WorldWideScience

Sample records for air pollution effects

  1. Health Effects of Air Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health effects of air pollution Health effects of air pollution Breathing air that is not clean can hurt ... important to know about the health effects that air pollution can have on you and others. Once you ...

  2. Cardiovascular effects of air pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourdrel, Thomas; Bind, Marie-Abèle; Béjot, Yannick; Morel, Olivier; Argacha, Jean-François

    2017-11-01

    Air pollution is composed of particulate matter (PM) and gaseous pollutants, such as nitrogen dioxide and ozone. PM is classified according to size into coarse particles (PM 10 ), fine particles (PM 2.5 ) and ultrafine particles. We aim to provide an original review of the scientific evidence from epidemiological and experimental studies examining the cardiovascular effects of outdoor air pollution. Pooled epidemiological studies reported that a 10μg/m 3 increase in long-term exposure to PM 2.5 was associated with an 11% increase in cardiovascular mortality. Increased cardiovascular mortality was also related to long-term and short-term exposure to nitrogen dioxide. Exposure to air pollution and road traffic was associated with an increased risk of arteriosclerosis, as shown by premature aortic and coronary calcification. Short-term increases in air pollution were associated with an increased risk of myocardial infarction, stroke and acute heart failure. The risk was increased even when pollutant concentrations were below European standards. Reinforcing the evidence from epidemiological studies, numerous experimental studies demonstrated that air pollution promotes a systemic vascular oxidative stress reaction. Radical oxygen species induce endothelial dysfunction, monocyte activation and some proatherogenic changes in lipoproteins, which initiate plaque formation. Furthermore, air pollution favours thrombus formation, because of an increase in coagulation factors and platelet activation. Experimental studies also indicate that some pollutants have more harmful cardiovascular effects, such as combustion-derived PM 2.5 and ultrafine particles. Air pollution is a major contributor to cardiovascular diseases. Promotion of safer air quality appears to be a new challenge in cardiovascular disease prevention. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Health Effects of Air Pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental Education Report and Newsletter, 1985

    1985-01-01

    Summarizes health hazards associated with air pollution, highlighting the difficulty in establishing acceptable thresholds of exposure. Respiratory disease, asthma, cancer, cardiovascular disease, and other problems are addressed. Indicates that a wide range of effects from any one chemical exists and that there are differences in sensitivity to…

  4. Cardiovascular effects of air pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brook, Robert D

    2008-09-01

    Air pollution is a heterogeneous mixture of gases, liquids and PM (particulate matter). In the modern urban world, PM is principally derived from fossil fuel combustion with individual constituents varying in size from a few nanometres to 10 microm in diameter. In addition to the ambient concentration, the pollution source and chemical composition may play roles in determining the biological toxicity and subsequent health effects. Nevertheless, studies from across the world have consistently shown that both short- and long-term exposures to PM are associated with a host of cardiovascular diseases, including myocardial ischaemia and infarctions, heart failure, arrhythmias, strokes and increased cardiovascular mortality. Evidence from cellular/toxicological experiments, controlled animal and human exposures and human panel studies have demonstrated several mechanisms by which particle exposure may both trigger acute events as well as prompt the chronic development of cardiovascular diseases. PM inhaled into the pulmonary tree may instigate remote cardiovascular health effects via three general pathways: instigation of systemic inflammation and/or oxidative stress, alterations in autonomic balance, and potentially by direct actions upon the vasculature of particle constituents capable of reaching the systemic circulation. In turn, these responses have been shown to trigger acute arterial vasoconstriction, endothelial dysfunction, arrhythmias and pro-coagulant/thrombotic actions. Finally, long-term exposure has been shown to enhance the chronic genesis of atherosclerosis. Although the risk to one individual at any single time point is small, given the prodigious number of people continuously exposed, PM air pollution imparts a tremendous burden to the global public health, ranking it as the 13th leading cause of morality (approx. 800,000 annual deaths).

  5. The air pollution: sources, effects, prevention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elichegaray, C.

    2008-01-01

    The author offers a detailed and illustrated panorama of the air pollution sources and effects. The study is realized at the individual scale with the indoor pollution and at a global scale with the consequences of the greenhouse effect gases. Added to classical pollutants, the book takes into account new pollutants (organic, nano particulates, biological) and the epidemiology. (A.L.B.)

  6. Air pollution: worldwide effects on mountain forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anne M. Rosenthal; Andrzej Featured: Bytnerowicz

    2004-01-01

    Widespread forest decline in remote areas of the Carpathian Mountains has been linked to air pollution from urban and industrial regions. Besides injuring plant tissues directly, pollutants may deposit to soils and water, drastically changing susceptible ecosystems. Researcher Andrzej Bytnerowicz has developed effective methods for assessing air quality over wildlands...

  7. Effects of air pollution on human health

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heimann, H

    1961-01-01

    An appreciable amount of knowledge exists about the effects of community air pollution upon human health. This knowledge comes in part from direct studies of the air pollution health problem and in part from investigations done for other purposes. It is equally apparent that there are many aspects of the subject of the health effects of air pollution on which sound information is lacking. Many years undoubtedly will pass before we have the answers to all the questions involved. Man-made air pollution could be entirely eliminated, but the price that civilization would be required to pay for this would be exorbitant by any standards, whether monetary or otherwise. It is unreasonable to contemplate that we could put a stop to all combustion, the chief source of man-made air pollution. It is logical, however, to consider that the clarification of the air on a qualitatively and quantitatively selective basis is feasible, and in some cases, highly desirable. This can be done, for example, by selectively arresting the contaminants at their source. 404 references.

  8. Air pollution holiday effect in metropolitan Kaohsiung

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, P.; Chen, P. Y.

    2014-12-01

    Different from Taipei, the metropolitan Kaohsiung which is a coastal and industrial city has the major pollution sources from stationary sources such as coal-fired power plants, petrochemical facilities and steel plants, rather than mobile sources. This study was an attempt to conduct a comprehensive and systematical examination of the holiday effect, defined as the difference in air pollutant concentrations between holiday and non-holiday periods, over the Kaohsiung metropolitan area. We documented evidence of a "holiday effect", where concentrations of NOx, CO, NMHC, SO2 and PM10 were significantly different between holidays and non-holidays, in the Kaohsiung metropolitan area from daily surface measurements of seven air quality monitoring stations of the Taiwan Environmental Protection Administration during the Chinese New Year (CNY) and non-Chinese New Year (NCNY) periods of 1994-2010. Concentrations of the five pollutants were lower in the CNY than in the NCNY period, however, that of O3 was higher in the CNY than in the NCNY period and had no holiday effect. The exclusion of the bad air quality day (PSI > 100) and the Lantern Festival Day showed no significant effects on the holiday effects of air pollutants. Ship transportation data of Kaohsiung Harbor Bureau showed a statistically significant difference in the CNY and NCNY period. This difference was consistent with those found in air pollutant concentrations of some industrial and general stations in coastal areas, implying the possible impact of traffic activity on the air quality of coastal areas. Holiday effects of air pollutants over the Taipei metropolitan area by Tan et al. (2009) are also compared.

  9. Air pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strauss, W; Mainwaring, S J

    1984-01-01

    This book deals with the nature of air pollution. The numerous sources of unwanted gases and dust particles in the air are discussed. Details are presented of the effects of pollutants on man, animals, vegetation and on inanimate materials. Methods used to measure, monitor and control air pollution are presented. The authors include information on the socio-economic factors which impinge on pollution control and on the problems the future will bring as methods of generating energy change and industries provide new sources of pollutants.

  10. Air Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Air pollution is a mixture of solid particles and gases in the air. Car emissions, chemicals from factories, ... Ozone, a gas, is a major part of air pollution in cities. When ozone forms air pollution, it's ...

  11. Traffic-related air pollution - the health effects scrutinized

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijland, M.E.

    2013-01-01

    Numerous studies have been published on the health effects associated with exposure to air pollution. Air pollution is acknowledged as a public health risk and air quality regulations are set for specific air pollutants to protect human health. A major pollutant, well known for its adverse health

  12. Human health effects of air pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kampa, Marilena; Castanas, Elias

    2008-01-01

    Hazardous chemicals escape to the environment by a number of natural and/or anthropogenic activities and may cause adverse effects on human health and the environment. Increased combustion of fossil fuels in the last century is responsible for the progressive change in the atmospheric composition. Air pollutants, such as carbon monoxide (CO), sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ), nitrogen oxides (NOx), volatile organic compounds (VOCs), ozone (O 3 ), heavy metals, and respirable particulate matter (PM2.5 and PM10), differ in their chemical composition, reaction properties, emission, time of disintegration and ability to diffuse in long or short distances. Air pollution has both acute and chronic effects on human health, affecting a number of different systems and organs. It ranges from minor upper respiratory irritation to chronic respiratory and heart disease, lung cancer, acute respiratory infections in children and chronic bronchitis in adults, aggravating pre-existing heart and lung disease, or asthmatic attacks. In addition, short- and long-term exposures have also been linked with premature mortality and reduced life expectancy. These effects of air pollutants on human health and their mechanism of action are briefly discussed. - The effect of air pollutants on human health and underlying mechanisms of cellular action are discussed

  13. Air pollution epidemiology. Assessment of health effects and risks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katsouyanni, K [Athens Univ. (Greece). Dept. of Hygiene and Epidemiology

    1996-12-31

    Air pollution epidemiology is the study of the occurrence and distribution of health outcomes in association with community air pollution exposure. It is therefore specific in the exposure variable. Air pollution health effects became evident during high air pollution episodes which occurred in the first decades of our century. Since then, legal and other control measures have led to lower air pollution levels. However, recent results from several studies indicate that lower levels of air pollution than the previously considered safe have serious adverse health effects. Although, there is increasingly agreement that air pollution, at levels measured today, affects health, there is still a lot to be understood concerning specific causal pollutants, biologic mechanisms involved and sensitive groups of individuals. The extent of potential confounding, time-considerations in air pollution effects, individual variation in air pollution exposure and exposure misclassification are some factors which complicate the study of these issues. (author)

  14. Air pollution epidemiology. Assessment of health effects and risks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katsouyanni, K. [Athens Univ. (Greece). Dept. of Hygiene and Epidemiology

    1995-12-31

    Air pollution epidemiology is the study of the occurrence and distribution of health outcomes in association with community air pollution exposure. It is therefore specific in the exposure variable. Air pollution health effects became evident during high air pollution episodes which occurred in the first decades of our century. Since then, legal and other control measures have led to lower air pollution levels. However, recent results from several studies indicate that lower levels of air pollution than the previously considered safe have serious adverse health effects. Although, there is increasingly agreement that air pollution, at levels measured today, affects health, there is still a lot to be understood concerning specific causal pollutants, biologic mechanisms involved and sensitive groups of individuals. The extent of potential confounding, time-considerations in air pollution effects, individual variation in air pollution exposure and exposure misclassification are some factors which complicate the study of these issues. (author)

  15. Air pollution effects on Quercus Ilex plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavone, P.; Salmeri, C.; Spampinato, G.; Fallico, R.; Ferrante, M.

    1996-01-01

    To test air pollution effects on natural forest vegetation, the soil chemistry and the floristic composition of two Quercus ilex L. woods in the Hyblean region (S-E Sicily), unequally exposed to air pollutants are compared. Acidification phenomena are investigated by the soil chemical changes between the trunk base areas, affected by stem flow water, and the surrounding soil, only influenced by canopy drip. Soil chemical changes, floristic poorness and direct damage to the Q. ilex leaves are only detected in the Climiti Mountains holm-oak woods, located near the Siracusa petrochemical complex, while they do not appear at Cava d'Ispica, sited far from any industry and seldom exposed to winds carrying pollutants

  16. Effects of air pollution on respiratory health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Bayram

    2015-01-01

    In conclusion, air pollutants can induce respiratory mortality and morbidity by leading to airway and lung inflammation and impairing the airway defence system against noxious agents and microorganisms such as mycobacteria TB.

  17. Health Effects of Ambient Air Pollution in Developing Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Mannucci, Pier Mannuccio; Franchini, Massimo

    2017-01-01

    The deleterious effects of ambient air pollution on human health have been consistently documented by many epidemiologic studies worldwide, and it has been calculated that globally at least seven million deaths are annually attributable to the effects of air pollution. The major air pollutants emitted into the atmosphere by a number of natural processes and human activities include nitrogen oxides, volatile organic compounds, and particulate matter. In addition to the poor ambient air quality...

  18. Air pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, P.

    2000-01-01

    Australian cites experience a number of current and emerging air pollution problems. Concentrations of traditional primary pollutants such as CO, lead and dust have fallen in recent years as a consequence of air pollutant control measures, and the widespread introduction of lead-free petrol. However, recommended guidelines for ozone, the principal component of photochemical smog, are regularly exceeded in major capital cities in the summer months. In addition, it is predicted that extensive urban expansion will lead to much greater dependence on the motor vehicle as the primary means of transportation. Effects of air pollution are felt at a variety of scales. Traditionally, concerns about gaseous and particulate emissions from industrial and vehicular sources were focused on local impacts due to exposure to toxic species such as CO and lead. As noted above, concentrations of these pollutants have been reduced by a variety of control measures. Pollutants which have effects at a regional scale, such as photochemically-produced ozone, and acidic gases and particles have proved more difficult to reduce. In general, these pollutants arc not the result of direct emissions to atmosphere, but result from complex secondary processes driven by photochemical reactions of species such as NO 2 and aldehydes. In addition, global effects of gaseous and particulate emissions to the atmosphere have received significant recent attention, concentrations of atmospheric CO 2 with predicted impacts on global climate, and ozone depletion due to anthropogenic emissions of chlorine-containing chemicals are the two major examples. Combustion processes from petrol- and diesel-fuelled vehicles, make major contributions to air pollution, and the magnitude of this contribution is discussed in this article

  19. Air pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feugier, A.

    1996-01-01

    The air pollution results from the combustion of petroleum products, natural gas, coal, wastes and transports. Some compounds are considered as particularly pollutants: the carbon monoxide, the nitrogen oxides, the tropospheric ozone and the sulfur dioxides. Their environmental and biological effects are described. The present political guide lines concerns the combustion plants, the ozone, the wastes incineration and the vehicles emissions. The aim is at some future date to control the air quality, to reduce the volatile organic compounds emissions and to limit the sulfur rate of some petroleum products. (O.L.)

  20. Acute effect of ambient air pollution on stroke mortality in the China air pollution and health effects study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Renjie; Zhang, Yuhao; Yang, Chunxue; Zhao, Zhuohui; Xu, Xiaohui; Kan, Haidong

    2013-04-01

    There have been no multicity studies on the acute effects of air pollution on stroke mortality in China. This study was undertaken to examine the associations between daily stroke mortality and outdoor air pollution (particulate matter air pollution with daily stroke mortality. Air pollution was associated with daily stroke mortality in 8 Chinese cities. In the combined analysis, an increase of 10 μg/m(3) of 2-day moving average concentrations of particulate matter air pollution and risk of stroke mortality. To our knowledge, this is the first multicity study in China, or even in other developing countries, to report the acute effect of air pollution on stroke mortality. Our results contribute to very limited data on the effect of air pollution on stroke for high-exposure settings typical in developing countries.

  1. Effects of Air Pollution on Health Outcomes (1985 and 1987)

    Science.gov (United States)

    These reports pursue two objectives: to examine the health effects of air pollution on a general population in moderately polluted cities, and to apply a battery of disparate analytical approaches to an especially attractive set of health insurance data.

  2. Effects of air pollution on plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seidman, G.

    1965-01-01

    Weather, automobile exhaust, waste dumps and industrial activities are major factors in the creation of air pollution problems. The first indication of an air pollution problem is often the injury that appears on comparatively sensitive vegetation. Sulfur dioxide causes both acute and chronic plant injury. Plants especially sensitive to SO/sub 2/ are alfalfa, cosmos, sweet pea, bachelor's button, and blackberry. Fluoride causes characteristic injury on plants. Plants sensitive to fluoride injury are gladiolus, azalea, tulip, and young needles of pine. Ethylene damage to plants was initially noted in greenhouses using artificial gas for heating. Orchids and carnations are sensitive to ethylene. Ozone is highly reactive and causes typical spotting injury to the upper surface of leaves. PAN causes injury to vegetation, especially petunia and lettuce. Other pollutants also cause plant injury. Mercury vapor, chlorine gas, ammonia, H/sub 2/S, CO, and nitrogen oxides are minor hazards. Susceptibility of vegetation to air pollution depends on various things such as variety of plants, amount of moisture available to the plants, temperature, and amount of sunlight during the period of air pollution. 8 references.

  3. Effect of air and water pollutants on human health

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rondia, D.

    1973-01-01

    Toxicological and epidemiological studies on the effects of air pollutants on human health are reviewed. The epidemiological approach is based on the study of the human population actually exposed to air pollutants in daily life. Levels of increasing toxicity were established for the commonest air pollutants such as lead, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, and various allergens. The effects of pollution on immunology and adaptation, of carbon monoxide on carboxyhemoglobin levels, of sulfur dioxide on mortality and morbidity in urban areas, of nitrogen oxides on electrolytes and glutathion, of ozone and NO/sub x/ on respiratory diseases, and of pollutants on chronic bronchitis are reviewed.

  4. AIR POLLUTION EFFECTS ON SEMEN QUALITY

    Science.gov (United States)

    The potential impact of exposure to periods of high air pollution on male reproductive health was examined within the framework of an international project conducted in the Czech Republic. Semen quality was evaluated in young men (age 18) living in the Teplice District who are ex...

  5. Respiratory effects of air pollution on children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldizen, Fiona C; Sly, Peter D; Knibbs, Luke D

    2016-01-01

    A substantial proportion of the global burden of disease is directly or indirectly attributable to exposure to air pollution. Exposures occurring during the periods of organogenesis and rapid lung growth during fetal development and early post-natal life are especially damaging. In this State of the Art review, we discuss air toxicants impacting on children's respiratory health, routes of exposure with an emphasis on unique pathways relevant to young children, methods of exposure assessment and their limitations and the adverse health consequences of exposures. Finally, we point out gaps in knowledge and research needs in this area. A greater understanding of the adverse health consequences of exposure to air pollution in early life is required to encourage policy makers to reduce such exposures and improve human health. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Effects of air pollution on plant growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bleasadle, J K.A.

    1959-01-01

    The environment for plant growth is affected in three ways by the presence of coal smoke (1) by a reduction in the amount of light available to the plants, (2) by an alteration in soil conditions, and (3) by the contamination of the air by foreign gases. The smoke haze in or near industrial areas reduced the light available to plants for photosynthesis, thus reducing their growth rate. The tarry deposit on leaves further reduced the light available to the plant, and lowered the assimilation rate. It was generally thought that rain falling in or near industrial areas dissolved the predominantly acidic polluting gases from the air and leached bases from the soil. Rainwater collected showed a reduced number of soil bacteria, resulting in a reduction in the availability of plant nutrients. The most common and abundant gaseous pollutant in Britain was sulfur dioxide formed from the sulfur contained in coal. Concentrations of 0.5 parts per million induced symptoms of leaf scorch in many species. Results showed the yield of Aberystwyth 523 ryegrass was reduced when plants were grown continuously in air polluted with coal smoke. This affected the processes involving cell division. Coal smoke and sulfur also increased the rate of leaf senescence. This rate increased as the concentration of sulfur dioxide increased, or as the length of exposure per day to a standard concentration was increased. The leaves of evergreen trees and shrubs also aged more rapidly in conditions of pollution. 14 references.

  7. Effect of environmental air pollution on cardiovascular diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meo, S A; Suraya, F

    2015-12-01

    Environmental air pollution has become a leading health concern especially in the developing countries with more urbanization, industrialization and rapidly growing population. Prolonged exposure to air pollution is a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of environmental air pollution on progression of cardiovascular problems. In this study, we identified 6880 published articles through a systematic database including ISI-Web of Science, PubMed and EMBASE. The allied literature was searched by using the key words such as environmental pollution, air pollution, particulate matter pollutants PM 2.5 μm-PM 10 μm. Literature in which environmental air pollution and cardiac diseases were discussed was included. Descriptive information was retrieved from the selected literature. Finally, we included 67 publications and remaining studies were excluded. Environmental pollution can cause high blood pressure, arrhythmias, enhanced coagulation, thrombosis, acute arterial vasoconstriction, atherosclerosis, ischemic heart diseases, myocardial infarction and even heart failure. Environmental air pollution is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular diseases. Environmental pollution exerts its detrimental effects on the heart by developing pulmonary inflammation, systemic inflammation, oxidative stress, endothelial dysfunction and prothrombotic changes. Environmental protection officials must take high priority steps to minimize the air pollution to decrease the prevalence of cardiovascular diseases.

  8. Air pollution

    OpenAIRE

    MacKenbach, JP; Henschel, S; Goodman, P; McKee, M

    2013-01-01

    The human costs of air pollution are considerable in Jordan. According to a report published in 2000 by the World Bank under the Mediterranean Environmental Technical Assistance Program (METAP), approximately 600 people die prematurely each year in Jordan because of urban pollution. 50-90% of air pollution in Jordanian towns is caused by road traffic. Readings taken in 2007 by Jordanian researchers showed that levels of black carbon particles in the air were higher in urban areas (caused by v...

  9. Health Effects of Ambient Air Pollution in Developing Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannucci, Pier Mannuccio; Franchini, Massimo

    2017-09-12

    The deleterious effects of ambient air pollution on human health have been consistently documented by many epidemiologic studies worldwide, and it has been calculated that globally at least seven million deaths are annually attributable to the effects of air pollution. The major air pollutants emitted into the atmosphere by a number of natural processes and human activities include nitrogen oxides, volatile organic compounds, and particulate matter. In addition to the poor ambient air quality, there is increasing evidence that indoor air pollution also poses a serious threat to human health, especially in low-income countries that still use biomass fuels as an energy resource. This review summarizes the current knowledge on ambient air pollution in financially deprived populations.

  10. The health effects of exercising in air pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giles, Luisa V; Koehle, Michael S

    2014-02-01

    The health benefits of exercise are well known. Many of the most accessible forms of exercise, such as walking, cycling, and running often occur outdoors. This means that exercising outdoors may increase exposure to urban air pollution. Regular exercise plays a key role in improving some of the physiologic mechanisms and health outcomes that air pollution exposure may exacerbate. This problem presents an interesting challenge of balancing the beneficial effects of exercise along with the detrimental effects of air pollution upon health. This article summarizes the pulmonary, cardiovascular, cognitive, and systemic health effects of exposure to particulate matter, ozone, and carbon monoxide during exercise. It also summarizes how air pollution exposure affects maximal oxygen consumption and exercise performance. This article highlights ways in which exercisers could mitigate the adverse health effects of air pollution exposure during exercise and draws attention to the potential importance of land use planning in selecting exercise facilities.

  11. Air pollution. [Japan; man; biological effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1975-01-01

    Air pollution levels in Japan are reported along with some resultant health effects. Photochemical smog first occurred in Tokyo during 1967. On July 18, 1970, more than 40 students at the Rissei Girl's High School were treated for eye irritation and throat pain caused by photochemical smog; during July 18 to August 5 of the same year, more than 10,000 injuries were reported. The proportion of the population in Yokkaichi with chronic bronchitis was extraordinarily high among those residents 40 yr or older. The 1-hour sulfur dioxide concentration was as high as 2.5 ppM in the early 1960's in the city. The carbon monoxide concentrations at busy intersections in Tokyo were 10 to 15 ppM. The average CO concentration at the Tokyo Municipal Office in 1969 was 10.6 ppM, and more than 50% of the measurements were higher than the environmental standard (1-hour average) of 10 ppM for 24 consecutive hr. Lead poisoning occurred at the Ushigome ward in Tokyo during the late 1960's and promoted the issuing of new regulations for lead-containing gasoline. (auth)

  12. Adverse respiratory effects of outdoor air pollution in the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentayeb, M; Simoni, M; Baiz, N; Norback, D; Baldacci, S; Maio, S; Viegi, G; Annesi-Maesano, I

    2012-09-01

    Compared to the rest of the population, the elderly are potentially highly susceptible to the effects of outdoor air pollution due to normal and pathological ageing. The purpose of the present review was to gather data on the effects on respiratory health of outdoor air pollution in the elderly, on whom data are scarce. These show statistically significant short-term and chronic adverse effects of various outdoor air pollutants on cardiopulmonary morbidity and mortality in the elderly. When exposed to air pollution, the elderly experience more hospital admissions for asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and higher COPD mortality than others. Previous studies also indicate that research on the health effects of air pollution in the elderly has been affected by methodological problems in terms of exposure and health effect assessments. Few pollutants have been considered, and exposure assessment has been based mostly on background air pollution and more rarely on objective measurements and modelling. Significant progress needs to be made through the development of 'hybrid' models utilising the strengths of information on exposure in various environments to several air pollutants, coupled with daily activity exposure patterns. Investigations of chronic effects of air pollution and of multi-pollutant mixtures are needed to better understand the role of air pollution in the elderly. Lastly, smoking, occupation, comorbidities, treatment and the neighbourhood context should be considered as confounders or modifiers of such a role. In this context, the underlying biological, physiological and toxicological mechanisms need to be explored to better understand the phenomenon through a multidisciplinary approach.

  13. Household air pollution and its effects on health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apte, Komalkirti; Salvi, Sundeep

    2016-01-01

    Household air pollution is a leading cause of disability-adjusted life years in Southeast Asia and the third leading cause of disability-adjusted life years globally. There are at least sixty sources of household air pollution, and these vary from country to country. Indoor tobacco smoking, construction material used in building houses, fuel used for cooking, heating and lighting, use of incense and various forms of mosquito repellents, use of pesticides and chemicals used for cleaning at home, and use of artificial fragrances are some of the various sources that contribute to household air pollution. Household air pollution affects all stages of life with multi-systemic health effects, and its effects are evident right from pre-conception to old age. In utero exposure to household air pollutants has been shown to have health effects which resonate over the entire lifetime. Exposures to indoor air pollutants in early childhood also tend to have repercussions throughout life. The respiratory system bears the maximum brunt, but effects on the cardiovascular system, endocrine system, and nervous system are largely underplayed. Household air pollutants have also been implicated in the development of various types of cancers. Identifying household air pollutants and their health implications helps us prepare for various health-related issues. However, the real challenge is adopting changes to reduce the health effects of household air pollution and designing innovative interventions to minimize the risk of further exposure. This review is an attempt to understand the various sources of household air pollution, the effects on health, and strategies to deal with this emergent risk factor of global mortality and morbidity.

  14. Ambient Air Pollution and Biomarkers of Health Effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Di; Yang, Xuan; Deng, Furong; Guo, Xinbiao

    2017-01-01

    Recently, the air pollution situation of our country is very serious along with the development of urbanization and industrialization. Studies indicate that the exposure of air pollution can cause a rise of incidence and mortality of many diseases, such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), asthma, myocardial infarction, and so on. However, there is now growing evidence showing that significant air pollution exposures are associated with early biomarkers in various systems of the body. In order to better prevent and control the damage effect of air pollution, this article summarizes comprehensively epidemiological studies about the bad effects on the biomarkers of respiratory system, cardiovascular system, and genetic and epigenetic system exposure to ambient air pollution.

  15. Effects of Ambient Air Pollution Exposure on Olfaction: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajmani, Gaurav S; Suh, Helen H; Pinto, Jayant M

    2016-11-01

    Olfactory dysfunction affects millions of people worldwide. This sensory impairment is associated with neurodegenerative disease and significantly decreased quality of life. Exposure to airborne pollutants has been implicated in olfactory decline, likely due to the anatomic susceptibility of the olfactory nerve to the environment. Historically, studies have focused on occupational exposures, but more recent studies have considered effects from exposure to ambient air pollutants. To examine all relevant human data evaluating a link between ambient pollution exposure and olfaction and to review supporting animal data in order to examine potential mechanisms for pollution-associated olfactory loss. We identified and reviewed relevant articles from 1950 to 2015 using PubMed and Web of Science and focusing on human epidemiologic and pathophysiologic studies. Animal studies were included only to support pertinent data on humans. We reviewed findings from these studies evaluating a relationship between environmental pollutant exposure and olfactory function. We identified and reviewed 17 articles, with 1 additional article added from a bibliography search, for a total of 18 human studies. There is evidence in human epidemiologic and pathologic studies that increased exposure to ambient air pollutants is associated with olfactory dysfunction. However, most studies have used proxies for pollution exposure in small samples of convenience. Human pathologic studies, with supporting animal work, have also shown that air pollution can contact the olfactory epithelium, translocate to the olfactory bulb, and migrate to the olfactory cortex. Pollutants can deposit at each location, causing direct damage and disruption of tissue morphology or inducing local inflammation and cellular stress responses. Ambient air pollution may impact human olfactory function. Additional studies are needed to examine air pollution-related olfactory impacts on the general population using measured

  16. Health effects and sources of indoor air pollution. Part I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samet, J.M.; Marbury, M.C.; Spengler, J.D.

    1987-01-01

    Since the early 1970s, the health effects of indoor air pollution have been investigated with increasing intensity. Consequently, a large body of literature is now available on diverse aspects of indoor air pollution: sources, concentrations, health effects, engineering, and policy. This review begins with a review of the principal pollutants found in indoor environments and their sources. Subsequently, exposure to indoor air pollutants and health effects are considered, with an emphasis on those indoor air quality problems of greatest concern at present: passive exposure to tobacco smoke, nitrogen dioxide from gas-fueled cooking stoves, formaldehyde exposure, radon daughter exposure, and the diverse health problems encountered by workers in newer sealed office buildings. The review concludes by briefly addressing assessment of indoor air quality, control technology, research needs, and clinical implications. 243 references

  17. The Adverse Effects of Air Pollution on the Nervous System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genc, Sermin; Zadeoglulari, Zeynep; Fuss, Stefan H.; Genc, Kursad

    2012-01-01

    Exposure to ambient air pollution is a serious and common public health concern associated with growing morbidity and mortality worldwide. In the last decades, the adverse effects of air pollution on the pulmonary and cardiovascular systems have been well established in a series of major epidemiological and observational studies. In the recent past, air pollution has also been associated with diseases of the central nervous system (CNS), including stroke, Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and neurodevelopmental disorders. It has been demonstrated that various components of air pollution, such as nanosized particles, can easily translocate to the CNS where they can activate innate immune responses. Furthermore, systemic inflammation arising from the pulmonary or cardiovascular system can affect CNS health. Despite intense studies on the health effects of ambient air pollution, the underlying molecular mechanisms of susceptibility and disease remain largely elusive. However, emerging evidence suggests that air pollution-induced neuroinflammation, oxidative stress, microglial activation, cerebrovascular dysfunction, and alterations in the blood-brain barrier contribute to CNS pathology. A better understanding of the mediators and mechanisms will enable the development of new strategies to protect individuals at risk and to reduce detrimental effects of air pollution on the nervous system and mental health. PMID:22523490

  18. Air pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2008-01-01

    Air pollution has accompanied and developed with the industrial age, since its beginnings. This very complete review furnishes the toxicological data available for the principal pollutants and assesses the epidemiologic studies thus far conducted. It also describes European regulations and international commitments for the reduction of emissions. (author)

  19. Investigating the Effects of Traffic on Air Pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Sharon

    2001-01-01

    Discusses the benefits of bringing scientists into the classroom to collaborate with children on environmental research projects. Describes one collaborative project that focused on the effects of traffic on air pollution. (DDR)

  20. Effects of air pollution on plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, M D

    1961-01-01

    There are three principal air pollutants of major interest to agriculture - viz., sulfur dioxide, fluorine compounds, and smog. The last is a complex mixture, only partially understood at this time. There are at least two distinct types of smog, with many intermediate grades: the London type, which is a mixture of coal smoke and fog with enough sulfur dioxide to impart reducing properties to the mixture; and the highly oxidizing Los Angeles type, which usually contains neither coalsmoke nor fog, but rather is a mixture of ozone and peroxidized organic compounds formed by photochemical reactions between oxides of nitrogen and innocuous organic compounds formed by photochemical reactions between oxides of nitrogen and innocuous organic compounds such as gasoline vapors or partially burned fuel. In addition to the two types of smog, certain organic compounds, such as ethylene, DDT, and some heterocyclic bases, are known to have powerful phytotoxicity and have done considerable plant damage in some locations. 129 references.

  1. Effects of air pollution on the skin: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puri, Poonam; Nandar, Shashi Kumar; Kathuria, Sushruta; Ramesh, V

    2017-01-01

    The increase in air pollution over the years has had major effects on the human skin. Various air pollutants such as ultraviolet radiation, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, volatile organic compounds, oxides, particulate matter, ozone and cigarette smoke affect the skin as it is the outermost barrier. Air pollutants damage the skin by inducing oxidative stress. Although human skin acts as a biological shield against pro-oxidative chemicals and physical air pollutants, prolonged or repetitive exposure to high levels of these pollutants may have profound negative effects on the skin. Exposure to ultraviolet radiation has been associated with extrinsic skin aging and skin cancers. Cigarette smoke contributes to premature aging and an increase in the incidence of psoriasis, acne and skin cancers. It is also implicated in allergic skin conditions such as atopic dermatitis and eczema. Polyaromatic hydrocarbons are associated with extrinsic skin aging, pigmentation, cancers and acneiform eruptions. Volatile organic compounds have been associated with atopic dermatitis. Given the increasing levels of air pollution and its detrimental effects on the skin, it is advisable to use strategies to decrease air pollution.

  2. Environmental Justice and Health Effects of Urban Air Pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, John A; Mitchell, Mark A; Edgerton, Victor S; VanCott, Robert

    2015-02-01

    Minority communities often bear the burden of "hosting" pollution sources. This report assesses whether there are any health effects from living near such pollution sources and whether health effects of pollution vary by sex, ethnicity, or income. The air pollution emissions from Hartford area, point sources are modeled and exposures are estimated for the residents who participated in a geographically-based health survey. The pollution intensities and other individual and neighborhood characteristics are used to predict an individual's reported respiratory problems. The results indicate that respiratory problems are correlated significantly with pollution levels, especially sulfur dioxide from the local trash-to-energy incinerator-the fifth largest one in the U.S. The effects of a given pollution level tend to be more serious for specific subgroups based upon sex, ethnicity, poverty, and age. Even when controlling for other factors, air pollution levels are significantly correlated with health problems, especially for Hispanics. This air pollution may contribute to health disparities. © 2015 National Medical Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Air pollution: what matters most? : Physical, chemical and oxidative properties of air pollution components related to toxic effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenhof, M.

    2015-01-01

    Numerous studies have been published on the adverse health effects associated with both short- and long-term exposure to air pollution. Air pollution is a heterogeneous, complex mixture of gases, liquids, and particulate matter (PM). Up to now, PM mass concentration has been the metric of choice to

  4. Health effects from indoor air pollution: case studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, L E; Clarkson, J R; Chang, S N

    1987-01-01

    In recent years there has been a growing awareness of the health effects associated with the presence of contaminants in indoor air. Numerous agents can accumulate in public buildings, homes and automobiles as a result of ongoing activities that normally occur in these closed spaces. Ventilation is a major factor in the control of indoor air pollutants since proper movement of air can prevent or minimize the build up of compounds in buildings. The recent emphasis on energy conservation has lead to measures which economize on energy for heating and air conditioning, but which also trap pollutants within a building. Three cases of indoor air pollution were investigated. A typical investigation of indoor air pollutant problems includes the following: interviews with building occupants; history of the building with regard to maintenance, pesticide treatment, etc.; a survey of the building and ventilation; and when warranted, sampling and analysis of air. Each case presented is unique in that atypical situations caused agents to accumulate in a building or section of a building. The indoor air problems in these cases were solved by identifying and removing the source of the offending agent and/or improving the ventilation in the building.

  5. The state of transboundary air pollution: Effects and control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    This fifth volume of the series of Air Pollution Studies, published under the auspices of the Executive Body for the Convention of Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution, contains the documents reviewed and approved for publication at the sixth session of the Executive Body held at Sofia (Bulgaria) from 31 October to 4 November 1988. Part one is the annual review of strategies and policies for air pollution abatement. Country-by-country, recent legislative and regulatory developments are summarized, including ambient-air quality standards, fuel-quality standards, emission standards, as well as economic instruments for air pollution abatement. Part two summarizes the results of the third phase (1984-1986) of the Co-operative Programme for Monitoring and Evaluation of the Long-range Transmission of Air Pollutants in Europe (EMEP). Part three is an executive summary of the 1987 forest damage survey in Europe, carried out under the International Co-operative Programme for Assessment and Monitoring of Air Pollution Effects on Forests. This survey covered more than 50 per cent of all coniferous forests and about 40 per cent of the broadleaved forests in Europe. Part four describes the current geographical extent of acidification in rivers, lakes and reservoirs in the ECE region. Part five contains guidelines for determining the cost of emission control activities. The guidelines aim at harmonizing cost estimates and cost accounts for anti-pollution measures at the level of individual plants or companies. The proposed calculation scheme includes cost items related to investment, material and energy consumption, manpower and other costs, taking into account depreciation and revenues from by-product utilization. Refs

  6. The Effects of Air Pollution and Temperature on COPD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansel, Nadia N; McCormack, Meredith C; Kim, Victor

    2016-06-01

    Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) affects 12-16 million people in the United States and is the third-leading cause of death. In developed countries, smoking is the greatest risk factor for the development of COPD, but other exposures also contribute to the development and progression of the disease. Several studies suggest, though are not definitive, that outdoor air pollution exposure is linked to the prevalence and incidence of COPD. Among individuals with COPD, outdoor air pollutants are associated with loss of lung function and increased respiratory symptoms. In addition, outdoor air pollutants are also associated with COPD exacerbations and mortality. There is much less evidence for the impact of indoor air on COPD, especially in developed countries in residences without biomass exposure. The limited existing data suggests that indoor particulate matter and nitrogen dioxide concentrations are linked to increased respiratory symptoms among patients with COPD. In addition, with the projected increases in temperature and extreme weather events in the context of climate change there has been increased attention to the effects of heat exposure. Extremes of temperature-both heat and cold-have been associated with increased respiratory morbidity in COPD. Some studies also suggest that temperature may modify the effect of pollution exposure and though results are not conclusive, understanding factors that may modify susceptibility to air pollution in patients with COPD is of utmost importance.

  7. Biologic Effects of Atmospheric Pollutants: Asbestos - The Need For and Feasibility of Air Pollution Controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    This 1971 report sets forth in a well-organized fashion the currently available information on asbestos as an air pollutant, with special attention to sources health effects, measurements, and feasibility of control.

  8. Climatic effects of air pollutants over china: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Hong; Chang, Wenyuan; Yang, Yang

    2015-01-01

    Tropospheric ozone (O3) and aerosols are major air pollutants in the atmosphere. They have also made significant contributions to radiative forcing of climate since preindustrial times. With its rapid economic development, concentrations of air pollutants are relatively high in China; hence, quantifying the role of air pollutants in China in regional climate change is especially important. This review summarizes existing knowledge with regard to impacts of air pollutants on climate change in China and defines critical gaps needed to reduce the associated uncertainties. Measured monthly, seasonal, and annual mean surface-layer concentrations of O3 and aerosols over China are compiled in this work, with the aim to show the magnitude of concentrations of O3 and aerosols over China and to provide datasets for evaluation of model results in future studies. Ground-based and satellite measurements of O3 column burden and aerosol optical properties, as well as model estimates of radiative forcing by tropospheric O3 and aerosols are summarized. We also review regional and global modeling studies that have investigated climate change driven by tropospheric O3 and/or aerosols in China; the predicted sign and magnitude of the responses in temperature and precipitation to O3/aerosol forcings are presented. Based on this review, key priorities for future research on the climatic effects of air pollutants in China are highlighted.

  9. Effects of Indoor Air Pollution on Human Health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berglund, B.; Brunekreef, B.; Knöppel, H.

    1992-01-01

    This article contains a summary discussion of human health effects linked to indoor air pollution (UP) in homes and other non-industrial environments. Rather than discussing the health effects of the many different pollutants which can be found in indoor air, the approach has been to group broad...... these are respiratory disease (particularly among children), allergy (particularly to house dust mites) and mucous membrane irritation (particularly due to formaldehyde). Large numbers of people have been, and are still being affected. Many chemicals encountered in indoor air are known or suspected to cause sensory...... irritation or stimulation. These, in turn, may give rise to a sense of discomfort and other symptums cummonly reported in so-called “sick” buildings. Camplex mixtures of organic chemicals in indoor air also have the potential to invoke subtle effects on the central and peripheral nervous system, leading...

  10. Effects of air pollutants on epicuticular wax structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huttunen, S.

    1994-01-01

    In xerophytes, like conifers, the epicuticular wax is well developed. Especially in and around stomatal entrances, a thick wax coating is present. Epicuticular waxes are modified by changes in plant growth conditions such as temperature, relative humidity, irradiance, and wind, or acid rain. The fine structure of epicuticular waxes, their chemistry, and ecophysiological function are modified, especially in evergreen, long-lived conifer needles with characteristic crystalline wax structures. During needle flushing and development, wax structure is easily modified. Acid rain-treated Scots pine needles had 50% less epicuticular waxes in early August. Pollution-induced delayed development, destruction, and disturbances have been identified in many plant species. The structural changes in wax crystals are known. Acid rain or polluted air can destroy the crystalloid epicuticular waxes in a few weeks. In Pinus sylvestris, the first sign of pollution effect is the fusion of wax tubes. In Picea abies and P. sitchensis, modifications of crystalloid wax structure are known. In Californian pine trees phenomena of recrystallization of wax tubes on second-year needles were observed after delayed epicuticular wax development in Pinus ponderosa and P. coulteri. Thus, the effects of air pollutants are modified by climate. Accelerated senescence of leaves and needles have been associated with natural and anthropogenic stresses. The accelerated erosion rate of epicuticular waxes has been measured under air pollution conditions. Many short-term air pollution experiments have failed to show any structural changes in epicuticular wax structures. The quantity and quality of needle waxes grown in open-top chambers, glass houses, or polluted air before treatment, differ from field conditions and make it difficult to detect effects of any treatment. (orig.)

  11. Lichen flora of London: effects of air pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laundon, J R

    1967-01-01

    There is good, but not conclusive, evidence that sulfur dioxide is the pollutant which deleteriously affects lichens. The distribution of many lichens in London corresponds closely with the concentrations of sulfur dioxide. Low humidity is also a factor. Apart from actually killing lichens, increasing air pollution can render certain species incapable of colonizing new surfaces, although the old thalli themselves are able to survive as relicts. Until the early nineteenth century air pollution affected the lichen flora only in the small built-up area of London. The halting of building around London since 1938 has brought stability to the lichen vegetation of the area, and since then changes have been minor ones. Recent changes in pollution emissions have had little effect on the lichen flora between 1950 and 1967. This is to be expected as sulfur dioxide concentrations have remained fairly constant at ground level.

  12. A Study of the Effects of Air Pollution on Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bury, Irene B.

    1970-01-01

    An investigation of the possible effects of air pollution on the absenteeism of elementary school children showed that a greater percent of absences occurred in the test group than in a comparable group. There is little question as to the importance that such information should have for educators, informed parents, and other adults in community…

  13. Respiratory health effects of air pollution: update on biomass smoke and traffic pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laumbach, Robert J; Kipen, Howard M

    2012-01-01

    Mounting evidence suggests that air pollution contributes to the large global burden of respiratory and allergic diseases, including asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, pneumonia, and possibly tuberculosis. Although associations between air pollution and respiratory disease are complex, recent epidemiologic studies have led to an increased recognition of the emerging importance of traffic-related air pollution in both developed and less-developed countries, as well as the continued importance of emissions from domestic fires burning biomass fuels, primarily in the less-developed world. Emissions from these sources lead to personal exposures to complex mixtures of air pollutants that change rapidly in space and time because of varying emission rates, distances from source, ventilation rates, and other factors. Although the high degree of variability in personal exposure to pollutants from these sources remains a challenge, newer methods for measuring and modeling these exposures are beginning to unravel complex associations with asthma and other respiratory tract diseases. These studies indicate that air pollution from these sources is a major preventable cause of increased incidence and exacerbation of respiratory disease. Physicians can help to reduce the risk of adverse respiratory effects of exposure to biomass and traffic air pollutants by promoting awareness and supporting individual and community-level interventions. Copyright © 2012 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Effect of air and water pollutants on human health

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rhondia, D

    1973-01-01

    The two basic approaches in the study of the influence of air and water pollutants on human health are reviewed. The first one is an experimental or toxicological approach, concerned with biochemical, physiological, and clinical lesions, with the mechanism of the genesis of such lesions, and with the possible relations between the toxic dose and the extent or degree of the lesions. Thus, considerable changes in the electrolyte and trace element concentrations in the organism were observed following short-term exposure to such air pollutants as ozone and nitrogen dioxide which cause emphysema in a short time. Rather stable equilibrium between the uptake and excretion of lead was established. The increase in the blood lead level is accompanied by a decrease in the aminolevulinic acid dehydratase activity, a change believed to have no functional consequence. The other, epidemiological, approach is based on the study of human populations actually exposed to pollutants in daily life. Such epidemiological studies are complicated by the large number of extraneous variables playing a significant role in such discrete effects. Epidemiological studies are concerned with the establishment of relationships between specific or nonspecific mortality and morbidity associated with the actual pollution level as compared with control areas and control populations. A qualitative relationship between the increasing pollution level and advanced date of death was determinef for populations with respiratory and cardiovascular diseases. A relationship was found between the high pollution level and the number of patients hospitalized during high-pollution in Los Angeles.

  15. Cognitive Effects of Air Pollution Exposures and Potential Mechanistic Underpinnings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, J L; Klocke, C; Morris-Schaffer, K; Conrad, K; Sobolewski, M; Cory-Slechta, D A

    2017-06-01

    This review sought to address the potential for air pollutants to impair cognition and mechanisms by which that might occur. Air pollution has been associated with deficits in cognitive functions across a wide range of epidemiological studies, both with developmental and adult exposures. Studies in animal models are significantly more limited in number, with somewhat inconsistent findings to date for measures of learning, but show more consistent impairments for short-term memory. Potential contributory mechanisms include oxidative stress/inflammation, altered levels of dopamine and/or glutamate, and changes in synaptic plasticity/structure. Epidemiological studies are consistent with adverse effects of air pollutants on cognition, but additional studies and better phenotypic characterization are needed for animal models, including more precise delineation of specific components of cognition that are affected, as well as definitions of critical exposure periods for such effects and the components of air pollution responsible. This would permit development of more circumscribed hypotheses as to potential behavioral and neurobiological mechanisms.

  16. Adverse health effects of air pollutants in a nonsmoking population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, C A

    1996-07-17

    Utah Valley has provided an interesting and unique opportunity to evaluate the health effects of respirable particulate air pollution (PM10). Residents of this valley are predominantly nonsmoking members of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (Mormons). The area has moderately high average PM10 levels with periods of highly elevated PM10 concentrations due to local emissions being trapped in a stagnant air mass near the valley floor during low-level temperature inversion episodes. Due to a labor dispute, there was intermittent operation of the single largest pollution source, an old integrated steel mill. Levels of other common pollutants including sulfur dioxide, ozone, and acidic aerosol are relatively low. Studies specific to Utah Valley have observed that elevated PM10 concentrations are associated with: (1) decreased lung function; (2) increased incidence of respiratory symptoms; (3) increased school absenteeism; (4) increased respiratory hospital admissions; and (5) increased mortality, especially respiratory and cardiovascular mortality.

  17. Quantifying effects of oxidant air pollutants on agricultural crops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Medeiros, W H; Moskowitz, P D

    1983-01-01

    Estimating risks of air pollution damage to agricultural crops requires identifying crop location and size, likely doses, models for translating dose to response, and measures of response appropriate for economic analysis. Assessment of risk requires compatible data sets for each of these variables. Analysis of air pollution mixtures suggests that oxidant crop damage is caused by three compounds: ozone, nitrogen oxides, and peroxyacetylnitrates. The phytotoxicity of ozone, the most prevalent photochemical oxidant, has been studied more extensively than the other two oxidants, and its effects on vegetation are best understood. Response of vegetation to air pollutants was first characterized by foliar or visible injury. Subsequent research indicated that foliar injury did not translate directly into reduced plant growth or yield, which can be measured. Response to air pollutants may be influenced by physical, biological, and environmental factors. Inherent genetic resistance is probably the most important single factor affecting plant response, although environmental factors influencing stomatal aperture may also be important. For several crops open-top chamber studies and cross sectional analyses of field data provide adequate information to develop dose-response functions. All of these studies have both strengths and weaknesses. Although a number of different models exist for selected crops, there is no single biological or statistical criterion which identifies the best or most accurate model.

  18. Climate Change and Air Pollution: Effects on Respiratory Allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Amato, Gennaro; Pawankar, Ruby; Vitale, Carolina; Lanza, Maurizia; Molino, Antonio; Stanziola, Anna; Sanduzzi, Alessandro; Vatrella, Alessandro; D'Amato, Maria

    2016-09-01

    A body of evidence suggests that major changes involving the atmosphere and the climate, including global warming induced by anthropogenic factors, have impact on the biosphere and human environment. Studies on the effects of climate change on respiratory allergy are still lacking and current knowledge is provided by epidemiological and experimental studies on the relationship between allergic respiratory diseases, asthma and environmental factors, such as meteorological variables, airborne allergens, and air pollution. Urbanization with its high levels of vehicle emissions, and a westernized lifestyle are linked to the rising frequency of respiratory allergic diseases and bronchial asthma observed over recent decades in most industrialized countries. However, it is not easy to evaluate the impact of climate changes and air pollution on the prevalence of asthma in the general population and on the timing of asthma exacerbations, although the global rise in asthma prevalence and severity could also be an effect of air pollution and climate change. Since airborne allergens and air pollutants are frequently increased contemporaneously in the atmosphere, an enhanced IgE-mediated response to aeroallergens and enhanced airway inflammation could account for the increasing frequency of respiratory allergy and asthma in atopic subjects in the last 5 decades. Pollen allergy is frequently used to study the relationship between air pollution and respiratory allergic diseases, such as rhinitis and bronchial asthma. Epidemiologic studies have demonstrated that urbanization, high levels of vehicle emissions, and westernized lifestyle are correlated with an increased frequency of respiratory allergy prevalently in people who live in urban areas in comparison with people living in rural areas. Climatic factors (temperature, wind speed, humidity, thunderstorms, etc.) can affect both components (biological and chemical) of this interaction.

  19. Air pollution "holiday effect" resulting from the Chinese New Year

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Pei-Hua; Chou, Chia; Liang, Jing-Yi; Chou, Charles C.-K.; Shiu, Chein-Jung

    Our study was an attempt to conduct a comprehensive and systematical examination of the holiday effect, defined as the difference in air pollutant concentrations between holiday and non-holiday periods. This holiday effect can be applied to other countries with similar national or cultural holidays. Hourly and daily surface measurements of six major air pollutants from thirteen air quality monitoring stations of the Taiwan Environmental Protection Administration during the Chinese New Year (CNY) and non-Chinese New Year (NCNY) periods were used. We documented evidence of a "holiday effect", where air pollutant concentrations were significantly different between holidays (CNY) and non-holidays (NCNY), in the Taipei metropolitan area over the past thirteen years (1994-2006). The concentrations of NO x, CO, NMHC, SO 2 and PM 10 were lower in the CNY than in the NCNY period, while the variation in the concentration of O 3 was reversed, which was mainly due to the NO titration effect. Similar differences in these six air pollutants between the CNY and NCNY periods were also found in the diurnal cycle and in the interannual variation. For the diurnal cycle, a common traffic-related double-peak variation was observed in the NCNY period, but not in the CNY period. Impacts of dust storms were also observed, especially on SO 2 and PM 10 in the CNY period. In the 13-year period of 1994-2006, decreasing trends of NO x and CO in the NCNY period implied a possible reduction of local emissions. Increasing trends of SO 2 and PM 10 in the CNY period, on the other hand, indicated a possible enhancement of long-range transport. These two mechanisms weakened the holiday effect.

  20. Leaf wettability as a measure of air pollution effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jagels, R.

    1994-01-01

    Droplet contact angle (DCA) is a technique that can be used to measure wettability and, in turn, provide an assessment of the physical and chemical characteristics of a surface. As adapted to plant bioligy, DCA measurements have been useful in characterizing changes in the type or condition of leaf epicuticular waxes. Environmental as well as temporal factors can modify the biophysical features of epicuticular wax surfaces and thereby affect DCA measurements. An understanding of the role of these non-pollutant factors is necessary before pollution damage can be accurately assessed. Controlled chamber experiments and field pollutant gradient studies have shown that DCA is generally reduced when plants are exposed to air pollutants such as ozone, So 2 , and acidic fog. In some cases, environmental influences, such as temperature, have been separated from the pollutant effect. However, mixtures of anthropogenic pollutants or anthropogenic and natural compounds (sea salts, dust particles) which are often present in field studies can confound the interpretation of DCA measurements. A few studies that attempt to separate these factors have been conducted, but more are needed before the potential for using DCA measurements in long-term bioindicator studies can be fully realized. Some studies have demonstrated that pollutants do not necessarily affect leaf surfaces in a uniform pattern, but rather are specific for certain structures such as stomates or trichomes; deposition levels can also be different on ad-and abaxial surfaces. The degree to which these inhomogeneities of action can affect DCA measurements needs further study. (orig.)

  1. Air pollution engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maduna, Karolina; Tomašić, Vesna

    2017-11-01

    Air pollution is an environmental and a social problem which leads to a multitude of adverse effects on human health and standard of human life, state of the ecosystems and global change of climate. Air pollutants are emitted from natural, but mostly from anthropogenic sources and may be transported over long distances. Some air pollutants are extremely stable in the atmosphere and may accumulate in the environment and in the food chain, affecting human beings, animals and natural biodiversity. Obviously, air pollution is a complex problem that poses multiple challenges in terms of management and abatements of the pollutants emission. Effective approach to the problems of air pollution requires a good understanding of the sources that cause it, knowledge of air quality status and future trends as well as its impact on humans and ecosystems. This chapter deals with the complexities of the air pollution and presents an overview of different technical processes and equipment for air pollution control, as well as basic principles of their work. The problems of air protection as well as protection of other ecosystems can be solved only by the coordinated endeavors of various scientific and engineering disciplines, such as chemistry, physics, biology, medicine, chemical engineering and social sciences. The most important engineering contribution is mostly focused on development, design and operation of equipment for the abatement of harmful emissions into environment.

  2. Letter to the Editor: Applications Air Q Model on Estimate Health Effects Exposure to Air Pollutants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholamreza Goudarzi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiologic studies in worldwide have measured increases in mortality and morbidity associated with air pollution (1-3. Quantifying the effects of air pollution on the human health in urban area causes an increasingly critical component in policy discussion (4-6. Air Q model was proved to be a valid and reliable tool to predicts health effects related to criteria  pollutants (particulate matter (PM, ozone (O3, nitrogen dioxide (NO2, sulfur dioxide (SO2, and carbon monoxide (CO, determinate  the  potential short term effects of air pollution  and allows the examination of various scenarios in which emission rates of pollutants are varied (7,8. Air Q software provided by the WHO European Centre for Environment and Health (ECEH (9. Air Q model is based on cohort studies and used to estimates of both attributable average reductions in life-span and numbers of mortality and morbidity associated with exposure to air pollution (10,11. Applications

  3. Traffic related air pollution : spatial variation, health effects and mitigation measures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkema, M.B.A.

    2011-01-01

    Air pollution is probably the most intensely studied field in today’s environmental health research. The extensive body of literature on health effects associated with air pollution exposure has lead to prioritization of air pollution as public health risk factor and air quality regulations

  4. Air pollution health effects of electric power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-11-01

    stitutt for Atomenergi (IFA) and Norsk Institutt for Luftforskning (NILU) have undertaken a joint project with the ultimate purpose of comparing the relative air pollution health effects of gas-fired, oil-fired and uranium-fueled electric power generating plants. Phase I of the project includes a literature review on pollutant emissions and their health effects. The methods which have previouously been used to compare the relative health effects are also reviewed. The radioactive effluents from nuclear power plants are tabulated and the health effects discussed on the basis of data from Hiroshima and Nagasaki, medical irradiation therapy and studies of USAEC and UKAEA employees. It is pointed out that there is no indication that chronic low-level radiation has somatic effects, and the Japanese data gives no conclusive indication of genetic effects. Background irradiation in Kerala and Guarapari and in USA is also cited. Following a brief presentation of the principal air pollutants from fossil fuels a number of studies of 'smog' incidents in the UK and USA are discussed, and a prediction equation based on multiple regression analysis is presented. Finally the methods of comparing the health effects from nuclear and fossil-fuel plants are discussed. In an appendix Lave and Freeburg's study 'Health effects of electricity generation from coal, oil and nuclear fuel' is evaluated. (JIW)

  5. Air Pollution and Stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kuan Ken; Miller, Mark R; Shah, Anoop S V

    2018-01-01

    The adverse health effects of air pollution have long been recognised; however, there is less awareness that the majority of the morbidity and mortality caused by air pollution is due to its effects on the cardiovascular system. Evidence from epidemiological studies have demonstrated a strong association between air pollution and cardiovascular diseases including stroke. Although the relative risk is small at an individual level, the ubiquitous nature of exposure to air pollution means that the absolute risk at a population level is on a par with "traditional" risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Of particular concern are findings that the strength of this association is stronger in low and middle income countries where air pollution is projected to rise as a result of rapid industrialisation. The underlying biological mechanisms through which air pollutants exert their effect on the vasculature are still an area of intense discussion. A greater understanding of the effect size and mechanisms is necessary to develop effective strategies at individual and policy levels to mitigate the adverse cardiovascular effects of air pollution.

  6. Indoor Air Pollution (Environmental Health Student Portal)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Students to Environmental Health Information Menu Home Air Pollution Air Pollution Home Indoor Air Pollution Outdoor Air Pollution ... Pollution Indoor Air Pollution Print this Page Air Pollution Air Pollution Home Indoor Air Pollution Outdoor Air Pollution ...

  7. European symposium on the effects of air pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wentzel, K F

    1968-08-01

    At the end of April 1968 a symposium on the effects of air pollution on the flora and fauna was held at the Agricultural College at Wageningen, Holland. The conference was initiated by, and held under the patronage of, the Council of Europe, i.e., its associated Committee for the Preservation of Nature and Natural Resources. Of the approximately 150 participants half were experts, particularly from Central, Western and Northern Europe, as well as from Canada, the USA, Czechoslovakia and Yugoslavia, actively participating in the lectures and discussions. The highly complex material was subdivided into seven sections. Each of these was covered by a comprehensive discussion. Altogether 34 lectures were held: 17 in German, 13 in English and 4 in French. This already illustrates the topicality of air pollution problems, particularly in Germany, Austria, Switzerland and Czechoslovakia, the experts from which country spoke German.

  8. Valuing Health Effect on Air Pollution : WTP Approach Using CVM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Tae Yoo; Um, Mi Jung [Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea); Kwak, Seung Jun [Korea University, Seoul (Korea)

    1998-09-01

    Cost-benefit is required for improving air quality efficiently. Benefit in connection with air quality has influence on health effects, a barrier to administration, aesthetic value, and material loss. Among these, health effects are occupying most of them. In this study, the economic value by the people in Seoul was estimated about symptoms of eye irritation, heartburn, and asthma among health effects relating to air pollution by using conditional value measurement (CVM). As a result, 2,580 won/day for eye irritation, 9,000 won/day for heartburn, and 55,400 won/day for asthma were measured. Moreover, in the case of carrying out several CV questions in one survey, it was found out that the estimated results of single variation model and dual variation model were different. (author). 21 refs., 7 tabs.

  9. Air Pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, K.; And Others

    Pollution of the general environment, which exposes an entire population group for an indeterminate period of time, certainly constitutes a problem in public health. Serious aid pollution episodes have resulted in increased mortality and a possible relationship between chronic exposure to a polluted atmosphere and certain diseases has been…

  10. The effects of air pollution on the health of children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buka, Irena; Koranteng, Samuel; Osornio-Vargas, Alvaro R

    2006-10-01

    The present article is intended to inform paediatricians about the associations between ambient air pollution and adverse health outcomes in children within the context of current epidemiological evidence.The majority of the current literature pertains to adverse respiratory health outcomes, including asthma, other respiratory symptoms, and deficits in lung function and growth, as well as exposure to ambient levels of criteria air pollutants. In addition to the above, the present article highlights mortality, pregnancy outcomes, vitamin D deficiency and alteration in the immune system of children.Some of the data on the impact of improved air quality on children's health are provided, including the reduction of air pollution in former East Germany following the reunification of Germany, as well as the reduction in the rates of childhood asthma events during the 1996 Summer Olympics in Atlanta, Georgia, due to a reduction in local motor vehicle traffic. However, there are many other toxic air pollutants that are regularly released into the air. These pollutants, which are not regularly monitored and have not been adequately researched, are also potentially harmful to children.Significant morbidity and mortality is attributed to ambient air pollution, resulting in a significant economic cost to society. As Canada's cities grow, air pollution issues need to be a priority in order to protect the health of children and support sustainable development for future generations.

  11. Air pollution effects due to deregulation of the electric industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davoodi, Khojasteh Riaz

    The Energy Policy Act of 1992 introduced the concept of open-access into the electric utility industry which allows privately-owned utilities to transmit power produced by non-utility generators and independent power producers (IPPs). In April 1996, the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) laid down the final rules (Orders No. 888 & No. 889), which required utilities to open their transmission lines to any power producer and charge them no more than what they pay for the use of their own lines. These rules set the stage for the retail sale of electricity to industrial, commercial and residential utility customers; non-utility generators (Nugs); and power marketers. These statutory, regulatory and administrative changes create for the electric utility industry two different forces that contradict each other. The first is the concept of competition among utility companies; this places a greater emphasis on electric power generation cost control and affects generation/fuel mix selection and demand side management (DSM) activities. The second force, which is converse to the first, is that utilities are major contributors to the air pollution burden in the United States and environmental concerns are forcing them to reduce emissions of air pollutants by using more environmentally friendly fuels and implementing energy saving programs. This study evaluates the impact of deregulation within the investor owned electric utilities and how this deregulation effects air quality by investigating the trend in demand side management programs and generation/fuel mix. A survey was conducted of investor owned utilities and independent power producers. The results of the survey were analyzed by analysis of variance and regression analysis to determine the impact to Air Pollution. An air Quality Impact model was also developed in this study. This model consists of six modules: (1) demand side management and (2) consumption of coal, (3) gas, (4) renewable, (5) oil and (6

  12. Air pollution and vegetation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Numata, M

    1975-01-01

    Although the direct effects of each air pollutant have been fairly well studied for specific species of plants used as indicators, studies on the synecological level have not been done. Clement's communities can be used as indicators. The effects of air pollution should be studied as one in a complex of factors. The characteristic features of biological indicators are described in detail with emphasis on applying the results to human beings in polluted environments. The methods of determining the effects of pollution are described, using a community phytometer and remote sensing methods. Directly connecting the level of air pollution to the wilting of trees in general is dangerous unless it is a matter of an acute episode.

  13. Indoor air pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qureshi, I.H.

    2001-01-01

    Indoor air pollution is a potential risk to human health. Prolonged exposure to indoor pollutants may cause various infectious, allergic and other diseases. Indoor pollutants can emanate from a broad array of internal and external sources. Internal sources include building and furnishing materials, consumer and commercial products, office equipment, micro-organisms, pesticides and human occupants activities. External sources include soil, water supplies and outside makeup air. The main indoor air pollutants of concern are inorganic gases, formaldehyde and other volatile organic compounds, pesticides, radon and its daughters, particulates and microbes. The magnitude of human exposure to indoor pollutants can be estimated or predicted with the help of mathematical models which have been developed using the data from source emission testing and field monitoring of pollutants. In order to minimize human exposure to indoor pollutants, many countries have formulated guidelines / standards for the maximum permissible levels of main pollutants. Acceptable indoor air quality can be achieved by controlling indoor pollution sources and by effective ventilation system for removal of indoor pollutants. (author)

  14. Effects of long-term exposure to air pollution on natural-cause mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beelen, Rob; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole; Stafoggia, Massimo

    2013-01-01

    Few studies on long-term exposure to air pollution and mortality have been reported from Europe. Within the multicentre European Study of Cohorts for Air Pollution Effects (ESCAPE), we aimed to investigate the association between natural-cause mortality and long-term exposure to several air...... pollutants....

  15. Hazardous Air Pollutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Search Main menu Environmental Topics Air Bed Bugs Chemicals and Toxics Environmental Information by Location Greener Living Health Land, ... regulate toxic air pollutants, also known as air toxics, from categories of industrial facilities in two phases . About Hazardous Air Pollutants ...

  16. Respiratory effects of commuters' exposure to air pollution in traffic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuurbier, Moniek; Hoek, Gerard; Oldenwening, Marieke; Meliefste, Kees; van den Hazel, Peter; Brunekreef, Bert

    2011-03-01

    Much time is spent in traffic, especially during rush hours, when air pollution concentrations on roads are relatively high. Controlled exposure studies have shown acute respiratory effects of short, high exposures to air pollution from motor vehicles. Acute health effects of lower real-life exposures in traffic are unclear. Exposures of 34 healthy, nonsmoking adult volunteers were repeatedly measured while commuting for 2 hours by bus, car, or bicycle. Particle number (PN), particulate matter (PM2.5 and PM10), and soot exposures were measured. Lung function and airway resistance were measured directly before, directly following, and 6 hours after exposure. Exhaled nitric oxide (NO) was measured directly before and 6 hours after exposure. Inhaled doses were estimated based on monitored heart rates. Mixed models were used to analyze effects of exposure on changes in health parameters after exposure compared with before. PN, PM10, and soot were associated with decreased peak expiratory flow directly following but not 6 hours after exposure. PN doses were associated with decreases in maximum midexpiratory flow and forced expiratory flow (FEV1) 6 hours after exposure, whereas PN and soot exposures were associated with increased maximum midexpiratory flow and FEV1 directly after exposure. PN and soot were associated with increased exhaled NO after car and bus but not bicycle trips. PN was also associated with an increase in airway resistance directly following exposure but not 6 hours later. We found modest effects of 2-hour in-traffic exposure to air pollutants on peak flow, exhaled NO, and airway resistance.

  17. Effects of air pollution on general practitioner consultations for upper respiratory diseases in London

    OpenAIRE

    Hajat, S; Anderson, H; Atkinson, R; Haines, A; Seaton, A.

    2002-01-01

    Objectives: Few published studies have examined the effect of air pollution on upper respiratory conditions. Furthermore, most epidemiological studies on air pollution focus on mortality or hospital admissions as the main health outcomes, but very rarely consider the effect in primary care. If pollution effects do exist then the public health impact could be considerable because of the many patient contacts involved. We investigated the relation between air pollution and upper respiratory dis...

  18. Effect of air-polluting gases on plant metabolism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ziegler, I

    1972-01-01

    Among the air-polluting gases, SO/sub 2/, ozone, peroxyacetylnitrate (PAN) and fluorine are those whose action is studied most. This review tries to show the connection between the well-known macroscopic symptoms, on the one hand, the the primary point of attack at the enzymatic level, the changes in the plant's metabolism, and the microscopic and electronmicroscopic results, on the other. PAN and ozone, which originate through the action of sunlight on auto-exhausts, cause the strong oxidizing character of this type of smog. Their primary point of attack seems to be their oxidizing effect on protein SH-groups. PAN in special oxidizes the SH-groups of a photoreducible disulfide containing chloroplast protein, thus blocking photosynthesis. SO/sub 2/, which originates from combustion of coal and petroleum as well as from roasting of sulfur-containing ores, causes the reductive character of this type of smog. SO/sub 2/ has a special position among the air-polluting gases because it can be incorporated without damaging effect into the normal sulfur metabolism up to a certain level. After exceeding this limit, it causes a rapid depression of photosynthesis. F/sup -/ is bound as a salt in the cell wall or in the cell vacuole and is thereby prevented from its damaging effect on metabolic processes up to a certain level. Upon exceeding this, it acts mainly on the enzymes of carbohydrate metabolism. In a few examples it is shown in which way the collapse of cell compartmentation causes the loss of regulatory mechanisms of the cell. The influence of internal (genetic conditions, physiological age etc.) and external (light, temperature, humidity etc.) factors on the general metabolism, and, in this way, on the sensitivity of the plant to air-polluting gases, is shown. 195 references.

  19. Indoor air pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spengler, J.D.

    1985-01-01

    Although official efforts to control air pollution have traditionally focused on outdoor air, it is now apparent that elevated contaminant concentrations are common inside some private and public buildings. Concerns about potential public health problems due to indoor air pollution are based on evidence that urban residents typically spend more than 90 percent of their time indoors, concentrations of some contaminants are higher indoors than outdoors, and for some pollutants personal exposures are not characterized adequately by outdoor measurements. Among the more important indoor contaminants associated with health or irritation effects are passive tobacco smoke, radon decay products, carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, formaldehyde, asbestos fibers, microorganisms and aeroallergens. Efforts to assess health risks associated with indoor air pollution are limited by insufficient information about the number of people exposed, the pattern and severity of exposures, and the health consequences of exposures. An overall strategy should be developed to investigate indoor exposures, health effects, control options, and public policy alternatives

  20. Contribution to the effects of air pollution on xerophyte lichens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schubert, R; Fritsche, W

    1965-01-01

    Long-period investigations of the effects of gaseous air pollutants from a chemical plant on the respiration and thallus structure of three xerophyte lichens (Cladonia foliacea, Cladonia rangiformis, and Diploschistes bryophilus) are described. In a test series where the lichens were exposed to the polluted atmosphere in an urban area and near a chemical plant for over 12 months, Cladonia foliacea showed considerable decrease in the oxygen absorption, while the respiration of Cladonia rangiformis and Diploschistes bryophilus was affected slightly. The lichens, transferred from their natural site and exposed to emissions on the chemical plant premises for over 21 months, showed a negligible decrease in the oxygen absorption, nearly within the range of normal fluctuations. Microscopic investigations of the ashen gray lichens revealed severely damaged cellular structures and alga cells, as well as soot particles, especially in Diploschistes bryophilus. Remaining thalli showed, however, fairly active respiration, mostly due to the more-resistant lichen fungi. 7 references, 1 table.

  1. Air pollution and lichens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferry, B W; Baddeley, M S; Hawksworth, D L [eds.

    1973-01-01

    This volume reflects the concern of biologists for the effects of air pollution and illustrates the special values of lichens as plants suitable for such studies. Emphasis is placed on the logical progression from field observational studies to laboratory investigations aimed at elucidating the modes of action of various pollutants. The actions of pollutants on vascular plants is also discussed. Separate analytics are included for 17 chapters.

  2. Effects of air pollutants on epicuticular wax chemical composition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Percy, K.E.; McQuattie, C.J.; Rebbeck, J.A.

    1994-01-01

    There are numerous reports in the literature of modifications to epicuticular wax structure as a consequence of exposure to air pollutants. Most authors have used scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to describe changes in wax crystallite morphology or distribution. ''Erosion'' or ''weathering'' of crystalline structure into an amorphous state is the most common observation, particularly in the case of conifer needles having the characteristic tube crystallites comprised of nonacosan-10-ol. Wax structure is largely determined by its chemical composition. Therefore, many of the reported changes in wax structure due to air pollutants probably arise from direct interactions between pollutants such as ozone and wax biosynthesis. The literature describing changes in wax composition due to pollutants is briefly reviewed. New evidence is introduced in support of the hypothesis for a direct interaction between air pollutants and epicuticular wax Biosynthesis. (orig.)

  3. Categories of adverse health effects from indoor air pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weetman, D.F.; Munby, J.

    1994-01-01

    There is a lack of precision in the definition of health, which leads to confusion in the assessment of adverse effects arising from indoor air pollution. Adverse health effects range from annoyance to life-threatening conditions. Survey responses suggest that males and females differ in their perception of a healthy person, but both sexes envisage a male in terms of positive fitness, strength, energy and the possession of an athletic body, rather than how long one was likely to live. Psychological fitness was relatively unimportant in describing the health of others, but was rates as very important with respect to one's own health. Mortality statistics tend to obscure the proportion of the population who suffer chronic illness that is not life threatening. Although health is largely determined by genetic constitution, lifestyle and environmental factors, the morale of an individual is also important. A new classification of the adverse effects on health of indoor air pollution is proposed: this includes 'comfort' responses, such as sick building syndrome (category 1); acute chemical effects, the nature of which depends upon the specific intoxicant (category 2B), and perceived chronic grave risk, including cancer causation (category 3). The magnitude of risk in this latter category is imprecise, because its measurement involves the technique of quantitative risk assessment. (author) 1 fig., 2 tabs., 158 refs

  4. A Methodology of Estimation on Air Pollution and Its Health Effects in Large Japanese Cities

    OpenAIRE

    Hirota, Keiko; Shibuya, Satoshi; Sakamoto, Shogo; Kashima, Shigeru

    2012-01-01

    The correlation between air pollution and health effects in large Japanese cities presents a great challenge owing to the limited availability of data on the exposure to pollution, health effects and the uncertainty of mixed causes. A methodology for quantitative relationships (between the emission volume and air quality, and the air quality and health effects) is analysed with a statistical method in this article; the correlation of air pollution reduction policy in Japan from 1974 to 2007. ...

  5. Toxic potency and effects of diffuse air pollution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hamers, T.H.M.

    2002-01-01

    Diffuse air pollution consists of an omnipresent complex mixture of pollutants that is emitted from many widely dispersed sources as traffic, industries, households, energy plants, waste incinerators, and agriculture. It can be deposited in relatively remote areas as a result of

  6. Coping with Indoor Air Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Pollution > Coping with Indoor Air Pollution Font: Outdoor Pollution Indoor Air Pollution Asthma Triggers For Kids and Teachers Coping with Indoor Air Pollution Indoor air pollution is irritating to everyone: But people who ...

  7. Air pollution control in practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baum, F.

    1988-01-01

    The book offers a comprehensive treatment of the subject, from air pollution monitoring and effects on human and animal health, on plants and materials, to pollution reduction measures, practical applications, and legal regulations. It intends to give the air pollution expert a basis for developing practicable solutions. Apart from the 'classic' pollutants, also radioactive air pollution is gone into. (DG) With 366 figs., 190 tabs [de

  8. Indoor Air Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    We usually think of air pollution as being outdoors, but the air in your house or office could also be polluted. Sources of indoor pollution include Mold and pollen Tobacco smoke Household products ...

  9. Health effects of particulate air pollution and airborne desert dust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lelieveld, J.; Pozzer, A.; Giannadaki, D.; Fnais, M.

    2013-12-01

    Air pollution by fine particulate matter (PM2.5) has increased strongly with industrialization and urbanization. In the past decades this increase has taken place at a particularly high pace in South and East Asia. We estimate the premature mortality and the years of human life lost (YLL) caused by anthropogenic PM2.5 and airborne desert dust (DU2.5) on regional and national scales (Giannadaki et al., 2013; Lelieveld et al., 2013). This is based on high-resolution global model calculations that resolve urban and industrial regions in relatively great detail. We apply an epidemiological health impact function and find that especially in large countries with extensive suburban and rural populations, air pollution-induced mortality rates have been underestimated given that previous studies largely focused on the urban environment. We calculate a global premature mortality by anthropogenic aerosols of 2.2 million/year (YLL ≈ 16 million/year) due to lung cancer and cardiopulmonary disease. High mortality rates by PM2.5 are found in China, India, Bangladesh, Pakistan and Indonesia. Desert dust DU2.5 aerosols add about 0.4 million/year (YLL ≈ 3.6 million/year). Particularly significant mortality rates by DU2.5 occur in Pakistan, China and India. The estimated global mean per capita mortality caused by airborne particulates is about 0.1%/year (about two thirds of that caused by tobacco smoking). We show that the highest premature mortality rates are found in the Southeast Asia and Western Pacific regions (about 25% and 46% of the global rate, respectively) where more than a dozen of the most highly polluted megacities are located. References: Giannadaki, D., A. Pozzer, and J. Lelieveld, Modeled global effects of airborne desert dust on air quality and premature mortality, Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss. (submitted), 2013. Lelieveld, J., C. Barlas, D. Giannadaki, and A. Pozzer, Model calculated global, regional and megacity premature mortality due to air pollution by ozone

  10. The effects of Air Pollution on Health Status in Great Britain

    OpenAIRE

    Giovanis, Eleftherios; Ozdamar, Oznur

    2014-01-01

    This study explores the effects of air pollution on self-reported health status. Moreover, this study explores the willingness to pay for improving the air quality in UK. The estimates are based on data from the British Household Panel Survey (BHPS). The effects of air pollution on individuals’ health status are estimated and their monetary value is calculated. In particular, two main air pollutants are examined; ground-level ozone (O3) and carbon monoxide (CO). Moreover, various approaches ...

  11. Indoor air pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anwar, J.; Hussain, F.

    2005-01-01

    Indoor air pollution after being a neglected subject for a number of years, is attracting attention recently because it is a side effect of energy crisis. About 50% of world's 6 billion population, mostly in developing countries, depend on biomass and coal in the form of wood, dung and crop residues for domestic energy because of poverty. These materials are burnt in simple stoves with incomplete combustion and infants, children and women are exposed to high levels of indoor air pollution for a considerable period, approximately between 2-4 hours daily. Current worldwide trade in wood fuel is over US $7 billion and about 2 million people are employed full time in production and marketing it. One of the most annoying and common indoor pollutant in both, developing and developed countries, is cigarette smoke. Children in gas-equipped homes had higher incidences of respiratory disease. Babies' DNA can be damaged even before they are born if their mothers breathe polluted air. Exposure to indoor air pollution may be responsible for nearly 2 million excess deaths in developing countries and for 4% of the global burden of the disease. Only a few indoor pollutants have been studied in detail. Indoor air pollution is a major health threat on which further research is needed to define the extent of the problem more precisely and to determine solutions by the policy-makers instead of neglecting it because sufferers mostly belong to Third World countries. (author)

  12. Respiratory Health Effects of Air Pollution: Update on Biomass Smoke and Traffic Pollution

    OpenAIRE

    Laumbach, Robert J.; Kipen, Howard M.

    2012-01-01

    Mounting evidence suggests that air pollution contributes to the large global burden of respiratory and allergic diseases including asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, pneumonia and possibly tuberculosis. Although associations between air pollution and respiratory disease are complex, recent epidemiologic studies have led to an increased recognition of the emerging importance of traffic-related air pollution in both developed and less-developed countries, as well as the continued i...

  13. Personal computers pollute indoor air: effects on perceived air quality, SBS symptoms and productivity in offices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bako-Biro, Zsolt; Wargocki, Pawel; Weschler, Charles J.

    2002-01-01

    was reduced and air freshness increased; all effects were significant. In the presence of PCs the performance of text typing significantly decreased. The sensory pollution load of the PCs was found to be 3 olf per PC, i.e. three times the load of the occupants. Present results indicate negative effects of PCs......Perceived air quality and Sick Building Syndrome (SBS) symptoms were studied in a low-polluting office space ventilated at an air change rate of 2 h-1 (10 L/s per person with 6 people present) with and without personal computers (PCs). Other environmental parameters were kept constant. Thirty...... female subjects were exposed for 4.8 h to each of the two conditions in the office and performed simulated office work. They remained thermally neutral by adjusting their clothing and were blind to the interventions. In the absence of PCs in the office the perceived air quality improved, odour intensity...

  14. Effect of air pollution on agricultural and forest crops. I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsushima, J

    1971-10-01

    Indirect and direct effects of air pollutants on agricultural and forest crops are discussed. Pollutants can cause changes in the quality of pesticides, imbalances in the nutritional makeup of crops, and other effects in the soil. Past studies have shown that there is a definite correlation between the germ induced blight of pine trees and the concentration of sulfur dioxide in air. Infestation of pine insects and the degree of oxidant in the air also have close relationships. The final cause for blight of pines is often the work of insects such as western pine beetles and mountain pine beetles, but the insects attack trees that are already weakened by oxidant. Orange trees sprayed with pesticide were fumigated in SO/sub 2/. Control trees showed a marked state of good health in comparison to the fumigated trees. However, the relationship and mechanism of the pesticide and SO/sub 2/ are controlled by a complex set of factors. Lime and sulfur compound pesticides also affect citrus trees when SO/sub 2/ is present. Trees sprayed during winter in conjunction with SO/sub 2/ fumigation show a heavy shedding of leaves. The SO/sub 2/ accumulation in soil and plant in the form of acidity or sulfur result in increases of potassium, calcium, or magnesium, depending on the type of produce. Direct effects of SO/sub 2/ are discussed based on the mathematical formula of Thomas, and invisible damages caused by winter fumigation in SO/sub 2/ such as deterioration of growth and photosynthesis are discussed.

  15. Air pollution and acid rains: status, effects, links with other forms of air pollution; Pollution de l`air et ``pluies acide`` etat des lieux, effets, liens avec d`autres formes de pollution de l`air

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elichegaray, C. [Agence de l`Environnement et de la Maitrise de l`Energie, 75 - Paris (France)

    1997-12-31

    The evolution of acid rain pollution since 1970 is reviewed; it is shown that, broadly speaking, the acid rain issue is decreasing compared to other forms of long range air pollution, at least in Western Europe. The growing issue is the increasing photochemical pollution and its effects on health, ecosystems and climate. Nevertheless, acid rains are still a major concern in various parts of the world (North America for example) and certain parts of France (Ardennes, Landes, parts of Massif Central) exhibit a very high potential sensitivity to acid falls

  16. Air pollution in India and related adverse respiratory health effects: past, present, and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khilnani, Gopi C; Tiwari, Pawan

    2018-03-01

    The review describes current status of air pollution in India, summarizes recent research on adverse health effects of ambient and household air pollution, and outlines the ongoing efforts and future actions required to improve air quality and reduce morbidity and mortality because of air pollution in India. Global burden of disease data analysis reveals more than one million premature deaths attributable to ambient air pollution in 2015 in India. More than one million additional deaths can be attributed to household air pollution. Particulate matter with diameter 2.5 μm or less has been causatively linked with most premature deaths. Acute respiratory tract infections, asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, exacerbations of preexisting obstructive airway disease and lung cancer are proven adverse respiratory effects of air pollution. Targeting air quality standards laid by WHO can significantly reduce morbidity and mortality because of air pollution in India. India is currently exposed to high levels of ambient and household air pollutants. Respiratory adverse effects of air pollution are significant contributors to morbidity and premature mortality in India. Substantial efforts are being made at legislative, administrative, and community levels to improve air quality. However, much more needs to be done to change the 'status quo' and attain the target air quality standards. VIDEO ABSTRACT: http://links.lww.com/COPM/A24.

  17. Urban air quality management : effects of trees on air pollution concentration in urban street canyon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salim, S.M.; Buccolieri, R.; Chan, A.; Sabatino, Di S.; Gromke, C.

    2009-01-01

    The aerodynamic effects of avenue-like tree planting on air flow and traffic-originated pollutant dispersion in urban built-up areas (i.e. street canyons of width to height ratio, W/H=1) are investigated using computational fluid dynamics techniques and complemented with extensive wind tunnel

  18. Public Health and Air Pollution in Asia (PAPA): A Multicity Study of Short-Term Effects of Air Pollution on Mortality

    OpenAIRE

    Wong, Chit-Ming; Vichit-Vadakan, Nuntavarn; Kan, Haidong; Qian, Zhengmin

    2008-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Although the deleterious effects of air pollution from fossil fuel combustion have been demonstrated in many Western nations, fewer studies have been conducted in Asia. The Public Health and Air Pollution in Asia (PAPA) project assessed the effects of short-term exposure to air pollution on daily mortality in Bangkok, Thailand, and in three cities in China: Hong Kong, Shanghai, and Wuhan. Methods: Poisson regression models incorporating natural spline smoothing func...

  19. Integrated effects of air pollution and climate change on forests: a northern hemisphere perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bytnerowicz, Andrzej; Omasa, Kenji; Paoletti, Elena

    2007-06-01

    Many air pollutants and greenhouse gases have common sources, contribute to radiative balance, interact in the atmosphere, and affect ecosystems. The impacts on forest ecosystems have been traditionally treated separately for air pollution and climate change. However, the combined effects may significantly differ from a sum of separate effects. We review the links between air pollution and climate change and their interactive effects on northern hemisphere forests. A simultaneous addressing of the air pollution and climate change effects on forests may result in more effective research, management and monitoring as well as better integration of local, national and global environmental policies.

  20. Health effects associated with exposure to ambient air pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samet, Jonathan; Krewski, Daniel

    2007-02-01

    The World Health Organization has identified ambient air pollution as a high public health priority, based on estimates of air pollution related death and disability-adjusted life years derived in its Global Burden of Disease initiative. The NERAM Colloquium Series on Health and Air Quality was initiated to strengthen the linkage between scientists, policymakers, and other stakeholders by reviewing the current state of science, identifying policy-relevant gaps and uncertainties in the scientific evidence, and proposing a path forward for research and policy to improve air quality and public health. The objective of this paper is to review the current state of science addressing the impacts of air pollution on human health. The paper is one of four background papers prepared for the 2003 NERAM/AirNet Conference on Strategies for Clean Air and Health, the third meeting in the international Colloquium Series. The review is based on the framework and findings of the U.S. National Research Committee (NRC) on Research Priorities for Airborne Particulate Matter and addresses key questions underlying air quality risk management policy decisions.

  1. Air Pollution and Its Effects on an Individual's Health and Exercise Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, A. I. Clifford

    1988-01-01

    Air Pollution is a common environmental stressor affecting the training and competitive performance of athletes, commonly irritating the eyes, nose, and throat. The health and exercise effects of such primary and secondary air pollutants as carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, air particulates, ozone, and nitrogen dioxide are discussed. (CB)

  2. Critical loads as a policy tool for protecting ecosystems from the effects of air pollutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas A. Burns; Tamara Blett; Richard Haeuber; Linda H. Pardo

    2008-01-01

    Framing the effects of air pollutants on ecosystems in terms of a "critical load" provides a meaningful approach for research scientists to communicate policy-relevant science to air-quality policy makers and natural resource managers. A critical-loads approach has been widely used to shape air-pollutant control policy in Europe since the 1980s, yet has only...

  3. Health effects of ambient air pollution – recent research development and contemporary methodological challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ren Cizao

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Exposure to high levels of air pollution can cause a variety of adverse health outcomes. Air quality in developed countries has been generally improved over the last three decades. However, many recent epidemiological studies have consistently shown positive associations between low-level exposure to air pollution and health outcomes. Thus, adverse health effects of air pollution, even at relatively low levels, remain a public concern. This paper aims to provide an overview of recent research development and contemporary methodological challenges in this field and to identify future research directions for air pollution epidemiological studies.

  4. Lead (Pb) Air Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Regional Offices Labs and Research Centers Lead (Pb) Air Pollution Contact Us Share As a result of EPA's ... and protect aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. Lead (Pb) Air Pollution Basic Information How does lead get in the ...

  5. Determiners of the air pollution effects at Shanghai

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2009-01-01

    Age, sex and other factors that modify sensitivity to air pollution have been identified in epidemiologic studies in europe and north America. This study assesses modifying factors for the population of Shanghai, which has a different social and demographic profile and lives in a different climate. (author)

  6. Long-term effects of traffic-related air pollution on mortality in a Dutch cohort (NLCS-AIR study)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beelen, R.; Hoek, G.; Brandt, P.A. van den; Goldbohm, R.A.; Fischer, P.; Schouten, L.J.; Jerrett, M.; Hughes, E.; Armstrong, B.; Brunekreef, B.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Several studies have found an effect on mortality of between-city contrasts in long-term exposure to air pollution. The effect of within-city contrasts is still poorly understood. Objectives: We studied the association between long-term exposure to traffic-related air pollution and

  7. Air pollution and tree growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scurfield, G

    1960-01-01

    The problem of air pollution is reviewed with emphasis on its origin and its effects on trees and shrubs. These effects are described from two points of view: the effects of general air pollution, and also the effects of specific pollutants. The considerable mixing, dilution and interaction that pollutants undergo in the air often renders it exceedingly difficult to assign pollution damage to any specific chemical or physical entity. Moreover, it is often impossible to assign responsibility for damage to any particular source. The constituents of general air pollution may be subdivided into those potentially incapable, and those potentially capable, of entering the plant either through the leaf stomata or indirectly by way of the soil. Specific pollutants cause damage directly, as well as indirectly from the chemical reactions that occur in the polluted atmosphere. Sulfur dioxide is discussed in detail in relation to tree and shrub damage, with numerous examples of plant injuries.

  8. Air Pollution Training Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Public Health Service (DHEW), Rockville, MD.

    This catalog lists the universities, both supported and not supported by the Division of Air Pollution, which offer graduate programs in the field of air pollution. The catalog briefly describes the programs and their entrance requirements, the requirements, qualifications and terms of special fellowships offered by the Division of Air Pollution.…

  9. Integrated effects of air pollution and climate change on forests: A northern hemisphere perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bytnerowicz, Andrzej; Omasa, Kenji; Paoletti, Elena

    2007-01-01

    Many air pollutants and greenhouse gases have common sources, contribute to radiative balance, interact in the atmosphere, and affect ecosystems. The impacts on forest ecosystems have been traditionally treated separately for air pollution and climate change. However, the combined effects may significantly differ from a sum of separate effects. We review the links between air pollution and climate change and their interactive effects on northern hemisphere forests. A simultaneous addressing of the air pollution and climate change effects on forests may result in more effective research, management and monitoring as well as better integration of local, national and global environmental policies. - Simultaneous addressing air pollution and climate change effects on forests is an opportunity for capturing synergies in future research and monitoring

  10. Photochemical air pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Te Winkel, B.H.

    1992-01-01

    During periods of severe photochemical air pollution (smog) the industry in the Netherlands is recommended by the Dutch government to strongly reduce the emissions of air pollutants. For the electric power generating companies it is important to investigate the adequacy of this policy. The purpose of this investigation is to determine the contribution of electric power plants to photochemical air pollution and to assess the efficacy of emission reducing measures. A literature survey on the development of photochemical air pollution was carried out and modelled calculations concerning the share of the electric power plants to the photochemical air pollution were executed

  11. AirPEx. Air Pollution Exposure Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freijer, J.I.; Bloemen, H.J.Th.; De Loos, S.; Marra, M.; Rombout, P.J.A.; Steentjes, G.M.; Van Veen, M.P.

    1997-12-01

    Analysis of inhalatory exposure to air pollution is an important area of investigation when assessing the risks of air pollution for human health. Inhalatory exposure research focuses on the exposure of humans to air pollutants and the entry of these pollutants into the human respiratory tract. The principal grounds for studying the inhalatory exposure of humans to air pollutants are formed by the need for realistic exposure/dose estimates to evaluate the health effects of these pollutants. The AirPEx (Air Pollution Exposure) model, developed to assess the time- and space-dependence of inhalatory exposure of humans to air pollution, has been implemented for use as a Windows 3.1 computer program. The program is suited to estimating various exposure and dose quantities for individuals, as well as for populations and subpopulations. This report describes the fundamentals of the AirPEx model and provides a user manual for the computer program. Several examples included in the report illustrate the possibilities of the AirPEx model in exposure assessment. The model will be used at the National Institute of Public Health and the Environment as a tool in analysing the current exposure of the Dutch population to air pollutants. 57 refs.

  12. Clinical effects of air pollution on the central nervous system; a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babadjouni, Robin M; Hodis, Drew M; Radwanski, Ryan; Durazo, Ramon; Patel, Arati; Liu, Qinghai; Mack, William J

    2017-09-01

    The purpose of this review is to describe recent clinical and epidemiological studies examining the adverse effects of urban air pollution on the central nervous system (CNS). Air pollution and particulate matter (PM) are associated with neuroinflammation and reactive oxygen species (ROS). These processes affect multiple CNS pathways. The conceptual framework of this review focuses on adverse effects of air pollution with respect to neurocognition, white matter disease, stroke, and carotid artery disease. Both children and older individuals exposed to air pollution exhibit signs of cognitive dysfunction. However, evidence on middle-aged cohorts is lacking. White matter injury secondary to air pollution exposure is a putative mechanism for neurocognitive decline. Air pollution is associated with exacerbations of neurodegenerative conditions such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases. Increases in stroke incidences and mortalities are seen in the setting of air pollution exposure and CNS pathology is robust. Large populations living in highly polluted environments are at risk. This review aims to outline current knowledge of air pollution exposure effects on neurological health. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Air pollution and climate change. Effects on vegetation, animals, and humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wellburn, A.R.

    1997-01-01

    This is the first comprehensive review of the effects of air pollution and climate change on the biosphere. The emphasis is on the biochemical processes caused by specific pollutants in plants, animals, and humans, but global aspects of air pollution are gone into as well, e.g. greenhouse effect, acid rain, ozone depletion and forest decline. The reader is given a comprehensive outline of this interdisciplinary problem field. (orig./MG) [de

  14. Air pollution: Impact and prevention

    OpenAIRE

    SIERRA-VARGAS, MARTHA PATRICIA; TERAN, LUIS M

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT Air pollution is becoming a major health problem that affects millions of people worldwide. In support of this observation, the World Health Organization estimates that every year, 2.4 million people die because of the effects of air pollution on health. Mitigation strategies such as changes in diesel engine technology could result in fewer premature mortalities, as suggested by the US Environmental Protection Agency. This review: (i) discusses the impact of air pollution on respirat...

  15. Air pollution and lichens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferry, B W; Baddeley, M S; Hawksworth, D L [eds.

    1973-01-01

    This volume reflects the particular concern of many biologists for the effects of air pollution and illustrates the special values of lichens as plants suitable for such studies. It brings together contributions from many experts in this field and includes much previously unpublished data, as well as up-to-date review chapters. Emphasis is placed on the logical progression from field observational studies to critical laboratory investigations aimed at elucidating the modes of action of various air pollutants on the living tissues of lichens. The action of such pollutants on vascular plants is also discussed. It is the editors' intention that the book be both a reference volume and an encouragement for further wor

  16. Combined effects of road traffic noise and ambient air pollution in relation to risk for stroke?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Mette; Lühdorf, Pernille; Ketzel, Matthias

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to road traffic noise and air pollution have both been associated with risk for stroke. The few studies including both exposures show inconsistent results. We aimed to investigate potential mutual confounding and combined effects between road traffic noise and air pollution in association...... to 2009 were identified in national registers and road traffic noise and air pollution were modeled for all addresses. Analyses were done using Cox regression. A higher mean annual exposure at time of diagnosis of 10µg/m(3) nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and 10dB road traffic noise at the residential address...... was found for combination of high noise and high NO2 (IRR=1.28; 95% CI=1.09-1.52). Fatal stroke was positively associated with air pollution and not with traffic noise. In conclusion, in mutually adjusted models road traffic noise and not air pollution was associated ischemic stroke, while only air...

  17. Transportation, Air Pollution, and Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Centers Contact Us Share Transportation, Air Pollution, and Climate Change Overview Learn about pollutants from vehicles and engines that cause harmful health effects and climate change. Overview of air pollution from transportation Key issues, ...

  18. Interactive short-term effects of equivalent temperature and air pollution on human mortality in Berlin and Lisbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burkart, Katrin; Canário, Paulo; Breitner, Susanne; Schneider, Alexandra; Scherber, Katharina; Andrade, Henrique; Alcoforado, Maria João; Endlicher, Wilfried

    2013-01-01

    There is substantial evidence that both temperature and air pollution are predictors of mortality. Thus far, few studies have focused on the potential interactive effects between the thermal environment and different measures of air pollution. Such interactions, however, are biologically plausible, as (extreme) temperature or increased air pollution might make individuals more susceptible to the effects of each respective predictor. This study investigated the interactive effects between equivalent temperature and air pollution (ozone and particulate matter) in Berlin (Germany) and Lisbon (Portugal) using different types of Poisson regression models. The findings suggest that interactive effects exist between air pollutants and equivalent temperature. Bivariate response surface models and generalised additive models (GAMs) including interaction terms showed an increased risk of mortality during periods of elevated equivalent temperatures and air pollution. Cold effects were mostly unaffected by air pollution. The study underscores the importance of air pollution control in mitigating heat effects. -- Highlights: • Interactive effects between air pollution and equivalent temperature result in augmented excess mortality. • High levels of ozone and particulate matter increase adverse heat effects on human mortality. • Cold effects are mostly unaffected by air pollution. • Findings underscore the importance of air pollution control in mitigating heat-related mortality. -- Interactive effects between air pollution and elevated (equivalent) temperatures underscore the importance of air pollution control in mitigating the adverse effects of heat

  19. Household air pollution and its effects on health [version 1; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Komalkirti Apte

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Household air pollution is a leading cause of disability-adjusted life years in Southeast Asia and the third leading cause of disability-adjusted life years globally. There are at least sixty sources of household air pollution, and these vary from country to country. Indoor tobacco smoking, construction material used in building houses, fuel used for cooking, heating and lighting, use of incense and various forms of mosquito repellents, use of pesticides and chemicals used for cleaning at home, and use of artificial fragrances are some of the various sources that contribute to household air pollution. Household air pollution affects all stages of life with multi-systemic health effects, and its effects are evident right from pre-conception to old age. In utero exposure to household air pollutants has been shown to have health effects which resonate over the entire lifetime. Exposures to indoor air pollutants in early childhood also tend to have repercussions throughout life. The respiratory system bears the maximum brunt, but effects on the cardiovascular system, endocrine system, and nervous system are largely underplayed. Household air pollutants have also been implicated in the development of various types of cancers. Identifying household air pollutants and their health implications helps us prepare for various health-related issues. However, the real challenge is adopting changes to reduce the health effects of household air pollution and designing innovative interventions to minimize the risk of further exposure. This review is an attempt to understand the various sources of household air pollution, the effects on health, and strategies to deal with this emergent risk factor of global mortality and morbidity.

  20. Public Health and Air Pollution in Asia (PAPA): a multicity study of short-term effects of air pollution on mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Chit-Ming; Vichit-Vadakan, Nuntavarn; Kan, Haidong; Qian, Zhengmin

    2008-09-01

    Although the deleterious effects of air pollution from fossil fuel combustion have been demonstrated in many Western nations, fewer studies have been conducted in Asia. The Public Health and Air Pollution in Asia (PAPA) project assessed the effects of short-term exposure to air pollution on daily mortality in Bangkok, Thailand, and in three cities in China: Hong Kong, Shanghai, and Wuhan. Poisson regression models incorporating natural spline smoothing functions were used to adjust for seasonality and other time-varying covariates that might confound the association between air pollution and mortality. Effect estimates were determined for each city and then for the cities combined using a random effects method. In individual cities, associations were detected between most of the pollutants [nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide, particulate matter air pollution than those in Western industrial nations because they spend more time outdoors and less time in air conditioning. Although the social and environmental conditions may be quite different, it is reasonable to apply estimates derived from previous health effect of air pollution studies in the West to Asia.

  1. Short term respiratory health effects of ambient air pollution: results of the APHEA project in Paris.

    OpenAIRE

    Dab, W; Medina, S; Quénel, P; Le Moullec, Y; Le Tertre, A; Thelot, B; Monteil, C; Lameloise, P; Pirard, P; Momas, I; Ferry, R; Festy, B

    1996-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE: To quantify the short term respiratory health effects of ambient air pollution in the Paris area. DESIGN: Time series analysis of daily pollution levels using Poisson regression. SETTING: Paris, 1987-92. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Air pollution was monitored by measurement of black smoke (BS) (15 monitoring stations), sulphur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), particulate matter less than 13 microns in diameter (PM13), and ozone (O3) (4 stations). Daily mortality and ...

  2. Air pollution - health and management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klug, W; Runca, E; Suess, M J [eds.

    1984-01-01

    The proceedings of a joint workshop of the World Health Organization and the International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis are presented. The workshop was to review the interaction between man's industrial and urban activities and the environment, and the relationship between ambient air quality and human health, and to examine the effectiveness of proper management on the control and abatement of air pollution. The discussion topics included atmospheric processes and respective modelling, air pollution impact on human health, effects of air pollutants on aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems, air pollution episode cycles and management of control. A selected list of 11ASA and WHO/EURO publications related to air pollution is included. Separate abstracts were prepared for 15 papers in this book.

  3. Mobile Air Monitoring Data Processing Strategies and Effects on Spatial Air Pollution Trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    The collection of real-time air quality measurements while in motion (i.e., mobile monitoring) is currently conducted worldwide to evaluate in situ emissions, local air quality trends, and air pollutant exposure. This measurement strategy pushes the limits of traditional data an...

  4. A cooperative reduction model for regional air pollution control in China that considers adverse health effects and pollutant reduction costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Yujing; Zhao, Laijun; Xue, Jian; Hu, Qingmi; Xu, Xiang; Wang, Hongbo

    2016-12-15

    How to effectively control severe regional air pollution has become a focus of global concern recently. The non-cooperative reduction model (NCRM) is still the main air pollution control pattern in China, but it is both ineffective and costly, because each province must independently fight air pollution. Thus, we proposed a cooperative reduction model (CRM), with the goal of maximizing the reduction in adverse health effects (AHEs) at the lowest cost by encouraging neighboring areas to jointly control air pollution. CRM has two parts: a model of optimal pollutant removal rates using two optimization objectives (maximizing the reduction in AHEs and minimizing pollutant reduction cost) while meeting the regional pollution control targets set by the central government, and a model that allocates the cooperation benefits (i.e., health improvement and cost reduction) among the participants according to their contributions using the Shapley value method. We applied CRM to the case of sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ) reduction in Yangtze River Delta region. Based on data from 2003 to 2013, and using mortality due to respiratory and cardiovascular diseases as the health endpoints, CRM saves 437 more lives than NCRM, amounting to 12.1% of the reduction under NCRM. CRM also reduced costs by US $65.8×10 6 compared with NCRM, which is 5.2% of the total cost of NCRM. Thus, CRM performs significantly better than NCRM. Each province obtains significant benefits from cooperation, which can motivate them to actively cooperate in the long term. A sensitivity analysis was performed to quantify the effects of parameter values on the cooperation benefits. Results shown that the CRM is not sensitive to the changes in each province's pollutant carrying capacity and the minimum pollutant removal capacity, but sensitive to the maximum pollutant reduction capacity. Moreover, higher cooperation benefits will be generated when a province's maximum pollutant reduction capacity increases. Copyright

  5. Interactive short-term effects of equivalent temperature and air pollution on human mortality in Berlin and Lisbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkart, Katrin; Canário, Paulo; Breitner, Susanne; Schneider, Alexandra; Scherber, Katharina; Andrade, Henrique; Alcoforado, Maria João; Endlicher, Wilfried

    2013-12-01

    There is substantial evidence that both temperature and air pollution are predictors of mortality. Thus far, few studies have focused on the potential interactive effects between the thermal environment and different measures of air pollution. Such interactions, however, are biologically plausible, as (extreme) temperature or increased air pollution might make individuals more susceptible to the effects of each respective predictor. This study investigated the interactive effects between equivalent temperature and air pollution (ozone and particulate matter) in Berlin (Germany) and Lisbon (Portugal) using different types of Poisson regression models. The findings suggest that interactive effects exist between air pollutants and equivalent temperature. Bivariate response surface models and generalised additive models (GAMs) including interaction terms showed an increased risk of mortality during periods of elevated equivalent temperatures and air pollution. Cold effects were mostly unaffected by air pollution. The study underscores the importance of air pollution control in mitigating heat effects. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Health effects associated with passenger vehicles: monetary values of air pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzouk, Mohamed; Madany, Magdy

    2012-01-01

    Air pollution is regarded as one of the highest priorities in environmental protection in both developed and developing countries. High levels of air pollution have adverse effects on human health that might cause premature death. This study presents the monetary value estimates for the adverse human health effects resulted from ambient air pollution. It aids decision makers to set priorities in the public health relevance of pollution abatement. The main driver of policymaker is the need to reduce the avoidable cardiopulmonary morbidity and mortality from pollutant exposures. The monetary valuation involves 2 steps: (i) relate levels of pollutants to mortality and morbidity (concentration-response relationships) and (ii) apply unit economic values. Cost of air pollution associated with passenger vehicles running over a major traffic bridge (6th of October Elevated Highway) is presented as a case study to demonstrate the use of monetary value of air pollution. The study proves that the cost of air pollution is extremely high and should not be overlooked.

  7. Air pollution meteorology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shirvaikar, V V; Daoo, V J [Environmental Assessment Div., Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India)

    2002-06-01

    This report is intended as a training cum reference document for scientists posted at the Environmental Laboratories at the Nuclear Power Station Sites and other sites of the Department of Atomic Energy with installations emitting air pollutants, radioactive or otherwise. Since a manual already exists for the computation of doses from radioactive air pollutants, a general approach is take here i.e. air pollutants in general are considered. The first chapter presents a brief introduction to the need and scope of air pollution dispersion modelling. The second chapter is a very important chapter discussing the aspects of meteorology relevant to air pollution and dispersion modelling. This chapter is important because without this information one really does not understand the phenomena affecting dispersion, the scope and applicability of various models or their limitations under various weather and site conditions. The third chapter discusses the air pollution models in detail. These models are applicable to distances of a few tens of kilometres. The fourth chapter discusses the various aspects of meteorological measurements relevant to air pollution. The chapters are followed by two appendices. Apendix A discusses the reliability of air pollution estimates. Apendix B gives some practical examples relevant to general air pollution. It is hoped that the document will prove very useful to the users. (author)

  8. Acute effects of air pollution on asthma hospitalization in Shanghai, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai, Jing; Zhao, Ang; Zhao, Jinzhuo; Chen, Renjie; Wang, Weibing; Ha, Sandie; Xu, Xiaohui; Kan, Haidong

    2014-01-01

    Air pollution has been accepted as an important contributor to asthma development and exacerbation. However, the evidence is limited in China. In this study, we investigated the acute effect of air pollution on asthma hospitalization in Shanghai, China. We applied over-dispersed generalized additive model adjusted for weather conditions, day of the week, long-term and seasonal trends. An interquartile range increase in the moving average concentrations of PM 10 , SO 2 , NO 2 and BC on the concurrent day and previous day corresponded to 1.82%, 6.41%, 8.26% and 6.62% increase of asthmatic hospitalization, respectively. The effects of SO 2 and NO 2 were robust after adjustment for PM 10 . The associations appeared to be more evident in the cool season than in the warm season. Our results contribute to the limited data in the scientific literature on acute effects of air pollution on asthma in high exposure settings, which are typical in developing countries. - Highlights: • Few prior studies in China examine the effect of air pollution on asthma. • We found acute effect of air pollution on asthma hospitalization in Shanghai. • Our results contribute to limited data on air pollution and asthma in China. - Ambient air pollution increases the risk of asthma hospitalization in Shanghai, China

  9. A survey on the effects of air pollution on diseases of the people of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of air pollution on diseases of the people of Rivers State, Nigeria has been studied by analyzing epidemiological data collected from the State Ministry of Health, Nigeria in relation to ambient Air Quality data of the State and National Ambient Air Quality Standard data. It was found that a total number of 30,435 ...

  10. Effects of air pollution on ecosystems and biological diversity in the eastern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovett, Gary M; Tear, Timothy H; Evers, David C; Findlay, Stuart E G; Cosby, B Jack; Dunscomb, Judy K; Driscoll, Charles T; Weathers, Kathleen C

    2009-04-01

    Conservation organizations have most often focused on land-use change, climate change, and invasive species as prime threats to biodiversity conservation. Although air pollution is an acknowledged widespread problem, it is rarely considered in conservation planning or management. In this synthesis, the state of scientific knowledge on the effects of air pollution on plants and animals in the Northeastern and Mid-Atlantic regions of the United States is summarized. Four air pollutants (sulfur, nitrogen, ozone, and mercury) and eight ecosystem types ranging from estuaries to alpine tundra are considered. Effects of air pollution were identified, with varying levels of certainty, in all the ecosystem types examined. None of these ecosystem types is free of the impacts of air pollution, and most are affected by multiple pollutants. In aquatic ecosystems, effects of acidity, nitrogen, and mercury on organisms and biogeochemical processes are well documented. Air pollution causes or contributes to acidification of lakes, eutrophication of estuaries and coastal waters, and mercury bioaccumulation in aquatic food webs. In terrestrial ecosystems, the effects of air pollution on biogeochemical cycling are also very well documented, but the effects on most organisms and the interaction of air pollution with other stressors are less well understood. Nevertheless, there is strong evidence for effects of nitrogen deposition on plants in grasslands, alpine areas, and bogs, and for nitrogen effects on forest mycorrhizae. Soil acidification is widespread in forest ecosystems across the eastern United States and is likely to affect the composition and function of forests in acid-sensitive areas over the long term. Ozone is known to cause reductions in photosynthesis in many terrestrial plant species. For the most part, the effects of these pollutants are chronic, not acute, at the exposure levels common in the eastern United States. Mortality is often observed only at experimentally

  11. Intercontinental Transport of Air Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, David; Whung, Pai-Yei; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The development of the global economy goes beyond raising our standards of living. We are in an ear of increasing environmental as well as economic interdependence. Long-range transport of anthropogenic atmospheric pollutants such as ozone, ozone precursors, airborne particles, heavy metals (such as mercury) and persistent organic pollutants are the four major types of pollution that are transported over intercontinental distances and have global environmental effects. The talk includes: 1) an overview of the international agreements related to intercontinental transport of air pollutants, 2) information needed for decision making, 3) overview of the past research on intercontinental transport of air pollutants - a North American's perspective, and 4) future research needs.

  12. The effects of air pollution on length of hospital stay for adult patients with asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Li; Ren, Jing; Zhang, Fengyi; Zhang, Wei; Li, Chunyang; Qiu, Zhixin; Huang, Debin

    2018-04-23

    Length of hospital stay (LOS) of asthma can be a reflection of the disease burden faced by patients, and it is also sensitive to air pollution. This study aims at estimating and validating the effects of air pollution and readmission on the LOS for those who have asthma, considering their readmission history, minimum temperature, and threshold effects of air pollutants. In addition, sex, age, and season were also constructed for stratification to achieve more precise and specific results. The results show that no significant effects of PM 2.5 and NO 2 on LOS were observed in any of the patients, but there were significant effects of PM 2.5 and NO 2 on LOS when a stratifying subgroup analysis was performed. The effect of PM 10 on LOS was found to be lower than that of PM 2.5 and higher than that of NO 2 . SO 2 did not have a significant effect on LOS for patients with asthma in our study. Our study confirmed that the adverse effects of air pollutants (such as PM 10 ) on LOS for patients with asthma existed; in addition, these effects vary for different stratifications. We measured the effects of air pollutants on the LOS for patients with asthma, and this study offers policy makers quantitative evidence that can support relevant policies for health care resource management and ambient air pollutants control. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Air Pollution and Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, R. D., Ed.

    This book is an authoritative reference and practical guide designed to help the plant engineer identify and solve industrial air pollution problems in order to be able to meet current air pollution regulations. Prepared under the editorial supervision of an experienced chemical engineer, with each chapter contributed by an expert in his field,…

  14. Allergic diseases and air pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Suh-Young; Chang, Yoon-Seok; Cho, Sang-Heon

    2013-07-01

    The prevalence of allergic diseases has been increasing rapidly, especially in developing countries. Various adverse health outcomes such as allergic disease can be attributed to rapidly increasing air pollution levels. Rapid urbanization and increased energy consumption worldwide have exposed the human body to not only increased quantities of ambient air pollution, but also a greater variety of pollutants. Many studies clearly demonstrate that air pollutants potently trigger asthma exacerbation. Evidence that transportation-related pollutants contribute to the development of allergies is also emerging. Moreover, exposure to particulate matter, ozone, and nitrogen dioxide contributes to the increased susceptibility to respiratory infections. This article focuses on the current understanding of the detrimental effects of air pollutants on allergic disease including exacerbation to the development of asthma, allergic rhinitis, and eczema as well as epigenetic regulation.

  15. Air Pollution Forecasts: An Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Lu; Wang, Jianzhou; Lu, Haiyan

    2018-01-01

    Air pollution is defined as a phenomenon harmful to the ecological system and the normal conditions of human existence and development when some substances in the atmosphere exceed a certain concentration. In the face of increasingly serious environmental pollution problems, scholars have conducted a significant quantity of related research, and in those studies, the forecasting of air pollution has been of paramount importance. As a precaution, the air pollution forecast is the basis for taking effective pollution control measures, and accurate forecasting of air pollution has become an important task. Extensive research indicates that the methods of air pollution forecasting can be broadly divided into three classical categories: statistical forecasting methods, artificial intelligence methods, and numerical forecasting methods. More recently, some hybrid models have been proposed, which can improve the forecast accuracy. To provide a clear perspective on air pollution forecasting, this study reviews the theory and application of those forecasting models. In addition, based on a comparison of different forecasting methods, the advantages and disadvantages of some methods of forecasting are also provided. This study aims to provide an overview of air pollution forecasting methods for easy access and reference by researchers, which will be helpful in further studies. PMID:29673227

  16. Air Pollution Forecasts: An Overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Lu; Wang, Jianzhou; Ma, Xuejiao; Lu, Haiyan

    2018-04-17

    Air pollution is defined as a phenomenon harmful to the ecological system and the normal conditions of human existence and development when some substances in the atmosphere exceed a certain concentration. In the face of increasingly serious environmental pollution problems, scholars have conducted a significant quantity of related research, and in those studies, the forecasting of air pollution has been of paramount importance. As a precaution, the air pollution forecast is the basis for taking effective pollution control measures, and accurate forecasting of air pollution has become an important task. Extensive research indicates that the methods of air pollution forecasting can be broadly divided into three classical categories: statistical forecasting methods, artificial intelligence methods, and numerical forecasting methods. More recently, some hybrid models have been proposed, which can improve the forecast accuracy. To provide a clear perspective on air pollution forecasting, this study reviews the theory and application of those forecasting models. In addition, based on a comparison of different forecasting methods, the advantages and disadvantages of some methods of forecasting are also provided. This study aims to provide an overview of air pollution forecasting methods for easy access and reference by researchers, which will be helpful in further studies.

  17. Air Pollution Forecasts: An Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Bai

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Air pollution is defined as a phenomenon harmful to the ecological system and the normal conditions of human existence and development when some substances in the atmosphere exceed a certain concentration. In the face of increasingly serious environmental pollution problems, scholars have conducted a significant quantity of related research, and in those studies, the forecasting of air pollution has been of paramount importance. As a precaution, the air pollution forecast is the basis for taking effective pollution control measures, and accurate forecasting of air pollution has become an important task. Extensive research indicates that the methods of air pollution forecasting can be broadly divided into three classical categories: statistical forecasting methods, artificial intelligence methods, and numerical forecasting methods. More recently, some hybrid models have been proposed, which can improve the forecast accuracy. To provide a clear perspective on air pollution forecasting, this study reviews the theory and application of those forecasting models. In addition, based on a comparison of different forecasting methods, the advantages and disadvantages of some methods of forecasting are also provided. This study aims to provide an overview of air pollution forecasting methods for easy access and reference by researchers, which will be helpful in further studies.

  18. Effects of Air Pollution and Other Environmental Variables on Offered Wages (1980)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The purpose of this report is to construct some exploratory estimates of the effect of changes in air pollution levels on offered wage rates. Repercussions on the work time choice are not explicitly considered.

  19. A review of the literature on the effects of ambient air pollution on fetal growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maisonet, Mildred; Correa, Adolfo; Misra, Dawn; Jaakkola, J.J.K.

    2004-01-01

    A systematic review of the literature on the effects of air pollution on low birth weight (LBW) and its determinants, preterm delivery (PTD) and intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR), was conducted. Twelve epidemiologic investigations that addressed the impact of air pollution on four pregnancy outcomes were identified. Results were analyzed separately for each perinatal outcome because of differences in pathogenic mechanisms. Effects of air pollution were apparent on PTD and IUGR, but not on LBW. Most of the associations reported were rather small. The estimation of summary effects was not meaningful because of the heterogeneity of the effect estimates arising from differences in the measurements of outcome, exposure, and confounders and the small number of studies per outcome (four studies for PTD and six for IUGR). Current scientific knowledge on the impact of air pollution on fetal growth is still limited; thus, several issues should be examined further

  20. Road traffic and cardiovascular health effects - Road traffic noise and air pollution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kluizenaar, Y. de; Miedema, H.M.E.

    2009-01-01

    Exposure to both environmental noise and air pollution has been associated with cardiovascular health effects. Until now, few studies have considered both stressors simultaneously. Two large studies were carried out investigating the relationship between road traffic noise and several cardiovascular

  1. Air pollution: impact and prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sierra-Vargas, Martha Patricia; Teran, Luis M

    2012-10-01

    Air pollution is becoming a major health problem that affects millions of people worldwide. In support of this observation, the World Health Organization estimates that every year, 2.4 million people die because of the effects of air pollution on health. Mitigation strategies such as changes in diesel engine technology could result in fewer premature mortalities, as suggested by the US Environmental Protection Agency. This review: (i) discusses the impact of air pollution on respiratory disease; (ii) provides evidence that reducing air pollution may have a positive impact on the prevention of disease; and (iii) demonstrates the impact concerted polices may have on population health when governments take actions to reduce air pollution. © 2012 The Authors. Respirology © 2012 Asian Pacific Society of Respirology.

  2. Acute effects of air pollution on respiratory disease mortalities and outpatients in Southeastern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Zhe; Fu, Qiuli; Zhang, Lifang; Lyu, Danni; Mao, Guangming; Wu, Lizhi; Xu, Peiwei; Wang, Zhifang; Pan, Xuejiao; Chen, Zhijian; Wang, Xiaofeng; Lou, Xiaoming

    2018-02-22

    The objective of this study was to investigate the potential association between air pollutants and respiratory diseases (RDs). Generalized additive models were used to analyze the effect of air pollutants on mortalities or outpatient visits. The average concentrations of air pollutants in Hangzhou (HZ) were 1.6-2.8 times higher than those in Zhoushan (ZS), except for O 3 . In a single pollutant model, the increased concentrations of PM 2.5 , NO 2 , and SO 2 were strongly associated with deaths caused by RD in HZ, while PM 2.5 and O 3 were associated with deaths caused by RD in ZS. All air pollutants (PM 2.5 , NO 2 , SO 2 , and O 3 ) were strongly associated with outpatient visits for RD in both HZ and ZS. In multiple pollutant models, a significant association was only observed between PM 2.5 and the mortality rate of RD patients in both HZ and in ZS. Moreover, strong associations between SO 2 , NO 2 , and outpatient visits for RD were observed in HZ and ZS. This study has provided evidence that both the mortality rates and outpatient visits for RD were significantly associated with air pollutants. Furthermore, the results showed that different air pollutant levels lead to regional differences between mortality rates and outpatient visits.

  3. Applying policy and health effects of air pollution in South Korea: focus on ambient air quality standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Jongsik

    2014-01-01

    Objectives South Korea’s air quality standards are insufficient in terms of establishing a procedure for their management. The current system lacks a proper decision-making process and prior evidence is not considered. The purpose of this study is to propose a measure for establishing atmospheric environmental standards in South Korea that will take into consideration the health of its residents. Methods In this paper, the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) of the US was examined in order to suggest ways, which consider health effects, to establish air quality standards in South Korea. Up-to-date research on the health effects of air pollution was then reviewed, and tools were proposed to utilize the key results. This was done in an effort to ensure the reliability of the standards with regard to public health. Results This study showed that scientific research on the health effects of air pollution and the methodology used in the research have contributed significantly to establishing air quality standards. However, as the standards are legally binding, the procedure should take into account the effects on other sectors. Realistically speaking, it is impossible to establish standards that protect an entire population from air pollution. Instead, it is necessary to find a balance between what should be done and what can be done. Conclusions Therefore, establishing air quality standards should be done as part of an evidence-based policy that identifies the health effects of air pollution and takes into consideration political, economic, and social contexts. PMID:25300297

  4. Effects of canyon geometry on the distribution of traffic-related air pollution in a large urban area: Implications of a multi-canyon air pollution dispersion model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Xiangwen; Liu, Junfeng; Ban-Weiss, George A.; Zhang, Jiachen; Huang, Xin; Ouyang, Bin; Popoola, Olalekan; Tao, Shu

    2017-09-01

    Street canyons are ubiquitous in urban areas. Traffic-related air pollutants in street canyons can adversely affect human health. In this study, an urban-scale traffic pollution dispersion model is developed considering street distribution, canyon geometry, background meteorology, traffic assignment, traffic emissions and air pollutant dispersion. In the model, vehicle exhausts generated from traffic flows first disperse inside street canyons along the micro-scale wind field generated by computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model. Then, pollutants leave the street canyon and further disperse over the urban area. On the basis of this model, the effects of canyon geometry on the distribution of NOx and CO from traffic emissions were studied over the center of Beijing. We found that an increase in building height leads to heavier pollution inside canyons and lower pollution outside canyons at pedestrian level, resulting in higher domain-averaged concentrations over the area. In addition, canyons with highly even or highly uneven building heights on each side of the street tend to lower the urban-scale air pollution concentrations at pedestrian level. Further, increasing street widths tends to lead to lower pollutant concentrations by reducing emissions and enhancing ventilation simultaneously. Our results indicate that canyon geometry strongly influences human exposure to traffic pollutants in the populated urban area. Carefully planning street layout and canyon geometry while considering traffic demand as well as local weather patterns may significantly reduce inhalation of unhealthy air by urban residents.

  5. Effects of air pollution on meteorological parameters during Deepawali festival over an Indian urban metropolis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Upal; Talukdar, Shamitaksha; Jana, Soumyajyoti; Maitra, Animesh

    2014-12-01

    Atmospheric pollutants (NO2, SO2, PM10, BC, CO, surface O3), emitted during fireworks display, have significant effects on meteorological parameters like air temperature, relative humidity, lapse rate and visibility in air over Kolkata (22°65‧ N, 88°45‧ E), a metropolitan city near the land-ocean boundary, on the eve of Deepawali festival when extensive fireworks are burnt. Long-term trend (2005-2013), indicates that the yearly average concentrations of both primary and secondary air pollutants have increased, exceeding the National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) limit, on the respective Deepawali days. Short-term study (2012-2013) during the festival shows that the average pollutant concentrations have increased too compared to normal days. This study also reveals the immediate effects of the increased air pollutants on the boundary layer meteorology. PM10 has been found to be the most dominant atmospheric pollutants during this period. As a result of an increase in atmospheric heat content with elevated surface air temperature, a significant increase in the environmental lapse rate bears a signature of the influence of pollutants on the boundary layer temperature profile. A change in the diurnal pattern of relative humidity as well as in the vertical temperature profile is due to the change of the lapse rate during the festival days. Thus, the atmospheric pollutants during this festival over the urban region have significant effect on the boundary layer meteorology with bearings on environmental hazards.

  6. Ground water pollution through air pollutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cichorowski, G.; Michel, B.; Versteegen, D.; Wettmann, R.

    1989-01-01

    The aim of the investigation is to determine the significance of air pollutants for ground water quality and ground water use. The report summarizes present knowledge and assesses statements with a view to potential ground water pollution from the air. In this context pollution paths, the spreading behaviour of pollutants, and 'cross points' with burden potentials from other pollutant sources are presented. (orig.) [de

  7. Health Effects of Air Pollution: A Historical Review and Present Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shima, Masayuki

    2017-01-01

    During the 1960s, the concentrations of air pollutants, particularly that of sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ), were extremely high in many industrial cities in Japan, and the prevalence of bronchial asthma and chronic bronchitis increased among residents living in the cities. To evaluate the effects of air pollution on respiratory diseases, many epidemiological studies were conducted, and the findings played an important role in the regulatory control of air pollution. After 1970, the concentration of SO 2 has decreased markedly, and its adverse health effects have been minimized. On the other hand, the increasing automobile traffic in Japan has caused considerable increases in concentrations of air pollutants, such as nitrogen oxides (NOx) and particulate matter (PM). The large-scale epidemiological studies conducted in Japan showed that traffic-related air pollution was associated with the development of asthma in school children and the persistence of asthmatic symptoms in preschool children. In recent years, however, the concentrations of NOx and PM have gradually decreased, since control measures based on the Automobile NOx/PM law were enforced in 2001. At present, the adverse health effects of airborne fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 ) and photochemical oxidants have become a major concern. These air pollutants consist of not only emissions from primary sources but also secondary formations in air, and have spread worldwide. Both short- and long-term exposure to these air pollutants are reported to increase the risk of respiratory and cardiovascular diseases in the population. Therefore, global efforts are necessary to reduce the health risk of these air pollutants.

  8. Air pollution and climate change effects on health of the Ukrainian forests: monitoring and evalution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igor F. Buksha; Valentina L. Meshkova; Oleg M. Radchenko; Alexander S. Sidorov

    1998-01-01

    Forests in the Ukraine are affected by environmental pollution, intensive forestry practice, and recreational uses. These factors make them sensitive to impacts of climate change. Since 1989 Ukraine has participated in the International Cooperative Program on Assessment and Monitoring of Air Pollution Effects on Forests (ICP-Forests). A network of monitoring plots has...

  9. Effects of Compact Urban Development on Air Pollution: Empirical Evidence from Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hee-Sun Cho

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the effects of compact urban development on air pollution, taking into account both the spatial distribution of pollutants resulting from an increase in inner urban densities and the dispersion of pollutants associated with an increase in outer green open spaces. The empirical analysis is based upon a panel data model covering 17 cities in Korea from 1996–2009; this approach is used because urban air pollution is influenced by spatial and temporal changes. Measuring the air pollution level by distance from city centers demonstrates that the spatial concentration of emission sources does not necessarily increase air pollution levels. The two-way fixed effects model, which is employed to control both individual (regional and time effects, shows that SO2 decreases as the proportion of green area increases, while a rise in net density leads to an increase of NO2. Both effects are observed in the case of CO dispersion by green area as well as emission source concentration by high densities. Therefore, there is no clear impact of compact urban development on air quality, which is instead related to pollutant-specific characteristics and the emission source.

  10. Climate change and air pollution: Effects on pollen allergy and other allergic respiratory diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Amato, Gennaro; Bergmann, Karl Christian; Cecchi, Lorenzo; Annesi-Maesano, Isabella; Sanduzzi, Alessandro; Liccardi, Gennaro; Vitale, Carolina; Stanziola, Anna; D'Amato, Maria

    The observational evidence indicates that recent regional changes in climate, particularly temperature increases, have already affected a diverse set of physical and biological systems in many parts of the world. Allergens patterns are also changing in response to climate change and air pollution can modify the allergenic potential of pollen grains especially in the presence of specific weather conditions. Although genetic factors are important in the development of asthma and allergic diseases, their rising trend can be explained only by changes occurring in the environment and urban air pollution by motor vehicles has been indicated as one of the major risk factors responsible for this increase. Despite some differences in the air pollution profile and decreasing trends of some key air pollutants, air quality is an important concern for public health in the cities throughout the world. Due to climate change, air pollution patterns are changing in several urbanized areas of the world with a significant effect on respiratory health. The underlying mechanisms of all these interactions are not well known yet. The consequences on health vary from decreases in lung function to allergic diseases, new onset of diseases, and exacerbation of chronic respiratory diseases. In addition, it is important to recall that an individual's response to pollution exposure depends on the source and components of air pollution, as well as meteorological conditions. Indeed, some air pollution-related incidents with asthma aggravation do not depend only on the increased production of air pollution, but rather on atmospheric factors that favor the accumulation of air pollutants at ground level. Associations between thunderstorms and asthma morbidity of pollinosis-affected people have also been identified in multiple locations around the world ( Fig. 1). Cite this as D'Amato G, Bergmann KC, Cecchi L, Annesi-Maesano I, Sanduzzi A, Liccardi G, Vitale C, Stanziola A, D'Amato M. Climate change

  11. Air pollution damage to plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daly, G T

    1974-01-01

    The effects of the most important air pollutants on plants are described in detail. The include: smoke and particulates, sulfur dioxide, fluorides, peroxyacetyl nitrate, nitrogen oxides, and ozone. An attempt is made to show that plant injury by air pollution can be recognized and evaluated in the presence of effects from insect, fungal, bacterial, viral pathogens and the symptoms of nutrient and enviromental stress. All plants are more or less affected by toxic gases and metals absorbed from the air. For each plant and each pollutant there is a critical concentration above which damage occurs, and below which growth is normal.

  12. Health Effects of Indoor Air Pollutants and their Mitigation and Control (invited paper)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maroni, M.

    1998-01-01

    The nature of chemical, biological and physical contaminants present in indoor air, their sources, and the health effects they cause are reviewed. Among the physical agents, the interaction between tobacco smoke and radon is discussed. Control and improvement of indoor air quality can be achieved combining the use of two main strategies: proper design and construction of buildings, and control of indoor air pollution through source control, ventilation, air cleaning, exposure control, or a combination of them. A number of control measures primarily targeted to pollutants other than radon can also be particularly effective for radon. On the other hand, measures primarily targeted to radon containment can also be beneficial for other pollutants. Effective programmes on indoor air improvement are urgently needed to benefit the health, comfort and productivity of our communities. (author)

  13. EC multicentre study on short-term effects of air pollution on health. The aphea project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katsouyanni, K [Univ. of Athens (Greece). Medical School; Zmirou, D [Grenoble Univ. (France). Faculte de Medecine; Spix, C [GSF- Forschungszentrum Umwelt und Gesundheit (Germany)

    1996-12-31

    The APHEA project is an attempt to provide quantitative estimates of the short-term health effects of air pollution, using an extensive data base from ten different European countries which represent various social, environmental and air pollution situations. Within the framework of the project, the methodology of analyzing epidemiologic time series data, as well as that of performing meta-analysis, are further developed and standardized

  14. EC multicentre study on short-term effects of air pollution on health. The aphea project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katsouyanni, K. [Univ. of Athens (Greece). Medical School; Zmirou, D. [Grenoble Univ. (France). Faculte de Medecine; Spix, C. [GSF- Forschungszentrum Umwelt und Gesundheit (Germany)

    1995-12-31

    The APHEA project is an attempt to provide quantitative estimates of the short-term health effects of air pollution, using an extensive data base from ten different European countries which represent various social, environmental and air pollution situations. Within the framework of the project, the methodology of analyzing epidemiologic time series data, as well as that of performing meta-analysis, are further developed and standardized

  15. [The effects of air pollution and climate change on pulmonary diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohde, G

    2008-04-01

    From as early as 1930 there has been evidence for effects on health of air pollution. Ozone, particulates and nitrogen dioxide are the most important pollutants today. The acute increase in air pollution leads to a significant raise in morbidity and mortality. Hospital admissions of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) or asthma are more frequent during these periods. Chronic exposure to pollution causes bronchitis, accelerated decline of lung function and impaired maturing of the lungs. Ozone and a residence in proximity to major roads seem to play a role in the development of asthma. A further important environmental factor is climate change, which has an impact on air pollution but also on distribution and quality of aero-allergens and the dissemination and transmission of respiratory pathogens.

  16. Effects of prenatal exposure to air pollution on preeclampsia in Shenzhen, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qiong; Zhang, Huanhuan; Liang, Qianhong; Knibbs, Luke D; Ren, Meng; Li, Changchang; Bao, Junzhe; Wang, Suhan; He, Yiling; Zhu, Lei; Wang, Xuemei; Zhao, Qingguo; Huang, Cunrui

    2018-06-01

    The impact of ambient air pollution on pregnant women is a concern in China. However, little is known about the association between air pollution and preeclampsia and the potential modifying effects of meteorological conditions have not been assessed. This study aimed to assess the effects of prenatal exposure to air pollution on preeclampsia, and to explore whether temperature and humidity modify the effects. We performed a retrospective cohort study based on 1.21 million singleton births from the birth registration system in Shenzhen, China, between 2005 and 2012. Daily average measurements of particulate matter air temperature (T), and dew point (T d ) were collected. Logistic regression models were performed to estimate associations between air pollution and preeclampsia during the first and second trimesters, and during the entire pregnancy. In each time window, we observed a positive gradient of increasing preeclampsia risk with increasing quartiles of PM 10 and SO 2 exposure. When stratified by T and T d in three categories (95th percentile), we found a significant interaction between PM 10 and T d on preeclampsia; the adverse effects of PM 10 increased with T d . During the entire pregnancy, there was a null association between PM 10 and preeclampsia under T d   95th percentile. We also found that air pollution effects on preeclampsia in autumn/winter seasons were stronger than those in the spring/summer. This is the first study to address modifying effects of meteorological factors on the association between air pollution and preeclampsia. Findings indicate that prenatal exposure to PM 10 and SO 2 increase preeclampsia risk in Shenzhen, China, and the effects could be modified by humidity. Pregnant women should limit air pollution exposure, particularly during humid periods. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Microfluidic liquid-air dual-gradient chip for synergic effect bio-evaluation of air pollutant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xian-Jun; Hu, Shan-Wen; Xu, Bi-Yi; Zhao, Ge; Li, Xiang; Xie, Fu-Wei; Xu, Jing-Juan; Chen, Hong-Yuan

    2018-05-15

    In this paper, a novel prototype liquid-air dual gradient chip is introduced, which has paved the way for effective synergic effect bio-evaluation of air pollutant. The chip is composed of an array of the agarose liquid-air interfaces, top air gradient layer and bottom liquid gradient layer. The novel agarose liquid-air interface allows for non-biased exposure of cells to all the substances in the air and diffusive interactions with the liquid phase; while the dual liquid-air gradient provides powerful screening abilities, which well reduced errors, saved time and cost from repeated experiment. Coupling the two functions, the chip subsequently facilitates synergic effect evaluation of both liquid and air factors on cells. Here cigarette smoke was taken as the model air pollutant, and its strong synergic effects with inflammatory level of A549 lung cancer cells on their fate were successfully quantified for the first time. These results well testified that the proposed dual-gradient chip is powerful and indispensable for bio-evaluation of air pollutant. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Effects of air pollution on thermal structure and dispersion in an urban planetary boundary layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viskanta, R.; Johnson, R. O.; Bergstrom, R. W.

    1977-01-01

    The short-term effects of urbanization and air pollution on the transport processes in the urban planetary boundary layer (PBL) are studied. The investigation makes use of an unsteady two-dimensional transport model which has been developed by Viskanta et al., (1976). The model predicts pollutant concentrations and temperature in the PBL. The potential effects of urbanization and air pollution on the thermal structure in the urban PBL are considered, taking into account the results of numerical simulations modeling the St. Louis, Missouri metropolitan area.

  19. Western forests and air pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olson, R.K.; Binkley, D.; Boehm, M.

    1992-01-01

    The book addresses the relationships between air pollution in the western United States and trends in the growth and condition of Western coniferous forests. The major atmospheric pollutants to which forest in the region are exposed are sulfur and nitrogen compounds and ozone. The potential effects of atmospheric pollution on these forests include foliar injury, alteration of growth rates and patterns, soil acidification, shifts in species composition, and modification of the effects of natural stresses

  20. Problem of air pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berge, H

    1964-01-01

    The effects of air pollutants on plants are dependent on and modified by climatic, orographic, edaphic, and biotic factors; the synergism of pollutants; and differences in the sensitivity of individual plants and species. Sulfur dioxide and fluorine are the most dangerous pollutants for plants, but ammonia, hydrogen sulfide, nitrogen oxides, nitric acid, chlorine, hydrochloric acid, bromine, iodine, hydrocyanic acid, ethylene, carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons, mercaptans, asphalt and tar vapors, mercury, and selenium can also inflict damage. Young leaves, sensitive to H/sub 2/S, nitrogen oxides, Cl, HCl, HCN, mercaptans, Hg, and sulfuric acid, are more resistant to SO/sub 2/, gaseous F compounds, ethylene, and selenium than older leaves. Damage is most serious when pollutants enter leaves simultaneously or alternately through epidermis and stomata. The yellow-to-brown coloration of leaves is usually a result of the precipitation of tanning. Plasmolysis is caused by SO/sub 2/, gaseous F compounds, ammonia, nitrogen oxides, HNO/sub 3/, Br, asphalt and tar vapors, while photosynthesis is stimulated by traces of ammonia, HNO/sub 3/, and saturated hydrocarbons. Increased transpiration due to SO/sub 2/ and HCl and elevated permeability and osmosis due to SO/sub 2/ were observed. 9 references, 12 figures, 1 table.

  1. Effectiveness of multi-stage scrubbers in reducing emissions of air pollutants from pig houses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhao, Y.; Aarnink, A.J.A.; Jong, de M.C.M.; Ogink, N.W.M.; Groot Koerkamp, P.W.G.

    2011-01-01

    Emissions of air pollutants from livestock houses may raise environmental problems and pose hazards to public health. They can be reduced by scrubbers installed at the air outlets of livestock houses. In this study, three multi-stage scrubbers were evaluated in terms of their effectiveness in

  2. Effects of traffic policies on air pollution and health - an intervention study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boogaard, J.M.C.

    2012-01-01

    In the past decades substantial efforts have been taken to reduce air pollution emissions. However, increases in urban populations, number of cars and vehicle km travelled are a few trends that may partly offset their effectiveness. The EU has set air quality standards of which the standards for

  3. Short-term effects of air pollution on hospital admissions in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Ji-Young; Lee, Jong-Tae; Park, Yoon Hyeong; Bell, Michelle L

    2013-07-01

    Numerous studies have identified short-term effects of air pollution on morbidity in North America and Europe. The effects of air pollution may differ by region of the world. Evidence on air pollution and morbidity in Asia is limited. We investigated associations between ambient air pollution and hospital admissions in eight Korean cities for 2003-2008. We applied a two-stage Bayesian hierarchical model to estimate city-specific effects and the overall effects across the cities. We considered lagged effects of pollutants by cause (allergic disease, asthma, selected respiratory disease, and cardiovascular disease), sex, and age (0-14, 15-64, 65-74, and ≥ 75 years). We found evidence of associations between hospital admissions and short-term exposure to air pollution. An interquartile range (IQR) increase in PM10 (30.7 µg/m) was associated with an overall increase of 2.2% (95% posterior interval = 0.5%-3.9%), 2.8% (1.3%-4.4%), 1.7% (0.9%-2.6%), and 0.7% (0.0%-1.4%) in allergic, asthma, selected respiratory, and cardiovascular admissions, respectively. For NO2 (IQR 12.2 ppb), the corresponding figures were 2.3% (0.6%-4.0%), 2.2% (0.3%-4.1%), 2.2% (0.6%-3.7%), and 2.2% (1.1%-3.4%). For O3, we found positive associations for all the studied diagnoses except cardiovascular disease. SO2 was associated with hospital admissions for selected respiratory or cardiovascular causes, whereas O3 was negatively associated with cardiovascular admissions. We found suggestive evidence for stronger associations in younger and older age groups. Associations were similar for men and women. Ambient air pollution was associated with increased risk of hospital admissions in Korea. Results suggest increased susceptibility among the young or the elderly for pollution effects on specific diseases.

  4. Effect of Exposure to Air Pollution on Placental Weight in Isfahan-Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghasemi-Tehrani, Hatav; Fallah, Setare; Mozafarian, Nafiseh; Miranzadeh, Sareh; Sadeghi, Shokooh; Azidhak, Azam

    2017-06-01

    Objective: To determine the effect of Air Quality Index (AQI) in the first trimester of pregnancy on birth weight, placental weight, and the ratio of placental weight to the birth weight (pw-bw) in Isfahan. Materials and methods: This cross-sectional study was done on 312 consecutive pregnant women in Beheshti Hospital in Isfahan city in 2013. Information on air pollution was received from the Environmental department of Isfahan. Average exposure to air pollution in the first trimester of pregnancy was calculated for eachpregnant woman. In order to compare quantitative and qualitative variables, analysis of variance (ANOVA), and chi-square were applied. After that, the multiple linear regression analysis was used to assess the association the Air Quality Index (AQI) on birth weight, placental weight and the ratio of pw-bw. Potential confounders including age, baby gender, smoking of husband, maternal BMI, maternal occupation, and education and mother's residential area were considered. A statistical significant association were considered for P-value less than 0.05. Results: The findings showed that there is inverse relationship between exposure to air pollution and placental weight in the first trimester of pregnancy after controlling potential confounders (β = -2.57, p-value = 0.008). The inverse relationship between air pollution and the ratio of pw-bw was found. (β = -0.001, p-value = 0.002). Conclusion: The results of this study suggest that air pollution is associated with newborns' health which in turn is a warning alarm for considering some actions in both sides of reducing the air pollution and teaching the pregnant women about the adverse effects of air pollution on the pregnancy outcomes.

  5. Effect of Exposure to Air Pollution on Placental Weight in Isfahan-Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatav Ghasemi Tehrani

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the effect of Air Quality Index (AQI in the first trimester of pregnancy on birth weight, placental weight, and the ratio of placental weight to the birth weight (pw-bw in Isfahan.Materials and methods: This cross-sectional study was done on 312 consecutive pregnant women in Beheshti Hospital in Isfahan city in 2013. Information on air pollution was received from the Environmental department of Isfahan. Average exposure to air pollution in the first trimester of pregnancy was calculated for eachpregnant woman. In order to compare quantitative and qualitative variables, analysis of variance (ANOVA, and chi-square were applied. After that, the multiple linear regression analysis was used to assess the association the Air Quality Index (AQI on birth weight, placental weight and the ratio of pw-bw. Potential confounders including age, baby gender, smoking of husband, maternal BMI, maternal occupation, and education and mother’s residential area were considered. A statistical significant association were considered for P-value less than 0.05.Results: The findings showed that there is inverse relationship between exposure to air pollution and placental weight in the first trimester of pregnancy after controlling potential confounders (β = -2.57, p-value = 0.008. The inverse relationship between air pollution and the ratio of pw-bw was found. (β = -0.001, p-value = 0.002.Conclusion: The results of this study suggest that air pollution is associated with newborns’ health which in turn is a warning alarm for considering some actions in both sides of reducing the air pollution and teaching the pregnant women about the adverse effects of air pollution on the pregnancy outcomes.

  6. Hydrocarbons and air pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herz, O.

    1992-01-01

    This paper shows the influence of hydrocarbons vapors, emitted by transports or by volatile solvents using, on air pollution. Hydrocarbons are the principal precursors of photochemical pollution. After a brief introduction on atmospheric chemistry and photochemical reactions, the author describes the french prevention program against hydrocarbons emissions. In the last chapter, informations on international or european community programs for photochemical pollution study are given. 5 figs., 10 tabs

  7. Indoor Air Pollution

    OpenAIRE

    Kirk R. Smith

    2003-01-01

    Outdoor air pollution in developing-country cities is difficult to overlook. Indoor air pollution caused by burning such traditional fuels as wood, crop residues, and dung is less evident, yet it is responsible for a significant part of country and global disease burdens. The main groups affected are poor women and children in rural areas and urban slums as they go about their daily activi...

  8. INDOOR AIR POLLUTION

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmet Soysal; Yucel Demiral

    2007-01-01

    The existance of hazardious materials including biological, chemical, and physical agents such as carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, sulphur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, radon, volotile organic compounds, microorganisms in houses and the other non-industrilized buildings have been defined as “indoor air pollution”. Indoor air pollutants could possible arised from inside or outside environment and categorized into six subgroups. Almost 80% Turkish population have living in the urban areas...

  9. Outdoor air Pollution

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Forbes, PBC

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This chapter focuses on the air pollutants which are generally found in the troposphere and does not provide detail on specific areas where atmospheric pollutants and atmospheric chemistry may differ from that generally found, such as in the arctic...

  10. Air Pollution Surveillance Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, George B.; And Others

    1970-01-01

    Describes atmospheric data monitoring as part of total airpollution control effort. Summarizes types of gaseous, liquid and solid pollutants and their sources; contrast between urban and rural environmental air quality; instrumentation to identify pollutants; and anticipated new non-wet chemical physical and physiochemical techniques tor cetection…

  11. Does consideration of larger study areas yield more accurate estimates of air pollution health effects?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Marie; Siroux, Valérie; Pin, Isabelle

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Spatially-resolved air pollution models can be developed in large areas. The resulting increased exposure contrasts and population size offer opportunities to better characterize the effect of atmospheric pollutants on respiratory health. However the heterogeneity of these areas may......: Simulations indicated that adjustment for area limited the bias due to unmeasured confounders varying with area at the costs of a slight decrease in statistical power. In our cohort, rural and urban areas differed for air pollution levels and for many factors associated with respiratory health and exposure....... Area tended to modify effect measures of air pollution on respiratory health. CONCLUSIONS: Increasing the size of the study area also increases the potential for residual confounding. Our simulations suggest that adjusting for type of area is a good option to limit residual confounding due to area...

  12. Cardiovascular Effects of Air Pollution Clinical and Public Health Implications: Knowledge Gaps and Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    “Healthy Heart: Air Pollution and Cardiovascular Health” is a webinar presentation designed to introduce the fundamental epidemiological associations between ambient air pollution and cardiovascular health. Despite the phenomenal improvement in air quality across th...

  13. Adverse effect of outdoor air pollution on cardiorespiratory fitness in Chinese children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yang; Chan, Emily Y. Y.; Zhu, Yingjia; Wong, Tze Wai

    2013-01-01

    Little is known about the health impact of air pollution on children's cardiovascular health. A cross-sectional study was conducted and data was analysed in 2048 Chinese schoolchildren (aged 8-10 years) in three districts of Hong Kong to examine the association between exposure to outdoor air pollution and cardiorespiratory fitness. Annual means of ambient PM10, SO2, NO2 and O3 from 1996 to 2003 were used to estimate individual exposure of the subjects. Cardiorespiratory fitness was measured for maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max), predicted by the multistage fitness test (MFT). Height and weight were measured and other potential confounders were collected with questionnaires. Analysis of covariance was performed to estimate the impact of air pollution on complete speed in the MFT and predicted VO2max. The results showed that children in high-pollution district had significantly lower complete speed and predicted VO2max compared to those in low- and moderate-pollution districts. Complete speed and predicted VO2max was estimated to reduce 0.327 km h-1 and 1.53 ml kg-1 min-1 per 10 μg m-3 increase in PM10 annual mean respectively, with those in girls being greater than in boys. Being physically active could not significantly result in improved cardiorespiratory fitness in polluted districts. The adverse effect seems to be independent of short-term exposure to air pollution. We concluded that long-term exposure to higher outdoor air pollution levels was negatively associated with cardiorespiratory fitness in Chinese schoolchildren, especially for girls. PM10 is the most relevant pollutant of the adverse effect. Elevated cardiorespiratory fitness observed in physically activate children could be negated by increased amount of inhaled pollutants during exercise.

  14. The effects of outdoor air pollution on the respiratory health of Canadian children: A systematic review of epidemiological studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Villamizar, Laura Andrea; Magico, Adam; Osornio-Vargas, Alvaro; Rowe, Brian H

    2015-01-01

    Outdoor air pollution is a global problem with serious effects on human health, and children are considered to be highly susceptible to the effects of air pollution. To conduct a comprehensive and updated systematic review of the literature reporting the effects of outdoor air pollution on the respiratory health of children in Canada. Searches of four electronic databases between January 2004 and November 2014 were conducted to identify epidemiological studies evaluating the effect of exposure to outdoor air pollutants on respiratory symptoms, lung function measurements and the use of health services due to respiratory conditions in Canadian children. The selection process and quality assessment, using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale, were conducted independently by two reviewers. Twenty-seven studies that were heterogeneous with regard to study design, population, respiratory outcome and air pollution exposure were identified. Overall, the included studies reported adverse effects of outdoor air pollution at concentrations that were below Canadian and United States standards. Heterogeneous effects of air pollutants were reported according to city, sex, socioeconomic status and seasonality. The present review also describes trends in research related to the effect of air pollution on Canadian children over the past 25 years. The present study reconfirms the adverse effects of outdoor air pollution on the respiratory health of children in Canada. It will help researchers, clinicians and environmental health authorities identify the available evidence of the adverse effect of outdoor air pollution, research gaps and the limitations for further research.

  15. Air pollution and mortality in São Paulo, Brazil: Effects of multiple pollutants and analysis of susceptible populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravo, Mercedes A; Son, Jiyoung; de Freitas, Clarice Umbelino; Gouveia, Nelson; Bell, Michelle L

    2016-01-01

    Health impacts of air pollution may differ depending on sex, education, socioeconomic status (SES), location at time of death, and other factors. In São Paulo, Brazil, questions remain regarding roles of individual and community characteristics. We estimate susceptibility to air pollution based on individual characteristics, residential SES, and location at time of death (May 1996-December 2010). Exposures for particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter ≤ 10 μm (PM10), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), sulfur dioxide (SO2), carbon monoxide (CO), and ozone (O3) were estimated using ambient monitors. Time-stratified case-crossover analysis was used with individual-level health data. Increased risk of non-accidental, cardiovascular, and respiratory mortality were associated with all pollutants (P effect estimates for those with > 11 years education were lower than estimates for those with 0 years education for NO2, SO2, and CO (1.66% (95% confidence interval: 0.23%, 3.08%); 1.51% (0.51%, 2.51%); and 2.82% (0.23%, 5.35%), respectively). PM10 cardiovascular mortality effects were (3.74% (0.044%, 7.30%)) lower for the high education group (> 11 years) compared with the no education group. Positive, significant associations between pollutants and mortality were observed for in-hospital deaths, but evidence of differences in air pollution-related mortality risk by location at time of death was not strong.

  16. City air pollution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and other mutagens: occurrence, sources and health effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, T.; Ejsing Jørgensen, Hans; Larsen, J.C.

    1996-01-01

    The presence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), mutagens and other air pollutants was investigated in a busy street in central Copenhagen and in a park area adjacent to the street. The winter concentration of benzo(a)pyrene was 4.4+/-1.2 ng/m(3) in the street air and 1.4+/-0.6 ng/m(3......) in the city park. The atmospheric concentrations of PAH decreased in the order of: street > city background air similar to suburbs > village > open land. The traffic contribution of PAH to street air was estimated to be 90% on working days and 60% during weekends and its contribution to city background air...... was estimated to be 40%. Four different approaches to evaluate the health effects are discussed. The direct effect of PAH air pollution, and other mutagens, is considered to be a maximum of five lung cancer cases each year out of one million people....

  17. Ambient air pollution and thrombosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Sarah; Miller, Mark R

    2018-01-03

    Air pollution is a growing public health concern of global significance. Acute and chronic exposure is known to impair cardiovascular function, exacerbate disease and increase cardiovascular mortality. Several plausible biological mechanisms have been proposed for these associations, however, at present, the pathways are incomplete. A seminal review by the American Heart Association (2010) concluded that the thrombotic effects of particulate air pollution likely contributed to their effects on cardiovascular mortality and morbidity. The aim of the current review is to appraise the newly accumulated scientific evidence (2009-2016) on contribution of haemostasis and thrombosis towards cardiovascular disease induced by exposure to both particulate and gaseous pollutants.Seventy four publications were reviewed in-depth. The weight of evidence suggests that acute exposure to fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 ) induces a shift in the haemostatic balance towards a pro-thrombotic/pro-coagulative state. Insufficient data was available to ascertain if a similar relationship exists for gaseous pollutants, and very few studies have addressed long-term exposure to ambient air pollution. Platelet activation, oxidative stress, interplay between interleukin-6 and tissue factor, all appear to be potentially important mechanisms in pollution-mediated thrombosis, together with an emerging role for circulating microvesicles and epigenetic changes.Overall, the recent literature supports, and arguably strengthens, the contention that air pollution contributes to cardiovascular morbidity by promoting haemostasis. The volume and diversity of the evidence highlights the complexity of the pathophysiologic mechanisms by which air pollution promotes thrombosis; multiple pathways are plausible and it is most likely they act in concert. Future research should address the role gaseous pollutants play in the cardiovascular effects of air pollution mixture and direct comparison of potentially

  18. [Effects of air pollution on human health and their importance in Mexico City].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallejo, Maite; Jáuregui-Renaud, Kathrine; Hermosillo, Antonio G; Márquez, Manlio F; Cárdenas, Manuel

    2003-01-01

    The impact of air pollution on human health is a complicated problem. In this review, we describe the main health effects of exposure to ozone, carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, lead and particulate matter. Geographical characteristics of the metropolitan area of Mexico City that favor pollutant persistence with adverse effects on the population are described; the use of the Indice Metropolitano de la Calidad del Aire (IMECA), current norms, and present programs to diminish this problem are discussed. Evidence shows that through these actions, air quality has improved. However, some pollutants such as ozone and particulate matter, still exceed the standard. To further improve air quality in the city, existing programs should continue and multidisciplinary research, both basic and applied, is required.

  19. Air pollution control in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jain, S.K.

    1995-01-01

    Prior to rapid spurt in industrialization in India, people were used to inhale pure air containing about 78% nitrogen, 21% oxygen and some carbon dioxide. But afterwards this composition of pure air was disturbed as a result of increased economic activities. Air, now a days also contains sulphur dioxide, carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides etc., etc. which are extremely harmful for human health. Virulence of air pollution was realised in late eighties after Bhopal Gas Tragedy (BGT) and an effective air quality management started taking shape in India afterwards. The basic components of air quality management are legislation and regulations, emission inventory, air quality standards and monitoring, air dispersion models and installation of pollution control equipment which are being discussed in this paper. (author). 15 refs., 5 tabs

  20. Air Pollution Primer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Tuberculosis and Respiratory Disease Association, New York, NY.

    As the dangers of polluted air to the health and welfare of all individuals became increasingly evident and as the complexity of the causes made responsibility for solutions even more difficult to fix, the National Tuberculosis and Respiratory Disease Association felt obligated to give greater emphasis to its clean air program. To this end they…

  1. Ambient Air Pollutants Have Adverse Effects on Insulin and Glucose Homeostasis in Mexican Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhanghua; Salam, Muhammad T.; Toledo-Corral, Claudia; Watanabe, Richard M.; Xiang, Anny H.; Buchanan, Thomas A.; Habre, Rima; Bastain, Theresa M.; Lurmann, Fred; Wilson, John P.; Trigo, Enrique

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Recent studies suggest that air pollution plays a role in type 2 diabetes (T2D) incidence and mortality. The underlying physiological mechanisms have yet to be established. We hypothesized that air pollution adversely affects insulin sensitivity and secretion and serum lipid levels. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Participants were selected from BetaGene (n = 1,023), a study of insulin resistance and pancreatic β-cell function in Mexican Americans. All participants underwent DXA and oral and intravenous glucose tolerance tests and completed dietary and physical activity questionnaires. Ambient air pollutant concentrations (NO2, O3, and PM2.5) for short- and long-term periods were assigned by spatial interpolation (maximum interpolation radius of 50 km) of data from air quality monitors. Traffic-related air pollution from freeways (TRAP) was estimated using the dispersion model as NOx. Variance component models were used to analyze individual and multiple air pollutant associations with metabolic traits. RESULTS Short-term (up to 58 days cumulative lagged averages) exposure to PM2.5 was associated with lower insulin sensitivity and HDL-to-LDL cholesterol ratio and higher fasting glucose and insulin, HOMA-IR, total cholesterol, and LDL cholesterol (LDL-C) (all P ≤ 0.036). Annual average PM2.5 was associated with higher fasting glucose, HOMA-IR, and LDL-C (P ≤ 0.043). The effects of short-term PM2.5 exposure on insulin sensitivity were largest among obese participants. No statistically significant associations were found between TRAP and metabolic outcomes. CONCLUSIONS Exposure to ambient air pollutants adversely affects glucose tolerance, insulin sensitivity, and blood lipid concentrations. Our findings suggest that ambient air pollutants may contribute to the pathophysiology in the development of T2D and related sequelae. PMID:26868440

  2. Ecological effects of nitrogen and sulfur air pollution in the US: what do we know?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greaver, Tara L.; Sullivan, Timothy J.; Herrick, Jeffrey D.; Barber, Mary C.; Baron, Jill S.; Cosby, Bernard J.; Deerhake, Marion E.; Dennis, Robin L.; Dubois, Jean-Jacque B.; Goodale, Christine L.; Herlihy, Alan T.; Lawrence, Gregory B.; Liu, Lingli; Lynch, Jason A.; Novak, Kristopher J.

    2012-01-01

    Four decades after the passage of the US Clean Air Act, air-quality standards are set to protect ecosystems from damage caused by gas-phase nitrogen (N) and sulfur (S) compounds, but not from the deposition of these air pollutants to land and water. Here, we synthesize recent scientific literature on the ecological effects of N and S air pollution in the US. Deposition of N and S is the main driver of ecosystem acidification and contributes to nutrient enrichment in many natural systems. Although surface-water acidification has decreased in the US since 1990, it remains a problem in many regions. Perturbations to ecosystems caused by the nutrient effects of N deposition continue to emerge, although gas-phase concentrations are generally not high enough to cause phytotoxicity. In all, there is overwhelming evidence of a broad range of damaging effects to ecosystems in the US under current air quality conditions.

  3. The effect of future outdoor air pollution on human health and the contribution of climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, R.; West, J. J.; Lamarque, J.; Shindell, D.; Collins, W.; Dalsoren, S. B.; Faluvegi, G. S.; Folberth, G.; Horowitz, L. W.; Nagashima, T.; Naik, V.; Rumbold, S.; Skeie, R.; Sudo, K.; Takemura, T.; Bergmann, D. J.; Cameron-Smith, P. J.; Cionni, I.; Doherty, R. M.; Eyring, V.; Josse, B.; MacKenzie, I. A.; Plummer, D.; Righi, M.; Stevenson, D. S.; Strode, S. A.; Szopa, S.; Zeng, G.

    2013-12-01

    At present, exposure to outdoor air pollution from ozone and fine particulate matter (PM2.5) causes over 2 million deaths per year, due to respiratory and cardiovascular diseases and lung cancer. Future ambient concentrations of ozone and PM2.5 will be affected by both air pollutant emissions and climate change. Here we estimate the potential impact of future outdoor air pollution on premature human mortality, and isolate the contribution of future climate change due to its effect on air quality. We use modeled present-day (2000) and future global ozone and PM2.5 concentrations from simulations with an ensemble of chemistry-climate models from the Atmospheric Chemistry and Climate Model Intercomparison Project (ACCMIP). Future air pollution was modeled for global greenhouse gas and air pollutant emissions in the four IPCC AR5 Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) scenarios, for 2030, 2050 and 2100. All model outputs are regridded to a common 0.5°x0.5° horizontal resolution. Future premature mortality is estimated for each RCP scenario and year based on changes in concentrations of ozone and PM2.5 relative to 2000. Using a health impact function, changes in concentrations for each RCP scenario are combined with future population and cause-specific baseline mortality rates as projected by a single independent scenario in which the global incidence of cardiopulmonary diseases is expected to increase. The effect of climate change is isolated by considering the difference between air pollutant concentrations from simulations with 2000 emissions and a future year climate and simulations with 2000 emissions and climate. Uncertainties in the results reflect the uncertainty in the concentration-response function and that associated with variability among models. Few previous studies have quantified the effects of future climate change on global human health via changes in air quality, and this is the first such study to use an ensemble of global models.

  4. AirPEx: Air Pollution Exposure Model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Freijer JI; Bloemen HJTh; Loos S de; Marra M; Rombout PJA; Steentjes GM; Veen MP van; LBO

    1997-01-01

    Analysis of inhalatory exposure to air pollution is an important area of investigation when assessing the risks of air pollution for human health. Inhalatory exposure research focuses on the exposure of humans to air pollutants and the entry of these pollutants into the human respiratory tract. The

  5. Air Pollution. Environmental Ecological Education Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkway School District, Chesterfield, MO.

    This unit, designed for senior high school students, focuses on air pollution by examining its effect on man, plants and animals, the causes of air pollution, and possible solutions to the air pollution problems. It approaches each of these topics through both natural science and social science perspectives. The unit is divided into seven separate…

  6. Interactive effects of air pollution and climate change on forest ecosystems in the United States: current understanding and future scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrzej Bytnerowicz; Mark Fenn; Steven McNulty; Fengming Yuan; Afshin Pourmokhtarian; Charles Driscoll; Tom Meixner

    2013-01-01

    A review of the current status of air pollution and climate change (CC) in the United States from a perspective of their impacts on forest ecosystems is provided. Ambient ozone (O3) and nitrogen (N) deposition have important and widespread ecological impacts in U.S. forests. Effects of sulphurous (S) air pollutants and other trace pollutants have...

  7. Season and humidity dependence of the effects of air pollution on COPD hospitalizations in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Hong; Yu, Ignatius Tak Sun; Wang, Xiaorong; Tian, Linwei; Tse, Lap Ah; Wong, Tze Wai

    2013-09-01

    Associations between ambient pollution and respiratory morbidity including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) have been confirmed. Weather factors, such as temperature, season and relative humidity (RH), may modify the effects of air pollution. This time series study was conducted to examine whether the effects of air pollution on emergency COPD hospital admissions in Hong Kong varied across seasons and RH levels, and explore the possible joint modification of season and RH on the effects of pollution. Data of daily air pollution concentrations mean temperature and RH, and COPD hospital admissions from 1998 to 2007 were collected. Generalized additive Poisson models with interaction terms were used to estimate the effects of pollution across seasons and RH levels. We observed an increase in the detrimental effects of air pollution in the cool season and on low humidity days. On the cool and dry days, a 10 μg m-3 increment of lag03 exposure was associated with an increase in emergency COPD admissions by 1.76% (95%CI: 1.19-2.34%), 3.43% (95%CI: 2.80-4.07%), and 1.99% (95%CI: 0.90-3.09%) for nitrogen dioxide (NO2), ozone (O3), and sulfur dioxide (SO2), respectively, all of which were statistically significantly higher than those on the other days. No consistent modification of weather factors was found for the effects of particles with an aerodynamic diameter less than 10 μm (PM10). The results suggested that season and RH jointly modified the effects of gaseous pollutants, resulting in increased emergency COPD hospitalizations on the cool and dry days.

  8. Temporal trends in respiratory mortality and short-term effects of air pollutants in Shenyang, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Xiaoxia; Chen, Jianping; Sun, Baijun; Zhou, Baosen; Li, Xuelian

    2018-04-01

    Short-term exposures to air pollution are associated with acute effects on respiratory health. This study aimed to describe 10-year temporal trends in respiratory mortality in the urban areas of Shenyang, China, according to gender and age and estimate the effects of air pollution on respiratory diseases (ICD-10J00-J99) and lung cancer (ICD-10 C33-C34) using a case-crossover design. During the study period 2013-2015, the exposure-response relationship between ambient air pollutants and mortality data was fitted by a quasi-Poisson model. Age-standardized mortality rates for a combined number of respiratory diseases and for lung cancer declined in Shenyang; however, death counts increased with aging. Deaths from respiratory diseases increased by 4.7% (95% CI, 0.00-9.9), and lung cancer mortality increased by 6.5% (95% CI, 1.2-12.0), both associated with a 10 μg/m 3 increase in exposure to particulate matter pollutants. These results provided an updated estimate of the short-term effects of air pollution in Shenyang. Since population aging is also associated with increasing mortality from respiratory diseases and lung cancer, reinforcing air quality control measures and health-promoting behaviors is urgent and necessary in Shenyang.

  9. Cool and dry weather enhances the effects of air pollution on emergency IHD hospital admissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Hong; Yu, Ignatius Tak-Sun; Wang, Xiaorong; Tian, Linwei; Tse, Lap Ah; Wong, Tze Wai

    2013-09-20

    Associations between ambient pollution and cardiovascular morbidity including ischemic heart disease (IHD) have been confirmed. Weather factors such as temperature, season and relative humidity (RH) may modify the effects of pollution. We conducted this study to examine the effects of air pollution on emergency IHD hospital admissions varied across seasons and RH levels, and to explore the possible joint modification of weather factors on pollution effects. Daily time series of air pollution concentrations, mean temperature and RH were collected from IHD hospital admissions from 1998 to 2007 in Hong Kong. We used generalized additive Poisson models with interaction term to estimate the pollution effects varied across seasons and RH levels, after adjusting for time trends, weather conditions, and influenza outbreaks. An increase in the detrimental effects of air pollution in cool season and on low humidity days was observed. In the cool and dry season, a 10 μg/m(3) increment of lag03 exposure was associated with an increase of emergency IHD admissions by 1.82% (95% CI: 1.24-2.40%), 3.89% (95% CI: 3.08-4.70%), and 2.19% (95% CI: 1.33-3.06%) for particles with an aerodynamic diameter less than 10 μm (PM10), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), and ozone (O3), respectively. The effects of pollutants decreased greatly and lost statistical significance in the warm and humid season. We found season and RH jointly modified the associations between ambient pollution and IHD admissions, resulting in increased IHD admissions in the cool and dry season and reduced admissions in the warm and humid season. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Proceedings of the symposium on effects of air pollutants on Mediterranean and temperate forest ecosystems, June 22-27

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul R. Miller

    1980-01-01

    These proceedings papers and poster summaries discuss the influence of air pollution on relationships; interactions of producers, consumers, and decomposers under pollutant terrestrial and related aquatic ecosystems. They describe single species-single pollutant stress; and the use of ecological systems models for interpreting and predicting pollutant effects.

  11. Short-term effect of winter air pollution on respiratory health of asthmatic children in Paris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segala, C; Fauroux, B; Just, J; Pascual, L; Grimfeld, A; Neukirch, F

    1998-03-01

    There is controversy as to whether low levels of air pollution affect the symptoms and lung function in asthma. We addressed this by examining the short-term effects of winter air pollution on childhood asthma in Paris. We performed a 6 month follow-up of 84 medically diagnosed asthmatic children classified into two groups of severity. The outcomes included incidence and prevalence of asthma attacks, symptoms and use of supplementary beta2-agonists, peak expiratory flow (PEF) value and its variability. The statistical analysis controlled the lack of independence between daily health outcomes, trends and meteorology. Air pollution was associated with an increase in reports and duration of asthma attacks and asthma-like symptoms in mild asthmatic children. The strongest association was the risk of asthma attack for an increase of 50 microg x m(-3) of sulphur dioxide (SO2) on the same day (odds ratio (OR)=2.86). Maximum reduction in morning peak expiratory flow (PEF) (5%) and maximum increase in PEF variability (2%) were observed at a lag of 3 days for an increase of 50 microg x m(-3) of SO2 in the subgroup of mild asthmatics receiving no regular inhaled medication. In moderate asthmatic children, the duration of supplementary beta2-agonist use was strongly associated with air pollution. The general pattern of our results provides evidence of the effect of the low levels of air pollution encountered in Western Europe on symptoms and lung function in childhood asthma.

  12. Neurobehavioral effects of exposure to traffic-related air pollution and transportation noise in primary schoolchildren.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Kempen, Elise; Fischer, Paul; Janssen, Nicole; Houthuijs, Danny; van Kamp, Irene; Stansfeld, Stephen; Cassee, Flemming

    2012-05-01

    Children living close to roads are exposed to both traffic noise and traffic-related air pollution. There are indications that both exposures affect cognitive functioning. So far, the effects of both exposures have only been investigated separately. To investigate the relationship between air pollution and transportation noise on the cognitive performance of primary schoolchildren in both the home and school setting. Data acquired within RANCH from 553 children (aged 9-11 years) from 24 primary schools were analysed using multilevel modelling with adjustment for a range of socio-economic and life-style factors. Exposure to NO(2) (which is in urban areas an indicator for traffic-related air pollution) at school was statistically significantly associated with a decrease in the memory span length measured during DMST (χ(2)=6.8, df=1, p=0.01). This remained after additional adjustment for transportation noise. Statistically significant associations were observed between road and air traffic noise exposure at school and the number of errors made during the 'arrow' (χ(2)=7.5, df=1, p=0.006) and 'switch' (χ(2)=4.8, df=1, p=0.028) conditions of the SAT. This remained after adjustment for NO(2). No effects of air pollution exposure or transportation noise exposure at home were observed. Combined exposure of air pollution and road traffic noise had a significant effect on the reaction times measured during the SRTT and the 'block' and the 'arrow' conditions of the SAT. Our results provide some support that prolonged exposure to traffic-related air pollution as well as to noise adversely affects cognitive functioning. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. The effects of short- and long-term air pollutants on plant phenology and leaf characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jochner, Susanne; Markevych, Iana; Beck, Isabelle; Traidl-Hoffmann, Claudia

    2015-01-01

    Pollution adversely affects vegetation; however, its impact on phenology and leaf morphology is not satisfactorily understood yet. We analyzed associations between pollutants and phenological data of birch, hazel and horse chestnut in Munich (2010) along with the suitability of leaf morphological parameters of birch for monitoring air pollution using two datasets: cumulated atmospheric concentrations of nitrogen dioxide and ozone derived from passive sampling (short-term exposure) and pollutant information derived from Land Use Regression models (long-term exposure). Partial correlations and stepwise regressions revealed that increased ozone (birch, horse chestnut), NO_2, NO_x and PM levels (hazel) were significantly related to delays in phenology. Correlations were especially high when rural sites were excluded suggesting a better estimation of long-term within-city pollution. In situ measurements of foliar characteristics of birch were not suitable for bio-monitoring pollution. Inconsistencies between long- and short-term exposure effects suggest some caution when interpreting short-term data collected within field studies. - Highlights: • We present results of a field survey examining pollution effects on vegetation. • Particularly ozone was significantly associated with delays in spring phenology. • Leaf morphology of birch was found to be inadequate for bio-monitoring pollution. • Inconsistencies between long-/short-term exposure effects suggest caution. - Pollutants were significantly associated with delays in spring phenology. However, inconsistencies between long- and short-term exposure effects suggest some caution when interpreting results.

  14. Local scale air pollution forecasting by artificial intelligence techniques and assess the pollution-related social effects

    OpenAIRE

    Gong, Bing; Ordieres-Meré, Joaquín

    2016-01-01

    Since the air pollution can cause serious health problem, the concerns about forecasting air pollution timely and accurately arise by researchers in order to alert the public avoiding high level pollution and help the government make decisions. In our research, we take Hong Kong (finished research) and the cities in Mexico (finishing) and Mainland China (starting), especially the high pollutant areas such as Mexico City and Beijing, as study cases. Meanwhile, various types of arti...

  15. Statistical Analysis of Spatiotemporal Heterogeneity of the Distribution of Air Quality and Dominant Air Pollutants and the Effect Factors in Qingdao Urban Zones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangwei Zhao

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Air pollution has impacted people’s lives in urban China, and the analysis of the distribution and driving factors behind air quality has become a current research focus. In this study, the temporal heterogeneity of air quality (AQ and the dominant air pollutants across the four seasons were analyzed based on the Kruskal-Wallis rank-sum test method. Then, the spatial heterogeneity of AQ and the dominant air pollutants across four sites were analyzed based on the Wilcoxon signed-rank test method. Finally, the copula model was introduced to analyze the effect of relative factors on dominant air pollutants. The results show that AQ and dominant air pollutants present significant spatiotemporal heterogeneity in the study area. AQ is worst in winter and best in summer. PM10, O3, and PM2.5 are the dominant air pollutants in spring, summer, and winter, respectively. The average concentration of dominant air pollutants presents significant and diverse daily peaks and troughs across the four sites. The main driving factors are pollutants such as SO2, NO2, and CO, so pollutant emission reduction is the key to improving air quality. Corresponding pollution control measures should account for this heterogeneity in terms of AQ and the dominant air pollutants among different urban zones.

  16. The relationship between air pollution and low birth weight: effects by mother's age, infant sex, co-pollutants, and pre-term births

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bell, Michelle L; Ebisu, Keita; Belanger, Kathleen

    2008-01-01

    Previously we identified associations between the mother's air pollution exposure and birth weight for births in Connecticut and Massachusetts from 1999-2002. Other studies also found effects, though results are inconsistent. We explored potential uncertainties in earlier work and further explored associations between air pollution and birth weight for PM 10 , PM 2.5 , CO, NO 2 , and SO 2 . Specifically we investigated: (1) whether infants of younger (≤24 years) and older (≥40 years) mothers are particularly susceptible to air pollution's effects on birth weight; (2) whether the relationship between air pollution and birth weight differed by infant sex; (3) confounding by co-pollutants and differences in pollutants' measurement frequencies; and (4) whether observed associations were influenced by inclusion of pre-term births. Findings did not indicate higher susceptibility to the relationship between air pollution and birth weight based on the mother's age or the infant's sex. Results were robust to exclusion of pre-term infants and co-pollutant adjustment, although sample size decreased for some pollutant pairs. These findings provide additional evidence for the relationship between air pollution and birth weight, and do not identify susceptible sub-populations based on infant sex or mother's age. We conclude with discussion of key challenges in research on air pollution and pregnancy outcomes.

  17. The relationship between air pollution and low birth weight: effects by mother's age, infant sex, co-pollutants, and pre-term births

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bell, Michelle L; Ebisu, Keita [School of Forestry and Environmental Studies, Yale University, 205 Prospect Street, New Haven, CT 06511 (United States); Belanger, Kathleen [Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, School of Medicine, Yale University, One Church Street, 6th Floor, New Haven, CT 06510 (United States)], E-mail: michelle.bell@yale.edu

    2008-10-15

    Previously we identified associations between the mother's air pollution exposure and birth weight for births in Connecticut and Massachusetts from 1999-2002. Other studies also found effects, though results are inconsistent. We explored potential uncertainties in earlier work and further explored associations between air pollution and birth weight for PM{sub 10}, PM{sub 2.5}, CO, NO{sub 2}, and SO{sub 2}. Specifically we investigated: (1) whether infants of younger ({<=}24 years) and older ({>=}40 years) mothers are particularly susceptible to air pollution's effects on birth weight; (2) whether the relationship between air pollution and birth weight differed by infant sex; (3) confounding by co-pollutants and differences in pollutants' measurement frequencies; and (4) whether observed associations were influenced by inclusion of pre-term births. Findings did not indicate higher susceptibility to the relationship between air pollution and birth weight based on the mother's age or the infant's sex. Results were robust to exclusion of pre-term infants and co-pollutant adjustment, although sample size decreased for some pollutant pairs. These findings provide additional evidence for the relationship between air pollution and birth weight, and do not identify susceptible sub-populations based on infant sex or mother's age. We conclude with discussion of key challenges in research on air pollution and pregnancy outcomes.

  18. INDOOR AIR POLLUTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Soysal

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The existance of hazardious materials including biological, chemical, and physical agents such as carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, sulphur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, radon, volotile organic compounds, microorganisms in houses and the other non-industrilized buildings have been defined as “indoor air pollution”. Indoor air pollutants could possible arised from inside or outside environment and categorized into six subgroups. Almost 80% Turkish population have living in the urban areas and people in the cities have spending approximetely 90% of their time in the closed enviroments, health problems could increased due to indoor air pollution. Moreover, currently there is no specific regulation on this area. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2007; 6(3.000: 221-226

  19. INDOOR AIR POLLUTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Soysal

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The existance of hazardious materials including biological, chemical, and physical agents such as carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, sulphur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, radon, volotile organic compounds, microorganisms in houses and the other non-industrilized buildings have been defined as “indoor air pollution”. Indoor air pollutants could possible arised from inside or outside environment and categorized into six subgroups. Almost 80% Turkish population have living in the urban areas and people in the cities have spending approximetely 90% of their time in the closed enviroments, health problems could increased due to indoor air pollution. Moreover, currently there is no specific regulation on this area. [TAF Prev Med Bull. 2007; 6(3: 221-226

  20. Air pollution and bronchitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pemberton, J; Goldberg, C

    1954-01-01

    Bronchitis mortality in males and females 45 to 65 or over 65 years of age was compared with air pollution in the county boroughs of England and Wales in 1950 to 1952. There was significant association between SO/sub 2/ and bronchitis mortality for men but only occasionally significant for women. Association between particulate matter and bronchitis was less consistent. Socio-economic class had no association with pollutant levels suggesting this factor does not affect bronchitis mortality significantly.

  1. Air pollution removal by urban forests in Canada and its effect on air quality and human health

    Science.gov (United States)

    David J. Nowak; Satoshi Hirabayashi; Marlene Doyle; Mark McGovern; Jon Pasher

    2018-01-01

    Urban trees perform a number of ecosystem services including air pollution removal, carbon sequestration, cooling air temperatures and providing aesthetic beauty to the urban landscape. Trees remove air pollution by intercepting particulate matter on plant surfaces and absorbing gaseous pollutants through the leaf stomata. Computer simulations with local environmental...

  2. A Bayesian localized conditional autoregressive model for estimating the health effects of air pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Duncan; Rushworth, Alastair; Sahu, Sujit K

    2014-06-01

    Estimation of the long-term health effects of air pollution is a challenging task, especially when modeling spatial small-area disease incidence data in an ecological study design. The challenge comes from the unobserved underlying spatial autocorrelation structure in these data, which is accounted for using random effects modeled by a globally smooth conditional autoregressive model. These smooth random effects confound the effects of air pollution, which are also globally smooth. To avoid this collinearity a Bayesian localized conditional autoregressive model is developed for the random effects. This localized model is flexible spatially, in the sense that it is not only able to model areas of spatial smoothness, but also it is able to capture step changes in the random effects surface. This methodological development allows us to improve the estimation performance of the covariate effects, compared to using traditional conditional auto-regressive models. These results are established using a simulation study, and are then illustrated with our motivating study on air pollution and respiratory ill health in Greater Glasgow, Scotland in 2011. The model shows substantial health effects of particulate matter air pollution and nitrogen dioxide, whose effects have been consistently attenuated by the currently available globally smooth models. © 2014, The Authors Biometrics published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of International Biometric Society.

  3. Modeling the effects of urban vegetation on air pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    David J. Nowak; Patrick J. McHale; Myriam Ibarra; Daniel Crane; Jack C. Stevens; Chris J. Luley

    1998-01-01

    Urban vegetation can directly and indirectly affect local and regional air quality by altering the urban atmospheric environment. Trees affect local air temperature by transpiring water through their leaves, by blocking solar radiation (tree shade), which reduces radiation absorption and heat storage by various anthropogenic surfaces (e.g., buildings, roads), and by...

  4. Noise Effects on Health in the Context of Air Pollution Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stansfeld, Stephen A.

    2015-01-01

    For public health policy and planning it is important to understand the relative contribution of environmental noise on health compared to other environmental stressors. Air pollution is the primary environmental stressor in relation to cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. This paper reports a narrative review of studies in which the associations of both environmental noise and air pollution with health have been examined. Studies of hypertension, myocardial infarction, stroke, mortality and cognitive outcomes were included. Results suggest independent effects of environmental noise from road traffic, aircraft and, with fewer studies, railway noise on cardiovascular outcomes after adjustment for air pollution. Comparative burden of disease studies demonstrate that air pollution is the primary environmental cause of disability adjusted life years lost (DALYs). Environmental noise is ranked second in terms of DALYs in Europe and the DALYs attributed to noise were more than those attributed to lead, ozone and dioxins. In conclusion, in planning and health impact assessment environmental noise should be considered an independent contributor to health risk which has a separate and substantial role in ill-health separate to that of air pollution. PMID:26473905

  5. Markov Chain-Based Acute Effect Estimation of Air Pollution on Elder Asthma Hospitalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Luo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Asthma caused substantial economic and health care burden and is susceptible to air pollution. Particularly, when it comes to elder asthma patient (older than 65, the phenomenon is more significant. The aim of this study is to investigate the Markov-based acute effects of air pollution on elder asthma hospitalizations, in forms of transition probabilities. Methods. A retrospective, population-based study design was used to assess temporal patterns in hospitalizations for asthma in a region of Sichuan province, China. Approximately 12 million residents were covered during this period. Relative risk analysis and Markov chain model were employed on daily hospitalization state estimation. Results. Among PM2.5, PM10, NO2, and SO2, only SO2 was significant. When air pollution is severe, the transition probability from a low-admission state (previous day to high-admission state (next day is 35.46%, while it is 20.08% when air pollution is mild. In particular, for female-cold subgroup, the counterparts are 30.06% and 0.01%, respectively. Conclusions. SO2 was a significant risk factor for elder asthma hospitalization. When air pollution worsened, the transition probabilities from each state to high admission states increase dramatically. This phenomenon appeared more evidently, especially in female-cold subgroup (which is in cold season for female admissions. Based on our work, admission amount forecast, asthma intervention, and corresponding healthcare allocation can be done.

  6. Noise Effects on Health in the Context of Air Pollution Exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stansfeld, Stephen A

    2015-10-14

    For public health policy and planning it is important to understand the relative contribution of environmental noise on health compared to other environmental stressors. Air pollution is the primary environmental stressor in relation to cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. This paper reports a narrative review of studies in which the associations of both environmental noise and air pollution with health have been examined. Studies of hypertension, myocardial infarction, stroke, mortality and cognitive outcomes were included. Results suggest independent effects of environmental noise from road traffic, aircraft and, with fewer studies, railway noise on cardiovascular outcomes after adjustment for air pollution. Comparative burden of disease studies demonstrate that air pollution is the primary environmental cause of disability adjusted life years lost (DALYs). Environmental noise is ranked second in terms of DALYs in Europe and the DALYs attributed to noise were more than those attributed to lead, ozone and dioxins. In conclusion, in planning and health impact assessment environmental noise should be considered an independent contributor to health risk which has a separate and substantial role in ill-health separate to that of air pollution.

  7. Acute effects of ozone on mortality from the "Air pollution and health : A European approach" project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gryparis, A; Forsberg, B; Katsouyanni, K; Analitis, A; Touloumi, G; Schwartz, J; Samoli, E; Medina, S; Anderson, HR; Niciu, EM; Wichmann, HE; Kriz, B; Kosnik, M; Skorkovsky, J; Vonk, JM; Dortbudak, Z

    2004-01-01

    In the Air Pollution and Health: A European Approach (APHEA2) project, the effects of ambient ozone concentrations on mortality were investigated. Data were collected on daily ozone concentrations, the daily number of deaths, confounders, and potential effect modifiers from 23 cities/areas for at

  8. Estimating Causal Effects of Local Air Pollution on Daily Deaths: Effect of Low Levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Joel; Bind, Marie-Abele; Koutrakis, Petros

    2017-01-01

    , Koutrakis P. 2017. Estimating causal effects of local air pollution on daily deaths: effect of low levels. Environ Health Perspect 125:23-29; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/EHP232.

  9. Genetic effects of air pollution on forest tree species of the Carpathian Mountains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Longauer, Roman; Goemoery, Dusan; Paule, Ladislav; Blada, Ioan; Popescu, Flaviu; Mankovska, Blanka; Mueller-Starck, Gerhard; Schubert, Roland; Percy, Kevin; Szaro, Robert C.; Karnosky, David F.

    2004-01-01

    The effects of air pollution on the genetic structure of Norway spruce, European silver fir and European beech were studied at four polluted sites in Slovakia, Romania and Czech Republic. In order to reduce potential effects of site heterogeneity on the health condition, pair-wise sampling of pollution-tolerant and sensitive trees was applied. Genotypes of sampled trees were determined at 21 isozyme gene loci of spruce, 18 loci of fir and 15 loci of beech. In comparison with Norway spruce, fewer genetic differences were revealed in beech and almost no differentiation between pollution-tolerant and sensitive trees was observed in fir. In adult stands of Norway spruce, sensitive trees exhibited higher genetic multiplicity and diversity. The decline of pollution-sensitive trees may result thus in a gradual genetic depletion of pollution-exposed populations of Norway spruce through the loss of less frequent alleles with potential adaptive significance to altered stressing regimes in the future. Comparison of the subsets of sensitive and tolerant Norway spruce individuals as determined by presence or absence of discolorations (''spruce yellowing'') revealed different heterozygosity at 3 out of 11 polymorphic loci. - Genetic effects of air pollution on main forest trees of the Carpathians are species- and site-specific

  10. Effects of personal air pollution exposure on asthma symptoms, lung function and airway inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, L; Finch, J; Edwards, K; Jeanjean, A; Leigh, R; Gonem, S

    2018-03-11

    There is evidence that air pollution increases the risk of asthma hospitalizations and healthcare utilization, but the effects on day-to-day asthma control are not fully understood. We undertook a prospective single-centre panel study to test the hypothesis that personal air pollution exposure is associated with asthma symptoms, lung function and airway inflammation. Thirty-two patients with a clinical diagnosis of asthma were provided with a personal air pollution monitor (Cairclip NO 2 /O 3 ) which was kept on or around their person throughout the 12-week follow-up period. Ambient levels of NO 2 and particulate matter were modelled based upon satellite imaging data. Directly measured ozone, NO 2 and particulate matter levels were obtained from a monitoring station in central Leicester. Participants made daily electronic records of asthma symptoms, peak expiratory flow and exhaled nitric oxide. Spirometry and asthma symptom questionnaires were completed at fortnightly study visits. Data were analysed using linear mixed effects models and cross-correlation. Cairclip exposure data were of good quality with clear evidence of diurnal variability and a missing data rate of approximately 20%. We were unable to detect consistent relationships between personal air pollution exposure and clinical outcomes in the group as a whole. In an exploratory subgroup analysis, total oxidant exposure was associated with increased daytime symptoms in women but not men. We did not find compelling evidence that air pollution exposure impacts on day-to-day clinical control in an unselected asthma population, but further studies are required in larger populations with higher exposure levels. Women may be more susceptible than men to the effects of air pollution, an observation which requires confirmation in future studies. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Stretching the stress boundary: Linking air pollution health effects to a neurohormonal stress response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodavanti, Urmila P

    2016-12-01

    Inhaled pollutants produce effects in virtually all organ systems in our body and have been linked to chronic diseases including hypertension, atherosclerosis, Alzheimer's and diabetes. A neurohormonal stress response (referred to here as a systemic response produced by activation of the sympathetic nervous system and hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA)-axis) has been implicated in a variety of psychological and physical stresses, which involves immune and metabolic homeostatic mechanisms affecting all organs in the body. In this review, we provide new evidence for the involvement of this well-characterized neurohormonal stress response in mediating systemic and pulmonary effects of a prototypic air pollutant - ozone. A plethora of systemic metabolic and immune effects are induced in animals exposed to inhaled pollutants, which could result from increased circulating stress hormones. The release of adrenal-derived stress hormones in response to ozone exposure not only mediates systemic immune and metabolic responses, but by doing so, also modulates pulmonary injury and inflammation. With recurring pollutant exposures, these effects can contribute to multi-organ chronic conditions associated with air pollution. This review will cover, 1) the potential mechanisms by which air pollutants can initiate the relay of signals from respiratory tract to brain through trigeminal and vagus nerves, and activate stress responsive regions including hypothalamus; and 2) the contribution of sympathetic and HPA-axis activation in mediating systemic homeostatic metabolic and immune effects of ozone in various organs. The potential contribution of chronic environmental stress in cardiovascular, neurological, reproductive and metabolic diseases, and the knowledge gaps are also discussed. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Air Pollution, edited by Wenjun Ding, Andrew J. Ghio and Weidong Wu. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. Air pollution, aeroallergens and suicidality: a review of the effects of air pollution and aeroallergens on suicidal behavior and an exploration of possible mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragguett, Renee-Marie; Cha, Danielle S; Subramaniapillai, Mehala; Carmona, Nicole E; Lee, Yena; Yuan, Duanduan; Rong, Carola; McIntyre, Roger S

    2017-12-20

    Risk factors for suicide can be broadly categorized as sociodemographic, clinical and treatment. There is interest in environmental risk and protection factors for suicide. Emerging evidence suggests a link between environmental factors in the form of air pollution and aeroallergens in relation to suicidality. Herein, we conducted a systematic review of 15 articles which have met inclusion criteria on the aforementioned effects. The majority of the reviewed articles reported an increased suicide risk alongside increased air pollutants or aeroallergens (i.e. pollen) increase; however, not all environmental factors were explored equally. In specific, studies that were delimited to evaluating particulate matter (PM) reported a consistent association with suicidality. We also provide a brief description of putative mechanisms (e.g. inflammation and neurotransmitter dysregulation) that may mediate the association between air pollution, aeroallergens and suicidality. Available evidence suggests that exposure to harmful air quality may be associated with suicidality. There are significant public health implications which are amplified in regions and countries with greater levels of air pollution and aeroallergens. In addition, those with atopic sensitivity may represent a specific subgroup that is at risk.

  13. Air pollution control. 3. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baumbach, G.; Baumann, K.; Droescher, F.; Gross, H.; Steisslinger, B.

    1994-01-01

    Controlling the pollution of the air is an interdisciplinary problem. This introduction reaches from the origin of hazardous substances via their extension and conversion in the atmosphere, their effects of men, animals, plants and goods up to reduction methods for the various sources. Measuring techniques are one of the main points of interest, as it plays a key role in detecting hazardous substances and monitoring reduction measures. A survey of the history shows the historical dimension of the subject. The prescriptions relating to air pollution control give an impression of the present situation of air pollution control. Currently existing problems such as waste gases from motor vehicles, SO 2 transports, ozone in the ambient air, newly detected sorts of damage to the forests, emission reduction in the burning of fossile fuels, polychloried dibenzodioxins and furanes are dealt with. (orig.). 232 figs [de

  14. Effects of air pollutants on the carbon dioxide (CO2) emission rate of human subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bako-Biro, Zsolt; Wargocki, Pawel; Wyon, David

    2004-01-01

    Several laboratory studies have shown the negative effects of emissions from typical indoor pollution sources on perceived air quality, SBS symptoms and the performance of office work. The subjects performed typical office tasks at their own pace while they were exposed for several hours to diffe...... to different air quality conditions. A re-analysis of the CO2 measurements obtained in two independent studies showed that human CO2 emission rates were affected by air quality (P......Several laboratory studies have shown the negative effects of emissions from typical indoor pollution sources on perceived air quality, SBS symptoms and the performance of office work. The subjects performed typical office tasks at their own pace while they were exposed for several hours...

  15. Effects of air pollution on respiratory hospital admissions in İstanbul, Turkey, 2013 to 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çapraz, Özkan; Deniz, Ali; Doğan, Nida

    2017-08-01

    We examined the associations between the daily variations of air pollutants and hospital admissions for respiratory diseases in İstanbul, the largest city of Turkey. A time series analysis of counts of daily hospital admissions and outdoor air pollutants was performed using single-pollutant Poisson generalized linear model (GLM) while controlling for time trends and meteorological factors over a 3-year period (2013-2015) at different time lags (0-9 days). Effects of the pollutants (Excess Risk, ER) on current-day (lag 0) hospital admissions to the first ten days (lag 9) were determined. Data on hospital admissions, daily mean concentrations of air pollutants of PM 10 , PM 2.5 and NO 2 and daily mean concentrations of temperature and humidity of İstanbul were used in the study. The analysis was conducted among people of all ages, but also focused on different sexes and different age groups including children (0-14 years), adults (35-44 years) and elderly (≥65 years). We found significant associations between air pollution and respiratory related hospital admissions in the city. Our findings showed that the relative magnitude of risks for an association of the pollutants with the total respiratory hospital admissions was in the order of: PM 2.5 , NO 2 , and PM 10 . The highest association of each pollutant with total hospital admission was observed with PM 2.5 at lag 4 (ER = 1.50; 95% CI = 1.09-1.99), NO 2 at lag 4 (ER = 1.27; 95% CI = 1.02-1.53) and PM 10 at lag 0 (ER = 0.61; 95% CI = 0.33-0.89) for an increase of 10 μg/m3 in concentrations of the pollutants. In conclusion, our study showed that short-term exposure to air pollution was positively associated with increased respiratory hospital admissions in İstanbul during 2013-2015. As the first air pollution hospital admission study using GLM in İstanbul, these findings may have implications for local environmental and social policies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Combined effects of road traffic noise and ambient air pollution in relation to risk for stroke?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sørensen, Mette; Lühdorf, Pernille; Ketzel, Matthias; Andersen, Zorana J; Tjønneland, Anne; Overvad, Kim; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole

    2014-08-01

    Exposure to road traffic noise and air pollution have both been associated with risk for stroke. The few studies including both exposures show inconsistent results. We aimed to investigate potential mutual confounding and combined effects between road traffic noise and air pollution in association with risk for stroke. In a population-based cohort of 57,053 people aged 50-64 years at enrollment, we identified 1999 incident stroke cases in national registries, followed by validation through medical records. Mean follow-up time was 11.2 years. Present and historical residential addresses from 1987 to 2009 were identified in national registers and road traffic noise and air pollution were modeled for all addresses. Analyses were done using Cox regression. A higher mean annual exposure at time of diagnosis of 10 µg/m(3) nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and 10 dB road traffic noise at the residential address was associated with ischemic stroke with incidence rate ratios (IRR) of 1.11 (95% CI: 1.03, 1.20) and 1.16 (95% CI: 1.07, 1.24), respectively, in single exposure models. In two-exposure models road traffic noise (IRR: 1.15) and not NO2 (IRR: 1.02) was associated with ischemic stroke. The strongest association was found for combination of high noise and high NO2 (IRR=1.28; 95% CI=1.09-1.52). Fatal stroke was positively associated with air pollution and not with traffic noise. In conclusion, in mutually adjusted models road traffic noise and not air pollution was associated ischemic stroke, while only air pollution affected risk for fatal strokes. There were indications of combined effects. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Screening procedure to evaluate effects of air pollution on Eastern Region wildernesses cited as Class I air quality areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mary Beth Adams; Dale S. Nichols; Anthony C. Federer; Keith F. Jensen; Harry Parrott

    1991-01-01

    The USDA Forest Service's Eastern Region manages eight wilderness areas that have been designated as Class I air quality areas by the Federal Clean Air Act. As part of this legislation, Federal land managers are required to consult with air pollution regulators on the potential impacts of proposed air pollution emissions--including phytotoxic gases and acidic...

  18. [Time-series analysis on effect of air pollution on stroke mortality in Tianjin, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, De-zheng; Gu, Qing; Jiang, Guo-hong; Yang, De-yi; Zhang, Hui; Song, Gui-de; Zhang, Ying

    2012-12-01

    To investigate the effect of air pollution on stroke mortality in Tianjin, China, and to provide basis for stroke control and prevention. Total data of mortality surveillance were collected by Tianjin Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Meteorological data and atmospheric pollution data were from Tianjin Meteorological Bureau and Tianjin Environmental Monitoring Center, respectively. Generalized additive Poisson regression model was used in time-series analysis on the relationship between air pollution and stroke mortality in Tianjin. Single-pollutant analysis and multi-pollutant analysis were performed after adjustment for confounding factors such as meteorological factors, long-term trend of death, "days of the week" effect and population. The crude death rates of stroke in Tianjin were from 136.67 in 2001 to 160.01/100000 in 2009, with an escalating trend (P = 0.000), while the standardized mortality ratios of stroke in Tianjin were from 138.36 to 99.14/100000, with a declining trend (P = 0.000). An increase of 10 µg/m³ in daily average concentrations of atmospheric SO₂, NO₂ and PM₁₀ led to 1.0105 (95%CI: 1.0060 ∼ 1.0153), 1.0197 (95%CI: 1.0149 ∼ 1.0246) and 1.0064 (95%CI: 1.0052 ∼ 1.0077), respectively, in relative risks of stroke mortality. SO₂ effect peaked after 1-day exposure, while NO₂ and PM₁₀ effects did within 1 day. Air pollution in Tianjin may increase the risk of stroke mortality in the population and induce acute onset of stroke. It is necessary to carry out air pollution control and allocate health resources rationally to reduce the hazard of stroke mortality.

  19. The cumulative effect of air pollutants on the acute exacerbation of COPD in Shanghai, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xian Wen; Chen, Pei Li; Ren, Lei; Lin, Ying Ni; Zhou, Jian Ping; Ni, Lei; Li, Qing Yun

    2018-05-01

    Epidemiologic studies have shown the effect of air pollutants on acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD). However, little is known regarding the dose-response relationship. This study aimed to investigate the cumulative effect of air pollutants on AECOPD. We collected 101 patients with AECOPD from November 2010 through August 2011 in Shanghai. Multiple logistic regression was used to estimate associations between air pollutants and AECOPD. Poisson regression was then applied to determine the cumulative effect of air pollutants including particulate matter 10 (PM10), PM2.5, nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ), sulphur dioxide (SO 2 ) and ozone (O 3 ) on AECOPD, of which the seasonal variation was further explored. The monthly episodes of AECOPD were associated with the concentrations of PM2.5 (r=0.884, peffect in cold season, whereas 7days in warm season. The RR for AECOPD for per 10μg/m 3 increment in NO 2 was 1.07, with a 5-day cumulative effect without seasonal variation. High consecutive levels of PM2.5 and NO 2 increase the risk of developing AECOPD. Cumulative effect of PM2.5 and NO 2 appears before the exacerbation onset. These gradations were more evident in the PM2.5 during different seasons. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Indoor Air Pollution

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 9; Issue 1. Indoor Air Pollution - Danger at Home. N Pon Saravanan. General Article Volume 9 Issue 1 January 2004 pp 6-11. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: https://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/009/01/0006-0011. Keywords.

  1. AIR POLLUTION AND HUMMINGBIRDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    A multidisciplinary team of EPA-RTP ORD pulmonary toxicologists, engineers, ecologists, and statisticians have designed a study of how ground-level ozone and other air pollutants may influence feeding activity of the ruby-throated hummingbird (Archilochus colubris). Be...

  2. Effects of air pollution exposure on glucose metabolism in Los Angeles minority children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toledo-Corral, C M; Alderete, T L; Habre, R; Berhane, K; Lurmann, F W; Weigensberg, M J; Goran, M I; Gilliland, F D

    2018-01-01

    Growing evidence indicates that ambient (AAP: NO 2 , PM 2.5 and O 3 ) and traffic-related air pollutants (TRAP) contribute to metabolic disease risk in adults; however, few studies have examined these relationships in children. Metabolic profiling was performed in 429 overweight and obese African-American and Latino youth living in urban Los Angeles, California. This cross-sectional study estimated individual residential air pollution exposure and used linear regression to examine relationships between air pollution and metabolic outcomes. AAP and TRAP exposure were associated with adverse effects on glucose metabolism independent of body fat percent. PM 2.5 was associated with 25.0% higher fasting insulin (p pollution exposure was associated with a metabolic profile that is characteristic of increased risk for type 2 diabetes. These results indicate that increased prior year exposure to air pollution may adversely affect type 2 diabetes-related pathophysiology in overweight and obese minority children. © 2016 World Obesity Federation.

  3. Cardiovascular effects of the combined exposure to noise and outdoor air pollution: A review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lekaviciute, J.; Kluizenaar, Y. de; Laszlo, H.E.; Hansell, A.; Floud, S.; Lercher, P.; Babisch, W.; Kephalopoulos, S.

    2012-01-01

    The combination of noise with other environmental stressors, particularly traffic-related air pollution, has been of growing interest in recent years. Cardiovascular effects are among the most evidence-based physical health outcomes. Moreover, the European Network on Noise and Health (ENNAH), which

  4. Proceedings of the second US-USSR symposium: air pollution effects on vegetation including forest ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reginald D. Noble; Juri L Martin; Keith F., eds. Jensen; Keith F. Jensen

    1989-01-01

    To commemorate the 10th year of cooperation between the US-USSR in the field of environmental protection, a symposium was organized, the major objectives of which were to acquaint US-USSR scientists with project accomplishments; to promote understanding of the nature of environmental problems that relate to air pollution effect on vegetation on a more global scale; to...

  5. Evaluating ozone air pollution effects on pines in the western United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul R. Miller; Kenneth W. Stolte; Daniel M. Duriscoe; John Pronos

    1996-01-01

    Historical and technical background is provided about ozone air pollution effects on ponderosa (Pinus ponderosa Dougl. ex Laws) and Jeffrey (P. jeffreyi Grev. and Balf.) pines in forests of the western United States. The principal aim is to document the development of field survey methods to be applied to assessment of chronic...

  6. Ultrastructural study of the effect of air pollution by SO2 on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    kemrilib

    Sulfur dioxide (SO2) has been associated with excessive mortality during air pollution disasters such as ... epithelium. It is suggested that this synergistic effect is due to the carbon particles adsorbing. SO2 ... in refrigeration plants, fruit processing, manufacturing .... concentration range was absorbed on the nasal mucosa [29 ...

  7. ACUTE RESPIRATORY HEALTH EFFECTS OF AIR POLLUTION ON ASTHMATIC CHILDREN IN US INNER CITIES

    Science.gov (United States)

    BACKGROUND: Children with asthma in inner-city communities may be particularly vulnerable to adverse effects of air pollution because of their airways disease and exposure to relatively high levels of motor vehicle emissions. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association between fluc...

  8. Air pollution, lagged effects of temperature, and mortality: The Netherlands 1979-87

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mackenbach, J. P.; Looman, C. W.; Kunst, A. E.

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To explore whether the apparent low threshold for the mortality effects of air pollution could be the result of confounding. DESIGN--The associations between mortality and sulphur dioxide (SO2) were analysed taking into account potential confounding factors. SETTING--The Netherlands,

  9. Mediation pathways and effects of green structures on respiratory mortality via reducing air pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yu-Sheng; Lung, Shih-Chun Candice

    2017-02-23

    Previous studies have shown both health and environmental benefits of green spaces, especially in moderating temperature and reducing air pollution. However, the characteristics of green structures have been overlooked in previous investigations. In addition, the mediation effects of green structures on respiratory mortality have not been assessed. This study explores the potential mediation pathways and effects of green structure characteristics on respiratory mortality through temperature, primary and secondary air pollutants separately using partial least squares model with data from Taiwan. The measurable characteristics of green structure include the largest patch percentage, landscape proportion, aggregation, patch distance, and fragmentation. The results showed that mortality of pneumonia and chronic lower respiratory diseases could be reduced by minimizing fragmentation and increasing the largest patch percentage of green structure, and the mediation effects are mostly through reducing air pollutants rather than temperature. Moreover, a high proportion of but fragmented green spaces would increase secondary air pollutants and enhance health risks; demonstrating the deficiency of traditional greening policy with primary focus on coverage ratio. This is the first research focusing on mediation effects of green structure characteristics on respiratory mortality, revealing that appropriate green structure planning can be a useful complementary strategy in environmental health management.

  10. Time Scale Effects in Acute Association between Air-Pollution and Mortality

    Science.gov (United States)

    We used wavelet analysis and generalized additive models (GAM) to study timescale effects in the acute association between mortality and air-pollution. Daily averages of measured NO2 concentrations in the metropolitan Paris area are used as indicators of human exposure...

  11. Maternal air pollution exposure and preterm birth in Wuxi, China: Effect modification by maternal age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Yingying; Jiang, Panhua; Dong, Tianyu; Ding, Xinliang; Chen, Ting; Villanger, Gro Dehli; Aase, Heidi; Huang, Lu; Xia, Yankai

    2018-08-15

    Numerous studies have investigated prenatal air pollution and shown that air pollutants have adverse effect on birth outcomes. However, which trimester was the most sensitive and whether the effect was related to maternal age is still ambiguous. This study aims to explore the association between maternal air pollution exposure during pregnancy and preterm birth, and if this relationship is modified by maternal age. In this retrospective cohort study, we examine the causal relationship of prenatal exposure to air pollutants including particulate matters, which are less than 10 µm (PM 10 ), and ozone (O 3 ), which is one of the gaseous pollutants, on preterm birth by gestational age. A total of 6693 pregnant women were recruited from Wuxi Maternal and Child Health Care Hospital. The participants were dichotomized into child-bearing age group ( = 35 years old) in order to analyze the effect modification by maternal age. Logistic and linear regression models were performed to assess the risk for preterm birth (gestational age air pollution exposure. With adjustment for covariates, the highest level of PM 10 exposure significantly increased the risk of preterm birth by 1.42-fold (95% CI: 1.10, 1.85) compared those with the lowest level in the second trimester. Trimester-specific PM 10 exposure was positively associated with gestational age, whereas O 3 exposure was associated with gestational age in the early pregnancy. When stratified by maternal age, PM 10 exposure was significantly associated with an increased risk of preterm birth only in the advanced age group during pregnancy (OR:2.15, 95% CI: 1.13, 4.07). The results suggested that PM 10 exposure associated with preterm birth was modified by advanced maternal age (OR interaction = 2.00, 95% CI: 1.02, 3.91, P interaction = 0.032). Prenatal air pollution exposure would increase risk of preterm birth and reduced gestational age. Thus, more attention should be paid to the effects of ambient air pollution

  12. Respiratory Effects of Indoor Heat and the Interaction with Air Pollution in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormack, Meredith C; Belli, Andrew J; Waugh, Darryn; Matsui, Elizabeth C; Peng, Roger D; Williams, D'Ann L; Paulin, Laura; Saha, Anik; Aloe, Charles M; Diette, Gregory B; Breysse, Patrick N; Hansel, Nadia N

    2016-12-01

    There is limited evidence of the effect of exposure to heat on chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) morbidity, and the interactive effect between indoor heat and air pollution has not been established. To determine the effect of indoor and outdoor heat exposure on COPD morbidity and to determine whether air pollution concentrations modify the effect of temperature. Sixty-nine participants with COPD were enrolled in a longitudinal cohort study, and data from the 601 participant days that occurred during the warm weather season were included in the analysis. Participants completed home environmental monitoring with measurement of temperature, relative humidity, and indoor air pollutants and simultaneous daily assessment of respiratory health with questionnaires and portable spirometry. Participants had moderate to severe COPD and spent the majority of their time indoors. Increases in maximal indoor temperature were associated with worsening of daily Breathlessness, Cough, and Sputum Scale scores and increases in rescue inhaler use. The effect was detected on the same day and lags of 1 and 2 days. The detrimental effect of temperature on these outcomes increased with higher concentrations of indoor fine particulate matter and nitrogen dioxide (P pollution concentrations. For patients with COPD who spend the majority of their time indoors, indoor heat exposure during the warmer months represents a modifiable environmental exposure that may contribute to respiratory morbidity. In the context of climate change, adaptive strategies that include optimization of indoor environmental conditions are needed to protect this high-risk group from the adverse health effects of heat.

  13. A Review of Epidemiological Research on Adverse Neurological Effects of Exposure to Ambient Air Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiaohui; Ha, Sandie Uyen; Basnet, Rakshya

    2016-01-01

    There is a growing body of epidemiological research reporting the neurological effects of ambient air pollution. We examined current evidence, identified the strengths and weaknesses of published epidemiological studies, and suggest future directions for research in this area. Studies were identified through a systematic search of online scientific databases, in addition to a manual search of the reference lists from the identified papers. Despite being a relatively new area of investigation, overall, there is mounting evidence implicating adverse effects of air pollution on neurobehavioral function in both adults and children. Further research is needed to expand our understanding of these relationships, including improvement in the accuracy of exposure assessments; focusing on specific toxicants and their relationships to specific health endpoints, such as neurodevelopmental disorders and neurodegenerative diseases; investigating the combined neurological effects of multiple air pollutants; and further exploration of genetic susceptibility for neurotoxicity of air pollution. In order to achieve these goals collaborative efforts are needed from multidisciplinary teams, including experts in toxicology, biostatistics, geographical science, epidemiology, and neurology. PMID:27547751

  14. Exposure-response functions for health effects of air pollutants based on epidemiological findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aunan, K

    1995-10-01

    The objective of this report is to provide exposure-response functions for health effects and air pollution, which can be used in cost-effectiveness analyses of abatement measures. When cost-effective abatement strategies for air pollution are analyzed, and when air quality standards are set, it is important to have quantitative knowledge about health damage. In spite of their shortcomings, epidemiological studies provide a sound basis for exposure-response functions because they involve a random cross section of the population. In this report the exposure-response functions apply to the relation between air pollutant concentrations and relative effect frequencies, and involve the following health effect end-points: acute and chronic respiratory symptoms in children and adults, asthma episodes in children and adults, eye irritations, headache, lung damage in children, excess mortality, lung cancer incidence. The effects are attributed to one indicator component, which in many cases is particles, but for some effects NO{sub 2}, SO{sub 2}, O{sub 3}, or CO. A calculation procedure is suggested which makes it possible to estimate excess annual symptom-days for short-term effects using the annual average concentration. 103 refs., 1 table

  15. Effects and control of long-range transboundary air pollution. Report prepared within the framework of the Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    This eleventh volume of the series of Air Pollution Studies, published under the auspices of the Executive Body for the Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution, contains the documents reviewed and approved for publication at the twelfth session of the Executive Body held at Geneva from 28 November to 1 December 1994. Part one focuses on the possible impact of acid deposition on the quality of groundwater in the ECE region. The objective of this report is to present an updated review of available knowledge on the possible impact of deposition of sulphur and nitrogen compounds on the status of groundwater, including a brief survey of recent research results in this field. It updates an earlier report on the effects of air pollutants on groundwater, prepared within the Convention (EB.AIR/WG.1/R.9). Part two is an executive summary of the 1993 Report on the Forest Condition in Europe (Forest Condition in Europe. Results of the 1993 Survey. 1994 Report, EC-UN/ECE, Brussels, Geneva, 1994). The report describes the results of both the national and the transnational surveys which are conducted annually within the International Cooperative Programme on the Assessment and Monitoring of Air Pollution Effects on Forests (ICP Forests) of the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (ECE) and under European Community Council Regulation (EEC) 3528/86 on the protection of the Community's Forests against Atmospheric Pollution. Part three is a summary report on the options for further reduction of nitrogen oxide emissions from road heavy-duty vehicles (HDVs). This report is primarily focused on reduction options for road HDVs, but some of the technical measures reviewed can, however, also be applied to some non-road diesel engines, such as machinery in construction, agriculture or forestry

  16. The adverse pathophysiological effects of outdoor air pollution on the body tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Perčič

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Long-term exposure to outdoor air pollution is a serious and common public health concern associated with growing morbidity and mortality worldwide. There are many published studies about the pathophysiological mechanisms involved in response of the body tissues to outdoor air pollution exposure. The aim of our review was to investigate the problem of outdoor air pollution and health effects of pathological mechanisms, with specific goal to point out public health intervention strategies based upon a clearer understanding of pathophysiological mechanisms of outdoor air pollution. A systematic literature review was carried out in two bibliographic databases, Science Direct and PubMed, in the period from January 1995 to December 2015. We conducted a systematic analysis of 95 studies, 43 of them being review studies and 52 original studies. The systematic analysis was done in three steps, for each body tissue separately (respiratory diseases, cardiovascular diseases, neurologic diseases and diabetes mellitus. This insight into literature review may help foster more effective preventive measures at the public health level as well as potential intervention strategies based upon a clearer understanding of the involved pathways.

  17. Increased uptake and effects of gaseous and particulate air pollutants during episodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prinz, B; Scholl, G

    1975-01-01

    The results of an effects-inventory, carried out by the LIB from 1972 and 1974, are presented. The inventory included effects on materials, plants, and, in a special category, humans. Standardized objects were exposed at systematically distributed monitoring sites. As defined in the inventory program, effects included the determination of pollutant accumulation in selected standardized acceptors, as well as the ascertainment of effects in the more limited sense of pollutant-dependent injury to objects exposed at the same sites for the same length of time. This combination of results allows the correlation of air pollution with the occurrence of the observed injury. The special category of effects of air pollutants on humans included determination of lead levels in the blood of newborn babies and their mothers. These results made possible a classification of lead concentrations in the living areas of the mothers and allowed an estimation of the influence of air-borne lead on the internal exposure to lead. 16 references, 29 figures.

  18. Air Pollution in Museum Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryhl-Svendsen, Morten

    2017-01-01

    This paper reviews the main air pollutants relevant for preservation of cultural heritage objects. Air pollutants may originate from outdoor or indoor sources. Indoor sources include the emission of corrosive vapors from construction materials used for museum display settings. Air pollution may...

  19. Exposure to air pollution and self-reported effects on Chinese students: A case study of 13 megacities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    Air pollution causes severe physical and psychological health complications. Considering China’s continuously-deteriorating air quality, this study aimed to assess the self-reported effects of air pollution on the behavior and physical health of the students of 13 densely populated cities, and their awareness, practices, and perception of air pollution and its associated public health risks. A detailed, closed-ended questionnaire was administered to 2100 students from 54 universities and schools across China. The questionnaire, which had 24 questions, was categorized into four sections. The first two sections were focused on air pollution-associated behavior and psychology, and physical effects; while the final two sections focused on the subjects’ awareness and perceptions, and practices and concerns about air pollution. The respondents reported that long-term exposure to air pollution had significantly affected their psychology and behavior, as well as their physical health. The respondents were aware of the different adverse impacts of air pollution (respiratory infections, allergies, and cardiovascular problems), and hence had adopted different preventive measures, such as the use of respiratory masks and glasses or goggles, regularly drinking water, and consuming rich foods. It was concluded that air pollution and haze had negative physical and psychological effects on the respondents, which led to severe changes in behavior. Proper management, future planning, and implementing strict environmental laws are suggested before this problem worsens and becomes life-threatening. PMID:29547657

  20. Exposure to air pollution and self-reported effects on Chinese students: A case study of 13 megacities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajper, Sohail Ahmed; Ullah, Sana; Li, Zhongqiu

    2018-01-01

    Air pollution causes severe physical and psychological health complications. Considering China's continuously-deteriorating air quality, this study aimed to assess the self-reported effects of air pollution on the behavior and physical health of the students of 13 densely populated cities, and their awareness, practices, and perception of air pollution and its associated public health risks. A detailed, closed-ended questionnaire was administered to 2100 students from 54 universities and schools across China. The questionnaire, which had 24 questions, was categorized into four sections. The first two sections were focused on air pollution-associated behavior and psychology, and physical effects; while the final two sections focused on the subjects' awareness and perceptions, and practices and concerns about air pollution. The respondents reported that long-term exposure to air pollution had significantly affected their psychology and behavior, as well as their physical health. The respondents were aware of the different adverse impacts of air pollution (respiratory infections, allergies, and cardiovascular problems), and hence had adopted different preventive measures, such as the use of respiratory masks and glasses or goggles, regularly drinking water, and consuming rich foods. It was concluded that air pollution and haze had negative physical and psychological effects on the respondents, which led to severe changes in behavior. Proper management, future planning, and implementing strict environmental laws are suggested before this problem worsens and becomes life-threatening.

  1. Air pollution effects on the ultrastructure of Phlomis fruticosa mesophyll cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Psaras, G.K.; Christodoulakis, N.S.

    1987-04-01

    Plant physiologists and environmental scientists suggest that a basic effect of air pollution on plants leads towards the minimization of their productivity. On the other hand the action of individual pollutants on intact plants has been studied from biochemical as well as structural viewpoint. Thus the study of plant responses to SO/sub 2/ exposure revealed that this agent causes acute and chronic injury. Chronic injury results in chlorosis and subsequent necrosis due to destruction of chlorophylls and final chloroplast lysis. It has been documented that ultrastructural characteristics of leaves are affected prior to any visible injury. Electron microscope examination of SO/sub 2/ fumigated plant-attached leaves of Vicia faba revealed chloroplast thylakoids starting to swell whilst photosynthesis rate was drastically reduced. The first light microscope-detected effects of air pollution on the leaf structure of plants common in natural ecosystems of Athens metropolitan area, have been reported. A chlorosis phenomenon in Urginea maritima leaves as well as an indication of detrimental effects of Phlomis fruticosa mesophyll chloroplasts were documented. In this work further investigation has been undertaken in order to elucidate the precise effects of air pollution on the ultrastructure of the photosynthesizing mesophyll cells.

  2. Stochastic Modeling of Traffic Air Pollution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thoft-Christensen, Palle

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, modeling of traffic air pollution is discussed with special reference to infrastructures. A number of subjects related to health effects of air pollution and the different types of pollutants are briefly presented. A simple model for estimating the social cost of traffic related air...... and using simple Monte Carlo techniques to obtain a stochastic estimate of the costs of traffic air pollution for infrastructures....... pollution is derived. Several authors have published papers on this very complicated subject, but no stochastic modelling procedure have obtained general acceptance. The subject is discussed basis of a deterministic model. However, it is straightforward to modify this model to include uncertain parameters...

  3. Assessing the effectiveness of global air-pollution treaties on CO2 emissions

    OpenAIRE

    Aurelie Slechten; Vincenzo Verardi

    2014-01-01

    This paper considers the effect of international air-pollution agreements ratified since 1970 on carbon dioxide emissions (CO2), the main cause of anthropogenic climate change. The analysis is based on a panel dataset of 150 countries over the period 1970-2008. While the literature generally focuses on one particular agreement, we analyze the effect of the accumulation of agreements using a two-way (country, year) fixed effects regression model. We find that the relationship between the numbe...

  4. Benzimidazole for the prevention of toxic effects of air pollutants on plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takaoka, I; Fukuda, M; Kitano, H; Shinohara, T

    1974-02-02

    Tobacco plants were sprayed with benzimidazole before being exposed to 30 ppM of photochemical oxidants for a period of two hours. The plants were observed 48 hours after exposure and found to have suffered no toxic effects from the oxidants. It may be concluded that benzimidazole is an effective agent for preventing the toxic effects of air pollutants, such as photochemical oxidants on plants.

  5. Quantifying air distribution, ventilation effectiveness and airborne pollutant transport in an aircraft cabin mockup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Aijun

    The health, safety and comfort of passengers during flight inspired this research into cabin air quality, which is closely related to its airflow distribution, ventilation effectiveness and airborne pollutant transport. The experimental facility is a full-scale aircraft cabin mockup. A volumetric particle tracking velocimetry (VPTV) technique was enhanced by incorporating a self-developed streak recognition algorithm. Two stable recirculation regions, the reverse flows above the seats and the main air jets from the air supply inlets formed the complicated airflow patterns inside the cabin mockup. The primary air flow was parallel to the passenger rows. The small velocity component in the direction of the cabin depth caused less net air exchange between the passenger rows than that parallel to the passenger rows. Different total air supply rate changed the developing behaviors of the main air jets, leading to different local air distribution patterns. Two indices, Local mean age of air and ventilation effectiveness factor (VEF), were measured at five levels of air supply rate and two levels of heating load. Local mean age of air decreased linearly with an increase in the air supply rate, while the VEF remained consistent when the air supply rate varied. The thermal buoyancy force from the thermal plume generated the upside plume flow, opposite to the main jet flow above the boundary seats and thus lowered the local net air exchange. The airborne transport dynamics depends on the distance between the source and the receptors, the relative location of pollutant source, and air supply rate. Exposure risk was significantly reduced with increased distance between source and receptors. Another possible way to decrease the exposure risk was to position the release source close to the exhaust outlets. Increasing the air supply rate could be an effective solution under some emergency situations. The large volume of data regarding the three-dimensional air velocities was

  6. Lidar: air pollution applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collis, R.T.H.

    1977-01-01

    This introduction to the use of lidar in air pollution applications is mainly concerned with its capability to detect and monitor atmospheric particulates by elastic backscattering. Even when quite imperceptible to the eye, such particulates may be detected at ranges of several kilometers even by lidars of modest performance. This capability is valuable in connection with air pollution in the following ways: by mapping and tracking inhomogeneities in particulate concentration, atmospheric structure and motion may be monitored; measurements of the optical properties of the atmosphere provide an indication of turbidity or of particulate number or mass concentrations; and the capability of obtaining at a single point return signals from remote atmospheric volumes makes it possible to make range-resolved measurements of gaseous concentration along the path by using the resonant absorption of energy of appropriate wavelengths

  7. Synoptic weather types and aeroallergens modify the effect of air pollution on hospitalisations for asthma hospitalisations in Canadian cities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hebbern, Christopher; Cakmak, Sabit

    2015-01-01

    Pollution levels and the effect of air pollution on human health can be modified by synoptic weather type and aeroallergens. We investigated the effect modification of aeroallergens on the association between CO, O 3 , NO 2 , SO 2 , PM 10 , PM 2.5 and asthma hospitalisation rates in seven synoptic weather types. We developed single air pollutant models, adjusted for the effect of aeroallergens and stratified by synoptic weather type, and pooled relative risk estimates for asthma hospitalisation in ten Canadian cities. Aeroallergens significantly modified the relative risk in 19 pollutant-weather type combinations, reducing the size and variance for each single pollutant model. However, aeroallergens did not significantly modify relative risk for any pollutant in the DT or MT weather types, or for PM 10 in any weather type. Thus, there is a modifying effect of aeroallergens on the association between CO, O 3 , NO 2 , SO 2 , PM 2.5 and asthma hospitalisations that differs under specific synoptic weather types. - Highlights: • We model effect modification of aeroallergens on air pollutant–asthma association. • The air pollutant association was modelled in seven synoptic weather types. • Aeroallergens modify CO, O 3 , NO 2 , SO 2 , and PM 2.5 effect on asthma hospitalisations. • Synoptic weather types modify the air pollutant and asthma association. - We identify a modifying effect of aeroallergens on the relationship between air pollutants and hospitalisation rates for asthma, that differs under specific synoptic weather types

  8. Effects on asthma and respiratory allergy of Climate change and air pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Amato, Gennaro; Vitale, Carolina; De Martino, Annamaria; Viegi, Giovanni; Lanza, Maurizia; Molino, Antonio; Sanduzzi, Alessandro; Vatrella, Alessandro; Annesi-Maesano, Isabella; D'Amato, Maria

    2015-01-01

    The major changes to our world are those involving the atmosphere and the climate, including global warming induced by anthropogenic factors, with impact on the biosphere and human environment. Studies on the effects of climate changes on respiratory allergy are still lacking and current knowledge is provided by epidemiological and experimental studies on the relationship between allergic respiratory diseases, asthma and environmental factors, like meteorological variables, airborne allergens and air pollution. Epidemiologic studies have demonstrated that urbanization, high levels of vehicle emissions and westernized lifestyle are correlated with an increased frequency of respiratory allergy, mainly in people who live in urban areas in comparison with people living in rural areas. However, it is not easy to evaluate the impact of climate changes and air pollution on the prevalence of asthma in general and on the timing of asthma exacerbations, although the global rise in asthma prevalence and severity could be also considered an effect of air pollution and climate changes. Since airborne allergens and air pollutants are frequently increased contemporaneously in the atmosphere, enhanced IgE-mediated response to aeroallergens and enhanced airway inflammation could account for the increasing frequency of respiratory allergy and asthma in atopic subjects in the last five decades. Pollen allergy is frequently used to study the interrelationship between air pollution and respiratory allergic diseases such as rhinitis and bronchial asthma. Climatic factors (temperature, wind speed, humidity, thunderstorms, etc) can affect both components (biological and chemical) of this interaction. Scientific societies should be involved in advocacy activities, such as those realized by the Global Alliance against chronic Respiratory Diseases (GARD).

  9. Olfactometric pollution of air

    OpenAIRE

    Lucia Haraslínová

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the olfactometric assessment of volatile organic compounds emitted by coating films.It describes the measurements of concentration, intensity, hedonic tone and character of odor caused by emissions of volatile organic compounds. VOCs’ emitted in to the small-space chamber with capacity of 1 m3 were tested by dynamic olfactometric method. Paper also contains a comparison of olfactometric air pollution of two different types of coating films. The work is aimed to determine ...

  10. [Air pollution and its health effects on residents in Taiwanese communities].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Y C

    1996-12-01

    The are a number of particular features of air pollution in Taiwan, as described below: (1) In Taiwan area, the air load of pollutants is more serious than previously reported. (2) There exists severe air pollution throughout the island. (3) Industry is the major source of pollution. (4) No demarcation exists between plants and residential quarters. (5) There is a high concentration of pollutants indoors/outdoors. The influence of air pollution spreads over all aspects of physical health, primarily on the respiratory tract, causing lung cancer and exaggerating cardiovascular diseases. A few Taiwanese studies are reviewed below which deserve more elaboration. (1) Use PM10 for indexing health effect. The annual average value of PM10 in Taiwan has been around 70 micrograms/m3 in 1994. Dr. Schwarz indicated that no safety margin could be derived; for each additional 10 micrograms/ m3 of PM10, the death number could be increased by 1% on the basis of Western studies. (2) Research with reference to lung cancer cases in the Kaohsiung Medical College Hospital. Living within 3 km of industrial district counted for 9% of cases and caused a 6-fold increase in the risk of disease for people living more than 20 years in the case control study for lung cancer. (3) Death due to cancer of inhabitants close to petroleum and petrochemical industries. For youths and children below 20 years, cancers related to brain tumors were 2-4 fold of what was expected deaths. Analysis of another petrochemical complex in Chienchen, Kaohsiung, revealed the inhabitants within 1 km showed a higher standardized mortality ratio for cancers of the lung, kidney, urinary bladder, and leukemia than was to be expected. (4) Lower lung function and higher incidence of respiratory diseases among residents near a coal-fired power plant (within 3 Km) compared to residents who lived further away from the plant (3-11 Km). (5) Lead contamination around a kindergarten near a battery recycling plant. There was

  11. A Methodology of Health Effects Estimation from Air Pollution in Large Asian Cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keiko Hirota

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The increase of health effects caused by air pollution seems to be a growing concern in Asian cities with increasing motorization. This paper discusses methods of estimating the health effects of air pollution in large Asian cities. Due to the absence of statistical data in Asia, this paper carefully chooses the methodology using data of the Japanese compensation system. A basic idea of health effects will be captured from simple indicators, such as population and air quality, in a correlation model. This correlation model enables more estimation results of respiratory mortality caused by air pollution to be yielded than by using the relative model. The correlation model could be an alternative method to estimate mortality besides the relative risk model since the results of the correlation model are comparable with those of the relative model by city and by time series. The classification of respiratory diseases is not known from the statistical yearbooks in many countries. Estimation results could support policy decision-making with respect to public health in a cost-effective way.

  12. Applicability of the Environmental Relative Moldiness Index for Quantification of Residential Mold Contamination in an Air Pollution Health Effects Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    As part of the Near-Road Exposures and Effects of Urban Air Pollutants Study (NEXUS) investigating the respiratory health impacts of traffic-related air pollutants on asthmatic children in Detroit, Michigan, residential dust samples were collected to quantify mold exposure. Sett...

  13. Effects of air pollution on morphological and anatomical characteristics of Pinus Eldarica Wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vahidreza Safdari; Moinuddin Ahmed; Margaret S. Devall; Vilma Bayramzadeh

    2012-01-01

    Air pollution, including automobile exhaust pollution, can affect anatomical and morphological characteristics of wood. In order to evaluate this subject, the Pinus eldarica trees of Chitgar Park in Tehran, which extends from a crowded highway in the south (polluted site) to the semi polluted midsection and to Alborz Mountain in the north (unpolluted...

  14. Economic evaluation of the air pollution effect on public health in China's 74 cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li; Lei, Yalin; Pan, Dongyan; Yu, Chen; Si, Chunyan

    2016-01-01

    Air deterioration caused by pollution has harmed public health. The existing studies on the economic loss caused by a variety of air pollutants in multiple cities are lacking. To understand the effect of different pollutants on public health and to provide the basis of the environmental governance for governments, based on the dose-response relation and the willingness to pay, this paper used the latest available data of the inhalable particulate matter (PM10) and sulphur dioxide (SO2) from January 2015 to June 2015 in 74 cities by establishing the lowest and the highest limit scenarios. The results show that (1) in the lowest and highest limit scenario, the health-related economic loss caused by PM10 and SO2 represented 1.63 and 2.32 % of the GDP, respectively; (2) For a single city, in the lowest and the highest limit scenarios, the highest economic loss of the public health effect caused by PM10 and SO2 was observed in Chongqing; the highest economic loss of the public health effect per capita occurred in Hebei Baoding. The highest proportion of the health-related economic loss accounting for GDP was found in Hebei Xingtai. The main reason is that the terrain conditions are not conducive to the spread of air pollutants in Chongqing, Baoding and Xingtai, and the three cities are typical heavy industrial cities that are based on coal resources. Therefore, this paper proposes to improve the energy structure, use the advanced production process, reasonably control the urban population growth, and adopt the emissions trading system in order to reduce the economic loss caused by the effects of air pollution on public health.

  15. Air Pollution Mixtures: Health Effects across Life Stages

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The main objectives of the proposed Center are: 1) to investigate the acute and chronic health effects across life stages of six exposure metrics (short- and long-...

  16. Effect of Ambient Air Pollution on Hospitalization for Heart Failure in 26 of China's Largest Cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hui; Tian, Yaohua; Song, Jing; Cao, Yaying; Xiang, Xiao; Huang, Chao; Li, Man; Hu, Yonghua

    2018-03-01

    There is growing interest in the association between ambient air pollution and congestive heart failure (CHF), but research data from developing countries are very limited. The primary aim of this study was to examine the association between short-term exposure to air pollution and hospital admission for CHF in China. A time-stratified case-crossover study was conducted between 2014 and 2015 in 26 large Chinese cities among 105,501 CHF hospitalizations. Conditional logistic regression models were applied to estimate the percentage changes in CHF admissions in relation to per interquartile range increases in air pollutant concentrations. Air pollution was positively associated with CHF hospitalizations. An interquartile range increase in fine particulate, particulate matter less than 10 µm in aerodynamic diameter, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, carbon monoxide, and ozone concentrations on the current day corresponded to 1.2% (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.5%, 1.8%), 1.3% (95% CI 0.5%, 2.0%), 1.0% (95% CI 0.2%, 1.7%), 1.6% (95% CI 0.6%, 2.5%), 1.2% (95% CI 0.5%, 1.9%), and 0.4% (95% CI -0.9%, 1.7%) increases in CHF admissions, respectively. In conclusion, our findings contribute to the limited scientific literature concerning the effects of air pollution on CHF risk for high-exposure settings typical in developing countries, which may have significant public health implications for prevention of CHF in China. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Acute effect of ambient air pollution on heart failure in Guangzhou, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Changyuan; Chen, Ailan; Chen, Renjie; Qi, Yongqing; Ye, Jianjun; Li, Shuangming; Li, Wanglin; Liang, Zijing; Liang, Qing; Guo, Duanqiang; Kan, Haidong; Chen, Xinyu

    2014-12-15

    Heart failure (HF) is a global public health problem of increasing importance. The association between acute exposure to air pollution and HF has been well established in developed countries, but little evidence was available in developing countries where air pollution levels were much higher. We conducted a time-series study to investigate the short-term association between air pollution and overall emergency ambulance dispatches (EAD) due to HF in Guangzhou, China. Daily data of EAD due to HF from 1 January 2008 to 31 December 2012 were obtained from Guangzhou Emergency Center. We applied the over-dispersed Poisson generalized addictive model to analyze the associations after controlling for the seasonality, day of the week and weather conditions. We identified a total of 3375 EAD for HF. A 10-μg/m(3) increase in the present-day concentrations of particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter of less than 10 μm, sulfur dioxide and nitrogen dioxide corresponded to increases of 3.54% [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.35%, 5.74%], 5.29% (95% CI: 2.28%, 8.30%) and 4.34% (95% CI: 1.71%, 6.97%) in daily EAD for HF, respectively. The effects of air pollution on acute HF were restricted on the concurrent day and in the cool seasons. Our results provided the first population-based evidence in Mainland China that outdoor air pollution could trigger the exacerbation of HF. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Mediation pathways and effects of green structures on respiratory mortality via reducing air pollution

    OpenAIRE

    Shen, Yu-Sheng; Lung, Shih-Chun Candice

    2017-01-01

    Previous studies have shown both health and environmental benefits of green spaces, especially in moderating temperature and reducing air pollution. However, the characteristics of green structures have been overlooked in previous investigations. In addition, the mediation effects of green structures on respiratory mortality have not been assessed. This study explores the potential mediation pathways and effects of green structure characteristics on respiratory mortality through temperature, ...

  19. Valuation of social and health effects of transport-related air pollution in Madrid (Spain)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monzon, Andres; Guerrero, Maria-Jose [Transport Department, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, Escuela Tecnica Superior de Ingenieros de Caminos, C. y P., Caminos, Ciudad Universitaria, s/n, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2004-12-01

    Social impacts of pollutants from mobile sources are a key element in urban design and traffic planning. One of the most relevant impacts is health effects associated with high pollution periods. Madrid is a city that suffers chronic congestion levels and some periods of very stable atmospheric conditions; as a result, pollution levels exceed air quality standards for certain pollutants.This paper focuses on the social evaluation of transport-related emissions. A new methodology to evaluate those impacts in monetary terms has been designed and applied to Madrid. The method takes into account costs associated with losses in working time, mortality and human suffering; calculated using an impact pathway approach linked to CORINAIR emissions. This also allows the calculation of social costs associated with greenhouse gas impacts. As costs have been calculated individually by effect and mode of transport, they can be used to design pricing policies based on real social costs. This paper concludes that the health and social costs of transport-related air pollution in Madrid is 357 Meuro. In these circumstances, the recent public health tax applied in Madrid is clearly correct and sensible with a fair pricing policy on car use.

  20. Valuation of social and health effects of transport-related air pollution in Madrid (Spain)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monzon, Andres; Guerrero, Maria-Jose

    2004-01-01

    Social impacts of pollutants from mobile sources are a key element in urban design and traffic planning. One of the most relevant impacts is health effects associated with high pollution periods. Madrid is a city that suffers chronic congestion levels and some periods of very stable atmospheric conditions; as a result, pollution levels exceed air quality standards for certain pollutants. This paper focuses on the social evaluation of transport-related emissions. A new methodology to evaluate those impacts in monetary terms has been designed and applied to Madrid. The method takes into account costs associated with losses in working time, mortality and human suffering; calculated using an impact pathway approach linked to CORINAIR emissions. This also allows the calculation of social costs associated with greenhouse gas impacts. As costs have been calculated individually by effect and mode of transport, they can be used to design pricing policies based on real social costs. This paper concludes that the health and social costs of transport-related air pollution in Madrid is 357 Meuro. In these circumstances, the recent public health tax applied in Madrid is clearly correct and sensible with a fair pricing policy on car use

  1. Bicyclists' Uptake of Traffic-Related Air Pollution: Effects of the Urban Transportation System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-27

    While bicyclists and other active travelers obtain health benefits from increased physical activity, they also risk uptake of traffic-related air pollution. But pollution uptake by urban bicyclists is not well understood due to a lack of direct measu...

  2. Estimation of health damage due to emission of air pollutants by cars: the canyon effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spadaro, J.V. [Ecole des Mines, Centre d' Energetique, Paris, 75 (France); Rabl, A.

    1999-07-01

    Since current epidemiological evidence suggests that air pollution has harmful effects even at typical ambient concentrations and the dispersion is significant over hundreds to thousands of km, the estimation of total health damage involves consideration of local and regional effects. In recent years, several estimates have been published of health damage due to air pollution from cars, in particular by Delucchi et al of UC Davis and by the ExternE Project of the European Commission. To capture the geographic extent of pollutant dispersion, local and regional models have been used in combination. The present paper addresses a potentially significant contribution of the total damage, not yet taken into account in these studies: the increased concentration of pollutants inside urban street canyons. This canyon effect is appreciable only for primary pollutants, the time constants for the formation of secondary pollutants being long compared to the residence time in the canyon. We assumed linearity of incremental health impact with incremental concentration, in view of the lack of epidemiological evidence for no-effect thresholds or significant deviations from linearity at typical ambient concentrations; therefore, only long term average concentrations matter. We use the FLUENT software to model the dispersion inside a street canyon for a wide range of rectangular geometries and wind velocities. Our results suggest that the canyon effect is of marginal significance for total damages, the contribution of the canyon effect being roughly 10 to 20% of the total. The relative importance of the canyon effect is, of course, highly variable with local conditions; it could be much smaller but it is unlikely to add more than 100% to the flat terrain estimate. (Author)

  3. [Time series studies of air pollution by fires and the effects on human health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    do Carmo, Cleber Nascimento; Hacon, Sandra de Souza

    2013-11-01

    Burnoffs (intentional fires for agricultural purposes) and forest fires of large proportions have been observed in various regions of the planet. Exposure to high levels of air pollutants emitted by fires can be responsible for various harmful effects on human health. In this article, the literature on estimating acute effects of air pollution on human health by fires in the regions with the highest number of fires on the planet, using a time series approach is summarized. An attempt was made to identify gaps in knowledge. The study consisted of a narrative review, in which the characteristics of the selected studies were grouped by regions of the planet with a higher incidence of burnoffs: Amazon, America, Australia and Asia. The results revealed a large number of studies in Australia, few studies in the Amazon and great heterogeneity in the results on the significant effects on human health.

  4. Air pollution and respiratory illness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Indra, G. [DIET, Uttamasolapuram, Salem (India)

    2005-07-01

    This presentation provides an overview of air pollution and impacts on public health. It provides a definition of pollution according to the Oxford English dictionary and categorizes the different types of pollution according to air, water, land and noise. It discusses air pollution and its pollutants (gaseous and particulate pollutants) as well as the diameter of the pollutant (dust, smoke, and gas). The paper also illustrates the formation of acid rain and discusses the amount of pollutants in the atmosphere per year. It presents occupational diseases, discusses radio active pollutants, respiratory illnesses as well as pollution prevention and control. The paper concluded that more research is needed to obtain information on ways to reduce the quantity of pollutants being discharged from special processes. 3 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  5. A Study of the Combined Effects of Physical Activity and Air Pollution on Mortality in Elderly Urban Residents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Zorana Jovanovic; de Nazelle, Audrey; Mendez, Michelle A

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Physical activity reduces, whereas exposure to air pollution increases the risk of premature mortality. Physical activity amplifies respiratory uptake and deposition of air pollutants in the lung, which may augment acute harmful effects of air pollution during exercise. OBJECTIVES......: To examine whether benefits of physical activity on mortality are moderated by long-term exposure to high air pollution levels in an urban setting. METHODS: 52,061 subjects (50-65 years) from the Danish Diet, Cancer, and Health cohort, living in Aarhus and Copenhagen reported data on physical activity...... exposure (HR = 0.77; 95% CI: 0.54, 1.11 and HR = 0.81; 95% CI: 0.55, 1.18, p-interaction = 0.09 and 0.02, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: In general, exposure to high levels of traffic-related air pollution did not modify associations indicating beneficial effects of physical activity on mortality. These novel...

  6. Assessment and monitoring of air pollution effects. Possibilities and constraints of international cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panzer, K.F.; Hassan, I.A.; Vellisariou, D.A.

    1996-01-01

    Under the geneva convention on long-range transboundary air pollution, an international cooperative programme on 'Assessment and monitoring of Air effects' had been set-up in 1985. of the 34 signatory states of the convention, 28 participate in the implementation of the programme. The objective is to assess effects of air pollution on forests in europe, using a common survey method in order to assure comparability of survey results. In 1987, 20 countries conducted harmonized forest health surveys based on the assessment of two visible symptoms, loss and/or discoloration of foliage. harmonization of the surveys was quickly achieved because of the simplicity of the methodical approach. The price of rapidly obtaining large-area information on defoliation of forests is, that no distinction can be made in the assessment process between defoliation caused by air pollution and defoliation caused by natural, biotic or a biotic causes. Further improvements of the interpretability of survey results can be expected if additional visible symptoms can be defined for the major species in the different european regions. Possibilities and constraints of incorporating differentiating symptoms into the annual health surveys are discussed. 1 fig., 2 tabs

  7. A joint ERS/ATS policy statement: what constitutes an adverse health effect of air pollution? An analytical framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurston, George D; Kipen, Howard; Annesi-Maesano, Isabella; Balmes, John; Brook, Robert D; Cromar, Kevin; De Matteis, Sara; Forastiere, Francesco; Forsberg, Bertil; Frampton, Mark W; Grigg, Jonathan; Heederik, Dick; Kelly, Frank J; Kuenzli, Nino; Laumbach, Robert; Peters, Annette; Rajagopalan, Sanjay T; Rich, David; Ritz, Beate; Samet, Jonathan M; Sandstrom, Thomas; Sigsgaard, Torben; Sunyer, Jordi; Brunekreef, Bert

    2017-01-01

    The American Thoracic Society has previously published statements on what constitutes an adverse effect on health of air pollution in 1985 and 2000. We set out to update and broaden these past statements that focused primarily on effects on the respiratory system. Since then, many studies have documented effects of air pollution on other organ systems, such as on the cardiovascular and central nervous systems. In addition, many new biomarkers of effects have been developed and applied in air pollution studies.This current report seeks to integrate the latest science into a general framework for interpreting the adversity of the human health effects of air pollution. Rather than trying to provide a catalogue of what is and what is not an adverse effect of air pollution, we propose a set of considerations that can be applied in forming judgments of the adversity of not only currently documented, but also emerging and future effects of air pollution on human health. These considerations are illustrated by the inclusion of examples for different types of health effects of air pollution. Copyright ©ERS 2017.

  8. A joint ERS/ATS policy statement: what constitutes an adverse health effect of air pollution? An analytical framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurston, George D.; Kipen, Howard; Annesi-Maesano, Isabella; Balmes, John; Brook, Robert D.; Cromar, Kevin; De Matteis, Sara; Forastiere, Francesco; Forsberg, Bertil; Frampton, Mark W.; Grigg, Jonathan; Heederik, Dick; Kelly, Frank J.; Kuenzli, Nino; Laumbach, Robert; Peters, Annette; Rajagopalan, Sanjay T.; Rich, David; Ritz, Beate; Samet, Jonathan M.; Sandstrom, Thomas; Sigsgaard, Torben; Sunyer, Jordi; Brunekreef, Bert

    2017-01-01

    The American Thoracic Society has previously published statements on what constitutes an adverse effect on health of air pollution in 1985 and 2000. We set out to update and broaden these past statements that focused primarily on effects on the respiratory system. Since then, many studies have documented effects of air pollution on other organ systems, such as on the cardiovascular and central nervous systems. In addition, many new biomarkers of effects have been developed and applied in air pollution studies. This current report seeks to integrate the latest science into a general framework for interpreting the adversity of the human health effects of air pollution. Rather than trying to provide a catalogue of what is and what is not an adverse effect of air pollution, we propose a set of considerations that can be applied in forming judgments of the adversity of not only currently documented, but also emerging and future effects of air pollution on human health. These considerations are illustrated by the inclusion of examples for different types of health effects of air pollution. PMID:28077473

  9. Beneficial cardiovascular effects of reducing exposure to particulate air pollution with a simple facemask.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langrish, Jeremy P; Mills, Nicholas L; Chan, Julian Kk; Leseman, Daan Lac; Aitken, Robert J; Fokkens, Paul Hb; Cassee, Flemming R; Li, Jing; Donaldson, Ken; Newby, David E; Jiang, Lixin

    2009-03-13

    Exposure to air pollution is an important risk factor for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, and is associated with increased blood pressure, reduced heart rate variability, endothelial dysfunction and myocardial ischaemia. Our objectives were to assess the cardiovascular effects of reducing air pollution exposure by wearing a facemask. In an open-label cross-over randomised controlled trial, 15 healthy volunteers (median age 28 years) walked on a predefined city centre route in Beijing in the presence and absence of a highly efficient facemask. Personal exposure to ambient air pollution and exercise was assessed continuously using portable real-time monitors and global positional system tracking respectively. Cardiovascular effects were assessed by continuous 12-lead electrocardiographic and ambulatory blood pressure monitoring. Ambient exposure (PM2.5 86 +/- 61 vs 140 +/- 113 mug/m3; particle number 2.4 +/- 0.4 vs 2.3 +/- 0.4 x 104 particles/cm3), temperature (29 +/- 1 vs 28 +/- 3 degrees C) and relative humidity (63 +/- 10 vs 64 +/- 19%) were similar (P > 0.05 for all) on both study days. During the 2-hour city walk, systolic blood pressure was lower (114 +/- 10 vs 121 +/- 11 mmHg, P 0.05). Over the 24-hour period heart rate variability increased (SDNN 65.6 +/- 11.5 vs 61.2 +/- 11.4 ms, P pollution on blood pressure and heart rate variability. This simple intervention has the potential to protect susceptible individuals and prevent cardiovascular events in cities with high concentrations of ambient air pollution.

  10. A Comparison of the Health Effects of Ambient Particulate Matter Air Pollution from Five Emission Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil J. Hime

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available This article briefly reviews evidence of health effects associated with exposure to particulate matter (PM air pollution from five common outdoor emission sources: traffic, coal-fired power stations, diesel exhaust, domestic wood combustion heaters, and crustal dust. The principal purpose of this review is to compare the evidence of health effects associated with these different sources with a view to answering the question: Is exposure to PM from some emission sources associated with worse health outcomes than exposure to PM from other sources? Answering this question will help inform development of air pollution regulations and environmental policy that maximises health benefits. Understanding the health effects of exposure to components of PM and source-specific PM are active fields of investigation. However, the different methods that have been used in epidemiological studies, along with the differences in populations, emission sources, and ambient air pollution mixtures between studies, make the comparison of results between studies problematic. While there is some evidence that PM from traffic and coal-fired power station emissions may elicit greater health effects compared to PM from other sources, overall the evidence to date does not indicate a clear ‘hierarchy’ of harmfulness for PM from different emission sources. Further investigations of the health effects of source-specific PM with more advanced approaches to exposure modeling, measurement, and statistics, are required before changing the current public health protection approach of minimising exposure to total PM mass.

  11. Short-term effects of ambient air pollution on emergency room admissions due to cardiovascular causes in Beijing, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, Yuxia; Zhao, Yuxin; Yang, Sixu; Zhou, Jianding; Xin, Jinyuan; Wang, Shigong; Yang, Dandan

    2017-01-01

    Ambient air pollution has been a major global public health issue. A number of studies have shown various adverse effects of ambient air pollution on cardiovascular diseases. In the current study, we investigated the short-term effects of ambient air pollution on emergency room (ER) admissions due to cardiovascular causes in Beijing from 2009 to 2012 using a time-series analysis. A total of 82430 ER cardiovascular admissions were recorded. Different gender (male and female) and age groups (15yrs ≤ age <65 yrs and age ≥ 65 yrs) were also examined by single model and multiple-pollutant model. Three major pollutants (SO 2 , NO 2 and PM 10 ) had lag effects of 0–2 days on cardiovascular ER admissions. The relative risks (95% CI) of per 10 μg/m 3 increase in PM 10 , SO 2 and NO 2 were 1.008 (0.997–1.020), 1.008(0.999–1.018) and 1.014(1.003–1.024), respectively. The effect was more pronounced in age ≥65 and males in Beijing. We also found the stronger acute effects on the elderly and females at lag 0 than on the younger people and males at lag 2. - Highlights: • Significant associations were found between air pollution and emergency admissions of cardiovascular diseases. • Air pollutants had lag effects on age and gender groups. • Stronger effects of air pollutants were observed for age ≥65 yrs and males. • More acute effects of air pollutants were found for age ≥65 yrs and females. - Air pollutants had significant lag effects on different age and gender groups. The effects were more pronounced in age ≥65 and males in Beijing, China.

  12. Problems in interpreting effects of air pollutants on spruce epicuticular waxes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bermadinger-Stabentheiner, E.

    1994-01-01

    Spruce needles are covered with rod-like crystals, which also fill the antechambers of the stomata with a dense meshwork. The scanning electron microscope (SEM) is very useful for studying epicuticular wax structure; with no intricate or laborious preparation, it is possible to obtain valuable information about the needle surface. Because the epicuticular wax layer forms a barrier between the plant and its environment, all influences that reach the surface from outside impact on this layer and, therefore, changes in epicuticular wax structure serve as diagnostic criteria for damage caused by air pollutants. This pollution influence begins as fusion of wax rods at the tips and results finally in total loss of the crystalline structure. Despite the simplicity of SEM investigations, alterations (artefacts) can occur to wax structures that may be confused with alterations caused by air pollutants (i.e., a too dense layer of twigs and needles, or careless handling with tweezers, results in mechanical damage that often influences the entire surface). Overheating occurring during transport or preparation and/or incorrect storage also produce artefacts. If the occurrence of such artefacts is taken into consideration, several contradictory interpretations of effects of air pollutants on epicuticular waxes can be explained. (orig.)

  13. Effect of air pollutants on ciliary activity of respiratory tract

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Omachi, S; Kita, H

    1974-12-01

    The effect of sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, nitric oxide, ozone, and formaldehyde on the ciliary activity of an excised specimen of the trachea of a guinea pig was investigated. The influence of these gases is determined by the Half Reduction Time of the ciliary activity, which is the time lapse from the beginning of the gas exposure at a certain concentration to the point of which the activity is reduced by half. The Half Reduction Time of the ciliary activity by each gas at the concentration of 50 ppM is SO/sub 2/, 4 min; HCHO, 5 min; NO/sub 2/, 10 min; NO, 14 min; and O/sub 3/, 20 min. The influence of the easily water soluble gases such as SO/sub 2/ and HCHO on the ciliary activity is severe compared with the less water soluble ones, NO/sub 2/ and O/sub 3/, which pass over the mucous surface of the upper airway without dissolving to the mucous layer.

  14. Air pollution and incidence of cancers of the stomach and the upper aerodigestive tract in the European Study of Cohorts for Air Pollution Effects (ESCAPE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagel, Gabriele; Stafoggia, Massimo; Pedersen, Marie; Andersen, Zorana J; Galassi, Claudia; Munkenast, Jule; Jaensch, Andrea; Sommar, Johan; Forsberg, Bertil; Olsson, David; Oftedal, Bente; Krog, Norun H; Aamodt, Geir; Pyko, Andrei; Pershagen, Göran; Korek, Michal; De Faire, Ulf; Pedersen, Nancy L; Östenson, Claes-Göran; Fratiglioni, Laura; Sørensen, Mette; Tjønneland, Anne; Peeters, Petra H; Bueno-de-Mesquita, Bas; Vermeulen, Roel; Eeftens, Marloes; Plusquin, Michelle; Key, Timothy J; Concin, Hans; Lang, Alois; Wang, Meng; Tsai, Ming-Yi; Grioni, Sara; Marcon, Alessandro; Krogh, Vittorio; Ricceri, Fulvio; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Ranzi, Andrea; Cesaroni, Giulia; Forastiere, Francesco; Tamayo-Uria, Ibon; Amiano, Pilar; Dorronsoro, Miren; de Hoogh, Kees; Beelen, Rob; Vineis, Paolo; Brunekreef, Bert; Hoek, Gerard; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole; Weinmayr, Gudrun

    2018-04-26

    Air pollution has been classified as carcinogenic to humans. However, to date little is known about the relevance for cancers of the stomach and upper aerodigestive tract (UADT). We investigated the association of long-term exposure to ambient air pollution with incidence of gastric and UADT cancer in 11 European cohorts. Air pollution exposure was assigned by land-use regression models for particulate matter (PM) below 10 µm (PM 10 ), below 2.5 µm (PM 2.5 ), between 2.5 and 10 µm (PM coarse ), PM 2.5 absorbance and nitrogen oxides (NO 2 and NO X ) as well as approximated by traffic indicators. Cox regression models with adjustment for potential confounders were used for cohort-specific analyses. Combined estimates were determined with random effects meta-analyses. During average follow-up of 14.1 years of 305 551 individuals, 744 incident cases of gastric cancer and 933 of UADT cancer occurred. The hazard ratio for an increase of 5 µg/m 3 of PM 2.5 was 1.38 (95%-CI 0.99;1.92) for gastric and 1.05 (95%-CI 0.62;1.77) for UADT cancers. No associations were found for any of the other exposures considered. Adjustment for additional confounders and restriction to study participants with stable addresses did not influence markedly the effect estimate for PM 2.5 and gastric cancer. Higher estimated risks of gastric cancer associated with PM 2.5 was found in men (HR 1.98 (1.30;3.01)) as compared to women (HR 0.85 (0.5;1.45)). This large multicentre cohort study shows an association between long-term exposure to PM 2.5 and gastric cancer, but not UADT cancers, suggesting that air pollution may contribute to gastric cancer risk. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. © 2018 UICC.

  15. The Federal Air Pollution Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Air Pollution Control Administration (DHEW), Washington, DC.

    Described is the Federal air pollution program as it was in 1967. The booklet is divided into these major topics: History of the Federal Program; Research; Assistance to State and Local Governments; Abatement and Prevention of Air Pollution; Control of Motor Vehicle Pollution; Information and Education; and Conclusion. Federal legislation has…

  16. Air pollution and incidence of cancers of the stomach and the upper aerodigestive tract in the European Study of Cohorts for Air Pollution Effects (ESCAPE).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nagel, Gabriele; Stafoggia, Massimo; Pedersen, Marie; Andersen, Zorana J; Galassi, Claudia; Munkenast, Jule; Jaensch, Andrea; Sommar, Johan; Forsberg, Bertil; Olsson, David; Oftedal, Bente; Krog, Norun H; Aamodt, Geir; Pyko, Andrei; Pershagen, Göran; Korek, Michal; De Faire, Ulf; Pedersen, Nancy L; Östenson, Claes-Göran; Fratiglioni, Laura; Sørensen, Mette; Tjønneland, Anne; Peeters, Petra H; Bueno-de-Mesquita, Bas; Vermeulen, Roel; Eeftens, Marloes; Plusquin, Michelle; Key, Timothy J; Concin, Hans; Lang, Alois; Wang, Meng; Tsai, Ming-Yi; Grioni, Sara; Marcon, Alessandro; Krogh, Vittorio; Ricceri, Fulvio; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Ranzi, Andrea; Cesaroni, Giulia; Forastiere, Francesco; Tamayo-Uria, Ibon; Amiano, Pilar; Dorronsoro, Miren; de Hoogh, Kees; Beelen, Rob; Vineis, Paolo; Brunekreef, Bert; Hoek, Gerard; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole; Weinmayr, Gudrun

    2018-01-01

    Air pollution has been classified as carcinogenic to humans. However, to date little is known about the relevance for cancers of the stomach and upper aerodigestive tract (UADT). We investigated the association of long-term exposure to ambient air pollution with incidence of gastric and UADT cancer

  17. Effects of decarbonising international shipping and aviation on climate mitigation and air pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dessens, Olivier; Anger, Annela; Barker, Terry; Pyle, John

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A global emissions trading scheme is applied to international aviation and shipping. • We couple an energy–environment–economy model with an atmospheric model. • 65% reduction on CO 2 emissions in 2050 reduces other pollutants emissions. • Climate effects are reduced and air quality is improved by the scheme. - Abstract: This paper assesses the effects of a global emissions trading scheme (GETS) for international aviation and shipping as a way of reducing emissions of both greenhouse gases (GHG) and other atmospheric emissions that lead to air pollution. A prior assessment of such integration requires the coupling of energy–environment–economy (E3) global modelling of mitigation policies with the atmospheric modelling of pollution sources, mixing and deposition. We report the methodology and results of coupling of the E3MG model and the global atmospheric model, p-TOMCAT. We assess the effects of GETS on the concentrations of atmospheric gases and on the radiative forcing, comparing a GETS scenario to a reference BASE scenario with higher use of fossil fuels. The paper assesses the outcome of GETS for atmospheric composition and radiative forcing for 2050. GETS on international shipping and aviation reduces their CO 2 and non-CO 2 emissions up to 65%. As a consequence atmospheric concentrations are modified and the radiative forcing due to international transport is reduced by different amounts as a function of the pollutant studied (15% for CO 2 , 35% for methane and up to 50% for ozone)

  18. Air pollution problem in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heimann, H

    1964-10-01

    Air pollution in the United States as a problem affecting health, as well as man's enjoyment of his property, was first noted in 1912 in the reports of the investigators at the Mellon Institute of the University of Pittsburgh. The Selby copper smelter incident in 1915 was among the first episodic air pollution events documented. The US Public Health Service studied carbon monoxide buildup in vehicular tunnels in 1928 and 1929. the Donora (Pennsylvania) pollution episode, where 17 people died, occurred in 1949. It and the onset of smog conditions in the Los Angeles area really initiated broad public awareness of air pollution as a public health hazard in the USA. The symptoms of air pollution-related injuries are discussed, the role of the US Public Health Service in dealing with air pollution, and the effect of the Clean Air Act of 1963 are discussed. 26 references.

  19. Effectiveness of multi-stage scrubbers in reducing emissions of air pollutants from pig houses

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Y.; Aarnink, A.J.A.; Jong, de, M.C.M.; Ogink, N.W.M.; Groot Koerkamp, P.W.G.

    2011-01-01

    Emissions of air pollutants from livestock houses may raise environmental problems and pose hazards to public health. They can be reduced by scrubbers installed at the air outlets of livestock houses. In this study, three multi-stage scrubbers were evaluated in terms of their effectiveness in reducing emissions of airborne dust, total bacteria, ammonia, and CO2 from pig houses in winter. The three multi-stage scrubbers were one double-stage scrubber (acid stage+ bio-filter), one double-stage ...

  20. A Narrative Review on the Human Health Effects of Ambient Air Pollution in Sub-Saharan Africa: An Urgent Need for Health Effects Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coker, Eric; Kizito, Samuel

    2018-01-01

    An important aspect of the new sustainable development goals (SDGs) is a greater emphasis on reducing the health impacts from ambient air pollution in developing countries. Meanwhile, the burden of human disease attributable to ambient air pollution in sub-Saharan Africa is growing, yet estimates of its impact on the region are possibly underestimated due to a lack of air quality monitoring, a paucity of air pollution epidemiological studies, and important population vulnerabilities in the region. The lack of ambient air pollution epidemiologic data in sub-Saharan Africa is also an important global health disparity. Thousands of air pollution health effects studies have been conducted in Europe and North America, rather than in urban areas that have some of the highest measured air pollution levels in world, including urban areas in sub-Saharan Africa. In this paper, we provide a systematic and narrative review of the literature on ambient air pollution epidemiological studies that have been conducted in the region to date. Our review of the literature focuses on epidemiologic studies that measure air pollutants and relate air pollution measurements with various health outcomes. We highlight the gaps in ambient air pollution epidemiological studies conducted in different sub-regions of sub-Saharan Africa and provide methodological recommendations for future environmental epidemiology studies addressing ambient air pollution in the region. PMID:29494501

  1. A Narrative Review on the Human Health Effects of Ambient Air Pollution in Sub-Saharan Africa: An Urgent Need for Health Effects Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coker, Eric; Kizito, Samuel

    2018-03-01

    An important aspect of the new sustainable development goals (SDGs) is a greater emphasis on reducing the health impacts from ambient air pollution in developing countries. Meanwhile, the burden of human disease attributable to ambient air pollution in sub-Saharan Africa is growing, yet estimates of its impact on the region are possibly underestimated due to a lack of air quality monitoring, a paucity of air pollution epidemiological studies, and important population vulnerabilities in the region. The lack of ambient air pollution epidemiologic data in sub-Saharan Africa is also an important global health disparity. Thousands of air pollution health effects studies have been conducted in Europe and North America, rather than in urban areas that have some of the highest measured air pollution levels in world, including urban areas in sub-Saharan Africa. In this paper, we provide a systematic and narrative review of the literature on ambient air pollution epidemiological studies that have been conducted in the region to date. Our review of the literature focuses on epidemiologic studies that measure air pollutants and relate air pollution measurements with various health outcomes. We highlight the gaps in ambient air pollution epidemiological studies conducted in different sub-regions of sub-Saharan Africa and provide methodological recommendations for future environmental epidemiology studies addressing ambient air pollution in the region.

  2. A Narrative Review on the Human Health Effects of Ambient Air Pollution in Sub-Saharan Africa: An Urgent Need for Health Effects Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Coker

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available An important aspect of the new sustainable development goals (SDGs is a greater emphasis on reducing the health impacts from ambient air pollution in developing countries. Meanwhile, the burden of human disease attributable to ambient air pollution in sub-Saharan Africa is growing, yet estimates of its impact on the region are possibly underestimated due to a lack of air quality monitoring, a paucity of air pollution epidemiological studies, and important population vulnerabilities in the region. The lack of ambient air pollution epidemiologic data in sub-Saharan Africa is also an important global health disparity. Thousands of air pollution health effects studies have been conducted in Europe and North America, rather than in urban areas that have some of the highest measured air pollution levels in world, including urban areas in sub-Saharan Africa. In this paper, we provide a systematic and narrative review of the literature on ambient air pollution epidemiological studies that have been conducted in the region to date. Our review of the literature focuses on epidemiologic studies that measure air pollutants and relate air pollution measurements with various health outcomes. We highlight the gaps in ambient air pollution epidemiological studies conducted in different sub-regions of sub-Saharan Africa and provide methodological recommendations for future environmental epidemiology studies addressing ambient air pollution in the region.

  3. The effect of indoor air pollutants on otitis media and asthma in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daigler, G.E.; Markello, S.J.; Cummings, K.M. (State Univ. of New York, Buffalo (USA))

    1991-03-01

    This case-control study investigated the possible association between home environmental air pollutants and their effect on otitis media and asthma in children. Patients with physician-diagnosed otitis (n = 125, 74% response), with asthma (n = 137, 80% response), and controls (n = 237, 72% response) from a private pediatric practice seen between October 1986 and May 1987 were studied. A questionnaire inquired about housing characteristics (i.e., age, insulation, heating system) and sources of indoor air pollution such as cigarette smoking, use of woodburning stoves, household pets, etc. Analysis of the responses confirmed previous findings of significant relationships between maternal smoking (P = .021), and the presence of pets (P = .034) and the occurrence of asthma. A newly reported relationship between exposure to woodburning stoves and the occurrence of otitis (P less than .05) was reported. This implicates yet another risk factor (wood burning) in the etiology of otitis media.

  4. Air Pollution in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-09-01

    In spite of improvements relative to air pollution, there is still much to do. more than thirty millions of European people are exposed to sulfur dioxide concentrations superior to guide values for health fixed by European Union, 20% of ecosystems in Europe are above the critical charges in the area of acidification and 33% concern eutrophication. Relative to the carbon dioxide, it is not sure that European Union realize the objective to stabilize the emissions for the year 2000 at the level of the year 1990, because of the increasing of automobile traffic and the energy consumption. Four subjects are presented: the climatic change, acidification and eutrophication, tropospheric ozone and air quality. (N.C.)

  5. The regulation of hazardous air pollutants under the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990: Effects on the Portland cement industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikols, E.H.; Gill, A.S.; Dougherty, A.

    1996-01-01

    Title III of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) addresses the control of hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) from major sources of air pollution in the US. In the CAAA, Congress defined 189 compounds as hazardous air pollutants in need of additional control by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Congress directed EPA to identify the major source categories which emit HAPs and to prepare regulations that would reduce and control future HAP emissions. This paper outlines the activities undertaken by EPA to regulate HAP emissions from Portland cement plants and the program developed by the Portland cement manufacturing industry to cope with Title III

  6. Air Pollution, Causes and Cures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manufacturing Chemists Association, Washington, DC.

    This commentary on sources of air pollution and air purification treatments is accompanied by graphic illustrations. Sources of carbon monoxide, sulfur oxides, nitrogen oxides, and hydrocarbons found in the air are discussed. Methods of removing these pollutants at their source are presented with cut-away diagrams of the facilities and technical…

  7. Primary and oxidative DNA damage in salivary leukocytes as a tool for the evaluation of air pollution early biological effects in children: current status of the MAPEC (Monitoring Air Pollution Effects on Children for supporting public health policy study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuele Vannini

    2015-05-01

    Conclusions - The main objective of the MAPEC study is to evaluate the associations in children between air pollutants and early biological effects, and to propose a model for estimating the global genotoxic risk.

  8. Estimation of air quality by air pollution indices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liblik, Valdo; Kundel, Helmut

    1999-01-01

    A novel system for estimating the quality of atmospheric air in the over-ground air layer with the help of air pollution indices was developed. The method is based on a comparison of measured or calculated maximum short-term concentrations and average annual concentrations of pollutants with maximum permissible concentrations (with regard to human beings and vegetation). Special air quality estimation scales for residential areas and natural systems are presented. On the basis of the concentration of the substance under study zones of very high, high, rather high, moderate, low and very low air pollution were distinguished in the over-ground layer of the atmosphere. These are projected to land surface for landscape zonation. The application of the system of indices is demonstrated in the analysis of air quality for the towns of Kohtla-Jarve, Johvi and Kivioli (in 1997-1998). A comparative analysis of the air pollution zones distinguished on the basis of emissions and data from bio monitoring yielded satisfactory results. The system of air pollution indices developed enables to process the results of air monitoring in case of pollution fields of complicated composition so that the result for estimating the quality of ambient air in a residential area is easily understood by inhabitants and interpretable with the help of a special scale; analyse temporal changes in the quality of the air in towns, villages and other residential areas and use the results as basis for developing measures for reducing the pollution of ambient air; carry out zonation of large territories on the basis of air pollution levels (spatial air pollution zones are projected on the ground surface) and estimate air quality in places where air monitoring is lacking to forecast the possible effect of air pollution on natural systems (author)

  9. Air pollution and human health

    CERN Document Server

    Lave, Lester B

    2013-01-01

    Upon competition of a ten year research project which analyzes the effect of air pollution and death rates in US cities, Lester B. Lave and Eugene P. Seskin conclude that the mortality rate in the US could shrink by seven percent with a similar if not greater decline in disease incidence if industries followed EPA regulations in cutting back on certain pollutant emissions. The authors claim that this reduction is sufficient to add one year to average life expectancy. Originally published in 1977.

  10. Fish oil and olive oil supplements attenuate the adverse cardiovascular effects of concentrated ambient air pollution particles exposure in healthy middle-aged adult human volunteers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exposure to ambient levels of air pollution increases cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Advanced age is among the factors associated with susceptibility to the adverse effects of air pollution. Dietary fatty acid supplementation has been shown to decrease cardiovascular ris...

  11. Omega-3 Fatty Acid Supplementation Appears to Attenuate Particulate Air Pollution-induced Cardiac Effects and Lipid Changes in Healthy Middle-aged Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Context: Air pollution exposure has been associated with adverse cardiovascular effects. A recent epidemiologic study reported that omega-3 fatty acid (fish oil) supplementation blunted the cardiac responses to air pollution exposure. Objective: To evaluate in a randomized contro...

  12. Air pollution and motor vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruzzi, L.

    1992-01-01

    An analysis is made of the effects of fuel chemical composition and fuel-air mixture on the composition of combustion exhaust gases produced by automotive spark ignition and diesel engines. This analysis considers several aspects: the merits of unleaded gasolines, Italian legal limits on the concentration of aromatic hydrocarbons in gasoline, limits on the sulfur content of diesel fuels, and proposed European Communities limits on automobile air pollution. The paper concludes with an assessment of the cost effective performance of different types of catalytic converters now available on the market

  13. The Cardiopulmonary Effects of Ambient Air Pollution and Mechanistic Pathways: A Comparative Hierarchical Pathway Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Duncan C.; Zhang, Junfeng; Kipen, Howard M.; Rich, David Q.; Zhu, Tong; Huang, Wei; Hu, Min; Wang, Guangfa; Wang, Yuedan; Zhu, Ping; Lu, Shou-En; Ohman-Strickland, Pamela; Diehl, Scott R.; Eckel, Sandrah P.

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies have investigated the associations between exposure to ambient air pollution and biomarkers of physiological pathways, yet little has been done on the comparison across biomarkers of different pathways to establish the temporal pattern of biological response. In the current study, we aim to compare the relative temporal patterns in responses of candidate pathways to different pollutants. Four biomarkers of pulmonary inflammation and oxidative stress, five biomarkers of systemic inflammation and oxidative stress, ten parameters of autonomic function, and three biomarkers of hemostasis were repeatedly measured in 125 young adults, along with daily concentrations of ambient CO, PM2.5, NO2, SO2, EC, OC, and sulfate, before, during, and after the Beijing Olympics. We used a two-stage modeling approach, including Stage I models to estimate the association between each biomarker and pollutant over each of 7 lags, and Stage II mixed-effect models to describe temporal patterns in the associations when grouping the biomarkers into the four physiological pathways. Our results show that candidate pathway groupings of biomarkers explained a significant amount of variation in the associations for each pollutant, and the temporal patterns of the biomarker-pollutant-lag associations varied across candidate pathways (p<0.0001) and were not linear (from lag 0 to lag 3: p = 0.0629, from lag 3 to lag 6: p = 0.0005). These findings suggest that, among this healthy young adult population, the pulmonary inflammation and oxidative stress pathway is the first to respond to ambient air pollution exposure (within 24 hours) and the hemostasis pathway responds gradually over a 2–3 day period. The initial pulmonary response may contribute to the more gradual systemic changes that likely ultimately involve the cardiovascular system. PMID:25502951

  14. The cardiopulmonary effects of ambient air pollution and mechanistic pathways: a comparative hierarchical pathway analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ananya Roy

    Full Text Available Previous studies have investigated the associations between exposure to ambient air pollution and biomarkers of physiological pathways, yet little has been done on the comparison across biomarkers of different pathways to establish the temporal pattern of biological response. In the current study, we aim to compare the relative temporal patterns in responses of candidate pathways to different pollutants. Four biomarkers of pulmonary inflammation and oxidative stress, five biomarkers of systemic inflammation and oxidative stress, ten parameters of autonomic function, and three biomarkers of hemostasis were repeatedly measured in 125 young adults, along with daily concentrations of ambient CO, PM2.5, NO2, SO2, EC, OC, and sulfate, before, during, and after the Beijing Olympics. We used a two-stage modeling approach, including Stage I models to estimate the association between each biomarker and pollutant over each of 7 lags, and Stage II mixed-effect models to describe temporal patterns in the associations when grouping the biomarkers into the four physiological pathways. Our results show that candidate pathway groupings of biomarkers explained a significant amount of variation in the associations for each pollutant, and the temporal patterns of the biomarker-pollutant-lag associations varied across candidate pathways (p<0.0001 and were not linear (from lag 0 to lag 3: p = 0.0629, from lag 3 to lag 6: p = 0.0005. These findings suggest that, among this healthy young adult population, the pulmonary inflammation and oxidative stress pathway is the first to respond to ambient air pollution exposure (within 24 hours and the hemostasis pathway responds gradually over a 2-3 day period. The initial pulmonary response may contribute to the more gradual systemic changes that likely ultimately involve the cardiovascular system.

  15. A Survey on the effective role of nuclear power plants in decreasing air pollution and its relevant hazards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammadi, A.

    2008-01-01

    Nowadays air pollution, consequent reduction of Ozone layer's thickness and increase of UV radiations are included as the hazardous phenomenon, which confronts mankind with fundamental challenges. Increase of population, use of high living standards together with the consumption of fossil fuels for generations of electrical energy have increases air pollution at the global. scale. According to the carried out studies carried out in the three latest decades, alteration of atmospheric gases such as Ozone, dioxide azoth, dioxide sulphur, dioxide carbon, Methane, monoxide carbon and hydrocarbons have caused the appearance of water and air new forms of pollutions all over the world the harmful side effects resulted from air pollution on the respiratory systems and other cordial and blood vessels are well documented. Due to the air and water uncommon pollutions resulted from fossil fuels consumptions, use of nuclear power plants as a safe option can prevent several pollutants such as gases, poisoning metals and suspended elements or downpour of acidic rains in environment. In this article, it is tried difficulties and hazardous results of air pollution and resulted from consumption of fossil fuels, and discusses the effective role of nuclear energy studies in reduction of such pollutions

  16. Chronic effects of air pollution on respiratory health in Southern California children: findings from the Southern California Children's Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhanghua; Salam, Muhammad T; Eckel, Sandrah P; Breton, Carrie V; Gilliland, Frank D

    2015-01-01

    Outdoor air pollution is one of the leading contributors to adverse respiratory health outcomes in urban areas around the world. Children are highly sensitive to the adverse effects of air pollution due to their rapidly growing lungs, incomplete immune and metabolic functions, patterns of ventilation and high levels of outdoor activity. The Children's Health Study (CHS) is a continuing series of longitudinal studies that first began in 1993 and has focused on demonstrating the chronic impacts of air pollution on respiratory illnesses from early childhood through adolescence. A large body of evidence from the CHS has documented that exposures to both regional ambient air and traffic-related pollutants are associated with increased asthma prevalence, new-onset asthma, risk of bronchitis and wheezing, deficits of lung function growth, and airway inflammation. These associations may be modulated by key genes involved in oxidative-nitrosative stress pathways via gene-environment interactions. Despite successful efforts to reduce pollution over the past 40 years, air pollution at the current levels still brings many challenges to public health. To further ameliorate adverse health effects attributable to air pollution, many more toxic pollutants may require regulation and control of motor vehicle emissions and other combustion sources may need to be strengthened. Individual interventions based on personal susceptibility may be needed to protect children's health while control measures are being implemented.

  17. Air pollution and heart rate variability: effect modification by chronic lead exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sung Kyun; O'Neill, Marie S; Vokonas, Pantel S; Sparrow, David; Wright, Robert O; Coull, Brent; Nie, Huiling; Hu, Howard; Schwartz, Joel

    2008-01-01

    Outdoor air pollution and lead exposure can disturb cardiac autonomic function, but the effects of both these exposures together have not been studied. We examined whether higher cumulative lead exposures, as measured by bone lead, modified cross-sectional associations between air pollution and heart rate variability among 384 elderly men from the Normative Aging Study. We used linear regression, controlling for clinical, demographic, and environmental covariates. We found graded, significant reductions in both high-frequency and low-frequency powers of heart rate variability in relation to ozone and sulfate across the quartiles of tibia lead. Interquartile range increases in ozone and sulfate were associated respectively, with 38% decrease (95% confidence interval = -54.6% to -14.9%) and 22% decrease (-40.4% to 1.6%) in high frequency, and 38% decrease (-51.9% to -20.4%) and 12% decrease (-28.6% to 9.3%) in low frequency, in the highest quartile of tibia lead after controlling for potential confounders. We observed similar but weaker effect modification by tibia lead adjusted for education and cumulative traffic (residuals of the regression of tibia lead on education and cumulative traffic). Patella lead modified only the ozone effect on heart rate variability. People with long-term exposure to higher levels of lead may be more sensitive to cardiac autonomic dysfunction on high air pollution days. Efforts to understand how environmental exposures affect the health of an aging population should consider both current levels of pollution and history of lead exposure as susceptibility factors.

  18. The economic cost of air pollution in Mangaung metro municipality ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    uvp

    Our results demonstrate the economic impact of air pollution which will provide information that could be used to ... health effects of air pollution in developing countries was used as a basis to design ... Standards for Ambient Air Quality, 2010).

  19. Hypoxia Stress Test Reveals Exaggerated Cardiovascular Effects in Hypertensive Rats after Exposure to the Air Pollutant Acrolein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exposure to air pollution increases the risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, especially in susceptible populations with cardiovascular disease. Stress tests are useful in assessing cardiovascular risk and manifesting latent effects of exposure. The goal of this study w...

  20. Health effects from air pollution - calculation prices; Sundhedseffekter af luftforurening - beregningspriser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skou Andersen, Mikael; Seested Nielsen, Jytte; Borgen Soerensen, Peter [DMU, Afdeling for Systemanalyse, Roskilde (Denmark); Frohn, Lise Marie; Solvang Jensen, Steen; Hertel, Ole; Brandt, Joergen; Christensen, Jesper [DMU, Afdeling for Atmosfaerisk Miljoe, Roskilde (Denmark)

    2004-10-01

    The basic aim of research focusing on the accounting of external effects is to provide estimates for the possible benefits of environmental policy projects. There is a demand within the field of environmental economic analysis for evaluations and estimates of the economic benefits arising from pollution reductions. Where benefits arising out of reduced emissions of harmful substances are concerned, these can be estimated according to the avoided damage costs associated with negative pollution impacts. A scientifically based method designed for this purpose has been developed in the pan-European ExternE project via the EU research programmes. The ExternE project has been implemented with the aim of estimating monetary values for externalities attached to air pollution accruing from energy production and transport. For this purpose, complex model-based environmental impact estimations have been coupled with corresponding monetary valuations via the modelling tool, Ecosense. A problem arising in relation to Ecosense methodology has been that externalities are often of local nature - pollution impact depending on the particular locality of the emission and dispersal characteristics in the surrounding environment. Therefore, the economic estimation of the impacts of pollution is based on a location-specific modelling system. (BA)

  1. Air pollution and detrimental effects on children's brain. The need for a multidisciplinary approach to the issue complexity and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderón-Garcidueñas, Lilian; Torres-Jardón, Ricardo; Kulesza, Randy J; Park, Su-Bin; D'Angiulli, Amedeo

    2014-01-01

    Millions of children in polluted cities are showing brain detrimental effects. Urban children exhibit brain structural and volumetric abnormalities, systemic inflammation, olfactory, auditory, vestibular and cognitive deficits v low-pollution controls. Neuroinflammation and blood-brain-barrier (BBB) breakdown target the olfactory bulb, prefrontal cortex and brainstem, but are diffusely present throughout the brain. Urban adolescent Apolipoprotein E4 carriers significantly accelerate Alzheimer pathology. Neurocognitive effects of air pollution are substantial, apparent across all populations, and potentially clinically relevant as early evidence of evolving neurodegenerative changes. The diffuse nature of the neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration forces to employ a weight of evidence approach incorporating current clinical, cognitive, neurophysiological, radiological and epidemiological research. Pediatric air pollution research requires extensive multidisciplinary collaborations to accomplish a critical goal: to protect exposed children through multidimensional interventions having both broad impact and reach. Protecting children and teens from neural effects of air pollution should be of pressing importance for public health.

  2. Studies on the local evaluation of the effects of air pollution by biological index, interim report I. On the evaluation of air pollution by remote sensing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1973-12-01

    The amount of arboreal activity locally affected by air pollution and numerical data obtained by transformation of aerial photography of local arboreal activity were compared to determine a biological air pollution index. The remote sensing technique used in Japan is described. The investigation was carried out in Sept. 1973 and Oct. 1972 in 16 districts of Kanagawa prefecture on three evergreen trees and three deciduous trees easily affected by air pollution. A noticeable correlation occurred between arboreal activity of zelkova, ginkgo, castanopsis, and mixed flora and the photographic density and their ratios.

  3. The Interaction Effects of Meteorological Factors and Air Pollution on the Development of Acute Coronary Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ching-Hui; Lin, Heng-Cheng; Tsai, Chen-Dao; Huang, Hung-Kai; Lian, Ie-Bin; Chang, Chia-Chu

    2017-03-09

    This study investigated the interaction effects of meteorological factors and air pollutants on the onset of acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Data of ACS patients were obtained from the Taiwan ACS Full Spectrum Registry and comprised 3164 patients with a definite onset date during the period October 2008 and January 2010 at 39 hospitals. Meteorological conditions and air pollutant concentrations at the 39 locations during the 488-day period were obtained. Time-lag Poisson and logistic regression were used to explore their association with ACS incidence. One-day lag atmospheric pressure (AP), humidity, particulate matter (PM 2.5 , and PM 10 ), and carbon monoxide (CO) all had significant interaction effects with temperature on ACS occurrence. Days on which high temperatures (>26 °C) and low AP (Typhoon Morakot was an example of high temperature with extremely low AP associated with higher ACS incidence than the daily average. Combinations of high concentrations of PM or CO with low temperatures (<21 °C) and high humidity levels with low temperatures were also associated with increased incidence of ACS. Atmospheric pollution and weather factors have synergistic effects on the incidence of ACS.

  4. The Interaction Effects of Meteorological Factors and Air Pollution on the Development of Acute Coronary Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ching-Hui; Lin, Heng-Cheng; Tsai, Chen-Dao; Huang, Hung-Kai; Lian, Ie-Bin; Chang, Chia-Chu

    2017-03-01

    This study investigated the interaction effects of meteorological factors and air pollutants on the onset of acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Data of ACS patients were obtained from the Taiwan ACS Full Spectrum Registry and comprised 3164 patients with a definite onset date during the period October 2008 and January 2010 at 39 hospitals. Meteorological conditions and air pollutant concentrations at the 39 locations during the 488-day period were obtained. Time-lag Poisson and logistic regression were used to explore their association with ACS incidence. One-day lag atmospheric pressure (AP), humidity, particulate matter (PM2.5, and PM10), and carbon monoxide (CO) all had significant interaction effects with temperature on ACS occurrence. Days on which high temperatures (>26 °C) and low AP (<1009 hPa) occurred the previous day were associated with a greater likelihood of increased incidence of developing ACS. Typhoon Morakot was an example of high temperature with extremely low AP associated with higher ACS incidence than the daily average. Combinations of high concentrations of PM or CO with low temperatures (<21 °C) and high humidity levels with low temperatures were also associated with increased incidence of ACS. Atmospheric pollution and weather factors have synergistic effects on the incidence of ACS.

  5. Effects of air pollution on human health and practical measures for prevention in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghorani-Azam, Adel; Riahi-Zanjani, Bamdad; Balali-Mood, Mahdi

    2016-01-01

    Air pollution is a major concern of new civilized world, which has a serious toxicological impact on human health and the environment. It has a number of different emission sources, but motor vehicles and industrial processes contribute the major part of air pollution. According to the World Health Organization, six major air pollutants include particle pollution, ground-level ozone, carbon monoxide, sulfur oxides, nitrogen oxides, and lead. Long and short term exposure to air suspended toxicants has a different toxicological impact on human including respiratory and cardiovascular diseases, neuropsychiatric complications, the eyes irritation, skin diseases, and long-term chronic diseases such as cancer. Several reports have revealed the direct association between exposure to the poor air quality and increasing rate of morbidity and mortality mostly due to cardiovascular and respiratory diseases. Air pollution is considered as the major environmental risk factor in the incidence and progression of some diseases such as asthma, lung cancer, ventricular hypertrophy, Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases, psychological complications, autism, retinopathy, fetal growth, and low birth weight. In this review article, we aimed to discuss toxicology of major air pollutants, sources of emission, and their impact on human health. We have also proposed practical measures to reduce air pollution in Iran.

  6. Effects of air pollution on human health and practical measures for prevention in Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghorani-Azam, Adel; Riahi-Zanjani, Bamdad; Balali-Mood, Mahdi

    2016-01-01

    Air pollution is a major concern of new civilized world, which has a serious toxicological impact on human health and the environment. It has a number of different emission sources, but motor vehicles and industrial processes contribute the major part of air pollution. According to the World Health Organization, six major air pollutants include particle pollution, ground-level ozone, carbon monoxide, sulfur oxides, nitrogen oxides, and lead. Long and short term exposure to air suspended toxicants has a different toxicological impact on human including respiratory and cardiovascular diseases, neuropsychiatric complications, the eyes irritation, skin diseases, and long-term chronic diseases such as cancer. Several reports have revealed the direct association between exposure to the poor air quality and increasing rate of morbidity and mortality mostly due to cardiovascular and respiratory diseases. Air pollution is considered as the major environmental risk factor in the incidence and progression of some diseases such as asthma, lung cancer, ventricular hypertrophy, Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases, psychological complications, autism, retinopathy, fetal growth, and low birth weight. In this review article, we aimed to discuss toxicology of major air pollutants, sources of emission, and their impact on human health. We have also proposed practical measures to reduce air pollution in Iran. PMID:27904610

  7. Effects of air pollution on human health and practical measures for prevention in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adel Ghorani-Azam

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Air pollution is a major concern of new civilized world, which has a serious toxicological impact on human health and the environment. It has a number of different emission sources, but motor vehicles and industrial processes contribute the major part of air pollution. According to the World Health Organization, six major air pollutants include particle pollution, ground-level ozone, carbon monoxide, sulfur oxides, nitrogen oxides, and lead. Long and short term exposure to air suspended toxicants has a different toxicological impact on human including respiratory and cardiovascular diseases, neuropsychiatric complications, the eyes irritation, skin diseases, and long-term chronic diseases such as cancer. Several reports have revealed the direct association between exposure to the poor air quality and increasing rate of morbidity and mortality mostly due to cardiovascular and respiratory diseases. Air pollution is considered as the major environmental risk factor in the incidence and progression of some diseases such as asthma, lung cancer, ventricular hypertrophy, Alzheimer′s and Parkinson′s diseases, psychological complications, autism, retinopathy, fetal growth, and low birth weight. In this review article, we aimed to discuss toxicology of major air pollutants, sources of emission, and their impact on human health. We have also proposed practical measures to reduce air pollution in Iran.

  8. Potential impact of climate change on air pollution-related human health effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tagaris, Efthimios; Liao, Kuo-Jen; Delucia, Anthony J; Deck, Leland; Amar, Praveen; Russell, Armistead G

    2009-07-01

    The potential health impact of ambient ozone and PM2.5 concentrations modulated by climate change over the United States is investigated using combined atmospheric and health modeling. Regional air quality modeling for 2001 and 2050 was conducted using CMAQ Modeling System with meteorology from the GISS Global Climate Model, downscaled regionally using MM5,keeping boundary conditions of air pollutants, emission sources, population, activity levels, and pollution controls constant. BenMap was employed to estimate the air pollution health outcomes at the county, state, and national level for 2050 caused by the effect of meteorology on future ozone and PM2.5 concentrations. The changes in calculated annual mean PM2.5 concentrations show a relatively modest change with positive and negative responses (increasing PM2.5 levels across the northeastern U.S.) although average ozone levels slightly decrease across the northern sections of the U.S., and increase across the southern tier. Results suggest that climate change driven air quality-related health effects will be adversely affected in more then 2/3 of the continental U.S. Changes in health effects induced by PM2.5 dominate compared to those caused by ozone. PM2.5-induced premature mortality is about 15 times higher then that due to ozone. Nationally the analysis suggests approximately 4000 additional annual premature deaths due to climate change impacts on PM2.5 vs 300 due to climate change-induced ozone changes. However, the impacts vary spatially. Increased premature mortality due to elevated ozone concentrations will be offset by lower mortality from reductions in PM2.5 in 11 states. Uncertainties related to different emissions projections used to simulate future climate, and the uncertainties forecasting the meteorology, are large although there are potentially important unaddressed uncertainties (e.g., downscaling, speciation, interaction, exposure, and concentration-response function of the human health studies).

  9. Modification of the effect of ambient air pollution on pediatric asthma emergency visits: susceptible subpopulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strickland, Matthew J; Klein, Mitchel; Flanders, W Dana; Chang, Howard H; Mulholland, James A; Tolbert, Paige E; Darrow, Lyndsey A

    2016-01-01

    Background Children may have differing susceptibility to ambient air pollution concentrations depending on various background characteristics of the children. Methods Using emergency department (ED) data linked with birth records from Atlanta, Georgia, we identified ED visits for asthma or wheeze among children aged 2–16 years from 1 January 2002 through 30 June 2010 (n=109,758). We stratified by preterm delivery, term low birth weight, maternal race, Medicaid status, maternal education, maternal smoking, delivery method, and history of a bronchiolitis ED visit. Population-weighted daily average concentrations were calculated for 1-hour maximum carbon monoxide and nitrogen dioxide; 8-hour maximum ozone; and 24-hour average particulate matter less than 10 microns in diameter, particulate matter less than 2.5 microns in diameter (PM2.5), and the PM2.5 components sulfate, nitrate, ammonium, elemental carbon, and organic carbon, using measurements from stationary monitors. Poisson time-series models were used to estimate rate ratios for associations between three-day moving average pollutant concentrations and daily ED visit counts and to investigate effect-measure modification by the stratification factors. Results Associations between pollutant concentrations and asthma exacerbations were larger among children born preterm and among children born to African American mothers. Stratification by race and preterm status together suggested that both factors affected susceptibility. The largest estimated effect size (for an interquartile-range increase in pollution) was observed for ozone among preterm births to African American mothers: rate ratio=1.138 (95% confidence interval=1.077–1.203). In contrast, the rate ration for the ozone association among full-term births to mothers of other races was 1.025 (0.970–1.083). Conclusions Results support the hypothesis that children vary in their susceptibility to ambient air pollutants. PMID:25192402

  10. Effect modification of the association between temperature variability and daily cardiovascular mortality by air pollutants in three Chinese cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Kai; Li, Runkui; Wang, Zongshuang; Zhang, Ruiming; Xu, Qun

    2017-11-01

    There is limited evidence showing the mortality effects of temperature variability (TV) on cardiovascular diseases. The joint effects between TV and air pollutants are also less well-established. This study aims to assess the effect modification of TV-cardiovascular mortality by air pollutants in three Chinese cities (Beijing, Nanjing and Chengdu). Data of daily mortality, air pollutants and meteorological factors from 2008 to 2011 was collected from each city. TV was calculated as the standard deviation of daily maximum and minimum temperatures over exposure days. The city-specific effect estimates of TV on cardiovascular mortality were calculated using a quasi-Poisson regression model, adjusting for potential confounders (e.g., seasonality and temperature). An interaction term of TV and a three-level air pollutants stratum indicator was included in the models. Effect modifications by air pollutants were assessed by comparing the estimates of TV's effect between pollutant stratums and calculating the corresponding 95% confidential interval of the differences. Multivariate meta-analysis was conducted to obtain the pooled estimates. The data showed that TV was associated with increased risk of cardiovascular mortality, especially for longer TV exposure days (0-8 days, TV08). This association was still observed after adjusting for air pollutants on current day or the previous two days. Stronger estimates were observed in females, but no significant difference between males and females was detected, indicating the absence of evidence of effect modification by gender. Estimates of TV-cardiovascular mortality varied across two season periods (warm and cool season) and age groups, but the evidence of effect modification by age and seasons was absent. Regarding the effect modification of TV-cardiovascular mortality association by air pollutants, a significant effect modification was identified for PM 10, but not for NO 2 and SO 2 in the whole population for all TV

  11. Temperature-related mortality estimates after accounting for the cumulative effects of air pollution in an urban area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanišić Stojić, Svetlana; Stanišić, Nemanja; Stojić, Andreja

    2016-07-11

    To propose a new method for including the cumulative mid-term effects of air pollution in the traditional Poisson regression model and compare the temperature-related mortality risk estimates, before and after including air pollution data. The analysis comprised a total of 56,920 residents aged 65 years or older who died from circulatory and respiratory diseases in Belgrade, Serbia, and daily mean PM10, NO2, SO2 and soot concentrations obtained for the period 2009-2014. After accounting for the cumulative effects of air pollutants, the risk associated with cold temperatures was significantly lower and the overall temperature-attributable risk decreased from 8.80 to 3.00 %. Furthermore, the optimum range of temperature, within which no excess temperature-related mortality is expected to occur, was very broad, between -5 and 21 °C, which differs from the previous findings that most of the attributable deaths were associated with mild temperatures. These results suggest that, in polluted areas of developing countries, most of the mortality risk, previously attributed to cold temperatures, can be explained by the mid-term effects of air pollution. The results also showed that the estimated relative importance of PM10 was the smallest of four examined pollutant species, and thus, including PM10 data only is clearly not the most effective way to control for the effects of air pollution.

  12. Air pollution and mortality: Effect modification by personal characteristics and specific cause of death in a case-only study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiu, Hong; Tian, Linwei; Ho, Kin-fai; Pun, Vivian C.; Wang, Xiaorong; Yu, Ignatius T.S.

    2015-01-01

    Short-term effects of air pollution on mortality have been well documented in the literature worldwide. Less is known about which subpopulations are more vulnerable to air pollution. We conducted a case-only study in Hong Kong to examine the potential effect modification by personal characteristics and specific causes of death. Individual information of 402,184 deaths of non-external causes and daily mean concentrations of air pollution were collected from 2001 to 2011. For a 10 μg/m 3 increase of pollution concentration, people aged ≥∇65 years (compared with younger ages) had a 0.9–1.8% additional increase in mortality related to PM, NO 2 , and SO 2 . People dying from cardiorespiratory diseases (compared with other non-external causes) had a 1.6–2.3% additional increase in PM and NO 2 related mortality. Other subgroups that were particularly susceptible were females and those economically inactive. Lower socioeconomic status and causes of cardiorespiratory diseases would increase the likelihood of death associated with air pollution. - Highlights: • We conducted a case-only study in Hong Kong to examine the effect modification. • We identified the subpopulations particularly vulnerable to air pollution related death. • Elderly, female and those economically inactive would increase the risk of air pollution. • Specific causes of cardiorespiratory death showed vulnerability to air pollution. - We conducted a case-only study to identify several personal characteristics and specific cardiorespiratory causes that vulnerable to air pollution related mortality

  13. The effects of changes in cadmium and lead air pollution on cancer incidence in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Absalon, Damian; Slesak, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    This article presents the results of research on the effects of air pollution on cancer incidence in children in the region of Silesia (Poland), which has undergone one of the most profound anthropogenic transformations in Europe. The main objective of the research was to specify the impact of changes in cadmium and lead pollution in the years 1990-2005 on the incidence of cancers reported in children. Lead concentration ranged from 0 to 1490 . 10 -9 G m -2 /year, and cadmium concentration ranged from 0 to 33.7 . 10 -9 G m -2 /year. There was no strong significant correlation (max 0.3) between air pollution and incidence rate (IR) in the general population of children in any particular year. Alongside the cartographic presentation of dependences, correlation coefficients between the variables in question were calculated. This made it possible to determine the relationship between the pollution levels and incidence rates in the area. There was a significant reduction in the level of pollution during the investigated period. The study of the relationship between the number of cancers reported and the condition of the natural environment revealed increased sensitivity to toxins in boys (correlation coefficient 0.3). In addition, the spatial distribution of the number of cases reported in boys suggests a correlation with the spatial distribution of the coefficients for the entire group of children included in the study. The yearly average IR of childhood cancer in specific districts ranged from 0 to 61.48/100,000 children under 18 years of age during the 1995-2004 period.

  14. The effects of changes in cadmium and lead air pollution on cancer incidence in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Absalon, Damian; Slesak, Barbara

    2010-09-15

    This article presents the results of research on the effects of air pollution on cancer incidence in children in the region of Silesia (Poland), which has undergone one of the most profound anthropogenic transformations in Europe. The main objective of the research was to specify the impact of changes in cadmium and lead pollution in the years 1990-2005 on the incidence of cancers reported in children. Lead concentration ranged from 0 to 1490 x 10(-9) G m(-2)/year, and cadmium concentration ranged from 0 to 33.7 x 10(-9) G m(-2)/year. There was no strong significant correlation (max 0.3) between air pollution and incidence rate (IR) in the general population of children in any particular year. Alongside the cartographic presentation of dependences, correlation coefficients between the variables in question were calculated. This made it possible to determine the relationship between the pollution levels and incidence rates in the area. There was a significant reduction in the level of pollution during the investigated period. The study of the relationship between the number of cancers reported and the condition of the natural environment revealed increased sensitivity to toxins in boys (correlation coefficient 0.3). In addition, the spatial distribution of the number of cases reported in boys suggests a correlation with the spatial distribution of the coefficients for the entire group of children included in the study. The yearly average IR of childhood cancer in specific districts ranged from 0 to 61.48/100,000 children under 18 years of age during the 1995-2004 period. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Effect of the major components of industrial air pollution on nonsymbiotic nitrogen-fixation activity in soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Islamov, S S; Chunderova, A I

    1976-01-01

    Industrial pollution of atmosphere inhibits the activity of non-symbiotic nitrogen fixation in soils. The inhibiting effect of polluted air can be explained by the presence of carbon monoxide and nitrogen dioxide in it. Sulfur dioxide does not depress the nitrogenase complex of aerobic and anaerobic nitrogen fixing microorganisms.

  16. Effect of using low-polluting building materials and increasing ventilation on perceived indoor air quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wargocki, P.; Zuczek, P. (International Centre for Indoor Environment and Energy, Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, DTU, Kgs. Lyngby (DK)); Knudsen, Henrik N. (Danish Building Research Institute, Aalborg Univ., Hoersholm (DK))

    2007-07-01

    The potential of improving perceived air quality indoors was quantified when low-polluting materials are used and when building ventilation is increased. This was done by studying the relationships between ventilation rate and the perceived indoor air quality. A sensory panel assessed the air quality in test rooms ventilated with realistic outdoor air supply rates, where combinations of high- and low-polluting wall, floor and ceiling materials were set up. These materials were ranked as high- and low-polluting using sensory assessments of air quality in small-scale glass chambers, where they were tested individually. Substituting materials ranked as high-polluting with materials ranked as lower-polluting improved the perceived air quality in the test rooms. This improvement was greater than what was achieved by a realistic increase of the ventilation rate in the test rooms. Thus reducing pollution emitted from building materials that affects the perceived air quality has a considerable potential of limiting the energy for ventilation without compromising indoor air quality. (au)

  17. Controlling air pollution from passenger ferries: cost-effectiveness of seven technological options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, Alexander E; Corbett, James J; Winebrake, James J

    2002-12-01

    Continued interest in improving air quality in the United States along with renewed interest in the expansion of urban passenger ferry service has created concern about air pollution from ferry vessels. This paper presents a methodology for estimating the air pollution emissions from passenger ferries and the costs of emissions control strategies. The methodology is used to estimate the emissions and costs of retrofitting or re-powering ferries with seven technological options (combinations of propulsion and emission control systems) onto three vessels currently in service in San Francisco Bay. The technologies include improved engine design, cleaner fuels (including natural gas), and exhaust gas cleanup devices. The three vessels span a range of ages and technologies, from a 25-year-old monohull to a modern, high-speed catamaran built only four years ago. By looking at a range of technologies, vessel designs, and service conditions, a sense of the broader implications of controlling emissions from passenger ferries across a range of vessels and service profiles is provided. Tier 2-certified engines are the most cost-effective choice, but all options are cost-effective relative to other emission control strategies already in place in the transportation system.

  18. Two-way effect modifications of air pollution and air temperature on total natural and cardiovascular mortality in eight European urban areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kai; Wolf, Kathrin; Breitner, Susanne; Gasparrini, Antonio; Stafoggia, Massimo; Samoli, Evangelia; Andersen, Zorana Jovanovic; Bero-Bedada, Getahun; Bellander, Tom; Hennig, Frauke; Jacquemin, Bénédicte; Pekkanen, Juha; Hampel, Regina; Cyrys, Josef; Peters, Annette; Schneider, Alexandra

    2018-07-01

    Although epidemiological studies have reported associations between mortality and both ambient air pollution and air temperature, it remains uncertain whether the mortality effects of air pollution are modified by temperature and vice versa. Moreover, little is known on the interactions between ultrafine particles (diameter ≤ 100 nm, UFP) and temperature. We investigated whether the short-term associations of particle number concentration (PNC in the ultrafine range (≤100 nm) or total PNC ≤ 3000 nm, as a proxy for UFP), particulate matter ≤ 2.5 μm (PM 2.5 ) and ≤ 10 μm (PM 10 ), and ozone with daily total natural and cardiovascular mortality were modified by air temperature and whether air pollution levels affected the temperature-mortality associations in eight European urban areas during 1999-2013. We first analyzed air temperature-stratified associations between air pollution and total natural (nonaccidental) and cardiovascular mortality as well as air pollution-stratified temperature-mortality associations using city-specific over-dispersed Poisson additive models with a distributed lag nonlinear temperature term in each city. All models were adjusted for long-term and seasonal trend, day of the week, influenza epidemics, and population dynamics due to summer vacation and holidays. City-specific effect estimates were then pooled using random-effects meta-analysis. Pooled associations between air pollutants and total and cardiovascular mortality were overall positive and generally stronger at high relatively compared to low air temperatures. For example, on days with high air temperatures (>75th percentile), an increase of 10,000 particles/cm 3 in PNC corresponded to a 2.51% (95% CI: 0.39%, 4.67%) increase in cardiovascular mortality, which was significantly higher than that on days with low air temperatures (air pollution (>50th percentile), both heat- and cold-related mortality risks increased. Our findings showed that

  19. Ozone as an air pollutant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, Rolf W.

    1996-01-01

    A Danish new book on ozone as an air pollutant has been reviewed. The Book is "Ozon som luftforurening" by Jes Fenger, Published by "Danmarks Miljøundersøgelser, 1995.......A Danish new book on ozone as an air pollutant has been reviewed. The Book is "Ozon som luftforurening" by Jes Fenger, Published by "Danmarks Miljøundersøgelser, 1995....

  20. Air Pollution and Human Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lave, Lester B.; Seskin, Eugene P.

    1970-01-01

    Reviews studies statistically relating air pollution to mortality and morbidity rates for respiratory, and cardiovascular diseases, cancer and infant mortality. Some data recalculated. Estimates 50 percent air pollution reduction will save 4.5 percent (2080 million dollars per year) of all economic loss (hospitalization, income loss) associated…

  1. Effect of long-term outdoor air pollution and noise on cognitive and psychological functions in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzivian, Lilian; Winkler, Angela; Dlugaj, Martha; Schikowski, Tamara; Vossoughi, Mohammad; Fuks, Kateryna; Weinmayr, Gudrun; Hoffmann, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    It has been hypothesized that air pollution and ambient noise might impact neurocognitive function. Early studies mostly investigated the associations of air pollution and ambient noise exposure with cognitive development in children. More recently, several studies investigating associations with neurocognitive function, mood disorders, and neurodegenerative disease in adult populations were published, yielding inconsistent results. The purpose of this review is to summarize the current evidence on air pollution and noise effects on mental health in adults. We included studies in adult populations (≥18 years old) published in English language in peer-reviewed journals. Fifteen articles related to long-term effects of air pollution and eight articles on long-term effects of ambient noise were extracted. Both exposures were separately shown to be associated with one or several measures of global cognitive function, verbal and nonverbal learning and memory, activities of daily living, depressive symptoms, elevated anxiety, and nuisance. No study considered both exposures simultaneously and few studies investigated progression of neurocognitive decline or psychological factors. The existing evidence generally supports associations of environmental factors with mental health, but does not suffice for an overall conclusion about the independent effect of air pollution and noise. There is a need for studies investigating simultaneously air pollution and noise exposures in association mental health, for longitudinal studies to corroborate findings from cross-sectional analyses, and for parallel toxicological and epidemiological studies to elucidate mechanisms and pathways of action. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  2. Neurotoxicants Are in the Air: Convergence of Human, Animal, and In Vitro Studies on the Effects of Air Pollution on the Brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucio G. Costa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In addition to increased morbidity and mortality caused by respiratory and cardiovascular diseases, air pollution may also negatively affect the brain and contribute to central nervous system diseases. Air pollution is a mixture comprised of several components, of which ultrafine particulate matter (UFPM; <100 nm is of much concern, as these particles can enter the circulation and distribute to most organs, including the brain. A major constituent of ambient UFPM is represented by traffic-related air pollution, mostly ascribed to diesel exhaust (DE. Human epidemiological studies and controlled animal studies have shown that exposure to air pollution may lead to neurotoxicity. In addition to a variety of behavioral abnormalities, two prominent effects caused by air pollution are oxidative stress and neuroinflammation, which are seen in both humans and animals and are confirmed by in vitro studies. Among factors which can affect neurotoxic outcomes, age is considered the most relevant. Human and animal studies suggest that air pollution (and DE may cause developmental neurotoxicity and may contribute to the etiology of neurodevelopmental disorders, including autistic spectrum disorders. In addition, air pollution exposure has been associated with increased expression of markers of neurodegenerative disease pathologies.

  3. Women's Ideas about the Health Effects of Household Air Pollution, Developed through Focus Group Discussions and Artwork in Southern Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devakumar, Delan; Qureshi, Zeshan; Mannell, Jenevieve; Baruwal, Manju; Sharma, Neha; Rehfuess, Eva; Saville, Naomi M; Manandhar, Dharma S; Osrin, David

    2018-02-01

    Household air pollution is a major cause of ill health, but few solutions have been effective to date. While many quantitative studies have been conducted, few have explored the lived experiences and perceptions of women who do the cooking, and as a result are those most exposed to household air pollution. In this study, we worked with groups of home cooks, and sought to use art as a means of engaging them in discussions of how household air pollution from cooking affects their lives. In the Terai district of southern Nepal, we held four focus groups that included 26 local women from urban and peri-urban areas, as well as six local artists. The women then met approximately weekly over four months, and produced images related to air pollution. Transcripts from the focus groups were reviewed independently by two authors, who initially categorised data deductively to pre-defined nodes, and subsequently inductively reviewed emergent themes. Women identified a number of health effects from air pollution. The main physical effects related to the eye and the respiratory system, and women and young children were seen as most vulnerable. The psychosocial effects of air pollution included reduced food intake by women and lethargy. Suggested solutions included modifications to the cooking process, changing the location of stoves, and increasing ventilation. The main barriers were financial. The lived experiences of women in southern Nepal around the problem of air pollution offers a more nuanced and context-specific understanding of the perceptions and challenges of addressing air pollution, which can be used to inform future interventions.

  4. Air Pollution Effects on Aircrafts Movement in and Around Airport: Solutions and Recommendations (Case Study: Djalaluddin Airport, Gorontalo, Indonesia)

    OpenAIRE

    Adisaamita, Sakti Adji

    2014-01-01

    - The study was conducted by collecting information/data from Djalaluddin airport, Gorontalo, Indonesia in order to measure, prevent or minimize the air pollution impacts on airports and its surrounding, such that air pollution impacts can be managed and monitored effectively and efficiently not only in the current situation but also in the future conditions. The data used were primary and secondary data. The primary data were based on field survey, interview and discussion with official g...

  5. Comparative study on the health effects of smoking and indoor air pollution in summer and winter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuki, H.; Kasuga, H.; Osaka, F.; Yanagisawa, Y.; Nishimura, H.

    1985-08-01

    This study compares summer and winter to demonstrate the health effects of indoor air pollution with special reference to NO/sub 2/ and smoking, on the subjects composed of 820 school children and their 546 mothers in the two areas with different ambient NO/sub 2/ concentrations. In either case, examination was carried out with standardized questionnaire test for respiratory symptoms, personal NO/sub 2/ exposure measurement using the filter badge by Yanagisawa, and analysis of urinary hydroxyproline and creatinine in two areas with different ambient NO/sub 2/ levels. Personal NO/sub 2/ exposure level in winter season was 2-3 times higher than that in summer, particularly NO/sub 2/ level among residents living in homes with non-vented stove for space heating was substantially higher from those of residents with vented stove. Wives with vented stove had a moderate exposure level in winter season by the contribution of NO/sub 2/ originated from the kitchen and poor ventilation rate. Since the hydroxyproline to creatinine ratio (HOP-ratio) of children increased more, their household location were nearer to any heavy traffic roads in summer, health effects from automobile exhaust were suggested only in summer season. In summer season, personal NO/sub 2/ exposure level were almost the same with the ambient NO/sub 2/ concentrations over both areas. These results suggest that indoor air pollution in winter season may be separated from outdoor air pollution. It was a matter of course that hydroxyproline to creatinine ratio in winter season was higher than that in summer, in any group and in any area, but the range of variation of hydroxyproline to creatinine ratio was smaller by far than that of personal NO/sub 2/ exposure level. Judging from urinary hydroxyproline to creatinine ratio, health effects of active smoking and passive smoking increased with increasing the number of smoked, dose-dependently in any season.

  6. Population Dynamics and Air Pollution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flachs, Esben Meulengracht; Sørensen, Jan; Bønløkke, Jacob

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To explore how three different assumptions on demographics affect the health impact of Danish emitted air pollution in Denmark from 2005 to 2030, with health impact modeled from 2005 to 2050. Methods. Modeled air pollution from Danish sources was used as exposure in a newly developed......) a static year 2005 population, (2) morbidity and mortality fixed at the year 2005 level, or (3) an expected development. Results. The health impact of air pollution was estimated at 672,000, 290,000, and 280,000 lost life years depending on demographic assumptions and the corresponding social costs at 430.......4 M€, 317.5 M€, and 261.6 M€ through the modeled years 2005–2050. Conclusion. The modeled health impact of air pollution differed widely with the demographic assumptions, and thus demographics and assumptions on demographics played a key role in making health impact assessments on air pollution....

  7. Cough and environmental air pollution in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qingling; Qiu, Minzhi; Lai, Kefang; Zhong, Nanshan

    2015-12-01

    With fast-paced urbanization and increased energy consumption in rapidly industrialized modern China, the level of outdoor and indoor air pollution resulting from industrial and motor vehicle emissions has been increasing at an accelerated rate. Thus, there is a significant increase in the prevalence of respiratory symptoms such as coughing, wheezing, and decreased pulmonary function. Experimental exposure research and epidemiological studies have indicated that exposure to particulate matter, ozone, nitrogen dioxide, and environmental tobacco smoke have a harmful influence on development of respiratory diseases and are significantly associated with cough and wheeze. This review mainly discusses the effect of air pollutants on respiratory health, particularly with respect to cough, the links between air pollutants and microorganisms, and air pollutant sources. Particular attention is paid to studies in urban areas of China where the levels of ambient and indoor air pollution are significantly higher than World Health Organization recommendations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The effects of air pollution regulations on the US refining industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-06-01

    Numerous air pollution regulations affecting petroleum refineries recently have been promulgated, have been proposed, or are under consideration at the federal, state, and local level. As shown in Figure ES-1, all of these environmental regulations are intended to take effect over the relatively short time period from 1989 through 1995. In the aggregate these regulatory activities have significant implications for the US refining industry and the Nation, including: Major investment requirements; changes in industry profitability; potential closure of some refineries; and potential changes in crude oil or product import dependence. At issue is whether the cumulative effect of these regulations could so adversely affect the US refining industry that US national security would be affected. In addition to the regulations outlined in Figure ES-1, President Bush recently presented a major new plan to improve the nation's air quality. The aspects of the President's plan that could strongly affect US refineries are summarized below

  9. The Proceedings of the Panel “Effects of Air Pollution on Human Health, Air Pollution Problem in the World, Turkey and Our Region” (The Conference Hall of Dicle University, Diyarbakır 24.12.2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Bayram

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Air pollution still exceeds safe limits worldwide, particularly in big metropolitans, despite regular monitoring facilities and measures taken. It is usually originated from industrial activities, fossil fuel use in domestic settings and vehicle exhaust emission. Although there is a decrease in air pollution in big cities of Turkey due to use of natural gas, it is still a serious health concern. In Diyarbakır, because of a rapid increase in its population recently, wrong urbanisation and a relative increase in industrialisation, air pollution leads to dangerous levels, particularly in the winter. Epidemiological studies from all over the world, and Turkey have reported a close relation between air pollution and respiratory morbidity and mortality. Studies investigating the mechanisms underlying respiratory effects of air pollution demonstrated that pollutants lead to increased respiratory symptoms, decreased respiratory function and induce inflammatory changes in airways. In vitro studies have shown that air pollutants exert their effects by causing cellular injury directly, and by activating intracellular oxidative pathways indirectly. The attempts to reduce air pollution levels have been implemented in Turkey and worldwide. In order to solve the problem in Diyarbakır, several measures such as prevention the use of out standardized fuel, use of reliable burning techniques, and a close car emission monitoring system need to be implemented.

  10. The effects of air pollution and x rays on the human laryngeal mucous membrane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Takao

    1976-01-01

    The effects of air pollution on the false cord and ventriculus in the glottic region of the laryngeal cavity were studied by scanning electron microscopy from the view point of the defense mechanism of the glottic region due to outer stimulation from restoration to the irreversible stage. Patients with silicosis who were exposed to long term stimulation demonstrated heavy irreversible changes and alterations in spite of sufficient restoration periods. Patients with 60 Co irradiation, in particular, 3000 rd, demonstrated sufficient recovery after a irradiation period of three to four weeks. 6000 rd exposure, however, caused irreversible changes even after a period of irradiation lasting eight weeks. (Evans, J.)

  11. Effects of air pollution on landscape and land-use around Norwegian aluminium smelters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilbert, O L

    1975-01-01

    Investigations around three aluminium smelters in Norway revealed that air pollution emanating from the works was affecting landscape and land-use for a distance of several kilometers. A zonal pattern of damage to the total flora is described in sufficient detail to act as a field guide for the recognition of this type of fume damage. Reasons for believing the observed effects to be due to fluorides are given and the visual and ecological consequences discussed. It is important that when expansion of the aluminium producing industry occurs this is undertaken in full realization of the possible consequences.

  12. Air pollution: UNCED convention on climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pieri, M.

    1992-01-01

    In addition to United Nations papers delineating the Organization's convention on climate change and strategies concerning the protection of the earth's atmosphere, this booklet presents four papers expressing the views of Italian and American strategists. The central theme is the establishment of current global air pollution trends, the determination of suitable air pollution limits, and the preparation of feasible socio-economic strategies to allow industrialized and developing countries to work together effectively to achieve the proposed global air quality goals

  13. Some measurements of ambient air pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Memon, H.R.; Memon, A.A.; Behan, M.Y.

    1999-01-01

    Ambient air pollution arising from different sources in Karachi and its surroundings has been studied. The urban centres like Karachi are mostly confronted with eye-irritation, reduce visibility, heart-diseases, nervous disorder, smog and other unpleasant experiences. In this paper quantitative estimations of some air-pollutants such as sulphur dioxide, carbon monoxide, oxides of nitrogen, chlorine and particular matters are presented with their hazardous effects. The remedial measures for the control of major air emissions are also discussed. (author)

  14. Effect of air pollution on peri-urban agriculture: a case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agrawal, M.; Singh, B.; Rajput, M.; Marshall, F.; Bell, J.N.B.

    2003-01-01

    Peri-urban agriculture is vital for the urban populations of many developing countries. Increases in both industrialization and urbanization, and associated air pollution threaten urban food production and its quality. Six hour mean concentrations were monitored for SO 2 , NO 2 and O 3 and plant responses were measured in terms of physiological characteristics, pigment, biomass and yield. Parameter reductions in mung bean (Vigna radiata), palak (Beta vulgaris), wheat (Triticum aestivum) and mustard (Brassica compestris) grown within the urban fringes of Varanasi, India correlated directly with the gaseous pollutants levels. The magnitude of response involved all three gaseous pollutants at peri-urban sites; O 3 had more influence at a rural site. The study concluded that air pollution in Varanasi could negatively influence crop yield. - Urban air pollution has a negative impact on peri-urban agriculture

  15. Effect of air pollution on peri-urban agriculture: a case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agrawal, M.; Singh, B.; Rajput, M.; Marshall, F.; Bell, J.N.B

    2003-12-01

    Peri-urban agriculture is vital for the urban populations of many developing countries. Increases in both industrialization and urbanization, and associated air pollution threaten urban food production and its quality. Six hour mean concentrations were monitored for SO{sub 2}, NO{sub 2} and O{sub 3} and plant responses were measured in terms of physiological characteristics, pigment, biomass and yield. Parameter reductions in mung bean (Vigna radiata), palak (Beta vulgaris), wheat (Triticum aestivum) and mustard (Brassica compestris) grown within the urban fringes of Varanasi, India correlated directly with the gaseous pollutants levels. The magnitude of response involved all three gaseous pollutants at peri-urban sites; O{sub 3} had more influence at a rural site. The study concluded that air pollution in Varanasi could negatively influence crop yield. - Urban air pollution has a negative impact on peri-urban agriculture.

  16. Controlling Indoor Air Pollution from Moxibustion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung-Yen Lu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Indoor air quality (IAQ control of hospitals plays a critical role in protecting both hospital staffs and patients, particularly those who are highly susceptible to the adverse effects of indoor noxious hazards. However, moxibustion in outpatient departments (OPDs of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM may be a source of indoor air pollution in hospitals. Some studies have investigated indoor air pollution during moxibustion in Chinese medicine clinics (CMCs and moxibustion rooms, demonstrating elevated air pollutants that pose a threat to the health of medical staff and patients. Our study investigated the indoor air pollutants of indoor carbon dioxide (CO2, carbon monoxide (CO, formaldehyde (HCHO, total volatile organic compounds (TVOCs, airborne particulate matter with a diameter of ≤10 µm (PM10 and ≤2.5 µm (PM2.5 during moxibustion in an acupuncture and moxibustion room of the OPD in a hospital in Taipei. To evaluate the different control strategies for indoor air pollution from moxibution, a comparison of air pollutants during moxibution among the methods of using alternative old moxa wools, local exhaust ventilation and an air cleaner was conducted. In this study, burning alternative old moxa wools for moxibustion obviously reduced all gaseous pollutants except for aerosols comparing burning fresh moxa wools. Using local exhaust ventilation reduced most of the aerosols after burning moxa. We also found that using an air cleaner was inefficient for controlling indoor air pollutants, particularly gaseous pollutants. Therefore, combining replacing alternative old moxa wools and local exhaust ventilation could be a suitable design for controlling indoor air pollution during moxibustion therapy.

  17. ERS/ATS workshop report on respiratory health effects of household air pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sood, Akshay; Assad, Nour A; Barnes, Peter J; Churg, Andrew; Gordon, Stephen B; Harrod, Kevin S; Irshad, Hammad; Kurmi, Om P; Martin, William J; Meek, Paula; Mortimer, Kevin; Noonan, Curtis W; Perez-Padilla, Rogelio; Smith, Kirk R; Tesfaigzi, Yohannes; Ward, Tony; Balmes, John

    2018-01-01

    Exposure to household air pollution (HAP) from solid fuel combustion affects almost half of the world population. Adverse respiratory outcomes such as respiratory infections, impaired lung growth and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease have been linked to HAP exposure. Solid fuel smoke is a heterogeneous mixture of various gases and particulates. Cell culture and animal studies with controlled exposure conditions and genetic homogeneity provide important insights into HAP mechanisms. Impaired bacterial phagocytosis in exposed human alveolar macrophages possibly mediates several HAP-related health effects. Lung pathological findings in HAP-exposed individuals demonstrate greater small airways fibrosis and less emphysema compared with cigarette smokers. Field studies using questionnaires, air pollution monitoring and/or biomarkers are needed to better establish human risks. Some, but not all, studies suggest that improving cookstove efficiency or venting emissions may be associated with reduced respiratory symptoms, lung function decline in women and severe pneumonia in children. Current studies focus on fuel switching, stove technology replacements or upgrades and air filter devices. Several governments have initiated major programmes to accelerate the upgrade from solid fuels to clean fuels, particularly liquid petroleum gas, which provides research opportunities for the respiratory health community. Copyright ©ERS 2018.

  18. Beyond PM2.5: The role of ultrafine particles on adverse health effects of air pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Rui; Hu, Bin; Liu, Ying; Xu, Jianxun; Yang, Guosheng; Xu, Diandou; Chen, Chunying

    2016-12-01

    Air pollution constitutes the major threat to human health, whereas their adverse impacts and underlying mechanisms of different particular matters are not clearly defined. Ultrafine particles (UFPs) are high related to the anthropogenic emission sources, i.e. combustion engines and power plants. Their composition, source, typical characters, oxidative effects, potential exposure routes and health risks were thoroughly reviewed. UFPs play a major role in adverse impacts on human health and require further investigations in future toxicological research of air pollution. Unlike PM2.5, UFPs may have much more impacts on human health considering loads of evidences emerging from particulate matters and nanotoxicology research fields. The knowledge of nanotoxicology contributes to the understanding of toxicity mechanisms of airborne UFPs in air pollution. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Air Pollution, edited by Wenjun Ding, Andrew J. Ghio and Weidong Wu. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Monitoring air pollution effects on children for supporting public health policy: the protocol of the prospective cohort MAPEC study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feretti, D; Ceretti, E; De Donno, A; Moretti, M; Carducci, A; Bonetta, S; Marrese, M R; Bonetti, A; Covolo, L; Bagordo, F; Villarini, M; Verani, M; Schilirò, T; Limina, R M; Grassi, T; Monarca, S; Casini, B; Carraro, E; Zani, C; Mazzoleni, G; Levaggi, R; Gelatti, U

    2014-09-16

    Genotoxic biomarkers have been studied largely in adult population, but few studies so far have investigated them in children exposed to air pollution. Children are a high-risk group as regards the health effects of air pollution and some studies suggest that early exposure during childhood can play an important role in the development of chronic diseases in adulthood. The objective of the project is to evaluate the associations between the concentration of urban air pollutants and biomarkers of early biological effect in children, and to propose a model for estimating the global risk of early biological effects due to air pollutants and other factors in children. Two biomarkers of early biological effects, DNA damage by the comet assay and the micronuclei (MN) test, will be investigated in oral mucosa cells of 6-8-year-old children. Concurrently, some toxic airborne pollutants (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) and nitro-PAH) and in vitro air mutagenicity and toxicity in ultra-fine air particulates (PM0.5) will be evaluated. Furthermore, demographic and socioeconomic variables, other sources of exposures to air pollutants and lifestyle variables will be assessed by a structured questionnaire. The associations between sociodemographic, environmental and other exposure variables and biomarkers of early biological effect using univariate and multivariate models will be analysed. A tentative model for calculating the global absolute risk of having early biological effects caused by air pollution and other variables will be proposed. The project has been approved by the Ethics Committees of the local Health Authorities. The results will be communicated to local Public Health Agencies, for supporting educational programmes and health policy strategies. LIFE+2012 Environment Policy and Governance. LIFE12 ENV/IT/000614. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  20. Polluted air--outdoors and indoors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, I; Maynard, R L

    2005-09-01

    Many air pollutants which are considered important in ambient (outdoor) air are also found, sometimes at higher levels, in indoor air. With demanding standards having been set for many of these pollutants, both in the workplace and ambient air, consideration of the problems posed by indoor pollution is gaining pace. Studies on exposure to pollutants found in the indoor domestic environment are increasing and are contributing to an already significant compilation of datasets. Improvement in monitoring techniques has helped this process. Documented reports of fatalities from carbon monoxide poisonings are still worrying. However, studies on health effects of non-fatal, long term, low dose, indoor exposure to carbon monoxide and other pollutants, are still inconclusive and too infrequently documented. Of particular concern are the levels of air pollutants found in the domestic indoor environment in developing countries, despite simple interventions such as vented stoves having shown their value. Exposure to biomass smoke is still a level that would be considered unacceptable on health grounds in developed countries. As in the occupational environment, steps need to be taken to control the risks from exposure to the harmful constituents of indoor air in the home. However, the difficulty regarding regulation of the domestic indoor environment is its inherent privacy. Monitoring levels of pollutants in the home and ensuring regulations are adhered to, would likely prove difficult, especially when individual behaviour patterns and activities have the greatest influence on pollutant levels in indoor air. To this end, the Department of Health is developing guidance on indoor air pollution to encourage the reduction of pollutant levels in indoor domestic air. The importance of the effects of domestic indoor air on health and its contribution to the health of the worker are increasingly appreciated. Occupational physicians, by training and interest, are well placed to extend

  1. A Time-Series Study of the Effect of Air Pollution on Outpatient Visits for Acne Vulgaris in Beijing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wei; Pan, Xiaochuan; Vierkötter, Andrea; Guo, Qun; Wang, Xuying; Wang, Qiaowei; Seité, Sophie; Moyal, Dominique; Schikowski, Tamara; Krutmann, Jean

    2018-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that exposure to air pollutants, including particulate matter (PM2.5, PM10), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), and sulfur dioxide (SO2), might aggravate preexisting skin diseases such as eczema and urticaria. Here we investigated if a possible link exists between air pollution and acne vulgaris. We assessed the association between ambient air pollutant concentrations and the number of visits of patients for acne vulgaris to a dermatological outpatient clinic in Beijing, China, from April 1, 2012 to April 30, 2014. In this time period, 59,325 outpatient visits were recorded because of acne vulgaris. Daily air pollution parameters for PM10, PM2.5, SO2, and NO2 were obtained from the Beijing Municipal Environmental Monitoring Center. Increased concentrations of ambient PM2.5, PM10, and NO2 were significantly associated with increased numbers of outpatient visits for acne vulgaris over the 2 years. These effects could be observed for NO2 in a single-pollutant model and for PM2.5, PM10, and NO2 in 2-pollutant models, which are closer to real-life exposure. Of note, these effects were specific because they were not observed for increased SO2 concentrations, which even showed negative correlations in all test models. This study provides indirect evidence for a link between acne vulgaris and air pollution. © 2018 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  2. Atmospheric corrosion effects of air pollution on materials and cultural property in Asia and Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Foax, LJ

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available This project is part of the Swedish International Development Co-operation Agency (Sida) funded Program on Regional Air Pollution in Developing Countries (RAPIDC). The Program is managed on Sida's behalf by the Stockholm Environment Institute (SEI...

  3. The indicative effects of inefficient urban traffic flow on fuel cost and exhaust air pollutant emissions

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Moselakgomo, M

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Poor urban traffic management such as poor intersection controls, congestions, illegal roadway blockages and construction works causes “stop-go” driving conditions with excessive idling resulting in wasted fuel and increased air pollutant emissions...

  4. Season, sex, age, and education as modifiers of the effects of outdoor air pollution on daily mortality in Shanghai, China: The Public Health and Air Pollution in Asia (PAPA) Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kan, Haidong; London, Stephanie J; Chen, Guohai; Zhang, Yunhui; Song, Guixiang; Zhao, Naiqing; Jiang, Lili; Chen, Bingheng

    2008-09-01

    Various factors can modify the health effects of outdoor air pollution. Prior findings about modifiers are inconsistent, and most of these studies were conducted in developed countries. We conducted a time-series analysis to examine the modifying effect of season, sex, age, and education on the association between outdoor air pollutants [particulate matter air pollution for the warm season (April-September) and cool season (October-March) separately. For total mortality, we examined the association stratified by sex and age. Stratified analysis by educational attainment was conducted for total, cardiovascular, and respiratory mortality. Outdoor air pollution was associated with mortality from all causes and from cardiorespiratory diseases in Shanghai. An increase of 10 mug/m(3) in a 2-day average concentration of PM(10), SO(2), NO(2), and O(3) corresponds to increases in all-cause mortality of 0.25% [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.14-0.37), 0.95% (95% CI, 0.62-1.28), 0.97% (95% CI, 0.66-1.27), and 0.31% (95% CI, 0.04-0.58), respectively. The effects of air pollutants were more evident in the cool season than in the warm season, and females and the elderly were more vulnerable to outdoor air pollution. Effects of air pollution were generally greater in residents with low educational attainment (illiterate or primary school) compared with those with high educational attainment (middle school or above). Season, sex, age, and education may modify the health effects of outdoor air pollution in Shanghai. These findings provide new information about the effects of modifiers on the relationship between daily mortality and air pollution in developing countries and may have implications for local environmental and social policies.

  5. Health Effects of Ozone and Particle Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: Health Effects of Ozone and Particle Pollution Two types of air pollution dominate in the ... So what are ozone and particle pollution? Ozone Pollution It may be hard to imagine that pollution ...

  6. Time series analysis of air pollution and mortality: effects by cause, age and socioeconomic status

    OpenAIRE

    Gouveia, N.; Fletcher, T.

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To investigate the association between outdoor air pollution and mortality in São Paulo, Brazil.
DESIGN—Time series study
METHODS—All causes, respiratory and cardiovascular mortality were analysed and the role of age and socioeconomic status in modifying associations between mortality and air pollution were investigated. Models used Poisson regression and included terms for temporal patterns, meteorology, and autocorrelation.
MAIN RESULTS—All causes all ages mortality showed much sm...

  7. Accumulative effects of indoor air pollution exposure on leukocyte telomere length among non-smokers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Nan; Mu, Xinlin; Wang, Guilian; Ren, Yu'ang; Su, Shu; Li, Zhiwen; Wang, Bin; Tao, Shu

    2017-01-01

    Indoor air pollution is an important environmental factor that contributes to the burden of various diseases. Long-term exposure to ambient air pollution is associated with telomere shortening. However, the association between chronic indoor air pollution from household fuel combustion and leukocyte telomere length has not been studied. In our study, 137 cancer-free non-smokers were recruited. Their exposure levels to indoor air pollution from 1985 to 2014 were assessed using a face-to-face interview questionnaire, and leukocyte telomere length (LTL) was measured using a monochrome multiplex quantitative PCR method. Accumulative exposure to solid fuel usage for cooking was negatively correlated with LTL. The LTL of residents who were exposed to solid fuel combustion for three decades (LTL = 0.70 ± 0.17) was significantly shorter than that of other populations. In addition, education and occupation were related to both exposure to solid fuel and LTL. Sociodemographic factors may play a mediating role in the correlation between leukocyte telomere length and environmental exposure to indoor air pollution. In conclusion, long-term exposure to indoor air pollution may cause LTL dysfunction. - Highlights: • This is the first study to investigate a clear association between indoor air pollution and leukocyte telomere length. • Chronic exposure to household solid fuel combustion and leukocyte telomere length presented a negative correlation. • Shortest leukocyte telomere length belonged to population cooking for longest time. • Education and occupation were remarkably associated with leukocyte telomere length via relating with indoor air pollution. - Long-term exposure to household solid fuel combustion is negatively associated with LTL.

  8. On the corrosion and soiling effects on materials by air pollution in Athens, Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Tzanis

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In the frame of the European project, entitled MULTI-ASSESS, specimens of structural metals, glass, stone and concrete materials were exposed to air pollution at a station, which was installed for this purpose on a building, located in the centre of Athens. The main purpose of this project was to determine the corrosion and soiling effects of air pollution on materials. A set of the specimens was exposed in a position that was sheltered from rain and partly from wind, and another set was exposed in unsheltered positions on the roof of the above said building. In addition, other specimens were exposed at different heights on the same building, in order to investigate for the first time the corrosion and soiling effects on various materials as a function of height. For the determination of these effects, chemical analysis of the specimens was performed and basic parameters as the weight change, the layer thickness and the optical properties were calculated. Finally, the results obtained are discussed and their plausible interpretation is attempted.

  9. The effects of air pollution and smoking on placental cadmium, zinc concentration and metallothionein expression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sorkun, Hulya Cetin; Bir, Ferda; Akbulut, Metin; Divrikli, Umit; Erken, Gulten; Demirhan, Huriye; Duzcan, Ender; Elci, Latif; Celik, Ismail; Yozgatli, Unsal

    2007-01-01

    This study is designed to determine the placental zinc (Zn) and cadmium (Cd) levels in mothers who were smokers, mothers who were thought to be exposed to air pollution, and mothers who were non-smokers and to investigate the relationship between the expression of placental metallothionein (MT) binding these metals and blood progesterone level. Placental Zn and Cd levels were measured by atomic absorption spectrometry. Presence of placental MT was determined immunohistochemically. Placental changes were examined by light microscope after H and E and PAS staining. Immunohistochemical MT staining of syncytiotrophoblastic and villous interstitial cells were scored as positive or negative. Among the 92 mothers included in the study, 33 were smokers (Group I), 29 had been exposed to air pollution (Group II) and 30 were non-smoker rural residents who had never been exposed to air pollution (Group III). Mean off-spring birth weight of 3198.62 ± 380.01 g and mean placenta weight of 561.38 ± 111.55 g of Group II were lower when compared with those of other two groups. In Group I, mean placental Cd and Zn were 0.063 ± 0.022 μg/g and 39.84 ± 15.5 μg/g, respectively, being higher than in other groups. In Group II, mean placental Cd and Zn levels were higher than those of Group III. Blood progesterone levels of subjects in Group I (121 ng/ml) were the lowest of all groups. While the mean count of villi was the highest in Group III; the highest mean count of syncytial knots was in Group II. Thickening of vasculo-syncytial membrane was most prominent in Group I. Similarly, MT staining was positive and very dense in 72.7% (24/33) of cases in Group I (p ≤ 0.05). MT staining was positive in 69.0% (29/20) and denser in Group II cases compared to 36% (11/30) in Group III (p ≤ 0.05). This study showed that smoking increased Cd levels in placenta and accompanied an increase in placental MT expression immunohistochemically. The effects of exposure to air pollution are equally

  10. Accumulative effects of indoor air pollution exposure on leukocyte telomere length among non-smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Nan; Mu, Xinlin; Wang, Guilian; Ren, Yu'ang; Su, Shu; Li, Zhiwen; Wang, Bin; Tao, Shu

    2017-08-01

    Indoor air pollution is an important environmental factor that contributes to the burden of various diseases. Long-term exposure to ambient air pollution is associated with telomere shortening. However, the association between chronic indoor air pollution from household fuel combustion and leukocyte telomere length has not been studied. In our study, 137 cancer-free non-smokers were recruited. Their exposure levels to indoor air pollution from 1985 to 2014 were assessed using a face-to-face interview questionnaire, and leukocyte telomere length (LTL) was measured using a monochrome multiplex quantitative PCR method. Accumulative exposure to solid fuel usage for cooking was negatively correlated with LTL. The LTL of residents who were exposed to solid fuel combustion for three decades (LTL = 0.70 ± 0.17) was significantly shorter than that of other populations. In addition, education and occupation were related to both exposure to solid fuel and LTL. Sociodemographic factors may play a mediating role in the correlation between leukocyte telomere length and environmental exposure to indoor air pollution. In conclusion, long-term exposure to indoor air pollution may cause LTL dysfunction. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Ambient air pollution exposure and the incidence of related health effects among racial/ethnic minorities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nieves, L.A.; Wernette, D.R.

    1997-02-01

    Differences among racial and ethnic groups in morbidity and mortality rates for diseases, including diseases with environmental causes, have been extensively documented. However, documenting the linkages between environmental contaminants, individual exposures, and disease incidence has been hindered by difficulties in measuring exposure for the population in general and for minority populations in particular. After briefly discussing research findings on associations of common air pollutants with disease incidence, the authors summarize recent studies of radial/ethnic subgroup differences in incidence of these diseases in the US. They then present evidence of both historic and current patterns of disproportionate minority group exposure to air pollution as measured by residence in areas where ambient air quality standards are violated. The current indications of disproportionate potential exposures of minority and low-income populations to air pollutants represent the continuation of a historical trend. The evidence of linkage between disproportionate exposure to air pollution of racial/ethnic minorities and low-income groups and their higher rates of some air pollution-related diseases is largely circumstantial. Differences in disease incidence and mortality rates among racial/ethnic groups are discussed for respiratory diseases, cancers, and lead poisoning. Pollutants of concern include CO, Pb, SO{sub 2}, O{sub 3}, and particulates.

  12. Protecting national parks from air pollution effects: Making sausage from science and policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baron, Jill S.; Blett, Tamara; Malm, William C.; Alexander, Ruth; Doremus, Holly

    2016-01-01

    The story of air pollution research, policy development, and management in national parks is a fascinating blend of cultural change, vision, interdisciplinary and interagency collaboration, and science-policy-management-stakeholder collaborations. Unable to ignore the loss of iconic vistas from regional haze and loss of fish from acid rain in the 1980s, the National Park Service (NPS) embraced an obligation to protect resources from threats originating outside park boundaries. Upholding the Organic Act requirement for parks to remain "unimpaired" for the enjoyment of future generations, and using the Clean Air Act statement that NPS has an “affirmative responsibility” to protect park resources, NPS has supported, and effectively used, research as a means to protect lands, waters, and vistas from a mostly unseen threat. Using visibility and atmospheric nitrogen deposition as examples, we will illustrate some success stories where NPS led the way to benefit not only parks, but the Nation.

  13. Responses of plants to air pollution

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mudd, J. Brian; Kozlowski, T. T

    1975-01-01

    .... KOZLOWSKI Pollution, 1975 ELROY L. RICE. Allelopathy, (Eds.). Fire and Ecosystems, 1974 (Eds.). Responses of Plants to Air Responses of Plants to Air PollutionRESPONSES OF PLANTS TO AIR POLLUTION E...

  14. Preventive Effect of Residential Green Space on Infantile Atopic Dermatitis Associated with Prenatal Air Pollution Exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ji-Young; Lamichhane, Dirga Kumar; Lee, Myeongjee; Ye, Shinhee; Kwon, Jung-Hyun; Park, Myung-Sook; Kim, Hwan-Cheol; Leem, Jong-Han; Hong, Yun-Chul; Kim, Yangho; Ha, Mina; Ha, Eunhee

    2018-01-09

    Few birth cohort studies have examined the role of traffic-related air pollution (TRAP) in the development of infantile atopic dermatitis (AD), but none have investigated the role of preventive factors such as green spaces. The aim of this study was to investigate whether exposure to nitrogen dioxide (NO₂) and particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter of Health study. Subjects were geocoded to their residential addresses and matched with air pollution data modeled using land-use regression. Information on infantile AD was obtained by using a questionnaire administered to the parents or guardians of the children. The association between infantile AD and exposure to NO₂ and PM 10 was determined using logistic regression models. We assessed the effects of residential green spaces using stratified analyses and by entering product terms into the logistic regression models. The risk of infantile AD significantly increased with an increase in air pollution exposure during the first trimester of pregnancy. The adjusted odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were 1.219 (1.023-1.452) per 10 μg/m³ increase in PM 10 and 1.353 (1.027-1.782) per 10 ppb increase in NO₂. An increase in the green space within 200 m of residence was associated with a decreased risk of AD (OR = 0.996, 95% CI: 0.993-0.999). The stratified analysis of residential green space revealed stronger associations between infantile AD and PM 10 and NO₂ exposure during the first trimester in the areas in the lower tertiles of green space. This study indicated that exposure to TRAP during the first trimester of pregnancy is associated with infantile AD. Less residential green space may intensify the association between TRAP exposure and infantile AD.

  15. Seasonal variation in the acute effect of particulate air pollution on mortality in the China Air Pollution and Health Effects Study (CAPES)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Renjie; Peng, Roger D.; Meng, Xia; Zhou, Zhijun; Chen, Bingheng; Kan, Haidong

    2013-01-01

    Epidemiological findings concerning the seasonal variation in the acute effect of particulate matter (PM) are inconsistent. We investigated the seasonality in the association between PM with an aerodynamic diameter of less than 10 μm (PM10) and daily mortality in 17 Chinese cities. We fitted the “main” time-series model after adjustment for time-varying confounders using smooth functions with natural splines. We established a “seasonal” model to obtain the season-specific effect estimates of PM10, and a “harmonic” model to show the seasonal pattern that allows PM10 effects to vary smoothly with the day in a year. At the national level, a 10 μg/m3 increase in the two-day moving average concentrations (lag 01) of PM10 was associated with 0.45% [95% posterior interval (PI), 0.15% to 0.76%], 0.17% (95% PI, −0.09% to 0.43%), 0.55% (95% PI, 0.15% to 0.96%) and 0.25% (95%PI, −0.05% to 0.56%) increases in total mortality for winter, spring, summer and fall, respectively. For the smoothly-varying plots of seasonality, we identified a two-peak pattern in winter and summer. The observed seasonal pattern was generally insensitive to model specifications. Our analyses suggest that the acute effect of particulate air pollution could vary by seasons with the largest effect in winter and summer in China. To our knowledge, this is the first multicity study in developing countries to analyze the seasonal variations of PM-related health effects. PMID:23500824

  16. Interactions between particulate air pollution and temperature in air pollution mortality time series studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, Steven

    2004-01-01

    In many community time series studies on the effect of particulate air pollution on mortality, particulate air pollution is modeled additively. In this study, we investigated the interaction between daily particulate air pollution and daily mean temperature in Cook County, Illinois and Allegheny County, Pennsylvania, using data for the period 1987-1994. This was done through the use of joint particulate air pollution-temperature response surfaces and by stratifying the effect of particulate air pollution on mortality by temperature. Evidence that the effect of particulate air pollution on mortality may depend on temperature is found. However, the results were sensitive to the number of degrees of freedom used in the confounder adjustments, the particulate air pollution exposure measure, and how the effects of temperature on mortality are modeled. The results were less sensitive to the estimation method used--generalized linear models and natural cubic splines or generalized additive models and smoothing splines. The results of this study suggest that in community particulate air pollution mortality time series studies the possibility of an interaction between daily particulate air pollution and daily mean temperature should be considered

  17. Influence of air pollution upon plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kangas, E

    1963-01-01

    This talk, which was given at a symposium concerned with pollution of the air, arranged by the Societas Biochemica Biophysica et Microbiologica of Finland, deals with the influence exerted by air pollution upon plants, and upon trees in particular. Mention is made of the gases which have in Finland caused pollution of the air and have damaged plants (SO/sub 2/, Cl, gases containing chlorates, and the smoke from coal and liquid fuel). The effect of these substances, and of their varying concentrations, is reported, together with the effect of forms of dirt, especially with respect to coniferous trees.

  18. Neurotoxicity of traffic-related air pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Lucio G; Cole, Toby B; Coburn, Jacki; Chang, Yu-Chi; Dao, Khoi; Roqué, Pamela J

    2017-03-01

    The central nervous system is emerging as an important target for adverse health effects of air pollution, where it may contribute to neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative disorders. Air pollution comprises several components, including particulate matter (PM) and ultrafine particulate matter (UFPM), gases, organic compounds, and metals. An important source of ambient PM and UFPM is represented by traffic-related air pollution, primarily diesel exhaust (DE). Human epidemiological studies and controlled animal studies have shown that exposure to air pollution, and to traffic-related air pollution or DE in particular, may lead to neurotoxicity. In particular, air pollution is emerging as a possible etiological factor in neurodevelopmental (e.g. autism spectrum disorders) and neurodegenerative (e.g. Alzheimer's disease) disorders. The most prominent effects caused by air pollution in both humans and animals are oxidative stress and neuro-inflammation. Studies in mice acutely exposed to DE (250-300μg/m 3 for 6h) have shown microglia activation, increased lipid peroxidation, and neuro-inflammation in various brain regions, particularly the hippocampus and the olfactory bulb. An impairment of adult neurogenesis was also found. In most cases, the effects of DE were more pronounced in male mice, possibly because of lower antioxidant abilities due to lower expression of paraoxonase 2. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Danger in the Air: Air Pollution and Cognitive Dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cipriani, Gabriele; Danti, Sabrina; Carlesi, Cecilia; Borin, Gemma

    2018-01-01

    Clean air is considered to be a basic requirement for human health and well-being. To examine the relationship between cognitive performance and ambient pollution exposure. Studies were identified through a systematic search of online scientific databases, in addition to a manual search of the reference lists from the identified papers. Air pollution is a multifaceted toxic chemical mixture capable of assaulting the central nervous system. Despite being a relatively new area of investigation, overall, there is mounting evidence implicating adverse effects of air pollution on cognitive function in both adults and children. Consistent evidence showed that exposure to air pollution, specifically exposure to particulate matter, caused poor age-related cognitive performance. Living in areas with high levels of air pollution has been linked to markers of neuroinflammation and neuropathology that are associated with neurodegenerative conditions such as Alzheimer's disease-like brain pathologies.

  20. Air pollution control regulation. [Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sogabe, K

    1975-05-01

    The Basic Law for Environmental Pollution Control is reviewed. The fundamental ideology of pollution control, range of pollution control, environmental standards, and national policy concerning pollution control are discussed. The content of the Air Pollution Control Law is summarized. The purpose of the Air Pollution Control Law, a list of substances regulated by the law, the type of facilities regulated by the law, control standards, type of control means, and emission standards for flue gas (sulfur oxides, particulate matters, and toxic substances) are described. The environmental standard for each pollutant and the target date for achieving the environmental standard are also given. The list of cities where the 7-rank K value control regulation for SOx is enforced is given. The procedure for registration in compliance with the law is also described.

  1. Health effects of long-term exposure to air pollution: An overview of major respiratory and cardiovascular diseases and diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanovic-Andersen Zorana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Large number of studies provided convincing evidence for adverse effects of exposure to outdoor air pollution on human health, and served as basis for current USA and EU Air Quality Standards and limit values. Still, new knowledge is emerging, expanding our understanding of vast effects of exposure to air pollution on human health of this ubiquitous exposure affecting millions of people in urban setting. This paper focuses on the studies of health effects of long-term (chronic exposures to air pollution, and includes major chronic and acute diseases in adults and especially elderly, which will present increasing public health burden, due to improving longevity and projected increasing numbers of elderly. The paper gives overview over the most relevant and latest literature presented by different health outcomes: chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, asthma, pneumonia, cardiovascular disease, and diabetes.

  2. Air pollution and doctors' house calls: results from the ERPURS system for monitoring the effects of air pollution on public health in Greater Paris, France, 1991-1995. Evaluation des Risques de la Pollution Urbaine pour la Santé.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina, S; Le Tertre, A; Quénel, P; Le Moullec, Y; Lameloise, P; Guzzo, J C; Festy, B; Ferry, R; Dab, W

    1997-10-01

    This study examines short-term relationships between doctors' house calls and urban air pollution in Greater Paris for the period 1991-1995. Poisson regressions using nonparametric smoothing functions controlled for time trend, seasonal patterns, pollen counts, influenza epidemics, and weather. The relationship between asthma visits and air pollution was stronger for children. A relative risk (RRP95/P5) of 1.32 [95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.17-1.47)] was observed for an increase from the 5th to the 95th percentile (7-51 micrograms/m3) in daily concentrations of black smoke (BS). The risks for 24-hr sulfur dioxide and nitrogen dioxide levels were in the same range. Cardiovascular conditions, considered globally, showed weaker associations than angina pectoris/myocardial infarction, for which RRP95/P5 was 1.63 (95% CI = 1.10-2.41) in relation to ozone ambient levels. Eye conditions were exclusively related to ozone (RRP95/P5 = 1.17, 95% CI 1.02-1.33). Asthma visits and ozone showed an interaction with minimum temperature: an effect was observed only at 10 degrees C or higher. In two-pollutant models including BS with, successively, SO2, NO2, and O3, only BS and O3 effects remained stable. Along with mortality and hospital admissions, house call activity data, available on a regular basis, may be a sensitive indicator for monitoring health effects related to air pollution.

  3. Atmospheric Chemistry and Air Pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey S. Gaffney

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric chemistry is an important discipline for understanding air pollution and its impacts. This mini-review gives a brief history of air pollution and presents an overview of some of the basic photochemistry involved in the production of ozone and other oxidants in the atmosphere. Urban air quality issues are reviewed with a specific focus on ozone and other oxidants, primary and secondary aerosols, alternative fuels, and the potential for chlorine releases to amplify oxidant chemistry in industrial areas. Regional air pollution issues such as acid rain, long-range transport of aerosols and visibility loss, and the connections of aerosols to ozone and peroxyacetyl nitrate chemistry are examined. Finally, the potential impacts of air pollutants on the global-scale radiative balances of gases and aerosols are discussed briefly.

  4. Neurobehavioral effects of ambient air pollution on cognitive performance in US adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jiu-Chiuan; Schwartz, Joel

    2009-03-01

    In vivo animal experiments demonstrate neurotoxicity of exposures to particulate matter (PM) and ozone, but only one small epidemiological study had linked ambient air pollution with central nervous system (CNS) functions in children. To examine the neurobehavioral effects associated with long-term exposure to ambient PM and ozone in adults. We conducted a secondary analysis of the Neurobehavioral Evaluation System-2 (NES2) data (including a simple reaction time test [SRTT] measuring motor response speed to a visual stimulus; a symbol-digit substitution test [SDST] for coding ability; and a serial-digit learning test [SDLT] for attention and short-term memory) from 1764 adult participants (aged 37.5+/-10.9 years) of the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey in 1988-1991. Based on ambient PM(10) (PM with aerodynamic diameter SDLT, but not in SRTT. Each 10-ppb increase in annual ozone was associated with increased SDST and SDLT scores by 0.16 (95%CI: 0.01, 0.23) and 0.56 (95%CI: 0.07, 1.05), equivalent to 3.5 and 5.3 years of aging-related decline in cognitive performance. Our study provides the first epidemiological data supporting the adverse neurobehavioral effects of ambient air pollutants in adults.

  5. Outdoor air pollution and sperm quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafuente, Rafael; García-Blàquez, Núria; Jacquemin, Bénédicte; Checa, Miguel Angel

    2016-09-15

    Exposure to air pollution has been clearly associated with a range of adverse health effects, including reproductive toxicity, but its effects on male semen quality are still unclear. We performed a systematic review (up to June 2016) to assess the impact of air pollutants on sperm quality. We included 17 semi-ecological, panel, and cohort studies, assessing outdoor air pollutants, such as PM2.5, PM10, NOx, SO2, and O3, and their effects on DNA fragmentation, sperm count, sperm motility, and sperm morphology. Thirteen studies assessed air pollution exposure measured environmentally, and six used biomarkers of air pollution exposure (two did both). We rated the studies using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale and assessed with the exposure method. Taking into account these factors and the number of studies finding significant results (positive or negative), the evidence supporting an effect of air pollution on DNA fragmentation is weak but suggestive, on sperm motility is limited and probably inexistent, on lower sperm count is inconclusive, and on sperm morphology is very suggestive. Because of the diversity of air pollutants and sperm parameters, and the studies' designs, we were unable to perform a meta-analysis. In summary, most studies concluded that outdoor air pollution affects at least one of the four semen quality parameters included in the review. However, results lack consistency, and furthermore, studies were not comparable. Studies using standardized air pollution and semen measures are required to obtain more reliable conclusions. CRD42015007175. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Case-Crossover Analysis of Air Pollution Health Effects: A Systematic Review of Methodology and Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carracedo-Martínez, Eduardo; Taracido, Margarita; Tobias, Aurelio; Saez, Marc; Figueiras, Adolfo

    2010-01-01

    Background Case-crossover is one of the most used designs for analyzing the health-related effects of air pollution. Nevertheless, no one has reviewed its application and methodology in this context. Objective We conducted a systematic review of case-crossover (CCO) designs used to study the relationship between air pollution and morbidity and mortality, from the standpoint of methodology and application. Data sources and extraction A search was made of the MEDLINE and EMBASE databases. Reports were classified as methodologic or applied. From the latter, the following information was extracted: author, study location, year, type of population (general or patients), dependent variable(s), independent variable(s), type of CCO design, and whether effect modification was analyzed for variables at the individual level. Data synthesis The review covered 105 reports that fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Of these, 24 addressed methodological aspects, and the remainder involved the design’s application. In the methodological reports, the designs that yielded the best results in simulation were symmetric bidirectional CCO and time-stratified CCO. Furthermore, we observed an increase across time in the use of certain CCO designs, mainly symmetric bidirectional and time-stratified CCO. The dependent variables most frequently analyzed were those relating to hospital morbidity; the pollutants most often studied were those linked to particulate matter. Among the CCO-application reports, 13.6% studied effect modification for variables at the individual level. Conclusions The use of CCO designs has undergone considerable growth; the most widely used designs were those that yielded better results in simulation studies: symmetric bidirectional and time-stratified CCO. However, the advantages of CCO as a method of analysis of variables at the individual level are put to little use. PMID:20356818

  7. Effect of Air Pollution on Menstrual Cycle Length-A Prognostic Factor of Women's Reproductive Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merklinger-Gruchala, Anna; Jasienska, Grazyna; Kapiszewska, Maria

    2017-07-20

    Air pollution can influence women's reproductive health, specifically menstrual cycle characteristics, oocyte quality, and risk of miscarriage. The aim of the study was to assess whether air pollution can affect the length of the overall menstrual cycle and the length of its phases (follicular and luteal). Municipal ecological monitoring data was used to assess the air pollution exposure during the monitored menstrual cycle of each of 133 woman of reproductive age. Principal component analyses were used to group pollutants (PM 10 , SO₂, CO, and NO x ) to represent a source-related mixture. PM 10 and SO₂ assessed separately negatively affected the length of the luteal phase after standardization (b = -0.02; p = 0.03; b = -0.06; p = 0.02, respectively). Representing a fossil fuel combustion emission, they were also associated with luteal phase shortening (b = -0.32; p = 0.02). These pollutants did not affect the follicular phase length and overall cycle length, neither in single- nor in multi-pollutant models. CO and NO x assessed either separately or together as a traffic emission were not associated with overall cycle length or the length of cycle phases. Luteal phase shortening, a possible manifestation of luteal phase deficiency, can result from fossil fuel combustion. This suggests that air pollution may contribute to fertility problems in women.

  8. Short-term effects of ambient air pollution on pediatric outpatient visits for respiratory diseases in Yichang city, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Yuewei; Xie, Shuguang; Yu, Qing; Huo, Xixiang; Ming, Xiaoyan; Wang, Jing; Zhou, Yun; Peng, Zhe; Zhang, Hai; Cui, Xiuqing; Xiang, Hua; Huang, Xiji; Zhou, Ting; Chen, Weihong; Shi, Tingming

    2017-01-01

    Previous studies have suggested that short-term exposure to ambient air pollution was associated with pediatric hospital admissions and emergency room visits for certain respiratory diseases; however, there is limited evidence on the association between short-term air pollution exposure and pediatric outpatient visits. Our aim was to quantitatively assess the short-term effects of ambient air pollution on pediatric outpatient visits for respiratory diseases. We conducted a time-series study in Yichang city, China between Jan 1, 2014 and Dec 31, 2015. Daily counts of pediatric respiratory outpatient visits were collected from 3 large hospitals, and then linked with air pollution data from 5 air quality monitoring stations by date. We used generalized additive Poisson models to conduct linear and nonlinear exposure-response analyses between air pollutant exposures and pediatric respiratory outpatient visits, adjusting for seasonality, day of week, public holiday, temperature, and relative humidity. Each interquartile range (IQR) increase in PM 2.5 (lag 0), PM 10 (lag 0), NO 2 (lag 0), CO (lag 0), and O 3 (lag 4) concentrations was significantly associated with a 1.91% (95% CI: 0.60%, 3.23%), 2.46% (1.09%, 3.85%), 1.88% (0.49%, 3.29%), 2.00% (0.43%, 3.59%), and 1.91% (0.45%, 3.39%) increase of pediatric respiratory outpatient visits, respectively. Similarly, the nonlinear exposure-response analyses showed monotonic increases of pediatric respiratory outpatient visits by increasing air pollutant exposures, though the associations for NO 2 and CO attenuated at higher concentrations. These associations were unlikely modified by season. We did not observe significant association for SO 2 exposure. Our results suggest that short-term exposures to PM 2.5 , PM 10 , NO 2 , CO, and O 3 may account for increased risk of pediatric outpatient visits for respiratory diseases, and emphasize the needs for reduction of air pollutant exposures for children. - Highlights: • PM 2

  9. Effects of atmospheric transport and trade on air pollution mortality in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hongyan; Li, Xin; Zhang, Qiang; Jiang, Xujia; Lin, Jintai; Peters, Glen P.; Li, Meng; Geng, Guannan; Zheng, Bo; Huo, Hong; Zhang, Lin; Wang, Haikun; Davis, Steven J.; He, Kebin

    2017-09-01

    Air quality is a major environmental concern in China, where premature deaths due to air pollution have exceeded 1 million people per year in recent years. Here, using a novel coupling of economic, physical and epidemiological models, we estimate the premature mortality related to anthropogenic outdoor PM2.5 air pollution in seven regions of China in 2010 and show for the first time how the distribution of these deaths in China is determined by a combination of economic activities and physical transport of pollution in the atmosphere. We find that 33 % (338 600 premature deaths) of China's PM2.5-related premature mortality in 2010 were caused by pollutants emitted in a different region of the country and transported in the atmosphere, especially from north to south and from east to west. Trade further extended the cross-regional impact; 56 % of (568 900 premature deaths) China's PM2.5-related premature mortality was related to consumption in another region, including 423 800 (42 % of total) and 145 100 (14 %) premature deaths from domestic consumption and international trade respectively. Our results indicate that multilateral and multi-stage cooperation under a regional sustainable development framework is in urgent need to mitigate air pollution and related health impacts, and efforts to reduce the health impacts of air pollution in China should be prioritized according to the source and location of emissions, the type and economic value of the emitting activities, and the related patterns of consumption.

  10. Technology of Measuring equipment for Air Pollution. Development of Mobile Air Pollution monitoring system (LIDAR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cha, Hyung Ki; Song, Ky Seok; Rhee, Young Joo; Kim, Duck Hyun; Yang, Ki Ho; Lee, Jong Min; Cha, Byung Heon; Lee, Kang Soo

    1999-01-01

    Most air pollution monitoring technologies accompany a time-consuming sample treatment process and provides pollution information only for a local area. Thus, they have a critical restriction in monitoring time-dependent pollution variation effectively over the wide range of area both in height and in width. LIDAR (Light detection and ranging) is a new technology to overcome such drawbacks of the existing pollution monitoring technologies and has long been investigated in the advanced countries. The goal of this project is to develop the mobile air pollution monitoring system and to apply the system to the detection of various pollutants, such as ozone, nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide and aerosols

  11. Technology of Measuring equipment for Air Pollution. Development of Mobile Air Pollution monitoring system (LIDAR)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cha, Hyung Ki; Song, Ky Seok; Rhee, Young Joo; Kim, Duck Hyun; Yang, Ki Ho; Lee, Jong Min; Cha, Byung Heon; Lee, Kang Soo

    1999-01-01

    Most air pollution monitoring technologies accompany a time-consuming sample treatment process and provides pollution information only for a local area. Thus, they have a critical restriction in monitoring time-dependent pollution variation effectively over the wide range of area both in height and in width. LIDAR (Light detection and ranging) is a new technology to overcome such drawbacks of the existing pollution monitoring technologies and has long been investigated in the advanced countries. The goal of this project is to develop the mobile air pollution monitoring system and to apply the system to the detection of various pollutants, such as ozone, nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide and aerosols.

  12. Dietary and Pharmacological Intervention to Mitigate the Cardiopulmonary Effects of Air Pollution Toxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Human exposure to air pollution has long been associated with excess morbidity and mortality. Although regulatory measures carried out under the “Clean Air Act” have saved millions of lives, there are still hundreds of thousands of people in the U.S. that live in area...

  13. Air Pollution and Forest Health: Establishing Cause and Effect in the Forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William J. Manning

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available I participated in a NATO Advanced Research Workshop titled “Effects of Air Pollution on Forest Health and Biodiversity in Forests of the Carpathian Mountains,” in Stara Lesna, Slovakia from May 22–26, 2001. Researchers from Canada, Czech Republic, Poland, Romania, Slovakia, Ukraine, and the U.S. met to present their results from a three-year cooperative study of tree health and air quality monitoring in forests of the Carpathian Mountains in Central Europe. Much of the work reported related to assessing the crown condition of trees in permanent plots in natural or managed (planted forests in the mountains. The endpoint was tree condition, with results extrapolated to the forests in the Carpathian range. From this I learned that, of the 50,000 trees evaluated, European beech (Fagus sylvatica was the most healthy, while Norway spruce (Picea abies (the principal forest tree and white fir (Abies alba sustained crown defoliation of up to 12.8%. The cause of this crown defoliation and tree decline was usually attributed to “air pollution” as a generic term and an automatic assumption. It is well known that deposition of heavy metals and acidic sulfur and nitrogen compounds can cause tree decline and predispose affected trees to bark beetles and climatic damage. Chemical analyses can also be done to detect metals and sulfur compounds in trees and soils. Sometimes these analyses were done, but most often the assumption was that crown defoliation was caused by air pollution. The assumption was that given sufficient exposure to high enough concentrations of toxic elements, sooner or later there will be a visible adverse response.

  14. Air pollution policies in Europe: efficiency gains from integrating climate effects with damage costs to health and crops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tollefsen, Petter; Rypdal, Kristin; Torvanger, Asbjorn; Rive, Nathan

    2009-01-01

    Emissions of air pollutants cause damage to health and crops, but several air pollutants also have an effect on climate through radiative forcing. We investigate efficiency gains achieved by integrating climate impacts of air pollutants into air quality strategies for the EU region. The pollutants included in this study are SO 2 , NH 3 , VOC, CO, NO x , black carbon, organic carbon, PM 2.5 , and CH 4 . We illustrate the relative importance of climate change effects compared to damage to health and crops, as well as monetary gains of including climate change contributions. The analysis considers marginal abatement costs and compares air quality and climate damage in Euros. We optimize abatement policies with respect to both climate and health impacts, which imply implementing all measures that yield a net benefit. The efficiency gains of the integrated policy are in the order of 2.5 billion Euros, compared to optimal abatement based on health and crop damage only, justifying increased abatement efforts of close to 50%. Climate effect of methane is the single most important factor. If climate change is considered on a 20- instead of a 100-year time-scale, the efficiency gain almost doubles. Our results indicate that air pollution policies should be supplemented with climate damage considerations.

  15. Air pollution particles and iron homeostasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: The mechanism underlying biological effects of particles deposited in the lung has not been defined. Major Conclusions: A disruption in iron homeostasis follows exposure of cells to all particulate matter including air pollution particles. Following endocytosis, fun...

  16. Transportation, Air Pollution, and Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learn how emissions reductions, advancements in fuels and fuel economy, and working with industry to find solutions to air pollution problems benefit human and environmental health, create consumer savings and are cost effective.

  17. Air pollution episodes in Stockholm regional background air due to sources in Europe and their effects on human population

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, C. [Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Inst., Norrkoping (Sweden)], E-mail: camilla.andersson@smhi.se; Joensson, O. [Stockholm Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Applied Environmental Science; Forsberg, B. [Umea Univ. (Sweden), Occupational and Environmental Medicine; Johansson, C. [Environmental and Health Administration, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2013-09-01

    Using air quality measurements, we categorized air pollution according to source sectors in a rural background environment in southern Sweden based on hourly air-mass backward trajectories during 1997-2010. Concentrations of fine (PM{sub 2.5}) and sum of fine and coarse particulate matter (PM{sub 10}), accumulation mode particle number, black carbon and surface ozone were 4.0, 3.9, 4.5, 6.8 and 1.3 times higher, respectively, in air masses from the southeast as compared with those in air masses from the cleanest sector in the northwest, consistent with air-mass transport over areas with relatively high emissions of primary particulate matter (PM) and secondary PM precursors. The highest ultrafine particle numbers were associated with clean air from the northwest. We estimate that almost 7.8% and 0.6% higher premature human mortality is caused by PM{sub 2.5} and ozone exposure, respectively, when air originates from the southeast as compared with that when air originates from the northwest. Reductions of emissions in eastern Europe would reduce the highest air pollution concentrations and associated health risks. However, since air masses from the southwest are more frequent, emissions in the western part of Europe are more important for annual mean premature mortality. (orig.)

  18. Respiratory effects of air pollutants among nonsmoking traffic policemen of Patiala, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharat Gupta

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Air pollution due to road traffic is a serious health hazard and thus the persons who are continuously exposed, may be at an increased risk. Although several studies have confirmed the ill effects of air pollutants on the lung function of traffic policemen, only a few have investigated the relationship between respiratory health and duration of exposure in this category of occupationally exposed persons. Aim: The study was carried out with the aim of evaluating the extent of impairment in lung function in traffic policemen in respect to an unexposed control group having the same age group. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in which the spirometric parameters of a group of 100 nonsmoking traffic policemen, aged 20-55 years, working in and around Patiala city, were compared with those obtained in an age-matched control group, consisting of 100 healthy males, serving in the Punjab Police, who have never done traffic duty and are thus not exposed to traffic pollution. Lung function was done with MEDSPIROR. The data on the overall health status of the subjects was collected using the standard Respirator Medical Evaluation Questionnaire. The statistical analysis was carried out with SPSS PC software version 13. Results: Traffic policemen recorded a significant decline in various parameters, such as forced vital capacity (FVC, forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV 1 , and peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR when compared with controls, and is probably due to exposure to vehicular pollution. It was also observed that in traffic policemen with >8 years of exposure, the values of FVC (2.7 L, FEV 1 (1.8 L, and PEFR (7.5 L/s were significantly lower than those obtained in traffic policemen with <8 years of exposure, in whom the values were 2.9 L, 2.3 L, and 7.7 L/s for FVC, FEV 1, and PEFR, respectively. Conclusion: The effect of pollution by vehicular exhausts may be responsible for these pulmonary function

  19. Effects of Roof-Edge Roughness on Air Temperature and Pollutant Concentration in Urban Canyons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aliabadi, Amir A.; Krayenhoff, E. Scott; Nazarian, Negin; Chew, Lup Wai; Armstrong, Peter R.; Afshari, Afshin; Norford, Leslie K.

    2017-08-01

    The influence of roof-edge roughness elements on airflow, heat transfer, and street-level pollutant transport inside and above a two-dimensional urban canyon is analyzed using an urban energy balance model coupled to a large-eddy simulation model. Simulations are performed for cold (early morning) and hot (mid afternoon) periods during the hottest month of the year (August) for the climate of Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates. The analysis suggests that early in the morning, and when the tallest roughness elements are implemented, the temperature above the street level increases on average by 0.5 K, while the pollutant concentration decreases by 2% of the street-level concentration. For the same conditions in mid afternoon, the temperature decreases conservatively by 1 K, while the pollutant concentration increases by 7% of the street-level concentration. As a passive or active architectural solution, the roof roughness element shows promise for improving thermal comfort and air quality in the canyon for specific times, but this should be further verified experimentally. The results also warrant a closer look at the effects of mid-range roughness elements in the urban morphology on atmospheric dynamics so as to improve parametrizations in mesoscale modelling.

  20. An assessment the effects of human-caused air pollution on resources within the interior Columbia River basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoettle, A.W.; Tonnessen, K.; Turk, J.; Vimont, J.; Amundson, Ronald; Acheson, A.; Peterson, J.

    1999-01-01

    An assessment of existing and potential impacts to vegetation, aquatics, and visibility within the Columbia River basin due to air pollution was conducted as part of the Interior Columbia Basin Ecosystem Management Project. This assessment examined the current situation and potential trends due to pollutants such as ammonium, nitrogen oxides, sulfur oxides, particulates, carbon, and ozone. Ecosystems and resources at risk are identified, including certain forests, lichens, cryptogamic crusts, high-elevation lakes and streams, arid lands, and class I areas. Current monitoring data are summarized and air pollution sources identified. The assessment also includes a summary of data gaps and suggestions for future research and monitoring related to air pollution and its effects on resources in the interior Columbia River basin.

  1. Effects of ambient air pollution and environmental tobacco smoke on respiratory health of non-smoking women in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, C M; Hu, Z G; Lam, T H; Hedley, A J; Peters, J

    1999-10-01

    Two-thirds of complaints received by the Hong Kong Environmental Protection Department in 1988 were related to poor air quality. In July 1990 legislation was implemented to reduce fuel sulphur levels. The intervention led to a reduction in respiratory symptoms and bronchial hyperresponsiveness of primary school children. The objectives of this study were to investigate the differences in respiratory health between non-smoking women living in the more polluted district (Kwai Tsing) and those living in the less polluted district (Southern); to assess the impact of the government air quality intervention; and to study the effect of environmental tobacco smoke on respiratory health in non-smoking women in both districts. A total of 3405 non-smoking women, aged 36.5 years (standard deviation = 3.0), from two districts with good and poor air quality respectively before the intervention were followed yearly from 1989 to 1991. Binary latent variable modelling was used to summarize the six respiratory symptoms and to estimate the effects of risk factors. In 1989, living in the polluted district was associated with poor respiratory health (odds ratio [OR] = 1.55, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.11-2.17, P 0.241) in the more polluted compared with the less polluted district for poor respiratory health. In 1989, the effects on poor respiratory health for exposure to two or more categories of smokers relative to none in the home (OR = 1.80, 95% CI: 1.15-2.83, P living in polluted relative to less polluted district (95% CI of the two effects overlapping each other). Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) and outdoor air pollution had independent adverse effects on respiratory health of non-smoking women and improvement in air quality had produced some but non-significant benefits.

  2. Long-term exposure to ambient air pollution and traffic noise and incident hypertension in seven cohorts of the European study of cohorts for air pollution effects (ESCAPE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuks, Kateryna B; Weinmayr, Gudrun; Basagaña, Xavier; Gruzieva, Olena; Hampel, Regina; Oftedal, Bente; Sørensen, Mette; Wolf, Kathrin; Aamodt, Geir; Aasvang, Gunn Marit; Aguilera, Inmaculada; Becker, Thomas; Beelen, Rob; Brunekreef, Bert; Caracciolo, Barbara; Cyrys, Josef; Elosua, Roberto; Eriksen, Kirsten Thorup; Foraster, Maria; Fratiglioni, Laura; Hilding, Agneta; Houthuijs, Danny; Korek, Michal; Künzli, Nino; Marrugat, Jaume; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark; Östenson, Claes-Göran; Penell, Johanna; Pershagen, Göran; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole; Swart, Wim J R; Peters, Annette; Hoffmann, Barbara

    2017-04-01

    We investigated whether traffic-related air pollution and noise are associated with incident hypertension in European cohorts. We included seven cohorts of the European study of cohorts for air pollution effects (ESCAPE). We modelled concentrations of particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter ≤2.5 µm (PM2.5), ≤10 µm (PM10), >2.5, and ≤10 µm (PMcoarse), soot (PM2.5 absorbance), and nitrogen oxides at the addresses of participants with land use regression. Residential exposure to traffic noise was modelled at the facade according to the EU Directive 2002/49/EC. We assessed hypertension as (i) self-reported and (ii) measured (systolic BP ≥ 140 mmHg or diastolic BP ≥ 90 mmHg or intake of BP lowering medication (BPLM). We used Poisson regression with robust variance estimation to analyse associations of traffic-related exposures with incidence of hypertension, controlling for relevant confounders, and combined the results from individual studies with random-effects meta-analysis. Among 41 072 participants free of self-reported hypertension at baseline, 6207 (15.1%) incident cases occurred within 5-9 years of follow-up. Incidence of self-reported hypertension was positively associated with PM2.5 (relative risk (RR) 1.22 [95%-confidence interval (CI):1.08; 1.37] per 5 µg/m³) and PM2.5 absorbance (RR 1.13 [95% CI:1.02; 1.24] per 10 - 5m - 1). These estimates decreased slightly upon adjustment for road traffic noise. Road traffic noise was weakly positively associated with the incidence of self-reported hypertension. Among 10 896 participants at risk, 3549 new cases of measured hypertension occurred. We found no clear associations with measured hypertension. Long-term residential exposures to air pollution and noise are associated with increased incidence of self-reported hypertension. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2016. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Effects and control of long-range transboundary air pollution. Report prepared within the framework of the Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    This tenth volume of the series of Air Pollution Studies, published under the auspices of the Executive Body for the Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution, contains the documents reviewed and approved for publication at the eleventh session of the Executive Body held at Geneva from 1 to 3 December 1993. Part One is the Annual Review of Strategies and Policies for Air Pollution Abatement. National emission data and forecasts for sulphur dioxide (SO 2 ), nitrogen oxides (NO x ), volatile organic compounds (VOCs), ammonia (NH 3 ) and carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) from 1980 to 2005 are presented. Conclusions are drawn concerning the status of implementation of the sulphur and nitrogen oxides protocols on the basis of these data. Part Two is an executive summary of the 1992 Report on the Forest Condition in Europe. The main objective of this report is to give a condensed description of the condition of forests in Europe, as it has been assessed by the transnational and national annual surveys, carried out jointly by the ECE under the Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution and by the European Community (EC). Part Three is a summary report that focuses on the reduction of air pollution from heat and electric energy production. It is based on discussion papers submitted to the fifth ECE Seminar on Emission Control Technology for Stationary Sources, held in Nuremberg (Germany) from 10 to 14 June 1991. This chapter presents the main control techniques to reduce emissions from fuel combustion, which is a major contribution in most ECE countries to air pollution by sulphur and nitrogen compounds, carbon oxides, organic compounds, as well as heavy metals. Three principal abatement options are reviewed: fuel cleaning and fuel conversion, low-emission combustion processes, and flue gas cleaning processes. Both technical and economic aspects of the different measures are discussed

  4. Botanical indications of air pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skye, E

    1965-01-01

    This article is a survey of the knowledge current in 1965 concerning plants as bioindicators of air pollution. Discussion centers on lichens, conifers and bryophytes, and is drawn primarily from the European literature.

  5. The price of air pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiemstra-Holtkamp, I.V.L.

    2006-01-01

    The mortality in the Netherlands as a result of exposure to particulates is 18,000 per year. Less known is the high number of cases of sickness cased by air pollution and related cost for the Dutch society [nl

  6. Dietary habits and the short-term effects of air pollution on mortality in the Chinese population in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ou, Chun-Quan; Wong, Chit-Ming; Ho, Sai-Yin; Schooling, Mary; Yang, Lin; Hedley, Anthony J; Lam, Tai-Hing

    2012-03-01

    Both diet and air pollution are associated with mortality risks. However, no epidemiological study has examined the potential interaction between diet and air pollution on mortality. We assessed their interaction on an additive scale. We analysed the data on daily concentrations of ambient air pollutants (PM(10), NO(2), SO(2) and O(3)) and a total of 23 484 deaths in 1998 in Hong Kong. A standardised questionnaire was used in all four death registries to collect food frequency data from proxy respondents while waiting for the registration to be completed. We fitted a linear odds ratio model and estimated excess relative risk due to the interaction (ERRI) between air pollution and regular consumption (at least once per week) of each food item to measure departure from additivity of effects on mortality. We observed consistently negative ERRI between all of the four pollutants and regular consumption of vegetables, fruits and soy. The effects of PM(10), NO(2) and O(3) were significant smaller in the subjects who regularly consumed fruits than those who never or seldom consumed such food. The effect modification of soy consumption on PM(10), NO(2) and SO(2) associated mortality was also found statistically significant. However, regular consumption of dairy products was associated with significant increased effects of PM(10) and NO(2). This study provides insight into dietary habit as one of the modifiers of health effects of air pollution. Our findings merit further studies to characterise the influence of diet on air pollution-related health and elucidate the underlying mechanisms.

  7. Pigeons home faster through polluted air

    OpenAIRE

    Zhongqiu Li; Franck Courchamp; Daniel T. Blumstein

    2016-01-01

    Air pollution, especially haze pollution, is creating health issues for both humans and other animals. However, remarkably little is known about how animals behaviourally respond to air pollution. We used multiple linear regression to analyse 415 pigeon races in the North China Plain, an area with considerable air pollution, and found that while the proportion of pigeons successfully homed was not influenced by air pollution, pigeons homed faster when the air was especially polluted. Our resu...

  8. Effects of weather variability and air pollutants on emergency admissions for cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hori, Aya; Hashizume, Masahiro; Tsuda, Yoko; Tsukahara, Teruomi; Nomiyama, Tetsuo

    2012-01-01

    We examined the effect of ambient temperature, air pressure and air pollutants on daily emergency admissions by identifying the cause of admission for each type of stroke and cardiovascular disease using generalized linear Poisson regression models allowing for overdispersion, and controlling for seasonal and inter-annual variations, days of the week and public holidays, levels of influenza and respiratory syncytial viruses. Every 1°C decrease in mean temperature was associated with an increase in the daily number of emergency admissions by 7.83% (95% CI 2.06-13.25) for acute coronary syndrome (ACS) and heart failure, by 35.57% (95% CI 15.59-59.02) for intracerebral haemorrhage (ICH) and by 11.71% (95% CI 4.1-19.89) for cerebral infarction. An increase of emergency admissions due to ICH (3.25% (95% CI 0.94-5.51)), heart failure (3.56% (95% CI 1.09-5.96)) was observed at every 1 hPa decrease in air pressure from the previous days. We found stronger detrimental effect of cold on stroke than cardiovascular disease.

  9. Accounting for spatial effects in land use regression for urban air pollution modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertazzon, Stefania; Johnson, Markey; Eccles, Kristin; Kaplan, Gilaad G

    2015-01-01

    In order to accurately assess air pollution risks, health studies require spatially resolved pollution concentrations. Land-use regression (LUR) models estimate ambient concentrations at a fine spatial scale. However, spatial effects such as spatial non-stationarity and spatial autocorrelation can reduce the accuracy of LUR estimates by increasing regression errors and uncertainty; and statistical methods for resolving these effects--e.g., spatially autoregressive (SAR) and geographically weighted regression (GWR) models--may be difficult to apply simultaneously. We used an alternate approach to address spatial non-stationarity and spatial autocorrelation in LUR models for nitrogen dioxide. Traditional models were re-specified to include a variable capturing wind speed and direction, and re-fit as GWR models. Mean R(2) values for the resulting GWR-wind models (summer: 0.86, winter: 0.73) showed a 10-20% improvement over traditional LUR models. GWR-wind models effectively addressed both spatial effects and produced meaningful predictive models. These results suggest a useful method for improving spatially explicit models. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  10. Acute effects of outdoor air pollution on emergency department visits due to five clinical subtypes of coronary heart diseases in shanghai, china.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Juan; He, Mingzhen; Zhu, Weiying

    2014-01-01

    Air pollution can be a contributing cause to the development and exacerbation of coronary heart disease (CHD), but there is little knowledge about the acute effects of air pollution on different clinical subtypes of CHD. We conducted a time-series study to investigate the association of air pollution (particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter effects on sudden cardiac death, moderate effects on acute myocardial infarction and angina, weak effects on ischemic cardiomyopathy, and no effect on occult CHD. The associations were stronger among people aged 65 years or more than in younger individuals and in the cool season versus the warm one. Outdoor air pollution may have different effects of air pollution on 5 subtypes of CHD. Our results might be useful for the primary prevention of various subtypes of CHD exacerbated by air pollution.

  11. Air pollution and the school air environment

    OpenAIRE

    Fsadni, Peter; Montefort, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    There is growing concern about the association of school indoor air quality (SIAQ) with asthma, rhinitis, and rhinoconjunctivitis. Students and school staff deserve the highest standards of school air quality to ensure a safe and productive environment for our children’s education. Existing studies highlight the presence of several air pollutants present within school classrooms that have a direct association with poor health and poor student performance. Very little data exist ab...

  12. Effect of Air Pollution on the Emergency Admissions of Cardiovascular and Respiratory Patients, Using the Air Quality Model: A Study in Tehran, 2005-2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Kermani

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Air pollution is one of the most important factors threatening the health of citizens. It increases the prevalence of cardiovascular and respiratory diseases as well as emergency admissions to hospitals in the polluted metropolitan cities. The present study was conducted using Air Quality (AirQ model and aimed to investigate the effects of air pollution on the number of emergency cardiovascular and respiratory patients admissions in Tehran hospitals during 2005-2014. Materials and Methods: This was cross-sectional study. First, the needed hourly information was received from the Bureau of Air Quality Control, and the Environmental Protection Agency of Tehran City. Then, the information was validated according to WHO criteria, and the statistical indicators and the stages required to quantify the harmful effects of air pollutants were calculated by using appropriate application. Results: According to the results, the number of cases admitted to the emergency ward of hospitals due to heart diseases (by exposure to particulate matter during the years 2005 to 2014 were respectively 1797, 1280, 1766, 1980, 2132, 2703, 2389, 2594, 2158, and 2291 cases, totaling 20990 persons, and for respiratory diseases (due to exposure to particulate matter during the same years were respectively 4643, 3301, 4650, 5117, 5511, 6999, 6180, 6452, 5577, and 5922 cases, totaling 54352 people. Also, the number of cases admitted to the emergency wards of hospitals due to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease caused by exposure to emissions of pollutants such as sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, and ozone were respectively, 1806, 2454, and 2941 cases. Conclusion: Air pollution in Tehran increases the load of emergency visits to hospitals and increases the risk of respiratory and heart diseases. Therefore, measures to reduce and control air pollution and to prepare, equip, and mobilize hospitals, particularly emergency wards, are among important priorities that

  13. What health professionals should know about the health effects of air pollution and climate change on children and pregnant mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poursafa, Parinaz; Kelishadi, Roya

    2011-01-01

    Health professionals face the adverse health effects of climate change and air pollution in their practices. This review underscores the effects of these environmental factors on maternal and children's health, as the most vulnerable groups to climate change and air pollution. We reviewed electronic databases for a search of the literature to find relevant studies published in English from 1990 to 2011. Environmental factors, notably climate change and air pollution influence children's health before conception and continue during pregnancy, childhood, and adolescence. Experts have suggested that such health hazards may represent the greatest public health challenge that humanity has faced. The accumulation of greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide, primarily from burning fossil fuels, results in warming which has an impact on air pollution particularly on levels of ozone and particulates. Heat-related health effects include increased rates of pregnancy complications, pre-eclampsia, eclampsia, low birth weight, renal effects, vector-borne diseases as malaria and dengue, increased diarrheal and respiratory disease, food insecurity, decreased quality of foods (notably grains), malnutrition, water scarcity, exposures to toxic chemicals, worsened poverty, natural disasters and population displacement. Air pollution has many adverse health effects for mothers and children. In addition to short-term effects like premature labour, intrauterine growth retardation, neonatal and infant mortality rate, malignancies (notably leukaemia and Hodgkin lymphoma), respiratory diseases, allergic disorders and anaemia, exposure to criteria air pollutants from early life might be associated with increase in stress oxidative, inflammation and endothelial dysfunction which in turn might have long-term effects on chronic non-communicable diseases. Health professionals have an exclusive capability to help prevent and reduce the harmful effects of environmental factors for high-risk groups

  14. Application of Steinbuch's ''lernmatrix'' as a new mathematical approach in the assessment of air pollution effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prinz, B [Landesanstalt fuer Immissions- und Bodennutzungsschutz des Landes Nordrhein-Westfalen, Essen; Hower, J

    1976-01-01

    Special investigations are being carried out on the effects of airborne lead on children, as part of a comprehensive surveillance system of air pollution effects on materials and biological receptors in the land Northrhine Westphalia. This study is executed in two stages. Firstly, blood lead of new-borns is compared with measures of airborne lead at the mother's place of residence. From this comparison a correlation of r/sup 2/ = 0.40 was ascertained. Secondly, highly burdened children are selected and investigated for possible neurological retardation during their first year after birth. For this investigation, which is now under way in the Duisburg area, a newly developed technique is applied that is based on a standardized method for eliciting and categorizing infantile reflex patterns. The reduction of the resulting multivariate neurological profiles to an uniform scale of developmental age and the comparison to some reference group is carried out by the application of Steinbuch's Lernmatrix (learning matrix).

  15. Managing Air Quality - Control Strategies to Achieve Air Pollution Reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Considerations in designing an effective control strategy related to air quality, controlling pollution sources, need for regional or national controls, steps to developing a control strategy, and additional EPA resources.

  16. Effect of Air Pollution and Rural-Urban Difference on Mental Health of the Elderly in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Tao; Chen, Yuhuai; Zhu, Jing; Liu, Pengling

    2015-08-01

    China has become an aging society, and the mental health problem of the elderly is increasingly becoming prominent. This paper aimed to analyze the effect of air pollution and rural-urban difference on mental health of the elderly in China. Using the data from the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Survey (CHARLS, 2013), after controlling the social demography variable via Tobit and Probit, a regression analysis of the effect of air pollution and rural-urban difference on mental health and psychological disorder was conducted on 6,630 old people (≧60 yr old) of China from February to April 2015. Mental health and psychological disorder of the elderly were measured by the CES-D score of respondents. Air pollution degree of counties and cities (n=123) were measured by SO2 emission. 27.8% of old people had psychological disorders. Air pollution significantly influenced the mental health of the elderly, showing a positive "U-shaped" curve (Phealth problems. Marriage, education, and social activities had positive effects on the mental health of the elderly. China's local governments should consider the influence of air pollution on the mental health of the elderly during economic development. This paper recommends paying attention to the difference in mental health between the urban and rural elderly when making public health policies. Governments could improve the mental health of the elderly by enriching social activities and increasing employment opportunities of the elderly.

  17. [Temperature that modifies the effect of air pollution on emergency room visits for circulatory and respiratory diseases in Beijing, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, L L; Zhang, Q; Bai, R H; Mi, B B; Yan, H

    2017-08-10

    Objective: To analyze the temperature modification effect on emergency room visits for circulatory and respiratory diseases caused by air pollution, in Beijing. Methods: Data on both circulatory and respiratory diseases in 2010 and 2011 were collected, Both meteorological and air pollutants related data were obtained from the National Scientific Data Sharing Platform for Population and Health. By using the stratified time-series models, we analyzed the effects of air pollution on emergency room visits for circulatory and respiratory diseases under different temperature zones, from 2010 to 2011, in Beijing. Results: Low temperature (daily average temperatureeffect of air pollution index (API) on emergency room visits for circulatory diseases, Under 10 units of API, the relative risks and confidence interval appeared as 1.067 (1.054-1.080). However, high (daily average temperature between 24.4 ℃ and 28.5 ℃) and extra-high temperature (daily average temperature >28.5 ℃) could enhance the effect of API on emergency room visits for respiratory diseases, Under 10 units of API, the relative risks and confidence interval were 1.021 (1.015-1.028) and 1.006 (1.003-1.008), respectively. Conclusion: Temperature seemed to have modified the association between air pollution and both circulatory and respiratory diseases.

  18. Indoor air pollution: a public health perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spengler, J.D.; Sexton, K.

    1983-01-01

    Although official efforts to control air pollution have traditionally focused on outdoor air, it is now apparent that elevated contaminant concentrations are common inside some private and public buildings. Concerns about potential public health problems due to indoor air pollution are based on evidence that urban residents typically spend more than 90 percent of their time indoors, concentrations of some contaminants are higher indoors than outdoors, and for some pollutants personal exposures are not characterized adequately by outdoor measurements. Among the more important indoor contaminants associated with health or irritation effects are passive tobacco smoke, radon decay products, carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, formaldehyde, asbestos fibers, microorganisms, and aeroallergens. Efforts to assess health risks associated with indoor air pollution are limited by insufficient information about the number of people exposed, the pattern and severity of exposures, and the health consequences of exposures. An overall strategy should be developed to investigate indoor exposures, health effects, control options, and public policy alternatives

  19. Chronic effects of ambient air pollution on respiratory morbidities among Chinese children: a cross-sectional study in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yang; Chan, Emily Yy; Li, Liping; Lau, Patrick Wc; Wong, Tze Wai

    2014-02-03

    The chronic health effects from exposure to ambient air pollution are still unclear. This study primarily aims to examine the relationship between long-term exposure to ambient air pollution and respiratory morbidities in Chinese children. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 2,203 school children aged 8-10 in three districts with different air pollution levels in Hong Kong. Annual means for ambient PM10, SO2, NO2 and O3 in each district were used to estimate participants' individual exposure. Two questionnaires were used to collect children's respiratory morbidities and other potential risk factors. Multivariable logistic regression was fitted to estimate the risks of air pollution for respiratory morbidities. Compared to those in the low-pollution district (LPD), girls in the high-pollution district (HPD) were at significantly higher risk for cough at night (ORadj. = 1.81, 95% CI: 1.71-2.78) and phlegm without colds (ORadj. = 3.84, 95% CI: 1.74-8.47). In addition, marginal significance was reached for elevated risks for asthma, wheezing symptoms, and phlegm without colds among boys in HPD (adjusted ORs: 1.71-2.82), as well as chronic cough among girls in HPD (ORadj. = 2.03, 95% CI: 0.88-4.70). Results have confirmed certain adverse effects on children's respiratory health from long-term exposure to ambient air pollution. PM10 may be the most relevant pollutant with adverse effects on wheezing and phlegm in boys. Both PM10 and NO2 may be contributing to cough and phlegm in girls.

  20. Modeled effects of an improved building insulation scenario in Europe on air pollution, health and societal costs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bønløkke, Jakob Hjort; Holst, Gitte Juel; Sigsgaard, Torben

    2015-01-01

    scenario in Europe would have substantial benefits on health through improvements in air pollution. Health effects and societal cost savings may significantly counterbalance investment costs and should be taken into account when evaluating strategies for mitigation of global warming....... with extensions. Mean annual changes in the main air pollutants were derived for each country. World Health Organization (WHO) and European Union (EU) data on populations and on impacts of pollutants were used to derive health effects and costs. Effects on indoor air quality were not assessed. Results: Projected...... 78678 LY in Europe. A total of 7173 cases of persistent chronic bronchitis could be avoided annually. Several other health outcomes improved similarly. The saved societal costs totaled 6.64 billion € annually. Conclusions: In addition to carbon emission reductions, an improved building insulation...

  1. Advances of air pollution science: from forest decline to multiple-stress effects on forest ecosystem services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paoletti, E; Schaub, M; Matyssek, R; Wieser, G; Augustaitis, A; Bastrup-Birk, A M; Bytnerowicz, A; Günthardt-Goerg, M S; Müller-Starck, G; Serengil, Y

    2010-06-01

    Over the past 20 years, the focus of forest science on air pollution has moved from forest decline to a holistic framework of forest health, and from the effects on forest production to the ecosystem services provided by forest ecosystems. Hence, future research should focus on the interacting factorial impacts and resulting antagonistic and synergistic responses of forest trees and ecosystems. The synergistic effects of air pollution and climatic changes, in particular elevated ozone, altered nitrogen, carbon and water availability, must be key issues for research. Present evidence suggests air pollution will become increasingly harmful to forests under climate change, which requires integration amongst various stressors (abiotic and biotic factors, including competition, parasites and fire), effects on forest services (production, biodiversity protection, soil protection, sustained water balance, socio-economical relevance) and assessment approaches (research, monitoring, modeling) to be fostered. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Effects of air pollution on bryophytes in the area of Hunedoara

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peicea, I M

    1973-01-01

    The effects of atmospheric pollution with SO/sub 2/, on bryophyte populations, in the area of the Industrial Complex Hunedoara were investigated. By the comparative analyses of some bryo-ecological indicators for the vegetation of polluted and unpolluted areas, evidence is presented of the increasing effects of a polluted environment in the vicinity of the pollution source. A classification is included of the territory in five areas, according to the degree of pollution. A classification of bryophytes is presented according to the degree of their sensitivity: very resistant, toxitolerant, moderately sensitive, and sensitive species.

  3. Acute effects of air pollution on spontaneous abortion, premature delivery, and stillbirth in Ahvaz, Iran: a time-series study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dastoorpoor, Maryam; Idani, Esmaeil; Goudarzi, Gholamreza; Khanjani, Narges

    2018-02-01

    Living in areas with high air pollution may have adverse effects on human health. There are few studies about the association between breathing polluted air and adverse pregnancy outcomes in the Middle East. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between air pollution and spontaneous abortion, premature birth, and stillbirth in Ahvaz. A time-series study was conducted. Data about spontaneous abortion, premature deliveries, and stillbirth was collected from Ahvaz Imam Khomeini Hospital. Air pollution data including NO, CO, NO 2 , PM 10 , SO 2 , O 3 , and climate data were, respectively, collected from the Environmental Protection Agency and the Khuzestan Province Meteorology Office from March 2008 until March 2015. The relationship between air pollutants with the number of abortions, premature births, and stillbirths was found using a quasi-Poisson distributed lag model, adjusted by trend, seasonality, temperature, relative humidity, weekdays, and holidays. The average daily dust in Ahvaz on 7.2% days of the year was higher than 500 μg/m 3 (very dangerous). Findings from this study indicate a significant association between each 10-unit increase in SO 2 and spontaneous abortion in lag 0 and 9 days. There was a significant relation between each 10-unit increase in NO 2 and CO, and premature birth in lag 0. Also, we found a significant association between each 10-unit increase in CO and premature delivery in lag 1; PM 10 and premature delivery in lags 10, 11, and 12; and NO and premature delivery in lags 3, 4, 10, 11, 12, and 13 (p value polluted air during pregnancy may increase adverse pregnancy outcomes and stillbirth. Pregnant women should avoid polluted air.

  4. Effect of air pollution on the epiphytic flora of conifers in the Stockholm region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lundstroem, H

    1968-01-01

    Epiphytic flora (especially lichens) have been investigated in order to see how they respond to air pollution. The study was restricted to those occurring up to a height of 2.3 m from the ground, on trunks of the conifers Picea abies and Pinus silvestries. The area of investigation lies north of Stockholm. Wind diagrams show a slight predominance of winds from Stockholm. This means that polluted air is spread out over the area of investigation. All epiphytic vegetation on the station-trees for which the species were determined are listed. The distribution of lichen species is discussed, especially how air pollution has affected the distributions of the three lichens, Hypogymnia physodes (L.) Zopf (syn. Parmelia physodes (L.) Ach.) Parmeliopsis ambigua (Wulf) Nyl. Pseudevernia furfuraceae (L.) Zopf (syn. Parmelia furfuraceae (L.) Ach.). Maps of distributions have been made for the most common epiphytes.

  5. Health and air quality 2002 phase 1 : methods for estimating and applying relationships between air pollution and health effects : final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bates, D.V.; Brauer, M.; Koenig, J.; Caton, R.; Drawley, D.

    2003-05-01

    The British Columbia Lung Association recruited members of an expert panel to examine the relationships between exposure to air pollution and effects on human health, in particular human respiratory and cardio-vascular health. This report is intended for regulatory managers, planners, project proponents, researchers and physicians. It reports on the available literature on the subject and offers recommendations on how it can be interpreted in terms of application to problems in British Columbia and the Pacific Northwest. The common air contaminants that are associated with direct human health effects include nitrogen oxides, sulphur oxides, carbon monoxide, ozone, fine particles and inhalable particles (PM). The review did not include toxic or hazardous air pollutants that are considered to be cancer-causing agents, however, the association between air pollution and elevated rates of cancer in urban populations was considered. The panel considered: pollutant mix and exposure patterns; different types of studies such as epidemiology; sources of uncertainty; and, several criteria for judging the power of the relationships. It was concluded that some air pollutants, particularly PM 2.5 and its wood smoke component and ozone are at levels that may cause adverse health effects. It was noted that affected communities should be aware that risk increases with level of exposure and risk of health effects is very low at the lowest ambient concentrations in British Columbia and increases proportionally to ambient concentrations of PM and ozone. refs., tabs., figs

  6. Air Pollution and Climate Change Effects on Allergies in the Anthropocene: Abundance, Interaction, and Modification of Allergens and Adjuvants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinmuth-Selzle, Kathrin; Kampf, Christopher J; Lucas, Kurt; Lang-Yona, Naama; Fröhlich-Nowoisky, Janine; Shiraiwa, Manabu; Lakey, Pascale S J; Lai, Senchao; Liu, Fobang; Kunert, Anna T; Ziegler, Kira; Shen, Fangxia; Sgarbanti, Rossella; Weber, Bettina; Bellinghausen, Iris; Saloga, Joachim; Weller, Michael G; Duschl, Albert; Schuppan, Detlef; Pöschl, Ulrich

    2017-04-18

    Air pollution and climate change are potential drivers for the increasing burden of allergic diseases. The molecular mechanisms by which air pollutants and climate parameters may influence allergic diseases, however, are complex and elusive. This article provides an overview of physical, chemical and biological interactions between air pollution, climate change, allergens, adjuvants and the immune system, addressing how these interactions may promote the development of allergies. We reviewed and synthesized key findings from atmospheric, climate, and biomedical research. The current state of knowledge, open questions, and future research perspectives are outlined and discussed. The Anthropocene, as the present era of globally pervasive anthropogenic influence on planet Earth and, thus, on the human environment, is characterized by a strong increase of carbon dioxide, ozone, nitrogen oxides, and combustion- or traffic-related particulate matter in the atmosphere. These environmental factors can enhance the abundance and induce chemical modifications of allergens, increase oxidative stress in the human body, and skew the immune system toward allergic reactions. In particular, air pollutants can act as adjuvants and alter the immunogenicity of allergenic proteins, while climate change affects the atmospheric abundance and human exposure to bioaerosols and aeroallergens. To fully understand and effectively mitigate the adverse effects of air pollution and climate change on allergic diseases, several challenges remain to be resolved. Among these are the identification and quantification of immunochemical reaction pathways involving allergens and adjuvants under relevant environmental and physiological conditions.

  7. Effect of different levels of air pollution on photosynthetic activity of some lichens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Niewiadomska

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Four lichen species: Hypogymnia physodes, Pseudevernia furfuracea, Parmelia saxatilis, and Platismatia glauca were collected from two sites (S. Poland with a different air pollution level: "Kamienica valley" (less polluted and "Kopa" (more polluted. The thalli were compared with respect to their: net photosynthetic rate (PN, fluorescence parameters (Fv/Fm, Fm, Fm/Fo, chlorophyll a+b content, and phaeophytinization quotient (O.D.435/O.D.415. PN intensity, chlorophyll a+b and O.D.435/O.D.415 were reduced only in Pa furfuracea collected from Kopa, which is in agreement with the Hawksworth-Rose scale of sensitivity of lichens to air pollution. Fluorescence parameters were significantly lowered in all lichens coming from the more polluted site (except of Fv/Fm and Fm/F0 in P. saxatilis. Parameters based on chlorophyll fluorescence measurements enable to reveal the very early signs of decreased photosynthetical capacity of the thalli, caused by air pollution, before changes in the other photosynthetic parameters become mesurable.

  8. [Effect of air pollution on respiratory health in school-aged children in the main urban area of Chongqing, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Ming-Yue; Tang, Xu; Huang, Wei; Dai, Hua; Liu, Xing-Can; Xia, Yin-Yin; Meng, Pan; Zhang, Rui-Yuan; Guo, Yu-Ming; Cheng, Shu-Qun

    2017-04-01

    To investigate the effect of air pollution on respiratory health in school-aged children in the main urban area of Chongqing, China. The main urban area of Chongqing was divided into polluted area and clean area according to the air pollution data shown on the Environmental Protection Agency Website of Chongqing between 2010 and 2015. A cluster sampling method was used to select 695 third- or fourth-grade children from 2 primary schools in the clean or polluted area as study subjects, with 313 children from the clean area and 382 children from the polluted area. Pulmonary function was examined for all children and a standard American epidemiological questionnaire (ATS-DLD-78-C) was used to investigate the prevalence of respiratory diseases and symptoms. Compared with the clean area, the polluted area had significantly higher concentrations of inhalable particles (PM 10 ), fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 ), and nitric oxide (NO X ) (Ppolluted area had significantly higher risks of cough (OR=1.644), cough during cold (OR=1.596), expectoration during cold (OR=2.196), persistent expectoration (OR=1.802), and wheezing (OR=2.415). The boys and girls in the clean area had significantly higher forced vital capacity and forced expiratory volume in one second than those in the polluted area (PAir pollution in the main urban area of Chongqing is associated with the increased prevalence of respiratory symptoms in school-aged children and has certain effect on children's pulmonary function.

  9. Air pollution and human mortality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lave, L B [Carnegie-Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (USA). Dept. of Economics; Seskin, E P [Department of Commerce, Washington, DC (USA). Environmental and Nonmarket Economics Div.

    1979-11-01

    Investigations have been made on the quantitative relationship between air pollution and human mortality. While primary focus has been on suspended particulates and sulfates from stationary sources of pollution, the evidence relating to air pollutants attributed to mobile sources was also examined. Using statistical analyses for a large number of US metropolitan areas, it was concluded that the benefits associated with a substantial abatement of air pollution from stationary sources are greater than the costs of such abatement. In contrast, the situation for mobile sources-chiefly cars and trucks is less clear-cut. That is, the costs of implementing the currently mandated US standards for automobile emissions probably exeed their potential health benefits.

  10. Acute effects of air pollutants on pulmonary function among students: a panel study in an isolated island.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoda, Yoshiko; Takagi, Hiroshi; Wakamatsu, Junko; Ito, Takeshi; Nakatsubo, Ryouhei; Horie, Yosuke; Hiraki, Takatoshi; Shima, Masayuki

    2017-04-04

    Many epidemiological studies on the health effects of air pollutants have been carried out in regions with major sources such as factories and automobiles. However, the health effects of air pollutants in regions without major sources remain unclear. This study investigated the acute effects of ambient air pollution on pulmonary function among healthy students in an isolated island without major artificial sources of air pollutants. A panel study was conducted of 43 healthy subjects who attended a school in an isolated island in the Seto Inland Sea, Japan. We measured the forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV 1 ) and peak expiratory flow (PEF) every morning for about 1 month in May 2014. Ambient concentrations of particulate matter ≤ 2.5 μm in diameter (PM 2.5 ), particulate matter between 2.5 and 10 μm in diameter (PM 10-2.5 ), black carbon (BC), ozone (O 3 ), and nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ) were measured. The associations between the concentrations of air pollutants and pulmonary function were analyzed using mixed-effects models. A decrease in FEV 1 was significantly associated with BC concentrations (-27.28 mL [95%confidence interval (CI):-54.10,-0.46] for an interquartile range (IQR) increase of 0.23 μg/m 3 ). The decrease in PEF was significantly associated with indoor O 3 concentrations (-8.03 L/min [95% CI:-13.02,-3.03] for an IQR increase of 11 ppb). Among subjects with a history of allergy, an increase in PM 2.5 concentrations was significantly associated with low FEV 1 . In subjects with a history of asthma, an inverse association between the indoor O 3 concentration and pulmonary function was observed. Our results demonstrate that increases in BC and O 3 concentrations have acute effects on the pulmonary function among students in an isolated island without major artificial sources of air pollutants.

  11. [Estimating emergency hospital admissions to gauge short-term effects of air pollution: evaluation of health data quality].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bois de Fer, Béatrice; Host, Sabine; Chardon, Benoît; Chatignoux, Edouard; Beaujouan, Laure; Brun-Ney, Dominique; Grémy, Isabelle

    2009-01-01

    The study of the short-term effects and health impact of air pollution is carrier out by the ERPURS regional surveillance program which utilizes hospitalization data obtained from the French hospital information system (PMSI) to determine these links. This system does not permit the distinction between emergency hospital admissions from scheduled ones, which cannot be related to short term changes in air pollution levels. This study examines how scheduled admissions affect the quality of the health indicators used to estimate air pollution effects. This indicator is compared to three new emergency hospitalisation indicators reconstructed based on data from the public hospitals in Paris, partly from the PMSI data and partly with data from an on-line emergency network that regroups all of the computerized emergency services. According to the pathology, scheduled admissions present a difficulty which affects the capacity to highlight the weakest risks with any precision.

  12. The Public Health and Air Pollution in Asia (PAPA) Project: Estimating the Mortality Effects of Particulate Matter in Bangkok, Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Vichit-Vadakan, Nuntavarn; Vajanapoom, Nitaya; Ostro, Bart

    2008-01-01

    Background Air pollution data in Bangkok, Thailand, indicate that levels of particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter ≤10 μm (PM10) are significantly higher than in most cities in North America and Western Europe, where the health effects of PM10 are well documented. However, the pollution mix, seasonality, and demographics are different from those in developed Western countries. It is important, therefore, to determine whether the large metropolitan area of Bangkok is subject to similar e...

  13. The role of non-invasive biomarkers in detecting acute respiratory effects of traffic-related air pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarpa, M C; Kulkarni, N; Maestrelli, P

    2014-09-01

    The role of non-invasive methods in the investigation of acute effects of traffic-related air pollution is not clearly established. We evaluated the usefulness of non-invasive biomarkers in detecting acute air pollution effects according to the age of participants, the disease status, their sensitivity compared with lung function tests and their specificity for a type of pollutant. Search terms lead to 535 titles, among them 128 had potentially relevant abstracts. Sixtynine full papers were reviewed, while 59 articles were excluded as they did not meet the selection criteria. Methods used to assess short-term effects of air pollution included analysis of nasal lavage (NAL) for the upper airways, and induced sputum (IS), exhaled breath condensate (EBC) and exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) for central and lower airways. There is strong evidence that FeNO evaluation is useful independently from subject age, while IS analysis is suitable almost for adults. Biomarker changes are generally observed upon pollutant exposure irrespective of the disease status of the participants. None of the biomarkers identified are specific for a type of pollutant exposure. Based on experimental exposure studies, there is moderate evidence that IS analysis is more sensitive than lung function tests, whereas this is not the case for biomarkers obtained by NAL or EBC. Cells and some cytokines (IL-6, IL-8 and myeloperoxidase) have been measured both in the upper respiratory tract (NAL) and in the lower airways (IS). Overall, the response to traffic exposure seems different in the two compartments. In conclusion, this survey of current literature displays the complexity of this research field, highlights the significance of short-term studies on traffic pollution and gives important tips when planning studies to detect acute respiratory effects of air pollution in a non-invasive way. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Studies on the effects of air pollution on limestone degradation in Great Britain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, A. H.; Bawden, R. J.; Busby, A. K.; Hopkins, J. N.

    The CEGB and the Cathedrals Advisory Commission for England formed a Joint Working Party in 1985 to promote a research programme aimed at improving the understanding of the relationships between stone decay, atmospheric pollution and other factors. The programme has included exposure of limestone samples at York Minster and eight other sites in England and Scotland selected to give a mix of urban, marine and rural locations. All of the sites have comprehensive air pollution and meteorological monitoring and measurement of rainfall chemistry. At two sites samples have been fumigated with controlled levels of sulphur dioxide. Over all sites, there was a significant trend to increased weight loss with increase in average sulphur dioxide concentration, but a negative trend with total nitrogen oxides and with nitrogen dioxide. For sample exposures longer than 200 days, the sulphur dioxide dependence at the inland Liphook fumigation site was about half that found near the coast at Littlehampton. There was no significant trend to increase weight loss with total rainfall amount for the complete data set, but the analysis was dominated by the very wet Scottish site, which experienced the lowest average concentrations of air pollutants. A theoretical model for the chemical dissolution of rainwashed limestone has been derived from consideration of the ion and mass balances between the incident rain water and run-off water. The model has been fitted to the measured loss rates from the stonework field trials. With the exception of the very wet Scottish site, the difference between the stone loss rate, calculated from the model, and the mean measured loss rate for any particular exposure was generally smaller than the variation between the triplicate samples. Variation in the dry deposition velocity between sites and exposure periods does not appear to have been a very significant factor, and no residual effect due to the concentrations of nitrogen oxides was found. The natural

  15. Short term effect of air pollution, noise and heat waves on preterm births in Madrid (Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arroyo, Virginia; Díaz, Julio; Ortiz, Cristina; Carmona, Rocío; Sáez, Marc; Linares, Cristina

    2016-02-01

    Preterm birth (PTB) refers to delivery before 37 weeks of gestation and represents the leading cause of early-life mortality and morbidity in developed countries. PTB can lead to serious infant health outcomes. The etiology of PTB remains uncertain, but epidemiologic studies have consistently shown elevated risks with different environmental variables as traffic-related air pollution (TRAP). The aim of the study was to evaluate with time series methodology the short-term effect of air pollutants, noise levels and ambient temperature on the number of births and preterm births occurred in Madrid City during the 2001-2009 period. A time-series analysis was performed to assess the short term impact of daily mean concentrations (µg/m(3)) of PM2.5 and PM10, O3 and NO2. Measurements of Acoustic Pollution in dB(A) analyzed were: Leqd, equivalent diurnal noise level and Leqn, equivalent nocturnal noise level. Maximum and Minimum daily temperature (°C), mean Humidity in the air (%) and Atmospheric Pressure (HPa), were included too. Linear trends, seasonality, as well as the autoregressive nature of the series itself were controlled. We added as covariate the day of the week too. Autoregressive over-dispersed Poisson regression models were performed and the environmental variables were included with short-term lags (from 0 to 7 days) in reference to the date of birth. Firstly, simple models for the total number of births and preterm births were done separately. In a second stage, a model for total births adjusted for preterm births was performed. A total of 298,705 births were analyzed. The results of the final models were expressed in relative risks (RRs) for interquartile increase. We observed evidence of a short term effect at Lag 0, for the following environmental variables analyzed, PM2.5 (RR: 1.020; 95% CI:(1.008 1.032)) and O3 (RR: 1.012; 95% CI:(1.002 1.022)) concentrations and Leqd (RR: 1.139; 95% CI:( (1.124 1.154)) for the total number of births, and besides

  16. Effects of exposure to noise and indoor air pollution on human perception and symptoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Witterseh, Thomas; Wargocki, Pawel; Fang, Lei

    1999-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate human perception and SBS symptoms when people are exposed simultaneously to different levels of air pollution and ventilation noise. The air quality in an office was modified by placing or removing a carpet and the background noise level...... of the occupants were recorded throughout the exposure period. During occupation, the subjects performed simulated office work. The results show that elevated air pollution and noise in an office can interact and negatively affect office workers by increasing the prevalence of SBS symptoms. A moderate increase...... was modified by playing a recording of ventilation noise. Thirty female subjects, six at a time, occupied the office for 4.4 hours. The subjects assessed the air quality, the noise, and the indoor environment upon entering the office and on six occasions during occupation. Furthermore, SBS symptoms...

  17. The short-term effects of air pollutants on respiratory disease mortality in Wuhan, China: comparison of time-series and case-crossover analyses

    OpenAIRE

    Meng Ren; Na Li; Zhan Wang; Yisi Liu; Xi Chen; Yuanyuan Chu; Xiangyu Li; Zhongmin Zhu; Liqiao Tian; Hao Xiang

    2017-01-01

    Few studies have compared different methods when exploring the short-term effects of air pollutants on respiratory disease mortality in Wuhan, China. This study assesses the association between air pollutants and respiratory disease mortality with both time-series and time-stratified?case-crossover designs. The generalized additive model (GAM) and the conditional logistic regression model were used to assess the short-term effects of air pollutants on respiratory disease mortality. Stratified...

  18. Meta-Prediction of the Effect of Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase Polymorphisms and Air Pollution on Alzheimer's Disease Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Suh-Mian; Chen, Zhao-Feng; Young, Lufei; Shiao, S Pamela K

    2017-01-11

    Background : Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a significant public health issue. AD has been linked with methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase ( MTHFR ) C677T polymorphism, but the findings have been inconsistent. The purpose of this meta-predictive analysis is to examine the associations between MTHFR polymorphisms and epigenetic factors, including air pollution, with AD risk using big data analytics approaches. Methods and Results : Forty-three studies (44 groups) were identified by searching various databases. MTHFR C677T TT and CT genotypes had significant associations with AD risk in all racial populations (RR = 1.13, p = 0.0047; and RR = 1.12, p analysis showed significant increases of percentages of MTHFR C677T polymorphism with increased air pollution levels in both AD case group and control group ( p = 0.0021-0.0457); with higher percentages of TT and CT genotypes in the AD case group than that in the control group with increased air pollution levels. Conclusions : The impact of MTHFR C677T polymorphism on susceptibility to AD was modified by level of air pollution. Future studies are needed to further examine the effects of gene-environment interactions including air pollution on AD risk for world populations.

  19. Meta-Prediction of the Effect of Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase Polymorphisms and Air Pollution on Alzheimer’s Disease Risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suh-Mian Wu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Alzheimer’s disease (AD is a significant public health issue. AD has been linked with methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR C677T polymorphism, but the findings have been inconsistent. The purpose of this meta-predictive analysis is to examine the associations between MTHFR polymorphisms and epigenetic factors, including air pollution, with AD risk using big data analytics approaches. Methods and Results: Forty-three studies (44 groups were identified by searching various databases. MTHFR C677T TT and CT genotypes had significant associations with AD risk in all racial populations (RR = 1.13, p = 0.0047; and RR = 1.12, p < 0.0001 respectively. Meta-predictive analysis showed significant increases of percentages of MTHFR C677T polymorphism with increased air pollution levels in both AD case group and control group (p = 0.0021–0.0457; with higher percentages of TT and CT genotypes in the AD case group than that in the control group with increased air pollution levels. Conclusions: The impact of MTHFR C677T polymorphism on susceptibility to AD was modified by level of air pollution. Future studies are needed to further examine the effects of gene-environment interactions including air pollution on AD risk for world populations.

  20. A joint ERS/ATS policy statement: what constitutes an adverse health effect of air pollution? : An analytical framework

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thurston, George D; Kipen, Howard; Annesi-Maesano, Isabella; Balmes, John; Brook, Robert D; Cromar, Kevin; De Matteis, Sara; Forastiere, Francesco; Forsberg, Bertil; Frampton, Mark W; Grigg, Jonathan; Heederik, Dick; Kelly, Frank J; Kuenzli, Nino; Laumbach, Robert; Peters, Annette; Rajagopalan, Sanjay T; Rich, David; Ritz, Beate; Samet, Jonathan M; Sandstrom, Thomas; Sigsgaard, Torben; Sunyer, Jordi; Brunekreef, Bert

    The American Thoracic Society has previously published statements on what constitutes an adverse effect on health of air pollution in 1985 and 2000. We set out to update and broaden these past statements that focused primarily on effects on the respiratory system. Since then, many studies have

  1. Effects of atmospheric transport and trade on air pollution mortality in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Zhao

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Air quality is a major environmental concern in China, where premature deaths due to air pollution have exceeded 1 million people per year in recent years. Here, using a novel coupling of economic, physical and epidemiological models, we estimate the premature mortality related to anthropogenic outdoor PM2. 5 air pollution in seven regions of China in 2010 and show for the first time how the distribution of these deaths in China is determined by a combination of economic activities and physical transport of pollution in the atmosphere. We find that 33 % (338 600 premature deaths of China's PM2. 5-related premature mortality in 2010 were caused by pollutants emitted in a different region of the country and transported in the atmosphere, especially from north to south and from east to west. Trade further extended the cross-regional impact; 56 % of (568 900 premature deaths China's PM2. 5-related premature mortality was related to consumption in another region, including 423 800 (42 % of total and 145 100 (14 % premature deaths from domestic consumption and international trade respectively. Our results indicate that multilateral and multi-stage cooperation under a regional sustainable development framework is in urgent need to mitigate air pollution and related health impacts, and efforts to reduce the health impacts of air pollution in China should be prioritized according to the source and location of emissions, the type and economic value of the emitting activities, and the related patterns of consumption.

  2. Air pollution effects on fetal and child development: A cohort comparison in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, Deliang; Li, Ting Yu; Chow, Judith C.; Kulkarni, Sanasi U.; Watson, John G.; Ho, Steven Sai Hang; Quan, Zhang Y.; Qu, L.R.; Perera, Frederica

    2014-01-01

    In Tongliang, China, a coal-fired power plant was the major pollution source until its shutdown in 2004. We enrolled two cohorts of nonsmoking women and their newborns before and after the shutdown to examine the relationship between prenatal exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and fetal and child growth and development. PAHs were used to measure exposure to air pollution generated by the power plant. Using PAH–DNA adduct levels as biomarkers for the biologically effective dose of PAH exposure, we examined whether PAH–DNA adduct levels were associated with birth outcome, growth rate, and neurodevelopment. Head circumference was greater in children of the second cohort, compared with the first (p = 0.001), consistent with significantly reduced levels of cord blood PAH–DNA adducts in cohort II (p < 0.001) and reduced levels of ambient PAHs (p = 0.01). -- Highlights: • We compare cohorts of mothers and newborns before and after a power plant closure. • We measure prenatal exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). • We examine birth outcomes, child growth rate and neurodevelopment in each cohort. • Cord PAH–DNA adducts and ambient PAH levels were reduced in the second cohort. • Consistent with exposure data, head circumference was greater in the second cohort. -- The associations found between PAH exposure and adverse health outcomes suggest that the removal of a coal-burning source can have rapid and direct benefits on children's health

  3. Does respiratory health contribute to the effects of long-term air pollution exposure on cardiovascular mortality?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heinrich Joachim

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is growing epidemiological evidence that short-term and long-term exposure to high levels of air pollution may increase cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. In addition, epidemiological studies have shown an association between air pollution exposure and respiratory health. To what extent the association between cardiovascular mortality and air pollution is driven by the impact of air pollution on respiratory health is unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate whether respiratory health at baseline contributes to the effects of long-term exposure to high levels of air pollution on cardiovascular mortality in a cohort of elderly women. Method We analyzed data from 4750 women, aged 55 at the baseline investigation in the years 1985–1994. 2593 of these women had their lung function tested by spirometry. Respiratory diseases and symptoms were asked by questionnaire. Ambient air pollution exposure was assessed by the concentrations of NO2 and total suspended particles at fixed monitoring sites and by the distance of residency to a major road. A mortality follow-up of these women was conducted between 2001 and 2003. For the statistical analysis, Cox' regression was used. Results Women with impaired lung function or pre-existing respiratory diseases had a higher risk of dying from cardiovascular causes. The impact of impaired lung function declined over time. The risk ratio (RR of women with forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1 of less than 80% predicted to die from cardiovascular causes was RR = 3.79 (95%CI: 1.64–8.74 at 5 years survival time and RR = 1.35 (95%CI: 0.66–2.77 at 12 years. The association between air pollution levels and cardiovascular death rate was strong and statistically significant. However, this association did only change marginally when including indicators of respiratory health into the regression analysis. Furthermore, no interaction between air pollution and respiratory health

  4. Does respiratory health contribute to the effects of long-term air pollution exposure on cardiovascular mortality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schikowski, Tamara; Sugiri, Dorothea; Ranft, Ulrich; Gehring, Ulrike; Heinrich, Joachim; Wichmann, H-Erich; Krämer, Ursula

    2007-03-07

    There is growing epidemiological evidence that short-term and long-term exposure to high levels of air pollution may increase cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. In addition, epidemiological studies have shown an association between air pollution exposure and respiratory health. To what extent the association between cardiovascular mortality and air pollution is driven by the impact of air pollution on respiratory health is unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate whether respiratory health at baseline contributes to the effects of long-term exposure to high levels of air pollution on cardiovascular mortality in a cohort of elderly women. We analyzed data from 4750 women, aged 55 at the baseline investigation in the years 1985-1994. 2593 of these women had their lung function tested by spirometry. Respiratory diseases and symptoms were asked by questionnaire. Ambient air pollution exposure was assessed by the concentrations of NO2 and total suspended particles at fixed monitoring sites and by the distance of residency to a major road. A mortality follow-up of these women was conducted between 2001 and 2003. For the statistical analysis, Cox' regression was used. Women with impaired lung function or pre-existing respiratory diseases had a higher risk of dying from cardiovascular causes. The impact of impaired lung function declined over time. The risk ratio (RR) of women with forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) of less than 80% predicted to die from cardiovascular causes was RR = 3.79 (95%CI: 1.64-8.74) at 5 years survival time and RR = 1.35 (95%CI: 0.66-2.77) at 12 years. The association between air pollution levels and cardiovascular death rate was strong and statistically significant. However, this association did only change marginally when including indicators of respiratory health into the regression analysis. Furthermore, no interaction between air pollution and respiratory health on cardiovascular mortality indicating a higher risk of

  5. Role of the boundary layer dynamics effects on an extreme air pollution event in Paris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupont, J.-C.; Haeffelin, M.; Badosa, J.; Elias, T.; Favez, O.; Petit, J. E.; Meleux, F.; Sciare, J.; Crenn, V.; Bonne, J. L.

    2016-09-01

    The physical and chemical aerosol properties are explored here based on ground-based observations in the Paris region to better understand the role of clouds, radiative fluxes and dynamics on aerosol loading during a heavy regional air pollution that occurred in March 2014 over North-Western Europe. This event is primarily characterized by a fine particle mass (PM2.5) increase from 10 to more than 120 μg m-3 and a simultaneous decrease of the horizontal visibility from 40 to 1 km, mainly due to significant formation of ammonium nitrate particles. The aerosol optical depth (AOD) at 550 nm increased steadily from about 0.06 on March 6 to more than 0.9 five days later. The scattering of the solar radiation by polluted particles induced, at the peak of the heavy pollution event, an instantaneous shortwave flux decrease of about 300 W m-2 for direct irradiance and an increase of about 150 W m-2 for diffuse irradiance (only scattering). The mean surface aerosol effect efficiency (effect per unit optical depth) is of about -80 W m-2 with a mean aerosol direct radiative effect of -23 W m-2. The dynamical and radiative processes that can be responsible for the diurnal cycle of PM2.5 in terms of amplitude and timing are investigated. A comparative analysis is performed for 4 consecutive days (between March 11 and 14), showing that the PM2.5 diurnal cycle can be modulated in time and amplitude by local processes such as the boundary layer depth development (ranging from 100 m to 1350 m), surface relative humidity (100%-35%), thermal structure (10 °C-16 °C for day/night amplitude), dynamics (wind speed ranging from 4 m s-1 to 1.5 m s-1) and turbulence (turbulent kinetic energy reaching 2 m2 s-2) near the surface and wind shear along the vertical. Finally, modeled and measured surface PM2.5 loadings are also compared here, notably illustrating the need of accurate boundary layer depth data for efficient air quality forecasts.

  6. CFD modelling of the aerodynamic effect of trees on urban air pollution dispersion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amorim, J H; Rodrigues, V; Tavares, R; Valente, J; Borrego, C

    2013-09-01

    The current work evaluates the impact of urban trees over the dispersion of carbon monoxide (CO) emitted by road traffic, due to the induced modification of the wind flow characteristics. With this purpose, the standard flow equations with a kε closure for turbulence were extended with the capability to account for the aerodynamic effect of trees over the wind field. Two CFD models were used for testing this numerical approach. Air quality simulations were conducted for two periods of 31h in selected areas of Lisbon and Aveiro, in Portugal, for distinct relative wind directions: approximately 45° and nearly parallel to the main avenue, respectively. The statistical evaluation of modelling performance and uncertainty revealed a significant improvement of results with trees, as shown by the reduction of the NMSE from 0.14 to 0.10 in Lisbon, and from 0.14 to 0.04 in Aveiro, which is independent from the CFD model applied. The consideration of the plant canopy allowed to fulfil the data quality objectives for ambient air quality modelling established by the Directive 2008/50/EC, with an important decrease of the maximum deviation between site measurements and CFD results. In the non-aligned wind situation an average 12% increase of the CO concentrations in the domain was observed as a response to the aerodynamic action of trees over the vertical exchange rates of polluted air with the above roof-level atmosphere; while for the aligned configuration an average 16% decrease was registered due to the enhanced ventilation of the street canyon. These results show that urban air quality can be optimised based on knowledge-based planning of green spaces. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Perspectives regarding 50 years of research on effects of tropospheric ozone air pollution on US forests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karnosky, David F. [School of Forest Resources and Environmental Science, Michigan Tech University, 1400 Townsend Drive, Houghton, MI 49931 (United States)]. E-mail: karnosky@mtu.edu; Skelly, John M. [5316 Wyndemere Circle, Mineral, VA 23117 (United States); Percy, Kevin E. [Natural Resources Canada, Canadian Forest Service-Atlantic Forestry Centre, PO 1350 Regent Street, Fredericton, New Brunswick, E3B 5P7 (Canada); Chappelka, Art H. [School of Forestry and Wildlife Sciences, Auburn University, 206 M. White-Smith Hall, Auburn, AL 36849-5418 (United States)

    2007-06-15

    Tropospheric ozone (O{sub 3}) was first determined to be phytotoxic to grapes in southern California in the 1950s. Investigations followed that showed O{sub 3} to be the cause of foliar symptoms on tobacco and eastern white pine. In the 1960s, 'X' disease of ponderosa pines within the San Bernardino Mountains was likewise determined to be due to O{sub 3}. Nearly 50 years of research have followed. Foliar O{sub 3} symptoms have been verified under controlled chamber conditions. Studies have demonstrated negative growth effects on forest tree seedlings due to season-long O{sub 3} exposures, but due to complex interactions within forest stands, evidence of similar losses within mature tree canopies remains elusive. Investigations on tree growth, O{sub 3} flux, and stand productivity are being conducted along natural O{sub 3} gradients and in open-air exposure systems to better understand O{sub 3} effects on forest ecosystems. Given projected trends in demographics, economic output and climate, O{sub 3} impacts on US forests will continue and are likely to increase. - Elevated tropospheric ozone remains an important phytotoxic air pollutant over large areas of US forests.

  8. Perspectives regarding 50 years of research on effects of tropospheric ozone air pollution on US forests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karnosky, David F.; Skelly, John M.; Percy, Kevin E.; Chappelka, Art H.

    2007-01-01

    Tropospheric ozone (O 3 ) was first determined to be phytotoxic to grapes in southern California in the 1950s. Investigations followed that showed O 3 to be the cause of foliar symptoms on tobacco and eastern white pine. In the 1960s, 'X' disease of ponderosa pines within the San Bernardino Mountains was likewise determined to be due to O 3 . Nearly 50 years of research have followed. Foliar O 3 symptoms have been verified under controlled chamber conditions. Studies have demonstrated negative growth effects on forest tree seedlings due to season-long O 3 exposures, but due to complex interactions within forest stands, evidence of similar losses within mature tree canopies remains elusive. Investigations on tree growth, O 3 flux, and stand productivity are being conducted along natural O 3 gradients and in open-air exposure systems to better understand O 3 effects on forest ecosystems. Given projected trends in demographics, economic output and climate, O 3 impacts on US forests will continue and are likely to increase. - Elevated tropospheric ozone remains an important phytotoxic air pollutant over large areas of US forests

  9. The potential impacts of climate variability and change on air pollution-related health effects in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, S M; Samet, J M; Grambsch, A; Ebi, K L; Romieu, I

    2001-05-01

    Climate change may affect exposures to air pollutants by affecting weather, anthropogenic emissions, and biogenic emissions and by changing the distribution and types of airborne allergens. Local temperature, precipitation, clouds, atmospheric water vapor, wind speed, and wind direction influence atmospheric chemical processes, and interactions occur between local and global-scale environments. If the climate becomes warmer and more variable, air quality is likely to be affected. However, the specific types of change (i.e., local, regional, or global), the direction of change in a particular location (i.e., positive or negative), and the magnitude of change in air quality that may be attributable to climate change are a matter of speculation, based on extrapolating present understanding to future scenarios. There is already extensive evidence on the health effects of air pollution. Ground-level ozone can exacerbate chronic respiratory diseases and cause short-term reductions in lung function. Exposure to particulate matter can aggravate chronic respiratory and cardiovascular diseases, alter host defenses, damage lung tissue, lead to premature death, and possibly contribute to cancer. Health effects of exposures to carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, and nitrogen dioxide can include reduced work capacity, aggravation of existing cardiovascular diseases, effects on pulmonary function, respiratory illnesses, lung irritation, and alterations in the lung's defense systems. Adaptations to climate change should include ensuring responsiveness of air quality protection programs to changing pollution levels. Research needs include basic atmospheric science work on the association between weather and air pollutants; improving air pollution models and their linkage with climate change scenarios; and closing gaps in the understanding of exposure patterns and health effects.

  10. Does respiratory health contribute to the effects of long-term air pollution exposure on cardiovascular mortality?

    OpenAIRE

    Heinrich Joachim; Gehring Ulrike; Ranft Ulrich; Sugiri Dorothea; Schikowski Tamara; Wichmann H-Erich; Krämer Ursula

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background There is growing epidemiological evidence that short-term and long-term exposure to high levels of air pollution may increase cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. In addition, epidemiological studies have shown an association between air pollution exposure and respiratory health. To what extent the association between cardiovascular mortality and air pollution is driven by the impact of air pollution on respiratory health is unknown. The aim of this study was to investi...

  11. Effects of pollution from personal computers on perceived air quality, SBS symptoms and productivity in offices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bako-Biro, Zsolt; Wargocki, Pawel; Weschler, Charles J.

    2004-01-01

    In groups of six, 30 female subjects were exposed for 4.8 h in a low-polluting office to each of two conditions the presence or absence of 3-month-old personal computers (PCs). These PCs were placed behind a screen so that they were not visible to the subjects. Throughout the exposure the outdoor...... air supply was maintained at 10 l/s per person. Under each of the two conditions the subjects performed simulated office work using old low-polluting PCs. They also evaluated the air quality and reported Sick Building Syndrome (SBS) symptoms. The PCs were found to be strong indoor pollution sources......, even after they had been in service for 3 months. The sensory pollution load of each PC was 3.4 olf, more than three times the pollution of a standard person. The presence of PCs increased the percentage of people dissatisfied with the perceived air quality from 13 to 41% and increased by 9% the time...

  12. Urban air pollution; La pollution de l'air dans la ville

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-07-01

    The theme of this congress concerns air pollution in urban areas. Cities are accumulation of populations and economic activities, and then pollutants activities. The first articles are devoted to pollutants and their effects on health. Then come articles relative to measurements and modeling. Finally, the traffic in city and the automobile pollution are examined. Transportation systems as well technology in matter of gas emissions are reviewed. (N.C.)

  13. Urban air pollution; La pollution de l'air dans la ville

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-07-01

    The theme of this congress concerns air pollution in urban areas. Cities are accumulation of populations and economic activities, and then pollutants activities. The first articles are devoted to pollutants and their effects on health. Then come articles relative to measurements and modeling. Finally, the traffic in city and the automobile pollution are examined. Transportation systems as well technology in matter of gas emissions are reviewed. (N.C.)

  14. Relevant results of studies performed in North Rhine-Westfalia dealing with health effects of air pollutants due to mobile sources, compared with health effects of other urban pollutants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koch, E [Ministry for Environment, Duesseldorf (Germany). Regional Planning and Agriculture

    1996-12-31

    In 1975 in North Rhine-Westfalia, Federal Republic of Germany, according to the Federal Immission Control Act, five areas with high air pollution were determined. For these areas Clean Air Plans were drawn up. Clean Air Plans shall comprise a representation of emissions and immissions established for all or specific air pollutants, information about the impacts recorded for assets worthy of protection (human beings, animals and plants, water, the atmosphere etc.), any findings obtained as to the causes and effects of such air pollution, an assessment of any forthcoming changes in emission and immission conditions, details on immission levels and characteristic immission values and the measures envisaged for the reduction and prevention of air pollution. In accordance with these requirements epidemiological investigations of adults and children were performed in connection with the Clean Air Plans

  15. Relevant results of studies performed in North Rhine-Westfalia dealing with health effects of air pollutants due to mobile sources, compared with health effects of other urban pollutants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koch, E. [Ministry for Environment, Duesseldorf (Germany). Regional Planning and Agriculture

    1995-12-31

    In 1975 in North Rhine-Westfalia, Federal Republic of Germany, according to the Federal Immission Control Act, five areas with high air pollution were determined. For these areas Clean Air Plans were drawn up. Clean Air Plans shall comprise a representation of emissions and immissions established for all or specific air pollutants, information about the impacts recorded for assets worthy of protection (human beings, animals and plants, water, the atmosphere etc.), any findings obtained as to the causes and effects of such air pollution, an assessment of any forthcoming changes in emission and immission conditions, details on immission levels and characteristic immission values and the measures envisaged for the reduction and prevention of air pollution. In accordance with these requirements epidemiological investigations of adults and children were performed in connection with the Clean Air Plans

  16. SMOG CHAMBERS: A TOOL TO EXAMINE EFFECTS OF PHOTOCHEMICALLY AGED AIR POLLUTANTS ON BIOLOGICAL SYSTEMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irradiative exposure chambers or 'Smog chambers' have been used at the University of North Carolina for over 30 years to study photochemically active mixtures of volatile organic compounds and their transformation products (a significant sub-set of Hazardous Air Pollutants, HAPs)...

  17. EFFECTS OF AIR POLLUTION ON RESPIRATORY HEALTH OF ADULTS IN THREE CHINESE CITIES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The authors examined potential associations between air-pollution exposures and respiratory symptoms and illnesses of 4,108 adults who resided in 4 districts of 3 large, distinct Chinese cities. Data on respiratory health outcomes and relevant risk factors for parents and childre...

  18. Proceedings of the International Symposium on Air Pollution and Climate Change Effects on Forest Ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrzej Bytnerowicz; Michael J. Arbaugh; Susan L. Schilling

    1998-01-01

    Industrial air pollution has been identified as one of the primary causes of severe damage to forests of central Europe in the past 30 to 40 years. The mountain forest ecosystems have been affected considerably, resulting in extensive areas of severely deteriorated forest stands (e.g., the Krusne Hory of the Czech Republic or the Izerske and Sudety Mountains along the...

  19. Prenatal and early childhood health effects of air pollution in the Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hertz-Picciotto, I.; James, R. A.; Dostál, Miroslav; Keller, J.; Dejmek, Jan; Šrám, Radim

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 13, č. 4 (2002), s. 93 ISSN 1044-3983. [Conference of the ISEA /12./, Conference of the ISEE /14./. 11.08.2002-15.08.2002, Vancouver - Canada] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5039906 Keywords : air pollution Subject RIV: DN - Health Impact of the Environment Quality

  20. A screening procedure to evaluate air pollution effects on Class I wilderness areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas G. Fox; Ann M. Bartuska; James G. Byrne; Ellis Cowling; Richard Fisher; Gene E. Likens; Steven E. Lindberg; Rick A. Linthurst; Jay Messer; Dale S. Nichols

    1989-01-01

    This screening procedure is intended to help wilderness managers conduct "adverse impact determinations" as part of Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) applications for sources that emit air pollutants that might impact Class I wildernesses. The process provides an initial estimate of susceptibility to critical loadings for sulfur, nitrogen, and...

  1. Acute effects of air pollution on respiratory health of 50-70 yr old adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Zee, S C; Hoek, G; Boezen, Hendrika; Schouten, Jan; van Wijnen, J H; Brunekreef, B

    The aim of this study was to investigate the association between daily changes in respiratory health and air pollution in 489 adults, aged 50-70 yrs, with and without chronic respiratory symptoms, living in urban and nonurban areas in the Netherlands. Subjects were selected from the general

  2. The Effects of Air Pollution on Cardiovascular and Respiratory Causes of Emergency Admission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahi, Ali Mohammad; Omraninava, Ali; Goli, Mitra; Soheilarezoomand, Hamid Reza; Mirzaei, Nader

    2014-01-01

    Today, air pollution is one of the critical problems in metropolitans and necessary preparations are needed for confronting this crisis. The present study was based on the goal of determining the relationship of air pollutant levels with the rate of emergency admissions for respiratory and cardiovascular patients. In the present retrospective cross-sectional study, all respiratory and cardiovascular patients, referred to emergency department during 2012, were assessed. The meteorological and air pollution data were collected. Information regarding the numbers and dates (month, day) of admission for respiratory and cardiovascular diseases was achieved from the hospital's electronic registration system. The relation of air pollution and respiratory and cardiovascular admissions were analyzed by generalize additive model (GAM). 5922 patients were assessed which included 4048 (68.36%) cardiovascular and 1874 (31.64%) respiratory. Carbon monoxide (CO) level was an independent risk factor of cardiovascular disease on the same day (RR=1.49; 95% CI: 1.25- 1.77; Prespiratory admissions. The increased level of particulate matter less than 2.5 micrometers in diameter (PM2.5) like O3 led to growth in the admissions to emergency department. The findings of the present study suggested that rising levels of CO and O3 during two days leads to a significant increase in cardiovascular admission on the third day. Furthermore, increase in O3, PM2.5, nitrogen dioxide (NO2), and CO levels causes a rise in respiratory admissions to emergency department.

  3. The effects of air pollutants on the mortality rate of lung cancer and leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehghani, Mansooreh; Keshtgar, Laila; Javaheri, Mohammad Reza; Derakhshan, Zahra; Oliveri Conti, Gea; Zuccarello, Pietro; Ferrante, Margherita

    2017-05-01

    World Health Organization classifies air pollution as the first cause of human cancer. The present study investigated impact of air pollutants on the mortality rates of lung cancer and leukemia in Shiraz, one of the largests cities of Iran. This cross‑sectional (longitudinal) study was carried out in Shiraz. Data on six main pollutants, CO, SO2, O3, NO2, PM10 and PM2.5, were collected from Fars Environmental Protection Agency for 3,001 days starting from 1 January, 2005. Also, measures of climatic factors (temperature, humidity, and air pressure) were obtained from Shiraz Meteorological Organization. Finally, data related to number of deaths due to lung and blood cancers (leukemia) were gathered from Shiraz University Hospital. Relationship between variations of pollutant concentrations and cancers in lung and blood was investigated using statistical software R and MiniTab to perform time series analysis. Results of the present study revealed that the mortality rate of leukemia had a direct significant correlation with concentrations of nitrogen dioxide and carbon monoxide in the air (Pcar sharing.

  4. Short-term effects of ambient air pollution on emergency room admissions due to cardiovascular causes in Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yuxia; Zhao, Yuxin; Yang, Sixu; Zhou, Jianding; Xin, Jinyuan; Wang, Shigong; Yang, Dandan

    2017-11-01

    Ambient air pollution has been a major global public health issue. A number of studies have shown various adverse effects of ambient air pollution on cardiovascular diseases. In the current study, we investigated the short-term effects of ambient air pollution on emergency room (ER) admissions due to cardiovascular causes in Beijing from 2009 to 2012 using a time-series analysis. A total of 82430 ER cardiovascular admissions were recorded. Different gender (male and female) and age groups (15yrs ≤ age pollutant model. Three major pollutants (SO 2 , NO 2 and PM 10 ) had lag effects of 0-2 days on cardiovascular ER admissions. The relative risks (95% CI) of per 10 μg/m 3 increase in PM 10 , SO 2 and NO 2 were 1.008 (0.997-1.020), 1.008(0.999-1.018) and 1.014(1.003-1.024), respectively. The effect was more pronounced in age ≥65 and males in Beijing. We also found the stronger acute effects on the elderly and females at lag 0 than on the younger people and males at lag 2. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Public Communication on Urban Air Pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otra, C.; Sala, R.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the state of public information in the field of air pollution in Spain. We conducted semi-structured interviews with members of public agencies, technical experts, scientists, and members of non governmental associations together with a documentary analysis of air pollution documents (plans, reports, etc.). We tried to characterize the information actions on air quality carried out in Spanish cities during the last years. In the results section we first analyze the ideas, concerns and considerations that underlie the actions of public information on air pollution, as well as the main challenges of public communication on this subject, according to the documents and the different experts consulted. We analyze the various contents of information transmitted nowadays (on levels of pollution, health impacts and mitigation or protection actions), as well as the mechanisms by which it is communicated, both continuously and in the case of threshold overcoming episodes. We also review the different media used to communicate air pollution information (Internet, mobile applications and other forms) and other issues such as information audiences, or the perceived impacts of information provided. Finally, the implications for more diverse and effective public involvement strategies in air pollution are discussed. (Author)

  6. Air pollution in the Slovak Republic, 2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitosinkova, M.; Kozakovic, L.; Zavodsky, D.; Sajtakova, E.; Mareckova, K.; Pukancikova, K.

    2003-01-01

    A report on air quality and contribution of individual sources on its pollution in the Slovak Republic in 2001 is presented. This report consists of two parts: (1) Ambient air and (2) Emission. Ambient air part is divided into the following chapters: Regional air pollution and quality of precipitation; Local air pollution; Atmospheric ozone. Emission part is divided into the following chapters: Emission and air pollution source inventory, Greenhouse gas emissions

  7. The Public Health and Air Pollution in Asia (PAPA) Project: estimating the mortality effects of particulate matter in Bangkok, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vichit-Vadakan, Nuntavarn; Vajanapoom, Nitaya; Ostro, Bart

    2008-09-01

    Air pollution data in Bangkok, Thailand, indicate that levels of particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter air pollution in Bangkok, Thailand. The study period extended from 1999 to 2003, for which the Ministry of Public Health provided the mortality data. Measures of air pollution were derived from air monitoring stations, and information on temperature and relative humidity was obtained from the weather station in central Bangkok. The statistical analysis followed the common protocol for the multicity PAPA (Public Health and Air Pollution Project in Asia) project in using a natural cubic spline model with smooths of time and weather. The excess risk for non-accidental mortality was 1.3% [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.8-1.7] per 10 microg/m(3) of PM(10), with higher excess risks for cardiovascular and above age 65 mortality of 1.9% (95% CI, 0.8-3.0) and 1.5% (95% CI, 0.9-2.1), respectively. In addition, the effects from PM(10) appear to be consistent in multipollutant models. The results suggest strong associations between several different mortality outcomes and PM(10). In many cases, the effect estimates were higher than those typically reported in Western industrialized nations.

  8. Effects of climate change on residential infiltration and air pollution exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilacqua, Vito; Dawson, John; Breen, Michael; Singer, Sarany; Berg, Ashley

    2017-01-01

    Air exchange through infiltration is driven partly by indoor/outdoor temperature differences, and as climate change increases ambient temperatures, such differences could vary considerably even with small ambient temperature increments, altering patterns of exposures to both indoor and outdoor pollutants. We calculated changes in air fluxes through infiltration for prototypical detached homes in nine metropolitan areas in the United States (Atlanta, Boston, Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, Minneapolis, New York, Phoenix, and Seattle) from 1970-2000 to 2040-2070. The Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory model of infiltration was used in combination with climate data from eight regionally downscaled climate models from the North American Regional Climate Change Assessment Program. Averaged over all study locations, seasons, and climate models, air exchange through infiltration would decrease by ~5%. Localized increased infiltration is expected during the summer months, up to 20-30%. Seasonal and daily variability in infiltration are also expected to increase, particularly during the summer months. Diminished infiltration in future climate scenarios may be expected to increase exposure to indoor sources of air pollution, unless these ventilation reductions are otherwise compensated. Exposure to ambient air pollution, conversely, could be mitigated by lower infiltration, although peak exposure increases during summer months should be considered, as well as other mechanisms.

  9. Fundamentals of air pollution engineering

    OpenAIRE

    Flagan, Richard C.; Seinfeld, John H.

    1988-01-01

    Analysis and abatement of air pollution involve a variety of technical disciplines. Formation of the most prevalent pollutants occurs during the combustion process, a tightly coupled system involving fluid flow, mass and energy transport, and chemical kinetics. Its complexity is exemplified by the fact that, in many respects, the simplest hydrocarbon combustion, the methane-oxygen flame, has been quantitatively modeled only within the last several years. Nonetheless, the development of combus...

  10. Effects of climatic changes and urban air pollution on the rising trends of respiratory allergy and asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Over the past two decades there has been increasing interest in studies regarding effects on human health of climate changes and urban air pollution. Climate change induced by anthropogenic warming of the earth's atmosphere is a daunting problem and there are several observations about the role of urbanization, with its high levels of vehicle emissions and other pollutants, and westernized lifestyle with respect to the rising frequency of respiratory allergic diseases observed in most industrialized countries. There is also evidence that asthmatic subjects are at increased risk of developing exacerbations of bronchial obstruction with exposure to gaseous (ozone, nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide) and particulate inhalable components of air pollution. A change in the genetic predisposition is an unlikely cause of the increasing frequency in allergic diseases because genetic changes in a population require several generations. Consequently, environmental factors such as climate change and indoor and outdoor air pollution may contribute to explain the increasing frequency of respiratory allergy and asthma. Since concentrations of airborne allergens and air pollutants are frequently increased contemporaneously, an enhanced IgE-mediated response to aeroallergens and enhanced airway inflammation could account for the increasing frequency of allergic respiratory diseases and bronchial asthma. Scientific societies such as the European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, European Respiratory Society and the World Allergy Organization have set up committees and task forces to produce documents to focalize attention on this topic, calling for prevention measures. PMID:22958620

  11. Effects of climatic changes and urban air pollution on the rising trends of respiratory allergy and asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D'Amato Gennaro

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Over the past two decades there has been increasing interest in studies regarding effects on human health of climate changes and urban air pollution. Climate change induced by anthropogenic warming of the earth's atmosphere is a daunting problem and there are several observations about the role of urbanization, with its high levels of vehicle emissions and other pollutants, and westernized lifestyle with respect to the rising frequency of respiratory allergic diseases observed in most industrialized countries. There is also evidence that asthmatic subjects are at increased risk of developing exacerbations of bronchial obstruction with exposure to gaseous (ozone, nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide and particulate inhalable components of air pollution. A change in the genetic predisposition is an unlikely cause of the increasing frequency in allergic diseases because genetic changes in a population require several generations. Consequently, environmental factors such as climate change and indoor and outdoor air pollution may contribute to explain the increasing frequency of respiratory allergy and asthma. Since concentrations of airborne allergens and air pollutants are frequently increased contemporaneously, an enhanced IgE-mediated response to aeroallergens and enhanced airway inflammation could account for the increasing frequency of allergic respiratory diseases and bronchial asthma. Scientific societies such as the European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, European Respiratory Society and the World Allergy Organization have set up committees and task forces to produce documents to focalize attention on this topic, calling for prevention measures.

  12. Effects of climatic changes and urban air pollution on the rising trends of respiratory allergy and asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Amato, Gennaro

    2011-02-28

    Over the past two decades there has been increasing interest in studies regarding effects on human health of climate changes and urban air pollution. Climate change induced by anthropogenic warming of the earth's atmosphere is a daunting problem and there are several observations about the role of urbanization, with its high levels of vehicle emissions and other pollutants, and westernized lifestyle with respect to the rising frequency of respiratory allergic diseases observed in most industrialized countries.There is also evidence that asthmatic subjects are at increased risk of developing exacerbations of bronchial obstruction with exposure to gaseous (ozone, nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide) and particulate inhalable components of air pollution.A change in the genetic predisposition is an unlikely cause of the increasing frequency in allergic diseases because genetic changes in a population require several generations. Consequently, environmental factors such as climate change and indoor and outdoor air pollution may contribute to explain the increasing frequency of respiratory allergy and asthma. Since concentrations of airborne allergens and air pollutants are frequently increased contemporaneously, an enhanced IgE-mediated response to aeroallergens and enhanced airway inflammation could account for the increasing frequency of allergic respiratory diseases and bronchial asthma.Scientific societies such as the European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, European Respiratory Society and the World Allergy Organization have set up committees and task forces to produce documents to focalize attention on this topic, calling for prevention measures.

  13. Synoptic weather types and aeroallergens modify the effect of air pollution on hospitalisations for asthma hospitalisations in Canadian cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hebbern, Christopher; Cakmak, Sabit

    2015-09-01

    Pollution levels and the effect of air pollution on human health can be modified by synoptic weather type and aeroallergens. We investigated the effect modification of aeroallergens on the association between CO, O3, NO2, SO2, PM10, PM2.5 and asthma hospitalisation rates in seven synoptic weather types. We developed single air pollutant models, adjusted for the effect of aeroallergens and stratified by synoptic weather type, and pooled relative risk estimates for asthma hospitalisation in ten Canadian cities. Aeroallergens significantly modified the relative risk in 19 pollutant-weather type combinations, reducing the size and variance for each single pollutant model. However, aeroallergens did not significantly modify relative risk for any pollutant in the DT or MT weather types, or for PM10 in any weather type. Thus, there is a modifying effect of aeroallergens on the association between CO, O3, NO2, SO2, PM2.5 and asthma hospitalisations that differs under specific synoptic weather types. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. An economic assessment of the health effects and crop yield losses caused by air pollution in mainland China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Weijie; Huang, Xin; Song, Yu

    2017-06-01

    Air pollution is severe in China, and pollutants such as PM 2.5 and surface O 3 may cause major damage to human health and crops, respectively. Few studies have considered the health effects of PM 2.5 or the loss of crop yields due to surface O 3 using model-simulated air pollution data in China. We used gridded outputs from the WRF-Chem model, high resolution population data, and crop yield data to evaluate the effects on human health and crop yield in mainland China. Our results showed that outdoor PM 2.5 pollution was responsible for 1.70-1.99 million cases of all-cause mortality in 2006. The economic costs of these health effects were estimated to be 151.1-176.9 billion USD, of which 90% were attributed to mortality. The estimated crop yield losses for wheat, rice, maize, and soybean were approximately 9, 4.6, 0.44, and 0.34 million tons, respectively, resulting in economic losses of 3.4 billion USD. The total economic losses due to ambient air pollution were estimated to be 154.5-180.3 billion USD, accounting for approximately 5.7%-6.6% of the total GDP of China in 2006. Our results show that both population health and staple crop yields in China have been significantly affected by exposure to air pollution. Measures should be taken to reduce emissions, improve air quality, and mitigate the economic loss. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. Modulation of the acute respiratory effects of winter air pollution by serum and dietary antioxidants : a panel study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grievink, L; Hoek, G; Boezen, HM; van't Veer, P; Brunekreef, B

    This study investigated whether a high dietary intake or serum concentration of antioxidant (pro-) vitamins could attenuate the acute respiratory effects of air pollution in panels of adults (n=227) aged 50-70 yrs with chronic respiratory symptoms in two winters starting in 1993/1994. Subjects

  16. Advances of Air Pollution Science: From Forest Decline to Multiple-Stress Effects on Forest Ecosystem Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    E. Paoletti; M. Schaub; R. Matyssek; G. Wieser; A. Augustaitis; A. M. Bastrup-Birk; A. Bytnerowicz; M. S. Gunthardt-Goerg; G. Muller-Starck; Y. Serengil

    2010-01-01

    Over the past 20 years, the focus of forest science on air pollution has moved from forest decline to a holistic framework of forest health, and from the effects on forest production to the ecosystem services provided by forest ecosystems. Hence, future research should focus on the interacting factorial impacts and resulting antagonistic and synergistic responses of...

  17. (Un)Healthy in the city : Adverse health effects of traffic-related noise and air pollution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zijlema, Wilma

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the adverse health effects of urbanity, traffic-related noise and air pollution. We used harmonized data from multiple European cohort studies: LifeLines, HUNT, FINRISK, EPIC-Oxford and KORA. Based on our studies, we concluded that the living environment may be associated with

  18. The effects of transboundary air pollution following major events in China on air quality in the U.S.: Evidence from Chinese New Year and sandstorms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngo, N S; Zhong, N; Bao, X

    2018-04-15

    Transboundary air pollution is a global environmental and public health problem including in the U.S., where pollution emissions from China, the largest emitter of anthropogenic air pollution in the world, can travel across the Pacific Ocean and reach places like California and Oregon. We examine the effects of transboundary air pollution following major events in China, specifically sandstorms, a natural-occurring source of air pollution, and Chinese New Year, a major 7-day holiday, on background air quality in the U.S. We focus on high elevation sites on the west coast between 2000 and 2013. We use regression analysis and a natural experiment to exploit the variation in the timing of these events in China, which are plausibly uncorrelated to other factors that affect air quality in China and the U.S. We find that sandstorms are associated with statistically significant increases in background coarse and fine particulate matter (PM) in the U.S., representing between 16 and 39% of average weekly PM levels. We also find Chinese New Year is associated with modest reductions in background air quality in the U.S., representing between 0.4 and 2.5% of PM levels. Findings are robust to different models and falsification tests. These results suggest that regression analysis could be a powerful tool to complement other, more widely used techniques in the environmental sciences that study this problem. This also has important implications for policymakers, who could track major sandstorms in China and prepare for possible increased foreign pollution emissions in the U.S. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Multivariate analysis between air pollutants and meteorological variables in Seoul

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, J.; Lim, J.

    2005-01-01

    Multivariate analysis was conducted to analyze the relationship between air pollutants and meteorological variables measured in Seoul from January 1 to December 31, 1999. The first principal component showed the contrast effect between O 3 and the other pollutants. The second principal component showed the contrast effect between CO, SO 2 , NO 2 , and O 3 , PM 10 , TSP. Based on the cluster analysis, three clusters represented different air pollution levels, seasonal characteristics of air pollutants, and meteorological conditions. Discriminant analysis with air environment index (AEI) was carried out to develop an air pollution index function. (orig.)

  20. Geostatistical models for air pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, M.J.; Soares, A.; Almeida, J.; Branquinho, C.

    2000-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to present geostatistical models applied to the spatial characterisation of air pollution phenomena. A concise presentation of the geostatistical methodologies is illustrated with practical examples. The case study was conducted in an underground copper-mine located on the southern of Portugal, where a biomonitoring program using lichens has been implemented. Given the characteristics of lichens as indicators of air pollution it was possible to gather a great amount of data in space, which enabled the development and application of geostatistical methodologies. The advantages of using geostatistical models compared with deterministic models, as environmental control tools, are highlighted. (author)

  1. GIS for analysis of health effects from air pollutions. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larsson, Karin; Stroh, Emilie; Pilesjoe, Petter; Welinder, Hans; Axmon, Anna; Stroemberg, Ulf; Nielsen, Joern; Assarsson, Eva

    2005-06-01

    Within the project, a survey, in which 120 adult individuals in Vaexjoe filled in a questionnaire on a daily basis for 2.5 months, was performed. Questions included self-reported health effects or other nuisance from air pollution, address of residence and work and working hours. The answers have been analysed in relation to hourly modelled levels, aggregated into daily means, of PM 10 on a 250 meters spatial resolution. The study also includes comparisons in two cities, Vaexjoe and Malmoe, of a number of different methods of using GIS for estimating individual exposure to air pollution. The measures of individual exposure compared in Vaexjoe were 1) daily mean of modelled PM 10 content at an urban measuring station, 2) content at closest point from residence, 3) interpolated content of 4 closest points from residence and 4) an hourly weighted daily mean of modelled content at closest point from work place during working hours and from residence during the rest of the day. In Malmoe, different spatial resolution (aggregation) of population data were compared when estimating individual exposure for yearly mean of modelled NO x content of 250 meters resolution. The compared resolutions for population were administrative boundary of city districts, the Swedish official statistics level 3 and 4, and regular squares of 1 km and 500 meters resolution. For the last two a comparison was also made between using modelled NO x content at square centre point or at population density centre point in a square. All estimates were compared to content at closest modelled point from residence. In the Vaexjoe study a significant increase in odds ratio for the symptom 'Wheeze and shortness of breath' as well as the nuisance 'Bad smell of air' was found, though for most of the health outcomes no significant relationship to PM 10 -content could be established. No difference could be found between different measures of exposure in relation to health outcome, although all individual

  2. Air pollution and mortality: A history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, H. R.

    Mortality is the most important health effect of ambient air pollution and has been studied the longest. The earliest evidence relates to fog episodes but with the development of more precise methods of investigation it is still possible to discern short-term temporal associations with daily mortality at the historically low levels of air pollution that now exist in most developed countries. Another early observation was that mortality was higher in more polluted areas. This has been confirmed by modern cohort studies that account for other potential explanations for such associations. There does not appear to be a threshold of effect within the ambient range of concentrations. Advances in the understanding of air pollution and mortality have been driven by the combined development of methods and biomedical concepts. The most influential methodological developments have been in time-series techniques and the establishment of large cohort studies, both of which are underpinned by advances in data processing and statistical analysis. On the biomedical side two important developments can be identified. One has been the application of the concept of multifactorial disease causation to explaining how air pollution may affect mortality at low levels and why thresholds are not obvious at the population level. The other has been an increasing understanding of how air pollution may plausibly have pathophysiological effects that are remote from the lung interface with ambient air. Together, these advances have had a profound influence on policies to protect public health. Throughout the history of air pollution epidemiology, mortality studies have been central and this will continue because of the widespread availability of mortality data on a large population scale and the weight that mortality carries in estimating impacts for policy development.

  3. Impact of preferential sampling on exposure prediction and health effect inference in the context of air pollution epidemiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, A; Szpiro, A; Kim, S Y; Sheppard, L

    2015-06-01

    Preferential sampling has been defined in the context of geostatistical modeling as the dependence between the sampling locations and the process that describes the spatial structure of the data. It can occur when networks are designed to find high values. For example, in networks based on the U.S. Clean Air Act monitors are sited to determine whether air quality standards are exceeded. We study the impact of the design of monitor networks in the context of air pollution epidemiology studies. The effect of preferential sampling has been illustrated in the literature by highlighting its impact on spatial predictions. In this paper, we use these predictions as input in a second stage analysis, and we assess how they affect health effect inference. Our work is motivated by data from two United States regulatory networks and health data from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis and Air Pollution. The two networks were designed to monitor air pollution in urban and rural areas respectively, and we found that the health analysis results based on the two networks can lead to different scientific conclusions. We use preferential sampling to gain insight into these differences. We designed a simulation study, and found that the validity and reliability of the health effect estimate can be greatly affected by how we sample the monitor locations. To better understand its effect on second stage inference, we identify two components of preferential sampling that shed light on how preferential sampling alters the properties of the health effect estimate.

  4. Impact of preferential sampling on exposure prediction and health effect inference in the context of air pollution epidemiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, A.; Szpiro, A.; Kim, S.Y.; Sheppard, L.

    2018-01-01

    Summary Preferential sampling has been defined in the context of geostatistical modeling as the dependence between the sampling locations and the process that describes the spatial structure of the data. It can occur when networks are designed to find high values. For example, in networks based on the U.S. Clean Air Act monitors are sited to determine whether air quality standards are exceeded. We study the impact of the design of monitor networks in the context of air pollution epidemiology studies. The effect of preferential sampling has been illustrated in the literature by highlighting its impact on spatial predictions. In this paper, we use these predictions as input in a second stage analysis, and we assess how they affect health effect inference. Our work is motivated by data from two United States regulatory networks and health data from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis and Air Pollution. The two networks were designed to monitor air pollution in urban and rural areas respectively, and we found that the health analysis results based on the two networks can lead to different scientific conclusions. We use preferential sampling to gain insight into these differences. We designed a simulation study, and found that the validity and reliability of the health effect estimate can be greatly affected by how we sample the monitor locations. To better understand its effect on second stage inference, we identify two components of preferential sampling that shed light on how preferential sampling alters the properties of the health effect estimate. PMID:29576734

  5. Air pollution in the Slovak Republic, 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitosinkova, M.; Kozakovic, L.; Zavodsky, D.; Sajtakova, E.; Szemesova, J.; Pukancikova, K.

    2006-01-01

    A report on air quality and contribution of individual sources on its pollution in the Slovak Republic in 2004 is presented. This report consists of two parts: (1) Pollutants part and (2) Emission part. Pollutants part is divided into the following chapters: Regional air pollution and quality of precipitation; Local air pollution; Atmospheric ozone. Emission part is divided into the following chapters: Inventory control of emissions and sources of pollution, Emission of greenhouse gases

  6. Air pollution in the Slovak Republic, 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitosinkova, M.; Kozakovic, L.; Zavodsky, D.; Sajtakova, E.; Szemesova, J.; Pukancikova, K.

    2005-01-01

    A report on air quality and contribution of individual sources on its pollution in the Slovak Republic in 2003 is presented. This report consists of two parts: (1) Pollutants part and (2) Emission part. Pollutants part is divided into the following chapters: Regional air pollution and quality of of precipitation; Local air pollution; Atmospheric ozone. Emission part is divided into the following chapters: Inventory control of emissions and sources of pollution, Emission of greenhouse gases

  7. Biomonitoring the effects of air pollution on forest ecosystems in an urban area, Helsinki, Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maekinen, A.; Pihlstroem, M. [Helsinki Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Ecology and Systematics

    1995-12-31

    Single bioindicators have been used for a long time in air pollution monitoring in the Helsinki area (e.g. lichen studies since 1933). In the mid-eighties local authorities became aware of the need for regular integrated monitoring. Important objectives were: (a) to collect timeseries for the evaluation of natural variation e.g. weather in different parameters (b) to detect small, gradual, changes resulting from pollution control measures. The intensive monitoring of coniferous forests in the metropolitan area of Helsinki started in 1988. (author)

  8. Biomonitoring the effects of air pollution on forest ecosystems in an urban area, Helsinki, Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maekinen, A; Pihlstroem, M [Helsinki Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Ecology and Systematics

    1996-12-31

    Single bioindicators have been used for a long time in air pollution monitoring in the Helsinki area (e.g. lichen studies since 1933). In the mid-eighties local authorities became aware of the need for regular integrated monitoring. Important objectives were: (a) to collect timeseries for the evaluation of natural variation e.g. weather in different parameters (b) to detect small, gradual, changes resulting from pollution control measures. The intensive monitoring of coniferous forests in the metropolitan area of Helsinki started in 1988. (author)

  9. Modeling indoor air pollution

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pepper, D. W; Carrington, David B

    2009-01-01

    ... and ventilation from the more popular textbooks and monographs. We wish to especially acknowledge Dr. Xiuling Wang, who diligently converted many of our old FORTRAN codes into MATLAB files, and also developed the COMSOL example files. Also we thank Ms. Kathryn Nelson who developed the website for the book and indoor air quality computer codes. We are grateful to ...

  10. Effect of acrolein, a hazardous air pollutant in smoke, on human middle ear epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jae-Jun; Lee, Jong Dae; Lee, Byung Don; Chae, Sung Won; Park, Moo Kyun

    2013-10-01

    Acrolein is a hazardous air pollutant. Tobacco smoke and indoor air pollution are the main causes of human exposure. Acrolein has been shown to cause cytotoxicity in the airways and induce inflammation and mucin production in pulmonary cells. We investigated whether acrolein caused cytotoxicity, induced inflammation or increased expression of mucin in immortalized human middle ear epithelial cell lines (HMEECs). Cytotoxicity following acrolein treatment was investigated using the MTT assay, flow cytometry, and Hoechst 33342 staining of HMEECs. We measured expression of inflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and cyclo-oxygenase (COX)-2 and the mucin gene MUC5AC using semi-quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Western blotting. Exposure to >50 μg/mL acrolein caused a decrease in cell viability. Acrolein induced apoptosis and necrosis at 50 μg/mL. Acrolein at 5-50 μg/mL increased expression of TNF-α and COX-2, as shown by RT-PCR and Western blotting. Acrolein exposure at 5-50 μg/mL for 2-24h increased MUC5AC expression, as determined by RT-PCR. Acrolein decreased cell viability, induced an inflammatory response, and increased mucin gene expression in HMEECs. These findings support the hypothesis that acrolein, a hazardous air pollutant in tobacco smoke and ambient air, is a risk factor for otitis media. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. The Impact of Future Emissions Changes on Air Pollution Concentrations and Related Human Health Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikolajczyk, U.; Suppan, P.; Williams, M.

    2015-12-01

    Quantification of potential health benefits of reductions in air pollution on the local scale is becoming increasingly important. The aim of this study is to conduct health impact assessment (HIA) by utilizing regionally and spatially specific data in order to assess the influence of future emission scenarios on human health. In the first stage of this investigation, a modeling study was carried out using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model coupled with Chemistry to estimate ambient concentrations of air pollutants for the baseline year 2009, and for the future emission scenarios in southern Germany. Anthropogenic emissions for the baseline year 2009 are derived from the emission inventory provided by the Netherlands Organization of Applied Scientific Research (TNO) (Denier van der Gon et al., 2010). For Germany, the TNO emissions were replaced by gridded emission data with a high spatial resolution of 1/64 x 1/64 degrees. Future air quality simulations are carried out under different emission scenarios, which reflect possible energy and climate measures in year 2030. The model set-up included a nesting approach, where three domains with horizontal resolution of 18 km, 6 km and 2 km were defined. The simulation results for the baseline year 2009 are used to quantify present-day health burdens. Concentration-response functions (CRFs) for PM2.5 and NO2 from the WHO Health risks of air Pollution in Europe (HRAPIE) project were applied to population-weighted mean concentrations to estimate relative risks and hence to determine numbers of attributable deaths and associated life-years lost. In the next step, future health impacts of projected concentrations were calculated taking into account different emissions scenarios. The health benefits that we assume with air pollution reductions can be used to provide options for future policy decisions to protect public health.

  12. 20th annual report 2011. Convention on long-range transboundary air pollution. International cooperative programme on integrated monitoring of air pollution effects on ecosystems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kleemola, S.; Forsius, M. (eds.)

    2011-07-01

    The Integrated Monitoring Programme (ICP IM) is part of the effect-oriented activities under the 1979 Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution, which covers the region of the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE). The main aim of ICP IM is to provide a framework to observe and understand the complex changes occurring in natural/semi natural ecosystems. This report summarizes the work carried out by the ICP IM Programme Centre and several collaborating institutes. The emphasis of the report is in the work done during the programme year 2010/2011 including: A short summary of previous data assessments, a status report of the ICP IM activities, content of the IM database, and geographical coverage of the monitoring network, a review of published vegetation results from ICP IM and preliminary analyses of collected vegetation data, a report on updated heavy metal budgets and critical loads at ICP IM sites, report on benefits of LTER collaboration (Long Term Ecological Research network, www.lter-europe.net), National Reports on ICP IM activities are presented as annexes. (orig.)

  13. 22nd annual report 2013. Convention on long-range transboundary air pollution. International cooperative programme on integrated monitoring of air pollution effects on ecosystems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kleemola, S.; Forsius, M. (eds.)

    2013-09-01

    The Integrated Monitoring Programme (ICP IM) is part of the effect-oriented activities under the 1979 Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution, which covers the region of the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE). The main aim of ICP IM is to provide a framework to observe and understand the complex changes occurring in natural/semi natural ecosystems. This report summarizes the work carried out by the ICP IM Programme Centre and several collaborating institutes. The emphasis of the report is in the work done during the programme year 2012/2013 including: A short summary of previous data assessments; A status report of the ICP IM activities, content of the IM database, and geographical coverage of the monitoring network; A final report on relations between vegetation changes and nitrogen Critical Load exceedance; A progress report on base line heavy metal approach, estimation of the extent of metal turnover in European forest catchments over the last decades; A final report on sulphur and nitrogen input-output budgets at ICP IM sites in Europe; National Reports on ICP IM activities are presented as annexes.

  14. How robust are the estimated effects of air pollution on health? Accounting for model uncertainty using Bayesian model averaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pannullo, Francesca; Lee, Duncan; Waclawski, Eugene; Leyland, Alastair H

    2016-08-01

    The long-term impact of air pollution on human health can be estimated from small-area ecological studies in which the health outcome is regressed against air pollution concentrations and other covariates, such as socio-economic deprivation. Socio-economic deprivation is multi-factorial and difficult to measure, and includes aspects of income, education, and housing as well as others. However, these variables are potentially highly correlated, meaning one can either create an overall deprivation index, or use the individual characteristics, which can result in a variety of pollution-health effects. Other aspects of model choice may affect the pollution-health estimate, such as the estimation of pollution, and spatial autocorrelation model. Therefore, we propose a Bayesian model averaging approach to combine the results from multiple statistical models to produce a more robust representation of the overall pollution-health effect. We investigate the relationship between nitrogen dioxide concentrations and cardio-respiratory mortality in West Central Scotland between 2006 and 2012. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  15. Effects of Air Pollution on Public and Private Health Expenditures in Iran: A Time Series Study (1972-2014).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raeissi, Pouran; Harati-Khalilabad, Touraj; Rezapour, Aziz; Hashemi, Seyed Yaser; Mousavi, Abdoreza; Khodabakhshzadeh, Saeed

    2018-05-01

    Environmental pollution is a negative consequence of the development process, and many countries are grappling with this phenomenon. As a developing country, Iran is not exempt from this rule, and Iran pays huge expenditures for the consequences of pollution. The aim of this study was to analyze the long- and short-run impact of air pollution, along with other health indicators, on private and public health expenditures. This study was an applied and developmental study. Autoregressive distributed lag estimating models were used for the period of 1972 to 2014. In order to determine the co-integration between health expenditures and the infant mortality rate, fertility rate, per capita income, and pollution, we used the Wald test in Microfit version 4.1. We then used Eviews version 8 to evaluate the stationarity of the variables and to estimate the long- and short-run relationships. Long-run air pollution had a positive and significant effect on health expenditures, so that a 1.00% increase in the index of carbon dioxide led to an increase of 3.32% and 1.16% in public and private health expenditures, respectively. Air pollution also had a greater impact on health expenditures in the long term than in the short term. The findings of this study indicate that among the factors affecting health expenditures, environmental quality and contaminants played the most important role. Therefore, in order to reduce the financial burden of health expenditures in Iran, it is essential to reduce air pollution by enacting and implementing laws that protect the environment.

  16. Biomass energy, air pollution and health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathis, Paul

    2014-06-01

    This article reports the negative effects on human health due to the use of biomass for energy. In addition to the emission of nitrogen oxides and of metals, these effects result largely from an incomplete combustion, generating various air pollutants: fine particles, carbon monoxide, volatile organic compounds and aromatic polycyclic hydrocarbons. Four situations are discussed: indoor air pollution due to cooking in developing countries, residential wood combustion for heating, the use of biofuels, and waste incineration. In all cases, negative health effects have been demonstrated, but they can be prevented by appropriate strategies. (author)

  17. A Multicity Analysis of the Short-Term Effects of Air Pollution on the Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Hospital Admissions in Shandong, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yi; Sun, Jingjie; Gou, Yannong; Sun, Xiubin; Li, Xiujun; Yuan, Zhongshang; Kong, Lizhi; Xue, Fuzhong

    2018-04-17

    Although there is growing evidence linking chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) hospital admissions to the exposure to ambient air pollution, the effect can vary depending on the local geography, pollution type, and pollution level. The number of large-scale multicity studies remains limited in China. This study aims to assess the short-term effects of ambient air pollution (PM 2.5 , PM 10 , SO₂, NO₂) on chronic obstructive pulmonary disease hospital admissions from 2015 to 2016, with a total of 216,159 records collected from 207 hospitals in 17 cities all over the Shandong province, east China. Generalized additive models and penalized splines were applied to study the data whilst controlling for confounding meteorological factors and long-term trends. The air pollution was analyzed with 0–6 day lag effects and the percentage change of hospital admissions was assessed for a 10-μg/m³ increase in the air pollution levels. We also examined the percentage changes for different age groups and gender, respectively. The results showed that air pollution was significantly associated with adverse health outcomes and stronger effects were observed for females. The air pollution health effects were also impacted by geographical factors such that the air pollution had weaker health effects in coastal cities.

  18. Air pollution as it affects orchids at the New York Botanical Garden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adderley, L.

    1965-08-01

    A general discussion of the effects of air pollution on orchids is presented, along with ameliorative measures. One orchid, Dendrobium Phalaenopsis, is suggested as an air pollution bioassay tool, in that it is extremely sensitive to air pollution.

  19. Biomonitoring of genotoxic effects and elemental accumulation derived from air pollution in community urban gardens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amato-Lourenco, Luís Fernando; Lobo, Debora Jã A; Guimarães, Eliane T; Moreira, Tiana Carla Lopes; Carvalho-Oliveira, Regiani; Saiki, Mitiko; Saldiva, Paulo Hilário Nascimento; Mauad, Thais

    2017-01-01

    Urban gardening is a growing global phenomenon with a positive impact on society. Despite several associated benefits, growing vegetables in urban gardens that are localized in highly polluted areas poses questions about the safety of the produced food. Therefore, the identification of risk factors that result in possible deleterious effects to human health is important for realizing all of the benefits to society. We evaluated the use of two biomonitoring methods in ten urban gardens of Sao Paulo city and one control site: the micronuclei frequencies for early tetrads of Tradescantia pallida (Rose) Hunt. cv. "Purpurea" Boom (hereafter, Trad-MCN) as a short-term indicator of genotoxic response and tree barks to quantify the accumulation of traffic-related chemical elements as a long-term biomarker of air pollution in urban gardens. Mature plants of Tradescantia pallida were exposed in each garden, and their inflorescences were sampled over three months. A random set of 300 early tetrads in 13 to 21 slides per garden were evaluated for micronuclei frequencies. Elemental concentrations in 428 tree barks samples from 107 different trees in the areas surrounding urban gardens were quantified using an energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometer. The frequency of Trad-MCN has a significant correlation with traffic variables and chemical elements related to road dust and tailpipe emissions deposited in tree barks. Negative associations between Trad-MCN and both the distance through traffic and the presence of vertical obstacles were observed in the community gardens. The Mn/Zn concentrations in tree barks were associated with increased Trad-MCN. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. The effects of air pollution on daily cardiovascular diseases hospital admissions in Wuhan from 2013 to 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoying; Wang, Wangcheng; Jiao, Shilin; Yuan, Jing; Hu, Chunping; Wang, Lin

    2018-06-01

    To evaluate the short-term effect of ambient air pollution on cardiovascular hospital admissions and capture the susceptible subpopulations in Wuhan, China, we adopted a generalized additive model to quantitatively analyze the influences of air pollutants on daily cardiovascular diseases hospital admissions and examine the influences of different subgroups. The largest significant effects for PM2.5, SO2 and NO2 on cardiovascular hospital admissions were observed at lag0, lag02 and lag02, respectively, and a 10μg/m3 increment in concentration of PM2.5, SO2 and NO2 were associated with 0.87% (95%CI: 0.05%-1.7%), 3.41% (95%CI: -0.21%-7.17%) and 2.98% (95%CI: 0.66%-5.37%) increases in cardiovascular hospital admissions. Nearly linear relationships were found for NO2 and PM2.5 with cardiovascular hospital admissions, and the J-shaped exposure-response relationship was observed for SO2 with cardiovascular hospital admissions. NO2 might have independent health effects of PM2.5 on the population at risk. The effect estimates for PM2.5 and SO2 were not sensitive with the inclusion of the co-pollutant adjustment. The gender, age and seasonal specific association between three pollutants and cardiovascular disease didn't show obvious differences in the magnitude and trend of the effects except that the seasonal difference of SO2 was significant. This study showed that PM2.5 and NO2 had effects on cardiovascular diseases, and the multiple pollutants should be considered together in the hazard models. In addition, the government should remind the resident to protect themselves and wear masks to avoid the harmful effect of air pollution, especially for the susceptible population.

  1. the role of industry in air pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kdeih, Naji

    1998-01-01

    Industry is among the main sources of air pollution in Lebanon. Industrial plants emits dangerous effluents affecting on human health and on population living in industrial zones. Personnel within industries ignore the dangerous effect of substances they use in their work and the toxic effect of gaseous, liquid and solid wastes produced and their impact on health and on environment. A major attention should be paid by Lebanese government to avoid the increasing of atmospheric pollution and must encourage the monitoring of air pollution and its effect on human target organs in the influenced zones. Within industries air is contaminated by gases, vapor, dusts in high rates. Attention has to be focused to the diseases due to breathing diseases, Asbestos, arterial high blood pressure, stress, digestive diseases and other

  2. Levels of particulate air pollution, its elemental composition, determinants and health effects in metro systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieuwenhuijsen, M. J.; Gómez-Perales, J. E.; Colvile, R. N.

    The aim of this study was to review and summarise the levels of particulate air pollution, its elemental composition, its determinants, and its potential health effects in metro systems. A number of studies have been conducted to assess the levels of particulate matter and its chemical composition in metro systems. The monitoring equipment used varied and may have led to different reporting and makes it more difficult to compare results between metro systems. Some of the highest average levels of particulate matter were measured in the London metro system. Whereas some studies have reported higher levels of particulate matter in the metro system (e.g. London, Helsinki, Stockholm) compared to other modes of transport (London) and street canyons (Stockholm and Helsinki), other studies reported lower levels in the metro system (e.g. Hong Kong, Guangzhou, and Mexico City). The differences may be due to different material of the wheel, ventilation levels and breaking systems but there is no good evidence to what extent the differences may be explained by this, except perhaps for some elements (e.g. Fe, Mn). The dust in the metro system was shown to be more toxic than ambient airborne particulates, and its toxicity was compared with welding dust. The higher toxicity may be due to the higher iron content. Although the current levels of particulate matter and toxic matter are unlikely to lead to any significant excess health effects in commuters, they should be reduced where possible. It will be difficult to introduce measures to reduce the levels in older metro systems, e.g. by introducing air conditioning in London, but certainly they should be part of any new designs of metro systems.

  3. Effect of socioeconomic status on the association between air pollution and mortality in Bogota, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Camilo Blanco-Becerra