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Sample records for air pollution oxidative

  1. Traffic air pollution and oxidized LDL.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lotte Jacobs

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Epidemiologic studies indirectly suggest that air pollution accelerates atherosclerosis. We hypothesized that individual exposure to particulate matter (PM derived from fossil fuel would correlate with plasma concentrations of oxidized low-density lipoprotein (LDL, taken as a marker of atherosclerosis. We tested this hypothesis in patients with diabetes, who are at high risk for atherosclerosis. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In a cross-sectional study of non-smoking adult outpatients with diabetes we assessed individual chronic exposure to PM by measuring the area occupied by carbon in airway macrophages, collected by sputum induction and by determining the distance from the patient's residence to a major road, through geocoding. These exposure indices were regressed against plasma concentrations of oxidized LDL, von Willebrand factor and plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1. We could assess the carbon load of airway macrophages in 79 subjects (58 percent. Each doubling in the distance of residence from major roads was associated with a 0.027 µm(2 decrease (95% confidence interval (CI: -0.048 to -0.0051 in the carbon load of airway macrophages. Independently from other covariates, we found that each increase of 0.25 µm(2 [interquartile range (IQR] in carbon load was associated with an increase of 7.3 U/L (95% CI: 1.3 to 13.3 in plasma oxidized LDL. Each doubling in distance of residence from major roads was associated with a decrease of -2.9 U/L (95% CI: -5.2 to -0.72 in oxidized LDL. Neither the carbon load of macrophages nor the distance from residence to major roads, were associated with plasma von Willebrand factor or PAI-1. CONCLUSIONS: The observed positive association, in a susceptible group of the general population, between plasma oxidized LDL levels and either the carbon load of airway macrophages or the proximity of the subject's residence to busy roads suggests a proatherogenic effect of traffic air pollution.

  2. The Oxides of Nitrogen in Air Pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    California State Air Resources Board, Sacramento.

    Research on the health effects of oxides of nitrogen and on the role of oxides of nitrogen in producing photochemical smog effects is presented in this report. Prepared by the California State Department of Public Health at the request of the State Legislature, it gives a comprehensive review of available information, as well as the need for air…

  3. Air Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Air pollution is a mixture of solid particles and gases in the air. Car emissions, chemicals from factories, dust, ... a gas, is a major part of air pollution in cities. When ozone forms air pollution, it's ...

  4. Air Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Air pollution is a mixture of solid particles and gases in the air. Car emissions, chemicals from factories, dust, pollen and ... Ozone, a gas, is a major part of air pollution in cities. When ozone forms air pollution, ...

  5. Alveolar macrophage cytokine response to air pollution particles: Oxidant mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alveolar macrophages (AMs) primed with LPS and treated with concentrated ambient air particles (CAPs) showed enhanced release of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and provide an in vitro model for the amplified effects of air pollution particles seen in people with preexisting lung disease. To investigate the mechanism(s) by which CAPs mediate TNF release in primed rat AMs, we first tested the effect of a panel of antioxidants. N-Acetyl-L-cysteine (20 mM), dimethyl thiourea (20 mM) and catalase (5 μM) significantly inhibited TNF release by primed AMs incubated with CAPs. Conversely, when LPS-primed AMs were treated with CAPs in the presence of exogenous oxidants (H2O2 generated by glucose oxidase, 10 μM/h), TNF release and cell toxicity was significantly increased. The soluble fraction of CAPs suspensions caused most of the increased bioactivity in the presence of exogenous H2O2. The metal chelator deferoxamine (DFO) strongly inhibited the interaction of the soluble fraction with H2O2 but had no effect on the bioactivity of the insoluble CAPs fraction. We conclude that CAPs can mediate their effects in primed AMs by acting on oxidant-sensitive cytokine release in at least two distinct ways. In the primed cell, insoluble components of PM mediate enhanced TNF production that is H2O2-dependent (catalase-sensitive) yet independent of iron (DFO-insensitive). In the presence of exogenous H2O2 released by AMs, PMNs, or other lung cells within an inflamed alveolar milieu, soluble iron released from air particles can also mediate cytokine release and cell toxicity

  6. Air Pollution

    OpenAIRE

    Lawther, P. J.

    2014-01-01

    The human costs of air pollution are considerable in Jordan. According to a report published in 2000 by the World Bank under the Mediterranean Environmental Technical Assistance Program (METAP), approximately 600 people die prematurely each year in Jordan because of urban pollution. 50-90% of air pollution in Jordanian towns is caused by road traffic. Readings taken in 2007 by Jordanian researchers showed that levels of black carbon particles in the air were higher in urban areas (caused by v...

  7. Air Pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Air quality is affected by many types of pollutants that are emitted from various sources, including stationary and mobile. These sources release both criteria and hazardous air pollutants, which cause health effects, ecological harm, and material damage. They are generally categ...

  8. Air pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Australian cites experience a number of current and emerging air pollution problems. Concentrations of traditional primary pollutants such as CO, lead and dust have fallen in recent years as a consequence of air pollutant control measures, and the widespread introduction of lead-free petrol. However, recommended guidelines for ozone, the principal component of photochemical smog, are regularly exceeded in major capital cities in the summer months. In addition, it is predicted that extensive urban expansion will lead to much greater dependence on the motor vehicle as the primary means of transportation. Effects of air pollution are felt at a variety of scales. Traditionally, concerns about gaseous and particulate emissions from industrial and vehicular sources were focused on local impacts due to exposure to toxic species such as CO and lead. As noted above, concentrations of these pollutants have been reduced by a variety of control measures. Pollutants which have effects at a regional scale, such as photochemically-produced ozone, and acidic gases and particles have proved more difficult to reduce. In general, these pollutants arc not the result of direct emissions to atmosphere, but result from complex secondary processes driven by photochemical reactions of species such as NO2 and aldehydes. In addition, global effects of gaseous and particulate emissions to the atmosphere have received significant recent attention, concentrations of atmospheric CO2 with predicted impacts on global climate, and ozone depletion due to anthropogenic emissions of chlorine-containing chemicals are the two major examples. Combustion processes from petrol- and diesel-fuelled vehicles, make major contributions to air pollution, and the magnitude of this contribution is discussed in this article

  9. Nitric oxide in exhaled and aspirated nasal air as an objective measure of human response to indoor air pollution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolarik, Barbara; Lagercrantz, L.; Sundell, Jan

    2009-01-01

    NO analyzer. Sixteen healthy female subjects were exposed to two indoor air pollutants and to a clean reference condition for 4.5 h. Subjective assessments of the environment were obtained by questionnaires. After exposure (4.5 h) to the two polluted conditions a small increase in NO concentration in......The concentration of nitric oxide (NO) in exhaled and aspirated nasal air was used to objectively assess human response to indoor air pollutants in a climate chamber exposure experiment. The concentration of NO was measured before exposure, after 2, and 4.5 h of exposure, using a chemiluminescence...... exhaled air was observed. After exposure to the reference condition the mean NO concentration was significantly reduced compared to pre-exposure. Together these changes resulted in significant differences in exhaled NO between exposure to reference and polluted conditions. NO in nasal air was not affected...

  10. Hazardous Air Pollutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Facebook Twitter Google+ Pinterest Contact Us Hazardous Air Pollutants Hazardous air pollutants are those known to cause ... protect against adverse environmental effects. About Hazardous Air Pollutants What are hazardous air pollutants? Health and Environmental ...

  11. Impact of Air Pollutants on Oxidative Stress in Common Autophagy-Mediated Aging Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Saber Numan

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric pollution-induced cellular oxidative stress is probably one of the pathogenic mechanisms involved in most of the common autophagy-mediated aging diseases, including neurodegenerative diseases such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS, Alzheimer’s, disease, as well as Paget’s disease of bone with or without frontotemporal dementia and inclusion body myopathy. Oxidative stress has serious damaging effects on the cellular contents: DNA, RNA, cellular proteins, and cellular organelles. Autophagy has a pivotal role in recycling these damaged non-functional organelles and misfolded or unfolded proteins. In this paper, we highlight, through a narrative review of the literature, that when autophagy processes are impaired during aging, in presence of cumulative air pollution-induced cellular oxidative stress and due to a direct effect on air pollutant, autophagy-mediated aging diseases may occur.

  12. INDOOR AIR POLLUTION

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmet Soysal; Yucel Demiral

    2007-01-01

    The existance of hazardious materials including biological, chemical, and physical agents such as carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, sulphur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, radon, volotile organic compounds, microorganisms in houses and the other non-industrilized buildings have been defined as “indoor air pollution”. Indoor air pollutants could possible arised from inside or outside environment and categorized into six subgroups. Almost 80% Turkish population have living in the urban areas...

  13. Measurement of inflammation and oxidative stress following drastic changes in air pollution during the Beijing Olympics: a panel study approach

    OpenAIRE

    Kipen, Howard; Rich, David,; Huang, Wei; Zhu, Tong; Wang, Guangfa; Hu, Min; Lu, Shou-En; Ohman-Strickland, Pamela; Zhu, Ping; Wang, Yuedan; Zhang, Jim

    2010-01-01

    Ambient air pollution has been linked to cardiovascular and respiratory morbidity and mortality in epidemiology studies. Frequently, oxidative and nitrosative stress are hypothesized to mediate these pollution effects, however precise mechanisms remain unclear. This paper describes the methodology for a major panel study to examine air pollution effects on these and other mechanistic pathways. The study took place during the drastic air pollution changes accompanying the 2008 Olympics in Beij...

  14. Photochemical air pollution syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamming, W.J.; MacBeth, W.C.; Chass, R.L.

    1967-01-01

    There are two distinct pollution problems in the Los Angeles Basin - one in winter, the other most frequently in summer and fall. In winter the concentrations of carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxide and black filterable aerosols are higher than in summer, but the secondary pollutants such as ozone and photochemical oxidants are not as high. The photochemical air pollution syndrome is due to a pattern set by previous smog attacks. This pattern is due to low wind speeds, low inversion heights, a trajectory to carry the pollution and sufficient sunlight to photodissociate the nitrogen dioxide formed and to form nitric oxide and atomic oxygen. The results are high levels of oxidant or ozone and large quantities of particles. 5 references, 9 figures, 7 tables.

  15. Reactions of oxidant air pollutants with model compounds for pulmonary surfactant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lai, C.C.; Finlayson-Pitts, B.J. (California State Univ., Fullerton (USA))

    1990-01-01

    The authors report here results of studies of the reactions of a mono-saturated phosphatidylcholine found as one of the components of pulmonary surfactant,{beta}-oleoyl-{gamma}-palmitoyl L-{alpha}-phosphatidylcholine (OPPC), with three oxidant air pollutants, O{sub 3}, N{sub 2}O{sub 5} and NO{sub 2} respectively. Because this work is intended primarily to develop the analytical methodology needed to study the phosphatidylcholines reactions, much higher concentrations of the oxidants than found in ambient air were used. The major reaction products have been separated and identified. We report what appears to be the first identification of a phosphatidylcholine secondary ozonide.

  16. Air Pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, K.; And Others

    Pollution of the general environment, which exposes an entire population group for an indeterminate period of time, certainly constitutes a problem in public health. Serious aid pollution episodes have resulted in increased mortality and a possible relationship between chronic exposure to a polluted atmosphere and certain diseases has been…

  17. Gas-phase advanced oxidation as an integrated air pollution control technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Getachew A. Adnew

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Gas-phase advanced oxidation (GPAO is an emerging air cleaning technology based on the natural self-cleaning processes that occur in the Earth’s atmosphere. The technology uses ozone, UV-C lamps and water vapor to generate gas-phase hydroxyl radicals that initiate oxidation of a wide range of pollutants. In this study four types of GPAO systems are presented: a laboratory scale prototype, a shipping container prototype, a modular prototype, and commercial scale GPAO installations. The GPAO systems treat volatile organic compounds, reduced sulfur compounds, amines, ozone, nitrogen oxides, particles and odor. While the method covers a wide range of pollutants, effective treatment becomes difficult when temperature is outside the range of 0 to 80 °C, for anoxic gas streams and for pollution loads exceeding ca. 1000 ppm. Air residence time in the system and the rate of reaction of a given pollutant with hydroxyl radicals determine the removal efficiency of GPAO. For gas phase compounds and odors including VOCs (e.g. C6H6 and C3H8 and reduced sulfur compounds (e.g. H2S and CH3SH, removal efficiencies exceed 80%. The method is energy efficient relative to many established technologies and is applicable to pollutants emitted from diverse sources including food processing, foundries, water treatment, biofuel generation, and petrochemical industries.

  18. Indoor Air Pollution (Environmental Health Student Portal)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Students to Environmental Health Information Menu Home Air Pollution Air Pollution Home Indoor Air Pollution Outdoor Air Pollution ... Pollution Indoor Air Pollution Print this Page Air Pollution Air Pollution Home Indoor Air Pollution Outdoor Air Pollution ...

  19. Oxidative stress and inflammation generated DNA damage by exposure to air pollution particles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Peter; Danielsen, Pernille Høgh; Karottki, Dorina Gabriela;

    2014-01-01

    sampled at different locations (spatial variability), times (temporal variability) or particle size fraction across different experimental systems of acellular conditions, cultured cells, animals and humans. Nevertheless, there is substantial variation in the genotoxic, inflammation and oxidative stress...... potential of PM sampled at different locations or times. Small air pollution particles did not appear more hazardous than larger particles, which is consistent with the notion that constituents such as metals and organic compounds also are important determinants for PM-generated oxidative stress and...... oxidative stress and inflammation....

  20. Atmospheric Chemistry and Air Pollution

    OpenAIRE

    Gaffney, Jeffrey S.; Marley, Nancy A.

    2003-01-01

    Atmospheric chemistry is an important discipline for understanding air pollution and its impacts. This mini-review gives a brief history of air pollution and presents an overview of some of the basic photochemistry involved in the production of ozone and other oxidants in the atmosphere. Urban air quality issues are reviewed with a specific focus on ozone and other oxidants, primary and secondary aerosols, alternative fuels, and the potential for chlorine releases to amplify oxidant chemistry...

  1. Effect of Naturally Occurring Ozone Air Pollution Episodes on Pulmonary Oxidative Stress and Inflammation

    OpenAIRE

    Cheryl Pirozzi; Anne Sturrock; Hsin-Yi Weng; Tom Greene; Mary Beth Scholand; Richard Kanner; Robert Paine III

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to determine if naturally occurring episodes of ozone air pollution in the Salt Lake Valley in Utah, USA, during the summer are associated with increased pulmonary inflammation and oxidative stress, increased respiratory symptoms, and decreased lung function in individuals with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) compared to controls. We measured biomarkers (nitrite/nitrate (NOx), 8-isoprostane) in exhaled breath condensate (EBC), spirometry, and respiratory symptoms...

  2. Nitrogen oxide air pollution: biological effects. 1964-August, 1980 (citations from the NTIS data base). Report for 1964-Aug 80

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cavagnaro, D.M.

    1980-10-01

    The effects of nitrogen oxide air pollution on humans, plants, and animals are covered in the bibliography. Toxicology, epidemiology, pathology, and the synergistic effects of nitrogen oxides and other pollutants are covered. (This updated bibliography contains 210 citations, 28 of which are new entries to the previous edition.)

  3. Disrupted Nitric Oxide Metabolism from Type II Diabetes and Acute Exposure to Particulate Air Pollution.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashley P Pettit

    Full Text Available Type II diabetes is an established cause of vascular impairment. Particulate air pollution is known to exacerbate cardiovascular and respiratory conditions, particularly in susceptible populations. This study set out to determine the impact of exposure to traffic pollution, with and without particle filtration, on vascular endothelial function in Type II diabetes. Endothelial production of nitric oxide (NO has previously been linked to vascular health. Reactive hyperemia induces a significant increase in plasma nitrite, the proximal metabolite of NO, in healthy subjects, while diabetics have a lower and more variable level of response. Twenty type II diabetics and 20 controls (ages 46-70 years were taken on a 1.5 hr roadway traffic air pollution exposure as passengers. We analyzed plasma nitrite, as a measure of vascular function, using forearm ischemia to elicit a reactive hyperemic response before and after exposure to one ride with and one without filtration of the particle components of pollution. Control subjects displayed a significant increase in plasma nitrite levels during reactive hyperemia. This response was no longer present following exposure to traffic air pollution, but did not vary with whether or not the particle phase was filtered out. Diabetics did not display an increase in nitrite levels following reactive hyperemia. This response was not altered following pollution exposure. These data suggest that components of acute traffic pollution exposure diminish vascular reactivity in non-diabetic individuals. It also confirms that type II diabetics have a preexisting diminished ability to appropriately respond to a vascular challenge, and that traffic pollution exposure does not cause a further measureable acute change in plasma nitrite levels in Type II diabetics.

  4. Gas-phase advanced oxidation as an integrated air pollution control technique

    OpenAIRE

    Getachew A. Adnew; Carl Meusinger; Nicolai Bork; Michael Gallus; Mildrid Kyte; Thomas Rosenørn; Johnson, Matthew S.; Vitalijs Rodins

    2016-01-01

    Gas-phase advanced oxidation (GPAO) is an emerging air cleaning technology based on the natural self-cleaning processes that occur in the Earth’s atmosphere. The technology uses ozone, UV-C lamps and water vapor to generate gas-phase hydroxyl radicals that initiate oxidation of a wide range of pollutants. In this study four types of GPAO systems are presented: a laboratory scale prototype, a shipping container prototype, a modular prototype, and commercial scale GPAO installations. The GPAO s...

  5. Analysis of plume oxidation during the air pollution episode of September 2nd 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrison, R.M.; Baggot, S.

    2001-08-01

    This study was commissioned by the Environment Agency in order to provide further investigation into the air pollution episode of September 2nd, 1998 which afflicted parts of the Midlands and South Yorkshire. A report by the Environment Agency based upon numerical modelling by the Meteorological Office indicated a number of major industrial facilities as the source of the emissions responsible for the episode. In this report an investigation is made of likely chemical changes during airmass transport and its impact on air composition at ground-level and downwind receptor locations. It is concluded that the measurements of air quality at Nottingham Centre, Stoke on Trent and Birmingham Centre on 2nd September 1998 are consistent with emissions from the sources identified in the Environment Agency report on this episode when allowance is made for oxidation of sulphur and nitrogen oxides within the plume. 3 refs., 9 figs., 9 tabs.

  6. Nitrogen oxide air pollution: atmospheric chemistry. 1964-1978 (citations from the NTIS data base). Report for 1964-78

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cavagnaro, D.M.

    1980-10-01

    Research reports on photochemical air pollution models, smog chemistry and reactivity, and SSt exhaust effects are cited in the bibliography. Auroral and upper atmospheric in chemistry, and photochemistry of naturally occurring nitrogen oxides are excluded. (Contains 247 citations)

  7. Indoor Air Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    We usually think of air pollution as being outdoors, but the air in your house or office could also be polluted. Sources of indoor pollution include Mold and pollen Tobacco smoke Household products ...

  8. Air Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to a close in June 2013 when the company, Conscious Clothing, was awarded the My Air grand ... Page Options: Request Translation Services Facebook Twitter LinkedIn Google+ Reddit Email Evernote More Increase Font Size Decrease ...

  9. Evaluation of the intrinsic photocatalytic oxidation kinetics of indoor air pollutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvadó-Estivill, Ignasi; Hargreaves, David M; Puma, Gianluca Li

    2007-03-15

    This paper presents a methodology for the evaluation of the intrinsic photocatalytic oxidation (PCO) kinetics of indoor air pollutants. It combines computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling of the fluid flow in the reactor with radiation field modeling and photocatalytic reaction kinetics to yield a rigorous model of a flat-plate, single-pass, flow-through photocatalytic reactor for indoor air purification. This method was applied to model the PCO of trichloroethylene (TCE) in humidified air and to derive kinetic parameters directly from kinetic data in an integral flow reactor. Steady-state PCO experiments of TCE over irradiated TiO2 (Degussa P25) thin films immobilized on glass supports were carried out at different radiation intensities, flow rates, and inlet substrate concentrations. The oxidation rate of TCE was found to be first-order on the incident photon flux and to follow a Langmuir-Hinshelwood type reaction kinetics rate law. Mass transfer resistances were observed at Reynolds numbers less than 46. Apparent quantum yields were found to be up to 0.97 mol Einstein(-1). A comparison of the model prediction with the experimental results in an integral reactor yielded pollutant-specific kinetic rate parameters which were independent of reactor geometry, radiation field, and fluid-dynamics. The kinetic parameters would,therefore, be more universally applicable to the design and scale-up of photocatalytic reactors for indoor air purification. PMID:17410801

  10. Atmospheric Chemistry and Air Pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey S. Gaffney

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric chemistry is an important discipline for understanding air pollution and its impacts. This mini-review gives a brief history of air pollution and presents an overview of some of the basic photochemistry involved in the production of ozone and other oxidants in the atmosphere. Urban air quality issues are reviewed with a specific focus on ozone and other oxidants, primary and secondary aerosols, alternative fuels, and the potential for chlorine releases to amplify oxidant chemistry in industrial areas. Regional air pollution issues such as acid rain, long-range transport of aerosols and visibility loss, and the connections of aerosols to ozone and peroxyacetyl nitrate chemistry are examined. Finally, the potential impacts of air pollutants on the global-scale radiative balances of gases and aerosols are discussed briefly.

  11. Intrinsic catalytic properties of extruded clay honeycomb monolith toward complete oxidation of air pollutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assebban, Mhamed; El Kasmi, Achraf; Harti, Sanae; Chafik, Tarik

    2015-12-30

    The present work highlights the intrinsic catalytic properties of extruded clay honeycomb monolith toward complete oxidation of various air pollutants namely CO, methane, propane, acetylene, propene, n-butene, methanol, ethanol, n-propanol, n-butanol, acetone, dimethyl ether, benzene, toluene, o-xylene, monochlorobenzene and 1,2-dichlorobenzene. Total catalytic conversion was achieved for all tested compounds with different behaviors depending on pollutants' structural and chemical nature. The comparison of T50 values obtained from light-off curves allowed the establishment of the following reactivity sequence: ketone>alcohol>ether>CO>alkyne>aromatic>alkene>chlorinated aromatic>alkane. The intrinsic catalytic performances of the natural clay was ascribed to the implication of a quite complex mixture constituted by OH groups (Brønsted acids) and coordinately-unsaturated cations, such as Al(3+), Fe(3+) and Fe(2+) (Lewis acids). Hence, the combination of the clay's intrinsic catalytic performances and easier extrudability suggests a promissory potential for application in air pollution control. PMID:26259164

  12. Environmental Chemistry: Air and Water Pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoker, H. Stephen; Seager, Spencer L.

    This is a book about air and water pollution whose chapters cover the topics of air pollution--general considerations, carbon monoxide, oxides of nitrogen, hydrocarbons and photochemical oxidants, sulfur oxides, particulates, temperature inversions and the greenhouse effect; and water pollution--general considerations, mercury, lead, detergents,…

  13. Air Pollution Training Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Public Health Service (DHEW), Rockville, MD.

    This catalog lists the universities, both supported and not supported by the Division of Air Pollution, which offer graduate programs in the field of air pollution. The catalog briefly describes the programs and their entrance requirements, the requirements, qualifications and terms of special fellowships offered by the Division of Air Pollution.…

  14. Indoor Air Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    We usually think of air pollution as being outdoors, but the air in your house or office could also be polluted. Sources of indoor pollution ... is known as sick building syndrome. Usually indoor air quality problems only cause discomfort. Most people feel ...

  15. Association between changes in exposure to air pollution and biomarkers of oxidative stress in children before and during the Beijing Olympics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lin, Weiwei; Zhu, Tong; Xue, Tao; Peng, Wei; Brunekreef, Bert; Gehring, Ulrike; Huang, Wei; Hu, Min; Zhang, Yuanhang; Tang, Xiaoyan

    2015-01-01

    It is not known whether exposure to air pollutants causes systemic oxidative stress in children. We investigated the association between exposure to air pollution and biomarkers of oxidative stress in relation to a governmental air quality intervention implemented during the 2008 Beijing Olympic Gam

  16. Biomarkers of occupational exposure to air pollution, inflammation and oxidative damage in taxi drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brucker, Natália; Moro, Angela M; Charão, Mariele F; Durgante, Juliano; Freitas, Fernando; Baierle, Marília; Nascimento, Sabrina; Gauer, Bruna; Bulcão, Rachel P; Bubols, Guilherme B; Ferrari, Pedro D; Thiesen, Flávia V; Gioda, Adriana; Duarte, Marta M M F; de Castro, Iran; Saldiva, Paulo H; Garcia, Solange C

    2013-10-01

    Exposure to environmental pollutants has been recognised as a risk factor for cardiovascular events. 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OHP) is a biomarker of exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from traffic-related air pollution. Experimental studies indicate that PAH exposure could be associated with inflammation and atherogenesis. Thus, the purpose of this study was to evaluate whether the biomarker of PAH exposure is associated with biomarkers of inflammation and oxidative stress and if these effects modulate the risk of developing cardiovascular diseases in workers exposed to air pollution. This study included 60 subjects, comprising 39 taxi drivers and 21 non-occupationally exposed persons. Environmental PM2.5 and benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) levels, in addition to biomarkers of exposure and oxidative damage, were determined. Inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6, IL-10, TNF-α, IFN-γ and hs-CRP) and serum levels of oxidised LDL (ox-LDL), auto-antibodies (ox-LDL-Ab) and homocysteine (Hcy) were also evaluated. PM2.5 and BaP exhibited averages of 12.4±6.9 μg m(-3) and 1.0±0.6 ng m(-3), respectively. Urinary 1-OHP levels were increased in taxi drivers compared to the non-occupationally exposed subjects (p<0.05) and were positively correlated with pro-inflammatory cytokines and negatively correlated with antioxidants. Furthermore, taxi drivers had elevated pro-inflammatory cytokines, biomarkers of oxidative damage, and ox-LDL, ox-LDL-Ab and Hcy levels, although antioxidant enzymes were decreased compared to the non-occupationally exposed subjects (p<0.05). In summary, our findings indicate that taxi drivers showed major exposure to pollutants, such as PAHs, in relation to non-occupationally exposed subjects. This finding was associated with higher inflammatory biomarkers and Hcy, which represent important predictors for cardiovascular events. These data suggest a contribution of PAHs to cardiovascular diseases upon occupational exposure. PMID:23872245

  17. Air pollution and society

    OpenAIRE

    Brimblecombe P.

    2010-01-01

    Air pollution is as much a product of our society as it is one of chemistry and meteorology. Social variables such as gender, age, health status and poverty are often linked with our exposure to air pollutants. Pollution can also affect our behaviour, while regulations to improve the environment can often challenge of freedom.

  18. Air Pollution, Teachers' Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavaroni, Charles W.; O'Donnell, Patrick A.

    One of three in a series about pollution, this teacher's guide for a unit on air pollution is designed for use in junior high school grades. It offers suggestions for extending the information and activities contained in the textual material for students. Chapter 1 discusses the problem of air pollution and involves students in processes of…

  19. Traffic-related air pollution and alveolar nitric oxide in southern California children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckel, Sandrah P; Zhang, Zilu; Habre, Rima; Rappaport, Edward B; Linn, William S; Berhane, Kiros; Zhang, Yue; Bastain, Theresa M; Gilliland, Frank D

    2016-05-01

    Mechanisms for the adverse respiratory effects of traffic-related air pollution (TRAP) have yet to be established. We evaluated the acute effects of TRAP exposure on proximal and distal airway inflammation by relating indoor nitric oxide (NO), a marker of TRAP exposure in the indoor microenvironment, to airway and alveolar sources of exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO).FeNO was collected online at four flow rates in 1635 schoolchildren (aged 12-15 years) in southern California (USA) breathing NO-free air. Indoor NO was sampled hourly and linearly interpolated to the time of the FeNO test. Estimated parameters quantifying airway wall diffusivity (DawNO) and flux (J'awNO) and alveolar concentration (CANO) sources of FeNO were related to exposure using linear regression to adjust for potential confounders.We found that TRAP exposure indoors was associated with elevated alveolar NO. A 10 ppb higher indoor NO concentration at the time of the FeNO test was associated with 0.10 ppb higher average CANO (95% CI 0.04-0.16) (equivalent to a 7.1% increase from the mean), 4.0% higher J'awNO (95% CI -2.8-11.3) and 0.2% lower DawNO (95% CI -4.8-4.6).These findings are consistent with an airway response to TRAP exposure that was most marked in the distal airways. PMID:26797034

  20. Air pollution meteorology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is intended as a training cum reference document for scientists posted at the Environmental Laboratories at the Nuclear Power Station Sites and other sites of the Department of Atomic Energy with installations emitting air pollutants, radioactive or otherwise. Since a manual already exists for the computation of doses from radioactive air pollutants, a general approach is take here i.e. air pollutants in general are considered. The first chapter presents a brief introduction to the need and scope of air pollution dispersion modelling. The second chapter is a very important chapter discussing the aspects of meteorology relevant to air pollution and dispersion modelling. This chapter is important because without this information one really does not understand the phenomena affecting dispersion, the scope and applicability of various models or their limitations under various weather and site conditions. The third chapter discusses the air pollution models in detail. These models are applicable to distances of a few tens of kilometres. The fourth chapter discusses the various aspects of meteorological measurements relevant to air pollution. The chapters are followed by two appendices. Apendix A discusses the reliability of air pollution estimates. Apendix B gives some practical examples relevant to general air pollution. It is hoped that the document will prove very useful to the users. (author)

  1. Nitrogen oxide air pollution: atmospheric chemistry. 1979-August, 1980 (citations from the NTIS data base). Report for 1979-Aug 80

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cavagnaro, D.M.

    1980-10-01

    Photochemical air pollution models, smog chemistry and reactivity, and SSt exhaust effects are covered in the bibliography. Auroral and upper atmospheric chemistry, and photochemistry of naturally occurring nitrogen oxides are excluded. (This updated bibliography contains 63 citations, 40 of which are new entries to the previous edition.)

  2. Nitrogen oxide air pollution: control technology. 1978-August, 1980 (citations from the NTIS data base). Report for 1978-August 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cavagnaro, D.M.

    1980-10-01

    Nitrogen oxide air pollution control is considered from both mobile and stationary sources. Fluidized bed combustion, boiler combustion modification, and engine design are discussed, as they relate to emissions reduction. (This updated bibliography contains citations, 76 of which are new entries to the previous edition.)

  3. Oxidative damage to biological macromolecules in Prague bus drivers and garagemen: Impact of air pollution and genetic polymorphisms

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bagryantseva, Yana; Novotná, Božena; Rössner ml., Pavel; Chvátalová, Irena; Milcová, Alena; Švecová, Vlasta; Lněničková, Zdena; Solanský, I.; Šrám, Radim

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 199, č. 1 (2010), s. 60-68. ISSN 0378-4274 R&D Projects: GA MŽP(CZ) SP/1B3/8/08 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50390512 Keywords : air pollution * bud drivers * oxidative stress Subject RIV: DN - Health Impact of the Environment Quality Impact factor: 3.581, year: 2010

  4. Association between changes in exposure to air pollution and biomarkers of oxidative stress in children before and during the Beijing Olympics

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Weiwei; Zhu, Tong; Xue, Tao; Peng, Wei; Brunekreef, Bert; Gehring, Ulrike; Huang, Wei; Hu, Min; Zhang, Yuanhang; Tang, Xiaoyan

    2015-01-01

    It is not known whether exposure to air pollutants causes systemic oxidative stress in children. We investigated the association between exposure to air pollution and biomarkers of oxidative stress in relation to a governmental air quality intervention implemented during the 2008 Beijing Olympic Games. We studied 36 schoolchildren during 5 time periods before and during the Olympic Games in Beijing (June 2007-September 2008). The oxidative stress biomarkers 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine...

  5. Air Pollution and the skin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleni eDrakaki

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The increase of air pollution over the years has major effects on the human skin. The skin is exposed to ultraviolet radiation (UVR and environmental air pollutants such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs, volatile organic compounds (VOCs, oxides, particulate matter (PM, ozone (O3 and cigarette smoke. Although human skin acts as a biological shield against pro-oxidative chemical and physical air pollutants, the prolonged or repetitive exposure to high levels of these pollutants may have profound negative effects on the skin. Exposure of the skin to air pollutants has been associated with skin aging and inflammatory or allergic skin conditions such as atopic dermatitis, eczema, psoriasis or acne, while skin cancer is among the most serious effects. On the other hand, some air pollutants (ie, ozone, nitrogen dioxide, and sulfur dioxide and scattering particulates (clouds and soot in the troposphere reduce the effects of shorter wavelength UVR and significant reductions in UV irradiance have been observed in polluted urban areas.

  6. Air Pollution and Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, R. D., Ed.

    This book is an authoritative reference and practical guide designed to help the plant engineer identify and solve industrial air pollution problems in order to be able to meet current air pollution regulations. Prepared under the editorial supervision of an experienced chemical engineer, with each chapter contributed by an expert in his field,…

  7. Health Effects of Air Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... air pollution How to protect yourself from air pollution Chemicals Noise Quizzes Links to more information girlshealth glossary girlshealth.gov home http://www.girlshealth.gov/ Home The environment and your health Air Health effects of air pollution ... Health effects of air pollution Breathing air that ...

  8. Indoor air pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Indoor air pollution is a potential risk to human health. Prolonged exposure to indoor pollutants may cause various infectious, allergic and other diseases. Indoor pollutants can emanate from a broad array of internal and external sources. Internal sources include building and furnishing materials, consumer and commercial products, office equipment, micro-organisms, pesticides and human occupants activities. External sources include soil, water supplies and outside makeup air. The main indoor air pollutants of concern are inorganic gases, formaldehyde and other volatile organic compounds, pesticides, radon and its daughters, particulates and microbes. The magnitude of human exposure to indoor pollutants can be estimated or predicted with the help of mathematical models which have been developed using the data from source emission testing and field monitoring of pollutants. In order to minimize human exposure to indoor pollutants, many countries have formulated guidelines / standards for the maximum permissible levels of main pollutants. Acceptable indoor air quality can be achieved by controlling indoor pollution sources and by effective ventilation system for removal of indoor pollutants. (author)

  9. We Pollute the Air

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    1.Clean air is important to good health.If the aircontains impurities,they may be absorbed by ourbodies and make us ill.We need clean air,butunfortunately,air pollution is generally present,especially in cities. 2.Our cities have many factories,which we need tomake food products,clothing and many other things.

  10. Air pollution and its control in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAO Jiming; HE Kebin; DUAN Lei; LI Junhua; WANG Litao

    2007-01-01

    The rapid growth of China's economy has led to severe air pollution characterized by acid rain,severe pollution in cities,and regional air pollution.High concentrations are found for various pollutants such as sulfur dioxides(SO2),nitrogen oxides(NOx),and fine particulates.Great efforts have thus been undertaken for the control of air pollution in the country.This paper discusses the development and application of appropriate technologies for reducing the major pollutants produced by coal and vehicles,and investi gates air quality modeling as an important support for policy-making.

  11. Indoor air pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although official efforts to control air pollution have traditionally focused on outdoor air, it is now apparent that elevated contaminant concentrations are common inside some private and public buildings. Concerns about potential public health problems due to indoor air pollution are based on evidence that urban residents typically spend more than 90 percent of their time indoors, concentrations of some contaminants are higher indoors than outdoors, and for some pollutants personal exposures are not characterized adequately by outdoor measurements. Among the more important indoor contaminants associated with health or irritation effects are passive tobacco smoke, radon decay products, carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, formaldehyde, asbestos fibers, microorganisms and aeroallergens. Efforts to assess health risks associated with indoor air pollution are limited by insufficient information about the number of people exposed, the pattern and severity of exposures, and the health consequences of exposures. An overall strategy should be developed to investigate indoor exposures, health effects, control options, and public policy alternatives

  12. Diagnosing vegetation injury caused by air pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-02-01

    The structure and function of plants in relation to air pollution injury is discussed. The sources, atmospheric chemistry, monitoring data, symptomatology, factors affecting plant response, injury threshold doses, air quality standards, relative sensitivity of plants, and leaf tissue analysis are discussed for major air pollutants. Among the pollutants discussed are: the photochemical oxidants (ozone, PAN, nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxide, and fluorides). Minor pollutants discussed in the same framework are chlorine, hydrogen chloride, ethylene, ammonia, hydrogen sulfide, carbon monoxide, heavy metals (lead, zinc, cadmium, copper, and mercury), particulates, and pesticides. Other subjects discussed include: interactions between pollutants and between pollutants and pathogens, mimicking symptoms, meteorology and air pollution injury, and basic diagnostic procedures of suspected air pollution injury to vegetation. 76 references, 128 figures, 28 tables.

  13. Indoor Air Pollution

    OpenAIRE

    Kirk R Smith

    2003-01-01

    Outdoor air pollution in developing-country cities is difficult to overlook. Indoor air pollution caused by burning such traditional fuels as wood, crop residues, and dung is less evident, yet it is responsible for a significant part of country and global disease burdens. The main groups affected are poor women and children in rural areas and urban slums as they go about their daily activi...

  14. Indoor air pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Indoor air pollution after being a neglected subject for a number of years, is attracting attention recently because it is a side effect of energy crisis. About 50% of world's 6 billion population, mostly in developing countries, depend on biomass and coal in the form of wood, dung and crop residues for domestic energy because of poverty. These materials are burnt in simple stoves with incomplete combustion and infants, children and women are exposed to high levels of indoor air pollution for a considerable period, approximately between 2-4 hours daily. Current worldwide trade in wood fuel is over US $7 billion and about 2 million people are employed full time in production and marketing it. One of the most annoying and common indoor pollutant in both, developing and developed countries, is cigarette smoke. Children in gas-equipped homes had higher incidences of respiratory disease. Babies' DNA can be damaged even before they are born if their mothers breathe polluted air. Exposure to indoor air pollution may be responsible for nearly 2 million excess deaths in developing countries and for 4% of the global burden of the disease. Only a few indoor pollutants have been studied in detail. Indoor air pollution is a major health threat on which further research is needed to define the extent of the problem more precisely and to determine solutions by the policy-makers instead of neglecting it because sufferers mostly belong to Third World countries. (author)

  15. Air pollution in relation to homocysteine serum level and nitric oxide indicators among traffic policemen in Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansour N

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Environmental pollutants are known to be harmful to health. Traffic policemen are placed at particular risk due to nature of their job. The present study examined the effect of air pollution on vascular inflammatory reactions in traffic policemen of Egypt.Methods: Twenty eight policemen who has worked in Shubra El-Khaima and a matched control from Ashmoon, El-Menoufia (n=20 were recruited. Total homocysteine (tHcy and nitric acid indicators (nitrite and nitrate in serum was determined. Each participant was subjected to personal, occupational and medical history, and clinical examination. Particulate matter (PM2.5, sulphur dioxide (SO2 and nitric oxide (NO2 was recorded at various sites.Results: Significant increase in Hcy plasma level was found in the exposed group compared to control. This elevation in tHcy is associated with significant reduction in nitrite and nitrate serum levels. Conclusion: In traffic policemen, exposure to air pollution was associated with increase in tHcy plasma level and reduction in nitric oxide indicators. This raise the attention to the importance of periodic medical assessment of policemen beside the control measures of air pollution.

  16. Air Pollution Primer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Tuberculosis and Respiratory Disease Association, New York, NY.

    As the dangers of polluted air to the health and welfare of all individuals became increasingly evident and as the complexity of the causes made responsibility for solutions even more difficult to fix, the National Tuberculosis and Respiratory Disease Association felt obligated to give greater emphasis to its clean air program. To this end they…

  17. Air pollution and allergic diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ring, J.

    1987-03-13

    In the discussion on possible adverse effects of air pollution upon human health one has to distinguish between out-door and in-door environment. The most frequent pollutants in out-door air over industrialized areas are particulate substances, sulfur dioxide, nitrous oxide, carbonmonoxide, ozone and lead. Most of these substances have direct irritating effects on mucous surfaces. Hypersensitivity reactions have been described against sulfur dioxide and sulfites occurring as asthma, urticaria or anaphylactoid reactions. In-door air pollution is of much greater practical importance for a variety of diseases. Apart from physio-chemical irritants and microbial organisms leading to infections, organic allergens (e.g. house dust mites, moulds, animal epithelia) can induce a variety of allergic diseases via different pathomechanisms.

  18. Lung Surfactant Gelation Induced by Epithelial Cells Exposed to Air Pollution or Oxidative Stress

    OpenAIRE

    Anseth, Jay W.; Goffin, An J.; Fuller, Gerald G.; Ghio, Andrew J; Kao, Peter N.; Upadhyay, Daya

    2005-01-01

    Lung surfactant lowers surface tension and adjusts interfacial rheology to facilitate breathing. A novel instrument, the interfacial stress rheometer (ISR), uses an oscillating magnetic needle to measure the shear viscosity and elasticity of a surfactant monolayer at the air–water interface. The ISR reveals that calf lung surfactant, Infasurf, exhibits remarkable fluidity, even when exposed to air pollution residual oil fly ash (ROFA), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), or conditioned media from resti...

  19. Emission scenario model for regional air pollution

    OpenAIRE

    Karvosenoja, Niko

    2008-01-01

    Air pollution emissions are produced in a wide variety of sources. They often result in detrimental impacts on both environments and human populations. To assess the emissions and impacts of air pollution, mathematical models have been developed. This study presents results from the application of an air pollution emission model, the Finnish Regional Emission Scenario (FRES) model, that covers the emissions of sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen oxides (NOx), ammonia (NH3), non-methane volatile or...

  20. Oxidation of elemental mercury in anthropogenic pollution plumes and in Pacific marine air masses observed at the Mt. Bachelor Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrose, J. L.; Timonen, H. J.; Jaffe, D. A.

    2012-12-01

    The atmospheric chemistry of mercury (Hg) is poorly understood, especially the oxidation of gaseous elemental mercury (GEM) and production of gaseous oxidized mercury (GOM). Since 2004 we have measured speciated Hg and other tracers at the Mt. Bachelor Observatory (MBO) in central Oregon, USA. We see frequent enhancements in GEM due to long range transport of pollution from Asia. Occasionally we also see large enhancements in GOM. Previously we have shown (Swartzendruber et al., 2006; Lyman and Jaffe, 2011) that the upper troposphere is a significant source of GOM to the troposphere. Here we describe two previously unidentified sources of GOM in the Pacific Northwest lower free troposphere: (1) oxidation of GEM in Asian pollution plumes during trans-Pacific long-range transport; (2) oxidation of GEM in marine air masses originating over the extra-tropical Eastern Pacific. In both cases, GOM was strongly anti-correlated with GEM, indicating in-situ oxidation of GEM rather than transport of GOM that was either emitted from anthropogenic sources in Asia or emitted in the Pacific marine boundary layer. During the Asian pollution episodes GOM was correlated with pollution tracers (CO, O3, and submicron particle scattering), but the GOM enhancements (i.e., the ratio GOM/GEM) reached peak values, up to ~0.20, which are significantly larger than emission ratios, typically <0.05, as measured in Asian anthropogenic pollution. Conversely, during the marine episodes GOM was anti-correlated with CO and O3. The GOM concentrations during the marine episodes reached peak values up to 700 pg/m3, with GOM/GEM ratios of up to ~1. These are among the highest GOM concentrations seen in the entire MBO data record and comparable to the highest GOM values reported anywhere in the world outside of heavily polluted Hg mining sites. Oxidation of GEM in anthropogenic plumes and in marine air may be important loss processes for GEM globally. These oxidation processes will significantly enhance

  1. Pupils' Understanding of Air Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitriou, Anastasia; Christidou, Vasilia

    2007-01-01

    This paper reports on a study of pupils' knowledge and understanding of atmospheric pollution. Specifically, the study is aimed at identifying: 1) the extent to which pupils conceptualise the term "air pollution" in a scientifically appropriate way; 2) pupils' knowledge of air pollution sources and air pollutants; and 3) pupils' knowledge of air…

  2. Effects of thermal treatment on mineralogy and heavy metal behavior in iron oxide stabilized air pollution control residues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Mette Abildgaard; Bender-Koch, C.; Starckpoole, M. M.;

    2000-01-01

    Stabilization of air pollution control residues by coprecipitation with ferrous iron and subsequent thermal treatment (at 600 and 900 °C) has been examined as a means to reduce heavy metal leaching and to improve product stability. Changes in mineralogy and metal binding were analyzed using various...... analytical and environmental techniques. Ferrihydrite was formed initially but transformed upon thermal treatment to more stable and crystalline iron oxides (maghemite and hematite). For some metals leaching studies showed more substantial binding after thermal treatment, while other metals either....... Thermal treatment of the stabilized residues produced structures with an inherently better iron oxide stability. However, the concentration of metals in the leachate generally increased as a consequence of the decreased solubility of metals in the more stable iron oxide structure....

  3. Air pollution control in practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The book offers a comprehensive treatment of the subject, from air pollution monitoring and effects on human and animal health, on plants and materials, to pollution reduction measures, practical applications, and legal regulations. It intends to give the air pollution expert a basis for developing practicable solutions. Apart from the 'classic' pollutants, also radioactive air pollution is gone into. (DG) With 366 figs., 190 tabs

  4. Traffic-Related Air Pollution and QT Interval: Modification by Diabetes, Obesity, and Oxidative Stress Gene Polymorphisms in the Normative Aging Study

    OpenAIRE

    Baja, Emmanuel S; Schwartz, Joel D; Wellenius, Gregory A.; Coull, Brent A.; Zanobetti, Antonella; Vokonas, Pantel S; Suh, Helen H.

    2010-01-01

    Background Acute exposure to ambient air pollution has been associated with acute changes in cardiac outcomes, often within hours of exposure. Objectives We examined the effects of air pollutants on heart-rate–corrected QT interval (QTc), an electrocardiographic marker of ventricular repolarization, and whether these associations were modified by participant characteristics and genetic polymorphisms related to oxidative stress. Methods We studied repeated measurements of QTc on 580 men from t...

  5. Air pollutant production by algal cell cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, F.; Funkhouser, E. A.

    1982-01-01

    The production of phytotoxic air pollutants by cultures of Chlorella vulgaris and Euglena gracilis is considered. Algal and plant culture systems, a fumigation system, and ethylene, ethane, cyanide, and nitrogen oxides assays are discussed. Bean, tobacco, mustard green, cantaloupe and wheat plants all showed injury when fumigated with algal gases for 4 hours. Only coleus plants showed any resistance to the gases. It is found that a closed or recycled air effluent system does not produce plant injury from algal air pollutants.

  6. Some measurements of ambient air pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ambient air pollution arising from different sources in Karachi and its surroundings has been studied. The urban centres like Karachi are mostly confronted with eye-irritation, reduce visibility, heart-diseases, nervous disorder, smog and other unpleasant experiences. In this paper quantitative estimations of some air-pollutants such as sulphur dioxide, carbon monoxide, oxides of nitrogen, chlorine and particular matters are presented with their hazardous effects. The remedial measures for the control of major air emissions are also discussed. (author)

  7. The Federal Air Pollution Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Air Pollution Control Administration (DHEW), Washington, DC.

    Described is the Federal air pollution program as it was in 1967. The booklet is divided into these major topics: History of the Federal Program; Research; Assistance to State and Local Governments; Abatement and Prevention of Air Pollution; Control of Motor Vehicle Pollution; Information and Education; and Conclusion. Federal legislation has…

  8. Fundamentals of air pollution. Third edition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boubel, R.W.; Fox, D.L.; Turner, D.B.; Stern, A.C.

    1994-12-31

    This book presents an overview of air pollution. In Part I, the history of air pollution and the basic concepts involved with air pollution such as sources, scales, definitions are covered. Part II describes how airborne pollutants damage materials, vegetation, animals, and humans. Six fundamental aspects of air pollution are included in the text: The Elements of Air Pollution; The Effects of Air Pollution; Measurement and Monitoring of Air Pollution; Meterology of Air Pollution; regulatory Control of Air Pollution; and Engineering Control of Air Pollution.

  9. Air Pollution in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In spite of improvements relative to air pollution, there is still much to do. more than thirty millions of European people are exposed to sulfur dioxide concentrations superior to guide values for health fixed by European Union, 20% of ecosystems in Europe are above the critical charges in the area of acidification and 33% concern eutrophication. Relative to the carbon dioxide, it is not sure that European Union realize the objective to stabilize the emissions for the year 2000 at the level of the year 1990, because of the increasing of automobile traffic and the energy consumption. Four subjects are presented: the climatic change, acidification and eutrophication, tropospheric ozone and air quality. (N.C.)

  10. BLUME - the Berlin air pollution monitoring network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report compiles the BLUME air pollution chracteristics obtained in winter 1987/88. Figures and tables summarize and compare the measuring results obtained for sulfur dioxide, airborne particles, carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides and ozone. Air pollution in winter 1987/88 was not as critical as in the previous years. The 1987/88 mean sulfur dioxide concentrations were found to be the lowest values determined since BLUME measurements started in 1975, and the mean values obtained for airborne particles and for most of the remaining pollutants were lower than in the previous year. The causes of these relatively low pollutant concentrations are discussed. (orig./BBR)

  11. Air pollution: Impact and prevention

    OpenAIRE

    SIERRA-VARGAS, MARTHA PATRICIA; Teran, Luis M.

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT Air pollution is becoming a major health problem that affects millions of people worldwide. In support of this observation, the World Health Organization estimates that every year, 2.4 million people die because of the effects of air pollution on health. Mitigation strategies such as changes in diesel engine technology could result in fewer premature mortalities, as suggested by the US Environmental Protection Agency. This review: (i) discusses the impact of air pollution on respirat...

  12. Ambient particulate air pollution induces oxidative stress and alterations of mitochondria and gene expression in brown and white adipose tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harkema Jack R

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prior studies have demonstrated a link between air pollution and metabolic diseases such as type II diabetes. Changes in adipose tissue and its mitochondrial content/function are closely associated with the development of insulin resistance and attendant metabolic complications. We investigated changes in adipose tissue structure and function in brown and white adipose depots in response to chronic ambient air pollutant exposure in a rodent model. Methods Male ApoE knockout (ApoE-/- mice inhaled concentrated fine ambient PM (PM 2.5 or filtered air (FA for 6 hours/day, 5 days/week, for 2 months. We examined superoxide production by dihydroethidium staining; inflammatory responses by immunohistochemistry; and changes in white and brown adipocyte-specific gene profiles by real-time PCR and mitochondria by transmission electron microscopy in response to PM2.5 exposure in different adipose depots of ApoE-/- mice to understand responses to chronic inhalational stimuli. Results Exposure to PM2.5 induced an increase in the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS in brown adipose depots. Additionally, exposure to PM2.5 decreased expression of uncoupling protein 1 in brown adipose tissue as measured by immunohistochemistry and Western blot. Mitochondrial number was significantly reduced in white (WAT and brown adipose tissues (BAT, while mitochondrial size was also reduced in BAT. In BAT, PM2.5 exposure down-regulated brown adipocyte-specific genes, while white adipocyte-specific genes were differentially up-regulated. Conclusions PM2.5 exposure triggers oxidative stress in BAT, and results in key alterations in mitochondrial gene expression and mitochondrial alterations that are pronounced in BAT. We postulate that exposure to PM2.5 may induce imbalance between white and brown adipose tissue functionality and thereby predispose to metabolic dysfunction.

  13. Analysis of biomarkers in a Czech population exposed to heavy air pollution. Part II. Chromosomal aberrations and oxidative stress

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rössner Jr., P.; Rössnerová, A.; Špátová, M.; Beskid, O.; Uhlířová, Kateřina; Líbalová, H.; Solanský, I.; Topinka, J.; Šrám, R.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 28, č. 1 (2013), s. 97-106. ISSN 0267-8357 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : air pollution * benzo[a]pyrene * benzene Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.497, year: 2013

  14. Nitric oxide and superoxide mediate diesel particle effects in cytokine-treated mice and murine lung epithelial cells — implications for susceptibility to traffic-related air pollution

    OpenAIRE

    Manzo Nicholas D; LaGier Adriana J; Slade Ralph; Ledbetter Allen D; Richards Judy H; Dye Janice A

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Epidemiologic studies associate childhood exposure to traffic-related air pollution with increased respiratory infections and asthmatic and allergic symptoms. The strongest associations between traffic exposure and negative health impacts are observed in individuals with respiratory inflammation. We hypothesized that interactions between nitric oxide (NO), increased during lung inflammatory responses, and reactive oxygen species (ROS), increased as a consequence of traffic...

  15. Primary and oxidative DNA damage in salivary leukocytes as a tool for the evaluation of air pollution early biological effects in children: current status of the MAPEC (Monitoring Air Pollution Effects on Children for supporting public health policy) study

    OpenAIRE

    Samuele Vannini; Sara Levorato; Elisabetta Ceretti; Sara Bonetta; Annalaura Carducci; Antonella De Donno; Alessio Perotti; Silvia Bonizzoni; Alberto Bonetti

    2015-01-01

    Background - Air pollution is a global problem: airborne or deposited pollutants are present everywhere on the planet, from highly polluted to remote areas. Twenty per cent of the EU urban population lives in areas where the EU air quality 24-hour limit value for particulate matter (PM10) is exceeded. At present, PM is Europe's most problematic pollutant in terms of harm to health, as reported by European Environmental Agency (EEA) in the EEA Technical Report on Air quality in Europe, 2011. A...

  16. Ozone as an air pollutant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, Rolf W.

    1996-01-01

    A Danish new book on ozone as an air pollutant has been reviewed. The Book is "Ozon som luftforurening" by Jes Fenger, Published by "Danmarks Miljøundersøgelser, 1995.......A Danish new book on ozone as an air pollutant has been reviewed. The Book is "Ozon som luftforurening" by Jes Fenger, Published by "Danmarks Miljøundersøgelser, 1995....

  17. Population Dynamics and Air Pollution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flachs, Esben Meulengracht; Sørensen, Jan; Bønløkke, Jacob;

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To explore how three different assumptions on demographics affect the health impact of Danish emitted air pollution in Denmark from 2005 to 2030, with health impact modeled from 2005 to 2050. Methods. Modeled air pollution from Danish sources was used as exposure in a newly developed......) a static year 2005 population, (2) morbidity and mortality fixed at the year 2005 level, or (3) an expected development. Results. The health impact of air pollution was estimated at 672,000, 290,000, and 280,000 lost life years depending on demographic assumptions and the corresponding social costs at 430.......4 M€, 317.5 M€, and 261.6 M€ through the modeled years 2005–2050. Conclusion. The modeled health impact of air pollution differed widely with the demographic assumptions, and thus demographics and assumptions on demographics played a key role in making health impact assessments on air pollution....

  18. Air pollution monitoring in downtown Rome, Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper tables air pollution data indicating concentrations of sulfur dioxide, nitrous oxides, carbon monoxide, ozone, non-methane hydrocarbons (NMTHC) and particulate matter measured in downtown Rome during the period, April 1990 - March 1991. These data are analyzed according to National Air Quality Standards. Correlations are developed for nitrous oxide, NMTHC and ozone concentration trends as a function of solar radiation intensity. Analysis of the data reveals that the concentrations of the primary pollutants, carbon monoxide and nitrogen oxide, were very high in the winter months when building heating systems were operating under stable weather conditions. In many cases, the concentrations of carbon monoxide exceeded ambient air quality standards. The paper also discusses the need for the development of limits for NMTHC concentrations and including these limits in the Air Quality Standards

  19. Protection of plants against air pollutants: Role of chemical protectants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The protection of plants against air pollution damage can best be achieved either by developing pollution-tolerant cultivars or by using chemical protectants. Use of chemical protectants such as pesticides, growth regulators, anti-oxidants, fertilizers, etc. is a short-term solution to reduce the risk of air pollution damage. In addition, these protectants help in understanding the mechanism of air pollution toxicity and provide a scientific basis for assessing crop losses in field conditions. 95 refs

  20. Correcting agglomeration economies: How air pollution matters

    OpenAIRE

    Drut, Marion; Mahieu, Aurélie

    2015-01-01

    This paper aims to correct standard measures of agglomeration economies to account for air pollution generated by commuting. This paper examines the impact of nitrogen oxide (NOX) ? a pollutant mainly released by transportation ? on worker productivity. On one side, literature on agglomeration economies highlights the positive role of employment density on productivity, without accounting for the environmental impact of a better accessibility. On the other side, several studies (Graham, 2007;...

  1. Healthy Neighborhoods: Walkability and Air Pollution

    OpenAIRE

    Marshall, Julian D.; Brauer, Michael; Frank, Lawrence D

    2009-01-01

    Background The built environment may influence health in part through the promotion of physical activity and exposure to pollution. To date, no studies have explored interactions between neighborhood walkability and air pollution exposure. Methods We estimated concentrations of nitric oxide (NO), a marker for direct vehicle emissions), and ozone (O3) and a neighborhood walkability score, for 49,702 (89% of total) postal codes in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. NO concentrations were esti...

  2. Survey of Modified Clinoptilolite Zeolite and Cooper Oxide Nanoparticles-Containing Modified Clinoptilolite Efficiency for Polluted Air BTX Removal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruhollah Rostami

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Background and Objectives:Benzene, toluene and Xylenes (BTX are organic pollutants, which are mainly associated with oil and its derivatives. BTX is environmental contaminants and considered harmful to human health. Application of surface absorbents such as zeolite is one of several methods for the removal of these compounds. In this study, BTX compounds' removal efficiencies were investigated and compared by using clinoptilolite type zeolite and zeolite with copper oxide nanoparticles.Materials and Methods: In this study, the modified zeolite by hydrochloric acid in the grain size 1-2 mm and modified zeolite with nano particle of copper oxide were used.  Artificially- Contaminated Air flow was used continuously .To determine BTX concentrations, samplings were done by charcoal tube in current input and output. The concentrations of contaminants were determined by gas chromatography with FID detector.Results: Removal efficiency of benzene, toluene, p-xylene, m-xylene and o-xylene by clinoptilolite were 78.3%, 62.1%, 32.2% 32.15% and 18.8%, respectively. For the clinoptilolite containing copper oxide nano particles efficiency were 25.42%, 35.65%, 36.33%, 33.24% and 29.39%, respectively. Average removal efficiency of BTX compounds observed when the zeolite without nanoparticles used (43.31% was more than zeolite with nanoparticles (32%. The results showed that the concentration of CO2 in the outlet air of the zeolite-containing nanoparticle (550 ppm was more than the zeolite without nanoparticle (525 ppm.Conclusion: Results showed that adding nanoparticles to the zeolite, although the removal efficiency of benzene and toluene can be reduced. The results showed that adding nanoparticles to the zeolite, although can be reduced removal efficiency of benzene and toluene, which may be due to occupying or blocking of the pollution absorption sites by the nanoparticles on the

  3. Oxidative damage to DNA and lipids as biomarkers of exposure to air pollution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Peter; Loft, Steffen

    2010-01-01

    of biologically effective dose in studies of the health effects of exposure to particulate matter (PM) from combustion processes. DATA SOURCES: We identified publications that reported estimated associations between environmental exposure to PM and oxidative damage to DNA and lipids in PubMed and EMBASE. We also...... identified publications from reference lists and articles cited in the Web of Science. DATA EXTRACTION: For each study, we obtained information on the estimated effect size to calculate the standardized mean difference (unitless) and determined the potential for errors in exposure assessment and analysis...... of each of the biomarkers, for total and stratified formal meta-analyses. DATA SYNTHESIS: In the meta-analysis, the standardized mean differences (95% confidence interval) between exposed and unexposed subjects for oxidized DNA and lipids were 0.53 (0.29-0.76) and 0.73 (0.18-1.28) in blood and 0.52 (0...

  4. Regulations Concerning Agriculture and Air Pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Bertora

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The main issues related to the atmospheric pollution are the stratospheric ozone depletion, the transboundary air pollution, the troposphere air quality and the climate change. The three last decades have seen the birth of several measures for the atmosphere safeguard. Agricultural activities play a key role in determining, preventing and mitigating atmospheric pollution. The emission to atmosphere of different ozone-depleting substances is regulated by the Montreal Protocol. The role of agriculture activity in ozone depletion is linked to the utilization of methyl bromide as soil sterilant and to the emission of nitrogen oxides and nitrous oxide, from agricultural soils. The Convention on long-range transboundary air pollution regulates the emission of several pollutants, i.e. sulphur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, ammonia, non methane volatile organic compounds, carbon monoxide, heavy metals, persistent organic pollutants, and tropospheric ozone. The agriculture sector is responsible for a large part of the emissions of ammonia and nitrogen oxides, mainly through manure management and nitrogen fertilization, and of most persistent organic pollutants, largely used in the past as insecticides and fungicides. The increase of the greenhouse gases (GHGs concentration in the atmosphere is under the control of the Kyoto Protocol. Agriculture accounts for 59-63% of global non-CO2 GHGs emissions but at the same time it contributes to the atmospheric CO2 concentration stabilisation through the substitution of fossil fuels by biofuels and the sequestration of C in soil and vegetal biomass. In this paper we provide an outline of the numerous scientific and legislative initiatives aimed at protecting the atmosphere, and we analyse in detail the agriculture sector in order to highlight both its contribution to atmospheric pollution and the actions aimed at preventing and mitigating it.

  5. Human exposure to urban air pollution.

    OpenAIRE

    Boström, C E; Almén, J; Steen, B; Westerholm, R

    1994-01-01

    This study deals with some methods of making human exposure estimates, aimed at describing the human exposure for selected air pollutants in Sweden that are suspected carcinogens. Nitrogen oxides (NOx) have been chosen as an indicator substance for estimating the concentration of the urban plume. Earlier investigations have shown that the traffic in Swedish cities contributes around 85% to the measured NOx concentrations, and that most of the mutagenicity in urban air originates from traffic....

  6. Air pollution measurements in traffic tunnels.

    OpenAIRE

    De Fré, R; Bruynseraede, P; Kretzschmar, J G

    1994-01-01

    Air pollution measurements during April 1991 are reported from the Craeybeckx highway tunnel in Antwerp, Belgium. The tunnel was used daily by an average of 45,000 vehicles, of which 60% were gasoline fueled passenger cars, 20% diesel cars, and 20% trucks. Of the gasoline cars, only 3% had three-way catalysts. Tunnel air concentrations of nitrogen oxides, sulphur dioxide, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, nonmethane hydrocarbons, volatile organic compounds, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, an...

  7. Pigeons home faster through polluted air

    OpenAIRE

    Zhongqiu Li; Franck Courchamp; Blumstein, Daniel T.

    2016-01-01

    Air pollution, especially haze pollution, is creating health issues for both humans and other animals. However, remarkably little is known about how animals behaviourally respond to air pollution. We used multiple linear regression to analyse 415 pigeon races in the North China Plain, an area with considerable air pollution, and found that while the proportion of pigeons successfully homed was not influenced by air pollution, pigeons homed faster when the air was especially polluted. Our resu...

  8. Possibilities of cultivating ornamental trees and shrubs under conditions of air pollution with oxides of sulfur

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bialobok, S.; Bartkowiak, S.; Rachwal, L.

    1974-01-01

    The field work conducted has shown that high concentrations of SO/sub 2/ in the air can be withstood by the following trees and shrubs. Trees: Acer campestris, A. platanoides, Ailanthus altissima, Aesculus hippocastanum, Morus alba, Platanus acerifolia, Pinus strobur, P. nigra, Populus Berolinensis, P. candicans, P. Hybr. 27, P. Marilandica, P. simonii, P. Serotina, Quercus robus, Robinia pseudoacacia. Shrubs: Caragana arborescens, Crataegus oxyacantha, C. monogyna, Cerasus mehaleb, Forsythia/most of the species and varieties/, Ligustrum vulgare, Philadelphus coronaria, Ptelea trifoliata, Sambucus nigra, Salix caprea, Sorbaria sorbifolia, Sorbus aucuparia, Taxus baccata. For the selection of trees and shrubs in the laboratory, high concentrations of SO/sub 2/ were used (60-150 ppm for a period of 10 minutes). Experiments were conducted on cut shrubs kept in the gas chambers. In order to estimate the degree of their injury, they were transferred to a shaded greenhouse. A concentration of 65 ppm of SO/sub 2/ could be withstood by the following Forsythias: Forsythia intermedia Primulina, F. Densiflora, F. Spectabilis, F. giraldina, F. suspensa, F. koreana, F. ovata, F. japonica and Hippophae rhamnoides. A concentration of 130 ppm could be withstood only by F. intermedia Vitelina. A similarly high concentration of SO/sub 2/ could be withstood by shoots and leaves of Ailanthus girladii Duclouxii and by Platanus acerifolia. From among the lilacs Syringa pekinensis and S. amurensis proved resistant to high concentrations of SO/sub 2/.

  9. The relationship between biomarkers of oxidative DNA damage, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon DNA adducts, antioxidant status and genetic susceptibility following exposure to environmental air pollution in humans

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Shing, R.; Šrám, Radim; Binková, Blanka; Kalina, I.; Popov, T. A.; Georgieva, T.; Garte, S.; Taioli, E.; Farmer, P. B.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 620, - (2007), s. 83-92. ISSN 0027-5107 Grant ostatní: EU(GB) 2000-00091; EU(GB) G0100873 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50390512 Source of funding: R - rámcový projekt EK ; R - rámcový projekt EK Keywords : air pollution * PAHs * oxidative DNA damage Subject RIV: DN - Health Impact of the Environment Quality Impact factor: 4.159, year: 2007

  10. Evaluation of retrofit crankcase ventilation controls and diesel oxidation catalysts for reducing air pollution in school buses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trenbath, Kim; Hannigan, Michael P.; Milford, Jana B.

    2009-12-01

    This study evaluates the effect of retrofit closed crankcase ventilation filters (CCFs) and diesel oxidation catalysts (DOCs) on the in-cabin air quality in transit-style diesel school buses. In-cabin pollution levels were measured on three buses from the Pueblo, CO District 70 fleet. Monitoring was conducted while buses were driven along their regular routes, with each bus tested three times before and three times after installation of control devices. Ultrafine number concentrations in the school bus cabins were 33-41% lower, on average, after the control devices were installed. Mean mass concentrations of particulate matter less than 2.5 μm in diameter (PM2.5) were 56% lower, organic carbon (OC) 41% lower, elemental carbon (EC) 85% lower, and formaldehyde 32% lower after control devices were installed. While carbon monoxide concentrations were low in all tests, mean concentrations were higher after control devices were installed than in pre-retrofit tests. Reductions in number, OC, and formaldehyde concentrations were statistically significant, but reductions in PM2.5 mass were not. Even with control devices installed, during some runs PM2.5 and OC concentrations in the bus cabins were elevated compared to ambient concentrations observed in the area. OC concentrations inside the bus cabins ranged from 22 to 58 μg m -3 before and 13 to 33 μg m -3 after control devices were installed. OC concentrations were correlated with particle-bound organic tracers for lubricating oil emissions (hopanes) and diesel fuel and tailpipe emissions (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and aliphatic hydrocarbons). Mean concentrations of hopanes, PAH, and aliphatic hydrocarbons were lower by 37, 50, and 43%, respectively, after the control devices were installed, suggesting that both CCFs and DOCs were effective at reducing in-cabin OC concentrations.

  11. The stakes of air pollution in the field of transport

    OpenAIRE

    JOUMARD,R

    2003-01-01

    The main pollutants are listed for today and the future according to the progression of air quality, as measured in France and in the European Union during the 90's, to the progression of pollutant emissions of road transport in France, as calculated for the period 1970-2020, and to the progression of public concern regarding air pollution and environment. These pollutants are headed by carbon dioxide, followed by nitrogen oxides and fine particulates. The stakes in terms of technology and tr...

  12. Air Pollution in the World's Megacities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richman, Barbara T., Ed.

    1994-01-01

    Reports findings of the Global Environment Monitoring System study concerning air pollution in the world's megacities. Discusses sources of air pollution, air pollution impacts, air quality monitoring, air quality trends, and control strategies. Provides profiles of the problem in Beijing, Los Angeles, Mexico City, India, Cairo, Sao Paulo, and…

  13. The anti-obesity effects of EGCG in relation to oxidative stress and air-pollution in China

    OpenAIRE

    Cichello, Simon; Liu, Pingsheng; Jois, Markendya

    2013-01-01

    Modern China, similar to most developing nations, has seen a rise in the prevalence of both obesity and diesel exhaust based air pollution. The cause of obesity is multi-factorial encompassing diet, lifestyle and social factors. Also there has been a reduction in the consumption of fruit, vegetables, and traditional medicinal foods such as polyphenol containing green tea. Replacing these, are high fat and carbohydrate based processed foods which are quickly displacing these wholefoods in the ...

  14. Fundamentals of air pollution engineering

    OpenAIRE

    Flagan, Richard C.; Seinfeld, John H.

    1988-01-01

    Analysis and abatement of air pollution involve a variety of technical disciplines. Formation of the most prevalent pollutants occurs during the combustion process, a tightly coupled system involving fluid flow, mass and energy transport, and chemical kinetics. Its complexity is exemplified by the fact that, in many respects, the simplest hydrocarbon combustion, the methane-oxygen flame, has been quantitatively modeled only within the last several years. Nonetheless, the development of combus...

  15. Indoor air pollution and health

    OpenAIRE

    World Heath Organization (WHO)

    2005-01-01

    Metadata only record This is a fact sheet summarizing the indoor air pollution problem. The risk factors include health impacts such as respiratory infections and lung cancer. The fact sheet explains that women and children in developing nations are most vulnerable to the pollutants. It links Millennium Development Goals 1, 3, 4 and 7 (eradicate extreme poverty, empowering women, reducing child mortality, and ensure environmental sustainability) with the need for action. The fact sheet end...

  16. Air pollution in the Slovak Republic, 2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A report on air quality and contribution of individual sources on its pollution in the Slovak Republic in 2001 is presented. This report consists of two parts: (1) Ambient air and (2) Emission. Ambient air part is divided into the following chapters: Regional air pollution and quality of precipitation; Local air pollution; Atmospheric ozone. Emission part is divided into the following chapters: Emission and air pollution source inventory, Greenhouse gas emissions

  17. Thermal oxidation for air toxics control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Administration projects annual expenditures of $1.1 billion by 1995, increasing to $6.7 billion by 2005, in order to comply with the new Clean Air Act Title III hazardous air pollutant requirements. The Title III requirements include 189 hazardous air pollutants which must be reduced or eliminated by 2003. Twenty of the 189 listed pollutants account for approximately 75 percent of all hazardous air pollutant emissions. Ninety percent of these 20 pollutants can be effectively controlled through one or mote of the thermal oxidation technologies. This paper reports that the advantages and disadvantages of each thermal oxidation technology vary substantially and must be reviewed for each application in order to establish the most effective thermal oxidation solution. Effective thermal oxidation will meet MACT (maximum achievable control technology) emission standards

  18. Geostatistical models for air pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this paper is to present geostatistical models applied to the spatial characterisation of air pollution phenomena. A concise presentation of the geostatistical methodologies is illustrated with practical examples. The case study was conducted in an underground copper-mine located on the southern of Portugal, where a biomonitoring program using lichens has been implemented. Given the characteristics of lichens as indicators of air pollution it was possible to gather a great amount of data in space, which enabled the development and application of geostatistical methodologies. The advantages of using geostatistical models compared with deterministic models, as environmental control tools, are highlighted. (author)

  19. Nitrogen oxide air pollution: emissions studies. 1978-August, 1980 (citations from the NTIS data base). Report for 1978-August 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cavagnaro, D.M.

    1980-10-01

    The bibliography cites studies on emissions from both stationary and mobile sources, emissions factors, regional emission inventories, and general studies. Air quality data is excluded. Nitrogen oxide detection and analysis, industrial control techniques, atmospheric chemistry, and biological effects are covered in Parts 1 through 4. (This updated bibliography contains 174 citations, 62 of which are new entries to the previous edition.)

  20. In Brief: Air pollution app

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showstack, Randy

    2010-10-01

    A new smartphone application takes advantage of various technological capabilities and sensors to help users monitor air quality. Tapping into smartphone cameras, Global Positioning System (GPS) sensors, compasses, and accelerometers, computer scientists with the University of Southern California's (USC) Viterbi School of Engineering have developed a new application, provisionally entitled “Visibility.” Currently available for the Android telephone operating system, the application is available for free download at http://robotics.usc.edu/˜mobilesensing/Projects/AirVisibilityMonitoring. An iPhone application may be introduced soon. Smartphone users can take a picture of the sky and then compare it with models of sky luminance to estimate visibility. While conventional air pollution monitors are costly and thinly deployed in some areas, the smartphone application potentially could help fill in some blanks in existing air pollution maps, according to USC computer science professor Gaurav Sukhatme.

  1. Molecular Epidemiology and Air Pollution

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rössner ml., Pavel; Binková, B.; Rössnerová, Andrea; Šrám, Radim

    Rieka: InTech, 2015 - (Nejadkoorki, F.), s. 609-643 ISBN 978-953-51-2180-0 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-13458S Institutional support: RVO:68378041 Keywords : molecular epidemiology * biomarkers * human populations * in vitro studies Subject RIV: DN - Health Impact of the Environment Quality http://www.intechopen.com/books/current-air-quality-issues/molecular-epidemiology-and-air- pollution

  2. Primary and oxidative DNA damage in salivary leukocytes as a tool for the evaluation of air pollution early biological effects in children: current status of the MAPEC (Monitoring Air Pollution Effects on Children for supporting public health policy study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuele Vannini

    2015-05-01

    Conclusions - The main objective of the MAPEC study is to evaluate the associations in children between air pollutants and early biological effects, and to propose a model for estimating the global genotoxic risk.

  3. Pollution prevention at ports: clearing the air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seaports are major hubs of economic activity and of environmental pollution in coastal urban areas. Due to increasing global trade, transport of goods through ports has been steadily increasing and will likely continue to increase in the future. Evaluating air pollution impacts of ports requires consideration of numerous sources, including marine vessels, trucks, locomotives, and off-road equipment used for moving cargo. The air quality impacts of ports are significant, with particularly large emissions of diesel exhaust, particulate matter, and nitrogen oxides. The health effects of these air pollutants to residents of local communities include asthma, other respiratory diseases, cardiovascular disease, lung cancer, and premature mortality. In children, there are links with asthma, bronchitis, missed school days, and emergency room visits. The significance of these environmental health impacts requires aggressive efforts to mitigate the problem. Approaches to mitigation encompass a range of possibilities from currently available, low-cost approaches, to more significant investments for cleaner air. Examples of the former include restrictions on truck idling and the use of low-sulfur diesel fuel; the latter includes shore-side power for docked ships, and alternative fuels. A precautionary approach to port-related air pollution would encourage local production of goods in order to reduce marine traffic, greener design for new terminals, and state-of-the art approaches to emissions-control that have been successfully demonstrated at ports throughout the world

  4. Air pollution in the Slovak Republic, 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A report on air quality and contribution of individual sources on its pollution in the Slovak Republic in 2003 is presented. This report consists of two parts: (1) Pollutants part and (2) Emission part. Pollutants part is divided into the following chapters: Regional air pollution and quality of of precipitation; Local air pollution; Atmospheric ozone. Emission part is divided into the following chapters: Inventory control of emissions and sources of pollution, Emission of greenhouse gases

  5. Air pollution in the Slovak Republic, 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A report on air quality and contribution of individual sources on its pollution in the Slovak Republic in 2004 is presented. This report consists of two parts: (1) Pollutants part and (2) Emission part. Pollutants part is divided into the following chapters: Regional air pollution and quality of precipitation; Local air pollution; Atmospheric ozone. Emission part is divided into the following chapters: Inventory control of emissions and sources of pollution, Emission of greenhouse gases

  6. Athletic performance and urban air pollution.

    OpenAIRE

    Shephard, R. J.

    1984-01-01

    Air pollution may affect athletic performance. In Los Angeles, contaminants include carbon monoxide, ozone, peroxyacetylnitrate (PAN) and nitrogen oxides, whereas in older European cities, such as Sarajevo, "reducing smog" of sulfur dioxide is the main hazard. The carbon monoxide and ozone levels expected in Los Angeles this summer could affect the athletes' performance in endurance events at the Olympic Games. Carbon monoxide may also impair psychomotor abilities, and PAN causes visual distu...

  7. Analysis of biomarkers in a Czech population exposed to heavy air pollution. Part II. Chromosomal aberrations and oxidative stress

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rössner ml., Pavel; Rössnerová, Andrea; Špátová, Milada; Beskid, Olena; Uhlířová, Kateřina; Líbalová, Helena; Solanský, I.; Topinka, Jan; Šrám, Radim

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 28, č. 1 (2013), s. 97-106. ISSN 0267-8357 R&D Projects: GA MŽP(CZ) SP/1B3/8/08; GA MŠk 2B08005; GA ČR GAP503/11/0084 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50390703 Institutional support: RVO:68378041 Keywords : air pollution * benzo[a]pyrene * benzene Subject RIV: DN - Health Impact of the Environment Quality Impact factor: 3.497, year: 2013

  8. Air pollution in Copenhagen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aerosols were monitored in Greater Copenhagen in the period June 1973 to July 1974. Size-fractionated cascade impactor samples and unfractionated filter samples were regularly collected and analyzed be neutron activation analysis, spark emission spectroscopy or proton-induced X-ray emission spectroscopy. Concentrations were determined of the following elements: Al, Si, S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Br, Mo, Cd, Sn, Sb, and Pb. All elements showed orders-of-magnitude fluctuationsthe mean concentrations were roughly the same as in other large cities. In relation to proposed air quality standards, Pb was the most critical component. Statistical analysis of variation patterns, size distributions and interelement correlations indicate that automotive exhaust is the source of Br and Pbfuel-oil combustion is the main source of V and Ni (and partly of S)soil dust raised by wind or by human activity (e.g. traffic) is the main source of Al, Si, Ca, Ti, and Fe. (author)

  9. Human health effects of air pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kampa, Marilena [Laboratory of Experimental Endocrinology, University of Crete, School of Medicine, P.O. Box 2208, Heraklion, 71003 (Greece)], E-mail: kampa@med.uoc.gr; Castanas, Elias [Laboratory of Experimental Endocrinology, University of Crete, School of Medicine, P.O. Box 2208, Heraklion, 71003 (Greece)], E-mail: castanas@med.uoc.gr

    2008-01-15

    Hazardous chemicals escape to the environment by a number of natural and/or anthropogenic activities and may cause adverse effects on human health and the environment. Increased combustion of fossil fuels in the last century is responsible for the progressive change in the atmospheric composition. Air pollutants, such as carbon monoxide (CO), sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}), nitrogen oxides (NOx), volatile organic compounds (VOCs), ozone (O{sub 3}), heavy metals, and respirable particulate matter (PM2.5 and PM10), differ in their chemical composition, reaction properties, emission, time of disintegration and ability to diffuse in long or short distances. Air pollution has both acute and chronic effects on human health, affecting a number of different systems and organs. It ranges from minor upper respiratory irritation to chronic respiratory and heart disease, lung cancer, acute respiratory infections in children and chronic bronchitis in adults, aggravating pre-existing heart and lung disease, or asthmatic attacks. In addition, short- and long-term exposures have also been linked with premature mortality and reduced life expectancy. These effects of air pollutants on human health and their mechanism of action are briefly discussed. - The effect of air pollutants on human health and underlying mechanisms of cellular action are discussed.

  10. Human health effects of air pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hazardous chemicals escape to the environment by a number of natural and/or anthropogenic activities and may cause adverse effects on human health and the environment. Increased combustion of fossil fuels in the last century is responsible for the progressive change in the atmospheric composition. Air pollutants, such as carbon monoxide (CO), sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen oxides (NOx), volatile organic compounds (VOCs), ozone (O3), heavy metals, and respirable particulate matter (PM2.5 and PM10), differ in their chemical composition, reaction properties, emission, time of disintegration and ability to diffuse in long or short distances. Air pollution has both acute and chronic effects on human health, affecting a number of different systems and organs. It ranges from minor upper respiratory irritation to chronic respiratory and heart disease, lung cancer, acute respiratory infections in children and chronic bronchitis in adults, aggravating pre-existing heart and lung disease, or asthmatic attacks. In addition, short- and long-term exposures have also been linked with premature mortality and reduced life expectancy. These effects of air pollutants on human health and their mechanism of action are briefly discussed. - The effect of air pollutants on human health and underlying mechanisms of cellular action are discussed

  11. Human Exposure Assessment in Air Pollution Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Junfeng Zhang; Lioy, Paul J.

    2002-01-01

    The air pollution problem can be depicted as a system consisting of several basic components: source, concentration, exposure, dose, and adverse effects. Exposure, the contact between an agent (e.g., an air pollutant) and a target (e.g., a human respiratory tract), is the key to linking the pollution source and health effects. Human exposure to air pollutants depends on exposure concentration and exposure duration. Exposure concentration is the concentration of a pollutant at a contact bounda...

  12. Clean Air Slots Amid Atmospheric Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobbs, Peter V.

    2002-01-01

    This article investigates the mechanism for those layers in the atmosphere that are free of air borne pollution even though the air above and below them carry pollutants. Atmospheric subsidence is posed as a mechanism for this phenomenon.

  13. Mild Air Pollution of Concern in Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_158558.html Mild Air Pollution of Concern in Pregnancy Study found risk for ... Being exposed to just a small amount of air pollution during pregnancy ups the risk of a pregnancy ...

  14. Air Pollution and Heart Disease, Stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... High Blood Pressure Tools & Resources Stroke More Air Pollution and Heart Disease, Stroke Updated:Aug 30,2016 ... routine or in a less populated place, tiny pollution particles in the air can lead to big ...

  15. Air pollution and COPD in China

    OpenAIRE

    Hu, Guoping; Zhong, Nanshan; Ran, Pixin

    2015-01-01

    Recently, many researchers paid more attentions to the association between air pollution and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Haze, a severe form of outdoor air pollution, affected most parts of northern and eastern China in the past winter. In China, studies have been performed to evaluate the impact of outdoor air pollution and biomass smoke exposure on COPD; and most studies have focused on the role of air pollution in acutely triggering symptoms and exacerbations. Few studies...

  16. Regional air pollution over Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krysztofiak, G.; Catoire, V.; Dorf, M.; Grossmann, K.; Hamer, P. D.; Marécal, V.; Reiter, A.; Schlager, H.; Eckhardt, S.; Jurkat, T.; Oram, D.; Quack, B.; Atlas, E.; Pfeilsticker, K.

    2012-12-01

    During the SHIVA (Stratospheric Ozone: Halogen Impacts in a Varying Atmosphere) campaign in Nov. and Dec. 2011 a number of polluted air masses were observed in the marine and terrestrial boundary layer (0 - 2 km) and in the free troposphere (2 - 12 km) over Borneo/Malaysia. The measurements include isoprene, CO, CO2, CH4, N2O, NO2, SO2 as primary pollutants, O3 and HCHO as secondary pollutants, and meteorological parameters. This set of trace gases can be used to fingerprint different sources of local and regional air pollution (e.g., biomass burning and fossil fuel burning, gas flaring on oil rigs, emission of ships and from urban areas, volcanic emissions, and biogenic emissions). Individual sources and location can be identified when the measurements are combined with a nested-grid regional scale chemical and meteorological model and lagrangian particle dispersion model (e.g., CCATT-BRAMS and FLEXPART). In the case of the former, emission inventories of the primary pollutants provide the basis for the trace gas simulations. In this region, the anthropogenic influence on air pollution seems to dominate over natural causes. For example, CO2 and CH4 often show strong correlations with CO, suggesting biomass burning or urban fossil fuel combustion dominates the combustion sources. The study of the CO/CO2 and CH4/CO ratios can help separate anthropogenic combustion from biomass burning pollution sources. In addition, these ratios can be used as a measure of combustion efficiency to help place the type of biomass burning particular to this region within the wider context of fire types found globally. On several occasions, CH4 enhancements are observed near the ocean surface, which are not directly correlated with CO enhancements thus indicating a non-combustion-related CH4 source. Positive correlations between SO2 and CO show the anthropogenic influence of oil rigs located in the South China Sea. Furthermore, SO2 enhancements are observed without any increase in CO

  17. Biomonitoring air pollution in Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Chile, in general, and Santiago, its capital city, in particular, has serious air pollution problems mainly in winter time when the pollutants could reach dangerous levels which might be detrimental to older people and children. A project was undertaken within the framework of a Co-ordinated Research Programme (CRP) supported by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) to carry out a long term study on atmospheric air pollution in Chile using biomonitors. The present paper describes the activities carried out within this CRP. The lichens, collected in clean areas (native forests), were transplanted to selected sites in Santiago and exposed during three and six months. At a second stage, samples of Tillandsia recurvata were collected in the Metropolitan Area. All samples were carefully cleaned, using only clean plastic materials, milled at liquid nitrogen temperature, freeze dried, re-homogenized and stored at low temperature until analysis. The samples were mainly analysed by INAA, RNAA SS-AAS and ASV. As part of the routine QA/QC programme, analytical laboratories involved in the project participated in intercomparison runs organized by the IAEA for the determination of trace and minor elements in two lichens samples. From the data and its subsequent mapping over the area under study, it was possible to identify places exposed to higher amounts of some elements. Of interest are also the correlations between several elements, perhaps indicating a given source of pollutants. The results indicate the usefulness of biomonitoring air pollution using lichens and Tillandsias, which, jointly with multielemental analytical techniques, such as NAA, open the possibility to study extensive areas without the infrastructure needed for conventional APM sample collection and at reduced costs. (author)

  18. Air Pollution. Environmental Ecological Education Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkway School District, Chesterfield, MO.

    This unit, designed for senior high school students, focuses on air pollution by examining its effect on man, plants and animals, the causes of air pollution, and possible solutions to the air pollution problems. It approaches each of these topics through both natural science and social science perspectives. The unit is divided into seven separate…

  19. Climate change and air pollution

    OpenAIRE

    D’Amato, Gennaro; Bergmann, Karl Christian; Cecchi, Lorenzo; Annesi-Maesano, Isabella; Sanduzzi, Alessandro; Liccardi, Gennaro; Vitale, Carolina; Stanziola, Anna; D’Amato, Maria

    2014-01-01

    Summary The observational evidence indicates that recent regional changes in climate, particularly temperature increases, have already affected a diverse set of physical and biological systems in many parts of the world. Allergens patterns are also changing in response to climate change and air pollution can modify the allergenic potential of pollen grains especially in the presence of specific weather conditions. Although genetic factors are important in the development of asthma and allergi...

  20. Air Pollution and Procyclical Mortality

    OpenAIRE

    Garth Heutel; Ruhm, Christopher J.

    2013-01-01

    Prior research demonstrates that mortality rates increase during economic booms and decrease during economic busts, but little analysis has been conducted investigating the role of environmental risks as potential mechanisms for this relationship. We investigate the contribution of air pollution to the procyclicality of deaths by combining state-level data on overall, cause-specific, and age-specific mortality rates with state-level measures of ambient concentrations of three types of polluta...

  1. Lung cancer and air pollution.

    OpenAIRE

    Cohen, A J; Pope, C A

    1995-01-01

    Epidemiologic studies over the last 40 years suggest rather consistently that general ambient air pollution, chiefly due to the incomplete combustion of fossil fuels, may be responsible for increased rates of lung cancer. This evidence derives from studies of lung cancer trends, studies of occupational groups, comparisons of urban and rural populations, and case-control and cohort studies using diverse exposure metrics. Recent prospective cohort studies observed 30 to 50% increases in lung ca...

  2. Air Pollution in Pristina, Influence on Cardiovascular Hospital Morbidity

    OpenAIRE

    Ukëhaxhaj, Antigona; Gjorgjev, Dragan; Ramadani, Maser; Krasniqi, Selvete; Gjergji, Tahire; Zogaj, Drita

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Introduction: Numerous studies observed health effects of particulate air pollution. Ambient air quality is particularly bad in Pristina. The principal sources of contaminants are sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen oxides NO and NO2 (NOx), ozone (O3), lead (Pb), carbon dioxide (CO2), particulate matter (PM or dust). Objective: to investigate effects of concentrations of pollutants in ambient air on hospital admissions for cardiovascular disease in UCCK- Pristina. Methods: Retrospective e...

  3. Manual for THOR-AirPAS - air pollution assessment system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Steen Solvang; Ketzel, Matthias; Brandt, Jørgen;

    The report provides an outline of the THOR-AirPAS - air pollution assessment system and a brief manual for getting started with the air quality models and input data included in THOR-AirPAS.......The report provides an outline of the THOR-AirPAS - air pollution assessment system and a brief manual for getting started with the air quality models and input data included in THOR-AirPAS....

  4. Air pollution and air cleaning equipment in buildings

    OpenAIRE

    Evdokimova, Ekaterina

    2011-01-01

    The subject of this thesis work is air pollution and air cleaners in building. Clean air has big significance for human health because different pollutions can cause allergy and disease. The quality of indoor air affects health and effective working. The aim of this thesis is to present methods and devices for cleaning the air.

  5. Air pollution control policy in Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There are a lot of reasons why emissions of air pollutants have to be reduced. Acid deposition and its consequences are among them, but they are not the only ones. This paper presents the comprehensive legal basis of air pollution control policy in Switzerland as well as the overall air pollution control strategy. The present situation with respect to air pollution is discussed. A list of implemented and planned measures is given as well as emission trends of major air pollutants from 1950 to 2010. 6 refs., 1 fig

  6. Air Pollution and Control Legislation in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    P Bhave, Prashant; Kulkarni, Nikhil

    2015-09-01

    Air pollution in urban areas arises from multiple sources, which may vary with location and developmental activities. Anthropogenic activities as rampant industrialization, exploitation and over consumption of natural resources, ever growing population size are major contributors of air pollution. The presented review is an effort to discuss various aspects of air pollution and control legislation in India emphasizing on the history, present scenario, international treaties, gaps and drawbacks. The review also presents legislative controls with judicial response to certain landmark judgments related to air pollution. The down sides related to enforcement mechanism for the effective implementation of environmental laws for air pollution control have been highlighted.

  7. REAL TIME WIRELESS AIR POLLUTION MONITORING SYSTEM

    OpenAIRE

    Raja Vara Prasad Y; Mirza Sami Baig; Mishra, Rahul K; Rajalakshmi, P.; U. B. Desai; S. N. Merchant

    2011-01-01

    Air pollution has significant influence on the concentration of constituents in the atmosphere leading to effects like global warming and acid rains. To avoid such adverse imbalances in the nature, an air pollution monitoring system is utmost important. This paper attempts to develop an effective solution for pollution monitoring using wireless sensor networks (WSN) on a real time basis namely real time wireless air pollution monitoring system. Commercially available discrete gas sensors for ...

  8. Ambient air pollution and allergic diseases in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byoung-Ju Kim

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of allergic diseases has increased worldwide, a phenomenon that can be largely attributed to environmental effects. Among environmental factors, air pollution due to traffic is thought to be a major threat to childhood health. Residing near busy roadways is associated with increased asthma hospitalization, decreased lung function, and increased prevalence and severity of wheezing and allergic rhinitis. Recently, prospective cohort studies using more accurate measurements of individual exposure to air pollution have been conducted and have provided definitive evidence of the impact of air pollution on allergic diseases. Particulate matter and groundlevel ozone are the most frequent air pollutants that cause harmful effects, and the mechanisms underlying these effects may be related to oxidative stress. The reactive oxidative species produced in response to air pollutants can overwhelm the redox system and damage the cell wall, lipids, proteins, and DNA, leading to airway inflammation and hyper-reactivity. Pollutants may also cause harmful effects via epigenetic mechanisms, which control the expression of genes without changing the DNA sequence itself. These mechanisms are likely to be a target for the prevention of allergies. Further studies are necessary to identify children at risk and understand how these mechanisms regulate gene-environment interactions. This review provides an update of the current understanding on the impact of air pollution on allergic diseases in children and facilitates the integration of issues regarding air pollution and allergies into pediatric practices, with the goal of improving pediatric health.

  9. AIR POLLUTION OF URBAN AREAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MAKAROVA V. N.

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Raising of problem. Any manufacturing processes related to the generation of waste. Year after year, a growing mass of waste is one of the main factors reducing the quality of the environment and destruction of natural landscapes. Industrial development inevitably enhances human impacts on the environment and disrupts the ecological balance [3]. Atmospher air is a vital element of the environment. The development of industry, the growth of cities, increasing the number of transport, active exploration of near-Earth space lead to a change in the gas composition of the atmosphere and disruption of its natural balance. Air quality affects the health of the population [5]. Without water or food a person can do for a while, but without air he can not live a few minutes, therefore saving air breathable is an urgent problem. Purpose. The results of geological studies clearly indicate that the contamination of the surface layer of the atmosphere is the most powerful permanent factor of influence on the human food chain and the environment. This problem was reflected in the scientific literature [2; 3; 6], and the second significant indicator of ecological well-being of the region is the number of generation and accumulation of waste. According to this indicator, Dnipropetrovsk region is in the lead, as relates to the industrialized regions. The idea of the article is to consider the air pollution of the urban environment in terms of the accumulation of waste in the territory of enterprises, in particular slag dumps metallurgical production. Conclusion. Slag dumps located on the premises are a significant source of air pollution urbanized areas due to the permanent nature of the spread of contamination. Slag dump of PAT "Nikopol Ferroalloy Plant" is a source of manganese, zinc, nickel emissions. As a conclusion about the magnitude of pollution of the atmospheric boundary layer can say the following: on the border of the sanitary protection zone (SPZ, in

  10. Motor Vehicles Air Pollution in Nairobi, Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Odhiambo

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Air quality monitoring in most developing countries is not routinely conducted, and in some urban areas such information does not even exist, though signs of deteriorating air quality and health problems related to air pollution are visible. By measuring air pollutants (i.e., Nitrogen Oxides, ozone, suspended particulates matter (PM10, and trace elements e.g. lead, this study investigated air quality in Nairobi, one of the largest cities in eastern Africa and the capital of Kenya. Sampling was done once a week from February to April 2003. Hourly average concentrations of NOx and O3 were measured using a technique that is based on "chemilumiscent" reaction at a site connecting two main highways in Nairobi (University and Uhuru from 9:00 a.m. to 5:00 p.m. PM10 was collected using “Gent” Stacked Filter Unit (SFU air sampler fitted with nucleopore filters (0.4 and 8.0 mm pore size for fine and coarse filters, respectively that were analyzed for trace elements by Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescent (EDXRF technique. An automatic vehicle counter was used for determining the vehicle density at the sampling site. Results show that most pollutants, for example, lead (0.05 1 to 1.106 µg/m3, bromine (LLD to 0.43 µg/m3, NO2 (0.011-0.976 ppm, NO (0.001-0.2628 ppm and O3 (LLD-0.1258 ppm are within the WHO guidelines. PM10 levels (66.66 - 444.45 µg/m3 were above the WHO guidelines for most of the days, with coarse particulate accounting for more than 70%. Strong correlation (r = 0.966 between fine (0.4 µm particulates, NOx, and motor vehicle density, indicate the importance of traffic as a common source for both fine particulates and NOx.

  11. Stochastic Modeling of Traffic Air Pollution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thoft-Christensen, Palle

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, modeling of traffic air pollution is discussed with special reference to infrastructures. A number of subjects related to health effects of air pollution and the different types of pollutants are briefly presented. A simple model for estimating the social cost of traffic related air...... and using simple Monte Carlo techniques to obtain a stochastic estimate of the costs of traffic air pollution for infrastructures....... pollution is derived. Several authors have published papers on this very complicated subject, but no stochastic modelling procedure have obtained general acceptance. The subject is discussed basis of a deterministic model. However, it is straightforward to modify this model to include uncertain parameters...

  12. Air pollution monitor for TRISTAN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the summer of 1988, sixteen superconducting RF cavities were installed to increase the beam energy of TRISTAN and they began to be effective operation in November. One of the obvious problems created by the installation of superconducting equipment to the tunnel is oxygen-poor in case of bursting the liquefied gases. Air pollution in the tunnel from poisonous gases formed by synchrotron radiations is also becoming serious problem as upgrading TRISTAN. It is the purpose of this paper to show the special safety control problems and the system used in TRISTAN to give a solution for these problems. 3 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab

  13. Air pollution - Trends in Austria 1980 - 2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Austrian federal environmental office (Umweltbundesamt) carries out an annual inventory of the air pollution to fulfill obligatory duties derived from national and international agreements (UNFCCC; United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, Kyoto-protocol, EU monitoring mechanism (Decision 93/389/EWG). This inventory includes the anthropogenic emissions for the period 1980 - 2002 and the steps followed to reduce them. It is divided into 11 parts as follows: 1. summary, 2. inventory basis, 3. greenhouse gases (emissions trends 1990-2002, actual development 2001-2, carbon dioxide, methane, nitrogen dioxide, F- gases (SF6, partial fluorinated hydrocarbons, total fluorinated hydrocarbons), 4. ozone promoters (nitrogen oxides, hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, methane), 5. acidification and eutrophication (sulfur dioxide, ammonia, nitrogen oxides), 6. dust, 7. heavy metals (cadmium, lead, mercury), 8. persistent organic pollutants (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, dioxine, hexachlorobenzene), 9. pollution trends by sectors (power generation, traffic, industry, agriculture), 10. international comparison of Austrian emissions (greenhouse gases, sulphur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, hydrocarbons without methane, ammonia, carbon monoxide), 11. bibliography and an appendix. Data were collected following the guidelines by the International panel on climate exchange and the EMEP/CORINAIR emission inventory guidebook. Those chapters which are in the INIS subject scope were treated individually. 36 ref., 30 tabls., 74 figs. (nevyjel)

  14. Oxidative DNA damage estimated by urinary 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine and indoor air pollution among non-smoking office employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Chung-Yen; Ma, Yee-Chung; Lin, Jia-Min; Chuang, Chun-Yu; Sung, Fung-Chang

    2007-03-01

    This study investigated whether urinary 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), a biomarker of oxidative stress, was associated with indoor air quality for non-smokers in high-rise building offices. With informed consents, urine samples from 344 non-smoking employees in 86 offices were collected to determine 8-OHdG concentrations. The concentrations of carbon dioxide (CO(2)) and total volatile organic compounds (TVOCs) in each office and outside of the building were simultaneously measured for eight office hours. The average workday difference between indoor and outdoor CO(2) concentrations (dCO(2)) was used as a surrogate measure of the ventilation efficiency for each office unit. The CO(2) levels in the offices ranged 467-2810ppm with a mean of 1170ppm, or 2.7 times higher than that in the outside air. The average urinary 8-OHdG levels among employees increased from 3.10 micro g/g creatinine, for those at the lowest tertile levels of both dCO(2) and TVOCs, to 6.27 micro g/g creatinine, for those at the highest tertile levels. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that the risk of having the urinary 8-OHdG level of greater than the median, 4.53 micro g/g creatinine, for participants was increased significantly at the highest tertile dCO(2) level of >680ppm (odds ratio (OR)=3.37, 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.20-9.46). The effect was significant at the middle tertile TVOCs level of 114-360ppb (OR=2.62, 95% CI=1.43-4.79), but not at the highest tertile. Inadequate ventilation in office increases the risk of building-related oxidative stress in non-smoking employees. PMID:17034784

  15. Biological monitors of air pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Direct biological monitoring of air pollution was introduced about 30 years ago. Although still under development, the application of biological monitors, or indicators, may provide important information on the levels, availability, and pathways of a variety of pollutants including heavy metals and other toxic trace elements in the air. A survey is given of the most frequently used biomonitors, such as herbaceous plants, tree leaves or needles, bryophytes, and lichens, with their possible advantages and/or limitations. In addition to using naturally-occurring biomonitors, a possibility of employing ''transplanted'' species in the study areas, for instance grasses grown in special containers in standard soils or lichens transplanted with their natural substrate to an exposition site, is also mentioned. Several sampling and washing procedures are reported. The important of employing nuclear analytical methods, especially instrumental neutron activation analysis, for multielemental analysis of biomonitors as a pre-requisite for unlocking the information contained in chemical composition of monitor's tissues, such as apportionment of emission sources using multivariate statistical procedures, is also outlined. (author). 32 refs, 2 figs

  16. Analysis Of Highway Air Pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.SUBRAMANI

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The traffic is growing at rapid rate in urban areas of India and the management of traffic operations on the limited road network of the cities has become a gigantic task to the concerned authorities. Despite the concerted efforts of concerned authorities aimed at augmenting road infrastructure, traffic congestion is continuing to increase leading to environmental degradation. Eventually, a major study was commissioned by the Government of India to quantify urban travel by road and associated air pollutants coming from automobile exhausts in eight cities namely, Delhi, Mumbai, Kolkata, Chennai, Bangalore, Hyderabad, Kanpur and Agra. The main objective was to make an accurate assessment of total number of vehicles and develop database and techniques to estimate road traffic and pollution loads in each city. This paper describes operating characteristics of traffic and quantification of traffic and air pollution loads (base and horizon year on major road network of Chennai city. Comparatively urbanization is moderate in India. This is because the major contributor to the Indian economy is agriculture and it is rural based. As per the Census of India 2001, the urban population of India is around 28 percent of the total population. This proportion of urban population has grown from ten percent in 1901 to twenty eight percent in 2001. The disturbing aspect of the urbanization trends in India is the skewed distribution of the urban population. Nearly seventy percent of the urban population is located in Class-I cities (i.e. population of 100 Thousand and above. Further, 38 percent of the total urban population is located in metropolitan cities (i.e. population of 1 million and above numbering about thirty-five. This heavy concentration of population in a few centers has resulted in the expansion of cities in density as well as area.

  17. Pigeons home faster through polluted air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhongqiu; Courchamp, Franck; Blumstein, Daniel T.

    2016-01-01

    Air pollution, especially haze pollution, is creating health issues for both humans and other animals. However, remarkably little is known about how animals behaviourally respond to air pollution. We used multiple linear regression to analyse 415 pigeon races in the North China Plain, an area with considerable air pollution, and found that while the proportion of pigeons successfully homed was not influenced by air pollution, pigeons homed faster when the air was especially polluted. Our results may be explained by an enhanced homing motivation and possibly an enriched olfactory environment that facilitates homing. Our study provides a unique example of animals’ response to haze pollution; future studies are needed to identify proposed mechanisms underlying this effect.

  18. On a pollution look; Sur un air de pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garrec, J.P.; Monchicourt, M.O.

    2002-07-01

    The author, who is director of the laboratory of atmospheric pollution studies of the French national institute of agronomical research (INRA), answers the questions of a journalist about: how to detect air pollution, what are its causes, what are its impacts on health and environment, and what are the existing protection means against atmospheric pollution. (J.S.)

  19. Long-term exposure to air pollution and cardiovascular mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beelen, Rob; Stafogguiia, Massimo; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Air pollution has been associated with cardiovascular mortality, but it remains unclear as to whether specific pollutants are related to specific cardiovascular causes of death. Within the multicenter European Study of Cohorts for Air Pollution Effects (ESCAPE), we investigated the...... associations of long-term exposure to several air pollutants with all cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality, as well as with specific cardiovascular causes of death. METHODS: Data from 22 European cohort studies were used. Using a standardized protocol, study area-specific air pollution exposure at the...... residential address was characterized as annual average concentrations of the following: nitrogen oxides (NO2 and NOx); particles with diameters of less than 2.5 μm (PM2.5), less than 10 μm (PM10), and 10 μm to 2.5 μm (PMcoarse); PM2.5 absorbance estimated by land-use regression models; and traffic indicators...

  20. Ambient air pollution and the fetus

    OpenAIRE

    Kadriye Yurdakök

    2013-01-01

    There is a growing evidence on the hazards of ambient air pollution on fetal development. Several review articles have been published on the adverse fetal outcomes including low birth weight, preterm birth, small-for-gestational age, and congenital anomalies. Recent studies have linked ambient air pollution to gestational hypertension, and preeclampsia which may be related to the detrimental effect of ambient air pollution on placental growth and function. Short-term and long-term exposure to...

  1. Urban air pollution climates throughout the world

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertel, Ole; Goodsite, Michael Evan

    2009-01-01

    The extent of the urban area, the local emission density, and the temporal pattern in the releases govern the local contribution to air pollution levels in urban environments. However, meteorological conditions also heavily affect the actual pollution levels as they govern the dispersion conditions...... air pollution climates, particulate pollution in general together with gaseous and particulate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and heavy metals are those where further field measurements, characterization and laboratory studies are urgently needed in order to fully assess the health impact on...... the urban population and provide the right basis for future urban air pollution management. © Royal Society of Chemistry 2009....

  2. Organic extracts of urban air pollution particulate matter (PM2.5)-induced genotoxicity and oxidative stress in human lung bronchial epithelial cells (BEAS-2B cells).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Seung Min; Kim, Ha Ryong; Park, Yong Joo; Lee, Soo Yeun; Chung, Kyu Hyuck

    2011-08-16

    Traffic is a major source of particulate matter (PM), and ultrafine particulates and traffic intensity probably contribute significantly to PM-related health effects. As a strong relationship between air pollution and motor vehicle-originated pollutants has been shown to exist, air pollution genotoxicity studies of urban cities are steadily increasing. In Korea, the death rate caused by lung cancer is the most rapidly increased cancer death rate in the past 10 years. In this study, genotoxicity of PM2.5 (traffic area in Suwon City, Korea, was studied using cultured human lung bronchial epithelial cells (BEAS-2B) as a model system for the potential inhalation health effects. Organic extract of PM2.5 (CE) generated significant DNA breakage and micronucleus formation in a dose-dependent manner (1μg/cm(3)-50μg/cm(3)). In the acid-base-neutral fractionation of PM2.5, neutral samples including the aliphatic (F3), aromatic (F4) and slightly polar (F5) fractions generated significant DNA breakage and micronucleus formation. These genotoxic effects were significantly blocked by scavenging agents [superoxide dismutase (SOD), sodium selenite (SS), mannitol (M), catalase (CAT)]. In addition, in the modified Comet assay using endonucleases (FPG and ENDOIII), CE and its fractions (F3, F4, and F5) increased DNA breakage compared with control groups, indicating that CE and fractions of PM2.5 induced oxidative DNA damage. These results clearly suggest that PM2.5 collected in the Suwon traffic area has genotoxic effects and that reactive oxygen species may play a distinct role in these effects. In addition, aliphatic/chlorinated hydrocarbons, PAH/alkylderivatives, and nitro-PAH/ketones/quinones may be important causative agents of the genotoxic effects. PMID:21524716

  3. Assessment of Air Environmental Factor Pollution to the Steelmaking (Pădureni Area)

    OpenAIRE

    Iluţiu-Varvara, Dana-Adriana; Pică, Elena-Maria; Liviu BRÂNDUŞAN

    2011-01-01

    The steelmaking process in the electric arc furnace causes environmental pollution in all its components: water, air and soil. The electric arc furnace steelmaking is considered to be an industrial process with high degree of pollution because the following pollutants are transferred in the air environment factor: carbon oxide, sulphur oxide, nitrogen oxide, volatile organic compounds, particulate matter, dioxins and furans. The purpose of the paper constitutes the assessment of air environme...

  4. PUBLICATIONS (AIR POLLUTION TECHNOLOGY BRANCH, AIR POLLUTION PREVENTION AND CONTROL DIVISION, NRMRL)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Air Pollution Technology Branch (APTB) of NRMRL's Air Pollution Prevention and Control Division produces and publishes highly specialized technical and scientific documents related to APTB's research. Areas of research covered include artificial intelligence, CFC destruction,...

  5. Combined air and water pollution control system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolverton, Billy C. (Inventor); Jarrell, Lamont (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    A bioaquatic air pollution control system for controlling both water and atmospheric pollution is disclosed. The pollution control system includes an exhaust for directing polluted gases out of a furnace and a fluid circulating system which circulates fluid, such as waste water, from a source, past the furnace where the fluid flow entrains the pollutants from the furnace. The combined fluid and pollutants are then directed through a rock/plant/microbial filtering system. A suction pump pumps the treated waste water from the filter system past the exhaust to again entrain more pollutants from the furnace where they are combined with the fluid (waste water) and directed to the filter system.

  6. APEX (Air Pollution Exercise) Volume 21: Legal References: Air Pollution Control Regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC. Office of Manpower Development.

    The Legal References: Air Pollution Control Regulations Manual is the last in a set of 21 manuals (AA 001 009-001 029) used in APEX (Air Pollution Exercise), a computerized college and professional level "real world" game simulation of a community with urban and rural problems, industrial activities, and air pollution difficulties. The manual…

  7. Nitric Oxide and Superoxide Mediate Diesel Particle Effects in Cytokine-Treated Mice and Murine Lung Epithelial Cells ─ Implications for Susceptibility to Traffic-Related Air Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abstract Background: Epidemiologic studies associate childhood exposure to traffic-related air pollution with increased respiratory infections and asthmatic and allergic symptoms. The strongest associations between traffic exposure and negative health impacts are observed in in...

  8. Ambient air pollution and low birthweight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Marie; Giorgis-Allemand, Lise; Bernard, Claire;

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Ambient air pollution has been associated with restricted fetal growth, which is linked with adverse respiratory health in childhood. We assessed the effect of maternal exposure to low concentrations of ambient air pollution on birthweight. METHODS: We pooled data from 14 population...

  9. Air pollution and human fertility rates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J.; Basagaña, Xavier; Dadvand, Payam; Martinez, David; Cirach, Marta; Beelen, Rob; Jacquemin, Bénédicte

    2014-01-01

    Background: Some reports have suggested effects of air pollution on semen quality and success rates of in vitro fertilization (IVF) in humans and lower fertility rates in mice. However, no studies have evaluated the impact of air pollution on human fertility rates. Aims: We assessed the association

  10. Air pollution restrictions in electrical production system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A description of the principal characteristics regarding the Italian electrical power system and the evolution of standardization in air pollution control is given. Afterwards, ENEL (the Italian National Electricity Board) actions in the environmental protection field (with particular respect to thermo-electrical production) are presented. Finally, principal ENEL research programs on new air pollution control technologies are discussed

  11. Large Scale Computations in Air Pollution Modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zlatev, Z.; Brandt, J.; Builtjes, P. J. H.;

    Proceedings of the NATO Advanced Research Workshop on Large Scale Computations in Air Pollution Modelling, Sofia, Bulgaria, 6-10 July 1998......Proceedings of the NATO Advanced Research Workshop on Large Scale Computations in Air Pollution Modelling, Sofia, Bulgaria, 6-10 July 1998...

  12. Measurement of Air Pollutants in the Troposphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemitshaw, Kevin C.

    2011-01-01

    This article describes the principles, applications and performances of methods to measure gas-phase air pollutants that either utilise passive or active sampling with subsequent laboratory analysis or involve automated "in situ" sampling and analysis. It focuses on air pollutants that have adverse impacts on human health (nitrogen dioxide, carbon…

  13. Controlling Indoor Air Pollution from Moxibustion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung-Yen Lu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Indoor air quality (IAQ control of hospitals plays a critical role in protecting both hospital staffs and patients, particularly those who are highly susceptible to the adverse effects of indoor noxious hazards. However, moxibustion in outpatient departments (OPDs of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM may be a source of indoor air pollution in hospitals. Some studies have investigated indoor air pollution during moxibustion in Chinese medicine clinics (CMCs and moxibustion rooms, demonstrating elevated air pollutants that pose a threat to the health of medical staff and patients. Our study investigated the indoor air pollutants of indoor carbon dioxide (CO2, carbon monoxide (CO, formaldehyde (HCHO, total volatile organic compounds (TVOCs, airborne particulate matter with a diameter of ≤10 µm (PM10 and ≤2.5 µm (PM2.5 during moxibustion in an acupuncture and moxibustion room of the OPD in a hospital in Taipei. To evaluate the different control strategies for indoor air pollution from moxibution, a comparison of air pollutants during moxibution among the methods of using alternative old moxa wools, local exhaust ventilation and an air cleaner was conducted. In this study, burning alternative old moxa wools for moxibustion obviously reduced all gaseous pollutants except for aerosols comparing burning fresh moxa wools. Using local exhaust ventilation reduced most of the aerosols after burning moxa. We also found that using an air cleaner was inefficient for controlling indoor air pollutants, particularly gaseous pollutants. Therefore, combining replacing alternative old moxa wools and local exhaust ventilation could be a suitable design for controlling indoor air pollution during moxibustion therapy.

  14. Controlling Indoor Air Pollution from Moxibustion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Chung-Yen; Kang, Sy-Yuan; Liu, Shu-Hui; Mai, Cheng-Wei; Tseng, Chao-Heng

    2016-01-01

    Indoor air quality (IAQ) control of hospitals plays a critical role in protecting both hospital staffs and patients, particularly those who are highly susceptible to the adverse effects of indoor noxious hazards. However, moxibustion in outpatient departments (OPDs) of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) may be a source of indoor air pollution in hospitals. Some studies have investigated indoor air pollution during moxibustion in Chinese medicine clinics (CMCs) and moxibustion rooms, demonstrating elevated air pollutants that pose a threat to the health of medical staff and patients. Our study investigated the indoor air pollutants of indoor carbon dioxide (CO2), carbon monoxide (CO), formaldehyde (HCHO), total volatile organic compounds (TVOCs), airborne particulate matter with a diameter of ≤10 µm (PM10) and ≤2.5 µm (PM2.5) during moxibustion in an acupuncture and moxibustion room of the OPD in a hospital in Taipei. To evaluate the different control strategies for indoor air pollution from moxibution, a comparison of air pollutants during moxibution among the methods of using alternative old moxa wools, local exhaust ventilation and an air cleaner was conducted. In this study, burning alternative old moxa wools for moxibustion obviously reduced all gaseous pollutants except for aerosols comparing burning fresh moxa wools. Using local exhaust ventilation reduced most of the aerosols after burning moxa. We also found that using an air cleaner was inefficient for controlling indoor air pollutants, particularly gaseous pollutants. Therefore, combining replacing alternative old moxa wools and local exhaust ventilation could be a suitable design for controlling indoor air pollution during moxibustion therapy. PMID:27331817

  15. A Monitoring of Air Pollutants (CO, SO2 and NO) in Ambient Air Near an Industrial Area

    OpenAIRE

    Radin Mohamed Radin Maya Saphira; Hakim Rahim Ahmad Faizol; Mohd Kassim Amir Hashim

    2016-01-01

    A monitoring assessment was carried out to measure the concentration of air pollutants in ambient air in the university campus, which is located adjacent to the industrial area. The air pollutants were monitored for CO (Carbon monoxide), SO2 (Sulfur dioxide) and NO (Nitrous oxide) at the three sampling points, with distance reference based from the industrial area. Air pollutant gases were sampled from the I-Brid Toxic Gases Analyzer with the sampling hour referred to the Recommended Malaysia...

  16. Air Pollution and Environmental Justice Awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouvier-Brown, N. C.

    2014-12-01

    Air pollution is not equally dispersed in all neighborhoods and this raises many social concerns, such as environmental justice. "Real world" data, whether extracted from online databases or collected in the field, can be used to demonstrate air quality patterns. When students explore these trends, they not only learn about atmospheric chemistry, but they also become socially aware of any inequities. This presentation outlines specific ways to link air pollution and environmental justice suitable for an undergraduate upper division Air Pollution or Atmospheric Chemistry course.

  17. Smoking and Cerebral Oxidative Stress and Air Pollution: A Dreadful Equation with Particulate Matter Involved and One More Powerful Reason Not to Smoke Anything!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderón-Garcidueñas, Lilian

    2016-07-22

    Smoking has serious health effects. Cigarettes, including tobacco, marijuana, and electronic nicotine delivery systems are very effective ways to inhale harmful amounts of fine and ultrafine particulate matter. Does size matter? Yes, indeed! The smaller the particle you inhale, the higher the ability to produce reactive oxygen species and to readily access the brain. In this issue of the Journal of Alzheimer's Disease, Durazzo provides evidence of an association between active cigarette tobacco smoking in cognitively-normal elders and increased cerebral oxidative stress, while in actively smoking Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients, the association was also seen with smaller left and total hippocampal volumes. This paper has highly relevant results of interest across the US and the world because millions of people are active smokers and they have other genetic and environmental risk factors that could play a key role in the development/worsening of brain oxidative stress and neurodegeneration. Smoking basically anything producing aerosols with particulate matter in the fine and ultrafine size range is detrimental to your brain. Marijuana and e-cigarette use has grown steadily among adolescents and young adults. Smoking-related cerebral oxidative stress is a potential mechanism promoting AD pathology and increased risk for AD. Current knowledge also relates fine and ultrafine particles exposures influencing neurodevelopmental processes in utero. The results from Durazzo et al. should be put in a broader context, a context that includes evaluating the oxidative stress of nano-aerosols associated with cigarette emissions and their synergistic effects with air pollution exposures. AD is expected to increase in the US threefold by the year 2050, and some of these future AD patients are smoking and vaping right now. Understanding the impact of everyday exposures to long-term harmful consequences for brain health is imperative. PMID:27447427

  18. Integrated monitoring and assessment of air pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hertel, O.

    2009-09-15

    Improved quality, better understanding of processes and optimisation of allocated resources, these are the main advantages of applying Integrated Monitoring and Assessment (IMA) in air quality management. The IMA is defined as the combined use of measurements and model calculations. The use of IMA is demonstrated with examples with different aims: to obtain data for air pollution in urban streets, to assess human exposure to traffic air pollution, and to assess atmospheric deposition of nitrogen compounds to marine and terrestrial ecosystems. (author)

  19. Controlling Indoor Air Pollution from Moxibustion

    OpenAIRE

    Chung-Yen Lu; Sy-Yuan Kang; Shu-Hui Liu; Cheng-Wei Mai; Chao-Heng Tseng

    2016-01-01

    Indoor air quality (IAQ) control of hospitals plays a critical role in protecting both hospital staffs and patients, particularly those who are highly susceptible to the adverse effects of indoor noxious hazards. However, moxibustion in outpatient departments (OPDs) of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) may be a source of indoor air pollution in hospitals. Some studies have investigated indoor air pollution during moxibustion in Chinese medicine clinics (CMCs) and moxibustion rooms, demonstra...

  20. Air pollution: UNCED convention on climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In addition to United Nations papers delineating the Organization's convention on climate change and strategies concerning the protection of the earth's atmosphere, this booklet presents four papers expressing the views of Italian and American strategists. The central theme is the establishment of current global air pollution trends, the determination of suitable air pollution limits, and the preparation of feasible socio-economic strategies to allow industrialized and developing countries to work together effectively to achieve the proposed global air quality goals

  1. Air pollution and the respiratory system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbex, Marcos Abdo; Santos, Ubiratan de Paula; Martins, Lourdes Conceição; Saldiva, Paulo Hilário Nascimento; Pereira, Luiz Alberto Amador; Braga, Alfésio Luis Ferreira

    2012-01-01

    Over the past 250 years-since the Industrial Revolution accelerated the process of pollutant emission, which, until then, had been limited to the domestic use of fuels (mineral and vegetal) and intermittent volcanic emissions-air pollution has been present in various scenarios. Today, approximately 50% of the people in the world live in cities and urban areas and are exposed to progressively higher levels of air pollutants. This is a non-systematic review on the different types and sources of air pollutants, as well as on the respiratory effects attributed to exposure to such contaminants. Aggravation of the symptoms of disease, together with increases in the demand for emergency treatment, the number of hospitalizations, and the number of deaths, can be attributed to particulate and gaseous pollutants, emitted by various sources. Chronic exposure to air pollutants not only causes decompensation of pre-existing diseases but also increases the number of new cases of asthma, COPD, and lung cancer, even in rural areas. Air pollutants now rival tobacco smoke as the leading risk factor for these diseases. We hope that we can impress upon pulmonologists and clinicians the relevance of investigating exposure to air pollutants and of recognizing this as a risk factor that should be taken into account in the adoption of best practices for the control of the acute decompensation of respiratory diseases and for maintenance treatment between exacerbations. PMID:23147058

  2. Survey of Modified Clinoptilolite Zeolite and Cooper Oxide Nanoparticles-Containing Modified Clinoptilolite Efficiency for Polluted Air BTX Removal

    OpenAIRE

    Ruhollah Rostami; Ahmad Jonidi Jafari; Roshanak Rezaee Kalantari; Mitra Gholami

    2012-01-01

    Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Background and Objectives:Benzene, toluene and Xylenes (BTX) are organic pollutants, which are mainly associated with oil and its derivatives. BTX is environmental contaminants and considered harmful to human health. Application of surface absorbents such as zeolite is one of several methods for the removal of these compounds. In this study, BTX compounds' removal efficiencies were investigated and compared ...

  3. Can air pollutant controls change global warming?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Air pollution policies do not affect long-term climate targets. • Reduction of aerosols counteracts a fraction of the reduction of Kyoto forcing. • Air pollution policies may affect the rate of climate change in the short term. • There is no tradeoff between clean air and climate policies. - Abstract: In this paper we analyze the interaction between climate and air pollution policies using the integrated assessment model REMIND coupled to the reduced-form climate model MAGICC. Since overall, aerosols tend to cool the atmosphere, there is a concern that a reduction of pollutant emissions could accelerate global warming and offset the climate benefits of carbon dioxide emission reductions. We investigate scenarios which independently reduce emissions from either large-scale sources, such as power plants, or small-scale sources, such as cooking and heating stoves. Large-scale sources are likely to be easier to control, but their aerosol emissions are characterized by a relatively high sulfur content, which tends to result in atmospheric cooling. Pollution from small-scale sources, by contrast, is characterized by a high share of carbonaceous aerosol, which is an important contributor to global warming. We find that air pollution policies can significantly reduce aerosol emissions when no climate policies are in place. Stringent climate policies lead to a large reduction of fossil fuel use, and therefore result in a concurrent reduction of air pollutant emissions. These reductions partly reduce aerosol masking, thus initially counteracting the reduction of greenhouse gas forcing, however not overcompensating it. If climate policies are in place, air pollution policies have almost no impacts on medium- and long-term radiative forcing. Therefore there is no conflict of objectives between clean air and limiting global warming. We find that the stringency of air pollution policies may influence the rate of global temperature change in the first decade

  4. RESEARCH AREA -- ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE CONTROL (AIR POLLUTION TECHNOLOGY BRANCH, AIR POLLUTION PREVENTION AND CONTROL DIVISION, NRMRL)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Air Pollution Technology Branch (APTB) of NRMRL's Air Pollution Prevention and Control Division in Research Triangle Park, NC, has conducted several research projects for evaluating the use of artificial intelligence (AI) to improve the control of pollution control systems an...

  5. Outdoor air pollution, low birth weight, and prematurity.

    OpenAIRE

    Bobak, M

    2000-01-01

    This study tested the hypothesis, suggested by several recent reports, that air pollution may increase the risk of adverse birth outcomes. This study analyzed all singleton live births registered by the Czech national birth register in 1991 in 67 districts where at least one pollutant was monitored in 1990-1991 (n = 108,173). Maternal exposures to sulfur dioxide (SO(2)), total suspended particles (TSP), and nitrous oxides (NO(x)) in each trimester of pregnancy were estimated as the arithmetic...

  6. Nitric oxide and superoxide mediate diesel particle effects in cytokine-treated mice and murine lung epithelial cells — implications for susceptibility to traffic-related air pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manzo Nicholas D

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Epidemiologic studies associate childhood exposure to traffic-related air pollution with increased respiratory infections and asthmatic and allergic symptoms. The strongest associations between traffic exposure and negative health impacts are observed in individuals with respiratory inflammation. We hypothesized that interactions between nitric oxide (NO, increased during lung inflammatory responses, and reactive oxygen species (ROS, increased as a consequence of traffic exposure ─ played a key role in the increased susceptibility of these at-risk populations to traffic emissions. Methods Diesel exhaust particles (DEP were used as surrogates for traffic particles. Murine lung epithelial (LA-4 cells and BALB/c mice were treated with a cytokine mixture (cytomix: TNFα, IL-1β, and IFNγ to induce a generic inflammatory state. Cells were exposed to saline or DEP (25 μg/cm2 and examined for differential effects on redox balance and cytotoxicity. Likewise, mice undergoing nose-only inhalation exposure to air or DEP (2 mg/m3 × 4 h/d × 2 d were assessed for differential effects on lung inflammation, injury, antioxidant levels, and phagocyte ROS production. Results Cytomix treatment significantly increased LA-4 cell NO production though iNOS activation. Cytomix + DEP-exposed cells incurred the greatest intracellular ROS production, with commensurate cytotoxicity, as these cells were unable to maintain redox balance. By contrast, saline + DEP-exposed cells were able to mount effective antioxidant responses. DEP effects were mediated by: (1 increased ROS including superoxide anion (O2˙-, related to increased xanthine dehydrogenase expression and reduced cytosolic superoxide dismutase activity; and (2 increased peroxynitrite generation related to interaction of O2˙- with cytokine-induced NO. Effects were partially reduced by superoxide dismutase (SOD supplementation or by blocking iNOS induction. In mice, cytomix

  7. Epiphytic lichens and air pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Wit, T.

    1978-01-01

    The WHEN workgroup has made an inventory of the epiphytic lichens on freestanding trees in The Netherlands, using a 5 km square-grid as a basis. On the basis of the number of lichen species per tree species per square, the squares were divided into six classes of epiphyte richness. The data for the west of the country were analyzed in more detail, resulting in a zone map. It appeared possible to construct a descriptive model of the correlation between SO/sub 2/ concentrations and epiphyte richness. At median winter SO/sub 2/ concentrations higher than 100..mu..g/m/sup 3/ only a few insensitive species occur. At lower concentrations winter peak values (98 percentile) are more important than median ones. The extent to which a species is restricted to epiphyte-rich squares is used as a measure for ranking the species according to sensitivity. The more sensitive species have disappeared from large areas of The Netherlands. Comparison of the present situation with data from around 1950 reveals a decline almost everywhere in the country. The southern and western parts of the country are impoverished, the area between Rotterdam and Den Haag and the area between Arnhem and Nijmegen in particular have become very poor. A further decline of the epiphytic lichen vegetation, in particular of the relatively rich areas, is expected. In fumigation experiments, using HF, SO/sub 2/, C/sub 2/H/sub 4/, O/sub 3/ and O/sub 3/ combined with SO/sub 2/ at realistic concentrations and prolonged exposition it was found that these air pollutants cause (under glasshouse conditions) significant morphological damage to all or some of the tested lichen species.

  8. Air pollution dispersion within urban street canyons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taseiko, Olga V.; Mikhailuta, Sergey V.; Pitt, Anne; Lezhenin, Anatoly A.; Zakharov, Yuri V.

    A semi-empirical mathematical model, Urban Street Model (USM), is proposed to efficiently estimate the dispersion of vehicular air pollution in cities. This model describes urban building arrangements by combining building density, building heights and the permeability of building arrangements relative to wind flow. To estimate the level of air pollution in the city of Krasnoyarsk (in Eastern Siberia), the spatial distribution of pollutant concentrations off roadways is calculated using Markov's processes in USM. The USM-predicted numerical results were compared with field measurements and with results obtained from other frequently used models, CALINE-4 and OSPM. USM consistently yielded the best results. OSPM usually overestimated pollutant concentration values. CALINE-4 consistently underestimated these values. For OSPM, the maximum differences were 160% and for CALINE-4 about 400%. Permeability and building density are necessary parameters for accurately modeling urban air pollution and influencing regulatory requirements for building planning.

  9. Air pollution impacts from carbon capture and storage (CCS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harmelen, T. van; Horssen, A. van; Jozwicka, M.; Pulles, T. (TNO, Delft (Netherlands)); Odeh, N. (AEA Technology, Harwell (United Kingdom)); Adams, M. (EEA, Copenhagen (Denmark))

    2011-11-15

    This report comprises two separate complementary parts that address the links between CCS implementation and its subsequent impacts on GHG and air pollutant emissions on a life-cycle basis: Part A discusses and presents key findings from the latest literature, focusing upon the potential air pollution impacts across the CCS life-cycle arising from the implementation of the main foreseen technologies. Both negative and positive impacts on air quality are presently suggested in the literature - the basis of scientific knowledge on these issues is rapidly advancing. Part B comprises a case study that quantifies and highlights the range of GHG and air pollutant life-cycle emissions that could occur by 2050 under a low-carbon pathway should CCS be implemented in power plants across the European Union under various hypothetical scenarios. A particular focus of the study was to quantify the main life-cycle emissions of the air pollutants taking into account the latest knowledge on air pollutant emission factors and life-cycle aspects of the CCS life-cycle as described in Part A of the report. Pollutants considered in the report were the main GHGs CO{sub 2}, methane (CH{sub 4}) and nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) and the main air pollutants with potential to harm human health and/or the environment - nitrogen oxides (NO{sub X}), sulphur dioxide (SO{sub 2}), ammonia (NH{sub 3}), non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOCs) and particulate matter (PM{sub 10}). (Author)

  10. AIR POLLUTION IN SHOLAPUR CITY

    OpenAIRE

    Shinde Tukaram Vittal

    2015-01-01

    Pollution is the presentation of contaminants into the regular habitat that cause antagonistic change. Contamination can take the type of substance substances orenergy, for example, commotion, warmth or light. Pollution, the parts of contamination, can be either outside substances/ energies or normally happening contaminants. Contamination is regularly classed as point source or nonpoint source contamination.

  11. Air pollution in Karachi: a study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Air population is a necessary adjunct to the advancement of civilisation. It was an offshoot or rapid industrialisation of Europe during the late nineteenth and early twentieth century when most of the industrial plants coming up in the big industrial cities were based on the use of coal as a source of energy. This caused an enormous amount of air pollution. Air pollution therefore is a man made phenomenon which creates environmental degradation and it generally builds up over a period of time. Pollution of Karachi which was less than half a million at the time of partition of India has crossed ten million mark during the last decade. This rapid and more or less unplanned expansion of population of this teeming metropolis has entailed environmental degradation of Karachi. As this matter needs detailed and in depth monitoring we have limited our scope to the study of its effect on air pollution alone. (A.B.)

  12. Indoor air pollution: a public health perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although official efforts to control air pollution have traditionally focused on outdoor air, it is now apparent that elevated contaminant concentrations are common inside some private and public buildings. Concerns about potential public health problems due to indoor air pollution are based on evidence that urban residents typically spend more than 90 percent of their time indoors, concentrations of some contaminants are higher indoors than outdoors, and for some pollutants personal exposures are not characterized adequately by outdoor measurements. Among the more important indoor contaminants associated with health or irritation effects are passive tobacco smoke, radon decay products, carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, formaldehyde, asbestos fibers, microorganisms, and aeroallergens. Efforts to assess health risks associated with indoor air pollution are limited by insufficient information about the number of people exposed, the pattern and severity of exposures, and the health consequences of exposures. An overall strategy should be developed to investigate indoor exposures, health effects, control options, and public policy alternatives

  13. Air pollution, public health, and inflation

    OpenAIRE

    Ostro, Bart David

    1980-01-01

    Since the passage of the environmental legislation in the early 1970's, critics have attacked these laws as being unnecessary and for contributing significantly to the problem of inflation in the United States. This paper is an attempt to put the inflationary costs of air pollution into perspective by considering them in light of the cost, especially to public health, of not proceeding with pollution control. There is now a great deal of evidence that the concentration of certain pollutants i...

  14. Airports, Air Pollution, and Contemporaneous Health

    OpenAIRE

    Wolfram Schlenker; W. Reed Walker

    2011-01-01

    Airports are some of the largest sources of air pollution in the United States. We demonstrate that daily airport runway congestion contributes significantly to local pollution levels and contemporaneous health of residents living nearby and downwind from airports. Our research design exploits the fact that network delays originating from large airports on the East Coast increase runway congestion in California, which in turn increases daily pollution levels around California airports. Using ...

  15. AIR POLLUTION AND LUNG CAPACITY OF PEOPLE LIVING AROUND THE CEMENT INDUSTRY, INDONESIA

    OpenAIRE

    Erwin Azizi Jayadipraja; Anwar Daud; Alimuddin Hamzah Assegaf; Maming

    2016-01-01

    Backgrounds: A cement industry is one of anthropogenic sources of air pollution. In polluting the air, the industry creates some dust particles, nitrogen oxide (NO2), sulfur oxide (SO2), and carbon monoxide (CO). Research Purpose: The research aimed at finding out the ambient air quality around a cement industry and relating it with the lung capacity of people living around the area. Methodology: This was a cross sectional studies by measuring the ambient air quality in the morning, noo...

  16. Pollution prevention for cleaner air: EPA's air and energy engineering research laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The article discusses the role of EPA's Air and Energy Engineering Research Laboratory (AEERL) in pollution prevention research for cleaner air. For more than 20 years, AEERL has been conducting research to identify control approaches for the pollutants and sources which contribute to air quality problems. The Laboratory has successfully developed and demonstrated cost-effective sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, and particulate control technologies for fossil fuel combustion sources. More recently, it has expanded its research activities to include indoor air quality, radon, organic control, stratospheric ozone depletion, and global warming. AEERL also develops inventories of air emissions of many types. Over the last several years, it has made substantial efforts to expand research on pollution prevention as the preferred choice for air emissions reduction

  17. Public Communication on Urban Air Pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study was to analyze the state of public information in the field of air pollution in Spain. We conducted semi-structured interviews with members of public agencies, technical experts, scientists, and members of non governmental associations together with a documentary analysis of air pollution documents (plans, reports, etc.). We tried to characterize the information actions on air quality carried out in Spanish cities during the last years. In the results section we first analyze the ideas, concerns and considerations that underlie the actions of public information on air pollution, as well as the main challenges of public communication on this subject, according to the documents and the different experts consulted. We analyze the various contents of information transmitted nowadays (on levels of pollution, health impacts and mitigation or protection actions), as well as the mechanisms by which it is communicated, both continuously and in the case of threshold overcoming episodes. We also review the different media used to communicate air pollution information (Internet, mobile applications and other forms) and other issues such as information audiences, or the perceived impacts of information provided. Finally, the implications for more diverse and effective public involvement strategies in air pollution are discussed. (Author)

  18. Ambient air pollution and the fetus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadriye Yurdakök

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available There is a growing evidence on the hazards of ambient air pollution on fetal development. Several review articles have been published on the adverse fetal outcomes including low birth weight, preterm birth, small-for-gestational age, and congenital anomalies. Recent studies have linked ambient air pollution to gestational hypertension, and preeclampsia which may be related to the detrimental effect of ambient air pollution on placental growth and function. Short-term and long-term exposure to particulate air pollution may cause systemic inflammatory response which may trigger preterm delivery in pregnant women. Environmental toxic chemicals that alter intrauterine environment disregulates fetal epigenome causing epigenetic-mediated changes in gene expression that may be linked to later childhood and adulthood diseases. Exposure to ambient air pollution during the whole pregnancy especially in third-trimester may cause intrauterine vitamin D deficiency which is critical for the normal development of the lung, and immune system in fetus. However, more research is needed to understand the cause and effect interaction between air pollution and fetal development. Proceedings of the 9th International Workshop on Neonatology · Cagliari (Italy · October 23rd-26th, 2013 · Learned lessons, changing practice and cutting-edge research

  19. Air Conditioning Does Reduce Air Pollution Indoors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healy, Bud

    1970-01-01

    Report of the winter meeting of the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers. Subjects covered are--(1) title subject, (2) predictions for the human habitat in 1994, (3) fans, and (4) fire safety in buildings. (JW)

  20. Technology of Measuring equipment for Air Pollution. Development of Mobile Air Pollution monitoring system (LIDAR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Most air pollution monitoring technologies accompany a time-consuming sample treatment process and provides pollution information only for a local area. Thus, they have a critical restriction in monitoring time-dependent pollution variation effectively over the wide range of area both in height and in width. LIDAR (Light detection and ranging) is a new technology to overcome such drawbacks of the existing pollution monitoring technologies and has long been investigated in the advanced countries. The goal of this project is to develop the mobile air pollution monitoring system and to apply the system to the detection of various pollutants, such as ozone, nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide and aerosols

  1. Technology of Measuring equipment for Air Pollution. Development of Mobile Air Pollution monitoring system (LIDAR)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cha, Hyung Ki; Song, Ky Seok; Rhee, Young Joo; Kim, Duck Hyun; Yang, Ki Ho; Lee, Jong Min; Cha, Byung Heon; Lee, Kang Soo

    1999-01-01

    Most air pollution monitoring technologies accompany a time-consuming sample treatment process and provides pollution information only for a local area. Thus, they have a critical restriction in monitoring time-dependent pollution variation effectively over the wide range of area both in height and in width. LIDAR (Light detection and ranging) is a new technology to overcome such drawbacks of the existing pollution monitoring technologies and has long been investigated in the advanced countries. The goal of this project is to develop the mobile air pollution monitoring system and to apply the system to the detection of various pollutants, such as ozone, nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide and aerosols.

  2. AIR POLLUTION FROM FOSSIL FUEL IN ARAB REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MohamedGomma Elnour

    2015-06-01

    the years 2005 - 2008 in terms of air pollution in most of Arab countries compared with each other. We have taken for study six largest air polluting agents th at are accepted by international organizations such as NAAQS (Air Quality Standards National Environmental, EPA (Environmental Protection Agency of U.S. and sometimes (USEPA, which today are used widely worldwide, and the WHO. The six pollutants are: CO - Carbon Mono - oxide, Ozone O3, at the lower atmospheric layers, Pb - lead, SO2, sulfur dioxide, PM10 (and in some cases PM2.5 – particles of dust, and NO2 - nitrogen oxide. In the present study is analyzed also the ways of reducing the environmental pollution by emissions of gases that cause mobile engines in urban areas. In the study is given changes in emissions of gases depending on the improvement of mobile construction, according to years of production, in accordance with the requirements established by the legislation of EU countries and mobile manufactures. The level of emissions from automobile engines in the city of Tabuk (Saudi - Arabia, for all types of engines is taken as examples to be measured and examined according to the years of production. It ’s found that changing the structure vehicle inserted in use for automobiles of production after 1996, their pollution level decreases twice. Also in the study is analyzed the possibility of modifying the urban intersections with additional lanes before cr ucifixion to reduce the residence time of vehicles in traffic and reduce environmental pollution to two times. Furthermore, we analyze the issue of the low quality fuel being used in some of these countries which increases the emissions of harmful waste gases. Moreover, this paper also presents the issue(s of the lack of legal control which further enables mobile sources to circulate without catalytic converters.

  3. Energy Efficient Removal of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) and Organic Hazardous Air Pollutants (o-HAPs) from Industrial Waste Streams by Direct Electron Oxidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Testoni, A. L.

    2011-10-19

    This research program investigated and quantified the capability of direct electron beam destruction of volatile organic compounds and organic hazardous air pollutants in model industrial waste streams and calculated the energy savings that would be realized by the widespread adoption of the technology over traditional pollution control methods. Specifically, this research determined the quantity of electron beam dose required to remove 19 of the most important non-halogenated air pollutants from waste streams and constructed a technical and economic model for the implementation of the technology in key industries including petroleum refining, organic & solvent chemical production, food & beverage production, and forest & paper products manufacturing. Energy savings of 75 - 90% and green house gas reductions of 66 - 95% were calculated for the target market segments.

  4. REAL TIME WIRELESS AIR POLLUTION MONITORING SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raja Vara Prasad Y

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Air pollution has significant influence on the concentration of constituents in the atmosphere leading to effects like global warming and acid rains. To avoid such adverse imbalances in the nature, an air pollution monitoring system is utmost important. This paper attempts to develop an effective solution for pollution monitoring using wireless sensor networks (WSN on a real time basis namely real time wireless air pollution monitoring system. Commercially available discrete gas sensors for sensing concentration of gases like CO2, NO2, CO and O2 are calibrated using appropriate calibration technologies. These pre-calibrated gas sensors are then integrated with the wireless sensor motes for field deployment at the campus and the Hyderabad city using multi hop data aggregation algorithm. A light weight middleware and a web interface to view the live pollution data in the form of numbers and charts from the test beds was developed and made available from anywhere on the internet. Other parameters like temperature and humidity were also sensed along with gas concentrations to enable data analysis through data fusion techniques. Experimentation carried out using the developed wireless air pollution monitoring system under different physical conditions show that the system collects reliable source of real time fine-grain pollution data.

  5. Indoor air pollution and airway disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viegi, G.; Simoni, M.; Scognamiglio, A.; Baldacci, S.; Pistelli, F.; Carrozzi, L.; Annesi-Maesano, I. [CNR, Pisa (Italy). Inst. of Clinical Physiology

    2004-12-15

    Growing scientific evidence has shown that because people generally spend the majority of their time indoors, indoor pollution plays a significant role in affecting health and is thus an important health issue. Common indoor pollutants are environmental tobacco smoke, particulate matter, nitrogen dioxide, carbon monoxide, volatile organic compounds and biological allergens. In developing countries, relevant sources of indoor pollution include biomass and coal burning for cooking and heating. Concentrations of these pollutants can be many times higher indoors than outdoors. Indoor air pollution may increase the risk of irritation phenomena, allergic sensitisation, acute and chronic respiratory disorders and lung function impairment. Recent conservative estimates have shown that 1.5-2 million deaths per year worldwide could be attributed to indoor air pollution. Approximately 1 million of these deaths occur in children aged under 5 years due to acute respiratory infections and significant proportions of deaths occur due to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and lung cancer in women. Today, indoor air pollution ranks tenth among preventable risk factors contributing to the global burden of disease. Further research is necessary to better evaluate the respiratory health effects of indoor pollution and to implement protective programmes for public health.

  6. Biodiesel – a Real Solution for Reducing Air Pollution ?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ODAGIU Antonia

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Traffic emissions made up of high levels of nitrogen oxides, sulphur oxides, and particulate matter determineserious pollution in urban high agglomerations. One solution in reducing atmospheric pollution is represented byfinding not pollutant alternatives to classic fuel used for urban vehicles and one valuable solution is the replacement ofpollutant fossil fuels with biodiesel/biofuel. The reaction between glycerides and methanol, in presence of a catalystrepresents the basis of biodiesel fuel production. The main plants used for biofuel production are: soybeans, rapeseed(canola, sunflower seed, palm fruit or kernels, coconut and physic nut, etc. The legal approach of biodiesel use includesa series of national and international agreements adopted with the aim of reducing air pollution produced by the use oftraditional fuel in urban traffic, and biodiesel use remains a valuable option, in spite of high production costs.

  7. Air pollution from traffic and risk for brain tumors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Aslak Harbo; Sørensen, Mette; Andersen, Zorana J;

    2016-01-01

    residential nitrogen oxides (NO x ) concentrations since 1971 with a validated dispersion model. Categorical and linear odds ratios (OR) and confidence intervals (CI) were calculated with conditional logistic regression models. RESULTS: The highest risk estimates for any brain cancer were observed among......PURPOSE: Air pollution is an established lung carcinogen, and there is increasing evidence that air pollution also negatively affects the brain. We have previously reported an association between air pollution and risk of brain tumors in a cohort study based on only 95 cases. We set out to...... replicate that finding in a large nationwide case-control study. METHODS: We identified all 4,183 adult brain tumor cases in Denmark in the years 2000-2009 and 8,018 risk set sampled population controls matched on gender and year of birth. We extracted residential address histories and estimated mean...

  8. Air pollution and lung cancer incidence in 17 European cohorts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole; Andersen, Zorana Jovanovic; Beelen, Rob;

    2013-01-01

    Ambient air pollution is suspected to cause lung cancer. We aimed to assess the association between long-term exposure to ambient air pollution and lung cancer incidence in European populations.......Ambient air pollution is suspected to cause lung cancer. We aimed to assess the association between long-term exposure to ambient air pollution and lung cancer incidence in European populations....

  9. Vehicles and Particulate Air Pollution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The current scene relating to particles and vehicular emissions in UK is reviewed. The active research topics are health effects of particles, particle size and composition, modeling the fate of particles and assessing individual exposure. There is a National Air Quality Strategy combined with local air quality management which includes monitoring and assessment, dispersion modeling and development of management plans.

  10. Air Pollution Stress and the Aging Phenotype: The Telomere Connection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martens, Dries S; Nawrot, Tim S

    2016-09-01

    Aging is a complex physiological phenomenon. The question why some subjects grow old while remaining free from disease whereas others prematurely die remains largely unanswered. We focus here on the role of air pollution in biological aging. Hallmarks of aging can be grouped into three main categories: genomic instability, telomere attrition, and epigenetic alterations leading to altered mitochondrial function and cellular senescence. At birth, the initial telomere length of a person is largely determined by environmental factors. Telomere length shortens with each cell division and exposure to air pollution as well as low residential greens space exposure is associated with shorter telomere length. Recent studies show that the estimated effects of particulate air pollution exposure on the telomere mitochondrial axis of aging may play an important role in chronic health effects of air pollution. The exposome encompasses all exposures over an entire life. As telomeres can be considered as the cellular memories of exposure to oxidative stress and inflammation, telomere maintenance may be a proxy for assessing the "exposome". If telomeres are causally related to the aging phenotype and environmental air pollution is an important determinant of telomere length, this might provide new avenues for future preventive strategies. PMID:27357566

  11. Emission of toxic air pollutants from biomass combustion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Combustion of biomass for power generation, home heating, process steam generation, and waste disposal constitutes a major source of air pollutants nationwide. Emissions from hog-fueled boilers, demolition wood-fired power plants, municipal waste incinerators, woodstoves, fireplaces, pellet stoves, agricultural burning, and forestry burning have been characterized for a variety of purposes. These have included risk assessment, permitting, emission inventory development, source profiling for receptor modeling, and control technology evaluations. From the results of the source characterization studies a compilation of emission factors for criteria and non-criteria pollutants are presented here. Key among these pollutants are polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, priority pollutant metals, carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, nitrous oxides, and PM10 particles. The emission factors from the biomass combustion processes are compared and contrasted with other pollutant sources. In addition, sampling and analysis procedures most appropriate for characterizing emissions from the biomass combustion sources are also discussed

  12. Application environmental epidemiology to vehicular air pollution and health effects research

    OpenAIRE

    Patil, Rajan R.; Satish Kumar Chetlapally; M Bagvandas

    2015-01-01

    Vehicular pollution is one of the major contributors to the air pollution in urban areas and perhaps and accounts for the major share of anthropogenic green-house gases such as carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides. Knowledge of human health risks related to environmental exposure to vehicular pollution is a current concern. Analyze the range health effects are attributed varied constituents of vehicular air pollution examine evidence for a causal association to specific health eff...

  13. Air pollution: a smoking gun for cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Zhang

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Once considered a taboo topic or stigma, cancer is the number one public health enemy in the world. Once a product of an almost untouchable industry, tobacco is indisputably recognized as a major cause of cancer and a target for anticancer efforts. With the emergence of new economic powers in the world, especially in highly populated countries such as China, air pollution has rapidly emerged as a smoking gun for cancer and has become a hot topic for public health debate because of the complex political, economic, scientific, and technologic issues surrounding the air pollution problem. This editorial and the referred articles published in this special issue of the Chinese Journal of Cancer discuss these fundamental questions. Does air pollution cause a wide spectrum of cancers? Should air pollution be considered a necessary evil accompanying economic transformation in developing countries? Is an explosion of cancer incidence coming to China and how soon will it arrive? What must be done to prevent this possible human catastrophe? Finally, the approaches for air pollution control are also discussed

  14. Climatological variability in regional air pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although some air pollution modeling studies examine events that have already occurred (e.g., the Chernobyl plume) with relevant meteorological conditions largely known, most pollution modeling studies address expected or potential scenarios for the future. Future meteorological conditions, the major pollutant forcing function other than emissions, are inherently uncertain although much relevant information is contained in past observational data. For convenience in our discussions of regional pollutant variability unrelated to emission changes, we define meteorological variability as short-term (within-season) pollutant variability and climatological variability as year-to-year changes in seasonal averages and accumulations of pollutant variables. In observations and in some of our simulations the effects are confounded because for seasons of two different years both the mean and the within-season character of a pollutant variable may change. Effects of climatological and meteorological variability on means and distributions of air pollution parameters, particularly those related to regional visibility, are illustrated. Over periods of up to a decade climatological variability may mask or overstate improvements resulting from emission controls. The importance of including climatological uncertainties in assessing potential policies, particularly when based partly on calculated source-receptor relationships, is highlighted

  15. Air pollution control policy in Switzerland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leutert, G. [Forests and Landscape, Berne (Switzerland). Federal Office of Environment

    1995-12-31

    The legal basis of the Swiss air pollution control policy is set by the Federal Law on the Protection of the Environment, which came into force in 1985. It aims to protect human beings, animals and plants, their biological communities and habitats against harmful effects or nuisances and to maintain the fertility of the soil. The law is source-oriented (by emission standards) as well as effect-oriented (by ambient air quality standards). To link both elements a two-stage approach is applied. In the first stage preventive measures are taken at the emitting sources, irrespective of existing air pollution levels. Emissions have to be limited by early preventive measures as much as technical and operational conditions allow and as far as economically acceptable (prevention principle). By this, air pollution shall be kept as low as possible as a matter of principle, without the environment having to be in danger first. In a second stage the measures are strengthened or backed up by additional measures if ambient air quality standards laid down in the Ordinance on Air Pollution Control are exceeded. At this second stage, protection of man and his environment has priority over economic considerations. (author)

  16. China's international trade and air pollution in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jintai; Pan, Da; Davis, Steven J; Zhang, Qiang; He, Kebin; Wang, Can; Streets, David G; Wuebbles, Donald J; Guan, Dabo

    2014-02-01

    China is the world's largest emitter of anthropogenic air pollutants, and measurable amounts of Chinese pollution are transported via the atmosphere to other countries, including the United States. However, a large fraction of Chinese emissions is due to manufacture of goods for foreign consumption. Here, we analyze the impacts of trade-related Chinese air pollutant emissions on the global atmospheric environment, linking an economic-emission analysis and atmospheric chemical transport modeling. We find that in 2006, 36% of anthropogenic sulfur dioxide, 27% of nitrogen oxides, 22% of carbon monoxide, and 17% of black carbon emitted in China were associated with production of goods for export. For each of these pollutants, about 21% of export-related Chinese emissions were attributed to China-to-US export. Atmospheric modeling shows that transport of the export-related Chinese pollution contributed 3-10% of annual mean surface sulfate concentrations and 0.5-1.5% of ozone over the western United States in 2006. This Chinese pollution also resulted in one extra day or more of noncompliance with the US ozone standard in 2006 over the Los Angeles area and many regions in the eastern United States. On a daily basis, the export-related Chinese pollution contributed, at a maximum, 12-24% of sulfate concentrations over the western United States. As the United States outsourced manufacturing to China, sulfate pollution in 2006 increased in the western United States but decreased in the eastern United States, reflecting the competing effect between enhanced transport of Chinese pollution and reduced US emissions. Our findings are relevant to international efforts to reduce transboundary air pollution. PMID:24449863

  17. Urban air pollution; La pollution de l'air dans la ville

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-07-01

    The theme of this congress concerns air pollution in urban areas. Cities are accumulation of populations and economic activities, and then pollutants activities. The first articles are devoted to pollutants and their effects on health. Then come articles relative to measurements and modeling. Finally, the traffic in city and the automobile pollution are examined. Transportation systems as well technology in matter of gas emissions are reviewed. (N.C.)

  18. Air pollution epidemiology. Assessment of health effects and risks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katsouyanni, K. [Athens Univ. (Greece). Dept. of Hygiene and Epidemiology

    1995-12-31

    Air pollution epidemiology is the study of the occurrence and distribution of health outcomes in association with community air pollution exposure. It is therefore specific in the exposure variable. Air pollution health effects became evident during high air pollution episodes which occurred in the first decades of our century. Since then, legal and other control measures have led to lower air pollution levels. However, recent results from several studies indicate that lower levels of air pollution than the previously considered safe have serious adverse health effects. Although, there is increasingly agreement that air pollution, at levels measured today, affects health, there is still a lot to be understood concerning specific causal pollutants, biologic mechanisms involved and sensitive groups of individuals. The extent of potential confounding, time-considerations in air pollution effects, individual variation in air pollution exposure and exposure misclassification are some factors which complicate the study of these issues. (author)

  19. the role of industry in air pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Industry is among the main sources of air pollution in Lebanon. Industrial plants emits dangerous effluents affecting on human health and on population living in industrial zones. Personnel within industries ignore the dangerous effect of substances they use in their work and the toxic effect of gaseous, liquid and solid wastes produced and their impact on health and on environment. A major attention should be paid by Lebanese government to avoid the increasing of atmospheric pollution and must encourage the monitoring of air pollution and its effect on human target organs in the influenced zones. Within industries air is contaminated by gases, vapor, dusts in high rates. Attention has to be focused to the diseases due to breathing diseases, Asbestos, arterial high blood pressure, stress, digestive diseases and other

  20. Ship emissions and air pollution in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Helge Rørdam; Winther, Morten; Ellermann, Thomas;

    A project has been carried out to map the contribution from ship traffic to air pollution in Denmark. A main element in the project is the establishment of a new, improved inventory of ship emissions for the waters around Denmark. The inventory makes use of the so-called AIS system, which...... continuously keeps track of ship positions. The inventory provides basis for model calculations of air quality in Denmark for the years 2007, 2011 and 2020. The study has focus on identifying the contribution from ships, and on assessing the effect of international regulations of ship pollution. A minor...... component of the study concerns the contribution to local air pollution from ships at port....

  1. Air Pollution in the Mexico Megacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Suarez, L. G.

    2007-05-01

    Mexico City is a megacity whose metropolitan area includes the country federal district, 18 municipalities of the State of Mexico. In year 1992, only 16 municipalities of the State of Mexico were part of MCMA. In year 1940 the Mexico City population was 1.78 millions in an area of 118 km2, in year 2000 the population was 17.9 millions in an area of 1,500 km2. Population has grown a ten fold whereas population density has dropped 20%. Total number of private cars has grown from 2,341,731 in year 1998 to 2,967,893 in year 2004. Nowadays, people and goods travel longer at lower speed to reach school, work and selling points. In addition highly efficient public transport lost a significant share of transport demand from 19.1 in 1986 to 14.3 in 1998. Air pollution is a public concern since early eighties last century; systematic public efforts have been carried out since late eighties. Energy consumption has steadily increased in the MCMA whereas emissions have also decreased. From year 2000 to 2004, the private cars fleet increased 17% whereas CO, NOx and COV emissions decreased between 20-30%. Average concentrations of criteria pollutants have decreased The number of days that the one-hour national standard for bad air quality was exceeded in year 1990 was 160. In year 2005 was 70. Research efforts and public policies on air pollution have been focused on public health. We are now better able to estimate the cost in human lives due to air pollution, or the cost in labor lost due to illness. Little if none at all work has been carried out to look at the effect of air pollution on private and public property or onto the cultural heritage. Few reports have can be found on the impact of air pollution in rural areas, including forest and crops, around the mega city. Mexico City is in the south end of a Valley with mountain ranges higher than 1000 m above the average city altitude. In spite the heavy loss of forested areas to the city, the mountains still retain large

  2. Annual air pollution report for 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present annual report contains the data collected in the course of the continuous air pollution monitoring conducted by the Bayerische Landesamt fuer Umweltschutz (Environment Protection Agency of the Land of Bavaria). The monitored pollutants are carbon monoxide, sulphur dioxide, hydrogen sulphide, nitrogen monoxide and dioxide, ozone, and air-borne dust. The report also gives a chronology of the weather for comparison pruposes. Deposition studies were performed using rainwater analysis and bioindicators in order to determine the geographical distribution of environementally harmful substances (sulphur, nitrogen, heavy metals) and ozone impact on plants. The report presents different kinds of bioindicators. (SR)

  3. 75 FR 18142 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Texas; Control of Air Pollution...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-09

    ... Air Pollution From Motor Vehicles AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Proposed rule... Title 30 of the Texas Administrative Code (TAC), Chapter 114, Control of Air Pollution from...

  4. Influence of air pollution on cultivated plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spierings, F.H.F.G.; Van Raay, A.; Wolting, H.G.

    1966-01-01

    To investigate damage to irises in the field resembling injury by HF, fumigations with HF were carried out. Four varieties were compared. It appeared that iris was very sensitive for HF. Differences in sensitivity between the varieties were found. To find differences in SO/sub 2/-sensitivity between varieties of lettuce several SO/sub 2/-fumigations have been carried out. More attention has to be paid to growth and fumigation conditions of the plants, because both influence the sensitivity of the varieties to SO/sub 2/. SO/sub 2/-fumigation of tomato plants grown in an atmosphere with a high humidity resulted in injuries to the leaves. Plants fumigated in the same manner and grown under restricted water supply did not show any damage. Symptoms of ozone damage to tobacco plants used as indicator plants for air pollution on trial plots occurred in July in a highly industrialized area. In the same area smog injury to several crops appeared in the open as well as in glasshouses in October. Damage to plants occurred in the vicinity of several factories. In these cases chlorine, zinc oxide, sulphur dioxide or hydrogen fluoride appeared to be the agents causing damage.

  5. Air pollution of urban areas

    OpenAIRE

    Makarova, V. N.

    2016-01-01

    Raising of problem. Any manufacturing processes related to the generation of waste. Year after year, a growing mass of waste is one of the main factors reducing the quality of the environment and destruction of natural landscapes. Industrial development inevitably enhances human impacts on the environment and disrupts the ecological balance [3]. Atmospher air is a vital element of the environment. The development of industry, the growth of cities, increasing the number of transport, active ex...

  6. Air pollution forecast in cities by an air pollution index highly correlated with meteorological variables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There are many different air pollution indexes which represent the global urban air pollution situation. The daily index studied here is also highly correlated with meteorological variables and this index is capable of identifying those variables that significantly affect the air pollution. The index is connected with attention levels of NO2, CO and O3 concentrations. The attention levels are fixed by a law proposed by the Italian Ministries of Health and Environment. The relation of that index with some meteorological variables is analysed by the linear multiple partial correlation statistical method. Florence, Milan and Vicence were selected to show the correlation among the air pollution index and the daily thermic excursion, the previous day's air pollution index and the wind speed. During the January-March period the correlation coefficient reaches 0.85 at Milan. The deterministic methods of forecasting air pollution concentrations show very high evaluation errors and are applied on limited areas around the observation stations, as opposed to the whole urban areas. The global air pollution, instead of the concentrations at specific observation stations, allows the evaluation of the level of the sanitary risk regarding the whole urban population. (Author)

  7. AIR POLLUTANTS IN FOOD PROCESSING PLANTS IN IRAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Akbarkhanzadeh

    1979-07-01

    Full Text Available Investigations have been carried out on the indoor air pollution in .different workshops of food processing plants in Iran. In order to evaluate the exposure of workers to the three most commonly used indices of air pollution ten food processing plants representing ten groups of food industry with 2.816 workers were selected. Air borne contamination of different origins such cotton seed. Barley, wheat flour salt and different spices sugar an1 beans dust were measured in 237, work places. Here contamination was 8-9 times higher than the proposed T.L. V. for in.3rt dust in 12% of sampling sites Carbon monoxide, measured in 94 sampling site in 69 different work places, which was higher than 50 P .P.M1. in 13% of samples and sulfur-bearing air pollutants determined in 87 different workshop where 103 samples were collected showed the existence of oxides of' sulfur in 34 samples in six industries. The results are presented and the reasons of the existence of these air pollutants are discussed.

  8. Air pollution source apportionment before, during, and after the 2008 Beijing Olympics and association of sources to aldehydes and biomarkers of blood coagulation, pulmonary and systemic inflammation, and oxidative stress in healthy young adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altemose, Brent A.

    Based on principal component analysis (PCA) of air pollution data collected during the Summer Olympic Games held in Beijing, China during 2008, the five source types of air pollution identified -- natural soil/road dust, vehicle and industrial combustion, vegetative burning, oil combustion, and secondary formation, were all distinctly lower during the Olympics. This was particularly true for vehicle and industrial combustion and oil combustion, and during the main games period between the opening and closing ceremonies. The reduction in secondary formation was reflective of a reduction in nitrogen oxides, but this also contributed to increased ozone concentrations during the Olympic period. Among three toxic aldehydes measured in Beijing during the same time period, only acetaldehyde had a reduction in mean concentration during the Olympic air pollution control period compared to the pre-Olympic period. Accordingly, acetaldehyde was significantly correlated with primary emission sources including vegetative burning and oil combustion, and with several pollutants emitted mainly from primary sources. In contrast, formaldehyde and acrolein increased during the Olympic air pollution control period; accordingly both were significantly correlated with ozone and with the secondary formation source type. These findings indicate primary sources may dominate for acetaldehyde while secondary sources may dominate for formaldehyde and acrolein. Biomarkers for pulmonary inflammation (exhaled breath condensate (EBC) pH, exhaled nitric oxide, and EBC nitrite) and hemostasis and blood coagulation (vWF and sCD62p) were most consistently associated with vehicle and industrial combustion, oil combustion, and vegetative burning. The systemic inflammation biomarker 8-OHdG was most consistently associated with vehicle and industrial combustion. In contrast, the associations between the biomarkers and the aldehydes were generally not significant or in the hypothesized direction, although

  9. Forum environmental and energy technology 2013. Power-heat cogeneration and air pollution prevention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The volume covers the following topics: The teaching reward 2013 - concept and implementation of the ''Forum environmental and energy technology''; energy efficient air pollution control and material recovery; air pollution control by oxidation; electrical energy production from low-temperature waste heat (ORC processes), electrical power production and process heat utilization.

  10. Experience with urban air pollution in Paterson, New Jersey and implications for air pollution communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Branden B

    2012-01-01

    Communication about air pollution can help reduce health risks, but a scattered, largely qualitative literature on air pollution beliefs, attitudes, and behaviors raises questions about its effectiveness. A telephone survey of Paterson, New Jersey (USA) residents tested four hypotheses aimed toward integrating these findings. Self-reported sheltering indoors during high pollution, the recommended strategy, was predicted by perceived air quality and self-reported "sensitivity" to air pollution. Nearly a quarter of the sample reported mandatory outdoor activity (e.g., work) that might increase their exposures, but this factor did not significantly affect self-reported sheltering. Perceptions of air quality did not correlate strongly with official monitoring data (U.S. Air Quality Index (AQI)); even people who regularly sought AQI data relied upon sensory cues to high pollution, and secondarily upon health cues. Use of sensory and health cues, definitions of what makes someone sensitive to air pollution, and (less strongly) definitions of vulnerability to air pollution varied widely. The minority aware of the AQI were more likely to seek it if they had illnesses or saw themselves in the targeted AQI audience, yet less likely if they believed themselves sensitive to pollution. However, their sense of the AQI's match to their own experience was driven by whether they used sensory (yes) or health (no) cues, not by illness status. Some urban residents might not have access to AQI data, but this barrier seems outweighed by need to bridge interpretive gaps over definitions of air pollution, sensory perception, vulnerability, and health consequences. PMID:21883333

  11. Does Air Pollution Matter for Low Birth Weight?

    OpenAIRE

    Seonyeong Cho; Choongki Lee; Beomsoo Kim

    2012-01-01

    There is growing concern that air pollution may impact the health of newborns. This study examines this issue by considering overtime variation generated by exogenous changes in the pollution level in Korea in early 2000, when some part of Korea experienced huge drop in air pollution. We matched the census of all births from 1998 to 2008 and air pollution data in mother¡¯s residence county level. For air pollutants, we considered carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, particulate matter, sulfur d...

  12. Metrology of gaseous air pollutants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walden, J.

    2009-07-01

    The need for mutual recognition of accurate measurement results made by competent laboratories has been very widely accepted at the international level e.g., at the World Trade Organization. A partial solution to the problem was made by the International Committee for Weights and Measures (CIPM) in setting up the Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA), which was signed by National Metrology Institutes (NMI) around the world. The core idea of the CIPM MRA is to have global arrangements for the mutual acceptance of the calibration certificates of National Metrology Institutes. The CIPM MRA covers all the fields of science and technology for which NMIs have their national standards. The infrastructure for the metrology of the gaseous compounds carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen monoxide (Norway), nitrogen dioxide (NO{sub 2}), sulphur dioxide (SO2) and ozone (O{sub 3}) has been constructed at the national level at the Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI). The calibration laboratory at the FMI was constructed for providing calibration services for air quality measurements and to fulfil the requirements of a metrology laboratory. The laboratory successfully participated, with good results, in the first comparison project, which was aimed at defining the state of the art in the preparation and analysis of the gas standards used by European metrology institutes and calibration laboratories in the field of air quality. To confirm the competence of the laboratory, the international external surveillance study was conducted at the laboratory. Based on the evidence, the Centre for Metrology and Accreditation (MIKES) designated the calibration laboratory at the Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI) as a National Standard Laboratory in the field of air quality. With this designation, the MIKES-FMI Standards Laboratory became a member of CIPM MRA, and Finland was brought into the internationally-accepted forum in the field of gas metrology. The concept of 'once measured

  13. Health impact of air pollution to children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sram, Radim J; Binkova, Blanka; Dostal, Miroslav; Merkerova-Dostalova, Michaela; Libalova, Helena; Milcova, Alena; Rossner, Pavel; Rossnerova, Andrea; Schmuczerova, Jana; Svecova, Vlasta; Topinka, Jan; Votavova, Hana

    2013-08-01

    Health impact of air pollution to children was studied over the last twenty years in heavily polluted parts of the Czech Republic during. The research program (Teplice Program) analyzed these effects in the polluted district Teplice (North Bohemia) and control district Prachatice (Southern Bohemia). Study of pregnancy outcomes for newborns delivered between 1994 and 1998 demonstrated that increase in intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) was associated with PM10 and c-PAHs exposure (carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) in the first month of gestation. Morbidity was followed in the cohort of newborns (N=1492) up to the age of 10years. Coal combustion in homes was associated with increased incidence of lower respiratory track illness and impaired early childhood skeletal growth up to the age of 3years. In preschool children, we observed the effect of increased concentrations of PM2.5 and PAHs on development of bronchitis. The Northern Moravia Region (Silesia) is characterized by high concentrations of c-PAHs due to industrial air pollution. Exposure to B[a]P (benzo[a]pyrene) in Ostrava-Radvanice is the highest in the EU. Children from this part of the city of Ostrava suffered higher incidence of acute respiratory diseases in the first year of life. Gene expression profiles in leukocytes of asthmatic children compared to children without asthma were evaluated in groups from Ostrava-Radvanice and Prachatice. The results suggest the distinct molecular phenotype of asthma bronchiale in children living in polluted Ostrava region compared to children living in Prachatice. The effect of exposure to air pollution to biomarkers in newborns was analyzed in Prague vs. Ceske Budejovice, two locations with different levels of pollution in winter season. B[a]P concentrations were higher in Ceske Budejovice. DNA adducts and micronuclei were also elevated in cord blood in Ceske Budejovice in comparison to Prague. Study of gene expression profiles in the cord blood showed

  14. Exposure to Air Pollutants During Physical Activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ramos, C.A.

    2016-01-01

    The context for this thesis is the concern that people who practice physical activity are more susceptible to air pollution. For the studies presented here, three perspectives of physical activity were considered: in indoor, i) physical activity in fitness centers; in outdoor ii) the use of bicycle

  15. Air pollution modelling on the street canyon

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bezpalcová, Klára; Jaňour, Zbyněk

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 10, č. 5 (2003), s. 375-386. ISSN 1210-2717 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KSK3012103; GA MŠk OC 715.10 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z2076919 Keywords : atmosphere * air pollution * wind tunnel Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology

  16. Air pollution control at a DOE facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Department of Energy (DOE) plutonium production program Produced some of the greatest scientific and engineering accomplishments of all time. It is remarkable to consider the accomplishments of the Manhattan Project. The Reactor on the Hanford Site, the first production reactor in the world, began operation only 13 months after the start of construction. The DOE nuclear production program was also instrumental in pioneering other fields such as health physics an radiation monitoring. The safety record of these installations is remarkable considering that virtually every significant accomplishment was on the technological threshold of the time. One other area that the DOE Facilities pioneered was the control of radioactive particles and gases emitted to the atmosphere. The high efficiency particulate air filter (HEPA) was a development that provided high collection efficiencies of particulates to protect workers and the public. The halogen and noble gases also were of particular concern. Radioactive iodine is captured by adsorption on activated carbon or synthetic zeolites. Besides controlling radioncuclide air pollution, DOE facilities are concerned with other criteria pollutants and hazardous air pollutant emissions. The Hanford Site encompasses all those air pollution challenges

  17. Exercise and outdoor ambient air pollution

    OpenAIRE

    Carlisle, A.; Sharp, N

    2001-01-01

    Objectives—To establish by literature survey: (a) levels at which air pollutants are considered damaging to human health and to exercisers in particular; (b) the current ambient levels experienced in the United Kingdom; (c) whether athletes are especially at risk.

  18. Electrodialytic remediation of air pollution control residues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Pernille Erland

    Air pollution control (APC) residue from municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) consists of the fly ash, and, in dry and semi-dry systems, also the reaction products from the flue gas cleaning process. APC residue is considered a hazardous waste due to its high alkalinity, high content of salts...

  19. AIR POLLUTION FROM TRAFFIC AND RESPIRATORY HEALTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja Nikolić

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Air pollution has very important influence on human health. Earlier investigations were not employed with estimation of influence of air pollution, which spring from traffic, on people health who live near busy cross – road.The aim of this paper was to determine how living near busy cross – road influences on appearance of respiratory symptoms and illness.400 adult people between 18-76 age who live five year least on this location at took a part in investigation. One group (200 live in Nis near the busiest cross-road, another group live in Niska Banja near cross-road with the smallest concentration of pollutants in last five years.We have determined that examines, who live near busy cross – road had statistical signify greater prevalence of all respiratory symptoms and pneumonia.Our investigation showed that living near busy cross road present risk factor for appearance of respiratory symptoms and pneumonia.

  20. Urinary 8-oxodeoxyguanosine levels in children exposed to air pollutants

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Švecová, Vlasta; Rössner ml., Pavel; Dostál, Miroslav; Topinka, Jan; Solanský, I.; Šrám, Radim

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 662, 1-2 (2009), s. 37-43. ISSN 0027-5107 R&D Projects: GA MŽP SL/5/160/05; GA MŽP(CZ) SP/1B3/50/07 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50390512 Keywords : air pollution * child health * oxidative stress Subject RIV: DN - Health Impact of the Environment Quality Impact factor: 3.556, year: 2009

  1. Acculturation, ethnicity, and air pollution perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Branden B

    2011-06-01

    A globalizing world increases immigration between nations, raising the question of how acculturation (or its lack) of immigrants and their descendants to host societies affects risk perceptions. A survey of Paterson, New Jersey, residents tested acculturation's associations with attitudes to air pollution and its management, and knowledge of and self-reported behaviors concerning air pollution. Linguistic and temporal proxy measures for acculturation were independent variables along with ethnicity, plus controls for gender, age, education, and income in multivariate analyses. About one-fifth of contrasts between non-Hispanic whites, non-Hispanic blacks, English-interviewed Hispanics, and Spanish-interviewed Hispanics were statistically significant (Bonferroni-corrected) and of medium or higher affect size, with most featuring the Spanish-interviewed Hispanics. Knowledge variables featured the most significant differences. Specifically, Spanish-interviewed Hispanics reported less concern, familiarity with pollution, recognition of high pollution, and vigorous outdoor activity, and greater belief that government overregulates pollution than English-interviewed Hispanics (and than the other two groups on most of these variables too). English-interviewed Hispanics did not differ from non-Hispanic whites, but did on several variables from non-Hispanic blacks. Temporal proxies of acculturation among the foreign-born were far less significant, but concern and familiarity with air pollution increased with time spent in the United States, while belief in overregulation and a positive trend in New Jersey pollution increased with time in the nation of origin. Implications of these acculturation and ethnicity findings for risk perception/communication research and practice are discussed. PMID:21231941

  2. Land survey map of air pollutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The first step toward finding a solution to the problems with air pollution is the realization of a land survey map of polluters and a constant acquisition of data from periodical controls of emission of harmful materials, which will be carried out with a determined dynamic. Such a land survey map is not a project which should be finished within a strict time limit, but is intended to create all conditions for a periodical monitoring of emission of harmful materials from registered polluters in order to make a periodical, exact picture of the quantity of harmful materials, which are conveyed by polluters in certain city, a part of the state or the whole country. (author). 4 ills

  3. Long-memory property in air pollutant concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chelani, Asha

    2016-05-01

    In the present paper, long-memory in air pollutant concentrations is reviewed and outcome of the past studies is analyzed to provide the possible mechanism behind temporal evolution of air pollutant concentrations. It is observed that almost all the studies show air pollutant concentrations over time possess persistence up to a certain limit. Self-organized criticality of air pollution, multiplicative process of pollutant concentrations, and uniformity in emission sources leading to self-organized criticality are few of the phenomena behind the persistent property of air pollutant concentrations. The self-organized criticality of air pollution is linked to atmosphere's self-cleansing mechanism. This demonstrates that inspite of increasing anthropogenic emissions, self-organized criticality of air pollution is sustained and has low influence of human interventions. In the future, this property may, however, be perturbed due to continuous air pollution emissions, which may influence the accuracy in predictions.

  4. Endothelial damage due to air pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Livio Dei Cas

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The first human deaths due to air pollution were recorded in the mid-20th century. There were 6,000 cases of illness recorded in Donora, Pennsylvania, in 1948 and 20,000 in London in 1952; 15 and 4,000 cases of death, respectively, were allegedly ascribed to air pollution. Since then, many countries have adopted standards of air quality in order to protect environmental and human health, although the quality of the air in some industrialized countries remains worrying. Emerging countries in the Far East and South America are also cause for concern because of the growth in the population, industrialization and transport. The WHO World Health Report 2002 estimated that air pollutants, particularly PM10, are associated with a mortality rate of 5% for cancer of the respiratory system, 2% for cardiovascular diseases and about 1% for respiratory tract infections. These estimates consider the mortality but not the morbidity rate, which would increase proportionally the number of cases of these pathologies, despite the difficulty in evaluation.

  5. Recent development of VUV-based processes for air pollutants degradation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haibao eHuang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available As air pollution become more and more serious nowadays, it is essential to find out a way to efficiently degrade the air pollutants. Vacuum ultraviolet (VUV-based processes are an emerging and promising technologies for environmental remediation such as air cleaning, wastewater treatment and air/water disinfection. With VUV irradiation, photolysis, photocatalyst is and ozone-assisted oxidation are involved at the same time, resulting in the fast degradation of air pollutants because of their strong oxidizing capacity. The mechanisms of how the oxidants are produced and reacted are discussed in this review. This paper mainly focuses on the three VUV-based oxidation processes including VUV photolysis, VUV combined with ozone-assisted oxidation and VUV-PCO with emphasis on their mechanisms and applications. Also, the outlooks of these processes are outlined in this paper.

  6. Database of air and noise pollution in Lebanon. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The growing global public concern over deteriorating air quality and greenhouse gases emissions released from various combustion processes, and particularly power plants and transportation system, led governments and local authorities, especially in industrialised countries into taking these issues seriously and establishing standards to reduce air pollution down to acceptable levels, (clean air act, earth summit,...). The transportation sector has another unwanted product, noise pollution caused by different segments of this sector including the noise produced by the engine, tires noise and exhaust noise, in addition to the noise product by private standby generals operating during electricity cut-off periods. To be able to estimate the environmental impacts of the national power plants and the transportation sector, it is necessary to collect enough data (samples of lead emissions, SO2 concentration, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, hydrocarbons, ozone and carbon monoxide) using specified planning procedures. These samples will then be analyzed and the results will be compared to international standards to assess the implication of these pollutants. For this purpose, the proposed project is aimed at developing data base, over a period of two or more years, for air and noise pollution based on results to be obtained from extensive sampling procedure and under different atmospheric conditions (author)

  7. Population Dynamics and Air Pollution: The Impact of Demographics on Health Impact Assessment of Air Pollution

    OpenAIRE

    Esben Meulengracht Flachs; Jan Sørensen; Jakob Bønløkke; Henrik Brønnum-Hansen

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To explore how three different assumptions on demographics affect the health impact of Danish emitted air pollution in Denmark from 2005 to 2030, with health impact modeled from 2005 to 2050. Methods. Modeled air pollution from Danish sources was used as exposure in a newly developed health impact assessment model, which models four major diseases and mortality causes in addition to all-cause mortality. The modeling was at the municipal level, which divides the approximately 5.5 M ...

  8. Air Pollution in Pristina, Influence on Cardiovascular Hospital Morbidity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ukëhaxhaj, Antigona; Gjorgjev, Dragan; Ramadani, Maser; Krasniqi, Selvete; Gjergji, Tahire; Zogaj, Drita

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Introduction: Numerous studies observed health effects of particulate air pollution. Ambient air quality is particularly bad in Pristina. The principal sources of contaminants are sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen oxides NO and NO2 (NOx), ozone (O3), lead (Pb), carbon dioxide (CO2), particulate matter (PM or dust). Objective: to investigate effects of concentrations of pollutants in ambient air on hospital admissions for cardiovascular disease in UCCK- Pristina. Methods: Retrospective ecological study. During the three year analytical research predict the potential benefit of decreasing for concentration of PM 2.5, PM 10 were measured in two station in Pristina. The study population consisted of all hospitalization patient in intern clinic for 2010,2011 and 2012 year. Air pollution measurements will be used by KHMI data for the year of 2010, 2011 and 2012 for the municipality of Pristina in the measurements point in: KHMI-MESP which is equipped with automatic analyzer- Air Compact Monitoring System (Version 2.2) recordum MESSTECHNIK GmbH. Statistical data processing will be done with SPSS 17.0 statistical package. Results: Based on the results obtained during the study period concentrated PM are higher level than standards value. The results showed that the number of hospital admissions for cardiovascular disease are positively correlated with concentration pollutants. Results show clear seasonal variation in the effects of PM on hospital admissions in Kosovo. The study period was short but the mean daily admissions for cardiovascular illnesses were quite large. Conclusion: The main source for air pollution was coal-burned power plant and traffic (old vehicles) in Kosovo. PMID:25568517

  9. Air pollution and congenital heart defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agay-Shay, Keren; Friger, Michael; Linn, Shai; Peled, Ammatzia; Amitai, Yona; Peretz, Chava

    2013-07-01

    Environmental factors such as ambient air pollution have been associated with congenital heart defects. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between gestational exposure to air pollution and the risk of congenital heart defects. We conducted a registry-based cohort study with a total of 135,527 live- and still-births in the Tel-Aviv region during 2000-2006. We used a Geographic Information System-based spatiotemporal approach with weekly inverse distance weighting modeling to evaluate associations between gestational exposure to ambient air pollution during weeks 3-8 of pregnancy and the risk for congenital heart defects. The following pollutants were studied: carbon monoxide, nitrogen-dioxide, ozone, sulfur-dioxide and particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter smaller than 10 μm and 2.5 μm (PM10, PM2.5 respectively). Logistic models, adjusted for socio-demographic covariates were used to evaluate the associations. We found that maternal exposure to increased concentrations of PM10 was associated with multiple congenital heart defects (adjusted OR 1.05, 95% CI: 1.01 to 1.10 for 10 μg/m(3) increment). An inverse association was observed between concentrations of PM2.5 and isolated patent ductus arteriosus (adjusted OR 0.78, 95% CI: 0.68 to 0.91 for 5 µg/m(3) increment). Sensitivity analyses showed that results were consistent. Generally there were no evidence for an association between gaseous air pollutants and congenital heart defects.Our results for PM10 and congenital heart defects confirm results from previous studies. The results for PM2.5 need further investigations. PMID:23623715

  10. Relationships in indoor/outdoor air pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beryllium-7 and sulphurhexaflourid has been used as tracers in measurements designed to enable an estimate of the ratio of the outdoor to indoor time-integrated concentration for aerosols and non-reactive gasses of outdoor origin with a special reference to the reduction in inhalation dose that can be achieved by staying indoors during a pollution episode, especially a reactor accident. The effect of operating a vacuum cleaner during the pollution episode and airing shortly after is also investigated. Earlier relevant literature is reviewed and shows goos agreement with the results in this study. Protection factor from 1-12 has been found. (author)

  11. Air Pollution Assessment Combusting Fermented Waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Violeta Čepanko

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This work examines the problem of air pollution burning organic waste from agricultural and drinks production sectors. Chicken and pig manure and biogas dregs after extraction, i.e. after the process of fermentation in laboratory bioreactors were selected as an object of research. The article presents the method of fermented waste incineration and the experimental results of waste incineration. Periodic surveys of kiln load disclosed that under combustion, pollutant concentrations change over time depending on the stage of combustion.Article in Lithuanian

  12. A bird's eye view of the air pollution-cancer link in China

    OpenAIRE

    Yu-Bei Huang; Feng-Ju Song; Qun Liu; Wei-Qin Li; , Wei Zhang; Ke-Xin Chen

    2014-01-01

    Air pollution in China comes from multiple sources, including coal consumption, construction and industrial dust, and vehicle exhaust. Coal consumption in particular directly determines the emissions of three major air pollutants: dust, sulfur dioxide (SO2), and nitrogen oxide (NOx). The rapidly increasing number of civilian vehicles is expected to bring NOx emission to a very high level. Contrary to expectations, however, existing data show that the concentrations of major pollutants [partic...

  13. MODELING OF GENERIC AIR POLLUTION DISPERSION ANALYSIS FROM CEMENT FACTORY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moses E EMETERE

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Air pollution from cement factory is classified as one of the sources of air pollution. The control of the air pollution by addressing the wind field dynamics was the main objective of the paper. The dynamics of dispersion showed a three way flow which was calculated and explained accordingly. The 3D model showed good level of accuracy by determining field values of air deposited pollutants. Mean concentration of diffusing pollutants was shown to be directly proportional to the plume angular displacement. The 2D model explained the details of the wind field dynamics and proffers a solution which may be relevant in controlling air pollution from anthropogenic sources.

  14. Air pollution and population health: a global challenge

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Bingheng; Kan, Haidong

    2008-01-01

    Air pollution and population health” is one of the most important environmental and public health issues. Economic development, urbanization, energy consumption, transportation/motorization, and rapid population growth are major driving forces of air pollution in large cities, especially in megacities. Air pollution levels in developed countries have been decreasing dramatically in recent decades. However, in developing countries and in countries in transition, air pollution levels are still...

  15. Ambient air quality and the effects of air pollutants on otolaryngology in Beijing

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Fengying; Xu, Jin; Zhang, Ziying; Meng, Haiying; Wang, Li; Lu, Jinmei; Wang, Wuyi; Kraft, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Abstract To investigate temporal patterns, pollution concentrations and the health effects of air pollutants in Beijing we carried out time-series analyses on daily concentrations of ambient air pollutants and daily numbers of outpatient visits for otolaryngology over 2 years (2011– 2012) to identify possible health effects of air pollutants. The results showed that PM10 was the major air pollutant in Beijing and that air quality was slightly better in 2012 than in 201...

  16. Urban air pollution, study of Mexico City

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauer, M. [PUE-UNAM (Mexico); Guzman, F. [Inst. Mexicano del Petroleo (Mexico); Navarro, B. [Univ. Autonoma Metropolitana (Mexico)

    1996-12-01

    The Metropolitan Area of Mexico City (MAMC) is an outstanding case of a fast urban development with lagging, and thus insufficient, massive transportation facilities. This has given rise to a distorted transportation system that accounts for most of the air pollution problem of the city and constitutes a drag on economic development. In this paper, we first describe the MAMC geographical conditions, its growth in physical and economic terms, its transportation system, the ensuring air pollution problems together with some of the mitigation actions undertaken. Afterwards the results of a survey of the displacements of individuals within the city and the time spent on these are presented, to then draw some considerations on the negative economic impact it represents. (EG)

  17. Applied Modeling of Air Pollution (AMAP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report summarizes the activities in the first year of the project Applied Modeling of Air Pollution (AMAP). This project which has a duration of three years aims at concentrating and improve the available air quality modeling expertise in the Austrian Research Centre Seibersdorf. The overall project consists of the subprojects Dispersion Modeling, Receptor Modeling and Urban Airshed Modeling. During the first year appropriate models (such as ISCST3, CMB, UAM-IV and CALGRID) were installed and tested with data from real and fictive examples as well as with synthetic data. High emphasis was given to the visualization of the model outputs. (author)

  18. Personal exposure of children to air pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashmore, M. R.; Dimitroulopoulou, C.

    Changes over recent decades in outdoor concentrations of air pollutants are well documented. However, the impacts of air pollution on an individual's health actually relate not to these outdoor concentrations but to their personal exposure in the different locations in which they spend time. Assessing how personal exposures differ from outdoor concentrations, and how they have changed over recent decades, is challenging. This review focuses on the exposure of children, since they are a particularly sensitive group. Much of children's time is spent indoors, and childhood exposure is closely related to concentrations in the home, at school, and in transport. For this reason, children's personal exposures to air pollutants differ significantly from both those of adults and from outdoor concentrations. They depend on a range of factors, including urbanisation, energy use, building design, travel patterns, and activity profiles; analysis of these factors can identify a wider range of policy measures to reduce children's exposure than direct emission control. There is a very large variation in personal exposure between individual children, caused by differences in building design, indoor and outdoor sources, and activity patterns. Identifying groups of children with high personal exposure, and their underlying causes, is particularly important in regions of the world where emissions are increasing, but there are limited resources for environmental and health protection. Although the science of personal exposure assessment, with the associated measurement and modelling techniques, has developed to maturity in North America and western Europe over the last 50 years, there is an urgent need to apply this science in other parts of the world where the effects of air pollution are now much more serious.

  19. China's international trade and air pollution: 2000 - 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Ruijing; Lin, Jintai; Pan, Da; Wang, Jingxu; Yan, Yingying; Zhang, Qiang

    2016-04-01

    As the world's top trading country, China is now the most polluted country. However, a large portion of pollution produced in China is associated with its production of goods for foreign consumption via international trade. Along with China's rapid economic growth in recent years, its economic-trade structure and volume has been changing all the time, resulting in large changes in total emissions and the shares of trade-related emissions. Here, we assess the influence of China's changing total and export-related emissions between 2000 and 2009 on its atmospheric pollution loadings and transport, by exploiting simulations of a global chemical transport model GEOS-Chem. We find that both air pollution related to Chinese exports (PRE) which including nitrogen oxides (NOx), sulfur dioxide (SO2), carbon monoxide (CO), black carbon (BC), and primary organic aerosol (POA), and its share in total Chinese pollution have experienced continuous rapid growth until 2007, exposing more and more people to severely polluted air. After 2007, PRE decreases due to strengthened emission controls accompanied by declined exports as a result of the global financial crisis. Although production for exports contribute less than 35% SO2 over China in any year, the increasing trend of trade-related SO2 contributes 51% of integral trend. The changing PRE of China also affects its downwind regions such as the western United States. The contribution of export-related Chinese pollution to surface sulfate concentrations over the western United States has increased from 3% in 2000 to 12% in 2007. Overall, we find that the interannual variation of trade and associated production is a critical factor driving the trend of pollution over China and its downwind regions.

  20. Air pollution control escalate equipment costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During fiscal year 1994, this author used the Bernard J. Steigerwald Opportunity for Independent Study, sponsored by US Environmental Protection Agency's Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards (Research Triangle Park, N.C.), to develop a group of quarterly indexes for adjusting or escalating air pollution control costs from one period to another. In all, nine indexes were developed, one equipment cost index (ECI) for each of nine control device categories. For convenience to the reader, additional indexes for two other equipment categories--available as part of the Producer Price Indexes compiled by the US Bureau of Labor Statistics--are also presented here. These 11 indexes--collectively known as the Vatavuk Air Pollution Control Cost Indexes (VAPCCI)--can be used to escalate costs from the initial (base) period (first quarter 1994) forward to any quarter in the future. To date, final indexes have been calculated (and are presented at the end of this article) for the second, third, and fourth quarters of 1994, and first quarter 1995; preliminary indexes are provided for second quarter 1995. Quarterly updates of these cost indexes will be computed as soon as the required input data become available. To date, no other set of cost indexes has been developed for such a wide array of pollution-control devices

  1. Improved Estimates of Air Pollutant Emissions from Biorefinery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tan, Eric C. D.

    2015-11-13

    We have attempted to use detailed kinetic modeling approach for improved estimation of combustion air pollutant emissions from biorefinery. We have developed a preliminary detailed reaction mechanism for biomass combustion. Lignin is the only biomass component included in the current mechanism and methane is used as the biogas surrogate. The model is capable of predicting the combustion emissions of greenhouse gases (CO2, N2O, CH4) and criteria air pollutants (NO, NO2, CO). The results are yet to be compared with the experimental data. The current model is still in its early stages of development. Given the acknowledged complexity of biomass oxidation, as well as the components in the feed to the combustor, obviously the modeling approach and the chemistry set discussed here may undergo revision, extension, and further validation in the future.

  2. Assessment of the impact of oxidation processes on indoor air pollution using the new time-resolved INCA-Indoor model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendez, Maxence; Blond, Nadège; Blondeau, Patrice; Schoemaecker, Coralie; Hauglustaine, Didier A.

    2015-12-01

    INCA-Indoor, a new indoor air quality (IAQ) model, has been developed to simulate the concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOC) and oxidants considering indoor air specific processes such as: emission, ventilation, surface interactions (sorption, deposition, uptake). Based on the detailed version of SAPRC-07 chemical mechanism, INCA-Indoor is able to analyze the contribution of the production and loss pathways of key chemical species (VOCs, oxidants, radical species). The potential of this model has been tested through three complementary analyses: a comparison with the most detailed IAQ model found in the literature, focusing on oxidant species; realistic scenarios covering a large range of conditions, involving variable OH sources like HONO; and the investigation of alkenes ozonolysis under a large range of indoor conditions that can increase OH and HO2 concentrations. Simulations have been run changing nitrous acid (HONO) concentrations, NOx levels, photolysis rates and ventilation rates, showing that HONO can be the main source of indoor OH. Cleaning events using products containing D-limonene have been simulated at different periods of the day. These scenarios show that HOX concentrations can significantly increase in specific conditions. An assessment of the impact of indoor chemistry on the potential formation of secondary species such as formaldehyde (HCHO) and acetaldehyde (CH3CHO) has been carried out under various room configuration scenarios and a study of the HOx budget for different realistic scenarios has been performed. It has been shown that, under the simulation conditions, formaldehyde can be affected by oxidant concentrations via chemical production which can account for more than 10% of the total production, representing 6.5 ppb/h. On the other hand, acetaldehyde production is affected more by oxidation processes. When the photolysis rates are high, chemical processes are responsible for about 50% of the total production of

  3. Air pollution in China: Scientific and Public Policy Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, T.

    2014-12-01

    Sever air pollution in China has in recent years caused intensive public, media and governmental attention. Many questions need to be answered about the air pollution in China, such as how harmful is the air pollution, especially PM2.5? Why suddenly so many reports about sever air pollution, is the air in China getting more polluted? How to design a policy that can control the air pollution most efficiently? After updated the national Ambient Air Quality Standards in 2012 and included PM2.5 as one of the critical air pollutants, in 2013, Chinese central government released for the first time the "Air Pollution Prevention and Control Action Plan". The plan has set goals to reduce annual mean concentration of PM2.5 up to 25% in 2017 in different regions in China. If the ambitious goals were achieved, this could be the most significant air pollution reduction in such a short time that affects so many people in human history. To achieve these goals, however, there are enormous scientific and public policy challenges to deal with. For example: Identify the key components, size fraction of PM that have the largest health effects; and identify the sources of PM that has the most harmful effects on human health and ecosystem. Reduce the uncertainty in health risk assessment. Understand complicate chemical transformation processes in air pollution formation with intensive emissions from industry, power plant, vehicles, agriculture. Interactions between air pollution, PBL, and atmospheric circulation at different scales. The accountability, feasibility, effectiveness, and efficiency of air pollution control policies. Integrate multi-pollutant control and achieve co-benefit with climate and energy policy. Regional coordinated air pollution control. The largest challenge in China for air pollution control remains how to strength the link between science and policy.

  4. Air pollution control techniques and a case study of industrial air emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Air pollutants are the most dangerous type of pollution and they effect our environment the worst. The main air pollutants are CO/sub 2/, CO, NOx, SOx and particulate matter. These pollutants are causing some major environmental and health concerns. There are number of techniques to control these emissions to the atmosphere. The flue gas data of boilers and generators from ICI polyester industry is also included in this paper. The techniques in use to control the pollutants are discussed. One of the most common techniques is the switching of the fuel. The Natural gas emits almost 30 percent less carbon dioxide than oil, and just under 45 percent less carbon dioxide than coal. Emissions of particulates from natural gas combustion are 90 percent lower than from the combustion of oil, and 99 percent lower than burning coal. Natural gas emits virtually no sulfur dioxide, and upto 80 percent less nitrogen oxides than the combustion of coal. Similarly, use of compressed natural gas in vehicle reduces the amount of these emissions considerably. The other methods for the control and reduction of these emissions are combustion control techniques, Flue gas treatment and Fuel re-burning. NOx can be reduced considerably by combustion control techniques like Low excess air, staged air combustion, staged fuel combustion, external flue gas recirculation, Fuel induced recirculation and steam/water injection. The flue gas treatments like selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR) and selective catalytic reduction (SCR) are also used for reduction of NOx. (author)

  5. Can the Air Pollution Index be used to communicate the health risks of air pollution?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li; Lin, Guo-Zhen; Liu, Hua-Zhang; Guo, Yuming; Ou, Chun-Quan; Chen, Ping-Yan

    2015-10-01

    The validity of using the Air Pollution Index (API) to assess health impacts of air pollution and potential modification by individual characteristics on air pollution effects remain uncertain. We applied distributed lag non-linear models (DLNMs) to assess associations of daily API, specific pollution indices for PM10, SO2, NO2 and the weighted combined API (APIw) with mortality during 2003-2011 in Guangzhou, China. An increase of 10 in API was associated with a 0.88% (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.50, 1.27%) increase of non-accidental mortality at lag 0-2 days. Harvesting effects appeared after 2 days' exposure. The effect estimate of API over lag 0-15 days was statistically significant and similar with those of pollutant-specific indices and APIw. Stronger associations between API and mortality were observed in the elderly, females and residents with low educational attainment. In conclusion, the API can be used to communicate health risks of air pollution. PMID:26057478

  6. Multivariate analysis between air pollutants and meteorological variables in Seoul

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Multivariate analysis was conducted to analyze the relationship between air pollutants and meteorological variables measured in Seoul from January 1 to December 31, 1999. The first principal component showed the contrast effect between O3 and the other pollutants. The second principal component showed the contrast effect between CO, SO2, NO2, and O3, PM10, TSP. Based on the cluster analysis, three clusters represented different air pollution levels, seasonal characteristics of air pollutants, and meteorological conditions. Discriminant analysis with air environment index (AEI) was carried out to develop an air pollution index function. (orig.)

  7. Public Perception of Urban Air Pollution: An Exploratory Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents the results of a qualitative study using focus groups aimed at understanding the beliefs and attitudes of the population towards air pollution, its levels, causes, health impacts and possible mitigation and protection actions. The study sample consisted of members of the general population, between 18 and 65 years living in Barcelona. The analysis of the group discussion indicates that there is little awareness among participants about air pollution risks. The causes of air pollution are relatively known but there is little knowledge about pollution levels and types of pollutants. We found a low level of perceived personal risk associated to air pollution that coexists with a general awareness of the health impacts of air pollution, a low level of concern about the problem and a low level of personal involvement in mitigation and self protection measures. Participants reported no use of existing information services about air pollution. (Author)

  8. Long-term exposure to indoor air pollution and wheezing symptoms in infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raaschou-Nielsen, O.; Hermansen, M.N.; Loland, L.; Buchvald, F.; Pipper, Christian Bressen; Sørensen, M.; Loft, Steffen; Bisgaard, H.

    2010-01-01

    of an association between long-term exposure to indoor air pollution and wheezing symptoms in infants, suggesting that indoor air pollution is not causally related to the underlying disease. Practical Implications Nitrogen oxides, formaldehyde and fine particles were measured in the air in infants...... wheezing symptoms in diaries for a birth cohort of 411 infants. We measured long-term exposure to nitrogen oxides (NO(x)), NO(2), formaldehyde, PM(2.5) and black smoke in the infants' bedrooms and analyzed risk associations during the first 18 months of life by logistic regression with the dichotomous end......Long-term exposure to air pollution is suspected to cause recurrent wheeze in infants. The few previous studies have had ambiguous results. The objective of this study was to estimate the impact of measured long-term exposure to indoor air pollution on wheezing symptoms in infants. We monitored...

  9. Air pollution monitoring in Amman, Jordan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1985, a collaborative research program was established between the Royal Scientific Society of Jordan and Environment Canada, Pollution Measurement Division, Ottawa, Canada, with the objective of developing an air pollution monitoring network for Amman and preparing recommendations for national air quality standards and national emission standards for Jordan. Four monitoring sites were established in residential and commercial areas of Amman. Carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, sulphur dioxide and total suspended particle matter (TSP) were measured at the Downtown station. At the other sites only TSP was measured. A short-term monitoring program carried out with a mobile monitoring unit showed relatively low levels of sulfur dioxide, carbon monoxide and nitrogen dioxide at the RSS, Naser and Marka sites as compared to the Downtown site. Continuous analyzers purchased from Environment SA, France, were used to measure sulfur dioxide, carbon monoxide and nitrogen dioxide; Sierra-Anderson high volume samplers equipped with glass fiber filters were used to collect total suspended particulates samples. Gaseous pollutants were continuously measured at the Downtown site and TSP samplers were operated on a three day schedule at all sites. Sampling began in July 1986 and continues to the present

  10. Toxicological Impact of Air Pollution Particulate Matter PM 2.5 Collected under Urban Industrial or Rural Influence Occurrence of Oxidative Stress and Inflammatory Reaction in BEAS 2B Human Bronchial Epithelial Cells Corrected Version

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Exposure to air pollution Particulate Matter (PM) is one of the risk factors involved in the high incidence of respiratory and cardio-vascular diseases. In this work, to integrate inter-seasonal and inter-site variations, fine particle (PM2.5) samples have been collected in spring-summer 2008) and autumn 2008-winter 2009, in Dunkerque (France) under urban or industrial influence, and in Rubrouck (France), under rural influence. Attention was paid to characterize their physico-chemical characteristics, and to determine their ability to induce oxidative stress and inflammatory response in a human bronchial epithelial cell model (BEAS-2B cell line). Physico-chemical characterization of the six PM samples showed their heterogeneities and complexities depending upon their respective natural and/or anthropogenic emission sources. Lung cytotoxicity of these air pollution PM2.5 samples, as shown in BEAS-2B cells, might rely on the induction of oxidative stress conditions and particularly on the excessive inflammatory response. (author)

  11. New directions: Air pollution challenges for developing megacities like Delhi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Prashant; Khare, Mukesh; Harrison, Roy M.; Bloss, William J.; Lewis, Alastair C.; Coe, Hugh; Morawska, Lidia

    2015-12-01

    Most major cities around the world experience periods of elevated air pollution levels, which exceed international health-based air quality standards (Kumar et al., 2013). Although it is a global problem, some of the highest air pollution levels are found in rapidly expanding cities in India and China. The sources, emissions, transformations and broad effects of meteorology on air pollution are reasonably well accounted in air quality control strategies in many developed cities; however these key factors remain poorly constrained in the growing cities of countries with emerging economies. We focus here on Delhi, one of the largest global population centres, which faces particular air pollution challenges, now and in the future.

  12. Air pollution and sick-leaves. A case study using air pollution data from Oslo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the last decade an increasing amount of studies have investigated the relationship between air pollution and human health effects. In this study we investigate how these effects in turn induce reduced labour productivity in terms of sick-leaves, which is an important factor in assessment of air pollution costs in urban areas. For this purpose we employ a logit model along with data on sick-leaves from a large office in Oslo and different air pollutants. Our results indicate that sick-leaves are significantly associated with particulate matter (PM10), while the associations with SO2 and NO2 are more ambiguous. We also try to estimate the induced social costs in terms of lost labour productivity and increased governmental expenditures, although these estimates are more uncertain. 17 refs

  13. Removal of organic pollutants from 2,2',5,5'-tetrachlorobenzidine (TCB) industrial wastewater by micro-electrochemical oxidation and air-stripping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A feasible method for treatment of the wastewater from the two-staged neutralization in 2,2',5,5'-tetrachlorobenzidine (TCB) manufacturing processes, a refractory dye intermediate effluents, based on combined micro-electrochemical oxidation or iron-chipping filtration (ICF) and air-stripping reactor (ASR), was developed. On conditions of HRT 1 h, pH 3.0 in ICF and HRT 38 h, gas-liquid ratio 15, pH 6.0-8.65, temperature 26 deg. C in ASR, the overall COD, color, TCB and NH4+-N removal were 96.8%, 91%, 87.61% and 62%, respectively, during the treatment of TCB wastewater from the two-staged neutralization dissolved by methanol. The averaged 18.3%, 81.7% of the total degraded COD, 35.2%, 64.8% of TCB were carried out in ICF and ASR, respectively. NH4+-N removal was finished mainly in ASR. The experimental results indicated that the combined micro-electrochemical oxidation and air-stripping process performed good treatment of COD, color, TCB and NH4+-N removal in TCB wastewater from the two-staged neutralization dissolved by ethanol or acetone, came up the discharge standard in China. But the TCB wastewater from the two-staged neutralization dissolved by methanol should be deeply treated before discharged

  14. Bangkok and its air pollution problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panich, S.

    1995-12-31

    Bangkok is the city on a former river delta and is a very flat area. The topography is unremarkable but being only a few kilometers (about 20) from the sea in the Gulf of Bangkok, the City experiences the sea breeze every afternoon and evening. The natural phenomenon is caused by the uplifting of hot air from the sun-baked ground and heat generation in the city, to be replaced by the cooler air from the sea, which is to the south. During the nighttime the sea breeze ceases to operate as the ground temperature cools down. The late night and early morning is characterized by the calm or no wind. With 2.1 million vehicles, the city has a serious problem of carbon monoxide from the gasoline vehicles stuck in the traffic on start and stop cycles, while particulate matter is the result of diesel vehicles. Hydrocarbons mainly result from two-stroke motorcycles and tuk-tuk (three-wheeled) taxis. Air pollution in Bangkok and major cities of Thailand is the result of emissions from gasoline, diesel, and LPG fueled vehicles, which contribute to the observed levels of carbon monoxide, lead, particulate matter, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, ozone and hydrocarbons. The industrial activities contribute smaller share due to tall stacks and more efficient combusting processes and pollution control.

  15. Nitric oxide in exhaled and aspirated nasal air as an objective measure of human response to isopropanol oxidation products and pthtalate esters in indoor air

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lagercrantz, Love Per; Famula, Basia; Sundell, Jan

    exposed to 2 commonly occurring indoor air pollutants and to a clean reference condition for 4.5 hours. Assessments of the environment were obtained using questionnaires. The polluted conditions were perceived as worse than the reference condition. After exposure to the two polluted conditions a small......The use of Nitric Oxide (NO) concentration in exhaled and aspirated nasal air to assess human response to indoor air pollution was tested in a climate chamber exposure experiment. The concentration of NO was measured using a chemiluminescence NO analyser. Sixteen healthy female subjects were...... polluted indoor air and sub-clinical inflammation....

  16. Evaluating Hong Kong's air pollution legislation and policies

    OpenAIRE

    Wong, Ping-hei, Benny; 黃丙熙

    2014-01-01

    Air pollution is a major environmental problem that poses numerous health risks to those exposed to it. The adverse health effects are compounded in a place as dense as Hong Kong and further intensified due to its proximity to industrial and manufacturing plants across the border in Mainland China. Hong Kong has attempted to address the issue of air pollution through the enactment of legislation and policies such as the 1983 Air Pollution Control Ordinance and Air Quality Objectives, but so f...

  17. Air pollution prevention at the Hanford Site: Status and recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the introduction of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 and other air and pollution prevention regulations, there has been increased focus on both pollution prevention and air emissions at US DOE sites. The Pollution Prevention (P2) Group of WHC reviewed the status of air pollution prevention with the goal of making recommendations on how to address air emissions at Hanford through pollution prevention. Using the air emissions inventory from Hanford's Title V permit, the P2 Group was able to identify major and significant air sources. By reviewing the literature and benchmarking two other DOE Sites, two major activities were recommended to reduce air pollution and reduce costs at the Hanford Site. First, a pollution prevention opportunity assessment (P2OA) should be conducted on the significant painting sources in the Maintenance group and credit should be taken for reducing the burning of tumbleweeds, another significant source of air pollution. Since they are significant sources, reducing these emissions will reduce air emission fees, as well as have the potential to reduce material and labor costs, and increase worker safety. Second, a P2OA should be conducted on alternatives to the three coal-fired powerhouses (steam plants) on-site, including a significant costs analysis of alternatives. This analysis could be of significant value to other DOE sites. Overall, these two activities would reduce pollution, ease regulatory requirements and fees, save money, and help Hanford take a leadership role in air pollution prevention

  18. Tolerance Levels of Roadside Trees to Air Pollutants Based on Relative Growth Rate and Air Pollution Tolerance Index

    OpenAIRE

    SULISTIJORINI; ZAINAL ALIM MAS’UD; NIZAR NASRULLAH; AHMAD BEY; SOEKISMAN TJITROSEMITO

    2008-01-01

    Motor vehicles release carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, sulphur dioxide, and particulate matters to the air as pollutants. Vegetation can absorb these pollutants through gas exchange processes. The objective of this study was to examine the combination of the relative growth rate (RGR) and physiological responses in determining tolerance levels of plant species to air pollutants. Physiological responses were calculated as air pollution tolerance index (APTI). Eight roadside tree species wer...

  19. Marble weathering and air pollution in Philadelphia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feddema, J. J.; Meierding, T. C.

    Maps of damage to marble tombstones in the urban region of Philadelphia demonstrate a close spatial correspondence with airborne pollutant concentrations. Mean recession rates on upper tombstone faces are an order of magnitude greater (3.5 mm (100a) -1) in the center of the city than they are 20 km away in the suburbs and countryside (cause sufficient gypsum accumulation within the stones to exfoliate the durable surface layer. Old photos of tombstones in central Philadelphia cemeteries show that exfoliation greatly accelerated between 1930 and 1960, concurrent with increases in SO 2 levels. Recent improvements in air quality are likely to have slowed stone deterioration.

  20. Mortality and air pollution: lessons from statistics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cross sectional studies which attempt to link persistent geographic differences in mortality rates with air pollution are reviewed. Some early studies are mentioned and detailed results are given for seven major contemporary studies, two of which are still in the publication process. Differences among the studies are discussed with regard to statistical techniques, trends in the results over time (1959 to 1974), and interpretation and use of the results. The analysis concludes that there are far too many problems with this technique to allow causality to be firmly established, and thus the results should not be used for cost benefit or policy analysis

  1. Numerical time integration for air pollution models

    OpenAIRE

    Verwer, Jan; Hundsdorfer, Willem; Blom, Joke

    1998-01-01

    Due to the large number of chemical species and the three space dimensions, off-the-shelf stiff ODE integrators are not feasible for the numerical time integration of stiff systems of advection-diffusion-reaction equations [ fracpar{c{t + nabla cdot left( vu{u c right) = nabla cdot left( K ,nabla, c right) + R left( c right), c=c(vu{x,t), c in IR^m, vu{x in Omega subset IR^3 ] from the field of air pollution modelling. This has led to the use of special time integration techniques. This paper...

  2. Air pollution: a smoking gun for cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Wei Zhang; Chao-Nan Qian; Yi-Xin Zeng

    2014-01-01

    Once considered a taboo topic or stigma, cancer is the number one public health enemy in the world. Once a product of an almost untouchable industry, tobacco is indisputably recognized as a major cause of cancer and a target for anticancer efforts. With the emergence of new economic powers in the world, especially in highly populated countries such as China, air pollution has rapidly emerged as a smoking gun for cancer and has become a hot topic for public health debate because of the complex...

  3. Exposure to Ambient Air Pollution and Premature Rupture of Membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Maeve E; Grantz, Katherine L; Liu, Danping; Zhu, Yeyi; Kim, Sung Soo; Mendola, Pauline

    2016-06-15

    Premature rupture of membranes (PROM) is a major factor that predisposes women to preterm delivery. Results from previous studies have suggested that there are associations between exposure to air pollution and preterm birth, but evidence of a relationship with PROM is sparse. Modified Community Multiscale Air Quality models were used to estimate mean exposures to particulate matter less than 10 µm or less than 2.5 µm in aerodynamic diameter, nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, and ozone among 223,375 singleton deliveries in the Air Quality and Reproductive Health Study (2002-2008). We used log-linear models with generalized estimating equations to estimate adjusted relative risks and 95% confidence intervals for PROM per each interquartile-range increase in pollutants across the whole pregnancy, on the day of delivery, and 5 hours before delivery. Whole-pregnancy exposures to carbon monoxide and sulfur dioxide were associated with an increased risk of PROM (for carbon monoxide, relative risk (RR) = 1.09, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.04, 1.14; for sulfur dioxide, RR = 1.15, 95% CI: 1.06, 1.25) but not preterm PROM. Ozone exposure increased the risk of PROM on the day of delivery (RR = 1.06, 95% CI: 1.02, 1.09) and 1 day prior (RR = 1.04, 95% CI: 1.01, 1.07). In the 5 hours preceding delivery, there were 3%-7% increases in risk associated with exposure to ozone and particulate matter less than 2.5 µm in aerodynamic diameter and inverse associations with exposure to carbon monoxide and nitrogen oxides. Acute and long-term air pollutant exposures merit further study in relation to PROM. PMID:27188941

  4. EPA issues offshore air pollution regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports that the Environmental Protection Agency has issued regulations equalizing offshore air pollution rules with onshore standards except in the Gulf of Mexico. The rules hold platforms and drilling rigs within 25 miles of states' seaward boundaries to the same state, local, and federal requirements as if they were located in the corresponding onshore areas. If EPA finds state regulations are adequate, it will delegate to the coastal state the implementation and enforcement authority for the OCS rules. Air emissions sources more than 25 miles offshore will be subject only to federal requirements. EPA said within 2 years the rules will result in significant benefits to certain onshore areas currently violating smog standards

  5. Degradation of air polluted by organic compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    According to the Mexican standard NOM-010-STPS-1994 it has been established concentrations of maximum permissible levels in workable air for styrene in the range 420-1710 mg/m3 and for xylene between 218-870 mg/m3. In this work it is studied a biological treatment (bio filtration) for air polluted by xylene and styrene where the microorganisms are adhered at synthetic fiber, these degrade to the organic compounds that across in gaseous state and they are mineralized toward CO2 and H2O. The characteristics of temperature, p H, concentration of organic compound and mineral parameters, as well as, the biomass quantity have been optimized for that bio filters efficiency were greater than those reported in other works. (Author)

  6. Elemental bioaccumulators in air pollution studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    K0-Based instrumental neutron activation analysis (k0 INAA) was used to determine the concentrations of Cr, Fe, Co, Zn, Se, Sb and Hg in the vascular plants Cistus salvifolius and Inula viscosa and in the lichen Parmelia sulcata. The samples were collected in the neighbourhood of industrial complexes. The elemental accumulation in the vascular plants and the lichen are compared to optimize the choice of the bioaccumulator. It is concluded that P.sulcata seems to be the best accumulator of the three species for the element studied; Cistus salvifolius is sensitive to the contents of Zn, Fe, Cr and Sb in the air; Inula viscosa seems to accumulate Fe, Sb, Co, Cr and Zn. Nevertheless, it is concluded that lichen is a good air pollution indicator, while the vascular plants are not due to the large seasonal variations found in the elemental concentrations. (author) 11 refs.; 7 figs.; 2 tabs

  7. Does urban vegetation mitigate air pollution in northern conditions?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is generally accepted that urban vegetation improves air quality and thereby enhances the well-being of citizens. However, empirical evidence on the potential of urban trees to mitigate air pollution is meager, particularly in northern climates with a short growing season. We studied the ability of urban park/forest vegetation to remove air pollutants (NO2, anthropogenic VOCs and particle deposition) using passive samplers in two Finnish cities. Concentrations of each pollutant in August (summer; leaf-period) and March (winter, leaf-free period) were slightly but often insignificantly lower under tree canopies than in adjacent open areas, suggesting that the role of foliage in removing air pollutants is insignificant. Furthermore, vegetation-related environmental variables (canopy closure, number and size of trees, density of understorey vegetation) did not explain the variation in pollution concentrations. Our results suggest that the ability of urban vegetation to remove air pollutants is minor in northern climates. -- Highlights: ► The ability of northern urban vegetation to remove air pollutants is minor. ► Vegetation-related environmental variables had no effect on air pollution levels. ► The ability of vegetation to clean air did not differ between summer and winter. ► Dry deposition passive samplers proved applicable in urban air pollution study. -- The ability of urban vegetation to remove air pollutants seems to be minor in northern climates

  8. Evaluating strategies to reduce urban air pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duque, L.; Relvas, H.; Silveira, C.; Ferreira, J.; Monteiro, A.; Gama, C.; Rafael, S.; Freitas, S.; Borrego, C.; Miranda, A. I.

    2016-02-01

    During the last years, specific air quality problems have been detected in the urban area of Porto (Portugal). Both PM10 and NO2 limit values have been surpassed in several air quality monitoring stations and, following the European legislation requirements, Air Quality Plans were designed and implemented to reduce those levels. In this sense, measures to decrease PM10 and NO2 emissions have been selected, these mainly related to the traffic sector, but also regarding the industrial and residential combustion sectors. The main objective of this study is to investigate the efficiency of these reduction measures with regard to the improvement of PM10 and NO2 concentration levels over the Porto urban region using a numerical modelling tool - The Air Pollution Model (TAPM). TAPM was applied over the study region, for a simulation domain of 80 × 80 km2 with a spatial resolution of 1 × 1 km2. The entire year of 2012 was simulated and set as the base year for the analysis of the impacts of the selected measures. Taking into account the main activity sectors, four main scenarios have been defined and simulated, with focus on: (1) hybrid cars; (2) a Low Emission Zone (LEZ); (3) fireplaces and (4) industry. The modelling results indicate that measures to reduce PM10 should be focused on residential combustion (fireplaces) and industrial activity and for NO2 the strategy should be based on the traffic sector. The implementation of all the defined scenarios will allow a total maximum reduction of 4.5% on the levels of both pollutants.

  9. The stakes of air pollution in the transport sector, from the French case

    OpenAIRE

    JOUMARD,R

    2005-01-01

    The main pollutants are listed for today and the future according to the progression of air quality,as measured in France and in the European Union during the 1990s,the progression of pollutant emissions of road transport in France,as calculated for the period 1970-2020,and the progression of public concern regarding air pollution and environment. These pollutants are headed by carbon dioxide,followed by nitrogen oxides and fine particulates. The stakes in terms of technology and transport su...

  10. Review of air pollution and health impacts in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the early days of abundant resources and minimal development pressures, little attention was paid to growing environmental concerns in Malaysia. The haze episodes in Southeast Asia in 1983, 1984, 1991, 1994, and 1997 imposed threats to the environmental management of Malaysia and increased awareness of the environment. As a consequence, the government established Malaysian Air Quality Guidelines, the Air Pollution Index, and the Haze Action Plan to improve air quality. Air quality monitoring is part of the initial strategy in the pollution prevention program in Malaysia. Review of air pollution in Malaysia is based on the reports of the air quality monitoring in several large cities in Malaysia, which cover air pollutants such as Carbon monoxide (CO), Sulphur Dioxide (SO2), Nitrogen Dioxide (NO2), Ozone (O3), and Suspended Particulate Matter (SPM). The results of the monitoring indicate that Suspended Particulate Matter (SPM) and Nitrogen Dioxide (NO2) are the predominant pollutants. Other pollutants such as CO, Ox, SO2, and Pb are also observed in several big cities in Malaysia. The air pollution comes mainly from land transportation, industrial emissions, and open burning sources. Among them, land transportation contributes the most to air pollution. This paper reviews the results of the ambient air quality monitoring and studies related to air pollution and health impacts

  11. Influence of air pollution on cultivated plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spierings, F.H.F.G.; Van Raay, A.; Wolting, H.G.

    1967-01-01

    An investigation repeated for the third time on susceptibility for SO/sub 2/ of 7 varieties of lettuce resulted in a reliable difference between the most and least susceptible variety; the others produced differences between individual plants within the varieties. Ethylene fumigations of tomato plants during five to six hours at concentrations of 0.5 to 3 ppm caused no visible reaction. A fumigation with 3 ppm for 23 hours resulted in a strong epinastic reaction at the base of the leaf petioles and curling of the young growing leaves. An apparatus was constructed to fumigate herbaceous plants, shrubs and trees in their natural environment and under normal climatic conditions. With this apparatus daffodil, tulip and Ixia were fumigated for 3 hours with HF in a concentration of 0.030 ppm. The most susceptible varieties showed leaf tip damage to an extent of 2 to 4 cm. Some time after an aluminium factory came into operation, injury to trees and shrubs occurred in the neighborhood; farm crops were not affected. For some factories the opportunity was given to carry out measurements on the amount of air pollution in the neighborhood of these factories before production starts, to estimate how much extra air pollution may be caused by the new factory.

  12. Study of urban air pollution in Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Office of Atoms for Peace has conducted a monitoring study of urban air pollution in Thailand for years. The primary objective of the project was to support the use of nuclear-related techniques for research and monitoring studies on air pollution. The databases obtained have been analyzed and interpreted by statistical methods including source identification using receptor model. This paper reports the work of 2002 at a heavy traffic area in Bangkok. A Gent sampler was set at the curbside of a major road in Bangkok to collect fine and coarse particles routinely on a weekday for 24 hours, once a week. The filter samples were analyzed for elemental concentrations by use of instrumental neutron activation analysis. Black carbon was separately determined by means of the reflectance measurement of the filter sample. In the report, the methodologies and the results of analyses of fine and coarse particles on filters collected in 2002 are presented. The study of the applicability of certified reference material was done by analyses of two standard reference materials provided by JAERI, i.e., NIST 1632c and NIES No.8. The comparisons of the measured and certified values are also given in the paper. (author)

  13. Kerbside DOAS measurements of air pollutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schäfer, Klaus; Ling, Hong; Legelli, Stefan; Münkel, Christoph; Emeis, Stefan

    2014-10-01

    Emission sources as well as wind speed and direction and MLH are important factors which influence high air pollutant concentrations. This is generally known (Schäfer et al., 2006) but the detailed understanding of processes directing certain air pollutant concentrations like HCHO is not complete. To study these processes a long-term campaign in Augsburg, Germany, was performed since March 2012. The concentrations of NO, NO2, O3 and HCHO, which were measured with a DOAS from OPSIS across a main traffic road and a nearby park area, are analysed. A ceilometer CL31 from Vaisala which is an eye-safe commercial mini-lidar system is applied to detect layering of the lower atmosphere continuously. Special software for this ceilometer with MATLAB provides routine retrievals of lower atmosphere layering from vertical profiles of laser backscatter data. Meteorological data were measured by a ground-based weather station at the measurement site as well as taken from monitoring data archives of the German National Meteorological Service (DWD), which are measured by radiosondes (Oberschleißheim). Correlation analyses are applied to show the coupling of temporal variations of NO, NO2, O3 and HCHO concentrations with temperature, mixing layer height and wind speed. HCHO which is emitted from both anthropogenic and biogenic sources is studied especially.

  14. Monitoring of pyrocatechol indoor air pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eškinja, I.; Grabarić, Z.; Grabarić, B. S.

    Spectrophotometric and electrochemical methods for monitoring of pyrocatechol (PC) indoor air pollution have been investigated. Spectrophotometric determination was performed using Fe(III) and iodine methods. The adherence to Beer's law was found in the concentration range between 0 and 12 μg ml - for iodine method at pH = 5.7 measuring absorbance at 725 nm, and in the range 0-30 μg ml - for Fe(III) method at pH = 9.5 measuring absorbance at 510 nm. The former method showed greater sensitivity than the latter one. Differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) and chronoamperometric (CA) detection in flow injection analysis (FIA) using carbon paste electrode in phosphate buffer solution of pH = 6.5 was also used for pyrocatechol determination. The electrochemical methods allowed pyrocatechol quantitation in submicromolar concentration level with an overall reproducibility of ± 1%. The efficiency of pyrocatechol sampling collection was investigated at two temperatures (27 and 40°C) in water, 0.1 M NaOH and 0.1 M HCl solutions. Solution of 0.1 M HCl gave the best collection efficiency (95.5-98.5%). A chamber testing simulating the indoor pollution has been performed. In order to check the reliability of the proposed methods for monitoring of the indoor pyrocatechol pollution, the air in working premises with pyrocatechol released from meteorological charts during mapping and paper drying was analyzed using proposed methods. The concentration of pyrocatechol in the air during mapping was found to be 1.8 mg m -3 which is below the hygienic standard of permissible exposure of 20 mg m -3 (≈ 5 ppm). The release of pyrocatechol from the paper impregnated with pyrocatechol standing at room temperature during one year was also measured. The proposed methods can be used for indoor pyrocatechol pollution monitoring in working premises of photographic, rubber, oil and dye industries, fur and furniture dyeing and cosmetic or pharmaceutical premises where pyrocatechol and related

  15. Genotoxic and oxidative damage of PM0.5 organic extracts from different Italian towns: preliminary results of the MAPEC (Monitoring Air Pollution Effects on Children for supporting public health policy) study

    OpenAIRE

    Sara Bonetta; Elisabetta Ceretti; Massimo Moretti; Marco Verani; Antonella De Donno; Silvia Bonizzoni; Alberto Bonetti

    2015-01-01

    Background – Air pollution is one of the most important worldwide health concern (WHO_Europe, 2013). In the last years, in both the US and Europe, new directives and regulations supporting more restrictive pollution limits were published (Krzyzanowski, 2008). However, the early effects of air pollution cannot be avoided, especially for the urban population (EEA, 2012). Several epidemiological and toxicological studies have documented the remarkable effect of particulate matter (PM) in increa...

  16. Mercury and Air Pollution: A Bibliography With Abstracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC. Office of Air Programs.

    The Air Pollution Technical Information Center (APTIC) of the Office of Air Programs has selected and compiled this bibliography of abstracts on mercury and air pollution. The abstracted documents are considered representative of available literature, although not all-inclusive. They are grouped into eleven categories: (1) Emission Sources, (2)…

  17. Recommended concentration limits of indoor air pollution indicators for requirement of acceptable indoor air quality

    OpenAIRE

    Wang J., Zhang X.

    2010-01-01

    Object and goals of indoor air pollution control with ventilation may influence improvement of indoor air quality, building energy consumption and even carbon emissions. Indicators of indoor air pollution caused by occupants-related sources and building-related sources were chosen based on sources emitting characteristics, pollutants composition, indicator choosing principles and indoor air pollution situation in China. Then the recommended concentration limits of indicators were given for un...

  18. Prenatal exposure to residential air pollution and infant mental development: modulation by antioxidants and detoxification factors

    OpenAIRE

    Guxens, M??nica; Aguilera Jim??nez, Inmaculada, 1977-; Ballester D??ez, Ferran; Estarlich, Marisa; Fern??ndez Somoano, Ana; Lertxundi, Aitana; Lertxundi, Nerea; Mendez, Michelle A.; Tard??n, Adonina; Vrijheid, Martine; Sunyer Deu, Jordi; INMA (Infancia y Medio Ambiente) Project

    2012-01-01

    Background: Air pollution effects on children???s neurodevelopment have recently been suggested to occur most likely through the oxidative stress pathway. Objective: We aimed to assess whether prenatal exposure to residential air pollution is associated with impaired infant mental development, and whether antioxidant/detoxification factors modulate this association. Methods: In the Spanish INfancia y Medio Ambiente (INMA; Environment and Childhood) Project, 2,644 pregnant women were recruited...

  19. Air quality during the 2008 Beijing Olympics: secondary pollutants and regional impact

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, T.; Nie, W.; Gao, J.; L. K. Xue; Gao, X M; Wang, X.F.; Qiu, J.; C. N. Poon; Meinardi, S.; Blake, D.; Wang, S. L.; Ding, A. J.; F. H. Chai; Zhang, Q. Z; Wang, W.X.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the first results of the measurements of trace gases and aerosols at three surface sites in and outside Beijing before and during the 2008 Olympics. The official air pollution index near the Olympic Stadium and the data from our nearby site revealed an obvious association between air quality and meteorology and different responses of secondary and primary pollutants to the control measures. Ambient concentrations of vehicle-related nitrogen oxides (NOx

  20. Dispersion Modeling of Traffic-Related Air Pollutant Exposures and Health Effects Among Children with Asthma in Detroit, Michigan

    OpenAIRE

    Batterman, Stuart; Ganguly, Rajiv; Isakov, Vlad; Burke, Janet; Arunachalam, Saravanan; Snyder, Michelle; Robins, Thomas; Lewis, Toby

    2014-01-01

    Vehicular traffic is a major source of ambient air pollution in urban areas. Traffic-related air pollutants, including carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, particulate matter less than 2.5 μm in diameter, and diesel exhaust emissions, have been associated with adverse human health effects, especially in areas near major roads. In addition to emissions from vehicles, ambient concentrations of air pollutants include contributions from stationary sources and background (or regional) sources. Althou...

  1. Air pollutants and hospital admissions due to stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samara Gavinier

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available International studies have demonstrated associations between exposure to air pollutants and deaths and hospitalizations due to stroke. However, the profile of these associations is not known in Brazil. This study aims to estimate the association between exposure to air pollutants and hospital admissions due to stroke in individuals who live in a medium-sized city, Sorocaba, Sao Paulo, Brazil. This was ecological time-series study using hospitalization data relating to the diagnosis of stroke (ICD-10 I.60-I.64 in persons 50 years of age or older who resided in the city of Sorocaba between January 1, 2007 to December 31, 2011. The pollutants studied were particulate matter, ozone, nitrogen dioxide and nitrogen oxide, controlled by apparent temperature. The generalized additive model using Poisson regression for the day of hospitalization and for up to five days of lag was used for the analysis. It was not possible to estimate the association between exposure to daily levels of particulate matter, ozone and nitrogen oxide and hospitalizations for strokes, but it was possible to identify an association between exposure to nitrogen dioxide and hospitalization for stroke (RR = 1.004, 95% CI 1.000-1.008 for the third one-day lag. An increase of 10 g m - ³ in concentrations of this pollutant represented an increase of 4 percentage points in the risk of hospitalization. Thus, it was established that the nitrogen dioxide is associated with hospitalization for stroke in a medium-sized city, i.e., Sorocaba.

  2. Ambient Air Pollution and the Risk of Stillbirth

    OpenAIRE

    Faiz, Ambarina S.; Rhoads, George G.; Demissie, Kitaw; Kruse, Lakota; Lin, Yong; Rich, David Q.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the risk of stillbirth associated with ambient air pollution during pregnancy. Using live birth and fetal death data from New Jersey from 1998 to 2004, the authors assigned daily concentrations of air pollution to each birth or fetal death. Generalized estimating equation models were used to estimate the relative odds of stillbirth associated with interquartile range increases in mean air pollutant concentrations in the first, second, and third ...

  3. Confounding and exposure measurement error in air pollution epidemiology

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Studies in air pollution epidemiology may suffer from some specific forms of confounding and exposure measurement error. This contribution discusses these, mostly in the framework of cohort studies. Evaluation of potential confounding is critical in studies of the health effects of air pollution. The association between long-term exposure to ambient air pollution and mortality has been investigated using cohort studies in which subjects are followed over time with respect to their vital statu...

  4. Confounding and exposure measurement error in air pollution epidemiology

    OpenAIRE

    Sheppard, L.; Burnett, R T; Szpiro, A.A.; Kim, J.Y.; Jerrett, M; Pope, C; Brunekreef, B

    2012-01-01

    Studies in air pollution epidemiology may suffer from some specific forms of confounding and exposure measurement error. This contribution discusses these, mostly in the framework of cohort studies. Evaluation of potential confounding is critical in studies of the health effects of air pollution. The association between long-term exposure to ambient air pollution and mortality has been investigated using cohort studies in which subjects are followed over time with respect to their vital statu...

  5. International Collaboration on Air Pollution and Pregnancy Outcomes (ICAPPO).

    OpenAIRE

    Woodruff, Tracey J.; Parker, Jennifer D.; Kate Adams; Bell, Michelle L.; Ulrike Gehring; Svetlana Glinianaia; Eun-Hee Ha; Bin Jalaludin; Rémy Slama

    2010-01-01

    Reviews find a likely adverse effect of air pollution on perinatal outcomes, but variation of findings hinders the ability to incorporate the research into policy. The International Collaboration on Air Pollution and Pregnancy Outcomes (ICAPPO) was formed to better understand relationships between air pollution and adverse birth outcomes through standardized parallel analyses in datasets from different countries. A planning group with 10 members from 6 countries was formed to coordinate the p...

  6. Air pollution burden of illness from traffic in Toronto

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper examined the health impacts of air pollution from traffic in Toronto. The paper provided a review of scientific studies on the health effects of vehicle pollution as well as a quantitative assessment of the economic costs and the burden of illness attributed to traffic pollution in Toronto. The report also assessed air pollution and traffic trends in the city, and outlined initiatives being conducted to reduce vehicle-related pollution. The study used the new air quality benefits tool (AQBAT) which determines the burden of illness and the economic impacts of traffic-related air pollution. Air modelling specialists were consulted in order to determine the contribution of traffic-related pollutants to overall pollution levels using data on traffic counts and vehicle emissions factors. The air model also considered dispersion, transport and and the transformation of compounds emitted from vehicles. Results of the study showed that traffic pollution caused approximately 440 premature deaths and 1700 hospitalizations per year. Children in the city experienced more than 1200 acute bronchitis episodes per year as a result of air pollution from traffic. Mortality-related costs associated with traffic pollution in Toronto were estimated at $2.2 billion. It was concluded that the city must pursue the implementation of sustainable transportation policies and programs which foster and enable the expansion and use of public transport. 47 refs., 8 tabs., 9 figs

  7. Air pollution burden of illness from traffic in Toronto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKeown, D.; Campbell, M.; Bassil, K.; Morgan, C.; Lalani, M.; Macfarlane, R.; Bienefeld, M. [Toronto Public Health, ON (Canada)

    2007-11-15

    This paper examined the health impacts of air pollution from traffic in Toronto. The paper provided a review of scientific studies on the health effects of vehicle pollution as well as a quantitative assessment of the economic costs and the burden of illness attributed to traffic pollution in Toronto. The report also assessed air pollution and traffic trends in the city, and outlined initiatives being conducted to reduce vehicle-related pollution. The study used the new air quality benefits tool (AQBAT) which determines the burden of illness and the economic impacts of traffic-related air pollution. Air modelling specialists were consulted in order to determine the contribution of traffic-related pollutants to overall pollution levels using data on traffic counts and vehicle emissions factors. The air model also considered dispersion, transport and and the transformation of compounds emitted from vehicles. Results of the study showed that traffic pollution caused approximately 440 premature deaths and 1700 hospitalizations per year. Children in the city experienced more than 1200 acute bronchitis episodes per year as a result of air pollution from traffic. Mortality-related costs associated with traffic pollution in Toronto were estimated at $2.2 billion. It was concluded that the city must pursue the implementation of sustainable transportation policies and programs which foster and enable the expansion and use of public transport. 47 refs., 8 tabs., 9 figs.

  8. The impact of climate upon variation in air pollution using a synoptic climatological approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Environmental Protection Agency has set national ambient air quality standards for six different pollutants: sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, ozone, total suspended particulates, nitrogen oxides, and oxidants. The goal of this study was to apply an automatic air mass-based synoptic methodology to surface weather data in order to evaluate the impact of climate on the above pollutant concentrations in Philadelphia, PA; Dallas, TX; and St. Louis, MO. A group of synoptic categories depicting the summer and winter weather in each city was developed using principal components analysis and average linkage clustering. The concentrations of the six air pollutants were then related to the synoptic weather categories. The synoptic categories and associated weather conditions exhibiting particularly high pollution concentrations were analyzed in detail. Ultimately, the procedure was validated for prediction of future pollutant levels. The results from this study support the conclusion that there is a close link between synoptic-air mass combinations and various pollutant concentrations. The climate-pollutant relationship seems to change from summer to winter in the three cities. It appears that climatic thresholds could be found for high levels of various air pollutants. Similar synoptic conditions appear to lead to high accumulations of all six pollutants, although the transportation-related pollutants showed more dependency on the level of solar radiation. These pollutants seem to be more significant in the southern city of Dallas. The synoptic methodology proved to be of assistance in developing a weather/pollution watch-warning system; such a system would be designed to signal impending synoptic conditions which could significantly raise pollutant concentrations

  9. Monitoring of trace element air pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With this project, a biomonitoring survey will be carried out with epiphytic lichens. The lichens Parmelia sulcata (or caperata) will be collected from olive trees about 1-2 m above the ground, using a 10x10 km grid or 50x50 km gird. In total, about 300 sampling sites will be set up. Within one sampling site, variations in elemental concentrations of lichen material taken from several trees of the same species will be analyzed to obtained the local variation for each element (made in 10% of the grid). In addition some typical soil samples will be collected so that the contribution of soil suspended in air particulate matter can be recognized. The samples will be analyzed for ∼50 elements by NAA and PIXE. The expected results will be integrated data sets, which will be used in the next step for application of a statistical procedure to identify particular pollution sources. The project also consists of exposure experiments with lichen transplant samples at several sampling sites, which are representative for the regions under study. In addition at each sampling site air particular matter and total deposition will be collected monthly, during 1 year. The aim is to establish a quantitative relationship between results obtained with the lichen transplant samples and with air particulate matter and total deposition. (author). 12 refs, 2 figs, 2 tabs

  10. Development of mobile air pollution monitoring system (LIDAR)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cha, Hyung Ki; Song, Kyu Seok; Kim, Dukh Yeon; Yang, Ki Ho; Lee, Jong Min; Yoon, S.; Rostov, A

    2001-01-01

    Most air pollution monitoring technologies accompany a time-consuming sample treatment and provide pollution information only for a local area. Thus, they have a critical restriction in monitoring time-dependent pollution variation effectively over the wide range of area both in height and in width. LIDAR(Light Detection And Ranging) is a new technology to overcome such drawbacks of the existing pollution monitoring technologies and has long been investigated in the advanced countries. The coal of this project is to develop the mobile air pollution monitoring system and to apply the system to the detection of various pollutants, such as ozone, nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide and aerosols.

  11. Development of mobile air pollution monitoring system (LIDAR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Most air pollution monitoring technologies accompany a time-consuming sample treatment and provide pollution information only for a local area. Thus, they have a critical restriction in monitoring time-dependent pollution variation effectively over the wide range of area both in height and in width. LIDAR(Light Detection And Ranging) is a new technology to overcome such drawbacks of the existing pollution monitoring technologies and has long been investigated in the advanced countries. The coal of this project is to develop the mobile air pollution monitoring system and to apply the system to the detection of various pollutants, such as ozone, nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide and aerosols

  12. Air pollution and ecology. From local to global impacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fenger, J. [National Institute of Environmental Research, Dept. of Atmospheric Environment, Roskilde (Denmark)

    1996-11-01

    Human impact on nature is increasing - not only in magnitude, but also in geographical scale. It has been known for centuries, that vegetation does not thrive near air pollution sources, but it was not before after the Second World War that the importance of long range transport of pollutants was realized - first for sulphur and nitrogen compounds, later for photochemical oxidants. The results have been acidification of rivers and lakes, forest dieback and eutrophication of inner waters. In recent decades the attention has been focused on global effects: Ozone depletion and increased greenhouse effect. Here air pollution threatens to alter the conditions of life on the entire Earth. In the political and public debate - and sometimes in science as well - the problems are treated separately. Since however, the basic phenomena all take place in the same atmosphere, they are more or less interrelated. Also the environmental effects must be considered a result of a complex impact. This complexity should be taken into account in the planning of an effective abatement strategy. (au) 11 refs.

  13. Methods for Online Monitoring of Air Pollution Concentration

    OpenAIRE

    Ionel, Ioana; Popescu, Francisc

    2010-01-01

    Air pollution is a global environmental problem that represents a measure of the potential of the climate change rate influenced by local pollution sources, although its scale has a strong regional or local orientation. Improvements in technology supported by policy measures have lead to reduced pollution levels, but still, especially in new member states, more activity is needed. In developed countries advanced low pollution technique is applied in order to reduce the pollution levels Howeve...

  14. A critical review of studies of the association between demands for hospital services and air pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipfert, F W

    1993-07-01

    Studies of the associations between air pollution and hospital admissions and emergency room use are reviewed, including studies of air pollution episodes, time-series analyses, and cross-sectional analyses. These studies encompass a variety of methods of analysis and levels of air quality. Findings from all three types of studies were generally consistent in that almost all of the studies reviewed found statistically significant associations between hospital use and air pollution; this unanimity may have resulted in part from publication bias. These associations were characterized by elasticities of the order of 0.20; i.e., a 100% change in air pollution was associated with a change in hospital use of about 20%, for specific diagnoses. Respiratory diagnoses were emphasized by most studies; cardiac diagnoses were included in five of them. The air pollutants most often associated with changes in hospital use were particulate matter, sulfur oxides, and oxidants. Apart from the major air pollution episodes, there was no obvious link between air pollution level and the significance or magnitudes of the associations. Long-term indicators of hospitalization appeared to also be influenced by medical care supply factors, including the numbers of beds and physicians per capita. These nonpathological causal factors could also have influenced the findings of the time-series studies by introducing extraneous factors in the patterns of admissions. Although consistent associations have been shown between hospital use and air pollution, further research is required to distinguish among potentially responsible pollutants and to deduce specific dose-response relationships of general utility. PMID:8243395

  15. Air and agriculture. Damage by air pollution in crop cultivation and economic effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Air pollution adversely affects crop production in the Netherlands, both in qualitative and in quantitative terms. The extent to which crop yield is reduced and economic loss have been estimated for the Netherlands. Exposure to ozone accounts for the greater part of economic loss. For an average summer, with ozone at background levels, the calculated gain for producers and consumers is circa 450 million Dutch guilders (Dfl). They will experience a net loss of Dfl 587 million in a high ozone summer (ozone level is 30% higher compared to the average summer). If the concentration of sulfur dioxide decreases by 60% and the concentration of nitrogen oxides decreases by 20% as compared to the levels in 1995, producers and consumers are expected to experience a net gain of Dfl 186 million. Fluorides and other air pollutants do not constitute a large-scale problem. 3 refs

  16. Lichens as integrating air pollution monitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bioindication using epiphytic lichens has developed rapidly in the last decades. Both mapping of lichen vegetation and multielement analysis of Hypogymnia physodes collected on a national scale were used. A simple method based on the assessment of the cover and frequency of crustose, foliose and fruticose lichens on different tree species was performed in 1991 and 1995 and the so-called Index of Atmospheric Purity (IAP) was calculated, providing a picture of the general air quality in the country. However, by analysis of lichen material using k0-instrumental neutron activation analysis detailed information about its composition and levels of pollutants was obtained. In the present work an attempt to combine the IAP results with the quantitative levels of certain trace elements together with available results for SO2 in the atmosphere using multivariate statistical methods is presented and discussed. (author)

  17. Analysis of air pollution and greenhouse gases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benkovitz, C.M.

    1992-03-01

    The current objective of the project Analysis of Air Pollution and Greenhouse Gases'' is to develop a study of emissions and emission sources that could easily be linked to models of economic activity. Initial studies were conducted to evaluate data currently available linking activity rates and emissions estimates. The emissions inventory developed for the National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program (NAPAP) presents one of the most comprehensive data sets, and was chosen for our initial studies, which are described in this report. Over 99% of the SO{sub 2} emissions, 98% of the NO{sub x} emission and 57% of the VOC emissions from area sources are related to fuel combustion. The majority of emission from these sources are generated by the transportation sector. Activity rates for area sources are not archived with the NAPAP inventory; alternative derivations of these data will be part of the future activities of this project. The availability and completeness of the fuel heat content data in the NAPAP inventory were also studied. Approximately 10% of the SO{sub 2} emissions, 13% of the NO{sub x} emissions and 46% of the VOC emissions are generated by sources with unavailable data for fuel heat content. Initial estimates of pollutant emission rate per unit fuel heat content. Initial estimates of pollutant emission rate per unit fuel heat content were generated. Future studies for this project include the derivation of activity rates for area sources, improved explanations for the default fuel parameters defined in the NAPAP inventory and the development of links to data bases of economic activity.

  18. Air pollution and risk of lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The pilot study among other things was intended to establish and to test a suitable sampling instrument, to develop quantification concepts in order to derive from the large amount of detailed sets of data the appropriate exposure measures, and to determine the distribution pattern of the main risk factors. The approach chosen for epidemiological screening was a case-control study covering a total each of 194 lung cancer cases, hospital controls, and population controls drawn in the Lands of North Rhine-Westfalia and northern Germany. This case-control approach proved to be feasible in principle. In particular, the sampling instrument for description of the risk factors 'occupation', 'smoker', and 'air pollution' proved to be suitable in combination with data in other potential influencing factors. The concepts chosen for a quantification of these factors yielded exposure measures appropriately reducing the large dimension of data of the questionnaire, without however completely exploiting it. The data ascertained within the framework of the pilot study allow to make a risk assessment for only two factors, namely 'smoker' and 'occupation'. For the index of the overall occupational exposure, covering contributions from exposure to asbestos, arsenic, nickel, chronium, PAH, and radionuclides, a relative risk of 1.8 was determined. The study indicated that there is a link between occupational exposure to asbestos or PAH, and the occurence of bronchial carcinoma. The pilot study did not give an answer to the question of whether air pollution contributes to the formation of bronchial carcinoma. This question will have to be solved by a more extensive study. (orig./MG)

  19. Urban air pollution control in Peru

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-12-20

    Our central health cost estimate from particulate matter (PM) concentrations in larger Peruvian cities is approximately USD 790 million/year. More than 60 percent of these costs occur in Lima-Callao. Diesel vehicles are the most important emission source. Various abatement actions could yield health benefits of around USD 50 million in 2008 and USD 185 million after 2010. Some of the most important cost effective actions would be an inspection and maintenance (I&M) program for vehicles (planned to start in 2006) and introduction of low sulphur diesel (<50 ppm) from 2010. When low sulphur diesel is available, installing retrofit particle control technology on existing vehicles could be very cost effective. Some actions towards stationary sources could also be cost effective. In addition a mixture of several measures like tax incentives to promote use of gasoline cars at the expense of diesel cars, accelerated scrapping of old, polluting vehicles, ban on the use of some diesel vehicles and import restrictions on used cars could be chosen to yield short and long term air pollution benefits.

  20. Influence of air pollution on cultivated crops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeevaart, A.J.; Spierings, F.H.F.G.; van Raay, A.; Wolting, H.G.

    1971-01-01

    Fumigation of tomato plants during the complete growth period with 0.1 ppm NO2 resulted in a gradually increasing discoloration of the plants starting from the lowest leaves on upwards. The yield of the plants was less by 8%. In a similar fumigation experiment with a concentration of 0.9 ppb HF carried out with eight varieties of freesia, the plants with the heaviest injury had almost no flowers and a much lower yield of corns. Potatoes, variety Bintje, fumigated during some hours with 0.1 ppm ethylene, showed curling up of the margins of the young leaves. In the urbanized area west of Rotterdam, epinastic symptoms on potato and carrot leaves appearing during some hours, pointed to air pollution with ethylene. In the first half of October lettuce in glasshouses was damaged; with the aid of the characteristic symptoms on Poa annua and Urtica urens it could be demonstrated that PAN (peroxyacetylnitrate) was the cause of the trouble. With regard to the second aluminum factory in the south-west of The Netherlands, starting production in 1971, preliminary measurements of HF pollution have been carried out. The other aluminium factory in the northeastern part of The Netherlands, caused no damage to the agricultural crops in the surroundings of the plant. From the flower bulbs cultivated in the environment of the steel factory, west of Amsterdam the gladiolus plants showed increased HF injury on the leaves, probably as a consequence of application of a new method in steel production.

  1. Heat Waves, Urban Vegetation, and Air Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Churkina, G.; Grote, R.; Butler, T. M.

    2014-12-01

    Fast-track programs to plant millions of trees in cities around the world aim at the reduction of summer temperatures, increase carbon storage, storm water control, provision of space for recreation, as well as poverty alleviation. Although these multiple benefits speak positively for urban greening programs, the programs do not take into account how close human and natural systems are coupled in urban areas. Elevated temperatures together with anthropogenic emissions of air and water pollutants distinguish the urban system. Urban and sub-urban vegetation responds to ambient changes and reacts with pollutants. Neglecting the existence of this coupling may lead to unforeseen drawbacks of urban greening programs. The potential for emissions from urban vegetation combined with anthropogenic emissions to produce ozone has long been recognized. This potential increases under rising temperatures. Here we investigate how global change induced heat waves affect emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOC) from urban vegetation and corresponding ground-level ozone levels. We also quantify other ecosystem services provided by urban vegetation (e.g., cooling and carbon storage) and their sensitivity to climate change. In this study we use Weather Research and Forecasting Model with coupled atmospheric chemistry (WRF-CHEM) to quantify these feedbacks in Berlin, Germany during the heat waves in 2003 and 2006. We highlight the importance of the vegetation for urban areas under changing climate and discuss associated tradeoffs.

  2. Air pollution effects on the structure of Citrus aurantium leaves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Psaras, G.K.; Christodoulakis, N.S.

    1987-09-01

    Individual air pollutants cause acute and chronic plant injury, act on stomata and affect carbon dioxide exchange as well as plant growth and development. Inhibition of photosynthesis by several air pollutants has been reported repeatedly. Besides, structural modifications of cell organelles have been reported after fumigation by SO/sub 2/. Although chlorosis and subsequent necrosis are common phenomena caused by artificial treatment with pollutants, fine structural leaf characteristics of plants exposed to long-term air pollution in natural conditions are little explored. Light microscope examination of air pollution affected leaves of plants common in natural ecosystems of Athens' metropolitan area revealed chlorosis phenomena. Electron microscope examination of the leaves of a common subshrub of greek phryganic formations grown in a heavily air polluted natural ecosystem of Athens metropolitan area revealed pronounced ultrastructural anomalies of chloroplasts, mitochondria and microbodies of the mesophyll cells. This organelle destruction of the photosynthesizing tissue as well as the minimization of the ecosystem primary productivity are attributed to the compound action of several toxic air pollutants of the photochemical smog of Athens. This work describes the long-term air pollution effects on the structural features of the leaves of Citrus aurantium, a decorative species planted throughout the heavily air polluted city of Athens.

  3. 40 CFR 63.60 - Deletion of caprolactam from the list of hazardous air pollutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... of hazardous air pollutants. 63.60 Section 63.60 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES List of Hazardous Air Pollutants, Petitions Process, Lesser Quantity...

  4. Public-health impact of outdoor air pollution for 2nd air pollution management policy in Seoul metropolitan area, Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Leem, Jong Han; Kim, Soon Tae; Kim, Hwan Cheol

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Air pollution contributes to mortality and morbidity. We estimated the impact of outdoor air pollution on public health in Seoul metropolitan area, Korea. Attributable cases of morbidity and mortality were estimated. Methods Epidemiology-based exposure-response functions for a 10 μg/m3 increase in particulate matter (PM2.5 and PM10) were used to quantify the effects of air pollution. Cases attributable to air pollution were estimated for mortality (adults ≥ 30 years), respiratory a...

  5. A bird's eye view of the air pollution-cancer link in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Bei Huang

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Air pollution in China comes from multiple sources, including coal consumption, construction and industrial dust, and vehicle exhaust. Coal consumption in particular directly determines the emissions of three major air pollutants: dust, sulfur dioxide (SO2, and nitrogen oxide (NOx. The rapidly increasing number of civilian vehicles is expected to bring NOx emission to a very high level. Contrary to expectations, however, existing data show that the concentrations of major pollutants [particulate matter-10 (PM10, SO2, and nitrogen dioxide (NO2] in several large Chinese cities have declined during the past decades, though they still exceed the national standards of ambient air quality. Archived data from China does not fully support that the concentrations of pollutants directly depend on local emissions, but this is likely due to inaccurate measurement of pollutants. Analyses on the cancer registry data show that cancer burden related to air pollution is on the rise in China and will likely increase further, but there is a lack of data to accurately predict the cancer burden. Past experience from other countries has sounded alarm of the link between air pollution and cancer. The quantitative association requires dedicated research as well as establishment of needed monitoring infrastructures and cancer registries. The air pollution-cancer link is a serious public health issue that needs urgent investigation

  6. Air Pollution and Exercise: A REVIEW OF THE CARDIOVASCULAR IMPLICATIONS FOR HEALTH CARE PROFESSIONALS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giorgini, Paolo; Rubenfire, Melvyn; Bard, Robert L; Jackson, Elizabeth A; Ferri, Claudio; Brook, Robert D

    2016-01-01

    Although regular aerobic exercise improves overall health, increased physical activity can lead to heightened exposures to a variety of air pollutants. As such, the cardiovascular health benefits of exercise may be abrogated to some degree by the harmful actions of inhaled pollutants. This review aims to provide an up-to-date summary for health professionals of the cardiovascular responses as well as the risks of exercising in air pollution. Aerobic exercise augments the overall inhaled air pollution dose, potentiates the diffusion of pollutants into circulating blood, and augments oxidative stress and inflammation. The inhalation of particulate matter during exercise can raise blood pressure, impair vascular function, and unfavorably affect autonomic balance. Several studies suggest that air pollutants can increase ischemic symptoms and signs during exercise and can even be capable of impairing exercise performance in some scenarios. The overall evidence supports that the risk-to-benefit ratio generally favors that health care providers continue to strongly encourage their patients to perform regular aerobic exercise. Nevertheless, a greater effort should be made to educate patients about the risks of air pollutant exposures during exercise, particularly those at heightened cardiovascular risk. Although no strategy has been directly tested to reduce morbidity and mortality rate, several prudent actions can be taken to lessen the degree of exposures during exercise which may thereby help mitigate the adverse effects of air pollutants on exercise performance and cardiovascular risk. PMID:26378494

  7. Health and Cellular Impacts of Air Pollutants: From Cytoprotection to Cytotoxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karine Andreau

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Air pollution as one of the ravages of our modern societies is primarily linked to urban centers, industrial activities, or road traffic. These atmospheric pollutants have been incriminated in deleterious health effects by numerous epidemiological and in vitro studies. Environmental air pollutants are a heterogeneous mixture of particles suspended into a liquid and gaseous phase which trigger the disruption of redox homeostasis—known under the term of cellular oxidative stress—in relation with the establishment of inflammation and cell death via necrosis, apoptosis, or autophagy. Activation or repression of the apoptotic process as an adaptative response to xenobiotics might lead to either acute or chronic toxicity. The purpose of this paper is to highlight the central role of oxidative stress induced by air pollutants and to focus on the subsequent cellular impacts ranging from cytoprotection to cytotoxicity by decreasing or stimulating apoptosis, respectively.

  8. Dispersion Modeling of Traffic-Related Air Pollutant Exposures and Health Effects among Children with Asthma in Detroit, Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vehicular traffic is a major source of ambient air pollution in urban areas, and traffic-related air pollutants, including carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, particulate matter under 2.5 microns in diameter (PM2.5) and diesel exhaust emissions, have been associated with...

  9. Nutritional Solutions to Reduce Risks of Negative Health Impacts of Air Pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Péter, Szabolcs; Holguin, Fernando; Wood, Lisa G; Clougherty, Jane E; Raederstorff, Daniel; Antal, Magda; Weber, Peter; Eggersdorfer, Manfred

    2015-12-01

    Air pollution worldwide has been associated with cardiovascular and respiratory morbidity and mortality, particularly in urban settings with elevated concentrations of primary pollutants. Air pollution is a very complex mixture of primary and secondary gases and particles, and its potential to cause harm can depend on multiple factors-including physical and chemical characteristics of pollutants, which varies with fine-scale location (e.g., by proximity to local emission sources)-as well as local meteorology, topography, and population susceptibility. It has been hypothesized that the intake of anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory nutrients may ameliorate various respiratory and cardiovascular effects of air pollution through reductions in oxidative stress and inflammation. To date, several studies have suggested that some harmful effects of air pollution may be modified by intake of essential micronutrients (such as B vitamins, and vitamins C, D, and E) and long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids. Here, we review the existing literature related to the potential for nutrition to modify the health impacts of air pollution, and offer a framework for examining these interactions. PMID:26690474

  10. Nutritional Solutions to Reduce Risks of Negative Health Impacts of Air Pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szabolcs Péter

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Air pollution worldwide has been associated with cardiovascular and respiratory morbidity and mortality, particularly in urban settings with elevated concentrations of primary pollutants. Air pollution is a very complex mixture of primary and secondary gases and particles, and its potential to cause harm can depend on multiple factors—including physical and chemical characteristics of pollutants, which varies with fine-scale location (e.g., by proximity to local emission sources—as well as local meteorology, topography, and population susceptibility. It has been hypothesized that the intake of anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory nutrients may ameliorate various respiratory and cardiovascular effects of air pollution through reductions in oxidative stress and inflammation. To date, several studies have suggested that some harmful effects of air pollution may be modified by intake of essential micronutrients (such as B vitamins, and vitamins C, D, and E and long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids. Here, we review the existing literature related to the potential for nutrition to modify the health impacts of air pollution, and offer a framework for examining these interactions.

  11. Can the Air Pollution Index be used to communicate the health risks of air pollution?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The validity of using the Air Pollution Index (API) to assess health impacts of air pollution and potential modification by individual characteristics on air pollution effects remain uncertain. We applied distributed lag non-linear models (DLNMs) to assess associations of daily API, specific pollution indices for PM10, SO2, NO2 and the weighted combined API (APIw) with mortality during 2003–2011 in Guangzhou, China. An increase of 10 in API was associated with a 0.88% (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.50, 1.27%) increase of non-accidental mortality at lag 0–2 days. Harvesting effects appeared after 2 days’ exposure. The effect estimate of API over lag 0–15 days was statistically significant and similar with those of pollutant-specific indices and APIw. Stronger associations between API and mortality were observed in the elderly, females and residents with low educational attainment. In conclusion, the API can be used to communicate health risks of air pollution. - Highlights: • The cumulative effects of API on mortality over lag 0–15 days remained significant. • The indices for three specific pollutants had similar associations with mortality. • The effects of API were modified by age, gender and educational attainment. • Our findings can help to communicate health risks of air pollution to the public. - The Air Pollution Index communicates health risks of air pollution

  12. PRECOMBUSTION REMOVAL OF HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANT PRECURSORS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unknown

    2000-10-09

    In response to growing environmental concerns reflected in the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendment (CAAA), the United States Department of Energy (DOE) sponsored several research and development projects in late 1995 as part of an initiative entitled Advanced Environmental Control Technologies for Coal-Based Power Systems. The program provided cost-shared support for research and development projects that could accelerate the commercialization of affordable, high-efficiency, low-emission, coal-fueled electric generating technologies. Clean coal technologies developed under this program would serve as prototypes for later generations of technologies to be implemented in the industrial sector. In order to identify technologies with the greatest potential for commercial implementation, projects funded under Phase I of this program were subject to competitive review by DOE before being considered for continuation funding under Phase II. One of the primary topical areas identified under the DOE initiative relates to the development of improved technologies for reducing the emissions of air toxics. Previous studies have suggested that many of the potentially hazardous air pollutant precursors (HAPPs) occur as trace elements in the mineral matter of run-of-mine coals. As a result, these elements have the potential to be removed prior to combustion at the mine site by physical coal cleaning processes (i.e., coal preparation). Unfortunately, existing coal preparation plants are generally limited in their ability to remove HAPPs due to incomplete liberation of the mineral matter and high organic associations of some trace elements. In addition, existing physical coal cleaning plants are not specifically designed or optimized to ensure that high trace element rejections may be achieved.

  13. Parametric time-series analysis of daily air pollutants of city of Shumen, Bulgaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, A.; Voynikova, D.; Gocheva-Ilieva, S.; Boyadzhiev, D.

    2012-10-01

    The urban air pollution is one of the main factors determining the ambient air quality, which affects on the human health and the environment. In this paper parametric time series models are obtained for studying the distribution over time of primary pollutants as sulphur and nitrogen oxides, particulate matter and a secondary pollutant ground level ozon in the town of Shumen, Bulgaria. The methods of factor analysis and ARIMA are used to carry out the time series analysis based on hourly average data in 2011 and first quarter of 2012. The constructed models are applied for a short-term air pollution forecasting. The results are estimated on the basis of national and European regulation indices. The sources of pollutants in the region and their harmful effects on human health are also discussed.

  14. Effects and control of long-range transboundary air pollution. Report prepared within the framework of the Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This tenth volume of the series of Air Pollution Studies, published under the auspices of the Executive Body for the Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution, contains the documents reviewed and approved for publication at the eleventh session of the Executive Body held at Geneva from 1 to 3 December 1993. Part One is the Annual Review of Strategies and Policies for Air Pollution Abatement. National emission data and forecasts for sulphur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen oxides (NOx), volatile organic compounds (VOCs), ammonia (NH3) and carbon dioxide (CO2) from 1980 to 2005 are presented. Conclusions are drawn concerning the status of implementation of the sulphur and nitrogen oxides protocols on the basis of these data. Part Two is an executive summary of the 1992 Report on the Forest Condition in Europe. The main objective of this report is to give a condensed description of the condition of forests in Europe, as it has been assessed by the transnational and national annual surveys, carried out jointly by the ECE under the Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution and by the European Community (EC). Part Three is a summary report that focuses on the reduction of air pollution from heat and electric energy production. It is based on discussion papers submitted to the fifth ECE Seminar on Emission Control Technology for Stationary Sources, held in Nuremberg (Germany) from 10 to 14 June 1991. This chapter presents the main control techniques to reduce emissions from fuel combustion, which is a major contribution in most ECE countries to air pollution by sulphur and nitrogen compounds, carbon oxides, organic compounds, as well as heavy metals. Three principal abatement options are reviewed: fuel cleaning and fuel conversion, low-emission combustion processes, and flue gas cleaning processes. Both technical and economic aspects of the different measures are discussed

  15. Air pollution with gaseous emissions and methods for their removal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Information concerning gaseous pollutants generated in the atmosphere, as a result of fuel incineration processes in thermal power and industrial plants, was summarized. The main methods and technologies for flue gases purification from the most ecologically hazardous pollutants are comparatively discussed. Keywords: gaseous pollutants, aerosols, flue gas purification systems and technologies, air ecology control

  16. Ambient Air Pollution and Newborn Size and Adiposity at Birth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schembari, Anna; de Hoogh, Kees; Pedersen, Marie; Dadvand, Payam; Martinez, David; Hoek, Gerard; Petherick, Emily S; Wright, John; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Exposure to ambient air pollution has been associated with reduced newborn's size, however the modifying effect of maternal ethnicity remains little explored among South Asians. OBJECTIVES: To investigate ethnic differences in the association between ambient air pollution and newborn...... associations of ambient PM exposures with newborn size and adiposity differ between White British and Pakistani origin infants....

  17. Ambient air pollution triggers wheezing symptoms in infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Zorana Jovanovic; Loft, S; Ketzel, Matthias;

    2008-01-01

    There is limited evidence for the role of air pollution in the development and triggering of wheezing symptoms in young children. A study was undertaken to examine the effect of exposure to air pollution on wheezing symptoms in children under the age of 3 years with genetic susceptibility to asthma....

  18. Prenatal air pollution exposure and newborn blood pressure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rossem, Lenie; Rifas-Shiman, Sheryl L.; Melly, Steven J.; Kloog, Itai; Luttmann-Gibson, Heike; Zanobetti, Antonella; Coull, Brent A.; Schwartz, Joel D.; Mittleman, Murray A.; Oken, Emily; Gillman, Matthew W.; Koutrakis, Petros; Gold, Diane R.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Air pollution exposure has been associated with increased blood pressure in adults. oBjective: We examined associations of antenatal exposure to ambient air pollution with newborn systolic blood pressure (SBP). Methods: We studied 1,131 mother–infant pairs in a Boston, Massachusetts, are

  19. Children´s vulnerability to air pollutants

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šrám, Radim

    Beijing : organising comittee, 2001. s. -. [Joint WHO/IPA Seminar on Air Pollution and Children´s Health. 10.09.2001-11.09.2001, Beijing ] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5039906 Keywords : air pollution * human population Subject RIV: DN - Health Impact of the Environment Quality

  20. The European concerted action on air pollution epidemiology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ackermann-Liebrich, U. [Basel Univ. (Switzerland). Inst. for Social and Preventive Medicine

    1995-12-31

    The European Concerted Action on Air Pollution Epidemiology was started in 1990 with the aim of bringing together European researchers in the field and improving research through collaboration and by preparing documents which would help to this end and by organizing workshops. A further aim was to stimulate cooperative research. Air pollution epidemiology investigates human effects of community air pollution by epidemiological methods. Epidemiology in general investigates the distribution and determinants of health-related states and events in populations. Diseases in which air pollution may play a significant role are mainly diseases of the respiratory system, for example chronic non-specific lung disease and lung cancer. Most diseases caused by air pollution can also be caused by other factors. Air pollution epidemiology is therefore specific in the expo variable (community air pollution) rather than in the type of health effects being studied. Air pollution epidemiology is beset with some specially challenging difficulties: ubiquitous exposure and as a consequence limited heterogeneity in exposure, low relative risks, few or specific health end points, and strong confounding. Further on the exposure-effect relationship is complicated by assumptions inherent to different study designs which relate to the exposure duration necessary to produce a certain health effect. In reports and workshops the concerted action tries to propose strategies to deal with these problems. (author)

  1. Road traffic noise, air pollution components and cardiovascular events

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kluizenaar, Y. de; Lenthe, F.J. van; Visschedijk, A.J.H.; Zandveld, P.Y.J; Miedema, H.M.E.; Mackenbach, J.P.

    2013-01-01

    Traffic noise and air pollution have been associated with cardiovascular health effects. Until date, only a limited amount of prospective epidemiological studies is available on long-term effects of road traffic noise and combustion related air pollution. This study investigates the relationship bet

  2. Perception of Air Pollution in a Developing Country

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bladen, W. A.; Karan, P. P.

    1976-01-01

    This study analyzed the perception of air pollution of people living in an industrial area of India. Although air pollution was perceived as a problem it was ranked less important than socio-economic problems. Differences in perception existed among the various cultural groups and among the residential zones. (MR)

  3. Air Pollution Manual, Part 1--Evaluation. Second Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giever, Paul M., Ed.

    Due to the great increase in technical knowledge and improvement in procedures, this second edition has been prepared to update existing information. Air pollution legislation is reviewed. Sources of air pollution are examined extensively. They are treated in terms of natural sources, man-made sources, metropolitan regional emissions, emission…

  4. The contribution of air pollution to heritage management policy strategies

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Drdácký, Miloš; Slížková, Zuzana

    Paris : ADEME, 2007. s. 16-17 [Joint workshop of the EU project Cult-Strat - The protection of cultural heritage from air pollution. 15.03.2007-16.03.2007, Paris /Louvre Palace/] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20710524 Keywords : architectural heritage * air pollution * conservation strategy Subject RIV: AL - Art, Architecture, Cultural Heritage

  5. Seasonal variations of air pollutant concentrations within Krasnoyarsk City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikhailuta, Sergey V; Taseiko, Olga V; Pitt, Anne; Lezhenin, Anatoly A; Zakharov, Yuri V

    2009-02-01

    This paper examines the significant differences in seasonal variations of criteria pollutant concentrations in various parts of a large urban area. These differences are caused by the microclimatic heterogeneity of the city and show the influence of breeze and orographic-type circulations on urban air pollution. The temperature heterogeneity of Krasnoyarsk territory during the winter leads to an increase of 150% in CO air pollution levels in the central part of city. During the summer the orographical heterogeneity of Krasnoyarsk City leads to increases of up to 400% in air pollution for different areas. PMID:18330715

  6. Outdoor air pollution, low birth weight, and prematurity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobak, M

    2000-02-01

    This study tested the hypothesis, suggested by several recent reports, that air pollution may increase the risk of adverse birth outcomes. This study analyzed all singleton live births registered by the Czech national birth register in 1991 in 67 districts where at least one pollutant was monitored in 1990-1991 (n = 108,173). Maternal exposures to sulfur dioxide (SO(2)), total suspended particles (TSP), and nitrous oxides (NO(x)) in each trimester of pregnancy were estimated as the arithmetic means of all daily measurements taken by all monitors in the district of birth of each infant. Odds ratios of low birth weight (pollutant. The effects on low birth weight and prematurity were marginally stronger for exposures in the first trimester, and were not attenuated at all by adjustment for socioeconomic factors or the month of birth. Adjusted odds ratios of low birth weight were 1.20 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.11-1.30] and 1.15 (CI, 1.07-1.24) for a 50 microg/m(3) increase in SO(2) and TSP, respectively, in the first trimester; adjusted odds ratios of prematurity were 1.27 (CI, 1.16-1.39) and 1.18 (CI, 1.05-1.31) for a 50 microg/m(3) increase in SO(2) and TSP, respectively, in the first trimester. Low gestational age accounted for the association between SO(2) and low birth weight. These findings provide further support for the hypothesis that air pollution can affect the outcome of pregnancy. PMID:10656859

  7. Modelling air pollution abatement in deep street canyons by means of air scrubbers

    OpenAIRE

    De Giovanni, Marina; Curci, Gabriele; Avveduto, Alessandro; Pace, Lorenzo; Salisburgo, Cesare Dari; Giammaria, Franco; Monaco, Alessio; SPANTO, Giuseppe; Tripodi, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    Deep street canyons are characterized by weak ventilation and recirculation of air. In such environment, the exposure to particulate matter and other air pollutants is enhanced, with a consequent worsening of both safety and health. The main solution adopted by the international community is aimed at the reduction of the emissions. In this theoretical study, we test a new solution: the removal of air pollutants close to their sources by a network of Air Pollution Abatement (APA) devices. The ...

  8. Relation between air pollution and allergic rhinitis in Taiwanese schoolchildren

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Yung-Ling

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent findings suggest that exposure to outdoor air pollutants may increase the risk of allergic rhinitis. The results of these studies are inconsistent, but warrant further attention. The objective of the study was to assess the effect of relation between exposure to urban air pollution and the prevalence allergic rhinitis among school children. Methods We conducted a nationwide cross-sectional study of 32,143 Taiwanese school children. We obtained routine air-pollution monitoring data for sulphur dioxide (SO2, nitrogen oxides (NOx, ozone (O3, carbon monoxide (CO, and particles with an aerodynamic diameter of 10 μm or less (PM10. A parent-administered questionnaire provided information on individual characteristics and indoor environments (response rate 92%. Municipal-level exposure was calculated using the mean of the 2000 monthly averages. The effect estimates were presented as odds ratios (ORs per 10 ppb change for SO2, NOx, and O3, 100 ppb change for CO, and 10 μg/m3 change for PM10. Results In two-stage hierarchical model adjusting for confounding, the prevalence of allergic rhinitis was significantly associated with SO2 (adjusted odds ratio (OR = 1.43, 95% confidence interval (CI: 1.25, 1.64, CO (aOR = 1.05, 95% CI: 1.04, 1.07, and NOx (aOR = 1.11, 95% CI: 1.08, 1.15. Contrary to our hypothesis, the prevalence of allergic rhinitis was weakly or not related to O3 (aOR = 1.05, 95% CI: 0.98, 1.12 and PM10 (aOR = 1.00, 95% CI: 0.99, 1.02. Conclusion Persistent exposure to NOx, CO, and SO2 may increase the prevalence of allergic rhinitis in children.

  9. The health effects of exercising in air pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giles, Luisa V; Koehle, Michael S

    2014-02-01

    The health benefits of exercise are well known. Many of the most accessible forms of exercise, such as walking, cycling, and running often occur outdoors. This means that exercising outdoors may increase exposure to urban air pollution. Regular exercise plays a key role in improving some of the physiologic mechanisms and health outcomes that air pollution exposure may exacerbate. This problem presents an interesting challenge of balancing the beneficial effects of exercise along with the detrimental effects of air pollution upon health. This article summarizes the pulmonary, cardiovascular, cognitive, and systemic health effects of exposure to particulate matter, ozone, and carbon monoxide during exercise. It also summarizes how air pollution exposure affects maximal oxygen consumption and exercise performance. This article highlights ways in which exercisers could mitigate the adverse health effects of air pollution exposure during exercise and draws attention to the potential importance of land use planning in selecting exercise facilities. PMID:24174304

  10. Air Pollution Exposure—A Trigger for Myocardial Infarction?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niklas Berglind

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The association between ambient air pollution exposure and hospitalization for cardiovascular events has been reported in several studies with conflicting results. A case-crossover design was used to investigate the effects of air pollution in 660 first-time myocardial infarction cases in Stockholm in 1993–1994, interviewed shortly after diagnosis using a standard protocol. Air pollution data came from central urban background monitors. No associations were observed between the risk for onset of myocardial infarction and two-hour or 24-hour air pollution exposure. No evidence of susceptible subgroups was found. This study provides no support that moderately elevated air pollution levels trigger first-time myocardial infarction.

  11. Valuing the health impacts from particulate air pollution in Tianjin

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou Yuan; Richard S.J. Tol

    2005-01-01

    Although China has made dramatic economic progress in recent years, air pollution continues to be the most visible environmental problem and imposes significant health and economic costs on society. Using data on pollutant concentration and population for 2003, this paper estimates the economic costs of health related effects due to particulate air pollution in urban areas of Tianjin, China. Exposure-response functions are used to quantify the impact on human health. Value of a statistical li...

  12. An approach to represent a combined exposure to air pollution

    OpenAIRE

    Mieczyslaw Szyszkowicz

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The objective of this study was to present a technique for estimating the effect of ambient air pollution mix on health outcomes. Material and Methods: We created a technique of indexing air pollution mix as a cause of the increased odds of health problems. As an illustrative example, we analyzed the impact of pollution on the frequency of emergency department (ED) visits due to colitis among young patients (age < 15 years, N = 11 110). Our technique involves 2 steps. First, we co...

  13. Air pollution and daily mortality in Inchon, Korea.

    OpenAIRE

    Hong, Y. C.; Leem, J. H.; Ha, E H

    1999-01-01

    The association between total daily mortality and air pollution was investigated for a 1-year period (January 1995 to December 1995) in Inchon, Korea. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relative importance of particulate and gaseous air pollution as predictors of daily mortality. Concentration of total suspended particulates (TSP), inhalable particles (PM10), and gaseous pollutants, such as sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, ozone, carbon monoxide, were measured daily during the stu...

  14. Olfactory dysfunction, olfactory bulb pathology and urban air pollution

    OpenAIRE

    Calderón-Garcidueñas, Lilian; Franco-Lira, Maricela; Henríquez-Roldán, Carlos; Osnaya, Norma; González-Maciel, Angelica; Reynoso-Robles, Rafael; Villarreal-Calderon, Rafael; Herritt, Lou; Brooks, Diane; Keefe, Sheyla; Palacios-Moreno, Juan; Villarreal-Calderon, Rodolfo; Torres-Jardón, Ricardo; Medina-Cortina, Humberto; Delgado-Chávez, Ricardo

    2009-01-01

    Mexico City (MC) residents are exposed to severe air pollution and exhibit olfactory bulb inflammation. We compared the olfactory function of individuals living under conditions of extreme air pollution to that of controls from a relatively clean environment and explore associations between olfaction scores, apolipoprotein E (APOE) status, and pollution exposure. The olfactory bulbs (OBs) of 35 MC and 9 controls 20.8 ± 8.5 y were assessed by light and electron microscopy. The University of Pe...

  15. Automotive air pollution : issues and options for developing countries

    OpenAIRE

    Faiz, Asif; Sinha, Kumares; Walsh, Michael; Varma, Amiy

    1990-01-01

    Air pollution constitutes an ominous threat to human health and welfare. Its adverse effects are pervasive and may be disaggregated at three levels: (a) local, confined to urban and industrial centers; (b) regional, pertaining to transboundary transport of pollutants; and (c) global, related to build up of greenhouse gases. These effects have been observed globally but the characteristics and scale of the air pollution problem in developing countries are not known; nor has the problem been re...

  16. China's international trade and air pollution in the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, J.; Pan, D.; S. J. Davis; Q. Zhang; He, K.; Wang, C; D. G. Streets; D. J. Wuebbles; Guan, D.

    2014-01-01

    China is the world’s largest emitter of anthropogenic air pollutants, and measurable amounts of Chinese pollution are transported via the atmosphere to other countries, including the United States. However, a large fraction of Chinese emissions is due to manufacture of goods for foreign consumption. Here, we analyze the impacts of trade-related Chinese air pollutant emissions on the global atmospheric environment, linking an economic-emission analysis and atmospheric chemical transport modeli...

  17. Workshop on future needs for regional air pollution strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report compiles the outcome of a workshop on future scientific and policy needs within the area of transboundary air pollution in Europe and North America. The workshop was held in Saltsjoebaden 10-12 April 2000 and organised in collaboration with the UN ECE Convention on Long Range Transboundary Air Pollution and the European Commission DG Environment. The workshop was held in the view of the recently signed protocol for the control of sulphur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and ammonia (Gothenburg Protocol, December 1999). Representatives of most subsidy bodies of the UN ECE CLRTAP were participating. The European Union and WMO were also represented. The workshop focused on regional environmental and health problems related to emissions of sulphur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and ammonia. It was held to identify the future measures needed after the recently signed Gothenburg Protocol and the proposal for an EU National Emission Ceilings Directive. These agreements will reduce the emission in Europe substantially. However, additional extensive control measures are necessary in order to reach the environmental goals in terms of critical loads etc. in all Europe. It is expected that revisions of the Gothenburg protocol as well as the EU directive will take place in abouth 5 years time. The next few years will therefore offer the possibility for improvement of the scientific knowledge in order to support future policy work. This is also the aim of the Clean Air for Europe (CAFE) programme of the European Commission which is planned to commence early in 2001. (EHS)

  18. Air Pollution in China: Mapping of Concentrations and Sources

    OpenAIRE

    Rohde, Robert A.; Muller, Richard A.

    2015-01-01

    China has recently made available hourly air pollution data from over 1500 sites, including airborne particulate matter (PM), SO2, NO2, and O3. We apply Kriging interpolation to four months of data to derive pollution maps for eastern China. Consistent with prior findings, the greatest pollution occurs in the east, but significant levels are widespread across northern and central China and are not limited to major cities or geologic basins. Sources of pollution are widespread, but are particu...

  19. A Novel Approach for Indoor Outdoor Air Pollution Monitoring

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammed Abdullah Hussein

    2012-01-01

    Current increase of atmospheric air pollution rates in developing and developed countries requires efforts to design more cost effective and affordable devices. In developed countries pollution monitoring chambers are available to aid the monitoring process. The culture and the society are aware of the polluted environment side effects and measures have been taken to reduce pollution amounts. Most developing countries lack these chambers and they do not have cost effective tools for measuring...

  20. Ambient air pollution and annoyance responses from pregnant women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llop, Sabrina; Ballester, Ferran; Estarlich, Marisa; Esplugues, Ana; Fernández-Patier, Rosalia; Ramón, Rosa; Marco, Alfredo; Aguirre, Amelia; Sunyer, Jordi; Iñiguez, Carmen; INMA-Valencia cohort

    ObjectivesTo describe the degree of annoyance caused by air pollution and noise in pregnant women in a birth cohort; to determine the modifying factors and their relation with exposure to ambient nitrogen dioxide (NO 2). MethodsThe study population was 855 pregnant women in Valencia, Spain. Annoyance caused by air pollution and noise, and explanatory factors were obtained from 786 pregnant women through a questionnaire. NO 2 levels were determined combining measurements at 93 points within the area of study and using geostatistical techniques (kriging). ResultsIn all 7.9% of the women reported high annoyance caused by air pollution and 13.1% high annoyance caused by noise. There was a significant difference in the degree of annoyance due to both air pollution and noise depending on the area where the women lived and their working status. The degree of annoyance correlated better with measured NO 2 at the municipality level (air pollution: r=0.53; noise: r=0.44) than at the individual level (air pollution and noise: r=0.21). On multivariate analysis, being a housewife, higher NO 2 levels and high traffic density were associated with higher degrees of annoyance. ConclusionsThere was a high percentage of women who perceived medium-high annoyance due to noise and air pollution. Annoyance caused by environmental pollutants could lead to some psychological effects, which impair the quality of life, or even physiological ones, which affect prenatal development.

  1. 75 FR 34673 - Approval of the Clean Air Act, Section 112(l), Authority for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Air...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-18

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 63 Approval of the Clean Air Act, Section 112(l), Authority for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Air Emission Standards for Halogenated Solvent Cleaning Machines: State of Rhode Island... Emissions from Organic Solvent Cleaning (``RI Regulation No. 36'') and Rhode Island Air Pollution...

  2. A semi-automated system for quantifying the oxidative potential of ambient particles in aqueous extracts using the dithiothreitol (DTT) assay: results from the Southeastern Center for Air Pollution and Epidemiology (SCAPE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, T.; Verma, V.; Guo, H.; King, L. E.; Edgerton, E. S.; Weber, R. J.

    2015-01-01

    A variety of methods are used to measure the capability of particulate matter (PM) to catalytically generate reactive oxygen species (ROS) in vivo, also defined as the aerosol oxidative potential. A widely used measure of aerosol oxidative potential is the dithiothreitol (DTT) assay, which monitors the depletion of DTT (a surrogate for cellular antioxidants) as catalyzed by the redox-active species in PM. However, a major constraint in the routine use of the DTT assay for integrating it with large-scale health studies is its labor-intensive and time-consuming protocol. To specifically address this concern, we have developed a semi-automated system for quantifying the oxidative potential of aerosol liquid extracts using the DTT assay. The system, capable of unattended analysis at one sample per hour, has a high analytical precision (coefficient of variation of 15% for positive control, 4% for ambient samples) and reasonably low limit of detection (0.31 nmol min-1). Comparison of the automated approach with the manual method conducted on ambient samples yielded good agreement (slope = 1.08 ± 0.12, r2 = 0.92, N = 9). The system was utilized for the Southeastern Center for Air Pollution & Epidemiology (SCAPE) to generate an extensive data set on DTT activity of ambient particles collected from contrasting environments (urban, roadside, and rural) in the southeastern US. We find that water-soluble PM2.5 DTT activity on a per-air-volume basis was spatially uniform and often well correlated with PM2.5 mass (r = 0.49 to 0.88), suggesting regional sources contributing to the PM oxidative potential in the southeastern US. The correlation may also suggest a mechanistic explanation (oxidative stress) for observed PM2.5 mass-health associations. The heterogeneity in the intrinsic DTT activity (per-PM-mass basis) across seasons indicates variability in the DTT activity associated with aerosols from sources that vary with season. Although developed for the DTT assay, the

  3. Biodiesel – a Real Solution for Reducing Air Pollution ?

    OpenAIRE

    ODAGIU Antonia; I. OROIAN; Sonia SANĂ; VÂRBAN D. I.; P. BURDUHOS

    2010-01-01

    Traffic emissions made up of high levels of nitrogen oxides, sulphur oxides, and particulate matter determineserious pollution in urban high agglomerations. One solution in reducing atmospheric pollution is represented byfinding not pollutant alternatives to classic fuel used for urban vehicles and one valuable solution is the replacement ofpollutant fossil fuels with biodiesel/biofuel. The reaction between glycerides and methanol, in presence of a catalystrepresents the basis of biodiesel fu...

  4. A technical overview of air pollution problems and its control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Air pollution is a well known phenomenon experienced in every day life. The air we breathe consist of gases and aerosol particles on which pollutants such as toxic elements and bacteria reside. These microscopic particles are transported to long distances from the source of origin the direction and magnitude of which depends upon the prevailing meteorological conditions. In order to assess the impact of air pollution, systematic studies are carried out which consist of: 1) sampling of air, 2) measurement of pollutants, 3) identification of pollutant source and 4) adoption of control methods. Each of these topics are fairly exhaustive and their understanding requires accurate scientific approach. An overview of these topic has been presented in this talk. Air samples are best collected by filtering air through suitable medium and analyses are carried out by diverse analytical techniques. Source identifications is a very important step which is done either by emission modeling or receptor modeling techniques. A general survey of these techniques, especially receptor modeling is presented in this talk. The control of air pollution is carried out by using carried devices and the processes especially developed for this purpose. Air pollution has given rise to a number of global problems such as depletion of stratospheric ozone, acid rain and greenhouse effect, which are being tackled on international scale. These problems have been discussed very briefly and a summary of international efforts has been presented. (author)

  5. Place-Based Stressors Associated with Industry and Air Pollution

    OpenAIRE

    Kondo, Michelle C.; Gross-Davis, Carol Ann; May, Katlyn; Davis, Lauren O.; Johnson, Tyiesha; Mallard, Mable; Gabbadon, Alice; Sherrod, Claudia; Branas, Charles C.

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to air pollution and its sources is increasingly viewed as a psychosocial stress, however its nature is not understood. This article explores the role of the concept of place on risk perception and community stress within data collected from eight focus groups in Philadelphia, USA. Discussions focused on air pollution, a nearby oil refinery, health, and a proposal for air monitoring. We present a framework of place-based elements of risk perception that includes place identity, stigm...

  6. Public attitudes to air pollution from road vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Ian D. Williams

    1994-01-01

    An assessment of the environmental effects of any new road scheme is currently recommended by the Department of Transport, but the existing appraisal does not include an evaluation of public nuisance from vehicle-derived air pollution. This research project has investigated the subjective nuisance effects of air pollution from road traffic on the public through the simultaneous measurement of public attitudes towards vehicle-generated nuisance and air quality in residential and commercial are...

  7. Chemical exposure-response relationship between air pollutants and reactive oxygen species in the human respiratory tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakey, Pascale S J; Berkemeier, Thomas; Tong, Haijie; Arangio, Andrea M; Lucas, Kurt; Pöschl, Ulrich; Shiraiwa, Manabu

    2016-01-01

    Air pollution can cause oxidative stress and adverse health effects such as asthma and other respiratory diseases, but the underlying chemical processes are not well characterized. Here we present chemical exposure-response relations between ambient concentrations of air pollutants and the production rates and concentrations of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the epithelial lining fluid (ELF) of the human respiratory tract. In highly polluted environments, fine particulate matter (PM2.5) containing redox-active transition metals, quinones, and secondary organic aerosols can increase ROS concentrations in the ELF to levels characteristic for respiratory diseases. Ambient ozone readily saturates the ELF and can enhance oxidative stress by depleting antioxidants and surfactants. Chemical exposure-response relations provide a quantitative basis for assessing the relative importance of specific air pollutants in different regions of the world, showing that aerosol-induced epithelial ROS levels in polluted megacity air can be several orders of magnitude higher than in pristine rainforest air. PMID:27605301

  8. Chemical exposure-response relationship between air pollutants and reactive oxygen species in the human respiratory tract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakey, Pascale S. J.; Berkemeier, Thomas; Tong, Haijie; Arangio, Andrea M.; Lucas, Kurt; Pöschl, Ulrich; Shiraiwa, Manabu

    2016-01-01

    Air pollution can cause oxidative stress and adverse health effects such as asthma and other respiratory diseases, but the underlying chemical processes are not well characterized. Here we present chemical exposure-response relations between ambient concentrations of air pollutants and the production rates and concentrations of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the epithelial lining fluid (ELF) of the human respiratory tract. In highly polluted environments, fine particulate matter (PM2.5) containing redox-active transition metals, quinones, and secondary organic aerosols can increase ROS concentrations in the ELF to levels characteristic for respiratory diseases. Ambient ozone readily saturates the ELF and can enhance oxidative stress by depleting antioxidants and surfactants. Chemical exposure-response relations provide a quantitative basis for assessing the relative importance of specific air pollutants in different regions of the world, showing that aerosol-induced epithelial ROS levels in polluted megacity air can be several orders of magnitude higher than in pristine rainforest air. PMID:27605301

  9. A study of air pollutants and acute asthma exacerbations in urban areas: status report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Details of a study to investigate the possible roles of a variety of hazardous air pollutants on asthma exacerbations at ambient air concentrations. - A study to try to better understand the interactions between various air contaminants and acute asthma exacerbations is described. The study evaluates temporal associations between a panel of air contaminants and acute asthmatic exacerbations as measured by emergency room visits for asthma in communities in the Bronx and Manhattan in New York City (NYC). In addition, ambient levels of various air pollutants in two NYC communities are being compared. Almost 2 years of daily data have been collected for most of the air contaminants to be investigated. The air contaminants measured include gaseous compounds (ozone, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, aldehydes, nitrous acid, nitric acid, hydrochloric acid and ammonia), particulate matter components (metals, elemental and organic carbon, sulfate, hydrogen ion, pollen, mold spores and particle mass and number)

  10. An Analysis of Air Pollution in Makkah - a View Point of Source Identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turki M. Habeebullah

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Makkah is one of the busiest cities in Saudi Arabia and remains busy all year around, especially during the season of Hajj and the month of Ramadan when millions of people visit this city. This emphasizes the importance of clean air and of understanding the sources of various air pollutants, which is vital for the management and advanced modeling of air pollution. This study intends to identify the major sources of air pollutants in Makkah, near the Holy Mosque (Al-Haram using a graphical approach. Air pollutants considered in this study are nitrogen oxides (NOx, nitrogen dioxide (NO2, nitric oxide (NO, carbon monoxide (CO, sulphur dioxide (SO2, ozone (O3 and particulate matter with aero-dynamic diameter of 10 um or less (PM10. Polar plots, time variation plots and correlation analysis are used to analyse the data and identify the major sources of emissions. Most of the pollutants demonstrate high concentrations during the morning traffic peak hours, suggesting road traffic as the main source of emission. The main sources of pollutant emissions identified in Makkahwere road traffic, re-suspended and windblown dust and sand particles. Further investigation on detailedsource apportionment is required, which is part of the ongoing project.

  11. A Novel Approach for Indoor Outdoor Air Pollution Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Abdullah Hussein

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Current increase of atmospheric air pollution rates in developing and developed countries requires efforts to design more cost effective and affordable devices. In developed countries pollution monitoring chambers are available to aid the monitoring process. The culture and the society are aware of the polluted environment side effects and measures have been taken to reduce pollution amounts. Most developing countries lack these chambers and they do not have cost effective tools for measuring pollution amounts for indoor and outdoor environments. Here, an effort has been made to modify low cost available pollution devices to work for indoor and outdoor pollution monitoring and a simple cost effective approach has been carried out. Indoor carbon monoxide gas level monitoring using cheap alarms sensor, supported by a car oxygen sensor for oxygen gas level monitoring. The same approach is used for outdoor gas pollution monitoring. A computer program has been designed to facilitate computer based monitoring process and logging of pollution data.

  12. Mixed deterministic statistical modelling of regional ozone air pollution

    KAUST Repository

    Kalenderski, Stoitchko Dimitrov

    2011-03-17

    We develop a physically motivated statistical model for regional ozone air pollution by separating the ground-level pollutant concentration field into three components, namely: transport, local production and large-scale mean trend mostly dominated by emission rates. The model is novel in the field of environmental spatial statistics in that it is a combined deterministic-statistical model, which gives a new perspective to the modelling of air pollution. The model is presented in a Bayesian hierarchical formalism, and explicitly accounts for advection of pollutants, using the advection equation. We apply the model to a specific case of regional ozone pollution-the Lower Fraser valley of British Columbia, Canada. As a predictive tool, we demonstrate that the model vastly outperforms existing, simpler modelling approaches. Our study highlights the importance of simultaneously considering different aspects of an air pollution problem as well as taking into account the physical bases that govern the processes of interest. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd..

  13. 78 FR 12267 - Revision of Air Quality Implementation Plan; California; Placer County Air Pollution Control...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-22

    ... Pollution Control District and Feather River Air Quality Management District; Stationary Source Permits... County Air Pollution Control District (PCAPCD) and Feather River Air Quality Management District (FRAQMD... in a previous EPA rulemaking (76 FR 44809, July 27, 2011). DATES: Any comments must arrive by...

  14. Air pollution reduction and control in south asia need for a regional agreement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With increasing urbanization and economic growth, air pollution is becoming an urgent concern in South Asia. The objective of this study is to look into and discuss the socioeconomic situation of South Asia, the existing situation of air pollution in the countries of the region, resulting health impacts of air pollution on the population and the responses, if any, of national governments to combat this problem. With the increase in industrial activity and exponential growth in number of vehicles and population, the contribution of each South Asian country to the regional air pollution will increase over time. As evident from the review of the available country data, sulfur dioxides, nitrogen oxides and particulate matter (PM) emissions have been rising steadily over past few decades. The air pollutants can be transported across state and national boundaries, therefore, pollutants produced by one country can, as well, have adverse impacts on the environment and public health of neighboring countries. It has been reported by the country national health authorities that air pollution has pushed respiratory diseases up in the ranks as the leading cause of hospitalization. To minimize the socio-economic and health impacts, resulting from air pollution, South Asian states have developed environmental legal and regulatory frameworks in their respective countries. However, the implementation of country national environmental action plan has been limited due to lack of financial resources and technical know-how. Recommendations have been made for policy actions, including a legally binding agreement for South Asia (LBA-SA), for strengthening the framework for air pollution reduction at regional and national levels in South Asia. (author)

  15. The air pollution index system in Hong Kong

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, F.Y.P.; Gervat, G.P. [Hong Kong Government, Wanchai (Hong Kong). Environmental Protection Dept.

    1995-12-31

    The Hong Kong Environmental Protection Department (EPD) is currently operating an air quality monitoring network in the territory. There are nine monitoring stations, each with air quality monitoring equipment, meteorological instruments and a data logger. Five minute averaged data are transmitted through telephone lines to the central computer at the EPD Air Laboratory and are also stored in the data logger on site, as backup. At present, the EPD releases its air quality measurements to the public via monthly and special press releases, and annual reports. However, as public awareness of air pollution problems has increased, there has been an urgent need for timely and simpler information about air pollution levels. The development and operation of an Air Pollution Index (API) system has addressed that need. This presentation discusses the API computation, the information and advice released to the general public and how they can access the API information. Some API results are also presented. (author)

  16. A semi-automated system for quantifying the oxidative potential of ambient particles in aqueous extracts using the dithiothreitol (DTT assay: results from the Southeastern Center for Air Pollution and Epidemiology (SCAPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Fang

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available A variety of methods are used to measure the capability of particulate matter (PM to catalytically generate reactive oxygen species (ROS in vivo, also defined as the aerosol oxidative potential. A widely used measure of aerosol oxidative potential is the dithiothreitol (DTT assay, which monitors the depletion of DTT (a surrogate for cellular antioxidants as catalyzed by the redox-active species in PM. However, a major constraint in the routine use of the DTT assay for integrating it with the large-scale health studies is its labor-intensive and time-consuming protocol. To specifically address this concern, we have developed a semi-automated system for quantifying the oxidative potential of aerosol liquid extracts using the DTT assay. The system, capable of unattended analysis at one sample per hour, has a high analytical precision (Coefficient of Variation of 12% for standards, 4% for ambient samples, and reasonably low limit of detection (0.31 nmol min−1. Comparison of the automated approach with the manual method conducted on ambient samples yielded good agreement (slope = 1.08 ± 0.12, r2 = 0.92, N = 9. The system was utilized for the Southeastern Center for Air Pollution and Epidemiology (SCAPE to generate an extensive data set on DTT activity of ambient particles collected from contrasting environments (urban, road-side, and rural in the southeastern US. We find that water-soluble PM2.5 DTT activity on a per air volume basis was spatially uniform and often well correlated with PM2.5 mass (r = 0.49 to 0.88, suggesting regional sources contributing to the PM oxidative potential in southeast US. However, the greater heterogeneity in the intrinsic DTT activity (per PM mass basis across seasons indicates variability in the DTT activity associated with aerosols from sources that vary with season. Although developed for the DTT assay, the instrument can also be used to determine oxidative potential with other acellular assays.

  17. Nitrous oxide pollution from aircraft to increase by 2050

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Atreyee

    2012-09-01

    The transportation industry is not only one of the biggest sources of air pollution and a significant player in greenhouse gas-induced global warming, but, as a new study shows, the industry could also be responsible for episodes of ozone (O3 ) pollution, particularly over the United States and northern Europe. Combustion of fuel in cars, shipping vessels, and low-flying aircraft produce nitrogen oxides (NOx), which not only decrease the lifetime of greenhouse gases such as methane but also react with other molecules in the atmosphere to form tropospheric O3, another, more lethal, air pollutant. Hauglustaine and Koff used a global three-dimensional chemistry-climate model to investigate how different components of the transportation industry—cars, ships, and low-flying aircraft—would contribute to NOx pollution over the next few decades under several projected emission scenarios. They found that as road transportation stagnates or even declines due to stricter regulations and congestion, NOx emissions from cars will decrease over time. However, aircraft will increase in number and could contribute between 25% and 48% of NOx emissions, which will be most severe over the United States and Europe—two regions with the highest growth rate in commercial aviation.

  18. Long-term Changes in Extreme Air Pollution Meteorology and the Implications for Air Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Pei; Wu, Shiliang

    2016-03-01

    Extreme air pollution meteorological events, such as heat waves, temperature inversions and atmospheric stagnation episodes, can significantly affect air quality. Based on observational data, we have analyzed the long-term evolution of extreme air pollution meteorology on the global scale and their potential impacts on air quality, especially the high pollution episodes. We have identified significant increasing trends for the occurrences of extreme air pollution meteorological events in the past six decades, especially over the continental regions. Statistical analysis combining air quality data and meteorological data further indicates strong sensitivities of air quality (including both average air pollutant concentrations and high pollution episodes) to extreme meteorological events. For example, we find that in the United States the probability of severe ozone pollution when there are heat waves could be up to seven times of the average probability during summertime, while temperature inversions in wintertime could enhance the probability of severe particulate matter pollution by more than a factor of two. We have also identified significant seasonal and spatial variations in the sensitivity of air quality to extreme air pollution meteorology.

  19. Air Pollution in Siberia. A Volume and Risk-Weighted Analysis of a Siberian Pollution Database

    OpenAIRE

    Warner-Merl, N.K.

    1998-01-01

    Air pollution from industrial centers in Siberia pose observable environmental threats. Siberian ecosystems have begun to show stress from the accumulation of pollution depositions that come from cities and industrial plants. While some uncertainty exists as to the long-term effects of air pollution upon forests, in measurable terms such as human mortality and incidence of disease, forest species decline or forest dieback, observable impacts indicate that there is a cause for concern. Industr...

  20. Development of hierarchically porous cobalt oxide for enhanced photo-oxidation of indoor pollutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porous cobalt oxide was successfully prepared by precipitation of cobalt hydroxide followed by low temperature thermal decomposition. The morphologies of the resultant oxides remained as the corresponding hydroxides, although the morphology of cobalt hydroxides was greatly influenced by the precursor salts. The cobalt oxides with average crystal size less than 20 nm were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscope, BET surface area, and XPS analysis. The photocatalytic activities of the various cobalt oxides morphologies were investigated by comparing the photo-degradation of acetaldehyde under simulated solar illumination. Relative to their low order structures and reference titania samples, the hierarchical nanostructures of cobalt oxide showed excellent abilities to rapidly degrade acetaldehyde, a model air pollutant. This was attributed to the unique nature of these hierarchical cobalt oxide nanoassemblies, which contained many catalytically active reaction sites and open pores

  1. 76 FR 41745 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-15

    ... Air Pollution Control District AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Proposed rule... Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District portion of the California State Implementation Plan (SIP... Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District (SJVUAPCD) Rule 4682, Polystyrene, Polyethylene,...

  2. 40 CFR Table 7 to Subpart Hhhhh of... - Partially Soluble Hazardous Air Pollutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Pollutants 7 Table 7 to Subpart HHHHH of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES (CONTINUED) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Miscellaneous...

  3. 40 CFR Table 8 to Subpart Ffff of... - Partially Soluble Hazardous Air Pollutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Pollutants 8 Table 8 to Subpart FFFF of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Miscellaneous Organic...

  4. Review of Air Exchange Rate Models for Air Pollution Exposure Assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    A critical aspect of air pollution exposure assessments is estimation of the air exchange rate (AER) for various buildings, where people spend their time. The AER, which is rate the exchange of indoor air with outdoor air, is an important determinant for entry of outdoor air pol...

  5. A Wireless Sensor Network Air Pollution Monitoring System

    CERN Document Server

    Khedo, Kavi K; Mungur, Avinash; Mauritius, University of; Mauritius,; 10.5121/ijwmn.2010.2203

    2010-01-01

    Sensor networks are currently an active research area mainly due to the potential of their applications. In this paper we investigate the use of Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) for air pollution monitoring in Mauritius. With the fast growing industrial activities on the island, the problem of air pollution is becoming a major concern for the health of the population. We proposed an innovative system named Wireless Sensor Network Air Pollution Monitoring System (WAPMS) to monitor air pollution in Mauritius through the use of wireless sensors deployed in huge numbers around the island. The proposed system makes use of an Air Quality Index (AQI) which is presently not available in Mauritius. In order to improve the efficiency of WAPMS, we have designed and implemented a new data aggregation algorithm named Recursive Converging Quartiles (RCQ). The algorithm is used to merge data to eliminate duplicates, filter out invalid readings and summarise them into a simpler form which significantly reduce the amount of dat...

  6. Real-Time Air Pollutants Rendering based on Image Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demin Wang

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new method for realistic real-time rendering of air pollutants based on image processing. The air pollutants’ variable density can create many shapes of mist what can add a realistic environment to virtual scene. In order to achieve a realistic effect, we further enhance thus obtained air pollution data getting from monitor in spatial domain. In the proposed method we map the densities of air pollutants to different gray levels, and visualize them by blending those gray levels with background images. The proposed method can also visualize large-scale air pollution data from different viewpoints in real-time and provide the resulting image with any resolution theoretically, which is very important and favorable for the Internet transmission.

  7. Air pollution, environmental tobacco smoke, radon, and lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The health of populations in industrialized societies has been affected for many years by ambient air pollutants presenting a threat of chronic bronchitis and lung cancer. In the 1980s indoor pollutants received much needed investigation to assess their hazards to health. Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke and radon is now the subject of much research and concern. This review attempts to put some perspective on lung cancer that is attributable to lifetime exposure to airborne pollutants. The view is expressed that air pollution control authorities have played and are playing a major role in health improvement

  8. Air pollution and 2003 summertime. Situation and consequences; Pollution de l'air et canicule 2003. Bilan et consequences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elichegaray, Ch.; Colosio, J.; Bouallala, S. [Agence de l' Environnement et de la Maitrise de l' Energie, ADEME, 75 - Paris (France); Manach, J. [Meteo France, 75 - Paris (France); Della Massa, J.P. [ORAMIP, 31 - Colomiers (France); Savanne, D. [AIRFOBEP, 13 - Martigues (France); Fiala, J. [European Environment Agency, Copenhagen (Denmark)

    2004-03-15

    Ground level ozone is one of the air pollutants of most concern in Europe since concentrations in the lower atmosphere continue to exceed thresholds established in Eu legislation to protect human health and prevent damage to ecosystems, agricultural crops and materials. While the climatic conditions of summer 2003 were exceptional, the problem of ozone pollution is a recurrent phenomenon. Tropospheric ozone is the main product of complex photochemical processes in the lower atmosphere involving oxides of nitrogen and volatile organic compounds as precursors of ozone formation. Ozone is a strong photochemical oxidant. In elevated concentrations it causes serious health problems and damage to ecosystems, agricultural crops and materials. Weather conditions during the first half of August 2003, characterized by exceptionally high temperatures even at night and covering large parts of southern, western and central Europe, caused a long lasting episode with elevated ozone concentration in these areas. The exceptionally long lasting period of high ozone concentrations exceeding 180 micrograms/m{sup 3} was reported by all except the Northern European countries. During this episode ozone concentrations exceeded at a large number of sites in Belgium, northern France and north western germany 240 micrograms/m{sup 3}. The threshold value for warning the public (1- hour concentration > 360 mg/m{sup 3}) was exceeded in August at one site in France and in Italy and Romania in june. most affected areas were those with the highest density of ozone precursor emissions from the traffic and industrial production. (N.C.)

  9. Simulation and empirical modeling of a Design of Cyclonic separator to combat air pollution

    OpenAIRE

    P. SYEDA ARSHI BANU; P. SYEDA NOORI BANU,

    2011-01-01

    In all the countries, the cause of air pollution are several, one of the major contributing factors being automobiles’ exhaust. Today, there are millions of vehicles allover the world. There has been a rapid increase in vehicle numbers in the world. The import of technologies and transport policy we pursued, are the most important reasons for this development. The main pollutant from internal combustion engines are carbondioxide(CO2), unburned hydrocarbons(UHC), oxides if nitrogen(NOX), lead ...

  10. Letter to the Editor: Applications Air Q Model on Estimate Health Effects Exposure to Air Pollutants

    OpenAIRE

    , Gholamreza Goudarzi; Sahar Geravandi; Elaheh Jame Porazmey; Mohammad Javad Mohammadi

    2016-01-01

    Epidemiologic studies in worldwide have measured increases in mortality and morbidity associated with air pollution (1-3). Quantifying the effects of air pollution on the human health in urban area causes an increasingly critical component in policy discussion (4-6). Air Q model was proved to be a valid and reliable tool to predicts health effects related to criteria  pollutants (particulate matter (PM), ozone (O3), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), sulfur dioxide (SO2), and carbon monoxide (CO)),...

  11. Controlled clinical studies of air pollutant exposure: evaluating scientific information in relation to air quality standards.

    OpenAIRE

    Hackney, J D; Linn, W S

    1983-01-01

    In controlled clinical studies, volunteers are deliberately exposed to specific air pollutants under conditions simulating ambient exposures, and health-related responses are documented. Studies of the health risks of air pollution need to be scientifically rigorous and clearly relevant to "real-world" pollution exposures. Their results should be confirmed by independent replication if they are to be used as a basis for air quality regulations. Well-designed controlled clinical studies readil...

  12. The impact of periodic air pollution peaks in Beijing on air quality governance in China

    OpenAIRE

    Schwabe, Julian; Hassler, Markus

    2016-01-01

    During the month of January 2013, Beijing suffered air pollution of unprecedented intensity. This event, which was named “airpocalypse” in international media, was followed by vibrant media reporting and public discussion on the topic and prompted the central government to issue unusually ambitious measures to contain air pollution more effectively. This paper explores the impact of the airpocalypse on China’s air quality governance by conducting a qualitative analysis of pollution control po...

  13. Recognizing the impact of ambient air pollution on skin health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancebo, S E; Wang, S Q

    2015-12-01

    Ambient air pollution is a known public health hazard that negatively impacts non-cutaneous organs; however, our knowledge regarding the effects on skin remains limited. Current scientific evidence suggests there are four mechanisms by which ambient air pollutants cause adverse effects on skin health: (i) generation of free radicals, (ii) induction of inflammatory cascade and subsequent impairment of skin barrier, (iii) activation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) and (iv) alterations to skin microflora. In this review, we provide a comprehensive overview on ambient air pollutants and their relevant sources, and highlight current evidence of the effects on skin. PMID:26289769

  14. Air pollution and the respiration of certain tree species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makedonska, T.; Slavova, V.

    1973-01-01

    These studies are conducted to compare the effects of air pollution on horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum L.), London plane (Platanus acerifolia Milld.) ash-leaved maple (Acer negundo L.) and European birch (Betula alba L.). With increasing concentrations of air pollution these species react by increasing the intensity of respiration, as in separate cases the increase reaches up to 40%. Most sensitive to air pollution is the horse chestnut, followed by birch and ash-leaved maple; least sensitive is London plane. With respect to gas resistance birch and ash-leaved maple rank close to the horse chestnut but are more resistant than the horse chestnut and less sensitive than London plane.

  15. Experimental technique of calibration of symmetrical air pollution models

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    P Kumar

    2005-10-01

    Based on the inherent property of symmetry of air pollution models,a Symmetrical Air Pollution Model Index (SAPMI)has been developed to calibrate the accuracy of predictions made by such models,where the initial quantity of release at the source is not known.For exact prediction the value of SAPMI should be equal to 1.If the predicted values are overestimating then SAPMI is > 1and if it is underestimating then SAPMI is < 1.Specific design for the layout of receptors has been suggested as a requirement for the calibration experiments.SAPMI is applicable for all variations of symmetrical air pollution dispersion models.

  16. Methodology for Valuing the Health Impacts of Air Pollution

    OpenAIRE

    Narain, Urvashi; Sall, Chris

    2016-01-01

    This report is meant to inform a joint publication by the World Bank and Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation (IHME) on the economic costs of air pollution. Air pollution is a global challenge and one that is acutely felt in developing countries. Illnesses caused by ambient and household air pollution claim the lives of nearly 6 million people each year. The goal of the joint World Bank-IHME report is to raise awareness about the severity of this challenge and to strengthen the busi...

  17. Aerosol and air pollution study by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thermal neutron activation analysis technique was used in air pollution and aerosol elemental content and size distribution investigations. Air pollution samples were collected on Whatman 41 paper filters which were activated along with known quantities of standards in a flux of approximately 1013 nxcm-2xs-1. The activity of the samples was measured with a 40 cm3 Ge(Li) detector and analyzed with the computer program JANE, which identified the isotopes and found their quantities by normalization with the standard measurement results. Correlation between the various elements, in particular those belonging to dust from the desert and those considered typical urban air pollution, is investigated. (author)

  18. Air Pollution in Europe; Pollution de l'air en Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-09-01

    In spite of improvements relative to air pollution, there is still much to do. more than thirty millions of European people are exposed to sulfur dioxide concentrations superior to guide values for health fixed by European Union, 20% of ecosystems in Europe are above the critical charges in the area of acidification and 33% concern eutrophication. Relative to the carbon dioxide, it is not sure that European Union realize the objective to stabilize the emissions for the year 2000 at the level of the year 1990, because of the increasing of automobile traffic and the energy consumption. Four subjects are presented: the climatic change, acidification and eutrophication, tropospheric ozone and air quality. (N.C.)

  19. Climate change and air pollution jointly creating nightmare for tourism industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajjad, Faiza; Noreen, Umara; Zaman, Khalid

    2014-11-01

    The objective of the study is to examine the long-run and causal relationship between climate change (i.e., greenhouse gas emissions, hydrofluorocarbons, per fluorocarbons, and sulfur hexafluoride), air pollution (i.e., methane emissions, nitrous oxide emissions, and carbon dioxide emissions), and tourism development indicators (i.e., international tourism receipts, international tourism expenditures, natural resource depletion, and net forest depletion) in the World's largest regions. The aggregate data is used for robust analysis in the South Asia, the Middle East and North Africa, sub-Saharan Africa, and East Asia and the Pacific regions, over a period of 1975-2012. The results show that climatic factors and air pollution have a negative impact on tourism indicators in the form of deforestation and natural resource depletion. The impact is evident, as we have seen the systematic eroding of tourism industry, due to severe changes in climate and increasing strain of air pollution. There are several channels of cause-effect relationship between the climatic factors, air pollution, and tourism indicators in the World's region. The study confirms the unidirectional, bidirectional, and causality independent relationship between climatic factors, air pollution, and tourism indicators in the World. It is conclusive that tourism industry is facing all time bigger challenges of reduce investment, less resources, and minor importance from the government agencies because of the two broad challenges, i.e., climate change and air pollution, putting them in a dismal state. PMID:24938808

  20. Phytometer of buckwheat as an indicator of air pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsuno, Y.; Sato, T.; Kiyasu, M.

    1976-03-01

    It is well known that the growth of buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench) is resistant to inferior environmental conditions, but very sensitive to a polluted atmosphere. It is possible that buckwheat has favorable characteristics as phytometer for measuring air pollution. Young plants of buckwheat were grown in small cups in a water culture. Plants having three leaves were transferred to different places, both in an air polluted area and in an un-polluted area, for a period of 7 days, in order to compare the Relative Growth Rate (RGR) at their setting places. The buckwheat phytometer for measuring air pollution, utilized the following samples for statistical significance: 20 plants with 4 cups per one place according to their coefficient of variance of dry matter weight per pot. It was observed that the RGR showed the values of 20-27% per day in an un-polluted place and of 12-18% per day in a polluted place. The results of growth analysis based on dry matter increment after placement showed that the RGR depression was mainly owing to a decrease in the Net Assimilation Rate and the Leaf Area Ratio was not sensitive for a polluted atmosphere. The Net Assimilation rate depends on photosynthetic activity of leaves, therefore, the NAR depression may be due to an inhibition of photosynthesis by polluted air. 5 references, 11 figures, 8 tables.

  1. Diurnal, weekly and monthly spatial variations of air pollutants and air quality of Beijing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei; Tang, Hongzhao; Zhao, Haimeng

    2015-10-01

    Under the National Ambient Air Quality Standard released in 2012 (NAAQS-2012), Beijing began to publicize hourly Air Quality Index as well as real time concentrations of 6 pollutants in its web platform to provide detailed information for air quality assessment from 2013. In this study, hourly air quality monitoring data from May 2014 to April 2015 were collected for all 35 monitoring stations in Beijing to analyze the temporal and spatial variations of air pollutants and air quality. It is found that in spatial pattern, the air qualities in southern and northern Beijing are totally different. The association between heavy pollution concentrations and wind situations suggested that neighboring area's air quality has an important role in the air quality of Beijing combining with air quality attainment rates in all 35 monitoring stations and northern China. For temporal variations, late night and early morning are the most polluted time while afternoon is the least polluted time for all pollutants except O3 with most polluted time in afternoon. Summer time in Beijing has the best air quality while winter time has the worst air quality coinciding with the heating season in the winter.

  2. Air pollution and venous thrombosis: a meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Liang; Wang, Qing-Yun; Cheng, Zhi-Peng; Hu, Bei; Liu, Jing-Di; Hu, Yu

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to air pollution has been linked to cardiovascular and respiratory disorders. However, the effect of air pollution on venous thrombotic disorders is uncertain. We performed a meta-analysis to assess the association between air pollution and venous thrombosis. PubMed, Embase, EBM Reviews, Healthstar, Global Health, Nursing Database, and Web of Science were searched for citations on air pollutants (carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, ozone, and particulate matters) and venous thrombosis. Using a random-effects model, overall risk estimates were derived for each increment of 10 μg/m3 of pollutant concentration. Of the 485 in-depth reviewed studies, 8 citations, involving approximately 700,000 events, fulfilled the inclusion criteria. All the main air pollutants analyzed were not associated with an increased risk of venous thrombosis (OR = 1.005, 95% CI = 0.998–1.012 for PM2.5; OR = 0.995, 95% CI = 0.984–1.007 for PM10; OR = 1.006, 95% CI = 0.994–1.019 for NO2). Based on exposure period and thrombosis location, additional subgroup analyses provided results comparable with those of the overall analyses. There was no evidence of publication bias. Therefore, this meta analysis does not suggest the possible role of air pollution as risk factor for venous thrombosis in general population. PMID:27600652

  3. Air pollution and venous thrombosis: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Liang; Wang, Qing-Yun; Cheng, Zhi-Peng; Hu, Bei; Liu, Jing-Di; Hu, Yu

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to air pollution has been linked to cardiovascular and respiratory disorders. However, the effect of air pollution on venous thrombotic disorders is uncertain. We performed a meta-analysis to assess the association between air pollution and venous thrombosis. PubMed, Embase, EBM Reviews, Healthstar, Global Health, Nursing Database, and Web of Science were searched for citations on air pollutants (carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, ozone, and particulate matters) and venous thrombosis. Using a random-effects model, overall risk estimates were derived for each increment of 10 μg/m(3) of pollutant concentration. Of the 485 in-depth reviewed studies, 8 citations, involving approximately 700,000 events, fulfilled the inclusion criteria. All the main air pollutants analyzed were not associated with an increased risk of venous thrombosis (OR = 1.005, 95% CI = 0.998-1.012 for PM2.5; OR = 0.995, 95% CI = 0.984-1.007 for PM10; OR = 1.006, 95% CI = 0.994-1.019 for NO2). Based on exposure period and thrombosis location, additional subgroup analyses provided results comparable with those of the overall analyses. There was no evidence of publication bias. Therefore, this meta analysis does not suggest the possible role of air pollution as risk factor for venous thrombosis in general population. PMID:27600652

  4. Economic instruments for air pollution control in Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In recent years, traditional forms of regulation have been combined with economic instruments in Swedish air pollution control policy. Major economic incentives are provided by the sulfur tax, the nitrogen oxides charge, and the environmental classification of diesel fuels. Both economic instruments and administrative regulations have played a part in reducing emissions, but the new economic instruments must be considered to have been the major driving force behind the reductions. The average sulfur content of heavy fuel oil has decreased to approximately 0.4% while that of almost all gas oil is now less than 0.1%. Total nitrogen oxides emissions from boilers liable to the nitrogen oxides charge have decreased by about 40%. The tax on diesel fuels is differentiated to stimulate the use of environmentally better grades of fuel, which are taxes at a lower rate than the standard grade. As a result, diesel fuels with better specifications than the standard grade have captured a large fraction - about 75% - if diesel sales in only a few years. 12 refs., 5 tabs

  5. Air pollution and epigenetics: effects on SP-A and innate host defence in the lung.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silveyra, Patricia; Floros, Joanna

    2012-01-01

    An appropriate immune and inflammatory response is key to defend against harmful agents present in the environment, such as pathogens, allergens and inhaled pollutants, including ozone and particulate matter. Air pollution is a serious public health concern worldwide, and cumulative evidence has revealed that air pollutants contribute to epigenetic variation in several genes, and this in turn can contribute to disease susceptibility. Several groups of experts have recently reviewed findings on epigenetics and air pollution [1-6]. Surfactant proteins play a central role in pulmonary host defence by mediating pathogen clearance, modulating allergic responses and facilitating the resolution of lung inflammation. Recent evidence indicates that surfactant proteins are subject to epigenetic regulation under hypoxia and other conditions. Oxidative stress caused by ozone, and exposure to particulate matter have been shown to affect the expression of surfactant protein A (SP-A), an important lung host defence molecule, as well as alter its functions. In this review, we discuss recent findings in the fields of epigenetics and air pollution effects on innate immunity, with the focus on SP-A, and the human SP-A variants in particular. Their function may be differentially affected by pollutants and specifically by ozone-induced oxidative stress, and this in turn may differentially affect susceptibility to lung disease. PMID:22553125

  6. STIMULATION OF OXIDANT PRODUCTION IN ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES BY POLLUTANT AND LATEX PARTICLES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Air pollutant dusts as well as chemically defined particles were examined for their activating effect on oxidant production (O2- and H2O2) in guinea pig alveolar macrophages (AM). Oxidant production was measured as chemiluminescence of albumin-bound luminol. All particles examine...

  7. Anisotropic diffusion of volatile pollutants at air-water interface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-ping CHEN

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The volatile pollutants that spill into natural waters cause water pollution. Air pollution arises from the water pollution because of volatilization. Mass exchange caused by turbulent fluctuation is stronger in the direction normal to the air-water interface than in other directions due to the large density difference between water and air. In order to explore the characteristics of anisotropic diffusion of the volatile pollutants at the air-water interface, the relationship between velocity gradient and mass transfer rate was established to calculate the turbulent mass diffusivity. A second-order accurate smooth transition differencing scheme (STDS was proposed to guarantee the boundedness for the flow and mass transfer at the air-water interface. Simulations and experiments were performed to study the trichloroethylene (C2HCl3 release. By comparing the anisotropic coupling diffusion model, isotropic coupling diffusion model, and non-coupling diffusion model, the features of the transport of volatile pollutants at the air-water interface were determined. The results show that the anisotropic coupling diffusion model is more accurate than the isotropic coupling diffusion model and non-coupling diffusion model. Mass transfer significantly increases with the increase of the air-water relative velocity at a low relative velocity. However, at a higher relative velocity, an increase in the relative velocity has no effect on mass transfer.

  8. Anisotropic diffusion of volatile pollutants at air-water interface

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li-ping CHEN; Jing-tao CHENG; Guang-fa DENG

    2013-01-01

    The volatile pollutants that spill into natural waters cause water pollution. Air pollution arises from the water pollution because of volatilization. Mass exchange caused by turbulent fluctuation is stronger in the direction normal to the air-water interface than in other directions due to the large density difference between water and air. In order to explore the characteristics of anisotropic diffusion of the volatile pollutants at the air-water interface, the relationship between velocity gradient and mass transfer rate was established to calculate the turbulent mass diffusivity. A second-order accurate smooth transition differencing scheme (STDS) was proposed to guarantee the boundedness for the flow and mass transfer at the air-water interface. Simulations and experiments were performed to study the trichloroethylene (C2HCl3) release. By comparing the anisotropic coupling diffusion model, isotropic coupling diffusion model, and non-coupling diffusion model, the features of the transport of volatile pollutants at the air-water interface were determined. The results show that the anisotropic coupling diffusion model is more accurate than the isotropic coupling diffusion model and non-coupling diffusion model. Mass transfer significantly increases with the increase of the air-water relative velocity at a low relative velocity. However, at a higher relative velocity, an increase in the relative velocity has no effect on mass transfer.

  9. Effects of air pollutants on epicuticular wax chemical composition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There are numerous reports in the literature of modifications to epicuticular wax structure as a consequence of exposure to air pollutants. Most authors have used scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to describe changes in wax crystallite morphology or distribution. ''Erosion'' or ''weathering'' of crystalline structure into an amorphous state is the most common observation, particularly in the case of conifer needles having the characteristic tube crystallites comprised of nonacosan-10-ol. Wax structure is largely determined by its chemical composition. Therefore, many of the reported changes in wax structure due to air pollutants probably arise from direct interactions between pollutants such as ozone and wax biosynthesis. The literature describing changes in wax composition due to pollutants is briefly reviewed. New evidence is introduced in support of the hypothesis for a direct interaction between air pollutants and epicuticular wax Biosynthesis. (orig.)

  10. Air pollution assessment in the Slovak Republic in 2005. Measurement stations of air quality monitoring network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this Appendix to the report 'Air pollution assessment in the Slovak Republic in 2005' the main characteristics of measurement stations of air quality monitoring network of the Slovak Republic are presented

  11. Characterization of ambient air pollution for stochastic health models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batterman, S.A.

    1981-08-01

    This research is an analysis of various measures of ambient air pollution useful in cross-sectional epidemiological investigations and rick assessments. The Chestnut Ridge area health effects investigation, which includes a cross-sectional study of respiratory symptoms in young children, is used as a case study. Four large coal-fired electric generating power plants are the dominant pollution sources in this area of western Pennsylvania. The air pollution data base includes four years of sulfur dioxide and five years of total suspended particulate concentrations at seventeen monitors. Some 70 different characterizations of pollution are constructed and tested. These include pollutant concentrations at various percentiles and averaging times, exceedence measures which show the amount of time a specified threshold concentration is exceeded, and several dosage measures which transform non-linear dose-response relationships onto pollutant concentrations.

  12. A new air quality perception scale for global assessment of air pollution health effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deguen, Séverine; Ségala, Claire; Pédrono, Gaëlle; Mesbah, Mounir

    2012-12-01

    Despite improvements in air quality in developed countries, air pollution remains a major public health issue. To fully assess the health impact, we must consider that air pollution exposure has both physical and psychological effects; this latter dimension, less documented, is more difficult to measure and subjective indicators constitute an appropriate alternative. In this context, this work presents the methodological development of a new scale to measure the perception of air quality, useful as an exposure or risk appraisal metric in public health contexts. On the basis of the responses from 2,522 subjects in eight French cities, psychometric methods are used to construct the scale from 22 items that assess risk perception (anxiety about health and quality of life) and the extent to which air pollution is a nuisance (sensorial perception and symptoms). The scale is robust, reproducible, and discriminates between subpopulations more susceptible to poor air pollution perception. The individual risk factors of poor air pollution perception are coherent with those findings in the risk perception literature. Perception of air pollution by the general public is a key issue in the development of comprehensive risk assessment studies as well as in air pollution risk management and policy. This study offers a useful new tool to measure such efforts and to help set priorities for air quality improvements in combination with air quality measurements. PMID:22852801

  13. Air pollution dispersion models as used in Poland in regional development planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pruchnicki, J.

    1977-02-01

    This paper discusses air pollution models used in regional development planning in Poland. After outlining the institutional structure and legislature dealing with air pollution control, the paper describes the air quality standards currently in effect. Dispersion models used in predicting air pollution concentrations are then detailed. Finally the application of air pollution modelling to urban design is discussed.

  14. Characterization of the particulate air pollution in contrasted mega cities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work aims at characterizing the physics and the chemistry that govern particulate air pollution in two mega cities (Paris and Cairo) for which the size distribution and the chemical composition of airborne particles were poorly documented. Seasonal variations of the main aerosol sources and transformation processes are investigated in these two urban centres, with a particular attention to semi-volatile material and secondary organic aerosols. Short-term health effects of Paris size-segregated aerosols, as well as particulate pollution during the Cairo 'Black Cloud' season, are also emphasized here. Finally, the comparison of results obtained for the two mega cities and for another one (Beijing) allows investigating main factors responsible for particulate air pollution in urban centres with contrasted climatic conditions and development levels. Notably, this work also allows the build-up of an experimental dataset which is now available for the modelling of urban air quality and of environmental impacts of mega city air pollution. (author)

  15. Ambient air pollution and pregnancy-induced hypertensive disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Marie; Stayner, Leslie; Slama, Rémy;

    2014-01-01

    .5), carbon monoxide (CO), ozone (O3), proximity to major roads, and traffic density met our inclusion criteria. Most studies reported that air pollution increased risk for pregnancy-induced hypertensive disorders. There was significant heterogeneity in meta-analysis, which included 16 studies reporting on...... ambient air pollution and pregnancy-induced hypertensive disorders including gestational hypertension and preeclampsia. We searched electronic databases for English language studies reporting associations between ambient air pollution and pregnancy-induced hypertensive disorders published between December......-analysis combined odds ratio associated with a 5-μg/m3 increase in PM2.5 was 1.57 (95% confidence interval, 1.26-1.96) for combined pregnancy-induced hypertensive disorders and 1.31 (95%confidence interval, 1.14-1.50) for preeclampsia [corrected]. Our results suggest that exposure to air pollution increases the...

  16. Public health implications of urban air pollution in developing countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwela, D.H. [World Health Organisation, Geneva (Switzerland)

    1995-12-31

    Exposure to air pollution is an almost inescapable part of urban life throughout the world. Ambient air pollutant levels in urban areas are generally a reflection of emissions. For sulphur dioxide, total suspended particulate matter and lead, ambient concentrations are declining in the industrialized western countries. For nitrogen dioxide, ambient levels in cities are generally constant, or slightly increasing. For carbon dioxide, they are variable, declining where controls are being applied. In a substantial number of cities, particularly in developing countries, WHO guidelines are being often exceeded for the compounds mentioned. Given the rate at which these cities are growing, the air pollution situation will probably worsen if environmental control measures are not implemented. As a consequence, the health and well-being of urban residents will further deteriorate with high ambient air pollutant concentrations causing increased mortality, morbidity, deficits on pulmonary functions and cardiovascular and neurobehavioural effects. (author)

  17. HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS: WET REMOVAL RATES AND MECHANISMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fourteen hazardous organic air pollutants were evaluated for their potentials to be wet deposited by precipitation scavenging. This effort included a survey of solubilities (Henry's Law constants) in the literature, measurement of solubilities of three selected species, developme...

  18. Plans and Measures for Avoiding Casting-Air-Pollution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Jian

    2003-01-01

    This article presents plans of preventing casting-air-pollution in practice, and some avoiding methods in detail. In modern times, environment protection is looked high upon day by day; green-casting thus becomes more and more important.

  19. Measurements of environmental policy for air pollution abatement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The first part of the study goes into the determination of efficient strategies for the reduction of air pollutants. The developed method is not only derived theoretically but is tested with the concrete example of emissions sources of a German state. The second part goes into the question what the government can do in order to attain that air pollution abatement measures recognized as being efficient will be put into practice. As market economy mechanisms have advantages over central state planning in the allocation of economic resources the question arises if not also for environmental protection market economy tools may contribute to an improvement of the efficiency of air pollution abatement. Therefore the suitability of different tools of environmental policy for the realization of efficient air pollution abatement is investigated and evaluated. This is again not done abstractly but with existing emission sources. (orig./HSCH). 32 figs., 12 tabs

  20. AIR POLLUTION AND INFANT HEALTH: LESSONS FROM NEW JERSEY*

    OpenAIRE

    Janet Currie; Matthew J. Neidell; Johannes Schmieder

    2009-01-01

    We examine the impact of three "criteria" air pollutants on infant health in New Jersey in the 1990s by combining information about mother's residential location from birth certificates with information from air quality monitors. In addition to large sample size, our work offers three important innovations: First, because we know the exact addresses of mothers, we select those mothers closest to air monitors to ensure a more accurate measure of air quality. Second, since we follow mothers ove...

  1. Evaluation of some air pollution indicators in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article intends to shed a light on air quality in Turkey and compare air pollutant emissions on a national scale with that of the European countries. In order to estimate the quantities of Turkish emissions in the past and their future predictions, a national emission inventory was prepared with respect to five major pollutants consisting of particulate matter(PM), SOx, NOx, non-methane volatile organic compounds, and CO with 5-year intervals between 1985 and 2005. The results suggest that Turkey is a rather large emission source at the European scale, although emission indicators on unit area and per capita were shown to be somewhat smaller in magnitude. Levels of air pollution in some of the big cities in Turkey were also evaluated from available national monitoring data. These evaluations for the urban air qualities covered SO2 and PM parameters between 1986 and 1996, and results were compared with the present Turkish air quality limits, their probable revisions, WHO (Europe) guidelines and related EC directives. Results showed that the air quality limits were not met, especially during the winter periods in Turkish cities. Urban air pollutants characterizing the air in Turkish cities other than SO2 and PM, however, could not have been evaluated as these pollutants were not systematically monitored in these cities. (author)

  2. Air pollution episodes associated with East Asian winter monsoons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A dozen multi-day pollution episodes occur from October to February in Hanoi, Vietnam due to prolonged anticyclonic conditions established after the northeast monsoon surges (cold surges). These winter pollution episodes (WPEs) account for most of the 24-h PM10 exceedances and the highest concentrations of gaseous pollutants in Hanoi. In this study, WPEs were investigated using continuous air quality monitoring data and information on upper-air soundings and air mass trajectories. The 24-h pollutant concentrations are lowest during cold surges; concurrently rise thereafter reaching the highest levels toward the middle of a monsoon cycle, then decline ahead of the next cold surge. Each monsoon cycle usually proceeds through a dry phase and a humid phase as Asiatic continental cold air arrives in Hanoi through inland China then via the East China Sea. WPEs are associated with nighttime radiation temperature inversions (NRTIs) in the dry phase and subsidence temperature inversions (STIs) in the humid phase. In NRTI periods, the rush hour pollution peak is more pronounced in the evening than in the morning and the pollution level is about two times higher at night than in daytime. In STI periods, broad morning and evening traffic peaks are observed and pollution is as high at night as in daytime. The close association between pollution and winter monsoon meteorology found in this study for the winter 2003-04 may serve as a basis for advance warning of WPEs and for forecasting the 24-h pollutant concentrations. - Highlights: → Dozen pollution episodes from Oct. to Feb in Hanoi associated with anticyclones after monsoon surges. → 24-h concentrations of PM10, SO2, NO2, CO rise after surge and decline ahead of the next. → Episodes caused by nighttime radiation and subsidence inversions in dry and humid monsoon phases. → Distinct diurnal variations of pollutant concentrations observed in the two periods. → Close pollution-meteorology association serve as a basis

  3. Structural modification induced by air pollutants in Plantago lanceolata leaves

    OpenAIRE

    Irina Neta GOSTIN

    2009-01-01

    Some structural parameters of Plantago lanceolata leaves, which may be considered as biomarkers, were investigated, in order to establish what modifications occur under the pollutants action. The material was represented by leaves of different ages collected from sites with different pollution degrees of the Ceahlau Mountain.External symptoms such as necrotic areas were observed on plants leaves exposed to air pollution. The leaf structure of the analyzed species show some dark deposits in th...

  4. Nitrogen oxide air pollution. Part 4. Biological effects (citations from the American Petroleum Institute data base). Report for 1973-Oct 79

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cavagnaro, D.M.

    1980-01-01

    These citations from worldwide literature cover the effects that nitrogen oxides have upon animals, humans, and plants. Most of the reports cover animal laboratory studies designed to determine the effects on the respiratory system. (This updated bibliography contains 181 abstracts, 50 of which are new entries to the previous edition.)

  5. Addressing household air pollution : a case study in rural Madagascar

    OpenAIRE

    Dasgupta, Susmita; Martin, Paul; Samad, Hussain A.

    2013-01-01

    Household air pollution is the second leading cause of disease in Madagascar, where more than 99 percent of households rely on solid biomass, such as charcoal, wood, and crop waste, as the main cooking fuel. Only a limited number of studies have looked at the emissions and health consequences of cook stoves in Africa. This paper summarizes an initiative to monitor household air pollution in two towns in Madagascar, with a stratified sample of 154 and 184 households. Concentrations of fine par...

  6. Solving vertical transport and chemistry in air pollution models

    OpenAIRE

    Berkvens, Patrick; Botchev, M.A.; Verwer, Jan; M. C. Krol; Peters, W.

    2000-01-01

    For the time integration of stiff transport-chemistry problems from air pollution modelling, standard ODE solvers are not feasible due to the large number of species and the 3D nature. The popular alternative, standard operator splitting, introduces artificial transients for short-lived species. This complicates the chemistry solution, easily causing large errors for such species. In the framework of an operational global air pollution model, we focus on the problem formed by chemistry and ve...

  7. An Analytical Air Pollution Model with Time Dependent Eddy Diffusivity

    OpenAIRE

    Tiziano Tirabassi; Marco Túllio Vilhena; Daniela Buske; Gervásio Annes Degrazia

    2013-01-01

    Air pollution transport and dispersion in the atmospheric boundary layer are modeled by the advection-diffusion equation, that is, essentially, a statement of conservation of the suspended material in an incompressible flow. Many models simulating air pollution dispersion are based upon the solution (numerical or analytical) of the advection-diffusion equation assuming turbulence parameterization for realistic physical scenarios. We present the general time dependent three-dimensional soluti...

  8. Solving vertical transport and chemistry in air pollution models

    OpenAIRE

    Berkvens, P.J.F.; Botchev, M.A.; M. C. Krol; Peters, W.; Verwer, J.G.

    2002-01-01

    For the time integration of stiff transport-chemistry problems from air pollution modelling, standard ODE solvers are not feasible due to the large number of species and the 3D nature. The popular alternative, standard operator splitting, introduces artificial transients for short-lived species. This complicates the chemistry solution, easily causing large errors for such species. In the framework of an operational global air pollution model, we focus on the problem formed by chemistry and ve...

  9. Solving Vertical Transport and Chemistry in Air Pollution Models.

    OpenAIRE

    Berkvens, P.J.F.; Botchev, M.A.; Verwer, J.G.; M. C. Krol; Peters, W.

    2000-01-01

    For the time integration of stiff transport-chemistry problems from air pollution modelling, standard ODE solvers are not feasible due to the large number of species and the 3D nature. The popular alternative, standard operator splitting, introduces artificial transients for short-lived species. This complicates the chemistry solution, easily causing large errors for such species. In the framework of an operational global air pollution model, we focus on the problem formed by chemistry and ve...

  10. Arctic air pollution: Challenges and opportunities for the next decade

    OpenAIRE

    Arnold, S.R.; Law, K. S.; Brock, C. A.; Thomas, J L; S.M. Starkweather; Von Salzen, K.; A. Stohl; Sharma, S.; Lund, M.T.; M. G. Flanner; T. Petäjä; H. Tanimoto; Gamble, J; Dibb, J. E.; M. Melamed

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The Arctic is a sentinel of global change. This region is influenced by multiple physical and socio-economic drivers and feedbacks, impacting both the natural and human environment. Air pollution is one such driver that impacts Arctic climate change, ecosystems and health but significant uncertainties still surround quantification of these effects. Arctic air pollution includes harmful trace gases (e.g. tropospheric ozone) and particles (e.g. black carbon, sulphate) and toxic substan...

  11. Numerical solution of a parabolic system in air pollution

    OpenAIRE

    Chernogorova, Tatiana P.; Vulkov, Lubin G.

    2016-01-01

    An air pollution model is generally described by a system of PDEs on unbounded domain. Transformation of the independent variable is used to convert the problem for nonlinear air pollution on finite computational domain. We investigate the new, degenerated parabolic problem in Sobolev spaces with weights for well-posedness and positivity of the solution. Then we construct a fitted finite volume difference scheme. Some results from computations are presented.

  12. Validation of a 3-D hemispheric nested air pollution model

    OpenAIRE

    Frohn, L. M.; Christensen, J.H.; Brandt, J; C. Geels; Hansen, K. M.

    2003-01-01

    Several air pollution transport models have been developed at the National Environmental Research Institute in Denmark over the last decade (DREAM, DEHM, ACDEP and DEOM). A new 3-D nested Eulerian transport-chemistry model: REGIonal high resolutioN Air pollution model (REGINA) is based on modules and parameterisations from these models as well as new methods. The model covers the majority of the Northern Hemisphere with currently one nest...

  13. Assessment of Air Pollution in Different World Regions

    OpenAIRE

    DENTENER Franciscus; KELLEHER Eimear

    2008-01-01

    Climate Change (CC) and Air pollution (AP) are intimately linked through emissions from common sources, primarily those related to the use of fossil fuels. The Climate Change Unit (Institute for Environment and Sustainability), which is part of the Joint Research Centre based in Ispra, Northern Italy, performs scientific research on the linkages between air pollution and climate change to make policy makers aware of potential synergies and trade-offs that are imposed by the way the atmosphere...

  14. Proceedings of the international conference on residential air pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The proceedings of the International conference on Residential Air Pollution are presented. The perceptions and aspirations of residents with regard to clean air was the main theme of the conference. Emphasis was also placed on the pollution and effects brought about by the domestic burning of fuels for heating and cooking in third world environments. Only two papers were indexed for INIS. The remaining papers were considered to be outside the subject scope of INIS

  15. The state of transboundary air pollution: 1989 update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This sixth volume of the series of Air Pollution Studies published under the auspices of the Executive Body for the Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution, contains the documents reviewed and approved for publication at the seventh session of the Executive Body held at Geneva from 21 to 24 November 1989. Part one is the annual review of strategies and policies for air pollution abatement. Country by country, recent legislative and regulatory developments are summarized, including ambient-air quality standards, fuel-quality standards, emission standards, as well as economic instruments for air pollution abatement. Part two is an executive summary of the 1988 forest damage survey in Europe, carried out under the International Co-operative Programme for Assessment and Monitoring of Air Pollution Effects on Forests which was established by the Executive Body for the Convention in 1985. A total of 25 countries participated in the survey, conducted in accordance with common guidelines laid down in an ECE manual on methodologies and criteria for harmonized sampling, assessment, monitoring and analysis of the effects of air pollution on forests. Parts three and four describe the effects of mercury and some other heavy metals related to the long-range atmospheric transport of pollution. The section on mercury describes the environmental effects and the causes of mercury pollution in air and atmospheric deposition, including its sources and its transport from forest soils into fresh water and aquatic organisms. The section dealing with other heavy metals (such as asbestos, cadmium and lead) describes the process of atmospheric transport and deposition, the effects on forest ecosystems, ground water, surface water and agricultural products. Refs, figs and tabs

  16. Multilevel Analysis of Air Pollution and Early Childhood Neurobehavioral Development

    OpenAIRE

    Ching-Chun Lin; Shih-Kuan Yang; Kuan-Chia Lin; Wen-Chao Ho; Wu-Shiun Hsieh; Bih-Ching Shu; Pau-Chung Chen

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the association between the ambient air pollution levels during the prenatal and postnatal stages and early childhood neurobehavioral development, our study recruited 533 mother-infant pairs from 11 towns in Taiwan. All study subjects were asked to complete childhood neurobehavioral development scales and questionnaires at 6 and 18 months. Air pollution, including particulate matter ≤10 μm (PM10), carbon monoxide (CO), sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), ozone (O3), ...

  17. Air pollution and respiratory allergic diseases in schoolchildren

    OpenAIRE

    Nicolussi, Francine Heloisa; dos Santos, Ana Paula Milla; André, Sílvia Carla da Silva; Veiga, Tatiane Bonametti; Takayanagui, Angela Maria Magosso

    2014-01-01

    Study on the prevalence of allergic respiratory diseases in schoolchildren between six and seven years old, associated with indicators of air pollution. A questionnaire based on the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood was administered to parents of students from public schools, located in urban areas with differing vehicle flows. There was a positive correlation between monthly frequency of rhinitis and concentration of pollutants, and negative with relative air humidity....

  18. Air pollution and unscheduled hospital outpatient and emergency room visits.

    OpenAIRE

    X. Xu; Li, B.; Huang, H.

    1995-01-01

    We conducted a time-series analysis of daily hospital visits and air pollution data to assess acute effects of air pollution on daily unscheduled outpatient visits to internal medicine, pediatric, and emergency departments in the No. 3 Affiliated Hospital of Beijing Medical University in Beijing, China. Sulfur dioxide was marginally significantly associated with total outpatient visits (beta = 41.5, SE = 24.2) and significantly associated with internal medicine (beta = 14.6, SE = 6.7), pediat...

  19. Productivity Effects of Air Pollution: Evidence from Professional Soccer

    OpenAIRE

    Lichter, Andreas; Pestel, Nico; Sommer, Eric

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we estimate the causal effect of ambient air pollution on individuals' productivity by using panel data on the universe of professional soccer players in Germany over the period 1999-2011. Combining this data with hourly information on the concentration of particulate matter in spatial proximity to each stadium at the time of kickoff, we exploit exogenous variation in the players' exposure to air pollution due to match scheduling rules that are beyond the control of teams and p...

  20. A Zooming Technique for Wind Transport of Air Pollution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berkvens, P.J.F.; Botchev, M.A.; Lioen, W.; Verwer, J.G.

    1999-01-01

    In air pollution dispersion models, typically systems of millions of equations that describe wind transport, chemistry and vertical mixing have to be integrated in time. To have more accurate results over specific fixed areas of interest---usually highly polluted areas with intensive emissions---a l

  1. Linking Urban Air Pollution to Global Tropospheric Chemistry and Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chien

    2005-01-01

    The two major tasks of this project are to study: (a) the impact of urban nonlinear chemistry on chemical budgets of key pollutants in non-urban areas; and (b) the influence of air pollution control strategies in selected metropolitan areas, particularly of emerging economies in East and South Asia, on tropospheric chemistry and hence on regional and global climate.

  2. Toxic potency and effects of diffuse air pollution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hamers, T.H.M.

    2002-01-01

    Diffuse air pollution consists of an omnipresent complex mixture of pollutants that is emitted from many widely dispersed sources as traffic, industries, households, energy plants, waste incinerators, and agriculture. It can be deposited in relatively remote areas as a result of (long-range) airborn

  3. Australians are not equally protected from industrial air pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Australian air pollution standards are set at national and state levels for a number of chemicals harmful to human health. However, these standards do not need to be met when ad hoc pollution licences are issued by state environment agencies. This situation results in a highly unequal distribution of air pollution between towns and cities, and across the country. This paper examines these pollution regulations through two case studies, specifically considering the ability of the regulatory regime to protect human health from lead and sulphur dioxide pollution in the communities located around smelters. It also considers how the proposed National Clean Air Agreement, once enacted, might serve to reduce this pollution equity problem. Through the case studies we show that there are at least three discrete concerns relating to the current licencing system. They are: non-onerous emission thresholds for polluting industry; temporal averaging thresholds masking emission spikes; and ineffective penalties for breaching licence agreements. In conclusion, we propose a set of new, legally-binding national minimum standards for industrial air pollutants must be developed and enforced, which can only be modified by more (not less) stringent state licence arrangements. (letter)

  4. Air Pollution Studies in Metromanila and Catalysis Technology Towards Clean Air Philippines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallardo, S. M.

    - Considerable air quality and emission data gathered in Metropolitan Manila (MM) led to the development of automobile exhaust treatment catalysts as well as their continued improvement. Findings of a 5-year (1993-1998) collaborative work on the development of base metal oxide catalysts for automobile exhaust are summarized here. One study in 1991 reveals an average 16% increase in the number of motor vehicles in MM where 16% are new and the rest are old ones. Another study in 1992 shows the CO and hydrocarbon emission levels from different types of motor vehicles in MM as a function of the age of the vehicle, type of fuel, and the operating condition. Reports of the Department of Environment and Natural Resources (DENR) and other related studies also provided data showing the quality of air in MM. Currently, there are several requirements to further improve the catalyst performance towards the reduction of NOX and to develop catalyst-sorbent for simultaneous NOX-SOX removal. This is so because of the present condition of rain acidification that is found in certain places in MM. These air quality and emission data are needed not only to establish practical emission standards for motor vehicles and the stationary industries and power plants but also in the development of technologies for air pollution control and other clean technologies for cleaner air in the country.

  5. Wet oxidation processes for water pollution remediation

    OpenAIRE

    García Molina, Verónica

    2006-01-01

    [eng] The main objective of this work was to test the efficiency of wet oxidation processes when treating several types of aqueous wastes. On one side its performance for the abatement of chloro-organic aromatic toxic pollutants, such as 4-chlorophenol and 2,4-dichlorophenol has been studied. On the other hand, wastewater from pulp and paper mills, which has been reported to be an indirect source of entry of chlorophenols in the aquatic environment, has been investigated. More in detail, it h...

  6. A Monitoring of Air Pollutants (CO, SO2 and NO in Ambient Air Near an Industrial Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radin Mohamed Radin Maya Saphira

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A monitoring assessment was carried out to measure the concentration of air pollutants in ambient air in the university campus, which is located adjacent to the industrial area. The air pollutants were monitored for CO (Carbon monoxide, SO2 (Sulfur dioxide and NO (Nitrous oxide at the three sampling points, with distance reference based from the industrial area. Air pollutant gases were sampled from the I-Brid Toxic Gases Analyzer with the sampling hour referred to the Recommended Malaysian Air Quality Guidelines (RMAQG during October 2013 to Jun 2014. Meteorological data was collected from the E-Sampler device for 24 hours. It was found that the CO concentrations were fall within the RMAQG at all stations monitored. The SO2 concentration was high at Station 3 (Material lab, with 0.66 ppm which was exceeded the RMAQG of 0.13 ppm. All three stations recorded high concentration of NO, which the peak concentration occurred at the afternoon sampling. The nearest Station 3 (Material lab has recorded the highest level of NO, SO2 and CO compared to the other stations. The monitoring data has contributed some highlights to the authority and awareness about possible long risk effect of the air pollutants at the case study.

  7. Air pollution and forest ecosystems: a regional to global perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Changes in the atmospheric concentrations of a number of air pollutants over the last century are hallmarks of the magnitude and extent of human impact on the environment. Some of these changes are important to ecologists because many pollutants, acting singly or in combination, affect ecological systems in general and forests in particular. The greatest concern lies with chronic levels of tropospheric ozone, cumulative deposition of hydrogen ion, nitrogen, and sulfur via wet and dry processes, a select number of airborne chemicals (e.g., mercury) that tend to bio accumulate in continental landscapes, and ultraviolet—B radiation through the loss of stratospheric ozone. Because the atmospheric residence time of most pollutants of concern to ecologists is measured on time frames extending from a few weeks to decades, pollutant distribution and effects are regional to global in dimension. We present evidence that ambient levels of some air pollutants in North America are affecting managed and unmanaged forests, and that the two most important pollutants are tropospheric ozone and chronic nitrogen loading. Further evidence indicates that while concentrations of some air pollutants have been declining over the last decade in North America, others are expected to remain unchanged or increase, including tropospheric ozone. We conclude that air pollution is affecting many North American forests and some remote forests around the globe. In the immediate future, the concern for air pollution effects on forests and associated natural resources will broaden to include interactions with changes in climate and pollution effects in the world's developing countries. There has been a rapid evolution in air pollution studies in ecology, shifting away from the agricultural paradigm of single—factor experimentation toward new methodologies that are ecologically and multidisciplinarily based. This shift has been promoted by the recognition that air pollution is one of several

  8. Acute Health Impact of Air Pollution in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, T.; Zhao, Y.; Zheng, M.

    2014-12-01

    Air pollution not only has long term health impact, but can affect health through acute exposure. This paper, using air pollution index (API) as overall evaluation of air quality, blood pressure and vital capacity as health outcomes, focuses on the acute health impact of air pollution in China. Current result suggests that after controlling smoking history, occupational exposure, income and education, API is positively associated with blood pressure and negatively associated with vital capacity. The associations became stronger for people with hypertension or pulmonary functional diseases, which indicates that these people are more sensitive to air pollution. Among three pollutants which API measures, that is inhalable particles (PM10), sulfur dioxide (SO2) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2), PM10 is most statistically associated with blood pressure increase and vital capacity decrease. Further study will focusing on the following two questions. The first question is how various time lags affect the associations among API, blood pressure and vital capacity. The second question is how differently people in various cohorts reacts to acute exposure to air pollution. The differences in reactions of blood pressure and vital capacity between people in urban and rural areas, genders, various age cohorts, distinct income and education groups will be further studied.

  9. Assessing Vulnerability of Women to Indoor Air Pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abha Lakshmi Singh

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In this study an attempt has been made to identify the factors that have contributed to vulnerability of women to indoor air pollution and suggests suitable measures for its intervention. The study is based on primary sources of data collected with the help of questionnaire interviews from a sample of 2,101 women respondents belonging from different income groups, from Aligarh city. Information regarding their cooking conditions (4 factors, cooking related exposures (4 factors, housing (3 factors and health conditions (3 factors were collected. Total 14 factors linked with women vulnerability to indoor air pollution were identified. Indoor air pollutants were monitored in the cooking area and with different fuel usages to assess the indoor air quality. The results show that women are vulnerable to indoor air pollution but there was difference in the levels of vulnerability among the women belonging to different income groups. It was the lower income women who were most vulnerable because they were using biomass fuels/chulhas, cooking in a multipurpose room, spending long hours in kitchen, they were more exposed to smoke, heat, pollutants and the conditions were exacerbated because they were living in sub-standard housing, in one room leading to congestion/crowding and with no ventilation. They were suffering most from various problems and specific diseases like respiratory infections (ALRI, AURI, COPD, asthma, pulmonary tuberculosis, perinatal mortality, low birth weight, cataract and eye irritation associated with indoor air pollution.

  10. Climate, traffic-related air pollutants, and asthma prevalence in middle-school children in taiwan.

    OpenAIRE

    Guo, Y L; Lin, Y C; Sung, F C; Huang, S. L.; Ko, Y C; Lai, J S; Su, H. J.; Shaw, C K; Lin, R S; Dockery, D W

    1999-01-01

    This study compared the prevalence of asthma with climate and air pollutant data to determine the relationship between asthma prevalence and these factors. We conducted a nationwide survey of respiratory illness and symptoms in middle-school students in Taiwan. Lifetime prevalences of physician-diagnosed asthma and of typical symptoms of asthma were compared to air monitoring station data for temperature, relative humidity, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, ozone, carbon monoxide, and particul...

  11. Association between the First Occurrence of Allergic Rhinitis in Preschool Children and Air Pollution in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Hui-Ying; Hsieh, Chia-Jung; Tseng, Chun-Chieh; Yiin, Lih-Ming

    2016-01-01

    The occurrence of allergic rhinitis (AR) may be significantly influenced by air pollution. This study examined the association between the first occurrence of AR in preschool children and the pre-incident levels of air pollutants in Taiwan. We identified 9960 eligible subjects from a systematic sampling cohort database containing 400,000 insureds of the National Health Insurance from 2007 to 2011 and matched them with the environmental monitoring data from 2006 to 2011 according to the locations of their clinics. Pre-incident levels were determined using the average concentrations of air pollutants one or two weeks prior to the AR diagnoses. Logistic regression analyses were performed to determine any significant relationships between AR and specific air pollutants. The first AR incidence for Taiwanese preschool children, which increased with age, was 10.9% on average; boys appeared to have a higher percentage (14.2%) than girls (8.27%). Among the air pollutants, carbon monoxide (CO) and nitrogen oxides (NOX) were significantly related to AR after adjusting for age and gender (p pollutants are considered to be traffic emissions, this study suggests that traffic emissions in Taiwan need to be controlled to lower the prevalence of children's AR. PMID:26927153

  12. Association between the First Occurrence of Allergic Rhinitis in Preschool Children and Air Pollution in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui-Ying Chung

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence of allergic rhinitis (AR may be significantly influenced by air pollution. This study examined the association between the first occurrence of AR in preschool children and the pre-incident levels of air pollutants in Taiwan. We identified 9960 eligible subjects from a systematic sampling cohort database containing 400,000 insureds of the National Health Insurance from 2007 to 2011 and matched them with the environmental monitoring data from 2006 to 2011 according to the locations of their clinics. Pre-incident levels were determined using the average concentrations of air pollutants one or two weeks prior to the AR diagnoses. Logistic regression analyses were performed to determine any significant relationships between AR and specific air pollutants. The first AR incidence for Taiwanese preschool children, which increased with age, was 10.9% on average; boys appeared to have a higher percentage (14.2% than girls (8.27%. Among the air pollutants, carbon monoxide (CO and nitrogen oxides (NOX were significantly related to AR after adjusting for age and gender (p < 0.05. Because both pollutants are considered to be traffic emissions, this study suggests that traffic emissions in Taiwan need to be controlled to lower the prevalence of children’s AR.

  13. REGIONAL AIR POLLUTION STUDY, QUALITY ASSURANCE AUDITS

    Science.gov (United States)

    RAPS Quality Assurance audits were conducted under this Task Order in continuation of the audit program previously conducted under Task Order No. 58. Quantitative field audits were conducted of the Regional Air Monitoring System (RAMS) Air Monitoring Stations, Local Air Monitorin...

  14. Disparities in the Impact of Air Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... because of factors ranging from racism to class bias to housing market dynamics and land costs. For ... pollution in a 2012 study. However, the different racial/ethnic and income groups were often breathing very ...

  15. Air Quality and Air Pollution Management in Urban Areas in Less Developed Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, P. V.

    2007-01-01

    The working group will address the complexity of air pollution management in the growing urban sphere in the less developed countries, and will discus and evaluate how Danish and Scandinavian research institutions, universities and private companies can initiate a more progressive role in...... development aid and capacity development in relation to air pollution. For further information on the actions objective, activities and dissemination plan...

  16. Do current levels of air pollution kill? The impact of air pollution on population mortality in England

    OpenAIRE

    Janke, KM; Propper, C; J. Henderson

    2009-01-01

    The current air quality limit values for airborne pollutants in the UK are low by historical standards and are at levels that are believed not to harm health. We assess whether this view is correct. We examine the relationship between common sources of airborne pollution and population mortality for England. We use data at local authority level for 1998-2005 to examine whether current levels of airborne pollution, as measured by annual mean concentrations of carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide,...

  17. Variation of atmospheric air pollution under conditions of rapid economic change—Estonia 1994-1999

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimmel, V.; Tammet, H.; Truuts, T.

    Estonia is an example of a country with economy in transition whose atmospheric air pollution has been remarkably influenced by economic changes. During the period of 1994-1999 GDP increased by one-fourth, while agricultural production, electricity and heat production dropped by one-sixths during the studied period. These processes are reflected in the quantity of emissions and structure of air pollution. The study is based on the measurements of concentrations of pollutants at six Estonian Euroairnet monitoring stations—at three sites in the capital city and at three sites in remote areas. The pollutants concerned are the first-priority pollutants in the European Union legislation—nitrogen oxides, SO 2, O 3, particulate matter, and additionally CO. The study reveals that concentrations of gaseous pollutants in Estonia remain within the EU limit values except for ozone in remote areas. The main trend during the studied period was a significant, up to several times, decrease in concentrations of SO 2 and CO while the decrease of nitrogen oxides was less remarkable. The paper propose ratio of NO x/SO 2 as an index describing increasing transport loads and drop in use of sulphur-rich fuels—thus of structure of economy. The annual variation of pollutants is explained by seasonal variations of anthropogenic activity in conditions where local fuels are widely used for heating during winter. Air pollution in Estonian rural stations mostly originated from transboundary fluxes. The 1-3 day delay of the weekly minimum of pollutant concentrations and the wind roses allow to conclude that essential part of pollutants is imported from West Europe.

  18. Variation of atmospheric air pollution under conditions of rapid economic change - Estonia 1994-1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kimmel, V.; Tammet, H. [University of Tartu (Estonia). Institute of Environmental Physics; Truuts, T. [Estonian Environmental Research Centre, Tallinn (Estonia)

    2002-09-01

    Estonia is an example of a country with economy in transition whose atmospheric air pollution has been remarkably influenced by economic changes. During the period of 1994-1999 GDP increased by one-fourth, while agricultural production, electricity and heat production dropped by one-sixths during the studied period. These processes are reflected in the quantity of emissions and structure of air pollution. The study is based on the measurements of concentrations of pollutants at six Estonian Euroairnet monitoring stations - at three sites in the capital city and at three sites in remote areas. The pollutants concerned are the first-priority pollutants in the European Union legislation-nitrogen oxides, SO{sub 2}, O{sub 3}, particulate matter, and additionally CO. The study reveals that concentrations of gaseous pollutants in Estonia remain within the EU limit values except for ozone in remote areas. The main trend during the studied period was a significant, up to several times, decrease in concentrations of SO{sub 2} and CO while the decrease of nitrogen oxides was less remarkable. The paper propose ratio of NO{sub x}/SO{sub 2} as an index describing increasing transport loads and drop in use of sulphur-rich fuels - thus of structure of economy. The annual variation of pollutants is explained by seasonal variations of anthropogenic activity in conditions where local fuels are widely used for heating during winter. Air pollution in Estonian rural stations mostly originated from transboundary fluxes. The 1-3 day delay of the weekly minimum of pollutant concentrations and the wind roses allow to conclude that essential part of pollutants is imported from West Europe. (author)

  19. A bird’s eye view of the air pollution-cancer link in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu-Bei Huang; Feng-Ju Song; Qun Liu; Wei-Qin Li; Wei Zhang; Ke-Xin Chen

    2014-01-01

    Air pollution in China comes from multiple sources, including coal consumption, construction and industrial dust, and vehicle exhaust. Coal consumption in particular directly determines the emissions of three major air pollutants: dust, sulfur dioxide (SO2), and nitrogen oxide (NOx). The rapidly increasing number of civilian vehicles is expected to bring NOx emission to a very high level. Contrary to expectations, however, existing data show that the concentrations of major pollutants [particulate matter-10 (PM10), SO2, and nitrogen dioxide (NO2)] in several large Chinese cities have declined during the past decades, though they stil exceed the national standards of ambient air quality. Archived data from China does not ful y support that the concentrations of pol utants directly depend on local emissions, but this is likely due to inaccurate measurement of pollutants. Analyses on the cancer registry data show that cancer burden related to air pol ution is on the rise in China and wil likely increase further, but there is a lack of data to accurately predict the cancer burden. Past experience from other countries has sounded alarm of the link between air pollution and cancer. The quantitative association requires dedicated research as well as establishment of needed monitoring infrastructures and cancer registries. The air pol ution-cancer link is a serious public health issue that needs urgent investigation.

  20. Optimization of green roofs for air pollution mitigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, C.; Talbot, B.; Bulkley, J.; Adiaens, P. [Michigan State Univ., Lansing, MI (United States)

    2005-07-01

    The quantifiable economic benefits of green roofs must be demonstrated if they are to succeed in North America. This paper presented the results of a study examining potential nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) uptake of green roofs in the metropolitan areas of Detroit, and Chicago with both traditional sedums and Nicotiana tabacum. The aim of the study was to present green roofs as a pollution abatement technology to aid in closing the cost gap that currently hinders market penetration of green roofs. Values from experiments exploring the uptake potential of 217 plant taxa were used to determine uptake capacities at an urban scale. Roof area estimates were then used to determine potential uptake capacity by covering various percentages of the area with vegetated roofs. Values were compared with annual emissions of both metropolitan areas. Results showed that greening 10 per cent of the roof areas aided in the uptake of NO{sub x} ranges between 0.25 and nearly 16 per cent. If green roofs are considered an abatement technology, a combination of cap-and-trade could allow the tonnes taken up by a green roof to be traded on the open market. While a green roof ignoring the benefit of air pollution uptake would generally break even between 39 and 40 years based upon investment of energy savings, the incorporation of air credits into the system reduced the time for return on investment to 36 years with sedum planted on the roof. If a plant with a higher uptake such as tobacco were placed on the roof, the break-even point was only 15 years. It was concluded that by expanding the number of contaminants with established emission markets, and expanding the variety of plants on green roofs, the economic benefits of green roofs could increase dramatically. 12 refs., 5 tabs., 6 figs.

  1. Modelling air pollution abatement in deep street canyons by means of air scrubbers

    CERN Document Server

    De Giovanni, Marina; Avveduto, Alessandro; Pace, Lorenzo; Salisburgo, Cesare Dari; Giammaria, Franco; Monaco, Alessio; Spanto, Giuseppe; Tripodi, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    Deep street canyons are characterized by weak ventilation and recirculation of air. In such environment, the exposure to particulate matter and other air pollutants is enhanced, with a consequent worsening of both safety and health. The main solution adopted by the international community is aimed at the reduction of the emissions. In this theoretical study, we test a new solution: the removal of air pollutants close to their sources by a network of Air Pollution Abatement (APA) devices. The APA technology depletes gaseous and particulate air pollutants by a portable and low-consuming scrubbing system, that mimics the processes of wet and dry deposition. We estimate the potential pollutant abatement efficacy of a single absorber by Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) method. The presence of the scrubber effectively creates an additional sink at the bottom of the canyon, accelerating its cleaning process by up to 70%, when an almost perfect scrubber (90% efficiency) is simulated. The efficacy of absorber is not...

  2. Good manufacturing practice for modelling air pollution: Quality criteria for computer models to calculate air pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekker, C. M.; Sliggers, C. J.

    To spur on quality assurance for models that calculate air pollution, quality criteria for such models have been formulated. By satisfying these criteria the developers of these models and producers of the software packages in this field can assure and account for the quality of their products. In this way critics and users of such (computer) models can gain a clear understanding of the quality of the model. Quality criteria have been formulated for the development of mathematical models, for their programming—including user-friendliness, and for the after-sales service, which is part of the distribution of such software packages. The criteria have been introduced into national and international frameworks to obtain standardization.

  3. Air pollution critical levels in central México protected natural areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz Suarez, L.; Andraca Ayala, G.; Mar Morales, B.; Garcia-reynoso, J.; Torres-JArdon, R.

    2013-05-01

    All the Natural Protected Areas (NPA) within the Central Mexico City Belt comprising five metropolitan areas including MCMA are under strong impact from air pollution. Ozone, nitrogen oxides and sulfur dioxide exceed critical levels for several types of vegetation. In this work we show the critical level maps for ozone, nitrogen oxides and sulfur dioxide for Sierra of Chichinautzin, the mountain that acts as the physical barrier to air pollution dispersion south of Mexico City Metropolitan Area, what makes of it a receptor area to MCMA pollution. Maps were made combining model outputs from WRF-Chem and passive samplers. We also describe a proposal to extend the observation network to all natural protected areas within the Central Mexico City Belt.

  4. Photochemical and other air pollutants in the Netherlands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Floor, H.

    1976-01-01

    In 1975, together with the State Institute of Public Health and the Royal Dutch Meteorological Institute, The Institute of Phytopathological Research continued investigations on incidence of air pollution throughout the Netherlands. Culture vessels with indicator plants were placed on 31 test plots of the National Air Pollution Monitoring Network. During the growing season from May until October, the indicator plants were inspected weekly for typical symptoms of air pollution. Until July, photochemical air pollution by ozone caused less injury to Spinacia oleracea than in the preceding year. On Nicotiana tabacum there was as much injury as in 1974, especially in the 33rd, 36th and 37th week, all over the country. An increasing number of injurious effects by peroxyacetyl nitrate was observed on Petunia nyctaginiflora, Poa annua and Urtica urens. Medicago sativa, Fagopyrum esculentuma nd Petunia nyctaginiflora, indicator plants for the pollutants SO2, NO/sub x/ and ethylene, showed little and Solanum tuberosum, possible indicator plant for ethylene and ozone, no injury in 1975. Finally air pollution by HG occurred on the same scale as in 1974, as shown by Tulipa gesneriana in spring and Gladiolus gandavensis in summer. These results corresponded with the figures for F from the limed paper method. As in 1974, data on injury to the plants and from the limed paper method showed a decline from south to north.

  5. Air Pollution and Neuropsychological Development: A Review of the Latest Evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suades-González, Elisabet; Gascon, Mireia; Guxens, Mònica; Sunyer, Jordi

    2015-10-01

    For the last decade, literature on the detrimental impacts of air pollution on brain, cognition and behavior has exponentially increased. Our aim is to review the latest epidemiologic literature on the association between outdoor air pollution and neuropsychological developmental in children. Two independent researchers searched for published studies between January 1, 2012 and June 12, 2015 in MEDLINE, Web of Science, and Science direct using defined keywords on outdoor air pollution and neuropsychological development. Selection of articles was based on study eligibility criteria. We encountered sufficient evidence of detrimental effects of pre- or postnatal exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons on global intelligence quotient. The evidence was also sufficient for the association between pre- or postnatal exposure to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and autism spectrum disorder, and limited evidence was encountered between nitrogen oxides and autism spectrum disorder. For other exposure-outcome associations reviewed, the evidence was inadequate or insufficient. Although evidence is not yet conclusive and further research is needed, the latest epidemiological studies support the hypothesis that pre- or postnatal exposure to ambient pollution, particularly polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, PM2.5, and nitrogen oxides has a negative impact on the neuropsychological development of children. The public health impact of air pollutants cannot be ignored and the precautionary principle should be applied to protect children. PMID:26241071

  6. Study of air pollution in Chile using biomonitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A project has been undertaken within the framework of a Co-ordinated Research Programme (CRP) supported by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) to carry out a long term study on atmospheric air pollution in Chile using biomonitors. The present project aims at the selection of appropriate plants and other indicators for monitoring of air pollution in several cities and rural areas in Chile. Nuclear analytical techniques, in particular neutron activation analysis (NAA) will be used complemented by AAS for the analysis of selected elements and to determine the sources of pollutants and the applicability of biomonitors to study air pollution in large areas, using indicators either naturally grown or artificially introduced to the region under examination. (author)

  7. A mathematical formulation for optimal control of air pollution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱江; 曾庆存

    2003-01-01

    The problem of optimal control of air pollution using weather forecastresults and numerical air pollution models is discussed. A mathematical formulation of the problem is presented. The control is an act on pollution sources with feasible constraints. Based on forecasted weather conditions, the objective ofthe optimal control is to minimize total cost caused by control under the constraint that the pollution concentrations over a certain period and a certain spatial domain are less than some specified values. Using the adjoint method, an effective algorithm is given. Since the optimal solutions are based on weather forecasts, the errors in weather forecasts will cause uncertainties in the optimal solutions. Estimation of impacts of weather forecast errors on the optimal solutions is discussed using the adjoint sensitivity analysis technique that is an approximated, however very effective method. The adjoint sensitivity analysis technique can be used to calculate the impacts of errors in wind, temperature and initial pollutant concentration fields on performances of the optimal control.

  8. 40 CFR 52.1477 - Nevada air pollution emergency plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Nevada air pollution emergency plan. 52.1477 Section 52.1477 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS... specified criteria and it does not meet the requirements of 40 CFR 51.16 and Appendix L. The old rule...

  9. Urban air pollution, climate and its impact on asthma morbidity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyudmila Vasilievna Veremchuk

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: We determined that asthma morbidity depends from general air pollution (in the range of 18.3%. It was detected that the highest age-specific dependence is associated with the content of particulate matter, carbon monoxide and nitrogen dioxide in air.

  10. LONG-TERM EFFECTS OF AIR POLLUTANTS: IN CANINE SPECIES

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Clean Air Act of 1970 as amended in 1977 requires that a comprehensive data base be established to assess human health effects caused by air pollution from mobile sources. The spectrum of potential toxic effects can be viewed from two perspectives: The first is the identifica...

  11. Biomarkers for Exposure to Ambient Air Pollution - Comparison of Carcinogen-DNA Adduct Levels with Other Exposure Markers and Markers for Oxidative Stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Autrup, Herman; Daneshvar, Bahram; Dragsted, Lars Ove;

    1999-01-01

    Human exposure to genotoxic compounds present in ambient air has been studied using selected biomarkers in nonsmoking Danish bus drivers and postal workers. A large interindividual variation in biomarker levels was observed. Significantly higher levels of bulky carcinogen-DNA adducts (75.42 adducts....../10(8) nucleotides) and of 2-amino-apidic semialdehyde (AAS) in plasma proteins (56.7 pmol/mg protein) were observed in bus drivers working in the central part of Copenhagen, Denmark. In contrast, significantly higher levels of AAS in hemoglobin (55.8 pmol/mg protein), malondialdehyde in plasma (0. 96...... nmol/ml plasma), and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-albumin adduct (3.38 fmol/ microg albumin) were observed in the suburban group. The biomarker levels in postal workers were similar to the levels in suburban bus drivers. In the combined group of bus drivers and postal workers, negative...

  12. Biomarkers for exposure to ambient air pollution--comparison of carcinogen-DNA adduct levels with other exposure markers and markers for oxidative stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Autrup, H; Daneshvar, B; Dragsted, L O;

    1999-01-01

    Human exposure to genotoxic compounds present in ambient air has been studied using selected biomarkers in nonsmoking Danish bus drivers and postal workers. A large interindividual variation in biomarker levels was observed. Significantly higher levels of bulky carcinogen-DNA adducts (75.42 adducts....../10(8) nucleotides) and of 2-amino-apidic semialdehyde (AAS) in plasma proteins (56.7 pmol/mg protein) were observed in bus drivers working in the central part of Copenhagen, Denmark. In contrast, significantly higher levels of AAS in hemoglobin (55.8 pmol/mg protein), malondialdehyde in plasma (0. 96...... nmol/ml plasma), and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-albumin adduct (3.38 fmol/ microg albumin) were observed in the suburban group. The biomarker levels in postal workers were similar to the levels in suburban bus drivers. In the combined group of bus drivers and postal workers, negative...

  13. Biomarkers for exposure to ambient air pollution - Comparison of carcinogen-DNA adduct levels with other exposure markers and markers for oxidative stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Autrup, Herman; Daneshvar, Bahram; Dragsted, Lars Ove;

    1999-01-01

    Human exposure to genotoxic compounds present in ambient air has been studied using selected biomarkers in nonsmoking Danish bus drivers and postal workers. A large interindividual variation in biomarker levels was observed. Significantly higher levels of bulky carcinogen-DNA adducts (75.42 adducts....../10(8) nucleotides) and of 2-amino-apidic semialdehyde (AAS) in plasma proteins (56.7 pmol/mg protein) were observed in bus drivers working in the central part of Copenhagen, Denmark. In contrast, significantly higher levels of AAS in hemoglobin (55.8 pmol/mg protein), malondialdehyde in plasma (0.......96 nmol/ml plasma), and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-albumin adduct (3.38 fmol/mu g albumin) were observed in the suburban group. The biomarker levels in postal workers were similar to the levels in suburban bus drivers. In the combined group of bus drivers and postal workers, negative...

  14. Removal of Particles from the Supply Air of Ventilation Systems Avoiding the Formation of Sensory Pollution Source:Delivery of Clean Air to Building Occupants

    OpenAIRE

    Bekö, Gabriel

    2008-01-01

    Used ventilation filters can act as sources of strong sensory pollution. The pollutants emitted from loaded particle filters may include irritating products of chemical reactions occurring on the filter surfaces. Most likely oxidation reactions, especially those driven by ozone, seem to play an important role. Sensory pollutants emitted from used filters can have significant adverse impact on occupant performance. Therefore, removal of particles from the supply air of ventilation systems with...

  15. Evaluating the risk of air pollution to forests in central and Eastern Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellsworth, D.S. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Oleksyn, J. [Polish Academy of Sciences, Kornik (Poland). Institute of Dendrology

    1996-09-01

    Foliar damage to trees by air pollution in Central and Eastern Europe has been a major scientific and political issue. Emissions of toxic gases such as sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides can have wide-ranging effects on local and regional vegetation that can be compounded by other environmental stresses to plant growth. Since uptake and physiological effects of these gases on tree leaves we largely, mediated by stomata, surrogate methods for estimating pollutant conductances into leaves and forest canopies may lead to risk assessments for major vegetation types that can then be used in regional planning. Management options to ameliorate or mitigate air pollutant damage to forests and losses in productivity are likely to be more difficult to widely implement than on-the-stack emissions abatement. Informed management and policy decisions regarding Central and Eastern European forests are dependent on the development of quantitative tools and models for risk assessment of the effects of atmospheric pollutants on ecosystem health and productivity.

  16. Innovative Building Material - Reduction of Air Pollution through TioCem®

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolte, G.

    In many European cities air quality is a massive problem. Besides the particulate matter, nitrogen oxides (NOX) and volatile organic compounds (VOC) are mainly responsible for the heavy pollution. Motivation to “do something” to protect the environment and climate is increasing constantly. Pollutants such as nitrogen oxides can be oxidized by means of photolysis. With the help of photocatalytic active particles this effect can be accelerated extensively. Photocatalytic active particles dispersed in the concrete turn it into an air pollutant reducing surface. Pollutants getting in contact with the concrete surface are decomposed or oxidized and therewith rendered harmless. This brand new technique is introduced into building industry with a new label “TX Active®“. A premium brand cement for the production of photo catalytically active concrete products - TX Active® products - is now available in the form of TioCem®. This cement can effectively contribute to air purification by using in numerous concrete components such as pavement, roof tiles, facade plates, concrete road surfaces, mortars etc.

  17. The health burden of pollution: the impact of prenatal exposure to air pollutants

    OpenAIRE

    Sandra E. VIEIRA

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to atmospheric pollutants in both open and closed environments is a major cause of morbidity and mortality that may be both controlled and minimized. Despite growing evidence, several controversies and disagreements exist among the studies that have analyzed the effects of prenatal pollutant exposure. This review article aims to analyze primary scientific evidence of the effects of air pollution during pregnancy and the impact of these effects on the fetus, infant health, and in part...

  18. Hold your breath: A new index of air pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Environmental quality and climate change have been discussed prominently as urgent problems that – due to air pollution – produce severe consequences affecting the everyday life of millions of people. Using a Multiple Indicators Multiple Causes (MIMIC) model, we calculate a new index of air pollution and provide a ranking for 122 countries for every fifth year between 1985 and 2005. The empirical analysis supports the Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC) hypothesis and shows a significant influence of determinants such as energy efficiency, industrial production, the electricity produced from coal sources, and demographic transition on air pollution. According to the index, Norway, Switzerland, Japan, Luxembourg, and Iceland are among the top 5 countries in terms of air quality performance. Eritrea, Mozambique, Tajikistan, the Democratic Republic of Congo, and Ethiopia performed worst in 2005. - Highlights: ► We calculate a new index of air pollution and provide a ranking for 122 countries. ► The empirical analysis supports the EKC hypothesis. ► Country ranking of this air pollution index is comparable across the period 1985 to 2005. ► Definition of the underlying variables does not change and the methodology is consistent

  19. India’s urban environment: air and water pollution and pollution abatement

    OpenAIRE

    Sridhar, Kala S.; Kumar, Surender

    2012-01-01

    This paper focuses on air and water pollution in India’s cities, provides empirical evidence to demonstrate the seriousness of the challenges, discusses the relevant policies of national and local government that are used to address the challenges, discusses relevant political economy issues related to introducing pollution taxes or other policies which are aimed at “green” cities.

  20. Air Pollution and Autism Spectrum Disorders: Causal or Confounded?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisskopf, Marc G; Kioumourtzoglou, Marianthi-Anna; Roberts, Andrea L

    2015-12-01

    In the last decade, several studies have examined the association between perinatal exposure to ambient air pollution and risk of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). These studies have largely been consistent, with associations seen with different aspects of air pollution, including hazardous air toxics, ozone, particulate, and traffic-related pollution. Confounding by socioeconomic status (SES) and place of residence are of particular concern, as these can be related to ASD case ascertainment and other potential causal risk factors for ASD. While all studies take steps to address this concern, residual confounding is difficult to rule out. Two recent studies of air pollution and ASD, however, present findings that strongly argue against residual confounding, especially for factors that do not vary over relatively short time intervals. These two studies, conducted in communities around the USA, found a specific association with air pollution exposure during the 3rd, but not the 1st, trimester, when both trimesters were modeled simultaneously. In this review, we discuss confounding possibilities and then explain-with the aid of directed acyclic graphs (DAGs)-why an association that is specific to a particular time window, when multiple exposure windows are simultaneously assessed, argues against residual confounding by (even unmeasured) non-time-varying factors. In addition, we discuss why examining ambient air pollution concentration as a proxy for personal exposure helps avoid confounding by personal behavior differences, and the implications of measurement error in using ambient concentrations as a proxy for personal exposures. Given the general consistency of findings across studies and the exposure-window-specific associations recently reported, the overall evidence for a causal association between air pollution and ASD is increasingly compelling. PMID:26399256

  1. Air pollution impacts from demand-side management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Air-polluting emission rates and energy-efficiency ratings vary widely among power plants, depending on location, age and whether the power plant is repowered. Traditional regulations require installation of specified emission control equipment that varies among power plants. These regulations do not specify that utilities first dispatch the cleanest power plants as demand varies from peak to off-peak periods. This empirical analysis shows, for 2 years out of 20, that demand-side management (DSM) programs increase air pollution. One reason for this result is that regulations require installation of specific emission-control technology but do not provide the incentive to take actual emissions or their air quality impacts into account when operating the system. For certain types of air pollutants and in some regions, regulatory programs now include markets for tradable emission credits. Such programs may alter this incentive. (author)

  2. Statistical Distributions of Ambient Air Pollutants in Shanghai,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAI-DONG KAN; BING-HENG CHEN

    2004-01-01

    To determine the best statistical distribution of concentration data of major air pollutants in Shanghai. Methods Four types of theoretic distributions (lognormal, gamma, Pearson V and extreme value) were chosen to fit daily average concentration data of PM10, SO2 and NO2 from June 1, 2000 to May 31, 2003 in Shanghai by using the maximum likelihood method. The fit results were evaluated by Chi-square test. Results The best-fit distributions for PM10, SO2 and NO2 concentrations in Shanghai were lognormal, Pearson V, and extreme value distributions, respectively. Conclusion The results can be further applied to local air pollution prediction and control, e.g., the probabilities exceeding the air quality standard and emission source reduction of air pollutant concentration to meet the standard.

  3. 40 CFR Appendix: Table 1 to... - List of Hazardous Air Pollutants (HAP) for Subpart HHH

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true List of Hazardous Air Pollutants (HAP... AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants From... HHH of Part 63—List of Hazardous Air Pollutants (HAP) for Subpart HHH CAS Number a Chemical name...

  4. Air pollution in urban area of Foligno (Italy)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work shows the air pollution levels, based on air's quality laws, detected around the urban area of the city of Foligno (Perugia-Italy)). The preliminary study done, has shown a general result of a good quality of the air, even if there were some excesses of the Attention Levels, during situations not alarming, as these situations occurred in particular conditions, characterized by intense traffic and unfavorable meteorological conditions

  5. Policy considerations in developing air pollution strategies: A US perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper outlines the air quality management approach to air pollution control as applied in the US, emphasizing situations in which theory and practical experience have differed. Particular emphasis is placed on the development and application of tropospheric ozone policy, including an overview of past failures and successes, recommended improvements, and the new approach embodied in the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments. The paper concludes with a brief summary of emerging science/policy concerns in ozone strategy

  6. 76 FR 15266 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants; Notice of Reconsideration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-21

    ... Pollutants; Notice of Reconsideration AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice of... aspects of the national emission standards for hazardous air pollutants (NESHAP) for new and existing... Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Major Sources: Industrial, Commercial, and Institutional...

  7. An Integrative Study of Photochemical Air Pollution in Hong Kong: an Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, T.

    2014-12-01

    Hong Kong is situated in the Pearl River delta of Southern China. This region has experienced phenomenal economic growth in the past 30 years. Emissions of large amount of pollutants from urban areas and various industries coupled with subtropical climate have led to frequent occurrences of severe photochemical air pollution. Despite the long-term control efforts of the Hong Kong government, the atmospheric levels of ozone have been increasing in the past decade. To obtain an updated and more complete understanding of photochemical smog, an integrative study has been conducted during 2010-2014. Several intensive measurement campaigns were carried out at urban, suburban and rural sites in addition to the routine observations at fourteen air quality monitoring stations in Hong Kong. Meteorological, photochemical, and chemical-transport modeling studies were conducted to investigate the causes/processes of elevated photochemical pollution . The main activities of this study were to (1) examine the situation and trends of photochemical air pollution in Hong Kong, (2) understand some underlying chemical processes in particular the poorly-understood heterogeneous processes of reactive nitrogen oxides, (3) quantify the local, regional, and super-regional contributions to the ozone pollution in Hong Kong, and (4) review the control policy and make further recommendations based on the science. This paper will give an overview of this study and present some key results on the trends and chemistry of the photochemical pollution in this polluted subtropical region.

  8. Air Quality in Lanzhou, a Major Industrial City in China: Characteristics of Air Pollution and Review of Existing Evidence from Air Pollution and Health Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Yaqun; Li, Min; Bravo, Mercedes A.; Jin, Lan; Nori-Sarma, Amruta; Xu, Yanwen; Guan, Donghong; Wang, Chengyuan; Chen, Mingxia; Wang, Xiao; Tao, Wei; Qiu, Weitao; Zhang, Yawei; Bell, Michelle L.

    2014-01-01

    Air pollution contributes substantially to global health burdens; however, less is known about pollution patterns in China and whether they differ from those elsewhere. We evaluated temporal and spatial heterogeneity of air pollution in Lanzhou, an urban Chinese city (April 2009–December 2012), and conducted a systematic review of literature on air pollution and health in Lanzhou. Average levels were 141.5, 42.3, and 47.2 µg/m3 for particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter ≤10 µm (PM10)...

  9. Air pollutant penetration through airflow leaks into buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, De-Ling

    2002-09-01

    The penetration of ambient air pollutants into the indoor environment is of concern owing to several factors: (1) epidemiological studies have shown a strong association between ambient fine particulate pollution and elevated risk of human mortality; (2) people spend most of their time in indoor environments; and (3) most information about air pollutant concentration is only available from ambient routine monitoring networks. A good understanding of ambient air pollutant transport from source to receptor requires knowledge about pollutant penetration across building envelopes. Therefore, it is essential to gain insight into particle penetration in infiltrating air and the factors that affect it in order to assess human exposure more accurately, and to further prevent adverse human health effects from ambient particulate pollution. In this dissertation, the understanding of air pollutant infiltration across leaks in the building envelope was advanced by performing modeling predictions as well as experimental investigations. The modeling analyses quantified the extent of airborne particle and reactive gas (e.g., ozone) penetration through building cracks and wall cavities using engineering analysis that incorporates existing information on building leakage characteristics, knowledge of pollutant transport processes, as well as pollutant-surface interactions. Particle penetration is primarily governed by particle diameter and by the smallest dimension of the building cracks. Particles of 0.1-1 {micro}m are predicted to have the highest penetration efficiency, nearly unity for crack heights of 0.25 mm or higher, assuming a pressure differential of 4 Pa or greater and a flow path length of 3 cm or less. Supermicron and ultrafine particles (less than 0.1 {micro}m) are readily deposited on crack surfaces by means of gravitational settling and Brownian diffusion, respectively. The fraction of ozone penetration through building leaks could vary widely, depending

  10. Effects of air pollution on visual acuity, their seasonal translation in a year, Tokyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oshima, H.

    1975-02-01

    Experiments were performed during every season from 1972 to 1974 to determine the effects of air pollution, including the effect of photochemical smog on visual acuity in the summer. Visible distance and illumination intensity in daytime were compared to concentrations of oxidant, floating particles, sulfur dioxide, nitric oxide, nitrogen dioxide and carbon monoxide. The diminution of visual acuity in summer smog was less than winter smog. However, it was smaller in slight air pollution, and also showed a different pattern. While the illumination intensity at noon was significantly related to the concentration of floating particles throughout the year, both the concentration of SO/sub 2/ in winter and the concentration of oxidant in summer showed a significant correlation to the illumination intensity.

  11. Biological effects of air pollution in Sao Paulo and Cubatao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boehm, G.M.S.; Saldiva, P.H.; Pasqualucci, C.A.; Massad, E.; Martins M de, E.; Zin, W.A.; Cardoso, W.V.; Criado, P.M.; Komatsuzaki, M.; Sakae, R.S. (Instituto do Coracao, Faculdade de Medicina da USP, Sao Paulo (Brazil))

    1989-08-01

    Rats were used as biological indicators of air quality in two heavily polluted Brazilian towns: Sao Paulo and Cubatao. They were exposed for 6 months to ambient air in areas where the pollution was known to be severe. The following parameters were studied and compared to those of control animals: respiratory mechanics, mucociliary transport, morphometry of respiratory epithelium and distal air spaces, and general morphological alterations. The results showed lesions of the distal and upper airways in rats exposed in Cubatao, whereas the animals from Sao Paulo showed only alterations of the upper airways but of greater intensity than those observed in the Cubatao group. There are both qualitative and quantitative differences in the pollutants of these places: in Sao Paulo automobile exhaust gases dominate and in Cubatao the pollution is due mainly to particulates of industrial sources. The correlation of the pathological findings with the pollutants is discussed and it is concluded that biological indicators are useful to monitor air pollutions which reached dangerous levels in Sao Paulo and Cubatao.

  12. Economic aspects of air pollution abatement. Air pollution abatement recommended for economic reasons; Oekonomische Aspekte des Klimaschutzes. Gerade aus oekonomischer Sicht ist Klimaschutz sinnvoll

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jasper, J.; Serger, H. [Hannover Univ. (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Mikrooekonomik

    2005-07-01

    Climate change is not only dangerous but also expensive. On the other hand, air pollution abatement measures are costly as well. Scientists of the Microeconomics Department investigated how air pollution abatement and cost efficiency can best be combined. (orig.)

  13. The Proceedings of the Panel “Effects of Air Pollution on Human Health, Air Pollution Problem in the World, Turkey and Our Region” (The Conference Hall of Dicle University, Diyarbakır 24.12.2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Bayram

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Air pollution still exceeds safe limits worldwide, particularly in big metropolitans, despite regular monitoring facilities and measures taken. It is usually originated from industrial activities, fossil fuel use in domestic settings and vehicle exhaust emission. Although there is a decrease in air pollution in big cities of Turkey due to use of natural gas, it is still a serious health concern. In Diyarbakır, because of a rapid increase in its population recently, wrong urbanisation and a relative increase in industrialisation, air pollution leads to dangerous levels, particularly in the winter. Epidemiological studies from all over the world, and Turkey have reported a close relation between air pollution and respiratory morbidity and mortality. Studies investigating the mechanisms underlying respiratory effects of air pollution demonstrated that pollutants lead to increased respiratory symptoms, decreased respiratory function and induce inflammatory changes in airways. In vitro studies have shown that air pollutants exert their effects by causing cellular injury directly, and by activating intracellular oxidative pathways indirectly. The attempts to reduce air pollution levels have been implemented in Turkey and worldwide. In order to solve the problem in Diyarbakır, several measures such as prevention the use of out standardized fuel, use of reliable burning techniques, and a close car emission monitoring system need to be implemented.

  14. Crop loss due to air pollution in The Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Eerden, L J; Tonneijck, A E; Wijnands, J H

    1988-01-01

    The extent of yield reduction and economic loss caused by air pollution has been estimated for The Netherlands. Based on available data on direct effects only, each species was designated as sensitive, moderately sensitive or tolerant. On a nationwide scale, only ozone (O3), sulphur dioxide (SO2), and hydrogen fluoride (HF) exceeded effect thresholds. Effects from pollutant combinations were assumed to be additive. Yield reductions were calculated, using 10 exposure-response relationships and concentration data from the Dutch air pollution monitoring network. Changes in air pollution levels result in changes in supply. By multiplying the supply with the current price, the so-called crop volume was calculated. Subsequently, changes in crop volume were converted into economic terms, taking into account demand elasticity. On the basis of these calculations, air pollution in The Netherlands reduces total crop volume by 5%:3.4% by O3, 1.2% by SO2, and 0.4% by HF. The slope of the nonlinear relationship between crop volume reduction and exposure level increases at higher concentrations. In general, air pollution causes relatively little loss to producers, since yield reductions are largely compensated by higher prices. If air pollution in The Netherlands would be reduced to background concentrations, consumers would experience a net gain of Dfl 640 million (US 320 million dollars). Although large amounts of data were attained through literature and our own experience for this study, many assumptions still had to be made to arrive at these conclusions. With the current available knowledge, validation of our results in the field is not yet possible. PMID:15092562

  15. Energy use and air pollution in Indonesia. Supply strategies, environmental impacts and pollution control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book summarises the results of the ''Markal Study'', which is part of the scientific cooperation between the Indonesian and German governments. The nine chapters cover: an introduction to Indonesia and the objectives of the study; demographic and economic developments; fast increasing domestic energy use; pollution development on Jawa in the case of insufficient control; risks for ecosystems on Jawa; health risks from air pollution; pollution development and control cost in the case of reduced emissions, carbon dioxide emission analysis, and final recommendations for air quality management. A bibliography of the project reports on which the book is based as well as other sources is presented. (UK)

  16. Arctic air pollution: Challenges and opportunities for the next decade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.R. Arnold

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The Arctic is a sentinel of global change. This region is influenced by multiple physical and socio-economic drivers and feedbacks, impacting both the natural and human environment. Air pollution is one such driver that impacts Arctic climate change, ecosystems and health but significant uncertainties still surround quantification of these effects. Arctic air pollution includes harmful trace gases (e.g. tropospheric ozone and particles (e.g. black carbon, sulphate and toxic substances (e.g. polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons that can be transported to the Arctic from emission sources located far outside the region, or emitted within the Arctic from activities including shipping, power production, and other industrial activities. This paper qualitatively summarizes the complex science issues motivating the creation of a new international initiative, PACES (air Pollution in the Arctic: Climate, Environment and Societies. Approaches for coordinated, international and interdisciplinary research on this topic are described with the goal to improve predictive capability via new understanding about sources, processes, feedbacks and impacts of Arctic air pollution. Overarching research actions are outlined, in which we describe our recommendations for 1 the development of trans-disciplinary approaches combining social and economic research with investigation of the chemical and physical aspects of Arctic air pollution; 2 increasing the quality and quantity of observations in the Arctic using long-term monitoring and intensive field studies, both at the surface and throughout the troposphere; and 3 developing improved predictive capability across a range of spatial and temporal scales.

  17. The Effects of Air Pollution and Temperature on COPD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansel, Nadia N; McCormack, Meredith C; Kim, Victor

    2016-06-01

    Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) affects 12-16 million people in the United States and is the third-leading cause of death. In developed countries, smoking is the greatest risk factor for the development of COPD, but other exposures also contribute to the development and progression of the disease. Several studies suggest, though are not definitive, that outdoor air pollution exposure is linked to the prevalence and incidence of COPD. Among individuals with COPD, outdoor air pollutants are associated with loss of lung function and increased respiratory symptoms. In addition, outdoor air pollutants are also associated with COPD exacerbations and mortality. There is much less evidence for the impact of indoor air on COPD, especially in developed countries in residences without biomass exposure. The limited existing data suggests that indoor particulate matter and nitrogen dioxide concentrations are linked to increased respiratory symptoms among patients with COPD. In addition, with the projected increases in temperature and extreme weather events in the context of climate change there has been increased attention to the effects of heat exposure. Extremes of temperature-both heat and cold-have been associated with increased respiratory morbidity in COPD. Some studies also suggest that temperature may modify the effect of pollution exposure and though results are not conclusive, understanding factors that may modify susceptibility to air pollution in patients with COPD is of utmost importance. PMID:26683097

  18. China's air pollution reduction efforts may result in an increase in surface ozone levels in highly polluted areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anger, Annela; Dessens, Olivier; Xi, Fengming; Barker, Terry; Wu, Rui

    2016-03-01

    China, as a fast growing fossil-fuel-based economy, experiences increasing levels of air pollution. To tackle air pollution, China has taken the first steps by setting emission-reduction targets for nitrogen oxides (NO x ) and sulphur dioxide (SO2) in the 11th and 12th Five Year Plans. This paper uses two models-the Energy-Environment-Economy Model at the Global level (E3MG) and the global Chemistry Transport Model pTOMCAT-to test the effects of these policies. If the policy targets are met, then the maximum values of 32 % and 45 % reductions below 'business as usual' in the monthly mean NO x and SO2 concentrations, respectively, will be achieved in 2015. However, a decrease in NO x concentrations in some highly polluted areas of East, North-East and South-East China can lead to up to a 10% increase in the monthly mean concentrations in surface ozone in 2015. Our study demonstrates an urgent need for the more detailed analysis of the impacts and designs of air pollution reduction guidelines for China. PMID:26409886

  19. Cell type specificity of female lung cancer associated with sulfur dioxide from air pollutants in Taiwan: An ecological study

    OpenAIRE

    Tseng Ching-Yu; Huang Yi-Chia; Su Shih-Yung; Huang Jing-Yang; Lai Cheng-Hsiu; Lung Chia-Chi; Ho Chien-Chang; Liaw Yung-Po

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Many studies have examined the association between air pollutants (including sulfur dioxide [SO2], carbon monoxide [CO], nitrogen dioxide [NO2], nitric oxide [NO], ozone [O3], and particulate matter < 10 μm [PM10]) and lung cancer. However, data from previous studies on pathological cell types were limited, especially for SO2 exposure. We aimed to explore the association between SO2 exposure from outdoor air pollutants and female lung cancer incidence by cell type specific...

  20. Nitric oxide in exhaled and aspirated nasal air as an objective measure of human response to isopropanol oxidation products and pthtalate esters in indoor air

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lagercrantz, Love Per; Famula, Basia; Sundell, Jan

    2005-01-01

    exposed to 2 commonly occurring indoor air pollutants and to a clean reference condition for 4.5 hours. Assessments of the environment were obtained using questionnaires. The polluted conditions were perceived as worse than the reference condition. After exposure to the two polluted conditions a small......The use of Nitric Oxide (NO) concentration in exhaled and aspirated nasal air to assess human response to indoor air pollution was tested in a climate chamber exposure experiment. The concentration of NO was measured using a chemiluminescence NO analyser. Sixteen healthy female subjects were...... increase in NO concentration (+2.7% and +7.2%) in exhaled air was observed. After exposure to the reference condition the mean NO concentration was significantly reduced (-14.3%) compared to before exposure. NO in nasal air was unaffected by the exposures. The results indicate an association between...

  1. Preliminary air pollution survey of hydrogen sulfide: a literature review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miner, S.

    1969-10-01

    This is a preliminary literature review representing present knowledge of hydrogen sulfide and its effects on humans, animals, plants and materials. Hydrogen sulfide is a colorless gas that has an obnoxious odor at low concentrations. The odor threshold is in the g/cu m range. In higher concentrations, the gas is toxic to humans and animals and corrosive to many metals. It will tarnish silver and react with heavy metals in points to discolor the paint. In humans, it will cause headache, conjunctivitis, sleeplessness, pain in the eyes, and similar symptoms at low air concentrations and death at high air concentrations. However, the majority of the complaints arising from hydrogen sulfide air pollution are due to its obnoxious odor in extremely low air concentrations. Air pollution by hydrogen sulfide is not a widespread urban problem but is generally localized in the vicinity of an emitter such as kraft paper mills, industrial waste disposal ponds, sewage plants, refineries, and coke oven plants.

  2. Pollution. Warning on the future of air quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article comments the results published by INERIS (the French national institute of the industrial environment and risks) and based on the use of its model Chimere which aims at measuring and foreseeing the evolution of air quality. This model simulates the concentrations of pollutants in the air. It is integrated into the national tool of prediction of air quality, PREV'AIR, which studies prospective scenarios of reduction of emissions, and is also part of the SALUT'AIR project which assesses the evolution of atmospheric concentrations of pollutants by 2050 while taking climate change into account. These models notably show the importance of atmospheric circulation over continents. The author also recalls and comments the objectives of the UN Goteborg protocol for 2020

  3. Organic compounds as indicators of air pollution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mølhave, Lars

    2003-01-01

    suchstandards. A major research need exist on the less adverse pollutants beforerecommendations or guidelines can be established. In the interim period a pre-caution principle should lead to an ALARA principle for these secondary cau-salities. It should be noted that volatile organic compound (VOC) as an...... IAQproblem still is in the end of a phase of ad hoc solutions, in the middle of aresearch phase and only in the beginning of a regulatory phase. Any final officialregulation in this area will have to be tentative and the final regulation mustawait further research. Total volatile organic compound (TVOC) is...... an indicatorfor the presence of VOC indoors. The TVOC indicator can be used in relation toexposure characterization and source identification but for VOCs only, not as anindictor of other pollutants and their health effects. In risk assessment the TVOCindicator can only be used as a screening tool...

  4. Aerosol and air pollution size distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shani, Gad; Haccoun, A.; Kushelevsky, A.

    The size distribution of aerosols was measured in a moderately industrial city, in a semi-arid zone on the Negev desert border. The aerosols in the city of Beer Sheva are from two sources: the dust coming from the desert and urban pollution. The size measurements were done with a cascade impactor. The elemental content of the aerosols was investigated by neutron activation analysis and X-ray fluorescence. The main elements of the dust are: Ca, Si, Fe, Na and the trace elements are: Sc, Se, La, Sm, Hf and others. The main elements of the urban pollution are S, Br, Pb, Cl, Hg and others. It was found that the elements belonging to each group can easily be classified by the size distribution. The analytical consideration of the aerosol size distribution of each group are discussed and two corresponding analytical expressions are suggested. It is shown that aerosols originating in the dust have a hump shape distribution around ~ 4μm, and those originating in urban pollution have a distribution decreasing with increasing aerosol diameter. Many examples are given to prove the conclusions.

  5. Modification by antioxidant supplementation of changes in human lung function associated with air pollutant exposure: A systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Chow Katherine S; Tashakkor Amir Y; Carlsten Chris

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Outdoor air pollution, given its demonstrated negative effects on the respiratory system, is a growing public health concern worldwide, particularly in urban cities. Human exposure to pollutants such as ozone, nitrogen oxides, combustion-related particulate matter and oxides of sulfur is responsible for significant cardiopulmonary morbidity and mortality in both adults and children. Several antioxidants have shown an ability to partially attenuate the negative physiologica...

  6. Evaluation of health effects of air pollution in the Chestnut Ridge area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gruhl, J.; Schweppe, F.C.

    1980-01-01

    This project involves several tasks designed to take advantage of a very extensive air pollution monitoring system that is operating in the Chestnut Ridge region of Western Pennsylvania and the very well developed analytic dispersion models that have been previously fine-tuned to this particular area. The major task in this project is to establish, through several distinct epidemiologic approaches, health data to be used to test hypotheses about relations of air pollution exposures to morbidity and mortality rates in this region. This project affords a cost-effective opportunity for state-of-the-art techniques to be used in both costly areas of air pollution and health effects data collection. The closely spaced network of monitors, plus the dispersion modeling capabilities, allow for the investigation of health impacts of various pollutant gradients in neighboring geographic areas, thus minimizing the confounding effects of social, ethnic, and economic factors. The pollutants that are monitored in this network include total gaseous sulfur, sulfates, total suspended particulates, NOx, NO, ozone/oxidants, and coefficient of haze. In addition to enabling the simulation of exposure profiles between monitors, the air quality modeling, along with extensive source and background inventories, will allow for upgrading the quality of the monitored data as well as simulating the exposure levels for about 25 additional air pollutants. Another important goal of this project is to collect and test the many available models for associating health effects with air pollution, to determine their predictive validity and their usefulness in the choice and siting of future energy facilities.

  7. Urban air pollution, climate and its impact on asthma morbidity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lyudmila Vasilievna Veremchuk; Vera Innokentievna Yankova; Tatyana Isaakovna Vitkina; Anna Vladimirovna Nazarenko; Kirill Sergeevich Golokhvast

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To study the mechanism of formation of air quality and to determine the impact of the studied factors on asthma morbidity in Vladivostok. Methods: The evaluation of air pollution in Vladivostok was done using long-term (2008–2012) monitoring data (temperature, humidity, atmospheric pressure, wind speed, etc.). The levels of suspended particulate matter, nitrogen and sulfur dioxide, carbon monoxide, ammonia, formaldehyde (mg/m3) in six stationary observation posts were assessed. We studied the aerosol suspensions of solid particles, which were collected during snowfall from precipitation (snow) and air in 14 districts with different levels of anthropogenic impact. Melted snow was analyzed on laser granulometry. The impact of air pollution on the distribution of asthma morbidity was evaluated in various age groups by data of federal statistical observation obtained from 8 adults and 7 children municipal clinics in Vladivostok (2008–2012). Results: The content of suspended particulate components of pollution remained more stable, due to the features of atmospheric circulation, rugged terrain and residential development. The nano- and micro-sized particles (0–50 mm), which can absorb highly toxic metals, prevail in dust aerosols. These respirable fractions of particles, even in small doses, can contribute to the increase in asthma morbidity in the city. Conclusions: We determined that asthma morbidity depends from general air pollution (in the range of 18.3%). It was detected that the highest age-specific dependence is associated with the content of particulate matter, carbon monoxide and nitrogen dioxide in air.

  8. DIETARY VITAMIN E DEFICIENCY AS A MODIFIER OF THE ASSOCIATIONS OF RESPIRATORY OUTCOMES WITH AIR POLLUTION IN ADOLESCENTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Introduction: We investigated whether low dietary intake of the lipophilic antioxidant vitamin E may act as a modifier of chronic air pollution's associations with respiratory outcomes among adolescents due to an increased respiratory response to the oxidative effects of air pol...

  9. Assessment of China's virtual air pollution transport embodied in trade by using a consumption-based emission inventory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, H. Y.; Zhang, Q.; Guan, D. B.; Davis, S. J.; Liu, Z.; Huo, H.; Lin, J. T.; Liu, W. D.; He, K. B.

    2015-05-01

    Substantial anthropogenic emissions from China have resulted in serious air pollution, and this has generated considerable academic and public concern. The physical transport of air pollutants in the atmosphere has been extensively investigated; however, understanding the mechanisms how the pollutant was transferred through economic and trade activities remains a challenge. For the first time, we quantified and tracked China's air pollutant emission flows embodied in interprovincial trade, using a multiregional input-output model framework. Trade relative emissions for four key air pollutants (primary fine particle matter, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides and non-methane volatile organic compounds) were assessed for 2007 in each Chinese province. We found that emissions were significantly redistributed among provinces owing to interprovincial trade. Large amounts of emissions were embodied in the imports of eastern regions from northern and central regions, and these were determined by differences in regional economic status and environmental policy. It is suggested that measures should be introduced to reduce air pollution by integrating cross-regional consumers and producers within national agreements to encourage efficiency improvement in the supply chain and optimize consumption structure internationally. The consumption-based air pollutant emission inventory developed in this work can be further used to attribute pollution to various economic activities and final demand types with the aid of air quality models.

  10. Effects and control of long-range transboundary air pollution. Report prepared within the framework of the Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This eleventh volume of the series of Air Pollution Studies, published under the auspices of the Executive Body for the Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution, contains the documents reviewed and approved for publication at the twelfth session of the Executive Body held at Geneva from 28 November to 1 December 1994. Part one focuses on the possible impact of acid deposition on the quality of groundwater in the ECE region. The objective of this report is to present an updated review of available knowledge on the possible impact of deposition of sulphur and nitrogen compounds on the status of groundwater, including a brief survey of recent research results in this field. It updates an earlier report on the effects of air pollutants on groundwater, prepared within the Convention (EB.AIR/WG.1/R.9). Part two is an executive summary of the 1993 Report on the Forest Condition in Europe (Forest Condition in Europe. Results of the 1993 Survey. 1994 Report, EC-UN/ECE, Brussels, Geneva, 1994). The report describes the results of both the national and the transnational surveys which are conducted annually within the International Cooperative Programme on the Assessment and Monitoring of Air Pollution Effects on Forests (ICP Forests) of the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (ECE) and under European Community Council Regulation (EEC) 3528/86 on the protection of the Community's Forests against Atmospheric Pollution. Part three is a summary report on the options for further reduction of nitrogen oxide emissions from road heavy-duty vehicles (HDVs). This report is primarily focused on reduction options for road HDVs, but some of the technical measures reviewed can, however, also be applied to some non-road diesel engines, such as machinery in construction, agriculture or forestry

  11. Economic development and multiple air pollutant emissions from the industrial sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, Hidemichi; Managi, Shunsuke

    2016-02-01

    This study analyzed the relationship between economic growth and emissions of eight environmental air pollutants (carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O), nitrogen oxide (NOx), sulfur oxide (SOx), carbon monoxide (CO), non-methane volatile organic compound (NMVOC), and ammonia (NH3)) in 39 countries from 1995 to 2009. We tested an environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) hypothesis for 16 individual industry sectors and for the total industrial sector. The results clarified that at least ten individual industries do not have an EKC relationship in eight air pollutants even though this relationship was observed in the country and total industrial sector level data. We found that the key industries that dictated the EKC relationship in the country and the total industrial sector existed in CO2, N2O, CO, and NMVOC emissions. Finally, the EKC turning point and the relationship between economic development and trends of air pollutant emissions differ among industries according to the pollution substances. These results suggest inducing new environmental policy design such as the sectoral crediting mechanism, which focuses on the industrial characteristics of emissions. PMID:26452654

  12. Tolerance Levels of Roadside Trees to Air Pollutants Based on Relative Growth Rate and Air Pollution Tolerance Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SULISTIJORINI

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Motor vehicles release carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, sulphur dioxide, and particulate matters to the air as pollutants. Vegetation can absorb these pollutants through gas exchange processes. The objective of this study was to examine the combination of the relative growth rate (RGR and physiological responses in determining tolerance levels of plant species to air pollutants. Physiological responses were calculated as air pollution tolerance index (APTI. Eight roadside tree species were placed at polluted (Jagorawi highway and unpolluted (Sindangbarang field area. Growth and physiological parameters of the trees were recorded, including plant height, leaf area, total ascorbate, total chlorophyll, leaf-extract pH, and relative water content. Scoring criteria for the combination of RGR and APTI method was given based on means of the two areas based on two-sample t test. Based on the total score of RGR and APTI, Lagerstroemia speciosa was categorized as a tolerant species; and Pterocarpus indicus, Delonix regia, Swietenia macrophylla were categorized as moderately tolerant species. Gmelina arborea, Cinnamomum burmanii, and Mimusops elengi were categorized as intermediate tolerant species. Lagerstroemia speciosa could be potentially used as roadside tree. The combination of RGR and APTI value was better to determinate tolerance level of plant to air pollutant than merely APTI method.

  13. Stopping air pollution at its source; Clean Air Program explanatory notes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-01-01

    An Ontario government review of its air pollution control program found that Regulation 308, the principal regulation relating to air pollution control, needed updating to provide additional protection to the people and environment. These explanatory notes provide a summary of the discussion paper, which presents an overview of the proposed amendments to Regulation 308 and a summary of objectives, in order to stimulate comments and criticism. The notes list the objections to the old regulation and briefly describe the objectives of the proposed amendments in the areas of emission limits, classification of contaminants, levels of pollution control, and ambient air standards. Definitions of terms and phraseology are also included.

  14. Heterogeneous Photocatalysis: Fundamentals and Application for Treatment of Polluted Air

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomašić, V.

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The use of heterogeneous photocatalysts for the abatement of environmental problems has received increased attention during the last three decades. The photocatalyst used in most of these studies was titanium dioxide. This fact relates to the unique physical and chemical properties of titanium dioxide and similar semiconductor materials, such as ZnO, MgO,WO3, Fe2Oa, CdS, etc. that may be utilized for a wide range of potential applications. Specifically, upon ultraviolet irradiation these materials exhibit photocatalytic activity that enables the oxidative destruction of a wide range of organic compounds and biological species on their surface. In addition, these materials may also exhibit photocatalytically induced superhydrophilicity that converts the hydrophobic character of the surface to hydrophilic when exposed to UV light. This causes the formation of uniform water films on the surface of these materials, which prevents the adhesion of inorganic or organic components and thus retains a clean surface on the photocatalyst. Photocatalytic materials may be deployed on surfaces of various substrates, such as glass, ceramics or metals to provide layers that exhibit photocatalytic activity when they are exposed to light. Excitation of a photocatalyst leads to the creation of electrons and holes in the semiconductor material. Furthermore, these electrons and holes interact with molecules adsorbed on the semiconductor and can induce charge transfer process that results in the degradation of the adsorbate. The commercial potentials of heterogeneous photocatalysis are huge, including medical applications, application in the field of architecture (particularly for the cultural heritage purposes, facade paints, etc., automotive and food industries (cleaner technologies, non-fogging glass and mirrors, product safety, textile and glass industry, as well as in environmental protection (water and air purification and disinfection. After the discovery that

  15. Modification by antioxidant supplementation of changes in human lung function associated with air pollutant exposure: A systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chow Katherine S

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Outdoor air pollution, given its demonstrated negative effects on the respiratory system, is a growing public health concern worldwide, particularly in urban cities. Human exposure to pollutants such as ozone, nitrogen oxides, combustion-related particulate matter and oxides of sulfur is responsible for significant cardiopulmonary morbidity and mortality in both adults and children. Several antioxidants have shown an ability to partially attenuate the negative physiological and functional impacts of air pollutants. This study systematically presents current data on the potential benefits of antioxidant supplementation on lung function outcomes associated with air pollutant exposures in intact humans. Methods Electronic databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, BIOSIS Previews, Web of Sciences, Environmental Sciences & Pollution Management and TOXNET were systematically searched for all studies published up to April 2009. Search terms relating to the concepts of respiratory tract diseases, respiratory function tests, air pollution, and antioxidants were used. Data was systematically abstracted from original articles that satisfied selection criteria for inclusion. For inclusion, the studies needed to have evaluated human subjects, given supplemental antioxidants, under conditions of known levels of air pollutants with measured lung function before and after antioxidant administration and/or air pollution exposure. Selected studies were summarized and conclusions presented. Results Eight studies investigated the role of antioxidant supplementation on measured lung function outcomes after subject exposure to air pollutants under controlled conditions; 5 of these studies concluded that pollutant-induced airway hyper-responsiveness and diminution in lung function measurements were attenuated by antioxidant supplementation. The remaining five studies took place under ambient (uncontrolled exposures and unanimously concluded that antioxidant

  16. Air pollution: a potentially modifiable risk factor for lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fajersztajn, Laís; Veras, Mariana; Barrozo, Ligia Vizeu; Saldiva, Paulo

    2013-09-01

    Economic growth and increased urbanization pose a new risk for cancer development: the exposure of high numbers of people to ambient air pollution. Epidemiological evidence that links air pollution to mortality from lung cancer is robust. An ability to produce high-quality scientific research that addresses these risks and the ability of local health authorities to understand and respond to these risks are basic requirements to solve the conflict between economic development and the preservation of human health. However, this is currently far from being achieved. Thus, this Science and Society article addresses the possibilities of expanding scientific networking to increase awareness of the risk of lung cancer that is promoted by air pollution. PMID:23924644

  17. Air pollution model and neural network: an integrated modelling system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is well known that neural networks can work as universal approximators of non-linear functions and they have become a useful tool either where any precise phenomenological model is available or when uncertainty complicates the application of deterministic modelling as, for example, in environmental systems. Usually, N N models are using as regression tool. We have developed an integrated modelling system coupling an air dispersion model with a neural network method both to simulate the influence of important parameters on air pollution models and to minimize the input neural net variables. In our approach, an optimised 3-Layer Perception is used to filter the air pollution concentrations evaluated by means of the non-Gaussian analytical model ADMD. We applied this methodology to the well known Indianapolis urban data set which deals with a release of pollutants from an elevated emission source.

  18. Air Pollution and Exercise: A Perspective From China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhen

    2016-09-01

    China is experiencing an air pollution crisis, which has already had a significantly negative impact on the health of the Chinese people. Although exercising is considered a useful means to prevent chronic diseases, it could actually lead to adverse effects due to extra exposure to polluted air when done outdoors. After a brief description of the rather scary situation in China, critical issues and challenges related to exercising in polluted air are outlined. The author calls for the exercise science community to work together to address these issues and challenges so that the health status of the current populations can be improved, the relationship among environment, exercising, and human health can be better understood, and future generations can live in a healthier environment. PMID:27462823

  19. Genomic analysis suggests higher susceptibility of children to air pollution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Leeuwen, Danitsja M; Pedersen, Marie; Hendriksen, Peter J M;

    2008-01-01

    pollution by comparing genome-wide gene expression profiles in peripheral blood of children and their parents. Gene expression analysis was performed in blood from children and parents living in two different regions in the Czech Republic with different levels of air pollution. Data were analyzed by two...... in relation to air pollution exposure at the transcriptome level. The findings underline the necessity of implementing environmental health policy measures specifically for protecting children's health.......Differences in biological responses to exposure to hazardous airborne substances between children and adults have been reported, suggesting children to be more susceptible. Aim of this study was to improve our understanding of differences in susceptibility in cancer risk associated with air...

  20. Modeling of air pollution from the power plant ash dumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleksic, Nenad M.; Balać, Nedeljko

    A simple model of air pollution from power plant ash dumps is presented, with emission rates calculated from the Bagnold formula and transport simulated by the ATDL type model. Moisture effects are accounted for by assumption that there is no pollution on rain days. Annual mean daily sedimentation rates, calculated for the area around the 'Nikola Tesla' power plants near Belgrade for 1987, show reasonably good agreement with observations.