998, in Varna, Bulgaria....

  10. Prenatal air pollution exposure and newborn blood pressure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rossem, Lenie; Rifas-Shiman, Sheryl L.; Melly, Steven J.; Kloog, Itai; Luttmann-Gibson, Heike; Zanobetti, Antonella; Coull, Brent A.; Schwartz, Joel D.; Mittleman, Murray A.; Oken, Emily; Gillman, Matthew W.; Koutrakis, Petros; Gold, Diane R.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Air pollution exposure has been associated with increased blood pressure in adults. oBjective: We examined associations of antenatal exposure to ambient air pollution with newborn systolic blood pressure (SBP). Methods: We studied 1,131 mother–infant pairs in a Boston, Massachusetts, are

  11. Ambient air pollution triggers wheezing symptoms in infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Zorana Jovanovic; Loft, S; Ketzel, Matthias;

    2008-01-01

    There is limited evidence for the role of air pollution in the development and triggering of wheezing symptoms in young children. A study was undertaken to examine the effect of exposure to air pollution on wheezing symptoms in children under the age of 3 years with genetic susceptibility to asthma....

  12. Air Pollution Manual, Part 1--Evaluation. Second Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giever, Paul M., Ed.

    Due to the great increase in technical knowledge and improvement in procedures, this second edition has been prepared to update existing information. Air pollution legislation is reviewed. Sources of air pollution are examined extensively. They are treated in terms of natural sources, man-made sources, metropolitan regional emissions, emission…

  13. Impact of noise and air pollution on pregnancy outcomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gehring, Ulrike; Tamburic, Lillian; Sbihi, Hind; Davies, Hugh W.; Brauer, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Background: Motorized traffic is an important source of both air pollution and community noise. While there is growing evidence for an adverse effect of ambient air pollution on reproductive health, little is known about the association between traffic noise and pregnancy outcomes. Methods: We evalu

  14. Air Pollution and Exercise: A Perspective from China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhen

    2016-01-01

    China is experiencing an air pollution crisis, which has already had a significantly negative impact on the health of the Chinese people. Although exercising is considered a useful means to prevent chronic diseases, it could actually lead to adverse effects due to extra exposure to polluted air when done outdoors. After a brief description of the…

  15. Air Pollution and Infant Mortality in Mexico City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Historic air pollution episodes of the 1950s led to acute increases in infant mortality, and some recent epidemiologic studies suggest that infant or child mortality may still result from air pollution at current levels. To investigate the evidence for such an association, we con...

  16. Road traffic noise, air pollution components and cardiovascular events

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kluizenaar, Y. de; Lenthe, F.J. van; Visschedijk, A.J.H.; Zandveld, P.Y.J; Miedema, H.M.E.; Mackenbach, J.P.

    2013-01-01

    Traffic noise and air pollution have been associated with cardiovascular health effects. Until date, only a limited amount of prospective epidemiological studies is available on long-term effects of road traffic noise and combustion related air pollution. This study investigates the relationship bet

  17. Modelling air pollution abatement in deep street canyons by means of air scrubbers

    OpenAIRE

    De Giovanni, Marina; Curci, Gabriele; Avveduto, Alessandro; Pace, Lorenzo; Salisburgo, Cesare Dari; Giammaria, Franco; Monaco, Alessio; SPANTO, Giuseppe; Tripodi, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    Deep street canyons are characterized by weak ventilation and recirculation of air. In such environment, the exposure to particulate matter and other air pollutants is enhanced, with a consequent worsening of both safety and health. The main solution adopted by the international community is aimed at the reduction of the emissions. In this theoretical study, we test a new solution: the removal of air pollutants close to their sources by a network of Air Pollution Abatement (APA) devices. The ...

  18. Footprints of air pollution and changing environment on the sustainability of built infrastructure

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar, P.; Imam, B

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Over 150 research articles relating three multi-disciplinary topics (air pollution, climate change and civil engineering structures) are reviewed to examine the footprints of air pollution and changing environment on the sustainability of building and transport structures (referred as built infrastructure). The aim of this review is to synthesize the existing knowledge on this topic, highlight recent advances in our understanding and discuss research priorities. The article begins wi...

  19. The health effects of exercising in air pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giles, Luisa V; Koehle, Michael S

    2014-02-01

    The health benefits of exercise are well known. Many of the most accessible forms of exercise, such as walking, cycling, and running often occur outdoors. This means that exercising outdoors may increase exposure to urban air pollution. Regular exercise plays a key role in improving some of the physiologic mechanisms and health outcomes that air pollution exposure may exacerbate. This problem presents an interesting challenge of balancing the beneficial effects of exercise along with the detrimental effects of air pollution upon health. This article summarizes the pulmonary, cardiovascular, cognitive, and systemic health effects of exposure to particulate matter, ozone, and carbon monoxide during exercise. It also summarizes how air pollution exposure affects maximal oxygen consumption and exercise performance. This article highlights ways in which exercisers could mitigate the adverse health effects of air pollution exposure during exercise and draws attention to the potential importance of land use planning in selecting exercise facilities. PMID:24174304

  20. An approach to represent a combined exposure to air pollution

    OpenAIRE

    Mieczyslaw Szyszkowicz

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The objective of this study was to present a technique for estimating the effect of ambient air pollution mix on health outcomes. Material and Methods: We created a technique of indexing air pollution mix as a cause of the increased odds of health problems. As an illustrative example, we analyzed the impact of pollution on the frequency of emergency department (ED) visits due to colitis among young patients (age < 15 years, N = 11 110). Our technique involves 2 steps. First, we co...

  1. Air pollution and daily mortality in Inchon, Korea.

    OpenAIRE

    Hong, Y. C.; Leem, J. H.; Ha, E H

    1999-01-01

    The association between total daily mortality and air pollution was investigated for a 1-year period (January 1995 to December 1995) in Inchon, Korea. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relative importance of particulate and gaseous air pollution as predictors of daily mortality. Concentration of total suspended particulates (TSP), inhalable particles (PM10), and gaseous pollutants, such as sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, ozone, carbon monoxide, were measured daily during the stu...

  2. Olfactory dysfunction, olfactory bulb pathology and urban air pollution

    OpenAIRE

    Calderón-Garcidueñas, Lilian; Franco-Lira, Maricela; Henríquez-Roldán, Carlos; Osnaya, Norma; González-Maciel, Angelica; Reynoso-Robles, Rafael; Villarreal-Calderon, Rafael; Herritt, Lou; Brooks, Diane; Keefe, Sheyla; Palacios-Moreno, Juan; Villarreal-Calderon, Rodolfo; Torres-Jardón, Ricardo; Medina-Cortina, Humberto; Delgado-Chávez, Ricardo

    2009-01-01

    Mexico City (MC) residents are exposed to severe air pollution and exhibit olfactory bulb inflammation. We compared the olfactory function of individuals living under conditions of extreme air pollution to that of controls from a relatively clean environment and explore associations between olfaction scores, apolipoprotein E (APOE) status, and pollution exposure. The olfactory bulbs (OBs) of 35 MC and 9 controls 20.8 ± 8.5 y were assessed by light and electron microscopy. The University of Pe...

  3. Automotive air pollution : issues and options for developing countries

    OpenAIRE

    Faiz, Asif; Sinha, Kumares; Walsh, Michael; Varma, Amiy

    1990-01-01

    Air pollution constitutes an ominous threat to human health and welfare. Its adverse effects are pervasive and may be disaggregated at three levels: (a) local, confined to urban and industrial centers; (b) regional, pertaining to transboundary transport of pollutants; and (c) global, related to build up of greenhouse gases. These effects have been observed globally but the characteristics and scale of the air pollution problem in developing countries are not known; nor has the problem been re...

  4. China's international trade and air pollution in the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, J.; Pan, D.; S. J. Davis; Q. Zhang; He, K.; Wang, C; D. G. Streets; D. J. Wuebbles; Guan, D.

    2014-01-01

    China is the world’s largest emitter of anthropogenic air pollutants, and measurable amounts of Chinese pollution are transported via the atmosphere to other countries, including the United States. However, a large fraction of Chinese emissions is due to manufacture of goods for foreign consumption. Here, we analyze the impacts of trade-related Chinese air pollutant emissions on the global atmospheric environment, linking an economic-emission analysis and atmospheric chemical transport modeli...

  5. 75 FR 34673 - Approval of the Clean Air Act, Section 112(l), Authority for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Air...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-18

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 63 Approval of the Clean Air Act, Section 112(l), Authority for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Air Emission Standards for Halogenated Solvent Cleaning Machines: State of Rhode Island... Emissions from Organic Solvent Cleaning (``RI Regulation No. 36'') and Rhode Island Air Pollution...

  6. Ambient air pollution and allergic diseases in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byoung-Ju Kim

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of allergic diseases has increased worldwide, a phenomenon that can be largely attributed to environmental effects. Among environmental factors, air pollution due to traffic is thought to be a major threat to childhood health. Residing near busy roadways is associated with increased asthma hospitalization, decreased lung function, and increased prevalence and severity of wheezing and allergic rhinitis. Recently, prospective cohort studies using more accurate measurements of individual exposure to air pollution have been conducted and have provided definitive evidence of the impact of air pollution on allergic diseases. Particulate matter and groundlevel ozone are the most frequent air pollutants that cause harmful effects, and the mechanisms underlying these effects may be related to oxidative stress. The reactive oxidative species produced in response to air pollutants can overwhelm the redox system and damage the cell wall, lipids, proteins, and DNA, leading to airway inflammation and hyper-reactivity. Pollutants may also cause harmful effects via epigenetic mechanisms, which control the expression of genes without changing the DNA sequence itself. These mechanisms are likely to be a target for the prevention of allergies. Further studies are necessary to identify children at risk and understand how these mechanisms regulate gene-environment interactions. This review provides an update of the current understanding on the impact of air pollution on allergic diseases in children and facilitates the integration of issues regarding air pollution and allergies into pediatric practices, with the goal of improving pediatric health.

  7. Ambient air pollution and annoyance responses from pregnant women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llop, Sabrina; Ballester, Ferran; Estarlich, Marisa; Esplugues, Ana; Fernández-Patier, Rosalia; Ramón, Rosa; Marco, Alfredo; Aguirre, Amelia; Sunyer, Jordi; Iñiguez, Carmen; INMA-Valencia cohort

    ObjectivesTo describe the degree of annoyance caused by air pollution and noise in pregnant women in a birth cohort; to determine the modifying factors and their relation with exposure to ambient nitrogen dioxide (NO 2). MethodsThe study population was 855 pregnant women in Valencia, Spain. Annoyance caused by air pollution and noise, and explanatory factors were obtained from 786 pregnant women through a questionnaire. NO 2 levels were determined combining measurements at 93 points within the area of study and using geostatistical techniques (kriging). ResultsIn all 7.9% of the women reported high annoyance caused by air pollution and 13.1% high annoyance caused by noise. There was a significant difference in the degree of annoyance due to both air pollution and noise depending on the area where the women lived and their working status. The degree of annoyance correlated better with measured NO 2 at the municipality level (air pollution: r=0.53; noise: r=0.44) than at the individual level (air pollution and noise: r=0.21). On multivariate analysis, being a housewife, higher NO 2 levels and high traffic density were associated with higher degrees of annoyance. ConclusionsThere was a high percentage of women who perceived medium-high annoyance due to noise and air pollution. Annoyance caused by environmental pollutants could lead to some psychological effects, which impair the quality of life, or even physiological ones, which affect prenatal development.

  8. Air pollution: what matters most? : Physical, chemical and oxidative properties of air pollution components related to toxic effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenhof, M.

    2015-01-01

    Numerous studies have been published on the adverse health effects associated with both short- and long-term exposure to air pollution. Air pollution is a heterogeneous, complex mixture of gases, liquids, and particulate matter (PM). Up to now, PM mass concentration has been the metric of choice to

  9. Air Pollution in China: Mapping of Concentrations and Sources

    OpenAIRE

    Rohde, Robert A.; Muller, Richard A.

    2015-01-01

    China has recently made available hourly air pollution data from over 1500 sites, including airborne particulate matter (PM), SO2, NO2, and O3. We apply Kriging interpolation to four months of data to derive pollution maps for eastern China. Consistent with prior findings, the greatest pollution occurs in the east, but significant levels are widespread across northern and central China and are not limited to major cities or geologic basins. Sources of pollution are widespread, but are particu...

  10. 75 FR 24544 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Placer County Air Pollution Control...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-05

    ... Control District, Sacramento Metropolitan Air Quality Management District, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District, and South Coast Air Quality Management District AGENCY: Environmental Protection... Air Pollution Control District (PCAPCD), Sacramento Metropolitan Air Quality Management...

  11. A technical overview of air pollution problems and its control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Air pollution is a well known phenomenon experienced in every day life. The air we breathe consist of gases and aerosol particles on which pollutants such as toxic elements and bacteria reside. These microscopic particles are transported to long distances from the source of origin the direction and magnitude of which depends upon the prevailing meteorological conditions. In order to assess the impact of air pollution, systematic studies are carried out which consist of: 1) sampling of air, 2) measurement of pollutants, 3) identification of pollutant source and 4) adoption of control methods. Each of these topics are fairly exhaustive and their understanding requires accurate scientific approach. An overview of these topic has been presented in this talk. Air samples are best collected by filtering air through suitable medium and analyses are carried out by diverse analytical techniques. Source identifications is a very important step which is done either by emission modeling or receptor modeling techniques. A general survey of these techniques, especially receptor modeling is presented in this talk. The control of air pollution is carried out by using carried devices and the processes especially developed for this purpose. Air pollution has given rise to a number of global problems such as depletion of stratospheric ozone, acid rain and greenhouse effect, which are being tackled on international scale. These problems have been discussed very briefly and a summary of international efforts has been presented. (author)

  12. Seasonal variation of air pollution in Warsaw conurbation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Rozbicka

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Long term research shows many substances in the atmosphere are in concentration dangerous for human health and welfare and even for human life. The work presents time and spatial variation of tropospheric ozone and nitrogen dioxide concentrations. Analysis was carried out on the base of hourly values of mentioned pollutants (O3 and NO2 concentrations. Data used in the analysis comes from atmospheric monitoring stations situated in various parts of Warsaw and concerns the period 2008–2011. The influence of meteorological elements on concentration of analyzed pollutants was stated by the use of correlation and multiple regression analysis for months and seasonal periods. On this base results of statistical analysis strong correlation between tropospheric ozone, nitrogen dioxide concentration and meteorological elements is stated. In case of ozone and nitrogen dioxide the relationships with air temperature, relative humidity and solar radiation are most significant.

  13. Judicial recourse against foreign air polluters: a case study of acid rain in Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pallemaerts, M.

    1985-01-01

    Many European nations suffering acid damage caused primarily by pollution originating outside of their borders have had little success in persuading polluters to voluntarily reduce emissions. The author explores the opportunities for private litigation by victims against foreign sources of long-range transboundary air pollution. Such private actions would establish the illegality of transboundary air pollution and draw public attention to the magnitude of the damage as well as generate compensation. Recent actions in Norway and Britain suggest that is is procrastination to insist upon more research into the cause and effects of acid rain.

  14. Mixed deterministic statistical modelling of regional ozone air pollution

    KAUST Repository

    Kalenderski, Stoitchko Dimitrov

    2011-03-17

    We develop a physically motivated statistical model for regional ozone air pollution by separating the ground-level pollutant concentration field into three components, namely: transport, local production and large-scale mean trend mostly dominated by emission rates. The model is novel in the field of environmental spatial statistics in that it is a combined deterministic-statistical model, which gives a new perspective to the modelling of air pollution. The model is presented in a Bayesian hierarchical formalism, and explicitly accounts for advection of pollutants, using the advection equation. We apply the model to a specific case of regional ozone pollution-the Lower Fraser valley of British Columbia, Canada. As a predictive tool, we demonstrate that the model vastly outperforms existing, simpler modelling approaches. Our study highlights the importance of simultaneously considering different aspects of an air pollution problem as well as taking into account the physical bases that govern the processes of interest. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd..

  15. Long-term exposure to air pollution and cardiovascular mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beelen, Rob; Stafoggia, Massimo; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Air pollution has been associated with cardiovascular mortality, but it remains unclear as to whether specific pollutants are related to specific cardiovascular causes of death. Within the multicenter European Study of Cohorts for Air Pollution Effects (ESCAPE), we investigated...... the associations of long-term exposure to several air pollutants with all cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality, as well as with specific cardiovascular causes of death. METHODS: Data from 22 European cohort studies were used. Using a standardized protocol, study area-specific air pollution exposure....... We applied cohort-specific Cox proportional hazards models using a standardized protocol. Random-effects meta-analysis was used to obtain pooled effect estimates. RESULTS: The total study population consisted of 367,383 participants, with 9994 deaths from CVD (including 4,992 from ischemic heart...

  16. The air pollution index system in Hong Kong

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, F.Y.P.; Gervat, G.P. [Hong Kong Government, Wanchai (Hong Kong). Environmental Protection Dept.

    1995-12-31

    The Hong Kong Environmental Protection Department (EPD) is currently operating an air quality monitoring network in the territory. There are nine monitoring stations, each with air quality monitoring equipment, meteorological instruments and a data logger. Five minute averaged data are transmitted through telephone lines to the central computer at the EPD Air Laboratory and are also stored in the data logger on site, as backup. At present, the EPD releases its air quality measurements to the public via monthly and special press releases, and annual reports. However, as public awareness of air pollution problems has increased, there has been an urgent need for timely and simpler information about air pollution levels. The development and operation of an Air Pollution Index (API) system has addressed that need. This presentation discusses the API computation, the information and advice released to the general public and how they can access the API information. Some API results are also presented. (author)

  17. A Novel Approach for Indoor Outdoor Air Pollution Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Abdullah Hussein

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Current increase of atmospheric air pollution rates in developing and developed countries requires efforts to design more cost effective and affordable devices. In developed countries pollution monitoring chambers are available to aid the monitoring process. The culture and the society are aware of the polluted environment side effects and measures have been taken to reduce pollution amounts. Most developing countries lack these chambers and they do not have cost effective tools for measuring pollution amounts for indoor and outdoor environments. Here, an effort has been made to modify low cost available pollution devices to work for indoor and outdoor pollution monitoring and a simple cost effective approach has been carried out. Indoor carbon monoxide gas level monitoring using cheap alarms sensor, supported by a car oxygen sensor for oxygen gas level monitoring. The same approach is used for outdoor gas pollution monitoring. A computer program has been designed to facilitate computer based monitoring process and logging of pollution data.

  18. The public health relevance of air pollution abatement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Künzli, N

    2002-07-01

    Assuming a causal relationship between current levels of air pollution and morbidity/mortality, it is crucial to estimate the public health relevance of the problem. The derivation of air pollution attributable cases faces inherent uncertainties and requires influential assumptions. Based on the results of the trinational impact assessment study of Austria, France, and Switzerland, where prudent estimates of the air pollution attributable cases (mortality, chronic bronchitis incidence, hospital admissions, acute bronchitis among children, restricted activity days, asthma attacks) have been made, influential uncertainties are quantified in this review. The public health impact of smoking, environmental tobacco smoke, and air pollution on the prevalence of chronic cough/phlegm are outlined. Despite all methodological caveats, impact assessment studies clearly suggest that public health largely benefits from better air quality. The studies are selective underestimates as they are strongly driven by mortality, but do not include full quantification of the impact on morbidity and their consequences on quality of life among the diseased and the caregivers. Air pollution abatement strategies are usually political in nature, targeting at polities, regulation and technology in mobile or stationary sources rather than at individuals. It is of note that key clean air strategies converge into abatement of climate change. In general, energy consumption is very closely related to both air pollution and greenhouse gases. The dominant causes of both problems are the excessive and inefficient combustion of fossil fuel. Thus, for many policy options, the benefit of air pollution abatement will go far beyond what prudent health-impact assessments may derive. From a climate change and air pollution perspective, improved energy efficiency and a strong and decisive departure from the "fossil fuel" combustion society is a science-based must. Health professionals must raise their voices

  19. Air Pollution Modeling at Road Sides Using the Operational Street Pollution Model-A Case Study in Hanoi, Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hung, Ngo Tho; Ketzel, Matthias; Jensen, Steen Solvang;

    2010-01-01

    In many metropolitan areas, traffic is the main source of air pollution. The high concentrations of pollutants in streets have the potential to affect human health. Therefore, estimation of air pollution at the street level is required for health impact assessment. This task has been carried out...... in many developed countries by a combination of air quality measurements and modeling. This study focuses on how to apply a dispersion model to cities in the developing world, where model input data and data from air quality monitoring stations are limited or of varying quality. This research uses...... the emission factors for Hanoi conditions. The average fleet emission factors estimated can be used for emission calculations at other streets in Hanoi and in other locations in Southeast Asia with similar vehicle types. This study also emphasizes the need to further eliminate uncertainties in input data...

  20. Long-term Changes in Extreme Air Pollution Meteorology and the Implications for Air Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Pei; Wu, Shiliang

    2016-03-31

    Extreme air pollution meteorological events, such as heat waves, temperature inversions and atmospheric stagnation episodes, can significantly affect air quality. Based on observational data, we have analyzed the long-term evolution of extreme air pollution meteorology on the global scale and their potential impacts on air quality, especially the high pollution episodes. We have identified significant increasing trends for the occurrences of extreme air pollution meteorological events in the past six decades, especially over the continental regions. Statistical analysis combining air quality data and meteorological data further indicates strong sensitivities of air quality (including both average air pollutant concentrations and high pollution episodes) to extreme meteorological events. For example, we find that in the United States the probability of severe ozone pollution when there are heat waves could be up to seven times of the average probability during summertime, while temperature inversions in wintertime could enhance the probability of severe particulate matter pollution by more than a factor of two. We have also identified significant seasonal and spatial variations in the sensitivity of air quality to extreme air pollution meteorology.

  1. Efficient air pollution abatement for regions in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, J.L. [National Chiao Tung University, Taipei (Taiwan). Inst. for Business & Management

    2006-08-15

    This paper computes the efficient air pollution abatement ratios of 30 regions in China during the period 1996-2002. Three air emissions (SO{sub 2}, soot and dust) are considered. Data envelopment analysis (DEA) with a single output (real GDP) and five inputs (labour, real capital stock, SO{sub 2}, dust and soot emissions) is used to compute the target emissions of each region for each year. The efficient abatement ratios of each region in each year are then obtained by dividing the target emission by the actual emission of an air pollutant. Our major findings are: 1. The eastern area is the most efficient region with respect to SO{sub 2}, soot and dust emissions in every year during the research period. 2. The eastern, central and western areas have the lowest, medium and highest 1996-2002 average target abatement ratios of SO, (22.09%, 42.23% and 57.58%), soot (26.19%, 56.34% and 66.37%) and dust (15.20%, 29.09% and 40.59%), respectively. 3. These results are consistent with the Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC) theory, whereby a more developed area will use environmental goods more efficiently than a less developed area. 4. Compared to dust emission, the average target abatement ratios for SO{sub 2} and soot emissions (as direct outcomes of burning coal) are relatively much higher for all three areas.

  2. The Adverse Effects of Air Pollution on the Nervous System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sermin Genc

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to ambient air pollution is a serious and common public health concern associated with growing morbidity and mortality worldwide. In the last decades, the adverse effects of air pollution on the pulmonary and cardiovascular systems have been well established in a series of major epidemiological and observational studies. In the recent past, air pollution has also been associated with diseases of the central nervous system (CNS, including stroke, Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, and neurodevelopmental disorders. It has been demonstrated that various components of air pollution, such as nanosized particles, can easily translocate to the CNS where they can activate innate immune responses. Furthermore, systemic inflammation arising from the pulmonary or cardiovascular system can affect CNS health. Despite intense studies on the health effects of ambient air pollution, the underlying molecular mechanisms of susceptibility and disease remain largely elusive. However, emerging evidence suggests that air pollution-induced neuroinflammation, oxidative stress, microglial activation, cerebrovascular dysfunction, and alterations in the blood-brain barrier contribute to CNS pathology. A better understanding of the mediators and mechanisms will enable the development of new strategies to protect individuals at risk and to reduce detrimental effects of air pollution on the nervous system and mental health.

  3. Air pollution problem in the Mexico City metropolitan zone: Photochemical pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarez, H.B.; Alvarez, P.S.; Echeverria, R.S.; Jardon, R.T. [Centro de Ciencias de la Atmosfera (Mexico). Seccion de Contaminacion Ambiental

    1997-12-31

    Mexico City Metropolitan Zone (MCMZ) represents an example of a megacity where the air pollution problem has reached an important evolution in a very short time, causing a risk in the health of a population of more than 20 million inhabitants. The atmospheric pollution problem in the MCMZ, began several decades ago, but it increased drastically in the middle of the 80`s. It is important to recognize that in the 60`s, 70`s and the first half of the 80`s the main pollutants were sulfur dioxide and total suspended particles. However since the second half of the 80`s until now, ozone is the most important air pollutant besides of the suspended particles (PM{sub 10}) and other toxic pollutants (1--8). The purpose of this paper is to discuss the evolution of the ozone atmospheric pollution problem in the MCMZ, as well as to analyze the results of several implemented air pollution control strategies.

  4. Air pollution and respiratory health of children: the PEACE panel study in Umea., Sweden.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Forsberg, B.; Segerstedt, B.; Stjernberg, N.; Roemer, W.

    1998-01-01

    The Pollution Effects on Asthmatic Children in Europe (PEACE) study examined the acute effects of short-term changes in air pollution on symptomatic children. We were one of 14 research centres in Europe that used a common study protocol. Seventy five children in an urban panel and 72 children in a

  5. 76 FR 33181 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-08

    ... Air Pollution Control District AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: EPA is proposing to approve a revision to the San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control..., Air pollution control, Intergovernmental relations, Ozone, Reporting and recordkeeping...

  6. 76 FR 47076 - Revision to the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-04

    ... Air Pollution Control District AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: EPA is finalizing approval of a revision to the San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control... CFR Part 52 Environmental protection, Air pollution control, Incorporation by...

  7. 76 FR 70886 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-16

    ... Air Pollution Control District AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: EPA is finalizing approval of revisions to the San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control... CFR Part 52 Environmental protection, Air pollution control, Incorporation by...

  8. 76 FR 41745 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-15

    ... Air Pollution Control District AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Proposed rule... Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District portion of the California State Implementation Plan (SIP... Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District (SJVUAPCD) Rule 4682, Polystyrene, Polyethylene,...

  9. 77 FR 71109 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-29

    ... Air Pollution Control District (SJVUAPCD) AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Final...)(2)). List of Subjects in 40 CFR Part 52 Environmental protection, Air pollution control... Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District (SJVUAPCD). (1) The following specified portions...

  10. 75 FR 56889 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Diego County Air Pollution Control...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-17

    ...: EPA is taking direct final action to approve revisions to the San Diego County Air Pollution Control... Environmental protection, Air pollution control, Incorporation by reference, Intergovernmental relations.... * * * * * (c) * * * (379) * * * (i) * * * (B) San Diego County Air Pollution Control District. (1) Rule...

  11. 77 FR 35329 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-13

    ... Air Pollution Control District AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: EPA is proposing to approve revisions to the San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control... of Subjects in 40 CFR Part 52 Environmental protection, Air pollution control,...

  12. 40 CFR Table 7 to Subpart Hhhhh of... - Partially Soluble Hazardous Air Pollutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Pollutants 7 Table 7 to Subpart HHHHH of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES (CONTINUED) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Miscellaneous...

  13. 40 CFR Table 8 to Subpart Ffff of... - Partially Soluble Hazardous Air Pollutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Pollutants 8 Table 8 to Subpart FFFF of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Miscellaneous Organic...

  14. Air Pollution in Siberia. A Volume and Risk-Weighted Analysis of a Siberian Pollution Database

    OpenAIRE

    Warner-Merl, N.K.

    1998-01-01

    Air pollution from industrial centers in Siberia pose observable environmental threats. Siberian ecosystems have begun to show stress from the accumulation of pollution depositions that come from cities and industrial plants. While some uncertainty exists as to the long-term effects of air pollution upon forests, in measurable terms such as human mortality and incidence of disease, forest species decline or forest dieback, observable impacts indicate that there is a cause for concern. Industr...

  15. AIR POLLUTION INVESTIGATION AND PROVIDING SYSTEM OF CONTROL IN KHORASAN STEEL COMPLEX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Nouri

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available The most important environmental pollutant in steel industry is air pollution due to the process of its products. Optimise sitting for this industry, in a great extend will prevent pollutants and emissions. Khorasan Steel Company is located near some populous villages and three rivers. It is necessary to perform an investigation for providing abatement and control of air pollution, in time of planning and manufacturing of control instruments. The manufacturing company has determined air pollution reduction instruments in this site, according to the emission suspended particulate and its climatic conditions. The air pollution reducer's instruments were used back-fither. But, this offer was not agreed by the Department of the Environment of Iran. Perhaps, this disagreement was announced just for another original problem, which was the site selection of plants. This research was on the filtration which has been offered by the manufacturing company, if this selection can improve the future regional air pollution. These figures, of course, were obtained from the present data and plume rise particulate, considering Gausian distribution mode for all the rural population and rivers rounding to the site, up to 5 km. The results showed that the produced particulates were less than permissible limit and the proposed methods will improve the complex air pollution difficulties So, the proposed methods were provided for increasing the control and operating the system for conducting of cyclone before input of particulate to the back-filter.

  16. Letter to the Editor: Applications Air Q Model on Estimate Health Effects Exposure to Air Pollutants

    OpenAIRE

    , Gholamreza Goudarzi; Sahar Geravandi; Elaheh Jame Porazmey; Mohammad Javad Mohammadi

    2016-01-01

    Epidemiologic studies in worldwide have measured increases in mortality and morbidity associated with air pollution (1-3). Quantifying the effects of air pollution on the human health in urban area causes an increasingly critical component in policy discussion (4-6). Air Q model was proved to be a valid and reliable tool to predicts health effects related to criteria  pollutants (particulate matter (PM), ozone (O3), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), sulfur dioxide (SO2), and carbon monoxide (CO)),...

  17. The impact of periodic air pollution peaks in Beijing on air quality governance in China

    OpenAIRE

    Schwabe, Julian; Hassler, Markus

    2016-01-01

    During the month of January 2013, Beijing suffered air pollution of unprecedented intensity. This event, which was named “airpocalypse” in international media, was followed by vibrant media reporting and public discussion on the topic and prompted the central government to issue unusually ambitious measures to contain air pollution more effectively. This paper explores the impact of the airpocalypse on China’s air quality governance by conducting a qualitative analysis of pollution control po...

  18. The relationship between air pollution and low birth weight: effects by mother's age, infant sex, co-pollutants, and pre-term births

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Previously we identified associations between the mother's air pollution exposure and birth weight for births in Connecticut and Massachusetts from 1999-2002. Other studies also found effects, though results are inconsistent. We explored potential uncertainties in earlier work and further explored associations between air pollution and birth weight for PM10, PM2.5, CO, NO2, and SO2. Specifically we investigated: (1) whether infants of younger (≤24 years) and older (≥40 years) mothers are particularly susceptible to air pollution's effects on birth weight; (2) whether the relationship between air pollution and birth weight differed by infant sex; (3) confounding by co-pollutants and differences in pollutants' measurement frequencies; and (4) whether observed associations were influenced by inclusion of pre-term births. Findings did not indicate higher susceptibility to the relationship between air pollution and birth weight based on the mother's age or the infant's sex. Results were robust to exclusion of pre-term infants and co-pollutant adjustment, although sample size decreased for some pollutant pairs. These findings provide additional evidence for the relationship between air pollution and birth weight, and do not identify susceptible sub-populations based on infant sex or mother's age. We conclude with discussion of key challenges in research on air pollution and pregnancy outcomes.

  19. Air pollution and the respiration of certain tree species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makedonska, T.; Slavova, V.

    1973-01-01

    These studies are conducted to compare the effects of air pollution on horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum L.), London plane (Platanus acerifolia Milld.) ash-leaved maple (Acer negundo L.) and European birch (Betula alba L.). With increasing concentrations of air pollution these species react by increasing the intensity of respiration, as in separate cases the increase reaches up to 40%. Most sensitive to air pollution is the horse chestnut, followed by birch and ash-leaved maple; least sensitive is London plane. With respect to gas resistance birch and ash-leaved maple rank close to the horse chestnut but are more resistant than the horse chestnut and less sensitive than London plane.

  20. Experimental technique of calibration of symmetrical air pollution models

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    P Kumar

    2005-10-01

    Based on the inherent property of symmetry of air pollution models,a Symmetrical Air Pollution Model Index (SAPMI)has been developed to calibrate the accuracy of predictions made by such models,where the initial quantity of release at the source is not known.For exact prediction the value of SAPMI should be equal to 1.If the predicted values are overestimating then SAPMI is > 1and if it is underestimating then SAPMI is < 1.Specific design for the layout of receptors has been suggested as a requirement for the calibration experiments.SAPMI is applicable for all variations of symmetrical air pollution dispersion models.

  1. Traffic-Related Air Pollution and Parkinson's Disease in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ritz, Beate; Lee, Pei-Chen; Hansen, Johnni;

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Very little is currently known about air pollutants' adverse effects on neurodegenerative diseases even though recent studies have linked particulate exposures to brain pathologies associated with Parkinson's and Alzheimer's disease. Here we investigate long-term exposure to traffic......-related air pollution and Parkinson's disease. METHODS: In a case-control study of 1,696 Parkinson's disease (PD) patients identified from Danish hospital registries and diagnosed 1996-2009 and 1,800 population controls matched by gender and year of birth we assessed long-term traffic-related air pollutant...

  2. Methodology for Valuing the Health Impacts of Air Pollution

    OpenAIRE

    Narain, Urvashi; Sall, Chris

    2016-01-01

    This report is meant to inform a joint publication by the World Bank and Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation (IHME) on the economic costs of air pollution. Air pollution is a global challenge and one that is acutely felt in developing countries. Illnesses caused by ambient and household air pollution claim the lives of nearly 6 million people each year. The goal of the joint World Bank-IHME report is to raise awareness about the severity of this challenge and to strengthen the busi...

  3. Recognizing the impact of ambient air pollution on skin health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancebo, S E; Wang, S Q

    2015-12-01

    Ambient air pollution is a known public health hazard that negatively impacts non-cutaneous organs; however, our knowledge regarding the effects on skin remains limited. Current scientific evidence suggests there are four mechanisms by which ambient air pollutants cause adverse effects on skin health: (i) generation of free radicals, (ii) induction of inflammatory cascade and subsequent impairment of skin barrier, (iii) activation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) and (iv) alterations to skin microflora. In this review, we provide a comprehensive overview on ambient air pollutants and their relevant sources, and highlight current evidence of the effects on skin. PMID:26289769

  4. Aerosol and air pollution study by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thermal neutron activation analysis technique was used in air pollution and aerosol elemental content and size distribution investigations. Air pollution samples were collected on Whatman 41 paper filters which were activated along with known quantities of standards in a flux of approximately 1013 nxcm-2xs-1. The activity of the samples was measured with a 40 cm3 Ge(Li) detector and analyzed with the computer program JANE, which identified the isotopes and found their quantities by normalization with the standard measurement results. Correlation between the various elements, in particular those belonging to dust from the desert and those considered typical urban air pollution, is investigated. (author)

  5. Trends of air pollution in the Western Mediterranean Basin from a 13-year database: A research considering regional, suburban and urban environments in Mallorca (Balearic Islands)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerro, J. C.; Cerdà, V.; Pey, J.

    2015-02-01

    This study is focused in the evolution of NO, NO2, SO2, O3 and PM10 concentrations, from 2000 to 2012, at urban, suburban and regional observatories in the Balearic Islands (Spain), an insular region in the Western Mediterranean. At urban and suburban areas, daily patterns of most pollutants are strongly linked to land-traffic emissions, being the regional background less influenced. SO2 variations, however, are mostly driven by the impact of other sources different from road traffic, including shipping emissions and power generation. Urban NOx, SO2 and PM10 concentrations exhibit a common weekly pattern, with a very slight accumulation during the weekdays and sharp decreases (15-39%) on weekends. Our long-term database displays clear decreasing NO and NO2 concentrations from 2000 onwards, prominent in the urban environment (-1.1 μg/m3 year), and moderate in suburban and regional areas (up to -0.3 μg/m3 year). At urban sites, O3 behaviour (+1.0 μg/m3 year) is opposite to that of NO, one of its main depletion agents. A moderate O3 increasing trend (+0.5 μg/m3 year) is detected at regional background areas, whereas a modest decreasing trend occurred at the suburban background (-0.4 μg/m3 year), probably caused by enhanced vehicular emissions over these areas induced by urban planning and mobility policies. Finally, substantial PM10 drops are obvious, -0.7 μg/m3 year at urban and suburban areas, and -0.5 μg/m3 year in the regional background. Our results link the sharpest declines to air masses from western to northern sectors, pointing to effective pollution abatement strategies at a European scale. Some additional benefits are connected to the implementation of diverse local policies. The effect of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) was investigated. Negative NAO phases were related to additional air quality benefits, while positive phases mostly contributed to air degradation.

  6. Phytometer of buckwheat as an indicator of air pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsuno, Y.; Sato, T.; Kiyasu, M.

    1976-03-01

    It is well known that the growth of buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench) is resistant to inferior environmental conditions, but very sensitive to a polluted atmosphere. It is possible that buckwheat has favorable characteristics as phytometer for measuring air pollution. Young plants of buckwheat were grown in small cups in a water culture. Plants having three leaves were transferred to different places, both in an air polluted area and in an un-polluted area, for a period of 7 days, in order to compare the Relative Growth Rate (RGR) at their setting places. The buckwheat phytometer for measuring air pollution, utilized the following samples for statistical significance: 20 plants with 4 cups per one place according to their coefficient of variance of dry matter weight per pot. It was observed that the RGR showed the values of 20-27% per day in an un-polluted place and of 12-18% per day in a polluted place. The results of growth analysis based on dry matter increment after placement showed that the RGR depression was mainly owing to a decrease in the Net Assimilation Rate and the Leaf Area Ratio was not sensitive for a polluted atmosphere. The Net Assimilation rate depends on photosynthetic activity of leaves, therefore, the NAR depression may be due to an inhibition of photosynthesis by polluted air. 5 references, 11 figures, 8 tables.

  7. Ocular surface adverse effects of ambient levels of air pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Augusto Miranda Torricelli

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available It is widely recognized today that outdoor air pollution can affect human health. Various chemical components that are present in ambient pollution may have an irritant effect on the mucous membranes of the body, particularly those of the respiratory tract. Much less attention has been focused on the adverse effect on the ocular surface, despite the fact that this structure is even more exposed to air pollution than the respiratory mucosa since only a very thin tear film separates the corneal and conjunctival epithelia from the air pollutants. So far, clinical data are the more widespread tools used by ophthalmologists for assessing possible aggression to the ocular surface; however, clinical findings alone appears not to correlate properly with the complaints presented by the patients pointing out the need for further clinical and laboratory studies on the subject. The purpose of this study is to review signs and symptoms associated with chronic long-term exposure to environmental air pollutants on the ocular structures currently defined as the ocular surface and to review clinical and laboratory tests used to investigate the adverse effects of air pollutants on such structures. We also review previous studies that investigated the adverse effects of air pollution on the ocular surface and discuss the need for further investigation on the subject.

  8. Air pollution and venous thrombosis: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Liang; Wang, Qing-Yun; Cheng, Zhi-Peng; Hu, Bei; Liu, Jing-Di; Hu, Yu

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to air pollution has been linked to cardiovascular and respiratory disorders. However, the effect of air pollution on venous thrombotic disorders is uncertain. We performed a meta-analysis to assess the association between air pollution and venous thrombosis. PubMed, Embase, EBM Reviews, Healthstar, Global Health, Nursing Database, and Web of Science were searched for citations on air pollutants (carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, ozone, and particulate matters) and venous thrombosis. Using a random-effects model, overall risk estimates were derived for each increment of 10 μg/m(3) of pollutant concentration. Of the 485 in-depth reviewed studies, 8 citations, involving approximately 700,000 events, fulfilled the inclusion criteria. All the main air pollutants analyzed were not associated with an increased risk of venous thrombosis (OR = 1.005, 95% CI = 0.998-1.012 for PM2.5; OR = 0.995, 95% CI = 0.984-1.007 for PM10; OR = 1.006, 95% CI = 0.994-1.019 for NO2). Based on exposure period and thrombosis location, additional subgroup analyses provided results comparable with those of the overall analyses. There was no evidence of publication bias. Therefore, this meta analysis does not suggest the possible role of air pollution as risk factor for venous thrombosis in general population. PMID:27600652

  9. Air pollution and venous thrombosis: a meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Liang; Wang, Qing-Yun; Cheng, Zhi-Peng; Hu, Bei; Liu, Jing-Di; Hu, Yu

    2016-09-01

    Exposure to air pollution has been linked to cardiovascular and respiratory disorders. However, the effect of air pollution on venous thrombotic disorders is uncertain. We performed a meta-analysis to assess the association between air pollution and venous thrombosis. PubMed, Embase, EBM Reviews, Healthstar, Global Health, Nursing Database, and Web of Science were searched for citations on air pollutants (carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, ozone, and particulate matters) and venous thrombosis. Using a random-effects model, overall risk estimates were derived for each increment of 10 μg/m3 of pollutant concentration. Of the 485 in-depth reviewed studies, 8 citations, involving approximately 700,000 events, fulfilled the inclusion criteria. All the main air pollutants analyzed were not associated with an increased risk of venous thrombosis (OR = 1.005, 95% CI = 0.998-1.012 for PM2.5; OR = 0.995, 95% CI = 0.984-1.007 for PM10; OR = 1.006, 95% CI = 0.994-1.019 for NO2). Based on exposure period and thrombosis location, additional subgroup analyses provided results comparable with those of the overall analyses. There was no evidence of publication bias. Therefore, this meta analysis does not suggest the possible role of air pollution as risk factor for venous thrombosis in general population.

  10. Air pollution and venous thrombosis: a meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Liang; Wang, Qing-Yun; Cheng, Zhi-Peng; Hu, Bei; Liu, Jing-Di; Hu, Yu

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to air pollution has been linked to cardiovascular and respiratory disorders. However, the effect of air pollution on venous thrombotic disorders is uncertain. We performed a meta-analysis to assess the association between air pollution and venous thrombosis. PubMed, Embase, EBM Reviews, Healthstar, Global Health, Nursing Database, and Web of Science were searched for citations on air pollutants (carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, ozone, and particulate matters) and venous thrombosis. Using a random-effects model, overall risk estimates were derived for each increment of 10 μg/m3 of pollutant concentration. Of the 485 in-depth reviewed studies, 8 citations, involving approximately 700,000 events, fulfilled the inclusion criteria. All the main air pollutants analyzed were not associated with an increased risk of venous thrombosis (OR = 1.005, 95% CI = 0.998–1.012 for PM2.5; OR = 0.995, 95% CI = 0.984–1.007 for PM10; OR = 1.006, 95% CI = 0.994–1.019 for NO2). Based on exposure period and thrombosis location, additional subgroup analyses provided results comparable with those of the overall analyses. There was no evidence of publication bias. Therefore, this meta analysis does not suggest the possible role of air pollution as risk factor for venous thrombosis in general population. PMID:27600652

  11. Air pollution, temperature and pediatric influenza in Brisbane, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhiwei; Hu, Wenbiao; Williams, Gail; Clements, Archie C A; Kan, Haidong; Tong, Shilu

    2013-09-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated the importance of weather variables in influencing the incidence of influenza. However, the role of air pollution is often ignored in identifying the environmental drivers of influenza. This research aims to examine the impacts of air pollutants and temperature on the incidence of pediatric influenza in Brisbane, Australia. Lab-confirmed daily data on influenza counts among children aged 0-14years in Brisbane from 2001 January 1st to 2008 December 31st were retrieved from Queensland Health. Daily data on maximum and minimum temperatures for the same period were supplied by the Australian Bureau of Meteorology. Winter was chosen as the main study season due to it having the highest pediatric influenza incidence. Four Poisson log-linear regression models, with daily pediatric seasonal influenza counts as the outcome, were used to examine the impacts of air pollutants (i.e., ozone (O3), particulate matter≤10μm (PM10) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2)) and temperature (using a moving average of ten days for these variables) on pediatric influenza. The results show that mean temperature (Relative risk (RR): 0.86; 95% Confidence Interval (CI): 0.82-0.89) was negatively associated with pediatric seasonal influenza in Brisbane, and high concentrations of O3 (RR: 1.28; 95% CI: 1.25-1.31) and PM10 (RR: 1.11; 95% CI: 1.10-1.13) were associated with more pediatric influenza cases. There was a significant interaction effect (RR: 0.94; 95% CI: 0.93-0.95) between PM10 and mean temperature on pediatric influenza. Adding the interaction term between mean temperature and PM10 substantially improved the model fit. This study provides evidence that PM10 needs to be taken into account when evaluating the temperature-influenza relationship. O3 was also an important predictor, independent of temperature. PMID:23911338

  12. Air pollutant emissions from Chinese households: A major and underappreciated ambient pollution source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jun; Mauzerall, Denise L; Chen, Qi; Zhang, Qiang; Song, Yu; Peng, Wei; Klimont, Zbigniew; Qiu, Xinghua; Zhang, Shiqiu; Hu, Min; Lin, Weili; Smith, Kirk R; Zhu, Tong

    2016-07-12

    As part of the 12th Five-Year Plan, the Chinese government has developed air pollution prevention and control plans for key regions with a focus on the power, transport, and industrial sectors. Here, we investigate the contribution of residential emissions to regional air pollution in highly polluted eastern China during the heating season, and find that dramatic improvements in air quality would also result from reduction in residential emissions. We use the Weather Research and Forecasting model coupled with Chemistry to evaluate potential residential emission controls in Beijing and in the Beijing, Tianjin, and Hebei (BTH) region. In January and February 2010, relative to the base case, eliminating residential emissions in Beijing reduced daily average surface PM2.5 (particulate mater with aerodynamic diameter equal or smaller than 2.5 micrometer) concentrations by 14 ± 7 μg⋅m(-3) (22 ± 6% of a baseline concentration of 67 ± 41 μg⋅m(-3); mean ± SD). Eliminating residential emissions in the BTH region reduced concentrations by 28 ± 19 μg⋅m(-3) (40 ± 9% of 67 ± 41 μg⋅m(-3)), 44 ± 27 μg⋅m(-3) (43 ± 10% of 99 ± 54 μg⋅m(-3)), and 25 ± 14 μg⋅m(-3) (35 ± 8% of 70 ± 35 μg⋅m(-3)) in Beijing, Tianjin, and Hebei provinces, respectively. Annually, elimination of residential sources in the BTH region reduced emissions of primary PM2.5 by 32%, compared with 5%, 6%, and 58% achieved by eliminating emissions from the transportation, power, and industry sectors, respectively. We also find air quality in Beijing would benefit substantially from reductions in residential emissions from regional controls in Tianjin and Hebei, indicating the value of policies at the regional level.

  13. Air pollutant emissions from Chinese households: A major and underappreciated ambient pollution source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jun; Mauzerall, Denise L; Chen, Qi; Zhang, Qiang; Song, Yu; Peng, Wei; Klimont, Zbigniew; Qiu, Xinghua; Zhang, Shiqiu; Hu, Min; Lin, Weili; Smith, Kirk R; Zhu, Tong

    2016-07-12

    As part of the 12th Five-Year Plan, the Chinese government has developed air pollution prevention and control plans for key regions with a focus on the power, transport, and industrial sectors. Here, we investigate the contribution of residential emissions to regional air pollution in highly polluted eastern China during the heating season, and find that dramatic improvements in air quality would also result from reduction in residential emissions. We use the Weather Research and Forecasting model coupled with Chemistry to evaluate potential residential emission controls in Beijing and in the Beijing, Tianjin, and Hebei (BTH) region. In January and February 2010, relative to the base case, eliminating residential emissions in Beijing reduced daily average surface PM2.5 (particulate mater with aerodynamic diameter equal or smaller than 2.5 micrometer) concentrations by 14 ± 7 μg⋅m(-3) (22 ± 6% of a baseline concentration of 67 ± 41 μg⋅m(-3); mean ± SD). Eliminating residential emissions in the BTH region reduced concentrations by 28 ± 19 μg⋅m(-3) (40 ± 9% of 67 ± 41 μg⋅m(-3)), 44 ± 27 μg⋅m(-3) (43 ± 10% of 99 ± 54 μg⋅m(-3)), and 25 ± 14 μg⋅m(-3) (35 ± 8% of 70 ± 35 μg⋅m(-3)) in Beijing, Tianjin, and Hebei provinces, respectively. Annually, elimination of residential sources in the BTH region reduced emissions of primary PM2.5 by 32%, compared with 5%, 6%, and 58% achieved by eliminating emissions from the transportation, power, and industry sectors, respectively. We also find air quality in Beijing would benefit substantially from reductions in residential emissions from regional controls in Tianjin and Hebei, indicating the value of policies at the regional level. PMID:27354524

  14. Norwegian Institute for Air Research Annual Report 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    The foundation Norwegian Institute for Air Research (NILU) conducts research and assessment of technical, economic, hygienic and other environmental issues related to air pollution and cleaning of polluted air. NILU serves the national market for research and development within the field of air pollution. The main purpose of the subsidiary company NILU Products Ltd., established in 1996, is to manage the strategic owner interests of the parent company as well as market products and systems developed by NILU. Among the projects in which NILU participated in 2001 are a number of EU projects under the fifth framework programme. The main topics with NILU participation are related to ozone layer- and ultraviolet changes, pollution and climate change, satellite validation, changes in atmospheric chemistry, particulate matter in air, discharges from aircraft, regional and global dispersion of environmental toxins, standardization and monitoring methods, electronic distribution of environmental data and environmental influence on building materials.

  15. Anisotropic diffusion of volatile pollutants at air-water interface

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li-ping CHEN; Jing-tao CHENG; Guang-fa DENG

    2013-01-01

    The volatile pollutants that spill into natural waters cause water pollution. Air pollution arises from the water pollution because of volatilization. Mass exchange caused by turbulent fluctuation is stronger in the direction normal to the air-water interface than in other directions due to the large density difference between water and air. In order to explore the characteristics of anisotropic diffusion of the volatile pollutants at the air-water interface, the relationship between velocity gradient and mass transfer rate was established to calculate the turbulent mass diffusivity. A second-order accurate smooth transition differencing scheme (STDS) was proposed to guarantee the boundedness for the flow and mass transfer at the air-water interface. Simulations and experiments were performed to study the trichloroethylene (C2HCl3) release. By comparing the anisotropic coupling diffusion model, isotropic coupling diffusion model, and non-coupling diffusion model, the features of the transport of volatile pollutants at the air-water interface were determined. The results show that the anisotropic coupling diffusion model is more accurate than the isotropic coupling diffusion model and non-coupling diffusion model. Mass transfer significantly increases with the increase of the air-water relative velocity at a low relative velocity. However, at a higher relative velocity, an increase in the relative velocity has no effect on mass transfer.

  16. Air pollution assessment in the Slovak Republic in 2005. Measurement stations of air quality monitoring network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this Appendix to the report 'Air pollution assessment in the Slovak Republic in 2005' the main characteristics of measurement stations of air quality monitoring network of the Slovak Republic are presented

  17. Effects of air pollutants on epicuticular wax chemical composition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There are numerous reports in the literature of modifications to epicuticular wax structure as a consequence of exposure to air pollutants. Most authors have used scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to describe changes in wax crystallite morphology or distribution. ''Erosion'' or ''weathering'' of crystalline structure into an amorphous state is the most common observation, particularly in the case of conifer needles having the characteristic tube crystallites comprised of nonacosan-10-ol. Wax structure is largely determined by its chemical composition. Therefore, many of the reported changes in wax structure due to air pollutants probably arise from direct interactions between pollutants such as ozone and wax biosynthesis. The literature describing changes in wax composition due to pollutants is briefly reviewed. New evidence is introduced in support of the hypothesis for a direct interaction between air pollutants and epicuticular wax Biosynthesis. (orig.)

  18. AIR POLLUTION AND INFANT HEALTH: LESSONS FROM NEW JERSEY*

    OpenAIRE

    Janet Currie; Matthew J. Neidell; Johannes Schmieder

    2009-01-01

    We examine the impact of three "criteria" air pollutants on infant health in New Jersey in the 1990s by combining information about mother's residential location from birth certificates with information from air quality monitors. In addition to large sample size, our work offers three important innovations: First, because we know the exact addresses of mothers, we select those mothers closest to air monitors to ensure a more accurate measure of air quality. Second, since we follow mothers ove...

  19. Air pollution dispersion models as used in Poland in regional development planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pruchnicki, J.

    1977-02-01

    This paper discusses air pollution models used in regional development planning in Poland. After outlining the institutional structure and legislature dealing with air pollution control, the paper describes the air quality standards currently in effect. Dispersion models used in predicting air pollution concentrations are then detailed. Finally the application of air pollution modelling to urban design is discussed.

  20. Public health implications of urban air pollution in developing countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwela, D.H. [World Health Organisation, Geneva (Switzerland)

    1995-12-31

    Exposure to air pollution is an almost inescapable part of urban life throughout the world. Ambient air pollutant levels in urban areas are generally a reflection of emissions. For sulphur dioxide, total suspended particulate matter and lead, ambient concentrations are declining in the industrialized western countries. For nitrogen dioxide, ambient levels in cities are generally constant, or slightly increasing. For carbon dioxide, they are variable, declining where controls are being applied. In a substantial number of cities, particularly in developing countries, WHO guidelines are being often exceeded for the compounds mentioned. Given the rate at which these cities are growing, the air pollution situation will probably worsen if environmental control measures are not implemented. As a consequence, the health and well-being of urban residents will further deteriorate with high ambient air pollutant concentrations causing increased mortality, morbidity, deficits on pulmonary functions and cardiovascular and neurobehavioural effects. (author)

  1. Characterization of the particulate air pollution in contrasted mega cities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work aims at characterizing the physics and the chemistry that govern particulate air pollution in two mega cities (Paris and Cairo) for which the size distribution and the chemical composition of airborne particles were poorly documented. Seasonal variations of the main aerosol sources and transformation processes are investigated in these two urban centres, with a particular attention to semi-volatile material and secondary organic aerosols. Short-term health effects of Paris size-segregated aerosols, as well as particulate pollution during the Cairo 'Black Cloud' season, are also emphasized here. Finally, the comparison of results obtained for the two mega cities and for another one (Beijing) allows investigating main factors responsible for particulate air pollution in urban centres with contrasted climatic conditions and development levels. Notably, this work also allows the build-up of an experimental dataset which is now available for the modelling of urban air quality and of environmental impacts of mega city air pollution. (author)

  2. Measurements of environmental policy for air pollution abatement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The first part of the study goes into the determination of efficient strategies for the reduction of air pollutants. The developed method is not only derived theoretically but is tested with the concrete example of emissions sources of a German state. The second part goes into the question what the government can do in order to attain that air pollution abatement measures recognized as being efficient will be put into practice. As market economy mechanisms have advantages over central state planning in the allocation of economic resources the question arises if not also for environmental protection market economy tools may contribute to an improvement of the efficiency of air pollution abatement. Therefore the suitability of different tools of environmental policy for the realization of efficient air pollution abatement is investigated and evaluated. This is again not done abstractly but with existing emission sources. (orig./HSCH). 32 figs., 12 tabs

  3. Plans and Measures for Avoiding Casting-Air-Pollution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Jian

    2003-01-01

    This article presents plans of preventing casting-air-pollution in practice, and some avoiding methods in detail. In modern times, environment protection is looked high upon day by day; green-casting thus becomes more and more important.

  4. A geographic approach to modelling traffic air pollution exposures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solvang Jensen, S. [National Environmental Research Inst., Dept. of Atmospheric Environment, Roskilde (Denmark)

    1999-02-01

    A new approach has been developed for estimation of human exposures to traffic air pollution. The system applies a Geographic Information System (GIS) and is based on the Danish Operational Street Pollution Model (OSPM), technical and cadastral digital maps (buildings, roads, address points, property limits) and available Danish national administrative databases on buildings, citizens and employees (BBR, CPR, CER). The model system computes air pollution levels at the postal address for human exposure estimation, and may be applied in exposure and health studies e.g. air pollution epidemiology, as well as in health risk assessment and management e.g. as a tool for decision-support in urban air quality management. (au) 16 refs.

  5. HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS: WET REMOVAL RATES AND MECHANISMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fourteen hazardous organic air pollutants were evaluated for their potentials to be wet deposited by precipitation scavenging. This effort included a survey of solubilities (Henry's Law constants) in the literature, measurement of solubilities of three selected species, developme...

  6. Overview of Megacity Air Pollutant Emissions and Impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolb, C. E.

    2013-05-01

    The urban metabolism that characterizes major cities consumes very large qualities of humanly produced and/or processed food, fuel, water, electricity, construction materials and manufactured goods, as well as, naturally provided sunlight, precipitation and atmospheric oxygen. The resulting urban respiration exhalations add large quantities of trace gas and particulate matter pollutants to urban atmospheres. Key classes of urban primary air pollutants and their sources will be reviewed and important secondary pollutants identified. The impacts of these pollutants on urban and downwind regional inhabitants, ecosystems, and climate will be discussed. Challenges in quantifying the temporally and spatially resolved urban air pollutant emissions and secondary pollutant production rates will be identified and possible measurement strategies evaluated.

  7. Ambient air pollution and pregnancy-induced hypertensive disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Marie; Stayner, Leslie; Slama, Rémy;

    2014-01-01

    Pregnancy-induced hypertensive disorders can lead to maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality, but the cause of these conditions is not well understood. We have systematically reviewed and performed a meta-analysis of epidemiological studies investigating the association between exposure...... to ambient air pollution and pregnancy-induced hypertensive disorders including gestational hypertension and preeclampsia. We searched electronic databases for English language studies reporting associations between ambient air pollution and pregnancy-induced hypertensive disorders published between December...

  8. Productivity Effects of Air Pollution: Evidence from Professional Soccer

    OpenAIRE

    Lichter, Andreas; Pestel, Nico; Sommer, Eric

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we estimate the causal effect of ambient air pollution on individuals' productivity by using panel data on the universe of professional soccer players in Germany over the period 1999-2011. Combining this data with hourly information on the concentration of particulate matter in spatial proximity to each stadium at the time of kickoff, we exploit exogenous variation in the players' exposure to air pollution due to match scheduling rules that are beyond the control of teams and p...

  9. Addressing household air pollution : a case study in rural Madagascar

    OpenAIRE

    Dasgupta, Susmita; Martin, Paul; Samad, Hussain A.

    2013-01-01

    Household air pollution is the second leading cause of disease in Madagascar, where more than 99 percent of households rely on solid biomass, such as charcoal, wood, and crop waste, as the main cooking fuel. Only a limited number of studies have looked at the emissions and health consequences of cook stoves in Africa. This paper summarizes an initiative to monitor household air pollution in two towns in Madagascar, with a stratified sample of 154 and 184 households. Concentrations of fine par...

  10. Air pollution and respiratory allergic diseases in schoolchildren

    OpenAIRE

    Nicolussi, Francine Heloisa; dos Santos, Ana Paula Milla; André, Sílvia Carla da Silva; Veiga, Tatiane Bonametti; Takayanagui, Angela Maria Magosso

    2014-01-01

    Study on the prevalence of allergic respiratory diseases in schoolchildren between six and seven years old, associated with indicators of air pollution. A questionnaire based on the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood was administered to parents of students from public schools, located in urban areas with differing vehicle flows. There was a positive correlation between monthly frequency of rhinitis and concentration of pollutants, and negative with relative air humidity....

  11. Forest Fires, Air Pollution and Mortality in Southeast Asia.

    OpenAIRE

    Narayan Sastry

    2000-01-01

    In this paper, the author assesses the population health effects in Malaysia of air pollution generated by a widespread series of fires that occurred mainly in Indonesia between April and November of 1997. The author describes how the forest fires occurred and why the associated air pollution was so widespread and long lasting. The main objective is to determine whether there were mortality effects and to assess how large and important these were. The author also investigates whether the mort...

  12. A Zooming Technique for Wind Transport of Air Pollution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berkvens, P.J.F.; Botchev, M.A.; Lioen, W.; Verwer, J.G.

    1999-01-01

    In air pollution dispersion models, typically systems of millions of equations that describe wind transport, chemistry and vertical mixing have to be integrated in time. To have more accurate results over specific fixed areas of interest---usually highly polluted areas with intensive emissions---a l

  13. Australians are not equally protected from industrial air pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Australian air pollution standards are set at national and state levels for a number of chemicals harmful to human health. However, these standards do not need to be met when ad hoc pollution licences are issued by state environment agencies. This situation results in a highly unequal distribution of air pollution between towns and cities, and across the country. This paper examines these pollution regulations through two case studies, specifically considering the ability of the regulatory regime to protect human health from lead and sulphur dioxide pollution in the communities located around smelters. It also considers how the proposed National Clean Air Agreement, once enacted, might serve to reduce this pollution equity problem. Through the case studies we show that there are at least three discrete concerns relating to the current licencing system. They are: non-onerous emission thresholds for polluting industry; temporal averaging thresholds masking emission spikes; and ineffective penalties for breaching licence agreements. In conclusion, we propose a set of new, legally-binding national minimum standards for industrial air pollutants must be developed and enforced, which can only be modified by more (not less) stringent state licence arrangements. (letter)

  14. In want of measurements of air pollution from wood smoke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Czeskleba-Dupont, Rolf; Czeskleba-Dupont, Solveig

    2007-01-01

    , handy measuring instruments at their disposal, so that the inconvenience from smoke could be analytically documented. The contribution details arguments on serious wood smoke pollution, health problems and  regulations  needed.  Local measurements should be promoted  regarding air pollution from...

  15. Linking Urban Air Pollution to Global Tropospheric Chemistry and Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chien

    2005-01-01

    The two major tasks of this project are to study: (a) the impact of urban nonlinear chemistry on chemical budgets of key pollutants in non-urban areas; and (b) the influence of air pollution control strategies in selected metropolitan areas, particularly of emerging economies in East and South Asia, on tropospheric chemistry and hence on regional and global climate.

  16. Toxic potency and effects of diffuse air pollution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hamers, T.H.M.

    2002-01-01

    Diffuse air pollution consists of an omnipresent complex mixture of pollutants that is emitted from many widely dispersed sources as traffic, industries, households, energy plants, waste incinerators, and agriculture. It can be deposited in relatively remote areas as a result of (long-range) airborn

  17. Air pollution in autoimmune rheumatic diseases: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farhat, Sylvia C L; Silva, Clovis A; Orione, Maria Angelica M; Campos, Lucia M A; Sallum, Adriana M E; Braga, Alfésio L F

    2011-11-01

    Air pollution consists of a heterogeneous mixture of gasses and particles that include carbon monoxide, nitrates, sulfur dioxide, ozone, lead, toxic by-product of tobacco smoke and particulate matter. Oxidative stress and inflammation induced by inhaled pollutants may result in acute and chronic disorders in the respiratory system, as well as contribute to a state of systemic inflammation and autoimmunity. This paper reviews the mechanisms of air contaminants influencing the immune response and autoimmunity, and it focuses on studies of inhaled pollutants triggering and/or exacerbating rheumatic diseases in cities around the world. Remarkably, environmental factors contribute to the onset of autoimmune diseases, especially smoking and occupational exposure to silica in rheumatoid arthritis and systemic lupus erythematosus. Other diseases such as scleroderma may be triggered by the inhalation of chemical solvents, herbicides and silica. Likewise, primary vasculitis associated with anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA) may be triggered by silica exposure. Only few studies showed that air pollutants could trigger or exacerbate juvenile idiopathic arthritis and systemic lupus erythematosus. In contrast, no studies of tropospheric pollution triggering inflammatory myopathies and spondyloarthropathies were carried out. In conclusion, air pollution is one of the environmental factors involved in systemic inflammation and autoimmunity. Further studies are needed in order to evaluate air pollutants and their potentially serious effects on autoimmune rheumatic diseases and the mechanisms involved in the onset and the exacerbation of these diseases.

  18. Association between Ambient Air Pollution and Outpatient Visits for Acute Bronchitis in a Chinese City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Li Juan; ZHAO Ang; CHEN Ren Jie; KAN Hai Dong; KUANG Xing Ya

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the short-term association between outdoor air pollution and outpatient visits for acute bronchitis, which is a rare subject of research in the mainland of China. Methods A time-series analysis was conducted to examine the association of outdoor air pollutants with hospital outpatient visits in Shanghai by using two-year daily data (2010-2011). Results Outdoor air pollution was found to be associated with an increased risk of outpatient visits for acute bronchitis in Shanghai. The effect estimates of air pollutants varied with the lag structures of the concentrations of the pollutants. For lag06, a 10μg/m3 increase in the concentrations of PM10, SO2, and NO2 corresponded to 0.94%(95%CI:0.83%, 1.05%), 11.12%(95%CI:10.76%, 11.48%), and 4.84%(95%CI: 4.49%, 5.18%) increases in hospital visits for acute bronchitis, respectively. These associations appeared to be stronger in females (P Conclusion Our analyses have provided the first evidence that the current air pollution level in China has an effect on acute bronchitis and that the rationale for further limiting air pollution levels in Shanghai should be strengthened.

  19. Working Group 'Air pollution abatement' of the University of Stuttgart -ALS. Annual report 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Despite considerable efforts for air pollution abatement - examples are here desulphurization and nitrogen removal in power and large combustion plants as well as catalytic converters for automobiles there are still many problems to solve. Many small and medium-size companies still have to reduce production-related pollutant emissions, traffic still is a major source of pollutants. Air pollution abatement in the new Federal states and other Eastern European countries is a particularly urgent task and reductions of CO2 emissions from energy production processes with fossil fuels are not least a great challenge. Apart from industry, legislation and administration especially science is called upon to find solutions to these problems. The university of Stuttgart takes up the challenge. Numerous institutes - 17 of 8 faculties -united in the working group ''air pollution abatement'' of the university of Stuttgart which carries out in interdisciplinary cooperation research work in the area of air pollution abatement. In this annual report activities of individual member states institutes in the area of air pollution abatement (fields of study, current research projects, cooperations and publications in 1991) as well as joint projects are presented. (orig./KW)

  20. Setting limits: Using air pollution thresholds to protect and restore US ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenn, Mark E.; Lambert, Kathleen F.; Blett, Tamara F.; Burns, Douglas A.; Pardo, Linda H.; Lovett, Gary M.; Haeuber, Richard A.; Evers, David C.; Driscoll, Charles T.; Jeffries, Dean S.

    2011-01-01

    More than four decades of research provide unequivocal evidence that sulfur, nitrogen, and mercury pollution have altered, and will continue to alter, our nation's lands and waters. The emission and deposition of air pollutants harm native plants and animals, degrade water quality, affect forest productivity, and are damaging to human health. Many air quality policies limit emissions at the source but these control measures do not always consider ecosystem impacts. Air pollution thresholds at which ecological effects are observed, such as critical loads, are effective tools for assessing the impacts of air pollution on essential ecosystem services and for informing public policy. U.S. ecosystems can be more effectively protected and restored by using a combination of emissions-based approaches and science-based thresholds of ecosystem damage.

  1. Air pollution from traffic and risk for brain tumors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Aslak Harbo; Sørensen, Mette; Andersen, Zorana J;

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: Air pollution is an established lung carcinogen, and there is increasing evidence that air pollution also negatively affects the brain. We have previously reported an association between air pollution and risk of brain tumors in a cohort study based on only 95 cases. We set out to replic......PURPOSE: Air pollution is an established lung carcinogen, and there is increasing evidence that air pollution also negatively affects the brain. We have previously reported an association between air pollution and risk of brain tumors in a cohort study based on only 95 cases. We set out...... to replicate that finding in a large nationwide case-control study. METHODS: We identified all 4,183 adult brain tumor cases in Denmark in the years 2000-2009 and 8,018 risk set sampled population controls matched on gender and year of birth. We extracted residential address histories and estimated mean...... and risk of brain tumors which was found in our previous study. The suggestion of an increased brain tumor risk at high exposures merits further attention as does the differing results according to tumor morphology....

  2. Air Quality Modeling in Support of the Near-Road Exposures and Effects of Urban Air Pollutants Study (NEXUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlad Isakov

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available A major challenge in traffic-related air pollution exposure studies is the lack of information regarding pollutant exposure characterization. Air quality modeling can provide spatially and temporally varying exposure estimates for examining relationships between traffic-related air pollutants and adverse health outcomes. A hybrid air quality modeling approach was used to estimate exposure to traffic-related air pollutants in support of the Near-Road Exposures and Effects of Urban Air Pollutants Study (NEXUS conducted in Detroit (Michigan, USA. Model-based exposure metrics, associated with local variations of emissions and meteorology, were estimated using a combination of the American Meteorological Society/Environmental Protection Agency Regulatory Model (AERMOD and Research LINE-source dispersion model for near-surface releases (RLINE dispersion models, local emission source information from the National Emissions Inventory, detailed road network locations and traffic activity, and meteorological data from the Detroit City Airport. The regional background contribution was estimated using a combination of the Community Multi-scale Air Quality (CMAQ and the Space-Time Ordinary Kriging (STOK models. To capture the near-road pollutant gradients, refined “mini-grids” of model receptors were placed around participant homes. Exposure metrics for CO, NOx, PM2.5 and its components (elemental and organic carbon were predicted at each home location for multiple time periods including daily and rush hours. The exposure metrics were evaluated for their ability to characterize the spatial and temporal variations of multiple ambient air pollutants compared to measurements across the study area.

  3. Disparities in the Impact of Air Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... because of factors ranging from racism to class bias to housing market dynamics and land costs. For ... pollution in a 2012 study. However, the different racial/ethnic and income groups were often breathing very ...

  4. Modelling air pollution abatement in deep street canyons by means of air scrubbers

    CERN Document Server

    De Giovanni, Marina; Avveduto, Alessandro; Pace, Lorenzo; Salisburgo, Cesare Dari; Giammaria, Franco; Monaco, Alessio; Spanto, Giuseppe; Tripodi, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    Deep street canyons are characterized by weak ventilation and recirculation of air. In such environment, the exposure to particulate matter and other air pollutants is enhanced, with a consequent worsening of both safety and health. The main solution adopted by the international community is aimed at the reduction of the emissions. In this theoretical study, we test a new solution: the removal of air pollutants close to their sources by a network of Air Pollution Abatement (APA) devices. The APA technology depletes gaseous and particulate air pollutants by a portable and low-consuming scrubbing system, that mimics the processes of wet and dry deposition. We estimate the potential pollutant abatement efficacy of a single absorber by Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) method. The presence of the scrubber effectively creates an additional sink at the bottom of the canyon, accelerating its cleaning process by up to 70%, when an almost perfect scrubber (90% efficiency) is simulated. The efficacy of absorber is not...

  5. Good manufacturing practice for modelling air pollution: Quality criteria for computer models to calculate air pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekker, C. M.; Sliggers, C. J.

    To spur on quality assurance for models that calculate air pollution, quality criteria for such models have been formulated. By satisfying these criteria the developers of these models and producers of the software packages in this field can assure and account for the quality of their products. In this way critics and users of such (computer) models can gain a clear understanding of the quality of the model. Quality criteria have been formulated for the development of mathematical models, for their programming—including user-friendliness, and for the after-sales service, which is part of the distribution of such software packages. The criteria have been introduced into national and international frameworks to obtain standardization.

  6. Numerical simulations on polarized photon scattering for classification of air pollutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Da; Zeng, Nan; Zeng, Maomao; Ma, Hui

    2015-11-01

    Atmospheric pollution has become a key factor restricting the development of social economy. Identification of major pollutants has important scientific significance. The polarization evolution during polarized light interacting with particulate matters can provide important information sensitive to properties of particles. We propose a method to recognize the specific component in air dust, for example, the sand. Based on our polarization simulation, we show theoretically that some Stokes parameters at specific scattering angle can classify water soluble particles, water droplet and sand etc. The preliminary research implies some potential of polarization detection applied in source apportionment for air pollution monitoring.

  7. Urban air pollution, climate and its impact on asthma morbidity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyudmila Vasilievna Veremchuk

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: We determined that asthma morbidity depends from general air pollution (in the range of 18.3%. It was detected that the highest age-specific dependence is associated with the content of particulate matter, carbon monoxide and nitrogen dioxide in air.

  8. Evaluation of AirGIS: a GIS-based air pollution and human exposure modelling system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ketzel, Matthias; Berkowicz, Ruwim; Hvidberg, Martin;

    2011-01-01

    This study describes in brief the latest extensions of the Danish Geographic Information System (GIS)-based air pollution and human exposure modelling system (AirGIS), which has been developed in Denmark since 2001 and gives results of an evaluation with measured air pollution data. The system...... shows, in general, a good performance for both long-term averages (annual and monthly averages), short-term averages (hourly and daily) as well as when reproducing spatial variation in air pollution concentrations. Some shortcomings and future perspectives of the system are discussed too....

  9. Alternative analysis of the transboundary air pollution problems in Northeast Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Won

    The recently increasing industrialization and urbanization in Northeast Asia has led to a large volume of air pollutants being emitted in this region. The growth rate of the total emissions is still increasing alarmingly. China has been the major contributor to the total emissions of air pollutants in Northeast Asia. Westerly winds, a unique regional meteorological phenomenon, prevail throughout the year, and the long- range transport of air pollutants is propelled by those winds. As a result, nations in Northeast Asia are very concerned about potential problems with long-range transport of air pollutants from foreign sources. This is because air pollutants emitted from one nation's ground facilities and mobile sources travel hundreds or even thousands of miles by the effects of air pressure and wind drift, and can bring damage to other nations' ecosystems and human health. For example, Korea is located in the eastern part of the region and it can be significantly affected by the air pollutants transported from China. This dissertation research deals with the transboundary air pollution problem between China and Korea. Among many problems related to transboundary air pollution, this study concentrates on the following two issues: (1)Firstly, the negative consequences of transboundary air pollution from China at industrial sites in Korea; and (2)Secondly, the prediction of the future impact of China's sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxide emissions on the air quality in Korea. The results of the case study in Chapter 3 show evidence of the negative impacts of the transboundary air pollution in Korea. The production loss in Korea is an example of the negative impact brought about by transboundary movement of Chinese air pollutants. The runs of the computer aided simulation model in Chapter 4 show projected emission trends in China and Korea until the year 2010. The simulation results show that the total amount of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxide emissions in China and

  10. A mathematical formulation for optimal control of air pollution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU; Jiang(朱江); ZENG; Qingcun(曾庆存)

    2003-01-01

    The problem of optimal control of air pollution using weather forecastresults and numerical air pollution models is discussed. A mathematical formulation of the problem is presented. The control is an act on pollution sources with feasible constraints. Based on forecasted weather conditions, the objective ofthe optimal control is to minimize total cost caused by control under the constraint that the pollution concentrations over a certain period and a certain spatial domain are less than some specified values. Using the adjoint method, an effective algorithm is given. Since the optimal solutions are based on weather forecasts, the errors in weather forecasts will cause uncertainties in the optimal solutions. Estimation of impacts of weather forecast errors on the optimal solutions is discussed using the adjoint sensitivity analysis technique that is an approximated, however very effective method. The adjoint sensitivity analysis technique can be used to calculate the impacts of errors in wind, temperature and initial pollutant concentration fields on performances of the optimal control.

  11. Health assessment of hazardous air pollutants, The Netherlands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vermeire, T.; van der Heijden, K. (National Institute of Public Health and Environmental Protection, Bilthoven (Netherlands))

    1990-10-01

    In The Netherlands, risk assessment of air pollutants goes back to 1980. From 1985 onwards the risk assessment of chemicals has crystallized in a systematic multi-media approach taking into account air, water, soil, and food. Criteria Documents support the formulation of environmental quality standards. Until now, 23 documents were prepared. Some toxicological aspects of the risk assessment for man in these documents are discussed with emphasis on carcinogenicity. As examples the main aspects of the risk assessments of benzene and trichloroethylene are described. A list of proposed health based standards for air pollutants is added.

  12. Effects of Ambient Air Pollution Exposure on Olfaction: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajmani, Gaurav S.; Suh, Helen H.; Pinto, Jayant M.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Olfactory dysfunction affects millions of people worldwide. This sensory impairment is associated with neurodegenerative disease and significantly decreased quality of life. Exposure to airborne pollutants has been implicated in olfactory decline, likely due to the anatomic susceptibility of the olfactory nerve to the environment. Historically, studies have focused on occupational exposures, but more recent studies have considered effects from exposure to ambient air pollutants. Objectives: To examine all relevant human data evaluating a link between ambient pollution exposure and olfaction and to review supporting animal data in order to examine potential mechanisms for pollution-associated olfactory loss. Methods: We identified and reviewed relevant articles from 1950 to 2015 using PubMed and Web of Science and focusing on human epidemiologic and pathophysiologic studies. Animal studies were included only to support pertinent data on humans. We reviewed findings from these studies evaluating a relationship between environmental pollutant exposure and olfactory function. Results: We identified and reviewed 17 articles, with 1 additional article added from a bibliography search, for a total of 18 human studies. There is evidence in human epidemiologic and pathologic studies that increased exposure to ambient air pollutants is associated with olfactory dysfunction. However, most studies have used proxies for pollution exposure in small samples of convenience. Human pathologic studies, with supporting animal work, have also shown that air pollution can contact the olfactory epithelium, translocate to the olfactory bulb, and migrate to the olfactory cortex. Pollutants can deposit at each location, causing direct damage and disruption of tissue morphology or inducing local inflammation and cellular stress responses. Conclusions: Ambient air pollution may impact human olfactory function. Additional studies are needed to examine air pollution

  13. Acute Impact of Hourly Ambient Air Pollution on Preterm Birth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shanshan; Guo, Yuming; Williams, Gail

    2016-01-01

    Background: Preterm birth is a major perinatal health problem, but factors leading to it are still not completely understood. Objectives: Our goal was to identify the relation between acute increase in ambient air pollution in a few hours before onset of labor and the risk of preterm birth. Methods: We collected registered birth outcome data and hourly ambient air pollution measurements during 2009‒2013 in Brisbane, Australia. Using a time-stratified case-crossover design and conditional logistic regression models with natural cubic splines, we assessed the shape of air pollution-preterm birth curve, after controlling for potential confounders. We also examined the effect modification of other factors. Results: The association between air pollution [nitrogen dioxide (NO2), sulfur dioxide (SO2), and carbon monoxide (CO)] and preterm birth was nonlinear. Threshold concentrations for the mean of 0‒24 hr NO2, 24‒48 hr SO2, and 24‒48 hr CO before onset of labor were 7.6 parts per billion (ppb), 3.8 ppb, and 162.5 ppb, respectively. Increases in air pollution concentrations above thresholds were associated with increased risks of preterm birth. The odds ratios of preterm birth at the 95th percentile of NO2, SO2, and CO against the thresholds were 1.17 (95% CI: 1.08, 1.27), 1.01 (95% CI: 0.99, 1.04), and 1.18 (95% CI: 1.06, 1.32), respectively. The associations were modified by demographic factors, such as maternal smoking and socioeconomic status. Conclusion: Acute increases in ambient air pollution concentrations above certain levels before onset of labor may stimulate preterm birth. Citation: Li S, Guo Y, Williams G. 2016. Acute impact of hourly ambient air pollution on preterm birth. Environ Health Perspect 124:1623–1629; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/EHP200 PMID:27128028

  14. Air pollution impacts from carbon capture and storage (CCS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harmelen, T. van; Horssen, A. van; Jozwicka, M.; Pulles, T. (TNO, Delft (Netherlands)); Odeh, N. (AEA Technology, Harwell (United Kingdom)); Adams, M. (EEA, Copenhagen (Denmark))

    2011-11-15

    This report comprises two separate complementary parts that address the links between CCS implementation and its subsequent impacts on GHG and air pollutant emissions on a life-cycle basis: Part A discusses and presents key findings from the latest literature, focusing upon the potential air pollution impacts across the CCS life-cycle arising from the implementation of the main foreseen technologies. Both negative and positive impacts on air quality are presently suggested in the literature - the basis of scientific knowledge on these issues is rapidly advancing. Part B comprises a case study that quantifies and highlights the range of GHG and air pollutant life-cycle emissions that could occur by 2050 under a low-carbon pathway should CCS be implemented in power plants across the European Union under various hypothetical scenarios. A particular focus of the study was to quantify the main life-cycle emissions of the air pollutants taking into account the latest knowledge on air pollutant emission factors and life-cycle aspects of the CCS life-cycle as described in Part A of the report. Pollutants considered in the report were the main GHGs CO{sub 2}, methane (CH{sub 4}) and nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) and the main air pollutants with potential to harm human health and/or the environment - nitrogen oxides (NO{sub X}), sulphur dioxide (SO{sub 2}), ammonia (NH{sub 3}), non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOCs) and particulate matter (PM{sub 10}). (Author)

  15. Air Pollution and Autism Spectrum Disorders: Causal or Confounded?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisskopf, Marc G; Kioumourtzoglou, Marianthi-Anna; Roberts, Andrea L

    2015-12-01

    In the last decade, several studies have examined the association between perinatal exposure to ambient air pollution and risk of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). These studies have largely been consistent, with associations seen with different aspects of air pollution, including hazardous air toxics, ozone, particulate, and traffic-related pollution. Confounding by socioeconomic status (SES) and place of residence are of particular concern, as these can be related to ASD case ascertainment and other potential causal risk factors for ASD. While all studies take steps to address this concern, residual confounding is difficult to rule out. Two recent studies of air pollution and ASD, however, present findings that strongly argue against residual confounding, especially for factors that do not vary over relatively short time intervals. These two studies, conducted in communities around the USA, found a specific association with air pollution exposure during the 3rd, but not the 1st, trimester, when both trimesters were modeled simultaneously. In this review, we discuss confounding possibilities and then explain-with the aid of directed acyclic graphs (DAGs)-why an association that is specific to a particular time window, when multiple exposure windows are simultaneously assessed, argues against residual confounding by (even unmeasured) non-time-varying factors. In addition, we discuss why examining ambient air pollution concentration as a proxy for personal exposure helps avoid confounding by personal behavior differences, and the implications of measurement error in using ambient concentrations as a proxy for personal exposures. Given the general consistency of findings across studies and the exposure-window-specific associations recently reported, the overall evidence for a causal association between air pollution and ASD is increasingly compelling.

  16. Air Pollution and Autism Spectrum Disorders: Causal or Confounded?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisskopf, Marc G; Kioumourtzoglou, Marianthi-Anna; Roberts, Andrea L

    2015-12-01

    In the last decade, several studies have examined the association between perinatal exposure to ambient air pollution and risk of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). These studies have largely been consistent, with associations seen with different aspects of air pollution, including hazardous air toxics, ozone, particulate, and traffic-related pollution. Confounding by socioeconomic status (SES) and place of residence are of particular concern, as these can be related to ASD case ascertainment and other potential causal risk factors for ASD. While all studies take steps to address this concern, residual confounding is difficult to rule out. Two recent studies of air pollution and ASD, however, present findings that strongly argue against residual confounding, especially for factors that do not vary over relatively short time intervals. These two studies, conducted in communities around the USA, found a specific association with air pollution exposure during the 3rd, but not the 1st, trimester, when both trimesters were modeled simultaneously. In this review, we discuss confounding possibilities and then explain-with the aid of directed acyclic graphs (DAGs)-why an association that is specific to a particular time window, when multiple exposure windows are simultaneously assessed, argues against residual confounding by (even unmeasured) non-time-varying factors. In addition, we discuss why examining ambient air pollution concentration as a proxy for personal exposure helps avoid confounding by personal behavior differences, and the implications of measurement error in using ambient concentrations as a proxy for personal exposures. Given the general consistency of findings across studies and the exposure-window-specific associations recently reported, the overall evidence for a causal association between air pollution and ASD is increasingly compelling. PMID:26399256

  17. Corruption and air pollution in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanova, Kate

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines how the effectiveness of regulatory framework influences levels of sulphur emissions in a scenario where, to reduce its (emission-) tax payments, a polluting firm may under-report emissions level at the risk of being audited and fined. First, a model to explain how changes in regulatory framework (e.g., audit effectiveness) and transboundary spillovers affect both actual and reported emissions is developed. Then the theoretical predictions using data for 39 European countries from 1999 to 2003 are tested and inferences about true emission levels are made. The empirical analysis supports the theoretical predictions with significant implications for the interpretation of pollution data reported to international monitoring agencies. Countries with effective regulation are likely to have relatively high reported emissions of sulphur. But this should not automatically be interpreted as weak environmental performance, because their actual pollution levels are likely to be lower than in nations with less effective regulation.

  18. Statistical Distributions of Ambient Air Pollutants in Shanghai,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAI-DONG KAN; BING-HENG CHEN

    2004-01-01

    To determine the best statistical distribution of concentration data of major air pollutants in Shanghai. Methods Four types of theoretic distributions (lognormal, gamma, Pearson V and extreme value) were chosen to fit daily average concentration data of PM10, SO2 and NO2 from June 1, 2000 to May 31, 2003 in Shanghai by using the maximum likelihood method. The fit results were evaluated by Chi-square test. Results The best-fit distributions for PM10, SO2 and NO2 concentrations in Shanghai were lognormal, Pearson V, and extreme value distributions, respectively. Conclusion The results can be further applied to local air pollution prediction and control, e.g., the probabilities exceeding the air quality standard and emission source reduction of air pollutant concentration to meet the standard.

  19. India’s urban environment: air and water pollution and pollution abatement

    OpenAIRE

    Sridhar, Kala S.; Kumar, Surender

    2012-01-01

    This paper focuses on air and water pollution in India’s cities, provides empirical evidence to demonstrate the seriousness of the challenges, discusses the relevant policies of national and local government that are used to address the challenges, discusses relevant political economy issues related to introducing pollution taxes or other policies which are aimed at “green” cities.

  20. Air pollutants and incidence of respiratory disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dohan, F.C.

    1961-01-01

    The correlation of prolonged (> 7 days) respiratory disease incidence in women working in electronics plants was studied with various pollutant indices. A three-year study of plants in 7 cities was conducted. Mean incidence was significantly correlated with suspended particulate sulfate (r = 0.964, 5 cities). No similar trend was found for benzene-soluble organic matter (OM), acetone-soluble OM, nitrates, Cu, Ti, Bi, Cd, Fe, Pb, Sn, Cl, or Zn. Similar trends for Ni and V, however, were noted. Various factors (e.g., age, socio-economic class, children, weather) were not thought to affect this conclusion. Pollution may prolong illness due to viral disease.

  1. Air pollution and respiratory diseases in African big cities : the case of Cotonou in Benin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cotonou is one of the most polluted cities in west Africa because of its preferred mode of transportation for residents, the zemidjan. The zemidjan is a two-wheeled vehicle taxi whose motorcycle exhaust emits air pollution, creating health risks for drivers, passengers and residents. The pollution contributes to respiratory diseases and other ailments such as respiratory infection, cardiovascular diseases, and cancer. This paper describes and statistically analyses the pollution problem in Cotonou by presenting information on the city of Cotonou, examining environment quality indicators (such as air quality) and presenting an overview of the situation. It also estimates and forecasts the human health risks to Cotonou residents. It reviews the measures taken by central and local governments to protect citizens against these risks. The paper also makes several recommendations including: organize a permanent and formal monitoring system for air quality management in the city; create stronger local laws and rules to regulate air pollution in the city; involve the population living in the city in decision making processes; and, conduct research studies on the perception and behaviour of the population towards environmental issues such as air pollution and air quality. 6 tabs., 1 fig., 11 refs

  2. Ambient air pollution exposure and the incidence of related health effects among racial/ethnic minorities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nieves, L.A.; Wernette, D.R.

    1997-02-01

    Differences among racial and ethnic groups in morbidity and mortality rates for diseases, including diseases with environmental causes, have been extensively documented. However, documenting the linkages between environmental contaminants, individual exposures, and disease incidence has been hindered by difficulties in measuring exposure for the population in general and for minority populations in particular. After briefly discussing research findings on associations of common air pollutants with disease incidence, the authors summarize recent studies of radial/ethnic subgroup differences in incidence of these diseases in the US. They then present evidence of both historic and current patterns of disproportionate minority group exposure to air pollution as measured by residence in areas where ambient air quality standards are violated. The current indications of disproportionate potential exposures of minority and low-income populations to air pollutants represent the continuation of a historical trend. The evidence of linkage between disproportionate exposure to air pollution of racial/ethnic minorities and low-income groups and their higher rates of some air pollution-related diseases is largely circumstantial. Differences in disease incidence and mortality rates among racial/ethnic groups are discussed for respiratory diseases, cancers, and lead poisoning. Pollutants of concern include CO, Pb, SO{sub 2}, O{sub 3}, and particulates.

  3. 76 FR 15266 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants; Notice of Reconsideration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-21

    ... Pollutants; Notice of Reconsideration AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice of... aspects of the national emission standards for hazardous air pollutants (NESHAP) for new and existing... Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Major Sources: Industrial, Commercial, and Institutional...

  4. An aggregated indicator of air-pollution impacts involved by transports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    necessary to continue research in this field. Aggregating the different indicators is proposed by using an architecture composed of two structures that aggregate types of air pollution. One is based on the target affected, whereas the second has three dimensions, i.e. targets, space and time. This architecture allows also the indicator's users to establish a hierarchy of concerns for each type of atmospheric pollution. The indicator makes thus it possible to give a global value to impact of air pollutants, taking into account scientific assessment and social perception. (author)

  5. Air pollution impedes plant-to-plant communication by volatiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blande, James D; Holopainen, Jarmo K; Li, Tao

    2010-09-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted by damaged plants convey information to undamaged neighbouring plants, and previous research has shown that these signals are effective over short distances in nature. Many herbivore-induced VOCs react with ozone, which is the most important tropospheric air pollutant in rural areas. We used extrafloral nectar (EFN) secretion as a phenotypic indicator of between-plant communication in Phaseolus lunatus L. (Lima bean) and show that an ozone-rich (80 ppb) atmosphere reduces the distance over which signalling occurs. We found that ozone degrades several herbivore-induced VOCs, a likely mechanism reducing communication distances. Direct exposure to 80-ppb ozone did not affect the VOC emissions from P. lunatus. In addition, we demonstrated that high ozone concentrations, 120 and 160 ppb, induced EFN secretion in exposed plants, whereas more moderate concentrations, 80 and 100 ppb, did not. This suggests that ozone can play a complex role in the indirect defence of P. lunatus.

  6. Air pollutant penetration through airflow leaks into buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, De-Ling

    2002-09-01

    The penetration of ambient air pollutants into the indoor environment is of concern owing to several factors: (1) epidemiological studies have shown a strong association between ambient fine particulate pollution and elevated risk of human mortality; (2) people spend most of their time in indoor environments; and (3) most information about air pollutant concentration is only available from ambient routine monitoring networks. A good understanding of ambient air pollutant transport from source to receptor requires knowledge about pollutant penetration across building envelopes. Therefore, it is essential to gain insight into particle penetration in infiltrating air and the factors that affect it in order to assess human exposure more accurately, and to further prevent adverse human health effects from ambient particulate pollution. In this dissertation, the understanding of air pollutant infiltration across leaks in the building envelope was advanced by performing modeling predictions as well as experimental investigations. The modeling analyses quantified the extent of airborne particle and reactive gas (e.g., ozone) penetration through building cracks and wall cavities using engineering analysis that incorporates existing information on building leakage characteristics, knowledge of pollutant transport processes, as well as pollutant-surface interactions. Particle penetration is primarily governed by particle diameter and by the smallest dimension of the building cracks. Particles of 0.1-1 {micro}m are predicted to have the highest penetration efficiency, nearly unity for crack heights of 0.25 mm or higher, assuming a pressure differential of 4 Pa or greater and a flow path length of 3 cm or less. Supermicron and ultrafine particles (less than 0.1 {micro}m) are readily deposited on crack surfaces by means of gravitational settling and Brownian diffusion, respectively. The fraction of ozone penetration through building leaks could vary widely, depending

  7. Impact of environmental pollution and climate change on forest ecosystems: the activity of the IUFRO Research Group 7.01

    OpenAIRE

    Paoletti E

    2007-01-01

    Impact of environmental pollution and climate change on forest ecosystems: the activity of the IUFRO Research Group 7.01. The IUFRO RG 7.01 deals with "Impacts of Air Pollution and Climate Change on Forest Ecosystems". Climate change and air pollution are closely linked, although in applied scientific research and even more in political negotiations they have been largely separated. Many of the traditional air pollutants and greenhouse gases have not only common sources, but may also interact...

  8. The Spatial-Temporal Characteristics of Air Pollution in China from 2001-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Junzhe; Yang, Xiping; Zhao, Zhiyuan; Wang, Zhenkun; Yu, Chuanhua; Li, Xudong

    2015-12-15

    To provide some useful information about the control of air pollution in China, we studied the spatial-temporal characteristics of air pollution in China from 2001-2014. First, we drew several line charts and histograms of the Air Pollution Index (API) and Air Quality Index (AQI) of 31 capital cities and municipalities to research the distribution across different times and cities; then, we researched the spatial clustering of API and AQI; finally, we examined the shift of the gravity center of API and AQI in different years and months. The API values had a decreasing trend: the high values had a clustering trend in some northern cities, and the low values had a clustering trend in some southern cities. The AQI values were relatively low, from 15:00-17:00 during the day. The gravity center of API had a trend of moving south from 2001-2003, then fluctuated in an unordered pattern and moved north in the winter. The AQI gravity center did not have a regular shift during different months. In conclusion, the government should take action to mitigate air pollution in some typical cities, as well as air pollution during the winter.

  9. Economic aspects of air pollution abatement. Air pollution abatement recommended for economic reasons; Oekonomische Aspekte des Klimaschutzes. Gerade aus oekonomischer Sicht ist Klimaschutz sinnvoll

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jasper, J.; Serger, H. [Hannover Univ. (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Mikrooekonomik

    2005-07-01

    Climate change is not only dangerous but also expensive. On the other hand, air pollution abatement measures are costly as well. Scientists of the Microeconomics Department investigated how air pollution abatement and cost efficiency can best be combined. (orig.)

  10. Crop loss due to air pollution in The Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Eerden, L J; Tonneijck, A E; Wijnands, J H

    1988-01-01

    The extent of yield reduction and economic loss caused by air pollution has been estimated for The Netherlands. Based on available data on direct effects only, each species was designated as sensitive, moderately sensitive or tolerant. On a nationwide scale, only ozone (O3), sulphur dioxide (SO2), and hydrogen fluoride (HF) exceeded effect thresholds. Effects from pollutant combinations were assumed to be additive. Yield reductions were calculated, using 10 exposure-response relationships and concentration data from the Dutch air pollution monitoring network. Changes in air pollution levels result in changes in supply. By multiplying the supply with the current price, the so-called crop volume was calculated. Subsequently, changes in crop volume were converted into economic terms, taking into account demand elasticity. On the basis of these calculations, air pollution in The Netherlands reduces total crop volume by 5%:3.4% by O3, 1.2% by SO2, and 0.4% by HF. The slope of the nonlinear relationship between crop volume reduction and exposure level increases at higher concentrations. In general, air pollution causes relatively little loss to producers, since yield reductions are largely compensated by higher prices. If air pollution in The Netherlands would be reduced to background concentrations, consumers would experience a net gain of Dfl 640 million (US 320 million dollars). Although large amounts of data were attained through literature and our own experience for this study, many assumptions still had to be made to arrive at these conclusions. With the current available knowledge, validation of our results in the field is not yet possible. PMID:15092562

  11. Air Pollution Stress and the Aging Phenotype: The Telomere Connection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martens, Dries S; Nawrot, Tim S

    2016-09-01

    Aging is a complex physiological phenomenon. The question why some subjects grow old while remaining free from disease whereas others prematurely die remains largely unanswered. We focus here on the role of air pollution in biological aging. Hallmarks of aging can be grouped into three main categories: genomic instability, telomere attrition, and epigenetic alterations leading to altered mitochondrial function and cellular senescence. At birth, the initial telomere length of a person is largely determined by environmental factors. Telomere length shortens with each cell division and exposure to air pollution as well as low residential greens space exposure is associated with shorter telomere length. Recent studies show that the estimated effects of particulate air pollution exposure on the telomere mitochondrial axis of aging may play an important role in chronic health effects of air pollution. The exposome encompasses all exposures over an entire life. As telomeres can be considered as the cellular memories of exposure to oxidative stress and inflammation, telomere maintenance may be a proxy for assessing the "exposome". If telomeres are causally related to the aging phenotype and environmental air pollution is an important determinant of telomere length, this might provide new avenues for future preventive strategies. PMID:27357566

  12. Contribution of air pollution to COPD and small airway dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berend, Norbert

    2016-02-01

    Although in many Western countries levels of ambient air pollution have been improving with the setting of upper limits and better urban planning, air pollution in developing countries and particularly those with rapid industrialization has become a major global problem. Together with increased motor vehicle ownership and traffic congestion, there is a growing issue with airborne particles of respirable size. These particles are thought responsible for respiratory and cardiovascular effects and have also been implicated in cancer pathogenesis. The pathologic effects in the lung are mediated via inflammatory pathways and involve oxidative stress similar to cigarette smoking. These effects are seen in the peripheral airways where the smaller particle fractions are deposited and lead to airway remodelling. However, emphysema and loss of bronchioles seen with cigarette smoking have not been described with ambient air pollution, and there are few studies specifically looking at peripheral airway function. Definitive evidence of air pollution causing COPD is lacking and a different study design is required to link air pollution and COPD. PMID:26412571

  13. Contribution of air pollution to COPD and small airway dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berend, Norbert

    2016-02-01

    Although in many Western countries levels of ambient air pollution have been improving with the setting of upper limits and better urban planning, air pollution in developing countries and particularly those with rapid industrialization has become a major global problem. Together with increased motor vehicle ownership and traffic congestion, there is a growing issue with airborne particles of respirable size. These particles are thought responsible for respiratory and cardiovascular effects and have also been implicated in cancer pathogenesis. The pathologic effects in the lung are mediated via inflammatory pathways and involve oxidative stress similar to cigarette smoking. These effects are seen in the peripheral airways where the smaller particle fractions are deposited and lead to airway remodelling. However, emphysema and loss of bronchioles seen with cigarette smoking have not been described with ambient air pollution, and there are few studies specifically looking at peripheral airway function. Definitive evidence of air pollution causing COPD is lacking and a different study design is required to link air pollution and COPD.

  14. Air Pollution Stress and the Aging Phenotype: The Telomere Connection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martens, Dries S; Nawrot, Tim S

    2016-09-01

    Aging is a complex physiological phenomenon. The question why some subjects grow old while remaining free from disease whereas others prematurely die remains largely unanswered. We focus here on the role of air pollution in biological aging. Hallmarks of aging can be grouped into three main categories: genomic instability, telomere attrition, and epigenetic alterations leading to altered mitochondrial function and cellular senescence. At birth, the initial telomere length of a person is largely determined by environmental factors. Telomere length shortens with each cell division and exposure to air pollution as well as low residential greens space exposure is associated with shorter telomere length. Recent studies show that the estimated effects of particulate air pollution exposure on the telomere mitochondrial axis of aging may play an important role in chronic health effects of air pollution. The exposome encompasses all exposures over an entire life. As telomeres can be considered as the cellular memories of exposure to oxidative stress and inflammation, telomere maintenance may be a proxy for assessing the "exposome". If telomeres are causally related to the aging phenotype and environmental air pollution is an important determinant of telomere length, this might provide new avenues for future preventive strategies.

  15. AIR POLLUTION, INFLAMMATION AND PRETERM BIRTH: A POTENTIAL MECHANISTIC LINK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vadillo-Ortega, Felipe; Osornio-Vargas, Alvaro; Buxton, Miatta A.; Sánchez, Brisa N.; Rojas-Bracho, Leonora; Viveros-Alcaráz, Martin; Castillo-Castrejón, Marisol; Beltrán-Montoya, Jorge; Brown, Daniel G.; O´Neill, Marie S.

    2014-01-01

    Preterm birth is a public health issue of global significance, which may result in mortality during the perinatal period or may lead to major health and financial consequences due to lifelong impacts. Even though several risk factors for preterm birth have been identified, prevention efforts have failed to halt the increasing rates of preterm birth. Epidemiological studies have identified air pollution as an emerging potential risk factor for preterm birth. However, many studies were limited by study design and inadequate exposure assessment. Due to the ubiquitous nature of ambient air pollution and the potential public health significance of any role in causing preterm birth, a novel focus investigating possible causal mechanisms influenced by air pollution is therefore a global health priority. We hypothesize that air pollution may act together with other biological factors to induce systemic inflammation and influence the duration of pregnancy. Evaluation and testing of this hypothesis is currently being conducted in a prospective cohort study in Mexico City and will provide an understanding of the pathways that mediate the effects of air pollution on preterm birth. The important public health implication is that crucial steps in this mechanistic pathway can potentially be acted on early in pregnancy to reduce the risk of preterm birth. PMID:24382337

  16. The Effects of Air Pollution and Temperature on COPD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansel, Nadia N; McCormack, Meredith C; Kim, Victor

    2016-06-01

    Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) affects 12-16 million people in the United States and is the third-leading cause of death. In developed countries, smoking is the greatest risk factor for the development of COPD, but other exposures also contribute to the development and progression of the disease. Several studies suggest, though are not definitive, that outdoor air pollution exposure is linked to the prevalence and incidence of COPD. Among individuals with COPD, outdoor air pollutants are associated with loss of lung function and increased respiratory symptoms. In addition, outdoor air pollutants are also associated with COPD exacerbations and mortality. There is much less evidence for the impact of indoor air on COPD, especially in developed countries in residences without biomass exposure. The limited existing data suggests that indoor particulate matter and nitrogen dioxide concentrations are linked to increased respiratory symptoms among patients with COPD. In addition, with the projected increases in temperature and extreme weather events in the context of climate change there has been increased attention to the effects of heat exposure. Extremes of temperature-both heat and cold-have been associated with increased respiratory morbidity in COPD. Some studies also suggest that temperature may modify the effect of pollution exposure and though results are not conclusive, understanding factors that may modify susceptibility to air pollution in patients with COPD is of utmost importance. PMID:26683097

  17. EDITORIAL: Global impacts of particulate matter air pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Michelle L.; Holloway, Tracey

    2007-10-01

    development of dose response relationships that take into account how the high degree of source and demographic variability affect PM health response. We look forward to the continued growth of research in ERL contributing to air pollution emissions, distribution, and impacts. As the integrated study of air quality connects to economics, energy, agriculture, meteorology, climate change, and public health—among other subjects—its advancement is well-suited to an interdisciplinary, open-access journal like ERL. Thanks to our authors for contributing to ERL's growth in global air pollution research with such excellent work. Focus on Global Impacts of Particulate Matter Air Pollution Contents The articles below represent the first accepted contributions and further additions will appear in the near future. Major components of China's anthropogenic primary particulate emissions Qiang Zhang, David G Streets, Kebin He and Zbigniew Klimont Impacts of roadway emissions on urban particulate matter concentrations in sub-Saharan Africa: new evidence from Nairobi, Kenya E D S van Vliet and P L Kinney Potential influence of inter-continental transport of sulfate aerosols on air quality Junfeng Liu and Denise L Mauzerall Can warming particles enter global climate discussions? Tami C Bond

  18. A study of the physical factors affecting air pollution dispersion in Helwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Air pollution is considered as one of the most important environmental problems facing the humanity. Cement industry, usually, is responsible for building high levels of pollutants. The present research focused on the study of air pollution control of cement industry using mathematical modeling. A mathematical dispersion model was developed based on Gaussian distribution where the dispersion parameters increase with increasing atmospheric turbulence. The Gaussian equation takes in consideration the effect of emission rates. stack height, buoyant plume rise, weather and meteorological parameters. The model was tested for different stack heights, wind speeds. And atmospheric stability classes. Maximum ground level concentration of cement pollutants were measured in different locations of Helwan, south Cairo around the cement factories. Analysis of results shows that the ground level of pollutants concentrations are inversely proportional to wind speed and atmospheric stability classes. Stack height also affects the behaviour of deposition of cement particulates. The model results show satisfactory agreement with the measured concentrations. 6 figs

  19. China's international trade and air pollution in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jintai; Pan, Da; Davis, Steven J; Zhang, Qiang; He, Kebin; Wang, Can; Streets, David G; Wuebbles, Donald J; Guan, Dabo

    2014-02-01

    China is the world's largest emitter of anthropogenic air pollutants, and measurable amounts of Chinese pollution are transported via the atmosphere to other countries, including the United States. However, a large fraction of Chinese emissions is due to manufacture of goods for foreign consumption. Here, we analyze the impacts of trade-related Chinese air pollutant emissions on the global atmospheric environment, linking an economic-emission analysis and atmospheric chemical transport modeling. We find that in 2006, 36% of anthropogenic sulfur dioxide, 27% of nitrogen oxides, 22% of carbon monoxide, and 17% of black carbon emitted in China were associated with production of goods for export. For each of these pollutants, about 21% of export-related Chinese emissions were attributed to China-to-US export. Atmospheric modeling shows that transport of the export-related Chinese pollution contributed 3-10% of annual mean surface sulfate concentrations and 0.5-1.5% of ozone over the western United States in 2006. This Chinese pollution also resulted in one extra day or more of noncompliance with the US ozone standard in 2006 over the Los Angeles area and many regions in the eastern United States. On a daily basis, the export-related Chinese pollution contributed, at a maximum, 12-24% of sulfate concentrations over the western United States. As the United States outsourced manufacturing to China, sulfate pollution in 2006 increased in the western United States but decreased in the eastern United States, reflecting the competing effect between enhanced transport of Chinese pollution and reduced US emissions. Our findings are relevant to international efforts to reduce transboundary air pollution. PMID:24449863

  20. China's international trade and air pollution in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jintai; Pan, Da; Davis, Steven J; Zhang, Qiang; He, Kebin; Wang, Can; Streets, David G; Wuebbles, Donald J; Guan, Dabo

    2014-02-01

    China is the world's largest emitter of anthropogenic air pollutants, and measurable amounts of Chinese pollution are transported via the atmosphere to other countries, including the United States. However, a large fraction of Chinese emissions is due to manufacture of goods for foreign consumption. Here, we analyze the impacts of trade-related Chinese air pollutant emissions on the global atmospheric environment, linking an economic-emission analysis and atmospheric chemical transport modeling. We find that in 2006, 36% of anthropogenic sulfur dioxide, 27% of nitrogen oxides, 22% of carbon monoxide, and 17% of black carbon emitted in China were associated with production of goods for export. For each of these pollutants, about 21% of export-related Chinese emissions were attributed to China-to-US export. Atmospheric modeling shows that transport of the export-related Chinese pollution contributed 3-10% of annual mean surface sulfate concentrations and 0.5-1.5% of ozone over the western United States in 2006. This Chinese pollution also resulted in one extra day or more of noncompliance with the US ozone standard in 2006 over the Los Angeles area and many regions in the eastern United States. On a daily basis, the export-related Chinese pollution contributed, at a maximum, 12-24% of sulfate concentrations over the western United States. As the United States outsourced manufacturing to China, sulfate pollution in 2006 increased in the western United States but decreased in the eastern United States, reflecting the competing effect between enhanced transport of Chinese pollution and reduced US emissions. Our findings are relevant to international efforts to reduce transboundary air pollution.

  1. Air Pollution Sensors: Highlights from an EPA Workshop on the Evolution and Revolution in Low-Cost Participatory Air Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    This article summarizes the findings from the EPA's Apps and Sensors for Air Pollution Workshop that was held March 26-27 of 2012. The workshop brought together researchers, developers, and community-based groups who have been working with sensors and apps in a variety of settin...

  2. Urban air pollution, climate and its impact on asthma morbidity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lyudmila Vasilievna Veremchuk; Vera Innokentievna Yankova; Tatyana Isaakovna Vitkina; Anna Vladimirovna Nazarenko; Kirill Sergeevich Golokhvast

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To study the mechanism of formation of air quality and to determine the impact of the studied factors on asthma morbidity in Vladivostok. Methods: The evaluation of air pollution in Vladivostok was done using long-term (2008–2012) monitoring data (temperature, humidity, atmospheric pressure, wind speed, etc.). The levels of suspended particulate matter, nitrogen and sulfur dioxide, carbon monoxide, ammonia, formaldehyde (mg/m3) in six stationary observation posts were assessed. We studied the aerosol suspensions of solid particles, which were collected during snowfall from precipitation (snow) and air in 14 districts with different levels of anthropogenic impact. Melted snow was analyzed on laser granulometry. The impact of air pollution on the distribution of asthma morbidity was evaluated in various age groups by data of federal statistical observation obtained from 8 adults and 7 children municipal clinics in Vladivostok (2008–2012). Results: The content of suspended particulate components of pollution remained more stable, due to the features of atmospheric circulation, rugged terrain and residential development. The nano- and micro-sized particles (0–50 mm), which can absorb highly toxic metals, prevail in dust aerosols. These respirable fractions of particles, even in small doses, can contribute to the increase in asthma morbidity in the city. Conclusions: We determined that asthma morbidity depends from general air pollution (in the range of 18.3%). It was detected that the highest age-specific dependence is associated with the content of particulate matter, carbon monoxide and nitrogen dioxide in air.

  3. Aerosol and air pollution size distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shani, Gad; Haccoun, A.; Kushelevsky, A.

    The size distribution of aerosols was measured in a moderately industrial city, in a semi-arid zone on the Negev desert border. The aerosols in the city of Beer Sheva are from two sources: the dust coming from the desert and urban pollution. The size measurements were done with a cascade impactor. The elemental content of the aerosols was investigated by neutron activation analysis and X-ray fluorescence. The main elements of the dust are: Ca, Si, Fe, Na and the trace elements are: Sc, Se, La, Sm, Hf and others. The main elements of the urban pollution are S, Br, Pb, Cl, Hg and others. It was found that the elements belonging to each group can easily be classified by the size distribution. The analytical consideration of the aerosol size distribution of each group are discussed and two corresponding analytical expressions are suggested. It is shown that aerosols originating in the dust have a hump shape distribution around ~ 4μm, and those originating in urban pollution have a distribution decreasing with increasing aerosol diameter. Many examples are given to prove the conclusions.

  4. Influence of the characteristics of atmospheric boundary layer on the vertical distribution of air pollutant in China's Yangtze River Delta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chenggang; Cao, Le

    2016-04-01

    Air pollution occurring in the atmospheric boundary layer is a kind of weather phenomenon which decreases the visibility of the atmosphere and results in poor air quality. Recently, the occurrence of the heavy air pollution events has become more frequent all over Asia, especially in Mid-Eastern China. In December 2015, the most severe air pollution in recorded history of China occurred in the regions of Yangtze River Delta and Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei. More than 10 days of severe air pollution (Air Quality Index, AQI>200) appeared in many large cities of China such as Beijing, Tianjin, Shijiazhuang and Baoding. Thus, the research and the management of the air pollution has attracted most attentions in China. In order to investigate the formation, development and dissipation of the air pollutions in China, a field campaign has been conducted between January 1, 2015 and January 28, 2015 in Yangtze River Delta of China, aiming at a intensive observation of the vertical structure of the air pollutants in the atmospheric boundary layer during the time period with heavy pollution. In this study, the observation data obtained in the field campaign mentioned above is analyzed. The characteristics of the atmospheric boundary layer and the vertical distribution of air pollutants in the city Dongshan located in the center of Lake Taihu are shown and discussed in great detail. It is indicated that the stability of the boundary layer is the strongest during the nighttime and the early morning of Dongshan. Meanwhile, the major air pollutants, PM2.5 and PM10 in the boundary layer, reach their maximum values, 177.1μg m-3 and 285μg m-3 respectively. The convective boundary layer height in the observations ranges from approximately 700m to 1100m. It is found that the major air pollutants tend to be confined in a relatively shallow boundary layer, which represents that the boundary layer height is the dominant factor for controlling the vertical distribution of the air pollutants. In

  5. Tolerance Levels of Roadside Trees to Air Pollutants Based on Relative Growth Rate and Air Pollution Tolerance Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SULISTIJORINI

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Motor vehicles release carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, sulphur dioxide, and particulate matters to the air as pollutants. Vegetation can absorb these pollutants through gas exchange processes. The objective of this study was to examine the combination of the relative growth rate (RGR and physiological responses in determining tolerance levels of plant species to air pollutants. Physiological responses were calculated as air pollution tolerance index (APTI. Eight roadside tree species were placed at polluted (Jagorawi highway and unpolluted (Sindangbarang field area. Growth and physiological parameters of the trees were recorded, including plant height, leaf area, total ascorbate, total chlorophyll, leaf-extract pH, and relative water content. Scoring criteria for the combination of RGR and APTI method was given based on means of the two areas based on two-sample t test. Based on the total score of RGR and APTI, Lagerstroemia speciosa was categorized as a tolerant species; and Pterocarpus indicus, Delonix regia, Swietenia macrophylla were categorized as moderately tolerant species. Gmelina arborea, Cinnamomum burmanii, and Mimusops elengi were categorized as intermediate tolerant species. Lagerstroemia speciosa could be potentially used as roadside tree. The combination of RGR and APTI value was better to determinate tolerance level of plant to air pollutant than merely APTI method.

  6. Air Pollution and Exercise: A Perspective From China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhen

    2016-09-01

    China is experiencing an air pollution crisis, which has already had a significantly negative impact on the health of the Chinese people. Although exercising is considered a useful means to prevent chronic diseases, it could actually lead to adverse effects due to extra exposure to polluted air when done outdoors. After a brief description of the rather scary situation in China, critical issues and challenges related to exercising in polluted air are outlined. The author calls for the exercise science community to work together to address these issues and challenges so that the health status of the current populations can be improved, the relationship among environment, exercising, and human health can be better understood, and future generations can live in a healthier environment. PMID:27462823

  7. Chromosomal Aberrations in Humans Induced by Urban Air Pollution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Lisbeth E.; Norppa, Hannu; Gamborg, Michael O.;

    1999-01-01

    We have studied the influence of individual susceptibility factors on the genotoxic effects of urban air pollution in 106 nonsmoking bus drivers and 101 postal workers in the Copenhagen metropolitan area. We used the frequency of chromosomal aberrations in peripheral blood lymphocytes...... that long-term exposure to urban air pollution (with traffic as the main contributor) induces chromosome damage in human somatic cells. Low DNA repair capacity and GSTM1 and NAT2 variants associated with reduced detoxification ability increase susceptibility to such damage. The effect of the GSTM1 genotype......, which was observed only in the bus drivers, appears to be associated with air pollution, whereas the NAT2 genotype effect, which affected all subjects, may influence the individual response to some other common exposure or the baseline level of chromosomal aberrations....

  8. Estimation of Citywide Air Pollution in Beijing

    OpenAIRE

    Jin-Feng Wang; Mao-Gui Hu; Cheng-Dong Xu; George Christakos; Yu Zhao

    2013-01-01

    There has been discrepancies between the daily air quality reports of the Beijing municipal government, observations recorded at the U.S. Embassy in Beijing, and Beijing residents' perceptions of air quality. This study estimates Beijing's daily area PM(2.5) mass concentration by means of a novel technique SPA (Single Point Areal Estimation) that uses data from the single PM(2.5) observation station of the U.S Embassy and the 18 PM(10) observation stations of the Beijing Municipal Environment...

  9. Bourdieu does environmental justice? Probing the linkages between population health and air pollution epidemiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buzzelli, Michael

    2007-03-01

    The environmental justice literature faces a number of conceptual and methodological shortcomings. The purpose of this paper is to probe ways in which these shortcomings can be remedied via recent developments in related literatures: population health and air pollution epidemiology. More sophisticated treatment of social structure, particularly if based on Pierre Bourdieu's relational approach to forms of capital, can be combined with the methodological rigour and established biological pathways of air pollution epidemiology. The aim is to reformulate environmental justice research in order to make further meaningful contributions to the wider movement concerned with issues of social justice and equity in health research.

  10. Evaluation of Relationship Between Air Pollutant Concentration and Meteorological Elements in Winter Months

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Żyromski Andrzej

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the evaluation of the relation between meteorological elements and air pollutants’ concentrations. The analysis includes daily concentrations of pollutants and variation of meteorological elements such as wind speed, air temperature and relative humidity, precipitation and total radiation at four monitoring stations located in the province of Lower Silesia in individual months of the winter half-year (November–April, according to hydrological year classification of 2005–2009. Data on air quality and meteorological elements came from the results of research conducted in the automatic net of air pollution monitoring conducted in the range of the State Environment Monitoring. The effect of meteorological elements on analysed pollutant concentration was determined using the correlation and regression analysis at significance level α < 0.05. The occurrence of maximum concentration of NO, NO2, NOX, SO2 and PM10 occurred in the coldest months during winter season (January, February and December confirmed the strong influence of “low emission” on air quality. Among the meteorological factors assessed wind speed was most often selected component in step wise regression procedure, then air temperature, less air relative humidity and solar radiation. In the case of a larger number of variables describing the pollution in the atmosphere, in all analyzed winter seasons the most common set of meteorological elements were wind speed and air temperature.

  11. Modeling of air pollution from the power plant ash dumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleksic, Nenad M.; Balać, Nedeljko

    A simple model of air pollution from power plant ash dumps is presented, with emission rates calculated from the Bagnold formula and transport simulated by the ATDL type model. Moisture effects are accounted for by assumption that there is no pollution on rain days. Annual mean daily sedimentation rates, calculated for the area around the 'Nikola Tesla' power plants near Belgrade for 1987, show reasonably good agreement with observations.

  12. Air pollution and daily mortality in London: 1987-92.

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson, H R; Ponce de Leon, A.; Bland, J. M.; Bower, J. S.; Strachan, D. P.

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To investigate whether outdoor air pollution levels in London influence daily mortality. DESIGN--Poisson regression analysis of daily counts of deaths, with adjustment for effects of secular trend, seasonal and other cyclical factors, day of the week, holidays, influenza epidemic, temperature, humidity, and autocorrelation, from April 1987 to March 1992. Pollution variables were particles (black smoke), sulphur dioxide, ozone, and nitrogen dioxide, lagged 0-3 days. SETTING--Greater...

  13. Industrial air pollution: British progress—a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nonhebel, G.

    Recent Annual Reports on industrial air pollution issued by the U.K. Health and Safety Executive show that considerable progress has been made. Further "Presumptive Limits of Emission" and "Notes on Best Practicable Means" have been published by H.M. Alkali and Clean Air Inspectorate. The lists given in this journal [9, 709 (1975)] are extended in the Appendices. An abstract is given of BPM for oil refineries. Heavy smoke from blue brick manufacture and from shaft lime kilns has been eliminated by gas firing. Steps have been taken to reduce emissions of vinyl chloride, PCBs, compounds of fluorine and of toxic metals, As, Sb, Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb, Sn, Zn and radioactives. Reduction of low-level emissions is a continuing problem in improving local amenity. Considerable attention has been paid to continuous monitoring of massive emissions and of concentrations of pollutants outside factories, including odours. Arrestment equipment supplied to small firms has given trouble through poor design of components and monitors, inadequate help by suppliers during commissioning, and by lack of training and correct maintenance by management; tight specifications requiring quality engineering should be prepared by purchasers. Lectures to workers, backed by booklets, are assisting in making difficult works better neighbours. The Inspectorate has six sampling teams, mainly for dust, and nine task groups for special programmes. A computer programme for calculation of ground concentrations from multiple sources is assisting inspectors to assess complex situations. It is the author's opinion that research workers on environmental problems should examine these Reports to find more industrial subjects for study.

  14. Urban Air Pollution in Russia: Observations and Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skorokhod, Andrey; Elansky, Nikolai; Lavrova, Olga; Pankratova, Natalia; Belikov, Igor; Falaleeva, Victoria; Mel'nikova, Irina; Remizov, Andrey; Sitnikova, Irina

    2013-04-01

    Urban air pollution is actual topic because of its influence on air quality and climate processes on both regional and global scale. There is a lack of up-to-date information about real state of air quality in Russian cities because of very few contemporary observations. Obukhov Institute of Atmospheric Physics possesses significant database of automated measurements of air composition including data of train-based TROICA experiments in 1995-2010 as well as permanent observations in Moscow since 2002. In general numerous crosses of about 100 urban settlements of different size and location have been performed that allowed us to compose detailed pattern of urban air pollution in Russia nowadays. All cities were separated at three groups: megacities (more then 500 000 citizens), middle cities (50 000-500 000 citizens) and little cities (less then 50 000 citizens). Each urban settlement has been divided into railway station area, urban zone and city (or town) surroundings. Concentrations of main polluting gases (NO, NO2, CO, SO2, NMHC, O3) and aerosols have been averaged for each settlement as well as for each group of urban settlements for day and night, and for winter and summer. Main features of air urban pollution in Russia are presented. Variations of main pollutants including anthropogenic VOCs because of daytime and seasons, as well as temperature vertical structure are studied. Concentrations of O3, CO, SO2 and NMHC are usually below MPC level. NO2 is often enhanced especially near auto-roads. In general, polluting gases have greater concentrations in winter time due to heating and stronger temperature inversions. Particulate matter is likely to be the most persistent pollutant that determines more than 90% of pollution cases. Strong pollution cases are often caused by extraordinary situations like fires, industrial pollution under unfavorable meteorological conditions. High ozone photochemical generation is quite rare. Spatial pollution structure is usually

  15. An approach to represent a combined exposure to air pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mieczyslaw Szyszkowicz

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The objective of this study was to present a technique for estimating the effect of ambient air pollution mix on health outcomes. Material and Methods: We created a technique of indexing air pollution mix as a cause of the increased odds of health problems. As an illustrative example, we analyzed the impact of pollution on the frequency of emergency department (ED visits due to colitis among young patients (age < 15 years, N = 11 110. Our technique involves 2 steps. First, we considered 6 ambient air pollutants (carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, sulphur dioxide, ozone, and 2 measures of particulate matter treating each pollutant as a single exposure. Odds ratios (ORs for ED visits associated with a standard increase (interquartile range – IQR in the pollutants levels were calculated using the case-crossover technique. The ORs and their 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs were also found for lagged exposures (for lags 1–9 days. Second, we defined a Health Air Study Index (HASI to represent the combined impact of the 6 air pollutants. Results: We obtained positive and statistically significant results for individual air pollutants and among them the following estimations: OR = 1.06 (95% CI: 1.02–1.1, NO2 lag 3, IQR = 12.8 ppb, OR = 1.04 (95% CI: 1.01–1.07, SO2 lag 4, IQR = 2.3 ppb, OR = 1.04 (95% CI: 1–1.06, PM lag 3, IQR = 6.2 μg/m3. Among the re-calculated ORs with the HASI values as an exposure, the highest estimated value was OR = 1.37 (95% CI: 1.12–1.68, for 1 unit of the HASI, lag 3. Conclusions: The proposed index (HASI allows to confirm the pattern of associations for lags obtained for individual air pollutants. In the presented example the used index (HASI indicates the strongest relation with the exposure lagged by 3 days.

  16. Assessment of socioeconomic costs to China's air pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Yang; Guan, Dabo; Jiang, Xujia; Peng, Liqun; Schroeder, Heike; Zhang, Qiang

    2016-08-01

    Particulate air pollution has had a significant impact on human health in China and it is associated with cardiovascular and respiratory diseases and high mortality and morbidity. These health impacts could be translated to reduced labor availability and time. This paper utilized a supply-driven input-output (I-O) model to estimate the monetary value of total output losses resulting from reduced working time caused by diseases related to air pollution across 30 Chinese provinces in 2007. Fine particulate matter (PM2.5) pollution was used as an indicator to assess impacts to health caused by air pollution. The developed I-O model is able to capture both direct economic costs and indirect cascading effects throughout inter-regional production supply chains and the indirect effects greatly outnumber the direct effects in most Chinese provinces. Our results show the total economic losses of 346.26 billion Yuan (approximately 1.1% of the national GDP) based on the number of affected Chinese employees (72 million out of a total labor population of 712 million) whose work time in years was reduced because of mortality, hospital admissions and outpatient visits due to diseases resulting from PM2.5 air pollution in 2007. The loss is almost the annual GDP of Vietnam in 2010. The proposed modelling approach provides an alternative method for health-cost measurement with additional insights on inter-industrial and inter-regional linkages along production supply chains.

  17. Biomarkers of ambient air pollution and lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Demetriou, Christiana A; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole; Loft, Steffen;

    2012-01-01

    The association between ambient air pollution exposure and lung cancer risk has been investigated in prospective studies and the results are generally consistent, indicating that long-term exposure to air pollution may cause lung cancer. Despite the prospective nature and consistent findings...... and progression from external exposure to tumour formation and some have also been suggested as risk predictors of future cancer, reinforcing causal reasoning. However, methodological issues such as confounding, publication bias and use of surrogate tissues instead of target tissues in studies on these markers...

  18. Structural modification induced by air pollutants in Plantago lanceolata leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Neta GOSTIN

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Some structural parameters of Plantago lanceolata leaves, which may be considered as biomarkers, were investigated, in order to establish what modifications occur under the pollutants action. The material was represented by leaves of different ages collected from sites with different pollution degrees of the Ceahlau Mountain.External symptoms such as necrotic areas were observed on plants leaves exposed to air pollution. The leaf structure of the analyzed species show some dark deposits in the assimilatory cells, especially from palisade parenchyma. The necrotic areas shows hypertrophied assimilatory cells with thick walls and tannin deposits. Solid deposits are present on both on upper and lower epidermis.

  19. Air pollution and acid rains: status, effects, links with other forms of air pollution; Pollution de l`air et ``pluies acide`` etat des lieux, effets, liens avec d`autres formes de pollution de l`air

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elichegaray, C. [Agence de l`Environnement et de la Maitrise de l`Energie, 75 - Paris (France)

    1997-12-31

    The evolution of acid rain pollution since 1970 is reviewed; it is shown that, broadly speaking, the acid rain issue is decreasing compared to other forms of long range air pollution, at least in Western Europe. The growing issue is the increasing photochemical pollution and its effects on health, ecosystems and climate. Nevertheless, acid rains are still a major concern in various parts of the world (North America for example) and certain parts of France (Ardennes, Landes, parts of Massif Central) exhibit a very high potential sensitivity to acid falls

  20. Letter to the Editor: Applications Air Q Model on Estimate Health Effects Exposure to Air Pollutants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholamreza Goudarzi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiologic studies in worldwide have measured increases in mortality and morbidity associated with air pollution (1-3. Quantifying the effects of air pollution on the human health in urban area causes an increasingly critical component in policy discussion (4-6. Air Q model was proved to be a valid and reliable tool to predicts health effects related to criteria  pollutants (particulate matter (PM, ozone (O3, nitrogen dioxide (NO2, sulfur dioxide (SO2, and carbon monoxide (CO, determinate  the  potential short term effects of air pollution  and allows the examination of various scenarios in which emission rates of pollutants are varied (7,8. Air Q software provided by the WHO European Centre for Environment and Health (ECEH (9. Air Q model is based on cohort studies and used to estimates of both attributable average reductions in life-span and numbers of mortality and morbidity associated with exposure to air pollution (10,11. Applications

  1. Public views on the links between air pollution and health in Northeast England

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We investigated how public perceptions of the links between air pollution and health varied with contextual factors describing individuals and their locality. Information was collected via postal surveys on 2744 adults resident in five neighborhoods in Northeast England. Perceptions were compared by individual factors (health status, age, and gender) and locality actors (relative deprivation, proximity to industry and district--Teesside r Sunderland, with different amounts of heavy industry). There was relatively little variation in views about air pollution and health links between neighborhoods. The greatest contrasts were found when comparing those living near or further from industry and between the two districts. Any differences were related more to awareness of illness in the neighborhood thought to be affected by air pollution, rather than belief that a particular disease was linked to air pollution. Chronic illness status and age were sometimes found to be associated with perceptions of disease affected by air pollution, but gender and material deprivation were not central to differences in risk perceptions among the population studied. In understanding public perceptions about the links between air quality and health, research should focus on the characteristics of places as well as of people

  2. A bird’s eye view of the air pollution-cancer link in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu-Bei Huang; Feng-Ju Song; Qun Liu; Wei-Qin Li; Wei Zhang; Ke-Xin Chen

    2014-01-01

    Air pollution in China comes from multiple sources, including coal consumption, construction and industrial dust, and vehicle exhaust. Coal consumption in particular directly determines the emissions of three major air pollutants: dust, sulfur dioxide (SO2), and nitrogen oxide (NOx). The rapidly increasing number of civilian vehicles is expected to bring NOx emission to a very high level. Contrary to expectations, however, existing data show that the concentrations of major pollutants [particulate matter-10 (PM10), SO2, and nitrogen dioxide (NO2)] in several large Chinese cities have declined during the past decades, though they stil exceed the national standards of ambient air quality. Archived data from China does not ful y support that the concentrations of pol utants directly depend on local emissions, but this is likely due to inaccurate measurement of pollutants. Analyses on the cancer registry data show that cancer burden related to air pol ution is on the rise in China and wil likely increase further, but there is a lack of data to accurately predict the cancer burden. Past experience from other countries has sounded alarm of the link between air pollution and cancer. The quantitative association requires dedicated research as well as establishment of needed monitoring infrastructures and cancer registries. The air pol ution-cancer link is a serious public health issue that needs urgent investigation.

  3. Integrated Assessment of Air Pollution in Tehran, Over the Priod From September 2008 to September 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MH Safari

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Air pollution is a major problem in urban"industrial areas, like Tehran, and has several impacts on human health. This study aimed at assessing concentrations of criteria air pollutants (CO, SO2, NO2, O3, PM10 in Tehran, extracting patterns of hourly, daily, weekly, and monthly variations of concentrations, and making comparisons to National Standards and WHO Guidelines.Methods: Air quality data were taken from Air Quality Control Corporation and 5 sampling stations (out of 13 were selected for analysis according to data availability. Microsoft Excel 2003 was used for data analysis and plotting the charts.Results: Patterns of temporal variation (hourly, daily, weekly, and monthly of air pollutant concentrations were extracted. In some cases extracted patterns matched with the patterns proposed by other researchers. Pollutant concentrations were compared to National Standards and WHO Guidelines and it was observed that in most of the days, we exceeded the limit values.Conclusion: Air pollution in Tehran is quite high and there are many days that we exceed the standards; therefore appropriate control strategies are needed. Although the number of sampling stations is high enough to be representative of whole city, it is proposed that an independent sampling station is setup to check the validity of the measurements.

  4. AIR POLLUTANTS IN FOOD PROCESSING PLANTS IN IRAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Akbarkhanzadeh

    1979-07-01

    Full Text Available Investigations have been carried out on the indoor air pollution in .different workshops of food processing plants in Iran. In order to evaluate the exposure of workers to the three most commonly used indices of air pollution ten food processing plants representing ten groups of food industry with 2.816 workers were selected. Air borne contamination of different origins such cotton seed. Barley, wheat flour salt and different spices sugar an1 beans dust were measured in 237, work places. Here contamination was 8-9 times higher than the proposed T.L. V. for in.3rt dust in 12% of sampling sites Carbon monoxide, measured in 94 sampling site in 69 different work places, which was higher than 50 P .P.M1. in 13% of samples and sulfur-bearing air pollutants determined in 87 different workshop where 103 samples were collected showed the existence of oxides of' sulfur in 34 samples in six industries. The results are presented and the reasons of the existence of these air pollutants are discussed.

  5. Containing urban sprawl: An integrated improvement of space-tranport strategies to reduce air pollution emission

    OpenAIRE

    Ambarwati, L.; Verhaeghe, R.J.; Pel, A.J.; VAN AREM,B

    2014-01-01

    Diverse effective strategies have been designed to minimize the phenomenon of urban sprawl. Previous research focused on the link between spatial and transport development strategies to achieve this goal, with the intention of increasing mobility, reducing commuting time and travel costs. However, a side effect of urban sprawl is an increase of air pollution. Higher pollution levels result in higher costs for road users. To reduce these costs, improvement in public transport linked to urban d...

  6. FTIR remote sensor measurements of air pollutants in the petrochemical industrial park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Rong T.; Chang, Shih-Yi; Chung, Y. W.; Tzou, H. C.; Tso, Tai-Ly

    1995-09-01

    As FT-IR remote sensing techniques become more accessible, there are increasing interests to apply this open-path measurement method to detect and measure airborne pollutants. Thus a research for VOCs emission pollutants in the petrochemical industry park is conducted. In this study, we focused on the identification of the gaseous pollutants as well as the location of the VOCs pollutants from different factories. Measurement is sampled at every half hour period to obtain the time series plots of observed gas concentration for the gaseous pollutants. Besides the inherent components in ambient air such as carbon monoxide, methane, and ozone, the results of the measurement indicate that the major pollutants detected in this industrial park include vinyl chloride, chloroform, hydrogen chloride, 1,2-dichloroethane, 1,3-butadiene, ethylene, propylene, n-hexane, acetic acid, methyl acetate and ammonia. Some of these toxic pollutants are carcinogens and also the chloride related compounds are potentially a threat to the depletion of ozone. All of these measurements indicate that the pattern of the pollutants for each location is significantly different from each other pattern. In addition, the concentrations and the presence of absence of pollutants were dramatically affected by wind directions. Under this case, suspicious polluting plants are successfully being identified by examining the pattern of compounds, pollutant's concentration time series, metrology, and manufacturing process.

  7. Studies of urban climates and air pollution in Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In addition to an assessment of the factors that are responsible for urban climate change, this paper describes climatological studies and peculiarities of some Swiss cities. Although these cities are small, urban air pollution presents a real problem for urban planning. This is a result of the narow street canyons, the high traffic concentration and the complex topography, which favors air stagnation during anticyclonic weather conditions

  8. Environmental lichenology: Biomonitoring trace-element air pollution. Doctoral thesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sloof, J.E.

    1993-09-27

    In this thesis several experiments have been described on the applicability of lichens as biomonitors for trace-element air pollution. The aim of the thesis was to gain knowledge about the relationships between trace-element concentrations in lichens and concentrations in air particulate matter and/or depositions of trace elements on a regional and national scale, and about the processes involved in the element uptake and release by lichens. (Copyright (c) 1993 by J.E. Sloof.)

  9. Survey of Ambient Air Pollution Health Risk Assessment Tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anenberg, Susan C; Belova, Anna; Brandt, Jørgen; Fann, Neal; Greco, Sue; Guttikunda, Sarath; Heroux, Marie-Eve; Hurley, Fintan; Krzyzanowski, Michal; Medina, Sylvia; Miller, Brian; Pandey, Kiran; Roos, Joachim; Van Dingenen, Rita

    2016-09-01

    Designing air quality policies that improve public health can benefit from information about air pollution health risks and impacts, which include respiratory and cardiovascular diseases and premature death. Several computer-based tools help automate air pollution health impact assessments and are being used for a variety of contexts. Expanding information gathered for a May 2014 World Health Organization expert meeting, we survey 12 multinational air pollution health impact assessment tools, categorize them according to key technical and operational characteristics, and identify limitations and challenges. Key characteristics include spatial resolution, pollutants and health effect outcomes evaluated, and method for characterizing population exposure, as well as tool format, accessibility, complexity, and degree of peer review and application in policy contexts. While many of the tools use common data sources for concentration-response associations, population, and baseline mortality rates, they vary in the exposure information source, format, and degree of technical complexity. We find that there is an important tradeoff between technical refinement and accessibility for a broad range of applications. Analysts should apply tools that provide the appropriate geographic scope, resolution, and maximum degree of technical rigor for the intended assessment, within resources constraints. A systematic intercomparison of the tools' inputs, assumptions, calculations, and results would be helpful to determine the appropriateness of each for different types of assessment. Future work would benefit from accounting for multiple uncertainty sources and integrating ambient air pollution health impact assessment tools with those addressing other related health risks (e.g., smoking, indoor pollution, climate change, vehicle accidents, physical activity).

  10. Mortality and air pollution in Helsinki.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pönkä, A; Savela, M; Virtanen, M

    1998-01-01

    In Helsinki, Finland, from 1987 to 1993, the authors studied the associations between daily concentrations of sulphur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, ozone, total suspended particulates, and particulates with aerodynamic diameters less than 10 microm (PM10), and the daily number of deaths from all causes and from cardiovascular causes. Investigators used Poisson regressions to conduct analyses in two age groups, and they controlled for temperature, relative humidity, day of the week, month, year, long-term trend, holidays, and influenza epidemics. The PM10 levels were associated significantly with all-cause and cardiovascular mortality among persons under the age of 65 y of age. In the less-than-65-y age group, sulfur dioxide and ozone were also associated significantly with cardiovascular mortality. The effect of ozone was independent of the PM10 effect, whereas sulfur dioxide became nonsignificant when modeled with PM10. An increase of 10 microg/m3 in PM10 resulted in increases in total mortality and cardiovascular mortality of 3.5% (95% confidence interval=1.0, 5.8) and 4.1% (95% confidence interval=0.4, 10.3), respectively. A 20 microg/m3 increase in ozone was associated with a 9.9% (95% confidence interval=1.1, 19.5) increase in cardiovascular mortality; however, ozone results were inconsistent. Moreover, in addition to their separate effects, high concentrations of PM10, ozone, and nitrogen dioxide had a further harmful additive effect. Typically, PM10 was a better indicator of particulate pollution than total suspended particulates. The authors' findings suggest that (a) even low levels of particulates are related to an increase in cardiovascular mortality; (b) ozone--even in low concentrations--is associated, independently, with cardiovascular mortality; and (c) PM10, ozone, and nitrogen dioxide--the essential components of summertime pollution--have harmful interactions at high concentrations. PMID:9709992

  11. Market Report : The air pollution control market in Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents some facts about how Canadian companies can work within the many innovative programs designed by the Canadian federal government to facilitate the export of Canadian products and services into the Argentine air pollution control market. As the economy stabilizes in Argentina, more effort is being given to issues of environmental protection and the Argentine government is increasing funding on environmental programs. The country is also strengthening its environmental legislation and increasing enforcement. The Kyoto and Montreal Protocols have brought attention to air quality issues such as climate change, emissions trading, and ozone depleting substances. Several initiatives currently focus on air quality monitoring and data collection since much information has to be gathered on air pollution levels. Emission control equipment for chemical, petrochemical, mining and power sectors are the best prospects for air pollution control, along with monitoring equipment, consulting services and fuel conversion equipment for vehicles and industrial plants. It was noted that there are legal and practical difficulties regarding new contract negotiations in Argentina, particularly with the decline in credit availability. This paper outlined the key factors shaping market growth. Most opportunities lies with projects funded by international financial institutions. The report includes a section on international competition, and the Canadian position for both private- and public-sector companies. A section on market logistics focused on issues such as direct sales, import regulations, and export credit risks. It is recommended that companies interested in the Argentine market contact the Embassy in Buenos Aires for information. refs., tabs

  12. Air pollutants emissions from waste treatment and disposal facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamoda, Mohamed F

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the atmospheric pollution created by some waste treatment and disposal facilities in the State of Kuwait. Air monitoring was conducted in a municipal wastewater treatment plant, an industrial wastewater treatment plant established in a petroleum refinery, and at a landfill site used for disposal of solid wastes. Such plants were selected as models for waste treatment and disposal facilities in the Arabian Gulf region and elsewhere. Air measurements were made over a period of 6 months and included levels of gaseous emissions as well as concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Samples of gas and bioaerosols were collected from ambient air surrounding the treatment facilities. The results obtained from this study have indicated the presence of VOCs and other gaseous pollutants such as methane, ammonia, and hydrogen sulphide in air surrounding the waste treatment and disposal facilities. In some cases the levels exceeded the concentration limits specified by the air quality standards. Offensive odors were also detected. The study revealed that adverse environmental impact of air pollutants is a major concern in the industrial more than in the municipal waste treatment facilities but sitting of municipal waste treatment and disposal facilities nearby the urban areas poses a threat to the public health. PMID:16401572

  13. Assessment of human health impact from exposure to multiple air pollutants in China based on satellite observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Tao; Wang, Wen; Ciren, Pubu; Zhu, Yan

    2016-10-01

    Assessment of human health impact caused by air pollution is crucial for evaluating environmental hazards. In this paper, concentrations of six air pollutants (PM10, PM2.5, NO2, SO2, O3, and CO) were first derived from satellite observations, and then the overall human health risks in China caused by multiple air pollutants were assessed using an aggregated health risks index. Unlike traditional approach for human health risks assessment, which relied on the in-situ air pollution measurements, the spatial distribution of aggregated human health risks in China were obtained using satellite observations in this research. It was indicated that the remote sensing data have advantages over in-situ data in accessing human health impact caused by air pollution.

  14. Evaluating impacts of air pollution in China on public health: Implications for future air pollution and energy policies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, X.P.; Mauzerall, D.L. [Princeton University, Princeton, NJ (United States). Woodrow Wilson School of Public & Internal Affairs

    2006-03-15

    Our objective is to establish the link between energy consumption and technologies, air pollution concentrations, and resulting impacts on public health in eastern China. We use Zaozhuang, a city in eastern China heavily dependent on coal, as a case study to quantify the impacts that air pollution in eastern China had on public health in 2000 and the benefits in improved air quality and health that could be obtained by 2020, relative to business-as-usual (BAU), through the implementation of best available emission control technology (BACT) and advanced coal gasification technologies (ACGT). We use an integrated assessment approach, utilizing state-of-the-science air quality and meteorological models, engineering, epidemiology, and economics, to achieve this objective. We find that total health damages due to year 2000 anthropogenic emissions from Zaozhuang, using the 'willingness-to-pay' metric, was equivalent to 10% of Zaozhuang's GDP. If all health damages resulting from coal use were internalized in the market price of coal, the year 2000 price would have more than tripled. With no new air pollution controls implemented between 2000 and 2020 but with projected increases in energy use, we estimate health damages from air pollution exposure to be equivalent to 16% of Zaozhuang's projected 2020 GDP. BACT and ACGT (with only 24% penetration in Zaozhuang and providing 2% of energy needs in three surrounding municipalities) could reduce the potential health damage of air pollution in 2020 to 13% and 8% of projected GDP, respectively. Benefits to public health, of substantial monetary value, can be achieved through the use of BACT; health benefits from the use of ACGT could be even larger.

  15. Solutions Network Formulation Report. NASA's Potential Contributions for Using Solar Ultraviolet Radiation in Conjunction with Photocatalysis for Urban Air Pollution Mitigation and Increasing Air Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Underwood, Lauren; Ryan, Robert E.

    2007-01-01

    This Candidate Solution is based on using NASA Earth science research on atmospheric ozone and aerosols data as a means to predict and evaluate the effectiveness of photocatalytically created surfaces (building materials like glass, tile and cement) for air pollution mitigation purposes. When these surfaces are exposed to near UV light, organic molecules, like air pollutants and smog precursors, will degrade into environmentally friendly compounds. U.S. EPA (Environmental Protection Agency) is responsible for forecasting daily air quality by using the Air Quality Index (AQI) that is provided by AIRNow. EPA is partnered with AIRNow and is responsible for calculating the AQI for five major air pollutants that are regulated by the Clean Air Act. In this Solution, UV irradiance data acquired from the satellite mission Aura and the OMI Surface UV algorithm will be used to help understand both the efficacy and efficiency of the photocatalytic decomposition process these surfaces facilitate, and their ability to reduce air pollutants. Prediction models that estimate photocatalytic function do not exist. NASA UV irradiance data will enable this capability, so that air quality agencies that are run by state and local officials can develop and implement programs that utilize photocatalysis for urban air pollution control and, enable them to make effective decisions about air pollution protection programs.

  16. Nitrogen oxide air pollution: atmospheric chemistry. 1964-1978 (citations from the NTIS data base). Report for 1964-78

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cavagnaro, D.M.

    1980-10-01

    Research reports on photochemical air pollution models, smog chemistry and reactivity, and SSt exhaust effects are cited in the bibliography. Auroral and upper atmospheric in chemistry, and photochemistry of naturally occurring nitrogen oxides are excluded. (Contains 247 citations)

  17. Mortality and air pollution in Helsinki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poenkae, A.; Savela, M.; Virtanen, M. [Helsinki City Centre of the Environment (Finland)

    1998-07-01

    In Helsinki, Finland, from 1987 to 1993, the authors studied the associations between daily concentrations of sulphur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, ozone, total suspended particulates, and particulates with aerodynamic diameters less than 10 {micro}m (PM{sub 10}), and the daily number of deaths from all causes and from cardiovascular causes. Investigators used Poisson regressions to conduct analyses in two age groups, and they controlled for temperature, relative humidity, day of the week, month, year, long-term trend, holidays, and influenza epidemics. The PM{sub 10} levels were associated significantly with all-cause and cardiovascular mortality among persons under the age of 65 y of age. In the less-than-65-y age group, sulfur dioxide and ozone were also associated significantly with cardiovascular mortality. The effect of the ozone was independent of the PM{sub 10} effect, whereas sulfur dioxide became nonsignificant when modeled with PM{sub 10}. An increase of 10 {micro}g/m{sup 3} in PM{sub 10} resulted in increases in total mortality and cardiovascular mortality of 3.5% (95% confidence interval = 1.0, 5.8) and 4.1% (95% confidence interval = 0.4, 10.3), respectively. A 20 {micro}g/m{sup 3} increase in ozone was associated with a 9.9% (95% confidence interval = 1.1, 19.5) increase in cardiovascular mortality; however, ozone results were inconsistent. Moreover, in addition to their separate effects, high concentrations of PM{sub 10}, ozone, and nitrogen dioxide had a further harmful additive effect. Typically, PM{sub 10} was a better indicator of particulate pollution than total suspended particulates. The authors` findings suggest that (a) even low levels of particulates are related to an increase in cardiovascular mortality; (b) ozone--even in low concentrations--is associated, independently, with cardiovascular mortality; and (c) PM{sub 10}, ozone, and nitrogen dioxide--the essential components of summertime pollution--have harmful interactions at high

  18. The Effects of Air Pollution on Ischemic Stroke Admission Rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alimohammadi, Hossein; Fakhri, Sara; Derakhshanfar, Hojjat; Hosseini-Zijoud, Seyed-Mostafa; Safari, Saeed; Hatamabadi, Hamid Reza

    2016-01-01

    The present study aimed to determine the relationship between the level of air pollutants and the rate of ischemic stroke (IS) admissions to hospitals. In this retrospective cross-sectional study, stroke admissions (January-March 2012 and 2013) to an emergency department and air pollution and meteorological data were gathered. The relationship between air pollutant levels and hospital admission rates were evaluated using the generalize additive model. In all 379 patients with IS were referred to the hospital (52.5% male; mean age 68.2±13.3 years). Both transient (p<0.001) and long-term (p<0.001) rises in CO level increases the risk of IS. Increased weekly (p<0.001) and monthly (p<0.001) average O3 levels amplifies this risk, while a transient increase in NO2 (p<0.001) and SO2 (p<0.001) levels has the same effect. Long-term changes in PM10 (p<0.001) and PM2.5 (p<0.001) also increase the risk of IS. The findings showed that the level of air pollutants directly correlates with the number of stroke admissions to the emergency department. PMID:26866000

  19. Susceptibility to air pollution in elderly males and females

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boezen, H M; Vonk, J M; van der Zee, S C; Gerritsen, J; Hoek, G; Brunekreef, B; Schouten, J P; Postma, D S

    2005-01-01

    It is important to know which individuals in the general population have increased susceptibility to air pollution. The aim of this study was to identify susceptible subgroups by studying airways hyperresponsiveness (AHR), high total immunoglobulin (Ig)E and sex. Diary data on lower and upper respir

  20. Acute effects of winter air pollution on respiratory health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zee, van der S.

    1999-01-01

    In this thesis, acute respiratory health effects of exposure to winter air pollution are investigated in panels of children (7-11 yr) and adults (50-70 yr) with and without chronic respiratory symptoms, living in urban and non-urban areas in the Netherlands. The study was performed during three cons

  1. FUNDAMENTAL MASS TRANSFER MODELS FOR INDOOR AIR POLLUTION SOURCES

    Science.gov (United States)

    The paper discusses a simple, fundamental mass transfer model, based on Fick's Law of Diffusion, for indoor air pollution wet sorbent-based sources. (Note: Models are needed to predict emissions from indoor sources. hile empirical approaches based on dynamic chamber data are usef...

  2. Outdoor air pollution and lung cancer: what now?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrico Pira

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In the last decade a substantial number of epidemiological studies suggested that outdoor air pollution and in particular respirable particulate matter (PM10 and fine particulate matter (PM2.5 are associated with an increased risk of lung cancer.The most recent is a multicentre European study...

  3. Performance of Air Pollution Models on Massively Parallel Computers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brown, John; Hansen, Per Christian; Wasniewski, Jerzy;

    1996-01-01

    To compare the performance and use of three massively parallel SIMD computers, we implemented a large air pollution model on the computers. Using a realistic large-scale model, we gain detailed insight about the performance of the three computers when used to solve large-scale scientific problems...

  4. Bringing air pollution into the climate change equation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettersen, Marit Viktoria; Fleck, Fiona

    2014-08-01

    As countries gear up for a major round of international climate talks next year in Paris, the growing problem of air pollution is fast becoming a vital part of the climate change and health debate. Fiona Fleck talks to Marit Viktoria Pettersen. PMID:25177069

  5. A Study of the Effects of Air Pollution on Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bury, Irene B.

    1970-01-01

    An investigation of the possible effects of air pollution on the absenteeism of elementary school children showed that a greater percent of absences occurred in the test group than in a comparable group. There is little question as to the importance that such information should have for educators, informed parents, and other adults in community…

  6. Exploring feedbacks between air pollution and climate policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chuwah, C.D.

    2015-01-01

    The climate of the Earth is changing in response to natural and anthropogenic forcing agents. Emissions of greenhouse gases and air pollutants have led to significant changes in the Earth’s climate systems and projections indicate that further extensive changes are likely. Increased scientific

  7. [Relationship between surface UV radiation and air pollution in Beijing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Jun-lin; Wang, Yue-si; Li, Xin; Sun, Yang; Shen, Shuang-he

    2008-04-01

    Based on the data of solar radiation and air pollutants collected in Beijing, the relationship between surface ultraviolet (UV) radiation and the content of air pollutants were analyzed, using the radiative transfer model TUV4.4 (Tropospheric Ultraviolet Visible). The results show that average total ozone content is 329 DU and higher in winter and spring, lower in summer and autumn. The inverse relationship exists between ground level UV radiation and total ozone content. This study also shows that a substantial reduction (up to 50%) in the UV radiation on days with high levels of air pollution. Larger fluctuations are found in UV radiation in the summer. The effects of clouds and air pollution on UV are higher than on total solar radiation, and the reduction in UV is about twice as large as the total solar radiation values. Strong reduction in the UV radiation reaching the ground is associated with the increase of tropospheric ozone and nitrogen oxides in Beijing. The correlation coefficient between ozone concentration and decrease in UV radiation is 0.70 in the early afternoon.

  8. Elderly Exposure to Air Pollutants: Measuring, assessing and modelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Almeida-Silva, M.A.

    2016-01-01

    This Thesis focuses on the estimation of the human exposure to air pollutants, and gives special attention to one of the most susceptible groups in the general population - elders. To fulfil the goal the work was conducted following the risk assessment paradigm and, consequently, was divided into 5

  9. Lichens, a unique forage resource threatened by air pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David R. Klein

    1992-10-01

    Full Text Available Lichens are the primary winter forage for most mainland caribou and reindeer herds in North America and for the majority of domestic and wild reindeer in Siberia and northern Europe, collectively totaling in excess of 5 million animals. Lichens represent a unique forage resource throughout much of the circumpolar North that cannot effectively be replaced by vascular plants. Lichens are particularly sensitive to the effects of air pollution. The increased pace of exploitation and processing of minerals and petroleum resources throughout the circumpolar North, with associated introduction of pollution products into the atmosphere has already resulted in losses of lichens and their reduced productivity in extensive areas adjacent to large metallurgical complexes in the Taimyr of Siberia, on the Kola Peninsula, and in adjacent parts of Finland. Losses of terricolous lichens in the Taimyr from pollution generated by the Norilsk metallurgical complex have been nearly complete within a 300 000 ha area closest to the pollution source and damage and reduced growth extends over an area in excess of 600 000 ha. The Arctic also is a sink for atmospheric pollution generated in the heavily industrialized north temperate regions of the world. Assessment of the effects on lichens of this global scale increase in air pollution is difficult because of the lack of representative controls.

  10. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart Eeee of... - Organic Hazardous Air Pollutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Organic Hazardous Air Pollutants 1...) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Organic Liquids Distribution...

  11. 40 CFR Table 8 to Subpart Ffff of... - Soluble Hazardous Air Pollutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 13 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Soluble Hazardous Air Pollutants 8...) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES (CONTINUED) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Miscellaneous...

  12. 40 CFR Table 9 to Subpart Ffff of... - Soluble Hazardous Air Pollutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Soluble Hazardous Air Pollutants 9...) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Miscellaneous Organic...

  13. 40 CFR 63.62 - Redefinition of glycol ethers listed as hazardous air pollutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... hazardous air pollutants. 63.62 Section 63.62 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES List of Hazardous Air Pollutants, Petitions Process, Lesser Quantity Designations, Source...

  14. 40 CFR Table 16 to Subpart Xxxx of... - Selected Hazardous Air Pollutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Selected Hazardous Air Pollutants 16...) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Rubber Tire Manufacturing Pt. 63,...

  15. Mortality, migration, income, and air pollution: a comparative study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bozzo, S.R.; Novak, K.M.; Galdos, F.; Hakoopian, R.; Hamilton, L.D.

    1978-06-02

    The interrelationships among different demographic factors, specific causes of death, median family income, and estimated air pollution emissions were examined. Using the Medical Data Base (MEDABA) developed at Brookhaven National Laboratory, the entire population of the United States was cross-tabulated by income and emission levels of air pollutants. Path analysis was used to examine a number of patterns and relationships for each age, race, and sex group containing a minimum of 10,000 persons. Competitive and complementary effects were observed. These effects were frequently age dependent and occasionaly sex related. This specialized data base, the application of path analysis, and the development of a dynamic population and mortality model, in combination, proved to be a useful tool for investigating the effects of energy related pollutants on the exposed population.

  16. Effects of Indoor Air Pollution on Human Health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berglund, B.; Brunekreef, B.; Knöppel, H.;

    1992-01-01

    to changes in behaviour and performance. An increased risk of developing lung cancer has been linked to exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) and to radon decay products. Lung cancer is a very serious disease with a high fatality rate; however, the number of people affected is much lower than......This article contains a summary discussion of human health effects linked to indoor air pollution (UP) in homes and other non-industrial environments. Rather than discussing the health effects of the many different pollutants which can be found in indoor air, the approach has been to group broad...... the number of people contracting resparatory disease or alhgies, or experiencing irritative effects due to exposure to indoor pollution. The effects of IAP on reproduction, cardiovascular disease and on other systems and organs have not been well documented to date. To a certain extent, this may mean...

  17. US EPA Office of Research and Development Community-Focused Exposure and Risk Screening Tool (C-FERST) Air Pollutants 2011 web mapping service

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This map service displays all air-related layers used in the USEPA Community/Tribal-Focused Exposure and Risk Screening Tool (C/T-FERST) mapping application...

  18. A Survey of Wireless Sensor Network Based Air Pollution Monitoring Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Wei Ying; Lo, Kin Ming; Mak, Terrence; Leung, Kwong Sak; Leung, Yee; Meng, Mei Ling

    2015-12-12

    The air quality in urban areas is a major concern in modern cities due to significant impacts of air pollution on public health, global environment, and worldwide economy. Recent studies reveal the importance of micro-level pollution information, including human personal exposure and acute exposure to air pollutants. A real-time system with high spatio-temporal resolution is essential because of the limited data availability and non-scalability of conventional air pollution monitoring systems. Currently, researchers focus on the concept of The Next Generation Air Pollution Monitoring System (TNGAPMS) and have achieved significant breakthroughs by utilizing the advance sensing technologies, MicroElectroMechanical Systems (MEMS) and Wireless Sensor Network (WSN). However, there exist potential problems of these newly proposed systems, namely the lack of 3D data acquisition ability and the flexibility of the sensor network. In this paper, we classify the existing works into three categories as Static Sensor Network (SSN), Community Sensor Network (CSN) and Vehicle Sensor Network (VSN) based on the carriers of the sensors. Comprehensive reviews and comparisons among these three types of sensor networks were also performed. Last but not least, we discuss the limitations of the existing works and conclude the objectives that we want to achieve in future systems.

  19. Developing a feeling for error: Practices of monitoring and modelling air pollution data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Garnett

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper is based on ethnographic research of data practices in a public health project called Weather Health and Air Pollution. (All names are pseudonyms. I examine two different kinds of practices that make air pollution data, focusing on how they relate to particular modes of sensing and articulating air pollution. I begin by describing the interstitial spaces involved in making measurements of air pollution at monitoring sites and in the running of a computer simulation. Specifically, I attend to a shared dimension of these practices, the checking of a numerical reading for error. Checking a measurement for error is routine practice and a fundamental component of making data, yet these are also moments of interpretation, where the form and meaning of numbers are ambiguous. Through two case studies of modelling and monitoring data practices, I show that making a ‘good’ (error free measurement requires developing a feeling for the instrument–air pollution interaction in terms of the intended functionality of the measurements made. These affective dimensions of practice are useful analytically, making explicit the interaction of standardised ways of knowing and embodied skill in stabilising data. I suggest that environmental data practices can be studied through researchers’ materialisation of error, which complicate normative accounts of Big Data and highlight the non-linear and entangled relations that are at work in the making of stable, accurate data.

  20. Implementation by environmental administration of the Finnish air pollution control act

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haapaniemi, J. [Turku Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Political Science

    1995-12-31

    The aim of this research is to show how the general wording of the Air Pollution Control Act which came into force in 1982 has been given practical meanings. The main interest is the administrational implementation of the aims of the air pollution legislation for regulation of industrial activities and the energy sector. The article focuses on the decisions and the decision-making process through the Air Pollution Control Act with its relatively flexible norms. It gives a view of air pollution control practices and its problems, especially concerning sulphur emissions of whose control there is already lot of experiences. The grounds for resolutions given according to the Air Pollution Control Act and the possibility of public participation in their making are the centre of attention here. The greatest interest is cases on the decisions made by applying general governmental decisions, especially regulations concerning coal-fired power plants, and the regulations for sulphur dioxide emissions, in the governmental decision of 1987. (author)

  1. A Survey of Wireless Sensor Network Based Air Pollution Monitoring Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Wei Ying; Lo, Kin Ming; Mak, Terrence; Leung, Kwong Sak; Leung, Yee; Meng, Mei Ling

    2015-01-01

    The air quality in urban areas is a major concern in modern cities due to significant impacts of air pollution on public health, global environment, and worldwide economy. Recent studies reveal the importance of micro-level pollution information, including human personal exposure and acute exposure to air pollutants. A real-time system with high spatio-temporal resolution is essential because of the limited data availability and non-scalability of conventional air pollution monitoring systems. Currently, researchers focus on the concept of The Next Generation Air Pollution Monitoring System (TNGAPMS) and have achieved significant breakthroughs by utilizing the advance sensing technologies, MicroElectroMechanical Systems (MEMS) and Wireless Sensor Network (WSN). However, there exist potential problems of these newly proposed systems, namely the lack of 3D data acquisition ability and the flexibility of the sensor network. In this paper, we classify the existing works into three categories as Static Sensor Network (SSN), Community Sensor Network (CSN) and Vehicle Sensor Network (VSN) based on the carriers of the sensors. Comprehensive reviews and comparisons among these three types of sensor networks were also performed. Last but not least, we discuss the limitations of the existing works and conclude the objectives that we want to achieve in future systems. PMID:26703598

  2. Determining Land Surface Temperature Relations with Land Use-Land Cover and Air Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahya, Ceyhan; Bektas Balcik, Filiz; Burak Oztaner, Yasar; Guney, Burcu

    2016-04-01

    Rapid population growth in conjunction with unplanned urbanization, expansion, and encroachment into the limited agricultural fields and green areas have negative impacts on vegetated areas. Land Surface Temperature (LST), Urban Heat Islands (UHI) and air pollution are the most important environmental problems that the extensive part of the world suffers from. The main objective of this research is to investigate the relationship between LST, air pollution and Land Use-Land Cover (LULC) in Istanbul, using Landsat 8 OLI satellite image. Mono-window algorithm is used to compute LST from Landsat 8 TIR data. In order to determine the air pollution, in-situ measurements of particulate matter (PM10) of the same day as the Landsat 8 OLI satellite image are obtained. The results of this data are interpolated using the Inverse Distance Weighted (IDW) method and LULC categories of Istanbul were determined by using remote sensing indices. Error matrix was created for accuracy assessment. The relationship between LST, air pollution and LULC categories are determined by using regression analysis method. Keywords: Land Surface Temperature (LST), air pollution, Land Use-Land Cover (LULC), Istanbul

  3. Daily mortality and air pollution in The Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoek, G; Brunekreef, B; Verhoeff, A; van Wijnen, J; Fischer, P

    2000-08-01

    We studied the association of daily mortality with short-term variations in the ambient concentrations of major gaseous pollutants and PM in the Netherlands. The magnitude of the association in the four major urban areas was compared with that in the remainder of the country. Daily cause-specific mortality counts, air quality, temperature, relative humidity, and influenza data were obtained from 1986 to 1994. The relationship between daily mortality and air pollution was modeled using Poisson regression analysis. We adjusted for potential confounding due to long-term and seasonal trends, influenza epidemics, ambient temperature and relative humidity, day of the week, and holidays, using generalized additive models. Influenza episodes were associated with increased mortality up to 3 weeks later. Daily mortality was significantly associated with the concentration of all air pollutants. An increase in the PM10 concentration by 100 micrograms/m3 was associated with a relative risk (RR) of 1.02 for total mortality. The largest RRs were found for pneumonia deaths. Ozone had the most consistent, independent association with mortality. Particulate air pollution (e.g., PM10, black smoke [BS]) was not more consistently associated with mortality than were the gaseous pollutants SO2 and NO2. Aerosol SO4(-2), NO3-, and BS were more consistently associated with total mortality than was PM10. The RRs for all pollutants were substantially larger in the summer months than in the winter months. The RR of total mortality for PM10 was 1.10 for the summer and 1.03 for the winter. There was no consistent difference between RRs in the four major urban areas and the more rural areas. PMID:11002600

  4. Air pollutants and health outcomes: Assessment of confounding by influenza

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thach, Thuan-Quoc; Wong, Chit-Ming; Chan, King-Pan; Chau, Yuen-Kwan; Neil Thomas, G.; Ou, Chun-Quan; Yang, Lin; Peiris, Joseph S. M.; Lam, Tai-Hing; Hedley, Anthony J.

    2010-04-01

    We assessed confounding of associations between short-term effects of air pollution and health outcomes by influenza using Hong Kong mortality and hospitalization data for 1996-2002. Three measures of influenza were defined: (i) intensity: weekly proportion of positive influenza viruses, (ii) epidemic: weekly number of positive influenza viruses ≥4% of the annual number for ≥2 consecutive weeks, and (iii) predominance: an epidemic period with co-circulation of respiratory syncytial virus effects of influenza on associations between nitrogen dioxide (NO 2), sulfur dioxide (SO 2), particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter ≤10 μm (PM 10) and ozone (O 3) and health outcomes including all natural causes mortality, cardiorespiratory mortality and hospitalization. Generalized additive Poisson regression model with natural cubic splines was fitted to control for time-varying covariates to estimate air pollution health effects. Confounding with influenza was assessed using an absolute difference of >0.1% between unadjusted and adjusted excess risks (ER%). Without adjustment, pollutants were associated with positive ER% for all health outcomes except asthma and stroke hospitalization with SO 2 and stroke hospitalization with O 3. Following adjustment, changes in ER% for all pollutants were 0.1% for mortality from stroke with NO 2 and SO 2, cardiac or heart disease with NO 2, PM 10 and O 3, lower respiratory infections with NO 2 and O 3 and mortality from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease with all pollutants. Changes >0.1% were seen for acute respiratory disease hospitalization with NO 2, SO 2 and O 3 and acute lower respiratory infections hospitalization with PM 10. Generally, influenza does not confound the observed associations of air pollutants with all natural causes mortality and cardiovascular hospitalization, but for some pollutants and subgroups of cardiorespiratory mortality and respiratory hospitalization there was evidence to suggest confounding by

  5. Air Pollution with Heavy Metals and Radionuclides in Slovakia Studied by the Moss Biomonitoring Technique

    CERN Document Server

    Florek, M; Mankovska, B; Oprea, K; Pavlov, S S; Steinnes, E; Sykora, I

    2001-01-01

    Applying the moss biomonitoring technique to air pollution studies in Slovakia, heavy metals, rare-earth elements, actinides (U and Th) were determined in 86 moss samples from the European moss survey 2000 by means of epithermal neutron activation analysis at the IBR-2 reactor (Dubna). Such elements as In, Cu, Cd, Hg and Pb were determined by AAS in the Forest Research Institute, Zvolen (Slovakia). The results of measurement of the natural radionuclides ^{210}Pb, ^{7}Be, ^{137}Cs and ^{40}K in 11 samples of moss are also reported. A comparison with the results from moss surveys 1991 and 1995 revealed previously unknown tendencies of air pollution in the examined areas.

  6. Evaluating impacts of air pollution in China on public health: implications for future air pollution and energy policies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiaoping Wang; Mauzerall, D.L. [Princeton University, Princeton, NJ (United States). Science, Technology and Environmental Policy Program

    2006-03-15

    Our objective is to establish the link between energy consumption and technologies, air pollution concentrations, and resulting impacts on public health in eastern China. We use Zaozhuang, a city in eastern China heavily dependent on coal, as a case study to quantify the impacts that air pollution in eastern China had on public health in 2000 and the benefits in improved air quality and health that could be obtained by 2020, relative to business-as-usual (BAU), through the implementation of best available emission control technology (BACT) and advanced coal gasification technologies (ACGT). We use an integrated assessment approach, utilizing state-of-the-science air quality and meteorological models, engineering, epidemiology, and economics, to achieve this objective. We find that total health damages due to year 2000 anthropogenic emissions from Zaozhuang, using the ''willingness-to-pay'' metric, was equivalent to 10% of Zaozhuang's GDP. If all health damages resulting from coal use were internalized in the market price of coal, the year 2000 price would have more than tripled. With no new air pollution controls implemented between 2000 and 2020 but with projected increases in energy use, we estimate health damages from air pollution exposure to be equivalent to 16% of Zaozhuang's projected 2020 GDP. BACT and ACGT (with only 24% penetration in Zaozhuang and providing 2% of energy needs in three surrounding municipalities) could reduce the potential health damage of air pollution in 2020 to 13% and 8% of projected GDP, respectively. Benefits to public health, of substantial monetary value, can be achieved through the use of BACT; health benefits from the use of ACGT could be even larger. Despite significant uncertainty associated with each element of the integrated assessment approach, we demonstrate that substantial benefits to public health could be achieved in this region of eastern China through the use of additional pollution

  7. Climate Change and Air Pollution: Effects on Respiratory Allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Amato, Gennaro; Pawankar, Ruby; Vitale, Carolina; Lanza, Maurizia; Molino, Antonio; Stanziola, Anna; Sanduzzi, Alessandro; Vatrella, Alessandro; D'Amato, Maria

    2016-09-01

    A body of evidence suggests that major changes involving the atmosphere and the climate, including global warming induced by anthropogenic factors, have impact on the biosphere and human environment. Studies on the effects of climate change on respiratory allergy are still lacking and current knowledge is provided by epidemiological and experimental studies on the relationship between allergic respiratory diseases, asthma and environmental factors, such as meteorological variables, airborne allergens, and air pollution. Urbanization with its high levels of vehicle emissions, and a westernized lifestyle are linked to the rising frequency of respiratory allergic diseases and bronchial asthma observed over recent decades in most industrialized countries. However, it is not easy to evaluate the impact of climate changes and air pollution on the prevalence of asthma in the general population and on the timing of asthma exacerbations, although the global rise in asthma prevalence and severity could also be an effect of air pollution and climate change. Since airborne allergens and air pollutants are frequently increased contemporaneously in the atmosphere, an enhanced IgE-mediated response to aeroallergens and enhanced airway inflammation could account for the increasing frequency of respiratory allergy and asthma in atopic subjects in the last 5 decades. Pollen allergy is frequently used to study the relationship between air pollution and respiratory allergic diseases, such as rhinitis and bronchial asthma. Epidemiologic studies have demonstrated that urbanization, high levels of vehicle emissions, and westernized lifestyle are correlated with an increased frequency of respiratory allergy prevalently in people who live in urban areas in comparison with people living in rural areas. Climatic factors (temperature, wind speed, humidity, thunderstorms, etc.) can affect both components (biological and chemical) of this interaction.

  8. Climate Change and Air Pollution: Effects on Respiratory Allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Amato, Gennaro; Pawankar, Ruby; Vitale, Carolina; Lanza, Maurizia; Molino, Antonio; Stanziola, Anna; Sanduzzi, Alessandro; Vatrella, Alessandro; D'Amato, Maria

    2016-09-01

    A body of evidence suggests that major changes involving the atmosphere and the climate, including global warming induced by anthropogenic factors, have impact on the biosphere and human environment. Studies on the effects of climate change on respiratory allergy are still lacking and current knowledge is provided by epidemiological and experimental studies on the relationship between allergic respiratory diseases, asthma and environmental factors, such as meteorological variables, airborne allergens, and air pollution. Urbanization with its high levels of vehicle emissions, and a westernized lifestyle are linked to the rising frequency of respiratory allergic diseases and bronchial asthma observed over recent decades in most industrialized countries. However, it is not easy to evaluate the impact of climate changes and air pollution on the prevalence of asthma in the general population and on the timing of asthma exacerbations, although the global rise in asthma prevalence and severity could also be an effect of air pollution and climate change. Since airborne allergens and air pollutants are frequently increased contemporaneously in the atmosphere, an enhanced IgE-mediated response to aeroallergens and enhanced airway inflammation could account for the increasing frequency of respiratory allergy and asthma in atopic subjects in the last 5 decades. Pollen allergy is frequently used to study the relationship between air pollution and respiratory allergic diseases, such as rhinitis and bronchial asthma. Epidemiologic studies have demonstrated that urbanization, high levels of vehicle emissions, and westernized lifestyle are correlated with an increased frequency of respiratory allergy prevalently in people who live in urban areas in comparison with people living in rural areas. Climatic factors (temperature, wind speed, humidity, thunderstorms, etc.) can affect both components (biological and chemical) of this interaction. PMID:27334776

  9. Air Pollution and Neuropsychological Development: A Review of the Latest Evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suades-González, Elisabet; Gascon, Mireia; Guxens, Mònica; Sunyer, Jordi

    2015-10-01

    For the last decade, literature on the detrimental impacts of air pollution on brain, cognition and behavior has exponentially increased. Our aim is to review the latest epidemiologic literature on the association between outdoor air pollution and neuropsychological developmental in children. Two independent researchers searched for published studies between January 1, 2012 and June 12, 2015 in MEDLINE, Web of Science, and Science direct using defined keywords on outdoor air pollution and neuropsychological development. Selection of articles was based on study eligibility criteria. We encountered sufficient evidence of detrimental effects of pre- or postnatal exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons on global intelligence quotient. The evidence was also sufficient for the association between pre- or postnatal exposure to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and autism spectrum disorder, and limited evidence was encountered between nitrogen oxides and autism spectrum disorder. For other exposure-outcome associations reviewed, the evidence was inadequate or insufficient. Although evidence is not yet conclusive and further research is needed, the latest epidemiological studies support the hypothesis that pre- or postnatal exposure to ambient pollution, particularly polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, PM2.5, and nitrogen oxides has a negative impact on the neuropsychological development of children. The public health impact of air pollutants cannot be ignored and the precautionary principle should be applied to protect children.

  10. Air pollution:a smoking gun for cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Zhang; Chao-Nan Qian; Yi-Xin Zeng

    2014-01-01

    Once considered a taboo topic or stigma, cancer is the number one public health enemy in the world. Once a product of an almost untouchable industry, tobacco is indisputably recognized as a major cause of cancer and a target for anticancer efforts. With the emergence of new economic powers in the world, especial y in highly populated countries such as China, air pol ution has rapidly emerged as a smoking gun for cancer and has become a hot topic for public health debate because of the complex political, economic, scientific, and technologic issues surrounding the air pollution problem. This editorial and the referred articles published in this special issue of the Chinese Journal of Cancer discuss these fundamental questions. Does air pollution cause a wide spectrum of cancers? Should air pollution be considered a necessary evil accompanying economic transformation in developing countries? Is an explosion of cancer incidence coming to China and how soon wil it arrive? What must be done to prevent this possible human catastrophe? Final y, the approaches for air pol ution control are also discussed.

  11. Effect of Air Pollutant Markers on Multiple Sclerosis Relapses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoud Mehrpour

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Multiple Sclerosis (MS is one of the autoimmune diseases with an unknown cause. The aim of this study was to explore the link between air quality and MS relapses in patients who suffer from MS.This time-series study was conducted on patients registered at the Iranian Multiple Sclerosis Society in 2011-2012. They were randomly selected from patients lived in Tehran in the last five years, and had at least one relapse in the last three years. The link between monthly mean air pollutant levels and the relapses of MS in the participants was studied.Among the registered 160 participants, at least 150 had one attack during 2009 and 2012. Most air pollutants such as NO2, NO and CO are in high levels in the rainy season. Others like Pm10 and Nox are in high levels in the dry season. The correlation between NO2 levels of all markers of air quality and MS relapses (P=0.03, r=0.27 is weak. Best ARIMA model (p,d,q; 1,0,1 was determined between number of monthly relapses and living place, although this model was not significant (P=0.3 (AR; P=0.000, MA;P=0.4.Air pollutants might be regarded as a risk factor for MS relapse.

  12. Air Processes Resulting in a Surface Layer Pollution in Industrial Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesin, Yu V.; Leshukov, T. V.

    2016-08-01

    The article describes the air quality research in Western Siberia (Kemerovo region). The problem of air quality preservation in the conditions of mining industry intensive development is caused by the weather conditions which lead either to the concentration of pollutants in the surface layer, or to their migration to other geosphere, or to dissipation as a result of convective mixing or advection of air masses. Zoning of the territory in view of the research results provides insight into areas where the greatest risk to human health and life is formed.

  13. GST M1 GENOTYPE INFLUENCES SPERM DNA DAMAGE ASSOCIATED WITH EXPOSURE TO AIR POLLUTION

    Science.gov (United States)

    For Society for Epidemiologic Research Meeting, June 15-18, 2004, Salt Lake City, Utah.Presenter: Sherry G. SelevanGSTM1 GENOTYPE INFLUENCES SPERM DNA DAMAGE ASSOCIATED WITH EXPOSURE TO AIR POLLUTION. J Rubes, SG Selevan*, R. Sram, DPEvenson, SD Perreault. VRI, ...

  14. (CZ)BIOMARKERS OF EXPOSURE TO PARTICULATE AIR POLLUTION IN THE CZECH REPUBLIC

    Science.gov (United States)

    The use of biomarkers in the Teplice Program, provided a key tool to relate health outcomes to individual personal exposures and to provide measures of confounding exposures. This research program on the health effects of air pollution studied a population living in the heavil...

  15. (PRAGUE)BIOMARKERS OF EXPOSURE TO PARTICULATE AIR POLLUTION IN THE CZECH REPUBLIC

    Science.gov (United States)

    The use of biomarkers in the Teplice Program, provided a key tool to relate health outcomes to individual personal exposures and to provide measures of confounding exposures. This research program on the health effects of air pollution studied a population living in the heavil...

  16. Enhanced, multi criteria based site selection to measure mobile source toxic air pollutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Research studies being conducted by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in collaboration with the U.S. Federal Highway Administration are designed to establish relationships between concentrations of highway vehicle air pollutants and variations in these concentrations as a ...

  17. Antioxidants and air pollution in relation to indicators of asthma and COPD.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grievink, L.

    1998-01-01

    Two main research questions were specified in this thesis. First, whether acute respiratory effects of air pollution can be modulated by antioxidants. Second, whether dietary or plasma antioxidants were associated with indicators of asthma and COPD.Two intervention studies investigated a possible mo

  18. Investigations into the dynamics of aerosols in enclosures as used for air pollution studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vate, van de J.F.

    1980-01-01

    This thesis treats aerosol behaviour under various conditions in enclosed spaces. Knowledge of this behaviour is of importance for the use of aerosol-filled enclosures as a supply of aerosol, as a means for aerosol characterization and for so-called smog chambers for air pollution research (mainly f

  19. The impacts of CO2 capture on transboundary air pollution in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koornneef, J.; Harmelen, T. van; Horssen, A. van; Gijlswijk, R. van; Ramirez, A.; Faaij, A.; Turkenburg, W.

    2009-01-01

    The focus of this research is to develop a first assessment of the impacts of the implementation of CO2 capture technologies in the Dutch power sector on the transboundary air pollution (SO2,NOX,NH3,NMV OC,PM10 and PM2.5) levels in 2020. Results show that for the power sector SO2 emissions will be v

  20. A modeling framework for characterizing near-road air pollutant concentration at community scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this study, we combine information from transportation network, traffic emissions, and dispersion model to develop a framework to inform exposure estimates for traffic-related air pollutants (TRAPs) with a high spatial resolution. A Research LINE source dispersion model (R-LIN...

  1. Influence of air pollution on pregnant women’s health and pregnancy outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanković Aleksandra

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary Outdoor and indoor air pollution pollutants can be a potential cause to a lot of negative effects on the health of pregnant women and outcome of pregnancy. The objective of this paper was to estimate the influence of outdoor and indoor air pollution on the health of pregnant women and outcome of pregnancy. Material and Methods The study subjects were the pregnant women, non-smokers, who were not professionally exposed to air pollution. They were divided into the exposed group (n=189 and control group (n=178 during the exposure to outdoor air pollution. The data on exposure to sources of indoor air pollution (smoke produced by burning fossil fuels and passive smoking during pregnancy were obtained from the questionnaire. Data on health condition and outcome of pregnancy were obtained from medical records of tested pregnant women. Results. The research results have shown that the frequency of anemia (OR=6.76; 95% CI=1.28-7.72, upper respiratory symptoms (OR=9.53; 95% CI=1.32-3.8 and bleeding (OR=20.5; 95% CI=2.03-6.97 was significantly higher in pregnant women exposed to outdoor air pollution as compared with the control group. The occurrence of upper respiratory symptoms (OR=40.42; 95% CI=2.96-8.91 and bleeding (OR=53.21; 95% CI=4.3-15.73 was significantly higher in pregnant women who had been exposed to fossil fuel smoke. Exposure to passive smoking had significant influence on the development of upper respiratory symptoms (OR=34.58; 95% CI=3.05-11.66.

  2. China's international trade and air pollution: 2000 - 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Ruijing; Lin, Jintai; Pan, Da; Wang, Jingxu; Yan, Yingying; Zhang, Qiang

    2016-04-01

    As the world's top trading country, China is now the most polluted country. However, a large portion of pollution produced in China is associated with its production of goods for foreign consumption via international trade. Along with China's rapid economic growth in recent years, its economic-trade structure and volume has been changing all the time, resulting in large changes in total emissions and the shares of trade-related emissions. Here, we assess the influence of China's changing total and export-related emissions between 2000 and 2009 on its atmospheric pollution loadings and transport, by exploiting simulations of a global chemical transport model GEOS-Chem. We find that both air pollution related to Chinese exports (PRE) which including nitrogen oxides (NOx), sulfur dioxide (SO2), carbon monoxide (CO), black carbon (BC), and primary organic aerosol (POA), and its share in total Chinese pollution have experienced continuous rapid growth until 2007, exposing more and more people to severely polluted air. After 2007, PRE decreases due to strengthened emission controls accompanied by declined exports as a result of the global financial crisis. Although production for exports contribute less than 35% SO2 over China in any year, the increasing trend of trade-related SO2 contributes 51% of integral trend. The changing PRE of China also affects its downwind regions such as the western United States. The contribution of export-related Chinese pollution to surface sulfate concentrations over the western United States has increased from 3% in 2000 to 12% in 2007. Overall, we find that the interannual variation of trade and associated production is a critical factor driving the trend of pollution over China and its downwind regions.

  3. Long-range transport of air pollution into the Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stohl, A.; Berg, T.; Breivik, K.; Burkhart, J. F.; Eckhardt, S.; Fjæraa, A.; Forster, C.; Herber, A.; Lunder, C.; McMillan, W. W.; None, N.; Manø, S.; Oltmans, S.; Shiobara, M.; Stebel, K.; Hirdman, D.; Stroem, J.; Tørseth, K.; Treffeisen, R.; Virkkunen, K.; Yttri, K. E.; Andrews, E.; Kowal, D.; Mefford, T.; Ogren, J. A.; Sharma, S.; Spichtinger, N.; Stone, R.; Hoch, S.; Wehrli, C.

    2007-12-01

    This paper presents an overview of air pollution transport into the Arctic. The major transport processes will be highlighted, as well as their seasonal, interannual, and spatial variability. The source regions of Arctic air pollution will be discussed, with a focus on black carbon (BC) sources, as BC can produce significant radiative forcing in the Arctic. It is found that Europe is the main source region for BC in winter, whereas boreal forest fires are the strongest source in summer, especially in years of strong burning. Two case studies of recent extreme Arctic air pollution events will be presented. In summer 2004, boreal forest fires in Alaska and Canada caused pan-Arctic enhancements of black carbon. The BC concentrations measured at Barrow (Alaska), Alert (Canada), Summit (Greenland) and Zeppelin (Spitsbergen) were all episodically elevated, as a result of the long-range transport of the biomass burning emissions. Aerosol optical depth was also episodically elevated at these stations, with an almost continuous elevation over more than a month at Summit. During the second episode in spring 2006, new records were set for all measured air pollutant species at the Zeppelin station (Spitsbergen) as well as for ozone in Iceland. At Zeppelin, BC, AOD, aerosol mass, ozone, carbon monoxide and other compounds all reached new record levels, compared to the long-term monitoring record. The episode was caused by transport of polluted air masses from Eastern Europe deep into the Arctic, a consequence of the unusual warmth in the European Arctic during the episode. While fossil fuel combustion sources certainly contributed to this episode, smoke from agricultural fires in Eastern Europe was the dominant pollution component. We also suggest a new revolatilization mechanism for persistent organic pollutants (POPs) stored in soils and vegetation by fires, as POPs were strongly elevated during both episodes. All this suggests a considerable influence of biomass burning on

  4. Law and features of TVOC and Formaldehyde pollution in urban indoor air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Chenchen; Chen, Weidong; Guo, Min; Weng, Mili; Yan, Gang; Shen, Xueyou

    2016-05-01

    There are several categories of indoor air pollutants. Organic pollutants are the most common ones. This study chooses TVOC and Formaldehyde, two of the typical pollutants, as indicators of evaluating household indoor air pollution and improves the TVOC concentration prediction model through the samples of indoor air taken from 3122 households. This study also categorizes and explains the features of household indoor air pollution based on the TVOC and Formaldehyde models as well as a large amount of sample measurement. Moreover, this study combines the TVOC model with the Formaldehyde model to calculate and verify the critical values of each type of indoor air pollution. In this study, indoor air pollution is categorized into three types: decoration pollution, consumption pollution and transition pollution. During the first 12 months after decoration, decoration pollution is the primary pollution type, both TVOC and Formaldehyde are highly concentrated while sometimes seriously over the standard. Pollutants mainly come from volatile sources. After the first 12 month but before 24 months the indoor air pollution is transition pollution. Both decoration materials and human activates affect the indoor air quality. 24 months after decoration, it transits into consumption pollution. In this stage, the main pollutants come from combustion sources, and concentration of pollutants fluctuates with the appearance and disappearance of the sources.

  5. InMAP: a new model for air pollution interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tessum, C. W.; Hill, J. D.; Marshall, J. D.

    2015-10-01

    Mechanistic air pollution models are essential tools in air quality management. Widespread use of such models is hindered, however, by the extensive expertise or computational resources needed to run most models. Here, we present InMAP (Intervention Model for Air Pollution), which offers an alternative to comprehensive air quality models for estimating the air pollution health impacts of emission reductions and other potential interventions. InMAP estimates annual-average changes in primary and secondary fine particle (PM2.5) concentrations - the air pollution outcome generally causing the largest monetized health damages - attributable to annual changes in precursor emissions. InMAP leverages pre-processed physical and chemical information from the output of a state-of-the-science chemical transport model (WRF-Chem) within an Eulerian modeling framework, to perform simulations that are several orders of magnitude less computationally intensive than comprehensive model simulations. InMAP uses a variable resolution grid that focuses on human exposures by employing higher spatial resolution in urban areas and lower spatial resolution in rural and remote locations and in the upper atmosphere; and by directly calculating steady-state, annual average concentrations. In comparisons run here, InMAP recreates WRF-Chem predictions of changes in total PM2.5 concentrations with population-weighted mean fractional error (MFE) and bias (MFB) planned for future model releases include a larger spatial domain, more temporal information, and the ability to predict ground-level ozone (O3) concentrations. The InMAP model source code and input data are freely available online.

  6. Air pollution from ships over Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    -Eleni Sotiropoulou, Rafaella; Tagaris, Efthimios

    2016-04-01

    Shipping sector is a large and growing source of emissions. Large quantities of nitrogen oxides (NOX) and sulphur dioxide (SO2) are emitted from ships affecting the chemical composition of the atmosphere in coastal areas. Changes of the world fleet over the past decades suggest a continuously increasing trend of the shipping emissions. Therefore, shipping emissions may partly offset the benefits from the reduction of anthropogenic emissions over land. The objective of this study is to assess the impact of shipping emissions on air quality degradation over Europe for a winter (January 2006) and a summer month (July 2006) using CMAQ modeling system and the TNO anthropogenic emission inventory for 2006. Results suggest that shipping emissions increase NO2 and SO2 mixing ratios more than 90% over the sea and close to the coastline, locally. Ship induced ozone contribution to total surface ozone exceeds 5% over the sea and near the coastline during the summer month. The largest impact is simulated over the Mediterranean Sea. Ship traffic emissions are estimated to increase PM2.5 concentration during winter up to 40% over the Mediterranean Sea while during summer an increase more than 50% is simulated over the sea.

  7. Multi-year simulations of air pollution in two cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zink, Katrin; Berchet, Antoine; Emmenegger, Lukas; Brunner, Dominik

    2016-04-01

    As more and more people are living in urban areas world wide, air quality monitoring and forecasting at the city scale becomes increasingly critical. Due to the proximity to sources and the complex, fine-scale structure of the flow and turbulence in the built environment, air pollutant concentrations vary strongly in cities both spatially and temporally. Studies assessing the effect of air pollution on human health would greatly benefit from accurate knowledge of individual exposure, but given the high variability of concentrations and the mobility of the population, this is a marvellous task requiring highly-resolved, city-wide information on air pollutant concentrations. The Swiss Nano-Tera project OpenSense II addresses these issues using statistical and physical modeling of air pollution at very high resolution combined with long-term air pollution measurements and mobile networks of low-cost sensors. In the framework of this project, we have set up the nested meteorology and dispersion model system GRAMM/GRAL the cities of Lausanne and Zurich and improved several computational aspects of the system. Using the mesoscale model GRAMM, we simulate the flow in a larger domain around the two cities at 100 m resolution taking the complex topography and influences of different land cover on surface-atmosphere exchange of heat and momentum into account. These flow fields serve as initial and boundary conditions for the nested model GRAL, which simulates the flow inside the city at building-resolving scale (5 m resolution) based on the Reynolds-Averaged-Navier-Stokes equations, and computes the transport and dispersion of air pollutants in a Lagrangian framework. For computational efficiency, both GRAMM and GRAL simulations are run for a fixed catalog of 1008 weather situations varying in terms of background wind speed, direction and stability. Hourly time-series of meteorology and air pollutants are constructed from these steady-state solutions by selecting, for each

  8. Air Pollution. Resource Paper No. 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryson, Reid A.; Kutzbach, John E.

    These Resource Papers have been developed as expository documents for the use of both the student and the instructor in undergraduate college geography courses at the introductory and advanced level. They are designed to supplement existing texts and to fill a gap between significant research in American geography and readily accessible materials.…

  9. Assessment of Air Pollution and GHG Mitigation Strategies in Malaysia using the GAINS Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Planning for future energy development, taking into account the national obligations to mitigate climate change and air quality pressures is a major challenge faced by Malaysia. This research facilitates the impact assessment of simultaneous control of air pollution and GHG abatement through a set of emission scenarios while considering current and future Malaysian policies. The IIASAs GAINS (Greenhouse Gas-Air Pollution Interactions and Synergies) model is used for the estimation of emissions and costs, and the outputs of the MESSAGE and MAED energy models provide the underlying energy projections by 2050. Results show that current air-quality policies are efficient in keeping emissions growth at moderate rate, however, significant reduction potential exists if best available control technologies are introduced. Malaysian climate policies - modeled here for power sector - aiming at the -40 % decrease in carbon-intensity, result in important reductions of air pollutants, while the overall co-benefits can be substantial if other sectors are tackled by climate strategies. Initial results indicate the reduction of air pollutant control cost due to climate measures is comparable to the invoked cost-increase in power sector by 2030. Thereby, these co-benefits help to moderate total expenditures for meeting national climate policy targets. (author)

  10. Personal computers pollute indoor air: effects on perceived air quality, SBS symptoms and productivity in offices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bako-Biro, Zsolt; Wargocki, Pawel; Weschler, Charles J.;

    2002-01-01

    Perceived air quality and Sick Building Syndrome (SBS) symptoms were studied in a low-polluting office space ventilated at an air change rate of 2 h-1 (10 L/s per person with 6 people present) with and without personal computers (PCs). Other environmental parameters were kept constant. Thirty...... was reduced and air freshness increased; all effects were significant. In the presence of PCs the performance of text typing significantly decreased. The sensory pollution load of the PCs was found to be 3 olf per PC, i.e. three times the load of the occupants. Present results indicate negative effects of PCs...

  11. 76 FR 30604 - Approval of the Clean Air Act, Section 112(l), Authority for Hazardous Air Pollutants...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-26

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 63 Approval of the Clean Air Act, Section 112(l), Authority for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Perchloroethylene Air Emission Standards for Dry Cleaning Facilities: State of Maine Department... substitution for the amended National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for...

  12. Assessment of Effects of Air Pollution on Daily Outpatient Visits using the Air Quality Index

    OpenAIRE

    Mu, Haosheng; Otani, Shinji; Okamoto,Mikizo; Yokoyama, Yae; Tokushima, Yasuko; Onishi, Kazunari; Hosoda, Takenobu; KUROZAWA, Youichi

    2014-01-01

    Background The air quality index (AQI) is widely used to characterize the quality of ambient air. Chinese cities officially report the AQI on a daily basis. To assess the possible effects of air pollution on daily outpatient visits, we examined the association between AQI and the daily outpatient count. Methods Daily data on outpatient visits to each clinical department were collected from the Z county hospital of Datong City, China. The collection period was between 5 April and 30 June, 2012...

  13. 盆栽植物对室内甲醛空气污染的净化研究进展%Research Advance in Purification of Formaldehyde-polluted Indoor Air by Potted Plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何勤勤; 周俊辉

    2014-01-01

    Formaldehyde ( FDH) is a main indoor air pollutant , and it can cause serious hazards to human ’ s physical and mental health.Therefore, it is one of today’s hot research subjects that the air pollutants from construction and decoration materials can be absorbed and removed by potted plants .Many researches showed that the indoor FDH concentration could be reduced effec -tively by many potted plants .The purification of FHD maybe included several aspects , such as assimilation by stems or leaves of potted plants , transformation and metabolism by plant cells , and degradation by the rhizospheric microorganisms .There maybe three ways for potted plants to react with FDH pollution:the first one had high absorption but weak resistance to FDH damage , showing obvious hurt external morphology;the second one had weak absorption but strong resistance to FDH damage , revealing normal exter-nal morphology through taking avoidance strategy to protect itself;the third one showed the strongest absorption and transforming a-bility to FDH with more or less hurt responses .The purification mechanism of formaldehyde -polluted indoor air by potted plants still needs for further researches .%甲醛是室内主要的空气污染物,严重影响了人们的身心健康,寻找净化空气污染的高效盆栽植物成为近年来研究的热点。许多研究表明:盆栽植物都能有效地降低室内甲醛的浓度,对甲醛的净化作用可能有通过盆栽植物的茎叶表面吸收、植物细胞转化代谢、根际微生物吸收降解等几个方面。植物对甲醛净化可能存在3种途径或机制:第1种是对甲醛吸收能力强,但抗性弱,外部形态伤害明显;第2种是植物单位干物质吸收甲醛量较少,但采取保护自己的规避策略,保持外部形态的完整;第3种是吸收并转化,这类植物单位干物质甲醛吸收量高,同时外部形态表现基本正常或正常。对盆栽植物净化甲醛空气

  14. Air Pollution Determination Using a Surveillance Internet Protocol Camera Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow Jeng, C. J.; Hwee San, Hslim; Matjafri, M. Z.; Abdullah, Abdul, K.

    Air pollution has long been a problem in the industrial nations of the West It has now become an increasing source of environmental degradation in the developing nations of east Asia Malaysia government has built a network to monitor air pollution But the cost of these networks is high and limits the knowledge of pollutant concentration to specific points of the cities A methodology based on a surveillance internet protocol IP camera for the determination air pollution concentrations was presented in this study The objective of this study was to test the feasibility of using IP camera data for estimating real time particulate matter of size less than 10 micron PM10 in the campus of USM The proposed PM10 retrieval algorithm derived from the atmospheric optical properties was employed in the present study In situ data sets of PM10 measurements and sun radiation measurements at the ground surface were collected simultaneously with the IP camera images using a DustTrak meter and a handheld spectroradiometer respectively The digital images were separated into three bands namely red green and blue bands for multispectral algorithm calibration The digital number DN of the IP camera images were converted into radiance and reflectance values After that the reflectance recorded by the digital camera was subtracted by the reflectance of the known surface and we obtained the reflectance caused by the atmospheric components The atmospheric reflectance values were used for regression analysis Regression technique was employed to determine suitable

  15. Terahertz sensor for air pollution monitoring from spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Rui; Guo, Aiyan

    2016-07-01

    Terahertz wave is a radio wave which wavelength between infrared and microwave, substantial is from 0.1-1mm that is 300-3000GHz(0.3-3THz). Compare to microwave and visible/infrared it is advantage of resolution and better penetration in atmosphere respectively, and because of wavelength is similar to scale of micro-particle of air pollution, the absorption coefficient due to the many relevant molecules have a maximum signature in the THz region, such as SO2、CH4、H2S、NH3、CO、O3 etc. of molecules of polluted atmosphere . This paper present a conceptional solution of THz sensor for air pollution sounder which using of large aperture antenna and FSS with 15 channels in 0.183-1.5THz region, each channel with 2MHz by extreme narrow band filter for detecting signature of polluted air. Analysis data show that 2Km spatial resolution at 700km altitude orbit. Sensitive is about 10-12W/Hz1/2 level at cryogenic temp.

  16. Particulate matter air pollution components and risk for lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raaschou-Nielsen, O; Beelen, R; Wang, M.;

    2016-01-01

    geocoded baseline addresses and assessed air pollution with land-use regression models for eight elements (Cu, Fe, K, Ni, S, Si, V and Zn) in size fractions of PM2.5 and PM10. We used Cox regression models with adjustment for potential confounders for cohort-specific analyses and random effect models......BACKGROUND: Particulate matter (PM) air pollution is a human lung carcinogen; however, the components responsible have not been identified. We assessed the associations between PM components and lung cancer incidence. METHODS: We used data from 14 cohort studies in eight European countries. We.......59; 1.12-2.26 per 2ng/m(3)) and PM10 K (1.17; 1.02-1.33 per 100ng/m(3)). In two-pollutant models, associations between PM10 and PM2.5 and lung cancer were largely explained by PM2.5 S. CONCLUSIONS: This study indicates that the association between PM in air pollution and lung cancer can be attributed...

  17. Tracing global supply chains to air pollution hotspots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Daniel; Kanemoto, Keiichiro

    2016-09-01

    While high-income countries have made significant strides since the 1970s in improving air quality, air pollution continues to rise in many developing countries and the world as a whole. A significant share of the pollution burden in developing countries can be attributed to production for export to consumers in high-income nations. However, it remains a challenge to quantify individual actors’ share of responsibility for pollution, and to involve parties other than primary emitters in cleanup efforts. Here we present a new spatially explicit modeling approach to link SO2, NO x , and PM10 severe emissions hotspots to final consumers via global supply chains. These maps show developed countries reducing their emissions domestically but driving new pollution hotspots in developing countries. This is also the first time a spatially explicit footprint inventory has been established. Linking consumers and supply chains to emissions hotspots creates opportunities for other parties to participate alongside primary emitters and local regulators in pollution abatement efforts.

  18. Olfactory dysfunction, olfactory bulb pathology and urban air pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderón-Garcidueñas, Lilian; Franco-Lira, Maricela; Henríquez-Roldán, Carlos; Osnaya, Norma; González-Maciel, Angelica; Reynoso-Robles, Rafael; Villarreal-Calderon, Rafael; Herritt, Lou; Brooks, Diane; Keefe, Sheyla; Palacios-Moreno, Juan; Villarreal-Calderon, Rodolfo; Torres-Jardón, Ricardo; Medina-Cortina, Humberto; Delgado-Chávez, Ricardo; Aiello-Mora, Mario; Maronpot, Robert R.; Doty, Richard L

    2010-01-01

    Mexico City (MC) residents are exposed to severe air pollution and exhibit olfactory bulb inflammation. We compared the olfactory function of individuals living under conditions of extreme air pollution to that of controls from a relatively clean environment and explore associations between olfaction scores, apolipoprotein E (APOE) status, and pollution exposure. The olfactory bulbs (OBs) of 35 MC and 9 controls 20.8 ± 8.5 y were assessed by light and electron microscopy. The University of Pennsylvania Smell Identification Test (UPSIT) was administered to 62 MC / 25 controls 21.2 ±2.7 y. MC subjects had significantly lower UPSIT scores: 34.24 ± 0.42 versus controls 35.76 ± 0.40, p=0.03. Olfaction deficits were present in 35.5% MC and 12% of controls. MC APOE ε 4 carriers failed 2.4 ± 0.54 items in the 10-item smell identification scale from the UPSIT related to Alzheimer's disease, while APOE 2/3 and 3/3 subjects failed 1.36 ± 0.16 items, p = 0.01. MC residents exhibited OB endothelial hyperplasia, neuronal accumulation of particles (2/35), and immunoreactivity to beta amyloid βA42 (29/35) and/or α-synuclein (4/35) in neurons, glial cells and/or blood vessels. Ultrafine particles were present in OBs endothelial cytoplasm and basement membranes. Control OBs were unremarkable. Air pollution exposure is associated with olfactory dysfunction and OB pathology, APOE 4 may confer greater susceptibility to such abnormalities, and ultrafine particles could play a key role in the OB pathology. This study contributes to our understanding of the influences of air pollution on olfaction and its potential contribution to neurodegeneration. PMID:19297138

  19. Impact of air temperature, relative humidity, air movement and pollution on eye blinking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melikov, Arsen Krikor; Lyubenova, Velina S.; Skwarczynski, Mariusz;

    2011-01-01

    The effect of indoor air temperature, relative humidity, velocity and pollution on occupants’ eye blink frequency (BF) was examined. In total sixty subjects participated in eight 4 hour experiments without and with facially applied air movement under individual control of the subjects. Air movement...... of either polluted room air supplied isothermally or clean and cool air was used. Eye blinking video record for the last 15 min of each exposure were analysed. The increase of the room air temperature and relative humidity from 23 °C and 40% to 26 °C and 70% or to 28 °C and 70% decreased the BF....... At temperature of 26 °C and relative humidity of 70% facially applied flow of polluted room air didn’t have significant impact on BF in comparison without air movement. The increase of BF due to decrease of temperature and humidity and increase of velocity may be compensated due to the increase in air cleanness....

  20. Solution to Reduce Air Environmental Pollution from Ships

    OpenAIRE

    Phẁm Tân HỚu; Nguyen Tri Minh

    2015-01-01

    Exhaust gas emissions from ships are increasingly polluting the air environment seriously. Therefore, the MARPOL 73/78 Annex VI is applied for all ships from 2017, Annex VI provided that the concentrations of NOx,SOx CO contained in ship’s exhaust gases must be less than 6.4 g/kWh, 0.6 g/kWh, and 5.5g/kWh respectively. Today, there are many solutions to reduce pollution emissions from exhaust gas of ships, such as improving combustion, using oil emulsion, using biofuel,…However, these solutio...

  1. Survey of air pollutants emitted from rendering plant of poultry slaughterhouse and design of local ventilation system and suitable collector for control and treatment of air pollutants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gh Hesam

    2014-07-01

    Conclusion: Application of local exhaust ventilation system and integrated collectors for control of air pollutants in rendering plant can remove large amounts of particulate and gaseous pollutants. Control of these pollutants can cause loss of smell nuisance and environmental pollution and improving the health and welfare of workers and neighboring residents of such industries.

  2. Coastal lows and sulfur air pollution in Central Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallardo, L.; Olivares, G.; Langner, J.; Aarhus, B.

    Air pollutants in Santiago (33.5°S, 70.8°W, 500 m a.s.l.), a city with 5 million inhabitants, located in a basin in Central Chile surrounded by the high Andes, frequently exceed air quality standards. This affects human health and it stresses vegetation. The most extreme winter and fall pollution events occur when the subsident regime of the Pacific high is further enhanced by coastal lows (CLs), which bring down the base of the subsidence inversion. Under these conditions, the air quality worsens significantly giving rise to acute air pollution episodes. We assess the ability of a regional transport/chemistry/deposition model (MATCH) coupled to a meteorological model (High Resolution Limited Area Model—HIRLAM) to simulate the evolution of oxidized sulfur (SO x) in connection with intensive CLs. We focus on SO x since it is an environmental issue of concern, and the emissions and concentrations of SO x have been regularly monitored making it easier to bracket model outputs for SO x than for other pollutants. Furthermore, the SO x emissions in the area are very large, i.e., about 0.4% of the global anthropogenic sources. Comparisons with observations indicate that the combination of HIRLAM and MATCH is a suitable tool for describing the regional patterns of dispersion associated with CLs. However, the low number and the limited geographical coverage of reliable air quality data preclude a complete evaluation of the model. Nevertheless, we show evidence of an enhanced contribution of the largest copper smelter in the area, i.e., Caletones, to the burden of SO x in the Santiago basin, especially in the form of sulfate associated to fine particles (diameters basin.

  3. 76 FR 31242 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Santa Barbara County Air Pollution Control...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-31

    ... Environmental protection, Air pollution control, Incorporation by reference, Intergovernmental relations... Identification of plan. * * * * * (c) * * * (359) * * * (i) * * * (E) Santa Barbara County Air Pollution Control... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Santa Barbara County...

  4. A possible link between particulate matter air pollution and type 2 diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Volders, Evelien

    2008-01-01

    Particulate matter (PM) air pollution is most commonly referred to as PM10 and can be subdivided into coarse particles, fine particles and ultrafine particles. Sources of PM air pollution include combustion from car engines and industrial processes. Expos

  5. Residential outdoor air pollution and allergen sensitization in schoolchildren in Oslo, Norway

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oftedal, B.; Brunekreef, B.; Nystad, W.; Nafstad, P.

    2007-01-01

    Background Epidemiological studies that have investigated the association between air pollution and atopy have found inconsistent results. Furthermore, often exposure to outdoor air pollution has had limited quality, and more individual exposure is needed. Objective To investigate the relations betw

  6. e-compendium - Air Pollution Prevention in an International and EU Environmental Law Perspective, Summer 2014

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steen, Ulla

    2014-01-01

    E-compendium Air Pollution Prevention in an International and EU Environmental Law Perspective, Summer 2014......E-compendium Air Pollution Prevention in an International and EU Environmental Law Perspective, Summer 2014...

  7. Acute Effects of Fine Particulate Air Pollution on ST Segment Height: A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: The mechanisms for the relationship between particulate air pollution and cardiac disease are not fully understood. Air pollution-induced myocardial ischemia is one of the potentially important mechanisms. Methods: We investigate the acute effects and the time cours...

  8. Research review: Indoor air quality control techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Techniques for controlling the concentration of radon, formaldehyde, and combustion products in the indoor air are reviewed. The most effective techniques, which are generally based on limiting or reducing indoor pollutant source strengths, can decrease indoor pollutant concentrations by a factor of 3 to 10. Unless the initial ventilation rate is unusually low, it is difficult to reduce indoor pollutant concentrations more than approximately 50% by increasing the ventilation rate of an entire building. However, the efficiency of indoor pollutant control by ventilation can be enhanced through the use of local exhaust ventilation near concentrated sources of pollutants, by minimizing short circuiting of air from supply to exhaust when pollutant sources are dispersed and, in some situations, by promoting a displacement flow of air and pollutants toward the exhaust. Active air cleaning is also examined briefly. Filtration and electrostatic air cleaning for removal of particles from the indoor air are the most practical and effective currently available techniques of air cleaning. 49 refs., 7 figs

  9. Hazardous air pollutant testing at the LGTI coal gasification plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wetherold, R.G.; Williams, W.A.; Maxwell, D.P.; Mann, R.M.

    1995-06-01

    A comprehensive hazardous air pollutant test program was conducted in November 1994 at the Louisiana Gasification Technology, Inc. (LGTI), plant in Plaquemine, Louisiana. This program was sponsored by DOE/PETC, the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), and Destec Energy. In May of 1995, additional testing of the hot syngas stream was conducted at the LGTI facility under this same program. DOE/METC provided additional technical support for the hot gas testing effort. In this paper, the sampling and analytical methods used during the November and May test program are summarized. The hot gas testing is described in greater detail. In particular, the hot gas sampling probe and probe insertion/withdrawal system are discussed. The sampling probe was designed to collect particulate and extract gas samples at process temperature and pressure. The design of the probe system is described, and the operating procedures are summarized. The operation of the probe during the testing is discussed, and photographs of the testing are provided. In addition to the summaries and descriptions of the test methodologies, selected preliminary emissions results of the November sampling are included in the paper.

  10. Study of air pollution in Buenos Aires city. Appendix 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The work performed since 1993 on the study of the elemental profile of Buenos Aires atmosphere is presented. Both aerosol direct sampling and biomonitors have been used and the samples have been analyzed mainly by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA). Due to problems with XRF, Anodic Stripping Voltammetry has been chosen for lead determination and Ion Chromatography for soluble anions. For aerosol direct sampling, analytical and sampling methods are described, as well as the sampling campaigns. Experiments have been performed for studying differences between day/night elemental concentrations along the week and a possible seasonal dependence. Some results of mass concentrations and others from INAA are presented. Sampling with the 'Gent sampler' began during August 1994 at an urban residential area of the city. The results of mass concentrations for the first 28 pairs of samples are shown together with some INAA results, as this is the only technique used for the analysis. Lichens and tree bark were the chosen biomonitors. Sampling and analytical methods by INAA are exposed, presenting some of the results that have been obtained. The participation in the aerosol analysis for the Ushuaia Global Atmospheric Watch Station is also commented. (author)

  11. Relationship between ozone and the air pollutants in Peninsular Malaysia for 2003 retrieved from SCIAMACHY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, K. C.; Lim, H. S.; Mat Jafri, M. Z.

    2013-05-01

    Since few decades ago, air pollution has become a hot topic of environmental and atmospheric research due to the impact of air pollution on human health. Ozone is one of the important chemical constituent of the atmosphere, which plays a key role in atmospheric energy budget and chemistry, air quality and global change. Results from the analysis of the retrieved monthly data from Scanning Imaging Absorption Spectrometer for Atmospheric CHartographY (SCIAMACHY) were utilized, in order to analyze the impact of air pollutants (CO2, CH4, H2O, and NO2) on the ozone in Peninsular Malaysia for 2003 using multiple regression analysis. SCIAMACHY onboard ENVISAT as part of the atmospheric chemistry payload of the third European Space Agency (ESA) Earth observation, is the first satellite instrument whose measurements is enough precise and sensitive for all the greenhouse gases to make observation at all atmospheric altitude levels down to the Earth's surface. Among the four pollutants, ozone was most affected by water vapor (H2O vapor), indicated by a strong beta coefficient (-0.769 - 0.997), depends on the seasonal variety. In addition, CO2 also shows a strong Beta coefficient (-0.654 - 0.717) and also affected by the seasonal variation. The variation of pollutants on the average explains change 50.1% of the ozone. This means that about 50.1% of the ozone is attributed to these pollutant gases. The SCIAMACHY data and the satellite measurements successfully identify the increase of the atmospheric air pollutants over the study area.

  12. Participatory measurements of individual exposure to air pollution in urban areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madelin, Malika; Duché, Sarah; Dupuis, Vincent

    2016-04-01

    Air pollution is a major environmental issue in urban areas. Chronic and high concentration exposure presents a health risk with cardiovascular and respiratory problems and longer term nervous, carcinogenic and endocrine problems. In addition to the estimations based on simulations of both background and regional pollution and of the pollution induced by the traffic, knowing exposure of each individual is a key issue. This exposure reflects the high variability of pollution at fine spatial and time scales, according to the proximity of emission sources and the urban morphology outside. The emergence of citizen science and the progress of miniaturized electronics, low-cost and accessible to (almost) everyone, offers new opportunities for the monitoring of air pollution, but also for the citizens' awareness of their individual exposure to air pollution. In this communication, we propose to present a participatory research project 'What is your air?' (project funded by the Île-de-France region), which aims at raising awareness on the theme of air quality, its monitoring with sensors assembled in a FabLab workshop and an online participatory mapping. Beyond the discussion on technical choices, the stages of manufacture or the sensor calibration procedures, we discuss the measurements made, in this case the fine particle concentration measurements, which are dated and georeferenced (communication via a mobile phone). They show high variability between the measurements (in part linked to the substrates, land use, traffic) and low daily contrasts. In addition to the analysis of the measurements and their comparison with the official data, we also discuss the choice of representation of information, including mapping, and therefore the message about pollution to communicate.

  13. An empirical bayes method for comparing air pollution data to air quality standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suggs, Jack C.; Curran, Thomas C.

    Air pollution concentrations are often characterized by skewed distributions. For example, 24-h suspended particulate mass concentrations have historically been characterized by a 2-parameter lognormal distribution (Larsen, 1969, J. Air. Pollut. Control. Ass.19, 24-30). The error in making measurements of these concentrations also conforms to a distribution that is more symmetric and can usually be approximated by the normal distribution, often with the added feature that the error variation is a function of concentration level. Air pollution measurements are often used to determine status with respect to legal standards such as the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) (Fed. Reg. 36, 8186, 1971; 44, 8202, 1979). In general, these standards do not explicitly account for measurement error. Using Bayesian mathematics, a model is developed which deals with the probability of the "true" concentration exceeding the NAAQS given a measurement above the NAAQS. Several hypothetical examples are used to demonstrate that Bayesian techniques can combine both pollution history and instrument precision into a probablistic model for comparing air pollution data to NAAQS.

  14. A Monitoring of Air Pollutants (CO, SO2 and NO) in Ambient Air Near an Industrial Area

    OpenAIRE

    Radin Mohamed Radin Maya Saphira; Hakim Rahim Ahmad Faizol; Mohd Kassim Amir Hashim

    2016-01-01

    A monitoring assessment was carried out to measure the concentration of air pollutants in ambient air in the university campus, which is located adjacent to the industrial area. The air pollutants were monitored for CO (Carbon monoxide), SO2 (Sulfur dioxide) and NO (Nitrous oxide) at the three sampling points, with distance reference based from the industrial area. Air pollutant gases were sampled from the I-Brid Toxic Gases Analyzer with the sampling hour referred to the Recommended Malaysia...

  15. Spatial and temporal characteristics of air quality and air pollutants in 2013 in Beijing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Shujun; Cao, Hui; Chen, Ying; Wu, Chengzhen; Hong, Tao; Fan, Hailan

    2016-07-01

    Air pollution has become an ever more critical issue in Beijing in more recent years. In this study, we use the air quality index (AQI), corresponding primary pollutant types and meteorological data which are collected at 16 monitoring stations in Beijing between January 2013 and December, 2013 studying the spatial and temporal variations of air quality and air pollutants. The results show that PM2.5 was the most serious pollutant, followed by O3. The average PM2.5 mass concentration was 119.5 ± 13.8 μg m(-3) in Beijing. In addition, the air quality varies across different seasons. More specifically, winter season showed the worst air quality. Moreover, while particulate matter (PM2.5 and PM10) concentrations were relatively higher in the spring and winter seasons, gaseous pollutants (O3 and NO2) were more serious in the summer and autumn. In terms of spatial heterogeneity, the findings showed that AQI and PM2.5 concentrations were higher in south and lower in the north of the city, and the O3 showed exactly a pattern with the opposite direction-higher in the north and lower in the south. NO2 was found to have a greater impact on the central region compared with that in other regions. Furthermore, PM2.5 was found to be positively correlated with the relative humidity, but negatively correlated with wind speed and atmospheric pressure (P air pollution in Beijing.

  16. Can air pollution negate the health benefits of cycling and walking?

    OpenAIRE

    Tainio, Marko; de Nazelle, Audrey; Götschi, Thomas; Kahlmeier, Sonja; Rojas-Rueda, David; Nieuwenhuijse, Mark J; Sa, Thiago H; Kelly, Paul; Woodcock, James

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Active travel (cycling, walking) is beneficial for health due to increased physical activity (PA). However, active travel may increase the intake of air pollution, leading to negative health consequences. We examined the risk-benefit balance between active travel related PA and exposure to air pollution across a range of air pollution and PA scenarios. Methods: The health effects of active travel and air pollution were estimated through changes in all-cause mortality for different...

  17. Can air pollution negate the health benefits of cycling and walking?

    OpenAIRE

    Tainio, Marko; De Nazelle, Audrey; Götschi, Thomas; Kahlmeier, Sonja; Rojas-Rueda, David; Nieuwenhuijse, Mark J; Sa, Thiago H; Kelly, Paul; Woodcock, James

    2016-01-01

    Active travel (cycling, walking) is beneficial for the health due to increased physical activity (PA). However, active travel may increase the intake of air pollution, leading to negative health consequences. We examined the risk–benefit balance between active travel related PA and exposure to air pollution across a range of air pollution and PA scenarios. The health effects of active travel and air pollution were estimated through changes in all-cause mortality for different levels of active...

  18. Linking stroke mortality with air pollution, income, and greenness in northwest Florida: an ecological geographical study

    OpenAIRE

    Rao K Ranga; Liebens Johan; Hu Zhiyong

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Relatively few studies have examined the association between air pollution and stroke mortality. Inconsistent and inclusive results from existing studies on air pollution and stroke justify the need to continue to investigate the linkage between stroke and air pollution. No studies have been done to investigate the association between stroke and greenness. The objective of this study was to examine if there is association of stroke with air pollution, income and greenness ...

  19. 75 FR 34647 - Approval of the Clean Air Act, Section 112(l), Authority for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Air...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-18

    .... See 64 FR 67793. Continuous web cleaning machines are solvent cleaning machines in which parts such as... Pollutants: Air Emission Standards for Halogenated Solvent Cleaning Machines: State of Rhode Island... Emissions from Organic Solvent Cleaning (``RI Regulation No. 36''), and the Rhode Island Air...

  20. <span class="hlt">Air</span> <span class="hlt">Pollution</span> Distribution under an Elevated Train Station

    Air Pollution Distribution under an Elevated Train Station

    (A Case Study Downtown Bangkok, Silom Station)

    OpenAIRE

    Charusombat, Umarporn

    1998-01-01

    To solve traffic congestion in Bangkok, the Bangkok Mass Transit system (BTS) constructed an overhead rail system with 24 stations. The BTS train station, S2, in this study area covers Silom road and obstructs the air pollutant dispersion in a congestion area. The 1: 200 physical model of the buildings along Silom road with the train station, S2, was simulated in this research to determine the air pollutant dispersion in the train station area. A tracer gas (CO2) was emit...